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The story of St. Petersburg

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Title:
The story of St. Petersburg the history of lower Pinellas Peninsula and the Sunshine City
Physical Description:
424 p. : ills., maps, ports. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Grismer, Karl H ( Karl Hiram ), 1895-1952
Publisher:
P. K. Smith
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Saint Petersburg (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
History -- Pinellas County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
letter   ( marcgt )

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - C54-00008
usfldc handle - c54.8
System ID:
SFS0036424:00001


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Cfh e o f t. rP d:e 'T.JJ.u. 7fj Dedicated to my daughters Jane and Peggy THIS BOOK BELONGS "{( HAMPTON DUNN 1 0610 CARROLLWOOD OR1 TAMPA 12, FLA P LEASE TAKE CARE AND RETURfl

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1888 G.AMJn q r A.L.H1.1nf O.i1 t e .. ... r.n..'C. T'.HI -\ ,)lid. tlv Rt of the h")[t 1114 tilt XI I $Wi ana oftheNiit tl&.l;f'l:J.I'R tr e .z:l)(llti ci :u;,, *' .. ttr'r: tt+ft. d Clal" 'A;to( &E.i rl """'" t Sl t ;;::3 S.&ar. S:: William:r. G rove '(f. ........... . .... oo ........ 000-0M r Le.C WOO 1 / ... ......... ............... "! Loot 11 .t ................ ., < E-< -.:: Original plat of St. Petersburg filed in the H illsborough County eourthouse in Tampa on August 11, 1888, by Peter A. Dem ens. The avenue designated as usixtb Av.'" is now avenue. The body of water designated is now known as Lake William a Park is &hown a s "Park."

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The Fourth street and Heart of the Sunshine ,Ci ty Cent ral 0\'cnue, _.. -... .. .. ' . ' ' ' ' ' . -

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OF CONTENTS CHA J YfEll PACE 1 IN TilE Dws Of' LONC Aco ........... .................. .. .............. .... .......... 9 2 REf'OR THE CtV!L WAR ................... . ................. . ......................... HI 3 LIFE AMONG THE PIONEERS ... ........................ ................. ........... ... 31 4 BEf'ORE THE RAtLHOAD CAM .................................. ...... ...... ............ 4. 5 THE SAGA OF THE Rr,t:r ..... ............ .................................. 59 6 THIS WAS INI'MRSSlON-WAR-ANO AFTF.RWARO ..... ....................................... 165 10 Tm: CtTY OF GREEN BENCHES ........................................................ 201 11 A LONG THE \VA TEflf'ltONT .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ... ....... .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... .... ..... ... .. .. .. .. .. 20/l 12 ScnooLs oF ST. I'ETEnsuunc .......................................................... 217 13 PUBLIC UT !L!Tl ES ....... """ ........ " ...... ...... " ................. ....... " 222 14 SPOltTS OF ST. P&TERSllURC .............................................................. 232 15 TOWN AND CtTY GOVE!tNMENT .................... .......... ........ .................. 237 16 GNRAL RtFERE!'ICE CHM'nn ........... ..... .. ........... ......................... 243 ) 7 0 RCAN1ZATIONS .... ..... .. .. . .... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. .... .. .. .... ... .. ... .. . .. . ... 259 18 WHo's WHo IN ST. PETF.nsnunc .................... ....................... .. .. .. .. 269

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APPRECI ATIO N Part of this Story of St. Petersburg is based upon data furnished years ago by men who have since died: W. L. Straub, Lew B. Brown, Ed. T. Lewis, Josef Henschen, C. Perry Snell, H. H. Richardson, Arthur N orwood, H. W. Gilbart, A. F. Bartlett, JacobS. Disston, T. A Whitted, A. H. Phinney, and many others. The author is deeply grateful for the help they gave him. The author also wish e s to thank many persons who have assisted more rec ently in furnishing data, especially William A. Holshouser, Roy S. Hanna, Walter P. Fuller William B. Tippetts, Dudley Haddock, J en nie Co ok, R. E. H enry, Frank 0 Lee, Archie Beers, Mrs. Mary Beth ell Jones, William McMull en, A lex Speer, Raymc .nd G. Ridgely A. V. Ingham, and Alfred E. Newman. The author particularly wishes to thank L C. Brown publisher of The Evening Independent, for permitting him to use the files of his news paper, for lending him many old photollraphs, for reading part of his manuscript, and for assisting him in other ways; also, Nelson P. Poynter, editor of The Times, and Thomas C. Harris, exec u tive editor of The Times, for gra.nting him full acc ess to tbe n e w spaper's refere nc e library, supplying him with many photographs, and permitting him to bono w the files of the newspaper for research work. Many of the e xcellent photograph s of present-day St. Petersburg were furnished by Charles J. B e ld en, Ken Richards, and Bill Dunlap. Mr. Belden's splendid birdseye view of downtown St. Petersburg was used on the dust jacket of the book and also on Page 167. The author also extend s thanks to Oscar W. Gilbart, president of the \Vest Coast Title Company, for a uthorizing members o f the company's staff to assist him in checking numerous lan d records ; also, to Mrs. Mary E. Apple of the Memorial Historical Soci ety, for s up p lying much valuable data and a lso for lendi n g him many excellent ol d-time photographs. Thanks also are du e to R. A. Gray, Flol'ida Secret ary of State; Julien C. Y o nge, editor, Florida H i storical Quarterly; Virginia Kraus, for many fine suggestions; Gay Blair White, who assisted with many biographies, and Jeff M oshier, who supplied much data regarding sports. 'Without the assis tance o f the above persons, and many others, the publication of this boo k would not have been possible.

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PROLOGUE Out of the sea rose th e land. Dazzling white sand, the vast exp ans e of encircling waters, and the sky above-and nothing else Ages later came plant life, and reptile s, and bird s and s trange creatures unlike anything on the earth today. Aeons passed Then came man--savages from out of the North. The i r needs were s imple and the land supplied them They lived largely on oysters, and clams, and they piled up the shells in huge mounds which serve as a mute reminder of their existenc e. Then came the white man the Spaniard, re splendent in costume and viciously cruel in his fruitJess quest for gold, and silver, and sparkling gems. Such was the beginning of Florida as we know it t oday an d such was the beginning of Pinellas Penin sula Just the beginning. Upon this p e ninsula of Pinellas, a favored part of a favored land there has grow n a city-the city we call St. Petersburg. I t is the s t ory of this city that we are going to tell-the story of St. Petersburg, the Sunshine City, the world-famed city of health and happiness, "where all the time is summer, and flowers never d ie

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CHAPTtR IN THE DAYS OF LONG AGO W INTER VISITORS first came to Pinellas Peninsula an aeon or so ago. They were strange, weird creatures unlike anything on ea.-th today. And the winter from which they fled was a long, long winter which lasted ten thousand years or more. It was the winter of the Ice Age when the great glacier made its slow, inexorable march southward, changing the face of the earth as it moved and annihilating all green and growing things. Animals living in the north left in frenzied haste as the glacier ad vanced and the air became ever colder. Among them were grotesque, ungainly mammoths, serrate-toothed mastodons, amphibious rhinoseres, and two-ton armadillos. Also, giant ground beavers, huge rats, and viciou s saber-toothed tigers, most ferocious of all the early carnivora. Uncounted millions of those pre-historic animals came to the Florida peninsula during the great migration. All of them vanished, for reasons we do not know, long before the dawn of civilization. Most of their bodies disintegrated and became part of the soil. But thousands of them sank in swamps or in the oozing muck of river beds. In the course of time their bones became hardened and fossilized, to endure as conclusive proof that such animals once existed. On April 20, 1907, while workmen were digging marl near Lake Maggiore to surface St. Petersburg streets, fossilized bones of a giant mastodon were found. Fossil remains also have been found in other parts of Pinellas Peninsula, proving beyond all doubt that this favored land was a "winter resort" in the dim and distant past, as well as now . When man first came to the peninsula no one knows. Over in Sara sota County, the mineralized skeleton of a man was unearthed May 4, 1929, from the bank of a newly-dug drainage ditch. Paleontologists as serted it was at least 20,000 years old, perhaps much older, and they hailed it as a discovery of the first magnitude. Historians, often more conservative than paleontologists, doubt that human beings existed in Florida so long ago, at least fourteen millenia before the first pyramid was built in Egypt. But who knows? Somewhere in Florida there may be positive proof that the paleontologists are right. Time alone will tell. In the meantime, historians are clinging to the belief that the first human beings came to Florida comparatively recently, within the past two thousand years or so. Which brings us down to fairly modern t imes.

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10 THg STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG A Vanished Race Lived Here When white settlers first came to Pinellas Peninsula, about a hun dred years ago, they found the shore line and many of the keys thickly dotted with mounds of shell and earth, some fifty feet or more in height and several acres in extent. No one knows for sure who built those mounds, or when. For many years it was believed they had been built by the Seminoles but that theory has long since been rejected. Historians now agree that the mounds were made by a race of people which preceded the Seminoles by hundreds of years. But the exact time of the arrival in Florida of these first comers i s purely a matter of conjecture. The truth is that extremely little is known about the aborigines, whom, for want of a better name, we call the Indians. The reasons for this Jack of knowledge are simple. The aborigines left behind them no written records or architectural remains from which clews regarding their identity can be obtained. Today, after generations of research, authorities still do not agree even on the names of the various tribes or the specific territory each tribe was supposed to occupy. Many of the conclusions of the scholars seem painfully akin to guesswork. And con tradictions abound. The mystery regarding the origin of the first inhabitants of Florida probably never will be solved. One theory is that they came here from the West Indies, a thousand years or more ago. Another theory is that they came from Asia originally, by way of the Aleutians and Alaska, and fi nally settled in Florida after centuries of wandering in the North. Still another theory is that they c ame from Mexico, following the coast. Indefinite though our knowledge of the origin of the Indians may be, it is easy t o understand why they selected Pinellas Peninsula for some of their largest settlements. The woods were filled with game and the waters were alive with fish and lusc ious shell-food. To exist here re quired a minimum of effort. No wonder the Indians resisted the Span iards so ferociously when their homeland was invaded! Examination of the mounds left by the Indians has shown that some were made almost entirely of earth while others were made entirely of shells. The earth mounds undoubtedly were made to serve as fortifications, places of worship, or for use as burial grounds. The shell mounds, which predominate, were in reality kitchen middens, OJ' refuse dumps. At the places where the kitchen middens were formed, the inhabitants of Pinellas Peninsula feasted on oysters, clams and conches, and while they ate, they threw the empty shells away, along with fish bones and the shells of lobsters and crabs. Judging by the size and number of the middens, the Indians must have had innumerable toothsome meals.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 11 Old settlers say there were originally six or seven kitchen middens in the vicinity of Sixth Street and Sixth Avenue so uth where She ll Mound Park has been established. All except the present mound were leveled when the shells were hauled away nearly fifty years ago for use on streets and sidewalks. The appearance of the last mound was radically changed in Augu st, 1915 when Walter Rullman, superintendent of parks, mis understood orders from the Park Board to "clean up" the mound and park. He d i d a thorough job. Getting a fire hose, he connected it to a fire hydrant and turned on the water f ull b last. When he fin is hed, all vegetation and all traces of antiquity had been washed away and the re maining shells were almost s n owy whi te. Since then the mound has had a sort of artificial appearance. John A. Bethell, in his "History of Pinellas Peninsula," told about an o l d fort, made of earth and shells, which was found on the north side of B i g Bayou. One side of the fort faced t h e water; the other sides wer e walled up, the walls being several feet high. Bethell surmised that it was built by the Spaniards as a protect ion against the Indians. It is more likely however, that the fort was built by the Indians themselves inasmuch as the description tallies w ith that of other forts k n ow n defini tely to be of I n diltn origin. Although scores of mounds on the peninsul a have been destroyed as a result of development, many still remain on Weedon's I s land, Pinellas Point, Maximo Point, the Jungl e, Pine Key and elsewhere. Extens i ve ex cavations were made in the Weedon Island mo unds during the winter of 1923-24 by Prof. J. Walter Fewkes, then chief of the Bureau of American Ethn ology of the Smithson ian Institution. Dr. Leslie :I>'I. Weedon, of Tampa, who owned the island for many years, had preserved the mounds with the hope that they might bec ome a public heritage and had made a large collection of priceless Indian artifacts. One of the mou nds examined by Professor Fewkes had been made for use as a cemetery. He reported that it contained ''Indian bones mingled with pottery frag ments in abundance." He noted that the mound was made in three layers, each new layer containing pottery better made and more finely decorated than the one just below it.

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12 THE STORY OF ST. PETf:RSBURC A final conclusion from the explorat ion was that the mound showed that ther e had been two waves of immigration into Florida in pre historic times "The people who came here first, or of who m the first evidence is foun d in the lowest layer of the mound, were of an o rigin a s yet wholly unknown Professor Fewkes stat ed. H e con,jectured that this first race was "submerged by a people from the north, presumably of the Musk hogean, or Muscogee, or Maskoki race, who brought with them articles akin. to those found in mounds in Georgia." Artifacts of Mayan origin have been found in other mounds on the peninsula. These Mayan objects support the theory that the Indians living here were visited often by l\iayan traders who traveled in huge canoes, stopping at ports along the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. One of these boats was seen by Columbus. He reported it was almost a hundred feet l ong, had a seven-foot beam and supported twenty-five paddlers, in addition to the trader and his family of seven. Measurements taken of skeletons found in Pinellas Peninsula mounds showed that the Indians were short but stocky, with heavy bones. The adult males averaged about five feet si x inches in height and the females five feet one. These skeletal remains effectively blast fantastic tales told by early Spanish explorers to the effect that the Indians were a race of giants. Perhaps these stories were circulated to furnish an alibi for the Spaniards' failure to subdue the Florida Indians as easily as they had subdued the natives of the West Indi es. D e spite the contradictio n s in early expl o r e rs' stories about the In dians, a few facts stand out. The natives were of light brown hu e and stockily built. They lived in thatched palmetto huts in small villages usually located near their temple mound s. They had well organized fisheries and crude industries such as the making of pottery and weapons. They bad fields for cultiva tion of maize, pumpkin, squash and tobacco. Each tribe had its chief and each village its paracousi, or sub-chief. The juavas, or Indian priests, who also served as medicine men, had great influence. As worshippers of the sun, the Indians had three great annual feasts: when the corn was planted, whe n the ears were ready to eat, and when the crop was hat veste d. They had their spor ts, such as wrestling, running and jumping. J.llfany of the natives were gaudily tattooed and all of them seemed to like ornaments, especially pendants made of stone, shell, bones or teeth which they hung around their necks. A few had ornaments made of gold, obtained very likely from the Indians of Geo rgia or from Mayan traders. Both men and women wore their hair long. That of the men was drawn to a tight knot on top of the head and used to suppor t feathers and other decorations. U ntil the Spaniards came to oppress them, they seemingly were a friend l y peopl e who got along well with visito r s from other lands. There

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TilE STORY OF' ST. l'ETEliSBUliC 13 is abundant evidence to show that they were in constant contact with the natives of the West Indies, Central America and South America. The Florida Indians may have had one great, perhaps fatal fault. They may have bragged too much about their native land during their contacts with the outlanders. In all events, word spread through the West Indies that the "island'' to the north called Bimini was a land of the greatest riches. And i t was a land wherein there was a fountain whose waters would restore youth to thos e who bathed in it. Riches-and a fountain of youth besides! Followers of Columbus heard those tales of glori ous Bimini shortly after they landed in the West Indies. The tales passed from mouth to mo uth and lost nothing in the telling. They even reached the court of Spain. The result was exactly what might have been expected. The Spaniards decided to explore and conquer this wondrous land. Such temptation could not be resisted by any country that was conquest bent. Certainly not by Spain. Spaniards Come to Pinellas Juan Ponce de Leon is credited with having "discovered" Florida on Easter Sunday, 1513 but no one can study the famous Cantino map, published in 1502, and not be convinced that Florida had been discov ered and both coasts carefully examined long before Juan Ponce ever set foot on Florida soil. The truth is that the F lorida Wes t Coast was visited many times d uring the two decades following the first voyage of Columbus by moneymad adventurers. They sought gold and when they could not find gold, they captured Indians and sold them in the West Indies, where they soon were worked to death in the plantati ons None of these trips were pub licized, and few sc hool histories tell about them, but ther e is no doubt that they were made. As a result of the slaving expediti ons, and the ruthless cruelty of the marauders, the Indians became deadly afraid of all Spaniards and evaded them whenever possible. And also fought baek with savage cunning. There i s reason to believe that at least several of the slavers came into Tampa Bay and that they passed on their knowledge of the anchoring p lace to the conquistadors who made the "official" explorations. Records of the conquistadors prove indisputably that they were seeking the bay when they came up the coast--and if t hey had not heard. about it from someone who had p receded them, how could they have known of the bay's existence? Be that as it may, it is known that Tampa Bay was being sought by the first conquistador who set foot on Pinellas Peninsula-oneeyed tempestuous Panfilo de Narvaez.

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14 TH& STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Narvaez was brave. He also was cruel. Born in Valladolid, Spain, in 1480, he was apprenticed to warfare when a youth a nd by the time he was thirty he had become a lieutenant in Jamaica under Juan de Esquivel from whom he "learned how to pacify a province by d e stroying i ts inhabitants. A n ice, fri e n d l y fellow! Later N a rv a e z h e lped i n the conquest of C u b a and w o n fame and fortune. Part o f the fam e resulted from t h e manner i n w h ic h he dis posed of t w o t hou s and Indian s h e found one d a y in a C uban villag e The Indians offered cassava bread and fish to the Spaniards and b egan d i s tributing it. S uddenly, a t a sign from Narvaez;, t he S p anish soldiers drew their swords and began "slayi ng men and wome n, youn g and o ld, who were seated heedl ess, s taring at the Spaniards; and withi n the space of two credos not a person was left alive." I n 1 520 Narvaez was put at the head of a force se n t to the Aztec coast to compel Hernando Cortez to renounce his command. Narvaez was defeated by his compatriot and held prisoner for three years. pite this humiliating experience, he returned to Spain and managed to obtain from Charl es the Fifth the right to discover a n d conquer the r e gion from the R io de las Palmas in northeastern Mexico, to the Isle of Florida. The Narva ez e x p e d i tion, made up of five s h i p s f our hundred men and eighty h orses, a rrive d off Pass-a-Grille o n Tuesday, April 7 1528. D udng t h e next two days the p ilot hunted for the entrance t o Tampa Bay but w ithout s uc c ess. On Holy T hursday he s a ile d into the entrance of a little bay at t he head o f which was seen an In d i a n v illage. The inspector, Alonso Enriquez, landed a n d found some of the I ndians. M aking signs of amity, he called to them: they came forward and in barter gave him fish and several pi e ces of venison Encouraged by the indications of friendliness, Narvaez landed the next day. Good Friday. taking with him as many of his soldiers as his boats would hold. The landing party found the village aban doned the inhabitants evidently having fled at night. The dwellings of the village were s mall and r ound, like pigeon houses, with trees for uprigh ts and thatched with palmetto l eaves. In the center of the vill a ge was a barn lik e house with whole trees for rafters, large enou g h to h old m ore than three hundred p e r s on s The Spaniards tramped through the e n tire village turning ove r ev erythin g in the hope of f i n din g gold. Sudden l y a great shout a rose. One of the s o ld i e r s poking amo n g some fish nets, h a d discovered a g o ld trin ket. Eve r yone was t hrill e d. L ingering doubts a bou t the ultimate success of the expe di ti o n w ere diss ipated. Surely the trinket was p osit i ve proof that there was g ol d in F lorida! Now all that r e main e d to b e do n e was find the source of the gold -and everyone would becom e rich!

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THE STORY OF ST. PETEIISBIJR(; 15 Narvaez ordered the remainder of hi s troops to land. The horses also were brought ashore. Of the eighty brought from Cuba, only fortytwo remained alive and they were too weak and lean to be of service. "On the fo llowing day, Easter Sunday, Indians of the town came and spoke to us," stated Cabeza de Vaca, treasurer of the expedition, in his report to the ki n g made years later. "As we had no interpreter, we could not understand what they meant. They made signs and menaces and appeared to say we must go away from the country. With this they left us and made off." It would have been far better for Narvaez and his men if they had heeded the Indians warning. But they didn't. They proceeded northward, greedily hunting for gold Indians followed them, shooting at them from ambush with their deadly arrows. Food was difficult to find and many in the party became ill and died. Finally the desperate adventurers built boats to get away from the Indians. One boat was wrecked near Pensacola, two were lost at Santa Rosa, and the fourth, carrying Narvaez, was blown out into the Gulf and never heard of again. Of the fo u r hundred men in the expedition, only three besides Cabeza de Vaca managed to reach Mexico after several years of harrowing experiences. Histor ians have argued for years about the exact location of the place where Narvaez .first landed. It is now generally agreed, however, that he turned in from the gulf at Johns Pass and landed on the mainland at or near the Jungle. This conclusion is based upon a statement by Ca beza de Vaca describing an exploration trip made by Narvaez. "We took our way toward the north, until the hour of vespers, when we arrived at a very large bay that appeared to stretch far inland," De Vaca stated. He estimated that the party traveled about ten miles. The head of Old Tampa Bay is approximately ten miles due north of Boca Ciega Bay. Nowhere else in the state is there a large bay ten miles north of another bay, researchers say, and hence the place of the landing of Narvaez i s fixed definitely. There i s a romantic seque l to the Narvaez ex pedition. The wife of Panfilo de Narvaez sE:nt a relief ship after him when he failed to return. On the ship was a young fellow named Juan Ortiz.

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16 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Somewhere on Pinellas Peninsula, Juan saw an Indian waving what appeared to be a letter. Thinking it might be news from Narvaez, Juan plunged from the ship and splashed ashore. He was promptly seized .and taken to an Indian encampment where Hirrihigua was chief. Ortiz was ordered burned alive but when the flames began to singe his body, Hirrihigua's daughter dashed in and pleaded with her father for his life. The plea was granted and Ortiz was ordered to stand guard at the Indian cemetery and keep animals away. During the first night he saw a wild cat attempting to carry off the body of a child. The stench of decaying bodies made him violently ill but he managed to shoot an arrow and kill the animal. His act was wit' nessed by one of the Indians and for a year no further move was made to harm him. As autumn drew near, however, the medicine men began to clamor for his life. Again the Indian princess came to his aid. She helped him flee to the camp of Chief Mococo, to whom she was betrothed. There Ortiz remained until the arrival in Tampa Bay of the fleet of Her nando deSoto in 1539. Mococo sent Ortiz and nine Indians to contact the Spaniards. They met a party of forty Spanish horsemen who began to attack furiously. Ortiz attempted to cry out in Spanish but to his horror discovered he could remember no Spanish words. Finally, in despera tion he managed to gasp "Sevill e -Seville-Christian-Christian. Saved, he joined DeSoto's expedition. That's the story related by Ortiz himself -so it must be true. Anyhow, it's interesting. There's a strong possibility that De Soto, as well as Narvaez, made his first camp in Florida on Pinellas Peninsula, probably at the Indian camp known to have existed on Weedon's Island. H owever the location of the camp was "officia lly established" in 1939 by the DeSoto Expedi tion Commis s io n .as being on Terra Ceia Island, at the mouth of the Man atee River. The commission spent four years studying Spanish records before making findings and, consequently, its conclusions must be harkened to even though they may seem extremely illogical. But why argue about it? Pinellas Peninsula definitely has Narvaez so why not let Sarasota and Manatee counties have Hernando de Soto? Certainly one of those tough old Spanish conquistadors is enough for any community! But before passing De Soto by it sho u ld be mentioned that, while in this section of Florida, he wrote a letter to the governor of Santiago. That is undoubtedly the first letter ever written with a Florida date line: Espiritu Santo, Florida, July 9, 1589. Nearly thirty years passed after De Soto left before this part of Florida was again visited by Spaniards. In 1567 Pedro Menendez de Aviles; founder of St. Augustine, attempted to establish a fort-colony on the shore of Tal1),pa Bay near an Ind1an village whose chief bore the name of Tocobaga. The Indians were friendly so long as Menendez was

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THE STORY OF ST. PETE R S B URG 17 backed by hundreds of his armored soldi ers But when Men e nd ez de parted, leaving behind on ly a small garrison o f twentyone soldiers and seventeen far mer s, the friendliness vani shed. Tocobaga t urned hi s war riors against the garrison and slaughtered every man. Missionari es who visited the spot two years later could find no trace of the settl ement. Perhaps Tocobaga may have had some exc use for his savagery. Perhaps he remembered an incident which allegedly occurred while Narvaez was still in these parts. It's related that Narvaez went to Toco baga's camp seeking gold; when he could not find what he sought, he seize d Tocobaga's mother, tore her tongue from her mouth, and flun g it in the face of Tocobaga. Yes, it's quite possible Tocobaga remembered this incident--and wanted a li ttle revenge. He got it! On October 22, 1 924, while Cresc ent Lake was being clean e d out, workmen found an ancient canoe hewn from a cypress log The canoe appeared to have been made by the Indian s under the supervision of men who had more advanced knowledge of boat bui lding. Hi storians con cl uded that the canoe had been brought here by Me nendez that Indians seized it after the :Menendez garrison had been slaughtered, and that the Indians then took it to Crescent Lake for use in fishing. That may or may not be true but, anyhow, it was a very old cano e . So far as is known, no Spani s h conquistadors or miss ionaries came t o P inellas P e nin s ul a after the missionari es learned in 1569 thatth e Men endez garrison had been Mayb e the Spaniards decia e d that the Indi ans of the peninsula were too tough to be either con quere d or converted. In all events, the Indians were let alone. But the Indians suffered from their contacts with the whites eve n the whites had departed. Annals of the West Coast record an epidemic of smallpox which took thousands of lives Other diseases too k their toll and the native race began to slip from the pages of his tory. By the dawn of the n ine t eenth century, the tri bes enc o untered by the early Spaniards had va nished or had been absorbed by other tribes. Thereafter we hear of no other Indi ans but the Seminoles, in w ho se veins flows the blood of Georgian Creek s and escaped Negro slaves. And perchance the b lood of philandering Spaniards. A mixed race, true enough, but a race of brave and fierce fighters, as the Americ ans learned during the long and bloo dy War.

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CHAPTER 2 BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR N 0 ONE KNOWS, a n d probab ly no one ever will know, t he name of '\[ the first white settle r on l ower Pinella s Peninsula. That first set tler, whoever he was, undoubtedl y cam e much more than a hundred years ago. He left no record of his identity. Perhaps he stayed only a shor t time and then went away; perhaps he d ied here and his bones li e somewhere in Pinellas soil. There's no doubt, however, that itinerant f ishermen lived on the peninsula early in the ninteenth cent ury. On a map of Florida published in 1831 the ent i r e peninsula bears the name "Fishermen's Point. That name hardly would have been given to it if fishermen had not been here. Many of the early come r s probably were Spaniards who came to the fishing grounds around the point to catch fish for the Cuban market. The chances are we a r e indebted to those Spaniards for names given some of the passes, bayous and localities, lik e Pass-a-Grille and Boca Ciega Bay. The name Pinellas itself is merely a musical contortion of the original name of the peninsula-Punta Pinel, meaning Point of Pines. Although we do not know the name o f the first settler on the lower peninsula we do know the names of the first property owners. They were three Spaniards, all of St. Augustine: Joseph Silva, John Levich and Maximo Hernandez. Silva lived in a palmetto -thatched cabin near what is now the sout h approach t o Seminole Bridge. Levich settled at the Jungle. Maximo Hernandez lived at the end of the peninsula at what is now known as Maximo Poi n t These three men had been granted permits at Newnansville to settle on the West Coast unde r the p r ovisions of the Armed Occupation Act of 1842. Their permits were granted June 13, 1843. The Armed Occupa tion Act stipulated that settlers would be granted 160 acres if they built habitable homes, cleared at least f i v e acres of land, planted crops, and agreed to bear arms agains t the Indians for at least five years. Positive proof that Silva and Henlandez had fulfilled the government requirements is provided by the notes of government surveyors who surveyed the lower peninsula in the late spring of 1848. George Watson, Jr., surveyed the sect ion where Silva and Hernandez lived. Their names are mentioned in his notes and he states that he assigned land to them under the provision s of the Armed Occupation Ac t To Silva he assigned

PAGE 19

THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 19 the south half of the southwest quarter of Secion 1, Township 31, Range 15 and the north hat! of the northwest quarter of Section 12, also Town ship 31, Range 12. He.rnandez was assigned the southeast quarter of Sec tion 10, Township 32, Range 16. Each was entitled to 160 acres but it appears the survey o r cheated them. Silva received only 144.52 acres and Hernandez 136.25 acres. The surveyors did not mention Levich in their notes. Perhaps he was away fishing when the surveying party came through and his home was not seen. But regardless of that, Levich received a government patent to his land, 157 acres, on August 1, 184 9, as shown by county records. After the Civil War, he turned the tract over to John Miller and William B. Henderson o f Tampa, in settlement of a $46 grocery bill. :Maximo Hernandez did not receive a government patent to his land. He died some time before it was issued, on October 15, 1852, so his widow, Domingo Hernandez, became the owner. Court records show she sold it on April 21, 1886, for $100 to William Whitridge, Claude Van Bibber, William C. Chase and A. F. Dulin. The deed was written in French. The name of Maximo Hemandez has been given at various times as Antonio Maximo and Antonio Maximo Fernandez. But the land patent was made out to Maximo Hernandez, and that's the way the name ap pears on county records. In all events, Maximo was certainly here and the name Maximo Point will always identify the spot where he lived. During the summer of 1848 another fisherman, William Bunce, came to this section and established a "fish ranche" on a key later known as Hospital Key. Hernandez also had a fish ranch e. At these ranches the men salt-cured mullet which they sold to Key West and Cuban traders who plied up and down the coast in those days, buying from fishermen along the way. Annals of the West Coast have it that both Hernandez and Bunce left the point after their ranches were destroyed in the 1848 hurricane. It is beieved they never returnedby that time Hernandez had Jived on his land long enough to clinch his title to it so he did not have to come back unless he wanted to. And apparently he didn't. And Then the Wind Blew! That hurricane of 1848 which drove away the fishermen was the worst in the history of the West Coast. It was even worse than the hurri cane of 1846 which blew much of the water out of Tampa Bay, exposing great areas of sand flats which always before had been under water. An interesting account of the '46 hurricane was written later by the Rev. Ed ward Franklin Gates, of Manatee which was as badly hit by the heavy winds as Pinellas Peninsula. "The storm began October 14, 1846," wrote the Reverend Gates, "and was preceded by an unusual phenomena-rapidly flying scuds of *The re is another version o f Bunce's comin$ to the /'oint. See Jrufex; Qunce, Willi
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20 T!-IE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG clouds seemingly but a short distance above the earth. Moving in mixed confusion were the man o' war or frigate birds which were taken as sure indications of an approaching storm. 'l'he hurricane swept down the Manatee River from a northeasterly direction with all its fury, mowing down fences like grass, and blowing down houses and causing much mis ery and distress, reaching its climax sometime between midnight and dawn. Less than four feet of water remained in even the deepest parts of the Manatee River. Josiah Gates rode horseback across the river and didn't even get his boots wet." Unlike the '46 hurd cane, the hurricane of '48, which started Satur day, September 22, came with destructive force from the southwest and pushed the waters of the gulf into Tampa Bay. All the islands and keys along the coast from Sanibel, at the mouth of the Caloosahatchee River, to Bayport, thirty miJe s above Tarpon Spring&, were inundated. Ships were washed ashore and smashed to pieces by the pounding waves. The newly built lighthouse on Egmont Key was blown down. When the lighthouse keeper, Marvel Edwards,. saw that the waves were going to wash over the island he placed his family in a boat and waded with it to the center of the island and tied it to cabbage palms. During the night the boat was lashed by the raging wind and the high water lifted it close to the top of the trees. Many times it nearly overturned. By morning, members of the family were almost exhausted. But they survived the ordeal. When the water subsided, as quickly as it had dsen, the family returned home to find that all their possessions had been washed away or ruined by water. The lighthouse later was rebuilt, this time strong enough to withstand any storm. The size and shape of many of the keys and islands underwent many changes during the hurricane Some of the keys were almost entirely washed away; others were built up by the shifting sands. A number of new passes were created. Government charts made before the hurricane proved to be almost valueless after the storm due to the fact that nearly all the ship channels had shifted their courses or had been filled up with sand, or deepened. A short time after the hurricane passed, fishermen began returning to the lower peninsula. Among them were Antonio Papy, who located at Papy's Bayou; Bille Booker, at Booker Creek; Henry Murphy, on Boca Ciega Bay near Johns Pass, and others whose names have disappeared in the mists of passing time. David Levy Yulee Goes Railroading The first orange grove on the lower peninsula was planted by a set;.. tier named William Paul who came in the fall of 1854 and located at \vhat is now the foot of Fifth avenue north, where the Vinoy Hotel stands.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 21 In a strange, roundabout way Paul came here because of Senator David I:evy Y ul ee, one of the most astute po l itic ians F lorida ever had. The chances are that Yulee never heard of Paul, or Paul of Yu l ee but there's a co nn ection between the two, n evertheless Besides being a smart politic ian, Yulee was a shrewd financier and a remarkably clever promoter. He e n gineered a scheme for buildi n g railroads, badl y needed by Florida, from which he and his associates were certain to make handsome profi ts, eve n though the railroads themselves might go bankrupt. This is how he did it: In 1845, when F lorida was admitted in to the Un i on as a state, Yu l ee was elected to the United States Senate. He became o ne of the most zealous advocates of the Swamp Land Act, which was passed Sept 28, 1850. The terms of thi s act gave to every state all the swamp and over flowed lands within its borders In Florida, scheming politicians eventu ally succeeded in having nearly two-thirds of the state declared "swamp and overflowed." As a result the politicians had lots of lan d t o j uggle. While a se nator, Yulee also succeeded in securing for the state of F lorida a grant o f 500,000 acres of arable land wh ich could be sold p l edged or given away in the financing of public improvements. Title to this arabl e land, and a lso to the swamp and overflowed land, was Photo not available

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'tHE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG placed in the Florida Internal Improvement Fund-which the politicians contro lled, lock, stock and barrel. Passage of the Swamp Act and the securing of the grant o f arable land had more than a little bearing on the subject of building Florida railroads. Also, on the subject of Senator Yulee and his associates as railroad builders. In 1eality, the enactment of the measure s meant the successful completion of the first phase of Yulee's scheme to build railroads without fear of loss. That is, without fear o f loss to Senator Yulee and associates. With the help of friends, Yulee next succeeded in getting the Florida state legislator to pass an act guaranteeing state aid in the construction of two railroads: one to run from Fernandina to Tampa Bay, with a branch to Cedar Keys, and the second to extend fro m Jacksonville t o St. Marks. Yulee and associates, of course, were to form the corporation which would build the roads. The state aid guaranteed was munificent indeed! Under provisions of the act, the state pledged itself to give the right of way for the railroad and every other section of swamp and overflowed lands along the rail road. The railroad corporation also was authorized to issue bonds to the extent of $10,000 a mile to buy rails and equipment and the act stipulated that interest on the bonds would be guaranteed by the Florida Internal Improvement F und In other words, if the railroad went broke, the state of Florida would be left holding the bag! Not a bad deal-for David Levy Yulee and associates! The Florida Railroad Compa ny was formed by Yulee and his asso ciates and as soon as Gov. James E. Broome signed the act, the company began selling bonds and stock. Inasmuch as the state guaranteed pay mentof interest on the bonds, they sold like the proverbial hotcakes. How much Yulee and associates made o n their neat railroad build ing venture is not revealed by histor ies But it's a matter of record that by 1860 the Internal Improvement Fund had pledged itself to pay the in terest on $3,527,000 worth of bonds sold by railroad companies and it's also recorded that Yulee was "the greatest Florida railroad builder in ante-bellum days" -so the chances are that Yulee did well by himself. Site Is Recommended for Ra.ilr01ul But that's immaterial. What's pertinent here is Yulee's announced plan to build a railroad from Fernandina to .Tampa Bay, with a branch to Cedar Keys. On April 3, 1854, a trim, two-masted schooner anchored in Tampa Bay. On board was a party of surveyors under the command of Lieut. C. H. Berryman. During the next three months, 32,121 soundings were made in the bay. They were recorded on a chart published by the Coast

PAGE 23

THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 23 Survey in 1855. The chart showed that Tampa had only five feet of water for a distance of two miles from shore while at the present site of St. Petersburg eleven feet of water was found less than half a mile from the shore line. Two lines drawn on the chart approximately at what is now the foot of Fifth avenue north represented the lo cation for a pier and the words "proposed site for a railroad depot" appear at the same place. Lieutenant Berryman's report was included in the annual report oi the Coast Survey for 1855. In it he stated: "I have an excellent harbor and a site for a railroad depot but the piers, I think, will be unusually long. Yet if the company is desirous of making a substantial improvement, the length of the pier ought not to be a serious objection. Eighteen feet of water may be brought from the gulf and the bottom is good for holding. "The ground for a depot is perhaps twelve feet higher than high tide and at least three feet above the great gale of 1848. This is at the landing and from this point gently rises for 1,500 feet to a height of twenty feet. The piers would need to be 1,200 to 1,500 feet long and reach a depth of fifteen feet. During summer a tide of twenty feet may be brought in. Vessel s drawing eighteen feet may s a fely anchor in this bay." Lieutenant Berryman's reference to "the company" indicates strongly that he was referring to Yulee's proposed Fernandina-Tampa Bay rail road. Yulee's company was the only company authorized to build a line to the bay and he was undoubtedly the only Floridian with enough in fluence in Washing ton to get such asurvey made at government expense. Berryman's report regarding Tampa Bay was obviously favorable. But for some unknown reason, Yulee failed to bring the railroad to Tampa Bay according to plan. His company in 1858 completed construction of a narrow-gauge road from Fernandina to Cedar Keys but nothing more was heard of the rampa Bay road to which the Cedar Keys line was sup posed to be a branch. As a result, the development of this entire section of the West Coast undoubtedly was retarded for many years. The First Orange Grove Is Planted There is a possibility, however, that the government survey served a good purpose anyhow. BelTyman's chart was see n years later by Peter A. Demens, fathe r of the Orange Belt Railway, and it may have influ enced him in terminating his road at the present site of St. Petersburg instead of on Mullet Key, as he had originally intended. In his letters he referred often to "Paul's Landing" as being a most desirab le terminus and Paul's Landing was exactly at the spot where Berryman had indi cated the railroaa piers should be built. This is how that happened. Berryman had liked the place so well that he had decided to have quarters built there so he and his men could

PAGE 24

24 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG spend their leisure hours on shore. The quarters were erected by the ship's carpenter, William Paul. A p ier also was built and a number of outbuildings, including a smokehouse where Berryman's crew could make their own hams and ba. con from razorback hogs which ran wild in the woods and were easily shot. The surveying party left in August. In November, Paul returned in a sloop, accompanied by his wife and son. He had become so attached to this part of Florida that he had decided to make it hi s future home. As might have been expected, Paul took possession o f the buildings he had erected. Why not? They had been abandoned and he had as much right to them as anyone. So there it was that Paul settled, with his family. He had brought with him fifty young orange t rees, packed carefully in wet Spanish moss, and his first task was to clear land and plant a grove. It was the first grove on the lower peninsula. To make money while his grove was getting established, Paul became a commercial fisherman. His truck garden supplied him with all the vegetables his family needed. The woods behind him were filled with game. The family fared well and Paul probably would have become a permanent settler had not his wife become serio usly ill, making it neces sary for the family to return to ''civilization" so that Mrs. Pau l could get medical attention. For many years after the Pauls left their homesite and the pier were known as Paul's Landing and the name appears on the land abstracts o f hundreds of present-day St. Petersburg property owners. Beginning about 1855, the lower peninsula began to be used as a grazing ground for cattle owned by cattlemen living in Tampa and on the upper part of the peninsula. To take care of the cattle, James R. Hay came in 1856 and erected a small shack on what is now Lakeview avenue Two years later he built a much larger home on Boca Ciega Bay, near Clam Bayou. He hewed the lumber himself. The weather boarding was in strips four feet long, six inches wide and three-quarters of an inch thick, riven from pine timber. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Hay sold this home to William A. Coons for $25 and an old silver wat ch. He then joined Federal forces which were blockading Tampa Bay atEgmont Key. He never returned. Two veterans of the Sem i nole War of 1856-57 came to the Point in the late 50s. They were Abel Miranda, of St. Augustine, and John A. Bethell, born in Nassau and raised in Key West. During the war, Bethell had served as a mate on the small government steamer "Texas Ranger" which plied between Tampa and Fort Myers transporting troops and munitions. Miranda was one of the volunteers who pen.etrated deep into the Everglades and helped capture the Semino le s. The two men met at Fort Myers and became friends. After the war ended, Bethell invited Miranda to his parents' hom e in Key West. There

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 25 Miranda met Bethell's sister Eliza. He fell in love with her. Shortly aft erward they were malTied and went to live in Tampa, where a son was born. During the war, Miranda had passed in and out of Tampa Bay several times. On one occasion his boat stopped at Big Bayou so that fresh water could be gotten at a spring which bubbled out of the ground in a thicket a hundred feet from the shore. The spot was so beautiful that Miranda decided he would like to live there. After his son was born and he felt free to leave his wife for a while, he bought a sloop, stocked it with provisions and set off down the bay. Arriving at Big Bayou, he built a lean-t o shack and started a fish ranche. A few months later, while on a trip up the bay, he stopped to talk to Paul and when he learned that the latter was getting ready to depart, he made arrangements to buy Paul's house a nd other buildings-for $35. Paul threw in all his orange trees for good measure. After Paul left, Miranda dismantled the buildings and floated them down the bay and into Big Bayou. Hay and Booker helped him put the buildings back together again. When the job was done Miranda returned to Tampa and got his wife and child. In 1859, Mrs. Miranda's two brothers, John and William Bethell, came to live with her. They established a fish ranche of their own at Lit tle Bayou. They specialized in making pickled mullet, curing the fish in a heavy salt brine. Old timers repol"t that the two Bethells did a good business and made money. Miranda's Home Destroyed By Federals Disaster struck the :Miran.da homestead in February, 1862. The commandant of the Federal blockading f leet at Egmont Key sailed into Big Bayou with a force of men, fired a number of cannon shots over the house and then landed, burned the house with all its killed his stock of hogs and chickens, and destr oyed his orange trees and gardens. When the bombardment started, the :Mirandas and the Bethells fled to the Coons' place and no one was injured. After the Federals left, Miranda returned and when he found that his home had been destroyed, he de cided to take hi s family to Tampa. He did not return until after the war "'as over. Strangely enough, Miranda's home was the only one destroyed by the Federals in this section of F lor id a so far as can be learned. Certainly n o others were destroyed on Pinellas Peninsula. Across the bay, in Man atee County, the Federals destroyed sugar mills and a grist mill in the village of Manatee and occasionally made forays on barnyards and chicken coops, and took ve g etables. But no homes were burned.

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26 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Why then, was the Miranda home destroyed? Two explanations have been given. Both are based on the assumption that Miranda was a red-hot rebel and couldn't resist killing every "damnyankee" he saw. One story, told by Miranda's Negro servant after his death, was that Mir anda and some other men dressed as Negro women enticed some Federal officers ashore, and killed them. When Miranda bragged about this at Tampa, it is said, Federal men threw him in the Hillsborough River. He was saved by his Negro servan t. The Federals then went to Big Bayou and destroyed the home to get revenge, so the story goes Another story is that Miranda, while a captain of the home guard, led an attack upon a boat manned by Scott and John Whitus who lived near Seminole. Scott was instantly killed by a rifl e ball and John fatally. wounded w ith buckshot. Miranda had a double-barreled gun with one barrel for rifle balls and the other for b uckshot and therefore was b lamed for the slaying. Two reasons are advanced for the alleged killing of the Whitus youths Some old timers said that the you n g men had pillaged farms and were on their way to the Federal stockade at Egmont Key with slaughtered cattle when they were shot. Others say the young men had gone to the stockade to appeal to the commandant for food for their fam ilies and were shot on their way home The story of the killing of the Whitus youths has a sequel. Jack Girard, a pioneer settler, told how a "ghost light" would often appear at the grave of Scott Whitus, near Johns Pass, travel across Boca Ciega Bay to a po int near the present Veterans Hospital, drift up to the Whitus home, and then return to the grave. The ghost lights are reported to have been seen for nearly a half century after the slaying. Both of the above explanations for the burning of the Miranda home are vehemently denied by the daughters of John A. Bethell, nieces of Miranda. They assert that the Federals destroyed their uncle s home out of pure malice and that he was a "bushwacker" only after the occur rence and not befo r e. Regardless of whether or not Miranda shot "damnyankees" it is a known fact that there was a sharp division among the pioneer settlers during the war. Some of the pioneers were strong northern sympathizers and when the "rebels" turned on them, they sought refuge at Egmont Key, headquarters for Federal forces which b l ockaded Tampa Bay. Tem porary living quarters were provided for them o n the key. Before the war ended, most of the refugees were taken North. So far as can be learned, none returned to Pinellas Peninsula Consequently, the penin sula lost many of its" inhabitants. The peninsu l a really couldn't afford to lose themonly abo u t f i fty families had been living o n the entire peninsula, from Dunedin south when the war started.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC 27 On the Upper Peninsula The first permanent settler on the upper peninsula was Odi t Phillip pee who was born at Lyons, France, and came to this country as a lad. He arrived in Tampa in the early 1880s, conducted a sutler's sto r e there, a n d in 1885 squatted on and began improving the high ground at the head of Tampa Bay, still known as Phillippee Hammock. He served through the Sem in ole War of 1835 42 and helped take many of the In dians to the reservation in Arkansas. He received a patent from the United States government for his land, 122 acres, on March 19, 1850. I n payment he gave scrip given to him for his services during the war. During 1 844 the upper end of the peninsula was surveyed by govern ment surveyors The surveyor in charge there was A. M Randolph. His field notes show that Phillippee's nearest neighbor was Hugh McCarty who was mention e d as being the owner of "McCarty s Wood Yard." His home was loc ated about three miles south of Safet y Harbor near the p res ent western e n d of Davis Causeway at a place later known as "Swimming Pen," so named because it had suffi c ient water for shipping cattle. It i s Photo not available

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28 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG believed that McCarty was engaged in the b usiness of cutting firewood which he shipped to Key West. Bes ides Phillip pee and McCarty the only settlers on the entire pen insula when the government survey was made were Joseph Silva, J ohn Levick and Maximo Hernandez. Those five certainly were mo narchs of a princely domain. But they soon had neighbors. In the late 40s, other settlers began coniing in. One of the first was Richard Booth who married Phillippee's daughter. The couple became the parents of the first white child born on the peninsula Ode t W "Keeter'' Booth, born Augus t 4, 1853. During the early 1850s came the lVIcMullens seven brothers, pro geni tors of some of the leading families of the peninsu l a They came here froni South Georgia where their father, James McMullen, owned a large plantation. The McMullen famil y was of Scottish descent and migrated to this country in Colonia l days, settling first in Virginia The seven McMu llen brothers who came to Pinellas Peninsula were, fro m the eldest down: William, Thomas F ., James P., Daniel, John, Davi d and Malcomb. James P came first, settled near Safety Harbor, and in 1853 bought land at what later became C oachman. Later, John located at Anona, William settled f ou r miles south of Largo Thomas one mile west of Safety Harbor, Daniel a mile and a half northeast of Largo, David at M orse Hill in Safety H arbor, and Malcomb near Safety Harbor. John J McMullen, son of James P., was the second white child b orn on the the peninsula, Oc t ober 15 1853. Here are the names of some of the other "first comers" to the penin s u la, many of whom have descendants now livi n g in the St. Petersburg area: William Taylor, John Young, Chedrick Sutton Jes se "Bud" Crawford, and Willoughboy Tillis, near Safety Harbor; David B Turner, In dian Rocks; Richard L Garrison, William Campbell, W L. Mobley, W. T Collier, and the Youngbloods, Curlew Creek, north of Dunedin; Herman G. Arnold, near Largo; John T Lowe, Augustus A. Archer, W. B. Meares Richard Meares, and Robert J. Whitehurst, Anona; Da vid Griner and Frank Girard, Semino l e ; Jesse Carlisle "Haiti" Jackson, and Eli Hart, at Bay view ; Birds Baker, Allan Douglas, Bennett Whidden, Josiah Doug l as, and John and Daniel G. Whi tehurst, in the "middle grou nd" neighborhood east of Clearwater, and James Stevens and Samuel Stevens on Clearwater. Undoubted l y other pioneers settled on the peninsu l a before the Civil War but their names are not obtainable, due probabl y to the fact that many moved away a nd did not return, causing their names to be forgot ten. However, a fairly complete list of "before the war" families is fur nished by the roll o f an infantry company of men who responded to the state's call {or troops immediately after Florida's secession from the

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.THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 29 Union. The officia l roster of the company is as follows: James McMul l en, captain; G. W. Whitehurst, first lieutenant; Levi S Whitehurst, second lieutenant; A J. Youngbl ood third l ieute nant; enlisted men: H. G. A rno l d, M. E. Arnold, R. Boothe, second sergeant; B. T. Bowden, first corporal; John Branch, J. L. Bran ch, B. E. Brownlow, sergeant; J.P. Bro wnlow, W N. Campb e ll, J. S. Carlisle, Adam C l ay, W S Clay, W T Collier, sergeant; Jesse Crawford D. B Crum, G. A. Garrison, J N. Garrison S. D. Garriso n corporal ; Lewis Gaskins Frank R. Girard, Da vid Gri ner, corpo ral; M.P. Griner, J. R. Hay, H. B. Hern, R Robe r t Hill, G. W. Holland, Lawrence Kittles James Leavett, Fer dinand McLeod M. Marsh, W. L Mobley, J. i\1. Moody. N 1\f. Moody, Charles Papy, W P Parker, Martin Patterson, J. D. Rogers, T. D. Ross G W. Smi th, John Stevens, S. H. Stephenson B C. Swain, J. W. Tillman, Elijah Townse n d, J. A. Tullis, A. C Turner, D B. Turner, G. P. Washington, W B. White. B. D Whi tehurst, J. S. Whitehu rst, M. E. Whitehurst, Walton White hurst, D. N. Youngb l ood, and S. S. Youngblood. A number of names Photo not available

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30 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG. apparently are given incorrectly on this list. For instance Leavett doubt.. Jess should be L everett, and McLead sho u ld be McLeod, both being old families. Also, some initials do not check This company of state troops was organized July 20, 1861, and mustered out on October 20 of the same year, the men being expected t.o join eommand11o in the regular Confederate armies. But service in the Confederate armies must have been considered Jess desi rable than the state militia because many of the men did not re-enlist. Some backslid altogether and joined the Union blockading forces at Egmont Key At the beginning of the war there was only one post office on the entire peninsula. This was at Clearwater. It was established August 20, 1859, with David B. Turner as first postmaster. The office received its mail by steamer from Cedar Keys, to which a railroad had been built the year before. The first steamer which touched Clearwater on a regu lar schedule from Cedar Keys was named the Madison Packet. Clearwater, incidentally, has the distinction of being Florida's first health resort. On April 2, 1841, the United States government estab lished Fort Harrison there. This was a convalescent post for sold iers from Fort Brooke at Tampa, a locality then much afflicted with malaria and other diseases. The fort was abandoned October 26, 1841, but its name has been perpetuated. Clearwater's principal street and leading hotel have been named after it. The Clearwater ppst office was suspended during the Civil War but was reopened soon after the war ended with Robert J Whitehurst as postmaster In the days before the war, and for some time thereafter, the eastern part of the upper Pinellas Peninsula was known by the early settlers as Old Tampa, probably for no better reason than that it adjoined Old Tam pa Bay. When settlers on the Point spoke of going to Old Tampa they usually meant the settlements in the neighborhood of Safety Harbor. The first church which also was used for school pu r poses and as a community meeting place, was built near Safety Harbor. Also located there was Syl van Abbey Cemetery, the first cemetery of the peninsula. It contains the graves of some of the earliest settlers. The old church has long since disappeared but the cemetery still remains and its moss-covered tomb stones stand as an eloquent reminder of the days of long ago :

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CI-IAPTER 3 LIFE AMONG TI-lE PIONEERS T THE CLOSE of the Civil War only one settler was living on the lower peninsula. Just o n e settler in an area of some eighty square miles-more than 50,000 acres. The overlord of this vast terri tory was William T. Coons, an elderly man who had come to the Point just after the war started and had purchased Hay's home near Clam Bayo u for $25 and an old silver watch. Coons and his wife had lived in lonely solitude ever since Abel Miran da had gone to Tampa with his family and the Bethell brothers after the Miranda homestead had bee n destroyed by the Federal s in February, 1862. Their nearest neighbors lived more than five miles away, above Long Bayou. Several times they were tempted t o move farther up the pen insula so they could have someone to talk to but finally they became used to the Robinson Crusoe existence a nd decided to remain where they were. Their home was comfortab l e, they had ple nty to eat, the Federals didn't bother them, so why move ? They rejoiced, nevertheless, when Mi randa returned with his wife and son soon after the war end and settled on the high land overlooking Salt Lake, now known as Lake Maggiore Now Mr. and Mrs. Coons would someone to visit with, even though their home was more than a mile from the Miranda place. In those days a mi le or so between houses meant practically right next door. Miranda had a reason for settling inland instead of at Bi g Bayou where he had lived before. He told Coons : "If I'd build there again and another war would com e, the damned Yankees would come in again with their gunboats and shell and burn me out as they did before. Now I'm where they ca n't get their gunboats through the woods to do it." From his old homestead on the bayou, Miranda moved three orange trees which had come back to life again after the Federals tried to des troy them. He a lso planted many young trees, expecting to establish a grove But Mitanda had l ived o n the water or near the water too many years to be satis fied with an inland home He began to long for the smell of salt water and, before his orange trees becam!! well rooted, he over came his fear of the Federals and moved t<> the shore of Boca Ciega Bay, about a half mile south of Clam Bayou, on water lot No. 1, section 3, township 32, Range 1 6

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32 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG To get this s ite, which contained 96 acres, Miranda paid a whopping big price for those days. O n February 14 1868 Rosa Read purchased it from the Florida Internal Improvement Fund for 50 cents an acre-$48. Less than two years later, on October 6, 1869, Miranda paid Mrs. Read $500 for the tract---$500 i n cash T hat transaction marked a milestone in the r ea l estate history of Pinellas Peninsula. A 2,000 per cent profit in less than two years sounds likesome of the profits made by speculators in St. Petersburg propert y f i fty-five years latei:. Miranda bought other tracts of land in the years which followed. He had plenty of money -and he bought anything that struck his fancy. Where Miranda got his money is not definite l y known. Some old timers said he became a blockade runner after the Federal s burned his home and that he accumu lated a small fortune before the war ended, buying goods at Nassau and selling them, for gold i n Tampa. That's possible. Miranda was a good seaman and knew every f oot of the West Coast. He undoubtedly was capable of eluding the Federal s who blockaded Tampa Bay at Egmont Key-whether he did or not is something e l s e again. In all he was well f i xed fi n ancially after the war was over. He became one of the leading cattlemen on the' peninsula and at one time owned more than a thousand head. The Leonardi P amil) Comes to the Point In 1867, John Bethell returned to the Poin t He had served in the Confederate Army during the war and when hostilities ceased he lived for two years in Tampa. There he met and married Sarah C. Haagar, n i ece of Vincent Leonardi, whose f amily was destined to play a prominent part in the deve lopment of lower Pinellas Peninsu l a. Alex Leonardi, son of Vincent, accompanied Bethell w h en the latter came back to the Point. Bethell settled on Mira nda's old homesite on Big Bayou. Aided by Leonardi, he built a small home a n d when it was completed, he went back to Tampa, got his wife and first daughter, and then settled down on the P oint to live. The Be thell family remained there for over a half century. Alex M iranda and his wife Eliza m ust have liked l\Irs. Bethell more than they did John, even though John was Mrs. Miranda's b r o ther. Proof of their aff ection for Mrs. Bethell was given on October 15, 1868, when they deeded their old homesite w ith forty-o n e acres of land to Mrs. Bethell in consideration of $5 and also "in consideration of their deep love for her." Miranda had gotten ti tle to thi s choice bit of land on January 1 1 863, when he purchased it f rom Peter Williams for $1 an acre. W i lliams, incidentally, had purchased it from the state just forty days before for 75 cents an acre. Vincent Leonardi came to the Point with h i s family of seven chil dren, three boys a n d four g i r l s i n 1868 Inasmuch as Le onardi blood

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THE SToRY oF Sr. PETERSBURG 33 f lows in the veins o f many present-day residents of St. Petersburg, Vin cent Leonardi deserves more than passing mention Of Italian desce n t, he was born in St. Augustine where he grew to manhood and was married to Vininca A n drews. Shortly after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Leonardi moved to Tampa where thei r children were born. At the start of the war, Leonardi enlisted in the Confederate Ar!YIY. was captured by the Fed erals. and was kept prisoner in the old fort at St. Augustine until the war ended. He then rejoined h i s family in Tampa and engaged in contracting. Upon coming to Pinellas Peninsula, Leonardi purchased forty acres of land on what is now Lakeview avenue, overlooki n g Lake :Maggiore. He bought the land from the state, paying fifty cents an a cre. His deed was dated November 25, 1868. He cleared the land with the aid of his sons started a large truck garden, and set out an orange grove and vari ous kinds of tropical fruits. Entirely by accident, he became the originator of the Leonardi grapefruit, for many years considered the most luscious of all grapefruit Photo not available

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34, THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG grown in Florida. This is how it happened. In the spring of 1869 he was presented with a basket of oranges b y Miranda. The fruit, which had come from Cuba, were large, heavy-rined and unusually sweet. Leonardi liked their flavor so he planted some of the seeds in a box. The seeds sprouted and when the plants were about ten inches high, he transplanted them in his grove. Years later, the trees began bearing fruit. But by a freak of nature, the fruit they bore were grapefruit instead of oranges. Two explanations have been given: f irst, that the orange from which the seeds were obtained had been grown on grapefruit stock and that it cons equently produced grapefruit instead of oranges, and, second, that the orange blossom had been cross-pollenated with pollen fro m a grapefruit blossom and that, as a result, the seeds became grapefruit seeds, even though they had been mothered by the orange. One of the original Leonardi grapefruit trees lived until the fall of 1939. At the End of Nowhere During the lat.e Sixties and the Seventies, settlers kept coming to the lower peninsula. But not in a mighty stream-just a tiny rivulet. In those days the Point was almost literally at the end of nowhere, with no direct connection with the outside world It had no churches, no stores, no schools-not even an established cemetery. There \vere no doc tors, or dentists, or ministers. The Point was truly a frontier land and only the hardiest of pioneers cared to live in such an isolated region. Only a few settlers came to the Point each year and out of every half dozen that came, only one or two remained. The others stayed a year or so and then drifted on, seeking locations which were a little more "civilized" or wher e it was easier to make a living-to earn enough money to buy necessities of life which could not be wrested from the soil or ob tained from the sea or f orests That was the big difficulty in those days, three-.quarters of a century ago-making money. As one old time r said years later in a letter to the St. Petersburg Times: "A silver dollar looked as big as a cartwheel. In fact, there were mightly few dollars in the entire region. For many years most of the money was foreign'-Spanish doubloons and Cuban change, obtained from the sale of cattle, fish and produce to Cuban traders. Only a few cattlemen like Miranda had many of the doubloons. Mos t of the settlers felt rich when they managed to get a little Cuban change. Lots of them often had no money at all." This wasn't because the settlers were shiftless or the land sterile. By no means. Almost without exception the settlers were hard-working men and women. And the grou.nd on which they settled was fertile, as rich as any in the state. Crops were usually bountiful. The trouble was

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 35 that the pioneers could not get good prices for their products. Often they were forced to se ll at prices which were ridiculously low. Sometimes they couldn't sell at any price. This was mainly due to a lack of adequate transportation facilities and a resultant lack of good markets. The nearest railroad terminated at Cedar Keys, 90 miles up the coast. That was the Florida Railroad, a narrow-gauge road which stag gered down across the state from Fernandina. From Cedar Keys a small steamer sailed once a week to Tampa, s topping at Clearwater along the way. It never deigned to stop anywhere on the Point. Consequently, if settlers wanted to ship their products on the steamer to Cedar Keys for trans-shipment on the railroad, they. first had to take them to Tamp a or Clearwater. This they often did, but often to thei r sorrow. Many times they did not receive enough for their products at Cedar Keys to pay the f reight. The reason was simp l e-the supply of farm products was far greater than the demand. It might have been a different story if the railroad would have gone through any large cities in which large quanti ties of food could be sold. But all the towns along the railroad were small; many were mere hamlets. Their needs could easily be supplied locally. As a result, prices were low, so low that when freight charges had to be paid, growers often were ou t of pocket. Tampa did not provide a good market in those days simply because it was nothing but a small, nondescript village surrounded by farms which produced the same things as were grown on the Point. Key West offered the best market for Pinellas products-and that was none too good. It was the only city in the state which had no back country of its own but when farmers along both coasts of Florida began shipping their products there, the market soon became glutted and the bottom fell out of prices. Many of the settlers so ld directly to Cuban and Key West traders who anchored occasionally in Big Bayou. But there's no record of any one ever having become rich through dealing with those traders. Here are some of the prices they paid in 187 4: salt-cured mullet, one cent each; gophers, five cents each; turtles, weighing 100 pounds or more, fifty cents each; sweet potatoes, 15 cents a bushel; pumpkins, 1 cent each; green peas, 35 cents a bushel; corn, shelled, 20 cents a bushel; lobsters, 5 cents each, and stone crabs, 10 cents a dozen. It's easy to understand why pioneers who received those payments for their products had difficulty in laying aside any money for a rainy day. Lack of markets and the consequent low prices were the prinCipal reasons for the slow development of lower Pinellas Peninsula. Scores of pioneers came and settled, tried farming or fishing for a year or two, found they could not get ahead, became discouraged, and pulled up and left. There were exceptions, of course. Had there n o t been, no one would have been living on the peninsula when the first train puffed in

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36 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG over the Orange Belt Railway in 1888 and the infant town of St. Petersburg came into existence. Some of the settlers had independent incomes and did not have to worry about making money from their farms or truck gardens. When they had to buy clothes, or farm implements, or medicines, or food which could not be obtained through their own efforts, they simply tapped their cash reserves and bought what they needed. They fared very well. A few settlers like Miranda had enough money to buy herds of cattle which they put out to graze on the open range. These fortunate fellows were the "kings" of the peninsula. Cattle could always be sold on the Cuban market for goodprices. But not every settler could be a cattle king or even a cattle prince-there just wasn't enough grazing land in this section. Occas ionally a settler with unusual energy or never-say-die perse verance managed to overcome all obstacles and become successful. Such a man was William B. Neeld, of Selma, Ala., who came to the Point in 1873, bought forty acres on what is now Tangerine avenue for $1 an acre, cleared and fenced his lan d, and planted a citrus grove. John Bethell told about him in his "History of Pinellas Peninsula." "Bill was a hustler from way back and did not let obstacles stand in his way,'' Bethell wrote. "I think I heard him say that after he paid for his land he had just twenty-five cents left to commence life with, which was surely a small capital for the gigantic task he was about to tackle. But that didn't stop him. At night he taught school for Vincent Leonardi's children, getting h is board and lodging thereby. Daytimes he would clear land, split rails, and such. Now and .then he would take a day off t o fish and hunt for profit; a lso, to compost fish and seaweed for fertilizer for his youn g grove. "Bill also composted le aves, muck and cattle droppings for in those days commercial fertilizers were unknown and those not fortunate enough to own cattle had to resort to other means to procure the fer tilizer they needed. But Bill soon learned the art and became quite ex pert. H e would take off his shoes-for shoes were an item when there were no cobblers to mend the holes-and with pants rolled up, he 'vould strike out gathering leaves and cow chips. The sack full, he would take it to his grove C n his back, for he had no horse. That is how he made the prize grove of the peninsula. After years of toil and hardship, Bill be gan to reap the rewards for his hard labor. For his trees flourished and bore fruit abundantly and proved very remunerative." Bill Neeld not only got a fine grove by settling on the Point-he also got a wife. While teaching school for the Leonardi children to pay for his board and lodging, he fell in love with Leonardi's daughter

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THE STORY OF ST. Pn:RSBURC 37 Emma. After a whirlwind cou r tship, he won her hand and they were married in Tampa. When the happy youn g coup l e returned from their honeymoon, all the people on the Point joined in the shivaree During the next few years there were other marriages in the Leonardi clan. Alex married Martha Slaughter, E ll e n Louise married George Meares, and Eva married Joe Strauss. All the newlyweds settled in this part of Florida. Plenty F ood for Everyone Although many of the early pioneers were poor, like Bill Neeld was when he first came here, nobody ever worried about getting enough to eat. With nearly a year-round growing season, no trouble was experi enced in raising all the vegetables and grain needed. Every home had its ow n sweet potato patch and enough potatoes could be grown on a half ac r e or so to supp ly the largest family. Ne ar,ly everyone also grew cor n, peas and beans. Many also grew sugar cane which they converted in to sugar and syrup. Abou t the only trouble the pioneers had in growing crops came from wil d animals and birds. Tender leaves of vegetables were tempting to the deer which overran the Point and the settlers often had to build barricades to keep them out. Desp ite all precautions however, the deer ofte n managed to break through and play havoc with the crop s. Gar dens also attracted wild turkeys. They came in flocks and gobbled everything in the garde ns. Scarecrows did n t frighten them away. Neither did s hoo-ing. Som e of the birds usually had to be shot before t h e others learned that the lu scio u s peas and corn and other vegetabl es had not been planted es p ec i ally for them. The pioneers a lso had trouble w i th w ildcats which b roke into chickencoops at night and many old timers relate how they had to stay up all night with guns hand y to protect their flocks. Several times the cats became so bad that all the settlers turned out to wage a war of extermina tio n. While on these hunts, the pioneers also shot scores of alligators which were accused of killing razorbacks. The alligators m ight not have been guilty bu t they were kill e d regardle s s. Although wild animals and birds w ere often pests, they al so w e r e a blessing. They ))rovided countless tooth some meals. There wasn't a time, winter or summer, when t h e pioneer couldn't go out into the woods and "shoot a meal" for his family out of the nearest thicket. He had plenty of game from which to choose-deer, gray and fox squirr els, 'coons, opossum, turkeys, qu a il, blue wing woo d and brind le ducks, green-n ecked Mallards, wood ibis, curlews and gannetts, better known as M e thodis t preachers." An excellent account of the abundant game which once cou l d be found here is given by Bethell in his History of Pine ll as P e ni ns ula."

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG "All one had to do," Bethell wrote, "was to load his g u n and go off from his enclosure, so as not to shoot any of his family, and kill a turkey or some other kind of game for dinner. Quail was game we never wasted amm un ition on We would sometim es catch them in rabbit traps and turn them l oose. I have stood on my porch and shot turkeys while eating :tomatoes. In duck season I would often kill at my waterfront enough ducks to keep my family for several days. Deer frequently swam across the bayo u. I overtook one crossing the water one day and knocked it in the head with my oar, and my brother killed another with his hatchet. "The goose pond about four miles northwest of Big Bayou, was a noted p l ace for geese in their season, a s was also a sand flat northeast of Boca Ciega Pass. I have seen those places literally covered with geese, possibly a thousand or more. Gees e were not as easily killed a,s other game. They were always on the lookout for danger so it was a very difficult thing to get near enough to kill more than a couple at a shot, though my partner, Anderson Woods, once killed five." Bethell told about the good times enjoyed by the families of the early settlers when they took a few days off and went to the keys for an outing. "Turtle-egging, bird-egging 'coon and deer hunting was the sport," he said. "In May, when the turtles and birds began to lay, we would fit out for a week's cruise and go on the south side of Pine Key and pitch camp on the extreme point of sand beach under some pine and oak trees that afforded a very nice shade. We would take one day to hunt 'coon and deer, one day to hunt eggs and get stone crabs, and one day for shelling on the sand bank off Pass a-Grille, just to while away the time as we did not wish to hunt deer and eggs every day: "We never killed more deer on a hunt than our families could use. The most we ever killed on any one cruise was eight in fh'e days--five bucks and three does. In getting birds' eggs we would rob only the nests containing a single egg, as they were fresh and plent.J'ful. And when we were after turtles' eggs, we would always leave from fifteen to twenty eggs in the nest to hatch." The waters of the bays and gulf were just as filled with fish as the forests were filled with game. As late as 1886 guests at the Waldorf Hotel at Disston City complained that they could not sleep at night because of the noise made by fish on the flats, only a stone's throw from the hotel. Many old timers tell of having seen schools of fish so large that they al most filled the bays. George Lizotte told of having seen one school which entered Boca Ciega through the pass in the morning, kept moving northward all day, and was still in sight when darkness fell. No wonder the waters of Pinellas were famous for providing some of the best fi shing grounds in the world. A real fisherman's paradise if there ever was one!

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 39 In the old days, most of the pioneers liked mullet more than other fish. But if they preferred pompano, or trout, or red fish, or any one of a hundred other species, all t hey had to do was go out in a boat for an hour or so, cast a net or fish a while, and come back loaded down. And as for shell fish they were no more abundant anywhere than in the waters of Boca Ciega and Tampa bays. Those bays contained some of the finest oyster beds in America; oysters famed throughout the entire state for thei r exquisite flavor. T4e bays also were noted for their de licious clams and scallops And lobsters and stone crabs. Enough shell fish for a dozen meals could be gathered in less than a half hour. When the pioneers tired o f the taste o f game, t hey always had pork to fall back upo n. The woods were filled w ith razorback hogs, de scendants, 'tis said, of the hogs De Soto brought into Florida, way back in 1539. They weren't handsome swi ne but old timers say they certainl y were good to eat after they had been penned and fattened. E very settler had a smokehouse where he smoked his hams and bacon and sausages Photo not available

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40 TnE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG over slow hickory fires. The razorbacks also provided lard for cooking and that really meant something in the days when housewive s couldn't go to the corner grocery store and buy any one of a dozen brands of cook ing oils and fats. One thing the pioneers rarely had was good butter-that is, fresh butter. A few had milch cows and churns and made butter occasionally. But to keep butter fresh in this climate without ice was impossible. How ever the women did the best they could. After churning, they would put the butter in a wooden bucket and bury it in a shady spot in wet sand, and keep moist cloths on top of it. But in no time the butter would become rancid. This was no particular hardship to the pioneers; in fact, many of them became so used to rancid butter tha t they insisted fresh .butter didn't have any flavor. And they wouldn't to uch it until it be came a little "ripe." Ice was not the only present-day necessity which the pioneers lacked back in the Seventies. Few of the homes, for instance, had glass in the windows or even wire screens. The windows had heavy wooden shutters which swung on home-made wooden hinges which creaked and groaned when strong winds blew. I n warm weather, the shutters were thrown back and the homes often swarmed with flies and mosquitoes. The mosquitoes were the bane of the pioneers' existence. During the rainy season, when the flat wood lands stood covered with water for weeks, the mosquitoes bred by the billions and they often made life almost unbearable. Some of the pioneers developed an immu nity to their bites but others didn't-and they scratched and scratched-and cussed and cussed. But cursing didn't driv e the mosquitoes away. They kept on coming until the rainy season ended. In attempts to repel the pests, smudge fires were burned in front of every home. O l d timers assert they often succeeded in driving away most of the mosquitoes by feeding the fires with cow chips. But they ruefully agree that the smol dering cow chips didn't smell "none too good." When they went to bed, the pioneers crawled under cotton-mesh netting to get a little sleep. The mosquitoes caused much sickness, back "in the days when they were notsuspected of being the carriers of malaria and yellow fever. So far as is known Pinellas Peninsula escaped all the yellow fever epidemics which caused many deaths in other localities in Florida. But almost everyone suffered from malaria, or "chills and fever," as it was then com monly called. As late as 1899 one-eighth of all the deaths in Peters burg were caused by malaria. The disease was not eliminated until the worst mosquito-breeding places were drained and malarial cases were quarantined. Back in the early days iron cook stoves were luxuries possessed only by a favored few. Most of the pioneers cooked o n open hearths or on scaffold stoves. Those scaffol d stoves were crude afairs. One was

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 41 constructed by building a frame of pine logs about three feet high and four feet square. Inside this frame and on top of it, sand was poured. The logs were covered on the outside with clay or marl so they would not burn. The cooking fire was built on top of the sand. Pine "light wood" splint ers, rich in turpentine, were used in starting the fires. Once started, the fire was fed \vith hard wood which burned long arid gave out in tense heat. Sometimes the scaffold stove was sheltered with a wood -covered roof, high e nough off the ground so there was little danger of its catch ing fire from flying sparks. Such shelters, sometimes further protected with wind breaks, were digni fied by the name of ''detached kitchens." A few of the pioneers had i ro n grills for their scaffold stoves on which meat could be broiled or skillets placed. But most of the women p laced the skillets and their Dutch ovens alongside the blazing fire. Both types of utensils had iron legs about four inches high. Around and between these legs, the women heaped glowing embers to provide more heat. A primitive way of cook ing sure enough, but descendants of the pioneers still e n thuse over the delicious meals their grandmothers or mothers prepared for them. Fancy clothes were considered just as much of a luxury, back in the old days as iron cook stoves. Few of the settlers spent much money to b u y things to wear, even settlers who had plenty of money "All that a man needed then," said one old timer, "was a hickory shirt, a pair of d un garees, and brogans for his feet. Those were for working. A man who wanted to splurge had a b lack suit which he wore at special doins' and he e x pected it to last at least ten or fifteen years. The needs of the women were just as simple. A few calico dresses and an a lpaca dress for dressing up was almost all they wanted. As for the children-well, they dressed in almost anything and few of them had shoes until they reached their 'teens." To buy the clothes they couldn't do without, the pioneers had to go to Tampa where the general stores boasted of having everything needed from the cradle to the grave. The trip had to be made by boat because roads at that time were practic ally non-existent. There was a trail of sorts, called the Old Tampa Road, which wound through the woods, skirting swamps and heads of bayous, from Big Bayou to the vicinity of Safety Harbor. There it connected with another so-called road which zigzagged across the neck of the peninsula to Clearwater. These r oads, or trails, were almost impassable in places; consequently, they were rarel y used except in going from one settler's home to another. During the rainy season, wagons and ox-carts sank to their axles in bogs and dur ing dry spells, the wheels sank in powdery, clutching sand. There were no bridges. All creeks had to be forded and when the water was high, this was a precarious undertaking.

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42 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC Because of the lack of real roads and bridges nearly every family whose homestead was near the water. owned a schooner, a s l oop, or at the very least a yawl. In those days a ship was considered just as much of a necessity as an automobile is today. When the wind was right, the trip to Tampa by boat took only a few hours but when the w i nd came out of the wrong direction the trip became a real adventure, often extreme l y haz ardous. Many stories are told by o l d timers about being blown ashore by sudden squalls and being forced to camp out overnight. Occasionally a boat capsized but so far as is known no one ever lost his life while making the Tampa trip. By 1876 approximately twenty-five p i oneers had settled in the. ter ritory now known as Greater St. Petersburg. In addition to Miranda, Bethell, Leonardi and William Neeld, already mentioned, there were: Louis Bell, James Barnett, John Donal dson, John L. Branch, George Hammock, Ambrose George Tompkins, James A. Cox, William H. Ben ton, William Hall, Joseph and Benevent ura Puig, D W. Meeker, R. E. and Miller Neeld, Joseph R. Torres, Timothy Kimball, Richard Strada, Henry Murphy, and l. A. Wier. For these settlers, whose homes were scattered over all the lower peninsula from Smack's Bayou and Cross Bayou on the north to Maximo Point, a post office was established at Big Bayou on June 6, 1876, and named Pinellas. From then on the pioneers did not have to make the long trip to Tampa to get their mail. They only had to meander through the woods to Big Bayou, along the zigzagging trails, and if the trip took a couple of hours or so, what difference did it make? People weren't in a breakneck pace then t o get to their destinations. When they had a chance to stop and gossip along the way, they did! That was the way folks heard the latest news back i n those days before newspapers were printed on the lower peninsula. The first pos tmaster at Pinellas was William H. Benton He served six months and then was succeeded by John A. Bethell who served four teen years. Bethell might be called the father of Pinellas As has been related he built his home on Big Bayou, where Pinellas was to be, in 1868. He constructed a rude wharf out to five feet of water and Key West and Cuban traders began stopp i ng there, at first to buy his pickled mullet and later to buy, or trade for, vegetables and fruit grown by settlers on the Point. In his "History of Pinellas Peninsula," Bethell stated that Big Bayou had one of the best natural harbors for small ships on the entire West Coast. He said that at least five hundred ships of twenty-five tons or less could easily ride at anchor there in stormy weather in perfect safety. The accuracy of Bethell's s tatement was never tested-at no time did more than three or four schooners anchor there together. Pinellas never be came large enough to be called a "shipping metropoli s In fact, it would

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THE STORY OF ST. P ETERSBURG 43 be a mistake to call it even a village. It was never platted or subdivided It had no graded roads, no sidewalks ; no community meeting place, or anything resembling public improvements. Up to 1880, Pinellas had only one sto re-a small general store owned by R E. Neeld, opened in 1878. By that time Bethell's wharf had gone to pieces so N eeld buil t a larger be tter one to accommodate customers who came by boat and also to provide a place where Cuban and Key West trading ships could dock. Neeld's store carried less than $200 worth of merchandise. His stock consisted merely of barrels of sugar, cornmeal, grits, green coffee and flou r ; a few boxes of plug tobacco, and block matches, and a few kegs of nails and one of gunpowder for guns and blas t ing. Ther e were no packaged or canned goods, no drygoods, no patent remedies-not even any bottled Cokes. Truly, Pinellas was a prim itive, frontier communi t y. But it had a post office-and for that the set tlers on the lower peninsula were thankful. Now they did not feel so isolated f r om the outside world At last they were becoming "civilized." But the progress was slow-painfully slow. Obviously, something more than a post o f fice and a small, general store was needed to make the lower peninsula a place where settlers could make their homes -and prosper. Fortunately the lower peninsula did not have much longer to wait. Events were in the making which were destined to change the Land of Pinellas from a sparsely settled region at the end of nowhere to one of the most prosperous, most progressive places in the entire nation As we shall see.

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CHAPTER 4 BEFORE THE RAILROAD CAME IN THE FALL OF 1880 the future looked dark for lower Pinellas Penin sula. Settlers who came here with high hopes to make their homes en countered obstacles which seemed insurmountable and often they be came discouraged and left. Such was the case with the pioneers who first settled on the land which was to become the town site of St. Petersburg . The first to arrive was Dr. James Sarvent Hackney who bought 212 acres in what is now the heart of St. Petersburg on August 8, 1869. Dr. Hackney bought the land from the Florida Internal. Improvement Board and paid fifty cents an acre. He bought 80 acres more on June 8, 1870. This was a choice tract and he paid the record price of $1.25 an acre. Later he bought 132 more acres at sixty cents an acre. He built a home at what is now Fourth street and Fifth avenue south and made extensive imp rovements, draining,swamps and clearing the land for farming and groves. He planted a hundred citrus trees, began growing vegetables and started raising cattle and hogs. The next settlers on the land included in the original plat of St. Petersburg were Judge William L. Perry and his brother Oliver. They purchased 80 acres from the state at fifty cents an acre. The Perrys brought with them all the implements needed for farming and sugar making. They built a home on what is now Second avenue south, between Second and Third streets, cleared and fenced five acres, planted three acres in sugar cane and two in sweet potatoes, corn and pumpkins. The Perrys and Dr. Hackney seemed to have everything needed to make their pioneering efforts successful money, perseverance and knowledge of Florida farming methods. But, even so, they became dis couraged and when W. F. Spurlin appeared in 1873 and offered to buy their land and all their improvements, they came to terms quickly. The Perrys sold out for $900 and Dr. Hackney for $3,500. Spurlin also pur chased 120 acres from the state, paying twenty-five cents an acre for one tract and ninety cents for another. In this way he secured about 625 acres with a mile frontage. on Tampa Bay, paying altogether approximately $4,300. Not only did he get one of the choicest town sites in all Florida but he also got two homes, two orange groves, many acres of cleared land and about 150 head of cattle and hogs.

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THE STORY OF S T PETERSBURG 45 Spurlin enthusiastically told friends that he had made a fine purchase. But after he tried to make a profit from his land and instead lost money two years in succession he came to the conclusion that perhaps he hadn't made such a good bargain after all. In fact, he became determined to sell his holdings even if he had to take a Joss. And that is what he had to do. He soid everything he had to John C. Williams, of Detroit, for $3,000, thereby losing $1,300 in cash and two years of his time. Many stories are told about the reasons Williams first came to Flor ida. According to one account, Williams came because he had disposed of almost all his holdings in Detroit, inherited from his father, and was seeking new f ields to conquer. Another story i s that he was suffering from asthma and had come to !<'lorida to get relief. Whatever the reason he came and after traveling over almost all of the state he finally arrived on Pinellas Peninsula. One tale, probably apocryphal, relates that Williams was in Cedar Keys on his way back North when he fir5t heard of Pinellas. He had seen nothing in Florida that suited him, so the story goes, and was ready to leave for good. While waiting for the train a chance acquaintance boosted Pinellas Peninsula so effectively that he decided t o go back and see this wonder place. He returned to Clearwater, hired a team, drove to the lower peninsula-and found exactly what he sought. Be that as it may, the fact remains that he bought the Spurlin prop erty on January 4, 1876, and shortly thereafter began buying additional tracts from the state, at prices ranging from 75 cents to $1 an acre. A l together he bought about 900 acres from the state, making his total Fisbel'rnen who settled on Pinella s Point nearly a century ago Jhed in homes such as the one shown abo-.;e, photographed in 1896 The home h ad no mode-rn conveniences bot it kept out the raini f it didn't rain too ha1d.

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46 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG holdings about 1,600 acres. :Many of the tracts were located near the Spurlin property but some were miles away. For some strange reason Williams failed to buy the land to the north and west of the lake now called :Mirror Lake. This was some of the finest land on the entire penin sula but Williams missed it. After making his land purchases, which cost him approximately $3,800 altogether, Williams went back to Detroit. He returned to Florida in 1879, accompanied by his wife, two daughters, one of his sons, Barney C. Williams and a nephew, F. W. Tilden. The party traveled to Gaines ville by train. Williams had brought with him four horses, two wagons, farming tools and household goods A t Gainesville he hired two addi tional wagons, covered all four wagons with canvas, and the cavalcade started out for Pinellas Peninsula-a wagon journey of 250 miles through a thinly settled country. At p lac es the road was nothing more than a trail, and then again it was not even that. Almost a month was required for the trip. Upon arrival at his Pinellas estate, the Williams clan moved into the home built py Dr. Hackney. Forty acres were cleared and Williams tried farming on a big scale but met with nothing but failure. One of his sons later said that every potato he raised cost him a dollar. Within less than two years he gave up the venture and returned to Detroit. He did not come back to Florida until 1886-and then he made his home in Tampa, in Hyde Park. One taste of farming on the peninsula had been enough for him. Others tried farming in what is MW St. Petersburg with equally sorry results. H. A."Wier came from Youngstown, 0., early in 1876, and purchased forty acres from the state west and north of the lake now known as Mirror Lake. Because Wier was the first settler near the lake it was called Wier Lake for many years. Later it was called Reservoir Lake and then, beg innin g in 1915, Mirror Lake. The latter name was give.n to it by Mrs. Katherine Bell Tippetts. Wier cleared and fenced several acres, built a comfortable home, planted a small orange grove, and started a vegetable garden. He also erected a tower with windmill and tank on the edge of the lake so he could irrigate his land. His set-up seemed ideal but he soon became dis satisfied and went West where he believed the opportunities for making money would be greater. Another settler at the lake, A. B. Chandler, of Nova Scotia, bought forty acres west of the lake from the state for ninety cents an acre, on No vember 7, 1877. His stocy was the same as that. of the others: he tried farming, became discouraged, and sold out and left, never to return. So it went. In all parts of the lower peninsula settlers were having the same experience-they couldn't make farming or truck gardening

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBU RC. 47 pay. And because they couldn't make it pay, many pulled up and departe d. The population of the lower peninsula increased very, very slowly. For a number of years it appeared to be standing stil l. The trou ble was the same as it had always been: low prices for farm products caused by the lack of good markets which, in turn, was caused by a lack of adequate transportation facil iti es The Need for a Railroad Seen Obviously, a direct railroad connection with the outside world was badly needed. For years there had been talk of a railroad to the lower peninsula-but none ever materialized. And in 1880 the chances of get,. ting a railroad appeared to be more rem ote than ever. To understand why that was the case it i s necessary to review a bit of Florida history. Before the Civil War the state had guaranteed to pay the interest on bonds issued for the construction of railroads by private corporations. Millions of acres of land obtained from the federal governm ent through provisions of the Swamp Land Act of 1850 Were pledged to meet the interest payments. Title to these lands was held by the Florida Internal Improvement Fund . When the war ended, the state found itself head over heels in debt. Interest had not been paid on the railroad bonds for years. Altogether, the state owed $3,527,000 which it was obligated to pay. To meet this debt, the state so ld the railroads, which it had taken over, and succeeded in retiring bonds to the amoun t of $2,872,700. That left a debt o f $644,300 still unpaid. The state attempted to pay part of this debt by selling a large tract of land on the East Coast. But other cred i tors heard of the plan and obtained an injunction restraining the trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund from making the sale. United States courts then took charge. By 1880 the state's finances were in a hopeless muddle. Interest charges kept piling up. The courts finally decided that a million dollars wou ld be sufficient to extricate the state, and the Internal Improvement Fund, from the fi nancial quagmire. A t that juncture, a wealthy Philadelphian appeared in the picture. He was Hamilton Disston, member of the saw-manufacturing firm of Henry Disston & Sons. Disston agreed to give the state the million dollars and take in return four million acres of land at twenty-five cents an acre. An agreement t o that effect was signed February 28, 1881. A few months later Disston and his associates paid $500,000 and in the following year a syndicate of British and Dutch capitalists, with whom Disston had made a deal, paid the remaining $500,000. In discussing the Disston purchase some historians have pictured Hamilton Disston as sort of a knight in shining armor who came dashing

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48 to the rescue of a body politic in distress, and they imply that Disston paid the million dollars becau se of a philanthropic desire to lend Florida a helping hand. That was hardly the case. Disston was a hard-headed business man and he knew that rich men do not become richer by playing Santa Cl. aus. There's little doubt but that he made the million -dollar deal with the state strictly as a business proposition and that he was determined to get at least a million dollars' worth of land in return for the cash. And there's reason to believe he did not make a bad bargain. The Disston deal has been lauded and condemned ever s i nce it was made. Undoubtedly it had bad effects But probably the truth is that it resulted in more good than harm. The million dollars cleaned up the state's indebtedness, freed the state-owned lands which had been tied up by the courts, and permitted the Internal Improvement Fund to make land grants which led t o the construction of hundreds of miles o f vitally needed railroads. Certainly no one can dispute the fact that, after the deal was compl eted, Florida forged ahead faster than it eve r had before. As for Pinellas Peninsula-well, let's see what happened here. Disston Gets Pinellas Lands On December 2 1882 the Internal Improvement Fund deeded Diss ton 381,358 acres and on January 5, 1883, an additional 139,842 acres. More deeds came in rapid succession. Some were made directly to Diss ton; others to the Florida Land & Impr ovement Co., which he headed. So far as i s known, no acc11rate check of records ever has been made to determine exactly how much acreage Disston obtained in what is now Pinellas County. It is estimated however, that he got at least 150,000 acres and a good portion of that acreage is now inc luded in the present city limits of St. Petersburg and Gulfport. Practically all o f it was good, high land. There were sections, of course which were swampy but there were few which could not be easily drained. Disston also acquired a fine, large tract in the northern end of the county in the Lake Butler distric t, as well as other choice tracts in other parts of the peninsula. Theoretically, the F lorida Internal Improvement Fund, from which Disston got his lands, was supposed to have title only to swamp and over f lowed land-lands which were so overflowed either at the time of plant ing or harvesting that they could not be freed of water without artificial drainage. But Florida politicians, before the Civil :War, had succeeded in getting from the federal government millions of acres which were high and dry at all seasons of the year. They did this, 'tis said, so they could make better deals--for. themselves-when it came to parceling the land out to corporations under the guise of "promoting public improvements." Disston well knew that the Internal Improvement Fund had title to good lands as well as swamps. And inasmuch as he was in the driver's

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THE STORY Of ST. PETERSBURG 49 seat in 1881 he was not cheated when it came to selecting the four mil lion acres he wast{) get. He put his agents to work checking state and county records to learn exactly what tracts were held by the fund. This done, he had his agents go over all the lands and determine which were the best. With that information at hand, Dissto n proceeded to pick and choos e Needless to say, he selected sections which were quite goodyes, quite good indeed! The first effect of the Disston land deal in lower Pinellas Peninsula was to make land more expensive for prospective settlers. Before the deal was made, settlers could buy just about the best land for $1 an acre or less. The highest price on record was the $1.25 an acre paid by Dr. James Sarvent Hackney, on June 8 1870, for 80 acres in what is now the center of St. Petersbu rg. Most settlers got their land at prices ranging from 40 to 90 cents an acre, depending upon its location. After Disston made the purchase, and got title to practically all the unsold land on the peninsula, he raised prices immediately. Some of his first sales were made to Abe l Miranda who paid $2 an acre for one tract, $2.50 an !tcre for another, and $3 for a third. Miranda was a big purchaser and got off cheap. Other settlers paid $5 an acre or more. Yes, Disston raised prices. In many parts of Florida the Disston purchase had the effect of.J;lul-. lifying the Homestead Act of 1862 inasmuch as he was deeded land: : which in the normal course of. events should and would have gone to : homesteaders, each legally entitled to 1 60 acres free of charge provid ing he lived on the land fo r five years or more and made certain improv e ments. When Disston got his huge tracts, the land was practically wiped off the map so far as homesteaders were concerned. They either bought the land from Disston-or went without. Here on lower Pinellas Peninsula homesteaders had little chance to get land even before the Disston purchase. The reason was that the t rus tees of the Internal I mpro vement Fund had managed to grab practically all the mainland late in 1860, ju_st before the Civil War. Perhaps they had a hunch that the Republicans would live up to campaign promises and pass a homestead act, which they did. And since trustees of the fund apparently didn't believe in free land for anyone, they grabbed while the gt'abbing was good. They were entitled only to swamp and overflowed lands but they included in their grabs all the high land in what is now the heart of St. Petersburg, a ll the high land overlooking Lake Maggiore, all the high lands at Pinellas .and Maximo Points, and al most all the high land acro ss the peninsula. Thousands of acres of that land couldn't have been considered swampy or overflowed b y any stretch of the imagination but the Internal Improvement Fund got it just the same. They missed a few tracts in the.Jungle and Seminole sections, and perhaps in a few other places, but in general they made a clean sweep.

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50 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBUR G Strangely enough, they passed up the keys, probably because they thought n o one ever would want to live there. But all this is straying afield from t he subject of Disston and and his land p u rchases, and the consequent effects upon the development of the lower peninsula. Whil e it is t r ue that the Disston deal resulted in higher land prices and thereby may have tended to discou rage some settlers from coming here, it is also true that Disston helped the entire peninsula infinitely more than he harmed it. He was not one of those fellows who buy land and then "sit on it," waiting for others to make developments. He was a developer himself, one of the best Florida ever had. And he wasted no time starting his deve l opments in this section of the state. Disston Founds Tarpon Springs Disston turned his attention first to the Lake Butler section where he had ob t ained a large tract of unusually good land. The first settlers in that territory were A. W. Ormond and his daughter, Mary, of North Carolina who had established a home on the Anclote River in 1875. In the year following, Joshua Boyer, adventuring alo n g the coast, went up the river, met the Ormonds and soon afterward married the daughter. The land surrounding the springs and bordering the bayous was covered with a dense oak and palm thicket down to the water's edge and abounded in game. The springs and bayous were filled with fish. One day while taking some friends along the water, where fish were leaping, Mrs. Boyer exclaimed: "See the tarpon spring g Her remark is said to have g i ven the place its name and it was known thereafter as Tarpon Springs. Disston first visited Tarpon Springs in December, 1882. He came with a party of friends, maki ng the trip from Cedar Keys by steamer. The party stayed several weeks at the home of the Boyers and Disston became so enthused over the region that he decided to found a town there. At first he thought he wou l d lay out the town site at Lake But ler but since all transportation was by water at that time, the bayou site finally was selected. A new company call e d the Lake Butler Villa Co., was i n corporated by Disston to handle details and make land sales. The town of Tarpon Springs was laid out in 1883 by Major W J Marks, an Orlando attorney representing the Disston interests, and Capt. John W. Walton, a Disston surveyor. All operations were directed by Anson P. K. Stafford, ex-gove r no r of the territ ory of Arizona who had become associated with the Disston interests The Tropical Hotel was built in 1883 and, during the following year, the Tarpon Springs Hotel, a large, three-story building, was completed. All lumber for the second hotel was cut at Atlantic Ci t y, N J where Disston had sawmill interests It was shipped to the mouth of the Anclote River, unloaded at a pier

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 51 which had been built into the gulf, and barged up the river to Tarpon Springs. Soon after the hotel was finished a hack line was established to Tampa. Winter visitors many of them friends of Disston or his asso ciates, began to arrive and started building fine homes around the springs. The infant town began to grow. One of the early arrivals was Jacob Disston, a brother of Hamil ton. He had come to Florida upon the advice of his physician and visited Tarpon Springs to satisfy his brother who wanted to show off the town he had f ounded. Jacob had just finished reading an article, "The Frostless Pinellas," written by Dr. W. C VanBibber, of Baltimore, Md., and he expected to find Tarpon Springs a tropical fairyland. A few weeks after Jacob arrived on the peninsula a heavy frost occurred which caused great damage. He began to have grave doubts about the fitness of the title ''Frostless Pinellas" but he remained regardless and soon liked the pen insula so well that he took a most active part in its development. Disston Cit'' Is Founded Hamilton Disston was proud o f Tarpon Springs but his main interest turned to another town he attempted to found-Disston City, at the present site of Gulfport. He had the highest expectations for this town which was to bear the Disston name a nd he endeavored in every way possible to make it boom. .. ' r ' --.-. . -.. -
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52 TH S roRY o F Sr. PETERSBURG Two men who were not associated originally in any way with the Disston enterprises had a hand in t he promotion of Disston City. One was Joseph R. Torres, a Spaniard who had been with Maxmillian in Mexico and later had been active in the carpetbag regime in New Orleans. The other man was William B. M iranda, a nephew of Abel Miranda. "Bill" Miranda, as he was known, was a man of achievementS-he had been a steamship captain, a surveyor, a business man, and had had legal train ing. He was also a cleve r promoter. Both Torres and Miranda came to the point in 1876. Miranda bought land and built a home on what is n o w Lakeview avenue. Torres bought improvements which had been made by Capt. James Barnett, one of the earlies t settlers, on Boca Ciega Bay. He also bought 169 acres from the state. Miranda met Disston for the first time in the fall of 1883 while the latter was inspecting his large holdings on the lower peninsula. Miranda knew that the financ ier had been responsible for the founding of Tarpon Springs so he asked Disston why he didn't start another tow n on the lower part o f the penisula where, he said, the possibilities for development were far greater than in the Tarpon Springs area. An excellent place for such a town, Miranda said was in the vicinity of the property which Tones had gotten from Captain Barnett. The Tones tract was almost surrounded by lan d which Disston owned and the Philadelphian saw that a sale of town lots, from Torres' plot, could easily be linked with sales of farm tracts from his properly. So he said he would give the proposed tow n his full backing. He ap pointed Miranda to serve as his agent. And to promote the dream town he formed the Disston City Land Co., with himself as president. The compa ny was incorporated August 21, 1884, with a capital stock of $100,000. A number of Disston's associates were listed as directors. The plat of Disston City was filed during the same summer. And a grandiose plat it was! It took in every thing on the lower peninsula except property owned by Williams on Tampa Bay and a small section at Big Bayou. Altogether it included mo r e than 12,000 acres. Along the entire waterfront there was a grand boulevard, on paper, and all streets and avenues were a hundred feet wide, on paper. The city was large enough, on paper, to take care of at least 50,000 people Not everything was on paper. Disston financed the construction of a 26-room hotel, built in the shape of an L, overlooking the bay. Lumber for the hotel, named the Waldorf, was brought by schooner from Apa lachicola. It was completed late in the fall and formally opened on Christmas eve, 1884. Disston and a number of his associates attended the opening. A young Englishman named William A. Wood became the first manager of the hotel.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 53 In addition to the hotel, a wharf was built, a large warehouse, a number of homes and three store buildings. The great-cityto-be was widely advertised in northern newspapers and an extensive advertising campaign was conducted in England. Large lithograph maps were prepared showing where an immens e harbor and a large business section were to be. Pamphlets were printed by the thousands. They lauded Disston City to the skies and told, in glowing terms, how wonderful it was to live on sun-ki ssed Pinellas Peninsula where the climate was so warm, and the soil so fertile, that two bounti ful crops co uld be grown a ye!lr. Anyone cou ld make a fine living there on just a few acres of land. Plenty of fish and game! Palm trees and oranges! People on Pinellas Peninsula truly live an idyllic existence! So raved the pamphlets. Scores of sale s of five and ten acre farm tracts were made from the Disston city advertisements, paid for by the Disston City Land Co. Many of the land buyers bought as an investment and never came to the penin sula. But dozens of others did. During 1 885 Disston City really boomed. As a result of the advertising in England, a score o r more of English colonists arrived, including W. J. Godden, Arthur Watson, Percy Law rence, Robert Errington, the Rev. Watt and sons Joseph, J.ohn and David; the Harrison family, Arthur and Urban Norwo od, Robert Stan ton, Hugh Richardson, the Watson family, R. L. Locke William Walls, and James McMah a n. In addition to the Englishmen there were m any Americans, from all parts of the North and the Southwest. Many of the new arrivals settled in Disston City Others liked other parts of the lower peninsula better and settled elsewhere. To make it easie r for the colonists to get to the land of their dreams, Disston made arrangements to have the steamer "Mary Disston," owned by one of his companies, stop regularly at Disston City. The steamer drew seven feet of water and many times it had difficulty getting up to the Disston City wharf. I t often went aground on shoals and had to be pulled off. By the fall of 1885 it looked as though Disston City might become a sure-enough city. The hotel was almost always filled to capacity and three stores were open. Joseph R. Torres had a. general store, special izing in groceries; H. E. Baumeister sold dry goods and hardware, and R. L. Locke had a combined grocery and meat market. The first school on the lower peninsula was opened with Arthur Norwood as teacher: In the spring of 1886 William J. McPherson brought in a small job press and started publication of the first newspaper ever published on the Point, called the "Sea Breeze." McPherson was assisted by a veteran newspaperman, G. W. Bennett, and together they produced a newsy

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54 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG paper. Bennett cut the masthead for the paper out of a piece of !)lack man grove Followi n g a r e some e xcerpts from a copy of t h e Sea Breeze dated July 1, 1886: "Fine watermelons are be i ng brought to town by our farmers and are being so l d cheap. ... "We have had fine showers lately and people are busy sett ing ou t sweet potato vin es." ... ''The Norwood brothers have moved to their place north of town where they will make the wilderness blossom like a rose." . "Mrs. James Barnett has some grape vines that are full of grapes of a superior quality. ... "The schooner Delia, Capt. J. Low, has been at a n chor here several days and E B. McPherson has chartered her to go to Apalachicola for a cargo of l um ber." ... "T. A Whitted, a former D i sston City resident, now of Palma Sola, has been visiting friends on the Point and will spend the Fourth here. ... "The Ada Norman, Capt. Arthur, Johns Pass, touched at the wharf Monday night, en route to Tampa w ith a shipment of poultry from Longley s chicken yards at the Pass." ... "Our level headed citizen Farmer Mills looks contented as he drives in from his new home north of town with load after load of fancy watermelons hen fruit and other savory plunder from his ranch." An editorial in the Sea Breeze lauded Point Pinellas "where already there are sprin ging up little hamlets from Johns Pass to Coffee Pot, each with its own peculiar advantages.'' Under a heading Disston Needs" Editor McPherson listed the needs as a good bathhouse, a regular fish and meat market a sm ith and repair shop, a drug store, streets cleaned up and trees planted, better transportation, more frequent mai ls, more interest in Sunday School, and more harmony among our citizens. An effort was made to get a post office for Disston City in 1884 As there wa.s another post office in Florida called "Diston," north of Tampa, the post office frowned upon "Disston City" and the name "Bonifacio" was chosen as a substitute Some people say that Bonifacio was William B. Miranda's middle name and that he chose it to perpetuate his connec tion with the city In 1890 the D i s ton office was abandoned and Disston City was permitted to take its own name in mail matters. Disston City Served a Purpose But by that t i me the decl i ne of Disston City had set in. The Orange Belt Railway passed i t by and the dreams of the promoters were shat tered. Disston City breathed a few last gasps and then expired. The deserted wharf rotted away and the Waldorf Hotel was abandoned. It was washed off its foundations during a heavy gale on May 8 1901, and badly wrecked. The l umber wa.s salvaged by farmers who lived in that locality and carted away. Disston City passed out of existence and all traces of it disappeared. But it would be a mistake to brand Disston City as a municipal dud. It

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THE STORY OF S-r. PETERSDUR C 55 served a purpose-a very good purpose. As a result of the activity at Disston City, scores of enterprising settlers were attracted to the lower peninsula-men who later played prominent parts in the development of St. Petersburg. Included among the newcomers were men like H. W. Gilbart, Arthur Norwood, George L. King, T. A. Whitted, Zephaniah Phillips, Hugh R. Richardson, E. B. McPherson and his sons, and many others. The importance of this influx of "new blood" can hardly be over emphasized. It proved invaluable in St. Petersburg's formative days. The development work in Disston City and surrounding territory, paid for by the Disston City Land Co ., b rought considerable "cash money" to the lower peninsula and the jobs provided aided materially in helping many of the older settlers get on their feet financially. The wages were not high but they were paid in cash and not in farm products, as had often been the custom in the past. Jobs provided by the development projects also helped some of the new settlers in getting established. For instance take the case of H. W. Gilbart. He left England on Novembe r 5, 1883, but it was not until more than a year later that he arrived on Pinellas Peninsula, where he had planned to go. The delay was caused by the theft in Philadelphia of five of !)is trunks, containing practically all of his money, approximately a Hundred s ot thousand s of shells gathered on the Gulf beaches were used b); Owen Albright nearly a half century ago to b u i ld a beautiful shell fence at his home on First str eet north at Second avenue. The f enee wa.s one of St. Petersburg s main attractions for more than twenty years.

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56 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG thousand pounds. He worked for a year in a Philadelphia hotel to get enough money to pay for his trip to Florida. He finally arrived in Disston City with only a few cents in his pockets. Gilbartgot his first job from William B. 1\liranda, agent for the Diss ton interests. He was paid fifty cents a day for ten hours' work. Small as the wages were, Gilbart managed to save a little and after a time he purchased ten acres of land from the Disstons for $50-mostly on credit. A friend, W. J. Godden, with whom Gilbart lived in "bachelor quarters," also bought five acres. On this land the two men raised almost all the food they needed. Early in the '90s, the two men made an arrangement.with Hamilton Disston whereby they were to be given forty acres of land for digging what later was known as the Green Ridge ditch, leading to Salt Creek. They completed the job and selected forty acres adjoining the land they already owned. The land they received comprised practically all the land which had been drained and when Disston later came to view the drainage project, and saw that he had given away practically all the land he had reclaimed, he considered it a great joke on himself. During the years which followed, Gilbart developed one of the finest citrus groves ori the peninsula and became one of St. Petersburg's leading citizens. Another man who got his start in Disston City was Arthur Norwood, who also had come from England. The home in which he live d burned down a short time after his arrival and all the possessions he had, except the clothes he was wearing, were destroyed. Despite this misfortune, Norwood kept plugging along, working for the Disstons until he got enough money to buy new clothes. He then was appointed teacher of the Disston City sc hool becoming the first paid teacher on the lower peniMula. During the first two terms he received $25 a month and during the third year, $30 a month, a munificent sum in those days. In addi tion to his teaching, he white-washed the school building, dug a well, and built desks and blackboards. In the spring of 1889, he bought out the stock of a small store in Disston City and moved it to St. Petersburg where he finally became one of the city's leading merchants. As a result of the building activity at Disston C ity the lower pen insula got its first sawmill, brought here during the spring of 1884 by George L. King, of Ontario, Canada. King set up the mill at Mule Branch, about a mil e southeast of Disston City, but later moved it near New Cadiz. During the next four years he supplied most of the lumber used at Disston City and Pinellas. In the spring of 1888, just before the rail road entered St. Petersburg, King moved the mill to Booker Creek close to what is now Twelfth street. Besides attracting new settlers, Disston City also served to breathe new life into the entire low e r peninsula, and gave it new hope and vigor. While the Disston City boom was on, the community of Pinellas also

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THE STORY OF ST 0 PETERSBURG 57 forged ahead. Thomas Sterling, of Connecticut, built a 12 -room hotel and also constructed seven cottages which he rented. The hotel and cot. tages attracted excursionists from Tampa. Pinellas became a lively little place. Several new stores were opened as well as a community meeting place and a school. In the Sterling Hotel the first entertainment held on the lower peninsula was given on December 29, 1886, to raise funds f o r building St. Bartholomew's Church on Lakeview avenue. Two playlets were staged-"Turn Him Out" and "Old Phil's Birthday." The actors were members of the English colony which had settled at Disston City. Many of the settlers were scandalized that a theatrical entertainment should be held to benefit a church. But they all crowded to see it. So many attended that a repeat performance had to be held the following night. The actors were: H. Beck, J M.G. Watt, J.P. G Watt, D. A. Watt, P. J. Lawrence, Miss Watt and Miss Abercrombie. The platting of Disston City also probably led to the platting of another "town" on the Point-New Cadiz, located on Boca Ciega Bay be tween Clam Bayou and Maximo Point. This town, which never existed except on paper, was platted by Joseph and Beneventura Puig who had come to the lower peninsula in 1874 from New Orle ans and had pur chased 120 acres from the state for 80 cents an acre. The town never materialized but it did get a post office, established late in 1885. Joseph Puig was the f irst postmaster. The post office was closed in 1890 and New Ca diz ceased to exist, even in mail matters. Viewed in retrospect, Disston City undoubtedly was most important because it served to focus the attention of Hamilton Disston and his brother Jacob on the needs of the lower peninsula. Both men visited Disston City often and they soon began to realize that what the Point needed most was a railroad to connect it with the outside world. With out a railroad, they agreed, Disston City and the Point didn't have a chance to prosper; with a railroad, the potentialities of the section would be tremendous. With that fact in mind, the Disstons immediately took steps to help bring a railroad in. And the help they gave was invaluable Had they not lent a hand, the Orange Belt Railway undoubtedly never would have been extended to Pinellas Peninsula and the St. Petersburg of today might still be a sparsely settled region on the shores of Tampa Bay, and nothing more. So perhaps the people of St. Petersburg should not scoff at the Diss ton City that aspired to be great, but fizz led out. Perhaps they should pay homage to the dream city of yesterday. which indirectly made the proud S t Petersburg of today an actuality.

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P ETER A. DEM E NS (Piotr Alexewitch Dement.ief) He built the rail road which made the c ity he named St. Petersburg.

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CI-IAPTI:R 5 THE SAGA OF THE ORANGE BELT ON FEBRUARY 17, 1880, the imperial dining room of the Winter Pal ace in St. PetersbJlrg, Russia, was blown up by a terrorist. And perhaps because it was, the Orange Belt Railway was built into Pinellas Peninsula in the late spring of 1888 and the town of St. Peters burg, Florida, came into existence Improb .able as that may seem, there is reason to believe that if the Ru ss ian terrorist had not demolished the Russian imperial dining room, the Orange Belt Railway never would have bee n built and there would be n o St. Petersburg, Florida, today. The human connecting link between St. Petersburg, Russ i a, and St. Petersburg, Florida, was a handsome Russ ian aristocrat named Piotr Alexewitch Dement ief whose Americanized name became Peter A. Demens. He never used the name Dementief in this country. Demens as he was known in Florida, was born May 1, 1850, i n St. Petersburg, Russia Descended from a noble R ussian family with large estates in the p rov ince of Tver, he received a fine educat ion and could read, write and speak French and German as well as he could Russian. His hundreds of letters prove that he also had an excellent command of the English language. Demens was not an anarchist or a terrorist. Definitely not. He became a marshal of nobility and a captain in the Russian Imperial Guard. He was an intimate friend of many of the most influential men in the Russia n government Nevertheless, he was a true liberal at heart and was not in accord with all the practices of the Czarist regime. He was described years later by his admirers in the newspaper profession as ''the democrat of aristocracy." Perhaps Demens democra t ic views may have forced him to leave Russia. Following the bombing of the Winter Palac e, a determined drive was made to "exterminate the revolutionaries" and many. persons whose no greater offense had been the expression of liberal ideas foun d themselves suspected -and in danger of arrest. Demens may have been one of this number. He later told business associates in Florida that he was a "political refugee." And the Los Angeles Tim es and the As s ociated Press, for which he wrote many arti cles on European polit i cal affairs, stated after his death that he was a

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60 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG "political exile" who had come to America "to escape the tyranny of the Romanoff regime." However, such an explanation for the coming of Demens to America is vehemently disputed by his only surviving daughter, Countess Vera Tolstoy, who lives at Tolstoy Ranch, in Alta Lorna, California. Born years after Demens came to this country, she became his confidant and companion. She insists that he left his native land "because it was the American ideal, so much simpler and nobler in those days, which appealed to him." She vigorously denies that he was ever "at any time, or in any particular, associated with the revolutionary movement--any such reforms as he may have privately advocated were reforms of evo lution such as any thoughtful person in any country might entertain in the in terests of humanity." But all that is neither here nor there. The things which really count are that Demens did leave Russia, and did come to Flori da, and did build the railroad which led to the founding of St. Petersburg. So let's get on with the story of what he did after he arrived here. For some un known reason his interest turned to lumbering and within a short time he organized a firm under the name of Demens, McCain & Cotter and built a sawmill at Longwood, about ten miles southwest of Sanford. To bring logs to the mill, a haphazard railroad was built into the woods. Demens bought out his partners in 1883 and continued to operate the mill himself. During the same year he obtained a contract from the South Florida Railroad to build the station houses on the railroad's branch from Lakeland northward to Dade City. In 1885 the timber supply in the vicinity of Longwood became exhausted and Demens cast about for something else to do. He decided to become a railroad builder due largely to the fact that the Orange Belt Railway owed him money The Orange Belt had bee n incorporated April 20, 1885, by T. Arnold, H. Miller and H. Hall and chartered to build a railroad from the St. Johns River to Lake Apopka, about 34 miles to the west. Demens furnished the railroad with $9,400 worth of ties but the railroad incorporators ran o u t of money and could not pay him. In the hope of being able to escape writing off the $9,400 as a bad debt, Demens made arrangements to take over the Orange Belt charter. That done, he proceeded with the construction work, making the road narrow-gauge, with the eastern terminus at Lake Monroe on the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railroad. To begin with he used the light 16-pound rails from his log road. Demens did not have enough capital by any means to com plete the pro ject so he sought financial backing Through his attorney, Andrew Johnson, of Orlando, he induced Josef Henschen, a winter visitor from Buffalo, to invest $20,000. He also obtained $15,000 from Henry Sweet apple, a Canadian who had come to Florida for his health. A. M. Taylor,

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TH STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 61 of Staunton, Va., who had become Demens' storekeeper, a lso put in $2,0 00 Thes e men, with Demens, incorporated the Orange Belt Investment Co. the main business of which was to b uil d the Orange Belt Railway. The $37,000 received from the three original Orange Belt backers did not las t long. Demens used most of it t o meet payrolls. Practically all of the rolling stock was bought on credit from the South Florida Rail road which had just made its road standard gauge and had much nar row-gaug e equipment for sale. From the Geo. W. Stetson Co., of New York Demens bough t $30,000 worth of 25pound rails also on credit. The railroad received donations of land along the righ t-of-way. J u dge J G. Speer gave a half interest in 200 acres on Lake Apopka and the investment company surveyed and laid out a town, the present Oak land, which was made the headquarters of the investme n t company and the railroad. Deme n s wanted to name the town St. Petersburg, after his birthplace in Russia, but J udge Speer insisted o n the name Oakla nd. The first train s ran into Oaklan d early in November, 1886 The settlers in that section gave the builders a pub li c dinner on November 15 which afterwards was celebrated as Oakland's birthday. The completion of the Orange Belt to Oakland did not satisfy Dem ens. He wanted to extend it to the gulf. Josef Hen schen opposed the idea, contending that it would be imposs i ble for the road to make money in such an undeveloped country But Demens ind uced Sweetapple and Taylor to s upport him and Henschen was outvoted. On November 20, 1886, the railroad's charter was amended to permit it to build to Pinellas Point, 120 miles from Oakland and also to permit it to increase its cap ital stock to $700,000 and to iss u e $700,000 worth of $1,000 bonds. Needless to say, it was easier for Demens to get permiss ion to sell $700 ,0 00 worth of bo n ds for his dream railroad than it was to find pur chasers for the bonds, or even to get a brokerage firm to handle t he bond sales He wrote many le tters to Griswold & Gillett, a New York broker age firm which specialized in the sale of railroad bonds. Apparently, however, the railroad extension scheme was not attractive enough to appeal to the hard-bo iled brokers. Demens did not even get an answer to his letters. By the end o f November he was about ready to give up the idea and accept a con tract whic h the Florida Southern had offered him to become its superintendent o f construction. Howeve r, Demens got new hope for the railroad extensi o n venture on December 1, 1886. On that day, Hamilton Disston owner of 4 ,000,000 acres of Florida land, appeared in Demens' office in Oakland and offered to give the rail.road one-fourth of all his land within si x miles of the p roposed railroad and one-half of all the townsites which he controlled directly or indirectly, along the r ight of way. Disston emphasized that he was speaking for all the Disston companies which owned lands be tween Oakland and. Pinellas Point-the Florida Land & Improvement

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62 'fnE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Co., the Lake Butler Villa Co., the Disston City Land Co., and the Cooty Land & Improvement. He promised that the land grants would total at least 60,000 acres. Moreover, he promised to use his influence at Tallahassee to help Demens secure a large land grant from the state. Disston's promised land donations and offer of assistance gave Demens strong arguments to use to convince the New York brokers of the merit of his project. He enthusiastically estimated in a Jetter written December 20, 1886, that the value of the land which would be obtained from the Disston interests "will not fall much short of half a million dollars," He also declared that donations from other property owners along the proposed right-of-way were coming in "admirably well.'' He added: "Everyone we have seen has subscribed and subscribed liberally : ... Their grants will nearly reach the donations of Disston's com panies, and, if properly managed and disposed of, may exceed them.'' The promised land grants seemed so valuable that Walter Gillett, of the firm of G riswold & Gillett, came to Florida late .in December and made a careful appraisal of all the assets of the Orange Belt. He was so impressed by the railroad's prospects that he recommended, upon his return to New York, that his firm should endeavor to sell the $700,000 Orange Belt bond issue. In the beginning, Demens had no intention of going to the property of John C. Williams at Paul's Landing. He was familiar with the loca tion, having carefully studied the U. S. Coast & Geodetic Survey chart of Tampa Bay made in 1864 by Lieut. C. H. Berryman and having noted that Berryman had recommended that spot for a railroad terminus. But there was another place on Pinellas Point which he preferred. In his letters he mentioned it often a s ''on the key." He was enthusiastic about its possibilities. In a Jetter to his brokers he wrote: "The southern terminus of the road is the most important feature of the whole business and is in such a shape that I do not dare write about ilr-will only state that we have a chance to have the only harbor which exists -in Florida on the Gulf Coast and to build a city of international importance." A careful analysis of all of Demens' letters written during December, 1886, and January, 1887,leads to the conclusion that he hoped to ex tend the Orange Belt to Mullett Key, at the edge of the main ship channel into Tampa Bay. On this 400-acre key, about nine miles south of Disston City, now Gulfport, Demens undoubtedly planned to build his city of "international importance.''* Howe\er, Demens undoubtedly realized that the cost of building the necessary causeways and bridges from the mainland to Mullet Key would be tremendous and his letters indicate that he hoped to get from the Disston interests 50,000 acres more than had already been promised to help him meet the expense. A special meeting of the -board of directors of Disston's Florida Land & Improvement Co. was held in Philadelphia on December 18, *See aerial plwtograph of keys 011 Page 29.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 63 1886, to discu ss Demens' proposal -and the board turned it down, fot: reasons unknown. Perhaps the board memb ers figured Demens had no other choice and would have to build to the key to get deep water, re gardless of whether h e was given the extra 50,000 acres or not. For that matter, it made little difference to Disston and his asso ciates where the Orange Be l t was terminated, just so it terminated some where on the lower peninsula The various Disston companies owned at least three-fourths of all the land in this section and they would be benefited regardless of where the terminus was located. Disston himself probably would have liked to see the railroad go to Disston City, as a matter of personal pride, but if it ended somewhere else he would profit just the same, so he held back on giving the 50,00 0 acres extra. During Janua. ry, 1887, Henry Sweetapple, treasurer of the Orange Belt Investment Co., entered negotiations with Williams regarding a townsite on hi s property. These negotiation s were co mplete d by Sweet apple on January 24 and provided that the Orange Belt would be given A a a result of the agreement mentioned in thi s letter of Peter A. Demons, the town of St. Petersb urg came Into existe nce.

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64 THE STORY Ok" ST. PETERSBURG one-half interest in a town s ite of 500 acres when the railroad was com pleted and a wharf built to twel ve feet of water. Demens then wrote to his brokers as follows: "Gentlemen-Just received a report from our Mr. Sweetapple that he succeeded in making an arrangement with a certain H. Williams about getting half interest in 500 acres, with a mile front age on the Gulf, just where we will have our terminus in case the 'key cannot be had. There is eighteen feet of water right at the shore, and a splendid tow nsite there. Thus that last question is settled satisfactorily." This letter reveals a number of interesting facts. It shows,-for in stance, that the p resent site of St Petersburg was definitely a second choice, so far as Demens was concerned, and that even after Sweet apple completed negotiations with Williams, Demens still hoped that the key might be secured, even though he tried to make i t appear as though the "mile frontage on the Gulf" was q ui te desirable. The letter also shows that up t o January 24, Demens had not met Williams; had he known him, he certainly would not have referred to him as "a certain H. Williams." Expecting to get money from the sale of bonds not later than Jan uary 15, 1887, De mens sent out a call for construction workers during the second week of the month. More than 600 men responded, gathering in Oakland. But January 15 came and went and no money arrived from New York. In response t o an urgent wire, Gtiswold & Gillett told him that unexpected delays had occurred in getting the bonds printed, and that no money could be expected for several weeks. Demens' financial worries had no t been ended-not by any means. In fact, this was just the beginning of his long fight to comp lete the railroad. The George W. Stets on Co. "began clamoring for the $30,000 owed for steel rails, and threatened su it. The Florida Southern demanded $10,000 owed for rolling stock. O ther creditors demanded mon ey. Dem ens also had borrowed heavily from banks in Sanford and Orlando, giv ing his personal note, and the bankers were becoming impatient. Alto gether, the Orange Belt owed $85,000 in past due debts and all the cred itors insisted upon being paid. The long-awaited bonds came from the printers on February 2 but Griswold & Gillett sadly informed Demens that the money market was bad and that delays might be encountered in getting the bonds sold. In desperation Demens went to New Yor k on February 15 and, by exercising all the sal esmanship he possessed, managed to borrow $100,000 from H. 0. Armour & Co., using as collateral $170,000 worth of Orange Belt bonds and by giving mortgage s o n all the property owned by the Orange Belt Investment Co. Demens was introduced to Armour by Hamilton Disston who later a l so introduced him to Philadelphia capi talists. Disston thereby helped again in making the Orange Bel t a reality.

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THE STORY OF 5'1'. PETERSSU!IG 65 The $100,000 from H. 0. Armour & Co. wa.s received late in February and all the debts of the Orange Belt were paid. A mere $15,000 remained. But with $15,000 in the bank and no debts, Demens felt rich. So rich that he immediately sent out another call for construction work ers. Within two weeks more than 650 men w:ere at work at different points along the Orange Belt's right-of-way grading and laying ties. The Orange Belt extension began to be an actuality. But the $15,000 was quickly spent. Pay rolls ate it up. Demens soon was force to begin borrowing again from everyone he knew. He stretched his credit to the limit. Once more, Demens began skating on very thin financial ice, so thin that he wa.s in danger of breaking through at any moment. Again he was forced to go to New York in a search for mon ey. On April2 he made arrangements with L. L'issberger & Company, New York money lenders, which he hoped would solve the Orange Belt's problems. Under the terms of the agreement, L. Lissberger & Co. was to advance $30,000 in cash each month. The concern also was to act as the Orange Belt's "iron broker" and supply all the steel rails and "iron" which the railroad needed. For this dual service, the money lenders were to be paid eight per cent interest on all money advanced and also were to receive as a bonus $250 in the Orange Belt's common stock for each $1,000 spent. An expensive deal-but it was the best arrangement Demens could make. L Lissberger did not live up to its agreement. The firm was irregular in the monthly advances of $30,000. Only $15,000 was received in July and none in August. To make the situation worse, the money lenders failed to ship steel to the Orange Belt as promised. To make a sav ing, they purchased the steel in England instead of in the United States and shipments were long delayed. As a result of the delay in getting the rails, the Orange Belt was unable to receive any money from the sale of its bonds, due to the fact that the bond money could not be paid until the tracks were laid and the road ready for operation. No rails, no completed tracks; no completed tracks, no bond money. A vicious circle which nearly drove Deniens mad. The Engines Are Chained to the Rails To make the situation even w orse the rainy season was unusually bad and the work of grading was delayed for weeks. And then, late in the summer, an epidemic of yellow fever broke out in Florida. The Orange Belt working force was demoralized. Demens spent days with the road gangs to prevent the men from quitting in a body. The affairs of the company reached a crisis early in September, 1887. Demens' funds and his credit were exhaust ed. Creditors de-

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66 THE STORY. OF ST. PETERSBURG manded their money and the proper ty of the railroad was attached. The engines of the Orange Belt, running between Lake Monroe and Oakland, were chained to the tracks' This proved such a shock to Sweet apple that he suffered a stroke of apoplexy on September 3 and fell over dead. Demens succeeded in borrowing another $10,000 from friends -enough to pay the creditors who had his engines attached. But t he railroad's general financial situation became steadily worse. On Sep tember 19, Demens wrote a personal letter to L. Lissberger as follows: "Dear Sir: I am sorry that you are still unable to comply with my calls for money. The reason I write you this personal letter is to assure you that I ask on ly for the very least I can get along with. It is impossible to do anything if the money is not forthcoming exactly as I call for it-no use to attempt to do t he work, as it will only culminate in further trouble and disaster. Everything and everybody is disorganized and disgusted. I can do nothing without cash-all my time at present is consumed in trying to reconcile our creditors. They must be paid in order to have the thing going. "When I wrote you that I want $20,000 between the 20th and 25th, I meant it, have to have it-every day t he delay hurts us badly. Am going today to Orlando to try to get the bank not to protest our checks, as you can s ee from the enclosed letter from them. 'V e canno t expect anything else. One half of the contractors have quit, threatening law suits-we broke the contracts by not paying o n time and are helpless. A loss of time and money everywhere. I am alone-how can you expect me to go ahead under such circumstances? "In fact, I cannot run the business this way-as I stated to you in my official letter of today. I will have to give up. It kills me. "Give me the mo ney I ask f or, see that your mills really roll 150 tons a day, send your son here to help me, and we will see the road through. I shift a ll responsibility from myself otherwise. I have done all i could; I cannot do more You ought to understand it. Either we go .through or we do not. I know we cannot if the money does not come. "I expect a telegram immediately upon the receipt of this Jetter." Despite t his desperate plea, L. Lissberger & Company failed to give Demens the immediate help he needed. Demens' letters do not reveal the reason; but they reveal his bull dog de termination to finish the railroad regardless of obstacles. Repeatedly he told L issberger that he would throw the whole thing over if he did not get money-but he never did. Always when things looked darkest, Demens managed to get a little money somewhere, by hook or by crook, and kept on going. On Saturday, October 1, an angry mob of more than a hundred Orange Belt workmen gathered in Oakland, coming on flatcars from all parts of the line. The men demanded their wages, more than three weeks overdue. They threatened to lynch Demens unless they were paid

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 67 and set the deadline at eight o'clock that night. Demens wired frantic ally for money. It did not come. At the last minute some of Demens' friends came to his aid and advanced enough money to pay off the men. Another crisis averted. On Monday, October 3, the schooner "City of Baltimore" atTived with 245 tons of steel-a shipment which had been promised "positively" in June. Demens had to wait three days to borrow enough money, in addition to all he had already borrowed, to pay for the unloading of the boat. Then he had to wait four more days for an advance from L isa berger to start his construction crews to work again. By that time the schooner Ida C. Schoolcraft had arrived with another shipment of steel. From then on, steel shipments kept o n arriving with fairly reason able regularity and for the first time Demens was able to maintain a normal working schedule. He worked his crews overtime and by the end o f November enough track had been laid so that he could borrow $200,000 more from H. 0. Armour & Co. on l ess ruinou s terms than Liss berger demanded. In December he also began borrowing from a syn dicate of Philadelphia financiers composed of E. W. Clark & Co., EdT. Stotesbury and Drexel & Co. The Orange Bel t depot, on the site of the present Atlantic Coast Line depot. Photogra ph taken in 1888. The depot, the Detroit Hote l and the office b uil ding of the Orange Belt Investment Company, shown in the distance, were the only buildings then in lowe r St. Petersburg.

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68 THE STORY OF ST. P ETERSBURG This financial help did not arrive in time, however, to enable Dem ens to complete the Orange Belt extension by December 31, 1887-and many of the land donations had been made contingent upon the com pletion of the road by that date. Consequently, Demens lost about 25;000 acres of land grants. The Disston interests however, granted him an extension of time so the fa.ilure of the Orange Belt to finish the con struction job by the end of 1887 was not completely disastrous. The Orange Belt was completed to the edge of the Williams property at Ninth street on April 30, 1888, and on June 8 the first train came into St. Petersburg from the eas tern end of the line on the St. Johns River. On June 14, Demens came to St. Petersburg in his private car and had a conference with Williams during which he agreed to build a hotel at a cost of $10,000, one-half to be paid by himself and the other half by the Orange Belt Inv estment Co. Construction work on the hotel, later named the Detroit, was started during the summer and completed in the late fall. The depot also was built during the last half of 1888 and, during December, the railroad tracks were extended down to Sec ond street. Early in 1889 a 2,000-foot pier was built out into Tampa Bay, to twelve feet of water, permitting medium-sized ocean-going ves sels to dock. Unfortunately for Demens, the Ot'ange Belt failed to make money afteritgotintooperation. It continued to go deeper and deeper into debt. Freight s hi pments did not come anywhere near up to Demens' expecta tions and the revenue from pa ssengers was negli gib l e By the spring of 1889 the Orange Belt owed $900,000 to H. 0. Armour & Co. and the syndicate of Philadelphia financiers. On July 1, $55,000 was due in interest and the money was not on hand-not even a fraction of it. The Orange Belt Investment Co. owned about 200,000 acres of land, including 79,582 acres which it had obtained from the state, but no one wanted to buy it. Not at any price! Under these circumstances there was nothing for the original backers of the Orange Belt to do but accept what terms the syndicate had to offer. Demens went to Philadelphia to handle the negotiations. He returned with a check for $25,500. Of this, $8,850 went to Henschen, $2 ,000 to Taylor and $14,400 to Demens. These payments represented only a small part of the capita;! which the men had invested in the road. It gave them nothing in remuneration fo r the headaches they had suffered in making the Orange Belt a realit y After the syndicate took over the railroad, a staff of officers from the local territory of the road was named, as follows: William McLeod, St. Petersburg, president; George A. Hill, treasurer; Frank E Bond, superintendent; S. H. Dare, purchasing agent; Joseph W. Taylor, freight agent; A. L. Hunt, chief engineer, and H. H. Richardson, secretary.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 69 'Ttvas lust a Comic Strip Railroad Few improvements were made on the Orange Belt after the syndi cate took charge. When Demens had it, its chief claim for distinction was that it was the longest narrow-gauge railroad at the time in the country. In many respects it was a joke. The tracks had been laid in a hurry and, as a result, they were uneven and needed constant repairs. And no repairs were made for several years, the syndicate refusing to spend any more on a losing ventu re. It is a wonder the t rains were able to get to the end of the line. Most of the rolling stock was i n as bad condition as the roadway. Some of the cars and locomotives had been purc h ased sec ond-hand from the South Florida Railroad; a few locomotive s came from an abandoned n a rrow-gauge road in Alabama, and the Orange Belt had built a few of the cars in its shops in Oakland. Nothing was first-class. Hardly a train made a run without a breakdown. The engines burned wood as fuel. When the wood was dry, and all other conditions were favorable, the St. Petersburg was mighty proud of this bathing pavilion in 1890. It wa s t he first attraction provided to l ure vis itors to the infant tow n The p avilion was built on the railroad pie r by the Orange Belt Investment Co. and boasted of having a fresh water shower which bathers could use after taking a dip in Tampa Bay. The fresh water was obtained from an artesian well. In 1891 a toboggan slide was added.

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'10 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG engineer could speed up to fifteen or twenty miles an hour. Once, on a test trip, when Demens was showing off the road to Armour, the train raced along at forty mile s an hour-but that was when the roadway had just been laid. Later on, .when the roadbed became rough, such speed would have been suicidal. And when the fuel became wet, the train barely crawled, the engine leaking just about as much steam as was generated over the hesitating fire. T h e train crews consisted of three men-the fireman, the engin eer, and a general utility man who labored under the official titles of conductor, baggage master and express messenger. W. F. Divine, later a resident of St. Petersburg, had this last position for a number of years. He said that despite the multiplicity of duties he was not worked to death during the first few years of the railroad's existence-busy days were few and far between. When the syndicate took over the Orange Belt Railway it also ac quired all the holdings of the Orange Belt Investment Co. These holdings included the one-half interest in the townsite of St. Petersburg which had been deeded to the railroad company on February 28, 1889. I n cidentally, Demens had never put a high value on the townsite in his estimates of the worth of the Orange Belt's holdings. In a report made to his brokers in May, 1887, he stated that the 250 acres owned by the investment compa ny were worth $25,000 and he hesitantly added that after the railroad was completed, they might be worth as much as $75,000. To dispose of the property in and near St. Petersburg; the syndi cate for med the St. Petersburg Land & Improvement Co. which secured all the deeds on October 6, 1890. 'l'he company's St. Petersburg office was in charge of Col. L. Y. Jenness, who played an important part in the development of the city. The company continued to sell its property until December 15,1906, when itsold the Detroit Hotel and all remaining lands to C. Perry Snell, A. E. Hoxie and J. C. Hamlett. Some of the bonds of the railroad wer e held outside the syndicate and in 1892 the Farmers Loan & Trust Co., of New York, to clear up the issue, started foreclosure proceedings in the United States Court at Jacksonville. On June 5, 1893, the road was sold for $150,000 to John P. Illsley and JosephS. Clark, representing the syndicate. The outside bond holders received about 16 per cent of the face value of the bonds. They received nothing for their common stock, $250 worth of which they had received with eacb. $1,000 bond. During the early '90s, the syndicate endeavored to develop St. Petersburg as a port . Efforts also were made to induce settlers to to buy land along the.right-of-way and thereby increase the busin'ess of the railroad. But in both things the officials met with only partial suc cess and the railroad continued to lose money. The ruinous freezes during the winter of 1894-95 which killed many of the citrus groves in

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 71 Florida and impoverished thousands of people, dealt the company a disastrous blow and within two weeks after the las t freeze, the syndicate leased the railroad for ten years to Henry Plant who operated it a s part of the Plant system, its name being changed from the Orange Belt to the Sanford & St. Petersburg. And so the Orange Belt Railway passed out of existence. It had killed Sweetapple, it had made an old man out of Henschen, and it had undermined Demens' health. It had made a profit for none of its back ers. It was widely ridiculed as a comic-strip railroad. Despite all this, the Orange Belt was a glorious success. For the settlers on Pinellas Peninsula it provided direct connections with the outside world, opening up markets which had always been closed be fore. It boosted land values throughout the entire peninsula. It passed by the embryo town of Disston City, true enough, and thereby caused that dream city to fade ent irely from the picture but it brought prosperity to Tarpon Springs, Dunedin, Clearwater, Largo and other communities along the right-of-way, thereby more than evening up the score. Above all else, the Orange Belt made its mark in history because it brought into existence a new town-the infant town of yesterday which has become the St. Petersburg of today. How St. Petersburg Was Named Several different stories hav e been told to explain how St. Petersburg got its name. The old familiar story runs somewhat as follows: Both Demens a nd Williams wanted to name t h e town which was to be the terminu s of the Orange Belt Railway. They couldn't agree as Winter visitors of half a centurr ago had great spor t fishing in Tampa Bay from the o ld Orange Belt rai lroad pi er. T he above picture was taken in 1897.

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72 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG to which shoul
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 73 known meeti n g of Demens and W illiam s The letter showed that Dem ens, at that time, had great hopes for the future of St. Petersburg, as well as for the future of the Orange Belt Railway. He wrote: "There i s no doubt that, when completed, our road will be one of the best paying roads in the state. At our southern termin us, at St. Petersburgh, we have the only protected deep water which i s to be found at the wester n coast of Florida, south of Pensaco l a, while Tampa, which has all the business at present, has on l y about five feet of water for about e ight miles, and has to lighten every craft that conies to her .. .. The Gulf business will undoubtedly be long to us and I have not the slightest doubt that the road will pay handsome returns from the start." Inasmuch as the construction of a hotel in St. Petersburg had not even been discussed at the t ime the above letter was written, it would seem that the town c o uld not have been named co-incidenta lly with the naming of the hotel, and if the two were not named at the same time, the story about drawing straws loses some of its weight. Regardless of who named the t own, and when, it may be just as well that Williams didn t name it. In 1891 when Williams laid out a sub division south of Booker Creek he called it Williamsville. Perhaps that is what he might have named St. Petersburg had he been given the chance. And how could a place called Williamsville ever have become a famous resort city? When all is said and done, it must be admitted that if anyone had the right to name the town that person was Demens. Had he not con ceived the idea of extending the Orange Belt Railway to Pinellas Peninsu la, and had he not worked n ight and day against seem ingly hopeless odds to complete the road, even after all hope of profit had vanished, there wouldn't have been a town at the end of the railroad to name.

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CHAPTER 6 THIS WAS INFANT ST. PETERSBURG LATE IN THE AFTERNOON of June 8, 1888, a comic strip train chugged into St. Petersburg over the newly-completed narrow-gauge Orange Belt Railway. It consisted of a dinky, wood-burning engine with a pot-bellied smokestack, an empty freight car and a combination baggage and passenger coach. The train, the first to arrive from the eastern end of the Orange Belt on the St. Johns R iver, stopped at the end of the tracks at Ninth street. No depot was there-just a small wooden platform. One passenger alighted from the train. He was a shoe salesman from Savannah, intent upon getting accounts in this new town of St. Petersburg he had heard about i n Oakland. As he stood on the plat form he l ooked around in bewilderment. "Where's the town?"' he asked the conductor "I don't see any thing here except a couple of shacks and a lot of woods. There aren't even any streets. Where's St. Petersburg anyhow? The conductor scratched his head. "You got me, mister," he re plied "You know as much about St. Petersburg as I do. This i s my first trip here. It isn t r:nuch of a place, is it? But it must be St. Petersburg because it's at the end of the road." The shoe salesman stepped off the platform and walked over to a sturdy youth who had bee n standing at the edge of the tracks watching the train pull in. Do you live here, son?" he asked. "I certainly do," the lad replied. "My name's Ed Lewi s and I live over in that new house my father just built behind those trees-you can hardly see it from here. If you're a salesman you probably want to see Mr. Ward in that store at the corner. He has the only store in St. Peters burg. But there'll be a lot more stores here pretty soon. Because we're going to have a fine town yes sir, the best in Florida." Sixteen-year-o l d Edson T Lewis, St. Petersburg's first booster, ac companied the salesman to E. R. Ward's store in an old, ramshackle building on the corner of Ninth str ee t and the railroad tracks and stood by while the two men talked business. Later he took the salesman to the home of Jacob Baum where the latter had supper and spent the night.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 75 The salesman left St. Petersburg the next morning and Ed Lewis never learned whether he had gotten an order for even one pair of shoes. When the shoe salesman on Jun e 8, 1888 intimated that St. Peters burg didn't amount to anything, he wasn't ridiculing the town. There wasn't any town to ridicule The townsite had been surveyed and p latted severa l months .before by A. L. Hunt, chief engineer of the Orange Belt Railway but the work of opening up the streets had not yet been started. In the entire area which later comprised St. Petersburg, there were only four or five widely scattered homes
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76 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Several wee k s later work was started c utting down the trees and grubbing out roots along St. Petersburg's streets and avenues Wide swaths were made through the woods because all the streets and avenues were one hundred feet wide outlandish l y wide," one old settler said, "somebody m ust be crazy!" Contradictory stories are told about who was responsible for St. Petersburg's wide streets and the park now known as Williams Park. Some say it was Demens who insisted upon them and that the early ne gotiations were almos t broken off because Williams was reluctant about "gi ving away" any more land than he had to. Others say that Williams was the advocate of plenty of room and that when Demens threatened to balk at such prodigal waste of good town property, Williams replied: "It's my land and I'll do with it whatever I damn please!" Probably the truth is that the :whole matter was worked out without friction. Land was dirt cheap in those days and it didn t much matter whether the streets were fifty feet wide or two hundred. For that matter, several more down t own parks could have been provided and no one wou ld have been out more than a few dollars While work of opening up the streets was going on, the Orange Be l t brought in a crew of carpenters from Oakland and construction of the depot was started. The building was completed within a month a n d the carpenters then moved over and began building the hotel. It proved to be a truly magnificent structure for a town at the end of nowhere It was constructed of the best of woods, was three and one-half stories h igh, and from the 70-foot tower a fine view could be obtained of Tampa Bay. The hotel later was named the Detroit, as consolation, 'tis said, for Wil liams who had not had the chance to name the town. The hotel was com pleted late in the year and E. G. Peyton, of Virginia, was made the first manager. Central Avenue Was Once Sixth Avenue In the original town plat what i s now Fifth avenue nort h was called First avenue and the avenues to the south were numbered in rotation. Sixth avenue now called Central avenue, was laid out to be the main bus i nes.s street. This system o f naming proved to be unsatisfactory for many reasons and in 1903 the city counc il changed the name of Sixth aven u e to Central aven u e and made it the dividing line of the city, naming the avenues in accordance to their location north and south of Central as F irst avenue no r th, First ave n ue south, and so on. Incidentally, no name was given in the original plat to what is now First avenue south. That was where the Orange Belt had its right-of-way. The first name given to it was Railroad avenue. It was called First avenue south in 1903. To avoid confusion, the present names of avenues will be used hereafter in this story of St. Petersburg. *See original plat of ciey, used a.s

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 77 The agreement between Williams and Demens regarding the di vision of the town, each to get half, resulted in complications. The Orange Bel t was to get its property, according to the agreement, when tracks had been laid through the town and a pier was built out to twelve feet of water. The tracks were not laid down to $econd street until De cember, 1 888, and the pier was not completed until several months later. In the meantime, Demens became impatient and on August 11, 1888, he recorded the plat under his own name. Still Williams held off making the div ision, evidentl y fearing that if he did so the railroad would not comp l ete its work. A memorandum of January 20 1889, made by R. C. M. Judge, step son and clerk of Williams, read: "Mr. Demens is anxious to get the lands divided as he wants to have things in shape so that when Armour, Drexel & Company come down he can get another appropriation for his road." The division was finally made February 28, 1889, a few days after t h e pier was completed Up until that time, neither Williams nor Demens could sell any o f their hold ings withou t the other's conse n t. A s a r esul t, only two lots were sol d one t o Hector McLeod and the o ther to J C. Williams, Jr. Meanwhile the "old town" up a r ound Ninth street had a chance to boom. Jacob Baum, of Pennsylvania, had bought eighty acres on the south s ide of what is now Mirror Lake in 1878. He got the land from the state, paying n inety cents an acre. He built a home on the lake and set out an orange grove. Part of his grove extended acr oss Central avenue to the railroad tracks, from Ninth street east to a point about half way between Sixth and Seventh streets. In March, 1888, Baum sold an acre of land between Eighth and Ninth street south of Central to Fred Lewis who had come to St. Peters bur g with hi s f ami ly from New Mulford, Pa. On his ac1e, Lewis built the first house of the n e w town. The work was done by Lewis' two sons. Ed T. and Tracy G ., and T. A. W hitted who came to St. Petersburg about that time from. Disston City. An old building on Baum's property which had been used for years by pioneer settlers as a meeting place was purchased in the spring of 1888, after completion of the railroad was assured, by E. R. Ward wlio had operated a gener a l store at Pinellas for several years. War d moved his stock of goods to the building and opened St. Petersburg's first store. In April, 1888 Ward made a partnership arrangement of some sort with Baum a n d f ive acres were platted as the Ward & Baum addition of St. Petersburg. The p la t was recorded April 4, 1888, f iv e months be fore the plat of St. Petersbur g was recorded. In other words, St. Petersburg got an addition before it came officially into existence.

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78 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Ward & Baum gave clear titles, something Williams or the Orange Belt could not do, and they did a lively business after the railroad came in. The first person who purchased a lot in the subdivision was W. A. Sloan, who afterward became postmaster of St Petersburg. Prices for the lots ranged from $20 to $60, considerably less than was asked a little later for lots "downtown." As a result, many lots were sold and a sharp rivalry developed between "uptown" and "downtown" and the first factional feeling was created. The first post office was located in the up town section in 1888 with Mrs. Ella E. Ward as postmistress. Because of the factional rivalry, the post office was moved half way between the uptown and downtown in 1891 when D. W. Meeker succeeded Mrs. Ward as postmaster. The subdivision of Ward & Baum did not conform in any way with the plat of St. Petersburg as laid out by Engineer Hunt. The Jots were smaller and the streets were only fifty feet wide. Central avenue was not laid out correctly. It was narrow and there was a jog in it between Sixth and Seventh streets. Not until many years later was this jog removed and the avenue widened, at a cost of several thousand dollars to the city and considerable inconvenience to property owners. Although "downtown" St. Petersburg was slower in getting started than the Ninth street section, it began to spurt ahead after the townsite was divided and the sale of lots started. Com pletion of the depot and the Detroit hotel gave the lower. end of tow n an advantage which proved all-important. Soon after the hotel and depot were finished, J. C. "Tine" Williams, Jr., opened a general store on Central directly across the street from the Detroit. He sold practically ev erything from diapers to caskets and from toothpicks to plows and in time his establishment became the leading general store on the entire peninsula. Following the birth of the downtown section, Williams placed some of his property on the market and the Orange Belt Investment Co. also opened up for business, establishing an office in a two-story building it erected between Third and Fourth streets on Central. The office was in charge of Col. L. Y. Jenness, who had come with the railroad as land agent. Both Williams and the investment company offered lots for sale on liberal terms, allowing purchasers nine years to pay for them. The only restrictions regarding the use of the lots were that all buildings must be erected on brick or stone piers and be painted. Williams insisted particularly on the paint. Unpainted buildings make a town look as though it's going to the dogs," he asserted. The firs t "mansion" in the new town was built at the corner of Fourth street and Fifth avenue south by Williams at the place where Dr. James Sarvent Hackney had built his horne years before. Work was started on the Williams horne late in 1890." After the foundations had been laid, Williams discovered they were too close to Fourth street, which

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 79 had just been surveyed, and that he had practically no f ront yard. To rectify his mistake, he decided to move the street forty feet to the east. To do this, a new plat of the town had to be made. It w .as recorded No vember 12, 1890, as "The Revised Plat of St. Petersbur g The plat was prepared after all prope rty own ers had given their consent. The agree ment, dated August 18 1890, showed that those who had boug h t lots up to that t ime were J. C. William s, Jr., D. D. Klinger, Mary T Howard, E. Powell, J. R. Barclift, J. Douglas Jagger, A. P. K Safford, A. Maltry, Theodore Maltry, E Ward, Sr., and the Congregational trustees Williams did not pinch pennies in the construction of his home. To make sure of getting fine workmanship, h e brought in a crew of skilled craftsmen from Tampa and told them to take their time and make sure the house was built properly. Only the finest l umber was used. Thousands of dollars were spent on interior decorations. When finished the home was acclaimed as one of the show places of Flo r ida. Years later it was sold and made a part of the Manhattan H otel. Early Growth of St. Petersburg The federal census of 1890 showed that St. Petersburg had 273 inhabitants, most of whom lived around Ninth street. The town had started to grow, b u t its growth at the start was slow The initial growth of St. Petersburg was due solely to the fact that it was on a railroad connecting it with the outside world, and that it was St.. Petersburg as it was i n 1897 The abo v e picture wa s taken from the top of t he smo kesta ck of the o l d electric light plant a t the foot of Central avenue. Two of the city's oldest hotels, the Paxton House and the Detroit, can .be seen at the right.

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80 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG at the end of this railroad. Trains remained in the town over nigh t and the train men naturally found it advantageo us to establish their homes here. A number of constru ction workers who had bu il t the railroad also found the new town to their liking and stayed. The descendants of many of the original Orange Belt men are still residents of the city. The railroad a-ave St. Petersburg a tremendous advantage ove r Diss ton City and Pinellas and the town became recognized almost im mediately as the shipping and trading center for the entire lower penin sula. A number of far-sighte d merchants in the other settlements r eal ized how things w ere going and moved their stores to St. Petersburg. Some of the farmers and grove owners also came into town to e nj oy the com munity life. George L. King moved hi s sawmill from New Cadiz and located it on Book e r Cree k near what is now Twelfth street. Practically all the lumber u se d for buildings in the infant town was sawed and planed in King' s mill. During the 1890s, commercial fi s hin g was the principal industry of St. P etersburg, employing the mos t men. W hen the Orange Belt constructed the pier in 1888-89, it built on it a numbe r of warehouses. One of these was leased during the summer of 1889 by Henry W. Hibb s, a native of North Carolina who had gone to Tampa a few years befo r e and been engage d in the fishing business. Hibbs had become acquain ted with )llost of the fishermen who lived on the l o w e r peninsula and who fished in the bay and gulf, and after he came to St. Petersburg he made arrangements with them to sell their fish to him, instead of to the fish houses in Tampa. Hibb s offered good prices and most of the fishermen switched to him Before a year passed, Hibbs was shipping out more than a thousand pounds of fish a day. In the beginning, Hibbs packed his fish in ice brought in to St. Petersburg from Oakla nd on the Orange B elt. Finding this too expensive, Hibbs urged Col one l Jenness to try a nd get an ice plant established here. Jenness agreed. He d onated three lots and advanced money for the co n struction of an ic e plant by the Tampa Bay Ic e Co. at the corner of Second street and First avenue south. Water for the plant was obtained from an artesian well. Construction of the plant and the installation of machinery was s up ervise d by David :Murray of Dover, N. H., who had worked for years for an ice machinery company of Harrisburg, Pa. The ice plant went into operation late in 1 890. But its capacity was not large enough to suppl y the demand and within two years it was found that a larger plan t was need e d. It was p r ovide d by J. C. Willi a ms, Jr., and his brother Barney. Together they org anized the Crystal Ic e Comp any and built a plant at First street and First avenue south. Soon afterward the Tampa Bay Ice Co. closed its plant and the William s broth ers had the town's ic e business for themselve s

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 81 With an ample supply of ice, the fish business boomed. R. T. Dan iels, G. E. Eady and others opened fish house s all located on the wharf. During the late Nineties, the fish houses employed or bough t fish f rom approximat ely two hundred fishermen and shipped more than three million pounds a yea r the principal market being Savannah, Charle ston, Mobile, Jacksonvi ll e, New York and Philadelph i a Getti n g ic e f rom the ice plant to the end of the railroad pier was no easy task. Hibbs finally rigged up a flat topped car with a mast and a large sail and every day the ice car sailed the half mile ou t to the end of the pier. It proved to be one of the attractions of St. Petersburg a s few people had ever seen anything like it before. The sail ice car was kept in operation un t il March 13 1913, whe n it ran down W. H. Flagg, a winter visitor from Battle Creek, Mich., who was fishing on the pier. Flagg was fatally injured and the sail ice car was never used again. St. Petersburg r e cei ved a big impetus through the summer excur sions run by the Orange Belt. Low rates induced many persons in the central part of the state t o visi t St. Petersburg for the first time. Many were so pleased with what they found that they later returned here to live. It was as a summer resort, in fact, that S t. Petersburg gained its first fame. The inlanders learned that St. Petersburg-by-the-Sea, as it was advertised by the raihoad, was cooler during the su,mmer months than inland t owns because it was surrounded by water, and they came here to be comfortab l e. The excursions were run for a number of years. The first was held on J uly 4, 1889, and the vis itors were welcomed at a celebration attended by everyone in town. To make sure that the excursionists could go bathing while in St. Petersburg, t h e Orange Belt built a large bathing pavilion with a toboggan slide on the railroad pier. In 1895, another pavilion, also with a toboggan slide, was built by D. F. S. Brantley on a pier he constructed close to the foot of Second avenue north. For years these pavilions were used by everyone in St. Petersburg who wanted to go S\Vimming no one thought of going to the gulf beaches in those days. The St. Petersburg Times, in a special edition published in September, 1899, stated that Brantley had just added 34 rooms to his pavilion and still did not have rooms enough "to sat isfy the throngs of happy bathers." The Times said that Capt. C. A Mears was then in charge of the railroad pier pavilion and that "one feature of his bath house is that you can get a fresh water bath after you take a dip in the briny blue." The Times added that "both pavilions are managed in good style and both proprietors are clever, ac commodating gentlemen.'' Largely because of the summer excursionists, St. Petersburg got its second hotel, the Paxton House, built in 1890 by W. W. Coleman on the northwest corner of First street and Central. The hotel contained 32

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82 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC rooms and for many years rivaled the Detroit in popularity. The Pax:ton kept open all year long as did the Detroit. The big freeze of the winter of 1894-95 proved a tragedy to thou sands in F lorida but it resulted in good for S t. Petersburg. :Many of the c itrus groves on P inellas Point survived the low temperature and a number of growers in other parts of the state who had been frozen out came here to make another start. Included among these freeze-migrants were A. T. Blocker, A. C. Pheil, W. E. Allison, Edgar Harrison, R. H. Sum ner; W. C. Henry, George Edwards, T. J Northrup and W. B Powell, some of the best citizens St. Petersburg ever had. Every one played a most prominen t part in the development of the city Pinella$ Point Boosted for "Health City" It might be opportune at this point to mention the b i g boost given Pinellas Point by Dr. W. C. VanBibber, of Baltimore, :Md., who was an advocate of the establishment of a "Health C ity, first suggested by Dr. B W Richardson, of London, i n 1874 With the idea of finding the best l ocation for 'such a city, surveys were made of the climatic conditions in many parts of the world. After long inv estigation, physic ians decided that Florida offered the best advantages and observers were stationed in various parts of the state to see wh ich was the best. One of the ob servers stayed a year on Pinellas Point, keeping accurate records on the temperature, humidity, prevailing winds, amount of sunshine and other health factors. During the thirty-sixth annual meeting of the American Medical Society, hel d in New O rleans in April, 1885, Dr. VanBibber read a paper embodying the reports and conclusions of all the observers. He said, in part: "Where should such a Health C ity be built? O verlooking the deep Gulf of 1\
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 83 At the time the report was made, Pinellas Point was isolated from the rest of the world so far as adequate transportation facilities were concerned and nothing ever was done about the proposed Health City. The report was given wide publicity, however, and when the Orange Belt cam e to the peninsu l a talk about the Health City was rev ived. Many physicians who had read t h e report visited St. Petersburg. They found that the climate of t h e p eninsula was everything that Dr. Van Bibber had claimed for it, and they b ooste d St. Petersburg far and wid e It i s impossible to estimate the result of all this favorable comment but certainly it had a marked bearing on St. Petersburg's future growth. During the early nineti es the numbe r of winter visi t ors to St. Pe tersb urg was negligible. The tourist tide barely touched the town For one thing, the railroad service was not what it might have been, and the tri p was anything but pleasant. Someti m es, when conditions were p er fect, the rickety old engine bumped along over the uneven rails at a twenty-mile gait, but more often it crawled along with aggravating slow ness. And every so often something broke, and then the passengers had to spend hours looking at the scrub palmettoes and sc rawny cows. No wonder most tourists left St. Petersburg off their itineraries. During the latter part of the ni n eties, however, St. Petersburg began to come into its own. The railroad servi ce was improved somewhat and trains began coming in fairly o ften on scheduled time. The tracks were made standard gauge and a little better equipment was sec ured. Better connections were made with other railroads which brought tourists from the North S imultaneously, the St. Petersburg Land & Improvement Co., successor to the Orange Belt Investm ent Co., Downtown St. Petersburg a $ it looked in 1901. Tho photograph was taken f rom the. top o f Tomlinson's tower at Fourth street and Second a venue south, loo king northeut.

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84 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG spent considerable money adverti s i ng the town throughout Florida and in the North. The results were apparent-more winter visitors began coming in. Many of the first tourists came to fish. And they found St. Petersburg a veritable fisherman's paradis e, just as settlers had many years be fore. From the railroad dock they made big catches of trout, mackerel and sheepshead, and when they took boats and went out into the deeper waters, they tired themselves battling with the fighters. Anglers who came to stay a w eek, remained the entire winter. And when they went North in the spring they told their friends about the spot they had found, and the next winter their friends came too. So spread the fame of St. Petersburg. The fin e fishing, coupled with the ideal climate, proved an inducement :which could not be deni ed. First Public Improv ements The St. Petersburg of 1891 was graphically described by John A Churchill, of Council Bluffs, Iowa, when he visited the town in 1911 after having been away for twenty years, and was interviewed by a newspaper reporter. "The only way you could get into the city by land was over the narrow-gauge Orange Belt Railway," Mr. Churchill said. "The engine used to jump the track about once a week but I never heard of anyone being killed or even seriously injured-the train didn't go enough. Wood was used as fue l and in wet weather, when the wood got wet, you could keep up with the train by walking. "Fishing for S panish mackerel on the railroad dock was great sport in those days and the market contained venison, wild turkey and Mallard ducks. The farmers brought in wagon loads of oranges and you could buy a hatful for a nickel. "Two large alligators made their home in the lake and basked i n the sun on the shore undisturbed. Where some of the business buildings are now there were ponds. Good building lots could be had for $50 t o $100 each. There were no paved streets or street lights at that time. The only barber was a big Negro who carved you at 15 cents per head and then rubbed turpentine into the cuts to stop the flow of. blood." Unquestionably, St. Petersburg was a primitive place in those early days. The first public improvement of which there is any r ecord was the construction of a wooden sidewalk along Central avenue. This sidewalk was started at Ninth street in 1889 and built toward the bay. After about two hundred yards were laid the money ran out and the work was temporarily abandoned. Baum's grove extended across Central and on both the east and west sides of the grove fences had been erected to keep out wandering cows and hogs. Stiles were built over the fences and , ..

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THE S TORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 85 Arthur Norwoo d o n e of t h e pioneer merchants, said tha t when he used to take h is baby out for a ride in her carriage, "down the sidewalk," h e had to lift the carriage over the stiles. The sidew alk, t h e f i rst i m provement, was b uilt large ly throu g h the efforts of t h e women o f the town. They objecte d t o walking through sand u p a bo v e their sho eto p s and, besides they were in spired by the dawni n g town beautiful movement. Banding together, they raise d a s m a ll fund by selling ice c ream and l e m o nade, giving entertainments an d picnics, and used the money i n bu i lding the sidewalk. It was not un til 1891, however, that they saw t h e s id e walk completed down as far as the Detroit Hotel. B e tw een Second a nd Third streets the s id e w a lk was e l ev ated like a bri dg e o ver a swale through that sectio n. 0 The wome n of the town a lso can be credite d w i t h making the town more be au tifu l. The y began vieing with one a n other to se e which co ul d have the most attra ctive yards. They planted shrubs and f lowers, and vines with flam i ng colors. They also tried to p lant grass but they had little s u ccess until the cows wer e banned from the city a n d t h ereby pre vented f rom eating t h e grass as fast as it was p lanted. Incidenta lly, the women w h o wanted prett y lawns were the leader s i n the battle to get the "anticow" o rdinances passe d 'l' h e swale across Central avenue between Sec ond and Third streets proved a knott y problem to the town b uild ers in the early days. The water was several feet deep dur i ng the rainy s eason and teams could no t ge t through. The swale could hav e bee n f ill e d in easily enough if the r e had been m o ney available to pay for t h e w o rk, but in those day s money was scar ce in St. Petersburg. E ve n after the town was incorporate d a nd a few dollars be g an rolling into the p u bli c c offers, nothing was d one a b ou t t h e s w a l e u nti l another year had elapsed. T he first mo ney a v ailable for road work w a s used in grub b ing o u t a cl ump of palmettoes north o f C entral on N inth street--there were more v otes t h e n "uptown" than there wer e "down town." The wo r k w a s done by a Confederate veteran named Calhoun, commonly kn ow n as "the last private." It w a s no t until the latter part of 1894, during the admi n istration of H. W. Hi b bs, that the s wal e was f illed in. T. F. McCall, C Durant, J C. H oxi e, T. M. Clark and T A. W hitted, t h e n members of t h e tow n co un c il, s igned notes so that m o ney co uld be obtained to get the work d one Later the notes were paid o u t of taxes. The contract for the j o b was awarded Ernest Norwood. Filli ng in o f the swal e gave a n ad d e d imp etus to the growth of the lo w e r end of town. Before the job was fi nish e d, Ed. T. Lew i s b ou ght the no r t h e ast cor n e r of Central a nd Third and a s h ort time l a ter b uilt a two-

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86 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG story building and opened a general store. It became one of the show places of the town. Other stores were opened downtown and in a few years it became the business center of St. Petersburg. The Ninth street section became the manufacturing district. George L. King's saw mill, the St. Petersburg Novelty Works and other enterprises were located there. Many of the Ninth street merchants moved downtown or went out of business. The streets of St. Petersburg were often almost impassable during the early nineties. Horses loosened the sandy soil and during the dry seasons, teams had a hard time getting through. To help matters a little, A. C. Pheil, then owner of the St. Petersburg Novelty Works, took scores of l oads of saw dust from his mill and scattered it along the ruts, there by making what was known as the "saw dust trail." Realizing that road improvements were essential, the town council on September 13, 1892, passed an ordinance providing that "all able bodied males over 21 and under 45 and residents of the town for twenty days, shall be subject to work on the public streets." Ministers of the gospel and all town officers were exempted. No person could be called for more than six days' work in a year. So far as known, this ordinance was never enforced and the roads were not improved until the town had money to pay for getting the work done. As a result of the bad condition of sidewalk crossings over intersec ting streets, the town council was deluged with complaints during 1893 and 1894. Enough money was finally scraped together to have a layer of shells placed on the crossings of. the most important streets. The first contract for this work was awarded to C. W. Springstead who agreed to do the work for 24 cents per lineal foot. The shells were obtained from the Indian mounds in what is now Shell Mound Park. Shells from the same source also were used at some of the most sandy places along Central. Because of this profligate use of shell, all except one of the In dian mounds were leveled. Real road improvements did not come until 1897. On June 24 of that year the council awarded contracts for paving Central with pebble phosphate, 25 feet wide from the bay to Second street, 50 feet wide from Second to Fourth, 25 feet from Fourth to Seventh and 20 feet from Sev enth t o Ninth. About this time the famous "race track" came into being. This was a pebble phosphate road which made a loop through the busi ness district and around the north side of Mirror Lake, then called Reser voir Lake. It extended up Central to Ninth, north on Ninth to Fifth avenue, east on Fifth to Second street, and south on Second to Central. Boys used to race over this course on their bicycles and in the evenings when young couples went out buggy-riding, this was the route they al ways took. It was St. Petersburg's first "Lovers' Lane."

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THE STORy OF ST. PETERSBURG 87 Work of improving "The Park," now known as Williams Park, was started during the nineties, and credit for the improvement must go to the same group of women who built the first sidewalks The block square park wa.s set aside for public use in lhe original town plat but nothing was done to clear out the undergrowth and grub out the palmettoes until the women organized the Park Improvement Association in 1898. The officers were Mrs. G eorge L. King presiden t ; Mrs. George Anderson, vice -president; and Mrs. Jeannette Baum, treasurer and secretary. The members were: Mrs Elizabeth Ferdon, Mrs. A. Wel ton, Mrs. Sarah Williams, Mrs C. Durant, M rs. Bran ch, Mrs Allen, Mrs G B Haines, Mrs Burchfield, Mrs. Meadow, Mrs. McPherson, and Mrs Arthur Nor wood. The younger members were Pearl a nd Fay Moffett, Mrs. Will McPherson, Edna Badolet, May King and Grace Baum Actual work o f imp roving the park was started on "Park Day," held .after an official proclamation had been issued by Mayor David Murray late in 1893 Coffee, cake and ice cream were served by the women, and the women and men together began lay in g walks and cleari n g out the undergrowth. After Park Day, the men's interest in the work d ied down and the women had to carry it on themselves. They completed the walks, built a fence to k eep out wandering cows and hogs and in 1895 raised enough money t o erect a bandstand. Work on the s id ewalks, crossings, streets and park comprised about all the public improvements in St. Petersburg duri ng the decade from 1890 to 1900. A start was made toward impro,r in g the channel along Back in 1903, when t h is pho tog...aph taken, the bathing suits worn by the swimmers created quite a sensation they were considered a ltogether too revealing.

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88 THE STOIIY 0}' ST. PETEIISBURG the railroad pier so that boats could dock at the foot of Central avenue, but the work was stopped before anything worth while was done. The famous wooden sidewalks along Central gave way about 1895 to shell sidewalks and the shell was replaced abo1,1t 1900 with an asphalt preparation. Later came cement side walks The town was becoming prosperous and the dawning prospe rity was reflected in the better side walks and streets. Not until 1903, however, was any real movement started to pave the streets with brick. St. Petersburg Is Incorporated During the first three years of its existence, St . Petersburg managed to labor along without any g ov ernment. Several attempts were made during 1890 and 1891 to incorporate the town but they were blocked by a faction which was opposed to any town government, partly because it might mean curtailment of "personal privileges" and also because incorporation would surely be followed by town taxes. Early in 1892, however, a group of town boosters renewed the fight an<;! called for an election Monday morning, February 29, in Cooper's Hall. An account of this election was carried in "The Weekly South Florida H ome" on March 4, 1892, as follows: "Pursuant to a call, i ssued thirty days prior, the citizens met at Cooper's Hall, Monday morning, Februar y 29, to vote on incorporating the town. After considerable discussion, a vote was taken on the ques tion, which stood 15 for incorporation to 11 against, and St. Petersburg laid off her swaddling clothes and donned the more comely garb of an incorporated town. "The q uestion of incorporation having been settled, the judges and clerks were duly elected and the polls opened for voting. There were two tickets in the field. The winning one, put up by the conservative, temperate, stu. rdy, property owners, generally understood as the Anti Saloon faction, and the other was put up by what is generally understood as the Open Saloon faction. "The Anti-Saloon ticket received the f ollowing vote: Mayor: David Moffett, 21. Coun c ilm en: George L. King, 22; Charles Durant, 18 ; Ar thur Norwood 25; Frank Massie, 22; J C. Williams, Jr., 27. Clerk: Wm. J. McPherson, 26. "The other ticket r ece ived the following vote: Mayor: .J. C. Wil liams, Sr., 10. Councilmen: H. W. Hibbs, 6; H. Martin, 9; G. W. Ander son, 7; T. A. Whitted, 7; J. Baum, 1. Clerk: J. TotTes, 5. Marshal: S. A. Sloan, 18; C. M. Gill, 13. "The officers elected have the confidence of the entire com munity and with the reins of governmen t in their hands, a new era of faith and confidence in the future of the town is established.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 89 "That the government will be conducted economically and with the best interests of every property owner in view, and also for the general good and prosperity of the town, every one feels assured." An analysis of the newspaper story reveals several interesting facts about the ea1ly town. In the first place, it shows. that the prohibition question already had become an important issue in the community, and that the "drys" outnumbered the "wets" two to one. Despite their victory at the election, however, the "drys" apparently made no effort to close the town's two saloons, perhaps because the "drys" might have liked their wee nips occas io.niilly. Be that as it may, the saloons remained and shortly afterward the council f ixed the license fee at $100. The election also showed that the people of St. Petersburg did not feel as "grateful" toward Williams, original owner of the townsite, as might have been expected in view o f the fact that if he had not given half the town to the Orange Belt, the railroad might have gone elsewhere on the peninsula. Perhaps the towns folk figured that if the Orange Belt would have gone elsewhere, they would have gone there too and nobody would have been much affected except Williams himse lf. Anyhow, instead of electing him mayor of the town he had helped to make possible they defeated him by a decisive majority. Whether this was due to an un friendly feeling toward Williams or to the f action he represented will always be a matter of discussion. There is reason to believe that Williams did not forgive St. Petersburg for having deprived him of the honor of being the town's first mayor. Less than two months after the election, on April 22, Williams died, and when his will was read some t i me later it was discovered that Williams had left nothing to St. Petersburg except a site for a firemen's hall worth not more than $200. Some persons have said that Williams bequeathed "Williams Park" to the town. That is not the case. The block square area was set aside in the original town plat, by agreement between Williams and Demens, and plainly designated "Park." It was not given the name Williams Park until many years later, when Williams had been more or less "canonized." Incidentally Williams never had high hopes for St. Petersburg. Roy H. Hanna says that Williams offered to sell him his half interest in the townsite for $10,000 and that he tried to raise the money to buy it, but couldn't. After the election, everything did not run smoothly. The question of incorporation had resulted in bitter strife and the fires of contention did not die down q uickly. Williams' followers were disgruntled and Judge William H. Benton, Williams' right hand man, secured an injunc tion to prevent the councilmen from taking office. Inasmuch as there were no town funds to fight the injunction, the councilmen dug into their own pockets and contributed five dollars each to present their

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90 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG case in the courts. The legality o f the election was sustained and in June, 1893, at the next sessiop of the state legisla t ure, a bill was passed validating interim acts of the town o f ficials. The first meeting of the town council was called by Mayor Moffett for the evening of March 1, 1892, and held in the office of the South Florida Home : All the councilmen were present. George L. King was elected president of the council. The ter m of office of the various members was determined by lot, the result b e ing that King and Durant were to s erve one year and the others two. C ouncil got down to business at t he next meeting, held March 4, and passed nine ordinances. Ordinance No. 1 designed to preserve the town peace and moral s ordained that any person who violated good order by a breach of the p e ace, by profane language, by indecent expo sure, by disorderly conduct, or by drunkenness, would, on conviction, be fined a maximum of not less than one hundred dollars, or be imprisoned not more than sixty days. The second ordinance p r ohibited the sale of goods on the Sabbath except to persons in need of necessities Drug stores were excepted from this Blue Sunday Law. Other ordinances passed at this meeting prohibited gambling and the firing of guns in the town limits, provided for the punishment of "bad characters," and fixed license fees f o r vari ous occupations, inc luding the $100 license fee for saloons. At their third meet ing on March 8, the councilme n kept up their good wo r k and passed an ordinance to halt the wandering of hogs over the streets and through t h e gardens. Sai d the ordinance: "Be it ordained by the town council of St. Petersburg, that the running at large of hogs within the corpo rate limits of the town of St. Petersburg is hereby pro hibited, and all hogs found running at large within the aforesaid limits shall be impounded by the town marshal, and shall be released only on payment of $1 per head and costs. If the fine is not paid within six days the hogs impounded shall be sold at public auction by the marshal." . The councilmen then tu r ned their attention to "speed demons" who were racing their horses through the town. They decreed that anyone who drove r eck l e s sly or raced would be puni shed upon conviction by a fine not exceeding ten do llars or imprisonment not exceeding ten days. The speed of trains was limited to six m il es an hour in the town limits. Afte r the first burst of ordinance pas sing, the council settled down to the drab exis t ence of providing for the many needs of the town with the small means at its di s posa l. No taxes could be levied the first year and the only funds rece i v e d by the town were part of the fines paid by law breakers and the license fes. A report made by the finance committee on July 7, 1893, showed that the town had run more than $100 in debt during the first year.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 91 I n April, 1892 Marshal W. A. Sloan called the council's attention to the fact that there was no place to confine law breakers after he had captured them. Thereupon the council voted "to erect a town calaboose," eight by twelve feet, and ten feet high, with two-inch plank walls. This "calaboose" cost the town $87.68 . Salaries for the various town officers were fixed at the council meeting on May 3, 1892, the councilmen at the same time voting to serve one year without pay. The salaries were as follows: Mayor, a fee o f $1 for each conviction before his court and s uch other fees as allowed him by ordinance; marshal, $20 a month, and a fee of $1 for each con viction before the mayor; collector of revenue and assessor of taxes, five per cent of the first $2,000, two and one-half per cent of the next $2,000, and one per cent of all other su ms so collected and turned into the treasury; clerk, $2 for each day's attendance at council meetings, $1 for each conviction before the mayor, 25 cents of e ach license issued, and "other fees as are allowed clerks of the circuit court of Florida;" treasurer, o ne and one-half per cent on all monies received by him; town policemen, not more than $1.50 a day. Early in the summer of 1892, council faced the problem of raising money by taxation. J. P. Pepper was appointed first town assessor. The whole city turned out in the days of to witneS$ the Birthday celebrations. This picture, taken in 1904, was taken on Fourth street, looking north from the railroad tracks. Notice the sandy street.

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92 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG He submitted a report on September 6 1892, show ing the total valuation of all personal and real property in the town to be $123,352.92. The council thereupon fixed the tax levy at ten mills. the as sessor's report was made public and residents saw how much their property had been appraised, a storm of prot.est arose. Many requests for reappraisals were made. A change of feeling toward Williams might have occurred during .the year following his death because, on March 8, 1893, at the second election, Judge William H. Benton, Williams' righthand man, was chosen as mayor. Judge Benton served less than a month, however, as he died suddenly of apoplexy while getting ready to go to Tampa. On April 28, David Murray was elected to succ eed him. St. Petersburg's first bond election was held on July 18, 1893. The council decided at first to ask the town to support two bond issues of $7,000 each, one for grading and paving the streets and the second for building a school house. Later on, however, the councilmen became convinced that the voters would never approve two Issues for such large amounts at one time, and they dropped the $7,000 for streets. With only one bond issue confronting them the voters rallied to its support and it was passed 39 to 1. It would be interesting to know the identity of the lone resident who oppo sed the issue and voted against the school building. Possil;>ly it was the same man who moved just outside the town limits a short while later because he "didn't want to be robbed of everything he had." During the next few years, the town fathers occupied most of their time with routine matters. Their greatest difficulties were encountered in keeping the town expenditures within its limited income. On several occasions, the councilmen gave their personal notes in order to raise money to pay for vital improvements. From all quarters of the town came demands which could not be met. St. Petersburg took another step forward on April 5, 1895, when the council boldly defied the "cattle barons" and passed an ordinance which prohibited cows carrying bells from meandering hither and yon within the town limits. Previous to this action, the residents were awakened at all hours of the night by the jangling of bells. Despite this ordinance, the cow problem kept bobbing up time and again during the next few years. A number of large herds of cattle grazed over the peninsula and even though the cattle industry was of . relatively little importance in the St. Petersburg area, the cattle barons were so well organized and had such powerful friends in the ranks of the politicians that little could be gained by fighting them regardless o f how much the cattle damaged property. FinaJiy however, the era of cow supremacy was ended. The residents of the town brought such pressure to bear that the council passed an ordinance providing that "no co w,

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THE STORY OF ST. pETERSBURG 93 calf, heifer, bull, steer or cattle of any description shall be permitted to roam at large within the town limits between sundown and sunrise." Inasmuch as the cattlemen did not have cow chasers to round up their cattle each day at eventide, and get them out of town, this ordinance in reality meant that the cattle must be kept out of the town all day long. Mayor Edgar Harrison signed the ordinance on May 19, 1899. The prediction that the peninsula would be ruined never came true. That the voters of those days wanted to shun bond issues was indicated on March 8, 1899, when they were called upon to approve or defeat a proposed issue of $5,000 to build sewers. The issue was defeated nine to one. However, a $5,000 issue for building a waterworks was approved on the same day 17 to 5. The election later was declared illegal on account of irregularities and another election was called for May 2'3. This time, $10,000 was asked for the waterworks and was authorized, 31 to 9. Authorization of this waterworks bond issue resulted in a long drawn-out court battle. There were a few residents in St. Petersburg who so strenuously resented being taxed that they did everything pos sible to prevent the bonds from being sold, even though they were for something as essential as water. On one technicality after another, they attacked the issue in the courts. Mayor Harrison and the councilmen, however, were determined that the waterworks should be built and they signed notes and obtained the needed money from the St. Petersburg State Bank soon after the litigation was started. Machinery for the wa terworks was ordered and Richard Strada, a stone mason, was em ployed to build the foundations of a water tower on the northeast corner of Fifth street and Second avenue north. Water mains were laid on Central avenue and First avenue north, and on connecting streets between First and Fifth. The waterworks and water system was completed on December 12, 1899, and the water was turned on-and for the first t ime, some of the residents of St. Petersburg could get water from a public supply instead of from wells, cisterns or water tanks. The source of supply for the town -owned system was Reservoir Lake, now called Mirror Lake. This was not the first time that Reservoir Lake had been tapped. During the Spanish-American War, the war department sought a supply of water for t roops stationed at Tampa, the Tampa supply being inadequate and brackish. Tests were made of the water in Reservoir Lake and it was found that the water was of excellent quality. Permission was secured from the town council to run a pipe from the lake to the end of the railroad pier, and the water was taken on boats to Tampa. It also was used on transports running from Tampa to Cuba. To protect the water supply, a company of federal troops was stationed in St . Peters burg while the war lasted, the men being encamped in what is now

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94 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG known as W i lliams Park. After the war, the pipe line was used by the fish houses on the railroad pier and also to supply ships which made St. Petersburg a port of call. St Petersburg Gets Other Utilities A publicly owned water system was not the only public utility St. Petersburg got around the turn of the century. The fledgling town also gof an electric light plant, of sorts, a telephone system, if one can call it that, and a trolley line The electric light plant and trolley line were established by com panies fathered by F. A. Davis, a Philadelphia publisher of medical books and periodicals; a man who played a stellar role in St. Petersburg affairs for three decades. His activities covered such a wide range and had such a lasting effect u pon the city that a separate chapter must be written to give an account of them At this point, however, mention must be made of his initial ventures. On February 2, 1897, Davis was granted an elec tric franchise by St. Petersburg voters and shortly afterward he brought a plant here from Tarpon Springs, where he had first put it in operation, and set it up at the foot of Central avenue, where the Yacht Club is now located. It wasn't much of a plant, either in size or condition-just a wood -burning boiler, a steam engine, and a 50-watt dynamo, all housed in a wooden building which did not lend much to the appearance of the waterfront . The power was turned on August 5, 1897. The history-making event was in the September, 1897 issue of the Medical Bulletin in the following manner: "The latest improvement of magnitude in St. Petersburg is the com pletion and inauguration of the electric light system. By this enterprise, every part of the town is brilliantly illuminated. A formal inauguration of the new undertaking occurred in St. Petersburg on August 5, and was the occasion of much rejoiCing among the inhabitants and in vited guests The trial illumination was a success in every particular. No pains had been spared by the company to provide themselves with the latest sci entific devices, and the appliances connected with the work are of the utmost importance." As might hav e been e xpected, the Medical Bulletin, published by Davis' company in Philadelphia, was not modest in its praise of the electric p lant. Later, however, the plant was described by one of the comp .any officials as a "wonderful collection o f junk." But it seryed the purpose for a number of years and helped materially in lifting St. Pe tersburg out of the village. class By the end of 1897, St. Petersburg proudly boasted of having a "lighted downtown business section," with thirty 32-candl e -power street lights and two arc lights, one at Central

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THE STORY 0}' ST. PETERSBURG 95 and Second and the other at Central and Third. The arc lights splut. tered and crackled but the Sub-Peninsula Sun reported that "the light the arcs now give is truly wonderful to behold." Although electric light company was not a profitable under taking, Davis had such faith in the future of S t. Petersburg that he began planning a trolly line. He secured a franchise on February 4, 1 902, and then spent the next two years getting sufficient backing to go ahead. Finally, on May 30, 1904, work on the trolley line was started and the first car was run on September 28, 1904. "The first trip over the com pleted route was made the occasion of an appropriate celebration by the people," said Davis' Medical Bulletin. "It is as delightfu l an urban ride as may be found anywhere, and not so short either for a little city." The first motorman on the trolley line was Glenn D Pepper and the first conductor was Warren Scott. The original line started at Ninth street and Fifth avenue north, \vent around the north side of Mirror Lake, meandered down to the foot of Central avenue, then went west on Central to Ninth and south on Ninth to Booker Creek. In the spring of 1905 the line was extended to Gulfport, then called Disston City. For the next few years, hardly anyone in S t Petersburg believed that the line could live. They labeled it a foolhardy undertaking. It probably was. If it had not been for weekl y checks sent by Davis' back ers in Philadelphia to meet deficits, the company would have gone under within six months. As it was, the trolley line continued to Jive and con tinued to be one of St. Petersburg's greatest assets, making possible the development of the outlying sections of the city. Late in 1905 Davis formed the Tampa Bay Transportation Compa ny and purchased a 400 -passenger steamer, the Favorite. To have a place for the Favorite to dock when it arrived here, Davis bought a water front lot just south of the foo t of Second aven u e north and built a pier, fourteen feet wide, 3,000 feet out into the bay Car tracks were laid on the pier, the intention being to unload freight from steamers onto the freight cars of the traction company for delivery to cons ignees. T he "electric pier," as it was called, became the "deep-water harbor" of the city It also served as a recreation pier. In the wintertime it swarmed with anglers intent on capturing some of the fighters of Tampa Bay. The first telephone in St. Petersburg was installed in 1898 between two stores owned by Arthur Norwood, one of St. Petersburg's pioneer merchants. One of the stores was located on Ninth street, close tO the railroad tracks, and the other at Fourth and Central. The installation of instruments and 2,000 feet of wire was made by A. P. Weller, manager of the electric light company. The novelty of talking over a telephone attracted scores of persons to Norwood's stores and he reported that the phones more than paid for themse l ves the first day they were used.

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96 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Late in 1899 St. Petersburg got its first public telephone system, called the St. Petersburg Telephone Exchange. It didn't amount to much. All the equipment was second-hand. On e old-timer said that a common corn-plaster had to be used in each receiver to make it workjust how, he couldn't explain The backers of the venture were reported to be John T Goodrum and Char les L. Good rum, brothers, and T C. Parker, of Macon, Ga. Without bothering to get a franchise from the town, the. tel ephone promoters rented a room on the second floor of the building on the southwest corner of Third and Central and scoured the town for subscribers. After eighteen were obtained, the exchange was placed in operation. Old "viaduct type" phones were used and they hissed and hummed so badly that conversation over them was nearly im poss ible. Subscribers complained constantly. Finally, in March, 1901, new Bell telephones and a Be ll switchboard were installed and the service was improved-a little. A month later the interests of Parker and the Goodr ums were purchased by A. P. Avery and Joe Patton who formed the St. Petersburg Telephone Co. and in J un e, 1901, the company got a franchise from the town. It stipulated that the company "must give perpetual service, night, Sundays and every day, strikes and Providential causes excepted." Rates were fixed at $36 a year for residential phones and $60 for business phones. The franchise also provided that the company, in lieu of taxes, should furnish the town four telephones free of charge. St. Petersburg people were able to talk over the phone to Tampa for the first time on June 24, 1902, a hook-up having been made by the St. Petersburg Telephone Co. with the Bell Telephone Compa ny which had just completed a Tampa line : Subscribers could make the Tampa calls the first day without charge; thereafter the toll was 25 cents. In September, 1903, the St. Petersburg Telephone Co. proudly an nounced that it had 105 subscribers. Less than a m onth later, control ling interest in the system was sold to the St. Petersburg Investment Co., an F. A. Davis subsidiary, which a short time later sold to the Peninsular Telephone Company, of Tampa, headed by Senator W. G. Brorein. Early in 1904 the Peninsular took over the system, forming the West Coast Telephone Company to operate at Clearwater and Tarpon Springs, as well as in St. Petersburg where it then had 204 subscribers. With telephones, electric lights and a trolley line, to say nothing of an "electric pier," St. Petersburg began to take on a metropolitan appearance. But it still had a long way to go before i t could be called a real city

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CHAPTER 7 TI-lE INFANT TOWN GROWS UP WHEN PETER DEMENS BUILT the Orange Belt Railway, con necting the St. Johns River with the Gu l f o f Mexico, he had visions of St. Petersburg's becoming a commer cial port of inter national importance. "The biggest ocean steamships can get to our wharves there," Demens wrote to H. 0. Armour, "while Tampa, which has all the business at present, has only about five feet of water for about eight miles and has to lighten every craft that comes to her . The Gulf business undoubtedly will be coming to us." So prophesized Demens. But his port city did not materialize. Fate dec .reed otherwise. Instead of ships com i ng to St. Petersburg from the islands of the Caribbean, a nd from Central and South Amer ica, winter visitors came to St. Petersburg from a ll parts of the North and, in time St. Petersburg became a foremost winter home of the nation-.and internationally known as a winter playground. The Armour syndicate which too k over the Orange Belt from Demens did nothing to develop St. Petersburg either as a port or as an industrial city. The financiers had been force d by circumstances to in vest far more heavi l y in the railroad than they had original,ly intended and they had no desire "to throw good money after bad." So, to a ll intents and purposes, t hey washed their hands of St. Peters burg and left it to its fate. I n the early winter of 1895, the syndicate leased the Orange Belt Railway to the Plant System, controlled by Henry B. Plant, for two decades the railroad king of the Florida West Coas t. Plant's main interest was in Tampa and he had no desire to see St. Petersburg interfere in any way with Tampa's development as a port or as a n industrial city. He was often accused, in fact, of doing everything h e could to retard St. Petersburg. Had Plant so desired, he undoubtedly could have used his financial power and influence to deve lop St. Petersburg as an industrial city. For instance, he might have succeeded in having the c igar industry centered in St. Petersburg instead of in Tampa-and St. Petersburg today m ight have an Ybor City. Be that as it may, the fact remains that Plant brought no industries to St. Petersburg and helped in no way t o -develop it as a port. As a result, St. Petersburg was left to grow as Fate perhaps

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98 THE STORY O F ST. PETE RSJ3 URGintended from the ver y beginning that it should grow-as a winter home for the nation. For such g r owth, St. Petersburg had everything in its favor. To begin with, St. Petersburg was blessed with a superb climate. As stated in the preceding chapter, Dr. Van Bibber's recommendation regarding the establishment of a "Health C ity" on the Point received wide attention and caused many persons to come to St. Petersbmg for the first time. When they arrived, they found that Pinellas Peninsula was eve rything the Baltimore physician had said it was-and then some. A s a res ult, they boosted St. Petersburg far and wide. Those early winter v isitors d i scovered that St. Petersburg had attractions other than climate. For instance they found that the fishing in the waters of Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, with all their adjoining bays and bayous, offered thrills which could be founc;l in few other places. The anglers could always be sure of good catches and good sport. It was nothing unusual for a fisherman to get several hundred mackerel or trout in a few hours-as fast as they could be hauled in and taken off the line. St. Petersburg's splendid climate and unexcelled fishing would have helped little in building a city, however, if the winter visitors had not been able to find a place to stay after they got here. Fortunately, St. Petersburg had good hotels from the very beginning The Detroit was as fine a hotel as could be found at that time in any 1esort city on the Florida West Coast. Another popular hostelry was the Paxton House, opened in 1890, located on the northwest corner of Central avenue and First street. In 1893, a small hotel, the Sixth Avenue House, was built "way out in the country," on the northeast corner of Central and Sixth street, by J.D. Bates. On February 28, 1896, Bates sold t h e Sixth Avenue House to George L. King who remodeled and rebuilt it, adding a third floor and many rooms, and changing its name to the Lakev iew House. During the following winter K ing advertised his hotel in the Strand Magazine in England. W. A. Holshouser says that St. Petersburg people chuckled when a copy of the magazine was r eceived here and they read that .King had stated in the ad that "We milk our own milk and lay our own eggs." In 1902, King sold the hotel to William H. Tippetts who changed its name to the Belmont Hotel. In 1894, another hotel was provided in the waterfront section, on the southwest corner of First and Central. It was the Clarenden, owned by W. E. Van Ripe r The building had been moved f rom Fifth and Cen tral where it had been used for several year s as a school. The Clarenden was completely destroyed by fire on December 17, 1899. The fire had started from sparks on the roof and the volunteer fire department had difficulty reaching the flames. And when the firemen finally

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THE STORY OJ;' ST. PETERSBURG 99 climbed to the top of the build i ng and brought up the hose, they found there was no water. The town water plant had just been comp leted but trou b l e had developed in t h e pump and t he water was shut off. Claude Pepper, a volunteer, dashed to the water plant to start the boilers again. But by the time he got steam up the hotel had burned to t he ground. During the late nineties several o ther hotels were opened for winter visitors--the Livingston House, the Huntington, and the C hau tauqua. The Huntin gton became one of the city's leading hotels Mention must a lso be made of the famous f loating hotel," b uil t in 1897 by J. H Forquer, manager of the Detroit Hotel. T h is was a 16-room house boat intended as sort of a seaside add i tion to the Detroit, to accommodate gue sts who wanted to be near the gulf. It was towed to Pass a-Grille where it was anchored in the quiet water of the bay. Duri ng t he winter of 1 897-98 the Floating Hotel had a good season but disaster fell upon it during the following winter, one of the coldest in the history of Pine ll as Peninsu l a. Many t i mes the temperature dropped close to freezing and on several memorable occas i o n s snow flakes fluttered i n the air In such weather, no o n e wanted to live in an ai r y floating hotel on the open water and Forquer did not make e n o ugh money from guests to pay h i s cook. Late i n the spring, the novel hostelry burned to the water's edge-and old timers report that Forquer did not bemoan the disaster. Considering the fact that the hotel was i n s u r ed, Forquer's lack of grief is understandable. The Fl oating Hotel, owned by J. H Forquer, at anchor at Pa$s-a Grille

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100 1'HE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG In additi o n to the hotels, many large rooming houses were opened in St. Petersburg during the late nineties. Amo n g those whose names are remembered were the Overholt House and the Lore House. Becaase of their homey atmosphere, many winter visitors preferred to live in them rather than in hotels A large percentage of the visitors who spent their first winter in a hotel or rooming house returned the next season and bought or rented homes. The friendliness and hospitality of the town appealed to them as much as the climate, the fishing, the fine bathing, or any of the other attractions. They had discovered that St. Petersburg was an ideal place in which to live, not merely for a few weeks but during the whole winter and, for that matter, throughout the entire year. More and more rapidly St. Petersburg's fame as a year-'round paradise began to spread. The growth of St. Petersburg as a tourist town waa accelerated by the Spanish-Ame rican War. Tampa was then the principal embarkation point for t r oops which were sen t to Cuba. Many of the sold iers visited St. Petersburg before they were shipped out. They liked the town and after the war was over many came here to live. Others talked about St. Petersburg back North and the town got much free advertising. St. Petersburg Becomes a Good Town." Few of the winter visitors who came to St. Petersburg in the early days cared for night life, or carousing, or gambling. They were temperate, home-loving peop le who went to church regularly back North and intended to do the same while in St. Petersburg. As a result, churches were built in which they could worship and, when that was not done the ne,vcomers buil t churches themselves. A year before St. Petersburg was founded, Episcopalians who lived in and near Disston C ity established a church St. Barth olomew s on Lakeview avenue. This was the first church on lower Pinellas Peninsula. Methodists held services in the Disston City school house. After St. Petersburg came into existe n ce other denominations be gan organizing. Within l ess than six months after the an-ivai of the first train, the Congregationalists began holding services in a railroad car near Ninth street. A few months later they built a church. By the turn of the century, other churches had been established by the Presbyte rians, Methodists Baptists, Episcopalians, Christians and Christian Scientists In truth, St. Petersburg had become a city of churches. The effect upon St. Petersburg was profound. It became a good town" in the best meaning of the term. Vice was not tolerated. No gambling joints were permitted to operate. Red light districts never were allowed to open. A close watch always was kept on saloons Consequently, St. Petersburg

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THE STORY Ok ST. PETERSBURG 101 became an ideal place for the rearing of childre n-a city with a better environme n t could be found nowhere. To provide for the children, St. Petersburg early turned its atten tion to public schools. The first school session was held in a little one roomed buildi n g erected late in the summer of 1888 by the people of the town. It was located between Ninth and Tenth streets near the present Central avenue. Twenty-nine pupils were enrolled in the first class By the winter of 1891-92, the enrollment had reached f ifty and larger quarters were needed. A three-room building at Eighth street and the railroad tracks was secured. Work in this building was not satis factory because of its unsuitable location. Said Teacher Jacob Keagy: "Confusion created by the distracting n oises of trains, lumber cars and nove lty works so near the school room, renders teaching almost an im possibility." Confronted by this situation, the people of St. Petersburg author ized the town' s first bond issue on J uly 18, 1893, by a vote of 39 to 1. It was for $7 ,0 00. One half of the bonds were taken by Col. L. Y. Jenness, manager of the St. Petersburg Land & Improv ement Co. The rest of the issu e was taken by other citizens. The school erected w ith this money was the wooden frame building w hic h stood f o r many years at Fifth street and Second avenue north. It was then known as the Grade School. Looking sou t hwestward from and Ce n tt-al in 1907. The Strowgcr building is' at the le ft. On the opposite s i d e o f Fourth, from lef t to r ight, the buildings are those of 'l'he Independent, the Grace Baptist Church, a rooming house, and the Central National Bank.

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. 102 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG It included a library and assembly hall and seve n classrooms. In this building, the children of St. Petersburg were educated-and w e ll educated-for nearly a d ecade. Then, when the need arose, new and larger schools were built. St. Petersburg was a "good town" i n its formative days but it n eve r was a "goody-goody tow n." People took time off from their daily chores to e njoy themselves. During the long summer months, picnics on the b eaches were commo n events. Every week some grou p or other held a law n fete, entertainment or dance Minstrel shows were g i ve n by home town talent in Armistead's Opera House on the south sid e of Central b etween S econd and Third. And when traveling troupes came to town and gave the latest p l ays in the opera hou se, every seat was taken. The first orchestra in town was organized in 1891 by Profess or John Libby. J\
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 103 At 1'urn of Century By the turn of the century, the pattern for present-day St. Peters burg had almost been cut. Let's use a historian's telescope and look back and see what St Petersburg had in 1900: The federal census of 1900 showed that St. Petersburg then had a population of 1,575, a gain of 600 per cent over the census figures of 1890. A remarkable increase for a town practically devoid of indus tries. True enough, it had a fishing industry which employed o r bought fish from approximately 200 men. However, comparatively few of the fishermen lived within the town limits of St. Petersburg. Most of them had their homes close to their favorite f ishing grounds, on the bayous, around Pinellas Point or on the keys The fishing industry was important, not so much because i t employed a few St. Petersburg people, but because it brought thousands of dollars every week to the peninsula which were spent by the fishermen in St. Petersburg stores. In 1900, large quantities of lumber cut from forests in the interior of the state were being shipped out of St Petersburg on schooners. But these shipments meant little to the town-it merely was a case of transferring the lumber from the railroad cars to the s hips, and only a handful of men were employed in the operation. An industry which held great promise in 1900 was the growing of pineapples. The industry had been started in 1896 by Syd N. Perkins who, financed by A. F. Bartlett, had put out two acres in pineapple The tower on this home, built by E. H Tomlinson in 1900, was originally 137 feet high higher than any building now in St. Petersburg I t was built for use by Marc oni, inventor of wireless. Lightning struck soon after it was finished and t wo -thirds of i t was damaged so badly that i t had to be torn down.

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104 THE STORY OF ST. P ETERSBURC plants. It was reported that the first y.ear's crop in fruit and suckers netted $10 000 after the cost of the sheds had been paid for. The phe nomenal success of Perkins and Bartlett led others to plant pineapples. All specialized in the growing of "Porto Ricos", weighing on the average of ten pounds each and many as much as twenty pounds and more. By 1900 nearly a score of growers were engaged in pineapple culture, in cluding J C. Heard, C. W. Butler, D Ferdon, A. A. Thomas, William Sumner, A. C. Sill, Peter and E. H. Tomlinson, David Moffett, J. D. Bell, 0. D. Robinson, Dr. G. W Kennedy, C. W. Springstead, L Brew and F. W.Ramm. For a time, the growers made big profits and by the summer of 1901, an average of 200 c rates were being shipped daily, netting the growers from $2,000 to $5, 000 an acre. Everyone was confident that the growing of pineapple s i n Florida soon would rival the citrus industry i n importance. But it d i d not. The industry died out almost as quickl y as it had sprung up. By 1905, little was heard of it. The growers said they no longer could compete with Cuba and Puerto Rico from which pine apples came in duty-free after the islands had been freed from Spain. A crate of pineapples could be shipped by boat from Havana to New York for 75 cents, while it cost growers here to ship a c rate to the same destinatio n. Then the railroad increased the rate to $2 a crateand the industry died. The Main lnd1tstry 1'ourists By 1900 it had become obvious to almost everyone in St. Petersburg that the principal industry of the city for a long time to come undoubtedly would be catering to the needs of the winter visitors--supplying them with food clothing, furnishings for thei r homes; providing living quarters for them; selling them property on which new homes could be built, and so on and on. To supply those needs, more stores were opened every year-stores which sold every line of goods Doctors and dentists came to the town, and attorneys, and craftsmen of all kinds. Also, real estate men and contractors. During the summer of 1900 a building boom started in St. Peters burg. Over 130 buildings costing over $130,000 were built in one year. Judged by present-day standards, the $130 000 building program seems insignificant. But in th ose days, building material s cost only a s mall fraction of what they cost at present and the wages paid build ing craftsmen were extremely low. Carpenters, for instance, were pai d for a day's work-and they worked ten hours. Brick layers and plasterers were getting a day, also for ten hours work. Other crafts men were paid approximately the same. A finely-appointed residence could be built for $1, 000.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 105 An outstanding home built during 1900 01 was that of E. H T om l inson on the southwes t corner of Fourth stree t and Second avenue south. A feature of the home was a tower 137 feet high from which a magnificent view could be obtained of the tow n and Tampa Bay. Tom linson built the tower for Marconi, the inventor of wireless, who had told him that he wanted to conduct experim ents in Florida. But Marconi did not come. The Tom l inson tower was short lived. It was struck by lightning on July 16 1901, and the upper hal f was s o badly damaged that it had to b e torn d own Tomlinson also gave St. Petersburg its Fountain of You th, an arte sian well whic h he had drilled at the waterfront at the foot of Fourth avenue south. The water contained a large amount of sulphur and could be smelled a block away. Many people still go there daily with jugs and bottles to get some of the vigor-restoring liquid. East of the Fountain of Youth, Tomlinson built a pier out into Tampa Bay and at its e nd he had constructed a small cottage where he and his father spent their leisure time. A good idea of who \vas who among St. Petersburg's business and professional men abou t the turn of the century was furnished by an issue of the St. Petersburg Times dated May 4, 1901, after a drive had been made by Editor W. L. Straub to get advertisers for his paper. Pro fessio nal cards were carried by Dr. John B. Abercromb i e Attorney F. M. Simonton, Dr. J. G. G ilm er, Attorney E. H. Mye r s, Dr. T h omas E James, Notary Public G r ant J. Ai ki n, and Dr. Thomas P. W elc h Display adver tisements wer e carried by Wm. A. Holshouser, druggist and stationer; St. Petersburg Dairy, J. C. Block er, prop.; the A. P Avery Real Estate Co., J. C. Williams C l othing Store; Sims Brothers Grocery Store; Sur rency & Smith, general store; Williams & Miller, general store; City William s Park as it looked in 1904.

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106 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Drug Store; A. T. Blocker Livery Stable; Palace Fruit Store; St. P eters burg State Bank; W. H. Schultz, cobbler; Robert L. Medlin, embalmer and funeral director; St. Petersburg Livery Stable J. W. Booth prop. ; St. Petersburg Furniture Co.; St. Petersburg Cash Store, owned by Har rison Brothers; C. J. Barry, dry goods, notions, gents' furnish ings and shoes; H. P. Bussey, funeral director, and George B. Haines, jeweler. Bussey was St. Petersburg's first funeral director. He had opened a :funeral home in 1895 in a small building on the south side of Central betw ee n Third and Fourth. Hi s horse-drawn hearse was an ornate affair then considered the last word in eleg ance. Old timers used to say : "Almost anyone would enjoy being taken to the cemetery to be buried in a hearse like that." :Maybe so. S. D. Harris took over Bussey' s funeral h ome in 1908. George B. Haines was St. Peter sburg's pioneer jewele r having opened a store at Fourth and Central when there were less than 300 inhabitants in the entire town. But he stock e d an unusually high grade of jewelry and did a good bus in ess with wealthy winte r visitors. Haines was one of St. Petersburg's earliest and strongest good roads advocate s, and owned one of the town's first automobiles. In 1898, Haines built a little two-story wooden building on the northwest corner of Third and Central and co nducted his busin ess there for many years, living with his wife in the upstairs rooms. Their living quarters had a porch on the Central side. When the present Hain es Building was erected in 1922 for the Willson-Chase Co., after the death of Haines, Mrs. Haine s in sisted that her old living quarters be duplicated exactly, room for room, in the new building and that a porch sho uld be provided the s am e as before. The porch was not removed until after Mrs. Hain es death in 1941. Her apartment was remod e led into display rooms. St. Petersburg suffered a severe blow on August 9, 19 02, when the St. Petersburg State Ba nk, organized in 1893, failed to open its doors. Residents of the town had $51,000 in deposits in the bank at the time and that amount represented a large part of t h e town's wealth. St. Petersburg was stunned. There was talk of a ly n ching. Mass meetings were held; a shotgun patrol was organized; the bank vaults were guarded. It turned out, however, that this last was unnecessary. When the presi dent, John A. Bishop returned from Tampa, where h e had been when the co llapse came, it was learned that the bank vaults were e mpty. John Trice, president of the Citizens Bank of Tampa, was named receiver and a fight was started to get back the depositors' mon ey. How eve r, the bank had become heavily involved in the affairs of a Pasco county phosphate company which had co llap se d, and the bank's money was tied up. T h e case was juggled around in the courts for years and it was not until 1914 that the depos i tors received their last payments an d they did not total more than twenty-five cents on the dollar.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 107 Following the closing of the State Bank, the need for another, stronger bank became apparent and on October 3, 1902, the West Coast Bank of Florida was organized with $25,000 capital. John Trice, re ceiver of the closed bank, was elected president. Local men took $8,000 worth of the s t ock. A lot on the southeast corner of Central and Second was purchased and a three-story brick building erected as a bank home. The bank was opened February 9, 1903, and the deposits on the first day amounted to $23,600. On July 5, 1905, the West Coast Bank changed its name to the First National Bank. St. Petersburg Becomes a City Despite the collapse of the State Bank, and the resultant loss of depositors money, St. Petersburg continued to grow. And as it grew, residents began making stronger and stronger demands on the town council for public improvements-paved streets, sidewalks, sewers waterfront improvements, and so on. However, St. Petersburg was still operating under a town charter and its ability to issue bonds was extremely limited. Mayor George Edwards and the town co u ncil acting secretly to forestall opposition, took the necessary steps to have St. Petersburg incorporated as a city. No intimation of the plans or any details about the proposed city charter were divulged to the public until after the State Legislature had acted favorably. Downtown St. Petersburg as it looked in 1901 from the top of Tomlinson's Tower, at Fourth stteet and Sec ond avenue south, looking northeas tw ard. The long building is the Manual Training Annex built by E H Tomlinson. For many year$ it has been used by the Chamber of Commerce. The twoStory build i ng i n t he center is the G A.ll. Hall

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108 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC Said the Times, in the issue of June 6, 1903: "St. Petersburg's new city charter has been passed by both houses o f the Legislature and signed by the governor. This would call for a column editorial, but the fact is, the T imes, li k e everyone else but the town cou ncil, doesn't know anything about the new charter." As soon as the new charter became effective the council on June 18 issued $23,000 worth of bond s $13,000 to pay all floating indebtedness of .the watenvorks and $10,000 for duplicating the waterworks plant and to extend the system By t hi s mov e, the council s u cceeded in paying for the waterwork plant and system which had been authoriz e d in 1899 and for which :Mayor Edgar Harrison and member s of the t o wn counc il had sig ned notes to get the needed money, sfter the bond issue had been attacked in the courts. This action of the council aroused a storm of protest from the town's cons!!rvatives However, Mayor Edwards and the counc ilm e n were unmoved and they proceeded on July 2, 1903, to authorize more bonds for the paving of Central avenue and also "such residential streets as could be paved with the money remaining." But after author izing the issue, the council delayed in selling the bonds and starting work, due to controversies regarding which sections of Central avenue shou ld be paved. The ordinance stipulated that it should be paved from Second to Fifth streets but several councilme n contended that the pave m ent should be laid only from Third to Fifth so there would be som e money left over for residential streets. The battle raged all fall and winter a nd became a major i ssue in the campaign of 1904. l\1ayor Edwards declined to run for re-election and R. H. Thoma s, an a dvocate of the shorter pavement for Central, was e l ecte d mayo r due largely to the fact that the opposition was split by having two candidates, J. A. Armistead and B. C Will iams. The councilmen elected were: A. T. Blocker, T. J. Northrup, A. C Pheil, T. R. Chapman, F. E. Cole and C. P. Goodwi n. All were advocates of the longer pavement. W ith 111ayor Thomas on one side and the council on t h e other, the paving issue was tossed around for m onths. Central avenue waa finally paved between Second and Fifth streets just as the council ha.d originally proposed. A New Era Dawns The paving of Central and the extensio n of the water system sym bolized the dawn of a new era in St. Petersburg-an era during whi c h the city p rogressives who wanted improveme nts won out over the conservatives who resisted anything and everything which might result in higher taxes, even though they were t he ones who stood to profit mos t shou ld the city grow and real estate values climb

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THE STORY ST. PETE RSB URG 109 The new era of spend-for-improvements was accompanied byperhaps caused by-an awakened interest in real estate. More and more people, home folks and winter visitors alike, started buying busi ness and residential lots Some bought to obtain sites to build; others bought for investment. But regardless of the reasons for buying-they bought, and real estate values climbed. Lots which had gone begging a few years before when priced at a few hundred dollars or less now sold rapidly at greatly increased prices. With the increased demand for properties came the birth of real estate developments-real developments, not merely sub-dividing. St. Petersburg's first true developer was C Perry Snell, a native of Bowling Green, Ky., who came to St. Petersburg in 1904. It was Snell who recognized the possibilities of the North Shore section. While others scoffed at the land so close to the water's edge, covered with mangroves or swampy, S nell figured out a way of lifting it above the water level by dredging and making it a beauty spot. His North Shore activities started in 1905 when he organized the Bay Shore Land Co., with F. A. Wood, A. E. Hoxie and A. C. Clewis. The Bay Shore and Bay Front subdivisions were the result. Both were located on Tampa Bay, extending from Fifth to Thirteenth avenues north. The Bay Shore subdivision was put on the market in .January, 1906. and three days later Snell announced that twenty-two lots had been St. Pctetsbuxg's firs t open air post office. in the Tomlinso n Building on the northeast corner of Foutth and Centr al where the First Fedeta l Building now stands. The Ansonia Ho t el was on the build ing's second floo r The picture was taken in 1907

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110 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG sold. The Jist of purchasers included some of the best known families in St. Petersburg. While Snell was successfully developing and selling North Shore property, the Florida West Coast Co., a Davis company, was having less success in the sale of town lots and small farm tracts at Veteran City, located on the site of the ill-fated Disston City. Working i n conjunction with the Davis company in the town-founding scheme was Capt. J. F. Chase, a Civil War veteran. As the name implied Veteran City was designed to be a place where veterans of the Civil War could spend their last days, raising most of the food they needed on small farms in the land of palms and sunshine. The "city" was dedicated with impressive ceremonies on April 5, 1905. Special cars were run to the city-to-be by the St. Petersburg & Gulf Electric Railway. But in spite of the auspi cious beginning Veteran City never prospered. In fact, it never even started. A few veterans came and looked it over and then departed. Today none but a few old residents know such a place ever existed. Veteran City was the only real estate "flop" of the 1905 -06 period. More homes and business places were built than at any previous time in the city's history. People who had bought a few years before at the prevailing low prices found their properties worth two to four times more than they had been before. Many owners sold and made handsome profits. Everyone was optimistic. With money jingling in their pockets, and with high hopes for the future inspiring them to action, St. Petersburg boosters decided that it might be profitable for them to contribute something to advertise the city, and thereby increase the golden flood pouring into St. Petersburg. The prevailing optimism enabled the dormant Board of Trade to come to life again and it also enabled the board's advertising committee to raise a $2,000 advertising ( und. The magnitude of this feat can be appreciated only when it is realized that the largest amount ever raised before by the board or the Chamber of Commerce, was $125, in 1902 A City Built By Advertising Four years before St. Petersburg came into existence, advertise ments were carried in northern newspapers and in periodicals published in England which benefited the St. Petersburg that was to be. The advertisements were paid for by the company which Hamilton D i sston organized to promote his dream town of Disston City, located on the present site of Gulfport. The advertising campaign cost many thousands of dollars. It helped immeasurably in putting Pinellas Penin sula on the map and also attracted scores of settlers to this section. When the Orange Belt Railway passed Disston City by, and that village began to fade from the picture, many of the newcomers moved to the newly founded St. Petersburg and helped in its development.

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ToE STORY O F ST. PETERSBURG 111 The Orange Belt Railway gave St. Petersburg its first direct advertising. Durin g the summer of 18 89 the railroad began running e x cur sions and, a s might have been expec ted, i t ad vertised the attraction s of St. Petersburg rather than some intermediate point along the lin e. 'fhe Orange Belt Investme n t Co. owned half the to wnsite of St. P etersburg and it naturally wanted to boost the infant town as much as poss ib le, to promote the sal e of Jots Col. L. Y. Jenness, St. Petersburg representative of the O rang e Belt Investment Co., did everythin g he could to make sure that the excursionists would get a good impression of the emb ryo town. He gave orders to E. G. Peyton, manager of the Detroit Hotel, which his company owned, to put in an extra supply of "refreshments" for the bar. And he told the manager of the railroad's bathing pavilion, on the pier, to lay in an extra supply of towels so that everyone who went in swimming could get dried off after their dips. Jenness als o encouraged the women of the town to help feed the hungry excursionists. The women responded nobly They brought great baskets of f ood and was h boilers of coffee to the railroad's warehouse on Second s treet, across from the de p ot, and when the crowded train came in, meals were serv ed. I ncidentally, the women collected $108 f r o m the exc ursionists-the m oney was used later to pay for the town's first wooden sidewa lk All the ships shown above docked at St. Petersbu1-g in 1907 as Artist W L. Straub portrayed in his painting. But seldom, if ever, did nil the ships come in at once. T he steamer in the foreground is the }1. B. Plant and, nt the right, the Favorite.

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112 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG All in all, the excursionists were entertained royally and when they left, they carried away a good impression of tiny St. Petersburg. By word of mouth they advertised the town they had seen They told about its fine fishing, its superb climate, its excellent hotel, its com modious bathing pavilion, its wide streets, and its hospitality. Because of this word-of-mouth advertising, the Orange Be l t thereafter had little trouble packing its train whenever an excursion was he l d. The Orange Belt Investment Co., a n d its successor, the St. Peters burg Land & Development Co., owned large tracts of land on Pinellas Peninsula in addition to hal f the St. Petersburg town site. To get settlers for its farm lands, the company advertised extensively in northern newspapers. It also printed folders describing the peninsula in general and, i n particular, the lands it had for sale. Scores of newcomers came here as a result of this advertising. Valuable as this advertising was, it did not compare in any way with the advertising St. Petersburg got through F. A. Davis, the greatest booster the Sunshine City eve r had. From 1897 to Davis paid for practically a ll the adverti sing St. Petersburg got. He reprinted Dr. Van Bibber's report on the proposed "Health City" and distributed thousands of copies. He also published the "Florida Magazine", devoted almost exc l usively to St. Petersburg. The magazine represented a heavy and a constant loss bu t was believed justified by the interest it created. In his "Medica l Bulletin," a periodi cal bought by thousands of physicians throughout the country, Davis printed scores of articles about St. Petersburg. Hardly an issue appeared w ithout s o me mention 'of the town. In 1901 he printed a 104-page booklet entitled "Progress and Possibilities of St. Petersburg" which he distributed widely Davis' publishing house also printed an eight page paper called '"St. Petersburg, the Queen City of Pinellas." Because of Davis, most of the physicians throughout the cou ntry learned of St. Petersburg. Many of them sent their patients here and not a few came to live themselves. It is impossible to estimate how many persons became residents of St. Petersburg as. a result of doctors' suggestions but certain ly the-total must be h igh. T o list them all probably would be l i ke printing half the names in the city directory Credit for the influx of winter visitors durin g the first decade and a half of St. Petersburg's existence certai nly cannot be c l aimed by any group of St. Petersburg people. All the advertising the city .got was paid for by outsiders who owned property in this locality but who lived e l se where. The first Chamber of Commerce, organized in 1899, was inef fectual. This was i ndicated by an editorial in the St. Petersburg Times on April 19, 1902. Referring to a revival of activities in the Tampa Board of Trade, the Times said: "St. Petersburg needs such a revival and

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THE STORY 0}" ST. PETERSBURG 113 needs it badly. We do not believe our Chamber of Commerce is dead, but it is so near to it that a stranger could hardly tell the difference." Perhaps as a result of this criticism, the Chamber of Commerce was reorganized in June 1902, and the members pledged the mse lves to p _ay $125 for the publishing of 10 ,000 booklets to advertise the town. Davis' publishing company agreed to print the at cost and to furnish the cuts. Records of the Davis company show that, even though .the booklets were done at cost, they were not paid for until years later. After ordering the 10,000 booklets, and then neglecting to pay the bill, members of the Chamber proceeded to forget about advertising for nearly three years. Lamented the Times, February 5, 1905: "If St. Petersburg only had a Chamber of Commerce, or some such bodyand the lack of one is a disgrace to the city-what a lot it could accom, plish for the upbuilding o f the city!" The spurt in real estate during the winter of 1905,06 finally con vinced a newly organized Board of Trade that it might be profitable to part with a little money for advertising purposes and thereby bring even more prosperity to St. Petersburg. At a meeting on March 15, 1906, the Board of Trade came to life and elected aggr essive men as officers, as follows: Judge J.D. Bell, president; C. A. Harvey, first vice-president; Roy S. Hanna, second vice-president; T. A. Chancellor, treasurer and Dr. A. B. Davis, secretary. The election of the new officers injected new life into the organi zation. In les s than a month the officers decided to launch a campaign This is the way St. Petersburg's waterfront looked in 1900. The photograph was taken at about Ninth avenue north, looking south. The smokestacks are tho se of the electric light plant at the foot of Central avenue.

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114 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG to raise $2,000 by popular subscription. And, wonder of wonders, the fund was over-subscribed within three weeks! It would be fine if it could be said that the $2,000 worth of advertising, bought with the $2,000 subscribed, brought such fine results that everyone was convinced that advertising paid, and that, thereafter, everyone contributed regular ly to advertising funds. But that was not the case. The advertising brought results, undoubtedly, but years were to pass before another fund was raised for advert ising purposes. Never theless, St. Petersburg continued to get plenty of advert ising from F. A. Davis and his companies, and an incalculable amount of word-of-mouth advertising from winter visitors who found St. Petersburg to their liking . Horseless Carriages Come to Town A strange contraption detonated down Central avenue one sunshiny day in November, 1905. At first glance, i t l ooked just like an ordinary carriage. But no horse was pulling it-and it moved regardless. All of six miles an hour. The noise it made was truly frightening. People came running from the stores to see what was exploding and teams of horses, tied up a t hitching posts along the str eets, reared up on their hind legs and snorted in fear. The contraption was "The Orien t a buggy with an engine in the back. It was a weird creation but it ran, all by itself and attracted no end of attention because it was the first "horseless can;age" ever driven on St. Petersburg streets. The owner was Edwin H. Tomlinson. People laughed at Tomlinson for fooling around with such a crazy vehicle. Why, he couldn't go two blocks without getting stuck in the sand! And then he'd have to find some one t o push him out and start him going again. Shucks, why didn't he stick to his dependable horse and buggy and be sure of getting to places he wanted to go? But the devil wagons had come to stay. In no time at all, it seemed, the streets began to "swarm" with autos. Dr. A. B. Davis, of Phila delphia, brought in a Franklin, guaranteed to go all of twenty miles an hour. AI Fisher got a Jackson and George Presstman a swanky, lowslung American. Willis Powell, then owner of the Independent, brought in the first Cadillac and Horace Williams bought an E. :M. F. Ed. T. Lewis brought in the first four-cylinder car. Lewis parked the car on Central in front of his store. He threw back the hood and started the engine running. Crowds immediately gathered to watch the mechanism work. The car was a seven-day wonder. Lewis was St. Petersburg's first speed demon. On several occasions he raced down Central avenue at twenty miles an hour. Had he not been s uch an influential man, he undoubtedly would have been arrested and thrown in jail. His only rival so far a s speed was concerned was George

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THE STOJ\Y Ot' ST. PETERSBURG llS B. Haines, the proud owner of a Hayn es. One day they had a race to Tampa and made it in the incredible time of seven ho u rs. This was truly fast time in those days because good roads were non-existent. The only roads motorists had were actually nothing but trails wh ich zigzagged through the pine woods and around swamps and swales. In places, the sand was deep and in other places the wheels san k hub deep in mud. During the rainy season the trail s were almost i mpassable for months at a time In Janu ary, 1907, a party of motorists, including Dr. and Mrs A. B Davis, Mr and Mrs. Noel A Mitchell and James McCord left Tampa for St. Petersburg. They were three and one-half days on the road. They had to go man y miles out of their way to avoi(i a broken-down bridge and had to make another long detour to avoid a forest fire They we r e stuck i n the sand innumerable times and the tires were pu n c tured eleven times whe n the car ran over jagged pine tree stumps, con cealed in the weeds. When they arrived in Clea r water, t hey found that ga. soline was not for sale there and t hey had to wait five hours for a supply to be brought from Belleair Despite the bad roads and the hazards of motoring, the number of autos in St. Petersburg steadily increased. By the end of 1908, t here were 22 in operation-that is, when they were not l aid up f o r repairs. Noel A Mitchell was one of t he best promoters St. Petersburg ever had. In 1908 he promoted in terest in tarpon fishing by hanging some big fellows in front of his office at Fourt h and Central.

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116 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG The first person arrested in St. Petersburg for speeding was Mott Williams. He was charged with racing up Central avenue at eighteen miles miles an hour, ten miles faster than the law permitted. He had been warned several times before about such recklessness, so he was fined $100. The first filling station in town was opened by the Harrison Brothers Hardware Store; the first regular garage was opened by F. W. Ramm & Son. The first car which had an engine in the front, like modern cars, was AI Fisher's Jackson-he was told that the weight of the engine would make the auto bury its nose deep in the sand-but it ran. The first tourist who drove to St. Petersburg from the North was A. W. Hicks, who motored here from Detroit in No v ember, 1906. He made the journey in fourteen days. The day of the motor tourist had dawned! The day of linen dusters and goggles; of tow ropes and axes; of arms broken by cranking stubborn motors; of endless hours spent in patching tires. The day when motoring was a real adventure. 'l'he day which ushered in a new way of coming to Sunny Florida. Central A venue and Davista Since the beginning of St. Petersburg, Central avenue has been the city's main business thoroughfare. Today it extends clear across the peninsula, then leaps Boca Ciega Bay and goes on to the Gulf of Mexico With each passing decade, the business section has extended farther and farther westward. In the early days, property values along Central were low. The first sale recorded was for the southwest corner of Central and Second, sold by Williams to his son, John C. Williams, Jr., August 11, 1888, for $700. That was the consideration given in the deed but there may have been something "phoney" about it. Perhaps the figure was placed high to boost other prices. Since it was a father-to-son transaction there may have been no consideration at all. In all events, lot values on Central didn't reach that level until years afterward. Wm. A. Holshouser bought fou r lots on Central near Fourth in 1896 for $150 each. W. C. Henry and G eorge Edwards bought choice corner lots in the same years for $450. Edwards paid only $50 down-the balance when he could afford to pay it. Henry didn't have to make a down payment at allhe merely had to promise to erect a building on the corner within a year. Values on Central climbed slowly. In 1895, Capt. J. A. Armistead offered his three-story opera house on the south side o f Central between Second and Third for $6.000, building and all. Store rooms were located on the ground floor, the "opera house" on the second, and lodge rooms on the third. Armistead said he was getting $750 rent a year from the building. Even so; he cou ld not find a buyer at the $6,000 price. Property west of Fifth street, "the end of the business district," was dirt cheap in the old days. It was chiefly a residential section and

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 117 good lots could be purchased as late as 1900 for as little as $200. The business section leaped the Fifth street barrier about 1908. From then on, prices jumped smartly. Central avenue was not opened up clear through from First to Ninth until 1894. The opened avenu e through Ward & Baum's addi tion was only 50 feet wide, the town fathers havin g failed to see the need of a wide business street. It was not widened to 100 feet until1909 when a bond issue of $8 ,0 00 was approved to buy the necessary land. Even the n there was considerable opposition to the widening, many bel ieving that a wide thoroughfar e would never be needed above Sixth and that the money wou l d be wasted. Had i t not been for A. C P h e il who fought persistently for the project, i t is doubtful whether the project would have been completed unti l years later. An idea of the general feeling toward the p roject was give n by the Times in an editorial October 20, 1906: "The widening of Central has bee n before the people and the council for years. It has never been popular. It i s an improvement that would be of little practical benefit to the city at large. But it has been conceded b y the people as a friendly consideration to l ocal interests there. The city is pledged to the work and must carry it out.' The extension o f Central avenue west of Ninth street to Boca Ciega Bay came as a direct result of the efforts of H Walter Fuller and his / -The "electric pier as i t l o oked in 1909 The smokestacks of the power plant at the foot of Central avenue are shown at the left.

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118 THE STORY O F ST. PETERSBURG a ssoci ates. Fuller conceived the idea of extending Central shortly after he became con necte d with the Davis companies in 1909. H e believed that westward was the logical direction for St. Petersburg to grow, but that the growth would be slow in coming without a bay-to-bay avenue. He tried to interest the people of St. Petersburg in the project but with out s uc cess The only backing h e could get was from the Philadelphia backers of the F. A Davis companies-men who had more faith in the future of St. Petersburg than the l o udest lo cal boosters. With the Philadelphia ba cking, Fuller formed the Johns Pass Realty Co. to acquire the nec essary l ands. From 1909 to 1912 many large tracts were purchase d. One tract of 15,000 acres was purchased from W. W. Whitehurst at less than $5 an acre. Later, 3,200 acres were purchased fro m H amil ton Disston for $1 6 ,200. D isston had gotten it from the state in 1882 as part of his 4,000,000-acre deal, at 26 cents an acre. THe Jungle, compri sing 160 acres, was purchased froin John Miller and W illiam B. Hender son, of Tampa, for $2,500. They had secured the tract 4 0 years before in settlement of a $46 grocery bill. By the end of 1911, the Johns Pass Realty Co. had acquired all the lands needed from Boca Ciega Bay to Sixteenth street. Between Ninth and Sixteenth, the land was divided into s mall hold ings and the. owners, forsee ing deve lopment, demanded high prices The Central Land & Title Co. was organized by Fuller and E. V. Pechin to buy it. Within a fe w months, a half-mile strip in the coveted zone was purchased f rom fifty owners at a cost of $17 5,000, more than all the rest put togeth e r. Early in 1912 Charle s R. Hall, who became one of St. Petersburg's most active developers, bought 80 acres in the Weet Central district from the Johns Pass Realty Co. for $200 an acre. He started the sal e of lots on March 12. H is subdivision, called Hall's Subdivision No. 1, included three blocks from Twenty-fifth to Twenty-eighth streets. Another subdivision, c loser to town, was sold at auction on March 18 19 and 20 by the St. Petersburg In ves tm ent Co. Before the sale ended, 441 lots were sold for $ 11 6,999. More West Central subdivisions were put on the market during the next few months by the St. Petersburg Investment Co., Charles R Hall, C. M Roser, Noel A. Mitchell and the Central Avenue Heights Co., com posed of G. W. Foster, R. H. Sumner, A. S. Paine and E. H Hin es Mitchell opened the Court House subdivis i o n and offered to give a block to the county providing the county courthou s e would be erected there. It wasn't. The courthouse was w on by Clearwater. Many inducements to purcha.se.rs were made by the dev e lop ers to sell the lots. The St. Petersburg Investment Co., for instance sold on one third down payments, the balance to be paid in two years one-quarter every s ix months. The company guaranteed that unless the sidewalks were down six months after date of purchase, the r emaining payments

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TilE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 119 would be canceled. Similarly, it guaranteed to have Central avenue opened from bay to bay in twelve month s and the street car line through in eighteen months. The car line reached Disston ave nue on April 2, and Davista (now Pasadena) on April 29, 1918. Davista, named In hono r of F. A. Davis, was put on the market during the winter of 1912-13 by the St. Petersburg Investment Co. Many miles of streets were opened, sidewalks were constructed, and shrubbery planted. It was described in advertisements as "The Gem o f all Florida Oe v elopments." A number of homes were built. The Sunset Hotel was constructed by Robert W Griggs; the land on which it was was donated by the St. Petersburg Investment Co. Paving Central avenue with brick was urged by Hall and Mitchell while their subdivision sal es were in full swing. They wanted the nothing else would sati sfy them. After the street car line was in they worked harder than ever. Many said they were foolish-that it would be criminal to spend all that money on a road "through a wilderness." But they persisted and circulated petitions until enough signatures were secured. Financing the project by the city was made possible by the annexation into the city of a strip a half mile wide on each side of Cen tral. After the annexation, the city could issue bonds to pay for the work and the lot owners were able to stretch their payments over five years . St. Petersburg's youngsters were the center of attraetion during this WQshington's Birthday celebration In 1906, just as t he y were each February for nearly twenty years. The picture was taken on Central near Third, l ookin g east.

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120 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Lot owners on Central paid 60 per cent of the cost, on First avenue 25 per cent, and on Second avenue 15 per cent. The contract for the paving between Sixteenth and the bay was let in the fall of 1913 and the work was rushed. On February 15, 1914, the contract for "the missing link" between Ninth and Sixteenth, was awarded. The entire paving job was completed two .months later and Central avenue was formally opened on March 23, 1914, with a triumphal procession in which 175 automobiles took part. Continuance of work on the above-mentioned major developments during the 1909-13 spurt caused all St. Petersburg to become progress minded. Not one bond issue was defeated during that period, regardless of the purpose for which it was intended. While the spurt las ted, St. Petersburg "came out of the sand" litei:ally. More than forty miles of business and residen tial streets were paved. In 1906, when city council had $10,000 to spend for streets, three blocks of Central were paved with brick while on the residential streets, marl was used The brick lasted-the marl didn't. As a result, a bitter controversy over which material to use died a natural death, and the number of brick advocates constantly increased. The value of paved streets was apparent and by 1909 property owners in all parts of to\vn began clamoring for improvements. The result of all this was shown on J u ly 19, 1909, when a $100,000 bond issue carrying $67,500 for paving, was approved by a vote of nearly four to one. That date--July 19, 1909 -really marks the beginning of St. Petersburg's good road work. From that time on, hardly a bond issue presented to the voters which did not carry a large amount for improved streets. In addition to the above issue of $67,500, a total of $134,700 was spent for streets be.fore the end of 1913, making a total for the four year period, $202,200, as compared with $28,300 spent during the entire preceding history of the city. St. Petersburg Has A Boomlet St. Petersburg got many other improvements besides streets during the 1909-1913 spurt. For instance, $91,000 worth of bonds were issued for improvements to the water system, as compared to $35,000 during the twenty preceeding years; $35,000 was spent on parks, as compared with $1,800 before, and $39,000 for sewers, as compared with $10,000 up to 1909. While the spending boom was on, the voters also approved a $20,000 bond issue to pay for an incinerator, $41,800 for Bayboro Harbor, and $179,000 for the waterfront. Needless to say, St. Petersburg wouldn't have had its splurge of developments and public improvements had there not been a spurt in real estate during the 1909-13 period.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 121 A brisk market for both residential and busi n ess prope1:ties developed during the winter of 190809. Each winter thereafter for several years the demand for real estate kept increasing. By the winter of 1912-13, the "brisk market" had developed into a b oomlet of the superdooper vari ety. Not all the lot purchases were made, by a n y means, in .the large developments on the North Shore, at Bayboro, or in the West Central district. D ozens of smaller subdivisions sprung up; here, there and everywhere. The boomle t was short lived. By the fall of 1913 it had begun to taper off and by mid-winter, subdivision advertising had almost disappeared from the newspapers. This was partly due to the fact that the market for real estate had been temporarily overso ld a n d a lso to the fact that the country seemed to be headed for another depression. People with money began to be cautious. And then, during the summer of 1914, war started in Europe. Speculation in real estate almost ended. St. Petersburg continued to grow, and grow steadily-but the growth was not o f the mushroom variety. It was a sound, healthy growth. St Petersburg Becomes The Sunshine City A quiet, soft-spoken Southerner with a fighting spirit whic h belied his mild appearance came to St. Petersburg in the fall of 1908 and purchased the Evening Independent. Traffic congestion was no problem i n St. Petersburg in 1908. This is the way Central avenue west of Fourth loo k ed in tliat year.

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122 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG The newcomer was Lew B. Brown, a veteran newspaperman of Kentucky. From the time of his arrival until the day he died, Major Brown, as he was affectionately known, fought to make St Petersburg a finer place in which to live It was a labor of love. He loved St. Petersburg because of its golden sunshine, its silvery moon in velvet skies, the sparkling sand on snow-white beaches, and the rustling of the wind in the towering palms. Major Brown expressed his love for St. Petersburg in a poem, two verses of which are particularly beautiful: Thine air is like some rich old wine that thrills through every vein; Thy sunshine falls as gently down as some far m u sic's strain; Thy soft perpetual breezes waft a life-balm rich and rareWhere all the time is Summer and every day is fair. Thy rare poinsettia's crimson flame, thy bougain's purple pile Thy grand begonia's golden mass, which charm, enchant, beguile; And roses rare and verdure rich the thought of cold defyWhere all the time is Summer and the flowers never die. The achievements of Major Brown were cou ntless. He helped immeasureably in making S t Petersburg the city it is today. But of all his achievements none cou l d have more lasting value than his success in making St. Petersburg known as "The Sunshine City." He gave St. Petersburg its Sunshine City nickname and he made the name mean something by promising to distribute the home edition of the Independent free to everybody every day the sun did not shin e up until time the newspaper went to press. His announcement of the free paper offer attracted national attention and gave 'St. Petersburg publicity wh ich the city cou l d not have purchased for hundreds of thousands of dollars. More than that, it emphasized the fact, as nothing else could ha,ve done, that St. Peters burg's sunshine is constant, throughout the entire year, during the months when t h e North is b lanketed with snow, and ice, and dismal fogs, as well as durin. g the summer months. The name pounded home the fact that, in St. Petersburg, people who need sunshine to help make them well again can find it--in abundance. Major Brown's free paper offer was made Septem.ber 1, 1910 a little more than thirtyseven years ago. During that long span of years, the Independent had been given away only 173 times, up to October 1, 1947, an average of less than five times a year, thereby proving to all the world that St. Petersburg is truly the one and only "Sunshine City" of the nation. As a result of Major Brown's novel offer, sunshineless days in St. Petersburg have become an asset to the city instead of a misfortune. On

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THE STORY OF S'l'. P.&'l'ERSBURG 123 the rare days when the sun is hidden by clcuds for hours at a time winter visitors do not bemoan their fate, and grumble. Instead, when afternoon comes, they actually begin to express hope that the sun will. remain hidden, just so they can get free Independents-not so they can save nicke ls but so they can send the free papers to their homes up North, as conclusive proof of the fact that they are wintering in a town where in clement weather is indeed unusua l. There is no way to calculate the value of St. Petersburg's nickname But no one disputes the fact that it has been a major factor in the city's growth-that it has served to attract thousands of winter visitors to St. Petersburg. During the winter months, people in the North crave sun shine even more than warmth, and when the time comes for the Sun Worshipers to set forth and seek sunshine, i t is only logical that the nickname "Sunshine City" should have an irresistible appeal. Today, the nickname has become synonymous with St. Petersburg and unquestio nably it wiJI endure as long as the city itself. EVENTS OF THE FORMATIVE YEARS In ev0ry growing town, events move rapidly Almost every day there is some happening of histo r ical importance. Many of them f i t into the running story of the devel opment of the town; others are more or less of a miscellaneous c haracter and must be mentioned separately. Let's check back through the passing years since the tur n of the c e ntury and seewhat was going on: St. Petersburg was a peaceful, Jaw-abid ing community i n the early days. so. the town n1arshal wasn't taking any chances. Said the Times, July 20, 1901: "Town Marshal Wickwire has devised a rather unique plan for the keeping of the peac e Ho has purchased a pair of b lood hound s with which he proposes to catch any culprit who flees from justice. These hounds are in training and n o t a s ingle arrest has been made s ince their a rriv al, the crimina ll y inclined evidently being more afraid of the dogs than they arc of t h e J aw. St. Petersbutg is remat"kably free o f l awbreakers. The Time s reported later that the b l oodhounds had eaten t hemselves o u t of a job-they consumed so much f ood that the marshal f inally got rid of them. A m i nstrel benefit for victims of Jack sonville's multi million dol1ar fire was held at Armistead's Opera House May 21, 1901. Music wa s provided by the St. Petersburg Oxc hestra The entertainers inclu ded Roy S. H a nna H. F. Pepper, F. G. Sawrie, Net .. son McReynolds, Miss Emily Ainslee, Mrs. R. E. Hendrix, N. J acobson, Glenn Pepper, Will Mea r e s and Thomas Maloy. Decla red t he Times: 'ft was the most spectacular and ent e rtaining event e\er held in St. Petersburg. The joy of the event was dampened only by the grief f elt by the audi ence ove r the sad fate o f the vic tims of the horri b le fire." The show netted a profit of $80. St. Petersb ur g witnessed its f i rst movies d uri ng the summer of 1901. Morchants raised a fund to havethe m s hown by Bet gart & Avil es. A pl ay was given every Monday night during August, t he pictures being { l ashed on a curtain lowered from the second f loor of the Wood block. In addition to the one reelers, there were illustrated songs. An $80 bronze fountain was installed in July, 1901 on a corner of the Detroit Hotel grounds b y the Loyal 'l'e mperanc e Un ion to premote temper ance The water was cooled by icc kept in a box built in the foundation. The town fathers negl ected t o supply ice for the f ountain. however, and t he t emperance ad vo ca tes comp l ai ned that apparently St. Petersburg wanted to advertise to the world that it preferred liquor to water.

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124 THE STORY OF ST. PETf:RSBURC St.. Petersburg's first tourist was organized by winter residents from Illinois January 1, 1902, at a meeting called by Capt. J. F. Chase, the Rev. J. P. Hoyt, and M. Arter. Arter was elected president. Two weeks later tourists from the New England states formed a similar organization with th e Rc.v, Hoyt as dent. Meetings were held regularly by both so c .idies for the r emainde r of the winter As late as 1902, hunting was extremely good on the Jowc.t peninsula. In 19 days' hunting during February and March, two winter visitors from Ann Arbor, Michigan, bagged 484 quail. St. Petersb urg's first city directory, p ublis h e d by t he 'l'imes Pub lishing Co. early in 1904, showed there were 2,227 men, women and children in the city, a gain of 652 o'er the 1900 federal census figure of 1,6 75. Before the directory was published, the avenues of St. Petersburg were renamed by the city council, Sixth avenue becoming Central avenue and other avenues being named as they are at present. Street names we. re not changed. Carpenters' Union Local No. 531, organized April 7, 1900, with 27 charter members, announced on February 6 1904, that it had succeeded in getting carpen ters' wages raise. d from $1.75 for a ten hour day in 1900 to $2 50 for an e ighthour day in 190 4. Officials of the union said they soon would demand $8 for an eight-hour day. Many St. Petersburg people said they were convinced that if the increase were granted, all building activities wo u ld stop .,The are killing the goose that lays the golden egg," warned Irate Contractor in the Times. The E. H Tomlinson 'residence on Fourth street south was purchased by Congressman Joseph C. S i bley, of Pennsyl vania, on April 8, 1906. Sibley lived in St. Petersburg a number of years and took a keen interest in the various activitie$. A hotel register published b y the Times on November 25, 1905, showed that the hotels could then accommodate 675 guests, as follows: Detroit, 100 ; Manhattan, 100; Colonial, 150; Huntington, 100; Wayne, 75; Chatuagua, 60; Paxton House 50, and B elmont 50. For some unknown reason, the Central hotel, which then had about 40 rooms, was not included in t he list. Perhaps the owners of the Central were not advertisers. The Manhattan Hotel, opened late in 1905, was an enlargement of the Williams Hmansion." St. Petersburg's early subdividers and developers, who didn't believe in wasting any more land on streets than possible, were criticised by the Times December 2, 1905. Stating that the new additions did not confotm to ths original city plan and plat, the 'times said: "Our map is getting to loo k more and more like a crazy-quilt pattern and that fact will eause us chagrin in future years. All because private interests, always and everywhere looking out for No 1, are permitted by city council to do about as they please with matters that really concc rn the public more than anyone else." Chief of Police J. J. Mitchell was murdered by a Negro whom he had arrested on Christmas day, 1906. A crowd quickly gathered, surround e d the jail-and a few minutes later, the Negro was killed, just how and by whom was revealed. No mention of the murder, or what happened thereafter, wa s made in the newspap ers Four months later a grand jury investiga tio n was ordered by the circuit judge, but the findings of the-grand jury were never published--in St. Petersburg. New f ire apparatus, ordered by the cit>.,. council some tim e previously, arrived dur .. ing the week of May 26, 1906. It consisted of a hook and ladder tr. uck, a steam f ire engine, a chernical engine, and a new fire hose. The offer of the Woodmen of t h e \Vorld to organize a f ire department was accepted and J. Frank Chase was elected chief and Will Longman, assistant chief. The Independent, established as a weekly on March 3, 1906, by Willis B Powell, began publishing daily on Novem ber 3, 1907. A year later Powell wrote: uone year ago we began this paper with man>.,. misgivings. It was started with the jdea of a 'tourist daily' to run only during the winter months but as the su mmer proaehed, the demand for its eontinuance was too great to resist and, shutting our eyes, we waded into the six long summer months to sink or swim. We swum! ... One year ago we starwd with $6.15 worth of advertising and less than 150 subscribers. Today the advertising is close

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 125 to $20 and the subscription list is 550. The Daily is a fixture in St. Petersburg and there would be a loud wail i f i t were discontinued." Tho most spec tac ular fire in the histor y of the city occurred W cdnesday night, December 18, 1907, when the Colonial Hotel burned to the ground The f lames were visible for m ile s The fire was first seen shortly after m i dnight b y C. S. Tur ner who gave the alarm. The siren a t the the water plant was blown and the f ire bell rung. Crowds gathered from every where. 1'he vo luntee r firemen quickb' re sponded but by the time they got their hose connec t ed, the large wooden structure was doomed. A. W Fisher and Clarence Len eave entered t he building and groped their way through the smoke-fille1i corridors to the room of C. W. Baxter, t he owner, on the second floor They awaken e d him and he hurr i edly threw on a few clothe s and e scaped without injury, but all his posses sions were lost.. The f iremen confined their efforts to sowing the home s of Mrs. H. N. Peake, L. A. Howard, A H. Davis and L H. Strum. The l oss was esti mated at $40,000 A shoft time afte r this fire, the volunteer department was disband ed and t he city got a paid force, with George W. Anderson as chief. He was appointed May 14, 1908, and served until his death Octobe r 1 2, 1912. The Hollenbeck Hot el, now known as the Bever J y, was Decembe r 21, 1907. It was built on the site of the old Livingston Hotel, built by Col. B. L L iv ingst on i n 1897. The inn was moved t o Sc-eond avenue north and became part of the original Allison Hotel. Sewers were laid thfoughout the cit y during the summe r o f 1907 a t a cost of $13,277.26 Much of the work was poorly done and the city late r had to dig up many of the mains, c l ean them ou t and relay them. The contractor was sued but the case dragged i n the courts for years. The outcom e of the sui t has been lost in the mists of time. Officer E. A. George was kill ed by a drunken Italian named Neve Abramo on September 16, 1908 Arrested as a va grant, Abramo had been taken to the city p ris on. While bei n g p l aced in a cell, he grabbed George s gun and s ho t h im. Of ficer Hoton Belcher opened the doo r of the c ell and went in. Four shots were heard by t he crowd whic h had gather ed No one worried about being run down by traffi c on Centra l avenue ba<:k in the good old days o f 1906 -but some people complained about the street cars making lots of no i se.

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126 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Belcher came out uninjured. Abramo was dead. In June, 1909, Salt Lake now known as Lake Maggiore-dried up for some un known reason, leaving nothing but a muck poo l a hundred feet wide and !our hundred fee t long. The alligators and turtles fled and thousands of fish died. A month later, on_ July 8, nine inche-S of rain f0ll and the lake was filled to overfl owi n g. A movement to make St. Petersburg a Hsin-less" city was launched by some of the Protestan t min isters in February, 19 10. They unanimously adopted resolu tions inveighing against the e"ilS of card playing, dancing, intoxication and cigaret smoking. uwe deplore the increasing use of tobacco and cigarets by our youth and children,'' they said, 41believing that the use of tobacco in any form is unnecessary expensive and harmful .... We ask that the sign on a cigar store on Central ave .. nue, which is considered disgraceful and even blasphemous, reading 'You had better smoke here than hereafter,' be removed by t he counc.il or public protes t." The 1910 federal census figures, re 1 eased in August, gave St. Petersb urg' s popu1ation as 4,127, as eompa r ed with 1,676 in 1900. 'fhe report caused much criticism f rom St. Petersburg boosters who insisted that the city was much larger. Gulfport was incorporated as a town at a meeting of the residents held Wednes day night, October 12, 1910, in the Gulf Casino. Of the thirty-eight residents i n the territory, thirty were Rev. J. P. Hoyt presided. Twenty-three voted for inco r porat io n and seven against. E. E. Wintersgili was elected mayor; S. J. Webb, clerk; John C. White, marshal, and A. C. Stefanksi, H C. Slauter, Henry \Vithers, Joshua lhrhite and L. M \Vintersgi11, councilmen. A s a result of pet$istent agitation by Blue Sunday advocates, the city council on November 10, 1910, authorized the city attor:ney to -draw up an ordinance prohibiting the sale of all ki nds of iner chandise on Sundays except prescriptions o1dered by physicians. "This will be a severe blow to people who are compelled to purchase their meals on Sunday," said a facetious Independent report-er, Has they will have to eat enough Saturday night to la s t until Monday morning." At the next meeting, the council killed the ordinance by a four to one vote. Pinellas County w as born on Tuesday, November 14, 1911, when the division bill passed by State Legislature during t he se. ssion of 1911 was ratifie. d by a vote of 1,879 to 505. Ali the streets of St. Petersburg were filled with a joy ful crow d celebrating the
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THE STOR Y O F ST. PETERSBURG 127 Pe tersburg was founded, be had man y patients in town Hi s deat h was mourned b y t he entire c qm m u nlty. St. Petersburg g o t i t s first white way ligh t s during the summer of 1912, the first whi t e way pole b e i ng I nstalled on April 11, 1 9 12, in fron t o! Noe l A Mitchell' s offic e a t F ourth and Central During t h e next two m ontha the eystem was eXten ded from Se<:ond street to Fifth. On a wa g e r made with D. W. B udd, George B Haines drove to Tampa on J une 11, 1912, in five h ours ond fifty-nine min utes Budd b e t him that a n autom o bil e c ou ld't get throu gh beeause o f t he heavy rain s and bad r o a d s, a nd H a ine s said he could make the tri p In six hours. He left at 11 in the morn ing, w ent over Long B a you on the railr oad treiJtle and arr i ved at t he Tribune office in Tampa with one minute t o spare. Police Chief A. J. Easters bore down on St. Petersburg's younpters November 14, 1912 He declared that they had been up to too much "devilment" and that, ther e after, he would rigorously enforce the c i ty's curfew l aw. He warne d t ha t t he wa ter works whistle woul d b o bl ow n e v erY night at 8 o'c l ock and that tr he caugh t any youngste t-s on the s t roots alter 8:15 he would tak e them t o t h e p o li c e stati on and hol d them until t h e i r parents came to get them-a nd g a ve t h em a pad d li n g. So far as k no w n he n e ver carried out hi s threat 'l' h e Pla z a Theatre, built b y Geo r ge Gand y, wa s op ened Monday n i g ht, Marc h 8, 1 918, with Cammaranos un Tr o va t o r e," p l a y e d by the Roya l I talian Com p a ny T he s i t e for the theatr e w ns p u r chased by Ga ndy from M rs. Anna E. Drew, who hnd a b<>arding house; Dr. H. A. M urphy, owner of th e C a rleton Hotel, and E. W Clark, who owned 80 feet on Central. The a nnoun c ed cost l or the entire oite was $34, 25 0. The completed theatre represente d a n i nvestment of a pp rox i mately $150,000, i t was stated. S ayin g that too much speculati on i n lots wa s i n j u r ing the busines s o l th e ci ty, a number o f real estate deal e r s too k steps on Februar y 12, 191 3 to limit a uction sn l es to one a w eek. St. Petersburg and t he rest o! Pinellas County went ''dry" f o r the first time on July 2 1913, when 778 peraon o in the county voted for prohlbiUon to 668 against it. St. Petersburg split even on the is s ue, 359 votes being east on both sid es. The saJoons were e losc.d on S atut'-" da y n ig ht, July 5 The ele ctio n was eo n test e d und after a bitter fight I n t h e courts it wa a dec lared illegal on Octob e r 13 H ow e ver licen s es were-refused to the sal oo n keepers and th e sal oons we r e not opene d !...,===;;;;:-;;:-;;"" --..... ..._ __ H = La Plaz a Theatre and office buildi ng na they looked in 1 914.

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128 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG again until March 4, 1914, after ano ther election bad been held on February 3 and the wets won, 902 to 798. The Davis package law was passed by the State L e gis lature in 1915 and the last saloon closed i n St. Petersburg, voluntarily, during the summer of 1917. From then until after rep eal of the E ighteenth Amendment no liquor was sold in S t P eters burg except by bootleggers. The Spa, St. Petersburg's first modern bathhouse, was completed late in 1913. Bradford A. Lawrence, the owner, ployed T. J Row land, of New York, to serve as the first swimming i nstructor. A lease to cons t ruc t the bathhouSe on the North Mole had been granted t o Lawrence by the city council on June 19, 1913. Under the terms of the lease Lawrence was to pay $500 a year from 1918 to 1917 $750 a year for 1917 and 1918, and $1,000 a year from 1919 to 1923 The buildings were to revert t o the ctiy at the end of ten years Lawrence secured a new lease on much more favorable terms for him self, about a year later and wlien th e city wanted the property, it had to pay $160,-000 t o get it. Edward F. Sherman, a tourist. was mur dered on November 11, 1914, at his home at Johns Pass Road and Twenty-ninth street by t wo Negroes. Mrs. Sherman was beaten until sh e was unconscious. John F. E\'ans, a Negro accused of the crime, was t aken from the jail on t he follOwing night by a mob and hung fro m a telephone pole-at Ninth street and Second avenue south. Ebenezer T obin, another Negro arrested, was taken to Tampa by the auth orities for safe-keep ing. He was tried in Clearwater on September 1 7, 1915, f ound guilty of murder in the first degree and was hung October 22 Southland Seminary, located on the north s ide of Coffee Pot Bayou, was opened in the fall of 1915. Land for t he school was donated by C Perry S n ell and J. C. Hamlett, February 17, 1914, wit h the und erstanding that buildings costing at least $25,0 0 0 be erected. Dr. E. L. Stevens was pre siden t of. the seminary, Mrs Stevens v icepresident and supcrin tendent, and Ethel McCoy, s ecretary. The schoo l operated for two years and had about fifty student s enrolled. Because of war conditions, the seminary closed in the spring of 1916 and the property was sold to the St. Petersburg Investment Com pany, a concern then headed by H. Walter F uller. When the company collapsed, the ptoperty was sold to the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons for $90,000, on May 14, 1918, and the buildings were converted into a home for members' widows and orphans. Forty business men in December, 1916, signed petitions asking for the r e peal of the o rdinance proh ibiting movies The petition was tabled by the city com mission on Decembe r 22 f or fear of a ugeneral uprising." During 1918, St. Petersburg, like all other cities throughout the coun try, sub ordinated a ll things to the main task or winning World War I. Hundreds of St. Petersburg rrien joined various branches of th e armed services. The solution of eivic problems was delayed until the war e n ded and work on c ivic improvements was delayed. Sixteen St. Petersburg men died w hil e in service. 'l'hey were: Lewis N. Brantley, Clyde Crenshaw, George Dona lds on Griffin, Edward T heodore Hall, J ames Abel Johnson, George Harold Myers, James Clyde McCraven, Harry J. Newkumet, Wesly Nobl e William Foster Ne. well, Seymour Andrew J'restwood, St-ewart D Ramsaucr, Lawrence M Tate, Paul 0 Webb, Carey Herriott (co lored), and Cha rles Hargray, Jr. (colored). The phenomenal growth of St. Peters burg during the second decade of the century was shown by the 1920 federal census which gave the city's population as 14 ,237, as compa red with the 1910 federal census figure of 4 ,127. St. Petersburg had laid aside its swaddling elothes and become a hustling, bustling cit y. But its perio d o greatest growth was just ahead.

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CI-IAPTER 8 DURING THE TURBULENT TWENTIES THE BIG FLORIDA BOOM of the 1920s, that strange phenomenon which wrought miracles before the bubble burst, came as a direct aftermath of World War I. Because of the bloodshed, and suffering, and devastation in war-torn Europe, Florida got multi-million dollar developments, magnificent hotels, thousands of fine homes, modern schools, good roads, and countless other improvements it had never dreamed of getting. Ironic? Yes, but true! During the winter of 1913-14, the Un ited States began to go into another economic tailspin. Venture capital began going into hiding. Factories began to close. Farm prices sagged. Unemployment steaaily increased. By the early summer of 1914 almost everyone believed the country was headed for another dread depression. In St. Petersburg, development work came almost to a standstill. The lively real estate market of the preceding two years died a sudden death. Building operations practically ceased. No one knew what to expect next. Then on St. Vitus Day, June 28, 1914, a Serb student killed Arch duke Francis of Austria and his wife in Sarjevo, Bosnia. His blazing gun provided the spark which exploded the European powderkeg. A month later, Russian troops invaded Germany and German troops in vaded France. World War I had started! Huge orders for munitions, clothing, food-everything needed by warring nations-began pouring into the United States. By late fall, the coun try was booming. Factories began working overtime; anyone who wanted a job could f i nd one. Wages soared. So did retail sales. Almost everyone prospered. For nearly three years it appeared as though the United States could enjoy all the "benefits" of war without paying any penalties. But when Czar Nicholas of Russia abdicated, on March 15 191 7 and his country ceased to be a factor in the conflict, the entrance of the. United States into the war became inevitable-and war against Germany was declared just three weeks later. Then came the era of multi-billion dollar federal budgets . Huge government expenditures. Unheard of prices for farm products Factory workers got fat pay envelopes. Industrialists and financiers made

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130 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG millions. Bank deposits throughout the country climbed to an a ll -time peak. The public's reservoir o f capital was filled to overflowing. For the first t ime in the nat ion's hi s t ory, everyone-or almost everyone -had mo ney to spend. Plenty of money The small fry splurged by buying $14 shirts and $5 meals. The "wise boys" plunged in the stock market and cleaned up as the price of securities soared. 'fhe "conservatives", wary of Wall Street, bought land, "the safes t investment." 1\Jore and more people now had money to travel. For years they had heard about the Sunny South and glamorous F lorida. Now they could venture forth and see what Florida really was like. The beginning of the Big Boom was deceptivel y slow. In fact, no one realized a boom had started. But it most certainly had. Each winter the number of tourists increased, even after the United States entered the war and railroad traffic was s n arled. The tourists .came regardless. And t h en, after the armistice, the stream of touris t s became a torrentand so on a f lood The first definite indicatio n that a boom was in the making came in the f all of 1919 with the invasion of Florida by a h o rde of motor tourists. Shiny l imousines bumped fenders with dilapidated flivv ers; sophisticate d urbanites rubbed e l bows with country "hicks." All roads leading south. were crowded. M ill ions of northerners had purchased their first cars during the warnow they had a good chance to use them to see strange land s So they headed toward Florida. Despite slip-pery, clutching mud and cavernous ruts, they came. They came! The motor tourists made up only one divi sion of the invading tourist army. Other sun lovers came in palatial yachts, and in private railroad cars. Thousands of less affluent fol k s came by P u llman and day coach. Every southbound train was packed solid. The railroads had to put on specials -and even then every berth was sold week s in advance. Had there been ai rlines in those days, the skie s probably would have been filled with planes. The brief depression of 1921 affected F lorida not at all! The tour ists came regardless. And the winter of 1922-23 brought a recordbreaking crowd. Every resort c ity was filled to overflowing. The invading t o urists dumped millions and mill i ons o f dollars into F lorida. Not only for food and lodging but for homes. And land on which t h e y could build and thereby be sure o f having a place to live The Florida boom was o n -in earnest! The boom was accelerated by the magic of reai estate profits. Thousands of tourists made enough money by buying lots one year and selling them the next to pay all the expenses of their winter vacation s. And p lungers who bought b usiness propertie s, acreage, or blocks of Jots in well-located subdivisions reaped golden harvests.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 131 Returning North, they spread the word about the wonderland of F lorida where fortunes could be made while basking in the s u nshine. Like an epidemi c the "Florida fever" spread throughout the natio n. Speculators, as well as tourists, began flocking here from every state. With them came an army of real estate salesmen, the "knickerbocker boys" of high-pressure fame-the whoopla lads who stopped at nothing to m ake sales. Yes,the Florida boom was on-in a ll its fury! But let's backtrack and see what S t Petersburg was doing in the days at the end of World War I. The Davis Empire Collapses When the armistice was signed in November, 1918, St. Petersburg celebrated long and joyously because its servicemen soon would be back home again. But the city had no cause for celebrating because of unusual community prosperity. No one k n ew that a boom was in the offing-and the future looked none too bright. Photo not available

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132 THE S TORY O F S-r. PETERSBURG Win t e r visirors had kept coming to St. Pet e rsburg during the war, true enough, but their minds were on the war which was raging seas. They were in n o mood for f r ivoli ties-or for investing in real estate. As a result, St. Petersburg kept its mu nicipal head above wa t e r but i t did not thrive. Early in the war the city had been deal t a hard blow from which it had not recovered by the time the war ended-the collapse of the ,Davis empire, that strange conglomeration of companies fathered by F. A. Davis, of Philadelphia, which had given St. Petersburg its el e ctric light plant, its trolley line, its electric pier, a n d had 'financed real e state dev elopments all ove r the lower p e ninsula. The Davis companies; controlled from 1909 on by H. Walter Fuller, the largest stockholder, had gone heav ily inro debt during 1912 and 1 913 to finance developments in the Wes t Central section, at Gulfport and Pass-a-Grille. And in 1914 they were fo r ced to borrow a large sum to build a new, vitally-needed electric light plant. Then, during the war, when the companies no longer could sell lots in their developments, mortgages began coming due. Interest payments could not be made on outstanding bond s The financ ial condition of the companies gradually became more precarious-and in Ocrober, 1917, the crash came. A meeting of c r editors was held in St. Petersburg and officials announced that the debts of the various companies rotaled more than $2,000,00Q. The compani es' assets were given as $4,200,000 but most of the assets consisted of properties which could not be readily com'erted into cash . Auction sales of West Central lots were held in February, 1918, but the sales brought in only $100,000 just a small fraction o f the amount needed. A few other properties also were sold-but the companies could not weather the storm. On April 7, 1919, the trolley line was bought at forced. sale by Jacob Disston, of Philadel phia, and Warren Webster and Horace F N ixon, of Camden, N. J., for $165,000. They held mortgages totaling $250,000. It was rumored that the new own ers intended to ''junk" the entire traction system so they could get some of their money back. St. Peters burg became alarmed-badly alarmed. For the first time, perhaps, the true value of the old Davis t rolley lines was fully appreciated. Business men and the public generally began to realize that if the service sropped, the city would be paralyzed. The city did not want to go into the transit business-but it was forced to do so. A meeting of city officials and the new owners held in Philadelphia on June 30, 1919 and the ci t y secured an option on the properties. On the day following, the city began operating the system. The plan to keep the lines operating as a municipal enterprise

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 133 met with public approval. On August 30, 1919, the city voted 350 to 103 in favor of a $250,000 bond issue, $175,000 of which was for the purchase of the properties and $75,000 for improv e ments, including $22 500 for c ar equipment and $28,500 for track construction. And so St. Petersburg became the sole owner of the. transit system. The complete collapse of the Davis empire during the war put St. Petersburg in a pessimistic mood. i\iany local people connected with the various Davis companies suffered heavy financial losses :Moreover, the companies had operated in the city longer than most of the inhabitants could remember and had becom e part and parcel of St. Petersburg. When the companies died, one after anoti:)er, it was as though old friends had passed away. However, the city's pessimism began t o fade when the winter of 1918-19 brought a record number of tourists, far more than had ever come to St. Petersburg before. And this time the minds of the winter visitors were not distracted by war. The tourists came to have a good Photo not available

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134 THE STORY OF ST. PTERSBURC time-and they did. What was more important, they were in a spending mood. 1'hey invested heavily in real estate. Millions of dollars of "new money" poured into the city. St. Petersburg began to prosper. With prosperity came optimism. This was indicated on November 12, 1919 when the voters approved by a three to one majority, bond issues totaling $100,000 for public improvements. Once more the people of St. Petersburg were planning for the future-and authorizing the expenditure of money for improvements which would make future growth possible. During the six years which followed, voters were called upon an average of twice a year to pass on more bond issues, for ever-increasing amounts, for all kipds of improvements-waterworks, gas plant, parks, se.wers, white way lighting, recreation pier harbor, municipal transit system, and so on and on. Millions of dollars worth. More each year than had been approved in all the years from the time the town was founded until the Big Boom began. The city of St. Petersburg went on a spending spree unlike anything it had ever had before. Out on The Kers An event of almost epochal importance to St. Petersburg occurred on February 4, 1919. On that day, the first bridge connecting the mainland with a key along the gulf was opened to the public. It was a toll bridge and had been built by W. D. McAdoo, owner of the north half of Long Key, which he was developing as St. Petersburg Beach. The Pass-a-Grille Bridge, as it was called, was hailed by the people of St. Petersburg. Now, the beautiful, sparkling gulf beaches were brought within a half hour's drive of the center of the city. The real development of Long Key, or as it is called, Pass-a-Grille Island, began with the completion of the bridge but the development had started, long, long before. No one knows when the island was first inhabited. When the first settlers came to lower Pinellas Peninsula, nearly a hundred years ago, they found on the island an ancient well, walled up with shells. Perhaps the well had been dug by pi rates, perhaps by Spanish explorers, perhaps by Cuban fishermen-one guess is as good as another. When found, the well had become partially filled with sand. It 'vas cleaned out and re-opened in 1857 by John Gomez of T1tmpa, who built tables and benches and took parties there in his boat for excursions. That was 90 years ago. Hence, it is safe to say that Pass-a-Grille is one of the oldest island resorts in a ll Florida. The origin of' the name Pass-a-Grille is obscure. Sonie maintain that the word is Spanish for "over the bar." But the name is generally accepted as being of French origin, meaning "La Pass-aux-Grillards,"

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TliE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC 135 or "Pass-of-theGrillers." This is said to refer to the fact that in the earl y days f ishermen stopped near the pass to cook meals-hence, the "grille"broiling. If that's the case feastiQg on the island must have been quite popular a long, long time ago because map-makers recorded the as 'Pass-aux-Grillard" as earl y as 1841. Through use, the name became shortened to its present Americanized form. The island, which is five miles long, was first. settleq in 1884 by Capt. Zephaniah Phillips and h i s family. Captain Phillips, who was born in Toronto, Canada, had come to the United States when a child and had fought in the Civil War. He came to Florida for his health and was directed by friends to Disston City. Soon afterward he visited Long Key and decided to homestead there. For two years he a n d his family lived in a tent pitched among the palm trees. In the fall of 1886 he bu i lt a home with lumber brought from Pensacola by sailboat. He named the lower end of the is land Pass-a-Grille, after the name of the pass. In 1892, Captain Phillips sold forty acres on the south end of the island to Dr. Gustave P Gehring, of Washington, D.C ., who planned to build a sanitarium and a hotel. Financial reverses upset the doctor's plans and he sold the property to Roy S. Hanna for $ 1 ,000. Hanna did not have that much money of h i s ow n to spare so he got several friends to go in with him on the deal. He raised the last $400 needed from S. R. :Morey, of Tampa. The tract was p latted and recorded September 18, 1895 as ":Morey's Beach", but the name didn't stick. The lower end of the island co ntinued to be known as Passa-Grille. Photo not available

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136. 'l'HE STORY OF ST. PETERSBU RG -i\,n attempt was made in October, 1895, to auction off the lots. :Morey insisted that if the Spaniards and Cubans of Ybor City could see the island, they would buy the lots without hesitating. So an excursion was arranged. Hanna induced a group of St. Petersburg. women to help by cooking a big fish dinner. Two schooners were hired to bring the ex cursionists. A $300 dock was built for the boats to land. The excur sionists were supposed to arrive before noon but they didn't come until 6 p.m. As soon as the boats docked, the excursionists-a thousand of them-rushed ashore, grabbed hands full of food, then undressedcompletely-and ran for a swim in the gulf. They weren't corralled until after dark, too late for the auction to be held. Not a lot-was sold. Hanna and his associates later divided the lots among themselves. The first hotel at Pass-a-Grille, called the "Bonhomie", was built in 1901 by George Lizotte who had gone there two years before to make his home. The "Bonhomie" soon became famous for its delicious dinners and the number of Lizotte's guests increased year after year, making several enlargements of the hotel necessary. Pass-a-Grille began to forge ahead in 1905 when the St. Petersburg & Gulf Electric Railway extended its tracks to Gulfport and purchased a launch to carry island-bound passengers the remainder of the way. The launch maintained a schedule of several trips a day and the service thus provided enabled people who worked in St. Petersburg to live at Pass-a Grille, if they so desired. One of those who did desire to commute occasionally was W. L. Straub, editor of the Times. He had a cottage at Pass-a-Grille where he spent almost all his spare time. He began plugging for a free bridge to the island. H. Walter Fuller, who then had large holdings on the island, also waa a free-bridge advocate and he agreed to pay half the cost if the county would pay the other half. The county commissioners were persuaded to fall in step and tax levies were made in 1916 to 1917 to raise the county's portion. When the money was apparently assured, Straub waged a campaign for a road and bridge district to build a nine-foot brick road the entire length of Pass-a-Grille island. A bond issue for $100,000 was voted, the bonds sold and the contract let. Meanwhile, Fuller went broke and could not meet his commitment to build the bridge. H o wever, the county went ahead with its road bridge or no bridge. The contractor barged brick across the bay and the roa'd was completed-a road which went nowhere and had no connection with the mainland. During the next two years it was used only by the lone motor vehicle on the island-an old, dilapidated one-cylinder Cadillac milk truck, owned by Silas Dent. Probably it was the least used road in all Florida. McAdoo, who had purchased the north half of the island which Fuller once owned, took up the bridge building where Fuller had l eft

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSDURC 137 off and, without countY aid, completed it in 1919, making it a to ll bridge. And after the bridge was opened, the real growth of the island resort o f Pass-a-Grille began. A Hurricane Strikes On Tuesday, October 25, 1921, St. Petersburg experienced the worst storm in i ts history-a hurricane. Only three others which swept the West Coast were known to have compared with it in intensity. One was in 1848 when there was little on the West Coast to be damaged; the second was in 1884, and the third in 1910 The hurricane of 1921, wo rse than any of the others except the 1848 storm, deve loped in the western Caribbean, swung aroun d the west end of Cuba, proceeded northward to t h e latitude of St. Petersburg, a n d then swung inward. The barometer fell to 28.81 by 2 o'clock Tuesday afternoon and the wind attained a recorded velocity of 68 m iles an hour. Gusts exceeded 100 miles. Water from the gulf was blown into Tampa Bay until it reached six feet above mean low tide at St. Petersburg. Piers that extended into the bay were partially destroyed and a n umber of small boats anchored in the yacht basin were wrecked or sunk. All communication lines were blown down and the city was isolated for hours from the outside world. The Pass-a-Grille and Semi n ole bridges were washed. out, the wooden planking being carried away by the high waters. Many Photo not available

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138 THE STORY ST. P &TERSBuRc plate glass windows were shattered and hundreds of build i ngs were u nroofed. O n e man died from shock during the storm and a youth was fatally injured when caught under a falling roof. People who lived in sections of St. Petersburg close to the bay experi enced many thrills as the water came in and overflowed their lawns, bu t their lives were never in danger Great excitement was caused when the storm was at its peak, by a report, published in a n extra editi o n of th' e T i mes that Pass a-G r ille had been "wiped out" with an estimated loss of life "from 15 to 150, with the resort under fi ve feet o f water. When a government ship reached t here o n W ednsday it was learned that not one person had been killed or injured and that property damage was negligible. W ithin two days after the storm, a plan was worked out by business men, led by Lew B. Brown, p u blisher of the I n dependen t to loan the city $18,000 for. rebuilding the recreation pier. The work was finished by January. The Pass-a-Grille Bri dge also was qui ckly repaired and re opened for traffic. The Seminole Bridge however, was not rebuilt until 1924 when the o l d wooden structure was repl aced by a concrete bridge. Although the hurricane did far less damage to St. Petersburg than often was done to northern cities by tornacloes or cyclones, the civ i c Jeade r s of St. Petersburg were afraid that news stories about the storm would be "bad publicity" and c u t dow n the number of w inter visitors. But the c i vic leaders were needlessly alarmed. Thousands of newcomers came to St. Petersburg that w inter just to see what damage had bee n do n e a n d when they could find no traces of storm damage they decided that the menace of hurricanes had been greatly exaggerated. Many' of those newcome r s bought properties and have continued coming to St. Petersburg ever since. 1'he Boom G(lther,l iHomentum The number of winter visito r s reached an alltime h igh during the winter of 1921-22. The tourists came early and they stayed late. The weather was i deal, with clear skies and warm sunshine all winter long, and when the tourists left in the spring they were loud in their praise of the S u nshine City Before they departed, hundreds bough t homes or lots on which they could build when they retu rned. As the demand for lots and houses increased, real estate va l ues climbed They contin ued to climb a ll through the summer of 192 2 Home folks who had been living in rented houses were forced by rapidly ascending rents to buy or b u ild ho u ses of their own. Others buil t houses and apartments t o rent or se ll to winter visitors. For the second consecu tive year, building permits during 1922 passed the $4,000,000 mark. To handl e the new construction a small army of building crafts men came to the city-carpenters, b r icklayers p lasterers, electric i ans

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 139 p l umbers, and painters. Also, great crews of common laborers were brought in to pave streets, lay water and sewer mains, work in the parks, and do a hundred and one other things involved in St. Petersburg's gigantic program of public then u nder way. All these workmen needed homes in which to live. A housing shortage began to develop, even during the summer months Because of growth, more growth was needed. So the building boom kept on booming. As the boom continued to gather momentum, it became more and more evident that everyone home folks and winter residents alike were becom in g specul a t ive l y inclined-willing to put o u t money in the hope of making big Convi n cing proo f of this was furnished in the fall of 1922 when a wh i rlwi n d sales campaign was conducted to f inance construction of the Gandy Toll Bridge across Tampa Bay. The Candy Bridge Is Built A tall, keeneyed h eavily bearded Philadelphian came to St. Petersburg in February, 1903, to l ook the city over before investing in a trolleiline then being planned by F. A. Davis. The newcomer was George S. Gandy, later known by everyone in St. Petersburg as "Dad" Gandy. He was a man of vision and he could see that the then-infant town of St. Petersburg had possibil itie s b i g possibilities-fo r developme n t. Photo not available

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140 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG So he invested heavily in Davis' proposed electric raHway, and in many other Davis companies as well. In Philadelphia, Gandy had been a transportation expert, devel oper, and builder. In St. Petersburg, Gandy took up where he had left off in P ennsylvania. He became president of the St. Petersburg & Gulf Electric Railway, the St. Petersburg Electric Light & Power Co., and the St. Petersburg Investment Company, all fathered by hi s friend Davis. In 1912, Gandy built the Plaza Theatre, the only modern theatre St. Petersburg had until boom days Many believed Gandy would lose heavily in the venture and for a year or two the Plaza was refen-ed to as "Gandy's White Elephant". But it turned out to be a most profitable investment--:.perhaps the best Gandy ever made. A few years later he turned his attention to a nother project, a far greater project-the construction of a bridge across the neck of Old 'fampa Bay to provide a short cut route between St. Petersburg an.d Tampa, cutting the distance between the tw o cities to 19 mites. The idea for such a bridge is reported to have originated about 1910 with R Walter Fuller, who had taken over the direction of the Davis companies. Fuller had issued a map of the Tampa Bay area to advertise the various land holdings and transportation enterprises o f the St. Petersburg Investment Company group, including a Tampa Bay steam ship line, the boat line to Pass-a-Grille, the street railway, the old Pass-a G rille hotel, the Southland Seminary buildings (now the. Masonic Home), and a dozen subdivisions. The land inc luded 11,000 acres in what is now the Gandy boulevard area. On the map, Fuller drew a dotted line in red ink, marking a pro posed street car line and bridge to Tampa Bay. His route was Ninth street north. Gandy immediately saw the possibilities of the idea. He and Fuller promptly incorporated three companies, the officers and directors being Gandy, his two sons AI and George, Fuller, and Fuller's son Walter. Gandy, a smart transportation man, promptly shifted the route to Fourth street. Survey crews were set to work to locate the most feasible bay cross ing. C. Paul Fuller, brother of H. Walter Fuller, secured the right of way. Gandy secured a permit from the War Department, a perpetual franchise from the state leg isla tu re, and fin a ncing fro m Stone & Webster, of Boston. A tie -in contract \va s made" with the Tampa Electric Company for street car term inals at the Hillsboro Courthouse square. The main thought of the promoters was street railway transpor tation, with automobile tolls as a secondary consideration. This explains a matter which later mystified many people-the rails on Gandy Bridge. The rails were laid because the franchise required them.

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TtiE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 141 By 1918 only one thing remained before work on the bridges could start--a permi t from the War Emergency Board headed by Bernard Baruch. In World War I, any civil ian construction project costing more than $250,000 required a certificate of necessity from Baruch's board. The Gandy application was turned down. A reapplication also was tui:ned down. The financial commitment from Stone & Webster was canceled, and the project was shelved for the duration. About this time the Fuller enterprises became involved in financial difficulties and Gandy bought out the Fullers for $500 and a small block of stock. Gandy Bridge might never have been built had i t not been for a short, stocky, determined fellow b rought to St. Petersburg by Gandy in September, 1922. He was Eugene M. Elliott, as clever a promoter as ever came to Florida. A man of mysterious background, he had the reputation of being abl e to sell anything. If the product had merit--fine; if it didn't have merit-well, "Gene" Elliott could sell it anyhow, and perhaps even faster. So said those who knew hi m, and they undoubtedly were not far wrong. Elliott introduced himself around St. Petersburg as the man who had "underwritten" the bridge. He hadn' t underwritten the cost of one piling in the structure. Even had he wanted t o he couldn't have. He Photo not available

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142 THE STORY OF ST. PwrERSBURG didn't have any money. Later he said he had to borrow the .money to get here. That was one .of the many periods in his life when he was "temporarily out of funds." To put over the Gandy Bridge, Elliott brought in a crew of highpowered salesmen. He hired expert publicity and advertising men. He put on a sales campaign like nothing St. Petersburg had ever seen before. Instead of merely extolling the merits of the bridge, Elliott "sold" Gandy to the public. And within 122 days Elliott s ucceeded in selling $2,000,000 worth of p referred Gandy Bridge stock and 66,666 shares of no-par value common stock. An old story relates that when the sales campaign was about half finished, Elliott strode into the office and announced: "Well, Dad, "We've hit the million mark!" Gandy nodded his head and said: "Yes, it won't be long now until we can.start work on the bridge." Elliott's jaw dropped. "What!" he gasped, "You're not really going to BUI L D, are you?" Finally convinced Gandy was sincere, Elliott was stunned. As soon as it became certain that all of the stock would be sold, Gandy started construction of the bridge. Or to be more e x act-the bridge and causeways; three and one-fourth miles of causeways and two and one-half miles of reinforced concrete bridge, twenty-two feet wide. Work was started lat e in 1922, and completed in the fall of 1924 . The bridge was officially opened with a big celebration Thursday, November 20, 1924. Florida's governor, Cary A. Hardee, untied a knot holding a rope of flowers stretched across the bridge while the governors of sixteen other states, city officials of St. Petersburg and Tampa, and a throng of distinguished citizens looked on-and cheered. "Dad" Gandy was the hero of the day. A public celebration was held in his honor that night in Williams Park and, a few hours later, a loving cup was presented to him by the Chamber of Commerce at a banquet in the Huntington Hotel. There's no doubt but that Gandy Bridge was an important factor in the growth of St. Petersburg. At the time it was completed, it was one of the longest bridges of its kind in the world and unnumbered thousands of winter visitors came to Tampa Bay to travel over it. Moreover, the bridge was publicized throughout the country, in newspapers, magazines and in the movies, and the publicity helped St. Petersburg greatly. What was even more important, however, was that the bridge made it easier for tourists to reach the Sunshine City. The shortest land route from St. Petersburg to Tampa was forty-three miles; Gandy Bridge reduced the distance to nineteen miles. A determined effort, spearheaded by the Chamber of Commerce and business men, was made in the early Forties to get the government to take over the bridge an.d eliminate the toll which by that time had

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 143 been reduced to thirty-five cents for car and driver and five cents for each passenger. Repeated appeals were made to Senator Claude Pepper to assist in the free-bridge drive. He did. Just before the primary elec tions in 1944, the bridge was taken over by the Federal government under provisions of the act which conferred war emergency powers upon the President. This action, 'tis said, re-elected Pepper. Gandy Bridge became a free bridge-at 1 :30 p. m., o n April 27, 1944. A jury fixed the price at $2,382,642. The common stock holders were paid $5 a share. A final liquidation payment was to be made later. The street car tracks on Gandy Bridge, which had been a mental hazard to motorists for more than two decades, were covered in August, 1947 when the State Road Department resurfaced the roadway. Davis Causeway was taken over by the state road department on !\larch 10, 1944, about six weeks before the federal government took over Gandy Bridge. The Davis Causeway, connecting link between Clearwater and Tampa, was started in 1927 by Capt. B. T. Davis and formally opened June 28, 1934. The price paid for the nine-mile causeway was $1,085,000, of which the Federal Works Administration paid half a nd the State Highway Department the remainder. Good Roads Come at Last Back in the days when automobiles were called "horseless car riages," Pinellas Peninsula was famous for its wish to God roads." They were so named because they had tw o sets of cavernous ruts through the clutching sand and when a motorist got in one set of the ruts, he always "wished to God" he had taken the other set. But even those roads were better than the roads the early pioneers had to put up with. At the t ime St. Petersburg founded there were only three roads on the entire lower peninsula. The oldest was the Old Tampa Road which meandered through the woods and around swamps and swales from the vic in ity of Safety Harbor down to the community of Pinellas on Big Bayou. It was blazed by Tampa cattl!!men who grazed their cattle on the point. Part of the way it followed the section line near what is now Ninth street. The second oldest road was one which cut across the peninsula from Pinellas to what is n o w Gulfport. It extended along the north side of Lake Maggiore. Part of this old road is now known as Lakeview avenue. The newest road was the one now known a-s Disston boulevardit led to the newly founded tow n of Disston City. These so-called roads were nothing more than trails, and very poorly developed trails at that. Not one of them could boast of a bridge--rivers and creeks had to be forded. All that the peninsula ever

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144 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSllURC got from Hillsborough County, of which it then was a part, was approxi mately ten miles of marl roads which were poorl y constructed and soon went to pieces A fter long per suasion the Hillsborough County commiss i o ners finally, on February 2, 1910, let a c ontract for the construc tion of Semi nole Bridge, to cost $10,000, after $2,500 had been raised in St. Peters burg by popular subscription. The bridge was comp leted i n August, 1911, and on September 12 it collapsed because of faul ty construction while a team of mules was being driven over it. It was not repaired until three year s later. The failure of Hillsboro u g h County to build roads on the peninsula was one of the main reasons Pinellas County was formed. And yet, even after the new county came. into existence, on November 14 1911, the good roads boosters had difficulty in getting through a goo d roads pro gram, due to opposi t ion from the upper end of the peni nsula. Not until December 3 1912, was a $350 ,0 00 bond iss u e for roads finally passed. With the money thus obtained, a system of marl roads was built. For a time they gave good service but before a yea.r had passed the rains played havoc with the marl surfacing and the roads became almost as bad as they had been before. A demand was made for brick roads and although the brick advocates were strenuously opposed by a faction which considered brick roads too ex pensive a $715 ,0 00 bond issue to build 73 miles of brick roads, nine feet wide, was. f inally approved November 15,1916. A few years after the system was completed it was seen that a m i s take had been made in constructing the roads only nine feet wide. The shoulder s could not be kept in good condition even though repairs were made constantly. And the traffic was becoming so heavy that roads wide enough for two cars to pass were essential. Practically everyone in the county agreed that a modern, extensive highway system s hould be buil t but there were sharp differences of opinion regarding the locati on of the ne.w proposed highways. Finally, however, a program acceptable to all sections 'of the coun t y was agreed upon and bond issues totalin g $2,86 3 000 for roads and bridges were approved June 5, 1923, by a six-to-one vote. At long last, Pinellas County had decided that the time had come to provide good roads for the motorists. The good roads boosters were jubilant. With the money obtained from the bo n ds, a hundred miles of ex cellent trunk line roads and badly needed laterals were buil t during 1924 and 1925. Two of the main trunk lines led to Gandy Bridge and were completed by the time the bridge was ope n eq. One of the trunks came out Fourth street and the other connected the bridge with Clear water. The Fourth street extension was called Gandy boulevard

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THE STORY Of' ST. PET\SBURG 145 Two bridges destroyed by the hurrican e of 1921 were rebuil t by the state in 1924, this time of reinforced concrete strong enough to withstand the strongest gales. t h e Seminole Bridge and Safety Harbo r Bri dge. Each bridge cost approximately $400,000 Co nstruction of the coun ty's system of main highways whetted the appetite o f Pinellas County people for s till more roads. To provide adequate connecting systems, eleven new special road a n d bridge dis tri cts were created-one had been c reated i n 1917 to build the brick road on Pass-a-Grille Island. During 1925 and 1926, the twelve districts voted $6,251,00 worth of bonds for approximat e l y 1 67 miles of high ways, as well as mahy bridges and three causeways connecting the mainland with the gulf beaches. The first causeway to be completed, t h e Welch Causeway, named i n honor o f Davi d S. Welch, originator of the p roject, was paid fo r out of a $25 2,000 bond issue approved by D istrict No. 2. I t was started in 1925 and opened for traffic July 4 1926. A $1,275 000 bond issu e to build a free causeway from the main land to Pass-a-Grille Island, replacing the toll bridge built in 1919 by W D. McAdoo, and also build roads a n d bridges linking Pass-a-G r il l e Island, Treasure Island and Sand Key, was authorized 1,043 to 110 at a n e l ection held Nove mber 1 3, 19 2 5. The causeway, named the Co rey Photo not available

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146 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Causeway in honor of County CommissionerS. J. Corey, was completed in 1927,.and so were the roads and bridges. The third causeway, linking Clearwater and Clearwater Beach, was authorized in 1925 and completed in 1926. Not all the good roads work, by any means, was done by the county and special road districts. During the boom years, every city and town in the county had record-breaking paving programs. St. Petersburg, for instance, spent $3,000,000 for paving in 1924 and $4,000,000 in 1925. while the boom las ted, St. Petersburg spent approximately $12,000,000 for paved streets. Many of these paved streets were badly needed but others were "out in the sticks", in and through sub-divisions which did not become settled until long years afterward. But that's a different story. Like a Mushroom the City Grew As though by magic buildings sprang up in St. Petersburg during the Big Florida Boom. Buildings of all kinds and for all purposes. Towering office buildings, luxurious hotels, fine apartment houses, modern schools, and thousands of homes. The skyline first began to change in 1922. During that year a $50 ,0 00 addition was built to the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, the seven story 85-room Ponce de Leon Hotel was constructed, the four-story Haines Building was erected for the Willson-Chase C o., and "far out" on Central avenue, at Seventh street, R. H. Sumner built his seven-story Sumner Building, now known a s the Professional Building. Everyone said Sumner was foolish to build so far away from the business center but in no time the business section had reached and passed him. In 1923. St. Petersburg got its first million-dollar tourist hotel, the Soreno. It was built by Soren Lund. Born in Denmark, Lund came to America when fourteen years old, went into the hotel business, and worked his way up from bell boy to manager and owner of six hotels. He came to St. Petersburg in 1910 and bought the Huntington Hotel from C. S. Hunt. In 1920, he sold the Huntington to J. Lee Barnes and decided to spend the rest of his life traveling. But, three months later, he was back in St. Petersburg. He bought the old Erastus Barnard homestead on Beach drive, built i n 1893, for $95,000, adjoining prop erties for $30,000, and started building the Soreno. Work was rushed day and night--under floodlights after dark-and the hotel was opened, with a celebration, January 1, 1924. Three more downtown hotels were completed during 1923-the Pheil, the Suwannee, and the Mason, now known as the Princess Martha. The Pheil had been started in 1916 by Abram C. Pheil, one of St. Petersburg's pioneer builders, but construction work was delayed, first

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THE STORY OF S T PETSBURC 147 by World War I and then by high prices of building materials. The structure, eleven stories high, cost far more than "Abe" Pheil had expected but he kept at it, putting into it every c ent he could scrape together. But he did not live to see the building finished-he died a year before the interior was completed. The Suwannee, now St. Petersburg's largest hotel which remains open the year round, was built by John N. Brown, a St. Petersburg "old timer" who came here in 1899 as a r ailro.ad express agent and became one of the city's leading citizens. The Suwannee was opened December 10, 1923. The Mason Hotel was built by a company headed by Franklin J. Mason, a native of New York state who came to St. Petersburg in 1920 for his health. A contractor by profession, Mason soon organized a building firm and in 1923 constructed seventy-four other buildings besides the Mason Hotel. It was reported that the site for the hotel, the northwest corner of Fourth street and First avenue north, cost $255,000-five years before, the site could have been purchased for one-fifth that amount. The hotel was reported to have cost $1,500,000. The hotel company was reorganized in 1926 and the name of the hotel was changed to the Princess Martha. Scores of apartment houses and literally thousands of homes were built during 1924. Also the Hall Building a t Fourth and Central. Building permits issued during the year totaled $9,557 500 $2,000,000 more than any other year in the city's history. In 1925, St. Petersburg really went on a building binge. Here are just a few of the major buildings erected during that year: the Vinoy Park, Rolyat, Pennsylvania Dennis and Jungle Country Club hotels; the West Coast Title Building, now the First Federal Building; the Pinellas Power Office Building, now the Florida Power Building; the Y. M. C. A. Building, St. Petersburg Times Building, .the Famous Players Theatre Building, now the Florida Theatre Building, and the J. Bruce Smith Building, now the Empire Building. Also, large additions were made to the First National Bank and Central National Bank Buildings. The Vinoy Park Hotel, recognized as the finest on the West Coast of Flol'ida, was built at a reported cost of $3,500,000 by a company headed.by Aymer Vinoy Laughner, a wealthy oil man of Pennsylvania. The s ite for the hotel was the old homestead of Charles Braaf and took in the entire block between Fifth and Sixth avenues north, on the waterfront. To get the land he wanted for the 350-room structure, Laughner had a long and sometimes bitter fight with city officials. He wanted to make a fill out 1,800 feet into Tampa Bay; city officials frowned at a fill longer than 600 fee t. Finally, a compromise was made on a 1,200footfill. The North Yacht Basin was dredged out while the fill was being made. The Vinoy Park was opened in January, 1926.

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148 THE STORY O F ST. PETERSBURG The Rolyat Hotel was built by Pasadena Estates, Inc., the presiden t of which was Jack Taylor. "Rolyat", incidentally, is Taylor spelled back ward. The hotel, acclaimed as one of the most beautiful in the entire South, was opened in January, 1926. It now is the home of the Florida Military Academy. The Jungle Club Hotel, built by the Allen-Fuller Company in conjunction with the development of the exclusive Jungle subdivision, is now the home of the Admiral Farragut Academy. 1925 marked the zenith o f the building boom. Building permits that year soared to the unbelievable peak of $23 005,000 That repre sented twice as much new building as had been done in the entire history of St. Petersburg from 1888, the year the town was founded, up to 1920! At the peak of the building boom, the railroads declared an embargo on freight shipments to Florida. Thousands of freight cars had become jammed up at bottleneck junction points and, in an attempt to unsnarl the tangle, the railroads put a ban on further shipments. But even the embargo did not stop St. Petersburg's bqilders. The Port of St. Petersburg had just been opened so the builders began having their shipments sent by water. During one week in December, 1'925, twenty-two docked at the port, and b u ilding materials were piled in small mountains on the docks. The building boom held ove r well in 1926. During that year the building permits totaled $15,720 ,0 00 That was $8,685,000 Jess than the year before but, even so, it was the second highest total in the city's history. During that year, C. Perry Snell started his Snell Arcade, lauded as the most artistic building in Florida. The arcade, located o n the northwest corner of Fourth and Central, was completed in 1928. It is now known the Rutland buil ding. y The Don Ce -Sar, another architectural gem, was tluring 1927 at a cost of $i,400,000. The 312-room hotel was built by Thomas J. Rowe, a native of Cambridgeport, Mass. and named by Rowe after Don Caesar de Bazan, the principal male character in the musical opera "Mariana." During World War II the hotel was used by the government as a convalescent home for injured army fliers. Help Build the City There were gamblers i n St. Petersburg during the boom days. Big gamblers. They did not gamble at dice, or cards, or on horses They gambled on the future of St. Petersburg. In the confident belie f that the city's growth wou l d conti nue, faster than it had ever grown before, they spent all the money they had-and all the money they could borrow. :Many of them lost everything. But regardless of whether they won or lost they left their imprint on St. Petersburg.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 149 Had i t not been for the gamble rs, St. Petersburg today would not have its fine hotels and office buildings, its scores of apartment houses and business blocks. The builders of all t hose sttuctures took a chance, and even though Fate was unkind to many of them, the buildings mained, and helped immeasurably in making St. Petersburg the modern city it is today. .. Foremost among the gamblers were the men who promoted the mul t imillion dollar developments-Snell Isle, Pasadena, Lakewood Estates, the Jungle, and Shore Acres. Snell Is l e, as well as practically all the other North Shore developments, was fathered by C. Perry Snell; Pasadena, by Jack Taylor; Lakewood Estates, by Charles R Hall; the Jungle, by Walter P Fuller, and Shore Acres, by N.J. Up ham. Those men were the leaders-the b iggest plunge r s They cut the pattern which others fol lowed all through the boom. These men were as different from one another as any five men could possibly be-in appearance and in background. But they had a number of things in common. They a ll had unbounded faith in St. Petersburg; they all loved the city, and they all believed in doing things in a big way. They were not "penny ante" boys; they played a no-limit game. Furthermore, they believed in playing the game until it ended. All of them could have "cashed in" during 1 925 and made fortunes. But they were not quitters. Not one of them! Photo not available

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150 THE STOI\Y OF ST. PETERSBURG Collectively, they s pen t m illions of dollars i n the d eve lopment of t heir p r oper ties The y opened, hard-surfaced and beautifi e d hundreds of mile s o f streets; they co n structe d g olf courses; they built h otel s, club houses a n d h undt e d s of fine hom es. '!'he y gave St. Petersburg its finest resi dentia l sections. Because of Jack Taylor, St. Petersburg today has the Florida lllil itary Academy, housed in the Rolya t H otel buildi ng, which Taylor built Because of Fuller, the city has the Admiral Farragut Academ y, located i n the Jungle Country Club Hotel building. Becau se of Hall, the city has the Lakewood Country Club, with its club h ouse and golf course, both owne d now by a private club. Because of Snell, St. Pete rsburg has the North Shore district of fine homes the S u nset Golf Course, and b eautiful parks. Uph a m 's de ve l opm e nt, Shore Acres, lies in the path of the g row i ng North Shor e section and has features whi c h i n evitabl y will result in its fu rther devel o p ment in years to come. The fiv e l eaders had scores of followers during the boom days; men who spent more millions in the dev elopment of other properties, in other sections of the city. Practically all of them were gamblers--plung ers. Man y left developments which have become an asse t to St. P eters burg. Others h owever, were "boom time boys" who were no t true de velope r s at h eart. They opened subdivisi ons which cou l d not conc eivabl y becom e b uil t up for years and years. Skyward Go the Pri ce s From the end of Worl d War I up to the winter o f 1922 -23, there was a slow b u t steady rise in realty val ues in St. Petersburg. Nothin g spectacular-just an increase j ustified by the city's rapiq growth. Lots in the o l der sectio ns of t h e city and in newly opene d subdivisions were bought a lmost entirely by people who wanted them as sites for homes. There was rel atively little specu lation. But suddenly, for no apparent r eason, St. Petersburg began to go real es t ate c r azy. Just like other resort citi es in the state. They all started to go i nsane And for thr ee years t h e i nsanity bec a me w or s e and worse. The first definite i n dication i n St. P e t e rsburg that peopl e w ere determined to go on a r eal estate spree was see n in the f all of 1922 whe n a w ild speculation began in properties along Fourth street north. The di rect cau se of the specu lation was the stock sal e whic h assured construction of Gandy Bridge. Fourth street north was to be the main approach to the bridge f r om St. Petersburg. Almost everyone, it seemed, sud denly became con vinced that all property along this important artery would become tremendous ly valuable-not ten twenty or thirty years in the future butj ustas s oon as the b r i dg e was opened. Upward went t h e prices! I n 1921, whe n Gandy Bridg e w as still in the blueprint s tage, acre age a l o ng Fourth stree t beyon d the city limits could be and was p urch ase d

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 151 for as little as $50 an acre. When the Gandy Bridge stock was placed on the market, prices began to skyrocket almost immediately. From $50 an acre, the price jumped to $100 then $250, then $500 and then on, on up. By the time the bridge was opened, the prices had soared to as high as $5,000 an acre. Not everyone, of course, dealt in acreage. Many per sons wanted nothing but lots fronting directly on Fourt h street. All such lots were to be "business lots"-naturally! Fourt h street was to be built up solid with s tores, hotels and apartments all the way from downtown St. Petersburg clear up to the bridge! Inevitably! Immediately! Anyone who didn't think so was a rank defeatist--a non-believer in the g lori ous future of St. Petersburg and Florida. There's a story on record of a man buying a double corner lot on Fourth street about 80th avenue for $1 ,800 in March, 1923. He so ld it in December, 1923, for $3,000 Two weeks later he heard i t had been reso ld for $5,000. He was incensed. He felt he had made a big mistake by selling it too soon. So he bough t it back the next day for $6,500. Then he held out for $10,000. He was still holding out when the crash came. That lot was far out on Fourth street. Had it been close in, the $10,000 price would have been ridiculously low Double corners between Ninth and 30th avenues sold for as high as $100,000 before the bubble burst. And close in, between First and Ninth avenues, a double corner for $200,000 would have been considered a prize bargain. One of the first subdivisions open ed on Gandy Boule vard, as the extension of Fourth street was called, was Rio Vista, promoted by J. Kennedy Block. After Rio Vi sta came the Florida Riviera, "Five Thousand Acres of Sunshine," sold by the Bou levard & Bay Land & Development Co., headed by Eugene E ll iott, the master salesman who put over Gandy Bridge. Many of the Riviera lots offered for sale were under the water of Tampa Bay. But what difference did that make? Dredges soon would go to work and waterfront lots would be made which would be more attractive than a n y in all Florida! Rio Vista and Florida Riviera were the two largest Gandy Boulevard subdivisions. There were lite rally scores of others, ranging from a few acres in size to several hundred. In most of them, little money was spent for improvements. The streets were graded, a few sidewalks laid, flowers and shrubs were planted to "pretty them up"-and that was just about all. It was up to the salesmen to sell the lots on the strength of the work being done by "Dad" Gandy on his bridge. And the lots were sold literally thousands of them! Not all the new subdivisions were located in the Gandy boulevard section-not by any means. Before the bubble burst, at least t w o-thirds of all land on the lower peninsula, south of Pinellas Park, had been

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152 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSJ3URC subdi vi ded. It was estimated later that at least 150 000 lots we r e placed on the market-possibly 300,000 would have been m ore nearl y accurate. The keys a l o n g the gul f di d not escape the attenti on of the subdividers. One of the earliest island developments was St. Petersburg Beach, promoted by W D. M c Adoo who ow ned t h e northern half of Pass-a-Grille Island. But the property was tied up in a law suit just when the boom was getting well started and the suit wasn't settled until j ust before the bub ble burst-so that was that However, the is lands had their boom time sales regardless. Treasure Is land was s u bdivi ded a n d put on the market by Donovan & Sons. Gasparilla Beach, on Pass-a-Grille Island, was sold by the Boca Ciega Realty Co., a n d Pine Key had i ts nam e changed to "Monte Cristo Isle" by t h e Hawkeye Realty Company. When the boom was at its peak, in 1925, mo r e than fifty subdivisions were being sold in St. Petersburg. A ll of them had. downtown offi ces. Pasadena had t wo offices downtown and two field offi ces. The Boardman-Frazee Realty Co ., sales agents f o r Shore Acres, had three offices in St. Petersburg and one in Tampa. Lakewood Estates had a large downtown o f fice here and a summer office in Philadelphia. Jliost of the real estate offices were on Central avenue where the salesmen had the best chance to find prospects. For choice l ocations fab ulous rents were paid. Many merchants discovered they could make more money by sub-leasing their stor e rooms to real estate men than they cou l d make by selling goods-so they closed up "for the d urati o n," and their stor erooms became adorned with colorfu l maps showing the exact loca tion of the "the fines t subdivision in Florida. Every subdivision was "the finest" ; also, ''the place where you can do uble your mo ney w ithin a year Real estate advertising filled the newspapers. The St. Petersburg Times during 1925 carried more local adverti sing than any othet newspaper i n the country except the Miami Heral d. So many real estate ads poured into the Independent that a ll of them co ul d not be printed, even though the presses were run to their full capacity. It was a golden era for the newspapers-that i s it would have been i f all the advertising had been paid for. U nfortunately, i t wasn' t When the boom burst the newspapers were le f t holding the bag for many real estate firms whose credit had been co nsidered as g o od as gol d but wasn 't. The real estate companies did not depend upon advertisi n g a l one to self their lots They empl oyed an army of salesmen. And not a small army either. In the fall of 1925 there were nearly 6,000 licensed real estate sal esmen in St. Petersburg-nearly 6,00 0 salesmen in a city w hi ch just five years before had a population of only 14,237 acco rding to the 1920 federal census. The salesmen l iterall y ran over each other in their mad efforts to sell lots. And when an unwary winter visitor showed the slightest indication that he might become a b uyer he was almos t mobbed

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 153 Mos t of the salesmen wore knickerbockers, according to t h e fashion of the day. Hence, they b ecame known as the "knickerbocker boys." They cam e from all wal ks of life. Many of them had been peddlers of fake in oil companie s never known to have d rilled a gusher and companies which dug gold from non-existent g old mines These fel lows stopped at n )thing to make sales; they would t ake the last dollar a widow had and laugh about it. One broker, however, employed no one except retired ministers; ex -m inisters, he said, h a d l ittle trouble in gain ing the "confidence" of prospective buyers. 'l'o get prospects, the salesmen empl oyed "bird dogs"-men and women who wo uld haunt the green benches, and chur ches, and tourist clubs, and every other p lace the tourists co ngregated, a n d talk real estate to a n yone who would listen. The bird dogs were smooth talkers and they s ucceeded often in making unwary sou l s bel ieve they wou l d l ose the chance of a life time unless they invested in this or that subdivision. The bird dogs then called the salesmen in-and the sal es were clinched. For their e ffo rts, the bird dogs got part of the commiss io ns. Many of the bird dogs wer e good l ooking women yo un g and middle aged. One woman, thirty-eight years o l d, was reported to have made Photo not available

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154 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG $50,000 by three ye ars of talking. Another, just under thirty, succeeded in interesting an unusually good prospect one day o n the green benc h es. But instead of turning him over to the salesman fo r whom she workedshe married him. During the boom years most of the s alesmen made a killing even after they had paid off their bird dogs. Those who failed to net at least $10,000 a year were consider e d complete failures. Many made $50,000 a year and more Few of them, h owever, saved any money. They liv e d high, paid fantastic rents for swanky living quarters, and, in many c a ses, inv es t e d all their surplus earnings in real estate. They really practiced what they preached-"buy real estate to become wealthy." But, sad to relate, the bursting of the boom caught them unawares, the same a s it did everyone e lse and mos t of t h em left town flat broke. Part of the real estate profits went for liquor. St. Petersburg was theoretically bo ne dry during prohibition days-but bootleggers did a thriving business. Several of them bad their headquarters near Fourth and Central and they could be reached by telephone a n y time during the day or night. They sold liquor by the truckl oad. That is, they got it in by truckloads and sold it out by pints, quarts, gallons or cases. For moon shin e they got $5 a gallon from their regular custome rs. Strangers had to pay more--much more The best grade of imported Canadian liquor was s old for $6 a quart or $55 a case. And the quarts were full quartsnot fifths Bacardi rum sold for $20 a gallon. In many cases, liquor was l ess expensive than it is today. Even so, the bootl eggers prospered. At least one became wealthy. But "good" won out over evil." For every dollar the bootleggers got, the churches of St. Petersburg got a hundred or more. Never in the enti r e history of the city had church goers been so liberal with their con tributions. The pastors' salaries were raised to unheard of l evels and the churches' coffers began running over. Practically all of them accumu late d enough funds to erect new edi fic es And the new church e s were maa-nificent structures, far better than anything St. Petersburg had had in the pa. st. New parsonages als o were built. When the boom collapsed, many o f the congregation s were caught with their new buildings only partly paid for. But in time, all manage d to clear their indebtedness and burn their mortgages. Even the Wi.se On e s Bought More than t wenty years have passed since the bursting of the Flor ida bubb l e During those years p eop l e have gotten the idea, somehow or other, that only the gullible and t h e foo lish were caught in the crash. Nothing could be farther from the truth. The fact is that some of the shrewdest real estate operators in the country, some of the most conserv ative financiers, became victims of the Florida disease and lost heavily.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 155 For example, the United Cigar Company was the one of the heaviest buyers of St. Petersburg business properties. O ffi cials of the company had the reputation of knowing exactly when to buy, and what to buy. Before investing here, they sent in experts to make surveys and determine how much property was worth. They bought nothing on guesswork-all their purchases were based upon the experts' advice. During 1924 and 1925 the company spent more than $3,000,000 for St. Petersburg business properties. Elsewhere in F lorida, mostl y in Miami, the company spent $8,000,000 more. Then came the crash, and the company was caught with obligations it could not meet. It finally went bankrupt and its stockholders lost heavily. One of the nation's largest chain stores decided in 1922 to erect a building in St. Petersburg. lts real estate experts selected a corner on Fourth street as the best location. A small apartment house was on the site. The company offered $50,000 The owner held out for $75,000. After deliberating a month, the company agreed to pay the $75,000. But by that time, the owner decided he wanted $100,000, Again the company deliberated, and again agreed to pay the price asked. Once more the owner hiked up the price. And so it kept on going, month after month. Finally, late in 1925, the company offered $500,000-cash. The owner held out for $600,000. Then came the crash. Tlu:ee years later the owner lost the property when a $25,000 mortgage was foreclosed. The company never did build a store in St. Petersburg. C. Perry Snell, who probably knew more about real estate val ues in St. Petersburg than anyone else, in 1925 was offered $1,000,000 for the northwest corner of Fourth and Central which he owned. Snell turned the offer down. He then built the Snell Arcade at a cost of approximately $750,000. A few years later an insurance company which had advanced part of the money needed to erect the building, foreclosed its mortgage-and Snell lost the Arcade. And of course he also lost the million dollar corner. Not all the boom stories had a bad ending. For instance, take the case of the woman who owned a double corner on Ninth street north where she had her home. She decided to sell it in 1921. She went to a broker who was her friend and told him she wanted $10,000. The broker told her to wait and made her promise not to sell until he told her the time was ripe. During the next three years the woman was besieged b y wou ld-be purchasers who wanted to buy the property. Each one offered a larger sum-$25,000, then $50,000 and then $100,000. And still the broker advised her to wait. The woman began getting nervous--very nervous. Finally, in the spring of 1925, the broker told her to s ell. She did-for $200,000, all cash. Before the broker turned over the money to her he made her promise to put it in a trust fund. She followed his advice-and her fi nancial troubles were ended, for life.

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156 Tift: STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Then t he Flo rida B1tbble Burst! On Monda y, Decembe r 7, 1925, it rained in St. Petersburg. Not a drizzly rain but a steady downpour. O r di narily the people of St. Peters burg would have welcomed the drenchin g, but not o n that particular day A thousand member s of the Investment Bankers Association of Am erica had come t o St. Petersburg to h old their national convention and the city wanted to show off some of the sunshine which had made it famous. St. Petersbur g was particularly anxious right at that time to impress the bankers with the city's charms. There had been much "anti-Florida propaganda" in northern newspaper s during the precedin g summer a n d fall regarding "the inevitable collapse of the Florida boom and St. Petersburg desired to prove to the bankers that the boom wasn't a boom at all but merely a healthy growth caused by Florida's marvelous, heav e nly super-perfect climate And there it was raining! Hour after hour. The skies were dreary and the air was cold. Instead of being able to go swimming, or fishing, or out on the golf courses for a game or two, the bankers were forced to stay indoors and twiddle their thumbs. Mos t discouraging. To make matters infinitely worse, the rain co n tinued all week long. And so did the gloomy skies and chilly air. The bankers fina ll y left St. Petersburg convinced that Florida's weather did not measu r e up to the advertise ments. There is reason to be lieve that the bad wenthe r during that week in Dece mber, 192 6, hastened the end of the Florida boom. Certain ly it marked the turning point in the mad rush to b uy real estate Sales had broken all records during October and November but during D ecembe r they fell off badly. Very ba d ly. Real estate men were alarmed. In a frantic effort to get people started buying again, they adverti sed as they had never adver tised befor e. But the advertisements did not bring r esults. Conti nuing cold weather was held responsible. Said the real estatfl men: "This is just a tempornry lull -wait until we get some good warm sunshin e again and see what happens." Late in January, the bad weat her ended and the sun blazed forth again in all its glory. Sales picked up. B u t the salesmen had to work harder than eve r before to make their quotas. And by spring it was plain ly evident that something was definitely wrong. Few persons were yet ready to admit, h oweve r, that the grand and glorious F lorida boom had ended Almost everyone was positive that in the fall the real estate market again would become acti ve. But i t did n't. When autumn came, real estate men hunted in vain for prospects. No one, it seemed wanted to buy. The saturation point for F lorida real estate finally had been reached. The absence of new buyers m eant disaster. Thousands of perso n s had bought on a shoest ring, paying one-thir d or o ne-fourth cash an d

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THE STORY Ok ST. PETERSBURG 157 p romising to pay the balance in two or three annual payments. They were speculati ng, hoping to sell at a profi t before the next payment fell due. And when they couldn't sell, they were caught. To save something from the wreckage, they tried to sell at almost give -away prices. The market collapsed completely. Developers were forced to stop work in their subdivisions They not only weren't selling any more lots but they were not getting any more payments on lots which had been sold before. Persons who had bought during the boom were unable, or unw illin g to put out a n y more money. And when the money stopped rolling in, the developers were forced to cease operations. Many left their in a half-finished co n di t ion; a few did enough more to fulfill promises to their buyers and then they t oo quit spending. They had to. Prices of all ki nds of property plunged downward at a sickening pace. Before the end of 1926, homes which once sold for $25,000 could be purchased for half that amount. Business lots once priced at $100,000 went begging at $20,000. Apartment houses, business blocks hotelsall types of properties-were offered for sale at bargain prices. Insurance compan ies and building and loan concerns began foreclosing o n hundreds of properties on whiCh they had loaned money : Lower a nd lower the prices dropped. The crash in real estate had reverberations in all types of business. Lumber companies and building supply firms were caught with great Photo not available

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158 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG quantities of materials they could not sell. In December, 1926, one of the largest liuilding supply firms received a ship load of lath which had been o rdered month s before. The lath could not be so ld at any price. The company piled it on a vacan t lot on Nineteenth street south-and there it remained for years. It finally was burned. The boom-time prosperity had caused merchants of a ll kinds to lay in large stocks o f goods. When the crash came, the goods could not be sold, even at sacrifice sales. Moreover, many of the stores' charge ac count s could not be collected-people no longer had the money to pay. As a result, many merchants went bankrupt. Some o f the largest stores went into the hands of receivers. Many persons lost their l ife savings; hundreds were so heavi ly bur dened by debts that they could not get back on their feet again until years later. Worse still the banks were so badly weakened that their ultimate collapse became inevitable. The ranks of the "kn ickerbocker army" thinned rapidly. The high pressure fellows and the binder boys packed their bags and departed. No one wept. Enough reputable real estate men remai ned to take care of what sales there were-without working overtime. With the knic kerbocker lads went many citizens St. Petersburg did not like to lose; archi tects contractors, building craftsmen, laborers, clerks, printers, advertising menpeople from all trades and profes sions. They could no longer find work and were forced to sell their pos sessions for what they could .and go some place they could make a living. The exodus was mourned by St. Petersburg. But it had o ne benefi cial effect. It cau sed a rapid reduction in rents. During the boom, prices charged for living quarters had soared to fantastic heights. As a resul t, many of St. Petersburg's o ld-time winter v isitors remained in their homes up North. Whil e good times laste d their was not missed But af ter the crash it was a different story. Once more St. Petersburg was forced to r ealize that the c ity had to have w inter visitors to survive. The reduction in rents came too .late to obtain a full "crop" of tour ists during the winter of 1926-27. That hurt. But the blo"' which hurt the most was the drying up of the flood of venture money which had po ured into the c ity in a golden torrent during the boom-time years. The economics of the city had been geared to the flow of incoming capital-and when it ceased St. Petersburg was tem poi"'arily paralyzed. When the effects o f the boom intoxication started to wear off, St. Petersburg looked around in a sort of bewildered daze and began taking stock of its assets and liabilities. On the debit side of the ledger they fo und many unpleasant facts. The worst was the c ity's staggering load of bonded indebtedness The

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THE STORY OF ST. PETEKSBURC 159 peak of in debtedness was reached in J une, 1928. At that time the city owed $26,744,600. Of that total, $15,118,000 was for special assessment bonds-bonds which had been sold to pay for paving streets and laying sewers in new sections of the city. Und e r normal conditions, those bonds wou ld have been paid for by the property owne rs who were benefited. But when the crash came, the special assessments were not paid-and the city had to assume the indebtedness. Payment of taxes plummeted as well as the payment of special assessments. Soon the city found i tself unable to pay the interest on the bonds, to say nothing of retiring the bonds when they fell due. Finally, in May, 1930, the city defaulted in its bond payments It remained in default until April 1, 1937. St. Petersburg-of-the -boom-days was criticized caustically by St. Petersburg-of -later-years for having plunged so heavily into debt during the 1920s. But it is easy to criticize. The chances are that if the critics had been voting during the years of the gorgeously irradiant Flotida bubble, they would have been just as avid for more and more improvements, regardless of the cost, as any of the starry-eyed boom time optimists. During the turbulent Twenties, St. Petersburg's population jumped from 14,237 to 40,425. To keep pace with that rapid growth, the city was compelled to make improvements-to expand its transit system, lay water mains and sewers in new sections of the city enlarge its.gas plant, put in a sewage disposal system, build an inci nerator, and do countless other things demanded by a growing city. Undoubtedly some of the bond money went for "luxuries"-the development and beautification of Waterfront Park, for in stance, and the construction of the recreatio n pier. Also, the purchase of the Spa in 192 6 for $160,000. And the construction of the white way lighting system. All luxuries, of course. They might have been dispensed with. But without those luxuries St. Petersburg certainly would not be the city it is today. The truth is, of course, that none of the bond money was thrown down the sewers and washed out into Tampa Bay. All of it was spent for things from which St. Petersburg is still deriving benefit, more than twenty years later. St. Petersburg Made a Modern City The bursting of the Florida bubble caused countless headaches, it is true. But it is likewise true that the Big Boom magically transformed St. Petersburg from a town of less than 16,000 people into a bustling modern city with three times the popu lation. Furthermore, the boom brought more improvements and developments than would have come normally in fifty years. On the credit side of the municipal ledger, St. Petersburg found many things for which to be thankful.

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160 THE STOilY OF ST. PETERSBURG When the boo m ended the city had ten new, large, modern h otels and dozens of smaller ones. Its skyline was p unc tured by new "sky scraper" business blocks. I t had lite rally scores of ne w apartment hou ses, thousands of fine new homes, and a first c la!!s business district made up o"f modern buildings. It had a million dollar, air-conditioned theatr e and a spl endi d Coliseum. To b e exact, St. Petersbur g had $56,871,000 worth of buildings which it hadn't h ad before-and that's a lot of n e w construction for almost any c ity. St. Petersburg also inh erited from the boom four n ew golf cour ses, and parks, and And an exce llent school system with an ample numbe r of fi reproof buildin gs, badly needed by the city's childre n. And many n ew, beautiful churches. Moreover, St. Petersburg had Gandy Bridge which linked it with Tampa by a 19 -mil e short cut route. I t also was benefited by an e x cellent system o f county highways, all co n structed during the bo om period, and by free causewa ys acroes Boca Ciega Bay, connecting the main land with the gulf beaches. ln addition St. Petersburg had more than 300 miles of paved streets. Many m iles of those paved streets were "out in the sticks", true enough, and they did not seem to be much of an asset immedia tely after the crash, when grass grew up through the bricks. Later on, h o w ever, when St. Petersburg resumed its norma l growth, the paved streets more than paid for themselves, simply by tending to encourage peopl e to buy Jots in the paved-str eet-sections and become hom e builder s. An asset of ines timable va lu e handed down from boom days, i s Waterfront Park. Another i s the recreation pier. The Million 'Dollc.r Pier Is Built Ever since the tim e it was founded St. Petersburg has had piers extending out into Tampa Bay. The first one was bu il t by the Orange Belt Railway in 1889. It was constructed primarily for frei ght purposes but the railroad officials foresightedly added a bathing pavilion, half way out on the pier, so that St. Petersburg's first citizens, and visitors, would have a place to swim. The railroad al so laid a walk on top of the trestle so that people could go out to deep water and fish. A s a r esult, the old railroad pier becam e St. Petersburg's foremost "amusement center" and the principal town attraction. The sec ond pier was buil t in 1896 by D. F S Brantle y, the contractor who had furnishe d the t ies for the Orange Be l t Railway. It was l ocated clo se to the foot of Second avenue north. Brantley constructed the pi e r to provide independently owne d ships with a place to dock and al so to provide an approach to hi s bathing pavilion which he built at the same time. For many years Brantley's pier was almost as popular as the r ail road pier.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 161 In 1900, E H. Tomlinson, St. Petersburg' s No 1 benefactor, built a small pier j ust east of his Fountain of Youth near the foot of Fourth avenue south. Years later when the city purchased Tomlinson's water fron t property-without profi t to Tomlinson-it took over the pier as well. The Tomlinson pier was washed out in the hurricane of 1921. In 1905, the S t Petersburg & Gu l f Electric Rail way, controlled by F. A. Davis, purchased Brantley's pier and replaced it in 1906 with a larger structure which extended out to ten feet of water. Street cars ran o u t to the end of the p ier which was lighted at night with electric lights. Hence, i t became known as the Electric Pier. A campaign for a city-owned and operated pier was launched by the Independent in 1911 after army engineers reported that it would be impracticable for St. Petersburg to get a harbor by dredging a channel to deep water. The original plan was to b uil d a pier out to twenty-eight feet of water and make it St. Petersburg' s permanen t freight pie r. This plan was dropped, however, when the army engi neers finally decided that the Bayboro Harbor project would be feasible. The Independent then carried on the fight for a recreation pier and a $40,00 0 bond issue providing for its construction was approved by a large majority. The pier was built at the foot o f Seco n d avenue north about ten feet north of the Electric Pier. Construction work was started in July, 1913, and the pier was opened for traffi c December 15. It was Photo not available

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162 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG formally accepted by city officials four days later. The Electric Pier was torn down in 1914. The Munic ipal Pier, as the new pier was called, soon became a favolite haunt for home folks and tourists. Driving out on the pier on a moonlit night over the planks which went clinkety-clank, and hearing the waves lapping at the piling underneath, provided a thrill which is still remembered by the old timers. They also remember the thrill they got when word spread around t own that Willie Mexis, who operated the concession stand at the pier head, "has just caught a big shark!" Naturally everyone had to go out and see it. The pier was nearly demolished by the 1 921 hurricane. Wind and waves swept over it, ripping loose most of the plankin g and carrying it away, and beating down some of the pilings. Many believed the structure could not be repaired. But Lew B. Brown, p ublisher of the Independent, insisted it cou ld-and had to be! He argued that the pier was an attractio n which the city could not afford to l ose. A publi c meeting .was held at the Detroit Hotel and $20,000 was pledged by leading citi zens to repair the damage. The pier was re-opened two months later. While the repairs were being made the city engineers learned that the pier's pilings were in such condition that they would not last many years longer. The Independent then campaigned for a really modern recreation pier, strong enough to withstand any storm and second only in size to the famous Atlantic City pier. The Independent raised pledges totaling $300,00"0 but the city came through witih a proposal to float a $1,000,000 bond issue to pay the cost. The bond issue was approved by an overwhelming majority at an e l ection in May, 1925. The new pier was designed by Parsons, Klapp, Brinkerhoff and Douglas and the general contract was awarded, August 24, 1925, to the Raymond Concrete Pile Co ., of New York. Work was started Sep tember 8, 1925, and the pier was opened for traffic late in J u ly, 1926. The official dedication ceremonies, attended by more than 10,000 per sons, was held o n Thanksgiving Day, November 25, 1926. The chairman for the day was Calvin A. Owens and the speakers included Lew B. Mayor R. S . Pearce and Senator Park W. Trammell. It was one of the biggest days in the city' s history. The total cost of the new pier, including the Casino at the pierhead, was $998 ,7 29.18 Following the dedication of the pier, the crowd made its way to the Jungle where another dedication ceremony was scheduled to be held at the Piper-Fuller F lyin g Field, the first airfield in S t Petersburg and the third in the entire state. The field comprised 260 acres, of which 130 had been provided by R L. Piper, of Tyrone, Pa., and the remaining 130 by Walter P. Fuller, developer of the Jungle. It had no concrete runways like modern fields but it was decidedl y better than no airport

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Photo not available Photo not available

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164 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG at all, and St. Petersburg welcomed its open ing. Everyone in the city wanted to see the dedicati on it seemed, and every road leading west was crowded with cars. Fuller presented the fiel d to the city and it was accepted by City Commissioner Charles L. Snyder. The speeches were followed by an aerial circus headed by Col. C. A. Daniforth, chief of the Fourth Army A i r Corps. Many spectacular flights were made by star army fliers. Passengers were taken up "to see the city" in Stout monoplanes the first ever f low n in Florida, which had been brought to St. Petersburg for the airfield open i ng. The big double-dedication celebration e nded that night with a mayor's dedicati o n ball in the Pier Casino. More than 3,000 co uples attended. No one knew it then, b u t that celebration marked the end of the B i g Florida Bo o m. Thereafter, for several years, St. Petersburg had very little cause to c e lebrate anything. The glorious F lorida bubble had burst!

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CI-IAPTER 9 DEPRESSION-WARAND AFTERWARD ST. PETERSBURG S FUTURE began to look brighter during the late Twenties. The effects of the Florida crash were still being felt but the headaches the crash had caused .were becoming less and le s s painful. Once more people became optimistic. The optimism seemed to be justified Winter residents who had remained away from St. Petersburg during the boom because of the high cost of living or because of the difficulties encountered in finding places to live, started to come back again. The tourist "crop" during the winter of 1927 28 was exceptionally good and during the winter following it was even better. The large influx of winter visitors was due in large measure to the record-breaking prosperity of the North, caused almost entirely by the soaring stock market. As stocks climbed, higher and higher, tremendous profits were made and everyone, it seemed, had money to spend. More than a little .of that money was spent in Florida for winter vaca tions and St. Petersburg, like other leading resort cities, became crowded. Considerable new building was started. St. Petersburg looked f orward to a long period of steady, healthy growth. To prepare for the g rowth which appeared to be just ahead, St. Petersburg cast a critical eye upon its water supply and decided that something had to be done about it. St. Petersburg Gets Good Water During the boom days, St. Petersburg's water problem became acute. The water pumped out of the wells around :Mir ror and Crescent lakes was so hard that the housewives complained bitterly. Moreover, not enough water could be pumped from the wells to take care of the city's rapidly increasing needs. It was obvious to everyone that a bigger, better supply would have to be obtained if St. Petersburg expected to keep on growing. Many solutions to the p r oble m were advanced. Some people contended that more wells should be drilled close to the city, preferably in the Saw Grass Lake area east of Pinellas Park. Others insisted that water should be brought in from Lake Butler, near Tarpon Springs.

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166 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Flank Fortune Pulver, former mayor, strongly urged the use of water from Weekiwachee Spri ngs, nearly fifty miles north of St. Petersburg in Hernando County. There was strenuous oppo sition to all these proposals. Many persons contended that if more artesian wells were dug, in the Saw Grass Lake a rea or elsewhere in the county, the water probably w o uld be as hard as the water from existing wells The Lake Butler proposition was frowned upon because some old timers reported that the lake had an underground connection with the gulf and that every so often, the water in the lake became brackish. Which would n ever, n ever do. Pulver and his associates made many offers to the city regarding Weekiwachee Springs, on which they had obtained an option. B u t all his proposals were turned down, some because acceptance would have r equired a large bond issue and o thers because the suggested franchi ses wou l d have allegedly bo u nd the city's hands f.or a long period. City officials and the people generally were still pondering o ver the various sol u tions, tryi n g to make up their m i nds which was best, when the Florida bubble burst--and St. Petersburg began t o get hard pressed financially 'l.'he c ity no longer could afford to spend a large amount of money to obtain a new source of supply. But the p r oblem still remained. And i t was rapi dly becom ing more and more .acute. The first definite step t o se_ttle the problem o n ce and for all was taken on September 22, 1 928, when Mayor John N. Brown appointed a committee of twentyfive leading citizens to make a n ew and thorough s u rvey and then recommend what should be done. Charles C. Carr was made chairman of the committee and Raymond Ridgely was appointed engineer. Other members of the committee were: Marshall Bize, J w C oburn, E. G. C u n n ingham, H C Dent, Dr. Will iam l\L Davis Walter Donovan, Max A. H. Fitz, Dr. Hugh F u tch, J. G Foley, J. B. Green, Charl es M. Gray, Dr. T. R. G riffin, R. M. Hall, Paul Hoxie W A Hols houser, R. B. Lassi n g, A. V. Laughner, George A McCrea J. D. Pearce, J. H. Rutland, R. H. Thomas, W. L. Watson and E. B. Willson Malcomb Pirni e, one of the nation's leading water engi neers, was employed by the comm i ttee to make s u rveys The committee worked for seven mo nths and carefu lly considered eve r y possible source of supply-nearly twenty altogether. Finally, on Apiil 22, 1929, the members recommended that the city get its supply from a tremendous water basin at Cosme-Odessa approximately thirty miles from the city and ten miles inland from the head of Old Tampa Bay. The committee dec lared that the suppl y of water at was practically i nexhaustible and the quality was excellent--almost a s soft as rain water. The committee's recommendation resulted in the acceptance by the city commission of a contract with t h e Layne-Southeastern Company,

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THE S TORY ST. P E T ERSBURG 167 of New York. This provided that the company would install a complete supply system which the city could purchase at the end of five years for $3,250,000. The contract was ratified 4 ,241 to 1,757 by the voters on September 24, 1929. Rapid progress was made in the constr u ction of the new supply system. The Cosme-Odessa basin was tapped by twelve wells cap able of s upplying 14,000 ,0 00 gallons daily. A pumping station was con structed in the well field. Twenty-six miles of 36inch pipe line were laid. A huge reservoir and a pumping plant were constructed at Washington boulevard and Twenty-e ighth street north. The new system was formally accepted by the city Thursday, Sep. tember 18, 1930, at a soft water jubilee in Williams Park attended by more than 10,000 per sons. W illiam A. Kenmuir was general chairman and E C Reed, president of the Chamber of Comme rce, was master of ceremonies. Speeches were made by George M. L ynch, Judge William G. King, and Frank H. Ow ens, p resident of the Pinellas Water Co., a corporation formed t o take over the franchise o f the Layne-Southeastern Company. 1 'he celebration was featured by a free public barbecue and Photo not available

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168 THE STORY OF S-r. PTERS.BURC old-fash ioned pic nic. Miss Ruth Skeen was se l ected by applause as the queen of the ce.lebration. Under the terms of the contract, the city maintained its own dis tribulion system I n othe r words, St. Petersburg bought the water at wholesale and sold it a t retail. For most people, the details were unim portant. What counted-what really counted-was that St. Petersburg, after years of waiting, finally was getting water that was truly soft. Then Came the Great Depression St. Petersburg's hopes of recovering quickly from the effects of the collap s e of the Florida boom were shattered by the devastating stock market crash of October, 1929. Before the year ended, stock losses throughout the nation totaled fifteen billion dollars. The Great Depres sion started. The United States began to be paralyzed. And wfth each passing month, the paralysis became more severe. St. Petersbubrg felt the effects of the national depression during the following winter. The number of tourists was lower than it had been for years. And the tourists who did come kept their pocketbooks tightly closed. They spent money only when they had to. Merchants iost heavily. Building activities came to a dead halt, throw ing many men out of work. Every on. e looked toward the future with apprehension : The depression was not six months old when St. Petersburg was dealt a staggering blow . Within less than a year, all the city's banks closed their doors. One bank was re-organized and re-opened. The others remained closed. The American Bank & Trust Company and the Fidelity Bank & Trust Company closed on the same day, Friday, April 25, 1930. The Fidelity was the city's smallest bank and had deposits of only $181,413. But the American was considered one of St. Petersburg's strongest finan cial institutions and its deposits totaled $2,450,000. When it failed to open St: Petersbubrg was stunned. Fear fed on fear, and runs were started on the other banks. The First National Bank o f St. Petersbubrg, the city's oldest and largest bank, succeeded in meeting all demands for money until Monday, June 9, 1930, when it too failed to open its doors, with deposits totali ng $4,336,700. The First Security Bank, an affiliate of the First National, closed a t the same time. Three days later, on June 12, the Ninth Street Bank & Trust Company closed. Its deposits totaled $954,652. During those bleak months of April and June, nearly $8,000,000 of depositors' money was tied up. The Central National Bank & Trust Company survived until April 21, 1931, when it too was declared insolvent. It closed with de posits totaling $2,602,558. That brought the grand total of frozen

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TH STORy OF ST. P&TERSllU RC 169 deposits up to $10,525',532. Considerably l ess than half that amount was later paid to depositors. The Central paid off 52.39 per cent of its deposits, the First National 51.4 per cent, the Fidelity 40 per cent, t h e Ninth Stteet 15 per cent, and the American .55 per cent--less than half of one per cent. During the year which elapsed between the closing of the first and last of the o l d banks, two n ew banks were opened-the Un i o n Trust Company and the Florida National Bank. The Union Trust Company was an outgrowth of the First Security Bank which in turn, was an outgrowth of the old Cross Town Bank, organized April 17 1 926. Co ntrolling interest in the Cross Town was purchased by the First National on May 1 9 1927, and the name changed to F irst Security. 'fhis institu tion was an affiliate of the F irst National and both closed at the same t ime. On August 30, 193 0, the First Security was reorganized and reopened as .an independent institution, with Nat Brophy, president; Paul A. Hoxie, vice -president; W M. McEachem, cashier, and J E. Bryan and R M. Petrick, assistant cashiers. The name was changed to Union Trust Company December 1, 1930. The Florida National, one of a group o f Florida banks controlled by the DuPont interests, was ope ned October 27 1930 The bank occupied the quarters formerly used by the First National, the building having been purchased by Alfred I. du Po 'nt for $425,000. Photo not available

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170 THE STORY OF ST. PTERSJ3URC St. Petersburg Hits the Depths Like countless other cities throughout the nation, St. Petersburg was despondent during the early Thirties. It had reason to be. The Great Depression was at its worst. The Un ite d States had taken it on the chin and was glassy-eyed and groggy St. Petersburg was stricken along with the rest of the n ation. Thousand s o f winter residents who had been com ing to the Sunshine C ity for years, remai ned at h ome up North Winter residents who came despite the depression spent money very cautiously. Many went from cafeteria to cafeteria to find t h e cheapest meals. Only a few spent money for luxuries o r even clothes. Scores o f merchants did not make e n o ugh to pay their rent. T hey were forced to lay off clerks they had employed for years. Building activities practically ceased-fewer building permits were issued during all of 1932 than had been issued durin g any.one week in 1924 or 1925. For those who had money, the depression no hardship. Living costs were extremely low. Here are some example s, taken from adver tisements in the Times in No vemmber 1932: pure pork sausage, 10 cents a pound; best grade western sirloin steak, 15c; hamburger, two pounds for 15c; best grade ham, 18c a pound; six large cans of pork and beans, 25c; 10 pounds of potatoes, llc; young roasting hens, 18c a pound; fryers, 23c; six tall cans of evaporated milk, 24c, and three tall cans of for 25c. For those who had money, St. Petersburg offered sensational real estate bargains North Shore houses w h ich cost $40,000 and more to build could tie purchased f o r as little as $7 000 -and there were few buyers even at that price. F i ve room bungalows once sold for $10,000 and more went begging at $1,500. Store buildings, large and small were offered at from 10 to 15 per cent of the construction costs--and nothing extra for the land on which they stood. A six sui te apartment house which cost $27,000 to bu ild was sold for $6,250-and the man who bought it got all his money back from rents within three years! Unimproved lots in residential sections could be obtained for little o r nothing-literally. One man had five lots in Pasadena given to him when he agree d to pay the taxes. He paid taxes totaling $340 held the lots two years, and f inally sol d all five of them for $350-and he was glad to get his money back. Yes, ther e were marvelous real estate bargains in St. Petersburg in depression days. And persons who were fortunate enough to be able to buy then, and did, reaped a rich harvest. For every $1,000 invested in real estate during the worst of the depression, $5,000 or more was returned befor e the Thirties came to an end. It was an opportunity of a lifet i me for those who had money. Unfortunately, few persons had any money they could spare, and fewer still who had the courage to buy.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 171 Almost everyone who had money cautious l y waited until times looked better-and when times impr oved, prices soared. Real estate prices were not deflated any more in St. Petersburg than they were in countless other cities throughout the country. The condition everywhere was the same--or worse In one northern city of 250,000 population, 7,324 persons lost their homes through mortgage forec losures d uring 1932. Nothing comparable to that ever happened in St. Petersburg; conseq uently, the S u nshine City could consider itself fortunate. Hundreds Worked For Uncle Sam At no time during the depression did St. Petersburg have an unem ployment probl em as acute as that of hundreds of industrial cities throughout the count r y It escaped relatively lightly s imp ly because the city did not haVe any big industrial plants which c losed their doors and threw thousands of persons out of work, as happened so often elsewhere. The largest industry St. Petersburg ever had was the construction indu s try of the boom years, !lnd when the boom co ll apsed, and b uil d i ng activi ties slackened, most of the building craftsmen and laborers left tow n. They had been gone several years before the Great Depression struck. Photo not available

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172 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Despite all that, St. Petersburg's unemployment probl em was bad enough. Many perso n s who had been hit by the Florida crash had remained in the city, hoping for times to get better. While they waited for better times, they lived off their savings By tlie time the depression came, their savings were almost gone. Then, when the banks closed, their savings were tied up. To get money to pay for the necessities of life, they had to find jobs-but there were no jobs. Colored people were the worst affected by the depression. During good times they had never made enough t o accumulate large savings, even if they had been so inclined, and when bad times came, hundreds soon became desti tute. Hundreds of colore d women had been employed as servants. During the worst of the depression, mo.st of the white wome n who had employed them were compelled to eco nomize-and they did their work themselves. Practically a ll the co lored men had been e mployed as day laborers-when the need for u nskilled labor ended, the co l ored men sought in vain for work. Early in t h e dept:ession St. Petersburg' s unemployment problem was partly solved by the federal government's constructi o n of tlte Veterans Administration Center and Hospital at Bay Pines. More than $3,000,000 was spent in the development of the large tract of la n d donated by the county, and i n the erecti on of the buildings. :Much of the money went for labor. Nearly a thousand craftsmen and laborers were provided wor k Even before the veterans hospital project was completed, however, city offi cials and civic leaders were forced to realize that St. Petersburg could not provide work for its unempl oyed, white and co l ored, without outside help. The relief agencies were swamped The first federal relief work funds-a mer e dribble-came into St. Petersburg in the spring of 1932. By mid-summer a total of 283 unem ployed men all heads of families, were being g i ven three days' work a week at $1.50 a day. Other dribbles followed. They helped a little-but not much. The money was paid out more as a dole than to provide worth whil e employment. The so-called "relief jobs" were of the leaf-raking and ditch-cleaning variety which did the city littl e good and helped not a bi t in bolstering the workers' morale. During 1933, federal, state and city officia l s began making long range. plans for providing employment on projects which would have lasting value. The Civilian Works Administration came into existence, then the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, then the Works Pro gress Administration, and then finally the Work Projects Adminstration. Three projects were g i ven top priority in the long range planning by St. Petersburg's offi c i a l s and civic leaders-the development of Albert Whitted Municipal Airport, the construction of a North Shore dis trict sewer system, and the development a n d beautification of Bartlett

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 173 Park, on Fourth street south in the Salt Creek area. Work on these projects was started early in 1934 by CW A and taken ove r soon afterward by FERA. The wage scale under FERA was 17 cents an hour for a max imum of 140 hours a month, or $23 80. On Wednesday, August 7 1935, St. Petersburg got its first WPA al lotments. WP A officia l s announced that enough money had been earmarked for St. Petersburg to keep 350 men employed for eight months The men were not put to work, however, unti l O ctober. The wages paid ranged from $25 to $55 a month. Mayor John S. Smith jubilantly announced that the WPA allotments would assure the city a payroll of $10,000 a mon th. He expressed the hope that the first projects soon would be followed by others, and that WP A soo n would be i n full swing. It was. Project followed project during t hose months-and yearswhich fo ll owed. An average of more than 1,000 men and women were employed by WPA in St. Petersburg during 1936, 1937 and 1938 The largest p roject Photo not available

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174 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG completed was the installation of the North Shore sewer system for which the federal government spent $528,310 and the city $182,524. Albert Whitted airport cost the government, through WP A, $345 ,0 42, and the city $194,351. Bartlett Park cost the government $U9,023 and the city $43,789. There were literally scores of other projects, large and small. For a city-wide street improvement program, WP A spent $256,506 and the city $182,524. Jobs were provided for women as well as men. In 1987, for instance, 160 wome n were employed in the WPA sewing rooms 1'here also w e re white collar jobs like making the city-wide real property survey which cost the federal government $34,357 and the city $16,641, and the compilation of city hall records which cost the government $46,910 and the city $10,957. The new Junior College was built as a WPA project after $86,061 had been raised by public subscription. For this project the federal gov ernment allocated $114,000. The National Guard Armory on Sixteenth street north, another WP A project, cost the government $45,000 and the city $26,868. A county-sponsored project which benefited Greater St. Petersburg was the installation of the Gulf Beach water system at a cost of $294,000. This, however, was not a WP A project. It was a project financed through PWA-the Public Works Admini.stratio n. PWA also made possible the construction of a n addition to Mound Park Hospita l, loan ing $165,000 of the $204,825 needed, the city paying the balance. A $175,000 PW A loan was obtained to build the new municipal building. The federal government, through the United States Housing Au thority, financed the development of Jordan Park, low-cos t Negro hous ing project, which cost approximate ly $1,600,000. The project, carried out by the Housing Authority of the City of St. Petersburg, resulted in the completion of 446 dwelling units. Through various government agencies. approximately $4,000,000 of federal funds was spent in St. Petersburg during the Great Depression, in addition to the money spent at Bay Pines. Special mention must be made of several projects completed with government assistance. St. Petersburg Junior College Cet.s a New Hotne Because of the Florida crash in 1926, St. Petersburg got its Junior College, the first in the state of Flol"fda. And because of the Great De pression in the Thirties, Junior College got a new home. Here's how all that happened. After the Florida bubble burst, many St. Petersburg families which normally would have sent their children to colleges and universities in

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THE STORY 0}' ST. PETERSBURG 175 other towns for higher education, no longer were financially able to stand the expense. So the children remained at home. George M Lynch, then superintendent of schools, deplored the fact that St. Petersburg's youth was being denied an educationa l opportunity and he began advocating the establishment of a junior college. He talked the matter over with the editors of the St. Petersburg newspapers, members of the city's library and advertising board, and the county school trustees. He was given hearty support. The school trustees promised classroom space and the city officia l s agreed to appropriate $10 ,0 00 a year, to be taken out of the advertising and library board fund, so that the co ll ege could become accredited. This was all that Lynch needed to get the college started. The first classes were held in the fall of 1927 in the east wing of the senior high school building. Lynch became the first president of the institution. The first board of governors consisted of Mrs. H. C. Case, Frank Robinson and Robert Walden, the county school trustees, and L. C. Brown and Frederick Francke, members of the city library and advertising board. During the first semester, the college had an enrollment of 111. The faculty consisted of fifteen members, over half of whom served o nl y as part-time instructors. They were: Lynch, supervising director; W. W. Photo not available

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176 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Little, dean; Frances L. West, science; William A. Gager, mathematics; Augusta B. Center, speech; Robert B. Reed, history; L.A. Herr, mechanical arts; Gertrude Porter, English; Annie Brackett, foreign languages; Marguerite Blocker Holmes, English; Fred K. Stewart, athletic director; Gertrude Cobb Miller, music; Vera l\1. Dumas, education; Walter Ervin, social scien.ce, and A. T. Glisson, Spanish. The need for separating the junior college from the high school soon became apparent to both the faculty and the students. Therefore, at the beginning of the second semester, President Lynch moved the college to the old high school building at the head of Second avenue north, on Fifth street. During the Thirties, enrollment in the college increased rapidly, so rapidly that the need for a larger building became imperative. The chem istry laboratory had been moved, because of a lack of room, to the senior high school building, twenty-seven blocks away. The music and art de partments were in the vocational school building. And chapel services had to be held in First Avenue Me thodis t Church. On May 5, 1937, the college obtained from the city twenty-five acres of land in Eagle Crest, acquired in a tax settlement deal. A campaign to raise funds to erect a modern college building was launched late in De cember, 1938. The campaign chairman was L. C. Brown, publisher of the Independent. Within the next few months, a total of $86,061 was sub scribed. 'l'he federal government, through WPA, then allocated $114, 003 to the project and construction of the building was assured. Ground was broken August 14, 1939, and actual construction work was started by WPA on October 27, 1939. College classes were trans ferred to the new building on January 5, 1942. The new building, valued at $350,000, is a Mediterranean type struc ture especially adapted to Florida climate. It includes completely equipped laboratories, and classrooms. A cafeteria and Student Union building, later built, are located in the next block. The library was deemed worthy of a special grant from the Carnegie Endowment Fund and now lists more than 10,000 volumes. By 1939-40, the college enrollment had increased to 420 students. Enrollment dropped during the war, as it did in all colleg es. The low mark was 116. Beginning in September, 1939, however, the college en tered into c ivilian pilot training in cooperation with the government. 181 students were trained to qualify as private pilots. Later under the War Training. Service Program, Navy V-5 aviation student.> were trained, a total of 652 pilots receiving one phase of their training at the college. In fall of 1947, the college was operating at full capacity with a total en rollment during the preceding year of 524 students, approximately fifty

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 177 per cent of whom were veteran s .st udying under the G. I. Bill. The faculty in the fall of 1947 had twenty-nine members. Robert B. Reed, f irst dean of the coHege, became president upon the death of President Lynch in 1935. He served until he died, in the fall of 1944 when Dr. Roland A. Wakefield, p resent head of t h e institution, was elected to the presidency. Accreditation of the college came early in its history and has been continuous since 1931. This accreditation signified that the college was accepted as a member of the Association of Standard Colleges and there fore i s privileged to transfer its credits to other accredited institu tions of higher learning. Today the junior college is basically a liberal arts col lege offering courses in instruction transferabl e with full credits for the first two years of standard college work. Getting Prepared for Air Travel St. Petersburg was a 'twitter on Saturday, February 16, 1912 W L. Bonney, the "daredevil aviator", had brought a brand new Wright bi plane to town, had assembled it, and was goi n g to fly that afternoonmake the first flight ever made anywhere on Pinellas Peninsula. Not only Photo not available

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178 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG was he going t o fly but he was going to loop the loop do the figure eight, and mak e the Dutch roll! No wonder St. Petersburg was excited. The "airport" used by Bonney was a spit of sand extending out into Tampa Bay at Bayboro Harbor, made while the harbor was being dredged. H i s "hangar" was a ten t Ropes had been extended around the landing field and people who wanted to witness the flight were supposed to pay an admission fee-25 cents for adults, 15 cents for children . Eru:ly in the morning, the crowds began gatheringmen, women and children. Everyone wanted to see at first handone of thos e weird contraptions which defied all the laws of gravity and actually soared through the air. But only a few persons paid the admission fee to get onto the flying field. Almost everyone preferred watching the flight from vant!lge points along the waterfront. The tops of buildings were crowded and so wer;'! all the piers. Hundreds went out in launches to witness the flight from the bay. Bonney collected only $186.75. He had spent five times that amount and was disappointed. However, he flew regardless. H i s plane roared off the sand spit, skimmed along the water, and, after a few breath taking moments, began making altitude. It rose about 200 feet in t h e air and then slow_ly descended, landing on the waterfront near the Electric Pier. The flight took about two minutes. Bonney did no stunt flying. His public explanation was that one cylinder of his four-cylinder motor was missing and that he wasn' t getting enough power to try any stunts. But he told his friends that he had no in tention of losing money and risking his neck besides. A week later he left the city. S t. Petersburg received national publicity early in 1 914 through the establishment of the St. Petersb urg-'l'ampa Airboat Line, the first commercial airboat line in the world, by the Benoist Aircraft Company, of St. Louis. The line was promoted by P. E. Fansler, an aviation enthusiast, and was made possible by donations totalin g $2,400-$1,200 by the Chamber of Commerce and $1,200 from public-spirited citizens. The Benoist company brought the first plane here December 31, 1913. It was hastily assembled that afternoon on the North Mole and Tony Jannus, the company's star pilot, took it up for a trial flight. J G. Foley, brave man that he was, went up as a passenger, thereby gaining the dis tin ction of being the first St. Petersburg man to see the city from the air. On January 1, 1914, the first flight to Tampa was made. An auction was held to determine who would make the first trip and A. C. Pheil won, paying $400 for the privilege. The flight took twenty-three minutes; the return trip was made in twenty minutes. History had been made St. Petersburg and Tainpa had been joined by an air line! The first woman who made the Tampa trip was Miss Mae Peabody, of Dubuque, Ia., who flew on Friday, January 2. The first shipment of

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THE STOI\Y oF S-r PETJmSBUI\C 179 freight was carried by the plane on January 12 when Swift & Co. sent 22 pounds of ham and 18 pounds of bacon to a grocery in Tampa. Two more planes were brought to St. Petersburg during January by the Beno ist company. But the airboat line was not a financial success. After six weeks it was discontinued and Pilot Jannus left the city. Before he left, however, he taught a St. Petersburg man to fly Bird l\1. Latham, then manager of the St. Petersburg Electric Light & Power Co. Latham became so expert that he ''turned professional". He bought the plane and took it to Conneaut Lake, in Pennsyl vania. Everything went fine until he cracked up one day in la ndin g. Soon afterward he sold the planea n d returned to the powe r com pay. J ann us went to Russia for the Benoist company during World War I and was killed on October 12, 1916, while testing a plane. T h e first aviator who established a permanent base at St. Petersburg was Johnny Green, one of the nation's pioneer birdmen During Worl d War I, Green trained navy pilots and when the war was over came to St. Petersburg. He brought with him a hydroplane leased land on the North Mole fro m the city and put up a hanger. Green became one of St. Photo not available

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180 THE STORY OF ST. Petersburg's most colorful characters. Light-hearted and gay, he won a host of friends. During the years which followed thousands of home folks and tourists went up with him for their first flights. Green never had a serious accident, even though h e took many chances and despite th'e fact that his p lane "Sunsh ine" looked as though it might fall apart at any moment. Later he bought a modern plane but he said he never liked it half as well as he did his ancient Jennie. Green is now dead-but he will be long remembered by St. Petersburg's old timers. St. Petersburg's first nativ e-son flyer was Albert Whitted, son of Mr. and Mrs T. A. Whitted, pioneer St. Petersburg residen ts. Born in St. Petersburg February 14, 189 8, he attended public schools and then start. ed a motorcycle shop. On March 17, 1917 he enlisted in the naval avia tion corps and became one of the first 250 pilots, his pilot's number being 179. He was commissioned as a lieutenant on September 25, 1 918, and served as chief instructor of advanced f l ying at Pensacola. Later he was placed in charge of naval maneuvers at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. In De cember, 1919, a ftet being discharged from the s ervice, h e returned t o St. Petersburg with his plane "Bluebird" and began commercial flying. Hundreds went up with him for flights. During the summer of 1921 he built the "Falcon" at Pensacola and brought it back to St. Petersburg the following winter. On August 19, 1923, Lieutenant Whitted was killed with four passengers when the propeller of the "Falcon" broke while making a flight near Pensacola. His death was mourned by the entire city. During the boom days of the Twenties, many St. Petersburg men be came aviation enthusiasts and a number bought their own planes. One of the most popular was Bob C. Smalley, a handsome, curly-haired fellow who had come to St. Petersburg with his family in 1900 when he was four years old. He becam e one of the city's most successful business men. After he was marrie d on January 1, 1921, to Cornelia Ross Dulin, the couple started on their wedding trip by flying to Tampa in a plane piloted by Whitted, accompanied by friends in two other planes. Smalley was killed January 9, 1981, in an airplane crash at Miami. The rapid development o f commercial aviation following World War I soon made St. Petersburg realize that the city needed an air field if it expected to keep abreast of other leading Florida ci t ies. One of the first to recognize this need was Walter P. Fuller, developer of the Jungle. With R. L. Piper, of Tyrone, Pa., Fuller established the Piper-Fuller Flying Field at the Jungle, each man providing 1 30 acres of land. The field was dedicated with elaborate ceremonies on Thanksgiving Day, Novem ber 25, 1926, the same day the Recreation Pier was dedicated. The Piper-Fulle r fie ld was d ecidedly better than no field at all but it did not satisfy St. Petersbu rg. A movement was soon started to get a municipally -owned field, closer to the center of town, with better runways and operational facilities. Soon after John N. Brown was elected mayor,

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSDURG 181 in 1928, he appointed a n aviation committee to study the problem. The committee co nsisted of A. F. Thomasson, Frederick R. Francke, James L u chin, W P. Hunnicutt, and Bob C. Smalley. After considering all avail able sites, the ct>mmittee recommended using a section of the filled land on the waterfront, north of Bayboro Harbor. On Oc tober 12, 1928, the c i ty council accepted the committee's recommendation and passed a reso lu t i on to call the new field the Albert Whitted M unicipal Airport, in honor of Lieutenant Whitted. Despite the enthusiasm aroused by the establishment of the airport, its development proceeded sl owly. During the spring and summe r of 1929 one short runway was completed and o n S eptember 10, 1929, a contract was awarded for the constr uction of a blimp hangar to cost $33,062. The hangar was built to house one of the blimps buil t by the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, of Akron, 0. An arrangement to bring the blimp here had been made by John Lodwic k, St. Petersburg's star publicity man The hangar was completed late in December and the blimp "Goodyear" was brought here early in January. O n clear, calm days the "Goodyear floated majestically over the city; on days when brisk winds were b l owing, the blimp was kept in the .hangar. The reason the city pai d for a blimp hangar instead of an airplane hangar was that in those days many persons believed that airplanes soo n .would be d riven from the air by lighter-than-air c raft. Little was done at Albert Whitted field for several years after the hangar was completed. The Great Depression had hit in all its somber fury and the city had no m oney to spend for "luxuries". Not until 1933, when St. Petersburg began planning p rojects to provide work with fed eral assistance for the unemployed, did the airport come back into the picture. Its development was g iven top priority. As a result, work was continued almost w ithou t interruption all through the Thirties, first by CW A, then b y FERA, and finall y by WP A. The field was greatly en larged by pumping in sand from the bay, concrete runways were con structed, lights were installed, a n d more hangars built. Up to June 30, 1943, a total of $734 ,3 81 had been spent on the airport. Of that amount, the federal government had spent $528,276 through CW A, FERA and WPA and also through CAA -the Civil Aeronautics Authority. The city spent $206,105, a large part o f which was for the use o f equipment. Two large contracts for the airport later were awarded by the navy. They totaled approximately $500,000-the exact figures are not available. The airport becam e the home of National Airlines shortly after real deve lopment of the field was started. The airline had a humble begin ning. It was started on October 15, 193 4 when G. E "Ted" Baker began making a daily round-trip flight between St. Petersburg and Daytona Beach in a single-motored Ryan monoplane. The airline then had f ive employes, inc luding Baker, its founder. Service was extended from

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182 THE STORY OJ." ST. PETERSBURGDaytona Beach to Jacksonville on November 19, 1934. In :March, 1935, the Ryan monoplane was replaced by a twin-motored Stimson Airliner. During the winters of 1935-36 and 1936-37, a twice weekly service was maintained between St. Petersburg and Miami and a daily service between the two cities was started on J u l y 15, 1937. Late in the Thirties Baker moved the operational headquarters of the airline to Jacksonville and later to Miami. The United States Coast Guard began using the airport as an air station in 1935 and has used it continuously ever since. (See Index : U. S. Coast Guard). The field also has been used continuously by flight instructors and by private flyers and in 1947 mor e than fifty planes were stored in the hangars which also were being used for administra tive offices, classrooms and shops. In 1945, U. S. Airlines, headed by Harry R. Playford, established a base there; later i t was moved to Pinellas County Airport, which had longer runways. A suit to enjoin the city from using the field was filed early in 1946 by H. L. Brooks and other south side property owners. They contended that the airport was a nuisance and a menace,. and tended to decrease south side property values. Circuit J ud ge 1'. Frank Hobson ruled in favor of the city on October 10, 1946, and o n July 8, 1947, his ruling was upheld by the State Supreme Court Late in the Thir ties, airlines began using planes which required longer runways than could be built in the limited ground space available at Albert Whitted Airport. St. Petersburg aviation enthusiasts then began assisting, and taking a lead ing part, in a movement to establish a Pinellas County airport so situated that it could be used by all the cities and t owns on P in ellas Peninsula A site for such an airport, nine miles north of St. Petersburg on Old Tampa Bay, was selected late in 1939 by Col. A B. McMullen, head of the airport division of the CAA, and shortly thereafter the county commissioners took steps to acquire the necessary land. Thirty-one separate parcels, comprising 710 acres, were ordered condemned. On February 6, 1941, a $492,210 construction project was approved by the federal gove r nment, WPA to spend $164,676, Pinellas County, $76,534 and CAA, $251,000 Work was started by WPA on Aprif 10, 1941, by a force of nearly 200 men Before the airport was completed it was taken over by the army and converted into a training field for fighter pilots Approximately 600 more acres of land were acquired, the runways were extended, landing strips and taxi-ways constructed, a control tower was installed, and living quarters provided for 1,500 men. The first contingent of flyers arrived August 26, 1942. The field was deactivated by the army October 1, 1945.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 1 83 Since being returned to the county, the airport has been converted into a commercial field, special provision being made for handling cargo and passengers from foreign countries. Customs and immigration centers were established, a deep freezing and chilling plant constructed, and warehouses provided for air cargo. Air cargo service was inaugu rated in the summer o f 1946 by U. S. Airli n es. Aerovias Latino Ameri canas, a Central American airline, inaugurated the first air cargo service from Central America. Other airlines which later provided inter American freight services included American Airlines, Willis Air Service, International Freight, Air Cargo Transport, Flamingo Air Se rvice, and Southern Air Express. The N ational Airline s began using the airport for passenger service in November, 1945 James E. Mooney, director of the Bureau o f Aeronautics for Pinellas County, has been in charge of operations at the airport since it was returned to the county. In 1947 the fie!
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184 'I' HE STORY OF ST. PETERSlilJJ\(; odiferous at low tide. East of Fourth street the marsh was filled in about 1909 by C. A. Harvey when the first dredging was done to make Bayboro Harbor. West of Fourth street, however the marsh remained as i t always had been. And, as the years passed, it rapidly became more un sightly. The only purpose it served was for use as a graveyard for jalopies. Most of the marsh land west of Fourth was owned by A. F. Bartlett. During the boom years, the city paved the streets on all sides of Bartr lett's property and the paving assessments amounted to nearly $70,000. Bartlett protested, saying the assessments were more than the property was worth. He did not pay them. Early in the Thirties, the South Side Civic and Protective League began urging the city to acquire the property and develop it as a park. Leadets in the movement were Mrs. George E. Cole, Walter J. Johnson, Tom D. Orr, A. C. Mellen, Judge J. C. Maurer, P J. Wilhelm, Louis Lippman, William Clark, Edward Bates and H. F. Atwood Spurred on by the league, city council in 1933 made arrangements with Bartlett for taking over the property in a tax-settlement transac tion, the city getting abou t thirty acres. The land was surveyed and plans were made for developing it as a park, the work to be done as one of the projects for p r oviding jobs for the unemployed. An i nitial federal grant of $17,500 was made through CW A late in 1933 and dredgin g of the marsh was started. In 1934, the government allocated $25,780 for the project through FERA. The firs t WPA allotment was made in August, 1935. It amounted to $105,995. Work on the park was con tinued all through the depression years and the once unsightly marsh was finally transformed into one of the most beautiful parks in the city. The entire project c ost $242,812, of which the government spent $199,023 and the city $43,789. The park was named Bartlett Park partly because A. F. Bartlett had been the owner of the land and also because he had been one of St. Petersburg's most public-spirited citizens. Developmen t of the park was continued by the St. Petersburg Park Boa r d after WP A passed out of the picture. It is now one of the city's lea ding recreation centers. It has a clubhouse, twenty-six shuffleboard cou rts, ten of the best clay tennis courts in the state, three diamond ball fields and a baseball f ield. A New City Hall Which Isn't a Cit'' Hall During the first thirteen years of St. Petersburg's existence the town fathers didn't have a place to meet which they could call their own. The town councilmen met wherever they could hang their hats. Their first meetings were held in the office of the Weekly South Florida Home, St. Petersburg's first newspaper. Late r they mov ed to the office of the St. Petersburg Times after the editor, J. Ira Gore, was elected

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC 185 tax assessol. At othe r times they met at the Orange Belt Inves tm ent Compan y's building and at the St. Petersburg Cash Store. The councilmen were always on the move. The town marshal was a little better off. In the summer of 1892, soon after the town was incorporated, a town ''calaboose" was built on the alley between Central and First avenue south, a little east of Fourth street. The calaboose cost all of $37.68. It was only eight feet wide and twel ve feet long but it was large enough to hold all the town's law breakers. Usually it was empty and, on rainy days, the marshal spent much of his time there. If the calaboose had "guests," the marshal wandered the streets-or remained at home. Late in the Nineties, St. Petersburg got another town-owned build ing. It was a shed at the southeast corner of Central and Fifth, erected to house the hose-cart and hand pump of Alert Hose Company No 1. The shed was so small that it made little impression on the public and few old timers remember that it existed. But it did-and was used for several years. The volunteer firemen didn't like it-the shed was such a tiny structure that the volunteers couldn't use it even as a place to loaf. After S t. Petersburg was incorporated as a city in 1903, a movement was launched to get a city hall. The civic boosters contended that a community large enough to be a full-fledged city surely was large enough to have a city hall where official business could be transacted. Coveto us eyes were cast at a building erected on the northeast corner of Fourth street and First avenue south a few years before by E. H. Tom linson. The structure was a mammoth affair and had been built by Tomlinson as a manual training school annex. It boasted a large audi torium where the cadet corps and the fife and drum corps practiced, and mee tings were held. The youngsters also used it as a gymnasium. The annex served a public need but the city fathers decided that it would serve an even better purpose if i t could be obtained for use as a city hall. Negotiations were started with Tomlinson and, after months of discussions, he reluctantly agreed to sell the property-for $5,000 in cash and another $5,000 to be paid $100 a month. The deal was com-pleted late in December, 1905. Early in 1906 the city took possession of the building. Quarters for the volunteer fire department were established in the northwest corner and an office for C ity Clerk W. F. Div in e, St. Petersburg's entire "city hall staff", was opened in the southwest corner, next to the railroad tracks. Besides serving as city clerk, Divine also was clerk of council, tax col lector, license collector, collector of water rents, registration officer for city and county, collector of dog licenses, and collector of paving certificates. In his idle moments he issued building permits and also marriage licenses. He was even authorized to perform marriage ceremonies.

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186 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG In the beginning, the city used only the front of the building. But, all the city's business expanded, more anJ more of it was occupied. To utilize the building to the best possible advantage, it was remodeled time and again. But when the Big Boom got underway, it was obvious that a larger, better building was needed. There was much talk of selling the site, then valued at more than half a million dollars, and using the money to build the kind of a building needed. But nothing was done. Then came the Florida crash and for a few years all thought of a new city hall was forgotten. During the mid-Thirties, when the city was beginning to extricate itself from the financial quagmire into which it had fallen, talk of a new city hall was revived. Efforts were made to get it built as a work-relief project. However, because of government regulations, WP A couldn't approve it-the federal government wasn't building new city halls for any city, for reasons which aren't ex;1ctly clear. But city officials didn't give up the fight. And arrangements finally were made during 1938 to obtain a loan of $175,000 fr-om the Public Works Administration, revenues from the public utilities being pledged to repay the loan. The balance of the money needed to erect the building was to be taken out of an accumulated surplus in the public utilities funds. The site chosen was the southeast corner of Fifth street and Sec ond avenue north which the city had purchased in 1893 as the location for the firs t city-owned school. A contract for the construction of the building was awarded December 17, 1938, toR. E. "Rube" Clarson, who submitted the low bid of $284,450. The new building was dedicated November 28, 1939. Mayor Ian V. Boyer was master of ceremonies and Congressman J. Hardin Peterson was the principal speaker. One of the features of the ceremony was a flag presentation by the General Wood Camp No.8, U.S. W. V., under the di rection of Camp Commander Warren A. Wright. The total cost of the building, including equipment and furnishings, was $389,415. For all practical purposes, the new building is St. Petersburg's City Hall. But because the money to build it came out of the public utilities, the federal government insisted that it be the public utilities' building. And that is what it is-the Administration Building o f the Public Utilities. St. Petersburg Again Moves Forward Some time during the mid-Thirties-no one knows exactly whenthe United States passed through the crisis of its Great Depression ill ness. Strangely enough, the turn for the better came while WP A rolls were at their peak. But.the pyschology of the nation changed. People no longer p r ophesied dismally that the country was going to the dogs or that a "revolution of the proletariat" was just ahead. They began to look to the future with renewed confidence.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 187 The improvement throughout the nation was reflected in St. Pet ersburg. The n umber of winter visitors showed a marked increase during the season of 1935 -36 and a still larger increase during the season follow ing. Bank deposits increased rapidly. Venture capital began coming out of hiding. Business places began taking on more employes. Proof of the better times was shown by the increase i n building perm its. During 1933 the permits f o r new construction sank to $391,650 -for the entire year and for the entire city. During 193 4 they totaled onl y $681,900 During 1935, the permits climbed to $1,52 1,35 4, d uring 1936 to $2,000,960, and during 1937 to $3,075,476 No increase was shown during 1938-that was the year of the "national recession". The permits that year were just abo u t equal to the year before$3,017,251. But during 1939, they shot upward again-to $4, 657 419, and during 19 40 to $6,330 ,0 00. Those figures, dry though they may be, provide convincing proof <)f St. Petersburg's rapid economic recovery from the crippling blows of the Great Depression, the worst in the nation's history The recover y, far more rapid than that of most ci t ies, did not come by chance, or even because of St. Petersburg' s appealing attractions. It was largely due to the indomitable spirit o f St. Petersburg's citizens. Even during the worstofthe depression they did not sit down and bemoan their fate, even when the banks closed and the city itself went bankrupt. Instead of weeping and wailing, they kept planning for the future. They Photo not available

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188 THE STORY OF ST. P ETERSUORC gave wholehearted support to the Chambe r of Commerce in all its moves to make the city forge ahead again. T hey insisted that the city keep advertising to attract more visitors, even though it often seemed a s though money spent for advertising was money wasted. It wasn t. The advertising paid for itself many times ove r It kept the Sunshine City before the nation-and swelled the flow of winter vi s itors at a time when winter visitors were needed more than they ever had been before. Mention must be made of an important project completed during 1939. Treasure Island Causeway was constructed, thereby extending Central avenue to the Gulf of Mexico. Such a causeway had been talked about ever since West Central was opened in 1914. But it remained for the City of Treasure Island to make the causeway a reality. The city ob tained a loan of $696,000 from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and construction was started on December 6, 1938. Thos e who secured the loan were E. H. Price, Ralph Millikin, Mayor Henry Wallace, and Commissioners William Roylston Brown and F. C Bennett. The causeway was completed less than a. year later at a cost of $1,046,000 and was formally opened November 15, 1939. A toll of ten cents was charged fo r passenger cars and twenty cents for trucks. 1'he Colored People Get Jordan Park Three years after the c l ose of the Civil War, the first colored people came to lower Pinellas Peninsula. They wer e John Donaldson and Anna Germain, employes of Louis Bell, one of the pioneer s ettlers. John was Bell s hired man and Anna was Mrs. Be ll's housekeeper. Both were former slaves. Within a. year after they came here, they were married but they continued to work for Bell. Donaldson was a hard worker and thrifty. He saved his money and in 1871 bought forty acres of land o n what is now Tangerine avenue, paying 90 cents an acre. He cleared and fenced five acres and planted it in sugar cane, sweet potatoes and garden truck. He also bought some cattle and hogs and set out a small orange grove. Before many years pas sed, Donaldson was considered one of the "best well off" settlers on the lower peninsula and he and his f amily were respected by all their white neigh bors. The Donaldsons had fo u r children, all of whom later married and had families. For many years the Dona l dsons were the only Negr oes Cn the Point. No others came until the O range Bel t Railway was co nstructed in 1888. The railroad employed many colored men for grading the r ight-of-way and laying the ties and track and, after the railroad was completed, about ten of the men in the newly-founded St. Petersburg. They brought in their families and established the first colored community, along Fourth avenue south between Seventh and Ninth streets, south of the railroad tracks. The community became known as Pepper Town. Most

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 189 of the men worked as day laborers and many of the women became servants for white families. As St. Petersburg grew, more and more colored people drifted in, particularly after the city began paving laying sewers, developing parks, and making other public improvements. The influx was especi ally heavy during the "boom let" of 1912-14 and the Big Boom of 1921-26. The demand for colored day laborers was so great at that time that many of the big contracors sent agents into Georgia and Alabama to get recruits. The agents offered such high wages that several thousands Negroes were induced to come to St. Petersburg. After the crash, many returned to their former homes but hundreds remained. Th' e original colored community never became large, due to the fact that the surrounding land was occupied early by white residents. After 1900, practically all the newcol):lers settled west of Ninth street in ":Meth odist Town," just north of Central, and in the south Booker Creek "valley". Later, another colored community sprang up in the neighborhood of Twenty-second street and Eleventh averiue south. In these sections, the Negroes had their own stores, churches, meeting places and schools. Since 1900, the Negro population has remained practically constant at 20 per cent of the city's total population. Rel atively few of the Negroes built or bought homes of their own. Practically all of them Jived in rented quarters, owned by white people. The incomes of most of the colored people were low and, consequently, they were unable to pay high rents. And since they couldn't pay high rents, the living quarters provided for them were "modest" indeed. Practically none of the houses were painted and only a few had plumbing. A large percentage of the houses were nothing but tumble-down shacks. hardly fit for cattl e to live in. Slum developed which were a dis grace to the community. Shortly after World War I, a number of were made to eliminate the worst of slum areas and provide decent houses in which the colored people could live. But the movements died almost as soon as they started. The general public was apathetic and some of the landlords who rented quarters to the Negroes had enough political influence to prevent city officials from condemning even the worst of the hovels. This condition prevailed untill937 when Congress passed the Wag ner-Stegall Housing Bill and the federal government, through the U. S. Housi n g Authority, began financing low-cost housing projects throughout the country which.served the combined purpose of eliminating slums and at the same time providing decent living quarters for people in the lowes t income groups. P rogressive groups in St. Petersburg joined in demanding that efforts should be made to secure a federal appropriation for a St. Petersburg project. The Housing Authority of the City of St. Petersburg

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190 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG was formed December 1, 1937, with Walter G. Ramseur as chah-man and W. K. Cleghon as vice-chairman. Other commissioners were Edwin B. Ellis, Perry R. Marsh, and A. E. Corfar. Emil A. Norstrom was appointed executive director and secretary-treasurer, January 15, 1938. On May 23, 1938, the city council agreed to eliminate one slum unit for each unit built by the housing authority and on August 10, 1938, a loan contract was made with the U. S. Housing Authority in which $959,000 was a llocated for St. Petersburg. A tract of 26 acres was ac quired in the Twenty-second street section and on April 26, 1939, work was started on the construction of 242 dwelling units. The development was called Jordan Park. The project was completed in April, 1940, and the first Negro family moved in on April 11. The entire costof the project, including land and equipment, was $957,752. After the first project was completed, members of the local housing authority tried to reach an agreement with the city council regarding a second project, particularly in regard to utility rates charged tenants in Jordan Park. A bitter fight developed and, in July, 1940, the city council passed a resolution with amendments not acceptable by the federal government and which, for all practical purposes, made a seco nd project impossible. This action by the council aroused a storm of protest. The St. Petersburg League of Women Voters spearheaded a drive to force the council to submit the i s sue to the people. The Chamber of Commerce, Merchants Association, Board of Real tors, Ministerial Association, and Hotel Men's Association joined in the fray, all favoring a second project. Blank petitions demanding a referendum v ote were carried in both newspapers. A volunteer force of 225 workers carried petitions, and obtained signatures, in all parts of town. Public meetings were held. Within less than two weeks, 4,307 signatures were secured, far more than were needed. On August 13, the council agreed to calling for a referendum, to be held September 24. Then followe d five weeks of hectic campaigning. Both newspapers gave the housing project their full support. Stormy public meetings were held at which proponents and opponents of the projects voiced their views The proponen t s argued that the projects were necessary for the welfare of the entire city ; the opponents insisted that they constituted unfair competition to private property owners and were definitely "socialistic." When the referendum was held, every district in the city voted in favor of the projects the total vote being 2,731 to 2,081. A contract for the second project, to contain 204 units, was le t late in 1940 and it was completed on October 25, 1941. The entire cost of the project including equipment was $636,000. All the units were occu pied within a week and have remained occupied. There has been a long waiting list for units ever since.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETEUSBURG 191 The housing authority declared in its seventh annual report: "Jordan Park has become a garden spot in an otherwise drab section; it has become a tradition in the c i ty. The dwell i ngs i n it are known for their c l eanli nes-s; the well -kept lawns and shrubbery advertise the pri de the tenants take in their new homes ; t h e orderliness and community spirit of the peop l e are evidences of better c i tizens . Jordan Park has establ ished a standard which has been reflected in i m proved conditions in privately owned hous i ng in other Negro communities in the city We believe Jordan Park is a social success." St. Petersburg During World War II Like the rest of the natio n, St. Petersburg was stunned on December 7, 1941, when radios flashed t h e news that the Japanese had bombed Pearl Harbor-and that t h e long-dreaded war finally had started. From that day u ntil m i d-summer of 1945, when Japan surrendered unconditi onally, St. Petersburg's people subordinated everything to the main task of aiding the nation in its hour of cris is-and praying that the lives of their loved ones i n the a rmed services might be spared. A total of 9,820 St. Petersburg men, 21 to 35 inclusive registered f o r t he fi r s t d raft on Wedn esday, October 16 1940 Many other s signed i n subsequent drafts. Before the war ended, 6 473 were inducted-Photo not available

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192 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSl3URC. 5,006 white and 1,46 7 colored. It is estimated that at least 1,100 others volunteered for service before registering. In other words St. Petersburg, with a population in 1940 of 60,812, had more than 7,500 men and women in service. Before the war ended, St. Petersburg men were fighting -and dying-in all parts of the world, from the fog-shrouded rocks of the Aleutiains to the jungles of New Guinea and the bloody battlefields of Italy, France and Germany. Rarely did a week pass without news being received of a St. Petersburg youth making the supreme sacrifice. It was little wonder, therefore, that St. Petersburg people did not complain about the seemingly endless red tape and inconveniences of all forms of rationing, about restrictions against ttaveling, or about going short occasionally in a few items of food. Their only thought was: "Will our boys come home again?" And, a s soldiers on the home front, they buckled down to the job of putting over war bond and Red Cross drives, and doing everything else within their power to hasten the war's end. However, St. Petersburg people were not so engrossed in the war that they disregarded the interests of the city. Civic leaders and city offi cials realized long before war was declared that if the United States became involved in the world conflict, as appeared inevitable, S t. Peters burg might be seriously affected, just as it had been during World War I. War would mean restrictions on travel; travel resttictions would mean fewer winter visitors. And if many winter visitors stayed away, the city would stagnate. St. Petersburg had no large industrial plants which could be converted to produce goods needed in the war effort. Its chief business was, and always had been, housing Providing living quarters i n which winter visitors could stayhotels, apartments and houses. These the city had in abundance. If the living quarters could be kept filled, or even partly filled, St. Petersburg could weather the war. If not, the city might suffer disastrously. St. Petersburg's problem, therefore, was to convince the govern ment that its housing accommodations were an asset worth considering; that if servicemen were brought to the city for training, St. Petersburg could and would provide places for them to stay. The servicemen could Jive in quarters which in normal times were occupied by tourists. St. Petersburg had room for thousands of men. Obviously, St. Petersburg had something worth whil e to offer the government. Strangely enough, however, the government was not easily convinced that it should take advantage of the offer. An aggressive campaign, led by the Chamber of Commerce and city offici a ls, and assisted by Congressman J. Hardin Peterson, had to be waged before Washington officialdom took action. But when it did, it moved fast.

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THE OF .PETERSBURG 193 In the spring of 1942 city o fficials were notified that St. Petersburg had been selected as a basic training center for the army air corps tech nical services. And almost before arrangements could be completed to provide the housing facil i ties promised, thousands of men began pouring in from all parts of the country. Every large h o t el in the city except the Suwannee and many smaller ones were taken: over by the air corps. The Suwannee was left for civilians. By mid-summer of 1942, more than 10 ,00 0 air corps recruits were in St. Petersburg; by early fall, the number had passed the 20,000 mark. The city was filled. Then word came that 15,000 more men would soon arrive. There were no more hote l s to occupy so a tent city was estab lished at the J un gle For more than a year St. Petersburg was filled with the air corps men. They marched and drilled in the streets, and in the parks. They had classes out in the open, along the waterfront and anywhere else they could find room. Few of the men remained more than a month. Probably no one knows exactly how many came to the city altogetherthe total probably was 100,000 or more. The peak at any one time wa, s 38,664. By mid summer of 1943, o nly a handful remained. But by that time St. Petersburg had become one of the leading maritime service training stations in the country. The development of that station is w 0rth tracing. It started l o n g before anyone dreamed of World War II. The Coast Guard Comes to St. Petersburg St. Petersburg may have bootleggers to thank for the establishment of a base of the U.S. Coast Guard in the city. Back in the Roaring Twen ties, after p rohibition had become the law of the land, smugglers brought vast quantities of contraband liquor into the Tampa Bay area. To catch the smugglers, the Coast G uard established a base on the north side of Bayboro Harbor. Patrols were conducted by eight cutters a nd eight smaller boats. How many smugglers the Coast Guard caught is not a matter of record. And it does not matter now. What's important is that the base was established. After prohibition was repealed, in 1933, the base was decommis sioned. But in 1939, when the shadows of war began to fall on Europe, the Coast Guard was assigned the task of training merchant seamen for the U.S. Merchant Marine And one of the first places chosen for a training station was the Coast Guard's former base at Bayboro Harbor. Offices were opened in the Coast Guard warehouse and, a month later two training ships with 250 apprentice seamen aboard arrived from New York. They were the American Seaman and Joseph Conrad. As war became more and more imminent, the need for a larger base became apparent. Bulkheads were erected around a large area east of

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194 THE STOHY OF ST. PETERSBURG the existing base and into the enclosed area, dredges pumped sand, creating land. This done, a large building was erected. Berthing space for training ships also was provided. During the summer of 1942 the Coast Guard was assigned to aggressive warfare and the task of training merchant seamen was taken over by the U. S Maritime Service. By that time the demand for merchant seamen had become so great that the training base had to be en larged. A new building was erected to house 800 more men. A classroom building, containing twelve classrooms and various offices, also was Both buildings were ready for use by January, 1943. Four down town hotels which had been used by the army air corps, and released, were taken over later. During the entire war period, 25,661 men were trained at the station. The U. S. Maritime Service also manned and supervised the Army Transportation Corps Marine Officers Cade t School opened in August, 1943. This school trained 2,400 men as junior deck and engineer officers for the Army Transport Service. The t raining station began operating on a peace-time schedule in July, 1946, under the direction of Capt. H. J. 'l'iedeman. The U S. Coast Guard Air Station Although the Coast Guard relinquished the task of training merchant seamen during the war, it did not leave St. Petersburg entirely. It continued to maintain its air station. The station was established in 1935, the actual construction and early maintenance being a WPA project. A ten-fold increase in personnel and activities followed the outbreak of the war. Aircraft were increased in number from f i ve planes i n 1940 t o include at the peak of the war, nine Kingfisher Scouting planes, five Martin Mariners, and five Catalina amphibians. The task outlined by the Navy Department for the air station was primarily one of anti-submarine warfare consisting largely of night patrols in the Gulf of Mexico. In 1947 the air station had returned to it.'l peace-time task of saving lives and property and the enforcement of maritime law. U. S. Navy Section German U-boats were a deadly menace to merchant ships bound for England for many months before the United States entered World War II and for a long time thereafter. To combat the menace, Congress authorized the establishment of 31 navy section bases along the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Frederick R. Francke, then serving as the city's liaison officer with the armed forces, suc ceeded in having one of the bases located in St. P etersburg.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 195 Land requir ed for the base was secured on the south side of Bay boro Harbor and a contract for the necessary building s, costing $500 000, was awarded by the navy in Au gust, 1942. Work on the buildings was started Septemb e r 1 and w ithi n seven w ee ks the building s wer e ready for occupancy-a record-brea king con s tru ctio n job. The base wa s com missioned Tue sday, Octobe r 27, 1942. By the time the base got in operation, the U-boats had alm ost ceased to be a menace in the Gul f of Mexico, scores havin g been sunk in the relentless warfare conducted by the navy. Ships stationed at the base con ti nued to make patrols, however, until after Ge rmany surrendered. The base was then practically abandoned. Du ri ng t h e winter of 1946-1947, an annex of llfound Park Hospital was establish ed in the main building of the navy base. Provi sion was made for accommodating forty patient s. Th e first patients wer e r ece ived there No vember 18, 1946. War Da, s Wer e Bus y Da ys Th r oughout the entire war, and for many months ther eafter, St. Petersburg was crowded with servicemen. Not only with m e n who were s tationed in the city but w ith men from the army air bases acro ss Tampa Bay-MacDill Field and D1ew Field. Also with fighter pilots wh o were being trained at the Pinellas County Air Base. And with servicemen fro m camps all over Florida who came to St. Petersburg on furloughs or leaves to enjoy thems elves. 'l he hotels were alway s filled. On Central aven u e there were more men in uniform than there were in civilian clothes. Wives of hundreds of o fficer s and enlisted men stationed in nearby c amps came to St. Petersburg to l i ve. And when the me n were ordered overseas, most of the wives remained in t h e city to await their husbands' return. They rented houses which otherwise might have remained empty. Many houses also were taken by northern families wh ose men folk had been called into service, leaving no one to shovel s now or fire the furnace-the families came to live in t h e Sunsh ine City until the m e n returned to do the chores again. The housing s hortage became so acute that OPA put a ce iling on rents to prevent profitee ring. The crowd ed city brought record-br eaking business for the sto res. And it was b u s in ess which continu e d throughout the entire year, not just during the winte r months as in normal times. The city itself profited from the wartime influx The municipally owned utilities made greater p ro fits than they had ever made before. And because of war restrictions, the profits co uld not be spent for im provements badly needed though t h ey w ere. Surpluses began to accumulate. Under normal circumstanc es, s uch surp luses would have gone into the city' s general fund to be us e d to lower taxes. However.

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196 Tu& S TORY OF ST. P&T&RSBURc the city officials were convinced that the surpluses should be conserved for use after the war in making improvements; it would be fo lly, they said, to use t h em to cut taxes a t a tim e when almo s t everyon e could pay taxes w ithout being inconve nienced. Ordinarily it would have been illegal to conserv e the surpluses. But the city offici als joined with other Florida cities in persuading the State Legislature to pass a special act which enabled municipalities to use such surpluses in c reating post war funds. St. Petersburg's post war fund was set up soon after the act was passed in 1943. By the time the war ended, $1,077,08 1 had accumu lated. None of the money was spent for improvement s until after the war ended. Up to August SO, 1947, appropriations from the fund had been made as follows: Lake Maggio r e d eve l opment, $125,000; AI Lang Base ball Field, $278,151; street improvements, $279,229; waterfront im proveme nts-slips, pier maintenan ce, and dredging on south side, $62,240; general park improvements, $32,900. In addition, $29,450 was spen t to have a master plan drawn by the engineering firm of Smith & Gillespie, of Jacksonville, for a complete St. Petersburg sewer system. An unappropriated balance of $163,530 remained in the fund on August 30. Ambassador" LMg I s Honored For thirty years and more, S t Petersburg had an "ambassador o f baseball"-a man who too k upon himself the task of bringing major league b aseball teams to St. Petersburg for their spring training. Also, the job of keeping the ball players and team officials satisfied with St. Petersburg after they got here, and making them want to come back again the followin$' spring. The man who did all this, because he loved St. Petersburg and base ball too, was Albert Fielding Lang, known by everyone as just plain AI Lang. Back around the turn of the century, Lang owned one of the largest laundries in Pittsburgh. l11 heal t h made it necessary for him to sell out in 1909 and the next year he came to Florida. He expected to go to Ft. Myers but while waiting for a train in Tampa, he decided to take a trip down the bay and see St. Petersburg. He bought a round-trip ticket and started off. The return ticket to Tampa never was used. Lang liked St. Petersburg so well that he bought a home here-and has lived here ever since. Lang was elected mayor of St. Petersburg in 1916 and was re-elected in 1918. While in office he performed valiantly for the city, barring push carts and peanut wagons from the streets, forcin g through an ordi nance p r ohibiting overhangin g signs, and taking the lead in a move -

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 197 ment to have all benches on the streets painted green-before that, the benches had been a ll s orts of colors. Lang's greatest service to St. Petersburg, however, has been in the realm of baseball. S in gle-handed a lmost, he brought the Philadelphia here i n 1916 the Boston Braves in 1922, the New York Yankees in 1925, and the St. Loui s Cardinals in 1938. Except during World War II, two teams have trained in St. Petersburg each spring since 1925 As a result, St. Petersburg has received a wealth of publicity in the sport pages and in the movies. A movement to honor Lang by building a new baseball field and naming it in his honor was started in the late thirties On September 24 1 940, the citizens of the city voted three to one in favor of locating the field on the waterfront. The entrance of the United States i n World War II caused a delay in the project a n d work was not started until after the war had ended. AI Lang Field was dedicated Wedn esday, March 12, 1947 It was a big day for St. Petersburg. Many of baseball's most famous celebrities, all friends of Lang's, took part in the ceremonies. Included among the speakers were Sam Breadon, who f irst brought the Cardinals to St. Petersburg; Larry MacPhail, president of lhe New York Yankees; Grantland Rice, dean of American sports writers; Will Harridge, presi dent of the American League and Mayor George L. Patterson, under Photo not available

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l9S 'l'HE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG whose administration the field was built. The field was formally dedi cated by A. B. "Happy" Chandler, baseball commissioner, and accepted by Lang, who introduced two of baseball's immortals, Hans vVagner, all time star shortstop, and Ed Barrow, who brought the first Yankee team to St. Petersburg. William F. Davenport, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, was master of ceremonies. To christen the new field, the Cardinals played the Yankees, and the Cardinals won, 10 to 5. The game was witnessed by 7,706 fans. Lake i Vlaggiore Is Developed In the old days, Lake l\faggiore was known as Salt Lake. Old settlers called it by that name because the water in it was salty, the lake being connected with Tampa Bay by Salt Creek. At high t ide, water backed up through the creek into the lake. 1'he name Lake Maggiore first became commonly used when Lake woo d Estates was developed during the Florida boom. Almost everyone thought it had been given that name by Charles R. Hall, the Lakewood Estates developer. The truth is, however, that the name is older than St. Petersburg itself. It was applied to the lake in 1884 by William B. Miranda when he helped plat Disston City. On the plat the lake bore the name "Maggiore Lago"-the same name as the famous lake in Italy. When Hall wa. s buying land for Lakewood Estates he probably saw the old Disston City plat, liked the name Maggiore Lago and proceeded to popularize it. The ridge land to the north of Lake Maggiore was the most fertile on the l owe r peninsula and, many of the first settlers located there. Elsewhere around the lake, however, the land remained undeveloped, partly because it was marshy in places and partly because i t had been acquired i n the early days by land speculators and was later tied up in litigation. In 1925, a $1 ,000,00 0 bond issue was voted to buy a large tract around the Jake but the owners refused to sell. Later, after the Florida crash, the property was acquired by Sam H. Mann and James R. Bussey. A movement to acquire the property and develop it as a park was started in 1934 by the Lake Maggiore Park Association, of which L. A. Pickett was president and Aloysius Coli secretary. The Great Depression prevented any definite action being taken. In 1941, however, when the city's financial condition had improved, the movement was revived by Mayor R. J. McCutcheon, Jr. He talked to Bussey and Mann and learned they had just been offered $75,000 for the tract, and had refused it. The mayor convinced thein however, that the land was badly needed for park purposes and they finally agreed to sell it to the city for $40,000, with the understanding that $14,200 in delinquent taxes would be can celed. The transaction was comp leted December 21, 1943.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 199 Plans for developing the tract, containing 334 acres of land, were completed during the fo llowing year and $ 1 25 ,0 00 of the post war fund was earmarked for that purpose. Development work was started early in 1947. The plans provide for m a king the park one of the most beautiful in the entire state by preserving its thousands of palm trees, towering oaks and dense semi-tropical vegetation. Making U p For Lost 1'ime St. Petersburg's population increased steadily during the war years and when travel restrictions were r emoved after the war ended, the city truly spurted a head. By autumn of 1947, St. Petersburg boos t e r s insisted that the population had passed the 90,000 mark-some said i t exceeded 100,000 No one knew for sure. Conclusive proof that the city was growing, and growing rapidl y, was furnished by the city building department. Permits for $4,488,465 worth of new construction wer e issued during 1945, the big rush beginning after the Japan ese surrendered. During 1946 the permits totaled $ 1 0,972,541. But the end was not in s ight. Even more building was started during 1 947, the total for the f irst ten month s climbing to $14,110,934 St. Petersburg led the entire wes t coas t. Photo not available

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200 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Comparatively few large buildings were included in the gigantic building program, the one outstanding exception being the new 11-laas Brothers department store building at First a venue north and S e cond street. Most of the building permits were for houses-hundreds and hundreds o f houses. They sprang up everywhere. I n the old, settled sections and far out in the suburbs. Altoge t her, 1635 wer e started dur ing the first ten months of 194 7. Boom-time s ubdivisions in which the paved streets had become overgrown with grass, came to life again. During the depression years, pessi mists said these subdivisions never would be built up, not in the life time of living men. But the pessim i sts were w r ong. Almo s t all the sub-. divisions wer e in the path of the city's growth, simply because the growth extended in all di r ection s Residential lots which had been a drug on the market for years, again were i n great demand. Two noteworthy developments were started a fter the war ended. A large section of Snell Isle called Brightwaters, adjacent to the city's mos t exclusive residential section, was purchased and developed by John B. Green. And, far south on the peninsula, Coronado, Inc., developed Bahama Beach, outstanding because of its beautiful homes. The post-war growth was not con f ined to St. Petersburg proper. Pinellas Park and Gulfport also forged ahead. And out on the beaches, the growth was little short of phenomenal, all the way f r om Pass-a Grille to Indian Rocks. The beaches had developed rapidly even during depression y e a rs. The main development began late in 1927 after Corey Causeway, Johns Pass Bridge, and a highway along the keys were completed. Ther eafter, the growth was steady. So many n e w section s became built up, and were given different names, that oldtimers were hard put to keep track of them-the City of T reasure Island, Boca Ciega, ll'litchell's Beach, Sun set Beach, Madeira Beach, Bennett Beach, Sunshine Beach, Belle Vista Beach, Redington Beach, and perhaps a few more. The palm-fringed shores, where picknickers and bathers went in days gone by when seeking solitude were gone f orever. Now, all the way up and down the keys, there were cottages, and houses, and apartments, and bathing pavilions and stores, and hot dog stands, and beer parlors. Yes, the beaches had become developed. For the City of St. P etersbu rg, the rapid growth during the war and afterward brought many headaches. The municipally-owned gas plant, and transit system had been outgrown. More sewers had to be laid and water mai ns. Mound Park Hosp ital had become so overcrowded that an annex had to be opened in the navy section base. All this meant that large sums o f money had to be spent for enlargements, extensions, improvements--everything needed by a growing city. But the p r oblems are being solved-one by one, as will be related by the next person who records the h istory of the Sunshine City.

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CHAPTE R 1 0 THE C ITY OF GREEN BENCHES ST P ETERSBURG'S GREEN BENC H ES, found everywhere along the b usin ess streets and in the parks, have become fam o us. T hey have be come natio n ally know n a s a symb o l of St. Petersburg's u nfailing hos pitali t y its f ri endliness, and its c on si d eration for the co m for t o f its ho m e folks and thou s ands of win t e r v isitors. Whene v e r and wherev e r peo pl e talk abou t S t Petersburg they alway s m ention t he g r e e n benches, no w as m uch a p art of St. Petersburg a s its sunshine, its spar kli ng beaches, o r its waving palms. B a c k in the old days, St. Petersburg had a few benches scattered around, the same as almost any small town. J. C. "Tine" Williams had several a t his general store at Central and Second. So did Blocker's L ivery Stable on Second street ne a r the depot. At the turn of the century, several were p l aced o n Central a v e n u e in front of t h e Lak eview Ho u se, wh ic h soo n afterward b ecame the B e l mont H otel. Attorney W i lli am B Tipp etts, whose parent s owned the Belmont, recails tha t t h e b e n ches i n f r ont of the h o t e l a lway s wer e f illed. Y e s St. Petersburg had a few be n ches in the old days. But it re main e d f o r Noel A. Mitchell, ori ginator of the famed Atlantic City Salt Water Candy, who became o n e of St. Petersburg's leading real estate men and most enthusiastic boosters, to popularize the benches and make them a St. Petersburg institution. I n 1907, Mitchell boug h t the Durant Block on the northwest corne r o f Central a nd Fourth, an d o pene d a r eal estate offi ce there. He though t it woul d b e a fine l ocatio n But, t o hi s surp1ise, he soon learned that most peo p l e still considered Fourth and Cen tn\1 "too f a r uptown," par ticularl y the northwest corner of the intersection Lots o f fol ks got as far a s the eas t side of Fourth but f e w of t hem wanted to c ross the street. M itchell was chagrined. But, being a man of ideas, h e soo n managed to get people coming his way. Mitc h ell had noticed that quite a few persons had come to his office for the sole purpose o f sitting down Weary from walking, they had of t e n asked for permission to rest in the chairs along the wall. Pondering his problem, Mitchell came to t h e conc l u s i o n that he might be abl e t o attract more people t o his loca tion i f he w o u l d provi d e be n ches for the m in f ro n t of hi s offi c e W orth tryin g a n yhow. So h e

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202 THE OF ST. PETERSBURG ordered fifty benches made, painted them a bright orange, decorated them with advertis ing, and placed them on the sidewalk outside his office one Saturday night in 1908. Mitchell did not have to wait long to get results. It seemed as though all St. Petersburg had been waitin g for the benches. Every hour of the day, almo st, they were filled to overflowing, and sometimes there were crowds waiting for a bench to become empty. People called it "Mitchell's prayer meeting." Fourth and Central became the most pop ular corner in the city. Winter visitors and home folks a like sat on the benches to chat, bask in the sunshine flirt a little, wait for friends, or just rest. They were willing to walk two or three extra block s for the chance to sit down. As a result, business soon began to flow to Mitchell's real estate offic e. The interest of other merchants was aroused and several d ecided it might be well to offer their customers or patrons a similar conveni ence, and they asked Mitchell to Joan them benches. Mitchell believed in ad vertising, and he readily complied with the merchants' requests. He had more than a hundred additional benches made. These, like the first, were painted a vivid orange, and across their backs in black let ters were painted these words: "Mitchell, the Sand Man. The Honest Real Estate Deal er. The Man With A Conscience He Never Sleeps." This novel sail car, built In 1893. was used to take ice out to the fish warehou ses on the railroad pier. When t he wind blew hard, the car ipped along at a dizy speed. It was used until 1912 when a winter visitor. fishing on pier, was run down and killed.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 203 This advertising, Mitchell explained, demanded a bench with a back of generous proportions-consequently, people who sat on the benches were assured of comfort. The new batch of orange benches was scattered all over town and other real estate dealers and merchants soon saw the benefits Mitchell was deriving from his novel advertising. They began to make benches of their own. A heterogenous collection soon appeared on the streetsbenches of all sizes, shapes and colors. They were plentifully bedabbed with advertising but that made no d i f ference. Weary people were thankful to rest their backs against black letters proclaiming the merits of anything-pills, peanuts or real estate developments. The appearance of the city was not improved by this odd assort ment of benches. And when AI F. Lang became mayor, he decided that something would have to be done about them, regardless of their value as a symbol of hospitality. He pushed through an ordinance which stipulated that all benches should be of a standard size and painted green, and that after a certain date all benches which did not conform to the regulations would have to be taken off the streets. This ordinance almos t sounded the death knell for the benches. The owners of the benches insisted that their rights were being stepped upon. So long as they bought and paid for the benches, they argued, it seemed only fair that they should be allowed to make them any way they wanted to, and to paint them any color. They also pointed out that it would cost a Jot of money to have the benches rebuilt to standard size and have them repainted. Several threatened to take the benches home and use them for firewood. But Mayor Lang stood his ground. He ins isted that the ordinance be obeyed. Many of the larger benches disappeared, but gradually the merchants adjusted themselves to the change and came to see the necessity for such an ordinance. Benches were made thereafter of the size prescribed and painted green. And so the famous green benches of the Sunshine City came into e,xistence-the green bench whose ancestor was the brilliant orange bench placed that Saturday night at Fourth and Centr al by Noe! A. M i tchell.

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C HAPTER I I ALONG THE WATERFRONT (INCLUDING BEE LINE FERRY AND LOWER TAMPA BAY BRIDGE) W E FOUND that nearly the whol e waterfrOnt was i n an insanitary an unsightly cond itiondecay ing seaweed and other vegetable, as well as animal matter, produced obnox ious odors, rendering reside n ce along the front almost intolerabl e and beyond all question detrimental to health ... 'rhe general appearance-of decay and neglect between the two docks-old boats, rotting piers, all sorts of riff-raff, and cspccia11y where the outgoing tide leaves large stretches of sand c .overcd with a variety of animal and \"egetab l c matter in all stages of decay-does not well com port with a live, progressive cit y such as St. Petersburg aspires and claims to be." This description of S t Petersburg's waterfront was contained in a report submitted to the Board o f 'l'rade by its water front committee on July 21, 1908. The contrast between what the waterfront was then and what it is today indica.te s what the city bas done in the way of de velopmen t The change did not occur over night-it is the result of long years of constant effort, bitter controY'ersies, and al mo .st endless negoti a t ions. \Vaterfront Park of today is a monumen t to a small group of men :who had "waterfront on t he brain" and who fought unceasingly unt il they made their dreams come true. The story of Waterfront Park is linked up inseparably with the story of the development of Bayboro Harbor and the Port o f St. Petersburg, and so both must be given together. St. Petersburg's waterfront, in the be g i nning, was a stretch .of sand flats, ex tending several hundred yards out into the bay A t high t ide, the flats were cov ered with shallow wat0r; when the tide. went out, the flats wete exposed. In the original town plat, made in 1888, the waterfront within the town limits, from what is now Fifth avenue north to Seventh avenue south, was div ided into tw elve water lots each a block in depth, numbered from one to twehe. The lots extended from Beach dri ve and First street south out into Tampa Bay. There was little land on any o: them-they consisted almost entirely o shoal water and sand flats. When the town site was divided half the lots went to the Orange Belt Investment Company and half to J. C. Williams. The owners of the lots had riparian rights. The first development on the water front, if developmen t i t could be called, was the construction of a pie r out to twelve feet of water by the Orange Belt Railway. This pier was started in 1888 and comp leted about a year later. A large warehouse was buil t at the end of the pier, where boats docked, and smaller ware. houses were buil t later on for wholesale f ish companies. St. Petersburg's first "amusement at traction" was built alongside the pier, about a thousand feet from shore. It was a bathing pavilion, a rather ornaW a ffair. T he styl e of a1chitecture was tho same as that i n the original Detroit Hotel. That's understandable sinee bo t h were built by the Orange Bel t Investment Com pany. The first excursionists who came to St. Petersburg o\er the Orange Belt Railway stayed at the Detroit Hotel and amused themselves by swimming at the Orange Bel t pavi lion. A ls o, by fishing !rom t he railroad pier. Along the north side of the pier was a litUe channel. made when sand was taken to form the fill out to where the woode n structure began. For a number of years this channel p r ovided the only way for small boa t s to get close to the shore. Large boats could not usei t because the water \\'as too shalJow. In the beginning, the owners o! the raihoad permitted all vessels to dock at

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 205 the p ier. The first steamer know n to have docked there was the .. Mary Disston," lmo,vn locally as the "Dirt y Mary,n owned by one of Ha m ilto n D i ss ton's companie s Produce was brought to S t. Petersburg b y this steamer ftom Bradenton, Manatee and Sarasota for transsh ipment north. Dur ing the early 90s, whe n St. Peters b urg' s growth was starting, many s choon ers and s team l aunches plied the wa tel.'S o f Tampa Bay. One of the first ships to make daily runs to Tampa was the sloop "Moon Beam" owned by \\'ill McPherson w h o had t he contract to carry mail brough t t o Tampa ove r t h o Florida Southern Rail road. 'l' he fitst steam launch which went o n t he 1'ampa run was the. "Enterprise," owned by William B Miranda. I t was u sed by S t Petersburg people who wanted to go to Tampa to shop or had t o go to the county courthouse. Thes e ships, as well as man y others, all doc ked at t he railroad pier in the early days. Such general usage of t he pier eame to a s top, h owever, when t he Plant System leased t h e Orange Belt in 1895. The P l ant Syst em owned two steamers, the "H. B. Pl ant" and the c caloosa, which plied 1\ampa Bay. Henry B. Plant, of the Plant Systeln, wanted to make sure that h is sh i ps wou l d get a lion's share of the bay business. S o he issued orders to the effect that competing li;oats could not dock a t the pier unless they paid $ 2 5 for the privileg e Because of this a rbitrary act, St. Petet-s burg got its s econd piet. D F S. Brantley, boat builde1 and 0 \"\1ner of several small salling b oats, decided to build a pier of his ow n He bought 50 feet of waterfront just south o f the foo t of Secon d avenue nOl.'t h and in 1896 constructed a narrow p -ier out to seven feet of water. A t the e n d o f the p ie r h e built a platform where boats coul d dock. T o provide "transportation" from the end of the pier t o the shore, Brantley placed wood e n rails on t he p ie r and a small flat car, pulled b y a horse, was use d to haul passengers, luggage and freight ashore. Half way out on the pier, Brantley built a bathing pavilion w h icb he operated in c ompetition with t he pavillio n o n the railroad pitn:. Brantley' s P ier had se 1ious disad v a ntage -it ,Vas too far from downtown S t Pet ersburg From t he end o f the pier Da c k in 1893. when t his photograph was t..1.ken, anglel' S always were sure of getting lo t s of fish from t he old Orange Bolt p ier.

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206 TnE STORY OF ST. PETERSBUR G to Central a nd First was nearly three fourth s of a mile and that was a l ong way for passengers to go, or freight to be carried even when t h o f lat car was used for part of th e trip. As a result, practically all tho boats which drew less than five teet of water came in by way of the channel alongside the railroad pier and docked close to shore. The only t1meJ they doclced at Brantley's Pier was when the tide was low and there was dange r of being stranded in the channel. O n July 1G, 1901, the 50-passenger steamer uAnthea" wa s brought to St. Petersburg b) George L. Kin g for t he Tampa run and wa s tiod up to the K ing & C hase dock at the foot of Contr al. The s teamer was 70 fee t l ong, weighe d 24 to ns a nd drew a little more t han four feet of water. On several occasions when the tide was l ow, the uAnthea" was stranded. Captain King undertook the task o f deep ening the ch a nnel so that his steamer could get in at all times but he was stopped on December 1 by an Injunction obtained by the P lant System. The town was enraged by this Hinjustice of t h o raill" ond. An indignation meeting was held in tho Opera House. Upon a motion by A. P. A v ery, i t was unanimously decided to dred ge a channe l straight in from the bay to the foot of First a venue north. On December 7, the contract was awarded to B. E. Coe, of Tampa, who agreed to do the work for $2,250. A few days a fter he started, bowever b e was stopped by a f ederal officer from Tampa who said that the town wou l d ha v e to get permi ssion f'rom th e \Var D e partment before it could alter the water f'ront. This permi ssion wa s seeuted on February 2, 1902, and tho work proceeded. The Little Coe Chann e l, as i t was called, was shaped in the form of a letter "L," on e arm e xten ding out into the bay and the other paralleling the shore lin e from First avenue north to the foot of Central. King & Chase had their doc k at the foot of Central and A. W elton had another at the toot of First avenue north. Several other doc k s were scattered in between. The Little Coe Channel and the docks constitu ted the first "Port of St. Petersburg.'' But it wasn't much of a port-.the cha nnel was only six feet deep And it wa s continually filling in with sa nd. However, it was decidedly better than no port at all. Late in 1901, Captain Chase sold the "Anthea" to the St. Petersbutg Inve s tment Company parent of the F. A. Davi a com panic s. Davis had bought properties at Pass-a-Grille and wanted the little steamer for tri-week l y trip s to the island. To replace the .. Anthea," C a ptain King bou.cht tbe ucertrude Dudley," a lOO .... passcnrer, 97-foot auamer which made its maiden run to Tampa early in 19 02. While the LitUe Coo Channel was being dredged, the "Gertrude Dud ley" docked at Brantley's Pier 'fhe "Port of St. Pctcrsbul'g"11 was badly muss ed up by a sharp gal e which came out of the southe ast in mid February. 1902 Seve ral sailing boats were over turned and the H Anth ea" wa s blow n through Brantley's P ier, leaving a big g ap. William H. Tippetts recalls that when he came to St. Petersburg with his family on February 28, 1902, on the "Gertrude Dudley," the passengers on the boat had to cross over the gap in the pier on a small IIchter. Then they had t o pick up their lurcng e and walk the rest of the w ay. Brantley 's Pier and waterfront property was purchase d in 1 905 by F. A. Davis, head of the St. Petersburg & Gulf Electric RaHway. Davis had visions o f developing St. Petersburg as a por t for West Indian, Gulf and South American trade to be ready for heavier commerce by the time the Panama Canal was completed. A.a a first step he formed the Tampa B ay T ransportation Co mpany to dev e lop freight traffic on the bay. In the s ummer of 1906 he bourht the 500-passenger steamer uFnv orltoH i n New Y ork for t.hc announced purchase price of. $80,000. To have place lor the ('Fav orite" to dock Do.vi& needed a lo nger and bett er pier than Brantley's so he had the old structure tom down. Only the bathing pavilion was left standing. A new pie r 16 teet wide, was built on the site of the old one. It extended a thousand feet farther out in to the bay, to ten feet of water. Street ear tra ek.s w er e laid on the pier so that earlS eould run to the end and toke of( passe n gers and frei gh t The new pier, ca ll ed the uel ectrlc p i e r," beearne a leadin g

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THE STORY O f ST. PETERSBURG 207 tion for winter visitors who rode out on it to watch the boats come in, feed the run s and pelican-s, loaf in the sunshine and f ish. The "Favorite" was brought to St. Petersburg o n October 17, 1906, and placed on the Tampa run. But it proved to be too large a steamer to be operated profitably and the Davis company sold i t to the Independent Line, heade d by H. Wa lter Fuller, and purchased the "Van dalia," an 8 1-foot boat which could carry 100 tons of freight and 160 pasaengers. During 1908, the Independent Line proved to b e strong competitor for the Davis comp any In addition to the ''Favo rite," the In d e pendent a lso owned the ".Manatee'' and the H B Plan t." A stea mship *'war'' developed, first one pan y and then the other cutting p llM
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208 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Bay. The flats go t their name because of the countless numbers of iddle1 crabs which always could be found there at low t ide. Harvey plan ned to buy the mud flats and swamp lands adjoining and re cla im them, dredging out a harbor and at the same t ime make valuable wate rfront land. The p l an was bu t Han.,.cy succeeded i n convincing others that it would work out, and on Jun e 13, 1906, the Baybo r o Investment Company was in cor porated with a large number of St. Petersburg's most i nfluentia l citiz;ens as stock hol ders. The Barboro project was destined to be t he cause of l ong ) r ears o f factional war fare. There were citizens who were opposed t o t he freight harbor a t Bayboro because they b elie ved it was t oo far away from the business section and they w01ked hard to est ablish a freight harbor where the central yacht basin now is, in order to thwart the Bayboro plan. And ther e we.l'e men in the Bayboro company who struggled to delay work on the waterfront because t hey be li ve d i t was going to head off Bayboro Still others av01ed a freigh t harbor adjoining t he Atlao t ic Coast Line right-of way, A nd many .favored the construction of a long f reight pier out into the main s h ip channe l d i rectly i n f ront of the ci t y, constructed so staunchly that it would stand up against the strongest gales. The resul t was a t u ssle wh ic h held up an i mprovemen ts both for beautifica t ion and for a freight harbor for several years. The city council was finall y stirred into action l a t e i n 1908 when some of the w a t c r f r o n t boos ters adopted new tactics. They met December 12 in the office of Ed. T. Lewis and organized the St. Petersburg Waterfron t Company with the avowed i nten t ion of ta ldng over the lots al ready held by the trust ees, ac quir ing the rem ain ing property and making a yaehtharbor. They also said they intended t o provide fo1 freight along the south side, beautify the park, and so on, tho who l e developmen t to be turned over to t he c i ty, i f wa n ted within a certain time, aon certain terms T h e effect of this meeting was surpris ing. When t he council learned t hat a pri v a te company was goin g to take a hand, This \'iew and the vi ew on the adjoi nin g page show the waterfront as i t was in 1910 before t he waterfront. im provements were s t arted. The women at the left are walking on the approaeh to the railroad pier.

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THE STORY OF S-r. PETERSBURG 209 t he members rose up in ind ig nation. More over there was a feeling among some of th e wa t erfront boosters not pat t ies t o the scheme that i f the eompan)' ever took over property. and deve l oped it, the city migh t never get it back. The upshot of the who l e thing was that the council and a group of public ownership advocates secured th e money to pay for the four lots w hi ch had been acquired hl' the committee two ye"'"" before. The deeds the first to go to the city for waterfront property, were dated January 8, 1909. All the remaining property between F irst a v enue south and Fifth avenue north, exc .ept that he l d by the railroad and the electric light company, was secured in December of the same year. The final arran geme .nts were made on Christmas Eve an d resulted in what the l imes termed "the best Christ mas ptesent St. Petersburg ever had." The dtedge "Blanche," named in honot of B l anche Straub, da ughte r of W. L Straub, "the pe rsistent and insistent wat-er fronter," started work on the waterfront i mprovements .May 12, 1910, before a large group of spectators. Straub pushed the leve r that started the machinery. The dredge was ch ristened by Miss Beth Blodgett, daughter of G W. Blodgett, pre sid en t of the city council. The christen ing and the starting of the work, ''' as a b i g event in the history of the ci t y and many of the city's n otables were on board the dredge when the work s t.arted. Waterfront Park was l eg ally c reated December 5 1910, when the city council passed Ordinance No. 246, establishing the outer line 500 feet from and parelleli n g Beach Drive and First stn.et south and providing for the yacht basin. The first contract for constructing sea walls was let by city council Jul y 20, 1911, toW. B. Williams at $&.88 per lineal foot. By October, 1911, Beach Drive and First street south had been pa ved for the entire l e ngth of the city, the foundations had been Jaid for aJJ sides of the yacht basin, and th e pa.tk im p rovements we. re s tarted, the block between First and Second avenues north being filled, grad ed and plante d w i t h grass and shrubs. WhUe the preliminary work on t he waterfront was proceeding, Representa tive Spnr:kman was working in Wa shi ng ton to seeut e a government appropriation At l ow tide, in 1910 boats which came into St. Peters burg's 11harbot' often were stranded. Large boats could not come i n at all. The smokestacks are those of the electric light p lant at the foot of Central avenue.

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210 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG for the Bayboro project He persuaded the Board of Engineers to have a harbor survey made. Representatives were sent by the government to appraise St. Peters burg's needs and l ocal men were sen t to Washington. In the spring of 1912 an appropriation of $32,000 was inc l uded for this work in the Rivers and Harbors bill. O n May 24, 1918, plans for Bayboro Harbor, drawn by Henry C Long, of Bog,. ton, were approved by the Settetary of War. On October 7 the city commiss i on called fo r an election for a bond issue which in cl uded items of $43 500 for the waterfront and $41,850 for Bayboro. The waterfront i ssue was to b e used for com .. pleting the sea wall and recreation pie r. The Bayboro appropriatio n was to pur chase 600 feet of wa ter frontage at the harbor and t o pay for dredging in side of the b asin, b o t h requ ir ed by the govern as the city's part of the work. B oth issues carried by ma jor i ties of five to one, indicating the strong s entiment in favor of the developments. The city put up a bond of $50,000, signed by ten leading cit ize ns on Decem .. ber 20, 1913, to guarantee that the city's share of the work on Bayboro harbo r would be done. The four specific require ments were that the city dredge t he basin ten feet deep, keep it dredged out, con struct one p ier w ithi n 18 months, and connect the pier with the r-ailroad; a l so, to acquire 600 feet of waterfrontage a t the harbor, and to construct and maintain wharf and warehouse. A. C. Pheil, who was awarded the eon tract for dredg ing the basin for the city, started work in May, 19 1 4 The govern ment dredg e ."FJ orida" arrive d on August 16, 1914 and started several days later dredging out the channel. The work was completed within four months and soo n afterwards the sto ne jetty was con structed. The government did its share of the project but the city fathers failed t o do t heirs. Only par t of the $41,850 voted i n Octobe r 1918, was e v e r used for the pur pose. The one pier required was not com p le t ed until the fall o f 1 922. A trolley eonneet io n with t he pier was not made until the fall of 1928 Part of the de lay was caused by World War I; part because of the attitude of city officia l s. The $50,000 bond pu t u p b y the city co ul d ha, e bee n f orfeited as a result, but instead two extensions of time were allowed b y th e governmen t A l though St. Petersburg mad e slow progress on the Bay boro project, it never slackened in its efforts t o complete t h e ; waterfron t deYelopment The wooden recreation p ier (q. v.) was comp l e t ed in D ecember 1913, and work on the sea walls was pushe d steadily 'l' he walls on the nor th side of the yacht basin were com .. pletcd even before t h e recreation pie r and t he walls on the south side were fini s hed in January, 1 914 Considerable d ifficulty was encountered b} th e city in acquiring a small sectio n of the waterfront at the foot of Second ave nue north held b y the St. Petersburg In vestment Company, parent company ot t h e F. A Davis companies. Negotiat ions ex tended over a number of years without success. Inn umerable agreements were made, only to be broken by one side or the other. A settlement was made only when the Davis com panies got into :finan cial difficu lties and the city purchased the trolley lines in 1919 Much less trouble was encounte r ed in dealing wit h the Atlantic Coast Line re gardin g its waterfront lo ts. An agree ment was reached i n 1 911 whereby the company leased t he lots to the city for ninety nine yea rs in return for which th e city made a fill out to the fo o t of the present railroad pier, 150 feet in width and 800 f eet l ong. The last sectio n o f waterfront property was acquired in 1916 when on December 22 a bond issue of $16,200 was passed to buy approximat ely 1 ,400 feet on the south side from Mrs. David C. Cook. The amount paid Mrs. Cook covered only her original investmen t p lu s the taxes sh" had paid and other costs. In her d e ed Mrs. Cook stipulated that the land must be used for park pu rposes on l y. For the entire waterfront deve lopment -land, pier and g enera l im prove nle ntsSt. Petersburg has spent a grand total of $1,858,550, exclus ive of the cos t of con t i n u ed beautificatio n of t h e park since 1925, the money for wh ich came out of general park funds.

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THE STORY OF ST. 211 The North Yacht Basin, north of Second a venue north, was dre dged out and se.a .... walled in co njuncti on with the c ons t ruction of the Vinoy Par k Hotel in 1925 Dur ing the same year, the South Yacht Bas in, aoutb o f t he railro ad p ier causeway, also was comp l eted. With the exception of several small prope r ties betwee n Sixth and Thirteenth avenues north, th e city now owns the e n tire waterfront f rom Coffee Pot Bayou to Bayboro Harbor, and south of the har bor it owns a 20acre tract, 4.85 acres of which are filled i n an d beauti f ied, whi ch was deeded to the city by Judge J. M Lassing and is calle d Loss ing Park Construction o f the Albert T. Whitted Municipal Airport and A I Lang Baseball F i eld on the waterfront was done over t h e protests of many pers ons w ho i nsisted t hat th e park area should be u sed for park purposes-and nothing e lse. T h ey argued that the airport and ball park would detract from th e beauty of the entire waterfront and also l ower th e value of ad j oining rea l estate. Be that as i t may, the chan ces are that both the airport and the bali park will remain w h ere the y are for many years to come. For the development of Bayboro Harbor, the city has spent $591,800 and for the Port of St. Petersburg, $150,000 ad ditional. The tOtal cost t o the federal govet nm e n t up to June 30, 1945, was $291,275, of which $221 ,578 was for new work and $69,697 for maintenanc e . The main part of the city's work wa.s done dur ing 1925 when a new cha nnel 19 f eet de ep and 250 feet wide, was dredged from deep water in Tampa Bay to the entrance of Bayboro Harbor, and a new harbo r basi n called the Port of St. Petersburg, was dre dged 21 feet deep, 900 feet wide and approximately 1,600 feet long. Dredged material was use d t o make additional land around the basin on which wharves, transit sheds and other t erm inal facilities were construc t-ed. The work of maintaining the channel and harbor basin at t h e required depth and size has been carried o n b y the f ederal gover nment according to the p rovisions of the River and Harbor acts of July 3 1930, and A ugust 26, 1937, The latter I n 1905 S t. Petersbu r g got an honest-to-goodness uelectric p i e r" with a street car, electric lights 'n every t hinlf Boa t Livery i s shown in the foreground,

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212 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG aet al s o provided for a straight channel 20 feet deep and 200 feet wide extending sou thward from the eastern end of the abO\'e entranceto deep wa ter in lower Tampa Bay. The latest ( 1937) approved estimate for annual cost of maintenancG is $6,500. The Port of St. Petersburg was opened i n No:vember 1925, just in time to permit shipment into the city by water of badly needed building materials. A railroad em bargo, caused by thousands of cars piling up in bottleneck junction points, bad brought the building industry to a virtual standstill; shipments by wate. r enabled it to iet started agai n. For a few months, the port was a scene of hectic activit)' the basin so filled with ships that they could hardly be turned around. When the railroad embargo was lifted, activity at the port slackened. Nevertheless, it was of inestimab l e va lue to the city because it led to the establishment here of Coast Guard Base No. 21 and the Maritim e Ser vice Training Station. (See Index). St. Petersburg d i d not get its beautiful Waterfront Park and the Port of St. Petersbutg by chance, as has been pointed o'ut. Had it not been for that small group of men with "waterfront on the brain," who met at the home of Col. J. M. Lewis on 20, 1905, the wa terfront of t o dal' might be as insanitary and unsightly as it was forty years aio. and St. Peters burg would be lacking its most priceless asset. And bad i t not been for the vision and persistence of C. A. Harvey and his associates, the Port of St. Petersburg might still be uFiddlcrs' Paradise"-and nothing else. But because St. Petersburg has been b l essed with men who dreamed and fought to make their dreams come true -the port and the park are realities which increase in value inevitably as the years go by. TI-lE FERRY AND TI-lE BRIDGE Across Tampa Bay from Pinellas Point is the Land of Manatee, home of several of the oldest settlements on the Florida West Coast. A beautiful, fascinating sec tion with a c o lorful history. On a clear day, the shores of Manatee County can be plainly seen from S t Petersburgonly seven miles of water. separate the-two bodies of land. For motorists, however_ the Land of Manatee was as far removed !rom St. Petersburg in the old days as though it had half way across the state. To reach there, the motorist had to go to Tampa and then drive forty or so miles south. Be fore Gandy Bridge was built, that meant a trip of nearly ninety miles. And e\'en when the bridge was opened, the route was more than si:xty miles long A long way t o travel to get to a place just sGven milc .s; away! During the boom days there was talk of spanning lower Tampa Bay with a bridge and causeways A boom-time pro moter, li. Simmonds, went so far as t o have preliminary plans drawn. He hoped to get the project financed by selling stock to the public the same as George Gandy did in financing Gandy Bridge. But the crash same and Simmonds' plans never materialized. NeYerthelc. ss, the need for a connection with the mainland became steadily more apparent. I n the mid-Twen t ies, two cross state highways were being cons t ructed, the Sa.rapalmee Highway. extending from Sarasota to Palm Beach by way of Arcadia, Oke ec hobee and Fort P ierce, and the long talked-of Tamiami Trail extending from Tampa to Miami. St. Petersburg boosters realized that these two new highways would have a heavy flow of traffic when t hey were openedthat countless motorists wouJd travel over them in touring the state. The boosters also realized that most of the north.south hound motorists would pass by St. Petersburg rather than travel si< t y miles out of their way. It was essential many thought, that the mainland traffic steam shoul d be tapped At this juncture, the idea o f operating ferries across the lower bay was conceived by J G. 1 Jim." Foley, p ioneer St. Peters burg t e .al estate man and h is partner, Charles R. Cat'ter. They decided that s i nce it wasn't practical at the time to span the

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 213 bay w ith a b r idge, the next best thing would be t o span it with boats. So, with Attorney James R.. Bussey, they f ormed the Bee L ine Ferry Company, incorporated October 23 1924 1 'he next year and a half were spent by the company officials in having surveys made o f the lower bay to determine the best l 'oute across_. in acquiring property where docks cou l d be built, and in ha\Ting a terry boat constructed. Finally on Feb ruary 24, 1926, the c1 oss-bay connection was made, the ferry uFt ed D. Doty,'' buHt in Tampa, making the first trip. City and company officials, with other dignitarie s, mad e up a mototcade which left St. Petersburg at 11 a. m. and dined in Bradenton less than two hours l a ter. I t was big day! The city had been moved forty-nine miles closer to the mainland, so far as motoris t s were conce.rned. In the beginn ing, operation of the ferry was nota profitable undertak ing. Thepro -moters of it did not expec t i t to be. Tarniami Trail had not yet been com pleted and onl y comparatively few motor ists had occasion to go to Bradenton, Sarasota, or other \Vest Coast towns below the bay. But when the Trail was f i nally opened, on Apri l 26, 1928, busi ness picked up. Another ferry, the HPinellas.'' was put in operation. This boat formerly was the"Wilmington" and ran between Wil mington, De l., and Wilmington, S. C To get it, the company paid $92,000 With the two fenies in use, ten rou nd-tr i p x:uns were made daily instea d of five In the spring of 1929, the Florida Legis lature granted the Bee Line Ferry Com p any a 50 .. year franchise cove ring a seven mile stl'ip across the bay, t hree and onehalf miles on each side of t he ferry t oute. The "Manatee," built i n Louisiana for the com pany i n 1931, was put in serviCe in January, 1932 It cost $145,000. The uDoty" was then dismantled and so l d as St. Petersburg once -ha d two piers where the Municipal P ier now is. The-uele-ctric pier" i5 shown at the left and the old wooden recreation pier, buil t in 1913, at the rig ht. The "electric pier" was torn dow n in 1 914.

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tH STORY OF ST. PT&RSBURC scrap. The ' Sarasota," formerly the ''Cit)' of For t Myers," was pu rc hased from the Collier Line in 1937, rebuilt, and placed on the run on Christmas Day. It repre sented an investment of $120,000 With three ferrie s in use, a 30-minut e schedule was maintained. During t he late 1'h irt ies, construction of a bridge-t unnel to span the lo wer bay was advocated by Pinellas and Manatee county off icials and West Coast boosters. Such a connection, t hey insist ed was a v itally needed l i nk i n the Gulf Coast High way then being projected Plans prov ided or going unde rnea th the main s hip chan nel with a tunn e l a nd going over the passes and shallow water with bridg es 'l'he necessary enabling legislation cou l d not be !Secured, however, a nd the p ro j ect was fi n ally abandoned by the two counties. But that did not mean the death o f the bridge campaign. It h a ppened t o dove tail i n with another movement which had gotten underway in 1938 a drive t o make a real port out of Bayboro Harbot. The Bull Line had stopped coming to St. Peters burg a nd the harbor was rarely used by steamships o f other lines. C h ic leaders contended that a real port could not be developed w ithout deepening the channel, build ing more docks and warehouses, and providing a railroad connection. To get all t h i s accomplished, th e port advocates succeeded in p er suading the State Leg i s lature i n 1939 to create the Port Authority of St. Petersburg w;th broad powers per taini ng to in the lower Pinellas Peninsula atca. The act stipulated that the debt li mit of the aut hority shou ld be $500,000 The first members of the authority, a p poin t ed by th e counc il, were: Frederick R. l"rancke, chai rman; Leon Lewis v ic e chairman; Judge C. J. Maurer, secretary, and Henr y W Adams Jr., and R. D. Sommerkamp. Plans of the original authority were disrupted by Wo r ld War II. Late in 1939, the government s t epped in and bega n de veloping Bayboro Harbor for the use of U. S. Coas t Guard. Then, when the United States entered the confli c t the harbor also was used by the U S. Maritime Ser v i ce and the Navy. In 1941 the por t authority was reorgan ized with J. Hervey Mann, Jr as chairman, St. Petersburg's wa t erfront h as always been one of its chief attraet.ions. :tlere s the way the wooden recreation pier looked in 1919 during a yacht race.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 215 W. D. Berry, vice chairman, and John P Wel ch, secretary. The other members of the author i ty were Leon Lewis and Hubert Rutland During the war, membetS of the auth ority gave up the idea of developing Bayboro Harbor. They began advocating a deep-water port o!f the end of the penin sula, close to the main ship channel. Such a port, they argued, would give St. Pet ers burg a tremendous advantage over Tampa as a sh ipping ccntct, inasmuch as it would eliminate the necessity of ocean-going ships making a long, tedious, three hour trip up the bay Membe r s of the author i ty realized, how ever, that the development of suc.h a por t was a long-range project which wou l d re quire years to complete, and that much preliminary work wou l d have to be done before it could even be started. While considering what steps to follow they wer e persuaded by city and county officials to take tho lead in promoting the proposed bridge project. Permission to do this was / granted b) t he State Legislature in 1943. The act granted the authority even broader powers than it had before, enabling it to embrace the bridge project, and increased the debt l imit of the authority to $10,000,000. The f irst important action taken by the port authority unde< its new powetS was to acquire the franchise of the Bee Line Ferry Company. The franchise was es s en t ia l before a bridge could be constructed inasm uch as it covered three and one-half miles on each side of the ferry route, an area in which the bridge would have to be constructed Negotiations were started with Bussey, who had purchased practically all stock of the ferry company after the deaths o f Foley and Carte r. Bussey had no desire to s e ll but, on the other hand, he did not want to stand in th e way of t he bridge project. So he finally agreed to sell the franchise for $150,000, con s iderably less than he could have gotten for it f rom private parties. The sale, completed in The steamer "Favori t e" which docked at the recreation pier du ring the 'l' eens, was a f iner steamer t ha n any which cru ise s on Tampa Bay today. A utom obiles and Gandy Bridge put it out of business.

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2 1 6 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG December, 1944 did not include the ferry boata-just tho franchise and the real estate owned by the company. At that time, the fe.-ry was not in opera tlon. The boats had been commandeered by the government for use by the army at Jacksonville and Mac Dill Field. Originally the port authority had no intention of operating the terry. In SepterDber, 1945, the members a proposal made by the Chamberlatn Trans portation Comp any, of Vermont, for a 20-yea r contract. The company offered to pay the authority $7,600 a year for the first five years and ten per cent o f t h e gross profit for the next fifteen yearst h e company to provide the boats. Buss_eY objected. He said he had sold the franchiSe only to help the bridge project; not to see someone else given the right to opera t e ferries. The Times took up the fight and in Page One editorials, blasted the proposal-and it soon was dropped. The port authorlt) then decided to operate the ferry itself. Arrangements were made with Bussey to buy the boats back from the government. Inasmuch as the government had gotten the boats. from him he could buy back the boats d 1rect; the 'authority would have had to bid !or them in a public auction. Bussey paid $78, 163 for the Manatee and Pinellas and $42 766 tor the Sarasota. Be turned them over to the authority for exactly what he paid tor them and charged nothing for his ser viees. After being reconditioned, the boats were put back in operation. the Sarasota on December 27, 1946, the Manatee on January 1 8 1946, and the P inellas eight days later. That the authority made a good bargain in buying the Bee Line franchise, property and boats, and in paying to have the boat$ reconditioned at a total cost of $ 30 0,000; was indicated later when it in making two loans of $800,000 eaeh on those assets, one at 1 \( per cent interest and the second at 2 per cent interest. Dur ing the fiscal yea r 1946-47, operation of the ferry gave the authority a net profit of $115,7 42, more than one-third of its entire investmen t. Rapidly rising costs of labor and rna teriale mode it o b vious that the proposed Tampa Bay bridge could not be built within tho $10,000,000 debt limit tipulated by the state legislature in the 1943 act. There !ore, authority was sought and granted by the legislature in 1947 to increase the debt limit to $15,000,000, providing the Yoters approved. This appro val was g iven, at a referendum held July 22, 1947, by a vote of 3,670 to 1,254, the voters having been as.sured that any bond. s sold to build the bridge would be paid for out of the bridge revenues AJ planned by the port authority, the bay bridge will be o n e of t h o finest in the country. The span across the main ship channel will be 164 feet high, more than twice as high as the tallest bridge on tho Key West Overseas Highway. It will be 800 feet long and have a 24-foot roadway. With approaches on each side, over water, this section will be more tban four miles long. There also are to be long causeways leading to both shores and sev eral smaller bridges over passes. The en Ure length of the causeways and bridges is to bo approximately 14 mHos. The bridges nnd causeways are to oxtcnd fro m Maximo Point at 34th stree t t o the state Highway on Sneed's Island west of Pal metto. P l ans and sp eci fication s for the bridge cost approximately $500,000 and were drown by Bail, Horton & Associates, of Bradenton and Fort Myers, and Parsons, Brinkerhoff, Hogan & Ma c D onald, of New York. E. L. Cole served as chairman of the authority from 1943 until July,1947, when h e resigned. H e w a s succeed ed as chair man by W. D. Berry, who served until he died in September Leon D. Lewis then b ecamo c hairman. William H Mllls ie v ice chairman and Joh n P. Wel ch, secretary treasurer. The other members of the authority are Henry Sorenson and Roy C. Bishop. E. R. Baldinger was appointed manager of the Port Authority August 1, 1947. The quesUon of whether the bridge ean be built in the near future depends upon the receipt of a favorable bid for Its con struction, and the sal e of the bonds at a !avotab l e price.

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CHAPTI:R 12 SCHOOLS OF ST. SCHOOL lessons were !int taught on the lower pen insul a by William B. Neeld, a hustling young !ellow from Selma, Ala., who came to Port in 1878 and bought forty acres ot land !rom the state on what is now 'l'nngerino avenue. After paying for his land, Neeld had little money left and, to make end s meet, he accepted the job of t<>acbing the children of Vincent Leona rdi. His classes also were attended by tho children of severo! other pi oneer fam ilies. F or his work, he was gi ven his board and lodging. He was al so rewarded in another way. \Vbile teaching, he fell in with Emma Leonardi, one of Leo n ardi a daught ers, and soon afte r ward they w e r e married. Two re gular school hou s e s were built on the lower peninsula in the fall o f 188 6. One was located in the little eomrnunity of Pinellas, on Big Bay o u, and the other at Disston City, in what i s now Gulfport. The Pinellas school, a one-room building 20 by 40 feet in size, was built and paid lor by E. R Wa rd, a who had just opened a general store at Pinellas. Mr. and Mrs. Ward h ad two daughters, Ethel and Lottie, and the school was built so their children would not get behind in their l essons. Mr s Ward, the first teacher in the school, served without pay. her own chi ldren, sh e had eleven other pupils The school house also serve d as a community meetin g plac e and church serv ices were held ther e aa well as dances, political rallies and n eig hb o rhood parties. The Disston City school, which also was a sma ll, oneroom building, boasted of a p aid teacher. H e was Arth ur Norwood, a well educated Englishman who was at tracred to Pinellas P e nin s ular by the glow ing advertisements of Diss ton City which were carried in London new s papers. Nor wood taught the Di sston C ity scho ol for three years. During the first two yean h e received $26 a m o n t h but during the last year his salary was raised to $ 30, a muni ficent sum in those days. In addition to his teaching Norwood whitewa s h e d th e school bullding, d ug a well and buil t black board s 'l'he pupi l s furnished their o wn rud e homemade des ks. Instru c ti on was from the first grade up; some of the pupils were even taught Latin and Greek. Old timera reeaU th a t there were times when the pupils, vexed with the tea cher, pi c ked up their desks and walked home. The foundin g and rapid growth o f St. res ulted in the o! the Pin e lla s and Disston City school s due to tho fact that both Ward and Norwood mov ed to the uvillage with the railroad" and opened general stores, becomin(l' t h e first merchants of the new settl ement. Th e first &Chool session held In St. Petersburg was in a little wo<>den building erecred In the summer of 1888 by the people or the town under the di .... ction of the truateea o f the Congregational Church. The first teacher was Miss Mami e Gilke so n who re si gned at the end of two m onths and was succeeded by Miss Olive Wic kham. 'rhe building was located between Ninth and 'l'cnth street. nea r the pre soni Contt al avenue. Twenty .. nine pupils were e nroll\!d in firs t class. On December 8, 1888, E ll. Ward, J. C. William s and David Will iams were appointed as s c h o o 1 trustees. W ithin two years the first sehoo l build ing was: outg rown and the school trustees rented a thre&-room b u il ding on the rail road tracks near Eighth street. Jacob K e agy who was t hen the teacher, did not like the building. Writing to the he stated: "Confusion created by the di stracting noises of trains, lumber car s

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218 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG and novelty works, so near tbe school rooms, renders teaching a l most an im possibility." The town school was moved to a quieter location in the fall of 1892 a two-story wooden building a t Fifth and Central being rented by the trustees. There was another reason for the change. uDown town" St. Petersburg, centered around Second and Central was growing up and families l iving there objected to sending their children clear up t o the "o l d town" around Ninth street. To efect a compro mise be t ween the "uptown" and adown town,. factions, the t rustees located the school about hal.f way between the two sections. The enrollment by that time neared the hundred mark and more teachers had to be employed. Before another school term rolled around St. Petersburg got a school of i t s very own. At the first election he l d after St. Petersburg was incorporated as a town, a $7,000 bond issue. was approved 39 to 1 to erect a town-owned school. Half o f the bonds were taken by L. Y. Jenness, manager of the St. Petersburg Land & Improvement Company. 'rhe test of the issue was taken by other town boosters. The school erected w ith the bond n>O!\eY was the. two-story wooden building which stood for many years on the southeast corner of Second avenue notth and Fifth street, the site of the present Munic ipal Building. The building included a library and assembly hall and seven classrooms and was known as the Graded Schoo l. Because of n delay in the delivery of furniture, the school term was shortened to five mon t hs nnd during the p eriod of waiting, several families engaged Mrs. Jacob Keagy to teach their children. Nearl y thirty pupils were enr olled in her private school; the first opened in St. Petc t-sburg. On February 22, 1896, the first Wash ington's birthday celebration was he l d ))y the s chool children. The celebration was made possible by the generosity of E. H. Tomlinson whose name was inseparably linked for many years with the progress of the schools Tomlinson p r e sented the school w ith 250 silk and bunting fJag.s and contributed i n other ways to make the celebration a success. It was held annually until 1914 and became one of the features of St. Petersburg's winter season. All the school children took part in a patade through the business section and after the parade each year exercise s were held in the Opet a House or audi tori um. Motion pictures were taken of the 1912 celebration and distributed all over the country. The school board di s continued the celebrations in 1914 because they wete taking too much of the children's time. romli nson's g ifts to the school made possible the organization of a school orchestra in 1897, the school cadet com pany i n 1900, and the fife and drum corps in 1902 'fhe St. High School was established in the fall of 1900 and a course was given i n mathematics, sc i e nce, history, English and Latin. Classes were held in the Graded School building. The first commencement e x ercises of the high school were held Friday n ight, May 3 1901. The lone member of t he g raduatin g c lass was Miss Annie Bradshaw. St. Petersbur g got its second school building through the generosity of Tomlin son. A two -story brick building, erected on a lot just south of the Graded School, provided rooms where manua l t raining, physical culture and milita:ry science could be taught. With equipment and fur nish i ngs, the schoo l cost Tomlinson $10,000 and was deeded by him to the city, free and clear o f all encumbrances. The Manual Training School, as it was called was the first o f its kind i n Florida and when it was formally opened, on December 29, 1901 educators from all parts o f the state came to St. Petersburg to take part in the cere mo n ies. Erection of t he schoo l led to the establishment of a state norma l and in dustrial school in St. Petersburg which two years A manual training annex, built by Tomlinson for the u s e of the children, was opened with a Washingwn bi r thday celebration February 22, 1902. L ocated on the northeast corner of Fourth street and First avenue south, the building seated 2,500 person s and had a $2,000 pipe organ. The school cadet company and :fife and drum corps practiced in the annex and it wa s also u s ed as an auditorium and

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THE STORY OF ST. P E TERSBURC 2 1 9 as a gymnasium. Shortly after S t Peters b ur g was in corporated as a city in 1903, city offic ials began urging Tomlinson to sell the building to the m unicipality for use as a city hall, arguing that the city need ed it mOre than the schools. son finally agTeed to sell it, for $10,00 0 He received $5,000 eash and the ba lanco $100 a year. It was reported that t h e building cos t him $ 15 ,000. The city o ffices wer e moved there early in 19 06; a lso, th e f h e departmen t. F or many years the Chambe r of Commerce has had its off ices i n thebuilding, now completely remode l ed. On August 27, 1901, tho t own a ppro ved an $11,000 bond issue t o erect a n or mal and high scho o l building. A lot on the sou t h west corne r of street and Sec ond avenue south, acro s s the street fro m t be Manual '!"raining School, was purchased and a contract f or the cons t ruction of t he building was a warded toW. C Henry, the low bidder at $10,200. T h e new school, built of bric k and two stories high, was opened in the fall o f 190 2, becoming the town's fir s t high schoo l. Howev e r i t was u sed exc lusively for h igh sc hoo l c l asses only during the school term of 1902-03 The Graded School t h e n be c a m e so crowded that t he three highest grades were mov e d into th e high school build i ng, resulting in serious congestion By 1905, the enrollment i n the schools had become so large that parents began demanding th e co n s truction of a school w h ich would be use d for high school pur poses and nothing else. In 19 06, the city co uncil autho>ized a $16,000 bond issu e for high school building but a f ter several years of controversy the state supreme court decided that it was illegal because it had not been ratifie d by the voters. Council then c alle d an election o n a $ 25,000 issue but it was defeated, largel y b eca use i t was lin ked up with other bond i ssues for projects which were not popu la r On February 23 1909 the cou n ci l called for an e lection on a bond issu e for sc hools and a $45,000 bond issue for pu blic improvements. Both iss ues were approved by substan tial m ajo rities, the school iss u e going over 180 t o 39. A site at Second avenue north an d Fifth street was chosen for t h e n0 w building a nd

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220 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBUR(; a contract was let to W. C. Henry for the erection o f a new building to cost $28,000. A number of citizens were opposed to this site, inasmuch a s it caused the closing of Second avenue north and they contested the bond issue. The State Legis l atu r e author ized the use of the sit e but the Supreme Court decided that the bond issue was i llegal because cities in Florida could not issue bonds for school purposes since the sc h ool $ were a county charge The building h ad progrcscd to such an exte n t by this time that i t '''a s impractica l to stop, and the que s tion of prov idi n g money to complete i t became a ll impor tant. 'l'he county bad no money to spend on the building and the c ity had ob ligated itself t o pay the contractor. So the city sold it t o E P. Harrison, Dr. John D. Peabody and A F Bartlett who gave their notes for $ 1 0,000 each. Nine other endorsers were secured on each note and the monoy was obtained f rom the banks. The buildin g was completed and o p e n ed in the fall of 1911. When Pinellas Coun t y wa s created the no tes given by theschool boos ters were t aken up by the county school board. The rapid growth of St. Petersburg after 1910, parti culat ly during the 191 0 14 boom necessita t ed the cons tr uction of additional elementary schools Special school districts were establi shed, bond issues were approved and i n 1914 the Davis Schoo l for Negro childten, and the Glenoak School were constructed. The Roser Park and North S ide schools were buil t during 1 916. The high school bui l ding on Fifth street was outgrown in Jess than a de after i t was st.arted. Early in 1917, a $175,000 bond i s s ue was approved for a new school and the contract was let. The building was erected on Mirror Lake drive. As a resu l t o f t he increase in the cost of buil ding materials, nearly $100,000 more had to be voted before the building was comple ted. It was opened in the fall of 1918. The public then was assured that the buil ding wou l d be adequate for at least a generation, but it wasn't. The eit.y g rew so rap i d l y that i t became necessary in 1926 to build t h e present high school build ing, on Fift h avenue at rwenty-fifth s treet north, a t a cost of approximatel y $1 000,000. The former high schoo l then became the Mirror L
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSB.URG 221 Vernon Elententary, Pasadena Elemen tary Passa-Grille Elementary, the Jordan (colored) E lementar y, and Gibbs (colored) Hig-h School. In 1930, the C lear v iew AYenue Elementary was constructed and in 1938, the Lea lman Avenue Elemen tary. F lorida Military Academy The Florida Military Ac. ademy, estab lished in 1908 at Green Cove Springs, F la., was brought to S t Petersburg in Decem ber, 1932, by Col. Walte r B. Mendels who had become president of the i nstitution. The new home of the academy was t he Rolyat Hotel wbic)l had been purc ha s ed by Colone l Mendcls in 1929 The academy has held an accredited rating in the Sou thern Assoc i ation of Col lege s and Secondary Schoo ls continuously since 1914. The War Department furnishes arms and e q u i p m e n t t hrough the P. M. S. & T., a regular army officer de t ailed to the schoo l for th is purpose. The school is inspec ted annually and since 1986 ha s been designated as an honor military schoo l th highest official rating any military school may receive. The senior school covers the four.year high school cour s e with one year of post graduate work offering spec i a l prepata tion for the government academies, ard co11eges and universities. ln addition, a junior department is opera t ed covering the first t hrough eighth gradc. s. When the academy was brought to St. Petersbu r g, 57 cadets we re enro H ed and its faculty consisted of seven teachers. Thereafter, bo t h the number of cadets and the number of in str uctors increased s teadily. During World War II the facili ties of the in s titution were expanded to permit the enrollment of 300 cadets but when the emergenc}., was over, th e enroll ment was again limited to 200 as it had been before the war started. During the s chool year of 1947-48, the junior school had an enrollmen t of 80 and the senior schoo l, 1 20. The teaching staff consisted of 26 instructors. More than 550 graduate. s of t he acad emy served in the armed forces during the war. O f ficia ls of the academy in 1947 were: Col. Mendels, president; Lieut. Col 'Villiam L. Mendela, treasu rer and Mrs Lee G. Jon es, vice-president; Major Dawn Casler, secretary. Admi r ai Farragut Academy The Admira l Farragut Ac.ademy, of Tom.s River, N.J., one of the nation's ing academies which offers nava l mili tary and aviat i on tra in ing, selected St. Peters burg i n 194 4 as the site for the establish ment of a Florida unit. The Jungle Hotel and grounds were ac quired and the seh ool w a s opened January 12, 1945 The courses of study give the cadets preparation for the major colleges and the United States government academies. A

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222 THE STORY OF ST. P & TERSBUR G junior schoo l which has its own cad e t ficet'S is composed of theseventh and e ighth grades. The academ)' is under the direction o f Admiral S. S Rob i nson, U S N, retired. The sup e rintend ent of the academy i s Rear Admitalliarold C. T rain, U SN, retired. St. Pa ul's Parochial School St. Paul's Parochial School, l ocated at Nine teenth avenue and Twelfth stree t north, was d edicated September 15, 1930, by B ishop Patrick Barry. T h e school which is conducted by the Sisters of S t Francis under the direction of Rev. Msgr. James CHAPTER 13 F Enright bad an enrollment o f a hundred in 1930 By Octo ber, 1947 the number of students had increased to si x hundred. The school won distinctio n in t he fall of 194 7 by getting the first lighted foo tball f i eld at a Catholic sc hool in Florida. I t was ded icated by Auxiliary B is hop Thomas J. McDonough of the St. Augustine diocese to ten former St. Paul's students who lost their liv e s during World War II: Sidney F. Brennan, John J. Hill, J. W a llis Leonard, LeRoy Merritt, Duncan C. Murphy, Peter L. Nol an, William E. Nowling, Marti n P. O'Toole, Arthur H Stein and Frank M Widere, Jr. PUBLIC UTILITIES WHEN ST. PETERSBURG was a s prawling little village of less t han a thousand inhabitants, it got its first publi c utility -an electric light and power company. The man who had the courag e to launch the enterprise in such a. small community was F. A. Davi s a Phi ladelphia publisher of medical b ooks and p eriodi cals. H e came to Pin ellas Peninsu l a for the first time in 189 0 because of poor he alth, spent a few months i n Tarpon Springs, and was c om p letely cured. With the financial assistance of J acob Disston, of Philadelphi a Dav is buil t an el e c t ric light plan t in Tarpon Springs but t he p eopl e there showed no inclination to help in any way. They would not grant a satisfactory franchi. se a n d sh o w e d no eagerness to have their or busi ness places wired for e l ectricity, p referring t o stick to "good ol d kerosene." Davis finall y b ecam e disgusted w ith Tarpon Springs and turned his attention to St. Petersburg. As related in Chapter 6, he was granted a 20-year franchise on February 2, 1897, brought his plant to St. Petersburg, and the lights were turned on August 5, 189 7. The plant was later described as bunch of junk"; nevertheless, the electric lights gave S t Petersburg a distinction lacked by other towns on t h e peni ns ula. The electric light company was not a success f inancially. Checks had to be sent by Dav is from Philadelphia to co ver the deficits. However, Dav is did not l ose heart. He had visions of a great city and h e reasoned that when the growth came, profits woul d come too. S o he went ahead and began planning for a trolle y line. Dav i s secured a franchise on February 4, 190 2, a n d then spent the next two years getting enough mone y to start construc tion work. The first tracks were laid May 30, 1904. By mid-August, the tracks had been lai d o n Central from the bay to Ninth street. A flat car was bronght in to haul materials. This was too much of a temptation for Ida Louise Weller, daughter of

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 223 A P. Weller, manager of the company. On Saturday night, August 13, she took a rroup of her friends for a "trolley party" -and up and down Central the young at.en rode, all evening lon g the b ell clanging merri l y all the tim e T he new line was o f f icially opened Sept.ember 28 1 904, w i t h a ce l ebration. Speeches w e r e mad e by city a.nd c o m pany officials and t he St. Petetsburg B und p l aye d l ou d and gaily T he l eading di g nl taries of th e com m u nity t hen set forth on the ma iden trip uar o und the lo o p. Three cars we re i n t h e procession. They wero dinky lit tl e things bu t the people of St. Petersburg were quite prou d of them. The o riginal line stopped at Booker Creek on Ninth street. I t was extended to Boca Ciep Bay in the spring of 1906 after the creek bad been spanned with a now bridge. Completion of the line led to the f ou nding of Veteran City on the o ld Disston City site by Capt. J. F. Chase who sought to attract Ci"il War veterans who wanted to spe n d thei r last days in tho Sunny South T h e Da\'i S co m pa n y, which had an optio n on 3,300 acre s i n t h a t sec tl on, backed the \'entu re, bu t i t d id not prospe r. Veteran City so on f a ded from t h o picture. La ter, Gu l f port dev e lop e d in the s ame locality In 1906, D a v is adde d a no th e r comp a ny to his Jist. This was the Tampa Bay Trans portation Compan y, forme d to develop freight traffic on the bay. T he steamer uFavorite" was purchased in New York for $80,000 To provide a place for the steamer to dock, the company built the 11e.lectric pier" at the foot of Second avenue north. During 1907 and 1908, the various companies in t h e Davis empire got into sorious financial difficulties because they had become over -e xtended an d because of the H m o ney panic" o f 1 90 7 D avis sold most of hi s s t o c k i n t h e companies enr1y in 1909 to H. W al t e r Fuller, t h en p r eside n t of the Inde p e ndent l A n e a c o m pe t i t ot of t h e Dav i s s teamship li ne. T h e reafter, Fuller directed operations o f the Dav i s empire, becoming p resident of s o m e oC the companies and m anager o f t h e o t hers. The empire co n t i n ued for ten m ore rear& and then it collapsed E lectric Ligh t Com p an y For a few years after the power company eame into existence, the service wa s fairl y satisfactory. After that, howover, comp laints became more a nd more frequent, and increasingl y bitter. Tho equi p ment deve l o pe d a mo s t regretab l e habi t of btcakin.g down a t crucial moments. S u c h a breakdown occurr ed in Au g u st, 19 04 w hil e Davis w a s in tho cit y e xto ll ing t h e m e r its o f tho plant t o a grou p of prospectiv e stoc k buye.s Durin g t h e talk both dyn amos went out of commission, throwing the cit y i nto darkness. But Davis, an eloquen t m a n, talk ed fast and con vincingly -and a ll the men in tho group became stockholders. To the town people Davis apologi
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224 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Utilities & Operating Company, of Balti more, on April12, 19 15, and the name was changed to the St. Petersburg Lighting Company. A year l ater, the city made a ten-yeat' contract with the company to provide street lights. During 1918, the company made additions to the plant which more than doubled its capacity. Late in 1923, the St. Petersburg Light ing Company was acquired by the A. E. Fitkin interes t s and the name was changed to the Pinellas County Power Company Construction work was s tarted on a nc.w generating plant at Bayboro which was put into operation in 1924. A year later, another unit w a s added at Bayboro. The company also constructed in 1925 the larg e office building at Fifth street and First aven ue south. Latham was president of the company until 1926 when he re signed to go with the Gandy Bridge Co. During the mid-Twenties, Fitkin also p u rch a sed the F1orida Power Company from the Cam p interests in Ocala The property consisted o f a hydro plant on the Withlacoochee River near Dunnellon from which power was furnished to a number of cities. Numerous other plants were ac. quired and on February 25, 1927, the holdings were consolidated u .nder t he name of the Florida Power Corporation Controlling interest in the corporation was acquired by Day & Zimmerman, of Philade lph ia, in 1927, and a yc.ar later by the Insull interests. Later, it went into other hands. In October, 1945, the company was re leased from holding company control and is now owned by approximate l y 13,000 stockho l ders in all 48 states o f the Union. Approximately 1,000 stockholders live in Pinellas County. Th e company at present serves 27 counties in Florida and, through a wholly-owned su b s ida ry the Georg i a Power & Light Company, serves 17 coun ties in south Georg i a In' 1945, t he company completed a major improvement b y putting a 25,000watt generator in operation. Sinc e then it has greatly extended its service, making provision for the city's rap i d growth. Officers of the company in 1947 were: A E. Higgins, p resident; E K. IlgenFritz, vice president, secretary and treasurer; J F. Bailey, J. S. Gra c y and K. E. Fender son, vice-presidents, and W. C. Schoeppe, comptroller. Directors o f the company Jiving in Pinellas County are R. J Mc Cutcheon, Jr., and A. Waller Smith. Transit System The St. Petersburg & Gulf Electrk Railway, ftom which Davis expected big profits operated at a loss for many years. The company undoubtedly would have gone bankrupt had it not been for large loans made by Jacob Disston, of Philadel phia. Disston made the loans largely be cause he owned large tracts of land in the Gul fpor t area and consequently was dc sirous of having t hat section connected by rai l with St. Petersburg. The trolley company broke even for the f irst time durin g the winter of 1909-1910. In maki ng the announ cemen t, the compan)' officials also stated that they would build a seven-mile e xtension of the Gulf port l in e to Johns P a ss within a year. Ho w ever, the plans of the company were changed and the extension was not built. During 1910, the troll ey line was ex tended to Bayboro at the expense of the Baybo ro Investment Company The first ear made t he round trip on January 5, 1911, with officials and stockholders of the Bayboro company on board. The lin e wa s turned over to the troiley companr for operat ion. An extension to Coffee Pot Bayou th rough Snell & Hamlett's North Shore development was built the same way, the first car running over the li ne on April 18, 19 1 2. The West Central extension was built out to Twenty-eighth street by February 11, 1913, and completed to the Jungle in the summer of the same year. The Bayboro line was extended to Big Bayou at the expense of the Big Bayou Railway Com pany durin g t he winter o f 1913 14 and the first ears were run on March 12, 1914, carrying nearly a hundr ed inv i ted guests. F. Jl. Kennedy, ow ner o f the Grand Viev, subdivision, was the chief bac -ker of tht Big Bayou Railway Company. As in the case. o f other extensions similarly con struct ed, the completed line was turned over to the trolley company for opera t ion.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 225 Another extension wat; made during the wintA!r or 1913-14, tracks being laid on Ninth street as far north as T hirteenth avenue. C. \V. Springstead, the developer of Spring Hill subdivision; A. F Bartlett a nd Albert E. Hoxie, .owners of other subdivis ions in the Ninth street section bore the expense This line was exte nded eastward in 1916 to t he Southland S e mi nary which had just been purchased by H. \V alter Fuller who intended to con vert it into a hotel. His plans fell through nnd t h e buildings were sold to the Fl orida Masons and converted into the MatSonic; Rome Tho trolley company, along with other compAnies in the Da\" is empire, collapsed Into in 1917 and o n April 7, 1919, the trolley system was bought at forced sale by Jacob Disston, of Philadelphia, and Warren Webster and H o raee F Nixon, or Camden, N. J., for $165,000. Under terms of an agreement between the new own ers and city officials made in Philadelphia on June 30, the city started operating the trolley system on July 1 with an option of purchase. On August 30, 1919, the cit y voted 350 to lOS In favor of a $260,000 bond issue, $176,000 of which was for the purchosc of the 1 1ropex tic s and $75,000 for improvem e n ts, including $22,500 for car equipment and $ 28,50 0 for track construction. In the purchase of the trolley system, t h e cit) acquired title to a waterfront lot at the foot o! Second avenue north from which the company had extended iu "electric pier" in 1906. The ;pier had been torn down in 1914 after tbe municipal pier was built but the city bad been unable to r each an agreement with the company whereby it could obtain the lot, badly needed in the waterfront development progra m Tho tran si t s ystem was ex tende d and modernized during the b oom ing Twenties. Practically all the stree t cars s till being used in 1947 were pur c h ased dming that perio d, including many others which ha.ve since been junked. The improvement program cos t $879,000. In May, 1926, the city purchased eight busses and on Jane 5, 1926, placed all ei ght in operation on a route to Lealman. No more busses were purchased unt>I 1936 when two more wer e bought. Since th en the fleet has been enlarged yco.rly. ln July, 1947, a total of 36 busses and 33 street ears were in operat ion Practically all the busses were us0d in establi shing routes throu g h new terri tor y, the chief exception being the substitution of busse s !or street cars on the Shore Acres line which had been opened on July 1 i926. 'l'hj,a substitution was made in 1930. During the fiscal year 1927 -28 the transit system carried 4,200,000 passenJers ; 2,860,000 in 193 5-36; 4,3 60,000 in 1940-41; 7,93 0,000 in 1942-43, and 10, 980,000 in 1 945 -46. The revenue increased from $281,278 in 1927 -28 to $803,5 4 9 In In 1927-28, the system s howed a loss or $148,420; io 1940-41 a profit of $40,629 and in 1945-46 a profit of $280,-990. Shortly after the end of World \V ar 11 a movement was started to get rid of all tho stt:eet ears an d use busse s on all the routes. Opponents of th e street cars said t hey were noisy and antiquated, delayed th e f l o w of traffic and were generally

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226 Tn STORY oF ST. PETERSSURC unsatisfactory. A long controversy fol lowed. It was finally ended Tuesday, October, October 21, 1947, when the city counei1 voted 5 to 2 for imme diate con versio n to bu sses, the changeover to be complet-e d by December 15. Voting uno" were Mayor Bruce Blackburn and Council man Harry W. McCormick. Councilmen who favored the change were Paul B. Barnes, E. G. Deane, C. Frank Harrison, Samuel G. Johnson and Excel C. Queen. Municipal Power Plant I n 1919, when the city acquired the transit system, power for the trolley lines was being furnished by tho Pinellas County Power Company, successor to the St. Petersburg Electric Llrht & Power Com pany. After the purchase, the city con tinued to get power f rom the same source. The city paid the same rates as it paid the Pinellu for power supplied to the municipal gas plant, under terms of a ten-year contract made in 1914. Late in 1 922 negotiations were started by the city for a now contract but an agrj!e mont could not be renched on rates. Atter long, heated discu ssion, the city then de cided to build a power p lant of its own and one was con5tructed at Ninth avenue and Eighteenth street north at a c ost of $311,000 It was completed on July 27, 1923. Shortly thereafter it began supplying power for the trolley lines, ear barns, gas plant and city hall. Bcjpnning in 1926, it also provided powor for street lighting, after it had been enlt.rged and impro,'ed at a cost of $337,000, making a total invest ment of $648, 000. An interchange of power with the F lorida Powe r Corporation was started August 15, 1948. Tho arrangement p ro vided for the Florida to f urnish off-peak power for street lighting and other muniei pal purposes from midnight to 8 a.m. daily, and on SundaY$ and holidays, and for the eity to supplement the Florida power during peak periods on week days. Chief engineen of tho municipal power plant have been: C. L. Heath, 1922-29; James Gibson, 1930-33; W. n. Le'ins, 1933-47, and L. W. Bailey, since the spring of 1947 Telephon e Serv ice St. Petersburg's f irst public U.lephone system was provided l a t e in 1 899 by John T Goodrum and Charles L. Goodrum, brothers, and T. C. Parker, of Ma con, Ga. An axchnnge was established on the seeond floor of a wooden building on the southwest corner of Central and Third and second-hand equipment wu installed. After 18 subscribers were secured, the system was placed in operation. The phones hissed and hummed and many subscribers ordered their phones taken out but in March, 1901, n e w Boll telephones and a Bell switchboard were installed and the service became a little better. A. P. Avery and Joe Patton bought out the promoters jnterests in May, 1901 and soon after organied the St. Peters burg Telephone Co. which in June was granted a franchise l>y the town council. (See Chapter 6.) A controlling intexest in the company was purchased late in 1903 by the Peninsu Jar Telephone Co. which established tho West Coast Telephone Co. In January, 1907, the Peninsular sold its interest to Avery and Patton, who bad retaine d so me of their stock, for Howard Frazee, a former Peninsular empl oye who had come to St. Petersburg in 1906 to take charge of the system, was retained by A very and Pa tton as tendent. He said later that when he carne the service was so poor that the comp any had not tried to collect a bill for three months. The telephone wires were nothing but strings of rust, and the phones crackled s o badly that conversation O'Ver them was nearly impossi ble. New telephone po les and wire s were provided during 1907 and 190 8 and in 1910 a new exchange was establi s hed at 323 Fint avenue south. The rapid growth of t.he city necessitated mnY improvements a n d extensions and to get. money to pay for tbem, the company increased its c api U l stock. Bayard S. Cook, C. C. Can, AI. F. Lang, Jacob Disston and Herman Dann acquired an interest in the coneeTn and became directors.

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lS an

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228 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Exp ansions and improvements which co uld not be financed loc ally became necessary early in tho 'rwenties and in 1923 the directot;; so l d the exchange to 'the Peninsular for $400 ,000. The Peninsu lar immediately began to improve and ex* pand and in 19 2 5 completed its new four story building at 828 Arlington avenue north Overhead wires were removed in the downtown section and underground conduits were laid. An automatic system was inst alle d whieh went into operation at 10 : 30 p.m., November 14, 1925 Since 1925, sub-exchanges have been b uilt at Pasadena and on the Gulf beaches and in late 1947 another cxchang<> to serve Pinellas Park and Lcalman district s was under construction. Grov.'th o f tha local exchange is shown by the increase in tho number of. sub scribers : 1905-240; 1018-1,200; 1921 -2,800; 1924-5,050; 1925-7,200; 1930 -9,873; 193s-13,097; 1 9 42-17,359, and on N o vember 1, 1947-24,347. Boward Frazee was succeeded a s mana .ger by Joe H Kerrick in 1920 who served until Ora F. Fraze was appointed late in 1921. LaVerne Thomas, t h e present manager of the exchan ge, s u ccee ded Frae in 1928. In late 194 7, the exc hange em ployed 220 person s. M unicipal Water System For more than ten years a .fter St. Peters burg was founded the people depended upon rain barrelsJ water tanks or wells f or their water supply. A number of attempts were made to obtain n waterworks system but all failed. During the SJ>Onis h American War, the War Department soug h t a s upply of pure water for the t roops station ed at Tampa, the Tampa water supply being inadequ ate and brackish. Tests made of the water in Reservoir Lake., now called Mirror Lake, and it waa found that the water was of excellent quality. Permission wa$ secured from the town council to run a pipe line from the lake to the end of the railroad pier and the water was taken on boats to Tampa. It also was used o n the tr an s ports running !rom rarnpa to Cuba and also by battleships. On March 8, 189 9 an election wa s called on a $5,000 bond issue to pay for a munici pally owned waterworks The issue was approved 17 t o 5, but the el ection was later declared illega:J. A nother e l ectio n wa s held May 23, 1899, this time on a $10,000 i ssue It was approv<>d, 81 to 9. Again the issue was attacked in tho courts. But this time, lhe town officials did not in tend t.o be halted. Mayor Edgar Harriaon and memben of the town council sign ed notoa and obtained the money needed from the St. Petersburg State Bank. Ma chine ry t he pump ing plant was ordered, a water tow e r was built on the corner of F 'ifth s tree t and Second avenue north, and water main.s l aid in t h e downtown sec tion. The waterworks were completed, and the wate. r was turned on, December 12, 1899. In 1904, water mains were extended to the more built-up resi dential sections. Reservoir Lake continued to be the oole source of the city's water su-pply for a number of years During the winter of 1905-06, however, the water level in the lake began to drop as a resul t ot the increased water consumpt ion and it became appo.r ont that another source would have to be fou nd Tho city council employ ed W W. Jacobs t o drill a ten-inch woll. A 20-foot vein of water was struck 450 feet below the surface and at tirst it was believed that the water contained no minerals and was as good in every way as that of Reservoir Lake. Tho city rejoiced, but the rejoicing did not continue long. The hou sewives soo n learned that t he water was hard and when th o woll was used, during t h e next winter, t her e was much criticism. However, the city had to have water, and hard water was decidedly better than n o water at all. Con sequent ly, the city continued to drill wells, one after another. By 1923, a total of six wells had been drilled in the l\lirror Lake and it was learned that the underground basin was being tapped to its limits. Three wells then were drille d at Crescent Lako. In 192 5, the Mirror Lake wells were yielding 1,600,000 gallo ns daily and the Crescent Lake wells 1,800,000 gallon s

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 229 During the b oom years n total o f $ 1,460,000 was spent by the city to lay wa ter main s in all sections of the city, con struct elevated water tanks, and build a new, modem pump ing plant. The total of the water system in 1929 were $1,818,993 and during that year it showed a profit of $23,151. The water situation becam e acute dur ing the booming Twenties and p lans were discussed constantl y to get a bigg e r and better supply. Nothing definite was done, however, untH t he s ummer of 1929 when a special committee appoin t e d by Mayo r J ohn N. Brown recommended cetting water from the Cosme Odessa region. The city then made a contract, approved by the voters, with the Layne-Southeastern Company, of New York, to bring in water f r om Cosm o-O dessa and sell it w holes ale to the city. 'l'he contract provid e d that the cit y cou l d purchase the supply system at the end of live years for $3,250,000. Con struction work on the supply system was rushed and it was completed September 13, 1930. On the following Thursday, the new system was formally accepted by the city and a soft water j ubile e was held in Williams Park. (See Chapter 9. ) The 1/Jyno-Southcastern C o m p a n y turned its ftanchi$e over to a subs idiary company, the Pinellas \Vater Company, which continued to supply the water needed. The holdings of this eompany were purehased by the city Dceember 6, 1940, for $2,810,000. A t the same time, the city bought Weekiwachee Springs and 527 acres surrounding for $150,000. To make the pu1chasea a $3,000,0 00 revenue certifkote bond issue was auth orize d by the city eouncil. $40,000 was left over to make general impro\e ments. During the fiscal year 1939-40 the last year the water was supplied by the Pinellas Water Compan), the city eonsumed 1,409880,000 gallons. The consumption during the year 1945-46 was 2 ,126,820,000 gal lons. In M nrch 194 6, the city built a second 8,2 60,000 gallo n above-gr o und steel reservoir at Washi ngton T errace. The city's water system in July, 1947, had an original cost value o f $5,685,000 and a depreeiated boo k v alue of $4,535,000. M unicipa l Gas System Tired of coo king on hot wood 8tov .;s or smell y kerosene ranges, S t. Petersburg bousewivea began c l amorin g for ps shortly alter the turn o f the century. The town f athers lillt
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230 T!!E STORY O F S T PETERS B URG totalin g $945 ,000 being issued to pay the cos t Gas main s als o were extended to all parts of the city. During the depression years the num ber of aerviee. connecti on s r e mained almo s t constant but the amount of gas u sed per met"r increased greatly, due largel y to the fact that it wl\0 being used mor e a nd more for heating homes. And when the de pressio n end*d, the number of m otors increased as Well as consumption. I n 1944 it became eviden t that the plant, a.s it then was, could no longer su pply t he city' s needs and the city council auth orized the con struction of a 2,00 0,0 00 cubic foot gas holder at a cost of $280, 000 The coun cil also a uthorized the Semet-Solvay Engineering Corp., of Ne w Yor k, to make a thoro ugh surve y to determine what further improv e ments were necessar y. As a re sult of this su rvey, expen ditures of $ 700,000 were authorized, f inanced by a revenue certif icate bond iuue Later it was learned that t he total expenditure wo u l d be about $1,000,000. The improve ment program was practically completed by late fall of 1947 It provides a daily generating capacity of 12, 000 ,00 0 cubic feet and holder capacity of 3,00 0,000 cubi c fee t Besid es, the qu ality of the gas was improved. Superintendents of the gas plant h a ve been: J. W Perkerson, 1 914-19 24; C. B. Clark, 19 25; Perkerso n, 1927; D. B. She pard, fall of 1945 to present (1947). Railroads Prior to the early '80s, when numot"ous railroad projects were started in Florida, P ineUaa Point was isol ated from the rest of the nation The nearest railro a d point was Cedar Keys, about sixty miles north of Clearwater on the West Coast. Cedar Key s was the western terminus of the narrow.gauge railroad o w n e d by the Florida Railway & Navigation Company The road, compl eted in 1868 extended northeast to the port city of Fernandi na, a distance of 165 milO$. Tampa got its first r ailroad in 1884 but nothing was accomplished towa rd bringing a railroa d to Pine llas Point until Petor A. Demon s began building the Orange Belt Railway in 188G. Dem ons orig inally in tended to terminate his road either at Di ssto n City or take it on to Mullet Key. But he could not make arrangements whleh were satisfactory to bim and the treasurer of hi s compan y Henry Sweet a pple, entered into negotiations with J. C. Williams which resulted In the road's com ing to tbe pusent site of St. Petersburg The railroad was com p leted to tho edge of Williams' property on April 30, 1888 and on June 8, the first trai n came into St. Petersburg from the eastern end of tb e Uno o n the St. Johns Rive r. The tracks were laid do wn to Second street in Dece m ber and the railroad pier was compl eted earl y in 1889. Dem ons got into financial dirticulties while const ru cting the road and In July, 18 89 it was taken over by a synd icate of financiers com posed of E. W. Clark & Co., Ed. T Stotcsbu ry and Drexel & Co., all of Philadelphia, and H. 0. Armour & Co., of New York. The syndicate opera t ed the railro ad until January 1895, when it leased the road to Henry Plant wh o oper ated It as a part o f the Plant System, the name be ing changed t o tho Sanford & St. Petersburg Rail way. While the railro ad was under Plant control the t.1'aek& were w idened from narrow .. gauge t o stand ard gaure from T rilby to St. Petersburg, per mitting throu gh traffic fro m the N orth. Thi s improvement was m ade in 1897. A co mplet e account of the construct ion of the Orange Belt Railway and the part it played in the founding of St. Petenbuxg, Is g i ven in the reneral text. The Sanford & St. Petersburg Railway was absorbed by tbe Atlantic Coast Line in April, 1902. In commenting on the pur. chase, the St. Petersburg Times s tated in the iss ue of April 12: "The policy of t he Plant System has never bee n help ful to growing industries and now setUements in this section ... and St. Petersburg h8$ no rea son to feel disappointed over this b ig railroad merger ... I t is not very difficult to satisfy one's self that l.f any change at all fo llows it will be beneticial A freight depot was built by the ACL between Seventh and Eighth streets ear l y in 1905 and early in 1906 the old passen ger depot at Seco nd street was remode led. Service given by the railroad durin g this

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THE :STORY OF ::iT l:'ETERSBURC 231 perio
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CHAPTER 14 SPORTS OF ST. PETERSBURG SACK in the days when St. Petersburg was young, almost tha only rec-rea tional attractions offered by the infant town were fishing from the railroad pier, swimming from the Orange Belt bathing pavilion, and boat trips on 1'ampa Bay. nearly sixty years later, St. Petersburg still offera fishing, swimming and boating as attractions. But it also has a wide rang0 of other recreational activi ties J:or both home folks and wi.nter visitors -so many, i n fact, that St. Petersburg is famous as one of the foremost w inter playgrounds of the nation. Baseball, golf, tennis and the other better known sports all have t hei r place in the recreational set-up but the Sunshine City has popularized what ate known as ctourist sports'' to the poin t where they have become predominant. Shuffleboard is the major utourist sport." It started on the decks or oc .ean liners and was anchored to land in F'lorida -at Daytona Beach, to be exact. Then it came to St. Petetsburg. fn 1924, a group of shuffleboard enthusiasts built two courts in Mirror LakePark and, with a gre.en bench as a clubhouse started the now-famous Shuffleboard Club. The founders of the elub were M. J. Kane, E. E. Peterson, E. F. Wolfrum, Jacob Martin, Fred Brown and A. J. Dickersons, Jr. Some day St. Petersburg will build a monument t o those men-they really started something! The club now is a city within itself, wi t h more than a hundte d courts and clubhousebuildings representing an outlay of more than $100,000, and a n a-nnual membership of more than 8 000. The city gave the club the Mirror Lake propert}" on which the grounds are located but, aside from that, the c-lub is entirely &elf-supporting. It has built its handsome club build in gs, rest rooms and grandstand !rom its membership fees and in late 1947 was completing more than $50,000 worth of new buildings and other improvements. From Mirror Lake Park, shuffleboard has spread to other parts of the city and there are now five shuffleboard clubs in the St. Petersburg area with a combined membership of we11 over 10,000 and more than 1 :>0 In addition, there are many courts at hotels, apartment houses and in residenti a l secti ons "Tourist spotfs" in the strictest sense were start-ed in St. Petersburg in an open lot on the southeast corner of Fifth and Central. There the Sunshin e Pleasure C lub was born in 1909 with Samuel J. C lement, Judge F. J. Betts and C. M. Rite as its first officials. The principal game p layed was h o r s e s h o e s. The club's Hgrounds" later were moved to other va .. cant lots on Central. In the fall of 1912, the club members i nvaded Williams Park, taking over t-he southeast corner. There horseshoe and quoit lanes \Vere laid out under the shade trees, and benches and tables were added for chess, checke r and domino playe. rs. Soon afterward, several roque courts were construct ed. In 1915, A J. Mercet, a winter visitor from Toronto, conceiv e d the idea of lawn bowling on marl courts and, as a result. the St. Petersburg Lawn Bowling Club was born. Early in 1916 Mayor AI. F. Lang granted permission to the club t o struct links in Mirror Lake Park and the club membership the -reafter increased steadily. In 1936, the quoit and lawn bowling elubs combined and a large clubhouse was erected, taking the place of a smaller one erected earlier. The tourist sports which had settled in 'Villiams Park were forced to move in

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TKE STORY OF ST. 233 1922 when the heir& of J. C. Williams went to court and secured an inj unction to re strain the city from ullowing any club to h ave e xclusive rights over any port ion o f the park. That injunction ended W i lli ams Park as a sport center. 1 he "evictio n" from Williams Park helped the clubs more than it harmed them. They moved to the waterfront an d to Mirror Lake where they had much more room to expand . St. Petersburg beeamc famed as the winter c apital of hor s eshoe pite. hers soon after the end of World War I. C hampion ship match e s were hold for two y ears in W ill ia m s Park and then in the w inter o f 1921 22, championshi p clay lane s w e r e laid out at the w aterfront, ncar Central aven ue, and a grandstand was built. A super-doop er championship tourna.ment was held there in the spring of 1922, at.traeting sports writers f rom s eores of big newspapers and syndicates. Sueh famed players as C. C. Davi s Putt M os sman1 Frank Jackson, Harold Falor, Jimmy Risk and Bert Duryea took park. Those were the fell o w s w h o could toss double rin gers a l mos t b li ndf o l ded, Wh en they p l aye d t h e grandstand was packed. I t was a great tourn ament and is still rememb ered by all t he old tlme ,s Lake Park now embraces the largest shuffleboar d clu b in the wor ld the largest lawn bowling c l ub, one of the c oun try'& few roque stadium s, and a che s s divan which attracts devotees of the game trom all parts of the United States and probably bas more ch a mpions and nearchampions than any other chua club in the world Other clubs have their headquarters at Waterfront Park and at Bartlett Park. pnrk are a s dev oted t.o t h e "to uri s t spo rts" also f i nd ea1d players enjoying bridge und o ther card games in th e outdoor s on sun ny days. It is a common s ight to see hOndreds of card players around table s in the parks absorb ing the sun' s ra)'s and trumping their partnen' aees and holding post--mortems. Nat. ional ehampionsbips in shuffleboard, roque, lawn bowling and horseshoe pitch ing attract followers of these sports from all parts of the country And St. Peters burg newspapers he a d line the c hampion ship matches just the sam e as world

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234 TilE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG ball games are h eadlined in other cities. Y cs, thetourist sports make big new s in St. Petersburg and mean much t o the Sunshin e City. Go l f Way back in 1907, when St.. Petersburg had Jess than 3,500 in habitants, the city got its first golf course. It was located at Bayboro on land provided by the Bay boro lnveatment Company, which de veloped Bayboro Harbor. A club bouse was erected and J H. M ulla n, a profes sional from Boston, was e ngaged t o be instructor and ha ve chnrge of the cours e The c ourse was opened in rebrua ry 1907, bu t t h e club w ae never a suc c e ss. Members found it difficult to get t o the clubhouse f rom the city because of. the deep sand. They either had to walk or go two miles b y boat, so they did not play. The professional finally became so lonesome that be gan his clubs to C. A. Harvey and lett. The goit course crew up in weeds, the clubho use became decrepit, and that was the end of the club. For the sake of the reco rd, however, the names of the backer s o! that first g o l f ing venture s h ould be given. They were: Noel A M i t chell W L Straub, J G. Fol e y Dr. A. B Davis, W. H. English, T. K. Wilson W. E. H eathcote, C. A. Harvey, C. A Smith, J r., C. W. Barker, A. F. Bartlett, David W Budd, T. A Chancellor, A F. Freeman. F. E. Cole, S. E. Denny, Roy S. Hanna, R. W. Thoma s W. H. Adams, V. N. Ridgel e y and W. J. Longman. The first go!! counc which became p opular was owned by the St. Petersburg Country Club. I t wa s l ocntad at the Jun g l e on land provided by the J o hnu Pass Realty Comp any. Mon ey to pay fo r the course and c l ub h o use was subscri b e d by the city's leading c i t i z ens. Th e course was laid o u t by A. W. T illinghast, a national\yknown golf architect.. The course was opened January 1 1916. The first officers of the dub wee AI. F. Lang, president; H Walter Fuller, vice president; H. M Paneoaat, secretary, and John D. Harri s .. treasu-rer. Directors were A. P. Avery A. F. Thomason, Charl e s R. Hall, T A. Cha ncellor, Dav id W. Budd and E. E M a deira. The name of the cl ub later was chan ged to the Juna-le Country Clu b The first nine-bole course a t Coffee Pot was constructe d during 1919 by C. Perry Snell and opened January 1 9, 1920. A second nlnG-b o l e cou r s e was opened in 1921 Tho ground used in the golf course later wa s taken over for residential pur pose s and the present 18hole course and clubhou se were constructed by Snell. Dur ing the depression the course and club house were acquired by D. L. Clark, of Tea ber r y Gum and are now known as Clark's Sunset Golf Club Three other 18-hole courses were built during the boom days-at Lake w oo d Estates Pasodena and Shore Acres. 1'h e l'asadena co u rse, then known as the Bear Cre e k Country Clu b attracted s u c h noted profees ionals as Walter Hagen, Bobby Jon es, Gene Sarazen, J i m Barnes, Bobby Cruik s hank, Johnny Farrell, and a host of others. The course was purchased by Di xie M Hollins during the d epression and leued to the city for use u a public course. The Lakewood course was purcha .. d in 1 935 by the Lakewoo d Country Club from E. R. Sheldo n, receiver of the N ational Bond Mortgage Company. The first offieen of t h e club, w hich has a member ship o! 8 00, were George S. Patterson, president; W \V. McEac h ern first v ice president; W F. D a v e n p ort second vice president; D C. Ro b ertson, secretary, and E. R. She ld on, treasurer. The clubhouso wa s opened 1, 1936. Fishin g a n d Boating T he first club for St. Petersburg anglers and boatmen was f ormed by Captain W. Budd and some of his friend s In 1905 A amaH building was erected on piles at Pin ellas Point a t w h a t was known as Budd' s Beach. M embers of the club made frequent tripa to th e c l ubhouse and Cap tain Budd became famous as a maker of c lam chowder. It was duty of the other members to dig the elams and catch the fish for the dinners. A more pretentious e lu bhouae waa built at the Point by a club o f f ive members in 1907. The m embers were T. E. Willson, E. H. Meyers, Ed. T Lewis, J G. Lewis and J. W. Key. B. C. William s. who built the c lu bhouse was made hon orary m em ber. The building c on t a i n ed a large di ning ball, kitchen, pantry and s i x bcdroom o and

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THE STORY OF ST. P E TERSBURG 2 35 was surrounded by a large porch. Tbe name of HPinellas Boatin g & Fishing Club" was adopted. The membership of the club incr eased rapid l y. On January 26, 1908, the clu b members held their first moto r boat regatta. Nineteen power boats circled about E. H. To mlinson's hous eboat, Kootenay, and bore away for the point. About sixty members a ssembled at the clubhouse for dinner prepared by Barney Williams. The clubhouse was wrecked by a heavy storm in 1910 and never replaced The Tarpon Club, which conducted tar pon tournaments annu all)' !or many y ears and succeeded in getting much publicity f or St. Pet ersbur g w as organized Novem ber 10, 1907. Tho first officers were: Geor ge E. D owney, pres i dent; W. H. English vicepresident; W. L. S traub sec retary and treasu.rer. Other directors were: Roy S. H anna, George Boyer, R. D. Jaeko;<>n, Ed. T. Lewis. Arter many suc cessfu l yean;, the club disbanded. l n re cent years tarpon tournaments have been conducted under the auspices of the Junior Chamber of Comm erce. A movement to organize a yacht club in St. Petersburg wa s started in 1909 but n othing dc.finitc wa & a cco mplished until June 23, 1916, when the St. Petersburg Yacht Club was organized. The first officers were: Frank C. Carley, commodore; A. G. Bu tl er vice-commodore; D. W. B u dd rear commodore; A. T. Roberts, secretary, and J ohn D. Harris, treasurer. The direct ors n am ed were : Lew B Brown, Ed. T. Lewis, W. L. Straub, A. L. Johnson, George S. Gand y, Sr.; T. A. Cha ncellor, C M. Roser Roy S. Hanna, Dr. W. M. Davis, H. Walter Fuller, J, G. Foley, Rober t Carroll and C. W. Greene. After a fund of $15,000 had been raised, the club s ecu red f ro m tho city a SO-year lease on the waterfront lot at t he foot o f Central avenu e and a clubh ouse was constructed. l t was formally opened June 15, 1917. A large addition costin g $60,-000 was completed December 21, 1922. Since its organization, the elub has been instrumental i n making St. Petersburg famous as a yac htin g center and has been active in the promotion of sailing especia ll y fish class com petition. Tbe annual regatta of the Gul f Y aehting Association has been held here several times. In 1929, the c lub establi shed the St. PeteraburgH nbanu yacht race which becamo nn an nual event. The club has produced more speedboat c hampions than any other c lub in this sectio n. Baseball St. Petersburg organized ila fint base ball team shortly after the turn of the cenlury. It wasn't mueh of a team but it managed to hold its own against other ama teur teams from nearby tow ns. Games were played on vacant l ots south of the railroad tracks. 1'h o first >'enl ball field was esta)>lished on O>e northeast side of M irror Lake d u r ing the fall of 190 8 I t was dedicated October 29, 1908, at a game b otween the Cincinnati Reds, which had come to the \Ves t Coast on a barnstorming trip. and tho St. Petersburg Saints. The Re
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236 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSB URG Browns came here in t he spring of 1914. The agreement stipulated that S t Peters burg was to prov i d e th e diamond, pay transportation expenses of for ty men to and from St .Petersburg, and pay all the ex penses while here. T h e l o cal company was to get t h e revenuG trom game s playe d in S t. Petersburg. A $ite fo r the park at the head of C
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CHAPTER 15 TOWN AND CITY GOVI:RNMI:NT ST. PETERSBURG was incorporated as a. town at a meeti_ng of 31 citizens held at Hall, Monday morning, February 1892. The vot.e for incorpora tion was 15 to 11, with f ive abs t a ining from voting. A ho t battle followed in t.be election of the first t own officia Is. David Moffett, heading an Anti Saloon League ticket fin ally -defeated J. C. Williams, Sr., 21 to 10 Councilmen elected were: George L. King, Charles Durant, Arthut NcJrwood, Frank Massie and J. C. Williams J r Wm. J. McPherson was elected clerk and S. A. S loan matsh al. For a detailed account of the first election, see Chapte r 6. 1'he men who served St. Petersbu.-g as mayor while it was a town were: Moffett, to March 8, 18 93 ; Judge Wm. H. Benton March 9, 1893, to April 27, 1893; David Murray, April 28, 1898, t o March, 1891; H. W. H i bbs, 1894 and 1895; J A. Armis tead, 1896 1897, 1898; Edgar Harrison, 1899 ; Armistead, Edgar Harrison, 1901; R. H. Thomas, 1902, a nd George Edwards, 1903. 'l'he couneilmen during this period wete: George L King, 1892; J. C. W ill iams, Jr. 1892-93, 1899-1900; F. Massie, 1892-93; Cha r les Durant, 189 2 -96; Arthur Norwood, 1892 93, 1896-97; B. F. Livingston, 1893; J C. Hoxie, 1 893-96, and 1908; T. M. Clark, 189,1-95; 1'. F. McCa ll, 1894-95; T. A. Whitted, 1894-95; J. T.Jiearn,1895; S. A. Burrier, 1896-97; R. T. Dani el, 1896 Photo not available

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238 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 98; David Moffett, 1896-97; J. G Brad shaw 1897 -98; B. C. Williams, 1898-1901; T. R. Chapman, 1898-99 ; H P Bussey, 1898-99; A P. Avery 1899-1900; George Edwards, 1899 -1902; A. Welton, 18991900 ; W A. Sloan, 1900-01; A P. Weller, 1900-01 ; W L A i nslee, 1901-02; F. E. Co le, 1901-02 ; W. C Henry, 1901 02; B. T Railsback, 1902 -03; C C Wilder, 1902; J B. Wright, 1902-03; F R. C h ap man, 1903; F. E. Co l e 1908; F. P. K l u tts, 1903, and W. A. Coates, 1903. S t. Petersburg was i nco r pora t ed by an act o f the S tate Legislatur e in 1903 and the bill was signed by the governor on June. 6 The first election under the city charter was held Tuesday, March 1, 1904. The commi s s i on form of government was approved by the voters, 861 to 78, on March 5, 1912, and a charter bill pe rmit ting i t was passed by the State Legislature in 1 9 1 3 and s igned by t h e governor o n May 14. From t h e t ime St. Pet ersbu r g became a c .ity and the time when the commissio n Cor m of government was s t arted, the mayors R. H. Thomas, 1904 -05; T. J. No rthrup 1906-07 ; Dr. H. A Mur phy 1908 -09; A. T. Blocker, 191011, and A. C. Pheil, 191213. The councilmen d uring this period were : A. T Blocker, 1904 -05; T J Northrup, 1904 -05; A. C Pheil 1904-07 ; T. R Chap man, 1904-05; F. E. Co l e, 1 904 05 190809; C. P. Goodwin, 1904 -05; EdT. Lewis, 1906 -07; W E Allison, 1906-07; C. W. Spr ingstead, 1906-07; David Moffett, 1906-07; S M. Eddins, 1906-07; B. C. Williams, 1906-07 ; R. Veillard, 190 8 -09, 19 1 2 -13; S. E. Bodman, 1 908 -09; A. L Freeman, 1908 -09; H A Kellam, 1 908 -09; J C. Blocker, 1908 09; James s. Nor ton, 1908-09 ; M. H. Axline, 1910 -11; G W. B l odge tt, 1910-11; .John N Brown, 1910-11; C. B. McClung, 1910-11; W. B Pope, 1910 -11; ,1. J. Sulliv an, 1910 -13; R. E. Sykes, 1910-11; G. N. Sarven, 1912 -13; Cramer B Potter, 1912 13 ; Charles Braaf 19 1 2-13, and Joseph W Ta)'lor 1 912-13 On July 1, 1 913, T J. Nor thrup was elected commissioner of public safety, J G Bradshaw, comm i ssioner of public affairs, and C. D. Hammond, commissioner of public works Northrup received the most vo tes s o h e was to stay in office s i x years; Bradshaw, next, four years and Ham mond, last, two years. Bradshaw was chose n mayor. H ammond was re elected June 1, 1915. Two attempts to oust the commissioners from office we r e m ade but both failed. A new charter providing f o r a mayor and seven commissioners was app r oved by th e voters 487 to 278 on December 28, 1916 Under this charter the mayors were: AI F. Lang, 1916-19 ; Noel A. Mit chell, elected April 6, 1920, recalled November 15 1921; Frank Fortune Pulv er, e lecte d December 24, 1921; r e e l octed A p ril 4, 1922, recalled January 22, 1924; Arthur No1 wood elec ted to s erve Pulver's unex pired term, served until July 1, 1924. The comm i ssioners who served during t h i s period were: A. P Avery, 1916-19; A C Odom, Jr. 1916; C harles R. Carter, 1 916 -24; R. L Davison, 1916 18 ; A F T h omas son, 1916-22 ; J. S Norton 1916-18; J Frank Harrison 1916-20; W F. Sm i th, 191'71 9 ; George W. Fitch, 1 919-20; Arthur Norwood, 1919-20; E H Lewis, 1920 -21; V i rginia Burnsid e, 1920 -28; E G. Cunningham, 1921 -24; John J Woodside, 1921 to October, 1923 r esigned, succeeded by Charles L S nyder; 0 R. Albrigh t 192 1 -24 ; R. S Pearce,192124. A new c ity charter, greatly curtailing the powers of the mayor, and prov i d ing that in the f uture the commi s sione r re ceiv ing the highest number o f votes should hold t.hat offi ce, was approved by the voters 431 t o 356 o n August 14 1923. Lew B. Brown was cha i rman of the board which draft ed the charter and A. P Avery was vice-c h airman When the new char t er was put into effect it resulted in a l ong drawn-out con t roversy be t ween the mayot and the commis s ione r s regar d ing their respective powers. The agitation culminated i n the circulation of petitio n s for the re call of Mayor Pulve r a nd Comm i ssioners E. G. Cunni n gham, 0 R. Albright, Charles R. Carter and Paul R. Boardman. The election was held January 22,' 1924. Mayor Puher was recalled by a vote of 1,136 to 1,999 The commissioners were retained in office. Under the 1923 charter t he comm i s sioners who served were: Charles R Carter, 1924; E G. Cunningham, 1924; 0 R. A lbright, 1924; R. S. Pearce, 1924-27;

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 239 Paul R. Boat"dman, 1922 25; C. J. M aurer, 1924-25, 1927 -30; E C. Reed 1924-25; Charles L. Snyder, 1923-26; Earl B. Ren wick 1 925-26; W. Scott Serv i ss, 1925 -26; C. M. Blanc, 1925 -26; D. S. Pooser, 1926-27; R. C. Purvis, 1926-27; Robert Arnold, 1927-28, 1980 -31; Ralph Veil lard, 1927 -80; D C. Wilkerson, 1927, r esigned January 7, 1929 succeeded by A V. Laughner, 1929; A. F. T h omas son, 1928-29; John N. Brown, 1 928-29; Guy B. Shepard, 1928-29; A. P Avery, 19 2930, recalled Decembet" 30, 1980, suc ce eded by Orrin R. Bowen; Arthur R Thompson, 1929-30 ; J. D. PeaYce 1930, and Rober t R. Wa lden, 1930. Mayors who sened during this period by virtue of having received the h ighest number of votes east were: R S Pearce, 1924; C. M. B lane, 1925; R. S Pearce, 1926; C. J. Maurer, 1927; J ohn N. Brown, 1928; Arthur R. Thompson 1929, and J. D Pear ce, 1930 All the above officials served until July 1st o f the year following the last year given For i nstance, J. D. Pearce ser\ .. ed from July 1, 1930, until Jul y 1, 1931. The need for a more efficient form of governmen t became a pparent d uring the summer of 1930 after the city had de faulted in its bond payments. On Septembe r 22, the commissio n appointed a board to draft a new charter. Members n a med were: Judge William King, J ame s Booth, E G Cun ning ham, C. Buc k T u rner Tom Orr, Judge G eorge N. Bilger, and Glen U. Brooks. The boat"d recommended the es tablishment of a city manager form of governm e nt. It also recommended that six counc ilme n should be elected by dis tricts and one at large The e lected cou nc i l men wer e to appoi nt the mayor. The sug .. gested charter was pas sed by the State Legislature in th e spring of 193 1 and be came effective July 1, 1 931. I n 1941, the charter was amended to p r ov id e :tor the e l ection of the mayor by the people, the term being fixed at two years Mayo r s who have servc d s in ce t he new charter became effective arc : Henry W. Photo not available

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240 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Adams, Jr., July. 1, 1931-June 30, 1933; R. G. Bl anc, 1933-34; JohnS. Smith, 1936, resigned, succ eeded May 25, 1937 by Isham P. Byrom;Vernon G. Agee, 1 937-38; Ian V. Boyer, 1939 -40; It. J McCutcheon, Jr., 1941-42; George S. Patt erson July 1, 1943 to July 1, 1947. Bruce B Black burn was e lected in May, 1947, to serve a term beginning July 1, 1947. Councilmen who have served since 1931 are: R. G. Blanc, 1931 -32; William J. Cer mak, 1931 -32; J. Lanier, 1931 -32; Glenn Miller, 1931 -32; Frederic W. Web ster, 1931-34; A. J. Wood, 1931-34; Henry W. Adams, 1933-34; Ora F. Fraze, 1933 36; succeeded by Walter J. Johnson, 1936; John S. Smith, 1933-36; M. D. Wever, 1 933-36; Ve r n on .G. Agee, 1935-36 ; Isham P. Byrom, 1935-88 i W. Hopkins, 1936-42 resigned in December, 1942, suc ceeded by George S . )?atterson; C. J. Maurer, 1935-38; Ian V. Boye r 1937 -38; Bainbridge Hayward, 1937-40; Oliver Wm. Hewitt, 1937 40; Walfred Lindstrom, 1939 to October, 1942, resigned, succeeded by William S. Howell who ser ved until October, 1945, resigne d, succeeded .by Samuel G. Johnson who was elected in Mciy, 1947, to serve a fouryear term; R. J. McCutcheon, Jr., 1939-40 ; Stanley C. Mins hall, 1939 42 ; E. L. Co le, 1941, served un t il March 194 7, resigned, succeeded by Paul B. Barnes; C. Frank Harrison, 1941 47; N. W. P arker, 1941, resigned in De cember, 1941 succ eede d by Andrew H. Holloway who served July 1, 1943 when he resigned and was succeeded by Ray E. Dugan, who, in tu rn, served until May, 1947 when he resigned and was suc ceeded by E lbridge G. Deane; Eugene S. Bennett, 1943-46; Elon C. Robison, 194 3 46; Excel C. Queen, 1947; Harry W. Mc Cormick, .1947, and Samuel G. Johnson 1947. Councilmen serving in November, 1947, were Barnes, Deane, Harrison, John son, McCormick and Queen. City manageTs under t he new charter have been: Wilbur Cot ton, August 1931, to January; 1934; Carleton .F. Sharpe, January, 1934, to July, 1935 ; A. F. Thomasson Jull', 1 935 to August, 1937; Glenn V Leland, 1937, io July, 1943; Raymond G. Ridgely, July, 1943, to Octo ber, 1944, and Carleton F. Sharpe, Octo her, 1944 to present (1947). Heads of various city departments und e r the new charter have been as follows: Department of public utilities: Ora F. Fraze, 8-1-28 to 11 -19-32; James Gibson, 11-19-32 to 2 28-46, retired; A lex Speer, 8 1 -46 and now acting. Director of public works: Frank 0. Lee, 9-17-31 to 9-30-43; H. R. Topping, 10-1 -4 3 t o 9-30-44; R. G Ridgely, 10-1-44 to 6 -S045. On July 1, 1945, the department was divided into two departments-department of public service and department of technica l services. Department of public services: S tanley Pinel, 7-1-45 to 8-1-47; Frank 0. Lee, 8-1-47 and now acting. De partment of t echnical services: A 1ex Speer, 7-1-45 to 3-1 -46; Paul J Jorgeson 3 1-46 and now acti n g. Departmen t of finance: Frank Wilson, 9-26 -30 to 8 -2 3 35 ; Glenn V. Leland, 8-2335 to 9-13-37 ; T Loren Crossland, 9-13 -37 to 8-43; R. E. Henry, 8 -12-4 3 and now acting. Chief of police: ll. H. Noel, 4 20-29 to 10-1-37, retired; E. D. Vaughn, 10-1 -37 to 7-3-45; J R. Re ichert, 7 3 -45 and now acting. Fire chief: J. T McNu l ty, 4-10 13 t o 10 -1 36, retired; A. H Tuthill, 10-1-36 to 11 -1 6-37; Claud W. Nesbit, 11-16 37 and !\OW acting. City attorney: Carroll E Runyon, 128-30 to 10-1-31 ; Eri e B, Askew, 10 -131 to 7-10-33; W. F. Way,'7-11C33 to 7-1 -35; Carroll R. Runyon, 7-1-35 to 5-1-47, (Lewis T. Wray appointed to se rve from l-30-48 t o 111 -45 while Runyon served in army); Lewis T. Wray, 5-1 -47 and still acting. City Extensions St. Petetsburg's original t ow n plat, re corded August 11 1 888, in the Hills borough County Courthouse, contained approximately 500 acres, or less t han square mile. By the time S t Petersburg was incorpo ra ted as a c i ty, in 1903, a number of small subdiv i s ions, i ncluding '" ard & Baum's subdivision, had been taken in, increasing the land area to about square mil es. The Bayboro subdivision, containing .28 square miles, was a dded October 3, 1912

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 241 During the 1913-14 boom, several other ext ensions were made, notabl) the West Central district, increasi n g the tot al city area to 8.60 square miles Approximately 2 square iniles more were added on December 15, 1920. O n April 28, 1925, all of the P ine llas Point area and a large area north of the o l d city lim its, across the entire peninsula, were added -almost 40 square miles. A smaller addition of about 2 square mi les was added July 19, 1926, making the total 53.22. square miles. No additions hav e been made to the city since 1926. Population The federal census of 1890, made two years after St. Petersburg was founded, showed that t h e infant town had a populalion of 273 Census figures since then have been: 1900 -1,675; 1910-4,127; 192014,237; and 1940--jj0,812. The Seventh Census of the State o! Florida, made by state employes i n 1946, showed that the c ity had grown to 85,184. Estimat es of the population in late 1947 range from 90,000 to more than 100,000. St. Petersburg Defaults and Redeems St. Petersburg had more than deflated rea l estate valu es, and unemployment, and poot tourist ucrops" t o contend with after the Great Depression began in la t e 1929. The city also had a staggering public debt which had soared from $1,250,000 in 1920 to $27, 000,000 in 1928. The out standing bonds drew a high rate of interest, averaging 5.7 pe r cent. Photo not available

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242 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC St. Peter&burg'& financial a f f a i r s reached a crisis in the early spring of 1930 immediately after the American and Fidelity banks had closed their doors. In May there were rumors about the city' s oldest bank, the First National. Part of the city's funds b a d already been frozen through the failu r e o f the t w o s tate ban ks. It wos a question whether the ci ty co u ld withdraw s uffic ient funds to meet its pay men t of prin cipal and interes t o n o ut standing b o nds due in New York on Juno l. Behind .clo s ed doors, the c ity council hold a special meeting on May 3 1 and in structed the director of finance to withhold payment of pr i ncipal and interest on all its debt due the follo wing day The city had defaulted on its public debtl Its credit vanished overnight. The price of its bonds began a steady and rapid decline. Since the city had bond interest due every month and principal payments al most every month, it was only a short time until the city was hopelessly in default. A group of large b ondholders and represontatives o f som e of t h e l a rgest syndi cates w h ich h a d s old many S t. P e tersburg bonds organ ized the St. Peters burg Bond hol dors Committee. Thi s committe e ob tnined au thority to represent a lar g o per contage of the city's outstanding bonds. A ropresontative o f t hi s group deman ded that the city p l ac e i n its 1931 budget a sufficient l evy t o tske u p the past due interest and provide for current interest. Under threat of court aetion, and realiz... ing ita obligations, the eity council made the levy. But it was out of the question for the people o f the city to pay it with half empty hotels, empty apartments, thousands of persons out of wor k bank deposits frozen and the tourist businesa at rock bottom. The taxpayers rebelled. And when the city attempted to force the c o \l ectlon of delinquent tox e s, t he taxpayers obained a co urt Injunctio n delaying the sale of tox certifi ca tes. T hey realized the seriou s n ess of t h o situatio n and they kno w that t h e city unq u esti onably owed the debt but they simply co uld not pay i t In response to s t rong public d emand that some t h i n g b e d one about the cripplin g debt problem, 1\layor Henry W. Adams, Jr. in December, 193 1 a ppointed a speelal committee of 37 leading citizens. This committee elected Dixie M Hollins as its per manent ehairrna n and also n amed an execu. tive eommittee com posed of Hollins, Lew B. Brown, Judge J M Lassin g John N. Brown, Paul P oynter, Jud g e W ill iam G. King, N. J Upham, Bayard S. Coo k C. Porry Snell a n d A. R. Hart. Othe r m e mbers of the committee w e re: J. F A e hely, Paul B Barnes, James D. Bour n e Nat. B B rophy, James R. Bussey, W. L. Carmack, Charle s R Carter, George E. Cook, Harvey G Dicks on, Walter P. Fuller, Do n Grady, J ohn Graham, V. S. Herring, Frank F. J o n sberg, William A. Kenmuil"t Aymer Lau g hner, Ed. T. L-ewia-, Soren Lund, J W Martin, Thomas J. Rowe, James S. Simmons, Charles L. Snyder, Carlton Ervin, Joe M. Touart, C. Buek Turner, Charles J. V a n Fleet and Earl L. Weir. After study, the committee camo to the conclu sion tha t city's debt must be adjusted within the ability of the taxpayers t o pay and that any a ttempt on the part o f the bondholde r s to co llect the full a mount due would not onl y result In disaster f o r countl ess property owners but cause hr e pa rable J oss to t h e bondh o lders as well. A great part o f the city's debt was made up of bonds i s sued for streets and sewers and payab l e out of special assessments against the benefited property. Nevertheless, they were a dir ect obligation against the city. Alter the default, both the special assessment a nd general revenue bonds dropped rapidly in price and finally sold as low as 35 cents on the dollar. The committee recommended and carried on a heroic fight to permit taxpayers to pay therr special assess m ent$ and t heir abnor mally hig h 1931 taxes with theso low priced bonds and pa s t due coupons, in O.C cordanco with the legal principle of setoff. T h is r ecommendation resulted in some sharp tussl es w ith bondholder& and somo city o ffi c ial s but the desire d perm ission finall y wa s s e c ured. And it r es ulted ovor a per i od of se ven y ears in r e t iring J)l'8C tlcally $7,0 00,000 of the pub lic debt! Even while the pubUc debt was being reduced, everyone r ealize d that the city

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 243 could not get back on its financial feet until the debt was refunded to the satis faction of t he bondholders as well as the c ity. To get such a re. funding plan negotiated, the city council engaged Dixie Hollins. The agreement provided that he should pay all the expenacs of the refunding ar rangements and that he would be paid ap proximately $150,000, contingent upon the plan being accomplished after first ha,ing been approved by vote of the people This fee was based on '!> o f 1 per cent of the face value of all bonds to be refunded. Pinellas County paid the customary fee of 2 per cent for its refunding and even more was paid by some Florida political units. The plan worked out by Hollins pro vided that the city's deb t then reduced t o $20,000,000, should be refunded on the basis o f 3 per cent interest for 10 years. 3% per cent for the next f he years, and with % per centinerease until the maxi mum of 5 per cent was reached. It also provided that aU past due interest was to be settle d at 3 per cent. The plan, and Hollins' contract with the c ity, was ap proved by a threet o-one vote at an elec tion called by the city counciL CI-IAPTER 16 The new bonds carried a provision, in sisted upon by HoUins, that they could be called at par at any interest date. This pro vision seemed to be of little value at the time since the city's bonds were selling, even after refunding, at a tremendous dis .. count. However, when interest rates were fol"ced down and St. Petersburg's bonds had risen to par at the 3 per cent rate, the city was enabled to call all of its outstand ing bonds at par thl"ough the sale of new bonds on the basis of 2 '!> per cent interest for 85 years, as against the other bonds which would have reached 5 per cent under the original contract. The second refunding was carried out by the eity council with the assistance of Hollins and AI Roberts who acted as f inancia l advisers of the city for a fee of $9,000 each. The principle of accepting bonds in pay ment Of special assesments and past due taxes haJ:l been continued and the city's original debt of more than $27,000,000 which drew interest at the ave .rage rate of 5.7 per cent had been reduced by autumn of 1947 to approximately $17,000,000 drawing interest at 2 per cent. Moreover, the bonds of the city are again selli n g at a premium and the City of St. Petersburg enjoys a high rating in finan cial ce nters. GI:NI:RAL REFERENCI: Cl-lAPTER WILLIAMS PARK was not so named in the original town plat. For many years it was called just 11City Park." Later, when other parks were established and a more distinctive name was needed, "Williams Park" was c hosen in honor o f John C Williams, original owner of the town site. In the early days, Williams Park was just a piece of oak and pine woods, not particularly attractive. Along the northern side there was a natural ditch which carried off the overflow waters from Mirror Lake. About the only use made of the par k at that time was as a site for pienic parties. In 1894 the women of the town raised money to build a fence around the park to keep out the wandering cows and in 1896 they erected a bandstand. The park was cleared of unde.rgrowth, palmettoes and weeds during 1903 through the ef forts of members of the Woman's Town Improvement Association. The women

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244 'fHE STORY OF ST. PETERSDURC also beautified the park by planUng trees, sh rubs, flo wers and grass an d raised money to construct asphal t walks. Interest in the park lessened during the next few years, how e ver, and when th e upkeep of the park was turned over to the city b y the association in 1910, palmettoes and weeds bad again taken possession of the property. The first park commi ssioner was appointed by the city co uncil in 1911 and thereafter, appropria tlon s were made to install green benches, carry on the beautificatio n work, and ma ke oth!r improvements. A new bandstand wa s erected in 1920 at a cost of $10 ,000. A drinking fountain in the center or the park was pro vid ed in 192 1 by and M rs. James A. Paine, of Cl eve land. T b e Royal Scotch Highlanders Band was engaged by the city to play ten weeks during th e winter o f 1917-18. The Highlanders were so pop ular thatwhen their engagement ended, money was r-aised for them t o stay two wee ks longer The b a nd continued t o play In the park eac h winter, with tho excepti on of 1920-21 when Weber's Band of Cincinnati was engaged, until after the boom. Shortly after the city took over the up keep of the par k it began to be the center of the aetivit ,ie:s of the various pleasure club s. The horseshoe players, members of the Sunshi ne Pleasure Club invaded it fir$t in 1912. Then came the roque players, and the play ers of chess, che ckers and dominoes. At first, t here was room in t he park fo r the members of a ll these c lub s, as well as for the people attending the band concerts. Thousands congregated t here during the winter month s and Williams Park b ecam e famed throughout the country. As membership in the various clubs in erens cd, h o wever it became evident that additional pla)grounds would ha ve to be provid ed elsewhere to prevent congestion. Thei r removal f r om the park was hasten e d by an inj un ction against th e city obtaine d by the Williams heirs in t he sprin g of 1922 preventing the eity from allowing any club to have e xclusive rights over anY pottlon of the p ark. The Will iam s heirs contended, and were supported by the court, that the park had been given to the eity with the understanding that it would be open "to the publien at a ll times and that no individua l s or groups, should have s pecial privilec es. As a resu l t of this injunction, the headquarters of the clubs were moved in 1923. Other Parks The ori ginal plat of St. Petersburg in eluded about two-thirds o t Mirror Lake, then called Reservoir Lake. Tho take was then quite differently shaped than at present, pornon of it havi n g bee n dredged out and o thers fil led in. A large part of the adjoining land was owned by B. C. Williams who sold it to the city in 1 903 for $3,500. The remaining privatel y owned land around the Jake was purchased In 1909 for $15,000 and In 1910 the city owned property w as declared a public park. The water which drained into tbe lake during the rainy season often cause d it to overflow and in 1912 an 18 ineh drain was l aid to Tampa Bay, lowering the level o f the la ke about four feet. How eve r the drain was not Jarge enough to off an 16-ineh rainfall which fell on August 8 and 9, 1 9 15 The lake ove rflow e d again and tho library bu ilding, then under c on struction, stood upon an island. At the lower end o! Fifth avenue north a gulle y was cut nea r l y 20 0 feet long nnd almost nine feet deep The pavement around the Jake was com. pleted during the summer of 1914. Since then, many impr ov ement have been mad e in the park and it is now one of the beauty spots of the city and has become one of the most populor pl a yground centers for winter vis itor s. T he nam O u.r.tirror Lak e" was given to the lake by Mrs. Katherine D. Tip)l
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THE STORY ST. PETERSBURG 245 acres around Crescent Lake were acquired by th e city for park pur8 pose s from C Perry Snell in 1919, $30,000 being paid for the tract. Work of beautify ing the park was s tarted i n 19 2 3 a n d a city nursery was established, under the direc tion of W Smith, c ha irman of the park board. I n 1922, land east of Beach drive on the south side was dedicated to the city for park purpose s by Judge J. M. L.ssing and others. A maj or port ion of the waterfront f rom Thirteenth avenue north to Coffee Pot Bayou was donated to the city by C Perry Snell during 1925. Snell als o set aside plazas in S nell I s le for public use A b lock i n Hall's No. 3 s ubdiv isi o n at Second avenue north and Thirtyninth street, was given to the city in 1 9 13 by Charles R Hall Th e city a lso owns num er ous small tracts in var-ious sections which ha v e b e e n dedicated for park pu rpo s e s. In 1947 th e city had title to 4 1 park areas totaling 215 acres. Th is total did no t include th e property at Lake Maggiore purchased by the city after the war. (See Ind ex : Lake Maggiore.) The acq u is ition by the city of the wat er front and its int o Waterfront Park is discussed in detail i n the general text. (See Ind e x : Along the Waterfront. Also, see Index: Bartlett Park.) St. Petersburg s first park su perinten den t was Wa lte r Hullman who served Un til 1922 when he was succeeded b y James Luchini. S inc e November 26, 1928, Archie C. Beers has been superintenden t Festivals and Celebrations T h e a nnual Washington' s Birthday celebration presented b y sc h ool child ren was the greatest feature of S t Peters. burg's winter s e ason for a number of y ears. The first ce l ebration was held February 22 1896, and consisted of a p arade and e xercises in the Opera Hous e. It p r ov e d to be such an attraction that it was repeate d each year thereafter u ntil 19 14 when the schoo l board rule d agains t it o n the ground t hat preparations f o r the For n early t wenty years, the Washington's Birthday c e lebratio n was the bi g e\( en t of St. Petersburg's winter s ea son. T hi s ph otograph shows the chi ldren p a ad i n g in 1911 on Central av enue at the Fourth street inte rsecti on.

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246 Tf!E STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG event were taking too much ot the chil dren's time. The celebrations, made possi ble through the generosity of E. H. Tomlin son, helped in no small way to spread the city' s fame. In the fall of 1900 a Mid-Winte r Fair Aasociation was formed 106 individuals subscribin g $10 each to finance it. During the next winter a \ ery successful exhibi tion was held in the Strowger Building southeast comer of Fourth and Central. The fair remained open for a month and proved so successful that little difficulty was encount ered in raising money to erect a building for annual exhib i tions. A lot on Second avenue north near Second stl'eet was purchased and A building, called t he Auditorium, was erected. The Auditorium also was used fo r a Chautauqua Assembly that was financed in the fall of 1903 by cititens who sub sc ribed $1,500 as a guarantee fund. The Chautauqua was an annual affair until 1912 when interest lessened and it was discontinued. The MidWinter Fairs had been dropped sev e ral years before, due to difficulty in securing attractive exhibits. The auditorium property wa s sold to the Christian Science Church and i n settlement each subscriber received $26 for each $10 subscribed. During the winter of 1913, the St. Petersburg Fair and Tourist Week was held, from March 17 through March 22. Booths were erected on Central a venue under the dire ction of Arthur L. Johnson. and decorated by the merchants. Games were played in the mornings, parades were held in the afternoon s and entertainments and f ireworks were provided for the eve nings. The program attracted tourists from other cities of the state and also served to hold the St. Petersburg tourists a few weeks longer than usual. In 1914, a DeSoto celebration was held. It open ed Tuesday, March 24, and lasted four days. A parade was held on Tuesday, the landing of DeSoto on Wednesday, a parade of decorated autos and a baby ahow on Thqr1day, and a costume ball, fireworks and a 'hoodlum night" on Friday. Noel A. 1\litche\1, assisted by H. D. Britton, m ade th e arrangements The first Festival of the States was held March 25 28, 1917, with Arthur L. John-son in charge. M iss Ida Batt wa s electe d queen and Bub James, king. Tho king and queen wcro crowned before a largo crow d by Paul R. Boardma n president of the C h amber of Commerce. Features of the festiva l were the parades of the states, band concert on Central, confetti battle on Tuesday, and the Grand Royal Parade and eoatume ball on Wednesday. Several years e lapsed before the next festival was held, March 2'7-31, 1922, with AI F. Lnng in char ge. Features of the celebrAtion were the. uChimes of Nor .. mandy ," played at La Plaza Theatre, the Festival of the States parade, the Dance of tho Sun Worshippers, and a regatta and bathing-sui t parade at the waterfront. During the boom year s the Festival of the States became an elaborat.o event, largo sums of money spent for floats b)t real estate developers, merchants, and tourist societies. During that period the festivals proved to be such an attraction that t hey have been continued ever since, except during war years. Public Library Early i n July, 1905, the St. Petor.oburg Reading Room and Library A ssocia tion was formed with Arthur Norwo od as chair man, and Miss Pauline Barr, secretary pro tern. Tho organitation was effected wit h 122 members and officers were elected as tollowa: Judge J. D. Bell, president; J. A. Sims, vicepreaident; A:trs. Annie McRae, secretary, and Fred M. Allen, treasurer. In September the association leaaed for its use a room in the Bussey Building, on the aout h si de of Central between Third and Fourth streets. It was opened in Sep tember, 19 05. During the first year twelvo women were appointed to act a s librarian s each to ae.rve once every two weeks without pay, tho women keeping the library open in the afternoons and the men evening-s. The next year Mrs Bellona Ha vens was engaged as librarian. The library was moved to the Strowger Building, on the southeast corner of Fourth nnd Central, in 1907. A short time later it became necessary to vacate this room and as no other was availa b i G the books ond furniture were stored.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 247 The library was reopene d in th e Mitchell Block, northwest corner of Fourth and Central, in 1909 and remained there until the new Carnegie Library was eomplered late in 1915 on Fifth street north in Mirror Lake Park. The. movemen t to secure the Carnegie Library was launched in 1908 but nothing definite was dono until 1912 when Ralph Voillard, a cit>,. eouneiJman, entered ne gotiations with the Carnegie Corporation and was informed that the city could secure a donation of $12,600. This sum was eon sidered insu ffi cient and in 1913 W. L. Straub, president of the Library and Municipal Advertising Boa r d, went to New York and saw officers of the corporation. He succeeded in hav ing t he promised do nation increased to $17,500. The cornerstone for the new Jibr ary was laid December 19, 1914, with full Masonic ceremonies. Governor Park Tram mel was principal speaker. Other speakers were Dr. J. P. Hoyt, W. L. Straub, Mayor J G Brads haw and Dr. George N. Sleight, then superintend .ent of schools. The library was completed Seprember 11, 191 5, the books were moved into it, and the b ui lding was opened to the public December 1. There were 2,600 volumes at that tim e. W. L Straub, John N. B r own and Mrs. Annie McRae comprised the library board. Miss Emma Moore Williams was appoinred librarian and Miss Mar garet H. J erikins assistant librarian. When Miss Williams resigned in 1924, Miss Mary Bright was appointed ro suc ceed her. Shortly afterward, Miss Bright moved the children's department ro the ground floor which had been refinish ed and redecorated for that purpose. To meet the city's increas ing d e mand for li btary service, the Glenoak Branch Library was opened in 1926 with Mrs. Roxanna Hurlin as branch li brarian. A little larer, a b ranch li brary was opened for colored people. In 1935, the Optimist C lub s established a special collection of books for boys in the children's depart ment and have continued to add to i t each year. In late 1947, there were books in this collection. H ild a Glaser succeedea Miss Bright aa librarian in January, 1946. 'the James Weldon Johnso n Branch Library for col ored people was opened April 1, 1947. St. Petersburg speed demons had gre.at sport i n 1913 during tbe l"air and Tourist Week, zipping along Central avenue at a dizzy speed, d o d ging barrels along the way in an obstacle race.

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248 THE STORY OF ST. P ETERSBURG During the same month, a group o f citizens organized the Friends of the Library to promote good libr ary service for the en tire community. Thomas Drier is chair man of the organization. In late 1947, the library had a collection of 45,000 books housed in a building con structed to hold 16,000 It has a register of 18,000 borrowers and circulates ap proxilnately 250,000 books a year. Post Offices During the decade following the close of the Civil War, approximately twenty five families settled on th e lower peninsula in the territory now known a s Greater St. Petersburg. For these settl ers, a post office was established at Big Bayou on June 6, 1876, and named Pinellas, after the peninsula itself. The first postmaster was William H. Benton who served six months and then was succeeded by John A. Bethell. The neare&t railroad at that time was at Cedar Keys, sixty miles up the gulf coast. It was the western terminus of the Florida Railway & Na''igation Company railroad which extended northeast to Fe. rna.ndina, 155 mile s away. From Cedar Ke. ys, mail was brought to Pinellas in shallow draft schooners, thebest known of which were the "Madison Packet", the 11Col0nel Cot trell," and the '4Falcon/' In 1884, when Henry B. Pla nt built his railroad the mail began coming by way of Tampa. On July 21, 1879, a scatter ed com munity on the Seminole penin sula around the s outhern end of Missouri avenue was given a post office called Johns P3Ss. Irwin J. Adair was postmaster. Always a rural o!fice, it was discontinued in 1902. 'l'he next post office establis hed on the l!)wer penin s ula was at Disston City, on January 5, 1886. At that time, however, there was another post office in Florida called "Diston" and the post office depart. ment frowned upon the name "Disston City", believing it would cause confusion. So the ne w post office was called facio", in honor of William Bonifacio Miranda, one o f the founders o f the town. The Diston office was abandoned in 1889 and Disston City was permitted to use its own name in mail matters. In 1906, the name was changed to Ve-teran City an d in 19 10 to Gulfport. The lower peninsula got two more post offices during 1885. One was at New Cadiz on Boca Ciega Bay between Clam Bayou and Maximo Point and the o ther at Millerton, near the Jungle. Joseph Puig was named postmaster at New Cadiz and J. Schneible at Millerton. Both these post offices soon passed out o f existence. St. Petersburg's first post office was opened in May, 1888, when Mrs. Ella E. \V ard was commissioned by Postmaster General Dic. kiilson as postmistress. She opene d an office in the Tampa Bay Pack ing Company warehouse, on the railroad tracks just west of Ninth street. Mrs. Ward paid her daughters Ethel and Lottie a nickel a week to deliver mail and t he reby the) becam e S t Petersburg's f irst ''mailmen." In October, 1891, Mrs. Ward was suc ceeded by E. W. Meeks who opened q uarters on Central avenu e between Four t h and Fifth streets. The move east''' ard was made to satisfy residents of St. Petersburg who objected to going way up to the Ninth street section to get the-ir m ai l. F or a few months in iS95, Dr. George W. Kenned y took over the postmaster ship and moved the post office to a small building on Central on the site' of the present Willson-Chase building. W. A. Sloan took over after Doctor Kennedy retired. The s ite of the post office was not changed until two years later when it was moved by S )oan to the south side of. Central between Third and Fourth. Roy S. Hanna was appointed to succeed Sloan in 1 900 A short t i me later t he office was made third class and Hanna was permitt ed to hire a clerk at $25 a month. His sa lary as postmaster was advanced at the same time to $ 1 ,000 a year. The office was moved to Col. B. F. Liv ingSton's building on the north side of Central between Third and Fourt h streets whcr,e i t was kept for several year$ The business of the office grew with the city and in 1905 Hanna called a number of citizens togeth e r and told them he would have to have a l arger office th an he could rent with the money allowed him by the

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSDURG 249 post office department. E. H. Tomlinson offered to orect a building on the northeast corner of Central and Fourth and to rent it to t he gove rnment for five years at $50 a month His offer was accep ted and the building was occupied February 16, 1907. At Hanna's suggestion, the fron t was left out of the building and box holders could get their mail day or night. This was an unheatd of innovation and when Wash ington authorities heard about it, they tartly informed Hanna. that no money would be allowed for r ent until a front was installe d. But Hanna was convinced that his idea was best for a town lik e St. Petersbur g and he kep t the building t ho way it \\'9.S. A few months later a postmasters' conv ention was hel d in St. Peters burg and officials of the post office de partmeut attended. They inspected the open office and endorsed it as being adapted to the needs of a city like St.. Petersburg. Soon afterward checlt.., began coming in again for the rent. rhe sit.e on wh ich this first open air post office was built was purchased l>y T omlinson on February 15, 1901 for $3, 800. He sold it to thG West Coast Title Company on June 1 1922, for $100,000. Free pos tal delivery for St. Pe tersburg was secured b y Iianna a s a resul t of a trip to Washington in October, 1906. The free delivery began in June, 1907. Because of the rapid growth of St. Petersburg, the Tom linson building was soon outgrown. People had to form in line on Fourth stleet and receive their m ail tlll'ough the windows of the building. Despite t he cramped quarters, however, it was not until 24, 1915, that the office was moved t o the old Manual Train ing Annex building at Fourth street and First a\lenue sou t h, then being used as a City Hall. The entire lower floor was oc cupied. At that time it was the largest post office in Florida. A mov ement to secure a federal building for S t Pet ersbu1g was launched in 1907 when Hanna and the Board of Trade urged t he post office department to take a c tion. An appropriation of $7,500 to buy a sit e was authorized by Congress i n 1908 and o n .March 8, 1909, announcemen t was made that the three lots o n the southwest cor net of First aYenue north and Fourth street had been purchased from the Congrega t ional Church. The selection o f the site For this corner lot at Fourth street and First avenue north, where the Post Office is n ow located, the F ederal Go,ernment in 1909 paid the Congregational Church $7,500.

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250 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG atoused much criticism, many persons saying that the new building should not be crowded in on one corner of a block and that enough ground should have been ob tained to allow for future expansion. A conventional type post office, enclosed and elevated above the street, was designed by postal architects for St. Petersburg. Hanna objected strenuously. He wanted a real ope n air post office, with three sides open, built close to the street level. Plans like he wanted were drawn by George W. Stewart, an architect from Atlanta. Hanna took them to Washington, and showed them to postal officials. They scoffed at the open air idea but Hanna persisted and finally succeeded in contact ing the architect who had previously sub mitted plans for the St. Petersburg build ing. The architect wouldn't even talk to Ha nna or look at Hanna's plan s Feeling that he had lost his battle, Hanna threw the plans on the architect's desk and left. Sev era! m 0nths later, blueprints for the St. Petersburg Post Office were received by Hanna-and to his astonishment, he found they had incorporated almost every one of his ideas. In February, 1915, Congress provided $102,500 for the building and on January 26, 1916, the contract for construction was let to M. C. Holliday, of Greensboro, N. C., for $89,717. Work was started March 2, 1916. W. L. Straub was appointed postmaster to succeed Hanna in July, 1916. The cornerstone of the new post office was laid with full Masonic ceremonies on October 12, 1916. The speakers. were Mayor AI Lang, Hanna, and Straub. 'l'he building w .as dedicated on Thursday, September 27, 1917. Straub served as postm'l!'ter until the spring of 1923 when Hanna was again ap pointed. He was succeeded in 1932 by R. M flail who served three ye.ars and then was succeeded by J D. Pearc e, who has been postmaster ever since. Post office architects stated when the open air post office was built that it was large enough to take care of the business of a city of 100,000 inhabitants. It was out grown, however, a :few years after it was completed. To take care of the city's needs, a large two-<;tory building at 865 Third avenue north was leased in 1926 and made into a sub-stat ion and another sub-statio n was established at Central and Twenty second street in 1936. Hospitals St. Petersburg's first hospital resulted from the cooperation of Dr. John D. Pea body and A. P. Ave17 who organized the St. Petersbu.rg Sanitarium in 1906, in corporate d under state laws, and erected a building on Second strcot north, near First avenue, large enough to accommodate fifteen beds. The operating room equipment was provided by E. H. Tomlin son and the hospital was furnished by citizens' donations. The hospital operated until April 28, 19ll. It was never a paying proposition but during the four years it was in e x is tenc e it received many patients and was of great to the city. In Septem ber, 19ll, the building was sold to Ute Elks for a clubhouse. A movement to establish a public hos pital was started by Rev. J. W. Harris in 1909. E. H. Tomlinson contributed toward the purchase of a half block at Seventh stree t and Sixth avenue south, and early in 1910 the city purchased the other half of the block on which there was a five room cottage. This cottage was made into an emergency hospital, equipment being supplied by the St. Petersburg Sanitarium. It was called the St. Petersburg Emergency Hospital and was opened for public inspection July 28, 1910. 'rhe hospital was recognized from the first as being inadequate and the Woman's Auxiliary immediately began advocating the establishment of a general hospital. A fund was raised by public s ubscription and was provided by the city through a bond issue voted June 11, 1912. A 35-bed hospitalwas erected on the same property and the first patients were rece ived in March, 1913, before the building was entirely completed. The hos pital was named the Augusta Memorial Hospital in honor of Mrs. Augusta Tomlin son, mother of E. H. Tomlinso n, who had contributed libe rall y for its construction and equipme nt. Tomlinson later withdrew

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 251 the name because satisfactory arrange ments had not been made for taking care of charity c ases and the institution was called City Hospital. In 1923 the name wa s changed to Mound Park. An east wing was added t o tho hospital building in 1923, a bond issue ot $100,000 for that purpose having been approved by the voters December 1 1922. In 1987, the original build i ng was rep laced by a modern, four-story building which increased the capac .ity of the hospital to 150 beds. It cost $204,825 and was financed by a PWA Joan of $165 ,00 0 the city pay ing the balance. Edward S Moore and Sons was the contracting f irm The city took over the n ew building Jul y 21, 1937. Even with the new buil ding, Mound Park Hospital soon p rove d to be too sma U for the city and late in 1946 an annex l arge enough to accommodate 40 patients was opened in the Navy Section Base at Bayboro Harbor. The first patients were received there November 18, 1946. In an effort to provide the hospital facilities needed, city official s asked the 1947 S tate Legisla t ure for authority to extend the utility tax and a11ocate it for hospital construction. The authority was granted with the provis io n that the tax extention be ratified by the voters, which was done, Tuesday, October 8, 1947. The vote in favor was 2,20 3 to 632. However, the possibility still remai ned that securities which would be sold to buil d the hospital might be considered bonds, even though they were called revenue certificates, and if so, t hey might have to be passed on at a freeholders' elec tion A court ruling on the question was awaited. The cotta g e once u sed as the Good Samaritan EmergenC) Hospital 'vas moved to Fourth avenue south and Twelfth street in 1913, remodeled, and used for a co lored hospital. A bond issue to build a more modern hospital was vot ed Decem ber 1, 1922, and the Mercy Hospital was built at Twelfth avenue south and Twenty second street. A 29-bed additio n costing was being erected in 1947. It is to be paid for out of t he utility tax. St. Anthony's Hospital In 1922, Dr. Leroy W ylie opened the Faith Hospi tal at Seventh avenue north and E lev enth street as a private i nstitu tion available to all practitioners recognize d by the medical profession. On November 1 1981, Faith Hospital was taken over by the Sisters of St. Francis who op0ned it, after making many improvements under the name o f St. Anthony's Ho spital. It was the f irst Catholic hospita l t o be operated on the West Coast of Florida and the second in the state by the Sisters of St. Francis, whose motherhouse is in AUcgheny, N. Y. St. Anthony' s was dedicated by The Rt. Rev. Patrick Barry, D.D., bishop of St. Augustine. St. Petersburg's first public hospital, the Augusta Memorial. 'the city's famous shell mound is shown at the right.

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252 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG A new six -story building was added to the h o sp ital during the mid-Thirties at a cost, with equipment, of $400,000. Ground was broken on July 17 1986 by 'rhe Rev. William O'Farrell of the St. Paul's Catho lic Ch urch. Actu al construc ti o n work was started in January, 1987, and the new build ing wa s opened for public inspection Tuesday, December 28, 1937. With the new building, St. Anthony's now has a capacity of 150 beds. It is a nonsectarian, nonprofit ins.titution which has an A rating with the American Sur geons Association. h has the reputation of being one of the beat-equipped hospitals ;n the entire state. Hospital for Crippled Chil.dren A movement to establish a hospita l for crippled children in St. Petersburg wa s launched late in 192G by St. Petersburg Post No. 14 of the American Legion. An organization was formed with W. A. Huggins as pre sident i A. J. Angle, viccp!lesid ent; L. M. Saunders, treasure r, and !{. W. Railey, secretary. 'rhe directors were: Rev. Kerri aon Juniper, H C. Case, Bradford Lawren ce, Jr., H F Cashman, H. E Williams, A. H. Dorian, and W. E. Wakeman, of St Pctoroburg; Joe Cal ho un, Tampa; Merritt I. Wh eeler, Sarasota, and F. E. Brigh an Wintgard to race, color or creed, wh o is normal men .. tally and who is judged by its orthopedic surgeons to be in such condition a& to insurG rcnsonabJe hope of mate rially impoving his physical condition. 'l'hc only other sti p u la tion is that the parents or guardians o f the child must b e financi ally unable to pay for his treatment. The o!!ical name o f the institution is the American Legion H ospital for Crippled Children. Since it was established, the hospital has given treatments to more than 2, 700 bed patients and more than 40,000 childen hnvo gone t hr ough the clinic. o( children who probably would have been crippled for life have been comp letely cured. In virtually all other cases partial rehabilitation resulted, with tho conse quent hope that all those treated were we ll on the road to normal life. The most prominent surg eons, ph)'tieian a and ape ... of the entire Florida West Coast have ,;von the institution their wholehearted cooperation. A campaign to raise to build a modern hospit al, larg e enough to take care of the increasingly h eavy demands mad e upon the i ns tituti on, was launched in t ho sprin g of 1947 and by mld-sumn>er e n o u g h money had been pled ged to usure completion of the structure, p l ans for which were drawn by Hadley & Atkinson architects. Construction wa. to be started during the winter o f 1947-48. In the fall of 1947 officers o f the hos pital corporation were: S. R. Mcintosh, presidentj Dr. Joy E Adams, first viee-prcsident; J. Howard Gould, second vice president, and Mrs. Florence H. Welser, secreta.ry .. treasur er. Dire-ctors w ere: Mrs. Frank Berry, Mrs. Ronald A. Beaton, Gust B la ir, Robert G. Blanc, Arthur Boring,

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 253 Mrs John F C a rson, Hnrry C. Chubb, M rs. George H. Dalby J K. "Pat" Flanagan, Walfred Lindstrom, Mrs. L. E. Love Ricd Z.lann Ode s T. P ogue, John S. Rhodes, "Bud" Scott, William B. Tippetts, Nie l W Upha.m, Frank E. W e i ser, Mark Wheeler, a n d J F. Wilbur. White Cross H ospital St. Petersburg 1$ noted for its many fi. l'$t-el as:s pl"ivate hosp itals and sanitari uma. One o f the m ot;t outotending or these is the Vlhlte Cross H ospital. an in$titution which specia li zes in the treati!lent of a l c hoholics The hospital was established in 1937 by Dr. Thoma s D. McEwan, a nationally recogniz e d aut hority on alc.ho holism. Patients are sent to White Cros s fro m all parts of the country by ph)sicia n s for treatment. D r. McEwan beads a staff of specialists and tho hospital employs nearly a score of registered nurses. Th e White Cross is located at 6280 Central Avenue. Vetera ns Administration Center and Hospita l The selection b y the U. S Veterans Administration of a site on Boca Ciega Bay, at Long Bayou, for a combined f a cility consisting of a reeional office and hos pital was large l y due to the work of the late Herman Dann. a former president of the St. Petersburg of Commerce. When Dann learned in 1 931 that such a fac ilit y wa s to be provid ed in Flor ida, he began working to ret it for Pinellas County. With the h elp of Congre s sman J Har din Peterson ha finally persuaded of f icials of the Veterans Adm!nistmtion that Pin ellas Coun w wa s an ideal location, but the officials insisted that the site b e do natcd. Dann nex t persuaded ltobert P. Simpson and A V. Lau.ghner, owne r of the 680-aere tract desired, to &ell it to the coun t y for $150,000 worth of county bonds then valued at about 26 cents to the dollar The county then turned the land over to the go,ernment and the project was assu red La ter, additio nal land was acquired, i ncreasing the total ot govern ment-own e d land t o 782 acres. The s ite was called Bay P i n e s Con. struc tion work on th e project was rus hed during 1932 and t he r e gional office was opened on January 15, 19 SS. A hos pitn l with 195-bed capac ity and domi c iliary banacks hous ing 384 veterans were opened March 16, 19 38 During the five yean f ollowing, many additional buildlnQ's were added, 'increasing the total to 28. I n 1U47 the main buildings wero a m ain hospital, two domiciliary barrack$, a spacious dining hall with a modunly e quipped kitchen, a w omen's cottage in which women vete rans requiring domicil iary care are assl gned ind iv idual rooms a nursea' h o me, and a recreation a l build in g with a library, pool parl ors, patients' supp l y store and an audito rium. Bathin g facilities are provid e d at an additional reserva tion on the gulf. Exten sive lawns and numerous flower beds sur round the buildings. A fresh water lake prov idos a refuge for large flocks o f color ful birds. At the eastern end of the reservation is the veterans' ceme tery of ap proximately 17 a cres. Th e ground lev e l has been rai8ed about lour feet ab ove the f ormer l eve l and the cemetery has been comp l etely drained by underground tile. Each grave is pro vided with a flat, white marble matker s howJng the name of tho veteran, hi s rank and the state in which he enlisted, and the date of death. In November, 1947, there were 400 patient.s in the hospital and 800 veterans in domiciliary status. Co l M. Bryson has been in char gc o f the facilit-y since it was openad. Tho VA regional center wa s moved to the Don Ce-sa r Hotel bui lding I n 10 46. F INANCIAL INSTITU TIONS A t the e nd of December 1930, whe n St. Petersburg was roeked by the doubl e b l o w o f the Florida crash and the national depression, deposits in the two banks then open totaled less than $3,661,000. By November 1, 1947, deposit s in the three St. Petersburg banks nnd tho 8avings and i nvestment accoun ts in the two S
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254 THE STORY. OF ST. PETERSBURG provides striking proof of St. Petersburg's recovery from the depression. Union Trust Company The Union 'l'rust Company is an outgrowth o f the First Security Bank, an af filiate of the old First National Bank which closed on June 9, 1930. Tho First Security closed at the same time but in less than three months it was reorganized and on August 30, 1930, it was reopened-the only bank in St. Petersburg whieh survived the crash. Otricers of the reopened bank were Nat. B. Brophy, president; Paul A. Hoxie, vice-president; 'V. W. Me .. Eachern cashier, and J. E. Bryan and R. M. P etrick, assistant cashiers.. Directors were Brophy, Hoxie, W. H Smoyer, J. W. Taylor, Frank M. Harris, and McEachern. 'fhe name of the First Security was changed to the Union Trust Company December 1, 1930. Growth of the bank is shown by the rapid increase in deposits. On December 31, 1930, they totaled $1,631,573; December 31, 1936, $5,449,4 43; December 31, 1941, $7,795,142; Decomber 31, 1946, $27,606, 598, and November 12, 1947, $29,428,-644. O!ticers of the bank in Novombor, 1947, were: C. E. Lowe, chairman o f the board; Bryan, president; Pe trick, viceepresident and cashier; J W. Roberts, viee .. president; Robert W. Cohoe, vicee presidtmt and trust officer; R. K. Bongard, asst. vice-presi dent and comptrolJer: C. A. Johnson, asst. vice-president; L It DeWitt and Louise Dooley, asst. cashiers, and W. I. Billings and Dean C. Houk, asst. trust officers. The directors w.ere: C. E. Lowe, Bryan, Frank M. Har:ris, Cohoe, C 0. Lowe, Petrick, and Paul Poynter. Florida National Bank St. Ptnburg The Florida National Bank at St. Peters burg, one of a group o f Florida banks founded by Alfred I. duPont, was opened October 27, 1930, in quarters formerly used by the old First National, the building having been purchased by Du Pont for $426,000. The first directors of the bank were: G. J. Avent, Edward Ball, J. Lee Barnes, James D. Bourne, Barron G. Collier, C. D. Dyal, W. H Goodman, Dixie M Hollins, Leon D. Lewis and F. C Schwalbe. On December 31 1930, deposita in the bank totaled on December 31, 1935, $5,424,472; on December 31, 1940, $10,362,762, and o n October 6, 1947, $28,699,954. Officers of the bank in October, 1947, were: 'Vm. Hardin Goodman, president; F;. B Rees e Jno. H. Green and Barr lHmer, vice-pre s idents; Roy J. Stalnaker, cashier; B. P. Teasley, asst. vice .. president, and George W. Lipscomb, asst. cashier. Di .. r ectors were: Herbert T. Ballar d, Henry W. DeY."', Goodman, G reen, Robert L Hope, and Re e se. First National Bank in St. Ptera-burg The First National Bank in St. Peters burg i an outgrowth of the Southern Na tional Bank of St. Petersburg which was opened for business on Decembe r 14, 1936 The officers then were: B. F. Britts, presi dent; Sam H Mann and Niel W. Upham, vice-presidents; M. G. Irwin, cashier, and W. L. Carmack, Jr., asst. cashier. The directors were: Britts, .Mann, Upham, S. R. Mcintosh and J. G Foley. The name of the institution was changed to the First National on November 1, 1 9 4 0. The director s then were: Harry R. Playford, Britts, A E. Shipley, Irwin and .!tiann. Playford became chairman o f the board; Britts, president; Shiple y and Mann, vice-presidents; Irwi n, cashier, and Carmac k, asst. cashier. T. G. Mixson was named president in October 1945. Deposits in the bank on December 31, 1936, were $528,980; December 31, 1940, $3,410,511; December 31, 1945, $19,574, 965, and on June 30, 1947, $22,997,192. First Federal Savings &Loan Association The First Federal Savings & Loan Association was organized August 26, 1938, receiving the third charter issued by the federal government. It open e d for business ahead of any other federal association in the country. The original paid in capital was $5,200. On October 27, 1947, the

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 255 capital was $13,034,552 and the total resources exceeded $15,000,000. The association was founded and organized by Raleigh W. Greene who has served as its chief executive off icer continously since it was opened. The first officer s were: James D Bourne, presi .. dent; T. C. McCutcheon and T. M. Griffith, vice-presidents; R W. Greene secretary and chief executive officer, and W. L. Tillinghast, asst. secretary. Directors, in addition to the officers, were: E. M. Eustis, Allen C. Grazier, Oscar Lowry, Raney H. Martin, George A. Z.IcCrae, Dr. J. A. Strickland, John Wallace and W. E. Wells. Officers in November, 1947, were: Greene, pre sident; Tillinghast, senior vice president; P S. Hubbard, vice-president and secretary; Griffith and J. W. Wahl man vice -presidents; R. L. Tinkham, treas urer and asst. secretary, and W. C. Stam per, asst. secretary. Dire e tors were: Greene, Griffith, Tillinghast, Grazie r, and William C r awford. Resources of the. association o n June 30, 1986, were $322,087; June 30, 1940, $3,069,441; June 30, 1944 $5,615,223; June 30, 1 946, $11,066,926, and on Oct o ber 27, 1947, over $15,000,000. St. Petersburg Federal Savings &.. Loan Association The St. Petersburg Federal Savings & Loan Association received its charter i n July, 1935. The original officers were H. R. Topping, president; Perry R. Marsh, vice-p resident, and Cornelia E Somp, sec retary. The directors, in addition to the officers, were: Charle s E. Fisher, Dr. Hugh L. Futch, R. I. Markland, M. W. J. Mighton, E. B. Ring and Joe W. Fleec e. In November, 1 947, officers were: Top ping c hai rma n of tb.e board; Marsh, president; 1\ofighton, vice-president; Cornelia Somp, secretary-treasurer; llonka A. Somp, asst. secretary. Other directors were: Charles E. Fisher, Fleece, D r. Fuwh, Julius Johnson, Markland, and A. J. Wood. Resources in July, 1935, were $5,665; in July, 194 0 $ 1 ,642,064; July, 1945, $6,351,963, and in July, 1947, $12,743,943". Founding of Pinellas County When Florida was admitted to the Union in 1845, Pinellas Peninsula was a part of H illsborou g h County, which was created by an Act of Congress out of Alachua County on January 2&, 1834. This is St. Petersb urg's most famous corner-the northwest corner of Fourth and Central. Here is whe re Arthur Norwood had a store for many years; here is where the Green Benches were fathered by Noel A. Mite hell; here is where C. Perry Snell later built hi s beautiful Snell Arcade (now the Rutland Buildi ng.)

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256 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Pinellas might have remained in Hills borough County forc.ver if Tampa makers had seen fit to give P in ellas its p roper share of tax money for roads and schools. But they didn't. Nothing was spent on the peninsula for the ti -onof roads or bridges even though thc ro was an acute need for an adequate high way system. The schoo l appropriations, es pecially for the gr0 wing city of St. Peters bur g, always were inadeq uate, even for ordina.ry running expenses. When the struetion of new school buildings was sug. gested, the Hillsborough commissioners disregarded Pinellas entirely. The r e a so n for th e discrim ination against th e peninsula was that the county commissio ners were dependent upon the Tampa vote for their political existence. As a resu l t the Tampa section got what it wanted and the requests of the West Coast s e ction were disregard ed. All this tended to make the peopl e of Pinellas mor e and more disgruntled, and a mo,ement to divide the peninsula from Hills bo rough County, "The g r a n d old county of Florida," gradually gained mo mentum. One of the reasons St. Petersburg people had for taking a lead in the division f ight was the difficulty t h ey had in reaching Tampa, the county seat. Going by train required a full day and n e cessitated two changes. The condition of the roads, which i n reality were nothing more t han trails, made it almost impossi b l e to drive over, even afte. r automobiles came -into use. The trip had to be made b y boat and the boat schedules were suc h that it was not alw ays possible to return the same day. W. L. Straub, editor of the St. Pet ers burg TimeS, became the chief advocate of count y division in 1906 and the victory which was finally won was due largely to his perseverance. Five yea.ts of politica l maneuvering followed. County division bills were introduced i n the 1907 and 1909 sessions of the state legislature but were k ille d both t imes by the Tampa political machine. Plans for the third campaign were mapped at a meeting held in Clearwater on J anuary 17, 1911. Those who represented St. Petersburg were S. D. Harris, W, L. Straub, A. Arnold C. B. McClung, R. Veill.ard, W. E H eathcote, George W. Meares, D. P. Johnso n F. W. Ramm and T J. Northrup. It was agreed that when the county was divided, Clearwater would be the temporary county seat. John S. 'l'aylo r and S. D Harris went to Tallahasse e on A p r il 11 to start the fight. And a fight it proved to be. The 1'ampa political ma chine realized the serious ness of the situation and use d all their influence to down the divisionists. The Tampa newspapers pub lished vitriolic editorials by the score, denouncing PineUaa and everyone in it. St. Petersburg news papers retaliated with more editorials which almos t burned the paper upon which they were printed. In a sense, the f ight was w on for Pin ella s almost before it began on the floor of the House. For a year previ ous to the sessio n, Editor Straub had sent every issu e of his propagandaladen Times to e v ery membe r of the legislature, something the Tampa newspapers had neglected to do and, as a result, a majority of the legisl a tors were almost as strong Pinellas boosters as Straub himself. Numerous facts were presented to show why Pine llas should be separated from the old county. The most impressive argument was that while Pinellas had only 17 per cent of the popu l ation, it paid 23 per cent of the taxes, and was taxed per head as compare d with $4.37 pe r head fo r the rest of the county. The bill was passed by the house on May 5, 1911 and by the Senate on May 18 Assuming that Governor Gilchrist would sign the biU, which he did on May 28, the Pinellas b oosters held a big celebration in Clearwater Monday night, May 22. 'l'wo coaches of enthusiastic boosters went from St. Pet ersburg and large delegations were on hand from other parts of the peninsula Pinellas County b ecame a fact o n Tuesday, November 14, 1911, when the di,.,ision bill was ratified by a vote of 1,379 to 505. The e l ec t ion for the new county was held on December 15 and the following of ficers wel:'e elected: County commission ers-F. A. Wood, St. Petersburg; S. S. Coachman, Clear water; 0. T Raisback St. Petersburg; L. D. Vinson, Tarpon Springs, and J. T. Lowe, Ozona. School board W. A. Allen, C lear-

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THE STORY OF ST. PETEllSBURG 257 water; A F Bartlett, St. Petersburg; A. P. Beckett, Tarpon Springs. Superintendent of schools Dixie M. Hollins, Clearwatet. Clerk of Circuit Court--C. W Weicking, St. Petersburg. SheriffMarvel M White hurst, Ozona. County Judge--Leroy Bra don, Clearwater. Tax Assessor-T. J. Northrup, St. Petersburg. Tax Collector E. B. McMullen, Largo. County treasurer -A. C. T urner, Superintendent of registrations A l bert S. Mearcsc, Anona. County surveyot-,V. A Ros se. au, Dunedin. Peace and harmony did not prevail aftet Pinellas County was formed. St. Peters butg accused C learwater of uplal:ring politics" and e ndea.voring to obtain com plete control of the new county. The Clearwater politicians so things that three nHm \vere elected as commiss:ioners f rom the upper end of the county who would do as the)' wished. As a result, the two St. Petersburg commis sioners were outvoted on every imp-ortant issue which conflicted in any way with the desi res of the ucl earwater gang. n There also was bitter conflic t between the u pper and lower parts o f the coun t y over proposed road building pro grams. Due to opposition from the upper end, mo r e than a year passed be. fore St. Peters burg succee ded in pushing through a bond issue wh ich provided a fair share of roads for the southern part of the peninsula. As a result of this conflict, St. Peters burg led a movement to prevent C l ear water from be comi n g the permanent coun t y seat The fight conti nued until March 10, 1917, when the state supreme court deereed that the county seat could not b e ta ken from Clearwater until twenty years f rom the time Pinellas had become a county William Bunce First Settler(?) Thete i s a strong possib ility that William Bunc e after whom Bunce' s Pass was named, was t he first settler on the keys off the so uthern end of Pinellas Point. John A Bethell, in his "History of Pinellas PeninsuJau, stated that Bunce started a tanehe Ot' rancho, on Hospital Key one of the M ullet keys, sometime during the mid-1840's. Howcve r, intensive resear ch made by Dorothy Dodd indicates that Bunce came much earlier. Her find Lookin(: wes t on Central from the Detroit Hote l in 1907.

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258 'filE STORY OF ST. PETERS8URC ings, published in the Florida Historical Quarterly, bring out the followin g interest ing facts: Bunce was a sea cap tain f rom Baltimore who engaged in the m ercantile business in Key West from 1824 to 1829 In 1 8 32 he was a custom s in a peet o r in the Key West District. In 1834 became one of the !i_r$t Americans to enter the business of supplyin g fish for the Havan a market. He established a l arge f ishery, called a rancho, at the mouth of the Manatee River. He had n umerou s b oats and em ployed approximatel y 150 men. His estab lishment was value d at $8, 000. In 183 7, during the Seminole War, reports reached Gen eral T h omas S. J esup that Bunce had be en advis in g tho Indians to resist rem oval. Soon afterward, Federal gunboats compl etely d estroye d B unce's establishment. He then moved te P alm Island, near the mouth of Tampa Bay. In October, 1840, hi s buildings, boats and net& were again burned. On M arch 3, 1847, Congress appropriated $1,00 0 as compens ation tor the damage inflicted The date of Bun ce's death is not known; howeve r, t here is reason to believe he died beiore January 21, 1 842, because on that date General Jesup referred to him in a letter as Hthe late Captain William Bunce of Tampa Bay.'' "Whatever his true relations with the Ind ians may have been," Dorothy Dodd writes, "Bunce retained the respect and eonfidenee of his neighbors. In 1 938, they elected him delegate t o the St. Joseph Constitutional A ssembly fro m H ills borough County. On January 11, 1839, be affixed his signa ture to Florida's first const itution This i s t h o last actio n of Bunce's of which record has been found." Periodi cols The first '1newspap er" 'PUblished on The Point, o r lower Pinellas Peninsula, was The Sea Breeze ntablished a t Dissten City in 1886 by W J In 1887, M cPherson so l d the paper te L. M Long streth and R E. N eeld who changed its name to The Express. Soo n afterward, the paper ceased publi cati on. The first new spap e r in or near S t. Pete rsburg was publi s hed by Young G. a native o f New Orleans, who c ame te Flo rida In 1888 and publishe d a monthly at Charlotte Harbor tor tw o yeo rs. Com In g to St. Petersburg, he started the South Florida Home w hich he publi shed first a s a weekly and then as a monthly !rom December 21, 1890, te 1896 wh en his health !ailed. He moved to G l en Onk and died in 1902. The Rev. R. J M organ the St. Petersburg Times late in 1 892, having purchased the West H illsborou gh Times from A. C. Turner, of C learwa ter, and havlng mo ve d the entire plant h ere. Tur ner bad purcha s ed the paper in December, 18 8 4, from Dr. T. J. E dgar and M. Joel McMullen who, in S ep t ember, 1884, had begun pub li ca tion of the we ekly in Dunedin. In 189 4 Morgan so l d the paper to J Ira Gore, or Cedar Keys, and then started a new publication he called the Sub Peni nsu l a Sun which he published until 1906 when he sold the paper te The Times. It was then discon tinued. The Time s waJ; published by Gore until he di ed in 1900. A year late. r hi s so n, J. I r a Gore, Jr. sold t he paper te W. L. Straub, A. P. Avery and A H. Linde lie !itraub soo n bought out his partne r s. The publication was changed from a w ee k ly to a s emi-weekly in 1907 and to a daily o n January 12, 1912 At th a t time tho Times Publishin g Company consisted of W L. Straub a n d Charles Emel'$0n. In Septem ber, 19 1 2, it was reorganized with Paul Poynter, of S ullivan Ind president; W. L. Straub, vice-president and editor, and C. C. Carr, secretary and treasurer. In 1923, Carr sold hi s interest in the paper to D B. Lindsay but re-purc hased it again In 1927. He remaine d w it h the paper as general manager unti l 1934 when he sold hia lntc.rcst and wont with the Aluminum Cor poration of America l n Decembe r, 1947, Paul Poynter was presiden t o f the Times P ublmhl n g Comp a ny i N elson Poynter, exeeutive vke prea.ident and editor. and Vivia n Felter se cretary and treasurer. Th e St. Petersburg Independent wa s establi s h ed a s a weekly newspaper by Willi s B. Powolt in 1906. R. H. Thomas, F A. W ood and Noel A Mit c h ell had a

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 259 financial inte r est in the paper. Tho first issue appeared March 3, 1906. A year later the paper was changed to a daily, appearing every afternoon except Sunday On Decembe r 15, 1908, The Evening Independent was purchased by Lew B Brown, editor and publisher of the Harrodsburg (Ky.) Democrat. He served as editor of the paper, and president of the publishing company, until 1927 when he was succeeded in those p ositions by his son, L. C. Brown. ThEi Tourist News, which was for a number of years the most outstanding sectional magaine published i n the Unite d States, was founded late in 1920 by J. Harold Sommers. The first issue appeared De cembe r 4, 1920 Karl H. Grismer became managing editor in September, 1921 and editor in 1924, Sommers continuing as publisher. On January 5, 1929, the maga zine wa s sold to Jack Dadswell who ran it about a year and then discontinued pub .. lication. \Vhile it was in existence, the CHAPTER 17 Tourist News Publishing Company built up one of the finest printing plants i n Florida which j s now operated under the nan>e of the St. Petersburg Printing Com pany, Inc with Dixie M. Hollins as president., Ben Granger, vice-president and general manager, and P. F. Thomson a s sec The St. Peteuburg Shopping News, a weekly, has been p ublished since 1933 by th e Record Press, owned and operated by the Earl Wei< Int erests. Sid Miller i s the business m anager of the publica tion. The Gulf Beach News, a ls o a weekly, was established in 1934. by J. Harold Sommer s and George F. Hat'dy, Jr. Sommers' i n terests i n the paper were later purchased by Hardy who is now the publisher and edito<. Two weekly newspapers are published in Gulfport. They are the Gulfport Tribune, published by Mrs. Sadie Weidra, and the Gul(port Citizen, published by Mrs. Ruth Hutchins. ORGANIZATIONS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE (Including Board of Trade) TOWNS HAVE BEEN KNOWN to grow into cities without having Chambers of Commerce to push them along. But if it had not been for St. Petersburg's Cham ber of Commerce, it is doubtful whether St. Petersburg would have grown as rapidly as it has. Composed of the city's most progressive men, playing no part in polities the St. Petersburg organization has been able to point the way toward civic progress for more than four decades. Unquestionably, it has aided materially in making St. Petersburg bigger, better, more pr osp e rous and more attractive. There was a time, of course, when the Chamber of Commerce was not the power ful body today. In infancy, it struggl e d a l ong inetfectually, hampered by a Jack of funds. The first Chamber of Commerce was organized in 1899 with Col. L. Y. Jenness, manager of the St. Petersburg lAnd & Improvement Co., as president. It was more of a social than thing else and accomplished nothing. The chambe.r was reorganized Jun e 2, 1902, with A. P. Avery as president and J. W Wright, secretary. On July 21 the members pledged $125 to pay for 10,000 booklets to advertise the town, the F. A Davis Publishing Company, of Philadel phia, having agreed to print t he booklets at cost. W. A. Holshouser was elected president June 1 1903, The members recommended

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260 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG that the cit)' should appropriate $500 !or municipal The city c ouncil considered the proposal and then turned it down, the members saying the city couldn't afford s uch a large expenditure. After this di&heartenlng b l ow the Chambe r again became inactive. A s a re sult a group of business men met Febru ary 01 4 1905, and organiud the Board of Trade with F. A. Wood as president. But, after a meeting or two, enthusiasm died down. The board didn't become active again until after the annua l elec tion March 15, 1906, when Judge J. D Bell was e le cted presi dent. A camp ai g n th en was waged to raise $ 2,500 by popular sub scription for an adverti si ng fund. The money was raised in less thnn a month. Beginning in 1906, the Board o f Trade took tho l ead i n the movement to acquire and beautify the waterfront and, as a re-sult o : f the board's aetivity, the city finally purchased the property from private owners and a start was made toward mnking it wbat it is today. (Sec Chapter: Along the Watedront). In 1909, the b oard that the city charter bo amended to gwe the city council authori ty to levy a tax o f not less than one mill or more than two to advertise the c ity and to maintain the library Two years later thi.s reeomme nda .. tion wa s carried out. Thereafter, money became available for telling the world about St. Petersburg' attractions. In the beginning, the tax was fixed at and one-half mills; durine the boom 1t was raised to two and one-halt mills. A vigorous membership campaig n was waged by the board during the summer of 1912 while Lew B Brown was preside nt. The 390 member s were div ided into two groups, the Blues and the Reds, with J. Bruce Smith leader of the Blues and Arthur L. J obn&on of the Reds. The two team& combed the city tor members and a keen rivalry developed. The Blues brought in 858 members and the Reds 260 The losers had to pay for a public barbecue in Williams Park. The drive increased the membership to 1,008. The first m jd-winter festival was held March 17-22, 1912, when Arthur L. John son was chairman of the advertising committee. During the s am e year, the board provided for the registration of winter vi s itors at the board office. W. L. Straub became president of the Bo ord in February, 1913, and durin g hi s regime the o rganization succeeded in per suading the Atlantic Coast Railroad to build a new depot. In 1913, too, the fir&t big order of advertisjng was given, 50,000 copies of a 16-page illustra ted folder being purchased for $4,000. John L. Lodwick was employed by the Board of Trade during the winter of.ln!B19 to serve as publicity director and he held that office for the organization, and later for the c ity, until his death in 1942. A s n resu l t of his work, literally millions of dollar s of free publicity was secured for St. Petersburg in magazines, in northern and in the mov ies. At the eleetion in Marcb, 1920, the "old timers'' who had been at the helm for many years turned the wheel over t.o the 'iYoung Turks" with W. L. Watson as president and L. C. Brown, vice president. Several "old timers'' were retained on the board to serve as ad\Yisers. The d irectors named wero: E. C Reed, T. A. Chancellor, John N Brown, J. G. Rutland S. Henry Harris, C C. Carr, Herman A. Da nn, W. 1'. Tilling bast, AI Gandy, B. A. Lawrence, Jr., C. R. Carter, R. H Sumner, Noel A. Mitchell, H. L. Ermatinger, and A F. Bartlett. By formal action of the board, the name o f the Board of Trade was ehanied to Chamber of Commerce on June 29, 1920. To relate the activities of the Chamber since 1920 would be like repeating the history of the city. It has aided in count less ways to make St. Petersburg a finer placo in which to Jive. It has advo cated and ob tai n ed i nnumerable publi c ments, it has advertised the city through out tho nation, it has helped to organize dubs and soc ieties for winter visitors, and it bas supported every worthwhile projeet designed to advance the c ity' s interuta. It has brouiht hundreds of eonventiona to the city and has brought in new industrieo. In short, the chamber has been the driving force which has kept St. Petersburc forg ing ahead, in good times and bad. The work of the chamber bas been ef feetlv e almp l y bec ause of the high calibre of members. For that r e a son, there

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 261 should be recorded the names of the directors who have served at several IM periods. In the winter of 1925-26, during the height of the Florid a boom, John N Brown was president, Frankl in J Mason, first -.ice .. president, and A. C. Siviter, second \'ice-president. T he directors i ncluded the offi cers and A. F Bartlett, William Craw ford, Roy Dew, W L. Tillinghast, J. D. Pearce, EdT. Lewis Char les R. Hall, J. H. Rutland, S. R. Mcintosh, Frank Jonsberg, W. L. Watson and Herman A Dann. In during the depths of the de pression, the directors we1e: Bayard S. Cook, Sterling Bottome, A. F Bartlett., Joseph S. Clark, Harry Stern, W. A. Ken muir, J. M. Touart, G. C Carr, Nick Den n is, T. C. Walter Donovan, E. C Reed Herman A. Dann, C. Buck Turner, York B riddell, Harry Child s William F. Davenpod, Ray Dugan, Thomas D Or.r, Paul Barnes, Oscar W. Gilbart, and Fred BJair. Cook was president, Bottome, first vice president; Clark, second vice-presi dent, and Stern, treasurer. In 1941, when the 'United States en tered World War II, the directors were: Paul B. Barnes, Paul Brown, Charles D. Beeman, J. E. Bryan, H. C. Bumpous, Bayard S. Cook, Wm. F Davenport, T C Ervin, Osear \V, Gi1bart, Nick Dennis, Walte r Gregory, Bolivar Hyde, Wm. A. Xenmuir, R. J. Knipe, N. W. Parker, R. D. Peterson, Harry Playford, E. C. Robison, La Verne Thomas, Max Ulrich, and Wey man Willingham. Officers elected were: Brown, president; Gregory, first vice president; Hyde, second vice -p resident, and Bumpous, treasurer. Directors of th e C hamber at present, 1947-48, are: Sterling Bottome, John E. Brooks, l'aul Brown, J. E. Bryan, Gray Egei-ton, v.r m. J. Grant, Walter Gregory, Boliver Hyde, R. J. McCu t cheon, T. G. Mixson, R. J. O'Brien, R. D. Peterson, R. M. Petrick, Wm. M. Pickett, E. C. Robison, B. T. Sauls Irwin A. Simpson, Everett Sumner, A B Treat \Veyman Willingham, and Roge r Wil son. Grant was elected presiden t ; Hyde, first vice .. presi .. den t; Sumner, second vice presiden t and Peterson, treasurer. Presidents of the Chamber and of the Board of Trade have been: Col. L. Y Jenness, 1899-1901; A. 1'. A v e r y, 1902; W. A Ho lshouser, 1903 -04; F. A. Wood, 1906; J. D. Bell, 1906; Noel A Mitchell, 1907; Roy S. Hanna, 1908; A. F. Battlett, 1909; A. P. Avery, 1910; S. D. Harris, 1911; Lew B. Brown, 1912; W. L. Straub, 1913; Charles R. Hall, 1914; Arthur Nor wood, 1915; Paul R. Boardman, 1916 ; Fred P Lowe, 1917; Charles R. Carter, Former presidents of the Chamber of Commerce at John N. Brown's Good Fellowship Dinner at the Suwannee Hotel in 193 7 : Standing left to right: John N. Brown James D. Bourne, Bird M. Latham, Bayard S Cook, W. L. Watson, Rober t J. McCutcheon, Jr., W. L Tillinghast, William F Davenport, L. C. Brown, E C. Reed, Paul R. Boardman, Charles R. Carter, Oscar Gilbart and William Kenmuir. Seated, lef t to right: LaVerne Thomas, Roy S Hanna, A. L. Bartlett, A. P. Avery, S.D. Harris, Ed. T. Lewis, Lew B. Brown, W. L. Straub.

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262 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC 1918; B A. Lawrence, Jr., 1919; W. L. Watson, 1920; L. C. Brown, 1921; Her man Dann, 1922; J. W Coburn, 1923; B. A. Lawrence, Jr., 1924; John N. Brown, 1925; Ed. T. Lewis, 1926; Bird M. Latham, 1927 ; W. L. Tillinghast, 1928; R. J. Me Cutcheon, Jr., 1929; E. C. Reed, 1930; Wm. A Kenmuir, 1 931 ; Paul B. Barnes, 1932; Bayard S. Cook, 1933; Ste.rling Bottome, 1934; W. F. Davenport, 1985; James D. Bourne, 1936; Oscar W. Gilbart, 1987 ; LaVerne Thomas, 1938; J: C. Hughey, 1939; Charles Beeman, 1940; John Dickinson, 1941; Paul M. Brown, 19 42 ; Walter Gregory, 1942 ; Weyman Willingham, 1943; Uoger Addington, 1944; T. C. McCutcheon, 19; A. W. Higgins, 1946; J. E. Bryan, 1946, and Wm. J. Grant, 1947. Secr etaries of the organization have been: J. W. Wright, 1902; R. H. Thomas, 1903-05; Dr. A. B. Davis, 1906-07; W. B. Powell, 1908; Noel A Mitchell, 1909; J. hank Harrison,1909,-10; 1\lrs. Annie McUea, 1911; Edmund C Wimer, 1912-1914; L. A. Whitney, 1915-1920; B. A. Law rence, Jr . Aug., 1920-l\!ay 14, 1923; Leo 1\!. Eddy, May 14, 1923-Feb., 1924; J. E. Coad, Feb. 1924-0et., 1926; J. P. O'Con ner, acting see'y., Oct., 1926Dec. 13, 1926; M. R. Beaman, Dec. 13, 1926-May 30, 1927; J. H. Kerrick, May 30, 192 7 April 28, 1928; M M Dead erick, April 28, 1828-June 15, 1936; B. B. Sm ith acting sec'y., June 15, 1936-Sept 1, 1936; F. G. Scott, Sept. 1, 1936-Jan. 1937; B A Lawrence. Jr. brief time i n Jan., 1937; Burwell Neal, Jan., 1937-April 1 5, 1942, and William F. Davenport, April 16, 1942 to present (November, 1947). Department directors of the Chamber are: J. A Fro hock, promotional and co n ventions; B. B. Smith, touri$t relations and Better Business Bureau; George M. Dunn, industrial and av' iation; B. H. Over ton, traffic and rate bureau; P ressly Phil lips, publicity, and Mrs Ruth Leatherman, offi ce manager. Junior Chamber of Commerce The Junior Chamber Qf Commerce was organized late in 1931 with 139 charter members to enable the younger men of St. Petersburg to work in an organization of their own in the city's behalf. J. Shirley Gracy was elected president NO\' omber 3, 1931. J. M Robertson was elected first vice-preside nt; and Burdette 'Vh itc, t r e a$urer. Board members named were: Henry S. Baynard, Dale C. Beatty, John Dickson, Allen Grazier, Rex Mac Donald, E T. Moore, Harvey Phie1, and Tom Pierce. The organization bec ame -affiliated with th e Florida Junior Chamber of Commerce on Aptil G, 1932, and the national organ izat ion February 2, 1 933. At th e start of World War II, the Junior Chamber had a membership of approxi mately 600 During the war, the member ship dropped to about 160, due to the fact that three-fourths of t he member$ $erved in the a r med f orces. After the war ended, the membership increased rapidly and by November, 1947, had passed 1,000 Since its beginning, the organization has backed every project designed to make St. Petersburg a better place in which to l ive and its achieveme nts have won national te. ntion. It has been winner three times of the Giessenbier Memoria l Trophy awarded annuaUy b y the national organiza t ion to the club recognized as most outstanding in the state. Probably one of i t s most famed pro ject.s is the Jaycee Beach Club, a recrea t ion and socia l center l ocated on Municipa l Pier It is owned, operated and maintained by the organization to entertain loca l and visiting young people. Shortly after organizing, the Junior Chamber began sponsoring the Tarpon Roundup which has become one of the nation's l ead i ng sport a t tractions. The Roundup is he l d annually May 15 through July 30 and prizes totaling $10 000 are awarded to the wi.nnera. President& of the organization have been: Gracy, 1931-82; W. W. McEachern, 1932-34 ; L L. McMasters, 1 934-35; John M. Phillips, 1936 -36; Ralph G. Cooksey, 1936 -37; Perry R Marsh, 1937-38; Doug las I. Davis, 1938-39; Dr. Joy Adams 1939 40; Claude H. Melton, 1 940-41; Bayard S. Cook, Jr., 1 9 41-42; Williams S. Queen, 1942 -43; Otis C. Southern, 1943 -44; A. B. Treat, 1944-46; Harry W. Me Cormick, 1945 .. 46; Warren Sch l cminer, 1946; Maur ice L Foisy, 19474 8.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSSU.RC 2 63 Of!icers in 1947-<18 are: Fo isy presi dent; Harold E Dunphy, first viee-pre$ident; A r mand H Bonnette, second vice president ; Rober t W F i sher, third vice president, and S. Nor man Carey treas urer. Membe.t s o f the boat d of direc t ors are: Robert M. Bar t on Henry T. Baynard, Alvah C Belcher, Hardy Bryan, Jr., Eugene H. Burr, Fred M. Freshwater, Fordham L. Johns on, John M. Li vings t on, Robert P McCuen, Robert A. Pfeiffer, Milton S Warren ,V, Sch l emmer, Lawton Swan, Jr., Rich ar d D Tourte l ot, and Merle W Wadswor t h. Following the honorary serv ice of four offi cers: J. M. Rober t son, John Hoffman, Perry R. Marsh and A I Rob erts, th1 ee paid empl oyes, AI Strum, Keith Meye r and James '1'. Young held the position of exec u tive secretary. During the war when Young, the p resent secretary, ser ved over seas wit h the armed forces, Mrs. Bette Young served as execut ive secre t ary. Art Clu b of St. Petersburg The Art Club of St. Petersburg is the outgrowth of the F lorida Art Schoo l, foun ded i n 1919 by J. Liberty Tadd, then head of the Industrial Arts School of Philade l phia a nd a nationa l figure in art education. On the death of Dr. Tadd, t he work of the school was t aken over by h i s w ife and daughter. With the t hought o f furthering the ideals of her husband, Mrs. Tadd took the lead i n organiz ing an art c l ub, the fhst meeting o f which was held in the f all o f 1919 at the Huntington Hotel George F Bartlett, of Racine, Wis., was elected as the first president of the organization, named the Art Club of S t Petersburg. Other officers and directors were: A. F Thom a sson, George M Lynch, Mrs. L. J. Gunn, Mrs. F. W. Kingsley, Mrs. R. J. Dew, Mrs. Alice Buh ner, Mrs. C. Countrym an, Mrs C. Perry Snell, D r. George Baum grass F. J. Harper, and Grafton Doresey. The club was i ncorporated January 18, 1'928, and had t he first art gallery south o f Atlanta. Dur ing the passing years, the club has held numerous notabl e exhibi t ion s and has contributed much to the cul tural life of the city. The galleries are housed in a municipally owned building at 201 Beach drive where twice-month l y e xhibition s are held. opening with a tea, leading women o f tho c ity acting as hostesses The gallery is fre t o the public daily with an attendant i n charge. A va luabl e collection o f art books is available to memb e r s. T h e club now has mote t han 250 members. It ha s a monthly publicat ion edited by Ka therine Gorman. Officers and directors i n 1947-48 are: Edith Richcreek, Caroline Forster, Emmett S utton Marion McQuisston Winifred 0. Long, David T. Stuart, Ford, T. E. Zeidler, A H. Wentworth Ja n e Giess ler, X.aura Howarth, Bill Dwyer, Katherine Gorman, Martha Thompson, Amanda B. May, J ane. t King, Margo Hayne s and Edv.ina Jepson. Audubo n Society The Audubon Society of St. Petersburg was organized November 25 1909, at the Belmont Hot e l. Officers e lected wer e : Mrs. Katherine B. Tippetts, president; Dr. J oh n E. Ennis, first ,..-ice-pre sident; Mrs. S E. Barton, secretary, a n d Mrs. W. R. Trowbridge, treasurer. Oth e r s present at the meeting were: M rs. N A. Fullerton, S. E Barton, W R. Trowbridge, E. S. Upham and Miss Jessie Morrell The society has had a long and fruitful life. In the beginning, it concentrated on t eachi n g children t o preserve bird life. It he lped secure passage o f state legislation to p rotect robins. It he lped organize the St. Petersburg Humane Soc iety. Through its 0fforts, a chai n of b ird sanctuaries were e stablished throughout the county. A gr0at stimu lus t o t he society's work in this respect was furnished whe n Roy S. Hanna gave Mud Key as a bird rese.rva tion. Prior to this, in March, 1906 Bird Key had been set aside as a govemment reservation and designed as the Indian Key B ird Reser vation. Thi s was done after Mr. Hanna gave up certain rights to the key. The s ociety has achieved notabl e rcsuits t h r ough the establishment of Junior Audubon work in t he schools. Mrs. Tippetts S
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264 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG vice president; James Ferguson, second vice-president; Mrs. Edward A. Buchwald, treasu rer, and Mrs. Harvey Rutherford, s ecretary. C8r reno Club The Carreno Club t h e largest musical organization in Florida, was organi zed February 6, 1918, with ten eharter me -m bers: l\U$. E. A. J e!Crles, M rs. Graee B. Hume, l\U$. H. T Sidw ay Miss Winifred Bedell, Mrs. August a Germ a ine, Mrs. A. T. Bloeker, Mrs. Ali ce Buhner, Mrs. J. H. Childs, Mrs. L. C. Patterso n, and Mrs. J. B. Robinson. Mrs. Sldway was elected first president;: Miss Bedell, vice -preside nt, and Mrs. Childs, secret.nry an d treasurer. Tho club was ineorporated March 29 1929, by: Mrs. John Allison Stringer, Mrs. Morris A. Spooner, Mrs. L. F. Yoke, M iss Mabel Ferry, Miss May C. Pomroy, &Irs. A. D. Glascock, Mrs. Arthur Vonnegut, l\U$. Sherman Rowles, Mrs. A. F. Thomas son, Mrs. Grace B. Burne, M rs. Arthur L Johnson, 1\lrs. Wini _ftoed Bedell Menton, Mrs. E. A. Jeffrie&, M rs. J. F. Chase and Mrs. W. H. Brownlee. The club has brought to S t. Petersburg many of the mo s t outstanding national a n d interna tional music.al artists and f rom the organizati on grew the pre se nt Civie Mus ic Association, now servin g th e city. The club in 1947 had a memb ership of 500 It meets twice monthly at the Co ngregational Cb urcb. It is affiliated with the Flo r idan and Nati onal federations of musie c.lubs. Presidents oC the elub have been: Mrs Sidway, 1 9 13; ?.Irs. Emily Jeffries, 1'91316; Mrs. F. A Wood, 1916; Mrs. Frank Chase, 1917-19; M r s J. T. Hume, 19 19; Mrs. A. F Thomasson, 1 '919; Mrs W. G Brow nlee 1920-23; Mrs. A. D. Glas cock, 1923-25 ; Mrs. Arthur L Johnson, 1925 -27; M rs, Ida Stringer, 1927-29; Mrs. 0. G. Hiestand, 1929-81; Mrs. Arthur Vonnegut, 1981; Mrs. Jeffries, 1 931 -32; Mrs. Mary Spooner, 1932-34; Mrs. Marion Watkins, 1934-36; l\l ra. Charles Harrison, 1936-37; M rs. Gordon Fory, 1937-39; Mrs. Stanley K. Foster, 1039-41; Mrs. R. W. Roberts, 1941-47, and 1\lra. Donald K Put nam, 1947 -48. Present officer s are : Mrs. Putnam, presIdent ; Mrs. A . D Gla scoc k, tirst vice -pres id ent; Mrs John Rebholz second vice president; Mrs. Harold W. T o m son, record ing secretary; Mrs. Cecile R. Littlefield, corresponding secretary; Mrs. George Puntenn e y, treasure r, and Mrs. l "ran_ k 'ry. ree, auditor. The directors are: Mrs. S. R. Love Mrs. Helen Hill Winche ster, Mrs. Charlotte Pratt Weeks, Mrs. M. L. Turner, Mrs. W. L. lll cDwain, and Mr$. Adam No ble Tb e chairmen are: Mrs R. W. R oberts, M ra. John Still, Mrs. Gertrude Cobb Mll ler, M ro. 0. G. Hiesta nd, M rs. Grace L. Donaldson, Mrs. A. Con a way Smith, and Miss Olive Mae Menz. Woman's Club of St. Petersburg 1'he Woman's Club of St. Pcter1burg wa s orranized Februrary 7, 191 8, with fourteen charter members: Mrs. C. A. Esterly, Mrs. Horace Hill, Mrs Norris Levis, Mrs. N. Brandenburn, Mrs. Henr y F. Combes, & Irs. Gilbert Frederie k 1\!rs Eugene Massey, Mrs. J. E. Oates, Mrs. F. H Kirker, Mrs. A. E. H olmes, M ro. F. V. Kessler, Mn. G. W Lord, Mr8. J. W Sealey and Mrs. W. S. Blackburn. Past pre&idents of the club are: Mrs. C harles H. Hawley, 1920-22; Mrs. W J. Carpenter, 1922-23; Mrs. Edith R. Sackett, 192 8-26 ; Mrs. M. M. Burton, 19257; Mrs. W. P S laton, 1927-30; Mrs. Charles G Blake, 1930-32; Mrs. Ruth Thane McDev itt, 1932-84; Mrs. Frances B. Eaton, 1 93 4-36; M rs. R. W. Roberts, 1936-40; M rs. Frank B. Tyree, 1 9 40-41; Mrs. Grate L. Donaldson, 1 941-44; and M rs. R. W Roberts 1944-46. Present officers of the cl ub arc: Mrs. Harry E. Marsh, president; Mrs. Leo S kip with Mrs. l'aul A Hoxie, Mrs. Charles R. Ervein and Mrs Ric h ard '1'. Earl e Jr. vice -presidents; Mrs. Robert W. G l endinnin g re cor ding secretary; Mrs. \Vcsley Cone, corres ponding secretary, and 1\f rss. E. L. Cole, treasurer. Directo r s in addition to the above officers are: Mrs. Jennie M. Denning, Mrs. W. 0. Barnes, M rs. A. B. Patterson, M rs. George C. Diver M les Mary W. Hamilton, and M rs. D. Waiton D Wilson. Commi tte e chairmen are: Mrs. Harry A. Deyo, Mrs. M. L. Combes, Mrs. James L. Peatroes, Mrs. Nat. B. Brophy, M rs. Frank B. Tyroe, Mrs. Carl H: R igg, M rs. David

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 265 S. McNelly, Mrs. French C li ngan, Mrs. W. L McElwain, Miss Eunice Moe, Mrs. Jack Codrey, Mrs James L. Peatross, Mrs. Charles W Anderson, ilfrs. Ernest Feild Parkinson, Mrs. R. L. Hope, Mrs. Clarence Starr, and Mrs Wa ll ace Tishkin. One-tenth of the annua l income of th e club is devoted to charity and civic betterment in St. Petersburg Rotary Club The Rotary C lub of St. Petersburg was founded in 1920 with nineteen charter members: W. L. Straub, A. F. Thomasson, r. A. Chancellor, A. P. Avery, C. C Carr, I.. B. Brown, Robert Markland, A. I.. John son, J G Fol ey, Jack York, Leonard Whitney, AI. F Lang, Guy B.,. Shepard, Robert 'Vaiden, RaJ Sellers, Howard Frazee, George S. Gandy Bird Latham and B. A Lawrence, Jr. Presidents have been elected as follows: W. L. Straub, 1920; A. F. Thomas son, 1921; C C Carr, 1922; Herman A Dann, 1923; Dr. Wm 1\!. Davis, 1924; Robt. R Wald en, 1925; Baya r d S. Cook, 1926; B. A. Lawrence, Jr., 1927; Lee C Shepard, 1928;John D. Harris, 1929; Wm. L. Wat son, 1930; John M. Graham, 1931; Thomas D. Orr, 1932; James D. Bourne, 1933; Paul B. Barnes, 1934; Horace :r.r. Do ty, 1935; R. I. Matthews, 1'936; Frank B Duryea, 1937; Wilmer C Parker, 1938; T. Carl ton Ervin, 1987; Mortimer J. Soule, 1940; W W. McEachern, 1941; Oscar W Gil bart, 1942; John S Uhodes, 1943; George D. Morrison, 1944 ; Albert J. Geiger, 1945, and Robert W. Cohoe, 1946. Present officers of the club are: A. R Spaulding, p res ident; Robert R. Walden, s e c retary, and Rober t T North rup urct Members of th e board of directors are: Harol d P. Bennett, L C. Brown, George M. D u nn, Fred R. Francke, 0. W. Gilbart John D. Harris, Withers R. Lee, Edwin L. March and Hugh B. Mcintyre. Memorial H istorical Society The St. Petersb u rg Memoria l Histor ical Society was organized July 20, 1920, with Mrs. \V T. Eaton as pre siden t, George M. Lynch, fir s t vi ccpre s identi Miss Jessie Almost e ve ryone in St. P etersburg took part i n a red hot me mbership drive conducted by the Board of Trade in 1912. The "Blues" vied with the "Reds" to see whic h could get the most members. The "Reds" l os t and had to pay for a public barbecu e.

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266 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC Morgan, second vice-president; :Mrs. H B. Smitz, secretary, and Mrs. Annie McRae, treasurer. The society was incorpot ated December 27, 1920. By that time it had 140 members. On January 1, 1922, the society pur chased f rom R. W. Main a building on the North Mole which he had built for an aquatium and museum after securing a lea!;
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 267 Alfred C. Krayer, 1983; Carlton E. Ehle, 1934; James T. Smith, 1936; Roscoe Cun> mins, 1986; Dr. H. C. Bumpous, 1937; Dr. Meyer, 1938; J P. Edgerly, 1939; Edwin C. Peters, 1941; Bart E Bryan, 1941 ; Harry C. Holt, 1945, and Benjamin F. Jacobs, 1946. Officers for 1947-48 are: Floyd Eaddy, president; Leroy De \Vitt, 1st vice-pres ident; Otis Southern, 2nd vice president; Harry Meyer, secretary; Clarence R. Bay, treasurer ; Jay C. Biggs, sergeant-at-arms, and Dr. Alton H. Glasure, chaplain. Gov ernors are: Benjamin F. Jacobs, Dr. H. C. Bumpous, Ed. G. Peters, Bart E. Bryan, Harold Warrington, H. B. McMahan, and Wm. J. Gihla. Junior Woman's Club The St. Petersburg Junior Woman's Club was organized April 20, 1932, with 20 charter members: the Misses Madeline 'Vilson, Mary Hume, Dorothy Brown, Martha Trice, Evans, Betty Truxell, Phyliss Pope, Frances Ewing, Janet Bellamy, Marinez Heitland, Alice Singer, Lillian Harris, Harriet Bize, Janet Poulson, Winifre d \Valker, Kitty Dunlap, Catherine R. McCauley, and Mesdames Ruth Thane McDevitt, Auldon Dugan and W. W. Ottaway. Past presidents are: 1\lrs. Jack Mc Devitt . 1932; Mrs. Braden Quick sail, 1932 -33; Miss Laura Wa.y, 1933-35; Mrs Henry Baynard, 1935-36; Mrs. Wallace Tishken, 1936-38; Mrs. Arnold Am ley, 1938-89; Mrs. Charles Harrison, 1939-40; Mrs. Robert W Johnston, 1940; Mrs. Frank Comegys, 1941-43; Miss Jane Rudy, 1943; Mrs. Robert W. Glen dinning, 1945-46, and Mrs. Robert Barton, 194647. Present officers are: Mrs. Robert Clark, president; Mrs. Robe r t Stein and Mrs. Frank lin Brown, vice-presidents; Miss Antoinette Moltere, treasurer; Miss Jean Laing, recording secretary; 1\frs. James Matthews, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Fordham Johnson, custodian; Mrs. Wil liam Emerson. historia n, and Mrs. J. L. Peatross, advisor. Board members are: Mrs. Thomas Fluharty, Mrs. Charles R. Moore, Mrs. Charles Kaniss, M r s Arthur Glendinning, Mrs. George Davis, Mrs. Robert Miller, Mrs. Walter Todd, Mrs. Haro ld Dunphy, Wilberta Griffin, Kay Williams, Mrs. Aubrey Ewing, Mrs. Charles Wolf, Mrs. E. K. Sparks, Mrs. Harry Shipley, Mrs. Donald Watson, Mrs. Ralph Wilson, Mrs. Peter B. Ketsker, Mrs. Douglas Hood Rena Sparks and Mrs. Robert Barton. Exchange Club The Exchange Club o f St. Petersburg waa organized in 1932, Past presidents have been: John Dickinson, Lincoln C. Bogue, Frank W. Mur r ay, Perry R. Marsh, Morrison Pearce, William M. Pickett, James M. Smith, George W. Selby, Clifford B. Thomas, Howard E. Gooden, Arthur Miller, E. C. Etchison, Orville K. Cook, and William R. Watts Officers of the club in 1947 are: Sidney B. Miner, president; Douglas B. Dawson, Jr., first Owen L. Her, second vicepresident; William F. Cobler, secretary, and Glenn N. Vin cent, treasurer. Members of the board of control were: Jack Puryear, Russell L. Stewart, B. Harry Willis, Albert E. Bush, R : Paulllcr, and William R. Watts. J,ois Dickson w a s pianist and Douglas B. Dawson, Jr., program chairman. Watts was editor of Exchange Excerpts. Woman's Service League The Woman's Service League, the intermediate age group be twee n the Junior and Senior Woman's C l ubs, was organized in 19 42 with 86 charter mem bers: Mrs. W. L. Baynard, Mrs. Donald Benn, Mrs. J. Le" Ballard, Mrs. Ralph C. Davis, Mrs. Auldon Dugan, Mrs. E. B. Ellis, Mrs. E. C. Etchison, Mrs. Wm. P. Farber, Mrs. A. R. Frederick, Mrs. Claude Garland, Mrs. M. J. Goodman, Mrs. K. D. Hannigan Mrs. Robert Denlinger, Mt-s. Thomas C. Harris, Mrs. Harold G. Hart, Mrs. Martha Jane Howard, Mrs. Bolivar Hyd e, Mrs. Gardner Lewis, Mrs. C. 0. Lowe, Mrs. C B. McCartney, Harry McCardell, Jr., Miss Mildred McKenzie, Mrs. R. L. Piper, Mrs. Walter J. McBath, Mn. W. P. Mulhollem, Miss Esther Stevens, Miss Dorothy Stovall, Mrs. Clif ford Thomas, Mrs. James Maurice Smith,

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268 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Miss Pearl Walker, M r s. Fred E. Whal ey, Mrs. James G. Wilson, Miss Edith Wil Iiam s, Mrs . E. J. Wh itacre, and Mrs. R. K. Ve r million. Past presidents are: Mrs. Fred E. Whal ey, 1942; Mrs C. 0. Lowe, 1942 -43; Mrs. Ralph C. Davis, 1943 4 4 ; Mrs. E. C. Etchison, 1944 45; Mr s Charles C. Dunc.an, 1946-46, a n d Mrs. R.. E. Goodale, 1946. There arc. a t p resent 150 members Officers are: Mrs. R. E. Goodal e president; M rs. E. B Acklin, first v ice president; Mrs. Charles R. Wedding, second vice-p r esident; Mrs F. R Roden, third v i cc prcside nt.; Mrs. Ke nneth Barr, r e cording secret.nry; Mary Lou C oxhe ad, corresponding sec>et ary, and Mrs. Robe>t Hendry, treasurer. Lion s Club The L ions C l ub of St Pet ersb urg was chartered A p ril 12, 1927, with seventeen charter members: Bu rwell Neal, P. K. Sm ith, Wilbur Herrick, J r., R. C. Morgan, Frank Hackett, E. ,Y. Farrior, Jr., J T. Burdine, J E. "7a.Jker, H T. Davis, Merle E. Rudy, T W Latt o, Arthur F Guthr ie, C Richar d Shafto, George E. Painter, Jr., J. E Webb, J. Ira Elston, and J. A. Strickland. Past presidents ar e : W ilbur F. HeniCk, E. B Brant, Richard C Morgan R. J. O'Brien, A ll en C. Grazier, Dl". Dale Beatty, Dr. J A Strickland, William Grant, Raney Martin, A. H. Holloway, Raleigh Greene, H arry Kees l er, E. 1\ol. Berryman, Ralph Eubanks, Burwell Neal, George I. Keener, P. K. Smith, Lex He rron, Nesbitt Irvine, w. H. Goodw i n Off icers of the c l ub for 1 9474& are: Norman pres i dent ; Paul K. Boardman, C. Grey Egerton and Comegys vice-presidents; E B. Peter son, treasurer; Dr. Joy E. Adams, secretary; Paul Vonn, L i on Tame r, and A ,V. Ross, Tail Twister D irectors are: Harold D. Wigg i n, Burwell Neal, Ralph W. Haskell George J Lambrecht, Rex MacDona ld, F. G. Scott, William Grant, "R. J O'Bri en. Junior League of St. Petersburg The Junior League of St. Petersburg was organ ize d in 1927 as the Junior Service club by Mrs. E. M. Eustis, Mr s. H. W. Holland, Mrs. John Wallace, and Mrs. Lee CoUins. It had forty charter members Mrs. Holland was the first president. In the first year of organization, the. l eague was helpfu l in relieving the distress and suffering in St. Petersburg which followed the F lorida crash. Con fronted with the p r oblem of 900 child ren who l acked enough clothing to go to school, headquarters for clothi n g dona tion s w e r e establi s hed in members' homes; later in the Thrift Shop was opened The c l ub also c reated a Milk Fund and vol unteer case w o r k e r s investigated familie s i n need, and gave away milk. In conju n ction with th e city, a. survey was made through the National Family Wei f are Burea u to determine children's needs. During the depressi on, the c lub mem bers aided i n the first clinics established for. dental, pre-natal and general medical care and also took the lead in the mov e ment to o btai n a trained and salaried socia l worker for th0 city. This led to the establishment of the City Welfare De partment in 1932. The Junior L ea g ue was accept ed in tbe Association of Junior League s ot Ameri ca in 1931. In 193&, the Childre n's Service Burea u was organ i zed by the league and supported until the Com munity Chest was able to take it over During the past six years the l eague has deve lope d one of the fines t amate ur puppet sh ows in the country. The s hows are taken t o all public and private sch oo ls in the c i ty. Present officers of the eague are: Mrs T h01nas S. Pierce, p resi dent; Mrs. Laur ence ChHd.s, viee president; Mrs Bayard S. Cook, Jr., treasurer; Mrs. Char les Mackey, recording secre t ary, and r s William Howell, conesponding secr e tary.

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WHO'S WHO .IN ST. PETERSBURG "History i the essence of innumerable biographies." Thoma Carlyle.

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270 TiiE STORY OF ST. PETERSBUR G PETER A. DEMENS (Portrait on. Pogt 58) Peter A. Demen s, a native of Russia, unquestionably should bo reco rded in his tory as the "!.ather" ot St. Petersburg. True enough, J. C. Will iams owned the \net of land which became the town sitebut it was :Qemens who brought in the Orange Belt ltailway and thereby pro>;ded reason for the town's exlstenee. What's more, hi s engineers s urveyed and lai d out the town, and he named it after the city in Russia whe re he was born. Without the railroad, St. Pe tersburg probably would be nothing more than it was sixty years ag<>a thinly settled st.reteh of land on the shores of Tampa Bay. With the railro ad, it became one ot the nation's most f a mou s resort cities. In deeding land to the railroad for l a ying traeb to hls property, Williams had everyth i ng t o gai n and noth ing to lose. In buUding the railroad, Demens too k a chance on making a fortune -but lot. He left Flo r id a never to return, but St. Petersburg today stands as a monument to his efforts. Demens might be de scri bed as a s oldier of fortune, a born promotor. He was a man of remarkable talents and brilliant persona lity. He mad e frie nds quickly and the friends trusted him, He had the vision necessary to launch "impossible" l)roject.s and the determ ination to carry the proje-cts t hrough. This was proved in the case of the Orange Belt Raihay. A weaker man woul d have given it up long before it was comp leted; Demen s finished the job e ven after he knew it w ould him no finan cial gain. Demens-hja correct name was Piotr Alexewiteh Dementiefwae born in St. Petersburg, Russia, on May 1, 1850 De seonded from a noble family with large estates in the province o f Tver, he-later bec ame a mar shal of nobility a n d wa s on Inti mate with the moat powerful men in the Russian empire. H e was first cousin of Prince Petroff and a captain in the Im perial Guard. ln 1880 he lert Russia, for r e asons discussed in the general text, and made his way to Florida, first locating at L ongwood. Within a short time after arriving in Florida he organ ized a lumber mill under t h e name of Demens, M cClain & Cotter and built a s awmill at Longwood, about ten mile s southwest of Sanford. To bring logs to the mill, a haphazard railroad wa s laid out Into the wood s. Demens bought out his J)artners in 1888 and continued to operate t h e mill him self. Shortl y afterwards he obtained a contract from the South Florida Railroad to build station houses on the railroad' branch from Lakeland northward to Dade City. Tho contract proved profitable and Demens manage d to save several th ous and dollars. From 1886 to the summe r of 1889 Dcmens devotod a ll his time to the con structio n and financin g of the Orange Belt Railway, as recounted in general text. After being forced to sell out hio interest in the railway and in the Orange Belt Invest ment Company, Demens went to A s heville, N. C., where he bought a planing mill which be opera ted for three years. In 1892 be won t to Los Angeles. His first venture there wa s a $team laundry He kn ew nothing about the business but he made it so successful that he was able to sell out four years later for $200,000. He invested part o( this money in citrus grove s near Alta LOrna, town about forty .. fivc miles outsido of Los Ange les which he h e lp ed establis h H e devoted most of his r e mainin g lif o to orang e cu lture, study, and w r i ting. In 1906, Demons returned t o Ru as ia and round him self in the whirl of the revolution which though unsuccessful, laid the found tion (or the overth row of the lmpe.rial gove-rnment. H e said on his return, however, that hi s trip had noth ing to do with the revo lu tionary mo v ement. Durin&' t-he last fifteen years of hi s life, D omens paid lit -tle attention t o b u s iness matters. He had a residence in Los Ange lo s but. &pent mos t of his time on his ranch at Alta Lorna. He wrote man y artic l es on European affairs for the Lo s Angele 8 Time s and went to Europe for the A ssociated P ress to report on political conditions Th ough In elos e touch with Lhe affairs of Russia and a constant contributor to the current literature o f that country, he wa s not connected with its gove rnment until 1916, when in response to ur3ent requests f rom Russian friends he went to New York and took charge of the tang l ed affairs of

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSB\J:RC 271 the R u s s i a n government's purchasing bureau, which had become disorganized through the swift changes in Europe. After several months of hard work, he returned to his Southern C alifornia home. Demens knew Prince Lvoff, Prof. Milliu koff and many o f the men who formed the cabinet of the new republic. They bad been his friends and co-workers years before the latter turn of affairs. The ultimate over throw of the republic by the Bols h evists caused Demens to suffer a shock which finally undermined his health. He gradually weakened and died on January 21, 1919. Demens was married in Russia and fou r children were born there: Claudia, Helen, Vadim and Jnna. Vladimer and Eugene were born in Florida. Vera was born in Ashev ille, N. C Only two of the children are still living: Vladimer. and Vera, now the wife of Count Andrey Tolstoy. Mrs. Demens died soon after her husband. JOHN C. WILLIAMS John Constantine William s owner of the tract of l and where the town of St. Peters burg was la id out, was born in Detroit, Mich., January 25, 1817 71 years before the f ir s t train chugged dow n "Railroad ave nue" and puffed life into the infant com munity on Tampa Bay. The story of the original owner of St. Petersburg must beg in with a story of his father, John R. Williams, one of the pionee r residents of Detroi t. I n his youth, John Williams was a captain of artillerr in the United States Army, and was stationed in Detroit. In 1816 he r esi.gned from the army because h e disliked his superior of:fieer, it is said, and o p e ne d a general store. His customers were. soldiers, hunters and In dians; his goods were largely sold i n ex change for furs. Twice a year he recei,;ed his merchandise from New York by way of Buffalo and twice a year he shipped h is furs. I n 1824 Detroi t became a city and Wil liams was elected its first mayor. He was re e l ec t ed three times. He was the first president of the first bank of Detroit and was one of the founders of the Detroit Free Press. From 1832 to 1852 he was a major general in the Michigan state militia. His savin gs were in vested in r eal estate and when he died in 1854 he was reported to be the wealthiest man in Michigan In 1858 his property was divided among eight children, the share o f each being appraised a t $105,000. John Constan tine, the second oldest child, wa s christened in S t Anne's Catho lic Church when he was four months old. Little is known of h is early years. He was never a soldier i n the regular army but was a mem ber of Brady Guards, a uniformed company of Detroit young men. H is title of 14general" was a complime n tary one only, given to him after he came to Pinellas Peninsu l a He married in 1846 and had ten children. An obituary notitc published in the South Florida Home at th e time of his death stated that Mr. Williams had "sat isfactorily discharged the duties of the officers of city treasure r, supervisor of Green field . deputy register of deeds, and justice of the peace for Slwcral terms, in Detroit." He owned an office building in Detroit opposite the city hall and resided on an eighty-acre farm on \Voodward avenue, four miles bac k f rom the ri\' er, which his father had leased to him when he married. When his father died, he inherited this propet-ty which he im mediately started to subdivide and sell. More than a hundred deeds signed by him arerecorded in Detro it. Mr. Williams came to Florida for the first time in 1875. After traveling over the state, he finall) came to Pinellas Peninsu la. As related i n the general text, he purchased ap proxima tely 1,600 acres of land. I n 1879 he settled on the tract and attempted to farm. His venture turned out poorly and he turned north. On November 7, 1881, a ,u: vorce fl:'om his wife was granted him in cir cuit court in Detroit On July 29, 1882, be was marri ed again, to Mrs. Sarah Judge (nee Sarah Craven), of London, Ontario. After his Second marriage, Mr. Williams sold most of his Detroit ho ldin gs and re' turn ed to Florida, in December, 1886. He settJcd in Tampa and buil t t he first fine dence in Hyde Park. On January 29, 1887, he signed an agreement with officials of the Orange Belt Railway in which he agreed to give approximately 250 acres of his Pinellas Peninsula property to the railroad if it would extend its tracks through his

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272 THE STORY O F ST. land to the bay. The negotiations which preceded signing of the agreement were c onducted largel y by Mrs. Sarah W illiam s and He nry S w eetapplc, treasurer of the railroad. Late in 1890, Mr. Williams began the eonstrue tio n of a home at Fourth and Fifth avenue south wbieh later was widely known as one of the show places of Florida. Thousands of doll an were spent for interior dee orations Years later the home b.eeam e part o f the Manhattan Hotel, still standing in 1947. During A p r il, 18 92, Mr. Williams' health begAn to fail. T en years before he had suffered a. stroke of apopolexy fro m w h i c h h e had never f ully rccoveted. He died on April 22. He Je!t practically all his property to his wife. Later how ever, an agreement was made out of court whereby his property was divided between his wile and his child ren by his first wife. The value o f all his property was estimated to be between $125, 000 and $150,000. The only public bequest made b y Mr. William s was a lot, ported to be worth $200, which he be J OHN C. WIL LIAMS queathed for use as a site for a fjreman's hall. M r. Williams was sur vived by his widow and eight children: J ohn Constan tine .h., Barney C., J. Mott John M., M rs. Mar y Fisher, Mrs. H. N Shi rp, Mrs. Cornelia Mott Morse, and Mr s. Josphine Bain. On September 10, 1894, the widow mar ried James A. Armistead, a Civil Wnr vet,.. eran who owned a hotel in Bartow. After the marriacc, llfr. Armistead made St. Petet'lY burg his home. He erected a three-story wooden building o n the south side of Central about halfway between Second and 'fhird strecl.8. For yean; t his buildin g was k n o wn a s Armi ste ad's "Opera House." On tho first floor there wero sto e room s and the third floor wa s used as a meeting place :Cor lodges The second floor was th e uopera house!' There playa were g ive n by tTa\elingtloupes and by loca l entertainers. It also was used as a town meeting place. Mr. Armistead served as mayor of St. Pete raburc, f r om 189G through 1900. H e died in Bartow, Fla., Aucust 10, 1907, whil e visiting his daughter, Mrs. Y. S. Dial. M rs. Armistead took an active Interest in publi c affairs. S h e assisted financia lly i n building the Cong r e gatio nal Churc h nnd for yean w .. an active member of the W. C. T.U. S h e died December 15, 1917, while on a visit to Detroit. The sons were prominent in St. Peters burc tor many years. J. C. 10Tine" Willi ams. Jr., opened a general store on tho south west corner o r Central and Second in 1889 and within a few years it had become the largest store on the entire peninsu la, sur passing even the ubig stores" of Clear water. He and his b rother Barney were the owners of the Crys tal lee W orks. Each served four terms o n the t own council. Barney also was engaged i n fishin g boutlng and boat buil d ing Mott owned a machine hop and later one of the town'" first garages. He also wns the owner of a n apartment house. Many of the Williams descendenta have helped in the development of St. Petersburg. FRANK ALLSTON DAVI S It has bee n said, and unquestionably the statement is based on faet, that Frank Alls ton Davis put S t P eters butg twenty years ahead in Its d ev elopment; that h o gave it

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 273 the things which made possible its future lll"Owth and enabled It to spurt ahead of other resort cities on the West Coast of Florid a Mr. Davis began work tor St. Petet-sburg when it was insignificant and unknown; when non e of the streets were paved and when cows pastured on Central Avenue. It was a town at the end of a railroad, and that was all And yet, despite the bumble appearance of St. Petersburg, Mr. Da\tis saw in it great pos$ibilitles. He dreamed that it would become a great city. And because he dreamed, and worked to make his dreams come true, St. Petersburg wa. s pushed forward on m&rch toward pr os perity. Mr. Davis gave St. Petersburg its first eJeetric light company it.s rirst trolley line ) its first real a dvertising. He brought mil lions of dollars into the city. He was a visionary be admiUed that himself. I n many ways be was impractical -his best friends said that about him. :He foresaw the progress of later years. but he was a generation ahead of his time. Consequently, h e lost money, and his co mpanies failed but St. Petersburg gained. Mr. Davis was born Septe mber 8, 1850 n ear Duxbury, Vt. His early boyhood wa$ spent on the farm of his parents. He was educated in the country schoo ls near Dux bury and when se venteen yean old became a teacher. During the oummer of 1870 he took up the selling of mowen and was so sueeessful that he gave up teaching to de vote all his time to the work. In 1872 he became interested in tho publishing of county atlases and histories. In 1880 he went to Philadelphia and began publishing medical and periodica l s His com pany became one of tho bes t known of its ki nd in the world its greatest work being Sajous Anal ytica l Cyclopaedia of Practical Medieine. During the winter of 1889-90, Mr. Davis became afflicted wilh a severe ease of mus cular rheumatism. In seareb of relief he eame to Florida and in April, 1890, he went to Tarpon Springs where he mad e a quick and complete recovery. While in Tarpon Springs Mr. Davis made the acquaintance ot Jacob Disston, who F. A. DAVIS aide d him fina ncially in muny of his projects. 1'he first of these was t he founding ef an electric light plant at Tarpon Springs. Mr. Davis put in about $2,000 of his own money and Mr. Disston advanced several thousand more on a f-irst mortgage. The light plant failed, primarily because the people of Tarpon Springs were unwilling to give up their oil )amp s and replace them with the newfangled electric bulbs Mr. Davl finally became disgusted and turned toward St. Petersburg which ho had visited for tho first time two years before. In 1807, the p lant was moved to St. Petersburg. Jn 1902 Mr. Davis began working to es tablish an electric railway from St. Peters burg to Disston City-now kn own a s Gulf port. He enlisted the aid ot Phlladelphia Criends for flnaneial support and finally, in 1905, the projeet was completed . During the next few years Mr. actlvitles became more and more extended. Nearly a dozen new c ompanies were formed as subsidiaries of his St. Petcrsburc Invest ment Co. to handle developments In all sectioM ef the lowe r peninsula. In 1909, Mr.

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274 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Davis sold mos t of his stock in the com panies to H Walter _Fuller who directe d operation s m mo s t o f the Dav 1 s en terprises Mr. Davis, how ever, continue d to take a deep interest in the compa nies and also personal ly s upervised development o f Pi nellas Park. Thousand s
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TnE STORY oF ST. P ETE Rsnunc 275 On April 7, 1 919, Disston and Warren Webowr and Horace F. Nlxson, o f Camden, N. J., members of tho bondholders protec tive association, bought the trolley l ine at Clearwater at f orced sal e fo r $165,000. They held m ortgages to talin g On August 30, of the same year, they so ld it t o the city of S t Petersburg for $175,000. During the great land boom of the mid twenti e s, Mr. Disston disposed of practically all his boldinp in Pinellas Peninsnla. For many yeam h e spent hla winters at Belleair. He died there in February, 1938, and was buried in Laurel Hill Cemete ry, Pbiladel })hia. He was survi v ed by five daughters a nd two sons: Lucy D. G ilpin, Effie D. Fraley, Marie D. Andrew s, Dorot hy D. Nalle, JacobS. Disston Jr., Loraine D. Lukens and Horace C. D i s ston. JOHN A. BETHELL John A. B ethell, one of the pioneer settlers of Pine llas Point, was born in Nassau on July 21, 1884, the son of William C and Ann (Mott) Bethell. When he was a child the famil y moved to K ey West, Fla., where h e a ttended school. From his boyhood h e followed the wate r for a living, engaging in fi.shtnr, wrecki ng, coast ing and pil oti ng. Durin g the Se m ino le up rising of 1856 -5'7, he sorvod os a mate o n the government steamer uTexas Ranger'' wh1eh plied betwe e n Tampa and Fort Myers. In 1859, after the Seminoles had been eonquered, Mr. B ethell came to Pinellas Point to engage in fishinc with his brother In-law, Abel M iranda, who had settled at B i g Bayou two y e ars before. When the hom" was she ll ed by Federals in February, 1862, the pioneers went to Tampa Mr. Bethell joined the Confederate Army, Comp a ny K of the Se venth F lorida Regiment. After the war ended, he was married to Ssrah C. Haagar, of Tampa, whose mother was a siswr of Vincent Leonardi. In 1867, aeeompanied by Alex Leonardi, son of Vin e ent, Mr. Bethe ll returned to Big Bayou and r-ejoined the Mira ndas, who had come bac k ln 1866. Aided by Alex Leon ardi he built a home and then brought his family to the Point. Ho pickled mullet for the Havana trade, planted an orange grove, an d rais ed v egetables an d cattle, Later he entered the mercantile bu s iness at Pinellas and also became the ient for lumber ae hooners plying between Big B ayou and Pensacola For fourteen years he served as postmaster of Pinellu and also was justice of the peace for three years. In 1914, Mr. Bethell published his H istory o f Pinellas Peninsula" in whi ch h e gave an invaluable reco r d of the early s ettlers of the lower peninsula. Mr. Bethe ll died on April 12, 1915. He was s urvived by seve n children : Cli fford 0., William C. John A., Jr., M re. Mary Ellen Jones, Cora G., Mr s. Alma Geiger, and M rs. F lorence L oader. It is believed that Mary Ellen was the first white c hild born on the subpeninsula. She wu bom January 23, 1873. Cora G. the oldest Bethell child was born in Tampa. JACOB BAUM Nine years before the first train arrived in St. Petersburg, Mr. and M rs. Jacob Baum come h ere from Pe nnsylvan ia, built a home :md plnntcd an or-ange grove Mr. Bnum wa.<; born on a farm in West moreland County, Pennsylvania, December 24, 1834. On November 25, 18'78, he was married in Kittanin g Pa., to Jeannette Chandler, of Pugwash, N ova Scotia. Shortly after they were married, Yr. and Mr s. Baum decided to g o to Florida to start an orange grove They were influenced in mPking their decision by Mrs Baum's brother, A. B. C handler, who visited many parts of tho state while working on a government coast survey boat. Of all the places h e hod seen, he liked P i nellas Peninsula tho bes t Upon his return home, he purc hased from the state of Florida forty acres adJoining Mirror Lake, paying ninety e:ents an acTe. Mr. Baum purehased eighty acres at the same PFice. His land extended f rom the J ake to what is now First a venue south, and from the alley between Sixth and Seventh streets to Fourteenth street. Upon thei r arrh a l in the sprini of 1879, Mr. and Mrs Baum Jived in an abandone d lo g cabin northwest of the lake until their

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276 THE STORY Of' ST. P ETERSBUR(; I : own home, built from lumber they had brought from Tampa, was com ple ted. They had three neighbors: H. A. Wier, who owned land west of the take; Mrs. Baum's brother, who bad preceded them 'in coming by a few months, and the Cox family, which owned a grove about a mile south of Booker Creek. When it became apparent late in 1887 that the Orange Belt Railway would extend its tracks to the Wiltian>S property, Baum began selling portions of his tract to persons wbo wanted to live close to tbe railroad terminus. One of the first buyers was E. R. W a.rd, owner of a. general store at Pinellas, on Big Bayou. He purchased from Mr. Baum an old build ing used by pioneer set tlers as a meeting place, located at what is now Ninth street and First avenue south The first post o f fice of St. Petersburg was located in this building w ith :Mr. Ward as postmaster. Mr. Ward also bought five acres from Mr. Baum and the two joined in making the Ward & Baum plat, recorded April 4, 1888. The railroad reached the edge of the town on April 30 of that year. The Williams Demens plat of St. Petersburg was not recorded until August. By that time many tots in t he Ward & Baum plot had been sold at prices ranging from $30 to a to t From several years the Ninth street sec tion was the main part of t own. Mr. Baum died on October 8, 1894. In 1899, Mrs. Baum s old her old home and pur chased two lot.c; on First avenue north be tween Second and Third streets, paying $1,200 for the two Here she built a rooming house of twenty-two rooms. For many years thereaftc. r she provided accommodations for winter visitors. Mr. and Mrs. Baum had on0 child, Grace C., who was married on June 24, 1900, t o Claude S. Pepper, of Rising Sun, Ind., who came to St .Petersburg w ith his parents in 1891. CAPT. ZEPHANIAH PHILLIPS Capt. Zephaniah Phltlips, pioneer settler of Long Key, wa s born in Toronto, Canada on March 2, 1837. When he was two years old the family came t o the United States and loeated in lltinois. He received his education i n the public schools of that stete and whe n fourteen years old began to learn the blacksm .ith's trade. At the beginning of the Civil War, he j oined the Cavalry of Illinoi s at Equality, Ill., and left there for camp on May 1, 18 61. lie was i n the first battle at Lexington, Md., where he was taken p r isoner. Later he was released and he re enlis t ed and was commissioned as a lieu tenant. After the war Captein Phillips started a g roc ery store in Harrisburg, Ill., where he married :Mary E. Pierce He w a s the in Yentor of many patents, one of the most important being the P hillips Burglar Proof time safe. Captain Phillips came t o Florida wit h hi s family for his health in 1882, first locating in Waldo. In March 1884 he came to Pinellas Peninsula to install the machinery of George L. King's sawmill. In September of 1884 he h omesteaded on Long Key, more commonly known as Pas,s...a .. Grille. Captain Phillips moved to St. Petersburg with his family to live in 1891. He lived here until he died on January 21 1 903. He was sunived by his widow and four children: Julia Jennettie, Ann a, Clarence E., and Zephan iah Jr. On April 19, 1887 Julia Jcanettie was married toT. A. Whitted, a native of lowa. who had come to Florida with his fam ily in !878. In 1884, :Mr. Whitted went to Dis&ton C ity to take charge of the sawmill of George L. King. When the mill was moved to St. Petersburg in 1888, Mr. Whitted con tinued to operate it and during the next few years planed and sawed all the lumber used In the first buildings in St. Petcrsbut-g. In 1893 he lensed the mill from Mr. King and operated it for a year. Later be became associated with A. C. Pheil in the St. Peters burg N ovelty Works and was connec ted with that company for many years thereafter. He served on the town council in 1894-95. He played in St. Petersburg's first orchestra, organized in 1891, and on the first town band Mr. and :Mrs. Whitted had three sons: Clarence E., George B., and Albert. Albert, born February 14, 1893, was one of the first 250 flyers of the United States Navy having been commissioned a first lieutenant Sep-

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TJ{E STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 277 tember 25, 1918. After World War I here turned to St. Petersburg to do commercial flyin g. On Auguse 19, 1823 he was killed while making a fligh t ncor P ensacola. He wos survived Oy his widow Mrs. );i'rancis L. (Brent) Whitted and two ch ildren, Cather ine Eugene and Francis Lou ise. St. Peters... burg's airport was named the Alb e rt Whit ted Mun i cipal Airport In hu honor DAVID MOFFETT David Moffett, St. Petersburg's first m ayor, was bo rn in Monroe County, Indiana on April 20, 1842, tho so n of John and Letitia (Strong) Moffett, both natives of South Ca rolina. He wo s reared on hi s father's farm. During winte r months he at tended country schools. In 1879, Mr. Moffett moved to Florida, t irst loe .ating in Marion County. Not satis fied with the propeets of that section or tbe state, he came to P inellas Peninsula Jato in 1881 He built his home at what is now Ninth street and Mo!!ett avenue. He planted his first grove, containing thirty a cres of in the Ninth .street ridge sec: .. llon, between Twentysoc ond and Twenty. sixth avenues. In 1890 he purchased the ol d Wier grove on the wost s ide of Mirror Lake. A year later ho so ld hi s first grove to C. W. Springstead who, many y ears later, converted it into the Sprl nehill sub-div isio n. Hea din g an anti-saloon ticket, Mr. Mof. fett was elected fint mayor o f St. Peters burg, in 1892. He ran G eneral J. C. Williams who was the l e a de r of what was known as the Open Saloon faction. I n 1 896 and 1897 he served on the tow n council. He also was supervisor of schools for a num ber of years. Mr. Moffett wa s twice married: In 1868 to Mattie L. Strong, of T e nn e ssee, who died in May, 1889 and In Septe mber, 1890, to Janie Mitchell or Alabamo. He had four children: Fay, wife or W. J McPherson; Reese, Pearl and Wade. Mr. Moffett died on January 25, 1921. HORA CE WILLIAMS Horace WiUiam s was born in P inella s Peninsula February 9, 1884, the son of J. C. Williams, Jr., and Nettie (Cox) Williams. J. C. William s, Jr., was a son of General J. C Will io.ms and came to the penin sula first with h is father in 1879, nine yearo before the founding of St. Petersburg. He was a memb e r ot the first town council and was prominently Identified with tho tawn for many yenrs Horace Williams attended tho St. Peter.r bura public schools and the University o f Florida. Upon leaving eoUege h e started worlting fo r the Crystal lee W orks, then owned by his father. He continued I n the ic:e business throughout his life except for a period of twenty-one month s during Worl d War I when he served as captain in the army. On Ma y l, 1907, he waa married to Ida Loui se Weller, the daughter of A. P. and Isab e lle Weller, the former the first man ager of th e St. Petersburg El ectric Light Company. Mr. Williams was a member of the Ameri can Legion, 40et8, B.P. O.E., tho St. Peters burg Yacht Club and the K iwanla Club, as we.ll as other organizations Through ou t his lifetime he partic ipated a ctively i n numer ou s civic activities At the time of his death, on April 28, 1943, he wa s president of the Williams-Beers lee Co., which he founde d in 1920. He was su rvived by his w i d ow nnd one scm, Horace Williams Jr. H. W GILBART Harold William Gilbart wa s born at 31 Carlton R ill, St. J ohns W ood Lotld on, S. W. on February 4, 1865, the son of Fr<, from which he was graduated in 1882. After l eaving colle ge he wa s tutored by George Whiffen, trustee for hi s mother' s estate, who wante d him to become a chartered accountant. Mr. Gilbar t ba d no liking Cor accounting or derlcnl work and after receiving his diploma in 1883, h e decided to go to the United States. After a year s))
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278 'foE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG In the same build ing where be had learned to be a chartered accountant. The two men became close friends and lived toge ther for many years. Mr. Gilbart got his first job from William B. Mirandi, agent for the Disston interests. (See I ndex : Disston City.) During the years which followed he engaged in citrus fruit a nd pineapp l e eulture. His home o n Tan gerine avenue became one of the show pl a etS or the P"ninsula. He invuted heavily in real estate. Mr. Gilbart was a silent partner in many comm ercial enterprises In St. Petersburg nnd served for years aa president o f the West coast Titl e Company. He was one of the first members of the St. Peters burg lodge of the Woodmen of the World and was member or the St. Petersburg Yacht Club. He was one of the founders of St. Bar tholomew's Church and l ater became a mem be r of St. Peter's Church. On May 15, 1895 Mr. Gil bart was married to Emma L. daughter of M ilo and Emily Ann (Pengilly) Andrews of Owen Soun d Ontario, Canada. The marriage c eremonies were performed by the Rev. G. IV. So uthwell in St. Bartholome w's Church, the o ldest church on Pinella s Point. Mr. and Mrs. Gilbart had five childre n, all boys: Oscar William, Russell Hughes, Kenneth, Gordon Craig and Dudley Spencer. Mr. Gilbart died January 2, 1926 ED. T. LEWIS Edson T. Lewis was born in New Milford, Pa., January 19, 1872, the son of Fred W. and Alice (Denison) Lewis. lie attended the public schools of O sw ego N. Y., until the f amily moved to St. Petersburg on March 7, 1888, before the Orange Belt Railw a y was completed. His father built the first home to be erected within the town limits on an acre of land purehued from Jacob Baum, near Ninth and Centzal for $50. I n the fall of 1888, Ed. T. Lewis be cam e a cle r k in the general store a t Central avenue and Second street own e d by J C. Williams, J r. At that time there was nothlng in that section o! tho town except the depot, the Detroit Hotel, the Orange Bel t Investment Company's office building, and a few ramshackle shacks. The Ninth street section was the main part ot town. Mr. Lewis l eft the Williams store in 1892 and took charge of a soft drinks store he had established a year before in partnership with Edward Durant. Two years later he purchased a lot on t he north"cast corner of Central and Third while the swale across the avenue at that point was being flllcd in. Soon afl.
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 279 Club, Tarpon Club, Yacht Club, and Art Club. H e was affiliated with the Congrega tional Church. On 2!), 1894 Mr. L ewis was married to Nellie. Demarest in Englewood, N. J. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis had one son, Leon D. Lewis. Mr. Lewis died December 1, 1940. Mrs. Lewis died November 19, 1947. EDWIN H. TOMLINSON For many years, when St. Petersburg was young, the city bad a patron saint who could always be depended upon to lend a helping band in worthy undertakings. To aid child ren and suffering he spent a for tune. He was truly a friend of eve ryone. His name was E dwin H. Tomlinson. Mr. Tomlinson was born in 1844 in NeConn . the son of Peter and Augusta (Hyde) Tomlinson. He was edu cated in the public schools o f Connecticut and at the age of eighteen became a bank clerk at a salary of four dollars a month. During the 1860s he worked in the oil fiel ds of Pennsylvania. In 1868 he went to Aiken, S.C., where he and two other men buil t the first t ouri s t hotel in the South. From South Carolina Mr. Tomlinson went to Santo Domingo where he became part owner and operator of a large sugar planta tion. 'Yhile there he served for three years as United States consular agent at the port of San Pedro de Macoris. From 1874 to 1897 Mr. Tomlinson was interested in mining in the Rocky Mountains and was an official o f mining companies in the United States, British Columbia and Alaska. He also had an active interest in mines in many other patts of the world. He first visited St. Petersburg in 1891 and liked this section of Florida so well that he returned every winter for many years Mr. Tomlinson built the first manual training building in the city and turned i t over, fully equipped, so that St. Petersburg boys and girls cou ld be taugh t manual training, domestic science, military tac tics and gymnastics He als o built the manual train ing annex at Fourt h street south and the railroad, the largest building erected i n St. Petersburg up to that time. The city later EDWIN H. TOMLINSON purchased the building for use as a city hall -it is now the headquarters of the Chamber of Commerce. Mr. 'romlinson fully equipped a student's orchestra a nd a. cadet corps and was the chie f s ponsor of the Washington's birthday celebtations held in tho clty for many years. He paid all the expe nses of building St. Peter's Episcopal Church and the rectory, and turned the m over to the parish free of all encumbrances. He also paid for the organ in the church. Mr. Tomlinson donated generously to the hospitals of St. Petersburg, to theY. W.C.A., to the Amer i ca n Legion, and Boy Scouts. In short, no worth -while public institution in the eit)' went without h is financial aid. And h e declared many times that he was repaid a thousandfold for his contributions because of "the fun he got out of it." While on a trip to Italy in 1898, Mr. Tom linson met Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of wireless telegraphy. The two men became friends and when Marconi said he would like to conduct wireless experiments some where in Florida to test communicating with

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280 1'nE SToRY oF ST. PETERSBURG Cen tral and South American cities, Mr. Tomlin s on said he would erect the nocessary t owers Early in 1900 he built a home at Fourt h street and Second avenue south with a 137-foot tower. He nlso erected another tower at Pass-a-Grille. But Marconi con ducred his experiment s elsewhc.re. Light ning struck the Fourth street tower o n July 16, 1901, and most of it had to be torn down. The tower at Pass-a-Grille stood !or many years. Joseph C. Sibley later purchased the Tomlinson home. Mr Tomlinson also built the Fountain of Youth pier and drill ed the artesian we ll still known as the Fou ntain of Youth For ma.ny years a cottage stood at the end of the pier where Mr. 'fomlinson and his father spent muc h of t heir l eisure time. In 1924, he was awarded the Smitz silver cup for outstanding service to the city and in May, 1935, the vocational school was named in his honor. Mr. Tomlinson died in Tampa1 December 6, 1938, He was buried in St. Petersburg with militAry honor s by the American Legion ROY S HANNA ROY S. HANNA Roy S. Hanna was b orn in Rochester Ind., June 10, 1861, the son of Joseph and Philora (True) Hanna. The father wa s t h e o wner of the famo us Hanna Woo len Mills, of Rochester, Ind., Kankakee City, Ill., and M arysville, Tenn. The last mill, opened in 1874, was the first woolen mill in the South. Roy Hanna was educated in the public schools of Kankakee and Marysville College, in Marysvill e from which he was graduated in 1882. After leaving college, he taught school for two yea rs in William sport, Ind., and then w ent into the l aw office ot General Robert N. Hood, hi Knoxville, Tenn. In 1886, Mr. Hanna found it n ecessary to go to F l orida because of poor health He loca ted nt PuntA Gorda where he published a newspaper known as t he Punta Gorda an d Charlott e Harbor H erald. While In Punta Gorda ho continued his study of law and in 1888 he was admitted to the Florida bar. In tho fall of 1891, Mr. Hanna left Punta Gorda and came to St. P etersburg. A short time later he was appointed deputy collector and Inspec tor of the Port of St. Petersburg. He h eld that office until 1900 when he r es i gned to become postmaster, s ucceedi ng W. A Sloan. Mr. Hanna served a s postmaster from 190 0 to 1916 and aga i n from 1923 to I 932 He is credited with having made it possible for St. Petersburg to get an open air post office so that p eople could get tbeir mail day or night. (See Index-Post Office.) I n 1896, Mr. Hanna bought the south half mile o! Long Key, where Pass-a -Grille is now l oented from Dr. G. P. Gehring who hnd acquirod it from Capt. Zephaniah P h illips. (Sec Index Pass-a -Grille.) Mr. Hnnna has taken an acti ve interest in all civic affairs ever si nc e comin' to S t Petersburg. For sixteen years he fought with few other boosters to secure the waterfront for St. Petersburg. He helped in the estAblishment o! the first schools and was one of the o rgani:zers and supporters o! the Board of Trade. With others, he purch a sed property ao that the Tampa &: Gulf Coas t Railroad could come into the city. H e was a director o the Bayboro Company, the St. P etersbu r g &: Gulf Elec tric Railway and the St. Peters-

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TilE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 281 burg Transportation Company which opera steamers between St. Petersburg and Tampa. Mr. Hanna wns also one o f the organizers o f the Central National Bank and served as its vice pre s ident for man) y e ars Mr. Hanna was appoint ed chair man of the Park Board immediately after it was organized and served for six years. During that period Mirror Lake was beautified, the low lands along the edgea being filled in and the center dredged ouL Through his ef forts Round Lake was saved tor the city altho'ugh many persons wanted to fill it in. Mr. Hanna, with the &at!lstan cc of Mrs. Katherine B. Tippetts, during this peri od prepared l a b el s for hundreds of trees in the city, their &Ci
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282 TnE STORY OF S T PETERSBURG Mr. Pheil set a new r ecord tor real estate transactions iJi 1904 when he paid for a lot on Central avenue between Fourth and Fifth streets with n of s i xty se ven feet. Many said he was throw ing away his money by p ayin c s uch an uout landish" price. So o n atttrward he erected a three-story brick buildinc on the site, the first in St. Petersburg. In 1916, M r P heil, with ehara cteristie vis ion began the construction of a n eleven story ot!iee building near the first buildi ng. He carried on the work on his own resources, paying for each lot of materials as he received it. Work was delayed by World War I and after the war b y record h igh prices of building materi als Shortly before Mr P h eil's death he expressed the wis h that he could liv e long e nough t o see the b uilding comp leted but the w i s h was not granted. He died on November 1, 1 922, arter a lingering iUnesa. All the city mourned his death, particularly thos e h e bad helped by his many kind deeds. City offices and many business houses were closed in his honor. M r P heil wa s survived by hi s widow the former Miss Lottie Close, of Baltimore, Md., w hom h e marri ed on December 8, 1896, and by four childrerr Abram L., Bertha, Har vey and Clarence. The Pheil building, which stands as a monument to Mr. P heil, was complete d dur ing the winter of 1923-24. Toe Pheil H otel, located iu the buildiur, Is now being operated by Mr. Phell's sons. Abram L. Pheil, born December 5, 1 898, was married on December 16 1928, to Helen Bourqui n, of "Union City, 0. They have two childr e n : Barbara Jcnn, born Octobe r 8, 1929, and Abram Frances, horn July 5, 1933. Bertha Pbcil, born December 13, 1900, was marr-ie d on October 21, 1925, to Walter Pearso n Bobbitt. They have a son, Walter Pearson, Jr., born April 7 1928 Harvey Pheil, born March 27, 1906, was married to Wiufred Walker, August 18, 1936. They have twin c hildren, William Walker and Betsy Ann, born August 3, 1941. Clarence Pheil, born July 25, 1908, wos married to Eleanor P ilkh1gton, Dece m ber 31, 1932. They hav e three son s : Thomas William, born April 1, 1937; Frederick Peter, born January 1 1941, and Clarence David, born Decembe r 4, 1946. MAY ALUSON RIS LEY M rs. May Allison R isley was born in Americus, Ga., Mar c h 9, 1881, the daughter of Henry Grimes .and Annie (Hardin) Oliver. ln 1 894 when May Belle Oliver was four teen years of age, her mother died, and her father sent her to St. Petersburg to live with her grand mother, Elizabeth Barksda l e and her aunt, Mrs. L. B. Cooper. Tho Barks dale family had left Georgia about 1870 and settled first in Jasper, Fla. and then in Tampa. In 188 8 aft e r the. death of three m embers of the Borksda le famil)' from yellow f ever, M rs. Barksdale ond the remaining members of her family embarked in a small boat and rowed aeross Tampa Bay to St. Petersburg a nd lived with her dauchtar, Mrs. Cooper. T o their home, May Belle Oliver came She finished her schooling in St. Petersburg and in 1898 met and married William E lmore Allison, a contr actor and builder, w h o had como to S t. Petersburg from Leesb urg, Ga., in 1895. During the thirty-five ye ars in whi c h Mr. Alliso n was e n gaged in the construetion busines s here he built many residential and commercia l etructores, i n cludln c \he American Ban k building and the Allison Hotel. He relired in 1930 and died in 1934. Mr. and Mrs. Allison had three children. The eldest, Elmore William Allison, was born Marc h 31, 1899. Until hi s death in 19 4 5, ho ass isted in the management of the Allison hotels He waa a 32nd degree Mas on, a Shriner, and serve d during World War II in th o Maritime Service, from whi c h h e wa& discharc ed with the rank of enslrn. Fil s e 1 der son, William AJiison was educated in St. Petersburg public schools, was craduat ed from Cornell University Hotel Training School, and i s now at Stetson University Law College. During World War II he wu with the M edical Department oversea s. A daughter, Carolyn Blanche A llison, attar complet ing hct public sehoo l educati o n took a co urse in business education at Asheville, N. C. an d late r entere d a school of in t criol' deeorating in N e w Yor k City.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 283 Mrs Ris ley's second aon, Charles Edward Allison, was born October tO, 1905 He was educated in the public ocltools of S t Petersburg and attende d W asltington and Lee University in Virg inia. Upon gradualiori he took over management of two of the A lliso n hotels, the Manatee River Hotel at Bradenton, where be makes his winter home, and the Thorwald Hotel at Glouces ter, Mass. T he Charles Allisons have three children, Charles Junior, Paul Dudley, and Charlene, aU in school in Bradenton. A daughter, M ay Belle Alli110n, was born to the elder Alli sons December lo, 1901. S he died April 23, 1903. Through the years M rs May A llison Ris lc.y has b e com e known os o nc of Florida's famous daughters. Not content to sit idly by and watch th e town gro w from a tiny hamlet of less than 300 souls t.o a city of 100,00 0, Mrs. Risley took a genuine interest and important part in such progressive societ -ies as the \Vomen'a Town Improve ment Association and St. Petersburg man's Club Sh e has served at .,nriou!l times as th e treasurer (1928-1925) of St. Petersburg chapter, Daughters of t h e American Revolu tion, i n 1925 and 1926 as Regen t of that chapter; as state h istorian and cha p l ai n o f Daughters of American Co lonists; as s tate registra r of the So ciety of Vet-erans' Daugh .. ters of 18 12 ; a s atate librarian of the Col onial Dames; as s tate Registrar of Children o f the Confederacy; a s associate conductress. conduct-ress and EJecta, Order of Eastern Star, and has filled every office in the Pythi an Sisters. She is a member or United Daughters of the Confederacy, a life member of Interlock C lub, a member of the Auxiliary to T M Tate Post 29, Veteran s of Fore ign War s Rebekah lod ge, Au xiliary to the Hotel Greeters of America, Amet'ican Women' s Associat ion of New York C ity, and bas se rved in man y eapacit.loa during state and a nnual reunions and conventions of Confederate Organization s. She is an ho n orary member of' Zollicofter eamp, United Con federate Veterans of St. Petersburg She maintains a member ship io the Chamber of Commerce and is a member of the Presbyterian Church. In 1935 Mr s Allison wa s married to Ed win Chester Risley of Huttford, Conn. Mr. MAY ALLISON RJSLEY Ris ley is n Mas on a member of Kiwnni s C lub and Knights of Pytbias. He ha s serv e d two ternt s a s city councilman i n St. Potcnburg. CAPT J F. CH A SE Capt. John F Chase was born at Chelsea Mo., in 1842 and reeeived his early educ a tion in the Massachusetts publie schools. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he en listed In the Third 1\lain e Resiment and lat e r become canno neer of the Firth Maine Battery. lie with distinction during his war acrv ice and was seriously wounded in the Battle of Gettysburg. After the war he went to Augusta, Me., where h e inven ted a. number o article s which later beca. m e widely used. In 1895 he came to St. Peteroburg. Ue aided in the establishment of a G.A.R. post and in 190 5 became the founder of Veteran City (q. v.) He also was one of tho organi ers of the Ne w England tourist soci ety. H e died o n Nov 27, 1914. Hi s widow, the former Mis s Mari a Merrill, of Frocpott, Me., died in August, 19 21.

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THE STORY OF ST. P E TERSBURG Three daughters of Captain and Mrs. Chase became prominently identified with St. Petersburg affairs. In 1905 Mis.' Beulah Chase opened a small remnant store on Cen tl-al avenue. In 1907 Miss Lena Chase joined her sister and the firm became known a s B. & L. Chase. The continued to prosper and in 1909, aftar E. B. Willson joined .the firm, it was incorporated as the Willson Chase Co. which became the leading department store of the city. Mrs. Maud Chase Aikin was for many yean connected with the St. Petersburg cho ols and became the owner and principal of the Aikin Open Air Sc hool, one o! the fi.tst private educati onal inst itutions in St. Petersburg. PAUL A. HOXIE Paul A. Hoxie was born in New London, Wis., May 31, 1887, the son of Albert E and Augusta (Schabel) Hoxie. His father was a native of New York and his mother O"t Wi$COnsin. His grandfather, J ohn C. llo:rsburaLodge No. !39 F. & A.M., and is a Shriner, Egypt Temple, Tampa, He is also a member of the Elks Lode-e. On Septamber 30, 1909, Mr. Hoxie was married to Laura Edith Vohs, daughter of Fred and Louise (Schlintz) Vohs, of New London, Wis., pioneer settlers of Northern Wiaconsln. M r and Mr s Hoxi e have a daughter, Augusta Louise, born July 1,

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 285 1912, who was graduated from St. Peteraburc High Sehool and Stetson University and io now the wife of William C. Kaleel. Mr. and Mrs. Kaleel have two sons: William C., Jr., born August 18, 1934, and Paul A., born October 29, 1945 M rs. H oxie served as the first president of the American Legion Auxiliar y and has been an active member of the Woman' s Club, the Women of the Chamber of Com mctce, Order of Eastern Star, Ameri can Red Cross, Crippled Children.'s Ho sp ital, nnd many othe r organizations. LEON D. LEWIS Leon D. Lewis was born in St. Petersburg July 2B, 1896, t he son of Ed. T. and Nellie (Demarest) Lewis. He attended St. P eteraburc public sehools and was graduated from Rollins College in 1917 with an A.B. degree. Soon after leaving college, ltlr. Lewis enlisted in the Navy and served a year and a half during World War I, being stationed at Hampton Roads Naval Base and also being assigned for a time to convoy duty. After the war en ded, Mr. Lewis returMd to St. Pe tersburg and entered the ice busi ness Within a few years he est abli shed t h e Citizens lee & Col d Storage Co. and the Plnollas lee & Cold Sto r age Co., becoming vice-president and general manager of both concerns B>' 1925. the companies owned twelve ice plants in the coun ty, five in St. Petersburg, two in Clearwater, two in Tar pon Springs, and separate plants in Largo and Dunedin. In 1 926 be sold the plants for $3,000,000 cash to the National Public Service Co., the parent company of the A. E. Filkin interests. Mr. Lewis has taken an active part in civie affairs for many years. He was a me.m ber ot the special committee, appointed b) the mayor, which in 1939 r ecommended the purcbuc by the city of the water supp l y system then owned by the Pinellas Water Co mpany. T he water was bein g supplied from the CosmeOdessa region and the c ity's purehose of the system assured St. Peters burg or a practically inexhaustible supply ot water of the finest quality. Mr. Lewis has served c ontinuously on the St. Petersburg Port Authority since it was created by the eity council in 1938 and In 1947 was ebairman. (Sec Index: Port Authority.) He is a member and past commodore o f the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, and a mem ber of the Lakewoo d Country Club, Propel ler Club, Bath Club, Am erican Legion, and Chambe r of Commerce On November 29, 1920, Mr. Lewis was married t o Miss Eva Endicott. EDGAR HARRISON l!:dgo.r Harrison, tw i ce mayor of St. Petersburg, was bor n in Morgantown, W. Va., on April 7, 1 829 In 1840, the family moved t o Io wa City, Ia., then just a small hamlet. The family Jived there many years and Edgar Harrison, when he grew up, served as sheriff of the county and held other oUieial positions.. In 1867, Mr. Harrison was married to EHza M. Patton, of Uniontown, Pa., whose people also werepioneers. of Union Cit)'. In 1870, the family moved to Paola, Kan., and five years later came to Florida, set tling in Paola, named by them in honor of their former home. Mr Harrison invested much o f his money in orange groves ond, with his so n s start ed a general mer c ha ndise store un der the name. of Harrison & Sons. He a l so conducted the post office. The freeze of 1894-9& complete ly de atroyed the groves and ruined tho business of the s tor e Mr. Harrison's capital was wiped out. The fami ly then moved to St. P.etersburg. Mr. Harrison took an active part in St. Petersburg polities for many years. He was eleeted mayor in 1899 and again in 1901 and was a !actor in elections for many yean later. He was one of the men who signed notes in 1899 to permit construction of the town's 1irst water works after a bond iuue for that purpose had been attacked in the courts. O n May 19, 1 899 he signed the famous ordinance which bann e d wa ndaring cows from St. Petersburg. Mrs. Harrison died in 1907 and Mr. Harrison in 1924, at the age o 96. Mr and Mrs. Harrison had two sons, J. Frank Harrison, l:iorn July 31, 1859, and Edgar Patton Harrison born December 29, 1860.

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286 TnE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Upon earning to St. Petersburg, the two sons bought the stoek of the general store owned by W. A. Sloan and started in b u si ness in a small building on the southeast comer of Ce ntral and Third. Their concern was destined to become the largest and best known business establish _ment in St. Peters burg. I t was known first as the St. Peters burg Casb Store then successively as the Harrison Brothers Store, St. Petersburg Harriso n Hardware &: Fu-rniture Co., Harrison-Powell Co., and finally as the Harrison Department Store. The first four-story briek building in town was erected by tho eoneern in 1906 at which time a large warehouse was erected south of the railroad traelcs. Later many additions were made to handle an ever increas ing volume of buainess. The estab lishment was sold to Maas Brothers, of Tampa, in 1945. Both Edgar Patton Harrison and J. Frank Ha-rrison were active in civic affairs. They helped partieular)y in developing the Board o f Trade into a live organi,ati on which helped greatly in promoting the interests of the city. Tbey also were active in the Presbyterian Church and in fraternal orders of wh ich they were members. Edgar Patton Har rison was for twelve yean a member of the St. Petersburg School Board In 1878, J. Frank Harrison was married to Matti H Johnson, of Jacksonville, Fla. They bad an adopted daughter, Margaret. On August 16, 1894, Edgar Patton Harri son was married to Ada M. Shepherd, of Wellsburg, W. Va. They had two sons, .J. Edgar Harrison and C. Harrison. Edgar Patton Harrison died in St. Petersburg September 12, 1941, and J. Frank Harrison died on February 6, 1944 . A. F. BARTLETT A. F: Bartlett was born in Southampton, Mass., March 5, 1853, a son of Samuel C and Rhoda (Searles) Bartlett, who also were na tives o f Massachusetts. The Bartlett family settled in New Englan d in Colonial days and Josiah Bartlett was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Mr. Bartlett was edueated in the publi c sehoo ls of Massaehuaotts, the Phillips Aca demy at Andover, MuS&., Yale Uni versity, and Oberlin College, Ohio, from which he wa s graduated in 1882. For two year s he was in charge of a boarding school known as Stanford Seminary in New York and after being graduated from Oberlin waa up pointed auperintendent of schools of Yank ton, S. D., where he remained unUl 1887. He then became a professor of mathematic$ and seienees at Yankton College. In 1900 he returned to Oberlin to teach in the preparatory department. He remained there two yeara and then spent the next two years studying educational systems in various cities. Later he took charge of the publie schools at Lake Geneva, Wis. M r. Bartlett visited Florida for the first time during the summer of 1896, eomlng on a summer excursion which cost him $88 for tho round trip. While in Tampa he heard about St. Petersburg and decided to see what the plaee looked like. Two days later he bought an orange grove with about forty acr .. of land on Ninth street north, owned by George R. Jackson. He paid about $5,000 for the property. Two years later the Bartlett returned to St. Petersburg to make it t .heir permanent home. Although Mr. Bartlett never aetively en gaged in teaching in Florida he retained his interest in schoo ls. He served eight years on the St. Peter$burg school board and three years on the county school board. He aided in atartlnc the first kindergarten in the city. He was one of the organizers of the Board of Trade and, when the Chamber of Com merce was incorporated, served as its !irs.t president. Later b9 served for many years as a member of the board of direetors and was chairman of many eommittccB. Mr. Bartlett took a leadi ng part in the development of the waterfront and was one of the men who acquired key waterfront lots and held them in trust until the eity could take them over. He also wa & one of the men who bought land needed by the Tampa & Gulf Coaat Railroad so that it eould enter the eity. He was one of the organizers of the Central National Bank and was its first vico-preoident. He helped to organi . dif ferent organizations for the and culture of orange groves and wns made a life member of the State Hortieulture Society.

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THE STORY Ok' ST. PETERSBURG 287 Bartlett Park (q.v.) was named in h is honor. Mr. Bartlett was manied to Miss Alice A. F ord, o f N ow Haven, Conn., in 187 0. They had three children: Ralph Irene, and Ruth. Mr. Bartlett died February 17 19 46. He was survived b y his w idow, two Mrs. Irene Park, Washington, D. C and Mrs. Ruth Barnes, St. PetetSbu rg, and six grandchi1dren Margaret Park, Mrs. Frances Park Walker, John Bartlett Pa.rk, Ruth Park, H. C Barnes and Bartlett Barnes. WM. A. HOLSHOUSER William Alexander Holshouser was born in Paris, Tenn., February 6 1873, th e s on of W illiam S. a n d Cynthia Ann Roberta (Dicke .nscn) Holshouser, the form e r a native of South Carolina and the latter o f Ala bama. T h e family cam<> to Florida January 1, 1883, and settled in Ot-lando W A. Holshouser was educated in the public schools of Orlando and studied one year at Rollins College. While a youth he started i n the drug business. In October, 1896, be came to St. Petersburg to take over the management of a drug store. Soon after wa r d h e opened a drug store of his own, on the southeast corner of Central and Fourth. During the next two decade s, he moved his stot e several times to larger quarte rs to take care of his expanding trade. In 1920 he entered the reaJ bus i ness, in wh i ch he is still engaged Mr. Ho lshouser was tteasurer of the city of St. Petersburg for two years and secre tary of the loca l school board for three years. While a member of the school board he had act ive charge of the erection o f the three ward schools and the Negro school at Tenth street and Thir d avenue sou t h In 1928, he was appointed by Mayor John N Brown to serve on a special committee which studied the city's water su p ply for a year and fin ally recommended the Cosme Odessa region as the best source for the city's water He was one of th e twehe original mem bers of the Chamber of Comme rce organized in 1898 with Col. L. Y. Jenness as pt esi dent. \Vhile a director of the organization, WM. A. HOLSHOUSER in 19 02, the Chamber ordered the first booklets to adve.rtise t he city. He served as presiden t of the Chamber i n 1 903. Mr. Ho ls houser is a past g r and patriarch of the Independent Order of Odd Fellow;; and was grand treasurer of the order for four years. He is a life member of the St. Petersburg No 139 Masons and the Consistory and Egypt Temp l e of Tampa. On April 15, 1897, Mr. Holshouser was married t o Miss Catora Reynolds, daughter of William H. and Catora (Giles) Reynolds, of Fort Dodge, Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Holshou ser have a daughte r, Elizabeth, a graduate o f Stetson University. She was married in 1 92 4 to Williarn Earl Dietz of Pittsburgh, Pa. Mr. and Mrs Dietz have four sons: Wil liam F]arl, J r. born May 19, 192(\; George Albert, born September 7, 1928; David Peter, born August 19, 1930, and Jon Hol shouser, born February 22, 1934. Mrs. Holshouser was co-manager of the Holshouser drug store for e leven years and is now a member of the Holshouser Realty Co. She was one of tho founders and charter

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288 THE STORY Of" ST. PETERSBURG members of Eureka Chapter, O .E.S ., and Golden Rod Rebekah L odge She was also one of the foundets of the W.T.J.A. and while chairman of the building committee had charge of the erection of the W.T.I.A. building, now occupied by the Y.W.C.A. OSCAR W. GILBART Oscar William Gilbart was born in St. Petersburg November 16, 1896 the son of Harold W. and Emma (Andrews} Gilbart. He was educated in St. Petersburg public schoo l and was graduated f rom high schoo l in 1916. He attended the University of Mich igan for one year and then left college to enter the military service in Wor l d 'Var J. He s ef\ed fourteen months in the f ield artillery, becoming a second lieutenant. After being discharged from the army he went to work for t he West Coast Title company as an office boy. He worked his way up and became manager of the concern in 1925 and pre sident in uary 1938. He has served as president of the company eve r since. OSCAR W. GILBART Mr. Gilbar t se. rved as a member of the board of governors of the Chamber of Com merce for 1 2 years, was a member of the Chamber's advertising committee for ten years. and was president of the organization in 1937. He bas been a member of the Rotary Club since 1935 and was its presiden t in 1 942-43. He was a member of the board of directors of the Y.M.C.A. for many years and was on the board when the pteaent Y.M. building was erec t ed in 1926. He assisted in organiz in g the Executives' C lub in 1940 and was its for three years. He was general chairman of the Community Chest in 1944. During World War II he served on the Selective Service Board from October, 1940, until April, 1947. On October 5, 1921, Mr. Gilbart mat ried to F innette Williams, of Dayton, Ky. Mr. and Mrs. Gilbart have three daughters: Finnette born Decembe r 8 0, 1924; Miriam Adele, born December 15, 1926, and Joanne Louise, born Dece rnber 24, 1930. Finette, is a graduate of Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. In 194 7, 1\Iiriam Adele was a senior at Miam i University and Joanne Louise was a senior at St. Petetsburg High School. GEORGE EDWARDS George Edwards was born in North Wales on June 8, 18 53, the son of Edward and Mary (Morris} Edwards. His family came to this country in 1859 and settled in Ver mon t. When a child, his parents died and he went to Jive with friends. He was educated in the publ ic schools and a t Worchester Academy, in Worehester, Mass. During vaca tions, he learned the painter's trade. He was married on Nov. 27, 1876, to Abbie J. Reed, of Sharon, N.H. In 1882, Mrs. Edwards b ecame ill and her physician advised her to live in a milder climate. The family came to Florida, locat ed first at Tangerine, Orange County. and eight months later h omesteade d in Her nando County, near Mannfield. The freeze of 1894-9 5 improvished that section and in 1897, the Edwards moved to St. Petersburg. For his orange grove and land, valued at more than $8,000, Mr. Edwards received only $300.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETET!SBURG 289 Deciding to go into business here, Mr. Edwards purchased a lot on Central ave nue, where the Phiel Theatre is now located, from the St. Pet
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290 TnE SToRY OF ST. PETERSBURG I n 1929 Mr. Straub wrote "The of Pinellas County ." During his long servic e as .;ditor of the Times, Mr. Straub had many opportunities to aid in the development of St. Peters burg-and he sidestepped none of them. For many years he fough t for the municipal ow nership and devel opment of the water front--his friend& uid be bad "wate r front on the brain." Had it not been for his efforts it is quite likely that St. Petersburg today wou l d have a waterfront littered with warehouses, machine shops, and wholes ale fish houses instead of its beautiful \Vaterfront Park. Mr. Straub inaugurated and led the movement to croatc Pinellas County by separating Pinellas Peninsula fro m Hills borough County. He aided in the estab lishmen t of St. Petersburg's system o f parks. He was identified with the Chamber of Commerce since its bC!-ginning and served as Its presiden t in 191 S. Ho was instru mental in securing a larger donation from the Carnegie Corporation than had been of ferred, making pos sible the construction of the public library. The Pinellas County Board of Trade was organized through tho efforts of Mr. Straub and he was elected as Its first president. He took a leading part ln the organization of the St. Petersburg Tarpon C lub, St. Peters buTg Yacht Club and Rotary Club. He was chairman of the City P lannin g Board rom the time it wa$ created until the resump tion of his work as editor-in-chief of the Times. He was a prominent member of the Knights of P )'thias and served the order for three terms as chance llor eommandet He was also a mombcr of the Elks. On Nov. 21, 1891, Mr. Straub was mar ried to Sarah A. Mooro, daugh ter or Joel S. and Flora A. M oore, of Dowagiac, Mich. Mr. and Mrs. Straub had a daughter Blanche M., now M ra. Jay B. Starkey Mr Straub died April 10, 1939 JOHN N. B R OWN J oh n N. Brown was bom in \Vebste. r Sumter County, Florida, on October 9, 1876, the son of J. L. and Minerva ( Wells) Brown, the former a native of Alabama and the latter of North Carolina. The grandfather of John N. Brown, Nathan L. Brown, a Methodist minister, was the origina tor of the fnmoua Parson Brown orange, and had a large grove near Webst er. John Brown attended the Sumter County schools and later the Georgia Bu s in ess Collegel, in Senoia, Ga., near Atlant a, from which he was graduated in 1897. He then went to work for the Southern Express Company as messenger through Florida, Georgia and Alabama. H e iil'$1 came to St. Petel'$burs as e x press messenger in Septem ber 1899. In 1 902 he was appointed express agen t In St. Petersburg. He hold this posi tion until Ma y 1911 when he resirned beea uae of poor health, caused by overwork. .Mr. Brown took an active intere s t in city and country government for mony ycors. He wna elec ted to the city coun cil in 1910 and served two years. H e wos elected county tnx in 1 912 and served until 1916. In that yea r b e was elected cler k of the circuit court. He too k office January 1, 1917, and was re-elected without opposi tion in 1921 for ano ther four-year term. H e did not seck re-election again because he wanted to devote his time to operating the JOHN N BROWN

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 291 Suwannee Hotel, at First avenue north and Fifth street, which he had bui l t in 1928. The hotel, which originally had 118 rooms, was formally opened on January 4, 1924 During 1926, 85 more rooms were added t o the hotel. In 1 928, Mr. Brown was elected mayor of St. Petersbu rg. One of his first official acts was the appointment of a commi ttee c onsis ting o f twenty-five leading citizens to study the city's water supply. Th.e com .. mitt.ee p ropose1 four areas, a n d the council selected the Cosme Odessa region a n d called an election for the approval of the voters of the city. An overwhelming majority ap proved the Cosme-Odessa site, and this has proved to be one of the best public water supply source s in t he South. Other public services include membership on the city Advertising and Library Board at the time the Public Library was built in 1914. He was a membe r of the board of governors o f the Chamber of Commerce from 1'910 to 1920, and was p r eside n t of that organization in 1925. For a number of yea r s he has been host to the former mayor s of St. Petersburg and past presidents o the Chamber of Commerce at a Good Fellowship Dinner held at the Suwannee Hotel. Thi s ann ual fun ction has as its objective the idea that uthe expe.rienee and counael of former officials, acting collec tively, can and should be an i nvaluable asset to the city." Mr. Brown is a Mason, being a member of the Chapter, Commandery and Egypt Temple of Tampa. He is also a member of the Knights of Pythias and Elks. In 1934 he was e l ected president of t h e Florida S tate Hote l Assoc i ation for that year. On April4, 1904 he was married to Sarah Celeste White of Live Oak, S uw annee County, Florida They have a daughter, Dorothy Elizabeth, and two sons, Paul Morton, and John Mercer. Paul Brown was graduated from U niver sity of Florida i n 1933. On June 24, 19 37, be was married to Emma Lee Goodwin, of Gainesville. They have two daughters: Nancy L;,e, born April 7, 1938, and Barbara Ann, born March 3, 1947. D ur ing World War II he served 45 mou t hs in Air Corps Com munication Syste m, attaining the rank of captain In 1942 he was elected president of the St. Pete rsburg Chamber of Commerce and s e r ved in that office until entering military service. John Mercer B row n was graduated from the Un i v ersity of Florida in 1935. During World War II, he served fifty month s in the Infantry, being with 82nd Airborne Division and 75th Infantry Division Serving in North Africa and Europe, be attained the r ank of captai n at the time of leaving mili tary service. Paul and Mercer Brown are both active in the manag ement of the Suwannee Hotel. JAY B. S1'ARKEY Jay B. Starkey was born in St. Cloud, Minn., January 31, 1895, the son of Frank H. and Gertrud e (Porter) Starkey. His father was born i n New York and reared in M inn e s ota. His mother was born in Kansas but moved with her pare n t s to Kissimmee when she was ten years o ld. In 1897, the Starkeys moved from St. Cloud t o Kissimmee and three years later came to St. Petersburg where the father died i n 1905. Mr. Starkey was educated in the Petersburg public schools, and after the death of hi s father, worked in store$ after school hours and during vacations. U pon graduating f r o m St. Petersburg High School in 1914, he started working as a clerk in the post office Soon after the start of World War I, Mr. Starkey left St. Petersburg with the 1st Co., Coaot Artillery, Florida National Guard. Transferred to the Office .rs Train ing Camp at Atlanta. he was cOmmiss ion ed as a second lieutenant October 16, 1918. H e was discharged in December of that year A short t ime after the war ended, he en tered the livestock b ui ness and in 1924 establish ed Ulmerton Ranch near L argo. D. B Cunningham became ass ociated with t he ranch in 1927, the two men operating as partners. In addition to raising hogs and cattle, they grow considerable feed for ensilage, putting up about 16Q tons a year.

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292 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG For many years the ranch had the largest herd of pure-bred Ham p shire hogs i n the entire South. The ranch aJso pi onee red in pute bred beef cattle, bringing into t he county the firs t registered bulls of Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn and Brahman breeding as well as the first carload of registered Brahman cows. In 1937, t he partners, with three o t h e r Cunningham brothers, purchased 1,600 acres in Pasco County, established the uC.S.'' Ranch and began raising cattle and growing timber. In 1936, Mr. Starkey was elected t-ax collector of Pinellas County, defeating a Republican incumbent who had won over Democratic nominees i n 1928 and 1932. Mr Starkey in 1947 was serving his third four.year term. In 19 44, he polled more votes than any other Democrat w ith Re publican opposition. Starkey has been st-ate director for the F lorida State Cattlemen's Associa ti on for the past tw o years. He is a charter member of American Legion Post No. 14, a Mason, and a membe r of th e St. Pete rg... JAY B. STARKEY burg Kiwanis C lu b since 1983, Quarterback C lu b, the Chamber o f Commerce, Pinellas County Cattlemen's Association, and the Florida and American Brahman bre e ders' associations. He is a director of the Federal Farm Bureau in Pinellas County. He is a member of the Mirror Lake Christian Church. During World War II, he ser,ed over five years a s a member of Select iv e Service App eal Board No. 1 which consisted of five men appointed by the governor from the 1st Congressional Distr ict. On June 9, 1 920 Mr. Starkey was married to Blanche Straub, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Straub (q.v.) Mrs. Starkey is a member of the Congregationa l Church, a former secretary of the County P.T .A., and former secretary and president of the Sinawik Club. M r and Mr s St-arkey hav e a daughter, Mar i on Ade lle, bor n July 25, 1922, and a so n Jay B., Jr., horn October 1 5 1936. Marion Adelle was graduated from St. Petersburg High School in 1939, attended Junior College a year, and was graduated from Florida State College for Women in 1943. On July 8 1943 she was marrie d to William "' Gay and is now Hving in Gainesville Jay B. Starkey, Jr., in 1947 was attendi n g Largo Junior High School. JUDGE SAMU E L DA VJD HARRIS Samuel David Hanis wa s born in Sumter County, Florida, April 6, 1866, the son of Thomas H. a nd Permelia (Griffin) Harris. When he was very young the family moved to Pinellas Peni nsula and settled on a farm near Clearwater He was educated in the common schools and, when a y oung m an, went to sea. I n 1894 he gave up the s eaman' s life and se ttle d on the peninsula, becoming inter ested in busi n ess enterpt:ise s On November 9, 1887, he was married a t Benton, Colum bia County Flo r ida, to Emma Cone, a membe r of a pioneer North Florida family. To give h is children better s c hool ad vantages and a l so for bu s iness rea sons, he moved t o S t Petersburg in 1905 and est.ob lished a general store. Shortly afterwards

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THE STORY OF S-r. PETERSBURG 293 be entered the undertaking business, in whick he was engaged for thirteen years. Laur he bought and sold real estate .Mr. Harris was a. county division advocate and took a leading part in the movement to separau Pinellas Peninsula from Hillsborough County and create Pinellas County. Always actively interested in civic affair&, he served on t h e board of governors of the Chamber of Commerce for severn! years and was pre sident in 19 11. Whil e proaident, ho was one of a committee of throe to represent the city before the Board ot Enilneers in Washington, D. C. This committee succeeded in s ecuring the govern ment a.id which made Bayboro Harbor a reality. He served for severa l years as chairman of the board of trustees for the local schools and as chairman of the City Hospital Board. He was o n e of the organizers, the first presi dent and a board member of the St. Poursburg Y.M.C. A Mr. Harris was elected to the Stal, und it-s c h airman for four years. Judge Harris was an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Rotary Club, a mem ber of tho Chambe r of Commerce, a lite member of the Lodge No. 139, F & A.M., a member of the Roy al Arch Masons, a Knight Templar and a Shriner. JUDGE S D HARRIS Judge Harris died on December 24, 1989, in St. Petorsburg. He WaJl survived by hlo widow and his two son s, John D. Harri s and S. Henry Harri .. JOHN DAVID HARRIS John David Harris was born October 12, 1889, near Clearwater, Fla., the son of Samuel D. and Emma (Cone) flarri. He came to St.. Petersburg with his parents in 1906 and was graduated from the St.. Petersburg High School in 1908. During his early life, ll!r. Harris worked with his father in the grocery busi ness and later in the undertaking business. In 1912 he became engaged in the abstract of title business for himself and later organized tho company which is now tho West Coast Title Company. He sold his interest in that con cern in 1917. Durin g World War I, Mr Harri s served i n the Home Guards and was a member of R.O.T.C., Stetson University. He was graduated from Stetson with a law degree in 1919. In that year he com menced the practice of law in St. Peters-

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burg, forming a with his brother, S. Henry Harris, which continued until November 1, 1919, when he formed a partnership with Bayard S Cook under the firm nam e o f Cook & Harris. In 1939 the firm name was ehanged to Cook, Harris, Barrett, McG l othlin & Dew which was contin ued until the death of M r. Cook in Januiry, 1946. The name was then changed to Harris, Barrett, McGlothlin & Dew Mr. Harris is a past president of the Jo"'lorida State Bar Association and a mem ber of the St. Petersburg and American bar associations. He has been a membe.t of the Rotary Club since 1922 and served as its president in 1929-30. He is a cha rter member of the St. Petersburg Yach t Club, Quarte.rback Club, and Lakewood Country Club. He is a life member of St . Petersburg Lodge No. 139, F & A.M., member Sun shine Commandary, Knights Temp 1 a r Egypt Temple Shrine; a l so membe r Shrine JOHN D HARRIS Club of St. Petersburg; Sigma Nu social fraternity, and Phi Alpha Delta le gal fraternity Mr. Harris has been a member of the First Method ist Church ever since he came to St. Petersburg. He is now a trustee and a steward of the church and i s president o f the church corporation Ever since join ing the church he has been active in Sunday school work and for ten years was bead of the young peop le's department i n the Sunday S choo l. For many years Mr. Harri. s has been active in the !<'lorida State Chambe r of Com merce and has served on many of its commit tees. At present he is setving as vice .. ptesident of District No. 4 and is a member of the board of directors and of the executiv e committee. He i s also a member of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commetce. Mr. Harri s is a director of the St. Peters burg Community Chest and was its presi .. den t for four years, ending i n 1947. He i s a trustee of the Y.M C.A. and a director of the St. Petersburg Motor Club On June 10, 1914, Mr. Harris was m ar t ied to Annie Marguerite Cunningham, who was born in Fletcher, N C., and who moved to St. Petersburg with her family in 1911. She i s a past president of Women of Rotary, a leader in the primary depat'tmen t of the Sunday School of the First Methodi s t Church, and a member of the Interlock Club Mr and Mrs. Harris have. t h ree childre n : Joh n D Jr., bot n August 25 1915; Annette, botn December 2, 1916, and Samuel W botn May 12, 1919. John D. Harris, Jr., was graduated from the University of Florida in 1940, served in the adjutant general's division or the army from November '1, 1940, to December, 1945, attaining the rank of lieutenant colonel and is now praeticjng law in St. Pet e rsburg H 0 was married to Estelle Ple:;s in 1938 and they have two children, John D., Ill, and Douglas William. Annette a ttended the Florida S tate Col lege for Women after be:ing graduated from St. Petersburg High School and is ma
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 295 Samuel W. Harris was graduated from Vanderbilt Univers ity with a B .S degree in 1941. served in the Marine Corps f r om 1 941 to No v ember 20 1 9 4 5, attainin g the r ank of captain, and i n 1947 was stu dying law at th e U n iversity of Florida He was married to Mary Jane Maresh, of San Diego, Cal., in April, 1945. SAMUEL HENRY H A RRIS Samuel Henry Harris was born N ovember 21, 1891, near Belleair, then in Hill sborough County but no w a part o f Pinellas, t h e s o n of Samuel David and Em ma (Cone) Harris. He atten de d St. Petersburg High School and later attended Southe r n College While going to public schools, he worked in his father's grocery stor e and l ater worked a b o u t a yc.a.r as a earpenter's appren tice . H e t h en went w i th an abst ract com pany wher e h e remaine d until the fall of 1914 when be b ecame a postal cle r k in the money order department under Postmaster Roy S. Hanna. In t he spring of 19 1 5 h e was employed as a clerk by Wilbur F. Divine, then city clerk of St. Petersburg at that time the entire City Hall office force c onsisted of just f our persons: Divine, Guy Shepard, C. Y. McMullen and Harris. In th e fall of 19 16, Mr. Ha rris resigned position with the city to enter S tetson University and study l aw. After World War I started, he left the universitY and enlisted in the N avy. He was commiss i o ned as an ensign e arly in 191 8 and promoted ta lieu tenant (j. g.) lata the same year. During mos t of 1918 h e was engaged in convoy s e r \ ice on the Atlantic. He was l'elieved of active du t y i n January, 1919 and then r e tu rned to Stetson and was graduated with an LL.B. deg ree the fo llow ing summer. I n the fall of 1 919, Mr. Harris entered the practice o f l aw in St. Petersburg and has b e en engaged in it ever s ince. H e served three t erms in the Florida House of Rep. resentatives having been elected in 19d.O, 1942 and R e was city attorney for t he city of St. Petersburg Beac h from 1943 unti l June 1, 1947 and has been attorney for the town o f Redington Beach On Oc t ober 12, 1943, he was appointed S. HENRY HARRI S general master in chancery by Judge T Frank Hobson and in 1947 was still serving i n that c .apaci ty. M r Harris has been active in civic affair s for many years. H e is a former mem ber of the boar d of governor s of the Cham her of Commerce and has served on the Chamber's r oad and bridge s committe e A$ a member o f that committe e, and also as a mem ber of the state le gislature, he has aided in the de vel opment of plans for t he West Coast highway. He is a member of the St. Petersburg and Flor ida State bar associations. I n 1947 he was servin g as presiden t o f the St. burg Bar and as a member of the board o f directors from this circuit of the s tate a ssocia.tion. He is a member of the Americ a n Legion, Veterans of Fore ign Wars, Moos e Lodge, Benevolent and Pro tective Order of Elk s (exalted ruler 1932 1933) and St. Petersburg Rotary Club. H e is also a member of the M ethodist E piscopal Church. Mr. Harris wa.s; married September 15, 1920, to Ellen Paulin e M ontaine. They had

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296 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG three children: S. Henry, Jr., born June S, 1921; William Cone, born May 21, 1924, and Helen Judith, horn No,ember 18, 1927. Divorced in 1931, Mr. Harris subsequently marrie d his present wife, whose maiden name was Emma Drew, on October 16, 1987. S. Henry Harris, Jr., attended St. Petersburg public schools and was graduated from St. Petersburg Junior College. In 1947 he was e mployed by the Ford Motor Company in Washington,D. C. William Cone Harris was graduated from St. Petersburg High School in 1942 and then served four years in the Army. In' the fall of 1946 he entered Stetson University to study law. Helen Judith Harris attended high school in St. Petersburg and later the Academy at Young Harris College at Young Harris, Georgia. She also attended Junior College at Young Harris and was graduated i n June, 1947. KATHERINE BELL TIPPETTS Mrs. Katherine Bell Tippetts was born in Somerset County, Maryland, the daugh ter of Nathanial Thomas and Julia Frances (Hawkes) Bell. Her father was descended MUS. KATHERINE B. TIPPETTS from th e Maryland Planters, one of whom married I .ady Rebecca Revelle of England. Her mother's ancestors were descended from Isaac Allerton, lieutenant-governor under Governor Bradford of Massachusetts and a signer of the Mayflower Pact. Mrs. Tippetts married William Henry Tippetts of New York, who was special European corre spondent to American papers and who held financial interests in several New York newspapers. .Mr. and Mrs. Tippetts made their headquarters in New York but spent much of their time in foreign countries. Mrs Tippetts cOntribu ted to a number of leading periodicals in the country and, under her pen name, Jerome Cable, wrote uPrince Arenzeba" and other books. In 1902 Mrs. Tippetts came to St. Petersburg in the hope that her husband's health would be restored. After his death in 1909 she assumed charge of his affairs, became owner of the Belmont Hotel, and erected office buildings on other properties. The life of Mrs. Tippetts has been one of service to St. Petersburg, Florida and the nation. She has been particularly active in the work of the Audubon Society. In 1909 she organized the St. Petersburg Audubon Societr and was its president for thirtythree years. She was sectional vice-president of the State Society for three years and from 1 921 to 1924 served as its presi dent. Largely as a result of her work, bird sanctuaries were established in Pine1Jas Coun ty, the mocking bird was named as the official state bird of Florida, a Bird Day was proclaimed by the governor of Florida, and laws were passed to prot ec t robi ns. She also fought for the establishment of the first Fish and Game Commission of Florida. Mrs. Tippetts' work for women's clubs has been notable. She is a life member of the St. Petersburg Woman's C lub, was president of the Pinellas County Federation of Women's Clubs in 1920; she has held nu merous offices in the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, including the presidency in 1926-28, and for the General Federation of Women's Clubs she ae rved as national chairman of Nature Study and Wild Life Refuges, from 1924 to 1928, and as national chairman of conservation from 1928 to

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 297 1982. During this period she collected and had published in the Federation the "Beauty Spot&" of all 48 states; planted the first George Washington Tree on the two hundreth anniversary of the birth of George Washington, at the celebration in Denver, Col. She also put on a campaign for a state bird for each state a nd, 8$ a result, the American Nature A ssoc i ation, with hm ass istance, ai!Sembled the picture s of the state birds and published them in boo k form, i n their natura) colors in "Bird s of the State.a." At various times, M rs. Tippett s has served on many state boarda and commissions as an appointee of the g overnor. In 1926 she waa named to serve on the Educationa l Survey Commission; in 1928, she was appointed as a member of the Florida State Reclamo lion Board, and in 1930 she became a mem ber of the F1orida State Board of illiteracy. M rs. Tippetts i n 1930 was appointed to serve as a trustee of th e National Park Aasociation ; in 1931 she was elected vice presi dent of the American Forestry Association and from 1928 to 1932 served on the n,._ tional board of finance for the Y. W. C. A. and wa s a nationa l flower commissioner wh o selected by national vote the National Flower, th e wild rose. She also was a di recto r of the National Camp Fire Girls. T h e wide range of Mrs. Tippetts' activi ties is indicated by her affi l ia tio n with other organizatio ns. In 1919, she organized the first Boy Scout Troop in St. Petersburg ; from 1915 through 1924 she served a s see retary-treasnrer of the St. Petersburg Park Board, during which tim e she suggested the name "Mirror'' f or the tben..called Reser voi r Lake; in 1 919, she was elected treasurer of tho Pinellas County Boar d of Trade ; from 1926 to 1 928 sh e was a director and chairman of education of the Florida State Chamber o f Commerce; during World War I she was active in war work; she is a char ter member of the St. Petersburg 1\Iomoial and Histor ial Socie ty, the St. Petersburg Branch of the Ame r ican Pen Wom en, and Echo Club; a nd she has se. rved a s a director of the Cripp l ed Children's hospital and as vic""preaident of the Cripple d Children's Guild. She i s a member of the Presbyterian Church. M rs. Tippetts has four children: William Bell Tippetts. Ch arles Sanford Tippett&, Frances Hawkes (Tippetts) Johnston, and l!.'rnest Franklin Tipp etts. William Bell is a graduate of Princeton and Harvard L a w School, is practicin g law in St. Petersburg, in 1932 was married to Belle O'Neal and has two chil dren, William Bell, Jr., and Emma Josephine. Charl es Sanford was an officer in World War I received o Ph. D. degree at Pr inceton, becam e an e du cator, is the author of several books, is now head master at Mercersberg Ac ad emy, Mercer sburg, Pa., in 1922 was maJTicd to Margaret Gri!fith, and has two children : Charles Sanford, Jr., and Katherine Bell (Tippetts) Steiger. Frances Ha wkes was graduat4d f rom the Florid a State College tor Women, married Dr. J. Kent J Ohnston, now deceased ; lived many years at Tallahassee where she filled many post$, educational and social, and is now living with her mother at Pinella s Point. Ernest Franklin was graduated from the Georgia School of Technology, worked many years for the War Departmen t in various parts of the eountry, is now a mem ber of consulting engineering firm of Knappen, Tippetts and Abbott, in New York City ; in 1926, was married to Ineza Hogan and had two sons, Ernest Franklin, Jr . now deceased, and 'Villiam Bryan. WILLIAM BELL TIPPETTS W illia m Be ll Tippetts was born at Glen Falls, N. Y. o n Octo ber 9, 1890, the son o f William H. and Emily Katherine (Bell) Tippetts. He came U. St. Petersburg with his parents in February, 1902, and attended St. Petersburg public schools. Durin g the summers o f 1907 and 1908, ho was city editor of the St. Peterburg Times, and during the summer following his graduation from high schoo l in 1909 h e was city editor of the St. Petersburg Eve ning Independent. He was graduated from Mercersburg Academy in 1910 and then attended Princ ,.ton U niversity from whi c h h e wa s graduated an A .B. d egec in 1914 He receiv ed his L.L B degree at Harvard Law Schoo l in 191 7 Whil e at Princeton he won the Pri nceton Fellowship and the Lang dell Sc holarship and wa s a member o f Phi Beta Kappa fraternity.

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298 THE STORY OF ST. PETE!RSBURC During World War I he served in the Army Y.M.C.A. from July, 1917, until January, 1918, at Camp Devens, Mass. t hen served in U.S. Army, February, 19 18, until 1919, private Q.M.C. at Camp Joseph E. Johnston, Jacksonville, Fla., until Septema ber, 1918, when he was commissioned a second lieutenant, lecture writer in Enlisted Men's Training School; after commissio n waS adjutant o Officers Training Sc hool, later adjutant of Camp Training Divis i on, after armistice, camp summary court of ficer, l ater judge advocate of camp spec ial court martial. He returned to St. Petersburg January, 1919, after discharge Mr. Tippetts was admitted to the Florida Bar in 1920, to New York Bar in 1922, and to practice before the Supreme Court of the United States in 1 925. He practiced law in New York City from 1921 to 1925 when he returned to S t Petersburg where h e has lived and pract ic ed law ever since. He has been secretary, 1929 31, and presi dent, 1932 of St. Petersburg Bar Associa tion; member Florida State Bar Association and former associate editor Florida Law WILLIAM B. TIPPETTS Journal; member American Bar Association; sec retary 1931-32 Florida Roosevelt organization; c .hairman of Pinellas County Democ ratic Executive Committee 1932 to date; worshipful master, 1932, St. Peters burg Lodge No. 139 F. & A.M.; an organizer of American Legion Hospital for Crippled Childr en, also att-orney and director since 1928; lifo member of St. Petersburg Memo rial Historica l Society; vice .. presiden t St. Petersburg Chapter S.A.R.; member First Presbyterian Church of St. Petersburg; member Jeffersonian Club of St. Peters burg, American L egion, B.P.O.E. Selama Grotto, Executives Club G.A.R. Memorial Day Corporation; trust c e 1926-1934 Y.M.C.A. ; mem.ber various committees of Chan>ber o f Commerce, and loca l r epresen tative Princeton Graduate Council and head of local Princeton Club. Clubs: Cloister Inn (Princeton), Beale Law (Harvard Law School), Harvard Law (New York City), Army and Navy (St. Petersburg). Hobbies: fishing1 boating, stamp collecting. On June 9, 1932, M r 'l' l ppetts was mar ried to Belle O'Neal, of Belton, Miss. Mr. and Mrs. Tippetts have two children: Wil liam Bell, Jr., bor n April 8 1935 and Emma Josephine, born June 1, 1939. Belle O'Neal Tippetts was sraduated with a B.A. degree in 1926 from the Florida State College for Women and taught school at the North Ward School in St, Petersburg from 1926 to 1984. She has been l'ecordin g secretary and president of Dixie Chapter of the United Daughters o f the Confederacy, recording secretary and p resident of Katherin e Payne Beach Home for Convalescent Children, recording secre tary and also corres pondin g seeretary of the board of directors of the Y.W.C.A and reeording secretary and vice p r esident of the Florida. Society o f Colonial Dames of the Seventeenth Century. C. A. HARVEY C. A Harvel' was born June 16, 1868, in Jesup, Ga., the s on of William and Nancy ( Grandham) Harvey. He rece iv ed his early education in the public sehools of Jesup. As a young man he worked in a hotel in Thomasville, Ga., and also became owner o f a sawmill. He later was engaged in the. lumbct business in North Florida.

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TIIE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 299 In August, 1903, Mr. Harvey came to St. Petersburg. Shortly aftonvnrd he rented a s mall hotel and condu cted it for t he winter. A year later he becamo intet'e!lte d i n real esta te and wen t in to business with E. B. Rowland, one of th e few rea l esta t e me n in the cit)' at that Ume. Late in 1904 Mr. H .arvey conceived the idea of reclaiming the 1\Vamp land through which Booker and Salt Creeks found their way to the ba y, He believed tbia could be done by dredging out a harbor deep enough for large ships to enter and by filling in the low lands. Mr. H.arvey's means wcro limited and i t wos necess:ary for him to interest others in the project. He first Interested Dr. H A. Murphy and together they bought, earl) in 190S, thirty acres of what was considered al most valueless waste land. Then Mr. Harvey and A. F. Freeman bought seventy .. five acres more. On June 26, 1906, the Bayboro Investment Company was organixed. The com pany continlfed to buy all the territory east of Fourth street between Seventh and Nine teenth avenues. This included all the swamplan ds and most or tho highlands be yond, a bout 180 ac res in all. Mr. Harvey continued in charge of the Bayboro d evelopment untll the time of h i s death, on January 18, 1914. But he did not live to see big ships ccmc into the harbor of his dreams due to the fact that the Bayboro project caused long yeara of factional warfare in the city. A real port was not ob tained until the boom yean in the '20s. (See Chapter-Along the Waterfront.) 1\lr. Harvey was survived by his widow and three c hildren: Charles J,eeter, Mrs Estelle Sullivan, and Mrs Ruth F leet. Charles L e ster Har vey served in tho air cor ps duting World War I and later was actively en gaged in the r eal cst.o.to business in St. Petersbu rg. He died on July 12, 1939. GEORGE S. GANDY George S. Gandy wa s born in Tuckahoe, N.J., on October 20, 18Sl, the son of Lewis and Jane A. (Reeves) Gandy. After com p l eting a gramma r school course be started work as an offic e bo y in the f irm of Henry Disst on & Sons, snw manufac tu rers o f PhilaGEO RGE S. GANDY delphia. He r em ai ned with tho fhm for eleven yonl'S, work -ing u p to 11 responsible position. Mr. Gandy then became secretary and treasurer of the Frankford & Southwark Railroad Co. and later was made vice presi dent. He also beume associated in an ot fieial capacity with a number of traction companie s in the Philadelphia area and was instrumental in buildi ng a number o! trolley Jines. He was also acti ve in constructio n work, building the People's 'l'hcatre and Toxtile Hall, as well as more than two hu n dred residences. Mr. Gandy first came to St. Peteraburg in 1908 with F. A. Davis (q.v.) Mr. Davi s suc ceeded in interesting him in the city which then had less than 2,000 inhabitants, and for a number of years Mr. Gandy wu ,.._ sociated with the various Davis companies. In 1912, Mr. Gandy purchased property at the corner of Fifth and Central and con structed the Plaza Theatre and office build i ngs. Many believed that Gandy would lose he avily on t h e undertaking and tor n year

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300 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG or two the Plaza was referred to as "Gandy's White Elephant." However, it turned out to be an excellent investment. 1\Ir. Gandy's crowning achievement was the cons tl' uction of the Gandy Bridge, con. nec ting link between St. Petersburg and Tampa. A full account of Gandy Bridge is given in Chapter VIII. Mr. Gandy was a former commodore of the Yacht Club of Sea Side Park, N.J., th<> Yachtsmen C l ub of Philade lphia, and the St. Yacht Club. H e was a member of Hami lton Lodge F. & A.M. No. 500, Freeman Chapter No. 243, and Mary Com mandary, Lu !Ju Temple of the Mystic Shrine at Philadelphia Selama Grotto, Elks Lod ge No. and Rotary C lub. In 1887 Ml'. Gandy was married to Mis C lara Frances Miller, i n Phlladelphia. Mr. Gandy died No v ember 25 1946. He was survived b y five children: George S., Jr. and Alfred L., of S t Mrs J Walker Wilkinson and Mrs. Ruth G. Sarvcn, Bal timore, Md., and Mt-s. L eon E. Chambers, Stone R idge, N.Y. l''RANK M HARRIS FRANK MAURICE HARR I S Frank Mauri ce Harris was bo r n in St. Peter s bu r g October 16, 1902, the son of William B. and Mamie E. (McMullen) Harris, both o f whom were born in Florida. His mother was a member of the McMull en family which came to the pen i nsula nearly a hund r ed years ago. H i s father's parents were both born in No r th :Flori da. Mr. Harris was educated at Harri s School, named i n honor of his :fathe1, and also at St. Petc. rsburg High School, the Univers ity of :Flor ida, and George Washing ton U nivers ity. He received his LL. B. de gree at the University of Florida. On November 20, 1924, Mr. Harris was admitte d t o the Florida bar and has bee n engaged contin uously in that. profession in St. Petersburg ever s ince On July 1 1939, he f ormed a partners hip with Harold A. Kooman under the firm nam e of Har ris & Kooman Mr Har r is Js a member of \Ves tm inst cr Presbyte rian Church, the St. Petersburg, Florida and bar associations, Lakewood Country Club, St. Petersburg Yach t Clu b, Nitram Lodge of F. & A.M., and Egypt Temple (Shrine). On August 16, 1927, Mr. Harris was married to Frances B. C oryell, of Linco ln, Neb., at Clearwater. Mr. and Mrs. Harris have fiv e childre n : Frank Maurice, Jr., born February G, 1930; Richard Co ryeJI, born Augus t 7, 1932; Jeannine Adele, born March 12, 1936, and Marilyn Frances and Carolyn Frances ( twins), born July 9, 1943. NOEL A. MITCHELL Noel A Mitchell was born in Block I sland, R. 1., on January 9, 1874, the son of Edward and Mary Jane (Smith) Mitche ll both of Rhode Island and both descendants of old New England familie s After attending pub ijc schools in Block I sland, Mr. Mitchell went to work for the WheelerWilson Sew ing Machine Co., in Pro vi dence, R. I. I n the eve nings he took a course in business college. In 1892 M r. Mitchell went into the con lectionary business and began selling Mit chell's Original Atlantic City Salt Water Tatty. He introduced this taffy first at

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 301 Atlantic City and later at other resorts on the Atlantic seaboard. The taffy proved popular and finally sold in all parts of the coun t r y. Mr Mitchell came to S t. Petersbur g for the first time late in 1904. He liked the city and decided to make it his permanent wi nter home. For more than two decades &lr. Mitchell was considered one of St. Petersburg's lead ing boosters. He neglected no opportunity to advertise the city and Ita attractions He was an active membar of the Chamber of Comme rc e for many years and served one tetm as its president. Later he sened as secretary, without pay, and while holding that office spent mu ch of his own mone y for city advertising. He helped to finance the first golf course, at Bayboro. He pa id $1,000 to bt-ing the Benoist Airboat Line to St. Petersburg. He paid the expense of a barbecue in Williams Park to celebrate the completion of the Tampa & Gulf Coast Railroad. He had movinc pictures taken at his own e xpense of W uhington's birth day celebrations. The pictures were shown throughout the country. He included picture postal cards in millions of packages of his taffy sold in norther n resor t s M r was en gaged in the real estate business in St. Petersburg for many years, advertising himself as un,litcheU, the Sand Man." In 1907 he purchased the Du rant block a t Fourth and Central for $15,600 and opened a real estate office. Dul"ing the next year he purchased some benches which be placed in front of hia office--and so the famou s feature of St. Petet"Sburg's green benches was originated. (See IndexGreen B enches) In 1914, Mr. Mitchell sold the Durant b loc k for about $90 ,000. Mr. Mitchell was one of the city's leading real estate operators during the boom of 1912 and 191 3. H e specialized in West Central and beach properties and spent a large sum in the development of Mitche ll Beach. With other developers, he suffered a severe blow when World War I started and real estate sales dwindled to almost nothing. Mr. was elected mayor of St. Petersburg on April 6, 1920. He serv ed until November 16, 1921. He was a candidate for re .. ele ction at tho primaries held Mar ch 4, 1924. H e was a 82nd degree Mason NOEL A. MITCHELL and a Shrine r Egypt Temple of T ampa. He was also a life member of the Elks, Lodge No. 1224, and a member of the Loyal Order of Moos e and Woodmen of the World. Mr. Mitchell was married in 1901 to Adalaide B. Mitc hell, of New London, Conn. They were divorced in 1929. Mr. Mitchell died October 6, 1936. He was survived by a daughter, Mra. Gladys Seeley and two hal f -brothers in Block Island, n. I. C. PERRY SNELL C. Perry Snell wa s born in Bowling Green, Ky., June 6, 1869, the son of C. P. and Isabelle Snell. H e was graduated from Ogden College, in Bowling Green, and from the College of Pharmacy, in Louisville, Ky. He was engaged in the drug store business for seventeen years in Kentucky. M r. Snell visited St Petenburg for the :Cirst time in 1899, recogniz ed the possi bilitl es o! the infant village, and bought a half block on Second avenu e north at Fim street. He returned to the city tor several

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302 THE STOR Y OF ST. PETERSBURC winter vacati o n s and camo h er e to live in 19 0 4 building h is first home on the land h e had purchased. In 1905 Mr. Sn ell started a career of real estate de velopme n t w hi c h continued until his death o n October 23, 1 9 42, re s uiting in the improvement of mo r e prop erty in value than a ny other one man or group has ever developed on Pinellas Peninsula. Roughly, Mr. Snell developed all the prop. erty east of Fourth street from Fifth avenue north to the north limit of Snell Isle In addition. h e a nd hi:S associa tes d e velo ped much o f the la n d around Mirror Lake He also developed land around Crescent Lake a nd made t wo majol dovo l o pmcnts on th e ke ys His firs t deNe l oprnent in association with F. A. Wood, A. E. Hoxie and A C Lew is, leading citizen s who also lef t the ir mark on the pages of l ocal histo r )'. In 1909, be entered into a partnership with J. C. Hamlett which lasted more than a decade; Mr. Hamlett sold out to Mr. Snell and from then on, Mr. Snell had no ners i n his v a ried and constantly wide ni ng enterp ri s es. C. PERRY SNELL Mr. Snell lo n g plann ed Snell Isle as his crownin g develo p m ent. H e a n no u nced this dev elopme n t October 14, 192 5 and t h o rc suiting lot s a l e was the largest ever to occu r i n St Petersburg, total soles oxc c e d .. ing $ 7,00 0 ,00 0. A fter the cras h of the Florida boom, Mr. Snell al o ne, of all the developers in the city, cont.inued hts act.ivities and tarried out every commitment he had made. The final work waa not com pleted until 1929. M r. Snell was me a nwhile buildinahimself anolher monument, t h e Snell Building (now t h o B uilding) a t Fourth and Cen tral. The structure is cons id e red one of the most beautiful business buil di n gs in the entir e So u t h. It cost approx i matel y $7 5 0, 0 00. M r. Snell lost this property d uring t h e depression but retained h is Snell Isle and practically al l h i s oth e r holdings. Immedi ately upon moving to St. Peters bura-, Mr. Snell became active in public af fairs. He shares honors with W. L. Straub as being primarily reo;ponsible for St. Petersburg's beautiful waterfront. When the city sough t to a cquire the privately o w ned waterfront property, M r Snell ad vanced most o f th e mo ney a n d carried t h e p roperty w I t h o u t interes t until s l o wly awakening publi c opinion forced the city to pay Cor lt. Mr. Snell gave. the city the major portion of the Waterfront from Thirteenth avenue north to Coffee Pot and he set aside plazas on Snell Iale for the public. He also induced the city to buy Crescent Lake park from him for $35,000, much less than he could have sold it tor. Mr. Snell was perhap s the city'& foremos t traveler and certainly its most outotandin g patr on of t h o arts. He b ought millions o f d o il a 1'8 worth of painti ngs statuary, mar b l es and other art objects mainly In Mex i c o Spain, Ital y, G ermany and France. At one time ho owned one of the finest privately owned eoltections of miniatures in America. Most ot these he gave to his Alma Mater, Ogden College. Snell'slut development was Bennett Bea c h near P3$s-a Grille. It was named in honor of "C:zar" Bennett, an cady pioneer who bought t h e property from a home s teador in 188 9. He and his son had been befr ien ded b y M r. Sne ll and the son refused t o sell the propert y t o anyon e o l se.

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TuE STORY oF ST PETEnsnunc 303 On !\lay 30, 1984, lllr. Snell married Caro lyn Hard egen who survives him. Mrs. Snell had worked hnnd In hand with Mr. Snell in hi s bus ine ss actlvitieo and upon his death completed the development in the usual Snell fashion and the Snell Isle of today is in fact a monument to both of them. C FRA NK HARRISON C. Frank (Cy) Harrison was born in St. Petersburg November 16, 1906, the son of Edgar Patton and Ada M. (Shepherd) HaiTison. He w a s educated In S t Pete Squier of St. Petersburg. Mrs. Harrison is a member of the St. Petersburg Woman's Club, Delta Delta Delta, tho C ivic Music Club and the Pan-Hellenic Society. WILLIAM B. KIRBY William B ishop Kirby w a a born in Pittsburgh, Pa., September 22, 1880, the son of William B. and Lenora (Loveridge) Kirby. Both of his parents were of English descent and were born in Penn sylvania. Afl:
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304 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG When a young>;ter, Mr. Kirby became a photography enthusiast and spent all his spare money on photographic supplies. Up on coming to St. Petersburg, one of the first things he did was to fix up a dark room in his home an d continue with his hobby, taking :pictures of almost every thing in the city. Becoming more and more proficient, 1\lr. Kirby decided in 1911 that he was able to take better pictures than either of t he other two photogaphe r s then in the city so he opened a studio of his own in the P hei l Building. Since then he has devoted his entire time to photography, specializing in portraits and c ommcrcial work. Many of his portraits have won national reeogtlit.ion for quality For the past quarter century be has maintained his studio on First avenue north. Mr. Kirby is a membe.r of th e Elks lodg e and the Chamber of Commerce. On Oc t ober 1, 1936, h e was married to Marie Stout, of Coloma, Mich. WILLIAM B. KIRBY H. WALTER FULLER H. Walter Fuller was born in Atlanta, Ga., May 17, 1865, the son o f H. Alexander and Caroline Fuller. His father, who had been the owner of a large plantation, served as a cavalry officer during the Civil War. H. Walter Fuller came to Tampa in 1883 In search of health and became engaged in the wholesale feed and grocery business, later adding citrus. Before he was 21 be bought the steamer Cumberland and operated between Tampa, Mobile and New Or leans, largely handling his own goods. His trading area finally embraced mos t of the West Coast. He also beca me a large scale farmer, raising the first tobacco and winter lettuce in this section and being one of the first to rais e celery. At Lake Thonotosassa he developed the first commercial grapefruit grove in the world. Branching out into another field, he be came gc. neral contractor and built most of the forts and other installations at. Egmont and DeSoto in the mouth of Tampa Bay during the Spanish-American War period. He moved to Bradenton (then Braidentown) and on June 30, 1891, married Julia Reasoner, whose family had estab lished the Royal Palm Nurseries at Oneco, for several decades the lat-gest tropical nursery in the wor l d. During the Nineti es, Mr. Fuller was joined by his father and a brother, C. Paul, and a cousin, W. R. Fuller. Paul founded Ellenton and operated a store and farm factor business. The father operated first at Tampa and then at Bradenton. W. R Fuller engaged extensively in building materials and f or a time in the ste amboat business. During the panic of 1907, Mr. Fuller was caught with a vast netv.ork of enterprises employing several hundred men and using some GO pairs of mule s Unab le to get money to buy feed for the mules, h e bid on the job of hard-surfacing Maximo Road. He got the contract and transferred his energies to St. Petersburg. During 1908, Mr. Fuller organized the Independent Line which owned the H P. Plant, the Manatee, and other-ships and entered into competition with the St. Peters burg Transportation Company, headed by

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC 305 F. A Davis. On March 27, 1909, the two Jines were c::onsolidated1 with Fuller as presi dent. Shortly thereafter, the various Davis enterprises got into financial difficulties and Mr. Fuller refinanced them with a loan trom Jacob Disston. He ther<> upon began a career of real estate develop ment and promotio n which resulted in hb o wning at various times morereal estate on Pinellas Peninsul a than any other man h a s si nce then ow ned. As head of the electric li!@t comp any, ho built a new power plant at Six teenth street and First avenue north and rem oved the old plant from the waterfront. Under his management, the street railwa y tracka g e was exte. ndad from seven to twenty .. thre c miles. In 1909, he started accumulating land west of St. Petersburg, which then stopped at Ninth street, and in 1913 opened Central avenue l:rom Ninth street to B oca Ciega Bay and started the development of Davina (now Pasadena ) and the Jungle. He gav e Sunset Park to the. city and a ls o gave a whole block to the city of Pass-aGrille for a park. H e playe d a le ading part in the establishment of the city's first gol f course at the Jungle. Tho depression which World Wnr I brought to St. Petersbur g caused the entire group o f Fuller-managed enterprises to go first into voluntary receiv ership and then receivenhip in 1917. In 1919, Mr. Fuller,in partnership with his son, Walter P. Fuller, backed by a million dollars advanced by a b a n ker, George C. Allen, o f Philadelphia, bouahl baek the major part of the l an d owned by the old companies In 1921, tho father and son started a real estate development a t Hendersonvill e k nown as Laurel Park. This grew to sueh proportions that in 1923 the son bought out h is lather's interests in St. Petersburg and the father thereafter devoted his cntiro time to Western North Carolina real estate. He los t heavily during. the depression but recovered and was a leading real e state man In Henderso nville when h e died Mareb 23, 1943. P ublic spirited and energetic, Mr. Fuller held n umberle ss public and civic offices and position,. From Manatee County, he served In the State Legislature for ten years, first as r epresentativ e and t hen as senator, WALTER P. FULLER Walter P Fuller was born in Bradenton, Fla., April 6 1894, one of five children b orn to H. Walter and Julia (Reasoner) Fuller. Tho father moved his legal residence to St. Petersburg in 1907 and Walter P spont hi s s ummers here whil e attending school and colle ge. He moved here permanently in August, 1915, He had graduated from the University o f North Caro lin a whoro he waa a star athlete and also active in litorary pursuil;, being editor of the college annual monthly maga z ine and weekly newspaper, a s well as a n ewspap er correspondent. He immediately became aiJSociatcd with hia fat, her's enterprises and was 600n made a ssistant manager o f the vari ous companies. He built his first home on the shore of Boca Ciep Bay, becoming the first permanent reident of St. Petersburg west of Disnon avenue With Mrs Katherine B. Tippett$ and Franees S k inner, of Dun edin h e org anized tho Pinellas Boy Scouts and served as l t4 first Scout Master. Previousl y, as a boy in Bradenton, be had become the first Boy Scout in Florida. He al so became the first paid coach for the St. Petersburg High Sc hool footb all team and develop ed a team which almost won the. state c ham pions hip. When the H. Waiter Fuller enterpri ses collapsed, Walter P joined the St. Peter ,.. burg T i mes, and s oon became city editor. He realgned that Jl<)Sition to edit and man age the Manatee River Journal at Bradenton and become secretary of the Bradenton Chamber of Commerce. He returned to St. Petel'$hurg in 1919 when George C. A llen, a Philad elphi a banke r, loaned him and his father a million doll ars for inve stment in real estat e. He became active head of the new enterprise which was i ncorporated as the Allen-Fuller Corporation I n 1923 he bought out hi& father' s interests and soon afterw ard the co mpany paid baek to Mr. Alle n the million he had advanc e d. Walter P. Fuller so l d what il5 now Pasadena to Jack Taylor and associatu and started the develo pment of tbe Jungle. In t hi s enterprise he shared w ith C Perry Snell

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306 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG and N. J Upham the unique distinction of paying for all his improvements, not f i nanc ing them b y im provement liens as did a ll other major de velopers during th ose times With C. M Hunter, Jr., he formed the Fuller-Hunter Corporati on which developed Jungle Terrace. Fuller bought out all of the variou s stock holders, who had acquired the Jungle Golf Course, tore down the old club house and built the Jungle Hotel, which he owned and operated for lour yeara. He also built the Jungle Prado, creatinr in that unique Spanis h building the city's first night club, the Gangplank. He also started the city's first riding stable and staged the f irst hol'se sho,vs given in tho city. In order to further the development of the west end of the city, Fuller undertook a number of enterprises. He planned and financed the West Central white way sYs tem, the city's first. He financed the ex tension of municipal gas to the Jungle from 3ht street. He also followed in his father's footsteps by concei,1ng the idea of Fifth avenue nor th, acquired the greater por t ion WALTER P. FULLER of the right-o f way, which he donated to the city and financed the group that ac quired the bal ance of it. He nls o conceived and financ ed, through a special road and bridge distri c t, Tyrone Boul evatd He did this In order to divert heavy comme rcial traffic from the J u ngle and Jungle Ter race. In 1925, Fuller acquir ed all of the old F. A Davia holdings in and around Pinellas Park and undertook a major development in that area. When the boom collapsed he re-convcyed the land to the Davi a group and refunded the mon ey a nd returned the mortgages turned in by his purchasers. By 1980, Fuller had lost practicnlly all his l'eal estato holdings and entered the bond business as an employe e of John A Thompson. In 1931, he entered business for himself as a consu ltan t on Munieipal finance and started the publication o f Fuller's Florida Letter on April, 1933, which for 12 yea rs was the au thoritative organ in the state on public finance and busineu and economic conditions In 1936, he ran for the Legi s lature, and was e l ected to the House. He wns returned for another torm but was defeated for the Senato in 194 0. l n 1943, Fuller was ap pointed c hief clerk of the H ou se of ReJ>resentath'es. In Oetober, 1943, he became associated with the St. Petersburg Times serving in various capacities, Including featur e writer. political writer and editorial work. two years, he resigned that position and re-entered the real estate busi ness, in which be is now engaged In 1943, he was elected a delegate to the Democratic Presid e ntial convention, actin g os vicechairman of the d e lega tion. Of the some 64 i n the race, he was, $0CQnd h igh. Fuller was go ve rnor of the Chamber of Commerce for years and served as During that period he be .. came owner of a radi o station, which he gave to the Chamber of Commerce. From this, WSUN eventually evol ved. He served on the Planning Board for the first six years o.f its existence, fhe yeara acting as chairman. He was reappointed to the Boatd two years a g o and is at pre sent vice chairman. He was president of the S t Petersburg Art Club for five years.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSJl URC 307 In 1937, Fuller formed the Gulf Coast Highway Association a nd has been presi dent of the association since its in cept-ion. He al so in that year organized the battle to remove tolls f rom the Gandy Bridg e, a eampo i g n which achieved success four year s ago. In 1939 through 1941 ho wa s associated with Ed H Price in the promotion of the 'l'renaure Island Ca us eway. Fuller i s married to Iloberta (Clark) Fulle r. 'l'hcy have a young son, born 28, 1947. They arc. members o( the W oo dlawn Presbyteria n Church F'uller ha s nnothcr so n by a former marriage, now 32 year s old, and studying law alter a career of 1eve n yean as an aviator, during which time, for a period, he was a member or Chenault's Flying Tigers. He was r<'ccntJy retired as a major. Fuller is an authority on local and Florida histor)'. BIRD MALCOLM LATHAM Bird Maleolm Latham was born July 5, 1885, in Mahaney City, Pa., the son of John A. and Anna G. Latham. He wa s edu c ated in the Philadel phia pub li c schools and at Dexel Institute. Whi l e s till at Drexe l, M r. Latham wos selected b y exec u tives of the Gcncl'nl Electric Co. to take their electrical engi neerin g course and was sent to Lynn, Mass ., and Sche nectady, N.Y., whete he completed th e a dvanced sc ho oli ng in 1905. He then was emp l oyed in the company's Philad elphia cnginrs burg. Tampa Airboat Line. (Soe Index: A v iation). In th e spring of 1914, he bought th e airboat and took it to Conneaut Lake, Pa., where he had a contract to fly !or twelve we eks. The pl ane crashed but he bought an other and f i nished hi s contnct. Soon afterward he ceased being a profe ... sio nal avia tor. Latham then returned to the electric eompany and t:ontinued as its g eneral manapr throu gh successive stagC.S of its existence u ntil it was acqu i red by the A E. Fitkin interests. He then becam e presi dent of the Pinellas County Power Co. and later of the Florida Power Company. While h e was president, the company built tho Bnyboro plant at a cos t of $3,600,000, the present F l orida Power b uilding, the Port Inglis plant, and hyd r o plant on the Ocklocknee Hiver and purchased the hydro p lant on the Withlacooc h ee River. He resigned from the power company in 1926 to become first vice-president and general manager o f the Gandy Bridge Com pany. Two years later he retired and went

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308 THE STORY o-ST. PETERSBURG to New Yo.O.E. He was a charter member of the Civitan Club, and for many years a mem ber of the Cbambe.r of Commerce. Mr. Cunningham was married September 18, 1919 to Martha D. Wingrove of Mec banicsburg, 0. LEW B. BROWN Llewellyn Buford Brown (be signed his name Lew B. Brown) conside red his greatest acco mplishment h is having given St. Peters burg its popular name, usunshine City". He pub li c i zed it to such an c>
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSDURG 309 reporter on the Loui s\'ille Courier-Journal, then edited by Col. Henry Watterson. Be served in nearly every department of that newspaper and The Evening Times. In 1895 Mr. Brown left Louisville because of poor health to buy a news paper plant at Taylorsville, Ky. W hile there he studied law and was granted a license to practice by the supremo court He laUr se rved as police judge and county and city attorney. In 1902 M r Brown sold out his newspaper In Taylor a vilfe, abandoned the pr-act .iee of Jaw, and to Harrodsbur.:, Ky., wh ere he purchased the Harrodsburg Democra t Whil e he was editor of the paper in Harrod sburg, Mr. Brown was president of the Kentucky Press association and active in tho work of that organilation. It was l a rgely through h is efforts, as representative of the newspapers of the state, that the Kentucky legislature passed its present libel law which i s regarded as a model and which several other states have adopted. Mr. Brown apent most of tho winter in Frankfort att
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310 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG being the son, Llewellyn Chauncey Brown In. 1898 Mr. Brown married Anna Struby, and they had one daughter, Louise now Mrs. W. Orville Ray. He had one grandchild Mrs. Robert A. Zaiser and two great grandsons, Alan Zaiser and Kent Zaiser, whose fathe.r, Lt. Col. Rober t Zaiser, U. S. Army, died i n active service in the Air Corps. Mrs. Brown died January 31, 1942 and Ma jor Brown died on August 16, 1944 L CHAUNCEY BROWN Llewelly n Chaunce y Brown was born at Louis\ ille, Ky., July 11, 1886, the son of Llewellyn Buford and Emma Julia (Struby) Brown. He was educated at the Un i versity of Kentucky where he received the degree of bachelor o f mechanical engineering in 1906 and the degree of electrical enginee in 1911. From 1906 until 1910, Mr. Bro\\ n was employed as an engineer by t he \Ve$ t ern Electr i c Company in Chicago and New York He then j oined h i s father, publisher of The L. C. BROWN E\ening Independent. He served as city edi tor of the n ewspaper until 1911, as managing editor and part owner from 1911 t o 1919, and as genexal manager since 1919. He has. been presiden t of Evening In de pende nt, Inc. and publishe r since 1927. .Mr. Brown served for twelve years as a member of the board of governors of the Chamber of Commerce and was president of the organizatio n i n 1921. He i s a foundertrust ee of the St. Petersburg Junior College and one o f the incorpora tors of the institut ion. He was sec retary of the C ity Adve r tis. ing and Library Boal"d, 1928-32; commo dore of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, 1924; director, Southern Newspaper Associa ti on, 1928 -30; p r esident, Community Chest 1933 3 4 ; co-operative observer U. S. Weather Bureau, 1914-46, a n d chief air raid warden, S t Petersburg area, 1941-44. He is a member o f Kappa Sigma, Tau Be t a P i Sigma Delta Chi Ro tary, E l ks, St. Petersburg Yacht Club, and Lakewood Country Club. On September 16, 1915, Mr. Brown was married to Edwyna Marion Ames, of St.. Pete r$burg. 1\irs. Bro'''n is active in Red Cross work. Mr. and Mrs. B rown have a daughtel", Marion Llewellyn, who was graduated from Sweet Briar College in 1938. She was mar ried on August 29, 1939, t o Robert Alan Zaise r who became a lieutenant col onel in the Army Air Col"ps during Worl d Wax II and who died in active service. Co l. and Mrs. Zaiser had two ch ildren: A lan Llew ellyn, born January 17, 1942, and Kent Ames, born June 10 1945 DIXIE :M. HOLLINS D ixie M Hollins was bo1n in Texas, November 2, 1887, the son of William E. and Nannie E. (Smith) Hollins. His family mov e d to Kontucky when he was a child and he receiv e d his educa t ion in K entucky schools b e ing graduated from the Bowli n g Green llusiness University and Normal School in 1908. Coming to Florida in 1908, he located at C l earwater where he se r ved for four years a$ principal of the high and grade schools. Upon the cre ation of Pinellas County in

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Trn: STORY OF ST. PETERSB URG 311 1912, be was appointed by Governor Gil. chris t as the first superintendent of schools of the new eounty and was Inter e lec ted for full of four year s each. D uring his term of office, the schoo}s of Pinellas County won state-wi de recognition because of their high standards and when he voluntarily retired f'l'Om office, the county boasted of having one o f the best schoo l systems in the state w ith either new o r moder-nized buildings in every distriet, f o r both white and colored chl1drcn, with tra ns portation for rural pupils, and with many sp ecialized courses. The high schools had tbe largest percentage of g raduates of any county in the state. After retiring fron1 e ducationa l work in 1920, Mr Hollins in municipal fin an cing, specializing in proce edings eon tracts by which he undertoo k to or iginate create, authorize iss uo, validate, sell and deliver public bonds tor practically a ll the towns., cities an d districts in Pi nella& County as well a s in other parts of the state. After the 1929 cras h, Mr. Hollins turned down offers from large bond houses to rep resent them in their efforto to collect the defaulting obligation s and, instead, rep resented and county taxpayers He is credite-d with havin g refun ded, single handed, more than $ 3 0,000,000 of the indebte dness of Pinella s Co unty, su bstantial redu<:tions in interes t and, i n som e eases, re ductions In princip a l. In 1931, &lr. Hollins was elected chair man o! a committee of thirty-seven leading citize ns appointed by Mayor Henry W. Adam s Jr., to make a atudy o f the debt problem then crushing the c ity. Largely as a result of his efforts, $7,000,000 worth of cit y bonds were retired and the city's en tire debt refun ded, res ulting in a great sav ing to the city. (Se e Index: Debt ne funding.) During 1941 and 1942, Mr. Hollins acted as speci al consultant ot the School Board in refunding the debt of tbe county's sehO
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!n2 THE STORY OF ST. PETERS!lURC EDWARD BENNETT WILLS ON Edward Bennett Willson was born on a !arm five mil e s from Roc k Hall, Maryland, August 20, 1874, t h e son of Richard Bennett Wlllson a n d Ella A. ( McAdam ) Willson The eldest o f a family of nine c h ildren, Edward was educ.ated in the public schools of Kent Count)' about tour miles from Roek Hall. He left home when h e was 17 years of age to make his own way i n the wol'l d. He went to New York City, whe r e be took a p osition in the packing departmen t of the E J Denning store, which later was one of the W anmaker Department Stores. A few w ee ks late r o n J anua r y 8 1891, h e e ntered the H. B. Claflin Company as a stock boy at $ 25 0 a year. There he stayed u ntil 1909 learning the business from the ground up. In 190 1 h e was give n a job a s tra ve ling sal e s m a n for the store and for eight years he traveled in the southwestern vart of the U nited Stotes. Mr. Will s on's experienc e o n th e road con\'inced h i m t hat t he time w a s rip e for businus exp a nsion in the South a nd, with a E. B WILLSON busin ess acqua i ntance, L B. Irwin c ame t o St. Petersburg in 1900, c h oosing this town for a business venture, which cventu a lly was made into a department store. Th e two m e n assoc iated the ms elves w it h the Misses Beul a h and Lena Chas e wh o at that time bad small stor e which w a s divided between the Mio;ses Cha se and E. C K e m p who had a book and noolelty store. In f orming the co rpo1-ati o n Miss\ B e ulah C Chas e was ma de p reside nt; M r I rwin, v ice president; Mia.s Len a Ch.a ae, secretary, and M r. Willso n treasur er and cenera l man ager o f the store. The g r o w t h of the new business w as rapid. From 190 9, to 191 4 the number of cle r ks increased from two to si xteen. l n 1912 the y bought a lot and i n 1914 erected a f ive-story con c r e te build ing known as the Willson C hase Company b uilding at that time the highest building in the city. It h a d the first elevator i nstalled i n the city. In 1922 the y had outgrown t he building and had Mrs. Haines, who o wned the l o t o n the eas t s ide, build f o u r -story b uilding and they ren ted the building from h er. I n the late 30's the y bought the property from Mrs. Haines and now o ccupy b oth build i ngs and hav e 120 feet o n Central Avenu e, 10 0 feet deep. Mr. Willson was a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Cl u b, the R otar y Internotio nal, Kni ghts of C o lumbus, the Elks, W ood men o! t h e World Roya l A rcanum, and the C h amber of Commerce. He is past. president of the St. Petersburg Merchants' As sociation. H e is a Catholic He aerve d as a director of the o ld First Na tional B nn k until the bnnk went ou t o f business.. He was married in 1890 to Ida D. New com b of Rock Hall, Md Mrs. Wilso n died 6, 1 9 43. The Willson s had six children, f our tons and t wo d a u g hters. T h e y lost two boys. Edward Bennett Will3on, Jr, is a t w i n and he und his bro the r H or aee wer e born in Brookly n New York on February 6, 1 9 00. Horace lhed to be five years a n d three months old. Edward a 'ennett Jr., attended the public s c h o ols in Brooklyn, late r came t o St. Peterob u r g and w ent to the publi c schools, the University of F1orid a and North

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 3 1 3 weatem University to complete his eduea tion. He is now a member of the W illson Chase Compan y John Jay Willson was born in Flatbush Brooklyn, New York on March 10, 1907. He attended public schools in St. Petersburg and then went to the U n iversity of Alabam a. H e always took a great interest in the WUlso nChaae Company' s business. In 1929 h u be c ame a member of t he firm and in Junuory, 1945, he was made vice-presidont ond manager, which position he now hold s. In 1981, he married Jane Ho gin, of Memphi s. They have two adopted children, a boy seven years o ld, James J Willson, and a girl, born on December 6, 1946, Jane Lee In 1947 h e wa s pre&ident o f the Merchants' Associ a tion, vice-president of the Flo rida State Retftilcn Association, and a member of the Advertising Club, Dragon Club and Sigma Alpha E psilon Fraternity. Mary Louise Willson K incaid was born September 26, 1 908, attended the public schools here and the Fairmont College in Wa shington, D. C., and when she had !inlshcd there went to Tallaha ssee for further s tudy, She Ia now married to Alfre d Jennings Kincaid of New Orle ans. They htwo one ch ild, Kathy Kin caid, b orn t embc r 17, 19 4 6. Helen Burl Willson Coyle was born in St. Petersburg January 1, 1911, was educated in the public s chools here and at Gu nstan Hall and F airmont College in Washington, D. C. She Is married to Henry F. Coyle o! Jersey City, N.J. AL. F. LANG Albert Field ing Lang was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., November 16, 1 870, the son ol Jo.mes Fielding and Harriett S. (Becket) Lang. Hi s father's people were from New Hampshire and Vermon t His paterna l great.grondfather travel ed from New Eng land to Shippensville, Pa., in a Cone stoca wagon over the mo un tains. Mt. Lang attended the public schools un til he was fourteen years old when he started w o rking for a Pittsburgh laundry whe re he remaine d eleven years. In 189 6 he fo und e d the Lincoln Laundty which he int o one of the largest concerniJ of ita k ind in t he Pittsburgh area. AL. F. LANG On November 15, 1 9 10, Mr. Lang wa s m a rried to Katheri n e Marie Fagen, dau g h ter of John Edward a nd Clara (Hnteh) of Philadelphia. l\1r. Lang had sold his bus i ness because of ill he alth a year before, a nd s h ortly after his marriage, he came to Florida with Mn. They went first to Fort Myers but did not lik e it there. Then they came to St. Petersburg. Four days later th e y purchased a home on Beach drive-and they have made St. Petersburg their home ever since. Because o f Mr. Lang's ke en interest in baseball and the phenomenal success be has h ad in bringing big league teams t o St. Petersburg for their spring training, h e has become nationally k nown as St. Peters burg's Hambas sador of baseball.'' Before Mr. Lang came to F lor ida; no big team had eve r trained on tho Florida West Coast. fiechanged the big leag u ers' habit s. He had always been an ardent base ball fan and had a wide acquaintanc e with the o wner s and managers of big clubs. The St. Louis BTowns trained here in the spring of 1914 but an East Coast

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314 TilE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG City made the team a offer to get the team the following year. ro even up the score, Mr. Lang went t o Philadelphia and p ersuade d Pat Moran, manager of the Phil adelphia Nationals, to bring his team hero in 1915 The Phillies cam e and then proceeded to win fourteen out of the first fifteen played. Be cause of the fine weather the Pbillies had had whil e training, St. recehed much of the national publicity -for the team's achievements. After World War I, M r Lang played a l eading rol e in brin&'lng the Indianap olis American Assoc ia ti on t-eam to St. Peters burg.and later the Boston Braves New York Yankees, and St. Louis Cardinal s. Every s pring, Mr. Lang spends pr actically a11 his time with the ball players and knows almost every majo r leaguer by hi s first name. Mr. Lang was honored in the spring of 1947 by having St. Petersburg's new base ball park named after him. T be Al Lang Field was dedicated Marc h 12, 1947, at one of the biggest sport eventa ever held in the city. (See Index: AI Lan g Field also, Baseball.) In 1916, Mr. Lan g wa s e lected mayor o St. Petersburg and in 1918 he was reelected for another two -year term. While he was mayor St. Petersburg became a full f ledged city and he helped mat<>rially in the change. Through his efforts, push carts and peanut wagon s were barred from Centl'al avenue and merchants were com peiled to take their warea of! the si dewalks and also to remove overhanging si gns. He altso was responsib l e for an ordin ance wbieh helped to make St. Petersburg's b enches famous. (See Ind e x : G reen Ben ches.) Mr. Lang was president of the West Co a s t Tel ephone Company for two years prior to its purchaso by the Peninsular Telephone Company He was one ot the foundora and president for fifteen years of the St. Petersburg (Jungle) Country Club. He is the old<>St livin g payin g member of the Chamber of Commerc e and is a charter member of the Rotary C lu b, St. Petereburg Yach t Club, and the St. Petersburg AAA club. H e is a director of the St. Petonburg Junio r Col lege. He is a thirty-second degree Mason and a Shrinel'. Mrs. Lang has been active for many years in w omen's organizations. P AUL R. BOARDMAN Pau I R. B oardman wa s born In Pitts burg h, P a., Januar y 28, 188 2, the $On of James L. and Rebecca J. (Hall) Boa rdman, both nntives o f Penn sy l vania. Afi:<>l' re ceiving a public school education he be came an employee o f the Carnecie Steel Company In 1903, l\lr &a. rdman entered the real estate business, becoming with the real estate firm of Gault & Giffen, of P i tt&burgh In 1909, the firm took over the general agency of the Florida A ssociation & hol dings in the Pinellas Park section, whic h then was being widely adverti s ed. In 1910 h e decided to make Florid a hi s h o me. Comi n g to St. Petersburg, he establis hed the real estate bu$iness known a$ Boardman & Getts. In 1 916, he estab li shed the autom obile business knov>'ll as Boardman & Vogel which later was ineorporated as Boardman, Vogel & M c Crea with Boardman as president. A!ttr servi n g for several years on th e board of governors of the Chamber of Com merce, Mr. Boar dman was e l ected ) )reeident in t h o fail of 1916 and se rved during 1917. In 191 8 he was elected pre s ident o the Pinella s County Boa r d of Tra d e and served until h e enter ed government setvicc. In July, 1918, Mr. Boardman wa s ap p ointed by the United States 3 hipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation as manager of the town o r H arriman, Pa. Here he had complete charge of the housing faeilitlea !or about 10,000 persons as well as the operatio n of ali municipal departm ents. He continued this work after the armistice until the fall of 1 92 1 \Vhcn Mr BonrdnH l h'S work at Harrim an was fini s hed, he returned to St. Petersburg and recmbarked in the real estate and in s u rance busi nes s After being in busi ness for himself a year, he organized the Board manFrazee Realty Co., I ne., of which he was president. The corporation waa the general selling agent for the Shore Acres development. Mr. Boardma n also woo pre.si dent of the Shor e Acres Construction Co. Alwa ys an ardent baseball fan, M r Boardman played a leading part in bring ing the f irst major l eague ba se ball t.com to St.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 315 Petersburg for spring training-the St. Louis Browns, wbo came in the spring of 1914. (See Index : Baseball.) ln l922, Mr. Boardman was appointed city commissioner to fill the unexpired term of A. F. '1'homasson resigned, and in April, 1923, he was elected to serve the regular twO)'ear term. While in office, h e served as a member and chairman of many water committees and devote d much of hi s time to the extensive de veJopment work then being done by t he city. Although Mr. Boardman has not sought public office in recent years, he has been very active in a wide range of civic aHairtl. Moat of his time, however, is devoted to the affairs of the Boardman Realty Com pany and fhe Boardman Insurance Agency; Mr. Boardman is owner of both. In 1944 he organized the St. Petersburg Realty Co., tn e ., as an in\estment company. This com pany is now owned outright by Mr. and Mro. Boardman. He is also president of the Standard Tung Oil Co., Inc., developers and ovmets ot extensive tun.g oil orchards in Florida and South Georg ia. Mr. Boatdman was onQ of t he organizers of the Petersbur g Ueal Estate Exchange in 19l2 nnd served as a dir ectot and of .. ficcr during ita entire existence. For many years, he has been an active member of the St. Petersburg Board o( Realtors, ot which he is a past president, and the Florida Association of Realton. He is now chair ma n of the important leg islative committee of the latter organiz ation. Mr. Boardman has served as a member and a past chairman of the board of trustees o! the Fint Congregational church or which he is an active member. He is also pres.ident. of the Woodlawn Community Club. ln April, 1905, Mr. Boardman was mar ried to Ada L. Kemble, of Pittsburgh. Mrs Boardman died in April, 1929. On August 19, 1986, Mr. Boardman was married to Mildred Potter Barnet, o f West Newton, Ma ss. Mr. Boardma n has two children: PaulK., born October 24, 1 906, and H e len Ada born January 11, 1910. Both were graduated from the St. Petersburg high aehool. Paul attended the University of Florida and Helen, the Florida State College for Women. PAUl, R. BOARDMAN Paul K. Boardman who i s St. Petersburg repa eaen tativo of the Penn Mutual Life In surance Co., was mar r ied on June 2, 1928, to Hazel L. Eroh. 'rhey ha,'e three children: Doris Jean, born March 4, 1929; Mary Helen, born October 26, 1930, and Paul K., Jr., born September 2, 1932. He l en Boardman wa$ married on Febru ary 25, 1939, to Grafton Day Frazer. They have a son, John Paul Frazer, born ber 8, 1943. BRUCE B. BLACKBURN Bruce Benjamin Blackburn was born in Oaktown, Ind., August 23, 1894, the son of William Shelby and Ivy (Chambers) Blackburn. He attended public school in Edw ardsport and Vincenne s, in Indiana, and in 1909, when his family moved to St. Potorsbut g, he enrolle d at St. Petersburg Hl,;h Schoo l where be was graduated in 1911. Shortly after finishing hi{:h sch ool, he joined his father in the garage business. Later be worked for a garage in Clarksburr, W. Va. He then became connected with the

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316 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Willard Storage Battery Company and studied bus iness admfnistration in Atlanta, Ga., and chemic a l an d electrical ing in the company's ma in p lant at Cleve .. land. After attending the Willard schools he went in to business f or himse l f es tablish ing the St. Petersburg Battery Company. He sold the busi ness early in World War I to in the army. He became a sergeant :firstclass and served a year ove r seas in the motor corps. 'Vhen discharged from the s ervice, Mr. Blackburn returned to St. Petersburg and bought back his storage battery company Soon afterward he became a distributor for the Willard Storage Battery Company, with hc. adquarters in Tampa, and served seven teen Florida counties. In 1929 he so l d his inter ests in the batoory busin ess and became engaged in road contracting wor k. He also es t ablished the Lakeview Dairy Farm, in the Lakevie w avenue section He also owns and operates the Bla ckburn Plantation consist ing of 200 acres of land in Barnesville, Ga. where he raises cotton, sweet potatoes oats and cattl e. BRUCE B BLACKBURN Alway s inter e sted in communi t y affairs, Mr. Blackburn was persuaded to become a candidate for mayor of St. Petersburg in the May primaries of 1947. Elected by a sub stantial majority, he took office July 1, and bas d e voted his ull time to city aff airs. without lemuneration, ever since. He is a past president of the Fruitland Heights Community C l ub, a past commander of t h e L. M. Tate Post No. 39, Veterans of Foreign '\' ars, and is a board member of the Pinellas County Dairymen's Association. He is a member of the Fifth A venue Baptist Church. He is a charter membet of t he Kiwanis Club o f Barnesville, Ga. On April 19, 1918, he was married to Beatrice Mary Lehmer of Hanisburg, Pa. Mrs. Black b urn has tak en a n active part in civic affairs an d is particularly i nterested in P.T.A work She is a past president of the Ladies Auxili ary to the Veterans of Foreign 'Vat'S and DeMol ay Mothers Club She is a life mem ber of the Interl ock Club is the treasurer of Women of the Chamber o f Commerce and, during the war, served as chairman of the Pier Recreation Center. Mayor and Mrs. Blackburn have two c hildren, Bruce Blackburn, Jr., born April 12, 1921, and Virginia Ruth, born Februar) 7, 1923. Both are graduates of St. Peters burg High School. During World War II, Bruce served three years in the army, becoming a first lieutenant. He attended St. Petersburg Junior Co lleg e a year and was graduated from Georgia Tech, in Atlanta, in June, 1947. He assumed active management of the Lakeview Dairy Farm in January, 1947. On July 24, 1944, be was mar ried to Martha Fowler, of Athens, Ga. After being graduated from St. Peters burg High School, Virgin i a Blackburn attc. nded Wesleyan in Macon, Ga., from whieh s he was gtaduated cum laude, piano major. She was married t o L ieut. Col. Richard Larkin Hearn, ot Macon, Ga., and is now living in Atlanta, Ga. CHARLES A. ROBINSON Charles A. Robinson was born in Riley, Mich., November 12, 1895, the son o f Oscar D. and Nellie (Stevens) Robinson, both natives of Mic.higan Oscar Robinson s health faile d i n 1899 and he brought his family to S t Petet-sburg. During the following year he spent practi-

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THE STORY OF ST. PE1'ERSBURC 3 1 7 caUy all his time outdoors, raising pine apples, and bis condition improved so rapidly that he was able to return to Michi g a n in 1900 He returned ten years later to mako this eitl' his permanent home and became actively engaged in construct ion work, build ing many h o mes H e al so l eased the A rcade Hote l and ope rated it until the building was take n ov e r b y th e H a rriso n Pow e ll Co. C harles A. Rob i nson atte nd e d th e pub li c schoo l s in Lans i ng a n d Battle C reek, M ichigan, and wa s grad uated fro m St. Petersburg Hi g h Sc h ool i n 19 1 4. During the following two )'e a rs, he studied at Stetson Unlveralty. ln 1916, he went to N ew Orleans and became engaged in the printing busi ness, becoming a member of the firm ot Jone s Robinson & Co., manuf a cturin g station ers. During Wor l d War I he enlisted in the U. S. Naval Air Force s and, thirteen days later, waa sent to France where he was tationed at Paulliac. H e served for a year in lo'rance as a n electrician fi.tst c l ass. After bei n g dis c harged f ro m s ervice, M r Robinson retu rned to his prin ting c o n cern in New Orlea n s H e sol d hi s in teres t i n t he firm in 1 925 and cam e ba c k to S t P eters burg. He s p ent the next three y ears m anag. ing the fam il y's p r operties and th e n en .. rolled In Stetson Un iversity from which he wa1 graduated with a n LL B degree in 1931. Admitted to t he Florida bar in 1931, Mr. Robinson joined with James T. Smith and formed the law finn of Robinson & Smith. The partnership was dissolved in 19 4 2 and eine:e then Mr. Robinson has practiced indi vidually. Mr. Robinson is a past commander of the American Legion, Post No. 14. of which he has been a membe r f o r ma ny Years. He is a past presiden t of the St. Petersburg Civitan Club and a past district g overnor of Florida D istrict o f C i vitan Interna t i o n al. He wos for merl y active in Mas oni c w ork. fie is a m e mber o f P i K a ppa Phi fraternity, Sig m a Nu Phi l egal fraterni t y, t h e S t Petersbu r g nnd Flor i da bar a s sociati o n s, St. Petersburg Yacht C l ub, Pass-a-G r ille Yacht Club, and th e Chambe r o f C om mer ce. H e is vice-president of th e Veterans Advisory Council and formerly served as a board member of the Cripp l ed Childre ns Hospital. CHARLES A ROBI NSON l n 1 9 20, Mr. Robin s o n was m arried to Leon a E. Sch n e id er, of Ne w Orlean s They hu\O a son Ch arles A., J r., b or n F e b rua r y 9, 1923, who wa s comm issi o ned as an ensign in t he U S. Mari t ime Service In World W nr U and s e rv e d three years at sea as a licensed d e c k officer. In 1947 he was s tudying law a t Stetson University. He i s a member of the Junior Chamber of Commerce, St. Petersburg Yacht Club, and A TO fraternity which he joined while at tending the University o{ F 'lorida before the war. C. 111. B L A NC Charles Monr oe B lanc w a s born in Knoxvi11e T en n ; Septemb e r 1 5, 1867, th o son of C harles L and Mary .Jane ( M nst er so n ) l31 a n c H e was e d ucate d i n the p u blic sch ools o f K n oxvill e Whe n twenty years o l d h e le!t his tnther's f a rm and learned t h e carpenters' trade in Knox vill e Lat e r he worked for a construction crew v.. .. h i eh built a railroad into the timber land s o f Kentucky, became

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318 TuE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG overseer for a larg e mining company, and t hen formed a company t o timber off a large stand in Elk Valley Tenn. After work on the timbering project was eorOpleted, Mr. Blanc went to Knox ville and o r g an i z e d the Broadway Manufacturing Co., a large lumber and building supply firm. He continued as head of the firm for man,y years. In lhe t all of 1910, Mr. Blane was persuaded by a friend, Capt. W. 0. White, to come to Florida. He intended to stay only a week or two but when he came to St. Peter sburg he liked the town so well that he decided to. live h ero permanently. He l'eturncd to Knoxvill e zold out his interests, and with Whi te entered the real estate business in St. Petersburg, forming the firm of Blane & White. He has con tinued in th e rea l c&tato businc ,ss since that time. Mr. Blanc has taken a k een interest in civic affairs ever sinc e coming to St. Petersburg. H e wo s an active worker of the Chamber or Commerce during its formative year s is a charte r member of C. M. BLANC the Kiwanis Club, a member o f the boar d of t h o Y.M.C.A ., and supports Red Cross and other activities. In 1926 he was prevailed upon to be a candidate for city commission er. He re .. cei ved the largest number of vote& cai5t and becarne mayor of the citly During h i.s administration, the Recreation Pier (q.v.) was built. Mr. Blanc was married in 1888 1<> Betty Carroll, o f Knoxville. They had three sons: Carrol Charles, born in 1889; Robert Gilbreath, born October 15, 1892, and Frank Edward, born March 10, 1900. Carrol Charles Blanc d ie d in 1946, 1envlng his widow) the fotmcr 1\furie Knott, ot Knoxville, and a son, Charles, who now live in T am pa. Frank Edwa rd Blane i s now in busi n ess in Knoxville, lh;ng in the former Blanc home. Robert Gilbreath Blane was graduated from the Knox County High School, of Knoxville, and later attended busin ess coHere there. After coming to St. Petershe was connect e d with the W es t Coast Title Company for 11. number of years nnd in 1922 be joined his father in th e rcnl esta te bus i ne s s, the firm name the n being changed to B lane & B l ane, now one of the leading real estate firms in St. Petersburg. Lik e his falher, Robert Blane took an aet.ive pArt in civic affairs. He was elected to the council in 1931 and two years later wa.s chosen by the other council men to servo the city as may o r While in office, from 1983 to 1 93 5, the city made rapid !;tride s in rccoYering from the financia l problem s inherited fron1 the boom do.ys. Robctt Blanc has been a member of the Ma ijonlc l o dge for many years He hos been pre s id ent of the Shrine Club, whic h he h elped organize, and the St. Petersburg Civitan Club, and is a m ember of Scla ma Grotto. H e is a member of the board of of t.he Crippled Childrena Hos pital and has been a ctive in many othe r orgonizatons. On October 4 1916, Rober t Blnnc was married to Olga Robert$ ot Sarasota. They have a son, Ro.bert DeVoe Blanc, who is n ow a dental surgeon, practic ing in St. Petersburg.

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TH!;; STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC 3 1 9 1\lr. and Mrs. Blanc. Sr., were act ively interested in the work of the First Baptist Church for ma n y years, Mr. Blanc ha ving serv e d i t for lJ7 years as deacon. ROBERT J. McCUTCHEON, Jr Robert James MeCuteheon Jr., was born February 11, 1892, in Campbell, Mo., the son of Robert James and Fannie M. (Roberts) MeCuteheon. Although be was born in Missouri both parents were adopted Floridians_, educated in Pasco county, and married there p ri or to thei r trip west. 'l' h c McCu t ch eons r e t urned t o Flo r id a i n 1897 and too k u p resi dence in Dade c .ity when young Robert was five years o f age. Robert McCutcheon, Sr., was for years o sso eiated with the Atlantic Coast Line Railway. He repre sented Pasco county in the Florida H ouse of in 1907. In 1911 the family moved to St. Petersburg where the eldor Mr. McCutcheon soon established himself &$ a merchant, a real estate broker and as the developer of Goose Pond Gardens, at that time the ltlrgest a n d m ost successful truck gardenin g venture i n th e c o unty. Ro bert McC u t cheon J r. attende d t h e pub l ic sc h ools of Dado City, and was ated from Weave rvill e College, \ Vc a ver v ille, N. C., in 1911. He then entered his father's store in St. Petersburg, but in April, 1912, T A. Chaneellor, president of the First National Bank sent for him and of fc cd him a job. Mr. McCutcheon bad bad no thought of becoming a banker, but he accepted the opportunity and within a short time was mad e a ssistant cashier, and later c nshie r and presid ent of the bank. Duri n g World War I Mr. McCutcheon was trcasu er of the U nited War Workers c a m paign. In 1930 the McCuteh Mn-Mille r Corporation was formed to handle real estate, municipal bonds. tax eolleetion8, and insurance. The firm has operat ed to date. Mr. McCutcheon was a committee clerk of the the Florida senato from Pasco County in 1909. H e served St. Petersburg as council man and mayo r from 1989 to 1943. H e is a pas t president o f t he St. Petersburg C ha m ber of Co m m erc e a nd a pa s t national counROBT. J. McCUTCHEON, JR. cilot of the C h a m ber. H e w as, for 15 years, presidont of t h e Y MCA, a post h e retired f rom in 1946. He s e r ved f o ur year a as presi dent of the Comm un i t y C hest. and is now a director of that organization. H e is a vice president of Kiwanis club and served f'or years as treasurer of the First Baptist Chureh of St. Petersburg. lie is now a mem ber and chairman of the ooard of trustees of Firth Avenue Baptist Church. During W o rld Wa r II he participated in making arr:\ngcmcnts for bringin g United States troops to S t. Petersburg. for training p urposes, nnd aec u red and i nspected hote l s for usc by the g overnme nt. On August 6, 191 4 Mr. McCut c heon was married to Beatrice Farmer, who lived most of her life in St. Petersburg but who was born in Starke, Fla. Mrs. Me Cutcheon was preident of the Sinawik Club, and is a member of the Carreno Club, a diredor of the Y.M.C.A., and is a ctiv e in the work of the Fifth Avenue Baptist Churc h. The McCutcheons h ave three Lorraine lllcCutcbeon Duncombe was born September 1 19 1 8 educated in St. Peters b ursschools and Stetson Uni versity, an d i s

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320 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG now a teacher ot English In St. Petersburg High School. Martha Anne Morris was bom December 1, 19 23, educated in S t Peters burg schools and the University o f Alabama, and ia married to W o lter S Morris Jr., ..of St. Petersburg. Norma Lynne McC utcheon was born September G, 1936, and in 1947 was studying with a private tutor. FRANK FORTUNE PULVER Frank Fortune Pulver was born in Rochester, N. Y., N ovember 12, 1871, the son o! N. B and Susan (Bennett) Pulver. He was tbe of five children and, while still a child, had to help support his ta.rllily. He s old new spape rs and, when fourteen year s old, h e became an appren t ice in a jewe lry store. Later he worked for the Hampden Watch Co., In Springfield, Mass ., and for the Elgin Watch Faetory, in Elgin, lllinois. While in Elgin, Mr. Pulver purchased a formula for the manufacture of chewing gum a nd at once started making Spearmint chewing gum. His business was successful y '.tl ..... ,, . ,. FRANK PULVER and his novel advertising attracted the at tention of William Wrigley, Jr., who bought o u t hio formula and busin ess in 1913. The r epotcd purc hase price wa s a million dollars. Mr. Pulver al s o was interested In many other business ent erpris es, including the J. R. White Jewelry Company, the F. F. Pulver Cellu loid Novelty W orks, both of Rocheater, N. Y., the T oothhill-1\lcBeen Silverware Company, of Oowego, N. Y., and the Harry Hall Wrecking Company, of Buffalo N. Y. He also marketed the Pulver chewing gum vending machine. Pulver first came to St. Petersburg i n 1911 and retu rned from time to time until 1917 when he decided to mak e this city hi s permnnent home I n 1919 h e purchased the Detroit Ho tel, the Pa s sA-Grille bridge, and later tho Hollenb eck Hotel, tho Elks Club property, and other properties. He also was finan cially interested in a number of St. Pete.rsburg business concerns. A strong believer in advertising, Mr. Pulver helped greatly in publicizing St. Petersburg. With the help of John Lodwick, city publicity director, he ttinvented" a Purity League whi c h demanded that a bathing suit inspector be ap pointed by th e c ity to "Protect our hu sbands from the wiles of the Sea Vamps" and to make sure that the ona.piace bathing suits, then becomin g popular, shou ld cover at least half ot the sea vamps' bodies. The story was carried in hundred.s of northern newspapers. Mr. Pulver also collaborated with fttr. Lodwick in working out many other pub licity stunts whi ch helped to make St. Peteroburg known throughout the country. In udditlon h e paid for full-page adve rtise mente in northern papers to tell of St. Petersburg's attt-actions. To draw attention to St. Petersburg on his many trips North, he always wore a snow white suit, regardless of the weather. Mr. Pulver was elected mayor o f St. Petersburg December 20, 1921, to fill out the unexpired term of Noel A. llfitehell, who had been recalled a month before. l:fe was re-eleeted on April 15 1 922. While in otfiee he tabllshed the juvenile police court and h e donated all his salary as mayor to the Milk Fund for Needy Children.

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THE STORY O F ST. PETE R SBURG 321 While in office, he made many political enemies, due to the fac:t that he was a s-trong, forceful ehar aeter who believed in gettin g things done with out t h e maneuvering and compromising ao often necesstu'Y in poli t ica l affaits Three attempts to ueall him were made: the first two failed but the third suceeeded. After ho was retired from office, even his worst poHtiea\ enemies eonce-ded that he had done much to aid tho city. To publicize hi s idea$ regurding wha t should be done to make St. Poter$burg a better city, 1\lr. Puher started a tabloid newspaper, the Daily Newa, which was published nearly two years. He lost approximately $200,000 In the venture but he suc ceeded in pounding home tho fact that t h e city needed a new water supply. Many of his suggestion. s were later adopted. Jn rec::ent years, Mr. Pulver has stepped out. of the public limelight but he is still connected with several of St. Petersburg's lotgcst eoncerne. He is a 32nd dcrrcc Mason an E lk a Shriner, nnd .is a member of other organization&. ROY LANE DEW Roy Lane Dew was born in Trenton, renn., November 27, 1890, the son of Chnrles Givens and Bessie (Lane) Dew. He attonded Trenton public schools an d, when fourteen ye.ars old, began working on a farm near his home town. In 191 0, Mr. Dew came to Florida for hio health and located in St. Petersburg. Two months later b e went to work in the furniture department of the St. Petersburg Hardware Company, later known as tho Harrison Hardware Com pany. c .ontinued with tbe until April, 1915, when he purchaoed from i t the Cadillac and Dodge agenciex and went into bu siness for himself, establishing bis garage a t 239 Second avenue south. lie remained. at that location unt.il 1924 when h e moved to hi s present building on the northeast corner o f Third street and Third avenue south. Mr. Dew haa continued to se ll Cadillacs ever since he first slatted in business and has at present th oldest Cadillac agency in Florida and one of the oldest in the ROY LANE DEW United States. At various times he ala<> oold Hudson&, Pioree-Atrow s, Haynes and Hupmo biles. Mr. Dew was one o! the charter mem bers o f the St. Petersbur g (Jungle) Country Club, the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, and the Rotary Club. He was one or the organizers of both the St. Petersburg Motor Club and the St. Petersburg Auto mobile Dealers Association n nd is a past president of both organizations. He waa a director for two terms of the Chamber of Commerce and also was a direeto:r of the ol d Dixie Hl,hway A ssociation During World War II, In 194 2, Mr. Dow served as chairman of the state which organized two companies for the Ordnance Department of the United State Army and received a citation from the government for his work. On October 30, 1925, Mr. Dew was married to Norma Edwards, of \Vaco. Texas. Mrs. Dew i s an active worker and an o f ficer in several departments of the First Baptist Chur ch. She has served the Junior League as a vic e-president and in other offices; has bee n president of the

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322 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG North Ward P.T.A.; served as staff assistant of the Red Cross during the war period, and has been an active worker on Community Chest and Red Cross drives She a l so has assisted in the work of the Cripp led Childrens Hospital and Florence Crittenden Home Mr. and Mrs Dew have a daughter: Norma Jean Dew, born December 9, 1928 She was graduated from St. Petersburg High School in June, 1945, and in 1947 was a student at Sullins College, Bristol, V i rginia. A. CLARKE SJVITER Alfred Clarke Si\iter was born in Wil kinsburg, Pa., October 9, 1891 the son of Alfred Ernest and Mary (Whitehead) S iviter. He attended pub l ic schoo l s in Bellevue, Pa., and w a s graduated from h igh school in 1909 After leaving school Mr. Sivi ter started working as a clerk in the First National Bank in Pittsburgh where he remained until 1911. He then came to St. Petersburg where he got a iob working in the ware.house of the A. CLARKE SIVITER St. Petersburg Hardware Company A year later he was transferred to the sales force. In 1917 he was made vice -president of the concern which then had changed i t s name to the ]:Iarr i son Hardware & Furni tur& Co. He continued with the firm through the boom days and during the depression which fol1owed l'he company was recogn i zed in 1932 and the name was changed to the Harrison Hardware Co. Mr. Siviter became general manager and secretary-treasurer He also became the principal stockholder. He operated the business until 1945 when he sold it to Maas Brothers of Tampa. Mr. Siviter then established t he Clarke Siviter Co .. Inc. which handles a complete line of wholesale hardware, selling only to retailers and institutions Since coming to St. Petersburg .Mr. Sivit e r has taken an active part in c ivic affairs. He served as a member of the boa1 d of governors of the Chamber of Commerce f or ten years and was chairman of the City Hospital Board from 1924 t o 1930. He .was a charter member and past president of the Kiwanis Club and is a member o f the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, Quarterback Club and the Lakewood Country Club. He was one of the organizers and a presiden t of the St. Petersburg Baseball Association wbieh succeeded in having St. Petersburg entered in the Florida State League, thereby bringing league ball to the city for the first time In 1917 1\tr. Siviter was married to Irene Phillips, who died i n 1920 They had a son Robert E Siviter, born November 12, 1918. In 1938 .Mr. Siviter was married to Mrs. Grace Hooper Clare who had three sons: Rober t H Clare, John H Clare and Bailey Clare. All four boys are g raduates of St. Petersburg High School. Robert E. Siviter was called into servic e immediately after being graduated from the U niversity of Florida and set-ved four and a ha l f yeat s in the Soutb Pae ifie, becoming a lieutenant colonel. lie is now president of the Clarke Sivitcr Co. Robert H. Clare and his brother John joined the army air corps after leaving h igh school becoming pilots and served in the European theater, being based i n England Robert H. Clare became a fir$t lieutenant and John H Clare a captain Robert H. Clare is now vice-president of the Clarke Siviter Co.

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'I'll STORY OF Sr. PETERSBURG 323 HENRY L. ERMATINGER JR. Henry Louis rmatlnJcr, Jr., wa;; born in St. Louis, Mo. September 12, 1 897, the son of Henry Louis and Mable (Hough) Erma tinger. He was educated in the p ublic sc hool s of St. Loui s and Orl ando, Flo., to which lat ter city the family moved in 1 910. I n 1912 the Ermatinger family came to St. P etersburg. Two years later the Cather and son opened a men's hot store where the Pheil Hotel now stando. It was the first such business in St. Petersburg. During the years that followed stores were maintained a t several locations along Cen tral avenue and the busine&.s gre\v and prosw perod, three s tores b e in g k opt i n opCl'ation nt one time. F ine Panamas were imported from Cen tral and South America, which found ready sale among the tourists who came to St. Patersburg f rom many states of the Union. The best o f the domestic makes of high grade h ats also were stocked, and !or man,y years these h ats were the sole item of busi ness. Later the manufacture of fjne felt hats became an important port of the busine s s which gfew rapidly Mr. Ermatinger, Sr., took a keen interest in his c .ommunity and wali expeciaUy active in Masonic work. He founded the St. Petersburg ehapter of the Order of DeM o lay, and the Egypt Temple of Tampa. He retired in 1935 and died ten years later. Following in his father's footsteps, Henry Louis, Jr., also haa identified himself with the work of the several Masonic bodies in SL Petersburg. He is n former member o f the Yacht Club and a member of the Chamber of Commerce. September 7, 1920, he was morried to Natalie Fry of St. Petersburg. Mrs. Erma tinger is a former member of Pilots' Clu b and past president o f Knights o f Templars Auxiliary. Mr. and Mrs. Ermatinger have two sons. Henry Louis Ermatinger, ttl, was born Deeernber7, 1923. After graduation from St. Petersburg Junior College he enlisted i n the Army Air Forces, and served in the Tactical Reconnai ssance l )ivisio n a s pilot of a Upon completion of his missions in France, h e was returned to this co1,1ntry and HENRY L. ERMATINGER, JR. t at(!r receive d his d ischarge. H e was marl'icd to Patricia Ann Miller of St. Peters burg In 19 4 4. They have two children. Just prior to h is grandfather's death i n 1945, Henry bec ome a member of the Ermatlnger firm. The second sen, W illiam Albert Erma tinger, was born July 21, 1926. H e was edu catod In the public schools of St. Pcten;bur, and was overseas two years with the Naval Amphibious Fol' ces. BAINBRIDGE HAYWARD Bainbridge Hayward was born November 1, 1 889, in Broo k lyn, N. Y the on of William Bainbridge and Amalia (Kloman} Hayward. He was educated in the Brooklyn public school$ and was graduated from high sehoel in 1907. He started working soon afterward in an investment house on Wall Street. Desiring to see something of tho country, Mr. Hayward came to Florida in the fall of 1912 and finally located in St. Petet'S burg securing a j ob as night c lerk in the

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324 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG Detroit Hotel, then owned by C. N. Craw fo r d. In the spring of 1913, he went back to New York where h e remained a year and a half. His health then failed and when he received a Jetter from Mr. Crawford say ing tha t his old j ob was open, he returned to the Detroit. ln t he summer of. 1917 he enlisted in the U. S. Navy and he served untiL late 1918, making six trips act'O$S the Atlantic in a cruiser w h ic h troops. Returning to St. Petersburg after the war ended, i\b. Hayward was made manager of the Detroit by Ftank F'ortune Pulver who had pu>chased it from Mr. Crawford the year befo r e. I n 1938, Mr. Hayward took a long--term tease on the hotel at Fint av0nue south and Third stl"eet which had bee n purchased and completed by Edwa>d S. Moore M r Hayward named the hotel uThe Bainbl.'idge'' and he ha s operated i t ever si n ce. Elected a city commiss io n e r in Mr. Hayward served a four -year term. Mr. Hayward is a membel" of the Blue Lodg e Chapte'!, Commandery and Shrine of t..he Mason ic Lodge and is a m embe r of the BAINBRIDGE HAYWARD American Legion and 40 et 8. In 1947 he was president of the St. Petersburg Ho te l Assoc iati on. He is a former director of the Florida State Uotel Association. On July 27, 1936, he was married to Miss Gertrude Coswell, of Mobile Mo. M> and M1s. Hayward hav e a daughtct, Lueille, born Aug u s t 27, 1939 Mr. Hayward is considered one of St. Petersburg's leading baseball fans and he has been host to t he St. Louis Card in a l s at the Bainbridge every year t he team has come to St. Petersburg sinc e the hotel opene d December 15, 1939. ROBERT B. LASSING Robet't B Lassing was born at Burlington, Ky., March 15, 1895, the son o f Judge John M. an d Mary (Brady) Lassing. He received his gtade school educat io n i n Boone County. Ky. was graduated from Newpor t high sc hool in 1910 and took his A.B. degree at Centre College, Danville, Ky. in 1914, and, in 1915, his Master's degl"ee 1\h-. L..1ssing enlisted as a Naval A v ia t ion student pilot in 1918, and was t etained in service until July 1, 1921, when was d ischarged with l"ank of Chief Aviation Pilot Upon his discharge he return e d t o St. Petersburg where his father, the late Judge Lassing, had established a permanent winter home Judge Lassing first came to St. Petersburg i n the winte> of 1918. A note d and attorney, the judge ha d served his s tate at various times as atto r ney, county judge, judge of the circuit court and justice of the Coul"t of Appeals, the highest court of law in Kentucky. Taking a deep interest in his adopted e i ty, Judge Lassing was a prominent in t he early development of St. Petersburg. Be1ieving that the e ity watetfront sh ould be retained and beautified fot usc of the public, donated par t of a southside water front tract of land which since has bee n known as La.ssing Park. In 1922 the J. M. Lassing & Sons Com pany was f ormed, with Judge Lassing as president, Robert B. Lass i ng, treasurer, and another son, \Varren, as secretary. The com pany dealt in collateral . trUst and municipal bonds, and was instrumenta l in f inancing

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 325 sever a l large c onst-ruction pro j e cts in St. Petersburg, including the Suwannee Hotel, Jungle Hotel, Haine s build ing, Sumner build ing, Coca Cola building and many pri vate homes and commorciol project& jn the city. Judge Lassin g continued his summe r home and activ(! practice of taw in B oone County, Ky., until the year of his deatll, 1936. The finance company here in S.t. Petersburg was dissolved the previous year. One year priOr to his fatherJs death, Robert Lassing became property manager of t he lo cal o!fice of the Commonwealth Life ln&urancc Compan y or Lou isville, K}T and late r appoin ted a directo r in this com pany. He has been interested in many l ocal e nterprises, having been one of the original stockholders and a director of the Vinoy Park Hotel Company, treasurer of t he Dew Motor Company, and president of the West Coast Oil Distributors. Since 1927 he has been manager of the Royal Palm Cemetery Association. Mr. Lassing also is co-owner with his two brothers Jo hn and Warren, of the Home Se rvic e Laundry in St. Petersburg. H e per for med a signal s er v ice for hi s community when, as chairman of the committee appointe d to study p ossib l e sources of water s upply for the city. h e recommen ded that the city purchase the Cosme-Odessa Water shed property, thus assuring St. Petersburg an unendin g source of pure fresh water at a. cost far less and with more certain supply than had the city eontinued with its program of obtaining water from driven wells. Mr. Lassing is a member and past com modore of St. Petersburg Yach t Cl ub, a m e mber of Pasadena and Sunset Golf Clubs former memb er of Itotnry, a P resby t erian and member of the Quarterback C l ub. He consistently supports the wotk of \he Cham ber of Commerce, serving repe ated terms a.s a committee member, his work on the spo rts committee being outstanding. ln November. 1916, he was married to Jennie May McCall of St. Petersburg. Mrs. lassing is a noted sportswoman, and has won honors a s the e hampion woman golfer of St. Petersburg, and as an ang l er and Tarpon Roundu p conte stant, having won many awards with tarpon sho has boated, includ i ng one year's contest win ner. ROBERT B. LASSlNG 1,h c Lnfl.Sings have one daught er, June Lassinr Wittmer, born January SO, 1919. June wn a edu cated in the public schools of St. Petersbur g atten ded St. Briar College and was graduated from tho Univ ersity of Kentucky with A.B. Degree. Sho is a mem ber of Delta Delta Delta sorority, and is married to Oliver Wittmer of St. Patens burg. The Wittmers have two ehildren. During World War II Mr. Lassinr enlisted in the U. S. Coast Guard Reserves, (October 23, 1942, ) as a boatswain s mate, fint c l ass. H e served until September S O 1945, when h e was rel
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326 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBUllG was employed as a clerk a t a shoe store in Fayette ville. In 1909, he decided to come to F'lorida. Locatin g in Orlando, he started working at a shoe. store. owned by E. G. Duckworth. Four years later, Mr. Duckworth sent him to St. Petersburg w open a new store. Mr. Tillin ghast managed t his store until 1918 when he bought out Mr. Duckworth and established t he Tillinghast Shore Store. He continued to own and operate the business until he closed out in 1937. During the. next two years, Mr Tillinghast was in charge of the. auto Jiccnse departmc.nt of the county tax collector, J. B. Starkey. On March 1, 1989, he joined the First Federal Savings & Loan Association and in 1940 was made vice-president of the institution. He has setved in that capacity ever since. Always actively interested in civic affairs, Mr. Tillinghast .joined the Chamber of Com mct ce when the. 11Young Turks" took over and served a. s a membe> of the board of gove .rnors for more than fifteen years. He served as president of the Chamber in 1928 29. He. is a past president of t he Merchants W. h TILLINGHAST Association, a 20-year member of the Ro tary Club, a charter member and past president and now board member of the St. Petersburg Motor C lub, a former board member O:t the Community Chest, and a member and of the. of St. Peter' s Episcopal Church. On August 12, 1912, Tillinghast was manicd in Boston t o Fta.nees S. Whiting. CHARLES CARL CARR Charles Ca>l Ca r r was born in Le bano n, Ind. January 11, 1884, the son of Finley T. and Annie (Quiett) Carr. His father's family went to Indiana in its early days from Maryland and his .mother's family was one of the pioneer families of Nicholas County, Kentucky. Mr. Carr was graduated from the L ebanon high school in 1902 and in 1909 from the University of Indiana where he received the degree of bachelor of arts. While at the university h e was a reporter for several newspape r$ and during college vac .ations was a staff member of the Chicago InterOcean. Upon his graduation from t he Mr. Carr went to the Panam a Canal Zone whe -re fot four he was a member of the civil adminis tration staff of the United States government, becoming superinten dent of the Canal Zone high schoo l s. While there he co-authored with Frank A. Guise uThe Story of Panama," published in 1912, by Si l ver Burdett. The book is still used as a tc.fc. r e nc e book in high schools and junior co11eges. W hen his wot k for the government was ended, Mr. Carr teturned to Indiana where, in 1913, he owned, together with Paul Poynter, the Daily Times of Su llivan. 'l'h e next year he came to St. Petetsburg to bu y into t he St. Petersburg Times and take over its managcme.nt. In 1923, he s old his newspaper interests to establ ish a n a tional advertising agency to handle Florida comn'lunity advertising in northc.rn newspape r s and magazines. This concern was known as the C.C. Carr Adver tising Agency, latet becoming the Lesan Carr Advertising Agency with offices in

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 327 New York and Chicago. He sold the agency in 1927 to be come again part owner and general manager of the St. Petersburg 'ri mes. He rema ined with the Times until 1934 when he sold his interests and accepted the pos ition o Director of Public Relations with the Aluminum Company of America, with which corporation he is stilJ connected. His duties with Alcoa include direction of the company's public relations activities on the various fronts of cmpJoyce, custotner, eompe .titor and g0neral pubHc relations. He is also advertising manager, in direct charge of a budget which exceeds two milHon dollars annually. Mr. Carr is widely known nationally in public relations and ing circles. He is a past chairman of the of the Association or Natiorlal Adver tise rs and former chairman of that body's public relations committee. He is a frequent writer of appearing in the press in the publishing and public
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328 THE STORY OF S'l'. PETERSBURG over as publisher of the Times on Sept. 1, 1912. Mr. Poynter is a member of tbe Masonic Lo dge, the Elks, the St. Petersburg Yacht C l ub, the Ba t h Club. For many years he was a member of the Rotan Clu b of Kokomo, Ind .ind S t Petersburg. He i s a member of the Christ ian Science Church. O n Apr il 11, 1900, Mr. Poynter was mar ried to Alice Wilkey, in Su llivan Ind. They have t wo children : Ele.anol' Allen Poynter Jamison, now ma n aget of the Sullivan Daily T i m es, and Nelson Paul Poynter, now executive vice president of the Times Pub lishing Co. Mrs. Poynter has served fo1 many years as a member of the board of trustees of the Indiana Prison Board. NELSON P. POYNTER Nelso n P. Poynter was born Dec. 15, 1903, i n Sullivan, Ind., the son of Paul and A lice (Wilkey) Poynter. He received an A. B. degree at Indiana Un ive.rsity in 1924 and a M .A. degree at Yale in 1 927, He sta rte d in newsp ap er work as news editor of the Japan Timeg, in Tokyo. In 1928 NELSON P. POYNTER PAUL POYNTER he purchased the C l earwater Sun his father and Jameg Brumby and so)d it to Victor Morgan. In 1929 he purchased the Kokomo Dispatch He sold that. newspape r in 1930 joined the Scripps-Howard Newspapers. In 1931 he became business manager of the Washington Daily N e ws. Washington, D. C. and in editor and publisher of the Columbus, Ohio, Citizen. I n 1937 he became business ruanage r of the Minnoapolis Star. In March, 1938, he re t u1ned to St. Petersburg to become editor and general manage1 of the St. Petersburg T imes of which he is now executive. vice president, and editor H e is th e ownet of Radio Station WTSP and is the founder, editor and publishct, with Mrs.. Nelson Poynter, of Cong r essional Quarterly, \Vash ington, D. C 1\h:. Poynter was engaged in f oreign in formation for the government durin g World War II. lie was called to Washington a year before the U S. became involved i n the War With Robert Sherwood, the play wt'ight, h e ac t ivated the Forclgn Informa -

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THE STORY OF ST. PTRSBURC 329 tion Service for General \VilHam H. Dono van. The FIS later b eca m e the overseas branch of the Office. of War Information. He is a member o Phi Gamma Delt.'l, Sigma De lta Chi; Yale C lub, New York City; Na tional Press Club and M etropolitan Club, Washington, D. C., and the Yacht Club and Bath Club, in St. Potcrsbug. On August 8, 1942. Poynter was married to Henrieua By a former marriage, Mr. Poynter has two daughters-Nancy Alice and Sarah Catherine. JOHN WESLE Y DAVIS John Wesley Davi s was born in Markl e, Tnd., February 21, 1892, the son of John W. and Nancy Ann Davi a He was graduated from Markle High Scho ol in 1911 and later attended Valparai so Universit)' at aiso, Ind. H e then became a teacher in Ro anok e, Ind. Mr. Davis ume to Florida in 1914 and ae
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330 ToE STORY oF ST. PETERSBUR G 14 American Legion, pa Jt eounscl of Modern Woodmen of America, chairma n of the ad vi so>y board of Salvation Army Cham ber of Co mmerce and Retail Merchants Assoc i a tio n. He wa s active in the First Methodist Church, having served as a mem ber or the board or stewards and as presi dent of the Jntel'l!tate Bible Class, then known as Wesle yan Bible C lass. He was c hairman of the men's division of the first U.S.O drive in SL Petenburg in 1941 and had been a eti,e on Community Chest drives for several years. ln 1946 he was chairman o f the Easter Seals S a les and of the Salva tion Army special gifts co mmittee He was tnarried Jun o 6 1919, at Largo, to Henrietta Heymann, T en n. Mrs. Davis is active in the Daughter s of the Amer ican Revolution, having served as re gent; is a pa$\-president of Auxiliary of L M. Tate Post N o. 89 V .F.W., and is a member of PAUS Club or Eureka Chapter, Eastern Star. JOSEPH W GEROW Josep h "rhitchcad Gerow was born at Peters b urg, Dinwlddi o County, Va., Novembet 10, 1886 the son of Leonard Rogers and Eloise (Saunders ) Gerow. He was educated in the public schools of Petersburg. H is first job was with the Nor folk and Western Railway at Petersburg. Later he wao employed by the Atlantic Coast Line Ra ilro ad u trave.lint secretary to Alexande r Hamilton, w h o then was f irst viee president and genera l counsel of the A. C. L line. Jn 1010 Mr. Gerow was transfrred to Jacksonville, F l a., a s chief clerk to the J ack sonville district passenger agent of the At lantic Coast Line. He cam e to St. Petersbu r g in N ovember, 1 914, this t ime as travelipc passenger age nt for the St. Petersburg area. In November of 1915 he formed a partnership with Herman Dann and together they bought out the W.S. Mc Crea Building Supply Company and incorporated under the name of Dann a Gcrow, Inc. Upon the death of Mr. Oann In !983 Mr. Gerow bought the Dann estate's interest i n the business, though he continue s to o p erate the building supply divisiQn under the nome of Dann-Gerow Company. Hesold the Dann Gerow Paint Company to Harold Mel vln in 1943. Mr. Gorow is an Episcopalian t a mem ber or St. Petersburg Yacht Club and Lakewood Count r y C l ub, a former member of Rotary and Lion s Club$. He gives freely of his Ume to sueh conimmunity activities as the !led Cross and Community Chest, and Is chairman of the traffic divi sio n of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce. Mr. Gorow was married to Charlotte Louise Reed, of Keene, N. H., on August 12, 1935. Mrs Gerow is associate d with her hu sba nd in the business. now rated as one of the largest of its kind on the Florida West Coaat. Mr. Gerow has tw"o daughten by a former marriage. Mar y Anne, born June 12, 1914, is married t.o Leslie B. Halper of RlveN;ide Conn., and ha s three c hildr en. Barbara Austin, born January 21, IV\9 I s married to Jaek L. Middleton of Alexandria, Va., ALWERLY AI Wcrly was born in Broo klyn New Y ork, April 6, 1897, the son o f Adolf and Katie (Schmidt) Werly. The oJder Werly emigrated to New York from Alaaee-Lor r a ine, where they had engaged in the catering business. Mr. Werly was educated in the public schools of Brooklyn. Later he too k several bus iness eourscs and attended tho Engineer ing School of Marconi Institu te. For seven y(!OrjJ following his graduation he nnd his fath er c arried on a cateri ng business at U lmer Park, Brooklyn In 1913 he cAme to Florida and operated the Colonial llotel at Sulphur Springs o r the following two yean. I n 1915 Mr. Werly moved t.o St. Petersburg and entered the real estate field. During the years that followed he w as agociated at varicu s times with William G. Fox, Charles S. Powell, WalterS. lloss and A. L. Wa ll ace in their real estate o nto1priscs,

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THE STORY OF ST. PETETISllURC 331 and was made secretary and tre asurer of the Empire Realty and Developmen t headed by Mr. Fox. In !917 Mr. Werly enlisted in the Navy and served in Naval Radio serviee. he was transfened to Pelham Naval Hos pitol, Base C-5, as postmaster, 'ivhere he served until his 1etcase from active duty in May, !919. In 1919 he opened h is own real e state firm in St. Pete rsburg which he now oper ates. In 1928, a t the age of 81, he was elec ted president of People.s Bank and Trust company. Displaying a keen consciousness of com w munity welfare, Mr. \Verl y has given time and effort in supporting worthwhile public projects. He was the chic proponent o f the Central. Avenue. "\Vhite Way,,. which, years ahead of the times, helped t o make the city known as one of the most progressive in the South. '!'he HWhite Way," 14 miles long i s still one of the l ongest in the country. It was while he was chairman of the city pla n ning committ e e in 1928 that this project was developed. In the follow i n g year, 1929, Mr. Werly was chairman of the Chamber of Comm erc e membership drive and was successful in greatly enlarging that organiza t ion One of t h e charter members of the St. Petersburg Realty Board, Mr. Werly as sisted in its organization in 1920, and, through the years1 has maintained an active part in its affairs. As a membet of the Florida State Board o f Realtors, he sc. rved that b ody so ably as v ice president in 1946 4 6 that, in 1947, he was chosen president. In 193 5 David Sholtz, the n governor o. Florida, selected Mr. W erly for appointment t o h i s personal staff, and commiss ioned him a lieutenant eolonel. Mr. Werly is a Presbyterian, member of St. Petersburg Yacht and Bath Clu b s, the Jeffersonia n Democrats, National Aeron autical Association, former member of Lions Club, and is active i n the St. Petersburg Elks Club, hav ing served a s manager of the club at one time. Mr. Werly was married April 5, 1927 to Alice E. Hillier, We-st Newton, Mass. Ml'S. AL WERLY Werly is associated with her husband in the teal e -state business. TYOo children were born to the \Ver l ys. A lbert Calv in Werly, was born February 6, 1928 He was educated in S t Petersburg public schools, was g raduated from Florida Military Academy in 1946 and entered the University of Flotida as a l aw student. Victoria (Vicki) Jean, was born Dec ember 21, 192 9. Foll owing graduation from St. Petersburg schoo ls Vicki also entered the University at Gainesville and is taking the law eourse. R. JOSEPH DEW R. Joseph Dew w a s born i n Lake Charl e s, La., July 27, 1893, the son of Charles Givens and Bessie (Lane) Dew. He was educated in the publ ic schools of Louisiana and 'l'ennes see. In 1912, Dew came to St. Peten;bu1 g and went to work for the Harrison Hard ware & Futniture Company w her e he re mained unt il he enlisted in the Army in 1917

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332 TilE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG tJ> serve during Worl d War I. In 191 S, he w a s c ommissioned a second li eute nant He N8s di s charg e d fro m the r;ervi e e in April, 1919. Atter the war, Mr. Dew returned to the H ar rison eom pa n y a nd cont i n u e d with the concer n for three ycare:. He or gani zed th e Dew-M ather Furniture Company i n 1922 nnd the Dew FuroilureCompany in 1 931 His eoneern is located on the fourth floor of the Wiltson -Cbase building. Mr. De w ser, .. ed on Pinellas County D r a f t Boord No. 2 fro m April, 1942, to t h e cl ose of World War II. H e i s n memb e r of the St. P etersburg Yach t Club a nd tho Pass-a-G rille Yacht C l ub. lie i s also a m ember of tho Presbyterian Churc h of St. Petersburg. O u May 25, 1918, Mr. Dew w a s married to Marguerite Lattner S mith, ot Dav e nport, la. and Mrs. Dew have a son, Robert Joseph Dew, Jr., born July 4, 1922, who served during World War 11 as an infantry officer in Europe. I n 194 7, was pur suing R . JOSEPH DEW pot-graduat-e work a t the Muoachusetts Institute of Tec hnology i n Cambridge, Mass. On Dece mber 2 7, 1945, he was married to C a t herin e Allon, of Utica, N.Y. They h ave a s on, Robe r t J oseph Dew, Ill, born January 19, 1947. HOR A C E WIL LlAMS, Jr. Horace \Villiams, Jr. was born in St. Petersburg May 3, 1916, the son of Horace and Ida Louise (Weller) Williams. He was graduated from St. P etersburg H igh Schoo l in 1938, St. Peter sburg Junior Co llege in 1986, and from the Wharton Schoo l o f Fina nce a n d Commc rce, Un iver&it.y of Pe nns yl va n ia, in 1 9 3 8 Alter bein g graduated from college, Will iams retur n e d to S t Petersburg to wor k at the Williams -Bee r s Icc Co., of which he became manage r following the death or his rather. He is a member of the St Petersburg Yacht Club, Lakewood Country Club, Cham ber of Commerce J u n ior Cha m ber of Com merce, and St. Petersburg Qua1terbac k C lu b. He w a s president of the Squires Cl u b 194 84 6. He is also a m e mber o f Deta Theta P i Fraternity and of the F i rst Congrega tional Chuch. Mr. W'illiams has taken an active pa1t in and in 1935 won the Florida state amateur g-olf championship at Jack sonville. NICHOLA S L. DENNIS Nichola s L. P ennis was born on Scptem be1 15, 1883, i n P latanos Nafpaktiu, Gree ce. H e a U o nd ed schoo ls i n Greece nnd wa s .. bLught. English and French b y pr ivate t e ach er$ i n Consta n t inople Turk ey. r.h. Dennh; s ta r ted in t h e hotel business \lo'ith the Tokatli.an Hotel, in Constnntinop le, as a cashier and then b(\'eame mana,cer of the rauurants and banquets.. Leaving there to Gree
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 333 Deln tonieo's, Sherry's, Mart-in's and the Astor H otel in New York. He left New York with an hotel organization to open the Black stone. Hotel, i n Chi c ago. Lnte r he was associ ated w ith the Shoreham Hotel the Ca f e Re pul>lique, and the New W illard in Washing ton D. C. Coming t o St. Petersburg in September, Mr. Dennis went. in t o the restaur ant and ea.feteria businesa. For many years he operated the Park Cafeteria during the win\.er months and the Belvedere Hotel a nd Casino, at Chesapeake Beach Md., and the Wauberk Hote l and Cottages, at Jefferso n, N. H. durin g the summcts. In t he early I 920s, w he n St. Petersburg began t o g row M r Dennis began devotin g 1\is entire t im e to his interests here, opening t he Park Cafe and, in 1925, constructing the Dennis Hotel, now one of the leading hotels in the city. Mr. Dennis has been one of the most ardent boosters of the Sunshine City and has taken a keen in all civi c affai r s. He has been a member of the Chamber of Commerce and its Pl'odoccsso r, the B oard of Trade f or mor e th a n thil'ty y e a r s He ${!r\ed as a member or th, the St. Petersburg Executive Club, and is a member and vice pre s ident of Ring No. 42 of the International Brotherhood of Mag icians. He is affiliated with the Epis copa l Church. In league with the late John L od wick, St. Peursburg publicity director, Mr. Dennis for years (
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334 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG and e stablished the Walden Hardware Company which he continued to operate until 1928 when he sold out. He then be c .arne sales manager of the McCutcheon Chevrolet Company. In 1932, Mr. Walden was appointed director of public welfare for St. Peters burg and fou r years later he was made director of the Communi t y Chest, which position he still holds. Mr. 'Vald c n i$ active l y interested in many civic organizations and has held offices in the Boy Scouts, City Advertising an d Library Board, t h e Chamber of Commetee and has been secretary of the Rotary Club for many years. He i s a member of the Masonic L-odge, ScJama Grotto, the Modern Woodmen, and Wood men of the World. He is also actively interested in ehurch work, being affiliated with the First Baptist Chutch which h e has served as superintendent of the Sunday School. On May 19, 1915, Mr. Walde n was married to Miss Sarah Gordon, in TaMpa. ROBERT R. WALDEN FREDERICK R. FRANCKE Frederick Rudolph Francke was born in India nap o lis, Ind., May 3, 1884, the son of Frederick and Caroline (Lieber) Francke. His father was engaged in the hardware business in Indianapolis. His mother, who was the first white child born at New Ulm, Min n., was res cued during a massacre of that town by an Indian brave. whom her mother had defended. .Mr. Francke was graduated from Manual Tra i ning High School, in Indianapolis, in 1902,andfrom Prince ton U niversity in1906. He came to Florida in 1912 and located at Largo where he developed a farm on Ulmer ton Road. He was o ne of the o f the Pinell.as County Fair Association and its first president. He was elected president of the Lake Largo Cro ss Bayou Dtainage District and sold the first Florida drainage bonds marketed in this state. The district completed the project thirty-five per cent under estimated cost and never defau lted on interest or principaL In 1917, Mr. Francke came to St. Peters burg to be come director of the new business department of the Central National Bank. During World War I he headed Liberty Loan drives and was a member of the Home Gnards Later he served as naval eomn)an de r on the staffs of four Florida governors. was named chairman of th e City Library and Adve1tising Board and organized t he city's first aviation board He is a founder trustee of St. Petet sburgJunior College. After several years at the Central Na. tional Bank, Mr. Francke returned to Indianapolis where he Jived for five years. He then came back to St. Petersburg and the Times P ublishing Co. where he served i n the business and news offices. He organized the St. Petersburg Newspapers Serv ices which consolidated certain activi .. ties of the Times and Inde pen d ent. H e l ater organized the Icc Service Com pany which merged the delivery, adve1tiaing and sales activities of the loca l ice compa nies. In 1932 he joined the Florida Power Corpora tion as assis tant to the president in o adv ertising and public relations. In 1929 .Mr. Francke was appointed honorary city liaison officer for rel ations with the lJnited States Coast Guard the Navy U S. Engineers, and U. S. Maritime Ser-

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TilE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 335 vices He is directly Tesponsib le for t he establishment in Bayboro Harbor of the Unit<>d States Coast Guard Air Station Ba s e 21 U S. Guard, U. S. Navy Sec lion Base and the U. S. Maritime Training Sc hool, in each ftom the. raw ground sit.cs thtough the eonsttuction and eompJet.ion. In 1932, Mr. Francke was commissioned as a lieute nant commander in the U. S. Naval Rcsene He waa caUed to active duty May 5, 194l; commander, August 7, 1941-date of rank, July, 1940; comm issioned c aptain in 1945date of rank, June 18, 1942 He served a total of 52 mon t h s aetlve service during World War II. Late in 1941) he retur ned to the Florida Pow e r Corpor ation in his for mer position. Later he was ordered to report for active duty as senior associate officer to establish division 7-11 U. S. Naval Reserve in St . Petersbur g area. Mr. Francke is a member of the ft..lasonic Lodge, the St. Yacht Club, the Rotary Club, and the Christian Seienoe Churc h In 1910. he waa married to Miss Margaret Wheeler, of Indianapolis. FREDERICK R. FRANCKE WILLIAM W. MUIR WILLIAM \V ALLAC E MUIR William Wallace Muir was born in C arbondale, Po., April 10, 1851, the so n of John and Caroline (Smith) Muir. He was educated in Carbondal e and when still a youth learned the marble-cutting t.rade, latel' becoming a c.arp.;ont.;or and joiner Alter learning his trade, Mr. Muir began contracting, 1Jpecializing in the constructjon of oil plant. During the next ten years he built a number of plants in Pennsylvania and New York and in 1 8 87 he located in Wancn. Pn., where he became affiliated with the Glade Filtering Works. Ho a l so became con _nected with the Penn&ylvauia Paraffine \Vorks in Titusvil1e Pa. Two years later he constructed the Muir Oil Worlu; at \Varron. ln 1891 these refineries were taken over by the Crew Levick Company, of Philadephia, with Mr. ft.luir as manager. In 1902, Mr. Joluir remodeled the Pennsyl vania Paraffine Works and in 190 3 built the Bessemer Refinery at Ti tusville He also l aid pipe lines to outlaying oil l eases for a supply of crude oil for thes e plants H e was president or companie s Ono of hi s

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336 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURC greatest aehievements was the per-fed-ion of a procen Cor extracting from paraffine an oil which would not freeze even in the cold est weather. It was u sed extensively by miners. In 1910 Mr. Mui< was elected as a di J'eCt.or of the First National Bank of warren and In 1912 became president of the institu lion. In 1914 he was elected president of the Crew Levick Compan) and a lso presl dent. o f the. National Petroleum Associatio n. In 1916 all of the Crew Levick' s holdin lt" wero so ld to Cities Senice Company and Mr. Muir remained wi t h this company as manager o f the producing properties. In 1918 h e l'ctired front all active work. Mr. Muir enme to St. Petersburg in 1918 and purchaKed a hon1e at North Shore drive and avenue. H e is president o f the Princess Hotel Company, chair man of the board of the First National Bank, in Warren. Pa a n d has numerous ot.hct business interests.. He is a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, t h e Rotary Club, the Conewango Club, of Warren, Pa., and is a ?deth odlst. Fraternally he is a Mason 32nd de grce, and an O dd Fellow. He has been a memb e r of the lattet organization s ince Juno 5, 1872, nnd in June, 1947, h e wo s honored by being awarded a 75-yeat menl bership pin, the tenth awarded by the I.O.O.F. In the entire state of Pennsylvania. He was married March 14, 1 87 2, to Miss Martha Fuller, of Carbondale, Pa. They had four children: George E., Caroline Elizabeth (Mrs. Mark Cowden), Edward K ., now dee! eased, and Marian (Mrs. FAiward Von Tokey), or Warren. H e bas a grand son, George \V, Muir, and a granddaughter, Mrs.. Jaek Frazer. who are n ow living in St. l'otersburg. NAT. B BROPHY N at.h a ni e l Battles Brophy was born i n Nokomi s, 111., 15, 1869, the son of Denn i s Peter and S usan (Battles) Brophy. His father was postmaster of Nokomis fot twenty-four years and was the owner of n drug store in that town. M r. Brophy was educated 'in the No komis sc h oo l s and later took up the stud y of pharmacy. He studied law lo1 four years but never became active in law practice as he prefened bank ing. When only nineteen years old, he was made st!cret.ary and treasurer of the Nokomis Building & Loan Associ ation. He continued in the business for many years, be;ng associated with the Nokomis Na tionn l Bank and with Florida banks On Novcmbe 20, 1901, Mr. Brophy was murried t o Mi$1) Vio l a McCann, of Shipman, Ill. Mr. and Mrs. Broph y v is:ted St. Peters burg w h i l e on thcil' honeymoon and they lik e d t h e town so well that they visite d h e r e every almost winter the eaft c r They cn m e here to Jive permanently in 1917. Du ing the winter of 191314 Mr B rophy was pel'suaded to buy stock in the n ewlyorgani:z.ed F lorida Bank &. Trust Company ot Fifth and Cent.al by A. C. Odom, president of lhe institution. Several years the institution failed. Mr. Brophy then acquired controlling interest In the bank, and it after paying all the depositors in lull. In July, 1920, he ao l d the bank to the First National and M 1. Brophy tempotari1y l' e t i r c d from busin ess. NAT.B.DROPHY

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TBE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 337 During the f ollowing decade, the Brophys spent mos t of their time traveling. They made two trips arou nd the world and an other to A l aska. Brophy returne d to banking in 1930 follow ing the collapse of several St. Petersburg banks. RcC08'1\izin g the need for a. strong financial institutio n in the city, he played a leading part in the re organization and re-opening of the First Security Bank, an afftliat.e of the First Nation al which had ciOlled June 30, 1930. He became pre s id e n t, and Jater chainnan of the bo a rd, o! the First Security, the name of which was c hang e d to the Union Tru s t Co mpany on Decembe r 1, 1930. After the bank had b o c o m e f irmly established, Mr. Brophy retired, in 1937. Mr. Brophy was w i dely known a s a stamp collecto r and wa s affiliated with many philallelic o rgani zations. His collectio n was considered one of the flne.st in the country ftnd, at exhibits, his stamps won man y prizes. He also bad an excellent collection of rare coins. He was prominent in church work and long served as an officor of the First Pres byterian Church He wa s Interested in the C ity Federation of in which Brophy wa s president for thirteen years. He was a m ember ot Ma.s:onic orders !or a half century and also belonged to the Echo Club Mr. Brophy died on March 5, 1940. He was survived by his widow and an aunt, Mrs. George Uzzell, of Nokomis. Intennent was made in Royal P alm Cemetery. THOMAS JULIAN COL LINS Thomas Julian Collin s wa a born in Brooker, Bradford County, Florida, Novem ber 16, 1898, the son of 'rhomas Richmond and William Frank (Barry) Collins. His grandfather, T h omas Richmond Collint, who was born in Orangeburg, S C., came to Pinellas Peninsula by water in 1 845 and landed near Bayv ie w. He explored the reg ion and then returned home. I n 1861 he came back to Florida and settled in Columbi a County, near Ft. White. Later he becam e Well know n in that section as the keeper o f vital stati at ie s prese rving the dates of births deaths and maniages. Some THOMAS J. COLLINS of hl s diaries which go back t o the years be tore the War Betwee n the States are still in exis:ten.ce. Mr. Collins father was postmaster i n Brooker for twcnt y-
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THE !;TORY OF !;T .I::'ETERSBORG After being admitted to the Florida. bar in 1925, Mr. Collins started practicing law in S t Petersburg and he has been engaged i n that prof e ss ion here ever s i n c c. Mr Collins is a member of the St. Pe t ers burg Bar Association of which he was elec ted to serve as president for 1948. He also is a mem ber of the Florida Bar Associa t ion and the St. Petersburg Chamber o f Com merce. On November 13, 1938, Mr. Collins was married to Mary Josephine Boroughs. They have a daughter, rhomasine Collins, born Octobe r 4 1939. JOHN LENH ART WILHELM John Lenhart Wilhelm was born January 27, 1907, at Bradenton, Fla. the son of John Walter and Susie (Turner) Wilhe l m. '!'he parents of John Walter Wilhelm le!t their home i n Tennessee soon after th e end o f the Civil War and went t o For t Myers, Fla. w here the father and grandfather en gaged in t he lumber business. When John Wal ter Wilhelm finished his sc h ooling, he went to work for the H B JOHN L. WILHELM Plant Steamship Compa ny and sailed out of Fort Myers, Tampa and St. Petersburg. About 1900 he left the company and se t tled in Bradenton w here his father had opened a n ice plant and grocery In Bradento n, John W. Wilhelm met and married Susie Turn e r, whose pa rents had come from Nort h Carolina. In 1905, Mr and Mrs. Wilhelm opened a furniture and undertaking ness in Bradenton Two years later their son, John Lenhart Wilhelm, was born. In 1917 the Wilhelms moved their business to S t Petersbur g. John Lenhart Wilhelm was educated in the St. Petersburg public schools and was graduated from Porter Military Academy, Cha r leston S. C ., in 1926 H e attended Mercer Univers ity, Macon. Ga., f or three years, and then studied a t t he Eckels School of Embalming, in Philadelphia. In 1929 he entered the W i lhelm establishmen t and, when his father died in 1936, took over active managemen t of the firm. In January, 1942, Mr. Wi lh elm en listed in the U S. Coast Guard and served tively as capta i n of the port at Tarpon Springs, vessels operations of the 7th N ava l Distric t at Miam i and captain of the port at Charleston S. C. He then was sent to the Phillipines and from t here he was sent to New Guinea, Dutch East Indies, where he was commanding officer of the Coast Guard Base. Foll owing h i s r elease f rom the Coast Gua1d with the rank o f Jieutenant-com mander Mr Wilhelm returned to St. Peters burg t o resume management of the Wil helm compan) His mother, Mrs. Susie Wilhelm, is secretary and tr easure r of t he fi rm. Mr Wilhelm is a member of St. Peters burg Episcopal Church, a member of KiwanJs and Prope1ler clubs, th e Lakewood Country Club, Veterans of Fotcign ars, American Legion Post 14, a 32nd Degree Mason and member of all Masonic b odies forme r direetot of the Junio r Chamber of Commerce at present a member of th e senior chamber, and fleet capta i n and a director of St. Petersburg Yacht Club He is also a member of St. Petersburg Chapter Disab l ed American Veterans and for years has been act ive in YMCA, Community Chest and Red Cross fund drives

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 339 Mr. Wilhelm i s married to Betty Whit field of Pittsburgh. Mrs. Wilhelm is acti v e in Parent-Stu dent-Teacher Association work, and is manager of St. Petersburg Junior League Thrift Shop. They have two sons, John L. Wilhelm, Jr., born March 5, 1936, and William Whitfield Wilhelm, born March 28, 1 942. John Junior is in public school in St. Petersburg. A daughter by a former marriage, Bonnie Wilhelm, born August 1, 1931, now is attendi ng S t Petersburg High School. EDGAR HART DUNN Edgar Hart Dunn was born at Murray, Ky on November 15, 1888, the son of James Clinton and D. Ellen (Hart) Dunn. He was educated in the public schools of Murray, Ky., attended Valparaiso University and Oklahoma State College and was graduated from th e University of Kentucky with th e degrees of U . B. in 191$. While attending the Jaw department of the Univers ity of Kentucky, he was president of the Henry Clay Law Society. Following his graduation, M r Dunn opened a law office at Hazard, Ky. He continued his practice there until 1919, when he came t o Florida in search of a better climate for his family's health. Coming to St. Pet ersburg he became associated in the practice of law with Judge William King. l n 1 923 be. established the firm o Dunn, Agee and Byron, which firm was dissohed in 19 27. In that year Mr. 'Dunn set up his own firm, i n Jand titles, administration of estates and the drafting of wills. Throughout the years since 1927, Mr. Dunn has become recognized as an authority in his special fiel d. Mr. Dunn always has shown a desire to participate in community affairs. While in Hyden, Ky., he s erved as a member of the draft board during World War I. Since com ing to St. Petersburg he has served as as sociate city judge in 1928 and 1924, and city judge from 1931 to 1933. He is a past pre.sident of Civ itan Club, a member of the Chamber of Commerce, and member of the American, Florida State, and the St. Peters burg bar associations. EDGAR HART DUNN On June 6, 1912, Mr. Dunn was married to Mary F. Rollins of Glenrock Wyom. Mr. and Mrs Dunn have fhe children. 1'he eldest, Kathleen Lee Dunn Hellyer, was born April 8, 1913. She was educated in the publ ic schoo ls of St. Petersburg and is married to William Hellyer of this city. 'l'he Hellyers have one child. Marjorie Ellen Dunn Da y was born April 19, 19 16, was educated in St. Petersburg and is married to John H. Day of this city. They have two children. Carol)n Edna Dunn Hyatt was born January 28, 1918, educated in the city school s and i s now married to Thomas Hyatt of Lakeland. The Hyatts have two boys. Edgar H. Dunn, Jr., was born Mar 10, 1919 and was graduated from St. Petersburg schools and from Kentucky Unlve 'tsity. In 1941 he enlisted in the Army Air Forces. Following his discharge he ret urned to col lege, was graduated from the Jaw college of the University o f Florida and began the practice of law in St. Petersburg, being as sociated with his father, Mr. Dunn Jr., was

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340 TnE STORY oF ST. PETERSBURG married to Lura Mao Lnughrnillcr of St. Petersburg in 1942. The you ngest son. Hunter R. Dunn, was bor n O c tober 20 1921. Followi n g gradua Uon from St. Petersburg high sc h oo l i n 1940 Hu n ter enli sted in the U S. Mari n e Corps and is stationed in Santa Ana, Calif. In 1943 Hunter was married to Winsome West, of Sydney Australia. CHARLES GOTLIEB RUEBEL Charles G otlicb Ru ebel was born in Cincinnati, Ohio on December 2.1; 1904, th so n of P hil i p a nd Emma (Koen ig) Rueb el. H e ed ucate d in the public se hoo l s of Cinc in nati and was attending thB Automo .. tivo Preparat ory School of that city w h en, in 1919, h i s f ather's health necessitate d a c hango of c limate and the f amily came to St. Petersburg for' tho winter. For four years the family spent wintel seasons in St. Petersburg, returning to Cineinnati eaeb spring Then, in 1923 Charles Ruebel d ecided to settle here. For t.wo year s he was engaged in real estate C H A RLES G. RUEB E L .. les. Ro then entered the automobil e sales field, in which he continued until 1927. In that year Mr. Rueb el purchased a tire and battery sal e s a n d se r v ic e busines s. By 1931 the bus i ness had gro wn by addition of new tine s and serv i ces and a larger build i ng was purchased. The next year liir. Ruebel became distrib utor for a li n e of radio s. In 1938 the firm too k over exclusiv e diotribuUon of United States tires tor the St. Petersburg area. In 194 1 Mr. Ruebel obtained the St. Petersburg dealership for Dodge ears and trucks, a l so the Plymouth sales a g ency. In 1947 liir. Rueb el separated the Dodge and P l ymouth sales agencies from his wholesal e and ret ail tire and b a ttery bu s ine ss a n d m oved the auto agc n ci e$ t o a n e w l ocat ion in the building complete d that year. Herbert C. Smith, who wa s associated with Mr. Ruebel from 1932 on, was taken into the firm, which was inco r porated in 1 9 4 '1 as the Ruebel a nd Smith Motor Company. Mr. Ruebel is a Lutheran, a member o f the St. Petersburg Elks Lodg e No. 1224, m e mb e r of the Yacht and Bath Club s, St. Petersburr Cham b e r o f Commerc e former memb e r of J u nio r C h a m ber of Commerce and Civitan Club. On April 23, 19 27 he was married to Marjorie Batterso n o f Cincinnati. Mrs. Ruebel baa taken a personal part in her husband's business They have two ch.ildren Charles G ., Jr., born November 5, 1 931, who was graduated from the public sc h ools of St. Petersburg and entered Farragut Naval Academy i n :C!l46, and Barbara Jean, born No,ember 1 2 1 938, who in 1947 was attending school, St. Peteraburg. AYME R VINOY L A U GHNER Aym e r Vinoy Laughner was born in Oil City, Pa., May 13, 1883, t he son of Perry 0. and Emma C. (Finley) Laughner. He was educated in the schools of Pi tblburgh. Early becoming interested in the business of his father, who was one of the early oil barons of Pennsylvania, Mr. Laughner en tered the oil we ll suppl y branch o f his father's enterpri ses w hile scarcely out of his 'teen s. Learning t h e bu siness from the ground up he w as nlade pt es i dcnt of Cres -

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 341 "Cent Oil and Gas Company, and Mal .ou Oil Company, two of the Laughne r branches in Pittsburgh. Coming to St. Petersburg in 1919, Mr. Laughner was quick to see that here was a city destined to grow and develop greatly during the succeeding years. Backing his faith in the progress of St. Petersburg with hard ca s h, Mr. Laughner acquired more than 2,000 acres of land about the city for real estate deve l opment. During the years that followe d, many subdiv is ions were planned, prepared and opened to the public by Mr. Laughner Then, in 1923, seeing the n .eed for a larger, finer hostel r y than the city at that time pro vided, Mr. Laughner bought an undeveloped water front tract as the site for erec tion of the VinoY Park l!otel. He then had archi tects design one of the most beautiful resort hotels in the country, of Span_is h Renais sance p eriod, though completely mo dern and of fireproof construction. The hotel was comp leted and opened to the public in January, 1926, just three months before the death of the elder Mr. Laughner. Twenty years after the Vinoy Park was opened, Mr. Laughner sold the hotel to the Olsonett Hotel Chain, with stipulation that his managel:, Sterling Bottorne, wh.om he had brought with him from Pennsylvania twenty -three years earlier, should continue as its managing director. Although Mr. Laughner retired in 1946, he still maintains control of Laughner Enterprises, Inc., A vita Corporation, Seminole Im provement Company, and other real estate properties in which he is Mr. Laughner was elected to the city council in 1930, serving until 1934. He is active in the Masonic order, belonging to all the local bodies. He is a member of First A venue Methodist Church, St. Petersburg Yacht Club, Royal Order of Jesters and the Elks Club. He was married June 3, 1908, to SteHa V. Watson of Coreopolis, J?a. Mrs Laughner is a member of the Junior League, and is a devoted member of her church societies and an official of W .S.C.S. of the Methodist Church. A V. LAUGHNER The Laughners have two children. A son Paul I...aughner, was born September 9, 1916. He was educated in the public schools o f St. Petersburg and is married to Lois Trimble of this city. The younger Laughners are specialists in flotaeulture, and are especially interested in the propa gation of orchid species They have one daughter, Lynda Louis e born in 1947 A daughter, .Madalyn Laughner Curtin, born September 23, 1918, was educated in St. Petersburg schoo ls, then studied art at the Traphagen School of Art in New York City, and in Paris, France. She is married to Raymond W. Curtin of Pittsburgh, Pa. The Curtins have two childl'en, Aymer L. and Raymond W. Curtin, Jr. LAWRENCE WEIR BAYNARD Lawrence Weir Baynard wa s botn ber 26, 1896, in .Mill Spr ing, N. C., the son o:f Owen Thomas and Eleanor(Nelson) Bay nard. He was graduated from high school in Landrum, S. C., in 1913 and from the College of Charleston, South Carolina, in

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342 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG May, 1918. Upon lanving college he was commissioned a s an ensign in the U. S. Navy and served until the spring of 1919. -. Mr. Baynard then became an instructor in the academic department of C lemson College, South Carolina, where he remained until June, 1920. He then came to St. Peten burg and entered the real estate business, in which he was engased lor the next ten yean. During that period he develope
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 343 N. U. Bond attended the rural grade schools of Jeffer son County and the Teach crs Stat e College at Clar i on, Pa. He taught sc hool for several yc. ars and then entered Geneva College at Beaver Falls, Pa., where he was graduated with the degree of M.S. in 1891. Two year s later he entere d the J aw depar tment of the University of Michi gan and was graduat ed in 1896 w ith the degree of LL.B Shortly after graduation he entered the lumber business to obtain money to pu r chase a law li b rar} r prepar a tory to engaging in th0 practice o f law as a profession. H i s lumber business p roved so profitable that he con tinued in it for more than forty years. In 1900 he moved to Maryland and de veloped and marketed the timber from a 1 0,000 acre tract at Bond, Garrett Coun ty. In 1910, he developed a 9,000 -acre tract i n Pocahontas County, \Ves t Virginia, and i n 1914, moving to Kentucky, he cut and milled a 43,000-acre hact of vhgin timber at Bond, Jackson County. His plant was one of the largest in Ke. ntucky. I n 1924, h e was elected to the Kentucky State Senate and served two terms, until 1932. He was the father of the present re forestation law of Kentu cky which has been adopted as a model by many o ther stat es. Senator Bond began coming tc St. Peters bur g as a winter v isit or i n 1920 Dur ing the visits whic h followed h e acquired valuab l e pieces o f property including the Pennsylvania Hotel the Sears-Roebuck Store Building and the Willson-Chase de partment s tore build i ng In 1926, the Bond State Bank at Bond, Ky., in which was a director, failed Vol untarily, without any legal obligation, he paid all depositors in full out of his own pri vate funds, although be had to bolTow part of t he money to do so This i s the only time the depositors of a defunct bank in Ken t ucky received the ir money from an individual who was no obliga tio n to repay them. In 1940 Senator Bond brought his family from Lexington, Ky., to St. Petersburg to make thei r home. Senator Bond is a membe r of the Lakewood Country Club, a 32nd degree Mason, a Knight Templar and a Sht ine r. N. U BOND He was married in 1914 to Martha Med l oc k of Kentucky. Mrs. Bon d is a member of the S t Petersburg Woman's Club Bot h Senator and Mrs. Bond be l ong to the First Presbyterian Church of St. Petersburg. They ha\'e three sons: William and Samuel Fuller twins, born September 30, 1916 and Ninian U. Jr., bom Noveinber 21 1919. William was educated at Berea Co llege. at Berea, Ky., was married to Mary Lee Hope of St. Petersburg in 1940 and during the war served as lieutenant i n the air corps. The) have two childt en: Martha and Wil liam. Samuel Fuller was educated at Berea, Ky., and Corne)) University. He was mar ried to Virginia Combs of 8 erea, Ky., in 19 41. They have two children : L inda and Rebecca. He ser\rcd as a major in th e air corps during World War II. Nin ian, U., Jr., s c h ool at Beroa, Ky., and R<>Hins College. He was manied to Carrie Green. They have two children, Carrie and Jud y He served as airplane i nstrument techn ic i an i n the air co r ps

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344 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSB URG THOMAS CUNNIN GHAM HARRIS Thomas Cunnin gham Harris was born July 28, 1908, in Parrot, Va ., the son of Thomas Cunningham and Mcua (Cas sie) Harris. He attended public schoo ls in Rnd!ord, Va., and in St. Petersburg wher e he came with his parents in 1920 He was graduated fro m St. Petersburg High School in 1927 While a troshman In high school, be atsrted working as an oUiee boy for the St. Petersburg Times. A year he bec a me a reporter and was assign e d to the polic e and court beat. When 16 years old he covered the famous Frank McDow e ll murder trial1\lcDowe ll murdered two s i sters i n Georgia oud his mother and father in St. Petersburg a year later. Mr. Harris became city editor of the Times while a j unior in hi&'h acbool. He also worked the telegraph desk and covered va rious beats. In 1928 h e covered the Demo cratie National Convention in H ouston 'Tex. In 1933 he was promoted to managing ed itor, becoming th e youngest executive of THOMA S C. HARR I S that typ e in the South. He is n o w executive editor of t he Times. Wh en a youth, 1\lr Harris wa s ono of t he firat Eagle Scouts in P ine llas County. He is now a member of the Chamber of Com merce and St. Pete rsburg Yacht Club. He is al so a member of the Am erican Societ y of N ewsp aper Editors, the Florida Associated Puss Association and N ational Associ ated Press Association. As a editor he has taken a keen intere ,st in countless eivic activities. In May, 192 9, Mr. Harris was married to Patric ia Brock. Mr. and Mr s. Harri s have three daughters: Margaret and Patricia, twin s born August 4 1934, and ShelTY Anita, born February 27, 1942. LEE CL A R ENCE SHEPARD Lee Clarence Shepard was born N ovember 27, 1887, In Ripon, Wis., the so n o f Guy B. and Ettie (Gay} Shepard. He was educ ated in the public schools of Ripon. When he was still a youngster, he l earned to bec ome a telegrapher and then wa s em ploy ed by t h e Western Union TelegraJ) h Company which assigned him to rn.ilroad s. He was s t a tioned in many out-of-the-wa y places in the Far West. Later he was assigned by Western U nion to Morris & Company, the large meat packift&' com pan}' later superseded by Wilson Packing Company, and wo rked in Chiea.g o, Pitts. burch and Philadelphia About 1909, he was employed b y the Chicago offi c e o! the Un ited Wireless Com pany which transmitted wirel ess m ess ages commer c ially. A t that time, wireless wa s still pretty much i n the e x pe r imental s tnge Just a few months before It had boon u sed for the first time in a sea l'e s cue-two steamers collide d off Nantucket Lighthouse in a tog and six passengers wer e sa ved by "CQD" (before SOS). Mr Shepard w a s assigned by United \Virele sa t o as&i&t in equ ippi n g steamships on the Great Lakes with wirele as appara tu s and t o train men, on th e &hips a nd tn the harb ors, to send and receive by wireless. At t hat time a ll wireless messages were sent in Morse code, l'equir in g an oxpet opera t or

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBORC 345 to send and receive. Gian t telegraph keys were used and the receiving sets looked like something a boy might build on a rainy afternoon. But they worked -fairly well. Mr. Shepard recalls that one time when he had to put a call through to New York he suc ceeded only by enli sting the aid of an o perator in Tampa, Flu., wh o relayed the message for hirn. Three years after this experi ence Mr. Shepard came to St. Petersburg to visit his brot.her, Guy B. Shepard. He liked tbe town and wanted to stay, but found nothing to do here, and went to Clearwater with the Western Union thoro Later he transferred to a Clearwat er bnnk whero he was employe d as bookkeep er und a ss istant cash ier. In 1918 he went to 'l'nmpa as bookkeeper of the First National Bunk. Lntor he moved to Savannah, Ga., where he was asso-ciated with Neville Mcher and Barnes, certified pubJie accountants. Coming back to St. Petersburg in 1 9 20, he opened his own accounting o!!iee as a C.P.A. and has since continued in that business. In 1946 he formed a partnership with Gerald E. Klanderman, also a C.P.A. Shepard is a p .. t president of St. Petersburg Rotary Club, and has edited the Rotary publication, "Tho Sunbe am," for the past 13 years. He also is editor of "The Fl o rida Accounta nt, t h ouse organ of the Florida Institute of A ccountants, is a mem ber of St. Petersburg Yaeht Club and of Pass-a-Grille Yacht Club, Lak ewood Cou n try Club and Bath Club. He is an Episcopali a n, a Maso n and was the first candidato initiated b y the Grotto in St. Petersburg. He h u served three terms as a member of the board of go,ernors of the Chamber of CommCl'CC, also as a mcm .. ber of the budget committee of the Com munity Chest. He is married to Sallie Mae Sumner Will son. The Shepards have two c hildren. Pearl Shepard was educated in the public schools o f S t Petersburg, and, after ;:radua tion !rom Florida State College for Women at Tallahassee was, for five y ears, society editor of the St. Petersburg Times. She now liVC$ in West Palm Bench, nnd is an execu tive o f the Girl Scouts ot America LEE C. SHEPARD Lee C S h epard, Jr., was educated in publie schools of St. Petersburg and, follow ing his graduation from Junior College spent four ycats in his fathel"s office. Upon passing hi& CPA exam i nations h o entered the army in 1942 He took training at Ft. Benjamin Harrison, served as a c aptain of .Field Artillery in Hawaii for two yean, and is now Jiving i" West Palm Beaeh where he conducts an accounting practice. P AUL BARNETT BARNES Pauf Barnett Barnes was born 1\lnre h 21, 1895, at Decatur, Ala., the son of J. Leo and Molli o ( Couch) Barnes. His family moved to Atl nnta, Ga., when he wa s about nine month s old, and he spent his boyhood days there, attending Peaeoek School for Boys. He was graduated fro m Georgia M ilit ary Academy College Park, Ga., in 1912. H e attended the University of Georgia, and was in the Class of 1916 where he waa a member of the Phi Del t a Theta Fraternit)". H e enlisted in \\' orld "'a1 I a s a. private at C amp Gordon, Ga. an d was made a line sergeant en rou t e to Fra nce. During his

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346 TnE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG serviee with the 82nd Division at Mount Sec, he was commiss ion ed and sent to the 2nd Division, which was th en at Chatea u T h ierry. He s erved with the 2nd Divisio n throughou t Mont B l anc, S t. Mihi c l and M o use-Argonne during the war, and a lso with the Army o f Occupation in Germany. For consp icu ous bravery i n a ction he received the Verdun "ledal, the Croix de Guarre, the Victory M edal, the Froix de Guerre and citations for "bravery in action transcending the line of duty." Mr. Barnes first came to St. Petersburg in 1920 with his father, J. J ..ee Barnes, who ha d operated hote l s in Atlnnto including the Ballard, Aragon and Mujo stlc. For a number of years durin g eollego vacation h e wa s assist ant to his father in hotel operation in Atlanta, and h is other hote l experien c e in c ludes being asso<:iate manager of th e Georgian Terrace H otel in Atlanta, Ga. and assistant manager of the old Waldorf Astoria in New York City. He is eo.owner with his father of the Huntington Hotel and has been manager of the hotel since 1920. PAUL B. BARNES On January 21, 1925 he was married to Miss Anne Carline A lexander of Waco, Texas. In Worl d War II Mr. Barnes accepte d the aank of cap t a in for special dut y in t h e Pro vost Marshal Department, most of hi s ti m e being spent in th i $ country He wa s awarded the American Defense Medal and also the Victory M edal. Mr. Barnes is a member of the American Legion, having served as post commander in Post 14, St. Petersburg, and was one of the organizers and first Chef de Garre of Voiture 5 41, 40 et 8 as well as Past Chcminot a nd Past Gran d C h e f de Garro 40 et 8, State of F l o rida. He is also a member of the V
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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 347 Mt. Gresh came from a family of n ation aUy .. know n cigar manufacturers and he started life with the idea that a business had been created which eventually wou1d be turned o ver to him Due to changes caused by World War I, the cigar business failed and Mr. Gresh found himself that cigar business and an education i n no other line. His mother owned a home in St. Petersburg and upon her suggestion he came here in an effort to find something to do. During his four years at Bordentown Military Institute he had learned to play the violin. Therefore, when he met six boys from Kentucky State College who had an orchestra in St. Petersburg, they asked him to join their orchestra, be did so. The orchestJ:a broadcast for the first time from the Gold Dragon Dance Hall then located above Rutland's Store and Central. I.ater this band was made a Paul Whiteman unit and eventuallY, Earl Gresh became a Columb ia recording artist and one of the nation's outstanding orchestra leade rs. How ever, Mr. Gresh realized he was building nothing for his sons so he dropped music and entered the boat building field. Dur ing 1929 and 1930 he became one of the nation's loading outboard drivers. He developed a boat design which he manu factured and sold from coast to coast. While building boa t s, Mr. Gresh found he possessed manual dexterity to a marked de gree, backed up by an artistic sense and a fund of ingenuity When the depression beached the boat business, he built a work shop in back of his house and started manu facturing small items sueh as buttons, buckles and bag-tops. His original Gresh wooden purse is now in the Smithsonian Institute. Gresh products soon became popular. Mr. Gresh built an addition to his wor k shop and when this proved too small, he built his modern factory on Fourth street north, which was the birth of the Wood Parade, now an attraction which is visited by people from all patt.<; of the country. It is, in reality, a museum of woods which is unique and most artistic. EARL GRESH Mr. Gresh has set a vogue in wood-a vogue which has cre.ated national comment; so much so, that Da ve Elman of Hobby Lobby fame, sent for Mr. Gresh on two different occasions to broadc.ast on his pro gram. Stories about him and the Wood Parade have appeared in many newspapers and magazines. Mr. Gresh was one of the founders and was the first president of t he St. Petersburg Propeller Club, organied for the further ance of the port. He was the first president of the St. Petersburg Rod and Gun Club He is a member of the Westminster Presby terian Church Masonic L-odge, the Ameri can Legion, Lions Club, and the Sun sh ine City Boat Club and is a member of the board of governors of the Florida Wild Life Association. On November 8, 1915, Mr. Gresh was manied to Marian Noble, of Non-istown, Pa. Mr and Mrs. Gresh have three sons: Hervey Clinton, born October 14, 1916; Edwin Noble born June 22, 1919, and W illiam Dixson, born October 23, 1 923

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34S THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG HUBERT RUTLAND Hubert Rutland was bor n in Evergreen, Ala., in 1898, the son of Duke Goodman and Temple (Millsap) Rutland. He gained his early education in the public schools of Evergreen and attended the University of Alabama. Whil e at the University he was a member of the Studen ts Army Training Corps In 1919 Mr. Rutland began working for the D. 0. Metcalf Company; wholesalers of gl'oeeries and dry goods. J.t"'or two years he was on the road, sell i ng the com pany's merchandise. Then, the company having closed in the depression of that year, Mr. Rutland came to St. Petersburg, w here his brother had bought extensive interests in the T. J Northrup store, one of the largest department stores i n St. Petersburg. "'orking with his brother, in '''hat then was the Northrup-Rutland store, Mr. Rut land saw the need for a first-c lass men's store. Believing that the city now was large enough to warrent such an enterprise, he sought and obtained sufficient additional capital to finance a men's haberdashery HUBERT RUTLAND which was opened in 1923, and tho ugh it has had to weather two depressions since its inception, has maintained a flourishing busi ness during the pas t 25 years Rutland is a member of the First Meth odist Church, a trustee of t he St. Petersburg YMCA, a member of St. Petersburg Yacht and Bath Clubs, the Propeller Club and Lakewood Country C l ub. He sened as a director of the Chamber of Commerce dur in g the years 1942 to 1945. He has taken part in communi t y welfare drives and -is a former member of Rotary C l ub. Mr. Rutland was married April 29, 1924, to Helen Sterchi of San Antonio, 'l'exas. The Rutlands have two children. Betty 'l' emp l e Rutland born March 4, 1926, wa s educated i n S t Petersbu r g and Ward Belmont College, Nashville, Tenn and entet:ed the University of Alabama in 1944. Hubert Junior was born Ma rch 5, 1931. In 1947 he was a student at St. Pctersbu g High School. RUEBEN EWALD CLARSON Rueben Ewald Clarson was born in Swe den October, 4, 1886, the son of F W. and Jennette (Jacobson) Clarson. Emigrating to this country while but a boy, Mr Clar s on early became interested in th e construction industl:y. Coming to St. Petersburg in 1921, he ac cepted a position as superin tendent with t he hanklin J, Mason Company. Within two years Mr. C l arao n took a partnership in the firm. Between 1921 and 1928 Mr. Clnrson was in charge of such proje-cts a s the St. Petc. rsburg High School build ing, West Coast Title Company building, (now the First Federal building,) Pennsylvania Hotel, Salvation Army building the Ed. '1'. Lewis home, high schoo l buildings at Clearwater and Tarpon Spr i ngs, and ice plants in all thre e ci ties \Vhen the Franklin J Mason company was disso lved in 1928, Mr Clarson started his own construction business and operated as the R E. Clarson Contracting Company until 1940. During that time he built the D. Lewi s home and man) v other home s and comme rcial projects, including the new city hall of St. Petersburg on Fifth street north, on which work was started in 1939.

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THE STORY O F ST. PETERSBURG 349 Also duri n g this time Mr. Clarson con struc t ed several stores for the F. W Wool worth Company in eleven southern states. Outstan din g store buildings were erected at Birmingham, Ala .; Asheville, Charlotte and Gree n sburg, N. C .; Norfolk, Danv ille, Lynchburg, Ports mouth and Newport News, Va. and Atlanta, Georgia In 1939 the firm of R. E Cinrson, In corporated, was fo rmed, with Mr. Clarson as president. Mr. Clarson is a Baptis t, a Mason, mem ber of Rotary Club, St. Petersburg Yacht and Bath C l u bs, char t e r member of Lake wood Country Club, secretary and treasurer of West Coast Chapter, Associated Genera l Contractors of America, Inc., and member of the Chamber of Commerce. He has taken i n tense int erest in aid to y outh projects in St. Pete rsburg, ser v in g as member ot the committee for Crippled Children's Hospi t al and member of the a dviso r y board of Flor ence Crittenden Home On Apr il 20, 1915, Mr Clarson was mar ried t o Ruth J. Harris, of Col u mbus, Ga. Mrs. Clarson i s a member of O.E.S., Wo man's Club, the Chamber of Commerce Wo men, and a past presiden t o f the Rotary Anns. The C larsons have three children. The e ldest, R E. Clarson, Jr., was born October 2 4, 1917, attended St. P etersburg s chools, th e University of Flor ida, Geor-gia School of Technology, Midshipman's School, Prairie State, New Yor k, and completed the Naval Architectural course at the p ost graduate school, U S Naval Academy, An napolis He served four years and tw o months in the navy d uring World War II, and was r e l eased from duty in Novembe r, 1945 as a lieutenant U .S.N. R. H e is mar ried, has two children and is engaged i n bus i ness with his father as permanent v ice p resid e nt and gene ral manager of the con str uctio n company. Ruth J. Clarson Wo od, was born Dec ember 27, 1919. Followi ng graduation from St. Petersbu r g pu blic schools and Junior College she studi e d dramatics at the University of North Carolina. She p l ayed in summer stock t heatrica l companies in MassaChusetts and was i n vited to become a regu lar mc. m b e r of the Theatre of t h e Dale, Ridgefield, Con n. She studied vo ice a broad and in New York for s eve ra l years and has sung with the San RUEBEN E. CLARSON Carlo Opera Company in Washington, D C ., the National Grand Opera Company in C leveland and Chicago Civic Opera Com pany. S he is now engaged in co nc ert work. Mason E. Clarson was b or;, July 8, 1925. Following his graduation from St. Peters bu r g schools, Mason entered Staunton Mili tary Academy, and, during his three years of duty during World War II, took two years of V -12 training at Tulane University, New Orle ans. After his rel eas e from the a ir f orces he entered Tu lane University as a pre -law student. ---THOMAS LEE WEAVER Thoma s Lee Weaver was born March 22, 1870, i n County, near Dalt ori, Ga., the son of Albert Tipton and Margaret A n n (Martin) Weaver He wa s ed ucated at Pine C hape l Academy near Calhoun, Ga., In 1891, 'r. L. Weaver \ vith his two b ro thers, S amuel and John, b-egan operation of a small portabl e saw mill i n Whitfiel d and Murray counties, in Georgia. This ven ture prospered and was the beginning of the firm of Weaver Brothers Lu m be r Company.

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350 THt: STORY OF ST. PETt::RSBURC In 1 8 97 they leJt Georgia and built a small saw mill near Alo meda, in Cla rke County, Alabama T h is m ill they operated fot fou r years. 'l'hen, in 1900, Cap ta i n Tom, as he then was known, left for Louisiana and purchased land and timber at Flora, and started constr uction of t\ mill there. \ Vhen the sa.w mill was ready for operation s one year later, he was joined by hio two brothers. The Flora mill was the !int of five con struct.ed and oporat.ed by the Woaver brothers during the f ollowing five yean. A wholesale l umber office was opened in Shreveport, La. In 1909 the W eavcr Brothe rs, together with a brother-i n law, John H bought land and tim be in northern F lorida ncar Perry. Here they erected a modern miH, at what is now Boyd, and started the Weaver-Loughridge Lumber Company. In 1921 the company opened a small retail lum ber yard in St. Petersburg and later developed the concern now known as Pinellas Lumber Company, one of the leading lumber and building material supply companies on the wes t c oast T L. W EAVER Mr. \Veavcr made several l'eal eetate in vestments in and near St. including a J)iece of lan d which was to front on Go.nd)r Doulev ard, then un dor cons truc tion. Later he disposed of this tract t o the promoto rs of a greyhou nd raelng venture later known as the St. Petersburg Kennel Club. Lumber and other materials to con struet the grandstand, kennels and other buildings were supplied by the Pinellas Lum ber Company. Eventually a reorganization b e e a m e necessary at which time T. L. W caver bee a me president of the St. Petersburg Kennel C lu b, continui n g as such until his re tirement in 194 7. Mr. Weaver was marrie d January 17, 1897, to Mary Elvira Lou ghridge, of Murray County, Georgia. The \Veavers havG six children, all now livin g in St. Petersburg. The eldest, Joyce Ann Weaver, was born July 24, 1898, is now Mrs. John E. Brooks. Anita Pearl Weaver, born July 10, 1899, now is Mrs. W. N. Hankins. Alta May \Vea. ver, bom October 21, 1901, now II Mr s. W. W. Trefethen. Arthur Vey Weaver was born June 21, 1903; Otto Lee Weaver, July 23, 1905, and Albert Drake Weavor, Sep tcmber 18, 19 11. The \Vcnver sons and daughters wore cat<>d In the Natchito ches La., public schoo l s and tho Louioian a Normal, Nat.ebito c h es. The girls finished their education at M ich igan State Normal, Ypsilanti, Michigan receiving liberal arts degrees. The sons Unded Louisiana State Unh,eraity, Baton Rouge, La. and Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia. WESLEY A. HEN DRY We sley A. Hendry wa s born in Taylor County, F lorida, March 3, 1 8 7 2 a son of Wesley and Annie (Dc l k) Hend ry. Hi s :father was a native of F l orida and hitS mother of Georgia. After attending the T a y 1 or County schools. Mr. Hendry studied at the Jasper Normal School. He then taught school in Perry, Fla., and later served eight years as the county superintend ent of schoo ls. Shortly after the turn of the century M r. Hendry gave up educational work and became active in Taylo r County b u 3iness enterprises. He was one of t h e first men

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THE STORY Ot' ST. PETEilSHURG 351 in Florida. to establi sh an automobile agency. He also founded the Gulf Telephone Company which ultimate l y extended over four counties. Hecontinued to opt>rate the company, in which he was the largest stockholder, until after World War I It is one of the few independent telephone companies still in opera t ion With his brother, William T Hendry, he owned the Hendry Realty & Abstract Company, of Perry. He was active in real estate for many year s and develope d subdivisions in the Perry district. In 1021 he came to St. Petersburg and with his brother i n law, E. L. Williams. founded tho P i nellas Lumber Company. He sold his s t ock in the. company to the \\+'eaver-Loughr idge. interests in 1922 bu t continued as general managet until 1925 when he founded the Hendty Lumber Co. He continued as head of the Hendry Lum ber Co. until he died on December 9, 1947. Mr Hendry was a member and a swward of the First Methodist Church, and until h i s illness was acthe i n the Inter State B i b l e C lass of that church. He also be longed to the St. Pewrsburg Lodge No. 1224, B.P. O.E. and was an early member of t h e Optimist Club. He was a life member of the Y. M. C. A and also a m ember of th o Chambet of Commerce. On November 23, 1898, Mr. Hendry was married to Mae \Veavc'l", of Perry, Fla.. Mrs Hendry died December 17, 19 46. Mr. and Mrs. Hendry had three childt cn: Annie :Mac, born February 1 6, 1902; Robert W., born September 25, 1909, and James E born November 7, 1912. Annie Mae Hendry was graduated from Taylor County High Schoo l in 1919 and received an A.B. degree from theFlorida S tate Colleg e for Women in 19 2 8. She taught two years in Alva, Lee County, and s i nce the fall o 1025 has been a teacher in the Mirror Lake Junior High School. Robert W Hendry wa s graduated f rom S t Petersburg High School in 1927 and wa s a m e mber of the first gradu ating class of St. Petet"Sburg Junior Co llege, in 1929. Since then he has been associa ted with the Hendry Lumber Company except for a year and a half during Worl d War II when he was purchasing agent tor the Post En ginecr, Corps of Engine ers, United States Army. He has been manager of the com WESLEY A. HENDRY pany si n ce the fall o f 19 4 3. In 1037, he was married to Hil dred Johnston, of Goderich, Ontario. '!'hey have three childte n : Donald Wesley, born October 2 1 1937; Martha Jean, born February 16, 1939, and l,au reen Marie, born Augut 14, 1944 James E. Hendry was graduawd from St. P e tetsburg High School in 193.0, from St. Petersburg Junior College in 19:l2 and in 1932 received an LL.B. degree at the University of F l o rida. He then joined the Hendt y Lumber Co. In February, 1942, he enlisted in the U.S Coast Gu : u-d and was comm i ssioned as a n ensign t-he following June. During the next three and a half years he took part in convo y duty on the Atlantic and served on attack transports du ring invas ions in the European an d Pacific area$. For he served as communic ations officer on the famous at tack tr an s port Samuel Chase. He was discharged in January, 1946, with the rank of lieutenant. He is vice president of the Hendr y Lumber Co and manager of the Hendry Build ing Co of which his brother is part owner.

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352 TR STORY O F ST. PETERSBU RG JOHN BRYAN GREEN John Bryan Green wt\& born in Nor th Bast, Pa . on October 12, 1896, the son of Charles A. and Hattie ( P hnnco) Green. He wns educated in the public s chools of North East, and was graduated from high school in 1 9 14. After gr-aduation f rom high schoolJ' Mr. Green became connecwd with the Eureka Company, North E ast, Pa., in the cost accounting depar tment for a pericxl of three years. During World War I be served as a priVate in M oto r Corps, Medical Dopartment. He then became with the Union Catbid o and Carbon Corporation as an accoun tant in Cleve l and Ohio, and Niagara F alls, N. Y. until 1921. In that M r Green came to St. Pewrs Following a period o f two years as a Mr. Green opened an office as a bro ker in partnership with W il liam Richman under the firm name of Green and Ri ehman. They specialized in businesS pl"operty and built many commercial build ings in St. Petersburg, Including the Groen-JOHN B. GREEN Ri ch m a n Arcade, now the Seventh Street Arc ade. Becoming inter ested in valuation of l eal estate, !n the early ye ars of his ron! estllte practice, Mr. made a study of nppr-ai!ing. In J 933 he became a member of the American Institute of Real Estate Apptaisera and sinc e that time has taken active part in state and national real e.state and appraianla cir-cles.. In 1938 Mr. Green was asked by the Secre-tary of War to assist in the evaluation of all lands owned by the United Stllw s on Man zanill o Islnnd, Republic of Panama. He also served as chai rman of a thrce membcr appraisal board set up in Public Re solution 54 of tho of t h e United States. This apprai sa l a s signment inc l uded the entire city of Co lon nt the Atlantic end of the Panama Canal. Upon completion of this assignment Mr. Green was retained by the Governor o! the Canal Zone to make an individual ap praiaal of all lands owned by the UniWd States in the City o f Panama, Re p ublic of Panama. ritr. Green bas served as the chief appraiser !or the First Federal Savin,gs and Loan A sso ciation o f St. Petet8burg since its ince ption in 1 933. lie also hn s been apprnlser for life insuranc e companies, co mpanies, and banks throughout the nation. Many St. Petersburg s ubd iv i siona ha ve orrered to the public by Mr. Green including Brightwaters on Snell Isle, in process of deelopment in 1947, and generally to be one of the finest residential developments o n Florida's West Coast. Mr. Green is a member of St. Petersburg Lodg e No. 1 39, F. and St. Petersburg Chapter No. $1 Sun shine Commandcry; No 20, Egypt 1'emple and Shrine, the St. Peters burg Yacht C lub, St. Petersburg C hamber of Co mmerce, the St. Petersburg Board of R ealtors, ot which he is a pa s t president; member and past vice president of the Florida Association of Re.alto rs1 past dirae tor or the National AssoeiJIUon of Real Estate Board s a nd was chosen president for 1946 and 1947 of St. Pewrsburg Insu r o rs' He is a. member and past vice proaidellt of American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers and member of the board of governot s of Ute J nstitute during the

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG years 1937, 1938 and 1089. He also was president of the Florida Chapter of the Institute in 1937 Mr. Green is a m ember of First Avenue Methodist Church of St. Pet-ersburg He was married Januar)' 12, 1918, to Lillian Mae Williams of North East, Po. JAMES R BUSSEY James R. Bussey wu born in Clinton, Ky., February 26, 1 887, the so n of Charles E. and Edna S. (Spicer) Bussey. His father was: a native of Alabama and his mother of Kent ucky. lie received his c nrly educa tion in the Clinton public schools and at Marvin College, in Clinton. While attending scho ol h e started work ing at the Clinton Exchange of the Cumber land Telephone and Telegraph Company ao a night telephone operator and switch board trouble shooter. After being grad uated from college, he went to Nashville, Tenn., w here he. wor ked in the shops of the telephone compan y learning the technical phases of the busine ss I n 19 07 be was made manager of the compan y' s exchange in Watertown, Tenn. H e then went to Gol co nda, 111., as manng or of an independent compa ny. In 1908 he w ent to {)hicago, took a brief course in shorthand and typewrit ing, and then went to work in the president's office of the Ch icago and Aiton Railroad. In 1911 Mr. Bu ssey went to Vanderbilt University Law School and wor ked ns a secretary in the district attorney's of!iee of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad while taking his first year's la w work He then went to the University of Kentucky where he was graduated with an LL.B de gree in May, 1'913. Mr: Bussey began practicing law in Paducah, Kl' where h e remained until February, 1914, wh e n h e moved to Forrest City Ark. H e practiced there until the fall of 1920. In the spring of 192 1 he came to St. Petersburg and in the following January formed a law partnership with Judge Free man P. Lane which was terminated in 1924 when Judge Lane became Circuit Judge of the 6th Judicial District. Since then he has pra c ticed as the senior member of the firms Bussey, Mann & Barton, o.nd Bussey, Mann, Simmons & Fielding. .JAJ\IE.S R. BUSSEY Mr. Bussey was one of the organizers of the Princess Marth a Co., and has served as its sectctary and treasurer since it was in .. corporated. He also was one o the organizers of the Bee Line Ferry Co. and became secretary and treasurer of the company after the death of Cha rles R. Carter. He has had many othe r businesa connection.; during the past quarter century. Since coming to St. Petersburg Mr. Dussc.y has taken a keen interest in civic affairs. I n 1923 he served on tho charter board with A. P. Avery and Lew B. Brow n. He is a member o Sl. Petersburg Lodge No. 139, & A.M., Sunshine Commandary Knight Templars, Sl. Petersburg Chapter No. 31, R.A.M., and is a Shriner, Egypt Temple. He is a life member of theY .M.C.A. and is a member of the St. Petersburg Yaeht Club. Mr. Buhey was married to Frances Man n of Forrest City, Ark., in October 1913. Mr. and Mra. Bussey had five children: James, Jr., born January 4, 1 '916; Martha, born June 30, 1919; Sam, born Septombor 21,

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354 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 1922; WiUiam, born October 22, 1925, and Robert, born .March 4, 1927. Sam Bussey was gTad .uated from St. Petersburg High School and later attended Van derbilt University and then Sewanee University at Sewanee, renn. In April, 1941, he enlisted in the ArtiUery and received his trai ning at Fort S ill, Oklahoma. His company was shipped out o f San Fran cisco in December 1941, and after stopping briefly in Australia was sent to Java. On February 28, 1942, Sam was captured by the Japa nese He was taken to a p ris o n cam p in Indo Chi n a where b e died January 18, 19H. RAY E. DUGAN Ray E Dugan was born March 21, 1898, at Osceola M ill s, Pa., the son of Cormick J. and Ellen (FitzGerald) Dugan. H e was educated in the public schools of Phila delph i a and Alma Krause Private Day School, and attend ed Drexel Institute and U niversi t y of Pc. nnsylvania taking courses in finance and business admin istra tion. RAY E. D U GAN M r Dugan enlisted in World War I and serv ed as a se:rgeant in the 440th E ngineers. He received his honorable discharge February 1 5, 1919 Following the war, Mr. Dugan was as s ociated wi th the T rinidad Lake Petroleum Company, at Por tof-Spain, Trinidad, and later he was with the Superior Boston Copper Company at Glove, Arizona. In 1921 Mr. Dugan came to St. Peters burg to represent Irene C. Da\'is, wif e of F A. Dav i a develope r and builder, o f St. Petersburg and Philadelphia in the liquida tion of the Davis estate. In 1928 Mr. Dugan organized the State Adjustmen t Company and the County Finance Compan y serving first as secretary of t he two firms, then as president. the position he still retains. During those years M r Dugan also was exclusiv e agen t for J aeob Ruppert, both in a nd the Panama Canal Zone, hand ling all of Col. Ruppert's p erson al holdings in Florida from 1927 to the time of his death, niter which Mr Dugan conducted the appraisal of the Ruppert estate and liqu idated most of its Florida holdings, re signing t .he post of agent for the estat e in 1 941. On July 1, 1 943, Mr. Dugan was elected to the St. Petersburg city council and !or the following four years much of his ti me and effort was devoted to formulation of plans for improvement of t he city's f inan c ia l position and red uction of its huge bonded debt. Serving as chairman of the finance, bud get, tax and real estate committees during h is entire term, Mr. Dugan took a leading par t in the refunding of city bonds at a decreased interest rate the acqu isit ion of needed waterfront property for the city, the formation of the Lake Maggiore park proj ect which gives the city a much-ne e ded recreation aaea on th e south side, and, most important of all, the li quidation of $1,200, 000 delinquent tax es, which, together w ith the bond refunding, put tl)e c ity back on its f inancial feet. I n addition, a badly mud died tax situation, in which the city had been unable to o btain taxe s from absentee owners, was straightened out, and the collection of taxes w a s put on a 98 per cent basis, As chairman of the State Legislative Committee of the Florid a League of Munici

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 355 pali ties, also of the Lea&'u e'a Tax Realloca tion Aid for Cities Committee fer the years 1946 and 1947, Mr. Dugan prepared factual reports covering 92 per cont of all Florida municipaliti es and presented hi s finding s to members of the Florida House and Senat e during the 1 947 session r.tr. Dugan has served two terms on the board of governors of the Chamber o f Commert:!o; three terms on the boa rd of gover non of the Yacht Club; be was, for years, chairman of th e a dvancement committee of the Bo y Scouts of America. He is a past m e mbe r o f the fellow s hip committee of Rotary Club, a past president of Dragon C lub, past director of tho Chamber of Commerce, a. member of Bath Club, Lakewood Country Club, lska H cllh H o ma, Yacht Club, and the Catholic Church In 1946 he was appointed A viation Consultant to the State of Oklahoma by G overnor Robert Kerr. Mr. Dugan wae married in July, 1929 to Nadi Dent, a native Floridian of St. Petersburg. J AMES DRAFFEN BOURNE James Draffen Bourno was bor n in Mills River, Hc nderson County, North Carolina, August 4, 1893, th o son of James Draffen and Sarah (Thomp s on) Bourne. He wa s ed ucated in the public sc hools o f North Car olina and was graduated from the Asheville Hi gh School in 1912. He then attended North Carolina A. & M College. In 1914, Bourne went with the Pied mont Electric Company, at Asheville, and soon afterward was enrOlled for s tuden t trainin g at Nela Park, Clevela nd, the re search laboratory of General Elec tric. He then joined tho W estlnghouse Lamp Company and was assign ed to sales and engineering work i n the Atlanta territory While with W estingh ouso he took a students' training cour se in tho co mpany's plant at Bloomfi eld, N.J. Mr. Bourne entered the U S. Navy with the rank of e nsign in 1917, served on shore duty a short time and then returned to Westinghouse tor war illumination work in the textile industry. In 1919, Mr. Bou rne beeame co owner of the Electric Sales Co mpany, in Savannah, Ga., where he remained until 1921 when he ca me to St. Petersburg and became co JAMES D. B OURNE owner of the Hallowell -Bourne E lcetrie Company. A year later he sold hi s Interest i n the partnership to Mr. Hall owe ll and organized Bourne & Company, to handle real e state and insu ran ce. He has been en gaged in that business e\ .. cr since. Mr. Bourne was vice-president of the Franklin J. Mason Company which built the Prineeu Martha H otel, the West Coast Title Company building, now the First Federal building, and many other buildings. He was on e of the organi zers and served as a ber of the bo a rd of directors of the Florida Nati ona l Bank. When the Firs t Federal Saving s & Loan Company wa& organized, he served as i t s first presi dent. For many years, Mr. Bour ne has bee n an active member of the Chamber of Commerce and he served the organization as a member of the board of directors and as president, in 1936. He is a charter member of the Illuminating Engineering Society. He ia a past president of the Rotary Club and the St. Petersburg Real Estate Bo ard, a former vi ce-presiden t of the Florida A ssocia tion of Real Estate Boards, a formor director of the Y.M.C. A., a nd a former board m ember of

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356 THE STORY OF ST. PETll.l\SSUIIG the Red Cross. He is a member of the St. Pet ersbutg Yacht Club and a member of the Lakewood Country Club in which he also served as a director. On November 19, 1918, M r. Boume was married t o Lillian Herndon, daughter of Max and Cora (Thrash) Herndon, of Durham, N. C. M rs. Bourne serv e d as c h air man of Volunteer Se. rvices of the Red C ross during the entir e war period, is a past presi dent of the 'Vomen of Rotary, and is a member and past president of the Progress Study Club. Mr. and Mts. Bourne have two childr e n: LilJian, now the ''rife of Thomas V. LeFevre, born June 1 2 1922, and James Draffen, Jr., born August 14, 1 925. THE CHILDS BROTHERS From a biogl:aphical standpoint, temar k ably similar lives have been led by Waltet H. Childrs, Jr., and Harry '\V. Childs, owners of Childs Pharmacy, the oldest pharmacy in St. Petersbu r g opuating under the original ownership. Both men were bo1n in McKeesport Pa., the sons of Walter H. and Grace (lzod) WALTER H. CHILDS, JR. i . .. ,;,,\ \. -. J .- HARRY W. CHILDS Childs. The patents were natives of England who came to the United States with their families when they were children and settled in McKeesport. Walter H Childs, Jr., 'vas born August 5, 1893 and Harry W. Childs, November 26, 1 895. They were graduated from the McKeesport High School and then attended the College o! Pharmacy at the University of Pittsburgh from which they were graduated in June, 1917 On December 5, 1917, the brothers enlisted in the army at Pittsburgh and, a week la ter, on thei r arrival at Fort Ogelthorpe, Ga., were assigned t o the hospital tl.ain division. After teceiving special training, they were sent to France and assigned to Hospital Train No. H on which they worked until July 4, 1 919. The train evacuated wounded from five major fronts during the war and Jater served the Army of Occupa t ion. The Childs brothers were together d u ring the entire war and were both dis c harged from the serv ice in August, 1919. On April 1, 1921, the Ch ilds brothers came to St. Petersbur g, bought the Freer Drug Store and Ch ilds Phar-

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T H E STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 357 mo.ey. Their store, which has become a St... Petersburg institution, has always been loeated at or near the corner of Fourth and Central. 1937 it has been in a build ing n t 337 Central avenue which the brothers purchased. The C hild s brother s are both member of Episcopal Church, St. Petersbu1 g l.odgo No. 1 39 F. & A Egypt T emp l e of Shrine .. s, Kni ght rempla.rs t h e Ameri cnn Leg ion. an d are former m.emben of tho Civitnn C l ub. They also are membere: ot the F lorida State Pharmac euti cal As sociatio n. Harry i s a charter member of Lukowood Country Cl u b a former member oi the sports committ e e of the Chamber o f Commerc e and is a past president of the Florida State Pharmaceutica l Associati on. Both men arc members of the Quarterback Club which Harry Childs served a s president from 1988 thr ough 1946. (See Inde x : Quarterback Club.) On April 28, 1921 Walter H C h il ds, Jr., was married to Frieda Lang, of Pittsburgh. Harry Vl. Childs w a s married on May 15, 1920, to Louise Tawney, of Pa. M1. nnd Mrs. Childs have a daugh t e r Helen, born March 15 19 22, who was graduated [I'Oill St. Potctsbur g H igh Scho o l a n d the UnivOl' S it.y of Tenne r;see and is n o w t h e wife o f Robert Sivitcr. JOSEPH EDWI N BRYAN J osep h Edwin Bryan was born in Jackson, Ga., September 6, 1900, the son o.f Claude and Bertha (McMichael ) Bryan. H e wns educated in the public S<:hools o f Jackson, Ga., and entered Georgia School or Technology i n 1917. At outbreak of World War 1 Mr. Bryan enlisted in the army and served in the In!ant.ry Training Division until the end of t h e wo.r He then returne d to Atlanta, Ga., to complete his educati o n. In 1922 a former fell ow employe of the bank i n Jackson Ga . w rote Mr. Bryan from St. Potorsburg, telling of the o pportunitic nnd ndvantatt e s o f t his eity. Bec o ming int e rested, Ml', Bry11n determined t o vi sit St. Petersburg, T hi s he d id coming here i n 11122, and shottly after was employed by the then Ninth Street Bank and Trust Com pany a s bookkeeper. B y 1930, when the J. E. BRYA N bank was clo scd because o f t h e businoa s dcpt ossi
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358 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG direc tor of S t. P etersburg Quarterback Club, membe>: o f First Baptist Church and of the Bath < ; lub und St. Petersburg Yacht Club. Mr. Brya n is a Mason and member of Selama Grotto, the Commande1Y, the Shrine and Knights of Pythias. On June 16, 19 28, he was married to Virginia Buc. hanan, of Holliday's Cove, W. Va. The Bryans have two children. Betty Ann Brya n was born September 15, 1929. She was graduated from the public schools of St . Petersburg and entered t he University of Kentuck y in 1947. Joseph E. Bryan, Jr. was born k'ebruary 15, 19 3 1 and i n 1947 wa s attending St. Petersburg High S chool. ELON CLIFFORD ROBISON Elon Clifford Robison was born Novem ber 2 7 189 8, in Detroit, Mich the son of John Peter a n d Fannie (Pos)' Robison. H e was educated in the Detroit public schools and at t h e R a ymond Riordan Pre paratory School, in BighJa.nd, N Y., from which he was graduated in 1916. E. C. ROBISON In April 1918, he enlisted in the Marine Corps and was assigned to the Fifth Regiment, Second Division. Sent overseas soon afterward, he took part in five major engage-ments of the American a.rrny, including St. Mihic l Argonne and Champagne, and was wi t h the Army of Occupation until he was discharged i11 September, 1919. Returning to civ ilian life, he went into the photo finishi ng business in Detroit with his fath er, one of the pioneers in t hat line of business. In 1921, his father opened a photo finishing house in St. Petersburg to keep his organization intac t during the northern dull season. Foreseeing the future of St. Petersburg, Elon Uob ison came here in 1922 and took over t h e business his father had started, on Third street opposite Williams Park. In 1926, he Opened a store on Central avenue. Since then he has moved his main place of business three times in the 400 block to take care of his expanding trade. His es tablishmcnt is no\v rated a s one of the largest and best equipped in the entire South ll1 addition t o his Central avenue store he maintained his Third street store a n d also has a laboratory on First avenue south. In 1929, Mr. Robison incorpomted the Robison-Moore Corp., a wholesale photo finishing and photo supplies concern which now serves a large part of C
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Tnt; STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 359 or the board of governors and exeeutivo committee. During Worl d War II be served a s chairman of th e OPA ens rationing committee from which h e J eslgne d when asked to become a candidate fOl' city co uncilman in District No. l Elected in 1943, he served on the council for four years. Duri n g the last two years he as vlce-ma;ror. While on the council he wu chairm an of the public works committee which supervised all the public utilities and airport. In 1947 be was a candidate f o r mayor. lllr. Robison has been member of the S t Petersburg Yacht Club since 1926 aud served as commodo 1 e In 1985 and 1936. He waa cha ir man o f the St. Pctoraburg-Havana race committee for f ive yeal'B and has serv e d a$ a member of the comm ittee sinc e th e r uces first started. He is a ch.artet-member of the Lakewood Country Club and a member of the Dragon Club and Bernard Hickey Post of the Marine Corps League. He is also a member and a forme r director of the Kiwanis Club. On July 12, 1922, Mr. Robison was ma.r4 ried to Fr-a nees Laurandeau, daughter or Louis P hillip and Mary (Brady) L au1andeau, of Detroit. Mr and M1-s. Rob ison have two sons: Donald E lon born July 26, 192 6 and David Francis, born October 10, 1928. Don ald was graduated from the Ma s sachusetts Institute of Techno l ogy in 1946 and in 1947 was employ-ed as an aeronautical engineer by the Cbance-Vaught Aeronautical Co., in Stratford, Conn. In 1947 David was attending Notre Dame University. JOHN S. RHODES John S Rhode s was bom at McKe e s port, I'a., on July 24th 1896, the son of Frank M cClure and Ida J. Serona Rhodes. He was educated in the public schools of MeKee'Port and was graduated from the Eccles College of Embalming at Philadelphia, Pa. FolloWing his graduation, Mr. Rhodes was &$$otiated with the Thoma.s B. Moreland Company of Pittsburgh, Pa., an old, estab lished b.usiness that was a leader in the United States. In 192 2 be came to St. Petersburg where he was associated with the Endicott Funeral Home until Janu ary, 1926. In A p ril, 1926, be established his own busi ne s s under the JOHN S. RHODE S name of John S Rhodes, Inc., Funeral Dl re ctors, which he ha s con tinued to o perate s in ce. Ho i s ma rried to Letha I 'en der o f Inverness, Fla. M r and Mrs. Rhodes have t.wo sons, Robert Fender, nine years, and William John, four year s of age. Mr. Rhodes also has a son and a daughter by a former marriage, John S., Jr., and Ann Rhodes. Betty Ann is a student in the local high school. John S., Jr. is married to Marjorie Gullickson of St. Petersburg and since his return from ser"Tjce in World War II, is assoc iated with his !ather. Mr. Rhodes is a t>a$t-pre s ident of the Na tional Fu net-al Dire c tors A ssociatio n and a past-president o f F lorida Funeral Directors A ssociation, is a membe r and pastpre.sident of St. Petersburg Rotary Club, is a director of the 1-.,orida State Chamber of Commerce a n d ia serving on the B oard of the Ameri can Legion Crippled Children's Hospital. He i s a 82nd Degree Mason, a Knight Tem plar and a Shriner. He al so belongs to the St. Petersburg Lodge of Elks and is a mem ber of the Knights of Phyt hias. He be l ongs to t he Lakew oo d Country Club, the Bath Club, S t Petersburg Quarterback Club

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360 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBUIIG and the St. Petctsburg Yacht Club. Mr. R ho des is a member of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce and has given generously of his time to the various c-ommunity welfare fund drives. LESTER DEAN GOHEEN Lester Dean Goheen was born in Baileyp viHe, Centre County, Pennsylvania, Septcm ber 15, 1894 the son of Robert G. and Nannie Belle (Me Williams) Goheen. He was educated in the Baileyville grammar school, Juniata Preparatory Seho?l, in Hunting ton, Pa., and the Zeth Business College, in Altoona, ;J?a., where he took a general busi ness course. Mr Goheen was fi'l'St c mp)oyed in the statistical department of the Pennsylvania Uailr<>ad in l'yrone, Pa. H e remained there two and a half years and then went into the wholesale ice cream and 1 estauran t business. Because of a physical disability, h0 was pre vented from en1isting in \Vorld \Vat I; in stead he worked for large contracting firms which had government contracts for vital war projects. LESTER D. GOHEEN In April, 191 !), he went to Harriman, P n., a town constructed by the government in connection with the Btistol Shipyards. H e started as a. hotel cashier and worked his way up to become assistant to Paul R. Boardman, then town manager of Harriman. "men Mr. Boardman returned to St. Petersburg, Mr. Goheen became acting manager of the town. In September, 1922, Mr Goheen resigned his position in Harriman and c-ame to St. Petersburg to work as a salesman for the Boardman-Frazee Realty Co. In October, 1923, he becarne of the organization. fn June, 1928, he resigned ftom the eo.rnpany to become purchasing agent for the City of St. l'e.tersburg, which p osition he h e ld u n til Ma1ch l 1930 He then was appointed manager of the Franklin Mortgage Co He continued as managet and later as acting rcce.iv c r of t.he company unti1 October 31, 1938, \\hen it was completely liquidated. When this work was finished, he formed a partnership with Henry M. Amsler, of Clarion, Pa., to form t.he L ester Company to operate as investment brokers. The. com pany owns the Beverly Ho tel, the Beverly Annex, the Biscasne Hotel, the Lcsler block, and other properties. 1\fr. Goheen also does a general insurance and real estate business. Mr. Goheen has taken an activepart in civic affairs for the past quarter cent.Uly. He has aided in local drives to raise funds for the Community Chest, Chamber of Com merce, Re d Cross, the Y."M.C. A., Boy Scouts and other organizations. He is a past presi dent and executive-board member of the St. Petersburg Insurors Exchange; a mem ber of the !'lorida and National Associations of Insurance Agents; a past president of the Pinellas Area Cou11cil o f Boy Scouts of America i a 25-year member of the Chambc t of Commerce, and is a member of the St. Petersburg, Florida and American hotel as sociations. He is a member of the St. Peters b urg Yacht Club and Bath Club on Reding ton Beach. A 8 2 nd degree Mason, Mr. Goheen has been active for many years in Masonic work. He is a past worshipful master, a former trustee and is tteasurer of St. Petersbul'g Lodge No. 139, F & A.M. He is a member of Tampa Consistory and Egypt Temple Shrine, at Tatnpa. Since 1936 he has been

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 361 a member of the-advisory council of the. St. Petersburg chap t e r of DcMolays. Mr Goheen is to Hannah L ouise Skeen. Mrs. Goheen has been active for tnany years in civie and church wot k. Mr. nnd Mrs. Goheen have a son Hobe-rt Goheen, who was graduated fron1 the Uni .. versit.y of F l orida with a B.S. degree in engineering and who S(nved five and one-half years in the Army Air Corps during World War II. RAY J. KNIPE Hay J. Knipe was born in Franklyn Square, Ohio, Augus t 15 1895 the son of Arthur and A l ice (Long) Knipe . Foll owing his graduation from high school at Harrisburg, Pa., h e embarked on his retail sales c .areer after a. personal interview with F W. Woo)worth tesulted in his em p loymcnt as a trainee fot an executive position Mr. Knipe was one of the few 'Voolworth executives pCl'sonaJJy chosen by Mr. Woolworth. In 1917, after four years with the worth organization, he enlisted in t.h0 armv. He was trained at Camp Sherman, and, as a member of the American Expedi tionary E'o1ce$ served in England, F'rance and Oran Algeria, from May, 1918 to June, l919. klo was a setgeant with the 330th Infantry, 83rd Division. Upon his discharge from the army i n 1919 Mr. Knipe returned t o the Woo lworth pany a s manager, consecutiv el y of several stores in Pennsylvania tO\vns. Then, in.g an unusual offer 'ftoom th0 J. C. Crory Company at Clearfield, Pa., he changed to that company, managing the Cleal:field store for a time, then was fonod to Florida to open the St. Petersburg McCroty Store in 1922. During 1925 and 1926 Mr. Knipe became in tho reM in $t. l''ctcrsb urg. D ec iding with i n a short time that t he field of real estate \vas far less fascinating than r e tail Mr. Knipe t.l'ave led about the country for some time. A t Fort Wayne, lnd. Hartford and Plainfield Conn., he organized branch s tores for the Lubrication Products Company, and RAY J. KNIPE acted as per:;onnel di re:::tor and store ager for tho G C. Murphy Company. \\then, in J une, 1929, the Scars Roebuck Company sought a manager for t he new sto1e t hey propo sed t o open in St. Peters burg, Mr. Knipe returned to this city and took ove-r the pos t in which he continues to date. i\fr. Knipe i s widely known as one of the most progressive store executives in the South. He. ha s scl:ved three terms as president of St. Petersbmg MelchantS Association, is vice president and member of the board of directors of the Chamber of Comm.crce, member of St. Potcrsbul"g F'estiva l of S tates Committee for the past s ix years and was chairman of the Festival il) 1940. He was president of the Community Chest in 1947 an(1 campaign o f tile Chc:>t In 1946. During Wotld War II he was appoin ted chail:man and commander of the St. burg Defense Council by GovcnlOl' Spessard Holland, and served fot the duration of the war. Mr. Knipe is a thirty .. sec ond degree Mason, a member of Lodge 139, F & A.M.,

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362 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG member of Rotary Club, a director of Lake wood Country Club, member of tbe Yacht Club and of Post 14, American Legion. He is affiliated with the U nity Churc h Mr. Kn ipe was marrie d July 9, 1924 to Virginia l\1ueller 1\irs. Knipe i$ a past president of the Rotary Anns, and president of Women of the Chamber of Commerce. Mr. and Mrs. Knipe have two children. Joy Virgi_nia, born December 28, 1925, is a graduate of Florida State College for Wo men Ray J. Jr., was born June 24, 1927. Ray served one year in the U. S. Navy following graduation from St. Petersburg high: sehool. He entered the Univ ersity of Florida at Gaines ville in 1946. JOHN THOMAS FISHER John Tho mas Fisher was born May 9, 1897, at Lake Toxaway, T ransylv ania County, North Carolina, the son of Dr. W. C. a nd Rhonda (Walker) Fisher. His father died when h e was six years old and he was unable to attend school beyond the third JOHN THOMAS FISHER reader only his two older brothers finding i t possible to receive h igher educations. At the age of 13 h e ran away from home and for the next three years worked with a railroad gang. He then secured work as a ground man with a line crew for Western Union Telegraph, r eceiving $16 a month. Leaving this job in July, 1916, he worked as a "coal monkey" on th e Ohio Ri.,e.r freight boats until April 6, 1917, when h e enlisted in the army. He became sergeant major with Headquarters Battalion, 77th Fiel d Artillery, 4th Division, and served with the A.E.F. in France from Novoe mber, 1917 to Jan 12, 1919, participating in many offensives and being wounded in action. lie was d is charged from s ervice July 13, 1921, after nearly twa years in army bospita1s. Returning to civilian l ife, Mr. Fisher worked for almost a year !or the Buick Motor Co., in Flint, Mich., and then left to come to St. Petersburg where he opened a real estate office as general broker. Since then he and his associates have subdivided and develope d twentyatwo subdivision s in Pinellas County, operating principally in the Lealman territory. When h e first began the Highland Grove Subd ivision there were not mo r e than fifteen houses in the territory; since then several hundred houses have been bu .ilt there, principally through his activities After the end of World War II, Mr. Fisher built mote than a hun. dred homes for low-bracket income families, the only re quireme nt being that the purchaser must be a veteran of World War II with a family. In the heart of Lealman he donated an en tire city block to the Lealinan Improvement Associat ion :[or t he c onstruction o f Lealman Hall, a community bouse. The hall was built by volunteer labor and mater ials were pur chased t hrough a financ ing plan backed by Mr. F isher and the late W. B. Harris. Elected justice of the peac e and coroner in Distric t No. 1, Pinellas in JuneJ 1936, Mr. Fisher has served more than ten years hear ing over 50 ,000 complaints, try ing misdemeanors and binding felonies to higher courts. He also has seved as sch o ol trustee in Dis trict No. '1 si nce Nove mber, 1932.

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 363 Mr. F isher was re-employment committee man o n Board No. One, Selectiv e Service, and gave the V.F. W. aeries of talks entitled aspeak up f o r Democracy" over t h e radio in 1946-46 He serve s in an advisory cap a city for the loca l Veterans Informati o n Center. He is a member of Veterans of Foreign Wars, American Legion, Dis..1.bled American Veterans. 40et8, Florid3 Penee Officers As. soci ation, B.P.O.E., and Nitram Lodge No. 188 F. & A.M., in which he has filled all chairs throu.gh senior deacon. He is a lso a member of Valley of Tampa S2nd Degree . In October, 1922, Mr. Fisher was mar r ied t o Sybil Sh ay, of Boyne City, Mich. l\frs. h as been ac t iv e in welfare and c o m munity w o rk. They have two children: Dorothy Belle, born July 3, 1923 and Jacqueline Shay, born February 22, 1925. Both are graduates o! St. Petersburg Senior High School. Dorothy was graduted from Florida State College for Women in 1943, taught at Lealman H igh until September, 1944, when she became an officer in the U. S Coast Guards SPARS. After the war, she a registe red rea l estate sales woman Jacqueline wa a attend ing Stetson Universi t y w hen sh e married H. C. Shipley in June, 1 9 43. Mr. and M rs. Shipley have a son, Anthony Edmund II, born April 16 1945. RAYMOND J. O'BRIEN Raymond J. O'Brien was born at Central Bridge, N Y., September 10, 1896, the son o f Danil and Catherine (Ragan) O'Brien. He was educated in the public schoo ls of Schenectady, N.Y., and attended Scoti a high sehool and Unio n College. He started his career in 1917 with the Schenec tdy Trust Company. Later h e t ook a position in the factory cost department of General Electric Company. In 191 9 be was made superintendent o f the Army Re serve Depot at Schenectady, a position be retained until 1923, when he resigned, de cidin g to travel and see something of the country before m.akin. r a permanent home. In August, 1923, be came to St. Peters burg, 8.nd, lik jn.g the city, st...'lyed. He cstab lihcd a real estate brokera. ge office which he maintaine d until 1928, when h e de ci ded R. J. O 'BRIEN t.o e.ntc1 t he fast .. growing automotive sales and sorvlce bu s i ness. Since 1988 he has o w ned his own business at 1009 Centra l Avenue, and later add ed a service stntion at 1042 Central Avenue. Mr. O'Brien is a member of St. Peters burg Auto Dealers Association and, in 194 7 was chosen seeretary.treasurer of the organization. He is a member of both Florida and National Auto Dealers Association, and is a member of the Lions Club in which be has been activ e for many years, having sctvod in many of the offices und us prcsi dent In 19371938 Ho has served as c hairman of the sports committee o! the Chamb e r of Commerce and member of its board of g o v ernors, chairman of the Lions Beach C lub, and is a member of Lakewood Country Club, St. Petersburg Rod and Gun Club, and Sunshine Boat Club Mr. O'Brien was married January 21, 1920, to Helen F. Millham, of Scotia, N. Y., with whom he had graduated from high schoo l Mrs. O'BYien is aetlve in tho Lions C l ub Auxiliary They have two daug hters: Betty O'Br ien Brow n born N ovembe r 7

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364 THE STORY OF ST. PETERSl!URC 1921, was educated in the schools of St. Petersburg and is married to Wayman Btown, managel' of the O'Brien Service Station. Kathleen O'Brien was bot n June. 2, 1927 and is a graduate of St. Petersburg Public schools and St. Pete1sburg Junior College. EDWARD LESLIE COLE Edward Leslie Cole was born at Rich mond, Va. August 30, 1890, the son of Wil liam Richard and Rosalie Ashmore (Briggs) Cole. He was educated in the public schools of and i n West Virginia schools. In 1910 he went t o New York and enteted employment of th" United Cigar Store Com. pany. He remaine d with them eight years, then, although married and in Draft Classifi cation l"our he enlisted in the Navy, and was assigned t o the 'l'ransportstion, Ports and Submarine F ighting Division. In the spring of 1919 h e took a posi t ion as superintendent of the Seaside Hospi .tal for Children at New Dorp. Staten Island, an institution main tained by the Hden C Juliad Foundation. E. L. COLE Mr. Cole st.aye d with the hospital three years and then, desiring to live in a warmer c lima te, he. came to St. Pete1sburg \vhcre he operated a retail tobacco and cigar busi ness for seventeen years. It was the .firs t agency o f t h e United Cigar Stores eve opened south of the Mason and Dixo n Line. In 1938 he bought the DeVoe Apartment s which Mrs. Cole now operates. I n 1941 friends urged Mr. Cole to run for city coun cil. He was elected for a fou r -year te.rm, and was re-elected without opposition for a second t erm, during whieh he served :l$ v i ce mayor. In 1\fatch, 1947, Mr. Cole resigned .from the council to devote his full time to his duties on the St. Petersburg Port Authority. to which he had been appointed by the city council in 19d:l. In August 1943, because of his oft-expressed belief that the poposed lower Tampa Bay bridge should be one of the first ob j ectives of the Authotity, Mt. Cole was made chairman. During his chairmanship and manager ship, the Port Authority acquired and put back into operation the old Bee Line ferrie? sought and ob t a i ned capabl e engineel'ing adviee; secured all necessary permits for the bridge, and had prepared plans for the spans and causeways between Pinellas and Manatee counties, and made initial plans for fhtancing construction of the project. In May, 194 7. after aU pte liminary work was and after passage by the. Florida leg islature. of an enabling act to pro vide for finan cing of the bridge, Mr. Cole resigned from the Authority to become executive secretary of the Flo1 ida League of I\fun.icipalities Soon aftctward he moved the state olfioe of t he League t o St. Petersburg, and began publishing its monthly magazine, the "Florida Municipal Record" in this city Mr Cole wa.s for many yeatJ; v i c e-presid ent of the League and ia also a past presid e n t of the organizati on, which is devoted t o t h e interests of Florida munici palities. Mr. Co l e is a member of the American Legion, Yacht Club. Kiwan is, t he First Pres byterian Church, member of the board of t h e Propeller Club, and member of Nati onal Ae t onau t ical Association He has been ac

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBORC 365 tive in other grot;1ps sueh as the Chamber of Commerce, the Communit)' Ches t and YMCA. He \vas ma,rried April 26, 1917, to Marie Elsie Zingraff. Mr$ Cole is treasurer of the Woman's Club and vice president of thE;> League of Women Voters. Mr. and Mrs. Cole have two children. Edward L
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366 Tn E STORY OF ST. PETEI\SBURC Leagues of America. Mrs. Holland also is a member of Daughters of the R4voluUon, United Daughters of the Con federacy, and Colonial Dames of the XVII Centur}', and is an actiVe member of the Baptist The Hollands have three sons. Elliott W. HollanJ was born July 20, 192 8, educated in public schools of St. Petersburg and enter-ad Vand01bil t Uni Ycrsity, Nashville, 'l'enn., in 1946. Albert G. Holland, was bo>n May 20, 1931, and in 1947 was attend ing Culver Military Academy, Culver, Ind. William Langston Holland, born July 16, 1986, in 1947 was attending St. Petersburg public school. PERRY RUSSELL MARSH Perry Ru!!Sell Marsh was born November 29, l90 I in Lorain County, Ohio, the son ot Vernon C. and Mary (Beatz) Marsh. He attended grammar schools of Lorain, 0., and, foJiowing removal of .1tis fatnil)' from Ohio to Florida in 1912, completed his eduPERRY R. "'lARSH cation at Sebring, where be was graduated from secondary sehools and bu-siness eol lege. Returning to Ohio, he entered the employ of the Lorain 'county Gas Company at El) rin, as bookkeeper, in 1 921. In 1928 i\fr. Marsh came to St. Petersburg and became associated with the William B. Carpenter Realty nnd Insurance company. In 1926 he took the pos ition or manuger of the insuranc0 division of the Carpantar company, l'etaining that position untill939, when he bought for himself the insurance business of the Carpenter company. Since that time Mr. Marsh has operated under his own name. In 194-6 the business was moved into a modern structure at 664 Central avenue built by Mr. Marsh. For years Mr. Marsh has been actively en gaged in promoting the city and state by means of advertising through his work on the board of governors of St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce and as a member of t ,he Florida Advertising Commission. lie is a past master of Lodge 189, F. & A. M., and for two year-s served as chairman of the executive committee of St. Peters burg Masonic Home. Mr. Marsh is a membe r of St. l'etersburg Yacht C lub, Lakewo o d Country Club, and St. Petersburg Exchange Club. He is a past president of the Florida State Exchan ge C lub a past president of the St. Petersburg Junior Chamber of Commerce, presi dent of the St. Petersburg Apartment Rouse Association, director of St. PeteJ"&wo bUflr Motor Club. a member of tlte Elks Club, is one of the board of governors of the Chamber of Commerce, and is presi dent of St. Petersburg Fodera! Savings and Loan A ssociatio n. On June 1924, he was married to NaomJ Haueisen of Elyria, Ohio. Since coming to St. Petersburg, Mrs. Marsh hn& identified herself with the work of DeMolay Mothers' C lub, the Pa1 ent-Student-'l'eacher Associa tion a11d Sunshine Mothers' C l ub. She also i s a member of St. Petersbutg Woman' s C lub. Mr. and Mrs. Marsh have three children. Doris Eleanor Marsh, born November 5, is a graduate of St. Petcroburg school and Wesleyan College, Maeon, Ga., from

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 367 which latter institution she received a Bach elor of Arts degree in 1947. Perry Russell, Jr., was born June 18, 1929. Upon graduation from the publir schools of St. Petersburg he entered the University of Florida in 1946. Alan Edward Russell was born Septem ber 16, 1930, and was graduated from public schools of St. Petersburg in 1946 and entered Maryville College, Maryville, Tenn., in 1947. The Marshes atc members of First Ave nue Methodist Church of St. Petersburg. JOHN EDMUND BROOKS John Edmund Brooks was born December 31, 1890, in Ypsilanti, Mich., the son of Willis P. and Margaret S. Brooks. He re ceived his education in the Ypsilanti public schoo l s, the Michigan State Normal College and the University of Michigan from which he was graduated with the class of 1913. His fi.rst employment was in 1914 with the order department of the Kelsey Wheel Company, in Detroit, Mich. From that de partment he advanced to the sales department where he became assistant to the scr vice sales manager, which position he held until he came to Florjda. Mr. Brooks first came to St. Petersburg in January, 1924, and entered the real estate business. One of. his initial sales was a tract of land on Gandl' bou l evard, then under construction, which he sold to the promoters of an enterprise then unknown in this tion-greyhound acing. On the tract is now located the St. Petersburg Kennel Club, which held its f irst race on January 3, 1925. Mr. Brooks took stock in the new venture in lieu o( his l 'eal estaW c ommission, and in December of 1924 he was made a directo r of the company. On January 12, 1932, he was elected He served i n that capacity until April 29, 1947, when be was chosen president, an office he holds to date. In addition to the presidency of the St. Petersburg Kennel Club, Mr. Brooks is vice president of the American Greyhound Track Operators Association a national organita tion with headquarters in 1\fiami, Florida; \ic.e president of St. Petersburg Quarterback Club, past governor of the St. Petersburg JOHN E. BROOKS Chamber of Commerce, past vice preside .nt o! the National Aeronau tica l Assoc i ation, St. Petersburg chapter; a member of St. Petersburg Rotary C lu b Sunset Golf and Country Club, Lakewood Country Club, Bath Club and St. Petersburg Yacht Club. Mr. Brooks was married Sep tember 16, 1920, to Joyce Weaver of Natcbiteches, La. 1\frs Brooks is active in community affairs and served as chairman of the Recreation Division of Civilian Defense during World \Var II, operating four main aervice centers for troops stationed in this area and sending entertainmen t groups to outlying camps An active worker in Community Chest and Red Cross drives, she headed the \\romen's vision of the Community Chest in 1947. She is a member of the Mayor's Advisory Council and cochairman of the Pinellas County Juvenile Welfare Board The Brooks have one daughter, Mary Margare t Brooks, born December 11, 1924. She att ended St. Petersburg public schools and was graduated with a liberal arts degree from Marymoun t College, Tarrytownon Hudson, New York in June. 194. She resides with her parents in St. Petersburg.

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368 THE STORy OF ST. PETERSBURG GEORGE W WALDRON W. Waldron was born nc a r Roch ester, N. Y., February 22, 1897 t he son o f John and Elizabeth (Wright) Waldron worl.d War I sent him overseas where he $8w ten months' service in the Navy. After the armistice he remained in Europe as a member of the Hoover Relief Commission and h :avclcd for months in France and Bel gium. After the war he visited practically evet y state in t he Union, Alaska, Canada and 'Vhile in Alaska he heard an acquain tance tcH of a southern city in which an entire edition of a newspaper wa"S given free eac h day the sun failed to shine. The story aroused his and after be retur ned from Europe he headed south, roaching St. Petersburg in 192:l Liking the town, he we .nt to w01k for W. A. Westwood, the Che,rolet dealer in St. Pet.e1sburg. During 1925-1926 he set a country .. widG record of high sales of Chev .. rolet cars. ln 1927 Mr. Waldron took over the Pontiac Sates a n d Sc 1 vic e a$ a partner in W WALDRON the Westwoo dWaldron Corporation. I n 1943 he bought out other interests and fanned a new cotporation, Waldron Pontiac, Incorporated, which he has since served as presjdent. Mr. Waldron is a Methodist, a Thirty Second Degree Mason and a member of many Masonic bodies, a membet of Ameri can Legion Post 14, Veterans of Foreign Wars and a me .mbcr of Lake,,ood Country Club He bas been a member of the Chamber of Commcref! . neatly a quartet of a century. and is active in Community Chest and Red Cross welfare work. In .Jun e, 1924, he '''as married to Eliza beth Noteman, of Albion, Ind. Mrs Wal dron is a member o( Firat Avenue Methodist Church of St. Petersburg and has been prominent i n the Association and the Civic M u sic Club. The Waldrons one son, R i chm : d Jay Wal dron, born May 26, 1925. Richard was graduated from St. Petersburg High School in 19 13., and spent three years with the Navy Seabces, 23 months of whic h was in overseas servi ce. JO'oll owiug his graduation from St. Pete1-sbu1g Junior College he plans to take an engineering eourse. Richard spends his vacations wi t h his father at the \Valdron -Pontiac Agency, learning the fun damentals of the business. ROBERT SEABROOK BAYNARD Robert Seabtook Baynard was bOl.'n at Mills Springs, N. C. September 30 1899, son o f Owen Thomas and Eleanor (Nelson) Baynard. When h e wa& seven years old h is family moved to Landrum. S. C., where he .rece ived his public school education. He then entered The Citadel, South Carolina Military college. He received h i s B .S. de gree from the Military College of South Carolina i n 1920 For some yeat-s p1evious to 1920 the Baynard family had spent their winters in S t Petersburg. In 1923 young Baynard came to Florida and studied low at the U nivcrsity of Florida at Gainesville. Upon his graduation in lfl26 with LL. B. degree, Mr. Baynard came t o S t. Petersburg and started

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THE STORY OF ST. PETERSBURG 369 practice of law i n the First Federal Build ing. I n 1947 he had had offices in the buiJding longct than any other tenant. During World War 11 Mr. Baynard served four years in Company C, Fifth Battalion in the Flotida State Guard, and was dis charged w ith the rank of first lieutenant. He also acted as advisory attorne. y for Draft Board No. 1, St. Petetsburg. In 1929 he joined in a law partnet ship with his brother, Senator Henry S. Baynal'd, whic.h assoc.iation they have since maintained. Baynard is chairman of the Legal Aid committee of the St. Petersburg Bar, and is one of five attorneys chosen by the American Bar Association to form a Veterans' Advisory Committee for the state of Florida. One of Mr. Baynard's l esponsibilities. as a membc r of this committee was t o visit the several c .ommunities in h is Congressional district and aid in formation of local eomM mittees to p1ovide aid to veterans. Fifteen such committees were set up in as many cities and towns of his district under di.recM tion of Mr. Baynard, requhing many weeks spent in traveling, .intervi