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The story of Sarasota

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Title:
The story of Sarasota the history of the city and county of Sarasota, Florida
Physical Description:
381 p. : ills., ports. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Grismer, Karl H ( Karl Hiram ), 1895-1952
Publisher:
M. E. Russell
Place of Publication:
Sarasota, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Sarasota (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
History -- Sarasota County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
letter   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Karl H. Grismer.

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - C54-00009
usfldc handle - c54.9
System ID:
SFS0036425:00001


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Dedicated to THE LITTLE WOMAN D E TREW GRIS1vfER

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The STORY OF SARASOTA The Histor y of the C ity a n d County of Sarasota, Florida By KARL H. GRISMER Author of "THE HISTORY OF ST. PT ERSURC11 "TH HtsTOltY OF KENT, Orno" Pvnt,.IOU: 0 Y M E R USSEll v TNE GROWER PRESS J AMP A, F LOirLO,

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PACE l. IN THE DAYS oF LoNe Aco -9 2. THE FIRST SETTlERS COME 27 3. THEN CAME THE HOMESTEADERS 47 4. LIFE AMONG THE PIONEERS -70 5. IN THE DAYS OF THE VrCJI .. ANT.Es -79 6. THE ScoTs CoME AND Go -92 7. THE VILLAGE OF SARASOTA rs BoRN 101 8. THE SEABOARD ALMOSl' STARTS A BooM -133 9. A NEW ERA DAWNS -155 10. DURING THE TURBULENT TWENTIES . 191 11. SARASOTA MADE A MODERN CiTY 225 12. DEPRESSION-\VARAND AFTERWARD .. 243 13. AND THERE ARE THosF. WHo WoRK -252 14. SARAsorA CouNTY IN REVIEW .. 261 15. LEST \VE FoRGET -281 16. WHo's WHo I N SARASOTA -297

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APPRECIATION The author wishes to take this opp<>.r:tunity to express his sincere th anks to the following: A. B. Edwor d s, :>vfrs. Fannie Crocker Curtis, Mrs. Eula Tucker Lastinger, Mrs. Ida Page Helveston, Mt s. Gertrude Higel and Miss Louise Higel, Charles C. Whitaker' and W i lliam Whitaker, M..rs. Edith Halton, Mrs. C. N. Thompson, George L. Thacker, Honore Palmer, John F. Burket Eve r ett J. Bacon, Mrs. W. G. Shepard, M. L. Townsend, Miss Ethel Wood, E A. Smith and numerous others who aided greatly in the compilation of c:.iata. Julien C Yonge, Edi t or, Florida Historica l Quarterly who furnished in,aluable dar. regarding the early history of the Land of Sar a s ota; R ol:>erc C. Gooch a nd Leslie W. Du n lap of the Lil:>cary of Congress, Washington, D. C.; Karl A. Bickel author of "Tbt Mangro vc Coast ' and pre-sident of the florida Historica l Societ):. who assist-ed in mmy ways; \VI. T. Cash, Florida State Librarian; Col. George R. Goethals, Corps of Engineers, \Vashington, D C ; R. A Gray, F l orida Secretor)' of Stat<; G l over Ashby, Sarasota County Tax Assessor; the l ate Judge Paul C Albritton who che cked the chapter pcruining co the Sara Sot;t Vigilance Committee, -and John who l oaned the auth or the priceles s Memoirs of his f ather, the l ate Alex Browning. The author particular l y wishes to expta Count)' Chamber of Commerce the Kiwanis Club, the Rotary Clu b the Lio.ns Club, Sacasota Bay Post N o JO American Legion, and many public spiri ted individuals who sponsored publication of the h isrory.

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PROLOGUE Dreams of gold, and silver, and sparkling gems brought con quistators of Spain to the shores of Florida more than four hundred years ago. They u-ere bitterly resisted by the people we call the Indians-men who loved Florida beca.use of i ts gol
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CHAPTER 1 IN THE DAYS OF LONG AGO A WAVERING WISP of sm oke rose la z ily into the turquoise sky from behind a dense thicket of palms and cedars on Long b oat Key It rapidly became more dense and blacker. Silhouet:ted sharply against snowy, wool pack clouds hanging over the mainland across Sarasota B ay, it was visible for miles. Minutes later another column of smoke b egan ris ing from Terra Ce i a Island, far to the north. Then in quick succession other co l umns arose, up and down the coast as far as eye cou l d see. The twisting finge r s o f smo k e were signals Indian fishermen ha d spotted DeS oto's fleet approaching in the Gulf and they knew the hated Spaniards had returned again t o the Wes t Co ast of Florida-returned "to expand the K i ngdom of God" and, inc ident a ll y t o loot, and kill, and torture. The Indians had good re a son to f ear the white man. They had been t he victims of his c r uelty and greed for nearly half a century. Their vil lages had been ruthlessly destroyed, their temp les burned, their fiel d s of maize trampled, and their peop l e brutally enslaved. All t h i s because t hey did not heed pious ulti matums delivered i n a language they could not understand, to become Chri8tians or be forever damned. Also bec ause they could not han d over go l d they did not have. But perhaps we should not sympathize too much with the Indians or criticize the Sp ani ards t oo severe l y After all the Indians were savages. And the Spaniards were no better or no worse than o the r conqu e rors of that p eriod their b ru ta l treatmen t of the "heath ens" here was hardly Photo Not Available

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10 THI! STORY OF SARASOTA more inhuman than the way heathens wer e treated elsewhere by the Portu guese and the French, the British and the Dutch. That was the day wh e n European nation s were "on the make" and mattered but .that their empires be expanded and chm coffers eJmc hed. Mtght made nght, everywhere, and l ittle else counted. Perhaps, you may say, much as tt does today However, all that is beside the point. Let's get back to the story of Sarasota. In l'rehistori c Times Fossil remain s found here indi cate chat Sarasota got its first "wi11ter visito rs" a million year s or so ago. That was during the Ice A ge, when the great glaci er made its slow, ine xorab l e march southward, changing the face of th e earth as it moved and annihilating all gree n and growing things Those visitors of the dim and distant past who fled the north in frenzied haste ro escape the cold were strange, weird creatures unlike anything on earth today. Among them were grotesque, ungait l l )' mammo ths, serrate-t oothe d mastadons, amphibiou s rhinoceres, and two-to n armadillos. Also, giant ground sloths, tnree-coed horses, pre-histori c camels, mammoth beavers, huge. rats, and vicious sabertoothed tigers, most ferocious of all the early carntvora. Uncounted millions of those queer animals came to the Florida p enin sula during the g r eat migration and their species vanished, for reasons we do not kn o w, ages befo r e the dawn of civili?;ation. Most of their bodies disintegrated a nd became part of the soil. But thousands of them sank in swamps, or in the oozing muck of river beds and bays. In the course of time their bones became hardened and fossilized, to endure as c o nclu s ive proof that such animals once existed. Som e of the richest fossil beds in the entire s tate of Florida were found in Sarasota Cou11.ty while drainage ditches were being dug or creek beds dredged. Many of the principal finds have been made by J. E. Moore, o f Indian Beach an ardent studen t of paleontology. Altogether he has dis covered more chan 70 fossil species, some of which ha ve not been d u pli cated an ywhere else in the state \'Vorking for years in cooperation with Dr. George Gidley, of the Smithsonian I nstitution, he helped to bring Sarasota to the attention of scientists throughout the world. One of Moore's most important finds was the mineralized skelecon of a man he unearthed May 4, 1929 from the bank of a newly -dug dttch near the head of Phill ippi Creek. Paleonto l ogists asserted tt was at least 20,000 years old, perhaps much o lder, and they hail ed it as

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11 a discovery of the first magnitude. The skeleton is now in the American Museum of Natural History, in New York City. Historians, often more conservative than paleontologists, admit that the Phillippi skeleton is indeed ancient. But as for its being 20,000 years old well, the historians have their fingers crossed. They insist there is nothing "in the record" to indicate that human beings existed in Florida so long ago, at least fourteen millenia before the construction of the first pyramid in Egypt. But who knows? Historians have been wrong before and, in this case, they may be wrong again. Somewhere in Florida soil there may be positive proof that the paleontologists are right. Time alone will tell. In the meantime, the historians are sitoing tight and sticking to their contention that the first human beings came to Florida comparatively recently-say within the past two thousands years or so. brings us up to comparatively modern times. A Vanished Race Lived Here Centuries before white men realized the New ex ist ed, people we call Indians l earned that the Sarasota Bay region was a veritable para dise. these aborigines came from, or when, or why, no one knows for sure. But we do know that thousands of them lived here long before the first Spaniard landed on Sarasota 's snowwhite beaches. It is easy to understand why the Indians selected this region for some of their largest settlements. The woods were :filled with game and the waters were alive with fish and luscious shell-food. To exist here required a minimum of effort No wonder the Indians resisted the Spaniards so ferociously when their homeland was invaded! Mute evidence of the existence of the Indians is furnished by the scores of mounds and kitchen middens which stHI dot the coast and keys. The mounds were made of sand and earth and were built to serve as places of worship or burial grounds. The kitchen middens, which predominate, are in reality refuse dumps. At the places where the middens were formed, Sarasota's first inhabi tants feasted on clams, oysters and conchs and while they ate, they threw the empt'y shells away, along with fish bones and the shells of lobsters and crabs. Judging by the size of the middens, and their number, the Indians must have had innumerable toothsome meals. One of the largest and most picturesque of the middens is located on theM. E. Russell property on the bayfront, bordering the south side of taker Bayou. Up until the time of the big Florida boom, Sarasota boasted of having one of the finest temple mounds in the state. It was located abou-t 100 yards of Whitaker Bayou, close to the present Tamiami Trail. Cir-

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12 THE STORY OF SARASOTA cular in shape, it was abouo 100 feet in diameter and 35 feet high. Ori ginally it probably was much larger but the rains of ce n turies undoubted l y had reduced its size Giant oak trees, hickories pines and ceda r s grew out of the mound i ndicating irs antiquity As late as 1920 the mound was unmolested. Then, after Sarasota's populatio n began to swell, a few "pot hunte rs" started digging in t he mound for skeletons, Indian relics and maybe even bur ied gold Others followed and by 1925, a large part of the mound had been plundered. Its destruction was completed shortly afterwards by a developer who needed sand and earth to make roads and fills He put a gang of men and a steam shovel to work -and in a few weeks almost all traces of the mound had disap pea r ed. A smaller but imposing burial ground almost in the heart of Sarasota met a somewhat sim i l ar fa t e It was located near the present intersection of Gulf Stream Avenue a n d Mound Street. It was leveled in the spring of 1920 while a home site was being cleared. Several feet below the surface workmen found many pieces o f potter y, beautifully decorated, and six complete skeletons. The posi cion of the skeletons indicated that the bodies had been buried face downward with their heads poin t ing southeast. A photograph was taken of the skele t ons, a fence was built around t h e spot, signs wer e posted warning people to stay out, and a telegram was sent to the Philadelphia Academy of Sc i ences asking if an expert could be sent to study the findings. But duri ng the night of March l 0 vandals broke through the f ence and stole most of the bones and relics. What t hey couldn t take away, they destroyed. Fortunately, however, ma n y of the mounds in this section have been excavated under scientific direction. As a result, relics have been obtained which are now in muse u ms throughout the countr y. One of t h e best col lections of Florida is that possessed by M E. Tallant, in Bradenton His findings include, in addition to many splendid pieces o f Indian pot t'ery, a beautifully worked Mayan Sun God, made of gold, a c reepin g alli gator and a necklace. A number of metal objects a l so are con t ained in the collection, .all apparently of Mayan origin These Mayan objects suppor t the theory that the Indians l ivin g here were visited often by Mayan traders who travel e d in huge canoes, stopping at ports along che Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea One of these boats was seen by Columbus. He reported it was a l most 100 feet long, had a seven foot beam and supported twenty-five paddlers, in addition to the trader and his family of seven A large. mound know n as the Englewood Mound about a half mile south of Englewood close to t he shore of Lemon Bay, was excavated in 1934 by Marshall Newman under the direction of Dr. M. W. Stirling,

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 13 chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology. In it were found the skele tons of more than 300 persons, many conch shell bowls and numerous pieces of pottery. Every vessel had a small round hole in the bottom. Dr. Stirling said he believed the Indians made the holes to "kill" the vessels and permit their spirits to depart with those of their buried owners. Measurements taken of the skeletons showed the Indians were short but stocky, with heavy bones. The adult males averaged about five feet six inches in heighth and the females five feet one. l'ractically all other Indian skeletons unearthed elsewh e re in Sarasota County, as well as in other parts of Florida, were approximately the same size. These skeletal remains effectively blast the fantastic tales tol d by early Spanish explorers that the Indians were a race of giants. Perhaps those stories were circulated to furnish an alibi for the Spaniards' failure to subdue the Florida Indians as easily as they had subdued the natives in the West Indies. Anyhow, the Indians here were not giants. They were just normal sized people. Extremely little is known about those original settlers of Flo rida. T he reasons for this lack of knowledge are simple. The Indians left behind them no written records or architectural remains from which clews re garding their history can be obtained. To day, after generations of research, authorities still do not agree even on the names of the various tribes o r the $pecific territory each tribe was supposed ro occupy. Many of the conclusions of the scholars seem painfully akin to guesswork. And contradictions abound. Nevertheless, it seems reasonably certain that the Indians who inhabit ed the Sarasota Bay region when the Spaniards came were members of ei. ther the Timucuan or Caloosas tribes. No one knows for sure which of the two tribes predominated. Per haps it doesn't make much difference. All available in formation indicates that the two were closely related and seldom waged "unconditional surrender" warfare against each other. Which may prove conclusively they were definitely uncivilized. Photo Not Available

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14 THE STORY OF SARASOTA The mystery surrounding the origin of Sarasota's aborigines probably never will be solved. According to one theory, they were Muskhoge.ans who migrated here from Mexico to escape rhe conquering Aztecs. An other theory i s rhey came here from the West Indies. Still another theory i s they came originally from Siberia, by way of the Aleutians and Alaska, and finally l anded in Florida after centuries of wandering in the north Those are rhe main rilieories-take your choice and you are likely to be as nearly right as any historian. As for the rime of their coming here-well, that's another secret of the bygone past which may remain a mystery fo rever. Dead Indians tell no tales--and the Florida Indians have been dead a long, long time. However, from the confusion of confl icting stories about Sarasota's first inhabitants a fe w facts stand out. Those natives, whatever their name might be, were o f a l ight brown hue and stockily built. They lived in thatched pa lmetto huts in small v i llages usually located near their temple mounds They had well organized fisheries and rude industries such as the mak ing of pottery and weapons. They had fields for cultivation of maiz.c, pumpkin, squash and tobacco. Each tribe had its chief and each village its paracousi or sub chief. The jauvas or Indian priests, who also served as medicine men, had great influ ence. As worshippers of the sun, the Indians had three great annual feasts: when the corn was planted, when the young ears were ready to eat, and when the crop was harvested. They had their sports, such as wrestl ing running and jumping. Many were gaudily tattooed and all of rhem seemed to like ornaments, especially pendants made of stone, sh eii, bones or teeth which they hung around their necks A few had ornaments made of gold, obtained very likely frorn Indians of Georgia or Mayan traders Both men and women wore their hair long That of the men was drawn ro a tight knot on top of the head and used t o support feath e rs and othe.r deco r ations. Until the Spaniards came to oppress them, they seeming l y were a friendly people who goc; along well with visitors from other lands. Says Karl A Bickel in his splendid book, The Mangrove Coast: U ndoubtedly over centuries the F lorida Indians were in constant con.tact with the Carib, the Siboney and Arawak Indians of the West Indies from Cuba and the Bahamas Haiti and the north coast of South America, too, perhaps. Their language contained so many Carib words that it is probable the West In dian Indians and the Florida Ind ians could communicate without trouble." The Florida Indians may have had one great, almost fatal fault. They may have bragged about their native land c oo much during their contacts with rhe outlanders. In all events, word spread t hrough the West Indies that the i sland" to

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 15 the north called Bimini was a land of the greatest riches. And besides, i t was a land wherein there was a fountain whose waters would restore youth to those who bathed in it! Riches-and a fountain of youth to boot! Followers of C(}lumb us heard these tales of glorious Bimini shortly after they land ed in the West Indies. The tales passed from mouth. to mouth and lost nothing in the telling. They even reached the court of Spain. The result was exactly what might have been expected. The Spaniards decided to explore and conquer this wondrou s land. Such temptation could not be resisted by any country that was conquest bent. Cert ainly not by Spain. Explorers, conquistadors and marauders literally paraded up and down the Florida\"{! est Coast during the half century following the first voyage of Columbus. W'c have documents telling of some o f the voyages. Other trips were never publicized, simply because they were unauthorized hi jacking expeditions, made by men who were "muscling in" on rivals' terntory. There is reason to believe chat many of these voyagers came ashore here and explored the back country, looting as they went along. Longboat Key is a seamark which stands out prominently and voyag ers sailing along the coast could hardly have failed to see it. Neither could they have failed to see Big Sarasota Pass. Cartographers say this pass probably was wider and deeper then than now and thu Sarasota Bay quite likely was a safe haven for frigates and caravels. If that be true chen Sarasota would have been an inviting landing place. So perhaps it is here that many of the first invaders came. Who can say us nay? Those first white visitors to the West Coast were cruel and ruthless men, intent only on gaining riches and glory-and perhaps a little renewed youthful vigor. But regardless of all that, they were adventurous and daring and romantic-and their names will live in history. It is essential that a little should be cold here about that noted con quistador Hernando de Soto. Rightly or wrongly, the name of De Soto has been associated with the name Sarasota for more than a hundred years, ever since the first American settler came to this section of the state. The first hotel in Sarasota was named after him; later, stores, and restaurants, and even hoc-dog sc-ands. Truly, Sarasota has taken DeSoto unto itself. Perhaps it is mere co i ncidence that the last two syllab les of "Sarasota" should have a marked similarity to the name Soco. On the other hand, who can say positively there is no connection between the two? Stranger things have happened. But we will take up chat question of Sarasota's name later. Aside from the matter of similarioy of names there is another import-

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16 THE STORY OF SARASOTA ant reason why De Soto figures so prominently in Sarasota's history. He is the first Spaniard who almost certainly set foot on Sarasota soilothers perhaps succeeded him but with them it is a case of "maybe". I n De So to's case, most of the element of doubt has been removed by official govern ment investigation. He's been given the nodso let 's follow suit and give him another. Amhition Brought De So to Here It would be very nice indeed if DeSoto could be described as a gallant, benevolent, kindly nobleman inspired by a desire to carry the story of the cross to the red men of Florida. But m do so wou ld be in direct contradic tion of the facts. He may have been ga llant according to a 16th century definition of the word but certainly he was neither benevolent nor kind. Nor if old Spanish writers can be believed. Said one of them: "De Soto was fond of the sport of killing India ns." If killing Indians was spore, then De Soto had sport galore during his lifetime. His record literally drips with Indian blood Born in Estremadura, Sp a in, abou t 1499, of an impoverished aristo cratic family, De Soto owed his education to the favou r o f Pedrarias d' Avila, a nobleman of high standing in the court of Spain. In 1519 he accompanied d'Avila on his second expedition to Darien, the southern part of Central America. There, during the next nine years, De Soto won his reputat i on as a "splendid" Indian killer. His victims totalled thou sands. Spanish writers say he was "devoid of mercy." In 1528 he explored the coast of Guatemala and Yucatan and in 1532 he led 300 volunteers to reinforce Francisco Pizarro in Peru where he played a prominent part in the conquest of the Incas' kingdom and in stealing the Incas' wealth. His cruelties, as reported by Spaniards, were almost unbelievable. But he gaine d renown as being a great conquistador -and also a p ri ncely fortune. In 1536 he returned to Spain with 180 ,000 ducats-$715,500 in present day American m oney Now he was able to setde down and live the life of a Spanish grandee. Also, to marry the beautiful and charming Isabella de Bobadilla, daughter of d'Avila. He should have been satisfied. But he wasn't. He was too ambitious. He wanted still more wealth, more power, and a provin:ce in the New World he could call his own. A province where he would be the leade r who took most of the loot>--not a lieutenant who received only a fraction of what the. leader got. De Soto's ambition was whetted by Cabeza de V aca, one of the four survivors of disastrous expedition. De Vaca had just returned to Spain after eight years of wanderings and t h e tales he told were enough to drive any ambitious man to distraction. He hinted mysteriously of gold

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 17 mines richer than any in Central or South America. After that nothing could restrain DeSoto, not even his beaut
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18 THE S TORY O F SARASOTA close to che small Indian village of Ucira, believed to have been on Terra Ceia Island j ust north of the mouth o f the Ma natee. From Ucita too the Indians had fled. A good description of Ucita and rhe camp the Spaniards estab l ishe d there is furnis hed by the scribe, the Gentleman of Elvas, a member of DeSoto's force: "The town consisted of seven or eight houses. The chief's house stood near. rhe beach on a very high hill which had been artificially built as a fortress. At the other side of the town was the temple and on top of it a wooden bird with irs eyes gilded. Some pearls, spoiled by fire and of little value were found there .... The houses were of wood and were covered with palm leaves." Elvas went on to say that DeSo t o and his officers lodged i n the chief's house while several smaller buildings were used to store provisions from the ships. The other buildings were destroyed, along with the temple and many small native huts. Dense thickets and towering trees around the village were cut down "for the space of a crossbow shot in order that the horses might run and the Clnistians have the advantage of the Indians if the lat t e r should by chance try to attack by night." All during the summer which followed, DeSoto kept hunting-hunt ing-hunting for the gold mines of his dreams. Up and down the coast and far in land he sent his men. He captured natives and tortured chem, ho ping to force them to tell where gold could be found. But he learned nothing, simply because the natives had nothing to tell. Indian gui des who failed to lead the Spaniards to the fabled mines were thrown to the fighting dogs and killed, despite their screams for mercy. No doubt De Soto's men came to the Indian village known co have existed at what is now called Indian Beach, close co the temple mound prev iously mentioned. T his village may have been the legendary town of Mococo. The Spaniards probably dest royed it, just as they did all other villages they ove rran. By autumn, DeSoto had become convinced there were no gold mines in this section of the peninsula. Hoping to get rid of him, some of his captives rold him gold could be found at Ocale, near the present city of Ocala. So in November he sent the last of his ships back to Havana and abandoned the camp at Uci ta. Before he departed, he burned all the re m ai ning buildings. Then he starred northward, pillaging and destroying as he went along. Many of his men were killed or wounded by the revengeful I n dians who lay in ambush a l ong the trails. But the Indians were no match for the Spaniards with their guns and crossbows, and ferocious fightin g dogs, and De Soto pressed on. Into North Florida he went, and then westward,

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 19 seeking the gold mines which al way s were just a few leagu e s ahead. Behind he lef t a wide path of destr u cti on discernibl e half a c entury l ater. Finally he r eached the Mississippi. There he died, perhap s of frus trated ambition, on May 21, 1543. His body was buried at n ight in the muddy water of the river Sixteen months later the remnants of his once resplendant army, despondent, ill and weary finally reached Tampico. Thus e n ded the last great expedition made to Florida in search of gold, and silver, and sparkling gems There were riches in Florida, true enough, but not the kind of riches De Soto sought. \V hat Ab o t t Snra de So to? Before saying goodbye to D e Soto mention mus t b e mad e of t hat legendary character Sara de Soto, "daughter" of De Soto who has been commemorated many years by the people of Sarasota in picturesque pageants. The legend of Sara, a tragic love story, was first told b y Miss \'q'inifred Harper, a scho ol t eacher from Ohio who came here for her he alth shortly after the C i vil War and taught the children of \Villiam H Whitaker for sever a l years. \'q'h ethe r Miss Harper originat e d the story or heard it from pio neers is not known K a rl Bicke l says it may h a v e b een an old Cree k legen d Anyhow, Miss Harper relate d it to the Whita ker children. They remembered it and passed it down to George F. Chapli ne who came h ere from Clarendon Ark., as a winter visitor in 1902. C hap line embellished the legend and put it in writing, to become part of the city's l ore. According to the legend, De Soto's men c aptured a young I ndian p rince, Chichi-Okobee, "fleet and strong, heir by blood and physical prow ess t'o the thousand teepees and sta lw art warriors" of t he famous Indian chief, Black Heron. C hichi submitted co bonds beca use he had beheld Sara, "love l y dau ghter of DeSoto, lovelier than any Indian maiden. He want ed t o b e near her. But Chic h i f ell ill. He lay he! pless, "wasting, parching, dyin g of the fever of the Everglades." The physician s of the Spanish camp tried to cure h i m b u t their efforts fai led. They abandoned hope of saving his life. Sara was permitted to ministe r to him in his dying hou r and her tende r car e w r ought a marvel. Chichi recovered. Love's potion, more powerfu l than an y medicines, brought back his health and streng th. Now was the daughter o f De So to taken ill. Again the Spanis h physi cians we r e helpless. Chichi begged permission fro m De Soto to go to his father s camp, deep in the E v e rglades, to fetc h the g reat medi cine man, A hti, w ho might save hi s belo v e d Sara Torn with anx iety, De So to allowed Chichi to depart. T h e Indian prince sped away as fas t a s a fri ghtene d deer. Never had the tropi c trees beheld a human being run so swiftly

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20 THE STORy OF SARASOTA Days later, Chichi returned with the medicine man who gave Sara mysterious herbs, uttered strange incantations co appease the evil spirits of the swamps and kept long vigil at her bedside. Chichi stood mute be yond che camp, his eyes fixed upon the flapping doorway of the sick girl's tent. But all was in vain. Sara died. The Great Spirit had called her. Broken hearted, Chichi went to De Soco and asked that S ara be buried in Sarasota Bay, the loveliest spot along the sun-kissed shores of Florida. Chichi also begged that he be allowed to take part in the ceremony. De Soto, stricken with grief, gave consent. He permit ted Chichi to return to his camp and secure some of his fellow warriors to make up a guard of honor. The next morning there appeared a hundred Indian braves, headed by Chichi-Okobee. All were bedecked in full war paint; every quiver bris tled with stonetip ped arrows; every bow was strung. Three large canoes, draped with the dark mosses of the forest, swept up the beach, paddled by more of Chichi's braves. The body of Sara was tenderly placed in one of the canoes, the funeral barge. In the other two canoes went Chichi and the guard of honor. Slowly the fleet moved to the exact center of Sarasota Bay where Sara's body was lowered gently into the deep. Then, at a signal from Chichi, every warrior sprang to his feet, toma hawk in hand. In strange, weird unison, the hundred braves chanted a funeral dirge. As its mystery-laden echo died away in the depths of the forest along the bay, the blades of a hundred tomahawks crashed into the frail canoes. A moment of ripple. A moment of bubbles. And all was still. Chichi and his companions-at-arms had gone to guard the resting place of the beautiful Spanish maiden in the clear, blue waters of Sarasota Bay. That is the leg en d of Sara de So to. And a very pretty legend i t is indeed, well worth preserving, despite the fact that it cannot be ver ified in any particular. According to available records, no women accompanied De Soto's expedition. Furthermore, there is nothing to indicate he had a daughter named Sara-nothing chat can be found in che countless refer ence books of the Library of Congress, in \Vashington. A search through the libra ry's records, made in September, 1945, by a membe r of the library's staff, Nelson R. Burr, showed that DeSoto was married to Isabella de Bobodilla on or about November 25, 1536, just two and one-half years before he came to F lorida. "As for DeSoto's children," Burr reported, "the subject is somewhat obscured by the haze that hangs over the extra-marital amours of a con siderable number of Spanish conquistadors. Reference books state that in Peru, DeSoto cook as his m i stress an Indian widow, by whom he had a

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THE STOll. y OF SARASOTA 2 1 da ughter, Leono ra, who is reported to hav e been l i ving in Cuzco as late as 1580 .... "The explorer 's will, drawn up in Cuba on Ma y 1 O, 1539, menti ons a boy 'who t hey say is my son, called Andres de Soto,' and his illegitimate daughter Maria, wife of Hernan Nieto in Nicaraug ua. There is no men tion of children by his legal wife, Isabella." D espi t e all that, rhe story o f Sara deSoto is a good one And, who can say positively it isn't true? So lee's pe rmit Sara t o rest in peace-in the depths of beauti ful Sarasota Bay, where ChichiOkobee and hi s valiant warriors can guard her until the end of t ime. Trtee Christi an s Follow ed De Soto After the fiasco of De Soto 's expediti on, no more co nqui stadors, fired w ith a l ust for go ld, came to the Sara sota Bay regio n o r anywh ere else along the West Coast. Why waste human life and get n othing in return? Photo Not Available Beaches of the Lnd of Saraso ta present eountles,s scenes of striking beuty.

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22 THE STORY OF SAKASOTA But Florida was not forgotten by the Spaniards. Forts had to be established on the peninsula to prevent the French and the Bri tish from getting a footho ld here. Besides, the Spanish trade routes must be protected. Altogether too much treasure from Mexico and Peru was being lost in s hipwrecks along the coasts-treasure which could not be recovered be cause of the hostile Indians. So expeditions were sent from Spain to estab lish colonies here and erect forts. Missionaries of the Jesuit, Dominican and Franciscan orders also came to Florida These men were true Christians. They differed from the con quistadors in every way. They were humble and considerate; not arrogant and cruel. They taught Christianity by kindly deeds, not by brutality. They were good men, sincere in their belief and also brave. Such a man was Luis de Cancer Barbastro, more commonly known as Father Cancer. Accompanied by three other priests, he sailed from Vera Cruz in 1549, intent upon founding a mission in the Tampa Bay region. It is believed chat his ship, which carried neither arms nor soldiers, anchored in Sarasota Bay. The Indians had no way of knowing that Fathe r Cancer and his com panions were totally unlike the marauders, slaveh unters and conquistad ors who had preceded them. So they took no c hances. \V'hen Father Cancer l anded on the beach and knelt in prayer, the Indians beat him to death. Two ocher priests were captured. The ship returned to Mexico. It has always been believed that the two capture d priests were killed. However, there is a bare possibility their lives may have been spared and they lived to establish a mission, unknown to the rest of the world. Pioneer sertlers say they remember seeing the remains of a scone-walled building, which might have been built by the missionaries, in Cherokee Park close to the bay. About two feet of the walls were still standing a half century ago; but the walls crumbled away and now all trace of the building has vanished. W ith its disappearance went all hope of ever solv ing the mystery surrounding its construction. The tragic fare of Father Cancer did not deter other missionaries from attempting to spread the gospel on the Florida \Vest Coast. Old Spanish records indicate that missions were established at Tocabaga, near the h ead of Tampa Bay, and at several other places which have not yet been defi nitely located. Quite possibly the missionaries visited Indian villages along Saraso ta Bay. But whether they succeeded in converting any of the Indians here is purely a matter of conjecture. The records are silent. Elsewhere on the peninsula the mission settlements were centers of great activity, according to \VI. T. Cash, Florida state historian. In his excellent work, The S tory of Florida, he writes: "The priests introduced the culture of the ora nge and also the pomegranate and fig. The red men

PAGE 23

THE STORY OF SARASOTA 23 were taugh t improved methods of a g riculture Cattle and hogs were introduced and the red men learned the great foo d v alue of these animals. It is said that the scrub cattle of Florida had as their an c estors cattle from Anda lusi a i n Spain." But there is a darker side to the picture. As a result of contacts with the white man, the o nce mighty tribes of Indians began to decline. Annal s of the \Vest Coast record an epidemic of smallpox w h ic h swept the \'V"est Coast and took thousands of l ives. O the r diseases took their toll and the native race rapidly began to s li p from the pages of history. By the dawn of. the nineteenth century, the tribes encoun t ered by the early Spa niards had vanished or had been absorbed by o t her t r ibes. Thereafter we hear of no Indians other than the Sem i noles, i n whose veins flows the blood of Georgian Creeks and escaped negro slaves. And perchance the blood o f philand ering Span i ards. A mixed race, true enough, but a race of fierce fighte rs, as t he Americans learned d u ring the long and bloody Seminole War. The Myst-ery of "Sarasota" Sarasota has a mel o dic name which rolls off t he tongue easily and once heard is long remembered It's also an intriguing name--one which has aroused the curiosity of researchers for generations. Countless hours have been spent delving through musty arch ives in attempts to learn the name's origin and mean i ng. Bu t nothing has been gained except a confusion o f incon.clusive explanations. \Vaterfront legend has it that old Spanish charts, made about: 1750, s howed a fishing camp and Indian trading post called Saraxola at the north end of Longboa t Key. It's k n own that itinerant Span i sh and Cuban fishe r men maintained fishing camps in this vicinity for more than. a century before the coming of Americans. However, that Saraxola name is legend and noth ing more--if it \Va s ever given on any chart, that chart has disap peared and no definite record of it is available So far as is known, the name first appears, with slightly different spell ing, on the Elino de Ia Puente map 9 17 68. Here Sarasota is designated as Porte Sarasote The Bernard Romans map of 1774 gives the name of the bay as Boca Sarazota. A map issued by Laurie and Whittle in 1794 marks the place as Sara Zota. Early in t he ninete enth century American usage slurred the name to Sarasota and it was so car-ried on the first "complete" map of F lorida printed by the government in 1839. This map was prepared for Brigadier General Zackary Taylor by United States topographical engineers at "Headquarte r s of the Army of the So uth at the Military Resenration of Fort Brooke," located at the present site of Tampa.

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24 THE STORY OF SARASOTA A p riceless copy of this map, owned by A. B. Edwards, impartially gives t wo spellings for Sarasota-the bay is g iven wit h one "r" and the pass with two "r's". Anna Mar ia Key was designated by the surveyors as Long Island, Longboat Key was s how n as Palm Island, and Siesta Key was called Clam Island. None of the rivers and creeks along the \Vest Coast were shown accurately. Later government maps, prepa red with more care, used Sarasota in naming Upper Sarasota Bay, Li t tle Sarasota Bay, Little Sarasota Pass, Big Sarasota Pass, and Sarasot a Key, now known as Siesta Key. The earliest settlers along the bay said they lived at Sarasota, l ong be fore the t own of Sarasot a was born. Also before the town came into ex istence the nam e was g iven t o the community's fi rst post office, ca lled SaraSota, established A ugust 16, 1878, with C h arles E. Abbe as postmaster. The actual town of Sarasota came into being late in 188 5 with the coming of the Scotch colonists The county of Sarasota, split from Manatee Coun ty, was created July I, 1921. So much for the use of t he name. The record is fairly clear in that respect But when it comes to t he name's origin and meaning-well, that's some thing else again Even the best scholars are baffled when they attempt to solve the mystery s urroun ding the name. The Florida Oldde, published in 1939, states tha t Sarasota "is possib l y a corruption of the Spanish expression s 'sarao sota', meanin g 'place of dancing'." But Julien C. Yonge, editor of the Florida Historical Q11arte rly, says this explanation "seems quite out of the question." Continuing, Yonge says : "In the Gauld chart of 1794, based on Gauld's surveys of a much earlier dace, there is a note a t che Sarasota inlet: 'Here remarkable palms.' The Spanish 'soto' means grove, clump, thicket. It is possible there is some connection here." The same possible exp l anation is offered by Robert C. Goo ch, chief of the genera l referen ce and bibl i ography divi sion of the Library of Cong re ss, who says : "The spelli ng and pronunciati on of r h e word resemb l e Spanish far more than In dian words. There are some Spanish words which m i11:ht apply: fo r example, zarzosa, meaning briery, and so to, meanin g a thicke t or grove. Possibly at the time of d iscovery che site was thickly overgrown." Another explanation is cautiously advanced by Yonge: "Some of the e a rly maps double the 'r'. T he Spanish 'sarro' means 'crus t or incrustation on vessels'. Vessels in these waters must be scraped regularly. In the early maps of Pensacola Bay a certain plac e on the bay is labelled 'careeni n g place' Yonge add ed that the name "might well be from some man's name." Link i ng thes e two though ts t ogeth er we get the i d e a that De Soto migh t have sent some of his ships here to be scraped and that henceforth

PAGE 25

)> < Q) Q) oCD 0 0 .-+ .-+ 0 Proof that t he Lind of Sarns ota w as i n hab i ted b y Indians long before the coming of the whire m a n w as furnished by shell mounds whi c h forme r ly d otted the co>St line.

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26 THE STORY OF SARASOTA the bay became known as the careening place of So to. Far fetched? Pro bably so, but who can say such an explanation isn't possible? Mrs. Edna Mosely Landers adva nces this theory: "Spanish explorers who passed this section of the \Vest Coast noted the presence of white sand Indian mounds which were on the level with the vegetation From a distance the whole looked flat and is said to have reminded the exp lo rers of the Sahara. Over a period of time, this name might have been abbreviated to Sara. The suffix comes from the Indian word 'zoua' meaning clear, blue, l impid, beautiful. What more logical than that the 'zota' was added to the Sahara and the two eventuaUy became firs t Sarazota and then the present Sarasota?" Nathan Mayo in explaining the origin of Florida county names, says this of Sarasota: "From the Indian word applied to a prominent feature in the shoreline, known as Point of Rocks, extending into the Gulf near Crescent Beach." The Indian wor d referred to by Mayo probably was Sara-se-cota, meaning a landfall easily observed. Another writer, identity unkn.own, said the name probably was Cara Sota originally. He insisted that the word "cara" means taking the initia tive against the enemy and, linked with So t o, the combination means that Soto landed here despite the opposition of hostile enemies. Another unidentified writer says: "The name is derived from the Indian words : 'sua', the sun; 'ha' water, and 'zota', vheshadow-literally denoting the fleecy intense brightness of the 'cumuli' billowy clouds which Indian fancy suggested as shadows cast by the sun itself. Thus interpreted, the name means 'water of the whi t e sun shadows'." Those are the explanations of the meaning of Sarasot'a. Does any of them satisfy you? Probably not. But, anyhow, you must admit that Sarasota has a fascinating name. And so fa r as many residents of Sarasota are concerned they probably will insist until their dying day that the name is l inked, somehow or other, with t hat of the Spanish conquistador they call their own-Hernando de Soto.

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CHAPTER 2 THE FIRST SETTLERS COME BIG STORIES regarding Florida broke during the late summer of 1842. Had there been "modern" newspap e rs i n those days a century ago, the stories would have been smashed on the front pages wit h s c r eaming head lines : SEMINOLE WAR ENDS! ... CONGRESS OPENS SOUTH FLORIDA! The news cam e as a tonic to the people of North Florida who had been hard hit by the collapse of wildcat banks in Tallahassee and Pensacola fol lowing the panic of 1837 With the Sem inoles vanquished and South Florida opened to settlers, lost fortunes might be recouped. And new fortunes made. At the very least, fin e homest'eads acq u ired. Good news indeed! The Semin ole War had been long and bloody. Sta r ting with the Dade Massacre Decem ber 28, 1835, it had lasted seven years and cost the lives of more than sixteen hundred A m e ri can r egulars and voluntee rs. To say nothin g o f $40,000,000 of federal f u nd s. But finall y on August 14, 1842, General \"'f. J. \'V"orth a n nounced that t he last of the Seminoles had been killed, banished to the \"'fest or driven into reservations in the Everg lades. Less than f o u r hundred re mained in the entire state. Now, sai d the general South Flor i da was safe--or almost safe-for settlers. As a further i ncentive to rapid development of the Seminole's lost empire, Congress on August 4, 1842, passed the Armed Occupation Ac t. This act s t ipulated that six months' provis i o n s and 160 acres of land, any where south of Palatka and Gainesville, would b e given t o settlers willing to carry arms to defend the i r h o mes for five years. And addi t ional land could be bought for $1.25 an acre Truly strong inducements. So the s ou thward trek began The m igrat io n extended far d own into Central Florida and along bo t h coasts. The pioneers traveled in covered wago n s, hauled by mules or oxen, o r in sloops and schooners when hea ded for the coastal reg i o ns Scores o f new communities sprang up in the wilderness. Among the first o f these was t h e infant village of Mana t ee, on the banks o f the Manatee River. Late in 1841, a hotel keeper at Fort B r ooke named Josiah Gates was tipped off by h igh army officers that Congress w au:.
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28 THE STORY OF SARASOTA A man of fore s ight, Gates knew chat when che government's vase acreag e would be released for settlement there would be a great influx of new setclers into chis region. So he made up his mind co get in on the ground floor and lay claim to a choice parcel of land before the rush began. He confided his plans to a friend, Captain Frederick Tresca, owner of the sloop 'Margaret A11n, who knew every foot of the coast between Cedar Keys and Key W esc. T resca advised him co go to the Manatee Rive r sec tion, one of the most beautiful spots i n Florida. The captain even offered to take Gates on a cruise from the fort down Tampa Bay to the place he praised As they sai led up the Manatee R iver, Gates noticed a lone pine tree, a marker, he was told, to a once famous Indian v i llage. Landing Gates f ol lowed a narrow path co a gush ing spring with a c i rcular pool twelve feet in diameter, "which for countless ages had lured t ribal warriors with their painted bodies, their weird d ances and mysterious ceremonies." Follo w ing a narrow trail through the dense f orest for about a mile, Gates and his companions came upon a five-acre :field which apparently had been abandoned recently by the Seminoles. Corn stalks were still standing and a f e w pumpkins were still on the vines. Seeing the advantage of having eve n a couple of acres r eady for cultiva t ion, Gates sele cted h is q uarter section to include this field. Gates returned to Fort Brooke and in January, 1842, brought his fam ily to the homesite he had chosen. H e also brought his eight negro s la ves. Quickly the slaves bui lc a six-room cab in, with a passage way and detached kitchen. The "Gates House", designed to be used as a hotel-a hotel in the wilderness-was ready for business. And non e too soon. Dur ing the follow i ng year more than a dozen families settled a lon g the Manatee and the Gates was always filled with guests. Many of these newcomers wer e "common folk" who had never owned land before and were de t e rmined to get homestead s of their own while they had the chance. A few were descendants of wealthy southern families who had lose large plantations in N o rth Florida during the depression followi n g the bank failures. Included among these "aristocrats" were the Braden brothers, Hector W. Braden and Dr. Joseph Braden, who built the famous Braden Castle, the ruins of which are still standing; Major Robert Gamble, builder of the Gamble Mansion, now a state shrin e belonging co the F l or i da U n ited Daughters of the Confederacy, and Colonel \Villiam Wyatt, who later became the grandfather of the :first white child born in what is now Sarasota County, Nancy Catherine Stuart Whitaker. All tl1ese men bought large traces of land from the government, paying $1.25 an acre. The Bradens brought with them eighty slaves to till the 1, 1 00 acres

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 29 which the y acquired. Gambl e had a hundred slaves to work hi s plantation of 3,450 acres. Slaves also were owned by Pinckney Craig and his brother John William Craig, whose plantation adjoined Gam ble's Sugar cane was the principal crop of the plantation owners. \"ifithin a short time there wer e refineries on both sides of the river. Production of sugar and molasses was Manatee's biggest industry until just before the Civil War. Then it d isappeared-never to return. The Man atee River section has a fascinating history. But we cannot tell it here because this is the story of Sarasota Mana t ee's next door neigh bor. H owev er, before we drop do wn coast to Saraso ta B ay we sho uld give the names of a few more of Manatee 's pioneers. Some of them figure prominently in Sarasota's history; others have descendan t s here So here's a partial list: Henry Smith Clark, Elbridge Ware, Michael Ledwith, Sam uel Reed, Ezekial Glazier, John Jackson Simon T urmon, Joseph Atzeroth, Christian and Harry Peterson, Edward Snead, Thomas Kenny, the Rev. Edmond Lee, Dr. Franklin Branch, Casin Cooper, William Lockwood, Oval Bushnell Captain Archiba ld McNeil, the Rev. J. K Glover, and the Vanderipe, Cunliffe and Hayes families, original developers of the Braden Rive r secti on. There the list must stop because we haven't space to give them all Sarasota calls. Sarasota Gets a Settl e r Spanish conqui s tadors came to Sarasota in search of gold, and silver and precious gems. They f ound nothing co s atisfy their g reed and they departed, disheart ened and disillusioned. Three centuries later youn g Bill Whitaker, then just 21 yea r s old, came here in search of a "dream spot" where he could settle down an d make his home. He found exactly wha t he was looking for-a homesite on a bluff f rom which beautiful Saraso ta Bay could be seen in all its splendor. Fertile lan d he also found, and forests filled with game and waters teeming with fish. What mor e could a man ask for? So young Bill s ta ye d-to become Sarasota 's founder. William H. Whitaker-to give "young Bill" his full name-had led an adventurous life. Born in Savannah, Ga., August 1, 1821, he left home when 14 years old, shortly after his father had taken unto himself another wife, a year after Bill's mother died. Bill had no fancy for his new stepmother, so, early one morning he packed his clothes and slipp ed out of the house. He thought he had made a clean geta way bur just as soon as he opened the gat e, leadi ng our onto Whitak er avenue, his father spied him and asked where he was going. No excuses possible, Bill told him he was running away. His father did not try

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30 THE STORY OF SARASOTA to change Bill' s mind. He knew his son had been dissatisfied, so he gave him a ll the mon ey he had in his pocket and a large key-w ind gold watch. He advised him to go co Tallahassee and liv e with his half-brother, Haml in Valentine Snell a young and prosperin g attorney in the t erritorial capital. But Bill had other plans. He liked Ham Snell-liked him fine-even though he considered him qui te an old fellow---'.111 of 25 years! Perhaps Iacer on he would go to visit him. Bu t right now B ill wante d to step out and see the world. So he headed for Sava nnah's docks to seek a j ob o n an outbound ship. Bill was young but he was s trong and wiry and in less than an hour h e was hired as a deckhand on a trading schooner just leaving for Key West. \XThere youn g Whitaker went during the followi ng year or what he s aw, has never b een reco rded. But it's known that in the summer of 1836 he was a fisherman at St. Marks There Snell enco untered him one day. He p e rsuaded Bill co go coT aUahassee with him and "gee a little schoo l ing." Rather rel u ccancly, Bill agreed. Back in Tallahassee, Snell asked his friend, Furman Chaires, owner o f a large plantatio n, to a llow Bill co live at his home while attendin g a nearby private school. C haires had a son Bill's age and the two youths became close friends. It was this bond which kep t adventure-h ungry Bill c hained to his desk" for two long years. But that was all Bill could stand. The Seminole War was being waged and Bill made up his mind to tak e a hand in conquering the Indians. That wou ld truly be adv enture! Four years of Indian fighting followed. Y oungs ter Bill matu red h i s love of adventure was almos t satisfied. So when the war was over, Bill r etu rned co Tallahassee t o "talk things over" with half-brother Snell. He wanted to settl e down-to have a home he cou ld call his own. \XThat better tim e than this to start, with the Seminole s conq uered and the government offering 160 acre s to ablebodied settl ers? But how was he to get to Sout h F lorida? T hat was the hitcli-the problem Bill didn't kno w how to solve. Snell solved it for him. He agreed to back young Bill in the pion eering expedition. Wha t's more, he decided to go along with his half-brother, just to have a vacation. \'il'hy not? Once prosperous Tallahassee was in the d oldrums. The d ebacle o f the Union Bank of Commerce had left man y of Snell's clients penniless and his law practice w a s almost non-existent. Besides, many of Snell's f riends a l ready ha d headed southward-the Bradens, Gamble, Wyatt and many others. \'il'h y not go down the coast and visit them, and also help youn g Bill get settled? Snell bought a s taunch, seaworthy sloop which he nam ed Lovinia in memo r y of his moth e r, who a l so was the mother of young Whitaker by her second marriage. Next, Snell bought all kinds of tools needed by pioneers

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 31 and nearly a ton of provisions. The sloop was loaded and late in November, 1842, Whitaker and Snell left St. Marks. They sailed leisurely southward along the coast, looking for a place which would be ideal for a homesite. They found nothing by the time they reached Manatee. So they stopped a few days at the Gates House, visiting old friends. F r om them they learned of good land in the Sarasota Ba y region which had not yet been taken up by settlers They started off again and during the afternoon of December 14, while sailing south through Sarasota Bay, they sighted a place on the mainland where there were high yellow bluffs. Letting down sail, chey drifted into the mouth of a small, pal m-fringed bayo u a few hundred yards north of the bluff. Landin g, they found many things to show tha t Indians had lived her e for gene rations. Just north of the bayou there v.as a high temple mound and the whole region was dotted with burial grounds and ancient kitchen middens. A shore way up the bayou, on the east bank, they found a pool of fresh water, fed by crystal wate r pouring forth out of r ocks in a steady stream. The ground around the spring was hard-packed. Indians undoubtedly had go tten their water here for countless years. Whitaker tested the water -it was good. In a nearby slough, alligator s grunted-but alligator s were no novelty to youn g \Vhitaker. He had seen thousands of them during the Indian war. T he next day, Whitaker and Snell explored the neighborhood. A quarter mile up the coast they met a Spani sh fisherman named Alzartie living in a crude palmetto shack. I n halting English, Alz.artie cold them that fish and game were abundant a .nd that a man settling here would want for nothing. Several Cuban :fishermen, then sq\tatting on Longboat Key, told them they thought this section unsurpassed anywhere on the West Coast The dense vegetation was proof that the land was fertile. The view from the yellow bluffs was magnificent. Whitaker and Snell deci ded to look no farther. Here, at yellow bluffs, was the idea l spot for a homeseeker to set tle. Getting tools from the s loop, the men quickly built two palmetto huts, one to serve as a temporary home and the other to store their provi sions. This done, they proceeded to build a log cabin, using cedar logs which they raf ted across the bay from Longboa t Key, then covered with a dense cedar forest. A detached kitchen with a "scaffold stove" was also built. When the home was finished, spring had come and Snell decid ed he would have to return to Tallahassee. H e had been vac ationing long enough Now it was time t o go bac k and rebuild hi s depression -shattered law prac tice. Young Whitaker was left to work out his destiny single-handed.

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32 THE STORY OF SAIU\SOTA But in the years which followed, Snell returned many times to the Whitaker place. He was here so often, in fact, chat government surveyors who su rve yed the Sarasota Bay region in 1847, labelled the home on yellow bluffs "Snell's House." They also called the bayou running through the property "Snell's Bayou." The bayou bore this name on government maps as late as 1914, long after it has become known locally as Whitaker's Bayou. Whitaker received a deed from the United States government for his homestead, embracing 144.81 acres, on September 1, 1851. On May 15, 1852, he purchased from the government an addition al48.63 acres, front ing on the bay, for $1.25 an acre. This was the tract where Alza rdie Ji,ed; when he returned to Cuba he assigned his squatter 's rights to it over to his "good friend Bill." ln. this manner Whitake acquired a total of 193.44 acres-one of the finest properties in all Florida, with a frontage on the bay of more than a mile, extending from the present Payne T crminal north to 33rd street. Today, Whi taker's bayf r on t property-if still held intactwould t rul y be worth a fortune. But a century ago, no land in this region, no matter how fertile, was worth any more than $1.25 an acre. So Whitaker could not sell his holdings and Live thereafter in ease and comfort. He had to work for a living-and work hard! That's exactly what he did. Bill Whitaker Gets Ahead Whitaker made his first money by selling dried salt mullet and dried roe tO Cuban traders who sailed up and down the coast. He had no difficulty catching the fish. During the winter months the bay literally churned with them. They came in immense schools, more than a mile long and hundreds of yards wide-so dense it seemed as though a person could walk upon them. Often when coming through Sarasota Pass, the schools would be pursued by sharks or porpoises. In frenzied effo rts to escape, the mullet would lea p h igh in the air and mak e a weird, uncanny noise which old-timers say sounded like the roar of heavy surf breaking on th e beach. At times this r oar could be heard more than fou r miles i nland. When the schools were running, Whitaker could c.ake a cast net and fill his boat in a few minutes. Tha. t was easy. The rea l work followed--clean ing the fish, salting them thoroughly, and then placing them on racks to dry. After a few days, when they had become as "hard as boards", they were stored in hand-made crates until the Cubans came co buy them. The traders paid a handsome price for the mulle t all of one cent a :fish! But pennies were not to be scorned in those pion eer i ng days. A thousand dried mullet brought $10, and with $10 many things could be purchased. So Whitaker managed to get a l ong very nicely.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 33 In the beginning, Whitaker did most of the fishing single handed. But in 1844, he went into "partnership" with his first American neighbor, Joseph Woodruff, who came here from Charleston S. C., and seeded in a palmetto shack on che ba.y about a mile north of Yellow Bluffs. Photo Not Available The crystal clear waters of Myokka R.iver reflect the beauty of i rs pa l m fringed shores With \'Woodruff to help him, Whit aker more t han quadrupled his output of dried fish. His income increased and he began to accumulate a little money. By 1847 he had enough capital co extend his activities and go into the cattle raising business. He went to Dade City on horseback a.nd purchased ten cows and calves. He brought them back over the first "road" cut through the wi l derness south of Tampa. It wasn't much of a road ies "construction" consisted on l y of blazing trees and cutting away the un derbrush and making passable fords across the streams and rivers. But it was better chan no road at all, so \'Whitaker used it.

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34 THE STORY OF SARASOTA The ten cows and calves brought back by Whitaker formed the nucleus of the famous 47 herd which roamed the open range of the Myak ka region for many years. The brand "47" was known by every cattleman in all South Florida. Money obtained from the sale of cattle later helped Whit aker in giving his brood of children good educations. Whitaker is credited with having planted the :first orange grove i n the entire Manatee River-Sarasota Bay reg ion He got the seeds from oranges brought by Cuban traders. He planted them and when they sprouted, cared for the small trees painstakingly. They flouris hed and before ten years passed, \Vhitaker had a bearing grove. It's reported that the quality of the fruit was even finer than many of the varieties now o n the market. But perhaps that's just "old timers' eJ.Caggeration." As stated before, Snell returned to the Whitaker home many times during the '40s. During one of his visits, Snell took time out to make a trip to Cuba on one of the traders' boats. He b rought back guava seeds and planted them, thus introd ucing guavas into the state. Some people think this was a great thing for F lorida-but others argue that the state would have been just as well off without the noisome fruit. A story is told of a tourist who shipped a box of guavas north to a friend. The friend told t he expressman he expected a box of guavas and asked to be notified when the shipment arrived. A day or so later the expressman called and said: "Your . g ua v a has come but I think it's dead!" ... But that is defin i tel y digressing In 1846 and again in 1848, the sturdiness of Bill \Vhitaker's cedar log cabin at Yellow Bluffs was severely tested by two of the worst hurricanes which ever swept the West Coast of Florida. An interesting account of the '46 hurricane was written later by the Rev. Edward Franklin Gates, eldest son of Manatee's first settler. The storm began October 14, wrote the Reverend Gates, and was "precceded by an unusual phenomena-rapidly flying scuds of clouds seemingl)r but a short distance above the earth. Moving i n mixed confusion were sea birds migrating in great numbers to the islands. Conspicuous among them were the forked-tail man o' war or frigate birds which were taken as su.re indi cations of an approaching storm. "The hurricane swept down the river from a northeasterly direction with all its fury, uprooting trees mowing down fences like grass, and blowing down houses and causing much misery and distress, reaching its climax sometime between midnight and dawn." The vicious winds blew most of the water out of Tampa Bay, Gates said, leaving only a few holes or basins of water here and there with a narrow channel dow.n the cente r. Less than four feet of water rema ined in even the deepest parts of Manatee River. To prove the shallowness of

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THE STOJJ.Y OF SAJJ.ASOTA 35 the water, Josiah Gates rode horseback across the river and didn't even get his boots wet. Down at Sarasota Bay, Bill \Whitaker weathered out the storm and suf fered no loss. Bur he was not so fortunate in the '48 hurricane, described by pioneers as the "granddaddy of all hurricanes." The storm began Sat urday, September 22. This time the wind came with destructive force from the southwest, pushing the water of the Gulf toward land All the keys alo n g the coast were inundated. Ships were washed ashore and smashed to pieces by the angry waYes. The newly-built l ighthouse on Egmont Key was blown down. Whitaker's cabin, which faced the open bay, felt the full force of the roaring winds. He later told his children : "I didn't believe I would live through the night. The logs in the wall groaned as though they were in agony. Every' minute I thought they would tumble down upon me. But the cabin stood. Only the roof was damaged and I repaired that easily." However, the storm cost Whitaker heavily. Out on Longboat Key h e had left many of his nets on a sandy beach. Next morning, after the wind had subsided, Whitaker lo oked out across the bay to see whether his nets were safe. Not a trace of them could be seen They were never found and Whit aker had to make new ones, a long, tedious and expensive task. The sandy beach where Whitaker had kept his nets disappeared in the hurricane. At that spot there was now open water. A new pass through the key had been formed and that's what Whitaker named it-New Pass. It has borne that name ever since. The hurricane was disastrous to mariners but it was not altogether a tragedy for settlers along the coast. In the wreckage of the smashed ships, and strewn along the beaches, the settlers found much valuable merchan dise. It's related that one pioneer found a complete set of mahogany furni ture, enough for a large home. Pieces of this furni ture are reported to be still in use in Sarasota homes today. It's also reported that scores of barrels of fine-quality whiskey were washed ashore during the storm. Inasmuch as practically everyone drank in those days even ministers the whiskey did not go to waste. The winds of the' 48 hurricane had hardly died down when Bill Whit aker experienced another storm-an emotional storm! He fell in love. Head over heels in love with a little, black-haired, blue-eyed girl in Mana tee--a wisp of a lass, barely five feet tall, who tipped the scales at exactly eight}' pounds. But pretty as all get-out-and full of spirit. She was Mary Jane \'V"yatt-a remarkable girl who became a remarkable woman. She well deserves special mention

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3 6 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Mar y Ja11e-A "Lad) Pio11eer" There s no question but that M ary Jane \\\'yatt was a spoil ed little miss. No wond er Sh e was the y o u n gest child of Co lonel W illia m Wyatt and h i s w ife M ary, w h o p i on eered in Ma na t ee in 1842. H er two older brothers, Hance and William, and her father idolized her. They granted her every wish. When Bill Whitaker beg a n courting h e r, he was warned b y Hance: "Better wa tch out, Bill, s he's used to h a ving her ow n way." Bill rep lied: "That's all right with me-she c an go on havin g it-a girl as p retty a s she i s s h o uld have e v ery t h ing she w a n ts." Mary Jane was born in T allahassee April 11, 1831. At that ti m e her father was one of the wea l thiest men in the South. He also was a power in policies. In 1838 he ran for the office of governor of t he territory and lose by only one voce. In that same year he lost his plantation, most of his slaves, and much of his wealth whe n the U n ion Bank su s p en d e d s pecie p a yment and for eclos ed mortgages ri ght and left. But sh re w d Colone l Wyatt had cac hed $30,000 i n the Bank of N ew Orleans. Perhaps he h ad ocher deposits elsewhere. Anyhow, he was far from broke. So when he came to Manatee with his family co make a n ew start in l ife, he didn't h a v e t o worry about where the famil y's nex t m e a l was coming from. H e brough t ma ny slave s a long with him and hi s p l an ta tion became one of the fin est along the .Manatee. W hile in Mary Jane attende d a private sc h ool. \Vhen the fa mily came to the Mana t ee wilderness, her education was not neglected. For several years she was taught by a private tutor and t hen she was scot t o a girl's s e m i n ary nea r Lo u i sville, Ky There she r e ceived t h e "po lish" n eeded by a Sou thern lady in ante b ellum days. While in K entuck y, .Mary Jane becam e ill and w h e n she returned hom e in the spring of 1850 h er f ather sene he r t o his ranch eight miles from their home to spend the summer with her brothers and regain her heal t h. There she leamed co ride horseback and herd cattle. She also learned h ow to swim, and r ow a tree-trunk c anoe, and shoot a rifle. Brag ged he r f ather : S h e ca n pick off a t urkey a t a h u n dred yards and n ever touch a f eather on its body save its head When Mary returned c o her Manatee home in the f all she was as strong and brown skinned as a Seminole maiden It was chen Bi ll Whit aker sta rted courti n g her in earnes t He visit ed her home s e v e ral t imes a w e ek, c hinking n othin g of the long fifteenm i le r i d e bet ween Y ellow Bluffs and M ana tee. 'Tis sa.id h e wo re a path through th e w oods to win h e r hand. Bu t w i n it he d id, after two years o f ardent wooing. Mar y Jan e fin all y c onsente d t o be his b r i d e and they we r e married June 10, 1 8 51, in t he Methodist Church of Manatee. It was t he firs t wed d ing in all Manatee County.

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 37 Down to tbe cedar cabin at Yellow Bluffs came the newly-weds. With no nei ghbors within miles, it was a lonely place for a young bride. But she loved her pione er husband and they were happy. At Yellow Bluffs on April 19, 1852, there was bor n the first white child in what is now Sarasota County-Nancy Cather in e Stuart Whitaker, a tiny tot with red, curly hair who grew up to becom e the belle o f Sara sota. "Nancy was given all chose names," says Mrs. Gertrude Higel, grand daughter of the \\"Thitakers, "because her paren ts didn't e xpect t o have another child. But fate decreed otherwise. They had ten m ore children during the next fourteen years. And it wasn't long before the}' began running out of names." During the four years following the birth of Nancy, the Whi t aker family prospered. The '47 her d of cattle inc reased in size and fishing was good. Now, when the Cuban trade rs came, they could get full loads when they anchored at the mouth of Whitaker Bayou. And after each shipment, the Whitakers' little horde of Spanish doubloons became a little larger. Their gardens flourished and their orange grove b ore an abundance of fruit. The pioneers' hom e in the Sarasota wilderness was well established But then came disaster-swift and sudden India ns on the Warpath Deep in the Big Cypress Swamp, Billy Bowlegs was the proud owner of a banana patch. The stalks were fifteen feet high a n d the fruit was de licious. The patc h was Billy's choicest possession-and because of it, the fires of Indian war flared in Florida again after thirteen yea r s of peace. Billy, chief of the small ba n d of Seminoles which had been driven intO the r eservation in 1842, was well known tO settlers a long the coast. A proud bl a ck-haired, stocky m:1.n, he came here often, sometimes to trade and other t imes to visit with the pioneer s and enjoy a meal with them. Mary Wyatt \"Vhitaker knew him well. She met him first during the summer of 1850 while roughing it at her father's ranch. Sh e talked with him about his tribesmen and they became quite friendly "If your people ever fight us again Billy," asked Mary one day, "would you come back and kill us?" "Oh yes, kill," was the nnswer, "but kill easy." Mary did not take Billy seriously. She knew Billy rea l ized his band of a hu11dred Seminole braves would have no chance against the whites. She also knew he was a peace -loving man and wanted only to be left to live in peace. So no on e was more surp rised than Mrs. \X/hitaker when she learn e d early in 1856, that Billy Bowlegs and his warriors were again on the warpath. White man's orneriness was the direct c ause o f the uprising.

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38 THE STO.RY OF SAKASOTA Officials of the Lan.d Office in Washington decreed that the Big Cypress country should be surveyed. The army was ordered to cooperate and Lieutenant George Hartsoff with a party of ten men left Ft. Myers to help establish the lines. Then, just a week before Christmas, 18 55, Hartsoff's crew ran across Bllly Bowleg's banana patch "Let's tear the hell out of it and see wha t Billy does," yelled one of the men. The others thought it was a fine idea. So they trampled down the banana stalks, smashed the pumpkins grow ing n earby and uprooted the potatoes. Soon afterward, Billy returned. He was grief stricken. And when he demanded compensation, Hartsoff s men laughed uproariously. Boy, wha t a joke! To make it even b etter, they tripped Billy and sent him sprawling. When he arose, his flat, round face was covered with dirt. Then the whole camp roared. This surely was grand sport. Seething with anger, Billy left. But in the cady hours of the day before Christmas, Billy returned. With him came a band of Seminole warriors, smeared with war paint, de termined to right the injustice which had been done. They attacked Hartsoff's camp, suddenly, without warning In the skirmish which followed, Hartsoff and four of his men were seriously wounded Perhaps it's a shame the Seminoles didn't polish off the whole crew. But the army men were too well-trained a.nd too well-armed and they finally escaped. Once aroused, the Seminoles lost all reason. Small bands of the m struck out in the "whi te man's country, pillaging, shooting, burning as they went. One group reached the Manatee River and the home of Dr. Braden -Braden's Castle, on the night of February 27. A kitchen-maid saw one of the Indians skulking in the shadows and screamed. Lights were blown out and shutters fastened The Semi noles attacked the house but were driven off. They vanished into the dark, ta king with them eleven slaves and three of the doctor's mules. The settlement shook with excitement-and fea r. Messengers were sent out into the country, warning people to come in for safety. They swarmed in from all directions. Doctor Branch's home near the mineral springs was thrown open as a place of refuge. lcs already heavy stockade was reinforced. Soon th e doctor's house was crowded and the late arrivals went to the Braden Castle. Among the refugees who found safety in Branch's Fort were M rs. Whitaker, her daughter Nancy, and the baby, Louise Anstie, born Decem ber 31, 1853. Bill \'Vhitaker, named captain of a company o f volunteers, set out for a military camp on Peace Creek, seventy miles away, to get help . W:hile he was gone, another band of Seminoles raided his home on Yellow Bluffs, burning it to the ground. ..

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THE STORY OF ShRASOTA 39 In this raid there was killed the first "tourist" who ever came to the Land of Sarasota-George Owen, a young man from Philade lphia who was suffering from t uberculosis. Hoping to get cured, he made his way to Florida and finally to Manatee. There, Mrs. saw him and of fered to take him to her home to spend the win te r Gratefully Owen accepted He spent hours i n the sunshine and was rapidly rega ining his health when the Indian alarm was sounded. He re f used to seek refuge along with the Whitaker f amily, insisting he was not afraid of the Seminoles. The destruction of \'Whitaker's home was discovered by Hance Wyatt, Mrs. Whitaker's brother, while out searching for food for the hungry ref ugees in Branch's Fort. From a distance, he saw smoke arising from the smoldering logs. He returned to Manatee to get assistance. Eight men volunteered to go back with him to fight the marauding Seminoles. When the party arrived at Yellow Bluffs, the Indians had fled. The house and outbu ildings were entirely destroyed. In the ashes, the men found the charred bones of Owen, the first and o nl y American ever killed in the Saraso ta region by the Indians. How he mec his death is not known. Pionee rs say he probably hid in the storage room o f the Whitaker home when the Indians attacked was smothered by the smoke, and burned to death. For nine long months, the pioneer families huddled together in Branch' s Fort and Bra d en 's Ca stle During the summer, conditions were almost intolerable. Flies, gnats and mosquitoes made life misera ble Epidemics of whooping cough and measles broke out among the children. Many older people became ill And to add to the worries of Dr. Branc h, three babies were born in the fort. The first appearance of the stork brought to Mrs. Whitaker her first son, Furman Chaires Whitaker, named for the Leon County plantation owner in whose home Bill Whita ker had once lived. The other two babies born in the fort w ere William Blakely Tresca, born to Louise Wyatt Tresca, October 11, 1856, and Alice Mary Wyat t, born t o Mary Fife Wyatt, December 16, 1856. Both were first cousins of infan t Furman. The marauding Seminoles were relentlessly pursued by three com panies of militi a during 18 56 and by the end of the year the redskins had been driven deep into the Everglades. The threa t of more at tacks in the Manatee-Sarasota sectio n was ended. Settlers began lea ving th e haven of Branch's Fort to return to their homes. Nevertheless, they did not feel entirely safe until early in 1858 when Billy Bow legs, with 139 survivors of his tribe, were herded on Egmont Key in lower Tampa Bay and put on transports for the west. But one of the captives chose death rather than deponatioo from the

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40 THE STORY OF SARASOTA land he loved-Tiger Tail, a brave warrior. The story is told that on the morning scheduled for departure, Tiger Tail poured a ha ndful of pow dered glass into a cup of water and swallowed it. Then he spread his blan ket on the sandy beach and stretched out upon it. There he died, while his young daughter knelt by his side, weeping bitterly. After the banishment of Billy Bowlegs and his tribe, the government estimated that fewer than two hundred Seminoles-mostly women and children-were left in the state, hidden in the fastness of the Big Cypress and the Everglades. Decade after decade passed into history. But never again did the Seminoles venture forth to challenge their white conquerors. Today a few of them can be seen by touris ts who z ip along the Tarniami Trail. But most of them still mistrust the white man and remain hidden in their camps, fa r from the beaten roads. After the Indian Uprising Bill \Vhitaker lost no time in building a new horne at Sarasota Bay after the Seminole menace was ended. But he did not rebuild on the site of his old horne on Yellow Bluff s Mrs. Whitaker wanted to get far ther back from the water so her garden would not be damaged by strong winds off the bay. She chose a spot in a dense hammock about two hundred yards inland, just east of what is now Tarniami Trail. Kinfolk of Mrs. Whitaker helped clear the site and in roughhewing timber for the foundation blocks, joists and studding. The weather boards, flooring and finishing lumber were brought dow n from Cedar Keys in a schooner. The family moved into it in July, 1857. The task of homebuilding finished, Whitaker turned his attent ion to his herd of cattle which had been allowed to roam on the open range all during the Indian uprising. Rounding them up, he found he had enough to make a big shipment to Key \Vest. That done, he planted a large garden, pruned his orange grove, and then went back to fishing. He had lost a year's work-and now he had to make up for it. In getting back on his feet again, Whitaker needed help badly. And he found it-in a thicket! Out riding herd one day, he heard a strange noise in a dense clump of palmettos. Startled, he got off his horse to investigate. Fearing rattlesnakes, he took with him the heavy stirrup from his saddle. He pushed aside the overhanging fronds of a palmetto, and saw a young negro lying on the ground, groaning in pain. The negro glanced up, saw the stirrup in Whitaker's hand, and begged: "Doan hit me, massah; doan hit me. l'se sick!"

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 41 Whitaker half carried the young negro to the horse, put him on the saddle and took him to his home. There Mrs. Whitaker cared for him until he regained his health. While convalescing, the negro, who said his name was Jeffrey Bolding, admitted he was a runaway slave. He said he had come to F lorida from North C arol ina where he had been forced to work sixteen hours a day in a canebreak under a viletempered overseer who beat him cruell)' and often. To prove his statements, Jeffrey uncovered his back and showed it was criss-crossed with raw, festering welts, obvio us ly made by a black snake whip. To escape more beatings, Jeffrey said, he ran away one night and head ed southward, hoping to reach the Everglades where other runaway slaves had gone before. He traveled at night and slept in thi ckets during the day to avoid being seen. When found by Whitaker, he had been on the road a month and hadn't eaten one good meal the entire time. Whitaker did not want to return the negro to his master. On the other hand, he did not want to harbor a runaway slave. So he solved the problem by making arrangements with the owner, by letter, for buying Jeffrey for $1,000. That was the way the first slave came to what is now Sarasota County. J effrey was not long without company. A slave auction was held in Manatee in November and Mrs Whitaker acquired two more slaves. An entry in Manatee County records reads: "November 13, 1857 Know all men by these present, that I, James T. Archer, for value received of Mrs. Mary Whitaker, wife of \Villiam Whitaker, have bargained, sold and de livered to the said Mrs. \Vhitaker, to her separate use as if she were unmarried and free from all debt of her husband, the following slaves, to wit: Harriet and John, and I do warrant the title thereto against myself and the Union Bank of Florida, (signed) James T. Archer." There are two versions of this slave auction. According to one version a boatload of slaves was brought up the Manatee River and sold to the highest bidder by Archer, a prominent Florida politician. The other version, which is more likely true, is that mortgages against the Gamble plantation were forecl osed by the U nion Bank and that Archer was sent here to sell Gamble's slaves to help satisfy the debt. Gamble had made heavy expenditures in developing his property and it is known that he was swamped when borers got into his sugar cane in both 18 56 and 18 57 and ruined the crops. Probably during the same slave auction Bill Whitaker also bought a slave--a young negress named Hannah. When she was taken to the Sara sota Bay home, Hannah lost no time falling in love with Jeffrey. A negro

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42 THE STORY OF SARASOTA minister came down from Manatee to solemnize their marriage, witnessed by scores of other negroes from the Manatee River plantations. Hannah and Jeffrey lived together in happy bliss until1863 when the Whitaker slaves were "liberated" and taken to Key West by a detachment of Union soldiers. After the war, Hannah chose to remain in Ke}' West. But Jeffrey insisted upon coming back to the \"\!hi ta kers And he remained with the family until his deat h on July 22, 1904. He was probably che best known colored man in this entire region and he never lost an oppor tunity to p assout the information that he was "a high priced man." Whenever he got in an argument with another negro he would close it abrupcly with: Doan you go argufying with me, you no count field han'. l'se a thousand dollah niggah-yes, sah, a thousan' dollah niggah!" Slaves helped Mrs. Whitaker greatly in caring for her gardens and her rapidly expanding family. They also helped in cleaning and salting fish. But they were worthless in round ing up the cattle. For that work a good white man was required. So Bill Whitaker got a "hired hand"-a man who later '\Vas to play a big part in the development of the community. He was I. A. Redd. He worked for Whitaker one winter a nd chen joined the Confederate Army. More a bout him later. The W' ar Be hue en the States A woman of spirit was Mary Whitaker. This she proved one day lace in 1863 when a small group of Union soldiers, out on a p i llaging expedi tio n stopped at her home. What happened thereafter is well related by Mrs. Lillie B. McDuffee in her delightfully entertaining Lures of the Man. atee: "The men after ransacking the house of all irs belongings not too cumbersome tO take along, called for matches to set the house on fire. Without arguing, Mrs. \'Whit aker wen t into the house and return ed with a block of matches and with a calmness not altogether pretense she ha nded it to the commanding oflicer and said, 'Sir, I want r o look into the eyes of a man who can stoop so low as to burn the home of a helpless woman and her family.' Up to this time the drastic methods, later adopted by Sherman in Georgia, h ad not been resorted to by Union men. The soldiers turned away and the house was saYed., As the war continued, raids upon the \"\!hi taker home became more and more frequent. Everything edible was taken away, includin g all chickens and pigs. The gardens were stripped clean. Life on Sarasota Bay became impossible and \XThitaker finally moved his fam ily to Manatee where it remained until after the war was ended. While the war was in progress Whitaker did every thing within his power to bring victory to the South. He sold a large part of his herd of

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 43 cattle to the Confederate Army an d it's repor ted he did more than his share of blockad e running. H e also operated a grist mill deep in the Myakka Lake region, far away from possible raiding parties. In this mill was ground grain which kept many Manatee families supplied with grits and corn meal after a g rist mill ? n the river was destroyed by Union raiders. Whitaker also made a number of trips t o Gainesville to buy badly needed wearing apparel for the people of Manatee, going in his long tongued wagon p\lled by a double team of mules. Supplies had become almost prohibit ive in price Common shoes for men had jumped in cost from $2 to $12. Ladies' gaite rs were priced at $15 and c alico cost from $3 to $5 a yard. Finally prices sky ro cketed so high that no one in Manatee could any long er afford to make purchases-so Whitake r 's trips ended Photo Not Available SARASOTA'S l'IRST CHILDREN Six of che eleven child:n of Mr .and Mts. William H. Whitaket above : (lft to r.ght) W,lltam, Lou&sc, Hamlm (standing} Carrie (below), Nancy C1therinc, and

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44 THE STORY oF SARASOTA To obtain vitally needed salt, the people of Mana t ee turned to the Gulf. They began boiling down salt water. To get three pounds of sa lt, they had to boil dry 100 gallons of water and that required a great amount of wood for fuel. But no one minded tending the fires because life without salt wasn t worth living, war or no war. During the war, Whitaker learned how to become a cobbler. He made shoes for all the members of his family The lasts were carved out of soft pine, the exact size and shape of eac h person's feet. Pegs were made out of hickory. For his own shoes he used steer hides. But for the shoes of his wife and children, he used the tanned hides of deer Mrs. Whitaker found these hand-made shoes so comfortable that she insisted upon having more pairs of them, long after the war was ended and "store shoes" again could be purchased. Soon after hostilities were ended, the Whitaker family went back to their home at Sarasota Bay to replant their gardens, make new fish nets to replace those destroyed by Yankee raiders, and build up the '47 herd again In other words, to start life anew. A Noted Confederate Fled from Here Judah p. Benjami n was fleeing for his life. A $40,000 price was on his head, dead or alive. His name was high on the Yankee's list of "war criminals" and they were searching for him everywhere through the South No wonde r the Yankees wanted Benjamin. He was known as "the brains of the Confederacy" and had served in President Jefferson Davis' cabinet, first as attorney general, next as secretary of war and later as secretary of state But Benjamin was too smart for the Unio n searchers. He left President Davis il). Georgia, May 2, 1865, and headed for Florida Disguised as a farmer and helped by loyal Confederates Ben j amin finally made his way to Tampa where he was hidden for several days in the home of James McKay. While in Tampa, then swarming with Federal soldiers and sailors, Benjamin tried to make arrangements to get a boat in which he could sail to Nassau. But no "rebel" boats were left in the Tampa area so McKay advised him to go to Manatee and seek assistance from Captain Archibald McNeil, known throughout the south as one of the most daring of all b l ockade runners. Late one afternoon in early Jun e Benjamin arrived at the Gamble Mansion, where Captain McNeil was then living. The Confederate leader was given a hearty welcome and assigned the best bed chamber, a large front room on the second floor, from which a glimpse of the Manatee River could be seen. There Benjamin h i d for more than a week. He was almost caught

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 45 one day by a squad of Union soldiers who got close to the house before being detected. But luck was with Benjamin and he man aged to flee to the jungl e with McNeil in the nick of time. The soldiers ransacked the mansion from top to bottom, peerin g in every wardrobe and pantry and under beds. But they found nothing D isgusted, they left, and Benjamin and McNeil returned. After two weeks of anxious waiting, Benjamin finally succeeded in making arrangem ents with Captain Fred erick Tresca for aiding him in his flight. Tresca, after a long sea rch, located a sixteen-foot yawl at C lear water which he bought with Benjamin's money Hiring H. A. McLeod as Photo Not Available SEA OATS a sailor, Tresca took the boat to a cov e near Y e llow Bluffs, less than a quar ter mile from Bill Whitaker's home. Whitaker was a willing partner in the escape plot. He provi sioned the boat and provided bedding. Then, on the afternoon of June 23, Benjamin

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46 THE STORY OF SARASOTA arrived at the Whitaker home in a horse-and-buggy, accompanied by the Rev. Ezekial Glazier. Some say Benjamin was brought to the Whitaker home in an ox cart, hidden beneath freshly butchered beef so he could not be seen by Yankees, known to be in the locality. Regardless of how he came, he arrived and Mrs. \'fhitaker had a elaborate dinner ready. Ben jamin ate it hurriedly and then boarded the yawl. The Whitakers went over toY ellow Bluffs to watch the boat sail slowly down Sarasota Bay and th rough the pass. Then it disappeared from sight. That was the end of th e part Benjamin played in American history. When Tresca returned, weeks later, he told of a narrow escape Benjamin had had near Charlotte Harbor. A Federal gunboat stopped the yawl, Tresca related, and inquis i tive Yankee sailors came aboard. They fo und Benjamin, in cook's cap and apron, stirring the charcoal embers in the sandbox forward. His face was daubed with grease and soot. The sailors failed to recognize him but one remarked: "I don't know who he is but I'm damned if I ever saw a Jew cook working on a fishing boat till now." At Knight's Key, Tresca bought a larger boat, the Blonde, and sailed into Nass au in safety. There Benjamin paid Tresca fifteen hundred dol lars in gold, gave him the Blonde and bought ten-yard lengths of black silk for the ladies of Manatee who had befriended him. One of the pieces was for Mrs. Whitaker. From Nassau Benjamin sailed to London where he soon became a member of Queen Victoria's counsel and a friend of such notables as Gladstone and Disraeli. Before leaving Nassau, Tresca bought a boatload of merchandise which he brought back home. His heaviest purchases were English calico-bolt upon bolt. Practically all the cloth was purple, Tresca's favorite color. Purple with white pin stripes or tiny horseshoes, maple leaves, leur-de-lis and various curlicues. Tresca gave several bolts to Mrs. \Vhitaker, whose two older daughters, Nancy and Louise, were then approaching young womanhood. The remainder was sold in Manatee and 'tis said that during the next five years every woman and child in that section had at least one purple dress. Bill Whitaker later bought the Blonde which he used in making trips up and down the coast. Because of the purple calico and the good ship Blonde, memory of the Confederate leader, Judah P. Benjamin, lingere d long in the minds of the Whicaken. Hence, his story has become a part of the story of Sarasota. The spot where Banjamin boarded the boat at the Yellow Bluffs' cove has been designated by a monument erected by the Colonel John A. Fite Chap ter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. The Gamble Mansion has become a state shrine and is now known as the Juda h P. Benjamin Memorial.

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CHAPTER 3 THEN CAME THE HOMESTEADERS A NEW ERA dawned for the Lan d of S a rasota after the completion of the bitte r war between the sta tes. An era bright with rosy prospects for the future. An era which changed the Land of Sarasota from a "place a t the end of nowhere" to a regio n famed throughout the nation for its life giving sunshine, its fertile soil and its abu ndance of fish and game. Slow ly at first and then ever more rapidly, newcomers began coming into the region, settling up and down the co ast and far inland. Some "squatted"; o thers homesteaded, filing claims for q uarter-section s A fe w bought large tracts for use as grazing lands. Man y of the new arr ivals were northerners who had h eard about t h e beautiful West Coast o f Florida from Y an kee sailors and soldie r s, sent here o n ra iding expeditions d u ring war days. After the war was over and the Yanks had returned to the cold and dreary winters of t he north, they remembe red th e ba l my clima te of the West Coas t and they sang its praises. Perhaps they were the persons who gave Sarasota its first advertisin g Any how, northerners began streaming in. With chem c am e many families from southern states which had been desolated by northern armies. There also came families from sections of northern Florida which had been overrun by the despi sed carpetbaggers, worse in their way than Sherman's army o f destruction. To escape the intol erable conditions concomitant with "negro rule," t h e y migrated to the land which the carpetbaggers and their colored allies had not reached, because o f ics remoteness. It would seem as though conflict and dissension would inevitabl y re sult from the mingling of these two groups-the "vic t orious" northerners and the persons for whom the war brought nothing h ue tragedy. But bitterness and strife-there were none. The two groups got alon g splen didly together. They intermarried. They joined in building the com munity. The Sarasota of today. Not the City of Sarasota but the back country which provided the sinew and muscle fo r the city which was t o come, decades late r. The in flux of new settlers was due in large measure t o the Homestead Act passed by Congress in 1862. The federa l gov e.rnment held title to huge tracts of land in Florida and, with the war ended, these tracts were availab l e for occupation. Each settler was entitled to 160 acres, provi ding he built a home and tilled t h e soil for five years.

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48 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Here we must backtrack a moment. In the preceeding chapter, we mentioned the Armed Occupation Act which also made it possible for settlers co obtain 160 acres of land free. lc was this act which caused the first migration .to the Manatee River section. It also caused Bill \\'7hitaker to settle on Sarasota Bay. But opposition to this free land measure" was vitriolic. The "planta tion aristocracy" of the South and reactionary northern \Vhigs ganged up against it, simp l y because they d i d not want "common folks" to become too independent. They branded the measure as "communistic." And lobbyists for big land speculators, who wanted to grab the public domain themselves, put on the pressure. So the Land Office obediently delayed issuing land grants to the settlers and Congr ess finally nullified the act, in effect, by amending it so drastically that its provisions became hopelessly obscure. I r was effective for only one year. As a result few if any titles to land in this section can be traced back to the Armed Occupation Act. Just how Bill Whitaker got tide to his homestead is an uns o lved mystery. His grant s t a te s it was made under rhe provisions of the Act of 1847-but the Library of Congress states that "the statutes do not r e veal any 'act of 1847'." So you fig ure it out. But all that's immaterial. What's important is that by 1 866 a bonafide homestead act was in effect. An act which really meant something-not just a jumble of words. And the settlement of the Land of Sarasota went on apace Certainly there was room here for newcomers-in the entire area of what is now Sarasota County, Whitaker was the only settler. He was literally master of all he surveyed. But not for long. Soon he had neighbors. The Odyssey of the Webbs Illness brought a party of nine persons from Utica, N.Y., to the Land of Saraso t a in August, 1867. The newcomers were Mr. a n d Mrs. John G. Webb and their :five children; Mrs. Webb's sister, Emily Graves and her father, Deacon Graves. Mrs. \\'7 ebb suffered from asthma and her ph)'sician told her that noth ing but a \"\armer climate would help her. So her husband, a college graduate, sold his prospering drug store in Utica and his dairy farm, and headed for Florida. A retuming Feder al soldier had told him about the attractions of the Sarasota section so he came here, to become the founder of Osprey. The trip was long and tiresome. The Webbs sailed from New York, February 1, 1867, in a 100-ton schooner Sarah Helm and landed thirteen days later in Key West, much the worst from the buffeting of the ship by storm-tossed waters. But in sunny Key West, they quickly recovered from the journey. They were enchanted with the roses they found bloom-

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 49 ing and the graceful, waving palms, and they were glad that henceforth Florida would be their home On February 20, the Webbs got passage on a schooner bound for Tampa and they arrived there a few days later. Tampa was then a tiny village, a supplement of Fort Brooke. The \Vebbs liked it but they had another spot in mind-a little bay somewhere south along the coast, marked by a high Indian m ound, which the Federal soldier had described to them. So the \Vebbs packed their bags again and went to Manatee. There they rented a vacant house owned by the Rev. Edmond Lee which they made their headquarters while \Vebb searched for the homesite the soldier had extolled. Buying a small sloop which had been wrecked on Egmont Key, Webb had it repaired and then used it to cruise up and down the coast, looking for the little bay with the Indian mound. He could not find it. Discour aged, he made a down payment on a tract of l and on Terra Ceia I s land where an early settler had gained squatter's rights But the deal fell through and Webb began his search again. This rime he was more fortunate. Talking to Bill Whitaker one day, he described the spot he was looking for. \Vhitaker, who was familiar with every foot of the coastline, identified the place--told Webb exactly where it was, twelve miles south o f Yellow Bluffs on Litcle Sarasota Bay. To make sure Webb would find the spot, Whitaker took him there. Webb recognized it immediately. The beautiful bayou, the dense jungle growth, the high Indian mound-all were exactly as the soldier had described them. Webb was jubilant. This was the place he was seeking! Straightway he called the p r omitory Webb's Point-and it bore that name thereafter Returning to Manatee, Webb loaded the s l oop with provisions and farming equipment he had foresightedly brought with him from the north. W it h his two sons and father-in-law he set sail for \Vebb's Point. On their way south they stopped at \'V'hitakers and had a fine meal o f venison steaks. Then they were on their way again. The Webbs' first home, which they built themselves, was a typical pioneer's cabin, built of logs with a roof of thatched palmetto. Some of the wood for the i nterior was rafted down from Manatee where a lumber m.ill had just been put in operation. In August six mon-ths after their arrival in Florida, the entire \Vebb family moved into the new home. Quite di fferent it was from their fine home back in Utica but no one com plained. They had come to Florida expecting to rough it"and rough it they did Mrs. \Vebb's health was already greatly improved and, despite the hardships of pioneer life they felt the comforts of a fine northern home well lost.

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so THE STORY O F SARASOTA The cabin, consisting of one l arge ro
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THE STORY OP SARASOTA 5 1 ments. The syrup finally made was none too good because the cane had been frozen. Nevertheless, it was better than no syrup at all. The followin g year, Webb bought a factory-made mill and began making syrup on a commercial basis, selling it through a store in Manatee. He also built a refinery and began making sugar. Later on, when other settlers came into the Osprey section, \Vebb bought their cane and built up a good business. In the Florida Gazeteer of 188 6 Webb was listed as having a large sugar mill. The sugar cane planters of the Osprey region listed in the publication were S. C. Bullard, D. Garre tt, \Villiam Lowe J. M. Clower and J. H. Hill, in addition to Webb himself. This sugar mill of Webb's undoubt ed ly was the first "manufacturing plant" in what is now Sarasota County. It provided cash income for a number of early settlers and helped them get established Unfortunately the mil! has lon g since been dismantled. Had it been preserved it would be a most interesting reminder of a bygone past. In addition to having established the first manufacturing plant, Webb has the distinction of having built and operated the first "hotel" for tour ist s in the Land of Sarasota. The enterprise began in a small way, after the Webbs had been visited du ring their first Florida winter by an old friend, Colonel Frank Jewett, a noted scientist. Re turning from an exped ition up the Amazon River the co lonel stopped at \'V ebbs. He enthused over the splendid climate, the unexcelled fishing, and the fine hunting-and he told Webb he should pro vide a place where others could winter in this land of sunshine. This suggestion was enough to start Webb off. He built several addi tions to his home and began advertising in northern newspapers. He de scribed the beautiful land of Florida w h ere summer spends the winter and he took particular pains in describing that especial paradise on earthWebb's Winter Resort on Little Sarasota Bay So to \'Vebb goes credit for another "first" -the first newspaper advertiser of the attractions of the Sarasota region. That was done during the winter of 1870-71. He con tinued adve rti s ing many years thereafter. This advertisi n g brought many people to Webb's Resort and during the winter he would have as many as eighteen or twenty "tourists". :r o house them all he erected individual guest cottages Some of these people came seeki ng a warmer, more healthful climate; oth ers to fish and hunt, and still others to study the plant and animal life of F lorida, or to try to fathom the regardin g the ancient Indian tribes. Among the first guests at Webb's Re sort were the Duke and Duchess of Sutherland. They were so entranced by the beauty of the Florida West Coast that the Duke later bought a large tract of land north of Clearwater a nd helped to found Sutherland, now called Palm Harbor.

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52 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Another noted visitor was Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, Hungarian scientist and internationally famed writer. It was Hrdlicka who first advanced the theory, in his Anthropology of Florida, that the Indian mounds were made by an ancient tribe of Indians similar co che Aztecs of Mex i co. Prior to Hrdlicka's research work, practically everyone in Florida believed the mounds had been made by the Seminoles Many of Webb's guests returned year after year and when the town of Sarasota was founded, a number of them came here to make their homes. From the time of his arr ival in the Land of Sarasota, tOok a lively interes t in politics. Proof that other pio neer settlers held no grudge against him because he was a Yankee is furnished by the fact that in 1878 he was elected a county commissioner of Manatee County, which then embraced what is now Sarasota County. Later he was elected county judge and held office at the county seat at Pine Level, forty miles inl and. One day while at Pine Level his horse wandered off and he had to walk the entire distance back home During the I 870's and early SO's a small communi t y grew up i n Webb's neighborhood and in 1884 he applied for a postoffice. His petition was granted and the community was named Osprey at his request. He chose the name because of his admiration for che beautiful osprey, a gorgeous dark-brown fish-hawk. One of Judge Webb' s guests, a young woman in ill health, loved the locality so much that she requested that when she died her money be used to build a church or a school. "Mary's Chapel" was erected and still stan ds in the jungle. Near the site of the chapel is a cemetery where the founder of Osprey and most of his family now are buri ed One of Webb's daughters, Anna, married RobertS. Griffith who later was clerk of Manatee County. Another daughter, Eliza married Frank Guptill, a young man who was sent here from Jacksonville by the owners of a ship which had been wrecked on Siesta Key. Guptill later became one of the best known boat builders on the Florida We.st Coast. In the winter of 1870-71, a family which later played a prominent part in the development of the Sarasota region stayed at Webb's Resortthe family of John S. Blackburn. The newcomer liked this part of Florida so well that he homesteaded about a mile and a half south of Osprey. His two sons, Frank and George, homesteaded ncar by on the bay. Frank B l ackburn became the owner of one of the most unusual boats which ever sailed the waters of the West Coast-the sloop Sea Turtle. It resembled its name, being almost as wide as it was long From a distance i c looked something like a big bowl. Its appearance was strange but it proved to be admirably adapted for sailing in the shallow waters of .. . . ,.. .. .

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 53 the bays and bayous because it drew less than two feet of water and could carry unusually heavy loads. George Blackburn later moved to Sarasota and became one of the leading merchants of the town in its early days. His widow still lives in Sarasota. At Horse and Chaise The Land of Sarasota has had a fascinati ng lure for a century and more. People have been attracted here from all parts of the country-for many different reasons. Bill Whitaker came here because of a love for adventure and a yearning to create a home of his own out of t he wilder ness. The \V ebbs came because of ill health. And then, o n November 2 3, 1868, came the Knight family, fifteen strong, to become the first settlers at "Horse and Chaise." It was the lush grazing la nds of the Myakka River region between the river and Lemon Bay, which caused the Knights to migrate here. The head of the family was Jesse Knight, a staunch Methodist, known in later years throughout the entire Land of Sarasota as the Reverend Jesse Knight, even though he never was ordained. A native of Georgia, Knight married Miss Rebecca C. Varn, his boyhood sweetheart when 22 years old. They. had a large family, seven boys and eight g i rls A cattle raiser, Knight wanted more land than he could afford to buy in Georgia so in 1 8 52 the fa mily headed for Florida, taking a herd of cattle along. More than a year was required to reach Hillsborough County, the family stopping every now and then to let the animals rest. Knight finally homesteaded about twenty m iles northeast of Tampa, at a p lac e now called Knight's Station. When the war began, Knight moved his cattle to the plains around Upper Myakka Lake so they would not be seized by Yankee raide r s, and left them there under the care of a son -in-law, Shadrick "Shade" Hancock. At Myakka, the cattle flourished and when the war was over, Knight decided to homestead where his animals would have plenty of room to roam. Bur he didn' t want to live inland-he preferred the coast. He fina lly selected one of the loveliest spots in Flo rida; a spot where crystal screams mingled with waters of the Gulf, tqe place now called Nokomis. Only a hundred miles separated Knight's old homestead from his new but nearly a month was required to make the trip. Eight covered wagons drawn by oxen, three buggies drawn by mules and seven mounted horses made up the caravan-plus three hundred head of cattle For the first forty miles of the journey, the Knights f ollowed an old time trail which l ed t o Upper Myakka Lake. But after that there was no trace of a road' and the Knights had to clear a trail as they went a l ong. Over the open prairies, fairly rapid progress was made but it was a differ-

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54 THE STORy O F SARASOTA ent story when the caravan came to hammock land s, heavily covered with palmettos and oaks. To enable the carts and buggies to proceed, hundreds of trees had to be felled and pulled aside. One day the party succeeded in advancing less tha.n a quarter mile. The Knights suffered a minor disaster when they were almost in sight of the Gulf. They came to a broad creek, near the head of Dona Bay, which they had to ford. The mules pulling the leading buggy refused to budge. Knight tried to coax them to enter the water by holding ears of corn in front of their mou ths. But the stubborn animals would not be tempted. Whips were swung but still the mules stood rooted in their tracks. Finally Knight had an idea. He yelled to his oldest son: "Bill, in t hat second cart there 're some dried deer hides. You know, they make a wicked cracking noise when you handle them. Get one of those hides and stand just behind those critters and the n take the hide and sort of shake it-and sort of not shake it!" Bill got the idea. He hurried back to the cart, pulled out a large hide, and stood alongside the team of balky mules. Then he shook the hide not rather lightly, as his father had suggested, but with a ll his strength. The shaking hide sounded like exploding firecrackers. Frightened, the mules leape d forward, splashing through the creek. Several other teams followed, also at a record pace. The result was near-catastrophe. Two of the buggies and a heavily loaded cart upset i n the creek and many of Knight's belongings went over board. Nearly everything was recovered-but sopping wet. Because of this proof of the super-efficiency o f shaken deer hides, the creek became known as Shakit Creek. It still bears that name on many maps despite efforts in recent years co giv e it the more dignifi ed name of Albee Creek. After the Knig hts finally succeeded in getting the entire caravan across the ford, they pitched camp on the south bank of the creek. I t was a beau tiful spot and the family d ecided to stake out their homestead there. They built a large "double-p en" log house--two cabins connected by a covered breezeway. In this home, which stood for more than a half century, the Knights prospered and became one of the leading families of the \'(/"est Coast. For their cattle; they had a princely domain. By building a fence straight east from the headwaters of Shakit Creek to the Myakka River, they had an entire peninsula f or themse lves--a peninsula ten mile s across and more than thirty miles long, with some of the richest g razing grounds in the entire state In the years which followed, the Knights' herds grew from 300 head to almost 20,000. On their trek southwa-rd from Hillsborough County, the Knights were

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 55 accompanied by a neighbor family, Mr. and Mrs. John Fletcher and their six children, two boys and four girls. The Fletchers homesteaded two miles south of the Knights and lived there about five years. They then moved to the Bee Ridge section. A few months after the Knights and Fletchers settled they got ne ighbors. One day early in February, 1869, a schooner named Morninglight came sailing through Casey's Pass and anchored near the south shore of Dona Bay. F our families were on the ship-families which had left their homes in Mobile, Ala., because of hatred of northern carpetbaggers and "negro supre macy." In this group of "refugees" were Mr. and Mrs. Stephen D rew and three daughters, Mr. and Mrs. \1Villiam Brunson, Captain and Mrs. Chand ler Young and seven children, and Mr. and Mrs. George Grayson and two children. The Drews and Graysons homesteaded close to where the Venice air base i s now located; the Brunsons went up the coast and homesteaded at what is now known as Immokalee, and the Youngs bought a squatter's claim to a tract in the same neighborhood. Captain Young later became one of the best known skippers on the West Coast. Aided by Levi Jonathan Knight, one of Jesse Knight's sons, he built a sloop whic h h e named the LttC) M. He then bought a large schooner built in Manatee by Ben S. Curry which Young named in honor of its builder. The Ben S. Curry was used for many years to carry sh ip ments of vegetables, dried fish and cattle from the Land of. Sarasota to Key West and Ceda r Keys and bring back mercha ndise which could not be purchased locally. The community which grew up in the vicinity of Dona Bay was known for many years as Horse and Chaise. It got its peculiar name from a growth of timber on a promitory facing the open G ul f. Two clumps of trees stood there and seamen, coming up the coast, swore that one clump looked exaccly like a horse and the other exa:ct!y like a chaise. The description was so apt that the name was used until the community got a post office, years later, and was officially named Venice. Dona Bay received i ts name from the sloop Dana built by Jesse Knight soon after he settled at Horse and Chaise. It was the only sailing vessel in the region, at that time, and was used to bring supplies from Manatee. After Knight starred anchor ing the boat in the bay, settlers bega n calling t he bay Dona and t he name stuck. When and how Casey's Pass was named, no one knows. According to waterfront lege nd, an Irishman named Casey settled there for a number of years early in the nineteenth century and left during the War of 1812. But that's only legend. However, if a Casey really did live there he's one Irishman whose name has clung to a bit of Florida.

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56 THE STORy OF SARASOTA The Land of Sarasota Beckons The fifteen years which elapsed between JS68 and 1883 were truly bright years for this region. The virgin forests rang with the sound of axes biting into solid wood as trees were felled for the homes of new settlers. Rich hammock lands, untouched by man since time began, were cleared and cultivated. Gardens and groves were planted. More and more herds of cattle grazed on the open range. Up and down the coast a steadily increasing number of fish ermen cast their nets, making rich hauls from waters alive with fish. During that golden decade and a half, more than a hundred families came here to make their homes. Many acquired title to land either by prov ing up homestead claims or by outright purchase. A large number "squat ted," determined to look around a while before choosing the exact loca tions for their future homesteads. There was plenty of land-so why hurry in filing claims? Included among the first newcomers were two men who had fought with the Confederate army and had seen hard service -John L. Edwards and Isaac A. Redd. No story of Sarasota would be complete without spe cial mention of these two pioneers. Redd was no stranger here. In 1857 he was hired by Bill Whitaker to take charge of his growing herd of cattle. But he did not stay here longnot just then. He had a sweetheart in Tallahassee, pretty Elizabeth Brown, and to Tallahassee he went in the spring of 1858 to convince her tO become his bride. He did a good selling job-and they were married, on June 3. Settling at Fort Hammer, they had two children, Laura Fedonia and Theo dore W. Then came the war, and Redd volunteered for service. He fought in many of the major campaigns of the conflict. When che war was over, Redd returned to his family. In 1867, he de cided that the Land of Sarasota was the place he should make his future home, so here he came, to become the founder of Bee Ridge. He gave the local i ty its name because of the large number of bees he found there. The bees had hives in nearly every hollow tree and for years thereafter settlers went co Bee Ridge regularly to get honey. At Bee Ridge, in 187 6, Redd led a movement to establish a Missionary Baptist Church, the first church in what is now Sarasota County. From then on, he was actively engaged in the ministry and helped found many churches in Manatee, DeSoto and Polk counties. Until his death in 1912, che Reverend Redd was one of the most loved and respected men in this . enttre reg10n. Wounds suffered in the war between the states caused Edwards to come to South Florida. He was born on a large plantation fifteen miles northwest of Monticello, in Jefferson County, Florida, where his father,

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THE STOJlY O F SARASOTA 57 a native of North Caro lina, settled while F l orida was still a t erritory. During the war, the plantation was d evastate d and when Edwa r d s returned there after cessation of hostilitie s, h e d ec ided to make a new start som ewhere else. Stil l weak from his war injuries, he was advised to go farthe r south. Makin g his way to the coast, he secu red a small sloop and sta.rted cruis ing sou t hward, hunting and fishing as he wen t He firs t visited the Sara sota Bay in 1867. He liked it and made up his mind to return after he had traveled a lit tle more. So on he went to Key \VI est where he worked for a year in a shipbuilding plant, doing cabinec work for a British -owne d concern After accumulating a nestegg Ed wards took to his sloop again and heade d back north. It was getting dark when he came through Bi g Sara sota Pass and he was guided to an anchorage near Whitaker Bayou by a light burning i n the Whita ker home. H e slept on board the boat. When he awakened the nexr morning he was surprised to see a large yacht an nearby. Its owner hailed him and the two men exchange d gree tmgs The yachtsman was John A. Gilfillan, a wealthy mining engin eer from Denve r, who h ad come to the Florida Wes t Coas t to fish and hunt during the winter months. Edwards and Gilfillan b ecame close friends and s pent the remainder of the winter t ogether, living part of the time on t he yacht and the rest of the time in a lean-t o shack they built on the bayfront a little north of Indian Beach In late spring, Gilfillan returned home. But Edwards remained he r e, satisfied this was the finest place in Florida in which to live. For a couple of years he took things easy-but then the time came when he had to gee down to work. By a "Strange quirk of face Oden An ge and his family set tled on Lockwo od Ridge, just four miles away. Edward s knew the family well-it was Ange's daug hter, Mellie, who had nursed him back to health after h e had been wounded in a battle in South Carolina. The old friendship was renewed-and it quic k l y ripene d i nto lo ve. John and Mellie w ere married in Manatee in the spring of 1872 For more than a decade thereafter, Edward s operat ed a "fish ranch" at his homestead on the bay. Settlers f rom as far away as fifty miles inlan d came t o his place in their covered ox-wagons an d camped while they caught salted and sun-cured supplies of fish. Edwards also so l d and traded fish to settlers who did not want t o take the time t o do the work t h e mselves. Oden Ange often hel ped him h e had the reputation of being the most expert .net caste r in this entir e region, being able t o throw a ne t more than fifty feet in such a manner that it would spre ad out perfectly and cover a large sc h ool. With Ange on h and, fishin g was no trick at all

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58 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Mr. and Mrs. Edwards had a family of seven children, five boys and two girls. Only cwo are now living, Arthur B. and Irvin H., both residents of Sarasota. Sara Sofa Gets a Postoffice Early in che seventies a tiny community began co form on the main land between Hudson Bayou and Phillippi Creek. The first seeder in chis locality was Mr. and Mrs. Jesse Bennett, of Brooklyn, N.Y., who :filed a homestead claim co a quarter section facing on the bay Jan. 10, 1870. The Bennetts came here because their 17-yearo!d son, Jesse, Jr., was suffering from tuberculosis and their physician ad vised chcm co live in a milder clim:rte chan that of New York state. In Hallock's Caut-jJ Life in Florida, published in 1876, appears this note: "We anchored at the south end of Greater Sarasota Bay. \'\fe no ticed a house near the beach, made a landing, and were gratified to :find that the residents were from Brooklyn and named Bennett ... Bennett Junior was a cquainted with the coast and offered co pilot us but could not leave until Bennett Senior returned from Manatee with their boac." Old timers s ay young Bennett became well while living here and that the family, including cwo sons and a daughter, then returned to Brooklyn where the father had a dry goods firm. The section they owned i s now known as McClelland Park. Many o f che trees they planted around their home arc still standing. Their schooner, used for trading along the coast, was named Cherry M. Soon after the Bennetts settled here, they had neighbors. Many neigh bors. The first were Mr. and Mrs. Peter Crocker who came here from Key West in March, 1870 and lived a few years in a palmetto-thatched lean-to about a mile south of rhe Bennett home, on the bayfront. Crocker chen bought a twenty-acre tract on what is now Bee Ridge Road, near the Tamiami Trail, and built his home, whic h is still standing, one of the few remaining homes of the early pioneers. In this home on July 7, 1873, was born a daughter Fannie, who is today the oldest living "native-daughter" of Sara Sota. She is the wife of Zanard B. Curtis. Other settlers followed-many whose names now can be found only on yellowing land deeds in the Manatee County courthouse and on land abstracts. Some died and left no descendants. Others moved away during the hard years w hi c h came later. But they were all flesh-and-blood people, those almost fo rgo tten pioneers, and they worked together in establishing a community all their own, bounded roughly on the north by Hudson Bayou and on the south by Phillippi Creek. In a few years it became quite a self-sufficient community and even rook unto. itself a name-Sara Sota.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 59 Ther e then came co this community a man whose name wiU live for ever in the history of Sarasota, not only because of what he himself did but what others did to him-Charles E. Abbe, a native of Belvidere, TIL A well educated man, Abbe was called "professor" by the other pio neers. He came here first for h i s health during the winter of 1874-75. He liked the climate and early in 1876 he came back again to make his home, accompanied by his wife, Charlotte R. and two daughters, Caroline A. and Nellie. His cousin, Dr. Myron Abbe, also came with his wife CarrieS. Photo Not Available Sarasota Bay as seen from Bayfront Park in tb.c moonlight During the next two years, Abbe became the largest landowner in the entire bay area. He bought 3 59 acres in his wife's name, from the state for $303.24 on May 11, 1876, and forty m ore acres from the state in his own name, for $40, on March 16, 1878 He also bought three tracts from Jesse Bennett, at prices ranging from $2 to $10 per acre, and additional tracts from Richard C. Cunliff and Robert Greer On one of the tracts purchased from Bennett locat ed on what is nO"' Osprey Avenue near Hillview, nearly a mile and a half south of Main street, Abbe built a home and a small store. The setders in the community urged him to try to get a post office. He applied to the government and his

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60 THE $TORy OF SARASOTA petition was granted. The post office of Sara Sota, with Abbe as post master, came into existence August 16, 1878 and was the first post office in the entire Land of Sarasota. T his was a great stride forward for. the tiny commun_ity. Up until then the settlers got their mail at the Wh1taker home where 1t was brought every week or so by the \'V'hitaker boys when they returned_ from tnps to Manatee. But the Whitakers lived miles up the sandy tra1l and for the settlers below Hudson Bayou, the trip there was long and hard Now with their own post office, mail came almost ro their very doorsteps. It was brought down once a week br Henry Clark of Manatee who i t in his saddlebags. The post office remamed at the Abbe store u nt1l after the coming of the Scotch colonists. To Caroline Abbe goes the honor of having started the first school here. During the summer of 1878, mothers of Sara Sora children asked her repeatedlr to help them teach their children. Caroline accepted the re sponsibility and, with the aid of men in the community, fitted up an abandoned fishing shack on the south side of Hudson Ba yo u, near the bay, as a school house. In that tiny s hack, on Monday morning, October 7, 1878 the young sters of Sara Sota first attended classes to l earn their reading, riting, and 'rithmetic. Miss Caroline had more than a do'zen pupils. One of the pupils was Charles C. Whitaker, fourth son of William \'V'hitaker, now a prominent attorney an d banker of Tampa. Every day, rain or shine, he made the long trip down to the bayou from the \Vhitaker home. Occasionally, his oldest brother Furman accompanied him to buy supplies at Abbe's store. Perhaps because of these trips there occurred the first. e lopement of the Sara Sora community. Furman met Caroline's sister Nellie and it was love at first sight. They decided to get married. Bur when Nellie hinted ro her father that she had matrimonial intentions, he became enraged. The very idea-his daughter marrying a young whipper-snapper who was not even self supporting! He'd never give his consent-never! But Nellie had a will of her own. She loved Furman and was deter mined to marry him regardless of whether her father l ik e d it or not. So the }'oung couple made plans to elope. With her sister's help, Nellie se packed a few clothes and early Tuesday morning, May 1 3 1879 she shpped out of the house and hurried through rhe woods to the school house where Furman was anxiously waiting Hand-in-hand, the y crossed the narrow footway across the bayou to the north bank, whe re Furman 's team was tied. The young lovers got in the buggy and raced up the sandy tra il to the Whitaker home where the Rev Edward Franklin Gates was waiting to perform the wedding cere-

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 61 mony. The bride and groom then went to Manatee for their honeymoon. A few days later they returned and began housekeeping in a Htde cottage which the Whitaker boys helped build for them at Yellow Bluffs, on the site of the original Whitaker home which the Indians had burned in 1856. During the following winter, Furman went away to college to begin completing h i s medical education. While he was gone, the first "tele phone" was installed on the Florida West Coast, connecting the two Whitaker homes, so the young bride could communicate with her mother-in law. The telephone" consisted of two metal disks and a copper wire, stretched taut from house to house. The contrivance was bought from a mail-order house and, according to old timers, it really worked. The marriage of Furman and Nellie Abbe was the third which oc curred in the \Vhitaker clan. The first was a Sarasota-Manatee romance which culminated S ep tember 14 1874, when pretty, red-haired, tiny Nancy Catherine Stuart \Vhitaker, the first white child born in what is now Sarasota County; married John Helveston, of Manatee. The couple Hved u Alzarti Acres, a forty-acre tract on Indian Beach given to the bride as a wedd ing present by her father. On April 19, 1876, Louise Anstie Whi taker, the second white child born in this loca l i ty, married Capt. Thomas Gordon Edmondson, of Bal timore, who had come to Manatee to spend the winter. The wedding ceremony was performed in Brade n Castle. The bride and groom then left for Baltimore where they lived until the late Eighties when they returned and purchased a homesteader's daim to more than a hundred acres on Siest a Key, then called Sarasota Key. A Hurrkane Brought Settlers Early Sunday morning, September 3 0, 1877, a vicious hurricane hit the Florida West Coast. The win.d came with wicked violen.ce from the southwest an.d much of the low lying shore of Sarasota Bay was i nundated. Many of the fishermen's nets were washed away but their houses, built on higher land, were not badly damaged. After the winds died down, the settlers found that the sloop Advance, owned by Fort Myers' spongers, had been washed ashore about two hun dred feet south of the present city pier It was left st ran ded among a dense clump of palmettos nearly a hundred yards inland. Men aboard the boat escaped without injury-but they were badly worried. They didn't know how to get their craft back into the water again. Bur settlers from miles around came to their aid. On the following Thursday, a score of men appeared witl1 seven yokes of oxen. PalmettOs around the boat were cut down, pine logs were cut for rollers, and the oxen pulled th e boat down to the water. The job took all day but the vol-

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62 THE STORY OF SARASOTA unteer workers didn't go hungry while they toiled. T heir wives had come along and prep ared an old-time picnic "lunch"-which meant a barbe cued feast. On the nexchigh tide, the Atlvll'nce was floated and after repairs were made, it took to sea again none the worse for its land -going expedition. That hurricane, the worst which hit the \VI est Coast since the historic sto r m of 1848 was the direct cause for the esoblishment on Sarasota Bay of a new and almost gave the bay region its first hotel-almost, but not quite. Both the industrial concern, a fish oil and guana factory, and the hotel had been started originally at Sanibel Island, at the entranc e to the Caloosa hacchee River. The promoters of the fixst enterprise were A. E. Willard and his young br other, Charles, of New Jersey. The backers of the hotel project were Dr. J. J. Dunham, Dr. A. \Y!. Hunter and Eugen e Skinner, all of New York. Construction work on both the guana plant and the hotel at Sanibel I sland was practically completed when the hurricane struck. Both build ings were demolished. The guana plant, located close to the water, was washed away But the lumber used for the hotel was salvaged from the wreckage. The physi cians and Skinne r had had enough of Sanibel Island but they were convinced that if they built again, on good high ground on the main land their venture wou ld be a success. So they rafte d the salvaged lumber here and selected a site near the present site o f the Mira Mar Hotel. Skinner filed a homestead claim for the land. Carpenters were brought from Lak eland to erect the building Included among them were Atkin Lackzonski, A. E. Pooser and A. E. H ill, who later homesteaded. The hote l was to be a fine a ffair, with at least forty r ooms and all "modern conveniences," including two bathrooms. A separate wing was to be erected for persons suffering from tuberculosis It would surpass anything on the entire \Y!est Coast! Unfortunately, however, the promoter s had a disagreement when the hotel was about half completed. The physicians accused Skinner of having filed the homestead claim in his own n ame-they insisted the land should be purchased outright from the state in the names of all three. The quar rel became so bitter chat the hotel project was abandoned. The building was torn down and pare o f the lumber was taken by Skinner to Fogarty ville, near Manatee, where it was used to build a boarding house. Dr. Hunter and Dr. Dunham both remained here, the latter home steadin g on the bayfront near the present boundary line between Sasasota counties. Two of Dr. Dunham 's four daughters, Mary and Jess
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 63 school opened in the locality nort h of Whitaker Bayou. Classes were held in the home of Newman Smi:th, near the present Sarasota Army Air Base. One of t he first pupils was young Arthur B. Edwards. The fish oil and guana project was more successful than the hotel venture W i llard started by making fertilizer from fish. This was a simple process. He built large cedar bins on Siesta Key, tossed the fish into the bins, and then left them there to rot. When thoroughly decomposed, the powdery mass was bagged and sold, some locall}' and some to traders who took it to Cedar Keys. Old settlers say this fish f ertilizer excelled anything on the market today. With the fertilizer business well established, Willard's mind turned again to ways and means of starting a fish oil plant, similar to the one the hurricane had ruined at Sanibel Island. To get a site which would be safe from storms, he purchased from the United States a tract of 93.78 acres in what is now the heart of Sarasota. He paid $1.25 an acre a total of $116.23. Today that tract is worth millions since it takes in a large part of the downtown business section. He got title to the land February 1 1882. Willard then went to Tallahassee to see if he could get backing for the fish oil venture. A persuasive promoter, he succeeded in interesting P. Houston, then adjutant general of Florida; Capt. B. M. Burroughs, and E W. Blair, a Tallahassee financier. These men, with Willard, incorpo rated the Florida Fish Oil and Ferti l izing Co., the first incorporated manu facturing enterprise in the Land of Sarasota. The firm was capitalized for $25,000. The majority of the stock was reportedly held by Blair, who was made treasurer of the company. Willard was the general manager and Houston the president. Incorporation papers were obtained July 7, 1882. Using money advanced by the other company officials, Willard erected a two-story plant near the present northeast corner of Main Street and Gulf Scream Avenue The plant was equipped wirh che best machin ery for extracting oil from fish which could be purchased. A small wharf was built for fishing boats to dock. Soon the fish oil plant was going full blast and about ten barrels of oil were being produced daily. The remains of the "squeezed" fish were taken co the cedar bins on Siesta Key to make fertilizer The demand for both the fish oil and fertilizer was good and the company appeared tO prosper. Employes of the fish oil company lived in a log house built back up in the woods near the present intersection of Central Avenue and Eighth Street. Willard himself bul.lt a large, rambling frame house near the bay

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64 THE STORY OF close to what is now Mound Street. Lumber for the house was brought here by schooner from Cedar Keys. The fate of this apparently prospering company is a complete mystery. Old timers say land speculators put an end to it by acquiring Blair's con trolling interest in the concern and closing up the plant. Willard owned the land on which the pla n t was buil t but he was heavily in debt, the old timer s say, and the land speculators f orc ed him to sell out-land and all. These "old timers' tales" canJlOt be verified. It is known, however that John J. Dunne, a director of Disston's company, was at that tim e trying in every way possible to obtain good waterfront properties which would serve as "outlets" for Disston's vast back country domain. And it is a matter of record that on January 10, 1884, Dunne acquired Willard's 93.78 acres for $1,500. And the purchase included the fish oil plant and its equipment! That looks very much as though Willard had been forced to sell, somehow or other. There is another mysterious phase to this whole affair. Two old maps, one owned by Arthur B. Edwards and the other a government map, show that early in the Eighties, E. \'11. Blair, the treasurer of the company, was the owner of a large tract of land jus t north of the \Villard tract. In cluded i n his indicated holdings was the land between Seventh and Twelfth streets which in 18 86 was included in the first recorded town plat of Sara sota. This section was supposed 1:0 be owned by the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd., but Manatee County records show the company did not get title to the property until 1891-and then after buying up $7.32 worth of unpaid tax certificates owed "by parties unknown"! Al together, 190 acres were secured for $7.32! Including half an entire town! Funny business, indeed! But all that's a different story. The only thing that's pertinent here is that in some manner or other the fish oil plant was closed up-and the encerprise faded from the picture. After the plant was abandoned, Fur man and Charles Whitaker took from it two circular iron presses, weigh ing 150 pounds each which they used for ballast in their schooner Rnby. Sarasota had another promising enterprise during the late SeventiesThe Lanc aster Cedar Bucket Plant, started by Israel and Morris Lancaster, of Chicago, in 1877. The plant, a two-story building, was built on hig h ground close to the bay near what is now Cunliff Lane. A large amount of machinery, bought in Baltimore, was installed All kinds of cedar pails, casks and firkins were made. The :firkins were especially well made, with brass hoops and dec::orations, designed to serve as ornaments as well as containers. The cedar used in the plant was obtained from the cedar forests on Longboat and Siesta Keys. Mrs. Fannie Crocker Curtis, who remembers the plant well, says it did

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 65 a flourishing business until 1881 when Israel Lancaster died He was the "brains" of the concern as well as the most skilled workman. After his death, Israel Lancaster, Jr., and Morris sold their property to Mrs. Mary B. Bidwell, of Buffalo, and the machinery was shipped to Cedar Keys on the Ben S. Cttrry. Mrs. Bidwell's husband, Alfred, then opened a general merchandise store in the former bucket factory. Remember that name-Alfred Bidwell! It figures prominently in one of the most tragic and sordid episodes in Sarasota's history. So do the names of two od1er men, Dr. Leonard F. Andrews, of Cass County, Iowa, and Jason L. Alford, of Georgia. Dr. Andrews came here for his health in 18 81 and homesteaded in the Bee Ridge area east of Phillippi Creek. Alford homesteaded on the bay front near the present Siesta Key bridge. Dr. Andrews was an ardent booster of the Land of Sarasota. He wanted this region to get publicity To help, he wrote a letter to the Flori.lla Agrie1dturist which appeared in the September 22, 1882 issue. It read: "SaraSota has never been mentioned in your paper It should be. We have a beautiful bay, 15 miles long, averaging two miles wide, with immense amounts of fish, clams and oysters. The town of Sara Sota takes itS name from the bay and is a new place just starting, and a prominent point on the line of shipping to and from Key West and Cedar Keys. The Florida Fish Oil and Guana Co. is located here. We have good mail com munication and transportation Land is good. Anything can be grown successfully. Already there are many fine orange groves in this section which will compare favorably with those in any part of Florida This booster of Sara Sota, Dr. Andrews, enjoyed a fine reputation in Iowa. Here, he was respected by the ent i re community. And yet he was one of the .ringleaders of the V i gilantes. Why? Let's discuss that puzzling question in another chapter At the Close of a Period The year 1883 stands out as the year which saw the end of a bright period in the histor)' of the Land of Sarasota-the end of the period of rapid colonization of the back country. Reasons why will be discussed later. Here, we merely want to give a brief word-picture of the Sarasota region as it was when 18 8 3 drew to a close. First, let's look at the northern part of what is now Sarasota County. It was there John L. Edwards had his fish ranch. A little farther north lived Dr. J ]. Dunham and his four daughters. In 1882 Dr. Dunham and Edwards started an ambitious undertaking, the growing of pineapples on a large scale. 1he doctor brought a schooner of pinea ; pple planes into the bay and planted them on a tract he and Edwards cleared near the present Whitfield Estates. The pineapples flour-

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66 THE STORY OF SARASOTA ished-but the undertaking d ied. Because of a lac k of railroads, the fruit could not be shipped to northern markets at a profit, in the face of compet i tion from Cuba and the Bahamas. So the venture was abandoned. Just north of the Dunhams, on the bay, lived General John J. Riggin, of St. Louis, who had served on the staff of General Grant during the Civil War. While with the Union army at Charleston, the general met a young widow, a Mrs. L amb. They married and in 1876 came here to l ive so the bride could escape criticism from the Charlesconians for having married a "damned Yankee Mrs. Lamb had a small son, George, who was adopted by the general and was known thereafter as George Riggin. During the Eighties George was a dashing young blade among the younger set of Manatee. Later on, he settled down to work and helped his fathe r start a sixty-acre orange grove, the largest in this section at that time. The grove is st il l in existence and is known as the Buffum Grove In !890 he was appointed census enumerator for Manatee County, which then included the present Sarasota County, and he covered the entire t erritory on horseback, visiting every family For his work he received forty cents an hour. It's not recorded how l ong the job lasted George had a horse named Paddy which was as well known throughout the Land o f Sarasota as George himself. Paddy was a beautiful, black geld ing which George had trained to do a lmost everything but calk. When he went deer hunting, George used his saddl e as a rifle mount and Paddy would stand so still that George boasted he never missed a shot. Down the bay, the \'V'hitaker "clan" dominated a large area. In the Indian Beach region, lived John Helvescon and his wife, the former Nancy Cacher ine Stuart Whitaker, at Alzarcie Acres, and a little farther south, D r and Mrs. Furman Whitaker, at Yellow B l uffs. In the William Whitaker home, there lived Mr. and Mrs. Whitaker and six of their unmarried chi.ldrcn. On the bay front, in what i s now the heart of the city of Sarasota, only one family lived, Mr. and Mrs. A. E Willard and Willard s brother, Charles. Then came the community known as Sara Sota, bounded roughl y on the north by Hudson Bayou and on the south by Phillippi Creek In 1883 there were two scores in che setclemenc, one operated by the postmaster, Charles E. Abbe, and the second by Alfred Bidwell. In che Florida State Gazeceer and Business Directory the following land owners in Sara Sota were listed: Dr. L. F. Andrews, Charles E. Abbe, Dr. Myron Abbe,]. F. Bartholf, Mrs. Mary Bartholf, J. Boardman, Peter Crocker, R. G. Cun liff, T. H. B. Dunnegan, Mrs. Emma Ellis, Robert Greer, E liza Greer, Mrs. Emma Greer Peter Hanson, Miss A. E. Harper, J. B. Hutchings, Anna M. Johnson,]. C. Jeffcott J. C Jones, John Liddell, W. E. Loper, A. Lack-

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 67 zonski, \'Villiam Mathew, Robert Roberts, Charles L. Davis and Susan S. Staples. Those were the listed property owners in 1883. In addition to them there were many families which were missed by the Gazeteer or had not yet acquired tide to their properties. Included among these were the families of: Joseph C. Anderson, Jason L. Alford, Joseph W oodru.tf, Love Johnson, J. L. Iverson, 0. N. Foster, Thomas Dryrnan, Dr. Adam W. Hunter, Alfred P Bidwell, Council and Miles A. Brown, Louis Cato, Dr. George Hayden, A. E. Pooser, W. J. Drumwright, Charles M. Robinson and E. B. Grantham. Farther down the bay and in the Osprey region Jived the families of: William Brunson, JohnS. Blackbur n, Judge John G. Webb, E R. Marsh, Dr. J. H. Bissell, W. A. Bacon, J. M. Clower, Frank Guptill, William Lowe, S.C. Bullard, D. Garrett, J. H Hill, RobertS. Griffith, James Bradley and Ezekial Dryman. Bacon was listed in the Gazeteer as an oyster dealer, Ge.orge and John S. Blackburn as fish dealers, Miss Mattie Clower as a teacher, Frank Guptill and William Lowe as boat builders, Judge Webb as postmaster and proprietor of Webb's \'Vinter Resort, and W. B. \'Vebb as ship master. In the region now known as Venice-Nokomis the Knight family was almost s upreme. By this time several of the daughters and sons had mar ried and established families of their own. Frances had become the wife of Charles Curry, Florence the wife of Hanrey Hill, Rebecca Caroline the wife of A. Alfred Wrede, Martha the wife of Lacoun t Lowe, and Alice the wife of Darwin 0. Curry, the first postmaster of rhe town of Venice. Two sons of Knight had become prominent cattlemen, L. J. and Jesse Jo shiah. James Z. Knight had married and was living near Plant City; Sara Jane was the wife of Shadrick Hancock, and Ann the wife of George Brown. Fred R. had moved to Bradenton. The only "interlopers" in the Knight stronghold were members of the Frank Higel family which included six sons: F rank, Jr., Harry L., Ralph, Eugene, George and \'Vesley. Special mention must be made of this man Higel. He was a most unusual character. Born in Philadelphia, Higel became a skilled chemist and discovered a process by which search could be obtained profitably from the roots of the cassava, a plant which had been grown here successfully by early pio neers. He described his discovery to Hamilton Disston, Philadelphia saw manufactu rer, who had purchased, a short time previously, 4,000,000 acres in Florida at 25 cents an acre. Arrangements were made for Higel to go to the Venice area, where some of Disston's holdings were located, and try out this process on an experimental basis. He came here in the winter of 18 8 3 8 4 and located on che old Drew homestead.

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68 THE STORY OF SARASOTA During the following year, Higel grew a large quantity of cassavas. Digging up the roots, he began converting them into starch in a small plan t he had erected His process worked. Higel was jubilant and he sat down immediately and wrote Disston a long letter telling all about his successful experiments. In Philadelphia Disston read the letter with satis faction and immed i ately purchased enough equipment to go into the starch manufacturing business on a large scale The machinery was sent by rail to Tampa which had shortly before become the southern terminus o f Henry B. Plant's railroad system Diss ton arrived in Tampa soon afterwards and was met there by Higel. The two men took rooms in a tiny, unheated hotel, the best Tampa then had to offer. They began figuring just how to proceed with the new under taking. Everything looked :fine. Some of Disston's enormous holdings could be profitably used an. d Higel's invention would be hailed through out the country! And riches would be his! But that night-the night of January 1 0, 1886-fate intervened to upset their plans. I t was the coldest night in Florida's history. It s n owed and the temp e rature dropped to 23 degrees above zero Disston had left his winte r clo thes at Jacksonv ille and there were no heavy blankets in the hotel. All n ight long he lay shivering When dawn broke he looked outside and saw a rain bar rel which had been frozen solid. Icicles hung from the roof and snow almost covered the ground Disston was completely disgusted. Florida, in his opi ni on, was not a fit s t ate in which to grow successfully semi-tropical plants. He packed his bags and headed back north. Before he l eft he gave orders for the starch-making machinery to be ret urned to Philadelphia. And so ended Higel's dreams of riches and success. Discouraged, but not defea t ed, Higel returned to Ven i ce and began manufacturing a high grade cane syrup which in later y ears was in great demand throughout the Sarasota regi on. He also made citrus and guava jellies and marmalades. H igel's sons grew to manhood and played prom inent parts in the development of Sarasota and Venice. In 1888, when the Horse and Chaise commun ity go t its first postoffice, Higel suggested the name of Venice as being most appropriate because of the network of bayous and creeks The government accepted the name. Higel died while on a trip to Philadelph i a in 1891. Three small but prospewus inland communities cam e into existence during the per iod from 1867 to 1883 They were Bee Ridge, Fruitville and Myakka. Isaac A. Redd, the first settler at Bee R i dge was followed during the next few years by a dozen families which "squatted" or homesteaded w i thin a few miles of his home Included among these settlers were : A J.

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THE STORY OF SAilASOTA 69 Tatum, Henry Hawkins, Charles Hawk, William Mink, Haccison T. "Tip" Riley, Sebe C. Rawls, W. D. Bucgess, John M. Tippett and John Fletcher. The first settler of what is now know.n as Fruitville was Charles L. Reaves who homesteaded th ere in 1876. Thomas Hoover came two yeacs l ater. Ocher early s ettlers there were Jesse H. Tucker and his t wo sons Emmett and Frank H. Born in Lake City, Tucker moved to Pine Level soon after the end of the war and bought forty acres of l and. It was good citrus land but not good for gardening. He heard of a man li\ ing at Fruitville who wanted to grow oranges but hesitated plan t ing them in that lo cality because he thought it was so close to the Gulf rhat the salt air would damage the trees. The two men got together and swapped land, Tucker getting eighty acres in Fruitville for his forty acres in Pine Level. He moved to Fruitville in 1880. William Albert Bart holomew, a Kansas attorney, settled at Fruitville in 1881 with his wife Susanna and three children. He homesteaded 120 acres. Before the claim was proved up, Bartholomew was fatally injured while hunting e grets i n the Myakka River valley He cl imbed a tre e to look for nesting birds; a limb brok e and he fell, breaking his back. Para lyzed, he was carrie d home; his condition gradually became wo rse and h e died five months late r. His widow lived on the propert y lon g enough to prove up the homes tead claim and then moved into Sarasota. The settlemen t of Myakka is one of the oldest i n what is now Sarasota County. Shadrick Hancock moved there during the Civil War to care for Jesse Knight's cattle, driven to the Myakka plains to prevent their being scolen by Union raiders. Garrett "Dink" Murphy followed Hancock soon after the war was ended, bringing a herd of cattle with him from his home in Madison County. Another Myakka pioneer was AugustuS M. Wils on, a native of Thomas County, Georgia Homesteading, he planted an orange grove and began raising a herd of cattle. Later when more settlers drifted in, he opened th e .first general merchandise store in that sect io n and also became the community's first postmaster. By the end of the century he had become one of the leading cattlemen of Florida and one of the leadi ng p oliticians of thi s section ser vi ng one term in the state sena te and three terms in the state house of repre sent atives. Other pioneers of Myakka were: John W. Jack son, who served as justice of the peace, and George Tatum, Jr., wheelwrigh t and b l acksmith. Landowners listed in t he Gazeteer of 1884 were: T. Dougherty, W. N. Hayes, Mrs. M.A. Hancock George A. Lamb, William Lowe, G. A. Cason, J. Havel and W. E. Srephens, in addition to \Vilson, H ancock and Murphy.

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CHAPTER 4 LIFE AMONG THE PIONEERS A'flutter with excitemen t and almost out of breath, Mrs Joe Anderson stamped up the steps of the Peter Crocker home one sunny afternoon in October, 1877. "Sophia!" she called. "Where are you?" Busy at work in her garde n, Mrs. Crocker heard the ca ll and came into the house. Mrs. Ander son could hardly wait to tell the most e xcitin g bit of news she had heard f or months. "Would you bel ieve it, Sop hia," s h e exclaimed "This morning I was ove r at Mary Bidwell's home And what do you think I saw her husband doing? Putting up an iron cook stove! On my word of honor! A real iron cook stove with an oven right inside it! I've heard t ell of them there stoves -but I never thought I'd live to see one!" Mrs. Crocker marveled. G oodness me, isn't that wonderful! Now Mrs. Bidwell won't have to bother around with a scaffo ld stov e any longe r! She'll be able to cook ins ide her house! I've just got to go over and see tha t sto ve. Let's go right now! The two women, with aprons flapping, trudged over to the Bidwell h o me s t ead, on the old san d y trail to H orse and Chaise. As they approached the house, they saw women and children coming from all directions. The news had spread to all parts of the Land of Sarasota. "Mrs. Bid well has a real iron cooking stove--with an oven in which she can bake her bread! Just imagine!" All that day Mrs. Bidwell was kept busy exhibiting h er new stove and te lling all about it. She showe d the big firebox w here a roaring fire could be buil t and the deep oven where a half do ze n loaves of bread cou ld be baked a ll at once. The Sara Sota women oh-ed and ah -ed, as women have done since time began at every new invention wh ich simplified their work. They went home determined that they too must have iron cooking s t oves an d that night their husbands were t o ld in no uncertain terms to get them. Or else! That was the way iron cooking stoves first came t o the Sarasota Prior to then, the pioneer women always had cooke d on so-called scaffold stoves in detached "kitchens" at the rear of their homes. A few cooked on ope n hearths during t he winter m onths but during the long summers, hearth fires ma de the homes unbearabl y hot, so a ll the w omen then used the scaffold stoves out in the open.

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T H.E STORy OF SARIISOT A 71 These scaff o l d stoves were crud e a ffairs One was con s t ructed b y building a frame of p in e logs about three feet h igh and four feet squ are. In si d e this f rame, and on t o p of i t san d was pou re d The logs were cov ered, on t h e outside, wi t h cl ay or marl so they w oul d not burn. The cooking fire was built on top of rhe sand. Pine "ligh t wood" splinters, rich in turpentine, were used in starting the fires. Once starred, the fire was fed with hard wood which burned long and gave out intense heat. Som etimes the scaffold s t ove was sheltered with a wood covered roof, high e n ou g h off the groun d so there was little danger o f its catching fire from fly in g sp a rks. Suc h s helters, sometimes further p ro t ected with w ind-break s were dign ified by the n am e of "de t ac hed kitchen s." A few of th e pionee r s b o a s ted o f having iron g rills for th eir scaffo ld stoves o n whic h meat cou l d be broiled or skillets pla c ed. But most of the wom en placed the skillets a n d their Dutch ovens alongside the blazing fire. Both types of utensils had iron legs about four inches long. Around and between these legs, the women heaped glowing embers, t o provide more heat. A p rimi t ive way of cooki n g, s u re enough, but desce n dants of the pio nee r s still enthuse over the d e l i ci o u s meals their gr a n dmothers or mothers pre pared for them And w hy no t? Food-the best of food was abun dant for all, a nd most o f it didn't cost a cent In the waters of Saraso ta Bay and Little Sara sota Bay wer e some of the finest oyster beds in America; oysters famed throu ghout the state for their exquisite flavor. The bays were also famous for thei r delicious clams an d scallops And stone crabs. Enough shell food for a dozen meals could be gathered in less than a half hour A s for fish-well, tales by the children of pioneers a re almost unbe l ievable "You could har dly r o w a cross to one of t h e key s wi thout ending u p with a d oze n or so fish in y our boat," asserts Arthur B. Edwards "The fis h were so thi c k you'd hi t t hem wit h y o u r oars and into t h e b oat they' d flo p!" Edw ards tells of schoo l s o f fish so large they a l m ost fille d the bay. He remembers one school whi c h entered the bay in t he moming, kept moving northward all day long, and was still in sight when darkness fell. No wonder Sarasota Bay was considered one of the best fishing spots in the entire world! A real fisherman's paradise, if there ever was one! I n t he old days, most of the pioneers l iked mulle t m ore than other fish. But if they prefer red p o mpano, or trout, or red fish, o.r a n y one of a h undr e d och e r species all t h e y had t o d o was go out in a boat f o r an hour or so, cast a net or fish a while, and come b ack loaded down. The wood s a nd swa m p s were just as fill ed wit h game as t h e wate r s wer e with fish. Deer, gra y and f ox: squirre ls, coon s opossu m, turkeys,

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72 TH STORY OF SARASOTA quail, blue wing teal, wood and brindle ducks, green-necked Mallards, wood ibis, cudews, and gannetts, bett' er known as "Methodist preachers." There was never a time, winter or summer, when a pioneer couldn't go out into the woods and shoot a meal" for his family out of the nearest thicket. For several years, one man, Joe Anderson, kept nearly all the families in the Sara Sora community supplied with game. He had a double barrelled shotgun and he liked nothing better than to hunt. He would go out early in the morning, at s un -up, and be back at nine o'clock with all the game he could carry. Usually he would shoot a deer close in---so his neighbors could walk to it in a few minutes and get their steaks and roasts-for nothing! That was the kind of a meat -man who deserves to be recorded in history! The Whitakers' colored man, Jeff Bolden, was an ardent hunter When ever Mrs. Whitaker wanted something excra good for guests, Jeff would say: "Missie, how'd you like a fine, little, fat spike-horn buck for those folks that'S' comin'?" And if Mrs. Whitaker would say "that's fine", Jeff would grab his r ifle and amble off. \Virhin an hour or so, a shot would be heard and then Mrs. Whitaker would know f or sure what her meal was going to be. And sure enough, Jeff soon would be back with a young spike horn buck on hi$ shoulder. 'Tis said De Soto first brought hogs into F lor ida. If that's the case, then the pioneers should have erec t ed a monument in his memory. Be cause the woods swarmed with ra zorback hogs, reputed to be the de scendants of the hogs De Soco bro ught. They weren't handsome swine but they were certainly good to eat after they had been penned and fattened. They provided an abundance of fresh pork, to say noth ing of smoked hams and sausage, cured to perfection in sm okehouses where slow hickory fires burned. "Hams made here in Sarasota equalled any ever made in old Virginia," avows Frank Tucker, one of che oldest of the surviving pioneers. "And you should have casted cha t sausage my mother used to make! lc was perfect! My mouth still waters when I think of it." The razorbacks also provided lard for cooking, and that really meant something in the days when hou s ewives couldn't go over to the corner grocery store and buy any one of a dozen brands of cooking oils or fats. Hogs were so numerous that rhe Whitakers rounded them up several times a year, just ro keep them out of gardens, and penned them near the creek at the south end of their property. When several hundred were in the pens, the Whitakers would load them onto rafts near the mouth of the creek, take them out to a schooner in the bay, and ship them to Key West, where they were sold at a good price. Because of the use of

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA the marshy l and along the creek for hog pens, the creek was named Hog Creek, and it bears that name today With nearly a year round growing season, the pioneers had no troub l e raising all the vegetables they needed. Every home had its sweet potato patch and enough potatoes could be gro wn in a half acre or so to supply. the largest family. Nearly all the settlers also grew their own peas, and corn, and beans. A few went i n heavily for sugar cane which was taken to Webb's mill and converted into syrup and sugar. Seeders who didn t have land suitable for growing cane got their sweets a t \Vebb's in exchange for other products. One thing the pioneers .rarely had was good butter-that is, fresh butter. A few had milch cows and churns and made butter occasionally. But to keep butter fresh in this climate, without ice, was impossible. However, the women did the best they could. After churning, they would put the butter in a wooden bucket and bury it in a shady spot in wet sand, and keep moist cloths on top of it. But i n no time the butter would become rancid. This was no particular hardship t o the pioneers; in fact many of them became so used to rancid butter that they insisted fresh butter didn't have any "flavor." And t hey wouldn't touch it until it became a little Hripe." In the days of the pioneers, the p eople didn't bother about stylish clothes "All that a man needed then," later wrote George "Nemo" Higel in the Sarasota Times, "was a hickory shirt, a pair of dungarees and brogans for his feet The needs of the women were just as simple. It's a good thing they were because if the women would have wanted fancy duds, they wouldn't have had the money to buy them. I n those days, a silver dollar looked as big a s a cartwheel." The needs of the women may have been "simple," as Nemo said, but even so, cloth ing they had to have, not only for themselves but for their children. And i t wasn't a simple job even to get the cloth from which the clothes could be made. The nearest store which handled drygoods was at Manatee and to go there and back, by ox-cart or horse-and-buggy, over the sandy trails, usually meant a two day trip Often several families would go together and camp out overnight on the outsk i rts of Manatee. There the women would meet and exchange gossip with the town f olks while the men made merry with their cronies. Often much too merry Manatee County always was a dry county but, even so, old timers say they don't remember the time when they had to leave Manatee with a thirst. Quenching thirsts often took all n ight long, 'tis said, and as a result there were many a headache after some of those shopping trips to Manatee. But regardless of the headaches, the women got the cloth they prized

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74 THE STORY OF SARASOTA so highly. Then all they had to do was sew the garments For many years, that was a long and tedious task because all the work had to be done by hand. But in 1878, Mrs. Peter Crocker had her precious Singer sewing machine given to her as a wedding present, sent here from her mother's home in Key West where she had left it until she became settled. After that, making clot hes became sort o f a social event. Neighbors for miles around gathered every week or so in the Crocker home. Then, whi l e chatting about all the "blessed events" in prospect, and other choice bits of chit-chat, the neighbors would cut and baste while Mrs. Crocker sewed the garments on that marvelous gadget which worked like magic! The sewing machine wa s even more of a seven-day wonder than Mrs. Bidwell's iron cooking stove, and it saved innumerable hours of toil for Sara Sora's pioneers. Several references have been made here to women "gossiping." They had to gossip. If they hadn't, the y would never have learned any news. Up until the Eighties, no newspapers were published anywhere in this region, even at Manatee. Two weekly papers were published at Tampa but they contained no Manatee Sarasota news; so, few peop l e here sub scribed to them. It wasn t until1899 that a regular weekly paper-and a mighty good one--was started in the town of Sarasota by C. V. S. \Vilson, founder of the Sarasota Times. After that the women didn't have to gossip-or at least, not much! Newspapers were not the only present-day "necessities" which the pioneers l a cked back in the early Eighties. They had to get along without countless things now conside r ed essential. None of the homes, for instance, had glass in the windows or even wire screens. The windows had heavy wooden shutters which swung on home-made, wooden hinges which creaked and groaned when strong winds blew In warm weather, the shu t ters were thrown back and the homes often swarmed with flies and mosquitoes. The mosquitoes were the bane of the pioneers' existence During the rainy season, when the flat wood l ands stood covered with water for weeks, the mosquitoes bred by the billion and they often made life almost un bearable Some of the pioneers developed an immunity to their b i tes but others didn't-and they scratched and scratched, and cussed and cussed. But cursing didn't drive the 'skeeters away. They kept on coming until the rainy season ended. In attempts to repel the pests, smudge fires were burned in front o every home Old timers a s se r t they often succeeded in driving away almost all the mosquitoes by feeding the .res with cow chips. In those days cow chips were just as widely acclaimed for their mosquitorepel lant p owers as DDT is today. But the old-timers ruefully agree that the

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TH.E STORY OF SARASOTA 75 smoldering cow-chips didn't smell "none too good." When they went to bed, the pioneers slept under cotton mesh netting to get a little peace . The mosquitoes caused much sickness, back in those days when they were not suspected of being the carriers of malaria and yellow fever So far as is known, the Sarasota region escaped all the yellow fever epi demics which caused many deaths in ocher lo calities in Florida. But almost every one suffered from malaria, or "chills and fe ver", as it was then called. The disease was not eliminated until years Iacer when the worst mosquito breeding places were dra ine d and malarial cases were quarantined Fortunately, the mosquito season lasted only a few months, at che very longest During the remainder of the year, the pioneers could sit in their homes at night and r ead by the light o f "button lamps." Those button lamps were quite an invention--every "modern home h ad at least cwo or three. Such a lamp was made by taking a large button and covering it w ith a piece of heavy cloth, the ends of which were left co dangle in a bowl of "fish-head oil", obta i ned as the name implies, by boiling che oil out of heads of fish. After the cloth-covered button was coated with oil, the pioneer would touch a burning stick to che cop of ic and, presto, a splendid light would dispel the darkness. A ligh t that was good enough, anyhow, to read passages from th e Bible, so what more W'
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76 THE STOR.Y OF SARASOTA in the entire region. During the Seventies and early Eighties, most of the money wa s "foreign"-Spanish doubloons and Cuban change, obtained from the sale of cattle and produce at Key West. And this treasure was possessed only by the favored few. Many of the pioneers, who had li t tle to sell for the Cuban trade often had no money of any kind. Frank Tucker tells how hard it was to earn money in those early days. After he married, he wan ted to build a home tha t wou ld be worthy of his pretty bride. Not just a plain log cabin. He wanted "lumber-mill" raft ers, siding, and, above all, some of that splendid tonguegroove flooring he had seen at Manatee. But the lumber he needed would cost twenty dollars! That was a lot of money! A young fortune! Tucker had no idea how he would ever get such a handsome sum. However, luck was with him. The county commissioners decided to open up a road between Fruitville and Bee Ridge and they advertised for bids. Here was Tucker's opportunity and he leaped at it. He agreed to do the work for half a cent a yard-cut down the trees, hack away the underbrush, grub out the roots and open the road. All that for half a cent a y ard! The job took him months but he got it finished, and he was paid off with a Spanish doubloon and some change. Almost twenty dollars, just the sum he needed to pay for that lumber he so badly wanted. And the Tucker home was bu ilt, a mon ument to the back-breaking job of opening two miles of road! In that home Frank and his beloved wife Eunice lived happily for many years. Back in the early Eighties t here was not a town or even what migh t be called a village in the entire Land of Sarasota. Me.n tion has been made of the "commu. nities" of Sara Sot a, Horse and Chaise, Osprey, Bee Ridge, Fruitville and Myakka. They were merely groupings of widely scattered homes-nothing more. Not one had a grad ed road, a sidewalk, a community meeting place, or anything resembling public improvements. The only churches in what i s now Sarasota County were a tiny log cabin at Bee Ridge with half a dozen members and another tiny church at Horse and Chaise. There was not one paid teacher or paid minister in the ent ire region. In 1883, Bidw ell's store, on the bay near the foot of Cunliff Lane, was the largest south of Manatee but it car ri ed less than $200 worth of mer chandise. The stock consi$ted merely of barrels of sugar, corn meal, gritS, green coffee, and flour; a few boxes o f plug tobacco and block matches, and a few kegs of nails and one of gunpowder, for guns and blasting No packaged or canned goods, no drygoods, no hardware--not even any bottled Cokes. Truly, the Land of Sarasota was a primitive, fronti er community.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 77 The only postoffice along the coast in the Sarasota Bay region was at Abbe's store, located on the present Osprey Avenue near HiUview, al most directly east of a point of land jutting out into the bay a little below Hudson Bayou. This point was designated as Postoffice Point on govern ment maps, not because a post office was locate d there but because settlers beached their boats at the point, when coming by water, to go over to Abbe's to get their mail. As for roads, real roads, there were none. From Manatee southward a trail wound through the woods, skirting swamps and heads of bayous, to the Whitaker home, following the path made years before when Bill Whitaker rode horseback almost every night to court Mary Jane \Vyatt in Manatee. Sometimes chis trail was fairly good but more often, it wasn't. During the rainy season, buggies and ox-car ts often sank to their axles in bog s and during dry spells, the wheels sank in powdery, clutching sand. Below the Whitakers, the trail zigzagged and twisted through the woods t o the vicinity of the present intersection of Central Avenue and Eighth Street. Here it forked, one branch going southwest to the fish oil plant on the bay, another branch straight south, and a third branch which followed a course a little farther inland. From these t runklines", other trails forked one to Fruitville, another to Bee Ridge, and a third, which dodged the deepest part of Phillippi Creek, to Horse and Chaise, the l o-cality now known as Venice and Nokomis. On none of the trails were there any bridges. All bayou s and creeks hRd to be forded and often, when the water was high, chis was a precarious undertaking. Almost every old seeder report s having gotten "dunked" more t.han once while crossing a swollen stream At Hudson Bayou there was a "foot-way." It was constructed in 1875 afte r the women had complained to their husbands for months about getting wet every time they wanted to "visit." back and forth across the bayou. The men drove posts into the bed of the bayou, nailed crossbars to the posts, and then strung the foot-way, one plank wide, with no hand rails. Mrs. Curtis laughingly asserts that more than one fair Sara Sota maiden was kissed for the first time on this foot-way. The maiden gave a kiss-or into she WO\Jld "slip." Oh well everything's fair in war-and love! Because of the l ack of good roads and bridges, nea r ly every family whose homestea d fronted on the water owned a schooner, a sloop, or at the very least, a yawl. In those boats, they went to Manatee to buy, or trade for, the supplies they needed. The schoo ners were used to take pro duce to Key West and Cedar Keys for sale, and later on, to Tampa. The lack of good roads did not prevent the pioneers from congregating often at neighbors' homes for prayer meet ings or for socials, or just to

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78 THE STORY OF SARASOTA exchange the latest news of the day. Picnics usually were held at White Beach, a narrow poin t on the bay-side of Siesta Key, near the present Sti ckne y Point bri dge. This b each was then noted for it s hard-pac ked s pa rk l ing sand and it made an ideal s wimming pla ce, preferred to the open Gulf. At White Beach, scores of Sara Sota' s boys and girl s first l earned to swim. The trip tO the beach was made from the mainland by row boat -no bridges to the key we r e bui lt until yea r s later. Little Sarasota Bay, in the v i cinity of White Beach, wa s noted for its oysters Pioneer s say the oyst ers there surpassed even those of Big Sara sota Bay, havin g a delica te flavor acclai med b y the most discr im inating epicures. In this region, on both the Gulf. and bay sides of Siesta Key, the pioneers turned their tur tles, big fellows weighing two hundred pounds and more Steaks from these turtles were said to be more delicious than an y othe r meat obr:aina ble, then or now The Land of Saraso ta, in th e days bef ore 188 3, was a land of glowing prospects ; a land where settlers were friendl y and always ready to rally around and help when a helping hand was needed; a land where crime was unknown and no one dreamed of locking doors, even when l eaving for a week or more. It was a land of primitive homes and primitive communi ties, true e nough but it was a h appy land And, then, overnight it seemed, the Land of Sara sota became torn by bitter passion and seet hing an ger. lt became a place where men became blind with hatred and rage--and gange:l t ogether to commit two of the most cold-blooded mur ders in the histo r y of the state The Vigilantes were on the march!

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CHAPTER 5 IN THE DAYS OF THE VIG ILANTES A BLIGHT fell upon the Land of Sarasota during 1883. Not a blight whic h cou l d be called an act of God but a blight for which man himself was responsible. It was caused by land sp eculat ors working in connivance with governm ent agents. Before the blight occurred, thousands upon tho u sands of acres of good fertile land were a va i lable here for homesteaders the rugged pioneers who were eager co colonize and develop the frontier, providing they were a ble to obtain land by building a home and tilling the soil. But by the end of 1883, almost every acre of the rich public domain i n what is now Sarasota County passed into the hands of land speculato rs, given to them for a pittance by the Florida Internal Improvement Board under the pretense of freeing the state from debt or "developing t rans portation. Photo Not Available DID THE VIGILANTES PLAN A MURDER HERE? Members of che Sara Sou Vigilance Committee wete ac cused of having p l anned the murder o Postmaster Ch>rles R. Abbe on Christmas 18?4, in this hom e of Alfred Bidwell, on the present Tamiam i Trail. The home is now owned by i'vliss Echel Wood, a winter resident of Sarasota. since 1896.

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80 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Here 's what happened in Ma natee County, which then embraced the present Sarasota County: On June 12, 1883, Governor WiUiarn D. Bloxham signed a deed giving t itle of 246,052 acres of land to the Florida Land & Improvement Co., headed by Hamilton Disston, saw manufacturer of Philadelphia Exactly one week later, Bloxham gave tide t'O 271,796 more acres of Mana t ee Co unty land to the Florida Southern Railroad Co. More and more grants followed. A battalion of attorneys and ab stractors would be needed to f erret out the complex details of all the trans actions. But the Manatee County tax rolls of 1888, the earliest which can be found, give an inkling of how this region s public lands we r e t ossed away. The 1888 tax rolls show that the Florida Commercial Co. then owned 281,078 acres ; the Southern Florida Railroad Co. 1 03,078 acres; the Jacksonville Tampa & Key West Railroad Co., 74,200 acres; the Florida Land & Improvement Co., 53,129 acres; the Florida Land & Mortgage Co., Ltd., of Great B r itain, 137,390 acres, and the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd. a nother British concern 48,971 acres. That's a total of 697,846 acres, a princely province if there ever was one There's no thin g mysterious, but many things which are suspicious, about the manner in which the land grabbers gai ne d possession of this trem endous acreage. Here's what happened: Under the provisions of the Homestead Act of 1862, practically all land in the federal public domain suitable fo r occupation was opened for colonization. That meant, in effect, that homesteaders could get land in Florida, as well as in other frontier states, by corning here and settling for five years or more. As a result of that Act, colonizers flocked south ward and the development of the Land of Sara sota was rap i d, the same as elsewhere in South Florida. Buc there was a l oophole in federal l aws which enabled Florida pol i ticians co deal che Homestead Act a mortal blow, so far as this state was concerned. Unfortunately, the federal government did not retain title to all the public lands. It had agreed, under the provisions of the Swamp Land Act, passed in 185 0 to give each stare all s wam p and o verfl ow lands which lay within its borders for such disposition as the state desired. It was clearly specified that each forty-acre tract must be so overflowed, either at the time of the planting or harvesting season, chat it could not be freed from water without artific i al drainage. That Swamp Land Ace, juggled around by clever schemers, made i t possible for Florida politici a n s to dissi pate the public domain here i n what has been termed "shameless disregard to the future welfare of the state." In "clever deals" with federal agents, the state politicians ultim ately suc ceeded in having some 22,000,000 acres classified as "swamp land"-more

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 81 half the state. At l east 10,000,000 of chose 22,000,000 acres were high and dry, but so much the better for the politicians. They could make that much better terms with the land grabbers! One of the first of che transactions which direc tly affected Manatee County, and consequently the Sarasota County of today, was the agreement made with Disston, on May 20, 1881, to sell him 4,000,000 acres at 25 cents an acre or $1,00 0,000. Of that amount, Disston larcr paid $500,000 and che other $500,000 was paid by British a n d Dutch capitalists headed by Sir Edward James Reed. The gr.ant was made ostensibly to free the state of a debt of $64 4 ,300 still owed on a $3,527,000 bond issue previously issued to induce railroad construction. Before the sale was completed, the outstanding bonds could be and were, purchased at from 20 to 30 cents on the dollar. After the deal, the bonds were paid off at par. Who made the clean up? \'Veil, you figure that one out yourself. In the D isston deal, and those which followed in rapid succession, the Land of Sarasota was practically wiped off the map so far as homesteaders were concerned. The land grabbers grabbed at least 90 per cent of the 328,960 acres now included in Sar a sota County. Exactly how much has never been definitely established The deeds for the acreage here, given co the speculators by the state in 1883, included l huge tracts whi c h were free from standing water at all seasons of the year. The land was turned over in contiguous 640-acre sections-almost conclusive proof chat each 40-acre tract was nor separ ately e xam in ed as the Swamp Land Act required. Into the possession of the land grabbers went land, in the Sarasota County of today on which scores of families liv ed. Good land, fertile land-land on which citrus groves and gardens had been planted. By no stretch of the imagination could this land be called "swamp land"-but the speculators got ic just the same. Many of the pioneers whose lands were deeded to the speculators had not filed homestead claims because they d i d not know the exact "land map" location o f their holdings-they did not know how co describe them as precisely as the law required. Other pioneers, who had been just "squat ting", had delayed filing cla ims because they did not believe there was any need for hurrying. Besides, "claim-jumping" in this region was unknown. Everyone respected the other fellow's rights. The grants to the speculators came as a stunning blow to the pioneers. A t first they could not believe such disaster could befall them. Surely the state would not deprive them of land on which they had worked for years building a home and cultivating the soil! That would be robbery! Said

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82 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Joe Anderson to a neighbor: "Don't tell me Bloxham would do a thing li.ke that-why I voted for him!" But Joe Anderson and the others soon learned that the first reports of the land grants were only too true. Late in 1883, agents for the speculators began putting on the pressure. They had big deals with other speculators in sight and they didn't want squatters around with claims which might cloud their tides. Particularly squatters livin g close to the bay on muchdesired "outlet" land which bottled up their vast inland holdings. The land grabbers began threatening ouster proceedings. A Hudson Bayou squatter came to the Crocker home one day and ex claimed: "Pete, they're tryin g to get my home. They may get it, but by God they'll only get it over my dead body!" To make matters worse for the Sara Sotans, t he land grabbers formed an alliance with some of the big cattlemen. The two groups had great ideaological d ifferences, to be sure, but the Sara Sotans were their "com mon enemy." The land grabbers wanted the squatters and potential homesteaders off the land so the) could get clear t itle to their newly acquired domain. The cattlemen wanted to hamstring the Sara Sotans as much as possible t o prevent them from encroaching upon the open range, the sacred grazing grounds. Both the land grabbers and cattlemen had great influence at Manatee where many of the leading politicians and county officials lived even when the county seat was a t Pine Level forty-two miles inland. The cattlemen were intermarried with many of Manatee's oldest families and leading citizens. The agents of the land grabbers won friends because they lived in a grand manner at the newly opened Warren Hotel, in adjoin ing Bra denton, and were always diplomatic--oh, so very much nicer and more cultivated than those rough pioneers at Sara Sota! The alliance between the cattlemen and land speculators was cemented when che latter promised they would help at Tallahassee in squelchi ng legislation designed to force cattlemen to keep their herds fenc ed in, away from gardens, farms and groves. After that agreement was reached, pres sure agains t the Sara Sotans became more and more intense. One day, early in January, 1884, Jason L. Alford, of SaraSota, was arrested on a charge of stealing a cow. Alford was not a squatter. He owned cwo tracts of land, both purchased from the state. The land grabbers w anted his land. They also wanted him out of the way and if they could get him out of the way by sending him to j ail-fine! But their plans miscarried. Taken to court at Pine Level, Alford succeeded in proving conclusively that he had not been implicated in the cow-theft. He insisted the charge against him had been trumped up to cause him trouble and expense. He was acquitted. But from then on,

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 83 Alford was a bitter, implacable enemy of both the cattlemen and specu lators. The acquittal of Alford did not make things any easier for his fellow Sara Sotans. In fact, it served to intensify the feud, now developing into almost open warfare. The drive to "oust the squatters" was speeded up. More and more of them were threatened with eviction. This was tragedy -stark tragedy! Sara Sora began to seethe with anger and resentment. Little groups began gathering at Bidwell's store on the bay-at the foot of Cunliff Lane. The men were grim and their faces were lined with worry. Their voices were low b\lt their words were venomous. Every day, the community became more tense. A meeting was called at Alford's home. Seventeen pioneers attended. One after another the men got up and talked. They became inflamed with rage and indignation. They lost all reason. I twas at that meeting, held early in April, 1 884, that a secret organiza tio n was formed-the Sara Sota Vigilance Committee. The once peaceful, happy community of Sara Sota had become a community in which fires of wrath burned deep under the surface, ready to break forth at any instant An air of foreboding hung over the region Even women and childr en were effected. They wenu around tight-lipped and solemn "I was only a child then and I didn't know the cause of all the trouble," said Mrs. Fannie Crocker Curtis. "But I sensed that something was going to happen. And it did!" Two Men Are M1t,rdered Riding a small sorrel pony, Harrison T. "Tip" Riley jogged along a sandy trail leading from Bee Ridge to Abbe's post office early Monday morning, June 30, 1884. It was a peaceful scene. Rays of the early morning sun, shining through the overhanging limbs of to wering pines, made the trail ahead a lacey pattern of lights and shadows. A covey of quail flew into a nearby thicket. Squirrels chattered in the hickory trees. A deer ran across the road a hundred yards ahead. Suddenly the tranquil setting changed. A shot gun roared. Then, in quick succession, there were two more blasts. Riley clutched his breast, slumped in his saddle, and then fell to the ground Three men came run ning from a dense clump of palmettos, guns in hand. As they approached, Riley moaned and blindly tried to arise. One of the men shot again, this time from only ten feet away. Riley pitched forward and lay motionless. "Be damned sure the old buzzard's dead!" yelled one of the men. "Don't worry, I'll fix him," responded a companion. From his belt he

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84 THE STORY OP SARASOTA drew a long knife, strode over to the dying man, grabbed him by his scraggly whiskers, turned back his head, and hacked at his throat. "Lord, it's a good thin g thi s knife is sha rp," he said. "He's got the toughest damned hide I ever did see!" The murderers did not rcma in long at the scene of th e kill ing. While blood was still gushing from Riley' s throat, they hurried away, headed for Phillippi Creek. The shots of the guns were h eard a half mile away by young Frank Tucker and his friend Theodore W "Bud" Redd who were busy riving shingles for Tucker's new home at Fruitville. They saw thin wisps of smoke rise above the trees and vanish. But they did not think anything unusual had happened. Just a couple fellows out hun ting most likely. They proceeded making shingles. But late that afternoon they learned a murder had been committed. Gus Riley, son of the slain man, came running to thern and said his father had been killed. Tucker and Redd went to the spot where Riley lay dead in the road. Tucker spent the night sitting beside the dead man, most of the time with only a small boy for company. A coroner's jury was impanelled that night by William A. Bartholo mew, justice of the peace, and the scene of the crime was visited by the jurymen the next morning. They casually examined the body, went into a huddle, and a short time later returned the verdict: "Killed by parties unknown." Later it was learned nearly all the members of the jury were Vigilantes. Reports of the murder quickly spread to all sections of the West Coast . In those days, cold-blooded killings were practically unheard of in this r egion D eaths in drunken brawls, yes; bur premeditated murder, almost never. In the community of Sara Sota, only the women and the children talked about the crime, and then only in whispers. The men were strangely silent They went on with their work as though nothing bad happened. To all outward appearances, Sara Sota was just a community of peaceful, law-abiding pioneers. But murderers were still at large and two days after Christma s, in the same year, they struck a ga in This time, Charles E. Abbe, pos tma ster of Sara Sota, was the victim. He was fatally shot while gathering kelp for his orange grove on the bay front a little north of Cunliff Lane, near Bidwell's store. Word of the second murder was carried to Manatee late that after noon by a Mr. Moorehouse, a northerner who had been staying at the Abbe home and who was with the postmaste r when be was killed.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 85 Breathless and shaking from fright, Moorehouse reported: "Charles Willard shot Abbe and killed him. Another man was with Willard. I think it was Ed Bacon. They yelled to me to git-and I ran like hell. But I looked back and saw them put Abbe's body in a boat and start out in t he bay." Sheriff A. S. "Sandy" Watson did not need to be told who the murderers were. For months he had been hearing about the Sara Sota Vigi lance Committee. "Traitors" had given him the names of its members and told him why the organization had been formed He knew the men he wo uld have to round up-and he knew they were men who might give him trouble. So the sheriff recruited a posse of 26 men hom the Manatee River section, friends of the cattlemen and the land agents, and he headed toward Sara Sota Bay. That n ight he arrested two of the Vigilantes. They sub mitted without a fight and were placed in jail at Manatee. Later, other Vigilantes were rounded up, one by one. Within a week, nineteen were jailed. Two of the Vigilante leaders sought by Watson escaped. They were Willard, said to have shot Abbe, and Alford, the accused leader of the organization. The posse pursued Willard for nearly a month, as far south as Punta Gorda. Willard always managed to elude the sheriff's deputies. Finally, however, he gave himself up, surrendering at the home of Garrett Murphy, at Myakka. His feet were bleeding and he was nearly sta rved. Murphy, a fair and just man, promised to do what he could to see that Willard got a fair trial. While the posse was hunting Willard, a preliminary hear ing of charges against the other Vigilante members was started before Justice of Peace A. J. Adams in Manatee, early in January, 1885. Evidence against the men was flimsy and for a time it appeared as thou gh all would be released. However, drastic methods were used to secure action. A group of men, egged on by the cattlemen land agents, massed outside the room where the hearing was being held. A spokesman for the group, George Riggin, called aside one of the accused, Dr. A. W. Hunter, and grimly declared that unless Hunter told everything he knew, there would be s ome "hemp stretching." Afraid of the mob, Dr. Hunter talked. On the strength of his evidence, twenty Vigilantes were bound over to the grand jury which met at Pine Level in March, 1885. Many witnesses were called and the secret sessions lasted more than a week. Four men were indic ted for murder Edmond P. Bacon, Louis L. Cato, Thomas Dryman and Adam \W". Hunter. Five others were indicted as accessorie; before the fact-Dr. Leonard F. Andrews, Jason L. Alford, Charles B. Willard, Joseph C. Anderson and Alfred B. Bidwell.

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86 THE STORY OF SARASOTA The trial started Mar 18, 1885, in the cou .rt room of Judge Henr}' Lawrence Mitchell in the small count}' court house at Pine Level. Because of the many unusual and dramatic angles of the case, newspaper corres pondents flocked to the little county seat from as far away as New York and Chicago. To these writers, Pine Level was truly a primitive outpost. Its re moteness from civilization was emphasized by the fact that they had to travel the last thirt}' miles of their journey on horseback. Their dispatches were carried by cour iers to the nearest telegraph offices at Tampa and Bartow. They wrote columns and columns about the trial and the stor}' was featured on the front pages of nearly every newspaper in the country. The Abbe murder case ca me up first, with Willard, Anderson and Bacon as defendants. After a bitter court battle which lasted neadr three weeks, Willard and Anderson were convicted of murder in the firs t degree but the jur}' recommended mercy. Bacon was acquitted. Newsp apermen who covered the trial, and two others which follo wed in July and August, muffed the real story. They did not know, for instance, that while the trials we re in progress, a sco re of Manatee men, inflamed with hatred were camping nearby, with guns hidden, determ ined to see char. "justice was done"-if not by the jury, then by lynching. These Manatee "justice seekers" wer e venomous simply because they had been told, over and over, that che Sara So tans were the scum of the earth. One of them wrote to his parents: "They (the Sara So tans) are negro killers and rascals, yes, devils! I mean it .... Unless they are ex terminated, they will exterminate us .... We keep our shooting irons in the tent, out of sight, and the prisoners are disappointed because there is no sign of any excitement. .... Ther are looking for grounds to ask for a change of venue ... but we shall see chat they are cried here." During the second trial, witnesses testified that the three men who had shot Riley we re Dryman, Bacon and Cato and that Caco slashed Riley's throat. Witnesses also stated that the leaders who gave t he orders were Alford, Dr. Andrews and Bidwell. In this erial, the jury returned a ver dict of murder in the first degree against Dr. Andrews, Bidwell and Bacon. They were sentenced to be hanged. Dr. Hunter was acquitted. At a subsequent trial held in August, also in connection with the Riley murder, Cato, Dry.man, Anderson and Willard likewise were found guilty of first degree murder. But the jury recommended mercy and they were sente n ced to life imprisonment. All other members of the Vigilantes, who had been held in jail as material witnesses, were released. Charges against them were dropped, some because they had become state's witnesse s and others because evidence against chem was too flimsy to secure con victions.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 87 In all three trials, testimony was i ntroduced co prove chat the Vigi lantes had perfected plans to kill Abbe while a big house warming party was being held in B idwell's new home on Christmas day, 1884. While the ladies chatted inside the house, the Vigilantes slipped away one by one, congregated in Bidwell's old home nearby, and there decreed that Abbe must die. He was shot by \Villard, it was stated, and his body was then thrown on a little raft, towed ten miles out in the Gulf by Bacon's sloop Edith, and thrown overboard. Why W'e1 e the Murders Committed? More than si:x: decades have passed since the murder of Abbe. During that long period, many theories have been advanced for the Vigilantes' cold blooded s layings One suggested motive which gained wide acceptance was chat the men were killed because of a feud between the Yankee and "cracker" settlers. This is ridicu lous. It cannot be supported by facts in any way. At no time in the Sara Sora communicv was there dissension between settlers who came from the north and those who were from t he "cracker region" of Georgia and F l orida. In the Vigilance organization there were as many n ortherners as south erners. The main leader Alford was from Georgia. His two chief lieu tenants, Bidwell and Dr. Andrews, were from the north, Bidwell having come here from Buffalo and Andrews from I owa. As for the victims of the Vigilantes, Abbe was from Illinois an d Riley from Georgia. Another theory is that the murders were the result of a feud between the riffraff and the "good people" in Sara Sota. Tommyrot! The Vigi lantes organization was a strange conglomeration of both groups. It contained vicious, no-good scoundrels like Cato, to be sure, but it also con tained men of e:x:cellen t reputation. Such a man was Bidwell. He was well-to-do for those days and came here because of ill health early in 1877 directly from Buffalo. He bought two tracts of land from the state, the first on April 19, 1877, and the second on January 23, 1878. On one of the tracts he built one of the best homes in the Land of Sarasota-it is still standing and for many years has been the home of Miss Ethel Wood. Bidwell started a model farm, getting seeds and plants from the state's leading horticulturists. During his trial, a number of the leading citizens of Buffalo testified by depositions that he was a man of fine character. Included among those who rallied to his defense were a judge of the supreme court of New York state, the clerk of the s ame court, a judge of the superior court of Buffalo and the comptroller of the City of Buffalo All said they had known Bid -

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88 THE STOI\Y OF SARASOTA well for year s and that he was a Feaceful, honorable and law abiding cttrzen. And yet-one of the men who camped at Pine Level to see that "justice" was done wrote to his p arents: "This man Bidwell is a fiend! He has killed seven white men and God only knows how many niggers!" Where and when? This "justi ce seeker" did not say he undoubtedly never even knew that Bidwell had been villified by persons who wanted Bidwell out of the way-because he owned key tracts of outlet land! Dr. Andrews, a physician, also had a good reputation at his former home, Cass County, Iowa. SiK citizens of the county declared his character was above reproach. He came here in 1881 for his health and was respected by all his neighb ors. He bought two tracts of land and planted orange groves He had a good medical pra ctice. Alford also was the owner of two tracts of land he purcha sed from the state, the first in 1877 and the second in 1882, and he was generally considered as one of Sara Sota's leading citizens. What about the victims of the Vigilantes? Which were they: riffraff or "good people "? Abbe was a well -ed ucated man, with a fine fami ly, and owned more property than any one in the entire community, more than a thousand acres. Amon g the leading families of Manatee, he had many friends. His word carried weight in Tallahassee and even i11 Was hington. On the other hand, Riley was a man who owned no property and never was known to work his fingers t o the bone. During the t rials it was said Riley had been killed because he was living with a widow without benefit of clergy and that he "intended" to steal her propert y. Abbe was killed, it was said, because he put poison in watermelons growing in Dr. Andrew s' garden and chat childr en had eaten the melon s and become s i ck. Hence, the Vig ilantes decided to kill Riley and the postmaster! \'\That rubbish! It is inconceivable that twenty men would gang together and cold-bl oodedly p la n to murder two men for such reasons. Horsewhippin g them or riding them out of the county on a rail, perhaps; but murder, no! It simply jus t doesn't make sense. Then, jusG what motive could incite twenty men to conspire to com mit such murder s? Viewed against the background of history and asso ciated events, the motive stands out plain and clear. The Vigilantes killed the me n becau se they thought, r ightly or wrongly, that Riley and Abbe were working in the interests of the land grabbers Some miles from Sarasota lives a woma n, now neady 80, whose uncle was a Vigilante-one who was never apprehended or suspected. She tells the story this way:

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THE STOR "{ Ol' SARASOTA 89 "So far as I know, the real reason for the murders has never been given. Here it is. The Vigilantes organized to prevent che community from being gobbled up by the speculators. "Land agents began coming around to the pioneers' homes telling them to get ouc. These agents had exact descript i ons of their properties-knew exactly where their boundary lines were. How did they get that informa tion? No surveyors had been around nor any strangers. Someone in Sara Soca muse be giving it-but jus t who was that somebody? "The Vigilantes began keeping a close watch on all their neighbors. One day a man living below Phillippi Cree k said his wife had seen Riley pacing off their land a month or so before--and cha t two weeks later a land agent came around with a description of their land. Was Riley the man who gave that information? The Vigilantes detailed a squad to watch his every move. They trailed him for days and watched him taking measurements of properties. They also saw him go regularly to the pose office and mail letters. Suspicion of his guile turned into certainty and the Vigilantes voted chat he must die. So he was killed. "But after Riley was killed, the land agents kept coming around w.irh more threats of legal action-and with more pwperty descriptions. Some body else also was an i nformer. This time che finger of susp ici on pointed directly at Abbe. Like Riley he had measured up properties but for a l ong time the settlers believed he was doing it to help them prove up their homestead claims and that he was acting as an agent of the government. But chen the Vigilantes learned that Abbe was having dealings with one of the worst of the land grabbers. They also lear.ned that measuring homesteads w asn't part of a postmaster's job. They checked carefully and finally became convinced he was the real informer-the man they thought was betraying them. So he too was killed. "Alford was drawn into the mess because he hated che big cattlemen so b itterly and because he sympathized with the squatters. Sympathy also got Doc Andrews and Bidwell involved-both heard so many of the sq u atters' stories of high-handed actions of the land grabbers chat their sense of justice was outraged. They knew the squatters would have no chance of figl1ting the big land companies in court so they used the fron tiersman's way of getting justice-and helped to organize che Vigilantes. But they did not want to have Riley or Abbe killed they just wanted to get them out of this section. But the riffraff in the Vigilantes finally got control, and committed the murders. Then, to save their own necks, the no-accounts' lied at the trials and threw all the blame on the Vigi lante leaders. As a result, many of the worst offenders went scot free. Some weren't even tried. "There is a very good reason why the real motives for the murders

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90 THE STOI\Y OF SARASOTA were not brought out in court. Two of the defendants' lawyers were strong supporters of Governor Bloxham and they insisted that nothing should 'go into the record' about the land deals and the activities of the land grabbers' agents. So the real motive for the killings never came out." No one knows and no one perhaps ever will know for sure whether Riley and Abbe were acting as informers Perhaps the suspicion of the Vigilantes were entirely unfounded. Both men are dead and cannot tell thei.r stories. Never i n the history of Florida were t here two more cold-blooded murders than those committed by the Vigilantes. But it is interesting to note that not one of the convicted men su ffered the full penalty for his come. Dr. Andrews and Bacon escaped from the Pine Level jail while "closely guarded." Old timers say they were aided in their gee-away by the Sara Sota group and were taken co Punta Gorda where a boat was wa i ting co carry them to safety. Neither man was ever recaptured. Bidwell too could have escaped but he refused, saying he would rather die than live in hiding the rema inder o f his l ife While awaiting the death penalty in the s tate penitentiary his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Several years Ia ter he was released. So were all the other convicted men. Alford was later caught in Georgia and returned to Manatee County. A petitio n urging chat he be released was signed by 502 of the 560 registered voters then in the county. A perfunctory trial was held and he was pronounced innocent! ( The "stooges of the land-grab bers no longer could intimidate the jurors. There were a number of interesting sequels to the Vigilantes episode. Old timers say chat agents for the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd., the British concern which founded Sarasota, wanted to locate the town in the old Sara Sota section, between Hudson Bayou and Phillippi Creek but when settlers the.re joined the Vigilantes, and started murder ing, the land agents, not caring to be k i ll ed themselves, sought another locat i on for the town site. And the one they chose is where downtown Sarasota is today. The old timers also say chat Vigilante sympathizers helped Mrs Carrie S. Abbe remain as postmistress of Sausota for 31 years. It is said she was an open enemy of her husband's cousin, Postmaster Charles R. A bbe be cause he had sold her worthless land. The Vigilantes knew how she ba d been wronged and in later years, when they had political influence, they helped keep her in office. In 1889, when an election was held to select a new site for the Manatee County courthouse, practically everyone in the Sara Sota community turned chumbs down on the town of Manatee and voted instead for Brad -

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 91 en ton, then j ust an ups tart village. Perh ap s it was in this manner that the Sara Sotans got their real revenge for Manatee' s part in organizing the posse which rounded up the Vi gilantes. Today the town of Manatee no longer exists-it has been absorbed by Bradento!J,. Effects of the Lmd Gra11ts The granting by the state of nearly 700,000 acres of Manatee County land to the land specu lators had a profound effect upon the development of this enti re region, particularly in the present Sarasota C ounty where at least 90 per cent of the land was deeded away for little or nothi ng. In effect, these grants completely nullified the Hom estead Act, so far as the Land of Sarasota was concerned. It halted abruptly the influx of colonizers during the decades when all America was frontier-minde .d. A fter the grants were made, th e only land left here for hom esteaders was on the keys, none of whic h are exactly suitable for farms or groves, much as they may be desired for winter homes. If the land grants had not been made, the back country here undoubt edly would be far more developed than it is today. There are many sections of the county where pioneers would have gone, if they could have gotten la nd by homestead ing As it is, a person can travel mile after mile even in section s where the land is good withou t seeing a house. So far as can be lea. rne d this region did not benefit directl y in any wa y by the profliga;te disposition of its land. Not a mile of railroad track was built in this section by the companies whi ch got the land "to deve lop the country". No drainage canal was dug or other impro vemen ts made. Manatee County didn't even benefit materi a lly through an inc rease in the amount of property o n th e tax rolls In 1888, the companies which had receive d th e 697,846 acres were assessed less tha n $3600 in about one-half cent an acre. And many of the companies didn't even pay promptly these microsco pic taxes; they were delinquen t year after year. This despite the fact that man y of the co mpanies had used the land t o float big bond issues which were sold to gullible northerners-and the land grabbers pocketed the money and l et the land lay idle. Fortunate l y, however, the land grants did not prov e to be a co mple te d i sast e r to the Land of Sarasota. They ultimately resulted in the founding of the town of Sarasota by the Florid a Mortgage and Investment Co., whi ch ac quired some 50,000 acres durin g the land deals.

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CHAPTER 6 THE SCOTS COME AND GO! TIMES WERE BAD in Scotland during the Eighteen-eighties. Great Britain was expanding its empire and waging war in widely separated parts of the world, against peoples who strangely enough resisted the white man's "march of progress"-and all the attendant "blessings" of B ritish rule. The common people of Scotland did not want those wars of aggres sion, no more than did the people of England. But the powers-that-were decreed the empire must expand-so expand it did. And the common people were calle d upon to d o the fighting and dying, and to pay stagger ing taxes to support the armies and the magnificenc British navy which ruled the waves. Sc otland was hit particularly hard. By 188 5, the country was in the throes of a severe depression. Many enterprises, large and small, closed their doors. Thousands of persons were unemp loy ed. among the poor was intense. Scores of middle class families still possessing a little money began making plans to emigrate, s ome to Sout h Africa where the gold and diamond mines were booming, some to Australia and New Zealand, and many to the United States. One day in August, 1885, in Paisley, Scotland, John B. Browning noticed an article in an Edinburgh about in general and, in particular, about the "wonderful new town of Sarasota, on Sara sota Bay, in the ri c hest and most beautiful section of the entire sta .te of Florida." Browning s interest was attrac ted. He read on and on. In Sa ra sota, the article related, a man does not have to work hard f or a living .... He can plant an orange grove at little expense and in a few years the trees will be bearing, and the fruit can be sold at a handsome price .... The ground is so fertile and the climate so warm in Sarasota that two bountiful crops of vegetables can be grown each year .... The town is small but very modern .... The p eo ple there truly live an idyllic existence. So said the article. It was long but Browning read every word of it. He re-read it again and again. He was fascinated. "Sarasota-ah, that truly is a bonny name!" he murmured. "\"''fhat a glorious place 'twould be for a rnon to live! Warm sunshin e all the year. Rich land Plenty of fish and game! Palm trees and oranges. Ah, that Sarasota must be a wee bit of heaven!"

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 93 Browning pondered. In his mind's eye he could see the sun-kissed Land of Sarasota a land which offered golden opportunities to those with courage enough to break home tics and venture forth across the ocean. Then the idea struck him why not join the emigrants and go likewise to beautiful Sarasota? What was holding him back? Newspaper in hand, Browning left his lumber mill and hurried down Marcha lls Lane to the home of his brother-in-law, John Lawrie. He read the a rticle aloud. Then Lawrie read it himself. He too became enthused. But he was a bit skeptical. "How can we know," he asked "whether all th i s is true?" "Why, don't you see, mon, who wrote that article!" e xclaimed Brown ing, pointing to the writer's name "Can't you see 'twas written by Selven Tate! Don't you know Selven Tate's the nephew of the archbishop of Cante rbury! Surely, such a mon wo ul d tell no lies!" That night, Browning and Lawrie told abou t Sarasota to the members of the i r families who listened with mouths agape and eyes bright w ith growing excitement and enthusiasm. They agreed that Sarasota truly must be a fine place to live--and all wanted to go there, as soon as possible To learn more about Sarasota Browning wrote to the Edinburg h office of the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd., the com p any lauded in the article for having opened the Land of Sarasota to colonizers. In less than a week, a p a mphlet was received in the mail-a pamphlet written by a master publicist with infinite imagination. After describing Sarasota in most extravagant terms, the pamphlet stated that an "estate of forty acres in chat marvelous land, and a town lot besides, could be purchased for only one hundred pounds sterling I n jus t a few years, 'twas said, those Sara sota estates" would be worth fortunes! Names which commanded att ention were given in the pamphlet as pNof of the soundness of the colonization undertaking. The p res ident of the company was none other than Sir John Gillespie, respected owner of a l arge estate near Edinburgh. Two of the directors were the archbishop of Canterbury, noted throughout the British empire, and the lord dean of guild of Edinburgh. Men of the highest standing all! Doubts dissipated, the Brownings and Lawries immediately bega n making arrangements to go to Sarasota They sold their properties in Paisley and eac h paid a hundred pounds for his forty-acre estate and town lot They packed th e ir bel ongings and went by trai n t o Glasgow There they me t fifty one o th er colonists-to-be; men, women and children from Scotland and England who had been lured by the glowing pamphlets of the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co. The group was called the Ormiston Colony, after the home of Sir John Gillespie

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94 THE STORy OF SARASOTA The colonists sailed from Glasgow on the steamship "Furnesia" Novem ber 25, 1885, and arrived in New York after a stormy trip on December 10 After passing through the customs office, they were met by Selven Tate, who turned out to be one of the promoters of the colonization scheme, and taken to a hotel. In New York, the colonists spent three days, marveling at the sights of the big city. They then left on the steamship "State of Texas for Fernandina where they arrived early December 17. The trip across the state was made in a "special train" of the narrow guage railroad known as the "two streaks of rust" which ended at Cedar Keys. Hours passed before the colonists reached Gainesville, where they stayed overnight. They arrived in Cedar Keys late in the afternoon of December !8. At Cedar Keys, the colonists began to have their first m i sgivings about che wisdom of their venture. Tate informed them t hey would have to wait at least several weeks until lumber could be taken to Sarasota and portable homes erected. This was disquieting news indeed. They had been led co believe housing accommodations would be availab l e for them in che town of their dreams as soon as they could get there Buc now they were told they would have to wait. Some of the colonists began to worry. However, the more optimistic insisted everything would rurn out fine and Tate left "to make final ar rangements, and to hurry things up," he said The Scotch then spent their time talking to the fishermen at the docks in Cedar Keys, watching the ox teams p l odding through the heavy white sand, going through the plant of the Eagle Pencil Co. where cedar pencils and penho l ders were made, and becoming accustomed to life in the sub-tropics, where every thing was new and strange. Christmas came and went. Then the colonists became so impatient they could wait no longer. They chartered the side-wheel steamer, "Gov. Safford," and started otf on the last leg of their journey December 27 The little steamer, less than a hundred feet long, was badly overcrowded The women and children spent the night huddled in the tiny cabin; the men slept on top of luggage or i n the engine room. Early next morning, when everyone was chilly and more than a little worried about what was in store for them, Mrs. Lawrie opened a hundred pound chest of tea she had brought along with her, asked the captain for boiling water, and with some of the other ladies served tea-as much as anyone wanted. It helped to cheer the colonists. Early Monday afternoon December 28, 1885, the "Gov. Safford" slowly crept through Sarasota Pass, the captain keeping an anxious eye for sandbars on which his ship might be grounded. He had never gone into Sarasota Bay before and could only guess at the depth of the water. But

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 95 finally the pass was cleared and the steamer proceeded to an anchorage about a hundred yards from shore. It was the first steamer t o complete a voyage to Sarasota. While waiting for boats to take them to land, the colonists crowded along the rails. They peered anxiously up and down the coast, trying to locate the town of Sarasota-the new, model town-which they had read about in Scotland. But not a sign of a t own could they see, anywhere! Questions were on everyone's lips. Have we come to the right place? Where are we going to stay? Have we been cheated into buying farms in a wilderness? No one was there to tell them that the ''town" of Sarasota existed only on a map, drawn in Scotland by promoters of the colonization scheme, the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd. No one told them that the broad streets and avenues, whic h stood out so prettily on the town plat, had not even been cleared of trees, much less grubbed and graded. No one told them that the only b uild ings in the so-called town were the company store, established in an abandoned fish oil plant at the water front; a shack up in the woods where the fish oil plant employes had lived, and the Willard home, a little down the bay. But before many hours passed, the colonists learned all this-and much, much more. Taken ashore in boats, the colonists congregated at th e company store. They demanded the truth from A. C. Acton, they learned was the loca.l representative of the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co. Relttctandy, hesitantly, Acton tOld them they had come "earlier than had been expected" and chat no houses for them had been provided. He admitted the "town" had not ye t passed beyond the blue print stage. But again and again, Acton insisted everything would turn out well. He declared that Sarasota would quickly become the finest cit y in all of Florida. "\\7hy, ther e are millions of dollars behind this undertaking!" he asserted. ''The officials of the company are determined to make it a success! You just wait and see!" Partly reassured the colonists went outside the store and saw men, women and children coming along the sandy trails-"natives" who had heard the steamer's whistle and had come from miles around to see "them Scotch" they had been told were coming. Among thes e "natives" were the \\7hitakers, the Abbes, the Crockers, the Tatums, the Tuckers, and many others, famiEes which knew every foot of the Land of Sarasota With the "natives" helping, the trunks and boxes containing the colonis t s' belongings were carried from the "Gov. Safford" on a raft which had been built by T. M. Weir, in charge of the company store.

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96 THE STORY OF SARASOTA When everything was brought ashore, the steamer lifted anchor and slowly proceeded down the bay, through the pass, and disappeared behind the keys. The colonists chen proceeded to make the best of their predicament. Some of them went to live in the homes of settlers, trudging through the sand or sitting in lurching ox-carts. The La wries and the Brereton family found shelter in the old cedar bucket plant, dow n the bay at the foot of Cunliff Lane. Two other families moved into the Willar d house, then abandoned. The Lawries had brought with them a large tent. They turned it over to the Brownings who pitched it under the pines near the company store. The beds were made on the bare ground. Soon Mrs. Browning was busy at a camp fire, making Scotch scones and pancakes with plenty of tea. That night, some of the Browning children slept in the company store. While the children slept, the older members of the family gathered around a big bonfire and talked with old settlers. And it's recorded that some of the young "natives" did their best to make a good impression on the pretty, red cheeked Scottish girls. The next morning, Hamlin Whitaker proved to be a good Samaritan by helping the Brownings solve their food problem-the only thing the company store had had for sale was a barrel of crackers which was emptied by the colonists' chil dren soon after their arrival. So there was nothing left in the store to eat. But Whitaker made sure the Brownings wouldn't go hungry. He went out with h i s cast ne t and in a short time came back with a load of mullet. Then he helped clean and fry them. They were just r eady to eat when Emile Whitaker came along with some bread his mother had baked for the strangers from a s trange land. Lat er, the \'V'hit aker boys showed the Browning girls how to make bread in a deep pan over a camp fire. New Year's day, always a big holiday for the Scotch, was celebrated i n a grand manner by the colonists who gathered at the cedar bucket plant. Mrs. Lawrie and Mrs. Brereton unpacked their linen table cloths, china and silver and set the table-rough planks on tressels. Tom Burges b rought a large plum pudding his sister had made for him before he left Scotland. The pudd ing was cut into thin sl ices so each person could haYe a piece-and be reminded of home! The portions of plum pudding were tiny but there was plenty other food. The settlers had brought in game and fish, and plates were heaped high. And it's even said that the colonists had more than on. e "wee nip" of Cuban rum and Sarasota's "dynamite'' before the day was over. That New Year's day celebration was the last happy gathering of the colonists. F rom then on, they had little cause to rejoice about anything.

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THE STO"R y OF SARA SOT A 97 The Scotch became more and more dissatisfied and unhappy They had reason to be disgruntled. Sarasota had been grossly misrepresented to them. Miss Nellie Lawrie, a member of the colony, cold in her memoirs of the discontent. She said t hat while church services were being held one Sunday outside a tent, a passage from Isaiah was read by Tate, the nephew of the archbishop of Canterbury Related Miss Lawrie : "When he came to the vers e which reads: 'All we like sheep have gone astray', there was an audible groan from the audience." One of the chief grievances of the colonists was the manner by which the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co. allotted the forty-acre "estates." This was done in a "drawing" during which each colonist reached in a box and drew out a slip of paper on whi c h a farm number was given. The number designated the land the colonist wou ld have to take regardless of its loc atio n. The late Alex Browning, son of John Browning, told of the drawing: "One would naturally thin k the com pany would have selected close-in acreage, when it had so much land, and try to please the colonists But in many cases the colonists drew plots which were six or eight miles out in the woods, common pine land, good only for cattle range. It took some time for everybody to learn just whe r e their plots were. "The forty acres my father drew were located near the site of the present Fruitville church and cemetery. This seems a shore dist ance now but in those days it was a long long way from Sarasota. "Some of the colonists started in at once to clear their land, grubbing and cutting down pine trees, digging wells and building shacks. But the work they did was painful and discouraging to men unaccustomed to the use of grub hoes, axes or shovels They all began to realize Sarasota was not the paradise the pamphlets had pictured. "A few o f the hotheads decided to call on Tate with a shot gun but he evidently got wind of it and disappeared He never returned One of the most discourag in g e vents, which occurred shortly after we arrived, was a change in the weather. About January 9 it became much colder and snow began to fall, greatly to the surprise of the natives who thought at first the woods were a fire and that the ashes were being carried by the wind. It snowed qui t e a bit, enough to make snowballs All work ceased and the men huddled around stumps being burned out of the road which was to be Main Street. Eve n the mules and oxen were too cold to work 0 course we all suffered, living in tents and shacks and cooking over camp fires. "Many of the colonists were so discouraged by the bad weather and the remote farm plots they had gotten, that they decide d to leave Sarasota.

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98 THE STORY OF SARASOTA The La wries were t he first to go. Then the Breretons a n d Galloways, and Watson's. Others follow ed." An in kling of the thoughts of the discouraged Scotsmen is given in a diary left by Dan McKinlay. Here are just a few of his entries: "Tuesday, Dec. 29: We are occupying a l ittle log hut. It's queer experience; I can't describe it. I am g oing to light my pipe for I am very sad." Dec. 31: "Weather very at all like sunny Florida." Jan. 11: "The night was awfully cold. We could not keep out the cold." Jan 21: "Tramping through the thick underg rowth, my thoughts rigidly fixed on the formid able rattlesnake." Jan. 25: "The talk is all about leaving." Jan. 26: "The colony is breaking up very fast. Feb. I: "No church here ... weary to get to one.'' Feb 3: "Prairie on fir e all around us . everything is burn ing." Feb. 4: "Prospects here are so bad ... in fact, it means starvation if we stay." Feb. 7: "Growing more and more of opinion that we can't make a living here .... The colony seems to have completely broken up." Feb. 15: "Start today for Tampa." Feb. 18: "Not over well pleased with Tampa -any place is better than desolate Sarasota." So went the Scotch colonists. The men, women and children who had left Scotland with such high hopes less than three months before. Now their hopes were blasted. Many were left almost penniless and had to bor row money to go to northern s tate s where they had friends or relatives. All lost the hundred pounds they had invested, to say noth ing of the money s pent for the long trip from Scotland. Why Did the Scotch Colony Fail? The colony was a complete, colossal failure. But it is difficult to fix the responsibility for the debacle. Certai nl y, Sir John Gillespie and the directors of the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd., a ll men of honor and i ntegrity did not deliberately conspire to rob their fellow countrymen. Then just what was the cause of the collapse of the coloni:e:a tion venture? In attempting to answer that questio n we must backtrack a few years and retrace our steps t o the D i sston purchase of four million acres of Florida land for 25 cents an acre. As stated before, Disston's company, the Florida Land & Improvement Co., got t itle to 246,052 acres in this local i t y June 12, 1883. It was all back country land-none of it fronted on Sarasota Bay. Disston and his associates were not interested in selling this huge tract to individuals in small parcels. In order to get their money back, and make a profit, the y wanted to sell large blocks to other spe culators. To do that, the Disston concern officials reali:>:ed they would have to acquire title to waterfront land-good waterfront land. So one of the company's

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 99 directors, John J. Dunne, was sene here to buy the properties needed for a good "outlet." Dunne was a shrewd land agent. Operating quiecly and without letting his connection with Disston become known, he bought from A. E Willard a tract of 93 78 acres which now is the heart of Sarasota. For this tract, he paid $1,500. This tract extended from Mound to Seventh streets, and from the bay back to Central Avenue. It was a perfect "outlet" property for the immense Disston ho l dings Now everything was set for a really worthwhile transaction. At that time, i n 1884 and 1885, Scotch and English financiers had plenty of money to in vest in speculative schemes, despite the depression in the British Isles. One of the places they had the i r eye on was Florida So when agCllts for t he Disston company appeared with glowing descrip tions of the Land of Saraso t a, they found eager liste n ers. Unfortunately, the names of the super salesmen who swung the Sara sota deal hav e never been d i sclosed. However, there i s reason to believe that two retired British naval officers, P i ers E. \'(/' arburton and Robert W. Hanbury, were go betweens. That's indicated, but not proved, by old land abstracts on which their names appear However, regardless of who the salesmen were, they succeeded in convincing Sir John Gillespie and a group of his friends that the region was a place which heaven had truly blessed-and where shrewd investors could make money. So Sir John and his buddies f ormed the F l orida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd., and purchased 49,431 acres from Disston's company, paying $1 an acre The British concern also bought the land formerly owned by Willard. For this key tract, which Willard sold to Dunne for $1,500, the Britishers paid $7,000. They also pai!f a stiff price for a block held jointly by the Disston company; Dunne, the Disston agent, and the two British naval officers, Hanbury and Warburton. For this tract, containing 1,560 acres, $50,424.07 was paid! Three years before Diss ton had paid just $390 for the same tract! Not a bad profit! During 1885, the British outfit also purchased a number of other tracts, including 120 acres from Mrs. Charlotte R. Abbe, widow of the postmaster murdered by the Vigilantes. It is estimated b}' real estate men that the concern paid, altogethe r approximately $110,000 for its Sarasota hold i ngs The exact amount cannot be ascertained s imply because some of the transactions were never recorded strange as that may seem For instance, the concern in 1891 got 190 acres, including all the land between Seventh and Twelfth streets, after paying $7 .32 in delinquent taxes owed by "parties unknown"! Such things simply don't happen by accident. One hundred and ninety acres of good land fo r $7.32! It doesn't

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100 THE STORy OF SARASOTA make sense. The only p ossible explana tion is that the F lorida Mortgage & Investment Co. ha d some othe r claim to the Iand-a claim which was never recorded. Sir John never came to Sarasota to loo k over hi s domain. N eit h e r did any of the d i rectors of hi s comp any. There is e v e ry reason to think they swallowed the glib talk of t h e land salesmen and cons cientiou s ly believe d Sara sota was truly a pa rad ise on earth. Had that not been the case, they certa in l y neve r would ha ve let t heir names be used in the pamphlet w hich e ulogized the colonization scheme so f u lsomely. Sir John and his associ ates proved their good intentions later-but that's getting ahead of the story. The co l o nization venture co uld just as easily ha ve been a success as it was a wa sh-out. If it h a d been propecly pl anne d, if suitable houses had been provided for the colon i:ters, if a churc h h ad been built, if the com pan y had used common sense in parceling out the l and-then the story of the colony might have had a happy ending. But there was o ne other thing which tended to fo r edoom the venture The co l onists who came h ere were unfitted in every w ay for pioneering in a fronti er country. They were families of t h e upper middle class-fine families all. But no t one had eve r been a fa rmer. Not one knew anything abou t Florida soil-not one could even tell the d ifference between hard pan land and fertile hammocks. As pion eers in a strange land, they were c omplete misfits. To make matte r s dou b ly bad, Mother Nature played them a dirty trick and gave Florida one of the worst cold spells in the history of the state soon after the colony arrive d. Livin g in shacks and tents, the colonists nearly froze. No wonder they began t o l eave By May 1, 1886, the co l ony had ceas ed to be. Only the Browning fami ly and a few others rema ined And so ended one of the most unfortunate episodes in the h istory of the Land of Sarasota

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CHAPTER 7 THE VILLAGE OF SARASOTA IS BORN THE SCOTCH colony collapsed, but even while its doom was being sealed by the departure of most' of t h e colonists, the village of Sarasota came into exist e nce. And, for a time, the village thrived. In fact, it boomed! The boom was made in Scotland" by offici als of the Florida Mort gag e & Investment Co. Ltd. Sir john Gilles pi e and his associates con sidered the colony only one phase of the development program t hey had mapped out for their va s t domain of 50,000 acres in the Land of Sara sota. They had other plans, big plans, in mind Men of imaginat i o n they could see a large c ity springing up o n the shore of Sarasota Bay. They could see a rich back country, thickly settled with prospering f armers growing produce for the markets of the world Those Britishers were a couple of generations ahead of their times perhaps, but they had the courage of their con vi ctions. And, what was more important, they had the money needed to c h ange Sarasota from a dream town existing on l y on a pla t into at least a partia l actua l ity. From Edinburgh, Scotland, they sent orders-weeks before the co lonists landed here-to their local manager, A. C. Acton, to erect portable houses in which the colonists could stay until they moved intiO their per manent homes. Acton also got orders to build a) large rooming house for people of moderate means and a "fine hotel" where people of wealth and influence could be properly accommodated In additio n Acton was instruc t ed to build a wharf, where ships could dock, and to open up the streets and avenues shown on the town plat which had been drafted in Scotland. Acton did the best he could to carry out these orders. But he was a sick man, ill f rom an incurable disease. He l acked the energy needed to push through the development program That explains no doubt, the lack of h ousing accommoda t ions for the Scotch colonists upon their ar rival. It may even par tially explain the collapse of the colonization venture. Despite Acto n 's i llness, he man aged finally to get the development program started. So to him goes the credit of being Sarasota's first builder. Under his direction, Sarasota's first wharf was built and the large room ing house on the northeast corner of Main and Central later known as the Sarasota House.

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102 THE STORy OP SAR.ASOT A Acton also gets the credit for directing work on the first public im provements-opening up Main Street and drilling the fir st artesian well. Construction of the dock and rooming house was started early in Jattuary, 1886. A number of colonists were employed to do the work, all who were able or w i lling to tackle such jobs. A few carpenters from Man atee a l so were hired The needed lumber was brought here in schoo ners from Cedar Keys, Pensaco l a and Appalachicola. The boats were anchored as close t o shore as possible and then the lumber was thrown overboard While it floated in the water, it was picked up by the workmen and l oaded onto wagons which had been pulled out into the bay by mules. Alex Browning, who helped on the job, said in his memoirs it was the worst task he ever bad. "The waller was mighty cold and we all became badly chilled," he wrote, "but we stuck to the work until it was finished." Lacking machinery of any kind, the workmen found the construction of the pier at che foo t of Main Street a formidable undertaking. To set the heavy pine piles, t hey had co rock each one back and forth, hour after hour, until ic finally worked its way through the san d, a quarter inch at a time, down to solid rock. At the end of the pier the men had to work in water shoulder dee p. Backbreaking, fatiguing work-but i t was done! After the piles were set, they were braced and cross braced, sills and joi sts were laid and a dec k of heavy lumber built. At the end of the pier, a 50-foot-square extension was added and on this a warehouse was erected to house merchandise brought by boat for the compa n y store More than three months were required to finish. the pier but, when c ompleted it was a "fine job," as Browning proudly remarked. When the wharf was finished, the side-wheel steamer Erie began making regular trips between Sarasota and Tampa, coming into the bay through Sarasota Pass. The embryo village strutted with pride. Now it was really on the map Lacer, the Erie was succeeded by the Mary Disston, known locally as the Dirty Mary. This was a larger boat and carried both freight and passeng ers. While the boom was on, Sarasota was a port of call for many schooners Some of the best known were the Sea Turtle owned by Capt. Frank Blackburn ; Net/tO, bY' Capt. Harry F. Higcl; Rambler, by Capt. Frank Strobar; Alligator, by Capt. Edward Ferguson; Entma, by Hamlin Whitaker; Sec1tnd11S, by Capt. T. G. Edmondson; Ruby, b y Capt. Furman C. Whitaker; Rosa, by Capt'. Arthur Jones, and Wild Goose, by Capt. Ernest Kretchmeyer. Many pleasure yachts also anc h ored here, the best known being the Ella M. Littl-e, later known as the Phantom, owned for many years by Capt. V. A. Saunders and later by Capt. William H amlin.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 103 Before the Sarasor:a House was finished, seven por ta ble hous es, brought here on rhe schooner Lotte Star, we r e erected by John R Sco t t three blocks north of the business district These were intended for use by the co lonisr:s but by the time they were erected, most of the colonists had left. They were Iacer occupied by negr o es. The firs t two real houses were built on Seventh Street by Richard Scott, brother of John. rhey s t ood for many years. Photo Not Available T h e fam o us o l d Sansoca House, built in lSS6, as it looke
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104 THE STOR. y OF SAR.ASOT A could be treated. He also put in a small stock of drugs, thereby\ establish ing the first drug store of Sarasota. The first general store in the village, aside from the company store, was opened in March, 1886, by Furman and Will Whitaker in a building they erected on the south side of Main, almost directly opposite Dr. Wal lace's establishmen t. 'Tis said they sold everything from plug tobacco to gunpowder. The first meat market was opened in April, 1886, by Hamlin Whi taker in a little frame building on the nort hwest corner of Main and Palm. He butchered a steer once a week. Icc was unobtainable chen, here in Sarasota, and meat kept fresh only a day or so. Consequently, \Vhitaker would send half the steer to ll.fanatee and seH the remainder tci Sarasotans. In the fall of 1886, the first livery stable in the village was built on the present site of the Sarasota Hotel by Hamlin Whitaker-that man seems to have been into everything! He bought three bright and shiny fringe topped surreys and had a half dozen good horses. From then, on, Sarasota's young men had the means to take their ladies fair on "sight seeing" trips along the sandy trails. The buggies were in big demand! The first village blacksmith, cobbler, wagon-builder, and general handyman was Jack Tatum, a light-haired freckled-faced man who moved into "town" in 1886 from Tatum Ridge with his wife and daughter Lillie. "There was nothing Jack wouldn't tackle," declared Alex Browning, in his memoirs. "He would shoe rhe most stubborn mule, re-make any part of a wagon, mend saddle o r harness, or fix a sewing machine. His lighter professional ability was sometimes taxed when called upon to pull someone's aching tooth, or repair a clock. It is said that when he finished pmting one clock back t ogethe r again, l1e had one wheel left over, but th e clock ran and kept good time just the same. "Sometimes the gang would run out of liquor. The men would appea l to Jack and convince him their thirs t was terrible. Jack would go down to the blacksmith shop, where there usually was a barrel of sour mash in the corner. He would pour some in a boiler and start the fire going. Pretty soon the steam would commence coming off. A gun barrel, wrapped with clay, was used i n place of a coil. Some one would pour water orl it while the liquor would drip in to a jug. Often the s tuff would bel drunk while still hot. When enough was run off to satisfy ever yone, the boiler would be packed away again. T ruly, Jack was a handy man. "When the occasion required, Jack served as a veterinarian He also was a musician. He had an organ i n his home and when he ha d visitors, Jack would invariably sit down on the organ stool and pump vigorously with his feet, t ill the wheezy sound would indicate that its wind was up.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 105 Then, with all his fingers, he'd come down on the keys. If the chords were a little sour, it didn't matter; they sounded good just the same. And when he'd sing: "Is my name written thaar, in the book bright and faar," we all felt his name should be written on the bright side of his celestial account." The Sarasota House was completed late in March, 1886. It wasn't much for looks but in the eyes of Sarasotans it was the "grandest hotel" south of Tampa. Located on che present s i te of the Palmer National Bank and Lord's Arcade, i t had a large dining room and about twenty bed rooms, and verandas fronting on both Main Street and Central Avenue. The building, well constructed, s tood until 1924 when it was torn down to make way for modern structures. Joe Vincent and his w if e, Rosie, rented and operated the hotel u ntil 1899 when they purchased ic. Gilles fJie Comes to Sarasota One of the first guests in the Sarasota House was a man who Iacer played a most important part in che development of the communityJohn Hamilton Gillespie, son of Sir John Gillespie, president of the Flo rida Mortgage & Investment Co. A striking character this man Gillespie a boo k could be written regarding him and no page of it would be dull. A tall, sturdy man, with reddish-brown hair and piercing eyes, Gilles pie was set in his ways when he came to Sarasota. He was extreme in his likes and dislikes. He would do anything for his friends bu t when he had the power, he would grind those who had incurred his di s pleasure. H owever, for every enemy he had a dozen friends who liked him despite his faults. So probably he was a pretty good fellow after all. Born in Maffat, Dumfrieshire, Scotland, in 1852, Gillespie led an ad venturous life before coming here at the age of 34. Educated at Oxford, he served with the Roya l Company of Archers, Queen's bodyguards in Scotland, and went co Australia when still a young man with the Mid lothian Artillery Brigade of Volunteers On his return, he got married and his father sent him here to represent the company s interests shortly after word was received i n Scotland that the Scotch colony had collapsed. Mrs. Gillespie came< with him. On his arrival here, Gillespie soon learned that the company's affairs were in a sorry state. He realized that cl1e departure of the colonists was a grievous loss to the community He also re alized that the boom being experienced by the village was an artificial boom, caused only by the in flux of construction workers. He knew that when the construction work was finished, the boom would collapse-so he tried to take steps to give t!he community a firm foundation on which it could grow and prosper.

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106 THE SroR Y oF SARASOTA Gillespie relieved Acton of his duties and retired him on a pension, which was paid unti l Acton died about six months later. Work on the v illage streets had lagged. Even many in the "downtown section" were still covered with trees and unde rgrowth. Gillespie hired a gang of m en and the streets were cleared and grubbed. Ditches were dug and dirt fro m them was thrown out into the center of the street to form a crown. Such stree ts weren't anything to brag about but they were better than no streets at all. While this road work was going on, Gillespie gave orders to speed up the construction of the company's "fine hotel for people of wealth and influence" which had been started at the foot of Main Street, south of the company's store. He went over the plans for the hotel and ordered many changes, declaring he wouldn't be satisfied unless the hotel turned out to be the finest on the entire \Y/ est Coast. More carpenters were hired and work on the hotel progressed rapidly Lumber f or it was brought by schooner from Cedar Keys and Appalachi cola. The building was three stories high with an observation t ower on top. It contained 3 0 "spacious" bed rooms and large lobby and dining room. Gillespie named it the De Soto. On Feb ruary 2, 1887, Gillespie leased the hotel to Alfred P. Jones and his wife, Annie R., of Cedar Keys. The lease provided that Jones should pay 25 per cent of the net profits for the first year and 40 per cent for the next four years. Mr. and Mrs. Jones had been operating a hotel patron ized by wealthy northern fishermen at Thonotassi, F lorida, and came here so their guests could fish in the "best fishing grounds in the world The DeSoto was opened w ith a grand ball Friday night, F ebruary 25, 1887. The celebration was the biggest social event ever held south of Mana tee. More than two hundred persons attended and the party lasted until daybreak the next morning. It's reported that many of the men who celebrated didn't sober up until two days later. Truly, it was a gay affair-one that is still remembered vivid l y by old timers of the Land of Sarasota. Water for the splendid new De Soto Hotel was obtained from an ar tesian well drilled on che triangle at Five Points. From the well, a water main was laid down Main Street to the corner of Palm Avenue. At this point, a water ram was placed to force the water t'o a tank on the roof of the hotel. Later on, the ram l eaked and there was always a puddle at the street intersection in which hogs wallowed, much to the disgust o Sarasota's boosters. While the artesian well was being drilled, Sarasota got a real thrill. Spectators noticed bright, shiny particles of metal in the borings. The re port that "gold has been found" spread to all parts on the community and

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THE STORy OF. SARASOTA 107 within a few hours several hundred persons gathered at Five Points. They crowded and pushed to pick up the shiny bits But their hopes were shat tered. It was soon leacned that a practical joker had played a trick on them W A. "Old Man'' Bacon had filed some brass at Jack Tatum's blacksmith shop and had scattered the filings around the well. Bacon was one of the village's quaintest characters. A thin , scrawny old fellow, he built a three-room oystler house about half way out on the lvhar f There he lived with his family and served oysters, either raw or cooked, to the public. With each order of oysters he d onated a big glass of corn beer, a potent beverage guaranteed to give an)' drinker a "desired dizzy" in record time. The village pranksters usually enlisted Bacon's help when they wanted to have a little fun. One day they learned that Gillespie had just received a new shipment of good Kentucky rye. They called u pon Bacon to devise a way by >vhich they could get some of the precious liquor He scra t ched his head, thought a while and then reac h ed in his poc ket, drew out his knife and pricked his arm twice. When blo od covered his arm, he hollered as though in fearful painholle red so loud that Gillespie, a hundred yards away, heard him and came running When he approached, Bacon moaned: Gosh, : Mr. Gillespie, a big rattler got me! Oh, that pizen's go ing all through me! I'm a goner sure!" Gillespie responded as Bacon had expected. "You need some whiskey! Quick! I'll get it for you!" He ran into h i s warehouse and came out with a bottle of Old Crow. Bacon took a big swig, and then slumped down. His companions took the bottle and, behind Gillespie s back, passed it around. In a few minunes the bottle was emptied. Gillespie soon learned he had been fooled. But just to show he wasn't offended, he brought out another bottle. Then everyone was happy. One of the finest homes south of Tampa was built by Gillespie in the summer and fall of 1 886 on the present site of the Mira Mar Hotel. The contract for its construction was let to John Browning and Charles Jones, and the sons of both men helped in the work. The rooms were large and high ceilinged and a veranda extended around three sides of the house The lot was enclosed by a pic ket fence-and the pickets were all made by hand out of rough lumber. Gillespie s name will live in history mainly because he introduced golf to Florida Her e in Sarasota he built perhaps the first practice course in the entire country-two greens and a long .faixway. This minature course was lo cated on Main Street in a natural clearing in the woods close to the present Central School. He laid i t out in May, 1886, and practic e d there daily for many years. He later had another practice course near his home.

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Photo Not Available J. HAMILTON GILLESPIE -Sarasota s No. 1 c idzen for three decades

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THE STORY OF SARi\SOT.I\ 109 Alex Browning told of crossing the course one day and seeing Gillespie chopping away at the little ball. He had never seen anyone playing golf before, even though he was from Scotland. He stopped to watch the tall intent Scot. "Do you play?" asked Gillespie. When Browning admitted he knew nothing of the game, G i llespie said disapprovingly: "Mon, y'er missing half y'er life!" Gillespie later sold Henry B. Plant on the value of golf as a Florida tourist attraction and was hired to lay out courses for the Plant Invest ment Co. at Winter Park, Tampa, Bellair and Havana, Cuba. Golf was Gillespie's obsession throughout his life. In 1905, he laid out a real golf course on a 11 0-acre tract of his old practice course and built a club house. He maintained the course at his own expense for many years. Truly, he was the father of golf in Sarasota and one of the most prominent early golfers in the entire country. On September 7, 1923, while playing on his golf course, he suffered a heart attack and died a few hours later. Ironically enough, this golf pioneer has been practically forgotten by the city of Sarasota. \'V'hen a. municipal golf course was lai d out, it was named after a man who never even lived in Sarasota-and deigned to play at the dedication ceremonies only after he had been promised a fine automobile as a gift. But that's certainly straying far afield from the story of Sarasota. Let's get back again ro the late Eighties, when Gillespie was in the prime of life -and the village of Sarasota was very young in deed. The Boom Boomsand B11.rsfs! The infant village of Sarasota threw off its swaddling clothes in the fa ll of 18 8 6 and bragged about its the fastest growing, most pros perous community on the entire \'Vest Coast south of Tampa. And sure enough, Sarasota was a rushing, bustling place. The impos ing new De Soto Hotel on the waterfront was being rushed to comple tion Streets were being opened through the woods, in all parts of town. The company store was being enlarged. A fine wooden side\\'alk was be ing laid on the north side of Main Streec from Palm Avenue to the Five Points; To speed the work al ong, Gillespie sent out word that good jobs were available in Sarasota and craftsmen and labo r ers flocked here from other towns, some coming from as far away as Jacksonville. The boom was on. Every room in the Sarasota House was filled, two to six persons in each room. The overflow lived in tents and shacks scat tered along Main Street and the waterfront. Some of the workmen bunked in schooners anchored in the bay. Big wages for those days were paid by

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110 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Gillespie's company-$2 a day for craftsmen and $1.25 for common laborers. In cash. And on pay day nights, almost everyone celebrated in the time-honored manner of frontier towns, by doing almost everything that's frowned upon by "good people." Many of the newcomers were rough and rugged adventurers and they lived a hard life. Most of them were heavy drinkers and list fights and drunken brawls were common occurances. For the next year or so, Sa ra sota was a wild and woo l y community in which almost anything could happen-and did! Despite the occasional carousals, work went steadily ahead. Three more buildings were erected o n the north side of Main between Palm and Pine apple. One, located about half-way up the block, was built by John Iver son who had just married and wanted a new home "in town" for his bride. Years later, the building was used as a printing shop by C. V. S. Wilson, f ounder of the Sarasota Times. The two othe r buildings erected in the same block were built by Al fred Grable, a builder from Lakeland who was attracted here by the "boom." The buildings were large two-story houses. One was occupied by Mrs. Susanna Bartholomew, and her three children. The second, lo cated at t!he corner of Main and Pineapple, was used for many years as a town meeting place. Church serv ices were held the re, and also dances, as the occasion requi r ed. Sarasota continued to grow. The Florida Mort;gage & Investment Co. built a two-story "office-building" on the sout hwest corner of Eighth and Cenrral. Gillespie kept his office there for many years. In the same locality, a home was built by William \'(l'hitcomb, uncle of the poet James Whitcomb Riley. Whitcomb had homesteaded five years before in the northern pare of the present Sarasota Countynow he wanted to get into town so his two sons could get "some schooling." First, however, Sarasota had to have a school. So Whitcomb launched a movement to get a school building erected. Gillespie paid for the lumber and the work was performed, without charge, by volunteers who were determined tha t Sarasota must forge ahead and provide "educational op porcunities" for its children. The firsc school was a small one-room building, 16 feet wide and 25 feet long, decorated with a gable at each end. It was located' on the south side of Main about 100 feet east of Pineapple. The children sat on home made benches and their desks were crud e affairs. There was no stove in the school and during the winter, when cold spells came, the youngsters sat and shivered. But they had good teachers to instruct them-Anna and Sue Whit comb, who had been well educ ated in northern schools. The Whitcomb

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 111 girls served without pay. The first pupils were Emile and F lora Whitaker, Eliza Liddell, Fred and Howard Whi tcomb, Alice Bartholomew, Charles Vincent, Hattie Bacon, Lillie Tatum, and Jessie, Hugh, Ewina and Maggie Browning. The \'V'hitcomb girls taught only on e year. Their thoughts soon were occupied with other matters. They were married on the same day in the first double wedding ever held in Sarasota. Sue became the bride of Charles C. Whitaker while Anna became the wife of George Riggin. When the happy young couples started on their honeymoon, the entire communi ry joined in the shivaree. So<;m after Sarasota got its first school, the upand-coming village also got a postoffice "right in the business district." A post office had been established i n 1878 in Charles E. Abbe's store in the community of Sara Sota, south of Hudson Bayou But the "town fol k insisted this old post office was way out in the sticks and they cir culated petitions to have it moved 'into the village. The old settlers o f Sara Sota objected, but they were outnumbered by the new Saraso tans and their protests were unheeded. On May 1 4 1887, Charles \'V'hitaker was appointed postmaster and the post office was moved to the Whitaker store on Main Street>. The Sarasotans now could get their mail without trudg ing through the woods to the Abbe seore, m ore than a mile and a half away. The Scotch company set forth, early in 1887, to prove to all skeptics that its land was the most fertile in the entire state--and would grow any thing. To accomplish this, Gillespie ordered work started on a 40-acre experimental farm on the Fruitville road. A gang of negroes cleared about ten acres and cultivared the soil. T hen crops were planted-tomatoes, lettuce, green beans, cabbage--just about everything Gillespie could think of. Even a few orange trees. U nfortunately, Gillespie selected as the site of the experimental farm one of the most sterile tracts in the entire region. He knew n othing about the spotty nature of Florida soiland he wouldn't listen to advice. "Any Florida cracker could have told Gillespie that nothing would grow well in that locality-and nothing did grow," says A. B. Edwards. "It was the sorriest ground you ever saw and the farm was a complete failure." Gillespie wouldn't admit he had selected poor land, however, until after s everal vain attempts to g row crops. He first fertilized heavily and then he tried treating the ground with lime "to sweeten ic,." But neither the lime nor the f ertilizer helped and before a year passed, Gillespie gave up the experimental farm in disgust. However, the farm paid one big dividend. Because of it, the settlers at Fruit\'ille got a church. \\?'hen Jesse Tucker learned that Gillespie want-

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112 THE STORY OF SARASOTA ed lime, he went co him and goc a contract to supply 100 barrels at a dollar a barrel. Armed with this contract, Tucker called his neighbors together and told them-all staunch Bap tists-that here was a heaven sene oppor tunity to raise the money to pay for a church building. Fruitville thereupon called a community "work-for-the-church-day" and everyone, men, women, and chi l dren, went to \X'hite Beach where they gathered immense heaps of coon and oyster shells. Pine t rees, rich in turpentine, were felled and cut into fifteen-foot lengths. Then two l ime kilns" were made, layers of wood alternating with layers of shells; about eight feet high. The wood was set afire and while che piles burned, a picnic lunch was served. From the ashes, the needed l ime was obtained; Gillespie paid che $100, and the Fruitville Missionary Baptist Church was built, in June, 1887. The men who cook part in chis l ime-making project were Rev. Isaac Redd, C. L. Reeves, John Tatum, Stephen Goins, and Jesse, Frank and Emmett Tuck er The Scorch experimental farm may have been the indirect cause of the first death in the new village of Sarasota. Tom Booth, one of the colo nists who lingered here after most of the others left, was employed at the farm to hel p direct the wor k of the negroes. Instead of merely acting as foreman, he did more work than anyone and his f riends declared he l it erally worked himself to death. Be that as it may, he died on March 17, 1887 and eve r yone in Sarasota att ended his funeral. Gillespie read the Episcopal service and the body was buried in the plot of land on Central Avenue which the company had set aside as the town cemetery, later named Rosemary Cemetery. S i x months l ater, four more persons were buried in the cemetery'. a mother and her three small children. They were the victims of a man who had become insane, Elaf Green, a carpenter who had come here to work on the De Soro Hotel. Early Saturday morning, September 10, 1887, Green stopped at Whit aker's store and calmly remarked that he had killed his wife and his son and two daughters. He said he had cut their throats while they were sleeping and then had driven a two-inch chisel through their necks At first, no one believed him. But when he insisted he was telling the truth, three men went out co Green's home at the edge of the town to inves tigate. They discovered, to their horror, that the murders had actually been committed, as Green had d e scribed. Sheriff A. S. "Sandy" Watson was notified and he rushed to Sarasota and placed Green under arrest. Appointing Charles Whitaker as a deputy sheriff for the emergency, he started back to Bradenton. The sheriff and Green rode in a buggy and \\Vhitaker followed on horseback. At a fork

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 113 in the road, Green suddenly became insanely v i olent. He threw the sheriff out of the buggy, gra bbed his gun and ra ised it to fire But before h e could pull t he trigger, Whitaker sho t and killed him. Green's body wa s left .lying on the road unti l a coroner's jury was impanelled, made an investigation, and exonerated Whitaker. Green's body was b uried where he fell For many years thereafter, many persons said that neighborhood was haunted. The t ragedy of me Green murders intensified a wave of gloom which swept over Sarasota late in the summer of 1887 being told, the Sarasotans began t o realize that the building boom had ended-and that dull, drear years lay ahead. The De Soto Hotel, the Grable buildings, and Gillespie's home all were finished about the same time. they wer e comple t ed, and the experimental farm abandoned, .iobs ended. The stream of money which had kept the village flourishing suddenly went dry. Craftsmen and la borers began leaving The Sarasota House became a l most deserted. Weeds started growing h i gh in t he streets which had been clear e d just a few months before. Sarasota was in the d o l drums. It could hardly have been otherwise. The Scotch colony had collapsed and the F l orida Morcgage & Investment Co. could not induce other people to pay the $10 or more pe r acre whi c h it then demand e d for i ts land Photo Not Available Lower Mai n Street in 1888. The wee d s seen i n the street grew higher and thicker du r ing the Jean years which followed.

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114 THE STORY OF SARASOTA The full effects of the scare's action in turning over practically a ll the land in rhe Sarasota region to the land speculators now began to be felt. If the territory still would have been open to homesteaders, new settlers undoubtedly would have continued co come in, just as they did from 1867 to 1883, and the Land of Sar asota would have continued co deve lop. Bur now the land grabbers had the land-and potential settlers stayed away. To make matters even worse, Sarasota had absolutely no industries to provide employment for it s people. Oh, yes, persons who were so in clined could farm-if they had the Iand-or fish. But even farming or fishing were not particularly remunerative because of a lack of nearby markers and, worse still, a complete lack o f transportation facilities. The Mary Disston. stopped coming co Sarasota early in 1887, and never again made the village a port of call. No ocher steamer took its place, largely because a channel north through Sarasota Bay had not yet been opened, providing a short cut to Tampa Bay. Such a channel was to come in 1895-but that didn't help Sarasotans any i n 1 887. As for railroads, there wasn't a mile 6 track south of Tampa, despite the fact that the state had given at least 3 50,000 acres of Manatee Sara sota land to railroad companies in 1883 and 1884. Those grants may have helped other sections of the state get tra nsportation bur they cer tainly didn't help the Land o f Sarasota. No one realized better chan Gillespie the absolute necessity of getting a railroad for Sa rasota if not from Tampa then at least from Bradenton where connections could be made with stea mers which ran to Tampa. Always a man of action, G ille spie set the wheels in motion to get a railroad. Five years later, he succeed e d. But what a railroad! A Train Snorts Into Town! Sarasotans called it the "Slow and \"<7 obbly"-that so called railroad which ran its first train from Bradenton to Sarasota on May 16, i 892. It was a comic scrip railroad i f there ever was one. The engine was a dilapidated, second hand wo od burner, with a huge fire-box and a cowering smokestack which poured forth soot and sparks. The "train" consisted of two flat cars, one of which was covered with a canvas canopy to protect the passengers from sun, and rain, and smoke. This car, which had uncovered p lank seats, was dignified by the name of "the day coach." Li.ttle if any ballast had been used when the tracks were laid and, as a result, the train always wobbled and staggered along, appearing every moment as tho u gh it would upset. And it often did! One time the engine rolled over when it' reache d the water tower just outside Bradenton, and

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 115 the tower collapsed. After that the engineer siphoned the water needed out of ponds along the right of way. The train never operated on a regu lar schedule, even at the beginning. The train crew, made up of James Nichols the engineer, and Lou: Duckwall, the conductor, l eft: Bradenton whenever they got enough of a l oad to make the trip worth while Once started, the train squeaked and ratded its waytoward Sarasota and rarely reached its destination without a breakdown. On one trip, the train rocked so badly that Duckwall's pail rolled off the day coach He didn't miss it until a half hour later. He then told Nichols of his lossand the engineer backed the train four miles to retrieve t he pail and prevent Duckwall from going hungry. The Sarasota "station" a little one room shack-was located about 100 feet west of Orange Avenue near Tenth Street, way out in the woods Because of the train's irregular schedule, the people of Saraso t a rarely traveled on it to the county seat at Bradenton. They could make better time by horse and buggy, despite the sandy roads Quite often, however, the young people o f Sarasota and Bradenton took the train just for a l ark. ''It was more fun, going on that rickety railroad, than going on a roller coaster," declares .Mrs. Gertrude Higel. C. \Voodburn .Matheny recalls traveling on the Slow and \Vobbly on October 25, 1892, when h i s parents, Mr and Mrs. George H .Matheny, came here from Springfield Ill to setde at Osprey. "Our household goods were brought to Bradenton by steamer," Matheny recalls. "My father had heard a rai l road ran as far as Sarasota. But when he inquired about it, he learned the train ran onl y when the crew could get a paying load. So he began dickering with the conductor, who wasn't any too anxious to make the trip But when my father offered him $10 in cash, the conductor became all smiles-! guess $10 was more money than the crew had made for many a day "Anyhow, we finally got all our goods loaded on the flat cars and started otf. Along the way we had to stop to siphon water out of a pond A l ittle farther on we had to wait an hour or so while some negroes chopped wood for the engine Later, we stopped severa l times becau s e cows got on the track and wouldn't move off until the engineer chased them away with a stick. It was the craziest railroad I ever saw-but we finally to Sarasota." The Slow and Wobbly kept operating spasmodically for about two years Then the tracks were torn up and later sold, on March 13, 1895, to 0. M Cross l ey for use in building a narrow-guage'railroad out of Avon Park. The engine and flat cars were left t o rust a n d disintegrate on a siding near Bradenton.

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116 THE STORy OF SARASOTA Few persons in Sarasota ever heard the full accoun t of the founding of the Slow and \Vobbly and the various deals involved in its construc tion and ultimate collapse. The story is worth recording because it sheds some light on what was happ ening in this region during the Dreary Nineties. In 1890, the affairs of the Florid a Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd., were in a sorry state So were the affairs of another British land specu l ating concern, the Florida Land & Mortgage Co., Ltd which had ac quired 137,390 acres from Dis:scon's concern This latter concern was represented here b}' Piers E. Warburton and later by B. A. Coachman. The cwo British concerns were closely tied together-but it is difficult indeed co determine j ust where their interests overlapped. However, that's unimportant. The point that's pertinent is chat th e stockholders of both concerns began clamoring for some kind of a return on their investments. But no returns were possible simply because b oth companies had gone co pot-all their ventures had turned out poorly. In an effort to stave off the angry wrath of the British stockholders, Gillespie became a "railroader," and sent back word to the British Isles that Saras ota soon would have a railroad and everything from then on would be love ly. Gillespie had a good scheme. Or, at least, a scheme which sounded good when he told about it to prospects. It was really quite simple-and foolproof! The two British concerns, said Gillespie, would give every alternate section of land along the proposed right of wayi to the railroad company. After the cracks were laid, he declared, and the trains began running, the land could be sold at a tremendous profit. Fortunes would be made! The project sounded so attractive th2t Gillespie secured the backing of Harvey N. Shepard, of Boston; W. C. Patten and J. H. Humphries, of Bradenton, and Joseph Voyle, of Gainesville. These men, with Gil lespie, incorporate d the Manatee & Sarasota Railway and Draina ge Co., Aprill2, 1890, for $50,000. Gillespie was made president of the company. The promised land was conveyed to the concern-providing the rail road would be buil t a nd in operation by February 22, 1892. The agree ment was signed by Francis More, of Edinb urgh, who had been named liquidator of the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd Everything looked rosy. The incorporators of the railroad company paid in about $18,000 and work of laying the tracks was started, in the fall of 1890. But more money was required. Gillespie and his associates thought they would have no difficulty floating a bond issue in New York and get all the money they needed. But fate was against them. Storm

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TH STORY OF SAilASOTA 117 clouds presaging the great depression of 189) had begun to gather-and the bond market dried up. \Vork on rile railroad was halted. In a desperate move to get the project completed, Gillespie and asso ciates assigned t heir interest in the land agreement to the Arcadia, Gulf Coast & Lakelan d Railroad Co., on October 23, 1891. This concern of imposing name was incor porated by a s pecial ace of the state legislature in 1891. On paper, it had a capital stock of $1,500 ,000. But it was a speculative enterpris e, pure and simp l e, and if any o f the capital stock ever was sold, certainly none of it went for railroad construction. The railroad was :finished, sure enough, but the contractors who handled the last phase of the job never got paid for their work. Neither did the laborers the contractors had employed. From the day the first tra i n ran until the cracks were corn up, the concern was constantly in vo l ved in law suits. I t never paid salaries to the train's engineer and con ductor-the only money they ever received was what was paid to them for fares or freight. The company didn't even pay its taxes. At one time, county officials ordered the engine chained to the rails until the tax bill was paid. The sheriff did his duty and the engine was rail-bound for a week. Then rhe county officials learned the railroad company existed in name only so they decided the train might as well be permitred to keep on wobbling along. It did-when the crew saw tit! The contractors, laborers, and the conduc tor and engineer finally employed Judge J. J. Stewart co sue the railroad in: an attempt to get the money they had coming to them. The judge got a judgment easily enough but collecting was a different scory. The railroad had no saleable assets except the tracks and a little equipment. All this was sold. The judge later said he didn't get enough money from the sale to pay his feewhether his diems ever got anything is not recorded So the Slow and Wobbly ceased wobbling-and Sarasota had to wait nearly a decade longer before a real railroad came, to give the village a new lease on life. But, strange though it may seem, Old Slow and Wobbly set the wheels in motion for the coming of the Ringlings to Sarasota. Gillespi e Has His Troubles Fate was unkind to Sarasota for many years after the boom of 188687 It was also unkind to J. Hamilton Gillespie. He had wife trouble serious wife trouble. So serious that: the whole village was affected. Mrs. Mary Gillespie, the first wife of the doughty Scotsman, was a cantankerous woman. There's no doubt about it. She also liked her wee nips of Scotch, or Kentucky bou r bon, or plain Cuban rum. Sometimes the wee nips became drinks large enough to floor a stevedo re. When that

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118 THE STOI\ y OF SARASOTA happened, Mrs. Gillespie's cantankerousness was embarrassing, to put it mildly. GiUespie was an ardent Episcopalian and often served as lay re ader at church services held in the Grable building. One Sunday, after the services had sta rted Mrs. Gillespie came in and took a seat close to the pulpit where her dignifi ed husband was solemnly p r eaching. Then, to the conster nation of t he congregation she opened a large red silk parasol and held it over her head until the service was over. Rather unsteadily she then stood up, closed the parasol, waved a hand at her husband, and said: "Nice goin', darling!" Red-faced with em barrassment, Gillespie did not look at her. She left the building and weaved down the wooden sidewalk to the De Soto. As a direct result o f tha t incident, the Methodists of Sarasota decided to get a church of their own. No longer were they willing to worship in a building where such shenan igans occurred. It was bad enough to use a room where dances were helCI occasionally but to meet in a plac e where a parasol was raised during a service--well, that was the last straw! Their minds made up, the Methodists proceeded to make plans for acquiring a church. Getting a s ite was easy-one of the nest spots in the village was prese nted to them as a gift by Harry L. Higel, who paid $40 to the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co. for the property, the south east" corner of Main and Pineapple. The deed, made out to the Methodist Episcopal Church, was dated Sept ember 15, 1892. During the winter following, the Methodists erected a small church on their land, just cater-corner from the watering trough and hitching posts at Five Points. Ic was a very plain little building but: the members revered it as their place of worship. Now they would be safe from red parasols. Mrs. Gillespie's "gay spirits", the direct cause of the construction of the Methodist Church, ruined her husband s hopes of having an Episcopal Church establishe d here. To speed the process, Gillespie invited an Episcopalian bishop to be his guest at the De Soto. The bishop came, accompanied by several other dignitaries. While they were being served dinner, Mrs. Gilles pie entered the dining room at exactly the wrong moment. She lurched into a waiter while he was serving soup to the bishop. All the soup in the tureen spilled on the bishop's lap. Red-faced-and perhaps red-stomached-the bishop arose and strode from the room. He left the De Soto the next day. Needless to say, Sarasota did not then get its Episcopal Church. Because of Mrs. Gillespie's actions on this and other occasions, Mr. and Mrs. Jones gave up their leases on the Soto. Backed by some o f

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THE STORy OF SAII.ASOT A 119 their wealthy guests, they acquired a beautiful lot on the bayfronc a little south of the present 3 3rd Street, and erected a large building for use as a private club. The structure was planned by Alex Browning and constructed in 1891 by \'IV ad hams & Jacobs, of Bradenton Later, it was known as the Palms Hotel. The hotel was sold early in 1916 to T. M. Clark, of Onway, Mich. It burned down in 1927. Many of the De Soto's best guests followed the Jones' to their new place and S araso ta's swanky hotel suffered a severe blow It remained closed several yea r s and not until after 1900 did it regain its former standing as a winter home for the elite. Photo Not Available Sarasot,'s Method i sts bemed with pride in 1905 when their church on the sou thwest corner of Main and Pineapple W':lS fresh l y p;tinted and adorned with a belfry. Early in the Nineties Mrs. Gillespie vanished from the Sarasota scene. She and her husband lived in Bradenton a while and then they went to Scotland Some old timers say she died there-others say Gillespie divorced her. In all events, she never returned to Sarasota. Much later, on May 23, 1905, Gillespie married a woman of culture and dignity, Miss Blanche McDaniel, in a wedding attended by the leading citizens of the entire locality.

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120 THE STORy OF SARASOTA Sarasota Marks Time The entire Sarasota region suffere d a staggering blow du ring the win ter of 1894-95, the coldest in the history of the state. Duri n g the night of Decemb er 27, 1894, the tempera ture fell to 17 degrees above zero .All vegetable s were killed and t h e citrus crop was ruined The ext r em e cold was followed by six week s of unusually warm weath er. New crops of vegetables were just gettin g started. Citrus trees took on n ew life. But then an even worse free ze occurred, on the night of Feb ruary 8, 1895. The mercur y p lum meted ro 14, the low est in the memory of man. The new v egeta ble crops w ere killed. Y oung c i trus trees were frozen to rhe ground. Durin g that winter, the grove owners and vege table grow ers rec e ived hardly a dollar for their lab or. Stratgely enou gh, h owever, the two cold spells u l timately h e l ped the Land of Sarasota more than they harmed it. South of the broad Manate e River the frosts were b y no me ans as sever e a s they were farther north where practically all the groves we r e completely destroyed. Here, the frost-nipped older t rees came ro life aga i n ana during the follow ing year bore alm ost a normal crop .A few statistics tell rhe story During the seaso n of 1893 -9 4, before the big freezes, approxi mately 6,000 000 boxes of fruit were shippe d from Fl or ida. Two years lat er, only 75,000 boxes were shipp ed. Of that total 5 0,000 boxes wer e shipped from groves south of che Manate-e. Growers her e receive d $12 a box fo r grapefruit on the trees and $8 a box for oranges. Here are the growers who reaped a golden harvest durin g that shor t crop year: C L. Reeves, Emmet t Tucker, \V/. R. Gocio, George Tatum, Don Tippe tt, Henry Hawkins, Rev L A. R edd, .A. M Wilson, William Rawls, H. V Whi taker, Georg e H. Math eny, E. R. Marsh, Dr. J. H. Bissel, Judge John G. \Vebb H W. Surgeni er, Sam uel C. Corwin Peter Croc k e r F. R. Knight J. J. K night, arid George HigeL The faco that groves in t his are a escaped being killed by the dcv:IJitat ing cold weathe r of 1894 -95 brough t a number of new settlers co c h is local ity from farther north in F lorida They wante d a spot where the work of years would not be wipe d out in a few nights-and here they f ound what rhey wanted. Many of rh e groves they p lan ted are s till bearin g During 1895, Sarasota first began to be called "a fi shing village." And with good reason The :fishing industry here began to flourish as it ha d never flourished before. True enough there had been fishermen here fo r at. l east a century befor e 1895. First, itinerant Cu ban and Spanish fishermen, like .Alzartie and P hilli ppi, who lived in palmett o s hack s along the bay or on the keys.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 121 Then Bill \1V'hitaker, who got his start by selling dry salt mullet and .roe to Cuban traders. Then, John L. Edwards with his "fish ranch." Also, many, many others whose names have disappeared in the mists of time, usually because they were wanderers who seldom stayed long enough in one place to be remembered. AU these early fishermen salted their fish and sun-cured them. They had no trouble selling all they caught to traders who supplied the Cuban market or took them farther north to the cotton belt. Beginning in 1884, however, the demand for salted fish declined while the demand for fresh fish increased tremendously. The reasons are simple. Henry B. Plant had built a railroad into Tampa connecting it with the out'side world by rail. Moreover, ice plants were built in Tampa Fish packed in ice now could be sent d i rect from Tampa on the railroad to all parts of the country. Naturally, fresh fish were preferred to salted fish. So, in this section, Tampa began to corner the fish business. Its whole sale dealers were supplied by fishermen who lived along the shores of Tampa Bay at places which could be reached by Tampa steamers, carry ing the ice needed for shipment. However, the did not find it profitable to come to Sarasota after the boom of 1886-87 had ended. The skippers did not like to make the long, roun d-about trip through the open Gulf and into the bay at Sarasota Pass. So they stayed away and the fishing industry here lan guished. The situation changed in 1895. In that year, the U.S. Dredge Suwanee cut a channel across the shoal at Palma Sola Pass, i n Upper Sarasota Bay, and another channel at Lo.ngbar, southeast of Longboat Inlet, in Sarasota Bay. The cost to the government of these dredging operations if you care to know-was exactly $9,998.43. The work was authorized by the River and Harbor acts of 1890, 1892 and 189 4 \Vith the channels completed, steamers of shallow draft could take the inland waterway from Tampa Bay directly to the wharf at Sarasota and make profitable stops at' fishermens' wharves along the way. The first steamer which went on the Sarasota run was the Mistletoe, owned by John Savarese, of Tamp a, one of the state's leading fish dealers and merchants The Mi.ttletoe made its maiden trip here on Monday, October 7, 1895. Thereafter, it came here regularly from Tampa every Monday, W'ednesday and Friday and made the return trips on the days following. Harry L. Higel was the first local agent of the line. Judged by present' day standards, the Mistletoe wasn't much of a steamer. But in the eyes of the Sarasotans, it was something grand. And the shrill sound of its whistle, blown as it came down the bay, was music

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122 THE STORY OF SARASOTA to their e:ars. Each time the steamer docked, nearly the whole town turned out co see if any strangers were aboard. Without exaggerating, it can be said that the corning of the Mistletoe mew.t more to Sarasota, and t o Sarasota's back country, than anything in the region's history Infini tely more than the coming of the Scotch colony, which failed, and even more than the building of the De Soto, which most of the time was empty and boarded up. Now the Sarasotans no longer would have to depend upon schooners which left the bay only when the skippers got the notion, and a full cargo. The community now had a dependable connection with the outside world. Sarasotans could go to the "big stores" in Tampa to do their shoppingand the vegetables and fruits of the Land of Sarasota could be taken more easily toT ampa markets for sale. No wonder Sarasota rejoiced. With the Mistletoe in regular ope r ation, more fishermen settled here and several wholesale fish houses were opened. In the beginning, the fish ing i ndustry was a tiny infant, true enough, but it grew rapidly. Before ten years elapsed, it was the main stay of the village and the fishermen 's voces swung many elections, perhaps not always to the benefit of Sarasota. There was no danger, in the early days, of fishermen catching all the fish. The supply seemed inexhau stible. Here's one description of the fish situation back in the Nineties, written by J. \V. Walden: "In 1895 I went to Bradenton in Capt. Frank Blackburn's Sea Turtle. As we approached Sarasota Pass, we met; with the incoming tide, a school of mullet. The fish darted to and fro in the sea green water. They bumped against the boat. They leaped over the rudder. I captured two six-pounders with my dip net while they were leaping through the air. The school literally filled the pass-it was more than a mile long. If there was one fish in that school, there were at least a million. It was a sight I shall never forget." Mullet were not the only fish which were plentiful. Alex Browning, in his memoirs, told of great catche s of red fish, blue fish, red snapper, grouper and mackerel--<:atches so large the fishermen's boats were some times nearly swamped. He asserted he never heard of a fisherman who went out and didn' t bring back a boatload, regardless of the weather. But none of the fishermen became wealthy, despite their huge haul s Many old time fishermen say they considere d themselves lucky if they could get a dollar for a hundred pounds of fish-often the price dropped much lower. During the Spanish-American war, however, when nearly 40,000 troops were stationed at Tampa for months, awaiting transp ortS to take them to Cuba, the fishermen made a clean-up. The demand for fish soared to unheard of peaks-and prices rose accordingly. The fishermen

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Photo Not Availabl e Photo Not Available A half ce ntu ry Stt2me.rs pro.,idcd their only connection "V;'ith the ouuide world. Above is &hown the MislltiO<, t .he first steamer which come here regut.rly, beginnin g in Below i s che Vandalia, owned by Hac r y L. Higel.

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124 THE STORY OF SARASOTA made enough money to buy better boats and more nets-and the industry expanded. The Spanish-American war also brought prosperity to the cattlemen of the Land of Sarasota. From the Myakka plains and the grazing grounds of the "Knight! domain" in the Venice area, thous and s of cattle were driven to slaughter houses at the edge of Tampa to supply meat for the hungry so l diers and booming town. There was no OP A then to regulate prices and the cattlemen truly made a killing. The cattle industry continued to thrive for a number of years after the war ended in Cuba. The island was stripped of cattle during the Cuban rebellion and subsequent American invasion. To supply the Cuban demand for meat, the Knights sold almost all the cattle they had, shipping them from Charlovte Harbor. Other cattlemen drove their cattle to Shaw's Poiqt, near Bradenton, and to Punta Rassa All got fantastic prices-and . they accumulated gorgeous piles of Spanish doubloons. 'Tis sa i d that many of the cattlemen's heirs are stm p rospero us from fortunes made a s a result ohthe Cubans' war for i ndependence. The w ar -made fortunes h elped the village of Sarasoca not one bit. The cattlemen invested their money in land or deposited it in Tampa banks. They made few purchases in Sarasota stores, preferr ing to do business in "the big city" up the bay. Even the fishermen bought their equipment from out of town. So, despite the war boom, the village of Sarasota continued to languish. Many said it was dying of "dry-rot." But there was a spark of life still left in Sarasota-and it did not die out. Sarasota Gels a Newspaper C. V. S. Wilson was a daring man. A l so, an optimist. Had he not been both, he never would have done what he did in the late spring of 1899starc a newspaper in Sarasota. What a place to go into the newspaper bus iness! Not even a thriving village! Just a spot on the map, and a very faint spot a t that. In the 1900 census, the enumerators did not even recognize its existence by list ing it among the communities of the county! Sarasota had not advanced one step during the preceding decade. In fact, it had slipped backward. The streetS were grown high with weeds; hogs wallowed in the mud at the foot of Main Street; cat de roamed over the streetS. The wooden s i dewalk on the north side of Main Screet had decayed. No street li ghts; no hard surfaced roads; no railroad; no doc tors or dentists. Not e\'en an undertaker! The village had a hotel, true enough, but it was boarded up most of the time because no manager could get enough guests to make ends meet.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 125 The reputation of the Sarasota House, at Main and Central, was none too good. A murder had been committed there a short time before and people whispered that no attempt e ver had been made to prosecute the murderer. \V'hat about stores? \V'ell, there were two general stores, but both were next door to bankruptcy. Also, a tiny combination fruit store and barber shop. No resta urants; no drug stores. Anything else? Hardly anything except a run-down livery stable and a blacksmith shop. And, oh yes, J. Hamilton Gillespie, the village's lone attorney, real estate agent, justice of the peace, et cetera. In the entire area included in the "town plat" of S arasota, not more than a dozen families lived. The population of the entire loc ality, in cluding the old community of Sara Sora as well as Bee Ridge and Fruitville, did not exceed 300, including men, women and children. Throw in Osprey, Venice, Myakka and all the rest of the territory now called Sarasota County, and you couldn't have found a total population of more chan 600! Surely no newspaper could exist in such a microscopic village as Sar.a-. sota with such a thinly settled back country! But exist the paper did! Through all the years that intervened before Sa rasota finally hit its stride, and started to be the city it is today! And until Sarasota County broke away from Manatee and Sarasota became the county seat! How did this newspaper miracle occur? The answer to that question is C. V. S. Wilson-and his wife! They were determined that the paper must go to press, come what may, and they never wavered. Not even when advertising dwindled to the vanishing point and Wilson had to dig deep into his savings to meet expenses. They kept the paper going, plugged eternally for Sarasota, and prayed for better days. A natiYe of New York, Wilson came to Florida in 1882 and founded a newspaper in: Longwood, near Orlando. The village failed to develop, so Wilson moved his plant: to Bradenton where he started the Manatee County Advocate, in 1888 Later, he printed his paper in the village o f Manatee. There the newspaper got a footing. But \10'ilson was not satisfied The Land of Sarasota lured him-and he had a hunch that unkempt Sarasota was a villag e with a future. For months he mulled over the idea of bringing his paper here. Early in 1899 he made up his mind. He waS' spurred in coming to a decision by a report that Sarasota was enjoying a boom! What a boom! It consisted of the sale of the DeSoto Hotel -and 200 feet more of waterfront land south of the h otel-for $1,500! No, not $1,500 a front foot for the land but $1,500 f or' the hotel and all the land -the whole caboodle!

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126 THE STORy OF SARASOTA That wasn't all. Another big sale was made at the same time. The Saraso t a House including all the land on which the Palmer Nation al Bank and Lord's Arcade now stand, sold for $500! No better proof than these sales could be offered to show the depths to which the once boastful vill age of Sarasota had sunk. However, the sales at least indicated that someone had faith in the future of the village. Otherwise, neith er the hotel nor the rooming house could have been sold at any pnce. The De Soto Hotel and waterfront land were sold by the Florida Mortgage& Investment Co. April28, 1899, to a syndicate of Tampa men headed by R. A. Crowell and John Savarese. They a n nounced they in tended to open it as a summer resort for Tampa peop l e. Also, that they had big plans for the future. The fact that Tampa business men had an eye on Sarasota was enough to convince Wilson chat Sarasota was the place for him. So here he came -and on June I, 1899, he published the first issue of his newspap er, the Sarasota Times o n a Washington hand press from hand set type. There after, the newspaper never missed an issue until it was sold more than twenty-two years later! O r iginally, the Times was a four-page paper, a little larger tha n present day tabloids. But the four pages provided ample space for all the advertising and news. Plenty! The De Soto Hotel monopolized Page I of the early issues of the Times with a large two-column ad in which I. P. Crowell, the manager, stated that the hotel had just been completely renovated and f urnished and made ready for guests Said the adv ertisement: "The hotel is fitted with modern improve ments, including baggage elevator, bath room on every floor, observatory enclosed with glass on cop of the hotel to which has been added several bath houses orl the, Gulf Beach where Surf Bathing can be enjoy ed." An observ a tory with Gulf Bea:ch bath houses--now wasn't that something! The advertisement also boasted of the meals served at the hotel: "The table is excellent and supplied with endless varieties of food including the celebrated Sarasota oysters and clams, all kinds of fresh fish and vegetables, and northern meats." Joe Vincent, manager of the Sarasota House, also advertised fine meals and the fact that his place had just been completely renovated. Grantham & Broadway dealers in groceries, corn oats and hay, drygoods, clothing and novelties bought extra advertising space to announce that the firm had just estab lished "a fish ranch and will be prepared to furnis h fresh fish by the hundred or thousands from August 15 through the season. The fish will be here and the salt co paek them with." This

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 127 firm, owned by Elijah Grantham and Dave Broadway, had i ts store in the building formerly occupied by the Whitaker & Smith Livery Stable at .Main and Palm. George A. Cason, who owned the old company store at Main and Gulf Stream, advertised that he was dealing in dry goods, groceries, feed and g enera l merchandise. H. B. Harris advertised that he had ice cream and cool d rinks for sale as well as fresh fruits, tobacco and cigars. He also announced he had just opened a barber shop in the rear of his store where h e co uld serve patrons. The Florida Land & Improvement Co., the Disston concem, an nounced it had 40,000 acres for sale which it would sell on easy terms in tracts of 40 acres or more for $3 an acre, or more, depending upon the location. The Alzartie House, next to t he Palms Hotel, up on Indian Beach, advertised it wo uld take guests at $5 a week for room and board. The owner, John Helveston seated that fishing and hunting are now unusually fine and tarpon are plentiful." T. L. Broadway, manager of the Mail Hack Line from Bradenton to Sarasota, advertised that his hac k "will meet the steamers at Bradenton and convey passengers and baggage to Sarasota, Osprey, Venice or My akka." He stated that "This line carries the United States Mail and goes every day except Sundays." The hack lef t Sarasota at 7 a.m., arriYed in Bradenton at II a.m., started back about I p.m. and pulled up to the post office in the Cason store about 5 p.m. John Savarese advertised the fact that the steamer Mistletoe was mak ing three trips a week between Saraso ta and T ampa, "stopp ing at Palm Beach, Indian Beach, Cortez and Anna Maria." He said the boats left her e at 7 a.m. and arrived at Tampa at 2 p.m., connecting with the Flo rida Central and Peninsular Railroad and the Plant System. '"' R. FuUer was named as general freight and passenger agent of the Savarese firm and C. A. Roux, assistant agent. Editor Wilson advertised that beautiful wall paper, "best quality and latest designs," could be ordered at the newspaper office. Priced from 3 cents a roll and up. One of the choice bits of news i n June 22, 1 899, issue, the earliest one existing, was that the De Soto Hotel had been opened with a, big celebra tion Wednesday n ight, June 14. The editor didn't go into details but he commented: "Judging from the drooping appearance .of some of our people's eyes they must have attended the ball at the hotel." More than a hundred pe rsons were at the opening, including a party of fifty from Tampa brought down o n the steamer Mistletoe.

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128 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Another news story told about Hamlin V. Whitaker having left fo r Key West in h i s schooner Sammy Lee, taking a load of 80 hogs, 40 bushels of sweet potatoes, and 70 watermelons. A new business firm was started in Sarasota the same day the first issue of the Times appeared by a man from North Florida who had come here to look things over a shore time before with Editor Wilson. This man was J. B. Turner, active in Sarasota affairs for many years. Turner rented the forme r "meeting house" building on the northwest corner of Main and Pineapp le and established the general merchandising firm of Coarsey, Turner & Co. Soon afterward, S. H Highsmith bought into the business and the firm name was changed to Highsmith & Turner. A year later, George B. P rime entered the firm and its n ame was changed again to Highsmith, Turner & Prime. The three partners then expanded in a big way. They bought an aba n doned store on rhe south side of Main, formerly occupied by Charles and Furman Whitaker, and two extra lots. For these lots-in the heart of the "town"-they had to pay all of $50 each. The firm then began selling everything from diapers to caskets, including complete lines of groceries, hardware, feed and hay, plows, stoves, and what have you. "We did a mighty good business but very little of it was for cash;" says Prime. "One year we sold $100,000 worth of goods witho u t receiv in g a thousand dollars in cash over the counters. The principal mediums of exchange were alligator hides, cow hides, furs, sweet potatoes, chickens and produce of all kinds We shipped all this stuff by boat to market and received what we could for it in cash. "At that time, the fishing business was practica lly the only cash .in dustry' in Sarasota. MuUet sold for five cents each, regardless of size, and the 'run boats' which carried them into Tampa issued receipts to the fishermen for each catch. These receipts were cashed by the merchants and collected from the wholesale fish dealers once a month." Finding that tradin g was more profitable than merchandising, Prime sold his interest in the finn tO E F. Blakeley in 1902 and for the next seven years ran a schooner to Tampa and south to Key \Xlest. He then re-entered the retail business and owned a store until 1 938. An event of transcend ant importance occurred in Sarasota in Novem ber, 1899. The village got a telephone! Two of them! One was installed in the postoffice, which had been moved to a small wooden building on the southwes t corner of Main and Pineapple, erected by Harry L. Higel, and the other in Higel's office down on the wharf. What a telephone! It hissed and hummed, and crackled and jangled. To hear someone calling from Manatee required ears as sharp as a village gossip's-and the deepest concentration. But imperfect as that first tele-

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 129 phone was, it was lauded throughout the Land of Sarasota as something wonderful! Now Sarasota could actually talk with the outside world! The first call came over the telephone Thursday morning, November 9, 1899. Said the Times: "This morning a strange sound was heard in Sarasota. A. E. Stebbins, the real estate broker of Manatee, 'called up' the editor of the Times. Then Dr. J. C. Pelot sent the compliments of the season and gave congratu l ations upon the union by wire between Sarasota and the river town." The Times added: "Harry L. Higel has been very active in this work and to him is due much of the credit of bringing about the completion of this enterprise for which we extend congratulations." The telephone line was built from Manatee to Sarasota by the Gulf Coast Tel ephone Co a subsidiary of the Tampa and Manatee River Tele graph and Telephone Co. which in 1896 had constructed a line to Tampa. Pine trees were used principally for poles on which to stretch the single "grounded line" and the route zigzagged through the woods. Perhaps someone may be interested in knowing that the officials of the company were: Horatio G Reed, president; L. R Warren, vice-president; H. G. H. Reed, secretary, and 0. L. Stuart, treasurer. Photo Not Available A DRY TIME WAS HAD BY ONE AND ALL! There was no tippling at this gathering-the firS< co nvention ever held in Sarasota, May 16, 1894 The reson: it was a convention of Baptists and all speakers orated about the deadliness of Demon Rum The Inn was located on the present site of the Sarasota Hotel.

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130 THE STORY OF SARASOTA The telephone threw extra work upon the aging shoulders of Mrs CarrieS. Abbe, postmistress of Sarasota from 1891 to 1922. \Vhen a call came through to anyone in town, she was expected to hurry through the sand} streets and bring the party to the phone When that wasn't possible, she was expected to take the message and deliver it, even though she had to walk several miles. For all of which she received not a cent of extra pay-and often not even a thank you." . A year late r the line was extended to Myakka and two more "sub scribers'' were added: C. L. Reaves, in Fruitville, and A. M. Wilson, at Mvakka. At the turn of the century, the best lots in Sarasota still were "dirt cheap." Editor Wilson, who sold-or tried to sell-real estate on the side announced that he had five bayfront lo ts for sale at a rock-bottom pnce. Said Ed itor Wilson: "These all together will be a splendid site for a summer and winter hotel, having 400 feet frontage on Sarasota Bay and being 170 feet deep, giving a view of Sarasota for six miles north and three miles west to the Gulf of Mexico. The land is scrub oak hammock, the best soil for growing oranges and pineapples, and is now covered with dense nati v e growt h. Price for whole 400 by 170 feet, $1,000. Or can be divided into lots of 80 by 170 feet for $200 each cash." These lots were just a quarter-mile south of Main Street. Harry L. Higd also ente re d the real est-ate business early in 1900, becom ing sales agent for the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co. He announced he had for sale town lots, orange groves, and hammock, saw grass and pine lands. Several new business men appear ed on the Sarasota scene in 1900 George W. Blackbu .rn announced on May 24 that he had opened a score "stocked with a large supply o f hardware and fishermen's and hunters' supplies." Also, that he had a first class blacksmith shop and would build to order all kinds of wagons. His store was built on the southeast corner of Main and Palm. An in fant exporting business was crying to get started in 1900. The owners were Eli Veruki and Andrew X. Alcxaky. They specialized in sun dried fish roe which they sold i n European markets under the trade name "Gotzago." They had a t'tvo-story fish house on a pier extending out into che bay near Cedar Point-now Sunset Point. The concern operated a few years and then closed i ts doors-for reasons no one knew. Sarasota made Goczago ceased to be. Lists of names are deadly reading-except to those whose names are listed, and their friends, and their descendants. But for the sake of the

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THE STORY OF SARASOT.A 131 record we must give here the names of all t he peopl e known to be living in the p resent S a raso t a CQunty in 1897, as shown by a directory carefully preserved by Mrs. G1,1y Shepard. Those citizens of nearly a half century ago were : Sarasota : CarrieS. Abbe, Perry and W R Beery, T. F. Blair, George B l oomer, T. Broadway Hugh Browning, W. P. Bryan, George A. Cason, N. W. Cassady, Robert Conyer, S.C. Corwin, Peter Crocker John Den n is, W. J and E B. Drumwright, John Ferguson J. Hamilton Gillespie, W. R. Gocio, E. B. Grantham, Frank Guptill, G. W. Hayden, John and Furman H. Helveston, Frank and Harry L. Higel, L. D. and W. A. Hodges, D. R. Jameson, Walter, A. P. and J. C. Jones, George Johnson, E. R. Levesey, John Liddell, G. C. and P. H. Mann, George H. Matheny, B. Molfus, J. Nelson, Elof Peterson, Frank Pinard W. E. Poole, Louis Roberts, C. M. R,.obinson, William Shoales, R. B. Smallwood, J N. Smith, C. A. St. Armand, H. 0 Stancliffe Henry Stotz, Benjamin Stickney, William Sweden, A. J. Tatum, H. M. Trapwell, J. L. Vincent, Hamlin Whitaker, Luke Wood, C. N. Thompso n and E Woolley. Six colored persons also were listed: J Cole m an, Lewis CQ]son, E. Justice, John Mays, and I. P. and W. S. Washington. NOTE: More than thre e -fourths of the above persons lived outside the town limits of Sarasota but received thei r mail at the Sarasota post office. Fruitville: Aaron and J. M. Bates, Thomas Bryan, H. F. J. A., Walter and W. H. Hand, Bailey Molphus, D F. Pate, R. J. Platt, Hilton Rawls, C L. and H. E. Reaves, G. J., John, Riley, and W. H Tatum, James Thomas, E. B. and F. H. Tucker, J. C. and P. A. Walker. Myakka: A. H., B J., George \V and James C. Albritton, Aaron Bryant, M. P Carlton, John Coker, A. J. Cook, Capt. J Crowley, W. A. Durrance D. U. Earnest, W. H. Edwards, E A. and J. J Ferguson, J. N. Hall, J. S S., and W F. Hancock, W. N. Hayes, N. J. High, Joseph Howell, W. Johnson, James F. Keen, C. F. McCall I. S. Peacock, W. P Pelot F. D. and \V. A. L. Rawls, G W. Routh, James Scott, George and S E. Step hens, George Tatum, Oscar Toll i n, Dr. A. 0., J. A., and 0. I. Webb, Alvin Willis, A. M., Ben F., and E. D. Wilson, J. H and D C. Wingate, and John R. Yeomans. Osprey : Dr. J. H. Bissell, George W. and Capt. Frank Blackburn, A., P. H., and W. W. Brown, J. B and K. D. Cowart, R S . Griffith, E. F. Helm, E. R. Marsh, H. Schmidt, H. and H. W. Surgenier, and J ohn G. and Willia m \VI. Webb. Venice: \V. E. Crequitt, C. 0 and Claude T. Curry, A. B. Edwards, George, Ralph, Wesley and Eugene Higel, H. J. Kennedy, Rev. Jesse, F. R., J. J., and L. J. Knight, C. L. and Rev. William Lowe, L. O l iver, W. E. Stephens, and A. F. Wrede.

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132 THE STORY OF SARASOTA ' A time-ob l iterated comOiuriity was lisfed in t h e directory-Hayden, "three miles south of Sarasota on the bay:" Those living there were: T. F Hamlin, E T Hevlem W M Lambert, Henry Schupp, and S F Silas. Hayden was. founded by Dr. George Hayden a traveling dentist, who came from Palmet t o . The directory also gave the i nhal:iitants of Englewood, described as "a newl y settled section whose productS are mostly fish." In 1897, the Englewood fishermen were selling their fish a t Punta Gorda. The reside n ts of that section were: J. C. J.D., M. L., and Lee Anderson, C. M. Biorseth, C. W Caroway G. W. Chapman, S. W. Chaysman, A. L. Crockford, Frank Doyle, T. L. Drym a n, L. E. Dunn, George D. Farr, D. W. Gallup, T. C., George L., and Thomas Hamilton, B. C. and W. F Heacock, N. W. Hopkins L. C. John, E. F. and W. F. Jones, G. W Jonas, R. Jonvarkeff, H. S. Kelley, Schuy l er Kelley, W P Kinsey, J. C Leach, D A. McNab, J. A. Mathern J. Mathew, C. W. Mitchell, L. C. Money John F. Morse, Charles H. Murphy, H N., H. S., and Ira Nichols, Henry Oberg, D. N. and James $ Parker, A. Poli t orsk y, U $ Powell, W. B. Pyse, George Quimby, H. Stelzman Joseph Tarrant, H and J. E. \Valker Samue l Washburn and Elias Wyatt. Thirty-six o f the above fifty-two persons were fishermen.

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CHAPTER 8 THE SEABOARD ALMOST STARTS A BOOM A BIG, BURLY MAN, hard-muscled and dour-faced, drove up to the DeSoto Hotel one December day in 1899 in a horse and buggy. With him was a dainty little lady, as delicate as he was husky and as pretty as he was well, let's say unhandsome. They were Mr. and Mrs. Ralph C. Caples, visiting Sarasota on a de layed honeymoon trip to the Florida \'Vest Coast. They had come to Brad enton by steamer from Tampa and had set out to explore the Sarasota Bay region. The 12-mile trip here from Bradenton over the sandy trails had taken four hours. Caples tied his horse to a hitchlng post and looked at the drab, unpainted buildings in the "business section" and the weeds growing in the smet. "Not much of a place, is it, darling," he said to. his wife. "Do you think we have wasted our time coming here?" "No, indeed, Ralph!" Mrs. Caples answered emphatically. "Just look at that view across the bay. I never saw anything more beautiful. Some day this village is going to amount to something-I'm sure of it! Let's stay he r e a few days." . Carefully, affectionately, Caples lifted his. wife' from the buggy and hand in hand they walked up the wooden steps of the hotel, into the lobb y, and registered But instead of remaining just a few days, they stayed a week. And the longer they lingered, the more they liked t he little village and its people. That honeymoon trip of the Caples to Sarasota would be unimportant perhaps i f Caples had not been one of the country 's most up-and -c oming railroad men; a young fellow still in his twenties but a man who had scores of friends of wealth and influence, not because he had been born to riches but because he had a vibrant personality. Also, because he had ideas. Good ideas which were practical. Because of those ideas, Caples had risen from a yard clerk's job on the Lake Erie & Western Railroad i n his home town o Fostoria, Ohio, to become city passenger agent of the Delaware, Lackawana and Western Railroad in New York City before he was 28 years old. While in Sarasota, in 1899, Caples had another idea. Why couldn't a railroad be builr to the Land of Sarasota from Tampa, giving this fertile

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134 Tl-l:E ST01(Y O F SAR.ASOTA region access to the markets of the north? Surely, a railroad was v i tally needed and why wouldn t it be profitable? The more Caples thought about theidea, the more certain he became that such a rail r oad would be a sound ven ture. He became so enthused that he and his wife packed their bags and returned to Tampa, to get financial backing. One of the men he interested was T. C. Taliaferro, president of t he First National Bank of Tampa and one of the l eading bankers of the south. Other pro minent men agreed to help finance the project. Before Caples went back north, the F lor .ida West Coast Railroad Co was formed with Tal iaferro as president and Caples as vice-president and general manager. George Dempster was employed as chief engineer and he was instructed t o make the topographical surveys n eeded in railroad construction. Other men were employed to secure the land required for the right of way. Everyone connected with the proposed railroad was warned to keep the project secret -but somehow or other, officials of the Seaboard Airline Railroad learned what was go.ng on, and just a few weeks before Caples' outfit was ready to start laying tracks, the Seaboard swung into action and began extending its tracks southward from Turkey Creek As a re sult, the company Caples p romoted passed out of existence. Caples was chagrined and more than a little disappointed. He had spent nearly five thousand dollars of his own money in the undertaking, and in those days, five thousand dollars was a lot of money, particularly to a young fellow like Caples But instead of grouching he went to the railway-coach-office of J. M. Barr, Seaboard v i ce-president, dumped his surveys and plan s on Barr's desk, and wished him good luc k. The two men later became close friends. Years afterward, Seaboard officials laughing ly declared that Caples' "wild eyed scheme" to build a railroad to Sarasota had caused the.m to build a railroad of their own at least five years sooner than they had planned. In all events, the railroad Sar asota long had hoped for finally became a reality and the almost-dead village on Sarasota Bay began to come to life again. To be more exact, the railroad changed Sarasota from a "dream town" which existed almost entirely on a town plat into an actualitya town which became legally incorporated Because of the Seaboard, Sarasota got the start which enabled it to become the city it is today. To keep the record straight, that first railroa d perhaps should not be referred to as the "Seaboard." It always has been known as the Seaboard, true enough, but the official title of the road which came he. re was the

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THE STOJ\.Y OF SARASOTA 135 United States & West Indies Railroad & Steamship Co. With a name like that, how could the railroad help but be a success! In case you're interested, the incorporators of the U.S. & \Y/. I. R. R. & S. S Co. were J. L. Young, M. E. Moody, W. L. Lowry and D C. Thompson, of Plant City, and A. Schneider, of New York City. The company was capitalized for $1,000,000. In reality, however this rail road with the fancy name was a subsidiary of the Seaboard, even after its name was changed to the Florida \Vest Shore Railway on May 9, 1903. It was absorbed into the Seaboard system years later. Land needed for a right of way to the northern edge of Sarasota was granted by the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co. on August 7, 1902, and through the town on October 31, 1902. Two Main Street lots needed' by the railroad were presented to it as a gift by Elijah B. and Fantlie Crock er Grantham November 3, 1902 On one of these lots, the present Sea board passenger depot stands. The Seaboard-let's call it that to avoid comp l exities-reached Manatee early in December, 1902, and the first train puffed into that town on December 12. It was greeted by a crowd of more than 1,000 persons the largest which had ever gathered in Manatee County for any event During the next three months, the tracks were extended to Sarasota by Charles H Davis, the contractor. The first train, consisting of a day coach, a Pullman, a baggage car and the engine, arrived here at 8 p.m., March 22, 1903. The engine was an old wood-burner, No. 52 The conductor was C. L. Morrow; the engineer, James "Red" Nichols, and the fireman, S Tilden Davis, who later became chief of police in Sarasota. The railroad tracks were extended through the town and west on Strawberry Avenue to a dock built out to eight feet of water. Several fish warehouses soon were erected on the dock. The railroad's first freight and passenger depot, a small wooden build ing "up in the woods" at Seventh and Lemon, was opened by Hamden S. Smith, sent here by the Seaboard from Anthony, Fla., where he had been the railroad's general agent. "There was no office furniture in the depot when I got there Smith relates. "Only a telegraph table built in the bay window with instruments installed thereon. I borrowed a nail keg from the carpenters for an office chair and, at Furches Store on Main, I got a bacon box to use for a desk until the office furniture arrived, several days later "Around the new depot was a pine thi cket. I had to cut a road through the trees ro get a team up to che freight depot doors. I had brought a kerosene lamp and some railroad blankets with me, so I set up shop as Sarasota's first agent and telegraph operator. I had the freight and pas-

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136 THE STORY OF SARASOTA senger business to care for besides the express and telegraphing, and also the U.S. mail to get from and deliver t o the post office, on my back." Sarasota Becomes a Town. When the first Seaboard train chugged into Sarasota, no brass band was on hand to blare forth a welcome. There wasn't even a crowd waiting at the depot-not enough people lived in Sarasota then to make a good sized gathering, to say nothing of a crowd. "Perhaps :fifty people saw rhe first train arrive," estimates Mrs. C. V. S. \Wilson. "But what we lacked in numbers, we made up for i n spirit . We all were tremendously pleased that Sarasota at last had gotten a real railroad and everyone was convinced that the future growth of the com munity was assured." Growth of the tiny village was not long in coming. In fact, Sarasota began to spring to life in the fall of 1902 when it was learned definitely that the Seaboard intende d to extend irs tracks to Sarasota instead of stopping at the Manatee River. Real estat e began to sell again-more sales were made during the following year than during the entire preceed ing decade. In one month, six new houses were started! And two new business places were opened! S ure enough Sarasota was going places! So enthused were the Sarasotans regarding the prospects for the future that they decided the village must be incorporated as a town. A mass meeting was called. It was held Tuesday nigh t October 14, 1902, in Harry L. Higel's office on the wharf. Practically every qualified voter in the village attended-53 of them. "Sarasota now is at the cross-roads," orated Higel. "The t ime has come when we must decide whether we should let Sarasota lag along, doing nothing to advance irs progress, or whether we should band to gether, incorporate as a town, and then fight for i mprovements we need so badly!" G illespie chimed in wirh his Scottish burr. "Ay, we hae lingered a' too long alreedy. If we luve chis p l ace o' o urs, we must incorrrrrpurate!" Higel and Gillespie were lo udly cheered. The issue was never in doubt. The vote to incorporate was una n imous. Then the firs t town officials were elected: John Hamilton Gillespie, mayor; J. B. Turner, Dr .J. 0. Brown George W. Blackburn, W. J. Hill and Harry L. Higel, aldermen; B. D. G ullett, clerk, and T. F. Blair, marsha ll. Long afte r midnight the mass meeting broke up--and the vill age of Sarasota had been made a town! The incorporation, made in accordance with rhe general laws of the state, was recorded November 14, 1902, in Manatee County rec ords. The incorporation papers show the town's seal, crudely drawn, as "a mullet

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Photo Not Available Photo Not Available SARASOTA AS IT LOOKED IN 1887 1 The famous o l d De Sot o Hotel, later callec! the Belle Haven Inn, i s s h own above. Lowe r Main Str eet, as it looked from the top of' the DeSoto is shown below. Tho building t the head of the street was the Sanso<> House, l ocated where the P lme
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138 THE S TORY OF SARASOTA with a rising sun over palmettoes with shells at the base." The town's motto was: "May Sarasota Prosper." Before the incorporation was recorded, the newly-chosen town officials held their first meeting, in Gillespie's home, Tuesday night, October 20, and Dr. Brown was elected president of the council. During the following two weeks, Gillespie-,.the town's lone attorney --drafted the first o rdinances covering the duties of the various officials and a l so providing penalties for public health and public safety offenses Laws covering taxation also were included. It's reported, but not con firmed, that the original ordinances were cop i ed from those o f Lake l and. Anyhow, they were approved by council November 27th. They were then advertised in the Sarasota Times during December and went into effect January 1, 1903. Sarasota's first gain from incorporation was a calaboose, erected during November on the north side of Cedar Point. To build and equip it, Mayor G i llespie advanced $200. But before he paid out the money he secured a note--canny Scotsman that he was-from the council members for the entire am ount, and made sure the loan would pay e igh t per cent interest. The calaboose was built by W. F. Rigby and re ady for its first "guests" December 14. The building cost $105the rest of rhe money went for equipment. Just what that equipment was, town records do not say While the town fathers were busily engaged on official matters, Sara sota's "de luxe" hotel, the De Soto, c hanged hands and in the process acqu ir ed a new name The Tampa syndicate which had bought it early in 1899 sold it to the Southern Investment Co., a Virginia corporation, on October 6, 1902, at a profit of $3,000. The new owners c h anged the hotel's name to the Belle Haven Inn-perhaps the y had no liking for the Spanish conquistador after whom the hote l had been ori ginally named Under new managem ent, the hotel reopened for another winter season-one which proved to be the best in its history-on Wednesday, December 10. On that same day, the town council gave orders to Marshall Blair to make the first publ i c improvement in Sarasota-repair a bridge across a slough near Cason's store at the foot of Main Street. This bridge, erected years before by volunteers, had .rotted and the town fathers agreed it muse be reconstructed before someone fell through it. The bridge job was completed in three weeks and when the marshall presented his bill, the councilmen declared it was outrageously high. All of $7.99! Practically eight whole dollars to rebuild one bridge! Highway robbery! Pa.ymenu of the bill was approved only after long argument.

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THE STORY Of' SARASOTA 139 The Sarasota Ice, F ish and Powe r Co. won the distinction on Decem ber 12, 1902, of becoming the first concern in town t o be given a permit to erect a plant. It was authorized to make ice, generate electricity for lights and power, and handle fish. The concern immediately erected a building at Fifth and Lemon and installed a ten-ton York ice -making machine Now: Sarasotans could have refrigeration and ice cream. The first directors of t:he company were J. L. Wilhelm, \'if. C. Hayman, Frank C. Armstrong, S. D. Futch, J. W. \Vilhelm and S. D. McKean. Rosemary Cemetery became town property on February 11, 1903. Previously, it had been owned by the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co. and burials could be made there only with the company's permission. Now, with Sarasota incorporated, Gillespie deeded it to the rown as a company gift. Council o r dered it surveyed by Col. E. W. Morrill the work tO cost $35. The first purchaser of a lot in Rosemary from the t own was L. H. Cunliff who bought a burial place on May 22, 1903, for $15. Seven years later Cunliff appeared before council and declared he had been cheated. He said he had been given a lot priced at only $10. To appease him, coun cil suggested that he buy the lot adjoining and $5 would be knocked off the price. Cunliff agreed and thereby became the owner of two l ots which cost him, altogethe r, $20. Marshaii Blair was the first cown emp l o ye t o quit his job. He told council March 10, 1903, he no l onger could afford to work at "starvation wages." He had been getting $10 a month for serving as marshall and sanitation inspector. In addition he received $1 for each arrest and 2 Yz per cent of all license money collected. B u t arrests were few and far between and council had not yet fixed license fees-so he couldn't collect them. Blair also was supposed to be paid $3 a month for taking care of the street lights-but the lights hadn't been bought. In February, Blair had made only $14--his salary of $10 and $1 each for four arrests. The councilmen reluctantly admitted $14 a mon t h wasn't quite enough to live on but they said the town couldn't afford to pay higher wages, so Blai r's resignation was accepted. D S McRae was appointed to succeed him. The co uncil had the bes t of r easons fo r rejecting Blair's p l ea for a wage boost. The town wasn't getting any revenue from which salaries could be paid! When the town was incorporated and officials elected, the councilmen believed they would be able to charge license fees to everyone engaged in business and they tentativel y fixed a schedule of fees. But a hitch developed. M ayor Gillespie dec ided that collection of fees might be illegal, due to the

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140 THE STORY OF SARASOTA fact that the town had been incorporated only under the state's general law and not by specific act of the state legislature. He advised delay The bugaboo of legality finally was eliminated on April 30, 1903, when Gov. William Sherman Jennings signed a statute which validated all acts and deeds done by the town officials up to that time and author ized them to continue in office until the next election From that date on, Sarasota really was a town-without any doubt! The councilmen then sat down and began re-drafting the l ic ense fee schedule to make sure too many enemies would not be made among people called u pon to foot the bill. While they were debating this momentous issue, Theodore W. Redd beat the gun and appeared at council meeting April 6, 1903, and planked down $6.50 as a fee for his livery stable. He said it was about time the town got some money m 1ts treasury. Perhaps as a reward for his generosity, the council straightway award ed him the contract for the first street improvement program in Sarasota -the grading of Main Street from Five Points to the bay. For this work, he was paid $3 5. But when the job was finished, the town still was broke. So Redd had to accept town scrip instead of cash. The scrip wasn't re deemed until six months later Money or no money, the council decided on April 14, 1903-three weeks after the first train came snorting into town-that the time had come when Sarasota should have light Street lights! So council went on a spending spree and ordered three kerosene street lamps costing $3.75 each from Knight & Wall Co., of Tampa. When they were received sev eral weeks later, one was p l aced at the watering trough at Five Points, another at the foot of Main Street, and the third at the railroad depot. Council was spurred into taking this extravagant move by the women of Sarasota who began to demand in no uncertain terms that public improvements be started on a scale in keeping with an up-andcoming town. They were tired of walking along unlighted streets-and they had had enough o wading through sand above their shoetops. After getting the lights, they insisted upon better sidewalks, and better streets Harkening to the shrill demands of the women, the councilmen got busy. They awarded C. L. Reaves a contract for "hard surfacing" Main Street with marl, the expense to be borne by abutting property owners. The councilmen also preemptorily ordered merchants on the south side of Main street, between F ive Points and Pa l m Avenue, to build a 7 Yz-foot sidewalk at their own expense Going a step farther, they ordered merchants and property owners on the north side of Main to rebuild the side walk which had been built years before In many places, this old side -

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TH STOI\ y OF SARASOTA 141 walk had rott:e d away-so, in reality, council orde r ed side walks for both sides of the s t r ee t The women w ere not yet s a tisfied. They d emanded still m ore p rogress They part i c ularly wanted side w alks at the M ethodis t Churc h then lo cated o n the southeast corn e r of M ain an d P i neapple. But the cou ncilmen dilly-da lli e d. They said they had no f u n d s co undertake such a major im p rove ment. Irk e d e xceedingly, the w omen asked perm ission to lay the w alks them selves. Of cours e the p ermission was granted. Before the w ork was start ed, the women p l eade d with the townsmen for fi n anc ial a ssistance. But the men s a ying Sarasota had gotten along fine w i t hout sidewalks for years, so why hurry? T he women were momen t arily stymied-but not for long D igging d ee p into t heir savings, they raised enough money to buy the l umber needed for the sidewalks. It was u nloaded near the church. The women then proceed ed t o start laying the walks them selves Tha t did the trick. W h en the men s a w them struggling wi t h the he avy planks, they shame-facedly took over tl1e job. The wome n men s tood b}' a n d bossed. And per haps snickered. The s uccess in the s i dewalk -building \tndertaking encou r aged the wome n t o demand more and more i n the w a y of public impr o v e m e n ts To g ive their demands mo re w eight, t h ey o r g anized the Town Improve ment Soci e t y at a meeti n g hel d in the home of Mr s. Ebene z er Thompson. The first memb er s inclu d e d Mrs. R. P. McDani el Mrs. Ca r r ie S. Abbe, Mrs. Herbert S. S ta ckhouse, Mrs. Hatt.ie Hebb, Miss S a ra h Young, Mrs. C. V. S. Wilson and Mrs. F W. Schultz. The members h i p l ist grew rap idly and during the years which followed the society worked untiringly in the interests of Sarasota. After the town h ad been given a taste of p u blic improvements, it began wanting more and more. Citizens insisted upon h a ving old bridges repaired, quagm ires filled, more streets and sidew a lks b uil t and a town beautification p r o gra m s t arted To get e n o ugh mone y to start just a fe w o f these improve m ents, council finally passed on S eptember 10, 1903, the license fee ordinance-and set the fees which had t o b e paid by every one engaged in bu s iness o r a p r ofessio n. A complete list of everyone sub ject to the tax was spread upon the clerk's m inutes It i s inte r esting because it s h ows who was what in the fall of 1903 The f ollowing firms and individua l s were list ed: m e r chants-High smich, Turner & Co., T J. Dancey, E. B. Grantha m, G e o rge A. Cason, George W. Blackburn, McKean & Co., James Flood, R B. Chadwick, Pelot & Albritcon, Joe Hansen, Ve .ruki Fish Co., Sarasota Fish Co., L. C.

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142 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Cox, Sarasota D rug Co., Sarasota Ice Plant, and Sarasota I ce, Fish & Power Co.; dentist-De. R P. Noble; physicians-Or J. 0 Brown and Dr. A. B. Cannon; livery stables-H. V. Whitaker and T u rner & Foy; real estate agen ts--C. V S. W i lson, and Saraso t a Realty A ge ncy; attorneys -J. Hamilton G ille spie and J. H. Lord; insuranc e agen.c-R P. Mc Danie l ; S o u thern Express Co. ; H a ve n Inn, Sar a s ota House. and B r oa dwa y House; e a tin g A. Bryant, and Mrs Ca r rie S. Abbe. The fees ranged f rom $ 1.50 to $12.50 a year. Imposition o f the se fees, the first taxes of any kin d ever levied by the town, was delaye d .for months pending a very necess ary move by the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd., the British concern which founded Sarasota and owned most of the property in the town. At the time Sarasota was incorporated, the Br i tish company still hdd t i tle to all the streets, avenues, alleys and roads. Gillespie, the company representative, promised that these thoroughfares would be deeded over tO the town promptly. But all the necessary papers were not signed until August 5, 1903 T his essential deed was signed by Gilles pie as attorney in-fact for the c o mpan y witnessed by CarrieS. Abbe a nd H N Trapnell, and notorize d by C. V S Wilson. After c h i s dee d was r ec o r ded, councilmen breat hed easie r Now, when t h ey authori z ed s t reet improvements, they knew that the t o wn's own property was being improve d-not that of a British co n cern. Parentheti c ally, i t mig h t be mentioned here t ha t the Fl o r i d a M ortgage & Investment Co. Ltd ., never gave anything to S a r a sota its child except Rosemary Ce m etery and the thoroughfares. It: owned approxi mately 50,000 acres in the vicinity of the town huge traces for which it paid approximately $1 an acre. But the company did not give one acre of that land, cheap as it was, to Sarasota for park for any other purpose. This despite the fact that the company had promised the Scotch colonists that it would provide "a big park in the center of the town." The p r omise never was kept. The penuriousness of the F l orida Mortgage & I nves t m ent Co., Ltd., resulted in a mos t unusu a l anomoly. For five yea r s a fte r the town was incorporated no taxes w e r e l ev i ed on real and per son al p r o p erty! And this despi t e the fac e that t h e town ordinances, app r o v e d b y t h e state legislatu re g a v e counci l the right to levy taxes up to ten m.ills for public purposes. The explanatio n for c his strange state of affairs is q u ite simple The British concern still owned most of the land in t he t ow n and held title to many of the buildings. Had taxes been levied, the company would have had to pay out money in sizeable sums to pay for public improve ments. That would never, never do! The Britishers stood to profit most

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T H STORY OF SARASOTA 1 4 3 b y the rapid deve l o p ment of the commun i ty-but they didn t wan t to pay the fiddler! Gillespie the company representative, ha d g r eat influence i n the town, not onl y bec ause of his person a lity bu t also because he was in effect, the tow n lan dl ord. What he saidw e nt! And heaven hel p those who opposed h im! So when Gillespie obeyed orde r s f r om Scotlan d and f r owned on taxes, no ta xes were levied! Gille s pi e didn't succee d in s q uelching all opposit ion. furry L. Higel -a Sarasota b ooster thro ugh out his l i fetime-insisted in c o u ncil meet i ngs t ime and a gain t h a t the no-taxa tion pol i cy would result inevit abl y in town stagnati o n He argued that if Sarasota e xpected to grow, it m u s t pay for thing s w hich would make gro w t h possible. But G i ll espie w a s ma yor and c o ntrolled a m a j or i ty o f votes in council-so Higel got no wh ere. Not just then. For a time i t l ooked as tho ugh Gilles pie was right a n d H igel was wrong. F rom 1902 to 1906, the town spurted ahead. T h ere were reaso ns-and J. H. L ord was one o f them! Lor d C o mes to Sarasota Joseph H. Lord was a greedy man. N o t g r e edy for food nor greedy for weal th. But gree d y for land. Particula rly, land in the Sarasota Bay region. H e never cou ld get enoug h of i t. A stra nge fellow, this man Lord; remarkable in m any w ays. A native of Maine, he studied to be an attorney at Brown Univers i ty, in Providence, R I. His family was well to do and his w i fe, the former Miss Fra n c \"V eb ber, came from a wealthy family He also had many wealthy friends. He h a d a m a gnetic personality and w a s a ftu ent orato r. \'Q'hen h e pulled out a ll th e stops a nd really l et go, his oratio ns were worth comi n g miles to hear. He commanded respect, p artly b e cause of his bro a d know ledge and partly b ecause of his magnifi c e n t p hysique Square-sh o uld e r e d, he s tood six feet five i n his stocking feet an d weighed m ore than 220 p o und s L ord ca m e to Florida in th e lat e Eighties to buy p h osphate lands for himself and his wealthy New England associateS. For a while he l ived at Orlando Looking for a location where land with p hosphate possibilities might be b ought cheap, he first: v isit e d the Land of Sarasota in the winter of 189 0 91. The Venice a rea attracted him and on M a rch 19, 1891, he and his w ife s father, Frank R. Webb e r purchased 1,394 acres from Mr. and Mrs. Henry S Kedney for $1,000. During the n ext e leven years Lord spent most of his ti me in the Veni c e regio n. He pla n te d several c i trus groves and began exp eriment ing

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144 THE STORY OF SARASOTA. with various types of crops. His love for this section of Florida increased steadily-and, as it increased, Lord began buying more and more land. When the Seaboard entered Sarasota, Lord became convinced that the then insignificant village was a community with a fu t ure. So to Sarasota he came, in the spring of 1903 Then, with shrewd foresight, he began buying the best business sites in town. One of his first purchases was the Sarasota House, on the northwest corner of Main and Central. He knew that Mrs. Rosie Vincent, the owner, had purchased it four years before for $500 but when she held out for $3,000, he paid it. He realized he was paying a stiff price but 'vas certain time would prove the wisdom of his decision. Today the corner is worth -well, just go ask the Palmer Corporation! With the de .al closed on the Sarasota House, Lord began buying lots all along Main Street paying $50 for some, S I 00 for others and even more for lots which particularly struck his fancy. He also bought lots on Pine apple, and Centra l in fact, here, there and everywhere Within a year he had acquired title to four of the five corners at Fi\'e Points. For the Methodist Church site, on the southeast corner of M ain and Pineapple, he paid $1,600 and threw in a nother lot for good measure. He also bought the ''triangle", bounded by Central, Pineapple and Seventh Street for $ 800. And the nor t hwest corner of Main and Pineapple for $1500 For all four corners, he paid a grand total of exactly $6 ,900! The acquisition of these choice spots merely whetted Lord' s appetite for Sarasota land Not only in the town bu t in the back country. Ulti mately, his holdings included at least 200 tow n lots and approximately 70,000 acres up and down the coast and far inland. A part interest in many of the hol dings was held by New England associates of Lord-but he con trolled the property. The Lord purchases stimulated Sarasota even more tha n did the coming of the railroad For most of the land he paid cash-spot cash, and more money circulated i n Sara sota than at any time in its history. The town was confident that now it was on the map-to stay. Sarasota Spurts-Then Lags Playing a hunch, \'
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 145 Tying his horse to a hitching post at the Sarasota House, Lathrop stood a few minutes watching cows drinking at the waterin g trough at Five Points. He look ed at the drab, unpainted buildings on Main Street and noticed that the one sidewal k in the "business section" was rotted and falling apart, "What a town!" muttered Lathrop tO himself. "If it e ver amounts to anything it'll be a miracle. Why, in heaven 's name, did I ever come here anyhow?" For a few minutes, Lathrop pondered the question of whether he hadn't better forget Sarasota and go back to Brade nton. But finally he decided to stay why waste a trip? That night h e app eare d before the council and presented his proposi tion. A telephone exchange would be establishe d here, he said, if the company would be granted a 30-year fra nchise. And the exchange would be opened within a year. Photo Not Available A BUSY DAY AT FIVE POINTS IN IJI05 Many Sarasotans got their drinking water in the old doys at the Five Poinin, hown 3t ex treme lef t. The buildings in the bockground, "on the triangle", were built by ]. H Lord.

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1 4 6 THE STORY OF SARASOTA The councilmen leaped a t the offer. A regular telephone exchange, with telep h ones all over town-without having to pay a dime of the town's meager funds! Alm ost coo good to be true! Now: the town wouldn't be dependent entirely on the two g rounded-wire phone s, which hissed and hummed, in Carrie Abbe's post office and in Higel's office! In less than an hour, Lathrop had th e franchise he sought. Lathrop s company was not able to make good on his promise to star t service within a year. Delays were enco u ntered in getting materials. Bu t early in August a little 50-line magnetO switchbo ard was installed in the tiny wooden bu il ding which housed the post office. Mrs. Abbe was made the local manager and she employed Miss Mamie Woodruff as the first operator. On August 10, 1903, the went into operation and the com pany had 48 Sarasota subscribers, instead of a hoped-fo r 25. More good breaks were in s c ore for Sarasota. In the following month, the U. S. dredge Suwa nnee finally comp l eted a channel through Little Sarasota Bay t o Ve nice, cuttin g through the last bars and shoals on which boats had becom e stranded at low t id e for many years. The channel was only three feet deep in places and very narrow but it was infinitely better than no chan nel at all. With the completion of chis c hann el, a s teadily increasing number of launches were put into use up and down the coast. One of the first was owned b y Harry Higel. Soon there were scores. And now, for che first time, freight boats could ply u p and down Little Sarasota Bay on regu lar schedules. The dredging cost the federal government ap proximately $50,000 but it was worth ten times that amoun t to the Land of Sarasota. During the winte r of 1903 04 Sarasota grew so fast that its m i niatur e tworoom school on Eighth Stre e t became badly overcrowded. Parents began demanding better for their children. An appeal was made to the Manatee County school board co cake prompt action. The Sarasocans said at least $3500 would be needed to build che school required. The boar d members cogitated and then decreed they could not affo r d to spen d mo re t han $2,000. But they agreed t o e .rect the kind of buildin g wanted if the Sarasocans would pay the extra $1500 and also provid e the lot. Subscriptio n l ists were circul ated and in less than a week, the n eces sary amount was pledged the r equired $1500 plus $400 more for paying for a l o c clearing the land and enclosing it with a fence. The schoo l loca ted on Main Street east of P ine Srreet was built during the su mmer of 1 904. It was a t wo-story building with four class rooms on the first floor and one class-room and a n unceiled audi torium on the second. I t wa s opened September 1 9, 1 .9.94, with an enroll-

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 147 ment of 124 pupils. T hree teach ers wer e emplo yed at first and a fourth was added to the s taff after Chri stmas. On Thanksgiving Day, in 1904 a physician arrived in Sarasota-a man who was destined to play a prominent part in the communit y's affairs for many years thereafter He was Dr. Jack Halton, "the singing doctor," an Englishman by birth, who was then p racticing i n Muncie, I nd. Dr. H al t on came to Florida to esc ape the bleak northern win ters-and whi l e looking for che best place to locate, came to Saraso t a He liked the cown -and the people. So he re turned north, got his famil y, and came back south soon after C hristmas. Lat er, Dr. Jack Halton established the Halton Sani t arium on Gulf Stream A venue, the first institution of its kind in this section. It was Dr. Halton who first denoun ced the o utdoor privies and inade q uate cesspools in che business districr. Appearing before council soon after he opened his first office here, he asserted that th e town's l a ck of sewers was a disgrace to the community. T o emphasize his point, he said the sten ch from the cesspool at the Belle Haven I n n the t own's deluxe hotel, was so nauseating he ha d been unabl e to finish eating a meal in the hotel' s dining room As a result of the doctor's one-man campaig n, council ordered the manager of the Belle Haven r o i nstall adeq uate cesspool s or c l o se up the place That was as far as cou ncil would go. It wasn't ready yet t o sho ulder the responsibilit y of levying taxes so a $eWerage system could b e built and paid for-<>r even put the issue before the people. Another depression was needed to convince the town that sewers were a necessity and not a luxury. The first rewer in town wa s built by J. H. Lo r d after people began compla inin g abcut the s tench from the cesspool at the Sar asota House, whic h Lord owned. Six-in ch pipe s were laid in the alley just north of Main street f rom the hote l ou t into the bay Merch ants on the north sid e of Ma i:t we r e j:ermitced to tap into the sewer by paying a small r enta l fee. 1905 was a bright year for Sarasota During that yea r the town got i t s rea l golf course, its firs t ban k, its first "modern business building, and its first really good artesian well. Practically all these "firscs" resulted from a sudden burs t of activity by ]. Hamilton Gille s pie. inspired perhaps by the fact that he had just married attractive Miss Blanche McD aniel. The doughty Scotsma n decide d, early in 1905, that Sarasota had be come large enou g h and thriving enough to have a bank of its own So he w ent to Tampa and tal ked w ith T. C Taliaf e rro, president of the Firs t National Bank of Tampa. Gilles pi e painte d a g l owin g p ict ure of Sarasota s:> glowing that Taliaferro agreed t o use his infl uence to ope\ a branch

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148 THE STORY OF SARASOTA bank in Gillespie's domain-not a branch of the Tampa bank but a branch of the First National Bank of Manatee, which Taliaferro also headed. The Tampa banker declared, however, that the branch wouldn't be opened until a building suitable for a bank was erected in Sarasota. Gil lespie promised that such a building would be completed by fall. He kept hi.s word. A two-story concrete block structure was erected that summer on the southwest corner of Main and Pineapple. And in the corner room of that building, the branch bank ;as opened in October, with 0. L. Stewart as its first cashier. Stewart was soon succeeded by C. E Hitchings who remained with the bank for many years thereafter. The bank building, now known as the Badger Pharmacy building, was built on the spot where a small wooden building had been erected by Harry L. Higel for the postof!ice and telephone exchange While con struction work was in progress, the wooden building was moved out into Main Street. And there it remained for months. No one complained that it interfered with traffic-in those days, Sarasota had never heard of traffic jams. The concrete blocks used in the building were made by J. Louis Houle, who was induced to come here from St. Petersburg by Gillespie. Houle set up hi$ plant on Sixth Street near Lemon. To obtain the water needed in mixing the conc rete, Houle drilled an eight inch artesian well, 490 feet deep A vein of fine water was hit. Later, the well was purchased by Sarasota as a source of municipal water Hou l e remained in Sarasota many years. And the b l ocks he manu factured were used in building the Halton Sanitarium, operated by Dr. Jack Halton, and many r esid ences and stores. Prac ti call y all the buildi11gs are s till standing and their cement block walls seem as good as new, providing convincing proof that Houle sold a good product. Incidentally, the teiephone exchange and post office were not forced to l eave Main and Pineapple by the construction of the bank building. The exchange was moved into the second floor of the new structure and the post office i nto a room fronting on Pineapp l e. Not satisfied with getting a bank for Sarasota, Gillespie went ahead during the summer of 1905 and provided the town with its first nine-ho l e golf course, laid out o n a 11 0 acre tract of la n d just south and southeast of the present courthouse He a lso built a clubhouse. The course was the personal property of Gillespie and he main t ained 1t at h1s own expense for fi v e years when it was taken over by Owen Burns. The Gillespie course wasn' t the finest in the state by any means old timers say, but it was good enough to lure a few golfers to Sarasota. But not many. The course never was overcrowded.

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THe STORY OF SARASOTA 149 The crest of Sarasota's brief wave of prosperity passed in 1905. Dur ing the following year, real estate sales fell off and building slumped. The pump-priming provided by the coming of the Seaboard and Lord's land purchases during 1903 and 1904 failed to give the town sufficient impetus to maintain a steady growth. In fact, the town began slipping backward. Once more, Sarasota experienced bad times-and they were accentuated by the natio n-wide financial depression of 1.907. Strange as it may seem, however, the bad times of 1907 and 1908 proved to be a godsend to Sarasota. They served to convince the people of Sarasota that the Lord helps those who help themselves-that if they want ed co have a real city, it was about time for them to begin laying the foundation stones on which a city could be built. When the Sarasotans began taking stock of the community assets, they did not find much to brag about. True enough, the town now had a railroad, a few more business houses, a golf course of sorts, a fair-to middling school, and a few hundred more residents. But, in general, the town was not much better chan it had been in 1902, before the railroad came. A narrow strip of marl had been laid in the Cef!ter of Main Street in 1903 but most of the marl had been washed away by rains, and now the street looked even worse than i t had before. The other streets were nothing but sandy trails. The town had no water system-the people still had to depend on cisterns or shallow wells. There were no sewers.. No electricity; no gas; no street lights except the three kerosene lamps bough t in 1903. Hogs still wallowed in the streets and cattle roamed everywhere, destroying sh rub bery and lawns. Repeated efforts were made to induce council to pass an ordinance to prohibit livestock owners from. allowing their animals to run at large. But che councilmen were afraid to take such a drastic step. The cattlemen still had too much influence. In fact, the cattlemen and their friends, plus the fishermen, just about ruled the town. Both groups favored maintaining the status quo. They didn't want the town to grow because they realized that growth would jeopardize their interests. They .knew Sarasota couldn't be a fishing village and cattlemen's hangout and at the same time be a popular winter resort. So, quite naturally, the fishermen and cattlemen fought progressive measures. They sided with the town tightwads who were "agin" taxes on principles-and also, of course, against issuing bonds for public tmprovements. The bad times of 1907, however, served to convince some of the tight wads that the town wasn't going to stand still. They began to realize it was either going to go move ahead or slip backward into the deserted

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150 THE STORY OF SARASOTA village class. And, much as they hated to part with money, they didn't want that to happen. They became converted to progress because they didn't wane to lose their shir ts. Reluctantly, therefore, they refrained from balking when the town progressives persuaded council to ask the state legislature for a specia l charter giving the town the right to issue bonds And, wonder of all wonders they didn't kick over the traces when council finally d ecided to levy taxes on real estate. A tax rate of five mills was agreed upon just five mills. All thi s in 1 907. I n the fall elections, held \Xfednesday, October 9, Arthur B. Edwards was elected Sarasota's first tax assessor. He started work immediatel y and began to assess all properties in the town limitS He comp leted the job within three months and the first town tax bills were sent out early in 1908. Now, at the cown was assured of getting at least a little money for public improvements. It was a start in the right direction. But only a start. Nothing more. The town was still skating on mighty thin financial ice A report of the town's clerk and treasurer, S. D. Hayman, given to council August 12, 1908, show ed chat the entire town revenue during the preceding nine months totalled only $3,112. Of this, $2,350 was obtained from the new real estate cax ; the bal ance, f rom occupational fees, dog taxes, fines, sale of ceme ter y lots, and so on. With such a skimpy revenue, Sarasota limped along, wanting tO get ahead but hesitating to pay the full cost of progress. This betwixt and between attitude was reflected in the town's first bond election held on Tuesday December 1 1908-an important date in Sarasota's history. A proposed $25,000 bond issue for street paving was appr oved 46 to 16 but a proposed $5,000 issue for sewers was defeated by thr ee voces, 23 voting in favor of it and 26 against. The bond trustees elected were Dr. C. B. Wilson, J. B. Turner and William Jeffcott. After the bonds were sold, in February, 1909, 20-foot limerock "pave ment" was laid on Main Street from Gulf Stream Avenue to Orange Avenue a 16-foot pavement from Orange to Osprey, and a 1 0 -foot pav e ment to the corporation line. Short sections of Central, Pineapple, Orange, Gul f S tream and Osprey also were paved-with 10-foot pa vements. Sarasota began to pull itself out of the sand-and when the paving work started, Sarasot ans watched the work with pride! At long last, Sarasota had taken one step, on its own initiati ve, toward building a modern t own. And it should be recorded here that the town officials who pushed this development program were Mayor G. W Frank lin and Councilmen T. J. B ryan, J. A. Clark, J. Hamilton Gillespie C. C.

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Photo Not Available Photo Not Available SARASOTA IN THE DAYS OF LONG AGO Gulf Str eam A" cnue, :1s it: was in 1901, is $ how.n i.n the upper pic.cure. The buildings :t1ong che shore were fish hou5es. In the lower picture are shown t'\vo of tbe countless cows w hich wand ered over Sansota streets for many year-s. The founc ai n was donated c o che town by J Hamilton Gillespie. I t wos located at M a in and \'lm.

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152 THE STORY OF SARASOTA McGinty and R. P. McDaniel. Also deserving c r edit are men who served as officials during the preceding year, when the special charter was ob tained fro m the state legislature. The mayor chen was J. B. C hapli ne, Sr., and Councilmen Harry L .Higel J. \VI. Keener, and William Jetfcott in nddition to McGinty and McDani el. These were the me n w h o braved the wrath of the c a ttlemen and fish er men and started Sarasota on the road to becoming t he city it i s today. In the forefronrof the progressives who battled to lay the founda tions for a mo dern town was 34-year-old Arthur B. Edwards, a native son of the Land of Sarasota, different in many ways from J H. Lord with whom he was associated in the real estate business for more than a decade. Lord was a giant of a man-Edwards just a little fellow, in compariso n who never weighe d more chan 150 pounds. But he was strong and wiry, and never seemed to cire, e ven when he worked day and night. Edwards a lways was a leader of the progressives. He fought continu o u s ly for better streets, for better schools, for town beaut ification, f o r roads to connect Sarasota wi t h the outside world. To this keen-e yed man, the city of Sarasota owes a bi g debt of gratitude-a debt which never can be repaid in full. There we r e o t h er progressives, of course. Of them, Harry L. H igel was one of the most outstanding. A fiery, outspoken man, he was often invo lv e d in bitter political fights-but a lm ost inv ariably, the fight s were due t o t he face tha t Rigel d e m anded more and more improvements when tile othe r fellow didn't. A progressive citizen-that man Rigel. O n e of the finest Sarasota ever had. It was Rigel who g a ve Siesta K ey itS name-it had formerly been called Sarasota Key. In 1907, Rigel organized the Siesta Land Co with Capt. Louis Roberts, owner of the Roberts' Hotel and E. M. Arbogast, of M arling t on, \Y/. Va a w inter visitor. They platted the town of Siesta and launched an adver ti sing c ampaign. In the advertisements, Siesta was described as a new tow n located in "th e prettiest spot in the world." Said the ad: "Goo d large s t reets and avenues have been laid, out to t h e Gulf of Mexico, where surf bathin g and shell gat her i ng has n o equal. There are clams, oys t ers and crab s in abundance T h e financia l depression of !907 killed the Siesta venture for a time. The town was replatted in 1912 and Siesta Key then began co make pro gress. Rigel was instrumental in organizing the firs t yach t club in Sarasota. A large club house was built dur ing the summer of 1907 on che north end o f Siesta Ke y and, in November, the club held itS grand opening with a

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THE STORY OP SARASOTA 153 sho re dinner prepared under the supervision of Captain Roberts, famed for his clam chowder and other seaf ood specialties. The members o f this origina l Sarasota Y acht Clu b inclu ded, besides Higel and Roberts, A. B. Edwards J. Louis Houle, George W. Franklin, Dr. Jack Halton, J. Hamilton Gillespie, William Jetfcott, C. C. McGinty, J. B. C hapline, Jr. R. P. McDaniel and other prominent citizens. Several of the members didn t even own rowboa ts-but that didn't stop them from bein g at least armchair admira ls. During the bad times of 1907, the steame r Mistletoe stopped making its tri-week l y runs to Sarasota. John Savarese, owner of the boat, had gotten into financial difficulties and been forced to retrench. To maint a in a stea mer connection with Tampa Higel bought the Van .daiia which he operated for severa.l ye a rs, despite the fact that he rarel y broke even. Sarasota Almo s t Goes Up it: Smolu Because Sarasota lacked a fire department and a water system it came mighty close co being burned off the map during November, 1908. On Thursday, Novembe r 5, fire broke out in the Bay View Hotel, on the northwest corner of Main Street and Palm A venue, built less than two years before by J B. Chap l ine, Sr. The hotel, a 16 room wooden structure, blazed like tind er. The flames lea ped high in the sky and a strong west wind carr ied spark s all over Sarasota. Everyone in town rushed to the scene When the fire was at its peak, the wind veere d and sparks began flying over the Belle Haven Inn. The crowd stood breathless--and helpless. The town didn't even have a volun teer fire department, much less any hose or fire -fighting apparatus. Miraculously, however, the flames did not spread co any other bu ild ing s Less than a week lat e r t he large Bradley Livery Stables on Main Street at the railroad tracks, also burned. The second floor of the t hree story building was occupied by roomer s; the third floor was used as a lodge room. The fire started lace at night and several of the occupants of the building narrow!}' escaped bein g trapped by the flames. The structure was comple tely destroyed. Following these two fires, insu rance comp anies threatened t o q\!it insuring pro perty in Sara sota unless steps were taken immediat ely to lessen the fire hazards. A volunteer nre department was formed and three hundred feet of purchased. Neither the volun te ers nor the hose, however, prevented the George W. Blackburn Hardware Store, on the southeast corner of Main and Palm, from burning to the ground Friday August 20, 1909. The first started at 3 a.m., soon after a baker occupyin g the r e ar of the building began getting his ovens hot. The flames spread

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154 THE STORY OF SARASOTA rapidly and before the volunteer firemen reached the scene, the fire had gotten out of control. But the fire hose was connected with the water tank on the roof of the Belle Haven Inn and adjoining buildings were sprayed, preventing the blaze from spreading. Blackburn had just finished fully stocking his store and his loss totalled $2 5,000, the build ing being val ued at $5,000 and the stock a t $20,000 He did not have a dime of insurance. D esp i te his loss, he immediately began making plans for a three story cement block building. It was finished July I, 1910 The ground floor was occupied by his ha r dware store and the Sarasota Furniture Co., the second floor by offices, and the third floor was used as a lodge r oom. As a r esul t of the fires, the town council o n September 7, 1909, passed an ordinance designed to prevent the construction of any buildin g in which any "combustible materials" was used, in the business section. De spite this ordina n ce, years were to pass before really fireproof buildings were erected Real Estate Goes A' Begging 1908 and 1909 were lean years fo r Sarasota. Convincing proof of their leanness is prov i ded by a Sarasota booklet p ublished early in 1908 by Chapline & Chapline, engaged then in "Law, Real Estate and Insurance." The booklet, which was widely distributed and gave Sarasota good advertising, listed 82 bargains. And they really were bargains! For instance: 15-acre tract, 3 Jh acres under fence and in cu l tivation, I Y2 miles from town, with a nice four-room house, good well and outbuildings, $500 20 head of cattle, $315; horse, wagon, buggy and 50 chickens, $205. Total, $1,020. This tract is fine orange and vegetab l e land. One-story stone bu i l ding, 50x75, on Main Street, on lot 50 xi 00. Price $2,400. 8 Yz acres, 6-room house, large barn tools etc., one -h alf mile from town, $1, 500 Also a 20-acre t r act adjoining, $40 an acre. 20-acre tract, 1 Yz miles north of town, fine orange land; 2 acre s cleared, new five-room house. P r i ce, $600. Lot and three-room house, on e block from bay. $500. SO-acre tract, 5 miles south of town, 8 acre s cleared, four-room house and barn Price, $1,020. And so on and on! Yes, land was cheap, dirt cheap, in Sa ra sota i n those lean years toward the end of the first decade o f the new century. Sarasotans were confiden t they l ived in a t own which had a future-but the future looked far, far away It was just then that Lady Luck decided to give Sarasota a break!

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CHAPTER 9 A NEW ERA DAWNS A Y COLD WIND, straight off Lake Michigan, beat against the wmdows of Mrs. Potter Palmer s palatial Mich i gan Boulevard home in Chi cago, coating the glass with sleet and snow. Mrs. Palm er, _world-fan:ed l ooked out at the drear y s ky, muttered a lady hke expressiOn of d1sgust, and went back to read i n g idly her copy of t he January 23, 19 10 issue of the C hicago Sunday Tribune Finally she came to the classified a d s and, j ust to keep posted began reading through them, paying parti cular attention to those which adver tised property for sale Famous society woman though she was, she also was noted for her business acumen. She had large real estate holdings and always kept track of fluctuations in real estate prices. Suddenly her interest was ar oused by a roost u nus ual ad. Grandilo quently, it t old of the wonderful Land of Sarasota, on beautiful Sarasota Bay; yesterda y a mere fishing hamlet; today, a modern city born of the Bay, lil
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156 THE STORY OF SARASOTA of the charms of Sarasota. Honore was enthralled by the master salesman. He made an appointment for Lord to see Mrs Palmer. She too was con.vinced by Lord that Sarasota was the finest p l ace in the whole wide world to live-and a place where most profitable invest ments could be made. When Lord left t he Palmer mansion, he had Mrs. Palmer's promise that she would go to Sarasota early in February-would be there by February 10. Tense with excitement, Lord wired to Edwards: "Mrs Potter Palmer coming to Sarasota. Wonderful chance to give Sarasota world-wide ad vertising. Prepare place for her and party of four You know what to tell her. She will buy heavily if interested." Edwards was stunned when he recei.ved the telegram. Mrs. Potter Palmer coming to Sarasota! A woman who was a friend of the King of Eng l and and had homes in London and Paris! A woman who had t.rav eled almost everywhere in th e world! Mrs. Palmer coming to tiny Sara sota-he could hardly believe the news! Astounded though he was, Edwards wasted no time. He realized it would be calamitous to house Mrs. Palmer and her party in the Belle Haven Inn. The once fine hotel had become badly run down and Edwards Photo Not Available Patients at Sarasota's lint san i to
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THE STORY OP SARASOTA 157 knew that if Mrs. Palmer was provided rooms there she probably would receive such a poor impression o f Sarasota that she would leave hurriedly. A better place would have to be prepared at once! Edwards called Dr. Jack Halton and made arrangements for converting his sanitarium on Gulf Stream Avenue into a temporary home for the Palmers. Many new pieces of furniture were purchased and the always -immaculate sanitarium was given another going over, from top to bottom. \Vhen work was completed, the sanitarium fairly sparkled. On Thursday, February 10, the Palmers arrived in Sarasota in a pri vate car-Mrs. Palmer and her two sons, Honore and Potter Palmer, J r. Mrs. Palmer a lso was accompanied by he r father, H. H. Honore, and her brother, Adrian C. Honore Edwards met the party with misgivings. He was afraid that Mrs. Palmer, the world -known celebrity, would be "high hat" and arrogant. But, to his relief, he soon learned she was delightfully friendly and courte ous. And instead of being scornfu l of Sarasota's shabbiness she called the town "refreshingly quaint." The famous society woman and Sarasota's native son got along famous ly He did not attempt to use high-pressure sales tactics. He merely told her the story of Sarasota as he had known it throughout his life He told her how he had wandered all through the region, barefooted when he was a boy-about the big bear he had once see n in a swamp near the foot of Main Street. He told her how the pionee rs had lived, and how they wrested a living from the soil. He tol d her of the community's ups and downs, concealing nothing. Edwards sincerity appealed to Mrs. Palmer She realized he was telling the truth and she became more and more interested in the Land of Sarasota. A freak of nature helped Edwards in stimulating her interest to the extent of buying property. At the Lawrence Jo nes home, in Osprey, on Little Sarasota Bay, there grew a cabbage palm and an oak tree which h ad grown up together, entwined in such a manner that the two looked like one, with palm fronds intermi ng ling with the oak leaves. Taking Mrs. Palmer and her father on a sight-seeing trip down Little Sarasota Bay in Capt. William Hodges' launch, Edwards suddenly remem bered the palm-oak combination. He asked Mrs. Palmer if she would lik e to sec it. She sa. id she would. So they docked at a rickety wharf and walked through the weeds to the spot the trees were growing, She was fascinated. Not only with the trees, but with the view of the beautifuf bay, with its sparkling water and palm-fringed shores. Then and there she made up her mind to buy the property as a site for her winter home.

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Photo Not Available MRS. POTTER PALMER -Changed the cours e of Sarasota's history

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THE $TORy OF SARASOTA 159 For the Jones' home and 13-ac.r:e tract Mrs. Palmer paid $11,000-a stiff price in those days But Jones, a brother of Paul jone$ of whisky fame, he l d out for that amount-so Mrs P almer paid it. She then bought mo r e than 200 acres of adjo ining land. On this property Mr$. Palmer soon afterwud built her home, "The Oaks," famed for irs beautiful gardens. A few days after the Palmers a rrived here, Lord came from Chicago. He and Edwards then alternated takin g memb ers of the party on sight seeing trips all through the region. Some of the trips were made in an auto Lord rented from a f riend in Bradenton; most of them were made in horse and buggy. During the weeks which followed, Mrs. P almer became thoroughly sold o n the Sarasota region and completed arrangements with Lord for acquiring a half interest in his extensive holdings. She also bought lar ge tracts in the Myakka Lake region, a section she later called the most beautiful spot in all Florida. The news that Mrs. Potter Palmer, one of the nation's leadin g society women, had chosen "unheard-of Sarasota" for her winter home was a Page I story in almost every newspape r of the country. And the Chicago Sunday Tribune-perhaps to prove the pulling power of its classified ads -carried a full-page layout of Sarasota pictures. The L and of Sarasota was advertised as it had never been advertised before. After building "The Oaks," Mrs. Palmer bought more and more property. Finally, she acquired more than 80,000 acres i n the Sarasota region and also made large purchases in Hillsborough County. Her purc hases boosted land values in this reg i o n to an undreamed -of peak. To develop the property here, the SarasotaVenice Co. was organized with Adrian C. Honore as president; \VI. A. Sumner, vice-president; Pot rer Palmer, Jr., treasurer, and Honore Palmer, secretary. An extensive advertising campaign was launched to sell small tracts to settlers. The Bee Ridge area was the first to be developed and sold. Mrs. Palmer then p roc eeded to establish a model cattle ranch, called Meadow Sweet Pastures, in the Myakka Lake region. To improve the breed of cattle she purchased prize bulls. She was one of the first persons in the state to advocate cattle dipping to eliminate ticks. At that time, practically all cattle owners fought the tick -eradication meas ure s viciously, insisting dipping would "kill the cows." Mrs. Palmer went ahead and proved it didn't. The coming of Mrs. Potter Palmer to Sarasota proved to be an epochal event i n t he h i story of the town and the entire Land of Sarasota. \"17here one celebrity goes, others a l so want to go That's human nature. Moreover, the whole nation learned, through the publ icity given

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160 THE STORY OF SARASOTA to M r s Palmer's purchases, of Sarasota's balmy climate and fertile soil. And for the first time, Sarasota began to be widely known as a winter resort. From then on, the number of winter visitors increased steadily. New life and hope we re injected into the community. Sarasotans began to swell with p ride--and they ceased to be content to let Sarasota linger along as a sleepy l ittle fishing vi llage. It was about time, they de cided, that Saraso ta should be made a modern town. Once this decision was ma de, impro veme nts cam e rapidly. The fuse was an e l ectric ligh t system--of so rts. A 30-year franchise to provide electricity had been granted by a vote of the citizens on April 8, 1909, to H. P. Porter and associates The plant was to be com pleted and in operation within a year. Month after month passed, how ever, and nothing was done Finally, after Mrs Palmer came to Sarasota, the people demanded ac tion and a small plant was installed by Porter, who had organized the Sarasota Ice & Power Co. with R. E Ludwig as manager. Two feeble l ights were put up, one at the Five Points and the other at Mai n and Pal m. Elect r ic light lines were strung t hrough the business section and, later, into the ma i n residential sections. Years passed, however, before the merchants or tow nfolk threw their gasoline and oil lam ps into t he d iscard The reason was simple-the electric servi ce couldn't be depended upon. Hardly a n ight passed wit hout at lease one breakdown at the l ight plant. Moreover, the current was turned on on ly from dusk to midnight--exactly 12 p m each night the town was plunged into darkness. On moonlight n ight s there were no street light s at all. During the dayti me no current was available for elect r ical appliances. Not until December 7, 1911, did the c ompany graciously condescend to provide "bre a kfast curren t fro m 4 a.m to 6 a.m. During che winter, it's stiJl dark at 6 a.m.-but that made no difference. The company in sisted it couldn't g i ve any more "concessions." F in a lly, however, the company did m ak e one tremendous concession. Ic announced with pride on June 8, 1916, chat beginning the f ollowi n g day it wou ld inau gu r ate an "ironing service" from 7 to 11 a.m. on Tuesday and Fridays. "We trust," said the company, "that the women o f Sarasota will mak e the f ullest use of this inn ovation." They did. But they weren't satisfied. They couldn' t under s tand why che company couldn't lee the current on all d ay long so they could iron whenever they cared to. But chat was too much to expect. The face chat Sarasota had e l ectric light troubles didn't stop it f ro m making progress in other ways.

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TH:E STORY OF SARASOTA 161 For instance, the town rook drastic action July 22, 1910, to pull itself "out of the mud." The waterfront long had been an eyesore, with rott ing seaweed and debrislit tering the shore. But o n tha t memorable July 22 the town council decreed that seawalls must be built-at the ex pense of the abutting pro perty owners, regardless of how much they might object. Photo Not Available When a new wing was added to th e Bel.le Haven Inn (originally ca lle d the DeSoto Hotel) in 1911, Sarasota boast e d o f hav ing one of the most upto-d>
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162 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Mortgage & Investment Co.-hundreds of lots, large tracts of undevel oped land, and Gillespie's 11 0-acre golf course. Burns was not a man who bought property j ust to hold it, waiting for Dame Fortune to help increase its value. He bought land to develop itto make it y ield the maximum returns. \W'ithout question, he must be recorded in history as Sarasota's first outstanding developer Becau se of his insistant demands for improvements, regardless of cost, he often made enemies-but he got things done. And he helped irnmeasureably to beautify the city. It was Burns who "needled" council into passing the seawall ordinance. Some people said he insi s ted upon it so he could get the contract for the construction and seawall job. More likely, the truth is what he told council: "Unless you clean up your front yard-and get seawalls builtthis town never will amount to a tinker's damn!" With the seawalls constructed, Sara sota underwent a metamorphosis. No longer d id it look like a shiftless fishing village! For the first time i t looked like a real city-a progressive city! And Sarasota gave Burns full credit for the achievement. On June 4, 1912, he married Miss Vernona Hill F reeman of New York City and the couple spent three months in Europe on a honeymoon. On returning here, Mr. and Mrs. Burns were welcomed by a newly organized brass band and a reception was given in their honor. Soon afterward he put his dredge, the Sand Peeker, to work and began mak ing fills to create Sunset Park. But that's getting ahead of the story-let's get back to 1910, the year Sarasotans saw their first moving picture show. The "theatre" in which the movies were run was a tent, pitched on a vacant lot at the foot of Main Street. The show was ballyhooed for weeks ahead of time and when the first movie was flashed on the screen, the tent was packed-and scores of people stood outside, waiting for the next per formance It was a big night for Sarasota. Saturday night, November 12, 1910. The owner of the tent theatre was Harry Griffin who brought his outfit here from Palmetto. Three shows a week were held. The crowds were so good that Griffin bought a larger tent and pitched it at Seventh and Central. To prove how up-to-date he was, he i nstalled a player piano to take the place of the ordinary graphophone! In 1912 he gave Sarasota its first indoor theatre when he leased the ground floor of the newly-built T onnelier Building on the north side of Main. The theatre was called The Palms. During 19ll, Sarasota got a new bank, a famous home, a revived yacht club, and, of all things, the long sought municipal water works and sewer age system. Let's take them in order.

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THE STOKY OF SARASOTA 163 The new ba11k, first called the Citizen s Bank of Sarasota, was organized March 7, 1911, with Owen Burns as presid ent, 0. A Burton and Geo rge W. Franklin as vice-presidents, and R. H. J o hnson as cashier. The bank was opened for business July 22, 191 I. I n August, 1913 the bank receive d a charter from the treasur y department to become a na t ional b ank and the name was c hanged to the F irst National Bank of Sarasota. The famous home was The Acacias, erected on Yellow Bluffs, the old homesite of the Whitaker family, by Mr. and Mrs. B. L. Honore, the uncle and aunt of Mrs. Potter Palmer. Foll owin g the death of h er h u s band, Mrs. Honore lived there until she di ed in 1922 at the age of 89. The Sarasota Y a.cht C lub, which had b ecome dormant durin g the l e an years of 1908-1910, was revived on December 22, 1911, when it was in corporated by Harry L. Higel J. H Faubel, G. W. Franklin J. Lo uis Houle, J. B Chapline, Jr., Owen Burns, I. R. Burns, Dr. Jack Halton, Dr. Joseph Halton a nd R M. Johnson. A two-sto r y boa t house on Cedar Point was purchased and the club opened March I 1912, with Owen Burns as commodore, Dr. Joesph Halton, vice-commodore, and Houle as secretary. The club, whi ch was active for man y years, next purchased a 100foot lot on Gulf Stream Aven ue and erect e d a' large clubhouse whi ch was officially opened January 16, 1913, with 250 guests attending. The ranks of Sarasota's progressive s were rei nforced during 1910 and 1911 by the arrival in town of such men as George L. Thacke r and Everett ). Bacon-men who w anted things done and done right With these men, many others like the m demanding actio n i t wasn't long before acuon came. T h e big test occurred Tuesday, April 4, 1911, when the voters were called upon to app rove or re ject a $20,00 0 bond issue for build ing a water works and a sewerage system It was a no-quarter fight between the do nothing e l ement and the men who were determine d to make Sa rasota a modern town. The fight was bitter. A s the time for vo t ing nea re d tem pers flared and fists flew But the pro gressives won a clear-cut victory-57 votes for the bonds t o 3 5 against. Now it was certain Sarasota was not destined to remain a fishin g vil lage for ev er! Nor a Chic Sales shanty town! A contract for drill ing an arte sian well and lay ing the water and sewer mains was let to the American Light & W ater Co., th e job to cost $ 18,840. Before the year ended, the business section and the cent ral resident i al section had both wa t er and sewers. The water was obtained from a well drilled at Sixth and Lemon where the po l ice station is 110w located. The main trunk sewer was laid 400 feet out into the bay.

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164 THE STORY OF SARASOTA To extend the water l ines t o all parts of town, and enlarge the a rea served by the sewerage system, another bon d issue had to be submitted to thevotersonOctober 30,1912. Forthewatersystem, $15,000 was sought, and for sewers, $24 000. This time there was little opposition-the bonds were approved by a ten to one vote. A 100,000 ga llon concrete reservoir was erected during the foHowing summer at the Sixth and Lemon site. The town officials who pushed through these programs should not be forgotten. The in 1911 was Hamden S.Smith and in 1912, Harry L. Htgel. Counctlmen who served dunng thts peno d were Dr. Joseph Halton, ]. W Harvey George Roberts, Charles Seale, W A. Chapell, J. W. Baxter and Hugh K. Browning. Unfortunately, it cannot be said that the 1911 and 1912 projects solved the town'S; water and sewer problems. They did not. Pouring the town' s sewage into the bay polluted the once crystal clear water and was the direct cause of one of Sarasota 's most acute civic headaches in years to come. True enough, the bay, with its tides that rose and fell, seemed large eno ugh to absorb all the town's sewage without causing troub le. It was-when Sarasota was an infant town! But not when Sarasota grew to maturity. However, the town father s in 1911 and 1912 cannot be criti cized. How could they have been expected to foresee the boom-time growth just one decade ahead? The town's artesian well caused trouble in less than a year. In the late fall of 1913, people be gan to complain about the water being dark and "thick." Dr. J. L. Thompson said he believed the well was pumping up marl and phosphate. Councilman ]. D. Hazen said the water was pure but that it was being discolored by the cast iron pipes. Mayor Higel said a chemical and bacteriological analysis showed it was not harmful. Still the complaintS continued. To solve the problem, the council voted on July 20, 1914, co buy the H oule well at Pineapple and Lemon -the well which had been sunk to gee water for making concrete blocks. A connection with the Houle well was made and the water began clear ing up. Another well was then dug on the same lot, the reservoir was thoroughly cleaned-and the water came through the fau cets crystal clear. Saras ota cheered! The Cattlemm Talw a Lickin.g "The good Lord created the grazing grounds of the Land of Sarasota and the good Lord does not want the cattle which graze thereon to be molested. To prevent those cattle from wandering wherever they de sire would be flaunting the Lord's will!"

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THE STORY OF SARI\SOT.A 165 So argued the cattlemen in pious protestations against repeated attempts by progressive Sarasocans to pass la ws prohibiting grazing animals from running at large in the corporate limits For a full quarter century, the ca ttlemen and their cohorts controlled enough votes to make sure that the "sacred" cows, and hogs, and goats could go wherever their fancy took them. If they trampled down people's lawns, and ate their shrubbery, and littered up the sidewalks and streets with manure-oh "'ell, that was the Lord's will! Certainly the cattlemen couldn't be blamed! Neither could the big cattlemen be blamed when some of their "cow hunters" came into town on Saturday nights, got well steamed up on Sarasota "dynamite", and proceeded to race up and down Main Street on their ponies, hell bent for leather! Boys will be boys, you know! Back in 1903, Mayor Gillespie ordered the arrest of two cow han ds who had been particu larly hilarious and had emptied their revo lvers shoot ing at passing dogs. But when the time came for the cow hands to be tried, the cowhands' buddies packed the mayor's court and let it be known, in no uncer tain terms, that they wouldn't stand for "persecution." Needless co say, the cowhands escaped without being fined So it went, year after year. The cowhands did p retty much as they wanted to in town. The hogs wallowed in the Main Street mud puddlesand slept under houses-and the cows roamed hither and yon. This condition continued up until 1911, after Hamden S. Smith had been elected mayor. That man deserves a world of credit-he braved the cattlemen's wrath and joined with his progressive council to pass history making Ordinance No. 51, providing penalties for permitting grazing animals to roam within the town limi ts. The ordinance was passed Sep tembe r 20, 1911. The cattlemen's long reign was over-but they refused to admit it. They took a test case to court and the judge decreed that the ordinance couldn't be effective until it was ratified by the people. As a result, a special election wa s called for Wednesday, August 28, 1912. T hen followed a battle royal-a tight which made the tussle for water and sewers look like a tea party. The cattlemen came into town and told the merchants that if the ordinance was passed, they would blacklist the town-they wouldn't come here any more even co get their "Iicker". The cattlemen threatened here, bulldozed there, and cajoled elsewhere. But their day had passed. When the ballots were counted, the ordinance was approved, 86 to 43. So another milestone was passed i n Sarasota's history. The cows and hogs were banished from the streets and lawns! Now, at long lase, resi-

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166 THE STORY OF SARASOTA dents could plant grass and have hopes that it wouldn't be eaten to the roots as soon as it sprouted. They could even plant shrubbery! Glory be! Surely-beyond a doubt-Sarasota was growing up! Real Estat e Begim to Zoom! The train of events sec in motion by the purchases of Mrs. Potter Palmer began traveling at headlong speed in 1911. Let's borrow a his torian's telescope and try to see what was happening way back then. Looking down ac che wacerfrollt, we'll first notice the seawalls bein g built by Owen Burns. And a dredge pumping in sand to cover up the messy mud flats. Looking southwestward ac ross the bay, we 'll next notice a large build ing being erected on Ba y Island, a beautiful tract of land once a part of Siesta Key but separated from it when Harry Higel dredged a cut-off channel in laying out Siesta. The new building across the water is the Bay Island Hotel, a project planned by E M. Arbogast, of Marlington, \Y/. Va. Three stories hi gh, the hotel boasts of 65 rooms. When formally ope ned January 25, 1912, it was lauded as the largest and most modern hotel on any key on the entire Florida \Vest Coast. Managed and later owned by ]. H. Faubel, the hotel long was famous for its meals. And what meals they were! They included every known kind of sea food and, in addition, quail, tur key, venison, duck, and so on and on. All for $1 a plate-as much as you could eat! But back again to 1911. During that year, the Seaboard extended its tracks to Venice. No, chat's wrong. The railroad went to Venice but it didn't go to Venice. The t racks passed right on through the Venice of old days and the station was built a mile farther south, "out in the wilder n ess,'' where it couldn't even be seen f rom Venice housetops. The Venetians were so irked by chis callous disregard of their ex istence that they changed, after heated debates, the name of their town to Nokomis. So the Venice of yesterday is the Nokomis of today, and the Venice of today is what yesterday was nothing but a station a t the end of the l ine. Confusing? Well, bbme the Seaboar d! The Ringlittgs Come to Town Fro m all parts of the nati on, from all walks of life, men have come to Sarasota and aided in the upbuilding of the city. But it is safe to say that no two men have left a more indelible imprin t on Sarasota than two sons of a German-born harness maker of McGre gor, Iowa. They were John and Charles Ringling-two of the famous seven

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 167 Ringling brothers destined to become the world's most renowned circus men. B ooks can be--and have been-written about the o rigin and growth of "the greatest show on earth." The name of Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus is known throughout the land-and it has been for many, many years, even when the grayheads of today were barefoot youngsters who got up at the crack of dawn co see the circus trains pull in-and the big canvas top go up. In Sarasota, as well as elsewhere throughout the nation, the name Ringling awakened memories of joyous, never-to-be-forgotten days. Days of cotton candy, pink lemonade, cavorting clowns, trained seals, ferocious animals pacing in their cages, "the biggest elephant in captivity," and death-defying feats of acrobats and trapeze performers. Yes, everyone knew of the Ringlings. So when Sarasota learned, l ate in the fall of 1911, that the Ringlings were buying property on Shell Beach and intended spend ing the winters here, che town was elated-and thrilled. The mosdamous circus men in the whole wide world coming to Sarasota to live! What more could be asked for? The Ringlings did not come here just by happenstance. The chain of events which finally culminated in their decision to live in Sarasota was a long, long chain. And, believe it or not, the first link in that chain was the long-derided Slow and Wobbly railroad, conceived way back in 1890 -the road which died an i nglorious death just a few years later. Just to show how Fate moves in mysterious ways, a new city to create -let s backtrack to 1890. And, if you begin to think, while reading the next few paragraphs, that we're wandering in a labyrinth of unrelated facts, just remember that the chain of facts finally brings us back to the Ring lings. The main backer of the .Manatee & Sarasota Railway and Drainage Company, the parent of the Slow and Wobbly, was Harvey N. Shepard, a Boston capitalist who had come here several winters to hunt and fish, stopping at the De Soto. He became so enthused about the Land of Sarasota that he put up the first money co get the railroad started. What's more, when Shepard returned north in April, 1890, he began telling his friends about the "loveliest spot in Florida Raving on, he declared that when the railroad would be built, "connecting Sarasota with the outside world," land prices wo uld skyrocket. Shepard's entlmsiasm was contagious and a syndicate of twenty New Engl anders was formed to buy a desirable waterfront trace. Dr. Frederi c k K. Williams, of Bristol, Conn., scouted through the Sarasota Bay region in the winter of 1890-91 and finally selected a tract just north of present 33rd Street. The tract contained 267 acres. It was

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Photo Not Available Photo Not Available SARASOTA AS IT WAS IN 1910 Above: Looking co.lt o n Lower Main from Palm Avenuc. Below: Looking west f rom the Five Points. Notice the scrc"m. o f wat er down the of the stree t, the overflow from t he Five Points trou gh. The 'V.arer oaks along the street were plan te d br J Hami l ton Gille s pie in 1886. They "'ere cut do .. n when the scr e e t was ha
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 169 t hen owned by John J. Dunne who had bought it up a few years before for $1 an acre, from t h e original settlers. Dr. Williams paid $3,345 50. The tract was then subdivided and the plat was recorded in Oct ober, 1891, as the Indian Beach subdivision Members of the syndicate were deeded choice waterfront lots. One went to Mrs. Shepard. The re mainder of the land was held as an investment During the next few years a smalJ colony of Connecticut people built winter homes along the beach, including H. C. Butler, F red Giddings, George W. Neubauer Silas K Montgomery, Sol omon G Spri n g, and Charles E. Raymond. Butler built a 612 foot dock out to deep water, and the Mistl e toe later stopped there That' s the first link in the chain. The next l ink was forged during the summer of 1894 when the Sells-Forepaugh Circus pitched .its tents in Bristol, Conn The manager of that c i rcus was Charles N. T h ompson, one of the most skilled circus men i n the country. While in Bristol, Thompson happened to start talking Florida with Butler, then sheriff of the county. Butler praised Indian B each to the skies told Thompson he'd never know what real living was until he wintered on Sarasota Bay Thompson became interested a n d during the following winter, he and his wife came to the West Coast staying at Tampa. Desiring to see the section Butler had lauded so highly, Thompson and some friends got a cat boat and sailed down Tampa Bay. Entering Sara sot a Bay, they scouted along the coast and finally docked at B u tler s wharf. He remained with Butler overnight and the. next day learned of a 154acre tract just i1orth of Indian Beach, owned by Anna M C l ark, which was for sa l e f or $1,650. Thompson bought it and later bought 30 acres more. The following winter, Mr. and Mrs Thompson came to their newly acquired Sarasota domain and b u ilt t heir home, which later became one of the show places of the entire Sarasota Ba y region. They also began plans for subdiv i ding their property-the plat was .recorded in 1897. One of the first persons to buy a lot at Shell Beach was a circus f riend of the Thom p s ons, \\7. H Engl i sh, advance agent of the Wallace Brothers Circus. Mr. and Mrs. English at once started building a la.rge l og house in which they put curiosities they had gathered from all parts of the world One of the curiosities was a huge snake skin, fully 28 fee t long, which English had gotten in South Amer i ca. It was draped in the hall-and attracted no end of attention. The R i nglings soon learned that two of their ci.rcus brothers had winter homes at Shell Beach. Such news travels fast under the big tops. But the Ringlin:gs weren't in t erested in F l orida then. However, they were close friends of Thompson-and it was Thompso n who year after year

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170 THE STORY OF SARASOTA kept after them to follow in his footsteps and winter in the land where all the year is summer-and flowers never die. Another Sarasota booster also was doing his utmost to lure the Ring lings to this section-Ralph C. Ca pies, then genera l agent of the New York Central, who years before was indirectly responsible for getting a real railroad built from Tampa to Sarasota. Caples had been visiting Sarasota regularly ever since 1899 and on July 20, !909, he bought the English home. After that he advertised Sarasota even more than he had before-if that were possib le. The Caples Thompson publicity team proved irresistable. The Ring lings finally were sold on Sarasota's charms. Yellowing records in the Manatee County courthouse show that on November 3, 1911, Caples bought the Thompson home and a large tract of land-and chat on January 31, 1912, less chan three months later, Caples resold the house and most of the land co John Ringling. That started the Ringling bal l a'rolling. John began buying more and more bnd and soon his bromer Charles followed suit. By the spring of 1912, Shell Beach was booming. More than 2,000 feet of sea '\\all were constructed in front of the Ringling and Caples proper ties. Caples re modeled the English home and John Ringling made extensive improve ments in the Thompson home. Charles Ringling started building a home shortly afterward The Ringlings had come to Sarasota to stay! Almost immediately they became two of the town'9 leading citizens. They began taking an active part in civic affairs. They became two of the town's most ardent boosters. And, in the years which followed, their interest in Sarasota never waned. In fact it increased steadily until both men were called by death. The lttfant Sarasota Grows The federal census of 1910 showed Sarasota had a population of only 840, including men, women and children. But early in 1912, the town fathers counted noses and declared that the population had swollen to 1276. Impressed by this almost miraculous growth, Mayor Harry L. Higel and the council decided chat the time had come when Sarasota had to be lifted "out of the sand." So on February 7, the council passed an ordinance compelling property owners to put down concrete sidewalks, whenever and wherever council deemed necessary. Before 1912 came to an end, mil ady could walk almos t anywhere in town without getting sa n d in her shoes. That is, if she stayed on the side walks. Most of the streets still were in bad condition. But they too were due for a going over. A paving program was pushed through by council and early in 1913 contractors began laying brick on Gulf Stream Avenue

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 171 Seventh Street, Orange Avenue and several other streets. Pessimists de clared that the sand soon would wash out from under the brick and make the pavements worthless. Bu t their dire predictions proved groundlesssome of that original paving is still in use. Photo Not Available There were no roid -ril.f baching suits on Sarasot>'s b eac hes in 1909. By October 2, the Sarasota Times was able to boast proudly that Sara sota had eight miles of concrete sidewalks-just that three more would be laid by January 1, 1914. Also, that Sarasota had nearly five miles of paved streets more than six miles of improved streets, and 2 ,000 feet of sea walls. With sidewalks and streets going down, Sarasota became beautifica tion-minded. The women sternly demanded that something be done im mediately to imp r ove the appearance of the newly created waterfront "park" south of the Belle Haven Inn, between Palm Avenue and the sea wall, where extensive fills had been made. Heeding the ladies' peremptory call, Mayor Higel set aside Thursday, November 6, 1913, as a "public work day. Al l citizens were called upon to lend a hand. Business houses closed Work started early in the morning when George L. Thacker and Owen Burns hauled in loads of rich dirt Volunteers shove led it onto the ste r ile sand. Doctors, lawye rs merchants and ministers pitched in. Yes; and e ven politicians.

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172 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Mrs. F. H. Guenther, president of the \'Voman's Club, planted the first grass, loads of which had been separated by newly-organized Boy Scouts. Lunch was served at the Belle Haven Inn to the group of 125 men and women workers. During the afternoon the crew was increased to nearly 200. Reported the Sarasota Times: Nearly everyone in the city partici pated in the work. Those who were unable to contribute time or labor gave cash donations. Burns h ad three teams working all day long. Edwards and Locklear each had one. A number of palm trees were planted and the whole park was grassed before night. "At the luncheon, clam chowder was provided by Capt. Louis Roberts and the Sarasota Cafe. The meal, provided by 50 members of the Woman's Club, consisted, in addition to the clam chowder, of crackers, pickles, cheese, ham sandwiches, baked beans, macaroni and cheese, doughnuts and coffee. No one went hungry. And wonderful work was done." The grass grew rapidly. Soon Sarasota had a park of which it could be proud. The only trouble was that the city did not own the land. Title to it was held by private individuals who also held all riparian rights. In order to get the most possible money for its holdings, the Florida Mort gage & Investment Co. had not left the town one-foot of water front property. Even the waterfront at the foot of Main Street had been sold. It was there the British concern had built its first wharf. Higel bought the wharf and adjoining land late in the Nineties for $1,500. In 1905, he offered to sell it to the town for the price he had paid, for it. His offer was rejected -the town fathers said the price was exhorbitant, and, besides, the town didn't have any money. Five years later, when real estate values had begun to soar, Higel again offered to sell it, this time for $5,000. Once more, his offer was turned down. Finally, Higel sold it to three men from Lima Ohio, who had more faith in the future of Sarasota than did many of the old timers, who still retained their fishing village ideas. The Ohioans who made the purchase were Dr. \'V. E. Hover and two younger brothers, J. 0. and Frank B. Hover. They immediately began repairing the dock and extended it 50 feet farther into the bay. T11ey then constructed an arcade, known for years thereafter as the Hover Arcade, at a reported cost of $20,000. The building was started February 10, 1913, and completed in July. Four years later the arcade and pier were purchased by the city for $40,000. Another Buckeye came to Sarasota about the same time as the Hovers -John F. Burket, of. Findley, Ohio, an attomey who came from a family long famed in: the legal profession. In the years which followed, Burket played an increasingly active role in civic affairs and was one of the most

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 173 zealous advocates of the Sarasota County movement. For years, he served as clty attorney. Burket was pe rsu aded to come here by his o l d friend, Ralph C. Caples, who said it was about time Sarasota got a lawyer who "really knows his stuff." On October 10, 1912, Caples and Burket bought the Belle Haven Inn from the Southern Investmen t Co. which had purchased it in 1902. Caples also bought from the same company 55 city lots-he sensed that the growth of Sarasota had merely just begun and he decided to back his faith with dollars. Later, he invested more and more heavily. He also built a Main Street building called the Caples Block. But to get back to the Belle Haven. When Caples and Burket bought it, the in n was operated by Dr. Jack Halton The following year it was leased to C. T. \o/hittle, an Atlantic City hotel man, who bought the pro perty October 1, 1914, at a reported price of $35,000 During the Big Boom, \o/hitde and his son sold it, according to reports, for $500,000 cash! The appearance of Main Street began to change rapidly during 1912. During that year, two new buildings were constructed, the W atrous Hotel, o n the southwest corner of Main and Palm, and th e Tonnelier Build ing on the north side o f Main a l it tle west of Pineapple, on the site of the old Broadway House, built in 1887. When completed, the Tonnelier Building was the largest "modern" building in Sarasota. Three stories high it housed the Palms Theatre and the Palms Hotel, with 3 8 rooms. It was supposed to be fireproof. But it wasn't. E vents moved so upidly in 1912 and 1913 that it's hard to keep track of them. But mention certainly must be made of Sarasota's "grand new school, erected during the spring and summer of 1913 at a total cost of $23,000. Built of brick, i t contained eleven recitation rooms and an auditorium-and the schoo l trustees proudly declared it was large enough to take care of Sarasota's needs for at least ten years So they sold the old frame building, built in 1904 and moved it off the l ot. But the school board members did not correctly foresee the future. When the new building was opened for classes on Monday, September 15, 1913, more than 350 students were enrolleq. To be exact, 200 girls and 15 3 boys. And when it was decided the following fall, to add two more grades and make the school a full-fledged high school, as well as an ele mentary school and junior high, the old frame building had to be brought back again and put in use. The names of the first teachers in Sarasota's shiny new school building, during the winter of 1913-14, should be recorded. Prof. T. W. Yarbrough, dean emeritus of the local public school system, was the princip al of the high school; Miss Pansy Souter principal of the elementary school. The

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174 THE STORy OF SARASOTA teachers were Miss Mary Hawley, Miss Maybird Heath, Miss Marguerite Seale, Miss Louise Floreus, and Miss Belle M. Story. The first graduates of Sarasota high s choo l were all girls : Misses Emma Gene Smith, May Estelle Houle, Mildred Lovell Freeman and Lessy Estelle Thomas. The graduation exercises were impressive. Said the Times: "Occupying seats on the stage were the Rev. H. C. Hardin, of the Metho dist Church; Mayor A. B. Edwa rds and Councilman George L. Thacker, R. I. Kennedy, Dr. Jack Halton, Frank H. Tucker, Col. 0. K. Reaves, and Prof. Yarbrough, principal who for seven years has worked to give Sarasota a high school-and very proud he was of this his first class to graduate." Mrs. Jack Halton and Miss Genevieve Higel provided musical entertamment. The only disturbing note i n the whole program was a statement made by Prof. Yarbrough that the school had suffered badly during the term because of the heavy turnover of teachers, due to the fact that they were paid only $50 and $ 55 a monthand it cos t them tha t much to live He said salaries would have to be raised if hig h educational standards were to be maintained. Y cars were to pass, however, before the teachers' salaries were raised to the proper l evel-probably they haven't been even yet Anothe1 Newspaper Is Established A brilliant but most ecce ntric man came to Sarasota in the fall of 1912-a man who was a cross between a genius and a bum. He had the eloquence of an old-time Shakespearean actor and a vocabulary surpassed by none. He was a man of moods-witty and charming one moment, and venomously bitte r the next. He wore his hair long a Ia Elbert Hub bard, and seldom if ever bathed. He never wore socks; h i s feet were protected only by canvas shoes. This strange man was Rube Allyn. Irish by descent, he was born i n Canada, but came to the United States when a youth. He eventually became a vaudeville actor and at one time lectured on the Chautauqua circuit. Finally he drifted to Flo rida and eventually to Sarasota. \"17ithout money, he secured enough local baclcing to buy a printing press and sorne type and set up shop i n a small warehouse on Andy Glover's dock, a short distance northwest of the Main Street wharf. There, in January, 1913, he began printing the Sarasota Sun, the second newspaper to be established in the town. On his masthead he printed: "Issued Every Saturda y The Best We Know How." Had Allyn been a little more stable and dependable, he undoubtedly would have been able to publish a paper which would have carried weight in the community. He was liberal and progressive, and an excellent writer. But he lacked good judgment and when ho t political campaigns

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 175 occurred, he poured vitriol on candidates he opposed. So much vitriol, that even the men he supported were appalled. Allyn spent money faste r than he made i t. Finally, his creditors began to catch up with him. In a characteristic move to attract attention, he sawed off the warehouse from the wharf one night, slid it onto a raft and towing i t to Siesta Key. Perhaps that's the first time in history' that a. newspaper plant rook to sea on a raft. Half way across, the raft cap stzed and the plant fell into the water. It was not recovered for months and most of the machinery was ruined. Late in 1915, Allyn began getting out hi s paper more and more irregu larl y. His advertising almost disappeared. Then, early in 1916, the paper passed out of existence. The Sarasota Sun wen t into an eclipse from which it never emerged. For a year o r so longer Allyn lived on the key and made a precarious l i ving by fishing and writing articles for other papers. During World War I, he worked at the Hog Island ship yards near Phila delphia. He returned in December, 1919, and in August, 1920, started publishing the Florida Fisherman (See Page 202.) Sarasota Becomes a City By the spring of 1913 i t became obvious even to the most chronic pessim ist, that the one-time fishing village of Sarasota was destined to become one of the leading winter resorts on the Florida West Coast. Therefore, no one voiced objections when the council decreed that Sarasota should step our of the town class and become a full-fledged city. A plea was made to the state legislature for a city ch .arter-and it was granted. Governor Park Trammel signed the enabling statute May 16, 1913, to become effective January I 1914. The new charter provided for a mayor and three councilmen, to be elected by wards. It stipulated that fo r ordi11ary purposes, the rate of taxation should not exceed ten mills on the dollar and that specia l taxes "may be levied not excee d ing ten mills for a sinking fund, not exceeding five mills exclusively for street work, and not exc ee ding one mill for city advertising." Despite the limitations, the new charter now gave the c ouncil a chance to get money to pay for vitally needed public im p rovementS. The last bar to civic progress had been rem oved. . The honor of being the fim mayor of the newly mcorporated Cry of Sarasota was given to Arthur B. Edwards at the first ele ctt on authonzed b y the new charter. Citizens cast their 6'. 1913. E? wards received 1 08 votes and his opponent, Wtlltam Worth, 6>. Council men elected were: J. W. Baxter, first ward; Prof. T. W Yarbrough, se cond ward, and George L. Thacker, third ward.

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176 THE STORY OF SARASOTA One of the first acts of the new cit)' officials was to pass an ordinance, Februa ry 10, 1914, prohibiting persons from permitting chickens to run at large. Certainly it wasn't becoming for a modern, progressive city to have chickens pickety-pecka t ing along the streets-so the chicken s were banned, just as the hogs and cows had been a short time before. But that was the least o f the accomplishments of the new city govern ment. New wells were secured to improve the city's water supply. Sewer and water mains were extended to all populated areas. The limerock "paving" on Main Street was covered with asphalt, makin g it as smooch "as a billiard table," as Mayor Edwards proudly remarked Ten more miles of brick and asphalt paving and fourteen moremiles of sidewalks were laid during the second year of Mayor Edwards' admin istration. Sarasota was pulling itself out of the sand with a v engeance. More and more, Sarasota began to look lik e a modern city, and less and less like a fishing village. The process o f transformation was pushed along by the Woman's Club, successor to the Town Improvement Society. Prac tica lly all the pro gress-minded women of Sarasota were members of the club and to them goes the credit for s purring on all the resident s to plant grass and shrubs, and beautify their homes with garden s in which flowers bloomed the whole year around. Sarasota Threatened By Fire An epidemic of fires, far more destructive than those of 1908 and 1909, c:une close to gutting the business section before the new city gov ernment finally succeeded in getting mod ern fire fighting apparatus. The first bad fire occurred Saturday January 18, 1913, when the 30-room Bay View Hotel on Central Avenue, comp leted just a year be fore, burned to the ground S. D. Hunton, the owner, said his loss was $10,000. Almost a year lat er, the Dancy Block on the south side of Main Street, then owned by Mrs. Potter Palmer was destroyed by flames. Henry Behrens, chief of the volunteer fire fighters, was valiantly assisted in battling the fire by Leonard Rudd, George Lambert and Valley Aill who r isked their lives by s tanding on the roof of an adjoining building and handling the hose. But the water pressure was low and the volunteers succeeded only in preventing the fire from spreading Stocks of mer chandise on the shelves of three stores in the block went up in smoke, including a large supply of fireworks in the racket score of Willis & Lord. The old hom e of Hugh K. Browning, on Palm A venue, was destroyed by another fire on March 2, 1914. Said the Times: "By the time the hose reels were hauled eight blocks by hand, there was little left worth trying

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 177 to save and, as usua l, the firemen were almost exha u sted by their exer tions in getting c o the s cen e A motor truck with an o pe rator a lways on hand to stare at the first alarm w ould save the v a l uable sec onds that mark the differen c e between sal v a t i on and destr u ction." T his fire, and several smaller o nes wh i c h f ollowed during the s um mer, conv in ce d the c ity council tha t i t m ust b uy modern fire fighting equip me n t, e ven though many taxpa yers objec t e d at the "terrible ex p ense." After ad vertisin g for bids, the council orde r e d a $9,000 combin ation c h emic a l p ump a n d h ose truck from the Ame r ican La Franc e F ire Engine Co., early i n Januar y, 1 9 15. Before the fire engine was received, Sar a sota s uffered the worst fire in i ts history, described for years thereafter as the $100,00 0 bla z e. It started early Monday morning, March 8, 1915, in the ancien t building on the northwest corne r o f Main and Pineapple once used as a town meeting place, as a church, and as a dance hall. At the time of the fir e the building had been remo deled and was owned by J. H. Lor d The l ower floor was occupied by a 5 & 10 cent s s t ore and a shoe repair s hop. \'fhen the firs t alarm was so u nded, the flames were confin e d t o shoe re p air shop But bef o re the vo l unteers arrive d with their hose, t h e whole bui l ding w a s blaz ing. Winter visitors who had r oo m s orl the secon d fl oor were rescued with difficulty. Within a few minutes, flames h a d leaped to a s mall a d joining b uildi n g on Main, occupi e d by a fruit stand. There, the fir e m en t hought they c ould halt t h e fire b ecause the reported l y fire p r oof" T onnelier Building was next in l ine. But the bri c k v en eer walls on the new building, three stories high, were not an obstacle co the searing, scorching flames Within a hal f hour, the entire building was blazing, and the fire could be seeri for miles. The 53 guests in the Palm Hotel, located in the building, poured in co the s t reet carrying their belongings B y chis time, the entire bus i ness section was endangered. A c all f o r help was sene co Bradenton and c hat c i ty's fire truck made a rec ord run to Sarasota. Occ u pa n ts of all neuby b u i l dings worked fran tic a lly all nig h t co remove e verything possible out of the da n ger zone. One o f c hose who w orke d the hardest was Mr s C. V $. \"fi lson, publi sher of the S a r asota Times, whose plant adjo i ned the Tonnel ier Build i ng. Helped b y v olun teers, s h e m anaged t o get a ll h e r records and m os t of the furniture o u t of the p lant but the p r eciou s prin ti ng presses wer e too h eavy to m o ve. T h en, all Mrs \'fil so n could d o was pray that the fire wo u ld sp read no farther. It didn'tthanks t o the work of the volunt e ers. M any o f them suf fered burns an d all be c ame weakened by exhaustion -but they kept on fighting the inferno Dr. Jack H alton and Dr. C. B. Wilson worked all

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178 THE STORY OF SARASOTA n ight treating the firemen s burns and removing cinders from their eyes. The clothing of every fireman was ruined Just at da\\n, a few minutes before the Bradenton truck arrived, the fire was gotten under control. The loss was heavy. Besides the buildings valued at $30,000, everything i n them was destroyed Dr. Joseph H alton Photo Not Available A "FIREPROOF" BUILDING WHICH WENT UP lN SMOKE Sarasota was proud of this To. nne l ier Build ing, e rected in 1912, wh. ich housed the Palms Theatre a n d Palms Hotel. It was advertised as the town's first fireproof building but it burned co the ground March S, 1915 lost his entire office equipment, including instruments and library Others who lost heavily were t he Costello brothers, T. and L., owners of the Palms Hot el; Phil Levy, owner of the New York Store; Edgar Maus, owner of the Palms Theatre ; Robert Franklin, owner of the Crescent Pharmacy; J. H Krebbiel, owner of a barber shop; Mrs. E. L. Frazier, owner of a bakery, and Geo r ge Spero, owner of a fruit stand. But soon after the smoke from this big fire had blown away, Sarasota s new fire engine arrived, on April27, 1915. The engine, capable of pump-

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 179 ing 750 gallons a minute with sufficient force to throw a stream over a building 100 feet high, was housed in the old volunteers' headquarters on Pineapple Avenue. And council went a step farther and employed Henry Behrens as fire chief, paying him the munificent salary of $75 a month. And he only had tO be on duty 24 hours a day, seven days a week! :What a snap! An Airplane Comes To Sarasota No old-time resident of Sarasota ever will forget Thursday, April 9, 1914. Because on that day, man y Sara sotans saw their first airplane-a weird contraption which defied all the laws of gravity and actually flew! That is, providing bad winds weren't blowing. Anyhow, it was a marvelous ship, the first airplane which flew over Sarasota, bringing everyone outdoors t o stare up at the sky with mouths agape. That history-making airplane was flown by Tony J annus, star pilot of the Benoist Company, which shortly before had established the first commercial airline in the country, between St. Petersburg and Tampa. Jan nus brought with him as a passenge r on that epochal trip, \'Viii \'V arren, of Bradenton. The flight here from Bradent on required only 27 minutes, despite the fact that he circle d ove r the bay, travele d 20 miles and en counte red rain. Nearly a mile a minute! That was mighty fast going Jannus brought his plane, an airb oat, safely to rest on Sarasota Bay and the next day' took up passengers. The first ride was auctione d off by Rube Allyn to Owen Burns, who paid $50. The distinction of being the first wom an who flew over Sarasota Bay was won by Mrs. I R. Burns. Others who flew included Dr. and Mrs. Jack Halton, and their son, Jack, Jr., Miss Esther Edmondson, Mr. and Mrs. T. Gilmor e Edmondson, and Rube Allyn. Several of the passengers requested that Jannus take them over Bird Key so the y could get a good look at the glistening white hom e just being built by Thomas W. Worces ter of Cincinnati. This was the first expen sive home built on any island in the Sarasota Bay region It was named New Edzell Castle after the ancestral home of Mrs. Worcester, in Scot land. It was opened February 17, 1914, with a reception attended by 50 guests. I t is now the home of Mrs. I da Ringling North. Flying inland, the passengers were given the opport unity tO observe another type of habitation. Out on 3 3rd Street they could see tiny homes being erected by negroes in the colored community of Newtown, then being opened by Charles N. Thompson, noc co make money but to provide the negroes with better places in which to live. Previously, their principal living quarters had been at Black Bottom, in the vicinity of 12th and Lemon The dilapidated buildings, owned by prominent Sarasotans, were

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180 THE STORY OF SARASOTA a disgrace to Sarasota Most of the shacks had only unsanitary, open privvies and not until Dr. John R. Scully became health officer, years later, was any move made to provide better sanitation fac i lities. Sarasota Fights For Better Roads So far as highways were concerned, Sa rasot a was practically isolated from the rest of the world for more than a quarter century after it was founded. South of Tampa, the so-called roads were nothing but trails. As the years rolled by, flimsy bridges were built here and there and fitful attempts were made to establish roadbeds across some of the worst bogs. But up until 1912 the roads were next to impassable in many places. In dry weather, wheels often sank hub deep in clutching sand; during the rainy season, wheels stuck in clutchi n g mud. Finally, in 1911, the county commissioners o f Hillsborough County began to listen to the pleas of their rural constituents and sponsored a bond issue to build a hard-surfaced road southward. At the same time, voters of Manatee County, of which Sarasota was then a part, approved a $250,000 bond issue to build a road from the H ills bo rou gh County line to Sarasota. This road, only nine feet wide was completed to the town limits early in Mar ch, 1 912. About all that can be said for it is chat it was a start in the right direction. The alleged "hard surfacing" soon bega n to crumble and over long stretches the road became so full of potholes that motorists were held to a snail s pace .. If they speeded up to more than ten miles an hour and weren't extremely careful, their tires were torn to shreds. Because of the bad roads, few winter visitors ventured to come to Sarasota b y auto. In 1914, the Sarasota progressives decided that they had waited long enough for Manatee County to provide an adequate road system. They made up their minds to establ i sh a road district of their own, and to back a bond issue to build roads to connect Sarasota with Venice, Bee Ridge and Fruirville. At the same time, good roads boosters in Engl ewood began laying plans for building a road north to Venice. To determine what type of roads would be best suited for chis section, a delegation of good road advocates spent the first week of September, 1914, traveling through central Florida, inspecting roads in every locality visited. The names of those good road s "nuts", as they were called should be carved i n marble--they were the men who p i oneered the way for the good-roads boosters of later years. Those early good-roadsmen were: Arthur B. Edwards, John F. Burket, George B. P r ime, F. H. Guenther, George L. Thacker, Harry L. Higel,

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THE STORy OF SAI\ASOTA 181 C l arence Hitchings, Dr. J ack Halton, Rube Allyn, D. Bink horst, A. S. Woodward, 0. P. Collins, C l aude Hebb, R. C. Bruce, George W. Frank l in, Cary B. Fish, Furman Helvesron, T ]. Bryan, E. J. Bacon and A. M. Wilson. On their re t urn these men b egan fathering p lans fo r winnin g publi c s upport for a bo n d issue of $250,000--a lot of money in those day s The y wer e oppose d at :first by J. H. Lord, biggest landow ner i n the Land o f Sarasota He said that issuance of the road bonds "means a practical doub li ng of ever y man's taxes" and he empha tically declared that the community could not stand such "crushing inde btedness." In a crush ing reply, the Sarasota Tirnes retorted : "If we wait until we can aff ord to bond f o r roads and bridges, will we ever get them? ... Can we afford 1wt co voce for bonds?" Ex-Mayo r Higel joined in the chorus and declared that because of pub lic improvements, Lord's choice business lots had increased in value from $6,000 to at lease $30,000. He also said that Lord and his associates then o wned vast trac e s o f land s for whic h they had paid a couple dollars an acre and "now are getting $60 an acre." Lord finally was convinced of the need for good roads and when h e beca m e a convert, h e was truly convened Said he on October 15, 1914: \'(! e need new hig h ways and a proper drainag e system to protect them Every citiz en rea l izes the value of b ette r roads. The cost of building them is nothing i n co m parison with the enhanc ement of values they will bring. \'V' e must work together to secure a good road s yste m whic h will be worthy of the n ame and open up the way for future dev e lopment of rhe county." The test on the good roads issue came T uesday, March 16 1915. And the good roads booste r s won a smashing victory the $2 5 0,000 bond issue was approve d fou r to one. In Sarasota, 98 v oted in f avor of it to 25 against and in Venice the vote was 7 for and 1 against Ospre y went all out for the program, casting 13 votes for the bonds with none against it Just before the bonds were .sold however, it was discovered that the road building program would have to b e replanne d-there simply wa sn't enoug h money voted to build 34 miles of 15-foot roads, as desired The $250,000 wou l d be enoug h to build on l y 9-foot roa d s S o again the good road s program had t o be pre sented tO the voters Eve r yone wanted I Sfoot roads instead of t h e dinky 9-foot strips but nearl y a ll citizen s agreed that 9-foot r oads were better than none at all. So the bonds were again approved, January 11, 1916. After the bonds were sold, the county commissio ners a wa rded a contract for the construction of a 9-foot asph alt road from Sar asota to Venice to the Continental Public Worlu Co., of New Y ork The contract

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182 THE STORY OF SARASOTA f o r bridges on th e Venice roa d and also one from the mainl and to Siesta Key went to the Luten Bridge Co., of York, Pa. The roa d was to cost $208,668.05; the bridges, $39,850. With the work on roads and bridges in the Sarasota Ba y district under way, the good roads advocates concentrated their fire on the Manatee County commissioners in an attempt co get the Sarasota Bradenton r oad improved. A delegation of 29 men ganged together and stormed into the commissioner s office Monday, October 2, 1916. Said Edward s: "You commissioners may not have to come to Sarasota bu t regardless of whether we l ike it or not, we Sarasotans have to go to Bradenton. And it' s a lmost impossible to get over the road without one or two blow-outs." Chime d i n Capt. George Roberts : "The l ast time I came here I ruined two tires and new ones cost me $ 3 6." Ochers who blast e d the commissioners were Dr. J. Barn ey Low, J. Elwood Moore, J. H. Faubel, .Mayor Harry L. Higel, William M. Taylor, J. G. Campbell, J. H. Strohmeye r J. Loui s Houle, Dr. F. W. Schultz, George L. T hacker, Russell Thompson, J. W. Madison, Phil H. Levy, C. G Strohmeyer, R. I. Kennedy, J. Harry King, George Strong, Allan E Sim mons, John F. Burket, Hal Yohe, R. \V. Grinton, Spencer Olson, Bert Hayslip, Charle s French, E dward S. Williams, Frank Lacey, B. R. Reno and Charles Grosse. The commi ssioners said it would cost $21,000 t o put the road in good condi tion but they assured the delega tion they would take action im mediately. Th ey partly kept t heir word. Some of the worst place s in the road were patched up but it wasn't until a f te r the end of \Vorld War I that the road was worked on in earnest. And it wasn't until the Big Boom days when a modern highway between the two towns was constructed. The Siesta Key bridge was completed March 2, 1917, and cars began going over it. However, the ap proaches were not completed and the bridge formall y opened until .May 1. At last-32 years after the founding of Sarasota th e town was connected with one of its outl ying keys and people could drive directly to t he beautihtl gulf beaches! Out 01t the Keys The Land of Sarasota has 26 miles of the finest beaches in the world out on the keys which fringe the coast, separating the mainland from the Gulf of Mexico. Not until the Siesta Bridg e was opened in the spring of 1917 did any of the s e keys have a direct connecti on with the mainland. As a result, their development was long retarde d For many decades their only in habitants were itin erant fishermen who lived in palmetto s hack s and sold their salt-cured fish to traders.

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 183 In t he Eighties, however, a few homesteaders began settling there. They weren't attracted to the keys by the r ich shell hammock lands or by the beautiful, hard-packed, sparkling beaches. They went there simply because the F l orida Internal Improvement Board had practically stopped homesteading on the mainland in 18 8 3 by deeding away almost all the land to speculators. For some strange reason, the politicians and land grabbers happened to miss the keys-so there the homesteaders went. However, the keys were too remote from civilization, because of a lack of bridges, for even the hardy pioneers and fe"' of them remained long enough to prove up their claims. Most of them sold their rights to persons who sensed that some day the keys would come into their own-and were willing to buy the land and wait for development But that wasn't the case with Louis Roberts, a native of Key West who came here in 1878 while on a trip up the \Vest Coast in his small fishing smack. Soon after h i s arrival, Roberts met and fell in love with Ocean Hanson, daugh te r of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Hanson, who settled on Little Sarasota Bay in 1870. Miss Hanson, by the way, was named "Ocean" because she was born on the Atlantic while her parents were coming to America from England. Soon after Roberts and Miss Hanson were married, they decided to get a homestead of their own so they filed a claim to a choice tract on Sarasota Key, almost directly across the bay from the Hanson property Building a home, Roberts cleared e nough land for a large garden and began making a living as a fisherman. There, on the key, Mr. and Mrs Roberts raised a family. And, as the family increased in size, Roberts kept making additions to his home. Along about the turn of the cent ury, he began taking in a few winter visitors as guests. Soon he learned that catering to the "tourist" trade was more profit able than either fishing or farming so, along about 1906, he enlarged his house again and began calling i t the Roberts Hotel. During the following year he joined with Harry L. Higel and E. M. Arbogast in forming the Siesta Land Co. which platted the subdivision of Siesta a wonderful place to rest." Thereafter, Roberts called his hotel the Siesta Hotel-and the name of the north end of Sarasota Key also was changed to Today, the entire key is called Sarasota Key on government maps a nd Siesta Key on the county map. So, if you like one nam e better than the other, take your choice and you will have proof that you arc right. Siesta Hotel soon became famed along the entire West Coast, partly because of its location amid towering palms but mostly because of Roberts' delicious shore dinners. Old timers insist that no one, anywhere, could

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184 THE STORY OF SARASOTA make as good clam chowder as Cap Roberts, or fry fish as well. So his hotel prospered. But the same cannot be said for the subdivision of Siesra. Few persons wanted to live there then, due to the fact that the key could be reached only by boat. The fame of the key spread by the opening of the Bay Island Hotel early in 1912 but that d id not greatly stimulate the sale of lots. Neither did an extensive program carried out by Higel from 1911 through 1913. Bayou Hanson Bayou Nettie and Bayou Louise were dredged and canals opened. Bath houses were erected on the gulf beach and a 150-foot dock built. Incidentally, chose bach houses, built by Higel in October, 1913, made it possible for Sarasotans, for the first time, to dress and un dress at the beach withou t having co hide behind a clump of palmettos! During the winter of 1914 -15, Higd built the Higelhurst Hotel, on the north end of the key at Big Sarasot a Pass. But on March 31, 1917, just before the bri dge was formally opened, the hotel burned to the ground. Higel's loss was $20,000. Siesta Bridge was hailed by the people of Sarasota. It represented a great stride forward by the community. Now, the beaut i ful gulf beaches were brought within a 15-minute drive of the center of the city, and swimmers and shell gatherers re j oiced! Sara De Soto Lives-and Dies Again! Beautiful Sara deSoto, daughter of the famous Spanish conquistador, lived in her father's camp on Sarasota Bay-some 400 years ago. She was worshipped from afar by Chichi-Okobee, son of a famous Indian chief. Chichi was captured by the Spaniards. He became sick and Sara nursed him back to health. Then she too was stricken. C hic hi sped away to get the Indians medicine man who cared for her day and night. But beautiful Sara died. Her body was taken co the center of Sarasota Bay for burial. Chichi and a hundred Indian braves slashed their canoes with tomahawks and sank in the water to lay beside her, and guard her body throughout eternJty So goes the legend of Sara de Soto--che legend which has become part of Sarasota's lore. In the spring of 1916, Sarasotans remembered that the tragic love story of Sara de Soto and Chichi Okobce had never been properly commemorated The city was in a holiday mood that spring. The war in Europe had made the U niced States prosperous and Sarasota was booming. The future looked bright. So Sarasota decided to bring beautiful Sara back to life again so the tragic romance could be reenacted-in pageantry. That first Sara de So to pageant, which started Tuesday, March 22, 1916, and lasted through the following Saturday, was quite an affair. It

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 185 was widely advettised and thousands of visitors jammed Sarasota. A gay, holiday mood pervaded the city All the buildings were decorated with flags and bunting A carniva l compan y brought a merry-go-round, Ferris wheels, and all sorts of amusements Scores of floats and autos took part in a big parade. There were programs o f aquatic events, and field races, and fireworks. To put it mildly, the pageant was th e biggest event in Sarasota's amusement history. Photo Not Available The coronation of the< queen at the tim Sara de Soto pageant in 1916. The queen WM Genevieve Higel daughcec of Mayor Harry L. Higel shown sta ndi ng on the platform at the right. The chie f in the pageant w.s J. B Chapline, brother of George F Chapline who wrote the Sara de Soco legend. The pageant was staged and directed by Mr. and Mrs. Jake Chap line, assisted by Dr. Jack Halton. The part of Sar a de So tO was played b-y :Miss Genevieve Higel, now Mrs. Voltaire B. Sturgis, great granddaughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Whitaker Sarasota's first settlers. Jake Chapline was Chichi-Okobee and I. R. Burns, De Soto.

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186 THE STORy OF SAKASOT A The Spanish soldiers were C. 0. Teate, F. P. Dean, J. W Crawford, W. M. Tuttle, T. C. Williams, B. R. Reno, Ed Williams, George L. Thack er, J. Louis Houle, C \Woodburn Matheny, E. J. Bacon, P. D. Lacey, and Howard Elliott The Indian warriors were Will Franklin, John Lacey, Paul Thompson, Rube Hayes, Talbot Cave n T. W. Redd, W. Phillips, George \'Villis, Thomas Williams, Louis Warner, H. L. New, Mason Hunt, Parker and Heiser. The medicine man was Col. J B F letcher and the cap tain of the guards was Cary B. Fish. W. M. Taylor was director of floats and autos in the parade; J. H. Y ohe, in charge of mus ic; A. B. Edwards, director of tournaments and sports; Geo rge Blackburn, director of aquatic sports; Frank Anthony, director of field races and sports; E. J. Bacon and H. M. Hebb, fireworks; H. N. Hall, dancing and R. E. Ludwig and C. M. Jefferson, illuminations. Harry L. Higel, t he n mayor, presented the keys of the city to De Soto. Entrance of the United States into \'Vorld War I prevented another pageant being held in 1917 and t he festival idea was not revived until 1925. By that time Sarasota was d o m in ated completely by the "knicker bocker army" of real estate salesmen who could see no romance in any thing so ancient as the Sara de Soto love story. So they called their festival the Orange Blossom Festival and gaudy spectacles took the place of sentiment. The Sara deSoto pageant was revived in 1928 with Samuel Gumpertz in charge of the event. It was estimated t hat more than 25,000 persons witnessed the t hree -day celebrat ion Miss Nell Shipman, a movie actress, took the pan of Sara. Miss Mary Welch, da ughtei of Mr. and Mrs. Homer T. Welch, was the queen during the pageant o f 1929 and Miss Helen Bond was queen in 1930. Then came the Great Depression and the pageant was not held again until 19 3 5 when it was revived a second time by Thomas L. Glenn, Jr., then president of the Junior Chamber of Commerce. The festival was one of the finest ever held and proved to be such a drawing card that it was repeated each spring thereafter until the involvement of the United States in World War II put an end to celebrations. It was held again dur ing the week of February 18-23, 1946. Sarasota Buys a Pier The need for a municipally owned pier which cou l d be used for enter tainment became strikingly apparent during the Sara de Soto pageant of 1916. Citizens began clamoring for a pier large enough to provide space "at least for a sun parlor, a band shell, an open pavilion, a bath house and a wharf keeper's office."

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THE STOll. y OF SARASOTA 187 Harry L. Higel, then mayor, did nothing to stifle the clamor. In fact, he encouraged it. He had bee n advocating a municipal pier for years so the public demand received his hearty support. The three councilmenE. ]. Bacon, K. M. Hebb and George L. Roberts-also approved the idea. So they pushed through an ordinance providing for the issuance of an $18,000 bond issue to build a pier It was approved, 45 to 29, at a special election September 5, 1916. But when the time came to build the pier, the city fathers found they had no place to build it. The foot of Main Street was owned by the Hover brothers and the foot of Strawberry Avenue by the Seaboard. The only possible locations were the foot of Mound Street, far remo ved from the center of the city, and the foot of a 20-foot alley between Main and Seventh, obviously roo narrow for a pier entrance. Confronted with this lack of waterfront property, the city fathers stewed and fretted and finally decided that the only thing which could be done was to buy the Hover Arcade and dock A $40,000 bond issue to purchase the property was approved by the voters 59 to 1 at a special ele c tion March 6, 1917 The identity of the lone voter who disapproved of the purchase was never learned. Despite \'iforld War I, work on the new pier was pushed ahead and it was accepted by the city September 4, 1918. A pavilion was constructed at the end of the pier to serve as a combined freight warehouse and a n glers headquarters. The old Hover dock was removed by October 1. In Sep tember, 1 919, the pavilion was remodeled and "the city's latest and most up-to-date amusement place," to quote the Sarasota Times, was opened by Leon Pickett. It was called "Tokio" and was used for a short time as a dance hall. A little later, the American Legion secured the pavilion for its first club rooms. But the new p ier did not last long. In 1921 there came a hurricaneand into the sea went the wooden structure. Sarasota World War I From the time the United S tate s entered World \Var I until peace was declared a year and a half later, the people of Sarasota did not devote much time to thinking about the growth of the town. The newspapers were eagerly read for news from the training camps and battle fronts, not for news of Sarasota affairs. Sarasota won the distinction of being the first small city in the United States to en list an entire deck division of state militia. This honor came Friday night, June 16 1916, when 52 men were sworn in by Capt. J. H. Bland, naval secretary to Gov. Park Trammel, and became part of the

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188 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Third Division, First Battalion, Florida Naval Militia. Many of the men had started drilling two months earlier. Headquarters for the naval unit were establ ished in the Sarasota Y ache Club building on Gul f Stream Avenue and the naval militiamen began a rigorous course of traini ng. As a result, the unit was ready to enter service within 48 hours after receiving a call. The men entrai n ed for Charleston on Easter Sunday, April15, 1917. The personnel of t he unit was: Lieut. \Varren F Purdy, Ensign John W. Philip, Gunners Mate 1st Class A. B. Keiserrnan, Yeoman 1st Class H. C. Grinton, Quartermaster 2nd Class Arthur R. Clark, Machi nists Mate 2nd Class B.S. Olson; Cox wains, W. \Y/. Liddell and R. E Halton; Bugler Homer L. Hebb; Seamen 1st Class-P. R. Facie, C. I. Hebb, W. C. Hodges, T. R. Mart in, Jr., G. D. Maus, W R. Roehr; Seamen 2nd Class-A. D. Albritton, L. K. Barber, W. A. Bispham, Ernest A. Bright, W C. B ryan, E. Cooper, B. D. Drymon, R. E. Drymon, V. A. Drymon, Lewis G. Evers, J. F. Fros t, C. W. Gaskill, H. C. Green, L. 0. Hodges, J. G James, Fran k P. Lacey, J. K. Martin, C. C. McLeod, E. L. Parson, J. C. Peiot, C. E. Scott W. Whitted, S. F. \Villiams, and E. S. Kraft; Seamen 3rd Class !. V. Biorseth, R. E. Bradley, V. Hartman, H. Howard, C. C. Lacey, J. B. Lacey, C D. May, F. A. Reigel, G. A. Willis, J. B. Martin G S. Clark, J. Gonsalez, C. Peacon, and George P. Hill. The uni t served during the entire war and every man returned, unin jured. At least two hundred more Sarasota men enlisted in the armed services or were inducted before the conflic t ended. Only one, how ever, die d in service-Horace Mink, of Tatum Ridge, who died May 28, 1918, of pneumonia at Camp Jackson, Columbia, S. C., a little over a month after Photo Not Available HORACE MINK he entered the army. He was the son of Mr. and Mrs. William Mink. As a result of the war, Sarasota got its first airfield. It was located on Fruitville Road a mile east of the city lim its to provide an emer gency landing field for army airmen training at the Arcadia air base. To clear the field, Sara sota called a community work-day January 3, 1918, and everyone turned out. Machinery was furnished by contractors and the Palmer Corporation and before the day was over, the field was cleared and leveled. Hundreds of air planes landed there during the following year. And the sight of airplanes in the sky ceased t o be a novelty to Sarasotans.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 189 And Then Ca.me Ptohibition! The airfield was welcomed -but another end-result of the war was less favorably received by many. Prohibition-state-wide prohibition. In theory, the Land of Sarasota always had been "dry." Manatee County, which included the present Sarasota County up until 1921, had voted dry way back yonder-no one remembers the year. That's probably because prohibition existed in name only. In the early years, bountiful supplies of Cuban rum were brought here by traders. Alex Browning asserted in his memoirs that the traders swapped liquor for chickens, hogs sweet potatoes-and even Eag l e Brand condensed milk. The Cubans valued Eagle Brand so highly, Browning said, that in exchange for a case of it they would give a 30-gallon barrel of the best grade rum. Bourbon and rye were brought here from Cedar Keys and later on, from Tampa, by schooners and steamers. For persons who could not afford such expensive beverages which cost as much as 75 cents for a 32-ounce quart, there was always Sarasota "dynamite" a home-distilled product which, 'tis said, was strong enough to take the hair off a razorback hog. . The church people of Sarasota-and particularly members of the \Vome n 's Christian Temperance Union-for years insisted that the county's dry laws should be enforced. If Demon Rum would be banned, they declared, over and over again, cri me would end and Sarasota would become as pure as a newbor n babe. It was natural, therefore, tha t when the time came for Florida to approve or reject the "noble experiment," the members of the \V.C.T.U. and their friends ca mpai g ned vi gorously. The women couldn't vote but they could talk! And talk they did. So convinc i ngly that the dry amendment was approved by Sarasota voters, N ovember 4, 1918-58 to 21. When the I 8th amendment went into effect, and federal liq uor sleuths began running down rumrunners, the makers of Sarasota dynamite reaped a harvest. Old tim ers declare there was a still in every hammock and on eveq' bayhead. As a result, there was never a noticeable decrease in the of liquor here just a drop in quality And a terrific increase 111 pnce. During the Big Boom, bootleggers thri v ed. Some made fortunes. Federal and state prohibition men often worked in cahoots with the law breakers For a consideration, o f course. Crime increased, instead of decreasing, because of the noble experiment. Probably the final deathblow to loca l proh i bition was given on Tues day, October 10, 1933, when Sarasota voted 971 to 192 in favor of the

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190 THE STORy O F SARASOTA repeal of the 18th amendment. The state also went wet. Soon thereafter, beer, wine and more potent beverages could be purchased legally and open ly in stores operated by responsible people. One big event of prohibition days will be long remembered. On October 10, 1925, Sheriff L. D. Hodges announced in the newspapers that he intended to arrest "the king of the bootleggers" within 24 hours. He did not say whom he was after. The Sarasota Heral d reported, next day, that five hours after Hodges made his announcement, 18 men had left the city! In those days, Sarasota had a lot of kings.

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CHAPTER l 0 DURING THE TURBULENT TWENTIES PREPOSTEROUS though it may seem, the Big Florida Boom probably was started b}' an assassin! During the winter of 191314, the United States began to go into another economic tailspin. Venture capital began going into hiding. Fac tories began to close. Unemployment stead ily increased. By the summer of 1914 almost everyone believed the country was headed for another dread depression. Then, on St. Vitus Day, June 28, 1914, a Serb student, Gavrillo Pri.ncip, assassinated Archduke Francis of Austria and his wife in Sarjcv o, Bosnia His blazing gun provided the spark which exploded the European powderkeg. A month later, Russia troops invaded Germany and German troops invaded France. \Vorld \Var I had started! Huge orders for munitions, clothing, food--everything needed by warring nations-began pouring into the United States. By late fall business was booming. Factories were working overtime; anyone who wanted a job could find one Wages soared. So did retail sales. Almost e ve ryone prospered. For nearly three years it appeared as though the United States could enjoy all the "benefits" of war without paying any pe nal ties. But when Czar Nicholas of Russia abdicated, March 15, 1917, and his country ceased to be a factor in rhe conflict, the entrance of the United States into the war became inevitable-and war against G erman y was declared just three weeks later. Then came the era of billion dollar federal budgets. Huge govern ment expenditures. $3 wheat and $1 corn. Farmers waxed rich. Factory workers piled up savings. Industrialists and financiers made millions Bank deposits throughout the climbed to an all-time peak. The public's reservoir of capital was filled to overflowing. For the first time in the nation's history, everyone-or almost everyone-had money to spend. Scads of money. T h e small fry splurged by buying $14 shirts and $5 meals. The "wise boys" plunged into the stock market and cleaned up as the price of securities soared. The "conserva tives," wary of Wall Street, bought land, "the safest investm ent on earth."

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192 THE STOKY OF SAKASOTA More and more people now had money to travel. For years the}' had read about the Sunny South and glamorous Florida Now they could venture forth and see what Florida really was like. The beginning of the Big Boom was deceptively slow. In fact, hard!}' anyone realized a boom had started. But it most certainly had. Each winter the number of tourists increased, even after the United States entered the war and rai l road traffic was snarled. The tourists came re gardless. And then, aft er the armistice, the stream s of tourists became a torrent and soon a flood! The firs t defin ite indication that a boom was i n the making came in the fall of 1919 with the invasion of Florida by the Tin Can Tourists, as motley a caravan as the world had ever seen. Shiny limou s ines bumped fenders with dilapida t ed flivvers; sophis ticat ed urbanites rubbed e l bows with country "hicks." All roads leading south were crowded. Despite slippery, slithery mud and mountainous ruts, they came. They came! Makeshift tourist camps spran g up almost overnight Unsightly places, with rubbish thrown everywhere and almost non-existent toilet facilities. They were the best Florida had to offer-and many Florida Photo Not Available Fishing is olways good on the Ringling CouS<:\V3)'

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 1.93 cities made no attempt to provide any thing better Many editors, with infin ite dumbness, branded the Tin Cinner as "an undesirable visitor." The editors were fooled by outward appearances. They believed the Tin Canner was poverty str icken, simply because he broughr a tent, and bed ding, and a stock of food. Not necessarily to save money but to make sure he would have a place to sleep and something to eat, regardless of where he went or what conditions he encounte re d. The scoffers did not realize that thousands of Tin Canners carried fat rolls o f bills and had healthy deposits in rheir banks back home. Plenty of money to buy all the F lorida land they wanted. And they bought In all parts of South Florida. Bu t particu l arly in resort cities which welco med their arrival. The Tin Canners made up only one division of the invading tourist army. Other sun lovers came in palatial yachts, and in private railroad cars. T housands of less affluent f olks came by day coach and Pullman. Every south-bound train was packed solid. The railroads had to put on specials--and even then every berth was sold weeks in advance. Had there b een airlines in those days, the skies would have been filled with planes. The brief depression of 1921 a ffected F l orida not at all! The touris t s came re g ardless. And the winter of 1922-23 brought a rec ord-breaking crowd. Every resort city was packed tight. The invading tourists dumped millions and millions of dollars into Florida. Not on l y for food and lodging but for homes And land on which they could build and thereby be sure of having a place to live. The Florida boom was on-in earnest! The boom was acceller ated by the magic of real estate profits. Thou sa nds of tou rists made enough money by buying lots one year and selling them the next, to pay all the expenses of their winter vacations. And plungers who bought business property, acreage, or blocks of lots in well l ocat ed subdivisions reaped golden harvests. Returning north, they spread the word about the wonderland o Florida where fortunes could be made while basking in the sunshine. Like an epidemic,'the F lorida f ever" spread throughout the nation. Specu lators, as well as tourists, began flocking here from every state. With them came an army of real estate salesmen, the "knickerbocker boys" of high-pressure fame-the whoo pla lads who stop ped at nothing to make sales. Yes, the Florida boom was on-in all its fu ry! But let's backtrack and see what Sarasota was doing in the days when the boom was just getting started.

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194 TH:E STORY OF SARASOTA Pn?parhzg fl!r Fttfm e Growtb To t he women of Sarasota goes most of the credit for making Sarasota beautiful enough to attract tourists--and hold them. The Woman's Club took the lead in planting trees along the streets During the summer of 1914, the club members planted more than 250 coconut trees along the waterfront and in Su nset Park. Then they per suaded the councilmen to appropriate money to plant 2,000 eucalyptus trees along the residential streets. Next, they sponsored a movement to beautify Five Points with a concrete fountain-and a fancy fountain 1t was The women of Sarasota also can be credited with pushing forward the program of laying sidewalks and hard-surfaced streets By August, 1915, the street paving program was going ahead full steam. During that one month, 650 carloads of material were received, including a million pa''ing brick and more than 2,000 tons of rock shell and a sphalt. Unfortunately, Sarasota had to sacrifice some of its beauty in the street improvement program Towering oak trees, planted by the town founders in 1886, had to be cut down on lower Main Street in 1914 and on upper Main in 1920. Had they been a llow ed to stand, the principal street in the city could not have been m ore than 30 feet wide, due to the fact that the trees had been planted far out from the building line. But what Sarasota lost in the destruction of the trees along Main Stree t it made up for in beautiful lawns and gardens In almost every issue of the Sarasota Times, Mrs. C. V. S. Wilson echoed the \Voman's Club plea to "plant grass and shrubs which bloom the whole year 'roltnd." Said Mrs. Wilson: "Here at hand are the means within reach of the poorest citizen to help attract and keep our winter visitors and give a substantial basis for residence values." How right she was! With the boom in the making, but only dimly foreseeable, the men of Sarasota banded together to make sure that the nation wouldn't forget their city existed. On Wednesday night November 15, 1916, they re organized a hibernating Board of Trade and put new life into it. At a big public rally, many ne w members joined the organization and money was raised to print 10,000 copies of a new city booklet-to cost all of $1,000! But before you sniff, remember that was before the boom started and $1,0 00 was still b ig money The largest contributions for the booklet were made by A. C. Honore, Owen Burns and J. H. Lord. Officers elected to the rejuvenated board were: Lord, president; I. R. Burns, v i ce president and treasurer, and Dr. Barney Low, secretary. John F. Burket, Owen Burns, Harry L. Higel and A. B. Edwards were elected to serve on the board of directors along with the officers.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 195' T h e year 1916 was a memorable year for in more ways than one Among other things, it gave Sarasota a new "opera house"-the Virginia, n ow known as the Rex. I t w a s op ene d with great pomp and ceremony Tuesday night March 21, 1916, by the Sarasota Minstrels, an offshoot of the Sarasota Yacht and Automobile Cl ub. Every one of the 8 00 scats in the opera house were taken and people jammed t he aisles. Photo Not Available Sarasota County Courthouse, a s seen from Ringling Boulcvacd. Members of the Minstrels wh'o thrilled Sarasotans at the opening of the Virg ini a included: Dr. Jack Halton, Owen Burns Hal Y ohe, Jack Madison, Jr. Dr. Joe Halton, Frank Anthony H N. Hall, Edwa r d Burns, E M. Butler, Cla r k Mounts, Russell Thompson, J ohn F. Burket, Carl Thompso n J H Barrett Jake Chapline, 0 W Cordova and George Ross. Ladies who took part i ncluded: Mrs. J. B. Chapline, Mrs. E. M Butler, Miss Louise Edwa rds, M rs. Kate Belt, Mrs. Jack Halton, Mrs. R. C. Cap les, M r s Brown, and Mrs Mary E. Pickett The Virginia, built by B. D. Robinson, was leased to a movie cha i n and G. C. Koons came h ere as first mariager The first show was given Monda y cight, April 10, and the public was invited to attend f ree of charge. N eedless to say, the theatre w a s packed. The main feature was the five-reel "Jimmy Valentine." As an extra added attraction, the first

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196 THE STORy OF SARASOTA installment of a nationally-known "thriller was shown-"The Strange Case of Mary Page. Came late fall of 1916 and the future l ooked so bright that J. H. Lord w a s inspired tO write in the Sarasota Times: "Today is Fl
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 197 left of them-shunned Sarasota for years mudT to the sorrow of winter visitors who formerly spent hours watching them make their clumsy but accurate dives into the water. The war hysteria also took a religious turn Big revival services were held by members of the "Holy Rollers'' sect. To show the efficacy of prayer, fanatics in the sect announced that one of their members, M.iss Marian Murray, would allow herself to be bitten by a rattlesnake--and they invited everyone in Sarasota to witness the demonstration, to be held on Lockwood Ridge, five miles from t own. Many attended. Miss Murray picked up a five-foot rattler and shook it. Angered, the snake sunk its fangs in her forearm. Then, for ten minutes, the young woman walked around through the crowd, her face uplifted as though in a trance. Finally, she collapsed and was taken into the Robert Mixson home. N othing was done t o alleviate her suffering but meinbers of the sect loudly sang hymns and they were still hymning six hours lat er, when she died. The dread flu epidemic of 1918 hit Sarasota early in October. By the m iddle of the month, so many cases had been reported that Mayor G .. w. Franklin on October 17 issued orders for the immediate closing of all schools, theatres, churches and other meeting places. Three deaths were reported up to. October 24. Then the epidemic subsided and the ban on meetings was l ifted Sunday, November 3. A few days later, on November 8, Sarasota celebrated l ong and joyously when word was received that the Germans had signed an Even when highest government officials declared that the report was a newspa perman's blunder, the c elebr ation continued, far into the night. When che real armistice came on N ovember 11, the city celebrated again but in a more restrained manner. A year later, on the first anniversary of Armistice Day, Sarasota had the biggest celebration in its history. All the veterans took part and the city was thronged with people from all parts of the county. Following a parade, the crowd assembled at the flag pole erected at the Five PointS in the summer of 1917 to honor Sarasota's servicemen. Speeches were made by Congressman Herbert J. Drane, American Legion Post Com mander A. L. Joiner, W. Y. Perry, Rev A. J. Beck and Mayor G. W. Franklin A basket picnic was held and in the afternoon the crowd wen t to the golf course for a program of athl etic eventS At night, a stree t dance was held on lower Main Street As a memorial to the war veterans, members of the Woman s Club planted 181 water oaks early in March, 1919, on Main Streetfrom Orange Avenue east to the city limits Three years later, on July 22, 1.922, this section of Main Street with its memorial trees was officia lly named Victory A venue. Members of the Sarasota Bay Post of the American Legion and

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198 THE STORY O F Si\.RASOTA hundreds of citizens, led by the Sarasota County Band, marched out to the end qf the avenue and back to the school house where impressive serv ices were held. Principal speakers were Mrs. F. H. Guenther, Lewis Combs, Dr. Jack Halton, Mayor E. J. Bacon, A. B. Edwards and Rev. C. W. Latham. After the \\7 ar Clouds Passed The last bar to the rapid development of Sarasota was removed when travel restrictions were lifted during the winter following the armistice. From then on, the city zipped ahead, at a faster and faster pace. Definite proof that Sarasota had acquired a new realization of the need for aggressive action, if the city's growth was to continue, was provided Monday, December 23, 1918. On that day, the voters approved an $80,000 bond issue to purchase the electric light plant of the Sarasota Ice & Electric Co. and install a municipal plant. The outcome of the voting was never in doubt. For years, Sarasota had been furnished abominable electric service. The company complained that it was losing money-but it refused for years to put in enough equipment so that ohe current could be turned on 24 hours a day, and thereby make possible the wide use of motors and appliances It wouldn't even provide all night service until November 1, 1916 In disgust, the citizens began demanding municipal ownership of the plant, not because they were socialistically inclined but because they saw no other way of obtaining satisfactory service. So, when the $80,000 bond issue came up for appr!)val or rejection, it passed by nearly a four to one vote. The company's light plant was purchased on June 20, 1919, for $27,500 and the city went into the electric business. On November 26, 1919, another bond issue of $35,000 was approved to complete equipping the city's plant and extend the electric lines. \'\' ork on the power plant was completed January 15, 1920. Its operation was supervised by a newly created board of public works appointed by city council. Its members were S. H. Highsmith J. E. Battle and J. D. Hazen. The city's municipal plant provided all the current Sarasota neededuntil the boom reached its peak. Hardwa. re stores did a landoffice business selling electric stoves, refrigerators, fans and other electrical appliances. There was even enough current for installing white way lights on Main Street during the week of October 7, 1922. The sleepy lit tle fishing village of two decades before was gone forever-Sarasota now stood out, even at night, as a progressive, modern city.

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THE STORY O F SARASOTA 199 Sa'rasota Cott-n.ty Is Created The Land of Sarasota threw off it s shackles in 1921, stepped out of the "bondage" o f Manatee County, and became a county in its own right Sarasot a County. The division movement had been growing str onge r y e a r by year. The first talk of breaking the Manatee bonds was heard in 1 914 when Sar asota's good road boosters pleaded in vain with Manatee Councy commissioners for better highways in the Sarasota distri ct. To get the roads they needed, the people living in Sa rasota, Osprey and Venice had to band toge t her and form a road and bridge district of their own. But that did not solve all of Sarasota's problems. The Manatee County commissi oners dilly-dallied in making necessary improvements on the w oebe-gone SarasotaBraden ton road and almos t every time a Sarasotan had to go to the county seat at Bradenton he blew out a tire or got stuck in mud or sand. The people o f Sarasota had other complaints many o f them. For one thing, they insisted the southern part of Manatee County wam't being provided with all the scho ols it need ed. They a lso charged that their taxes were far too high, considerin g the failure of the county to provide the public improvem ents t he Sarasota district needed. "We're bein g taxed to death and we're getting practically nothing in return," declared Owen Burns, one of the most arde nt divisionists : "We're b eing treate d just like a step child. The people in th e Manatee River re gion hav e had their own way long enough-the time has come for us to be come independen t and chart our own course Rapidl y the sep arat ion movement gained strength. And then, on Wednesday night, June 16, 1920, a mass meeting was held in the Palmer office on North Pineapple Avenue. About 35 citizens from all parts of the county answered a ca ll sent out by Mayor A. B. Edwards. J. E. Battle was elected chair man and Russell Thomp son, secr eta ry. Fiery speeche s were made by John F Burket, A. L. Joiner, Owen Burns, Dr. Jos eph Hal ton, and many others All pointed out how Mana tee County had neglected the Sarasota district in the past. And all insis ted that vitally needed imp r oveme nts could be obtaine d only by the cre a tion of a new county. Everyone was convinced that only by separa tion could progress be a ssured. A g eneral committee was named to carry out the new county drive. Its members wer e Mayor Edwards, Frank A. Walpole, John F. Burket, A. M. Wilson J. H. Lord, Owen Bu rns, A. L. Joiner, L. L. Ma y, John Savarese, W Y. Perry, George B. Prime, \Vf. M. Tuttle, Frank Redd Cla r ence Hitchings, A. C. Honore, Frank Pearce Dr. Joseph Halton, and E. 0. Burns, of Sarasota; W. L. Dunn, of Noko m i s; W. E. Stephens,

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200 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Venice; J. R. Mason, Manasota; P. E. Buchan, Englewood; Vic Saunders, Osprey; Bryant Taylor, Bee Ridge; Emmet Tucker, Fruitville; Will Hancock, Myakka; F. P. Dean, Indian Beach, and John A. Graham, of Bradenton. All the above men deserve credit for the ultimate success of the new county drive. But a lion's share of the credit goes to Frank A. Walpole, a comparative newcomer to Sarasota. Born in Mississippi, Walpole was nursed on printers' ink and when he became knee high to a grasshopper, started in the newspaper business. He worked his way up from a copy boy and cub reporter until he finally became owner and editor of the Tampa Herald. Selling out after the paper was well established Walpole next started papers in Palmetto and Manatee--his Manatee Record long was one of the most influential papers in the county. He became known throughout Florida as the "fiery, redheaded editor." Branching out into another field, Walpole entered the drug store business in 1912 and bought a store in Manatee. Soon afterward, he bought the old Fred Knight drug store, in Sarasota, established in 1 904. Then, in 1916 he moved here with his family and almost immediately became one of Sarasota's civic leade rs. Soon after the state legislature met in 1921, efforts were made to get the Sarasota County bill introduced in the house or senate. But the repre sentative from Manatee County refused to support it, because of opposi ction to it in the Manatee River section. The senator from this district was sympathetic but "cautious." It looked as though the Sarasotans were out of luck. But then \Xf alpole, ab ly assisted by Burket and several other men, began to "play politics." A deal was made with a prominent politician .from the northern part of the county whereby a juicy political plum was pledged in exchange for badly needed support. More skillful maneuver ;ing was done and finally all opposition to the bill was smothered. The measure was introduced in the legislature and went through a'sailing, without one vote against it, on May 11. Burket, who had been in Tallahassee with \X' alpole and Edwards, wired the good news to Mrs. C. V. S. Wilson, publisher of the Sarasota Times. Governor Cary A. Hardee signed the bill on May 14, and handed the pen he used to Walpole. It is still a prized possession of the Walpole family. An election was called for June 15, 1921, to ratify or reject the new county bill. Many persons were dissatisfied because the division committee had to yield four townships just northeast of the p r esent Sarasota .County lines to Manatee in a compromise arrangement. But, despite this dissatisfaction, the new county lines recommended by the committee

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 201 were accepted by the general public and, at the referendum election, the bill creating the new county was approved by an overwhelming majority, 518 to 154. The new county of Sarasota was born! To celebrate the occasion, Mrs. Wilson changed the masthead of her Sarasota Times to read "The Sarasota County Times" with the issue of June 16 1921. She was happy! In her paper she had argued for months with separation opponents try i ng to make them see i:he light-and now she had won her fight! Officials of the new county, to become an actuality on July 1, 1921, were appointed by Governor Hardee The}' v. ere: county commissioners -Frank A. Walpole, District No. 1; L. L May, No. 2; F. J. Hayden, No. 3; P. E. Buchan, No. 4, and Henry Hancock, No. 5. School board members: A. L Joiner, first district; T. L. Livermore, second district, and Guy Ragan, third district. Others were: W. Y. Perry, county judge; 0. E. Roesch, clerk of circuit court; A. M. Wilson, tax collector; B. D. Photo Not Available The Sarasota Post Office.

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202 THE STOII.Y OF $AII.AS9TA Levi, sheriff; Frank Redd, prosecuting attorney; T. W. Yarbrough, sup erintendent of public instruction, and T. A. Hughes, supervisor of reg istration Later, A. B. Edwards was appoip.ted to serve as the county's first tax assessor. Arrangements for obtaining quarters for the county offices were made at the first meeting of the county commiss i oners July 3, 1921. Space in the Arcade Building, ow ned by the city, was rented. The commi ssioners also ordere d necessary equipment record books and forms. During the next few years, the grand jury repeat edl y pointed out that the coun t y quarters in the arcade were inadequate and urged the commissioners to take immediate steps to protect the publ ic records from :fire hazards. Finally, in 1925, the state legislature authorized a county bond issue of $500,000 to erect a new courthouse. While plans for the structure were being drawn by James Dwight Baum, the offices were mo ved to a temporary wooden "courthouse" erected at a cost of $ 11,000 on Oak Street near Orange Avenue, on a lot owned by County Commissioner M. L. Wread. The cornerstone of the new courthouse on Main Street, widely praised as one of the most artisti c public buildings in the United States, was laid May 13, 1926 by the Sarasota Lodge No. 147 F & A.M. Nearly a h undred mem b e r s of the lodge participated in the cere monies. Talks wer e made by County Commissioners George B. Prime and M. L. Townsend, and by Judge Cary B. Fish, district deputy g rand master of the grand lodge of Florida. The courthouse was built by Stephenson & Cameron, New York contracting firm, and formally accepted February 2 4 1927. Some o the offices had been moved into the building several months before. A Murderer $trikes Early on the morning of Thursday, J anuary 6, 1921, the body of a ma n was seen lying in a pool of blood near the center of Beach Road on Siesta Key by Bert Luzier and his son Merle. The man's fac e and head had been horribly crushed but he was still living, unconscious but moan ing feeb ly. The Luziers picked up the body and put it in their car and then rushed to Saras ota. A phys ician was called. It was obvious that the man's condition was cri tical The d octor gave orders for him to be taken to Tampa, where he could be treated in a hospital. The man died on the road to Bradenton. Just before the trip to Tampa started, the man was identified through a seal ring he was wearing. He was Harry L. Higel, one of Sarasota' s most beloved and respected citizens! A man who had served the community five terms as councilm a n a n d three te rms as mayor-a man who had been

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 203 identified with every progressive movement in the city's history. Sarasota was stunned. Apd shocked. And the n bitterly angry A cry went up to catch the murderer-and string him up! Suspicion centered on Rube All y n former editor of the Sara sota Sun. The c i rcumst antial evidence against him appeared in controvert ib l e. He had been quarreling with Higel since a bitter election campaign in 1915. He was known tO have a violent temper. A footprint which l ooked as though it had been made by one of his rubber soled canvas shoes was found at the place the murderous assault occurred. Placed under arrest, Allyn was brought to Sarasota f rom his home on Siesta Key. A mob bega n gathering. A rope was' hurriedly secur e d and a hangman's knot drawn. However, bef ore the mob took the law into its own hands, the s heriff appe ared and whisked Allyn away to B radento n. A coroner 's jury ordere d him held on a c ha rge of murder. Allyn was held in jail in Bradent on for 61 days. T h en the grand jury decided that a true ba! oould not be returned against him, inasmuch as all th e evidence against him was circurnsuntial. So All yn was r eleased. In recen t year s, Allyn has live d as a hermit in a small home near Ruskin. Funera l services for Hige l were the m ost impressive ever held in Sam sora. Hundreds of his friends attended. Antinarelli's band, playing a funeral dirge, led the procession from his home to Rosemar y Cemeter y where the bod y wa s burie d. The murderer of Higel never paid the penalty for his crime. A rewa rd of $1,000 wa s offered by the county commissio ners immediat ely after Sarasota County was created, for sufficient evidence to obtain a convic tion. But no new evidence was f orthcoming. A pla que honoring Higel was placed o n Siesta Bridge. A Hwrricane Cleans tht W att>r/ro n.t For many year s Sarasota 's growth as a winter resort was retard e d by an unsightly waterfront, littered with ri ckety wharves and tumble down fish houses. The city rec ogni z ed the v alue and the need of the fishing industty, but i t did not belie v e the in dustry had co settle down for keeps in the city's "front yard." The fishermen agreed that their whar'VCS, warehouses, and nets were unsightly but the y argued that they h a d no other place to go no place where there was a harbor and railroad. The problem seemed unsolveable. But then one of Sarasota 's win ter visitors offered a solution-Calvin N. Pay ne, of Titusville, Pa., one of the nation's best known and most widely respect e d oil men. He bou ght seven acres of land at the mouth of Hog Creek and said he would dredge out a basin, construct bulkheads and docks, and see that a railroad siding was

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204 THE STORY OF SARASOTA provided. He said he would turn over the terminal to the city without a cent of profit-providing the city wanted i t and also providing the fish ermen would agree to move to the new location. The whole project was still hanging fire when a hurricane hit Sarasota -one of the worst hurricanes in the history of the Florida West Coast. The storm started with a slow rain Saturda y afternoon, October 22, 1921. By Sunday morning the slow rain had become a downpour which continued hour after hour without letup. Then, at 9 p.m. Monday, winds of hurricane strength, coming out of the southwest, hit the city. The wind moaned and howled and water kept piling into the bay, flooding the waterfront. In the city, the hurricane did little damage-but it wreaked havoc down on the bayfront. First the small boat houses began breaking up. Then the railroad dock began to disintegrate, and the wholesale fish house of John Savarese was destroyed. After that, in rapid succession, went the other fish houses, and many fishing boats and launches, and thousands of dollars worth of nets. A la rge part of the municipal pier was w a shed away-and all the other docks. When the storm passed, late Tuesday, the waterfront was a shambles. Gulf Stream Avenue was covered with debris. But the storm, destructive though it was, served one constr uc tive purpose. It took the fishing in dustry out of the city's front yard, once and forever. Payne speeded up the work of dredging the basin at Hog Creek A spur trac k from the Seaboard was laid down co the newly built docks. And within a few months, a new and better place for the fishermen was finished and ready for use-thanks to the winter resident from Titusville, Pa., who had f allen in love with Sarasota and was determined to do his part to make it an even finer p lace in which co live. A $60,000 bond issue to reimburse Payne for the money he had spent on the new harbor and railroad tracks was approved 73 to 57 ac an election held February 20 1923. So che terminal became city property. To honor the man who advanced the money for its development, city council called it the Payne Terminal. The hurricane, in "cleaning-up" the waterfront, convinced che city fathers that it was about tim e to build a storm-proo f concrete municipal pier to replace the wooden structure which the raging winds and high tide had sadly demolished. A $75,000 bond issue for constructing a 700-fooc concrete pier was approved 129 co 30 at an election held Monday, July 3 1922. In. the bond ordinance, it was plainly stated that chc pier was to be "purely recrea" tional"-the city was determined it shouldn't be used for .warehouses,

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 205 fis h house s ma:chine shops, and "amusement palaces" as the old pier had been A contract for the construction of the pier was let July 24 to George Skene, of Palmetto. But delays were encountered in selling the bonds John Ringling finally came to the city's aid and took $70,000 worth of the bonds at par, a higher price than had been offered by any other bidder. the bonds were sold, Skene got into becall57 of the rapidly riSing cost of labor and matenals and the p1er wasn't fimshed until late in the winter of 1923-24. It was dedicated March 26, 1924, with 2,000 persons attending. J. H. Lord was the pri ncipal speaker. Music was furnished by the Kiwanis band. The ceremon ies were cli maxed by a big fireworks display. A1$other Scotsman Comes to Sarasota The Land of Sarasota for sixty years and more has had a close affinity with Scotland and the Scots. It was in Edinburgh where the town plat of Sarasota first was drawn under orders of Sco t sman Sir John Gillespie, of Moffat, Dumfrieshire head of the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd. The group of Britishers who came to colonize the newly-platted town of Sarasota was composed almost entire l y of Scotsmen. And the man who was Sarasota's No. 1 citizen for nearly three decades was ScotSman J. Hamilton Gillespie, son of Sir John. To sti ll another Scotsman goes the credit for giving Sarasota itS first modern apartment building, and hotel, and auditorium. This ScotSman was Andrew McAnsh. McAnsh did not come here directly from Scotland, as did the colo nists and Gillespie, but from Chicago where he had grown to manhood and accumulated a fortune. He was induced to come here by W. C. Towles, of R. G. Dunn & Co., who had wintered in Sarasota for many years-and realized the city's need for a better hotel than the ancient Belle Haven. "You Scotsme n put Sarasota on the map--now it's time for you to give it a first-rate hotel," Towles said to McAnsh. "And, besides, you can make some real money in Sarasota-the people will do almost anything to get a real hotel built." McAnsh knew the Palmers had invested heavily in Sarasota and he finally decided to see for what Sarasota had offer. He here for the first time in the spring of 1922 and went. mto a huddle W1th Mayor E. J. Bacon, City Attorney John F. Burket, council n;embc;rs, and officials of the Chamber of Commerce The upshot of the d1scuss!on was that the city agreed that if McAnsh would build a hotel, an apartment

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206 THE STORY OF SARASOTA buildin g and a "nautitorium," it would not levy any taxes on the pro perties fo r ten years-and would give free l ight and w ate r to boot. Su ch an offer could no t be resisted by a canny Scotsman H e went back to C hicago and f ormed the Mir a Mar Corp ora tion, stoc k i n whic h was purchase d by W illia m D. Foreman Willi am K. Sch midt, Ch arle s Koep ke, John Smulski, W C. Tow l es, Sherb u rne Erling, and R C. Caples. With the company organized, McAnsh purchased several larg e locs on Palm Avenue and ordered work star ted at onc e o n the Mira Mar Apartments. Ground was brok en October 6, 1922. S arasotans the n witnessed the speedies t construction job in the city's history. Elec tric lig hts flooded the building site and work procee ded on a 24-hour -aday basis. The pro ject was c alled th e 60-day wonder." By early Dece mbe r the apartm ent was finished and b y Januar y 1 it was r eady for oc c upancy. Just before the new apartmen t building was compl eted, McAn sh re t urned to Sarasota afte r a trip back to Chicago. He was given a truly royal recep tion His train was met at Rubo nia by a del eg ation of l eading Sarasota c_itizens headed by May or Ba con and A B. Edwards, then president of the Cham ber o f Commerce. A parade toward Sa r a sota began. It was met on the o u tskirts of t he city b y a brass ban d which blared forth a welc om e whi ch cou l d be hea rd fo r miles. Then, as the pa rade reached Main Street, re.d flares were li t on both sides of the street-the fue siren shrieked and whi stles blew. On that night of Tuesday, November 28, 1922, McAnsh was the hero of the hour in Sarasota. Work on the Mira Mar Hotel was starte d in J uly, 1 923, and compl eted w ithin six months. At th e same time, the Mira Mar Auditorium was (On structed-ever yone agreed that an aud itorium was mor e badl y nee de d than a nau ti t oriu m," desirable though such a place might be The aud i torium, which seated 1 ,200, was a famous m eeting plac e for years. Construction of the Mira Mar buildings by M c Ansh and his associates marked a t urnin g poin t in Sarasota's history. From then on, inducementS did no t h ave to be mad e by the city council to bring venture capital into the cit y. M oney literally poured in -to construct more apart ment build ings, more hotels, mo re business blocks, and hund reds of homes. And, o h yes, to open and develop n ew subd i visions. The city grew as it had never grown before. The golden age of Sarasot a had beg un. The boom was on! Skywar d Go tiJc Prices! Sarasota went real estate crazy d uring the winter of 1922-23 Sta rk, raving mad! Jus t like other resor t cities of th e sta te! They all became insane. And for three years the insanity became wors e and wo rse.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 207 The Flonda boom was a phenomenon which is hardly comprehensible to anyone who didn't live through it. A child of war-made wealth, it became an incoporeal Frankenstein which brought :financial ruin to almost everyone it seemed to favor most. Or, to use another metaphor, it was an insidious disease, spread by the ger m of quick and easy profits A disease which swept the state like an epidemic, afflicting the f oolish and the wise, the gullible suckers and the most astute financial wizards. Hardly anyone was unmune. Unlike most diseases, the Florida boom was very, very pleasant-for a time It affected its victims like strong wine. It exhilerated them, and made them gay and happy. And put gorgeous rolls of bills into their pockets When the disease became virulent, the whole state acted as though it were on a glorious bender-beautifully intoxicated. And wildly hysterical. Here in Sarasota, the disease was mild, in the beginning, and few persons were affected. In fact, hardly anyone knew such a disease existed. But let's trace its course. When the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co. Ltd., platted the town and put the first lots on the market in 1886, "business sites" on lower Main were priced at $10 0 each. But there were few buyers. And soon the prices plummetted. As late as 1900 lots on lower Main could be purchased for $40-with just a few dollars down and the balance on almost any terms the buyer wanted. Residential lots, a block or so from Five Points, were sold at $10 With the coming of the Seaboard and J. H. Lord, the land buyer, prices rose "tremendously." Lord was forced to pay all of $800 for the "triangle," bounded by Central, Pineapple and Seventh--'
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208 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Boulevard addition, in the northern part of town, and A. B. Edwards opened the Hudson Bayou. addition, just north of the bayou. For l ots on the waterfront, Edwards charged $300; inside lots were priced at $150 to $200. During the same year, 1913, Harry L. Higel pushed his dream town of Siesta, out on Siesta Key, and Indian Beach came to life again. Large b l o cks of propert y there were purchased by]. K. Murphy and H F. Reils, who formed the Indian Beach Land Co., and l au.nched a nation-wide sales campaign. Man y lots were sold at prices ranging from $300 to $2,000 All these subdivi s ions and developm ents were stifled by the 1914 de pressi on. However, they revived when the depression was rout e d by World \Var I and the United State s wa s flooded by war orders. During the summer of 1915 and the following win t e r McClellan Park was de velo ped by Misses Katherine and D aisy M cClellan, of Northampton, Mass. A yacht basin was dredged, boulevards and driveways opened, and a small club house constructed The development was formally opened March 7, 1916. The occasion was featured b y a tennis tournament. The players were Miss Louise Edwards, lvliss Louis e Higel, Mrs. Howard Nutt and Mrs. H. N. Hall. Joh n Ringli ng entere d the real estate picture in Sarasota in 1917 first buying the club house and grou nd s of the Sarasota Yacht and Automobile Club, on Gulf Stream Avenue, and then Ce dar Point, with 1200 foot frontage on the bay. Soon after the war ended, he also bought Bird Key, where the Worcester home was l ocated; St. Armand's Key, Coon Key, Otter Ke y, Wolf Key, and several other unnamed mangrove islan d s. He t he reby becam e the owner of all the keys betwee n the bay and the gulf immediately in front of the city of Sarasota. Owen Burn s acted as the agent of R ingling in acquiring most of these properties During 1921, the civic eye-sore at Five Points-a debri s-fi ll e d lot where the tOwn meeting place was once located-was removed when A. E. Cummer of Cleveland built a modern store building on the site. The building was leased tO Phil H Levy who operated a s tore there for many years. From the end of the war up to the winter of 1 922-23, there was a slow but steady rise i n realty values. Nothing spectacular-just an in crease jus t ified by the city's healthy growth. But then the fireworks started. Here, there, and ever ywhere, new subdivisions sprang up, like mushrooms in a s heep pasture after a warm spring rain. Prices of lots began shooting up to fan tastic height s Tre mend ous profits were made. Sarasota began to be swamped by real estat e salesmen-the "knickerboc ker army." Practically everyone becam e real estate crazy

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 209 Enduring proof of the hysteria which swept Sarasota during the peak of the boom is provided by an eight-page, newspaper size ballyhoo paper published May 1, 1925, by an organization of rabid Sarasota boosters The paper, widely circulated, was called "Sarasota On the Gulf." Here are some choice quotations from the paper : "Fortunes have been made overnight i n t his territory. In a recent deal at Woodmere a rea l estate operator made $700,000 profit on an 8000acre deal in less than three months. A year ago the Watrous Hotel was held at $65,000. It was sold last month for $225,000 .... On August 2, 1924, Frank Walpole paid $1,000 a front foot for Main s tree t property, a top price Two months later, he paid $2,000 a front f oot for adjoining property. Recently the price jumped to $3,000 .... "S Davis Boylston, Sarasota druggist, netted $ 36,000 profit i n two we eks on an initial investment of $500. ]. H Lord declined $1, 366,000 for a 99-year lease on the triangular lot at Five Points. I. R. Burns re turned from Honolulu to find property he sold five years ago for $30,000 had been sold for $150,000 and has a present value of $300,000 .... "Jim Bishop, a fisherman, who preempted a spot for a home on Long boat Key ne ed not fish any more. He got $30,000 cas h for his holdings. Walter Blackburn had a farm of 200 acres near Laurel but a $200,000 offer was tempting and he took it. Less chan 10 acres of the f a r m was in cultivation. S e nator Park Trammell made a profit of over $10,000 on an initial investment of $750." Scores of other examples of phenomenal profits were listed in the paper as proof of Sarasota's "sound" growth. It was stated that real estate prices had merely begun to climb. Optimistically the publishers declared that within five years prevailing prices would seem ridiculously low. By the fall of 1925, Sarasota had boomed so thoroughly that ha r dly anyone knew where all the subdivisions were located. Consequently, the Sarasota Realty Board decided to publish an atlas to list all the develop ments, and started looking for an expert atlas compiler to do the work In a hoop-la dissertation, \Villis B. Powell then secretary of the Cham ber of Commerce, declared that the entire Florida boom was due directly to an advertising campaign which Sarasota had conducted during the last half of 1923. Said Powell: "Within a year after the ca mpaign started, land that had gone begging at from $25 to $100 an acre took on a new lustre and was readily snapped up at from $3,000 to $5,000 an acre For tunes were made overnight Widows and orphans, land poor, began to buy self-playing pianos and automobiles with jeweled mud guards .... Then other towns said, 'What Sarasota has done, we can do!' and they

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210 THE STORY OF SARASOTA began to step heavily on t.he l oud pedal. By the sp r ing of 1925, the whole state was thriving-thanks to Sarasota." Here are a few of the real estate developments which carried full page ads in the Sarasota Herald late in 1925: Washington Heights, "where prices positively will advance $500 to $ 1,000 a lot within a week;" Flora Terrace, on Tamiami Trail, "where values inevitably will soar because of the unsurpassed beauty of this marvelous tract of land;" East Sarasota, "a city in the making invest $1,000 now and you will make $5,000 within a year;" the Garden of Allah, where "you'll marvel at such reason able prices lots can s t ill be bought as low as $1,500-they will treble in value when development work starts;" Sorrento Shores, "only nine miles south of the Flagpo le." Vamo, "the gem of the bay," had a specia l ten-page section to tell of its attractions; Homasassa, "the miracle city," had a four-page section. Other developments which ran full-page ads included Venice-Nokomis, then being sold by the Roger C Rice Co ; Edgemere, beyond Bee Ridge; Mira Mar Extension, on Sarasota Beach; Seagate, "Sarasota s most aristo cratic suburb, a half mile north of Sapphire Shores," and Pine Vista Estates, "onl y 20 minutes from Five Points, where beautiful home sites can be purchased at the ridiculously low price of $3,650 The once tiny fishing hamlet was truly becoming a "marvelous metropolis Everyone was convinc e d that the city would continue to grow, and grow and grow. And to prep are for the great city almost in sight, the council was urged to petition t he state legislature for a "greater Sarasota charter City Attorney John F. Burket drafted the charter desired and has tened to Tallahassee. The, charter was speeded through the legislature and signed by the governor on November 22, 1925 It extended the city limits far up and down the. coast and many miles inland. T h e new corporate limits embraced 69 square miles-the original town was less t.han two square miles in size. To celebrate the creation of Greater Sarasota, more than a thousand persons gathered on the city pier and cheered speeches by Mayor E. J. Bacon, Jules Brazil, E. A Smith and John F. Burket. E v en before the passage of the Greater Sarasota charter, Sarasota had expanded to take in Sarasota Heights, once know n as Bungalow Hill, which had been incorporated as a separate town by the state legislators on May 22, 1917. Dr. F. W. Schultz was elected mayor. Sarasotans accused the people in the Heights of being "tax dodgers and unsuccessfully fought the i ncorpora t ion in the courts. Finally, in the spring of 1925, the "Bun galow Hillers" decided that the advantages of being part of Sarasota out weighed the disadvantages so they did not object when the legislature

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 211 authorized the city to extend its corp orate limits to take in the Heights. The act provided that the Heights' ma yor at tha t time, J. W. Harvey, was to serve as one of Sarasota's councilmen. During the month of October, 1925, rea l estate sales in Sarasota to talled $11, 420 ,000 No one realized it then, but that was the p eak of the boom. In November, the sales dropped to $10,000,000 and i n December to $8,000,000. Then, in January, 1 926, they totalled only $6,826,000. The cold weather that winter was h eld respons ible. Said the people: This is just a temporary lull wait until we get some good warm sun s hine again and th en see what happens! Late in January, the bad weather end e d and the sun blazed forth in all its gloxy. Sales picked up. Chortled the optimists: "What did we tell you! From now on, Sarasota proper ty is going to sell !ike it never sold before!" It looked for a time as tho u gh they we re right, particularly after R ingling Estates were opened for sales. T his multi-million dollar development was a John Ringling project. It was one of the best planne d in all F l orida. Work on it was started late in 1923 and continued throughout 1924 and 1925. Three larg e dredges Photo Not Available Co' d Zan, the milli on dollar Sarasota home of the la te J oh n Ringling, was willed co the State of Florida when th e circus magnate died After y<'>rs of litigation, executOr s of the
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212 THE STOR Y OF SARASOTA were used to build u p the mangrove isl ands and make solid la nd T h e a ppearance o f Cedar P oi n t, St. A r man d 's, Lido and the south e rn end o f Lon g boat K e y was entirely changed Millions of c ub i c yard s of fill were made; statuary bought in I ta ly was placed along the b o u leva r ds; thousands of coco n u t p a lms and Australian pines were pla n te d S ewer and water mains were inst alled; roads were h ard-surfaced, and canals dredged. A bathing p a vaion was built ac Lido by R ingling and S. W. Gumpertz. Photo Not Available Summer spe,ds the 'Winter at Lido lktch. To connect Lido and St. Armand s with the mainland, Ringling built the causeway which now bear s his name. The firs t concrete pile was d r iv e n to b e drock on the Sara sota si d e of the bay on J a nuary 1, 1925, and R in gling drove over the b ridges ju s t one year l ater T h e ca u seway was opened to th e public Fe bruary 7, 1926. R ing l ing presented it t o the c ity as a gift June 13, 1927, a nd it was ac cepted on J anuary 31, 192 8 At t hat t i me i t was s t ate d the ca useway cost $750,000.

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 213 On the day the causeway was formally opened, February 7, 1926, Ringling Estates also were opened to the public with the Czecho -Slov akian Band playing two concerts on St. Armands. It was reported that sales on the opening day exceeded a million dollars probably this to tal included "pre-opening" sales made to prospects who had been taken to t he islands, before the causeway was completed, in rowboats and launches. Photo Not Available The John and i\-!able Ringl i n g Arc Museum, one of Sarasoca' s most famous att ractions. The D:tu scum and the arc obj ects it cont ains> conservatively valued at $ 1 5.000,000. were ''i!led to the sta te by the la te John Ringling. Ringling Estates were wide l y advertised throughou t the s t ate and brought many people to Sarasota for their fir s t visit s . To make th e islands still more attractive, John Ringling conceived the idea of building a s u per -de luxe hotel on the south end of Longboat Key. And to get a name which would be ap p ropriate for the elegant hostelry he agreed to pay $5,000 a year, 'tis said, fo r the use of the name Ritz-Carlton. The building was started Monday, March 15, 1926. While work on it progressed, an 18-hole golf co urse, paid for by loca l subscrip tions was built on adjoining land. Today, few traces of the course remain and the hotel, on which $650,000 was spent, stands unfinished.

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214 THE STORY OP SARASOTA But to get back to 1926. When the Ritz-Carlton was started, A. S. Skinner ballyhooed the attractions of Longboat Shores, a little north of the hotel. He announced that there were only 105 6 lots in the develop ment, ranging in price from $2,000 to $10,000, and he solemnly declared that when they were sold "there wouldn't be any more." Longboat Shores almost died a'borning but that also was the case with several other developments on which immense sums were spent in 1925 and early 1926. Foremost among these was Whitfield Estates, just north of the county line but considered a part of Sarasota ; Sapphire Shores, on Indian Beach, developed by the Bryson Realty Co., of which W. J. Bryson was president; Cherokee Park, developed by J. C. Brown, of Providence, R. I., and Courthouse Addition, developed by Charles Ringling. This last development was one of the most notable carried out in the corporate limits of Sarasota. It took in the old Gillespie golf course, which Ringling purchased from the Sarasota Golf Holding Co. A business sec tion was laid out: and a number of business buildings erected. Also, the Sarasota Terrace Hotel, financed by the Adair Realty & Trust Co., of Atlanta, Ga. The hotel was officially opened June 24, 1926. The boom gave Sarasota two other first class hotels. The .first was the Sarasota Hotel, at Main and Palm, built by W. H. Pipcorn, of Milwaukee, the .first man to pay $1,000 a front foot for land in the business section. The hotel was started in 1924 and opened early in 1925. It was Sarasota's first skyscraper. Then carne the El Vernona Hotel, now known as the John Ringling Hotel. This structure, designed by Architect J. Dwight Baum, was de scribed by experts as "the most perfect example of Spanish architecture in Florida." The builder of the hotel was Owen Burns, who named it in honor of his wife, the former Miss Vernona Hill Freeman, of New York. The hotel was formally opened with a grand ball and celebration New Year'seve,Decembel:" 31,1926. Two other skyscrapers jutted into Sarasota's skyline during the boom -the First Bank & Trust Co. Building, now known as the Palmer Bank Building, and the American National Bank Building, now known as the Orange Blossom Hotel. To make way for these two structures, Sarasota's two original hotels were razed-the Sarasota House, completed in the spring o f 1886, and the Belle Haven Inn, orginally known as the De Soto Hotel, completed early in 1887. The site of the Sarasota House, at Main and Central, was owned by J. H. Lord, who erected the office building as a home for the First Bank, of which he was then president. The building was started late in 1924 and

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THE $TORy OF SARASOTA 215 completed April 25, 1925. At the same time, Lord a lso built the Lord's Arcade, adjoining. The Belle Haven was purchased by a building companybacked by th e American National Bank. The reponed purchase price was $500,000cash. The sale was made by C. T. Whittle and his son Elmer, owners of t h e inn, in 1925. Just eleven years before, Whittle had bought the pro perty at an announced price of $35,000. N o t a bad profit! Work on the bank building was started in October, 1925, and the bank moved its offices there December 27, 1926. Scores of lesser business buildings and apartments, and hundreds of new homes, also were erected during the boom period. The boom also brought Sarasota a really modern theatre-the Edwards Theat r e, now known as the Florida. It was built by A. B Edwards, Sara sota's most outstanding na t ive son. The building cost $350,000 and was acclaimed as the finest on the Florida West Coast More than 1500 persons attended the opening of the theatre held Saturday night, April 19, 1925. Photo Not Available The winter quarters of RinKiing Brothers and Baroum & Bailey, "rhe biggest show on earth", attnct tout'i.su tO S 2 n .sou from all pacts of Florida.

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216 THE STORY OF SARASOTA The Rev. J. J. Neighbo urs, rector of the Church of tlle Rede emer, gave the invocatio n A concert was given by the Nationa l Czecho -Slovakian Band. Sp eakers included Mayor E. J. Bacon, J. H. Lord, and Edwards. The big movie feature shown was "Skinner' s Dress Suit." Lagging on at the tail end of the real estate developments of the boom era was that gigantic, grandiose promotion of the Brotherhood of Loco motive Engineers-the town of Venice. Had the project been started several years earlier, it might have been one of the most successful develop ments in the entire state. But it did not get well under way until the boom was over and, as a result the promotion turned out to be one of the worst real estate "flops i n history-and practically ban krupted the brotherhood On April23, 192.9, Stanto n Ennes, former genera l manager of the de velopment company, stated in the Sarasota Herald that 30,511 acres had been purchased by the brotherhood from September 28, 1925, to March 28, 1.927, at a cost of $4,043,0.92 -for the land al one. De velopme n t and sales expenses totalled $12,000 ,000 more, he said, making the total e x penditure more than $16,000,000. Said Ennes: "The Venice pro ject, where the B. of L. E. endeavored to create a large city is now closed down indefinite ly, lacking funds to contin u e. Where more than 4,000 persons once comp rised the com munity, which b oasted three large hotels, a bank, a theatre and a th rivin g business center only a mere handf u l now reside, bringing t o mind Goldsmith's deserted village." Ennes charged that huge sums were paid for the property in excess of its value, that contracts were let for im p rovements in an extravagant and wasteful manner, that boards of interlocking directors, woefully ig norant of financial affairs, effected untold damages to the development through a series of costly blunders He also charged officers of the tion itself with aiding the practices which placed the brot4erhood in a serious financia l condition. So far as can be learned, Enn es' charges were never contradicted: Certainly the Sarasota Herald never "apologized" for having carried Eno .es' statem ent. And, for a numbe r of years, Venice undoub tedly was one of the most lavish "ghost cities" in the entire United States-a town almost without people; in truth, a deser ted village. T he t own ha d a fine location and was exceptionally well planned. I ts public improvements had been made to endure and its build ings were well constructed. Despite all that, Venice almost ceased to be for several years. Then Came the MornJn g After Late in the faU of 1926, even some of the most starry-eyed Florida boosters began to admit glum ly th.at : the gran d and glorious boom had

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 217 ended that the gorgeously i rradiant Florida bubble had finally burst! Real estate salesmen and their "birddogs" began to hunt in vain for prospects. Sales shrank pathetically Prices had been pushed up to such stratosp he ric heights that they simply couldn't go any higher. And, in stead o f remaining where they were, they plunged downward at a sicken ing pace. To save something from the wreckage, everyone ''tried to sell his holdings-and there were mighty few buyers, even at give-away prices. In a desperate move to stave off disaster, Sarasotans voted 974 to 31 on Thursday, December 9, 1 926, to reduce the corporate area of the city from 69 to 17 square miles. The overwhelming vote was due to the fact that many building projects in the annexed area had been stopped. The buil ders said they would s tart again as soon as they got out of the city and escaped its 'ruinous tax rates." John Ringling, for one, had stopped work on the R itz-Car lton and said he would not order work started again until Longboat Key was excluded from the city limits. So Sarasotans voted "Greater Sarasota" out of existence. Almost simultaneously, a citizens tax comm i ttee demanded that the city's proposed $870 ,234 budget for 1 927 be slashed to $511,577-and their demands were heeded. had begun to see the handwriting on the wall. The ranks of the "knickerbocker army" began to thin. One by one, the high pressure fellows and the binder boys began to pack their bags. No longer were they making fat commissions which enabled them to pay the fantastic prices being charged for the necessities of life. No longer could they pay $1, 500 a season for an apartment worth $500. So they departed. Perhaps most of these super salesmen went north and joined the army of "stock market experts" who were then helping pave the way for the country to travel on the greatest spree of its history-the "ticker-tape debauch" which ended in the crash of October, 1929, and plung e d the nation i nto the greatest depression known to man. Be that as it may the departure of the knickerbocker boys caused a rapid reduction in rents in Sarasota. But they were Jowered too late to obtain a full1926-27 "crop" of winter residents. Many remained in the ir northern homes because they had learned by sad experience during the two preceding w i nters that Florida living costs had soared beyond their abil ity to pay. The poor tourist season hurt badly. So did the departure of the free spending knickerbocker boys. But the blow which hurt the worst was the drying up o f the flood of investment money which had poured into the state in a golden flood. The economics of every resort city was geared

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218 THE STORY OF SARASOTA to the flow of incoming capital-and when it ceased, the state was almost paralyzed When the effects of the boom intoxication started to wear off, Sara sotans looked around in sort of a bewildered daze and began taking stock of their assets and liabilities. The Million Dollar "Harbor Part) On the debit side of the ledger, they found many unpleasant facts. Perhaps the worst was the "million-dollar harbor spree." That episode brings up painful memories but it was such a super-splendiferous spree that the facts must be recorded, unpleasant though they may be. This is the way Sarasotans threw a million dollars in the bay without hardly a thing to show for it: Long before the turn of the century, Sarasota began trying to get a deep water harbor, where ocean-going ships could dock. Time after time, Sarasotans appealed to COngress for an appropriation large enough to dredge a 22-foot channel from the gulf to a port inside the city limits. But' the appeals fell upon deaf ears. Declared Capt. J. R Slattery, of the U S. Engineer Office, December 17, 1912: "If a 20-foot channel were constructed t o Sarasota as is so urg ently it is very problematical whether o cean-going steamships could be induced to call at the port and even i f t hey did stop, it is doubtful that the saving that could be< effected in freight rates would be sufficient to warrant this improvement .... I find it impossible to get away from the idea that this deep channe l is desired more for the purpose of exploit ing real estate than for the purpose of navigation." Higher officers in the U. S. Corps of Engineers concurred in this un favorable report and the most they would recommend was a $92,000 appropriation to provide a new 7 -foot channel in Sarasota Bay by the Longboat Key inland waterway route. That was on March 18, 1 9 1 4. But, because of the war the dredging was not started until April 20, 1920 and not completed until a year l ater In the meantime, steamers operated by the Tampa-Sarasota Transportation Co., and later by the Favorite Line, often went aground at low tide in Sarasota Bay, disrupting schedules and almost ruining passenger trade. Steamers which came here during the 'Teens included the Gen. J. B. Cmr, the City of Sarasota, the Manatee, and the Jessie B. Ada-ms. Even when the 7-foot channel finally was completed, Sarasotans were not satisfied Far from it. Why, such a dinky little channel was an insult to the city! What Sarasota needed-and had to have-was a real deep water channel and an honest-to-goodness port.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 219 Where would the mon e y for such a project come from? Shucks, that was an easy q u estion to answer. Didn't the city own an electric light plant? And didn't the Florida Power & Light Co. want to buy it-and pay a cool million dollars, in cash, for it? Of course. So what was holding the city back fro m getting the port it deserved to have? Not a thing in the world! The. proposal to sell the municipal light plant was presented to the voters at a special elec t ion January 12, 1926, and approved, 461 to 214. A check for a million dollars was turned over to the city March 4, 1926, by Joe H Gill, vice-president and general manager of the power company. Even before the city got the money it awarded a $799,990 c ontract for the dredging job toR. A. Perry, of Tampa, who formed the United Dredging Co. The remainder of the money was to be spent for bulkheading and docks Exulted the Sarasota Times, then owned by L. D Reagin: "A huge dredge, with a capacity of 1,000 cubic yards an hour, is digging a channel through New Pass into Sa. rasota Harbor and the big turning basin. Within eight months Sarasota will have one of the finest deep water ports on the Gulf of Mexico. The city then will be in a posi tion to bid for some of the b i g steamship business of companies operating vessels to all parts of the world .... "\Vhat will the ships carry out in their bottoms? This question is being asked by the uninitiated, those not acquainted with the potential possibilities of the region adjacent to Sarasota. It is true that the present tonnage which may be offered for export is small, but the possibilities for locating industries here loom high. And, besides, Sarasota is going to grow and grow and grow in agri c ultu ral importance Its back country is as rich as that in the Valley of the Nile and when it is developed, whole fleets of ships will be required to carry away the produce grown i n this section." The harbor expert who drafted plans for the port, and advocated the New Pass entrance, was Col. J. M. Braxton, of Jacksonville. Old timers, who knew the coast and were familiar with Gulf currents, warned Brax ton time and aga i n that the New Pa s s entrance and eastward to the mainland were impractical-that shifting sands, carried by curre n ts, would fill up' the pass and harbor as sure as fate unless long jetties were built into the Gulf and bay Braxton brushed their arguments aside who were they to argue with him, a former government. engineer? The logic of the oldtimers' reasoning didn't change the minds of the starry-eyed optimists, mostly newcomers, who then ruled the city. They envisioned Sarasota as another Los Angeles-and they were determined that a big league harbor must be built willy-nilly currents or no currents.

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220 THE S TOll y OF SARA.SOT A A railroad e m b argo helped the har bor zealot s in pushing through thei r project The tremen d o u s building boom i n F l ori d a had result e d i n a nee d for s uch imm ense quanti ties of b uild ing materia l s that t h e rail roa d s wer e over w h e l med. Thousands o f car s p iled up in bottleneck j u nction points The con gestion and confusion b ecame so bad tha t the ra ilr o a ds halted all further Flo r ida-bound ship m e n ts for months. Then said the ha r bor advocates: "See, we re being crippled because we haven't got a port! If ships could enter here we'd h ave all the building m ater i als we cou l d use Now we' r e paying the penalty f o r being uopro g ress i ve'! So the harb o r pro j ec t w ent through a 'whoo p i n g By autumn of 1926 t h e dredgin g was practi c all y completed, a 58-acre "city i s land" was cre ated a t the east end of New Pass, and bulkheads were co nstructed. Also, a 10-foot c hanne l was dredged over to Payne Terminal. This was to be deepened later, of course, to 22-feet! But by the time t h e channels were completed, the railroads had lifted their embargos and the building boom had almost e nded. On Friday, March 1 8 1927, an "oceang oing s h ip" crept cautio usl y through the pass and a nch o r e d at Payne T e r minal. But what a ship! It was only 100feet long and drew only six fee t of water. Nevert h e less, it was the first vessel which used S arasota's million dollar port" and, hence, must be recorde d i n S a ra sot a hi story. It was the C ity o f Ever8 /ades, of the Colli e r Line, for w hic h John W. Philip was l ocal agent. I t brought three tons of freight for a l oca l merchant. P hilip tried vainly to drum up enough freight business to keep the Collier line steamer operating. But, by then, the railroads were again op erating normally and, besides, trucks were being wi d ely used for long distance h a u ling. It is repo r te d that not more than 50 tons of freight ever came throu gh the milliond o llar p o r t Million ahes One Day-Broke t he Next O ne d a y in October, 1925, when the Florida boom was at its peak, two n ewspaper reporters put their heads together and began listing all the "millionaires" and "near millionaires" in Sarasota -not counting the Palmers or the Ringlings, or any winter residents. When they finished they had the names of 37 men listed as being worth a n ywhe r e from $500,000 to a million or more. T wo ye a r s after the b oo m ended one of the re porter s r a n across the list in his desk and start e d checki n g off the names of the me n who ha d lost their s hirts" when real estate v a lues cras h e d. Of the o riginal 37, all exc ept f o u r were checked off as "busted And the rep o rter wasn't too

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 221 sure a bout two of the four men who had escaped. Bu t he was certain at least 3 3 were almost penniless The reporters' list may not have been any too accurate, nor the check ing off either. Nevertheless, it's true that the crash hit Sarasotans a terrific blow. Many lost their life's savings; hundreds were so heavily burdened by debts that they did no t get back on their feet again until years later. Many business firms went bankrupt. Scores of houses and apartments were sold at sacrifice prices to satisfy mortgages. The three leading hotels went into the hands of receiver s Worse still, the banks o f Saraso ta were so badly weakened that their ultimate collapse inevitable The American National Bank closed its doors Tuesday noon May 15, 1928. Vice-President R. 0. Holton announced: "Due to our inability to realize on past due paper, coupled with a numbe r of heavy withdrawals recently, we a r e unable to continue without probable serious losses." But he added reassuringly: "With a little time and patience every depositor may expect co be paid 100 cents on the dollar." Unfortunately, his pre diction did not come true. Depositors, who had $462,489 in the bank, ultimately received only 18 J4 cents on the dollar. The bank buildin g is now O"c cupied by the Orange B l ossom Hotel. Then came the crash of the First Bank and Trust Co., on July 17, 1929. The depositors finally received approximately 18l/z cents on the dollar-and their deposits totalled $513,091.42. They lost more than $400,000. The Bank of Saraosta, which had operated on a more conservative basis, survived until the depths of the Great Depression were reached in mid summer of 1932. It closed August 29. Its deposits then totalled $719,5 1 8.95. The depositors eventually received 42)4 cents on the dol lar T h e Ri n gling Bank and Trust Co. went into vo l untary liquidation on May 1, 1933 but Mrs. Edi t h Ringling, widow of C h arles Rin gling, paid off the depositors in full, at a loss to herself of a reported $250,000. The one bright spot in Sarasota's banking picture during the depres sion was the Palmer Nation al Bank and Trust Co., which opened July 20, 1929 in the offices formerly occupied by the First Ba nk and Trust Co. The Palmer Bank closed during the bank moratorium but was reopened the day the moratorium was lifted and, of course, its depositors were fully protected. Original officers of the Palmer Bank were : Potter Palmer, chairman of the board; John B. Cleveland, president ; B. H. Meadows, cashier; a nd F. C. Harrison, a s sistant cashi er The direc to rs were: Potter Palmer, F H. Guenther, George B. Howell Jo h n B. Cleveland, C. P. Hog lund a n d R. K. Thompson.

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Photo Not Available

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 223 At the end of the boom, the city and county were nearly crushed under a staggering load of bonded indebtedness. By 1928 the coun ty had a bonded indebtedness of $5,841,000, in addition to $1,223,000 worth of school bonds, and the debts of the city totalled approJrim atel y $6,200,000. Bonds had been issued pcofligately, with the greatest abandon, and appar ently no idea rhat the community might some time suffer a period of adversity Much of the bond money was spent on long needed projects ; however, there is no doubt but that a large portion of it was wasted, due to the fact that the improvements were made at a time when fantastic prices were charged for buildin g materials and when labo.r was at a premium. For instance, conservative contract ors now say that the city could have had all its harbor work done in normal times at a cost of not more than $400,000 instead of $1,000,000. A large pare o f the city's bonded indebtedness was assumed to build paved streets in subdivisions "far out in th e sticks." Also, to lay water mains in places where no houses had been built. The paved streets were nice to look at, and helped real estate salesmen in making sales, but after the boom had burst and the streets were covered with grass they were a headache to pay for. Sarasota's optimism during the boom period did not carry it to any further extremes than did the optimism of other resort cities in Florida. Every one of them was as badly hit after the crash as Sarasota. Many of them found themselves in a far worse predicament. Sarasota finally suc ceeded in digging itself our of the financial pit into which it had fallen; many sma.ller communities became hopeless l y bankrupt and practically passed out of existence. An illuminating example of how Sarasotans grasped at straws in the hope of recouping fortunes lost during the crash, was furnished by the "oil boom fever" which struck the city early in 1927 The fever began mounting when Geologist B. F. Alley announced in the newspapers that he knew of at least four locations in Sarasota County where gusher wells could be sunk. H e said he had discovered the locations while working for Harry S i nclair, noted oil magnate. A mass meeting was called i n the Mira Mar Auditorium. More than 500 excited citizens attended. Said Alley: "You people down here have never yet seen any money. The real estate boom was a mere shower compared to the cloudburst of money that is coming into this section with the oil boom And the boom is coming just as sure as we a re standin g here. I can alrnosc see the oil." The first well was "sp udded in" by the Associated Gas and Oil Co. on the 66,000-acre John Ringling tract in the Big Salt Spring district, March

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22 4 THE STORY OF SARASOT A 13, 1927. More than 5000 persons watched excit edly as the work of drill ing the well began Liv e ly tunes were played by the Czecho-Slo vakia n band; cigar s wer e given to all the m en, and cand y to all the women. The well was dedicated with a bottle of champagne by Rogers Horns by, cap tain of the New York Giants. One of the principal s pea kers Ge orge D. Lindsay e d i tor of the Saraso ta Herald, who wished the promoters good luck and plenty of oil. But, a las and alack, no oil was found. Sarasota's hopes of becom ing the center of a great oil producing district were shattered

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CHAPTER 11 SARA SOTA MADE A MODERN CITY THE BURSTING of the Florida bubble caused countless headaches, it is true. But it is likewise true that the Big Boom magically transformed Saraso ta from a mediocre town into a modern city, and brought more dev elopment than would have come normally in 50 years. Perhaps never. On the credit side of the community 's ledger, Sarasota found innum erable things for which it co uld be thankful. When the boom ended, the city had three large, modern hotels. It had two "skyscraper business blocks. It had scores of apartment houses, hundreds of fine new homes, and a first -class business district made up of modern buildings. I t had 77 miles of paved streets. It had parks, and Photo Not Available looking east on Main S t reet from t h e Five Points, ha 1946.

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226 THE STORY O.f' SARAS01'A p laygrounds, and a municipall y owned golf course. Also, a fine new hos pital. And an exce llent school syste m, with an a mple number of fire proof buildings. All t hat and much, much more. The Florida crash was less severe in Sarasot a chan in most ocher Florida r esort citie s thanks to the Ring l ings At the very time when the future look ed b l ackes t for the Sunshine State J ohn R ingling pitched in and gave Sarasota hope He did it by deeds-not by bombastic promises. F or on e thing, he kept work going on the Ringling Es tates devel opmen t and the Ritz-Carlton Hotel long after the boom h ad e nded, thereb y providing work for hundre d s of men wl1o otherw i se would have been unemployed. The Big Circu s Comes to Sarasota Ringling's next ste p was ev e n more important. He thrill ed the cit y on \Ved.nesday, March 23, 1927 when he ann ounce d that Sarasota would be made the winter quarters for the Ringling Brothe rs and Barnum & Bailey Circ u s. That was real news! News chat meant something An excellent analysis of what the winter quarters meant to Sarasota was made on April 24, 1927, b y Dudley V. H addock then specia l repre s entative of the Florida State Chamber of Commerce. In an article sent to n e wspapers throughout the c ou ntry, Hadd ock stated: "S arasota was one of the 'boom iest' of the boom center s during the turbulent days of 19 25 and when the bubble burst found itself with much of itS assetS frozen. The resu l t ing wave of depressio n was rel ieved only b y the lar g e buildin g progra m sta r t ed during the prece d i ng year. But this ended. Sarasota business rnen l ooke d for the beginning of the recovery with che advent of the tourist season but the tourists did not come until l ate and when they did arrive they did not spend their mone y as freely as they had done previously. "The season was nearing its conclusion with Sarasota's people won der ing how much they would have to economi ze to pull thro ugh the sum mer when John Ringling's annou ncemen t came. It changed the situation completely. To prepare for the arrival of the circus, Ringlin g mus t spend approximately $500,000 in the erectio n of buildings. This assures a large payroll through the sum mer, and once the circus is here, it will mean the employment of mechanics in the buildin g and repairing of circus wagons, railr oa d cars and othe r equ ipment. It will involve the distribu tion of hundreds of thou sands in Sara sota ann ually thereaf ter." Truer wo rds were never sp oke n. The winter quarters meant every thing Haddock said an d much more. As a re sult of the establi s hment of the q u arters here, scores of high-sal a ried circus performers made Sarasota che ir h ome.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 227 What was even more important, Sa rasota got a "tourist attractio n" sec ond co non e in the s tate The Ring l in g menag erie proved to be a lure strong enough to attract visitors from all parts of Fl o rida. T h e circus groun d s wer e opened to the p ublic for the first time on Christmas day, 1927. A huge crowd turned out t o see the show." And crowds have continu ed co we n d their way t o the circus grounds ever since. Ringl ing's next outstanding contribution co the community was the John and Mable Ring lin g Muse u m of Art. How the mu seum happened to be buil t was told b y John H. Phillips, noted at:chitect, shortly after John Rin g l ing's death. Ph i llips said that when he was in F l orid a in 1927, h e met the Ringl ings and happene d to mention the fact t hat he had helped d e s i gt1 the Metropolitan Museum in N ew York City. Said Ringling : "I want a m useum built tO put my art collection inco-how'd yo u l i k e t o d esign one for me?" Phillips said he then walked around the Ringl i n g estate, made a few notes, looked over the scattered art collection in the Ring ling home, and returned t o New York. Two months later he sene Ringling plans he had sketched and a small cardboa r d model. Ringling wire d him tO start work at once And he did-early in the summer of 1927. The museum which coot $ 2, 500,000 is built aroun d a cou rtyard 150 by 350 feet in size. Of F lorentine desi gn, the building has column s fro m Greec e which are more than 1,000 years o ld an d original wall foun da tions from Italy eq ually as old Hundreds of antiq ue marble statues arches and d oorways are incor po rated in its constru ction. The museum was o pened tO the publ i c in 1931 It houses the fines t individual collection of R ubens in rhe world, artists say, besides many ori ginal Titia.ns, R em brandts and o t her world-famous p:linrings. The objects d'art are said co be worth at l east $16,000,000 R in g l ing bo ught them i n art centers throughout the world. The circus winter q uarters and the Ringling museum were assets S arasota g ained after t h e Florida boom burst. Inval uable though the y were they were no mor e valuable than other assets g ained while the bu bble was b eing blown, in all its irradiant splen dor, back in the roaring midTwenties Fo r instan ce, good roads. Sarasota O pmed to t he \'(1 orld Back in the old days, wh en automobiles were called horseless cart:iages, motorists called the roads in the Land of Sarasota "wish to God roads." The mot orists weren't blasp hem ous. They u sed the expr e ssion merely in an attempt to describe the cond ition of the roads which chen existe d. In reality, the road s were nothing mor e than sandy trails in whi c h two pair of deep ruts had been worn And r egard less of which set o f r u ts the

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228 THE STORY OF SARASOTA moto r ist chose, he a l ways "wished to God" he had taken the other after his car had been stuck a co uple times in clutching sand, or nearly bounce d off the road by hidden palmetto roots. Actually, the roads were execrable -and that's expressing it mildly Finally, in 1912, a so-called "hard-surfaced" road was built between B radenton and Sarasota. But it soon went to pieces. As a result, few motorists ventured this far south. After World \'(far I nine-foot asphalt roads were completed as far south as Englewood. But there, the road ended and any motorist who proceeded farther, did so at his own risk. As late as Ap ril, 1922, the writer of this "Story o f Sar asota," accom panied by "the little woman" and ten-month-old daughter Jane, spent twelve long hour s going from Punta Gorda to Fort Myers, a trip which now c an be made in a half hour. Going farther south, the "foolish Gris mers" tried to go over the proposed route of the Tamiami Trail hitting inland from Marco. They were guided by that grand fell ow, W Stanley Hanson, who knew every foot of the Big Cypress country. Despite the complete lack of road s, excellent progress was made the first day-all of tO miles But then came a downpour of rain. The rainy season had started! Needless to say, the trip wasn't com plet ed. Somewhere near Ochop ee, the o l d Modei-T bo gged down in a forbidd ing swamp seemingl y for keeps. But frien dly Seminoles finally turned the car around and Miami was reached via Fort Myers, M oore Haven, Lakeport Okee chobee, Fort Pierce and the East Coast road. Part o f the trip across the state, where no roads existed, actually was made by compass! Two nights were spent in moonshiners' shanties! Only persons who were "slightly touched" would have attempted such a trip during the rainy seasonwith a baby. But the state finally was crossed in the Lake Okeechobee region-and that was a real feat in those bygone days! T his personal experience is interjected here only to show what mis erable road s existed south of the Land of Sarasota before the Big Boom began. A nd, so far as that is concerned, there were few roads worthy of the designation "improved" even in Sarasota County. But during the Roaring Twenties, the county made up for lost time and in less than five years spent $4,800,000 for roads and bridges. It would be an exaggeration to say the county finally had a "complete net work" of coads but it is undoubtedly true that the county got enough good highway s to serve its boom da y needs. And prac ti cally all the roads and h ighways were substant ially built. On Thur sday, March 24, 1927, the Sacapalmbee Highway was opened and S a rasotan s finally could cros s th e state withou t backtra cking to Tampa. The new road co nnected with the East Co ast by way of Arcadia and Okeechobee. The first trip across the state on the highway was made

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 229 by a delegation of motorists headed by Mayor E. ]. Bacon, E. A. Smith, then executive vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce, and that champion good roads advocate, George B. Prime Prime incidentally, was a member of the original Tamiami Trail Blazers who succeeded in taking the first cars acros9 the lower Everg lades in April, 1923. The caravan bogged down repeatedly and was reported "lost" for s e veral days but it finally reached Miam i after the cars had been pulled out of swamps a hundred times or m ore by mules oxen and t ra ctors, provided by highway bui l ders. Photo Not Available Lower Main Street, \\'est of Five Points, as it looked in 1946. Prime's zeal to get the Tamiami Trail completed never waned and he was one of Sarasota's most joyful men when, on April 25 and 26, 1928, the trail was officially opened Those were two of the biggest days in the history of the Florida West Coast. A motorcade made up of more t han 200 caisleftTampaon Wednesday, the 25th, picked up another 100 cars here in Sarasota, and then proceeded to Fort Myers where t he celebrants spent the night On the following day, the epochal trip across the Trail

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230 THE STORY OF SARASOTA was made-and the long-dreamed-of rome which enabled motorists to "loop the state" had become an actuality! Needless to say Prime wasn't the only Sarasotan who plugged for the Tamiami Trail day in and day out. He was just one of the leaders. Others who fought for it from the day it was first conceived were A. B. Edwards, John F Burket, George L. Thacker, E. J. Bacon, E. A. Sm ith, O"'en Burns, Dr. F. W. Schultz, Phil H. Levy, A. L. Joiner, F H. Guenther, J. H Lord, Dr. and Mrs. C. B. Wilson, M. L. Townsend, an d Mrs. C. V. S. Wilson. Those, and many more. The importance of the Tamiami Trail to Sarasota cannot be over emphasized. This nationally known hig hway has attracted uncounted thousands of motorist s to the Florida West Coast for the first time-and many hundreds of those first-timers liked the Land of Sarasota more tban other parts of Florida, and settled down here to make th.is their home New bridges to the keys were constructed during the boom years. The Treasure I s land bridge, built as a toll bridge by E C. Warren, was opened January I 5, 1923. Construction of the S tickney Point road and bridge was started by the county May 8, 1926, and opened the following winter. A bridge of even more importance a new Siesta Bridge, was completed eady in 1927 and formally dedicated with elaborate ceremonies, Thurs day, May 5, 1927. State, county and city officials were in the first five cars which crossed the span. Then came scores of floats and gaily deco rated cars. While the proc ession passed over the bridge, Pilo t Russell Holderman dropped flowers on the cars while circling in his plane above. Upon arrival at the beach, the crowd watched bathing beauty contests and sport events. The formal ceremonies were preceeded by a luncheon given by Ralph C. Caples. During the afternoon, Jules Brazil was master of ceremonies. A $450,000 bond issue to construct a bridge connecting Lido and Long boat keys at New Pass was overwhelmingly approved, 526 to 8, on Tues day, April6, 1927. A hard-surfaced road was constructed on the Manatee County end of Longboat du1ing 1928. The New Pass br idge was com pleted in April, 1929. Now, for the first time motorists could drive on a loop highway over the keys from Sarasota to Bradenton, via the Ringling Causeway, the New Pass Bridge, and the Anna Maria Bridge, over Long boat Inlet. But this last bridge was destroyed Saturday night, March 6, 1932, during a vecy hig h tide and heavy winds. At the same time, the in let was widened from a hundred yards to more than a quarter mile. The bridge has not been rebuilt, and; as a result, the deve lopment of Long boat Key has been retarded.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 231 Sarasota Beco-mes Sports Minded I n ch e days before the Big Boom, Sarasota, l ike most other Florida cities pai d l ittle attention to the need for providing amusements for the wm ter visitors. Weren't the waters of the bay and gulf alive with fish, and wasn't there good hunting out in the back country? And couldn't O l d Sol be depended upon to make people feel happy and gay? So what need was there for going to great expense just co see char che visitors would be amused? True eno ugh, Sarasota had a golf course, near the present county courthouse. A nine-hole cou.rse, which was laid out in 1905 by J. Hamilton Gillespie and maintained by him untill91 0 when he sold it to Owen Burns. But few golfers came co Sarasota in chose days and the course was never overcrowded In 1916, a few venturesome tourists began providing a sport more to their liking. They scarred playing horseshoes-or "barnyard golf," as it was chen called. They began playing on ground they usurped at Waterfront Park-a l i ttle l ater, courts for them were provided on Main Street near the depot, thanks to George L. Thacker and Charles Ringling. During the days of World War I, and for several years thereafter, horseshoes was the most popu l ar sport i n Florida. Everyone played itmen, women and children. Some of the men finally became so expert that they could toss a dozen or more ringers in succession Then came pro fessionals who put on exhibitions. Inter-city tournaments were held. The big center of the s port was St. Petersburg and delegations of Sarasota barnyard golfers went over there year after year to compete. Then, in the spring of 1924, big league baseball came to Sarasota. John McGraw, owner of the New York Giants, was persuaded by two of his good friends, Samuel W Gumpertz and John Ringling, to bring his team here for spring training. The ball players came February 1 and for more than a month the winter visitors thrilled at seeing the stars get in shape for another pennant fight McGraw liked Sarasota so well that he built a $75,000 home on Sunset Point, next to the home of Gumpertz. He also went into the real estate business-as who didn t?-and laid out Pennant Park ncar Whitfield Estates. He spent no money on developmen ts but even so, his salesmen sold about $10 0,000 worth of lots. Then McGraw got into a of law suits, resulting from land sales, and in the spring of 1927 he took the Giants elsewhere. However, big-time ball players continued to come here. Indianapolis came in 1929 and 1930. Then thanks to the efforts of J. Paul Cobb, the owners of the Boston Red Sox were persuaded to make Sa. rasota their train -

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232 TH STORY OF SARASOTA ing headquarters. The team came for the first time in the spring of 1933 and continued coming until World War II curbed train travel. \Xfith the war over, the Red Sox at once made a rrangemencs to come here again. Payne Gives Sarasota Its Greatest Gift Sarasota quite proba bly might not have been able to get bi g league baseball-and many other thing&-had it not been for Calvin N. Payne, that same winter resident who financed the construction of Payne Term inal. Payne enabled Sarasota to get major league baseball teams because he was an ardent golfer. Here 's how it happened: The old Gillespie golf club house, built in 1905, burned to the ground Tuesday afternoon November 2, 1915. To get money to pay for a new club house, as well as rebuild the run-down course, Owen Burn s formed the Sarasota Go lf Holdin g Co. A little lat er, Payne became one of the principal backers of the company. The new club house--now the home of the E lks Club-was formally opened Monday n ight, March 17, 1919. Payne realized that the golf course should be enlarged so on March 16, 1921, he bought an adjoinin g 60 acres from Burns. But, about chat time, Sarasota starte d on its boom time growth and Payne decided that the cen trally locat e d 60 acres could be used for a better purpose chan as a golf course. He decided to give it to the city and county for park purposes The agreement to deed over the land was made in October, 1923, and the grant was comple ted June 30, 1925. The trace was given to the community when real estate prices were nearing the crest. Conservative real estate men say Payne would have had no trO\tble in selling his land for at least $250,000. But instead of selling, he and hi s wife, Mrs. Martha E. Payne, turned it over free and clear of all encumbrances. Unquestionably, this was the finest gift ever received by Sarasota-and has proved tO be inva lua ble. Immed iately after Sarasota was promised the land, Mayor E. J. Bacon proclaimed Thursday, October 18, 1923, as a "comrounicy work day" so that pare of the tract could be converted into a fair grounds. Almost every abl e-bo died man in rhe city, and score s of women, turned out to lend a hand. And before the day was over, many of chose hands were blistered because everyone really worked! The land was cleared and the buildings were erected with uncanny speed. They seemed to spring out of the ground-practically every member of the Carpent ers Union was on the job, eager to help in the project And so were the union painters and bricklayer&-as were the bankers, lawyers, business men, and even minis ters. A big barbecue lunch was served It was a red letter day in Sarasota's history.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 233 Fairs w ere conduct e d severa l years at Payn e Park b y che Sarasota County Fai r Association, headed fir s t by M. L. Townsend and then by R. K. Thompson Willi s B. Powe ll was secr etary The fairs were outstand ing successes and thousands of winter visitors learned for the first time, by the exh ibits o n displ ay, of the amazing number of products wh ic h can be gro wn on Saras ota soil. Anocher portion of Payn e Park was cleared and made i nto Sarasota' s first top-notch ball diamond. The city had had ball fields before but none came close to big league standard s The first, jus t a sand lot diamond was located near the present Mira Mar Hotel. Later, a la rger field was laid out on Cen tral Av enue "at the hill." During the late 'Teens, a fairly goo d ball park was mad e n ear the presen t Co ast Line depot so Sarasot a could enter a team in the Florida State Leagu e For a number of years Saraso ta boa s ted of having one of the best team s in Florida. Even this Florida league diamond, however, did not meet the require ments of the New York Giants so when McGraw started nego tiat ions about comin g here, h e insis ted that a "big league" field be p repared. A fund was raised by public subsc riptio n and by the time the Giants got here, Febru ary 1 1924, the neld was P ayne Park. The tract giv en by Payne to th e city also was used a littl e later for the municipally owned Trailer Park, now wid ely known as one of the best in the South. \Vhen th e Tin Can Tourists first began com ing to Sarasota, ba ck in the winter of 1919-20, t h e city had no place for them to stay. However, when A. B. Edwards began serving his second term as mayor, on 1, 1920 a small tourist camp was open e d on the sou theast corner of Main and Pine streets. Electric lights were strung through the gro unds and sanitary facilities provided. During the winter of 1921-2 2, the Tin Can ners' grounds were mo ved to Osprey A venue south of Morrill and the touri sts were cha rge d $10 per season. During the foll ow ing winter o n Dece mber 2, 1922, a local chap ter of the Tin Ca n T ourists o f Am eric a was organized with 86 member s. Two years later, a privately owned t rai ler park was opened just north of the present munic ipal golf course. This site soon proved inadequat e and the present Trail er Park was esta blished at Payne Park in 1931 and the nati o nal conven tio ns of the Tin Can T ourists were he ld there each year th ere a f ter until 1937. The park boasts of an auditOrium where indoor games arc played on week days and churc h services on Sundays. It also has court s and horsesho e pitching lanes. Durin g the winter mon ths, T railer Park is a community within a community, and its popul atio n at times app roaches 5,000.

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234 THE STORY OF SARASOTA But all this is getting far afield from golf the game which caused Payne to buy the 60 acres which later became Payne Park The old golf course was sold by the Sarasota Golf Holding Co., on June 7, 1924, to Charles Ringling, who proceeded to lay out the Courthouse subdivision and promote the construction of Sarasota Terrace Hotel. Ringling s development left the booming city without a golf course at a t i me when hundreds of golfers were pouring into Sarasota each month. It was obvious that a new course must be obtained -in a hurry. Payne came to the rescue. He had origina ll y stipulated that all the 60 acres should be used for park purposes. But when the city's need for a golf course became acute, Payne agreed to let 14 acres be sold so that mone)' could be obtained to help pay for a mun i cipal course. The 14 acres located on \1Vashington Boulevard, were sold at the peak of the boom and brought fancy prices, netting more than $150,000 This money was used as a down payment on 290 acres, located about two and a half miles northeast of the courthouse. The tract was purchased from Honore and Potter Palmer, trustees of the Palmer estate, and from the East End Land Co. To finish paying for the land, and to build a golf course, the city approved a $150,000 bond issue July 9, 1925. The 18hole course, designed by Donald J. Ross was formally opened Sunday, February 13, 1927, before a gallery of 1,500 golfers, with Bobby Jones as the star attraction. In an exhibition game, Jones and Louis Lan caster defeated Watts Gunn and Jim Senter. Jones shot the course in 73, Gunn in 75, Lancaster in 77 and Senter in 83. On the eve of the b i g match, a gay party was held in the Mira Mar Hotel by Sarasota's leading citizens to honor Jones, "the champion of champions." It was quite an event! Jones was the hero of the hour-and Sarasota decided t o name the mu nicipal course in his honor "co give it prestige." The sale of the 14 acres in Payne Park left the Saraso t a County Fair grounds Association without a home. So a tract of land adjoining the golf course on the north was acquired from the East End Land Co., made up of A B. Edwards, Ralph C. Caples and E. A. Cummer. In exchange for the land, each of these men took a $16,000" note. A large grandstand was built and other buildings. Then, after two fairs were held, the land was deeded over to the Ringlings for use as the winter quarters of the circus. To get the circus here, the holders of the $16,000 notes agreed t o "forget" about them. They lost their money-but Sarasota got the circus! While the city was in a park buying mood, in 1925, a $75,000 bond issue was approved to buy and improve three blocks of land on Osprey Avenue just north of 13th Street. The tract, purchased from Owen Burns, was cleared and made into Gillespie Park. Shuffleboard courts and horse shoe lands were provided and efforts were made to induce winter residents

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TH $TORy OF SARASOTA 235 to use it as their "playground But the park was poorly located for an amusement center and it never became popular. Photo Not Available Lower Main Street in 1946--as seen through the arch of City Hall. A Real Hospital Is Finally Built Only because of the Big Boom did Sarasota fi1;ally get a hosp i tal large enough and sufficiently well equipped to take care of the city's needs. It is true that back in 1908 a 22-bed sanitarium was opened by Dr. Jack Halton on Gulf Stream A venue, in a building erected by J. Hamilton Gillespie. But Sarasota did not have enough sick people in those days to keep such an institution going and it died a lingering death. For more than a decade, hospital cases had to be taken to Tampa, or, later on, to Bradenton In 1921, a small7-bed, private hospital was opened by Dr. Joseph Halton in the business district.

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236 THE STORY OF SARASOTA The need for a larger, publicly-owned institution became glaringly apparent early in the Twenties In 1921, the Sarasota County \Velfare Association, headed by Mrs. George B. Prime began working for a roodern hospital. To begin, the association purchased a tent out of its limited funds and pitched it in the yard of Mrs. C M. Howard on Orange Avenue near 12th. It was used to care for a tubercular patient. Later, another tent was purchased to house other patients. Members of the association realized this was only a makeshift arrange ment and began working to obtain a cottage h ospital. Mrs. Howard do nated a lot. Before work could be started, however, it was decided the site was too small and efforts were made to secure a larger one. Four lots in Sarasota Heights were then donated by Louis Combs and Dr. A. 0. Morton. The first lot was then deeded back to Mrs. Howard who then gave $1,100 in cash-the first sizeable cont ribution received for the pro ject. In February, 1924, Mrs. E. A. Smith was made chai rman of the hospital building fund and a well organized campaign was launched to raise the money needed for a modern hospital. While this drive was under way, Dr. Morton and J. C. Herrick offered a five-room bungalow for use as an emergency hospital. This bungalow, on Tenth near Goodrich, was furnished with funds obtained by a Tag Day drive directed by Mrs. F. W Schultz. Equipment for the operating room was donated by physicians. The small hospital, with a capacity of six beds, was opened December 4, 1924, with Mrs. Ruth Wilhelm as superin tendent. An annex was built soon afterward to take care of the overflow. The emergency hospital was in operation e[e,en months and during that time 325 bed patients were cared for, in addition to scores of emergency cases. An effort was made to get a count}' bond issue for building a regular hospital. But attorneys said the issue would have to be authorized by the state legislature. The city was growing so rapidly, and the need for a real hospital was so acute, that the association decided co cry and obtain the money by public subscription. Mrs. Smith and her assistants then put on the most whirlwind campaign in the city's history. Every organization in Sarasota cooperated-and contribu t ions were received from people in every walk of life. Finally, donations of more than $40,000 we r e secured. With this money on hand, the association began construction of a building from plans drafted without charge by Architects T. R. and F. C. Martin. George L. Thacker was chairman of the building committee. After the hospital building was under construction, the building com mittee discovered it had been started on property the association did not own. This made it necessary to buy a whole block at a cost of $55,000

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 2)7 The tra':saction was ca rried out through the assistance of E. A. Smit h, G. B, Prune, Dr. A . 0. Morton, J. C. Hemck) F A. Logan, A. S. Skinner, J. \Yf. Tatum, Jo Gill, L. B. Hatch, Loui s Combs, R. A. Currin and F H. Gallup Rapidly rising prices of ma terials caused the building ro cost more than origina ll y expected. The deficit was raised by Mrs. Prime Mrs. Smith, and Mrs. Paul Noble. The building cost $44,600. The new hospital, which contained 32 beds, was officiall y opened Monday, November 2, 1925, v isitor s being receive d all aftern oo n and eve ning. The first hospital board consi sced of Mrs. Prime, ch airman; Dr Morton vice-ch airman; Mrs. \'Vilhelm hospital superin tend ent; Georg e L. Thacker, secretary, and Mrs. Smith treas urer. The ho s pital staff in cluded practically all the physicians in Sarasota. Under the able directio n of Mrs. Wilhelm, the hospi tal opened a train ing school for nurses in May, 1926. Students in the first class included Misses Gertrude Ivey, Kathleen Williams, Lorraine Rietce Betty Anch mutey, Sussie Blount and Bonnie Noles. In the following September, Honore and Potter Palmer donated a $7,500 X-ray machine co the hos pital in memory of their mother, Mrs. Potter Pal mer. A $175,000 bond issue for buildi ng an annex to che hospital was approved 49 to 6, on .Tune 6, 1926 The n ew addition, designed by Clare C. Hosmer, wa s started in July 1927, and completed late that )'ear. It increased the capacity of the hospital to 60 beds. The hospital' s operations were largely controlled by the Sarasota Coun ty Welfare Association until late 1927 when the city took it over. During the years which followed, particularly during the Great Depression, the hospital often had hard sle dding, due to the fact that expenses exceeded the i ncome and the community was not financially a ble t o make up the deficit and p rovide neede d im p rovements as we ll. However, the hosp i t al has been fortunate in recent years in having a gg ressive publi c-spiri ted citizens on its board of directors. A s a result, more than $20,000 wa s contribu ted in 1945 to erect an addition and also to make other improvements. H owever, the city and county had out grown the institution and by 1946 it was obvious that it would have to be greatly enlarged in order to take care of the community's needs. Plans were prepared for a 50-room addition to cost $125,000 Members o f the hospita l board in 1946 were Kenneth H. Koach, George L. Thacker John Somerville, Dr. J. E Harri s and Dr. Stanley T Martin. At variou s times almos t every organization in Sarasota has Its support to the h ospi;a l and endeavored to make it an of the city can be proud. As this h istor y goes to press, all CIVtC orgam zat1ons were joining in an effort to make the hospital one of the best in Florida.

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238 THE STORY OF SAKASOTA The Joseph Halton Hosp ita l has been enlarged several times since it was first opened in 1921. Besides hospitals for huma n beings, Sarasota can boast of having one of the finest small animal hospitals in the country. Located on Hi gel Avenue near the ACL depot, it is owned and operated by Dr. John R. Scully. Immaculately clean and equipped with the most modern la boratory equipment and operating facilities, it puts to s hame many ins t i tutions where humans are cared for. People who love their pets bring them from all parts o f Florida to Dr. Scully's hospital. More \'(! iud falls of the Big Boom When a c ity grows as though by magic, q uadrupling its population in less t han five years, it' s next to impossible to chronicle all the developments without getting bogged down in a mass of details details which .now seem inconsequential after a lapse of two decades. However mention certain l y must be made of the fact tha t another railroad, the Atlantic Coast L ine, came to Sarasota during the Big Boom The ACL extended its t racks here from Bradenton during the late summer an d early fall of 1924 and its passe nger trains began coming here on De cember 3, a few weeks after a freight and t empo rary passenger depot were completed. During the ACL's first winter here, i ts passenger service consisted of through Pullman service f rom the east and west on four trains-the Ever glades and the Flo rida Special fcom the east and the Dixie Limited and the Floridian from Chicago. The railroad's new $125,000 passenger depot was formally opened October 1, 1925. Incidentally, the official name of the branch of the ACL from Tampa to Sa.rasota is the Tampa Southern. The arrival of the ACL resulte d in Sarasota s first and only "railroad battle" in t he spring of 1928. The battle occurred because the ACL wanted to make connections with Payne Termina l-and the Seaboard wanted to retain its monopoly of the harbor business. While a merry legal contest was waging over the issue, a city administration friendly to the ACL per suaded the po lice chief and his men to "turn t heir backs" for a few hours. A big force of ACL workmen then swung into action under the lig ht of flares and torches-and the tracks were l aid, on Saturday night, May 5, 1928. The Seaboard men f umed and fre tte d while the work was going on, but after the tracks were down, the tempest in a teapot quickly subsid ed. The Big Boom also gave Sarasota its first bus transportation, both inter-urban and local. The Reo Bus Line, owned by John T. Cowsert, started running open type Reo Speed wagons, with a capacit)' of 15 pas-

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 239 sengers, o n Wednesday, October 26, 1921. Two trips from Sarasota to Tampa were made each day, at 8 a.m. and 3 p.m. The Reo l ine was sold in 1923 to the Gulfcoast Motor Line, owned by James Hartsell, and the Gulfcoast sold to the Tamiami Trail Tours, Inc., headed by Baron G. Collier, in 1926. A little late r, Collier's concern also bought out the South Florida Bus Line, owned by L. M. Rehbinder, who had started bus service between Sarasota and Fort Myers July 26, 1925, with one trip daily each way. A two trip daily service was started October 31, 1925. \o/hen the Tamiami Trail was officially opened Thurs day, April 26, 1928, Collier's l ine began operating regular bus servi ce between Tampa a nd Miami. A trip which formerly required more than a day by train now was s hortened for Sarasorans to six or seven hour s E. B. Lord has been Sarasota station m anag er for the bus company since 1930. The present bus terminal was opened July 14, 1943. The first loca l bus service was provided on October 4, 1925, by the Sar asota Rapid Transit Co., headed by Roswell King, Louis Lancaster and I. G. Archibald. Only one bus, which carried 18 passengers, was used. The route extended from Five Points to Sarasota Beach The bus l ine proved unprofitable and the bus was acquired b y Vincent Lowe who had scatted the Yellow Cab Co. in the fall of 1923. The Yellow Cab Co. later was purchased by E. B. Lord, who also owns the Radio Cab ser vice. Many attempts were later made to provide local bus service bur all failed. Finally, in 1938, city council granted a ten -year franchise to Florida As soc iates, headed by Oscar Dooley, of Miami. The concern later sold the franchise to City Transits, Ltd., a partnership owned by Alfons Landa, J ean Mondell and J.D. H. Coleman. Bus lines were established and service started in February, 1939. The public frowned upon the buses first used, insisting they were "antiquated and dangerous." To force a showdown, Mayor E A. Smith finally ordered the police to stop a ll buses and arrest the drivers. A long, fiery court battle resulted-and the city finally got buses more to its fancy. Modem Schools A1e Built Perhaps the most imp ortant windfall received by the Land of Sarasota during the Big Boom was an excellent county-wide system of modern, fireproof school buildings. Before the boom began, the county's school system was inadequate, to describe it politely Most of che building s were badly run down, the teachers were overworked, and the c las scoom s were badly crowded. In Saraosta, the situation was only partially relieved in 192 4 when the present Central Elementary School was constructed at a cost of $99,-

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246 THE STORY OF SARASOTA 000 and the Booker High School, for colored pupils, at a cost of $21,000. By October, 1925, the schools were so badly crowded that two shifts of teachers had to be employed. Students attended only part time. Seats were at a premium in both the morning and afternoon sessions. To remedy the situation, the South Side and Bay Haven elementary schools were constructed in 1925. Each cost $77,000. In 1927, the Venice Nokomis Elementary and High School was built at a cost of $27 000 and the Osprey Elementary School a t a cost of $19, 300. During the following year, the Englewood school was built at a cost of $34,000 and the Laurel school at a cost of $17 500. Due to the boom inflation fantastic prices were paid for many of the building sites. This was particularly true in the case of the site for the new Sarasota High School, built in 1927 at a cost of $317,000. The small tract u pon whi ch the sc ho o l was located actually cost more than the Florida Mortgage & Investment Co., Ltd., p a id for the entire site of Sara sota-and 50,000 acres besides-back in 1885! Because of the high land prices, and increases in o p erating expenses, the various school districts had to authorize bond issues exceeding $1,500, 000 during the boom period Of these, $1,233,000 were unpaid as late as 1935. The county's schools undoubtedly cost more than they would have cost in normal rimes, but if they hadn t been built then, they might not have been built at all. And most of them will still be in use long after the pain of paying for them has been forgot t en Photo Not Available The High School, one of the modem schools of the county.

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THE STORY OP SAR ... SOTA 2 41 During the boom period, Sarasota got public improvements whic h nonnally might not have been provid ed in a quarter century or more For instance, within a month after Sarasota became Greater Sarasota, with greatly extended city limits, city counci l awarded three huge con traces for street paving totalling $1,359,061.97 and unanimously passed a resolution to advertise for bids for approximately $ 1 ,000,000 more. Few voices were raised in protest against the various public improve ments. In fact, everyone demanded more and more progress. On Monday, November 16, 1925, when a $150,000 bond issue for improvement and ex tension of the water sys tem came up for approval or rejection, not one vote was cast against the issue. The fire department was given modern fire-figh ting equipment whi l e the boom last ed and enough fir emen were employed to give the city proper protection. The same was true in regard to the police department, which long had been neglected. In 1926, a franchise was given to John A. Reed, president of the Southern Gas & Electric Co ., to provide gas for Sarasota Despite the bursting of the Florida bubb l e, the company went ahead with i t s program and laid mains in aU the built-up portions of the city-and gas was turned on Wednesday, December 28, 1927. The work was carried out under the directio n of A. J. Law l or, local manager of the com pany. During 1928 the city also got an incinerator to consume th e people's garbage and trash. It was constructed at a cost of $18,000 by the Nye Odorless Crematory Co., of Macon, Ga., and was started in operation December 29, 1.928, after being accepted by Mayor E.]. Bacon, City En gineer J. R. B rumby and members of the city council. During the boom, Sarasota had two excellent daily newspapers and an unusually good weekly. The progressiv e Sarasota T imes, owned by Mrs C. V. S. Wilson, was purchased early in 1923 by T J. Campbell and J. H. Lord who sol d it on March 2 7, 1924, to L. D. Reagin. In May 1926, Reagin moved the Time s from its old hom e at Main and Lemon to a modern building on 7th near Broadway and celebrated by p ublishing a "New Home Edition" on June 13, 1926. The Times went into the hands of a receiver on Monday, De cember 9, 1929. All the files of the paper from 1923 to the time it passed out of existence have been lost or destroyed. "This Week in Sarasota," a weekl y, was publish ed during the boom years by Edward La n sing Cowles who finally was forced, because of ill health, to give up the publication The Herald Publishing Co wa s organi zed in October, 1925, by David B. Lindsay, Paul Poynter and E. E. Naugle. The last two sold their interes t in the paper to Lindsay a shor t time later.

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242 THE STOlt y OF SARASOTA The first issue of the H erald appear ed Sunday, October 4, 1925. It was a 72 -page edition, by far the la rgest that had eve r been printed in Sarasota. The paper was published in a new $150 ,000 plane, equipped with the lat est machinery. George D. Lind say was editor o f the Herald, and later the Herald T ribune, until his death February 8, 1945. The Sar asota Da.ily Tribune was incorporated in the spring of 1934 with B. W. Powell as publisher; J. E. Hansell, assistant to the publisher; Earl Stumpf, managing editor, and T. K. Lyle, business manager. The Tribun e was sold to the Herald o n June 12, 1938.

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CHAPTER 12 DEPRESSION-WARAND AFTERWARD FLORIDA S FUTURE looked bright during the winter of 1928-29. Living costs in the resort cities had dropped to reasonable levels and a record "crop" of tourists resulted. Sarasota enjoyeu an exceptionally good season. The city and county looked forward to a long period of steady, healthy growth. Then, in October, 1929, came the devastating stock market c ra sh. Before the year ended, stock losses throughout the nation totalled fifteen billion dollars. The Great Depression started. The United States began to be paralyzed, economically and psychologically. And with each passing year, the paralysis became more severe. During the depression, Sarasota at no time had an unemployment problem comparable to that of northern industrial cities. Bur, even so, the problem was bad enough. B1.1ilding activities had come to a dead halt, throwing many men out of work. The citrus industry was badly hitthe demand for oranges and grapefruit became so small that many growers let their fruit rot on the trees. Prices for winter-grown vegetables dropped so low that farmers could not even get back the shipping com. The fishing industry was crippl ed-mulle t brought less than a cent a pound. The number of winter visitors dropped sharply and merchants lost heavily. But, strange as it may seem, Sarasota emerged from the De pression Era a better city than it had ever been before. But in 1930 and 1931 there d id not appear to be a ray of hope. When E. A. Smith first became mayor in January, 19 3 2, scores of Sarasotans were unemployed. They pleaded with the city officials for jobs-any kind of jobs. But Mayor Smith was terrifically handicapped, as Mayor Bacon had been before him, by the fact that the city's finances were in a chaotic condition. The city had issued so many bonds during th e boom era that it could no longer pay the interest, let alone mak e payments on the prin cipal. Money could not be obtained even to make vitally needed public 1mpro v ements. For instance Ring l ing Causeway was closed to traffic because the wooden planks had rotted-and no money was available to replace them. To meet the steadily mounting emergency; the city officials went into a huddle with Dr. John R. Scully, able commissioner of public works. Dr. Scully said that if the council would beg, borrow or steal enough

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244 THE STOf:t'( OF SARASOTA money to pay for l abor, h e would get the necessary materials. The money was finally obtain ed by juggling the city' s funds-an d Dr. Scull y pro duced the materials. T here then was starte d Sarasota's first "made work" project-the re pair of the Ring ling bridge. More than fifty men were employed for over a month. Other made jobs" followed. However, desp ite the in genuity of t he city officia .ls, the unemployme n t prob lem could not be solved. Repeat ed appeals were made for federal assistance Finally, in October, 1932, a dribbl e of fede ral funds began coming into Sarasota-$1,500 fo r the entire county! By October 18, a total of 150 unemp l oyed men, all heads of families, were being g i ven three days' work a week at $1.50 a day. A few other dribbles followed. They helped a little-but not much. For those who ha d money, the depression was no hardship. Livitlg costs were extremely l ow For instance, food cost next to nothing. Here are some examples, taken from advertisements in the Herald in November, 1932: Pure por k sausage, 10 cents a pound; best grade western sirloin s teak, 15; hambu rger, two pounds for 15; best grade Armour's ham, 18 a pound ; s i x la rge cans of pork and beans, 25; 10 pound s of pota toes, 11; youn g roasting hens, 18 a pound; frye rs, 23; six call cans of evaporated milk, 2 4 9 and thr ee tall can s of sa lmon fo r 25 Yes, living was cheap in those days. Came the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt as president. Then the bank crashes and the banking moratorium. And futile att.em pts tO "bal ance the budget." Later, "pump priming" was resorted to in an attempt to get the economic ma ch inery running again. And, finally, on Saturday, December 2, 19 3 3 the Civilian Works Administration pai d out its first p ayroll bere-641 checks totall ing $4,775-an average of less than $7 per worker That was for the whole county. Duri n g 1934 about the only "relief job s" provided were of the l e af raking vari ety, which did the comm unity l ittle goo d and low ere d the self respect of the workers. It was not until \'Ved nesday, Oc tober 23, 1935 that Sara sota got its first Work Pro jects Administration project the drainage of the golf course, which gave employment co 40 men. The first federal approp r ia tion only $2,.974 but Mayor Smith expressed hop e that "it is the fore runn er of others to come which soon will see WP A in full swing in the county." It was. On the follow ing day, nine other proj ects were ap proved, totalling These proj ects provi ded employment for 294 men i n the city and 114 in t he county, in addition to employm ent of 87 women. Os prey Avenue bridge wa s w i d e ned, the Orange Avenue stor m sewer wa s laid three miles of sidewa lks were built, Luke \'V ood Park

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Tl-1 STORY OF SARASOTA 245 was developed and beautified, streets were reconstructed, swamps were drained, and so on. Furthermore, crews of CCC workmen were kept busy for six yea. rs at Myakka State Park (q.v .), constructing roads, clearing out under brush, bui l ding picnic houses and cabins, and helping in other ways to make this spot of exquisite natural beauty become one of the state s finest assets. Bayfront Park. Is Developed In 1937, came a WPA project which has become of inestimab l e value to Sarasota-Bayfront Park and the Municipal Auditorium. A large measure of the credit for this project muse go to E. A. Smith, then Sarasota's mayor. He conceived the idea for it in 1935 and worked untiringly until the appropriation for it finally was secured. The true value of this park can be appreciated only when it is realized that it was the last available l arge waterfront tract in the city limits. Had it not been acquired during che Great Depression, ic undoubtedly would have passed into private hands and Sarasota would have forever lost its chance to get a beautiful park directly overlooking the bay It is esti mated that the tract, containing 37 acres, is now worth $250,000. The site was obtained by the city from the defunct Sarasota Bay Hotel Co. Taxes amounting to about $15,000 had accumulated on the property and che city secured it by purchasing the tax certificates, "beat ing a number of other prospective buyers to the punch," as the Herald gleefully reported. Arrangements to get sufficient financial backing to obtain the federal grant for the auditorium and park were completed ac a meeting held in M a rch, 1937, at the home of Karl A. Bickel. The men who agreed to advance needed money were B W Powell, Samuel .\V/. Gum perez, John Somerville, J. J. Williams, Jr., Felix Jackson, Ralph C. Caples, George L. Thacker, R. P. Hazzard, Michael Cantacuzene, Harley Crane, Frank Logan, Harry Kellim, George D Lindsay, Ray Richardson Frank Evans, Clyde H. Wilson William G. Selby, and Bickel. The federal government put $131,000 into the project in two grants, the first for $114,000 and the second for $17,000. Skilled labor was paid for by the .city out of its general fund; common labor was paid by WPA. Work was started in July, 1937. The auditorium was opened February 24, 1938, for the Sara deSoto celebration. More than 3,000 persons attended. Development of the park proceeded while work on the auditorium was under way. Members of the Garden Club united in beautifying the grounds. The pool was developed by the Founders Circle of the club and numerous palms were planted by the Palms Circle. Ocher Circles super-

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Photo Not Availab l e Photo Not Available WHERE TOU RISTS MEET AND PLAY The Municipal Auditorium ln Bayfront Park is shown above. The lower pictute provides a g limpse of t he lawn bowling and shuffleboard courts in the park.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 247 vised additional phases of the work. The electric ally li t fountain was donated by R. P. Hazzard, shoe manufacturer o f Gardner, M e It cost abou t $8,000. Designed b y Frank Martin it was built by Louis Larsen, one of the nation's most skil led ar tisans. Marcin's father, Thomas Reed Martin (q.v.), designed the auditorium. The original recreation building, one scory in height, was built as part of the WPA project. T he second floor, as well a s many other improve ments, were paid for by J ohn Tuttle Chidsey, a retired manufacturer of Bristol, Conn., who spen t more chan $10,000 on the project. In 1940, Ch idsey also paid for the pu blic library building in the park. (See Inde:x: Library). Bayfron t Park now has becom e the center of all Sar asota tourist ac tivities. D uring the winter months, the playgroun d s are crowded from morning until late at night. The auditorium is used for the city's princi pal indoor events. Lido Beach Casino I s Comtructed Sarasota received another outstanding and invaluable asset during WP A day s Lido Beach Casino. Photo Not Available The municipally owned Lido Beach Casin o

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248 THE $TORy OF SARASOTA The Casino was first advocated by the Chamber of Commerce late in 1937 when Roger V. F lory was president and Karl A. Bickel was chairman of a specially appointed beach committee. Early in 1938, a trace of land on Lido Beach with 1300 feet of beach frontage was secured from the Ringling Estate in a tax settlement arrangement. Construction of the casino as a WP A project was approved by the government June 13, 1938. The city was required to pay $40,000 in cash, in addition to donat i ng the land. To secure the money, a $40,000 special revenue bond issue was approved 890 to 97 at an election held Tuesday, July 19, 1938. The bonds were purchased almost immediately by public spirited citizens and work on the casino was started soon afterward. The casino was formally opened December 27, 1940, with more than a thousand persons attending by special invitation. In the receiving line were Mayor and Mrs. E. A. Smith, Mr. and Mrs. F. E. Price, Mr. and Mrs. Winston Lee, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph V. Lawrence, .Mr. and .Mrs. Phil Huguenin and Roger V. Flo ry. On che following night, the casino was opened co the public. Nobody knows for sure just how much the casino cost. The city con tributed $148,124.45 in land, cash and materials. But WPA went out of existence without disclosing how much the federal government spent on the project. However, the casino is commonly referred to as Sarasota's "quarter million dollar casino" and that figure probably is not far wrong. Shortly after the casino was completed it was leased co F. E. Price, who had little experience in the public entertainment business. As a result, bankruptcy proceedings followed and the casino was closed. Then, .Mayor Smith put Charles L. Herring, city recreation direc tor in charge, and during the next three years, the casino showed more than $60,000 profit, thanks to the thousands of servicemen from the Sarasota and Venice air bases who patronized it frequently and liberally. Mention must be made of the members of the Chamber of Commerce committee who fought for the cas ino They were: Karl A. Bickel, B. W. Powell, E. A. Smith, Honore Palmer, Samuel W. Gumpertz, Ralph C. Caples, George D. Lindsay, Albert Moore Saxe, George \Vf. Earle, Ross Beason, Henry Ringling North, John W. Davis, A. B. Edwards, Joseph V. Lawrence, J. J. \Vfilliams, Jr., and John Somerville. Sarasota Gets a Modern Air Field For more than two decades, air-minded Sarasotans strove to get a good airfield for the city. They finally succeeded-because of the Great De pression and World War II. As related before, an emergency airfield was built on the Fruitville road during World War I. It wasn't much of an airfield but it was better

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 249 than none at all. The first locally owned airplane was landed there Satur day, July 29, 1922, by John B. Browning, who had served as a pilot in the Royal Canadian air force in World War I. The p l ane was a Curtis JN4D and had been bought from the government by Mathew Dixon, of the Dixon Fish Co. Browning flew the plane here from Arcadia. Several months later he flew to Miami in the record break in g time of three hours and fifty minutes. Sarasota s first municipal airport, located at the entrance of the circus winter quarters, was officially opened Saturday, March 12, 1929. The tract of 16 acres was given to the city by Ralph C Caples and A. E. Cummer with the proviso that it would be vacated upon six months' notice i f the owners decided to use it for other purposes. The ground was cleared at city expense. Fourteen airplanes, ranging in size from single passenger monoplanes to 14-passenger army p l anes took part in the dedication pro gram Otto Hoover thrilled the crowd by his "death defying l eap'' in a parachute. Repeated efforts were made during the years which followed to inter est an airline in corning to Sarasota. But all efforts failed until the summer of 1937 when the National Airlines was in duced by the Chamber of Com merce t o make Sarasota one of its stops. Daily passenger and mail service was started Wednesday, August 4, 1937 The passengers on the first flight to Miami were Count y Commissioners John W. Davis R. L. Johnson and W. S. Harris and Winder Surrency, attorney for the board. Two baby a l ligators were sent to President Roosevelt and Postmaster General James Farley by Postmaster L. D. Reagin under the care of Stewardess Charold Georgie. The airline was forced to cancel many stops here because of wet grounds and late in the year officials of the company threate ned to discontinue ser vice unless concrete runways were provided. This could no t be done because of the city's lack of money and soon afterward the l ine's p l anes stopped landing here. With the air service disconti nued city and county officials joined in a move to acquire land for a modern airfield. Bradenton and Manatee County officials participated in the project, forming the Saraso ta-Manat ee Joint Airport Authority, and $32 000 was obtained to buy the first tract of land, containing approximately 160 acres. Work on the airfield was star ted late in 19 3 8 as a WP A project. In 1939, the Civil Aeronautics Authority allotted $50,000 for the project and during 1940, with war imminent, more grants followed in rapid suc cession. By N ovember 20, 1940,225 Manatee County WPA workers were engaged on the airport work and 74 Sarasota County workers, in addition to 17 non relief supervisors and foremen

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250 THE STORY OF SARASOTA The airport authority Iacer leased a large tract of land from Powell Crosley, Jr. and bought other adjoining tracts, so that the airfield could be made into an army air base. How much was spent by the army on the base during the war is anyone's guess but the total undoubtedly ran into millions, due to the number of hangers and barracks constructed in addi tion to signal towers, lighting facilities, and other The airfield was first used as a bomber base m the spnng of 1942. During the following year i t was made into a fighter base and at the peak of che field's operations, more than 3,000 men stat1oned there. The base was inactivated January 2, 1946. In the following month, the gov ernment turned back the base to Airport Authority and on March 7 Mace V. Pilcher of Sarasota was n amed manager. The airport is now considered onel of the best in Florida. An even larger air base was established during the war at Venice. The project there was originally planned as an anti -aircraft center for 3 0,000 men but it was soon changed into a service group training center, becom ing activated July 7, 1 942. On February 15, 1943, it was made into an army air field and pilot training became its chief business. The first m ilitary combat airplane operated from Ve n ice on July 7, 1943, and soon afterward, two fi ghter squadrons arrived. Airplanes used in training at Venice included P-39 Aircobras, P-47 Thunderbolts, P-40 Warhawks, and P-51 Mustangs. The cop strength of the base was 6,000 men. The field was inactivated Friday, October 5, 1945. Strra$Ofa During World War II Like the rest of the nation, Sarasota was stunned on December 7, 1941, when radios flashed the news that the Japs had bombed Pearl Harbor and that the long dreaded wa r finally had started. From that day until mid-summer of 1945, when Japan finally surrendered unconditionally, Sarasocans subordinated everything to the main task of aiding the nation in its hour of crisis-and praying that the lives of the i r loved ones in the armed servi ces might be spared. The war is still too fresh in the minds of everyone to cell how it af fected the Land of Sarasota and its people. Only a few facts need be recorded here, less they be fo r gotten. A total of 2389 Sarasota County men, 21 to 35 inclusive, registered for the first draft on Wednesday, October 16, 1940. Before the war ended, 6296 had signed up. This total included 2025 in the older age bracket which was never called. The number from whom the selectees were drawn totalled 4271. Of these, 1726 were inducted-1293 whi t e and 433 col ored. It is estimated that at least 400 others v olunteered for service before registering. In other words, Sarasota County, with a population in 1940

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 251 of only 16,106, had more than 2,000 men in service! The army states that the exact number was 2,285, including women. Before the war ended, Sarasota men were fighting-and dying-in all parts of the world, from the fog-shrouded rocks of the Aleutians to the j ungles of New Guinea and the bloody battlefields of Italy, France and Germany Rarely did a month pass without news being received of a Sarasota youth making the supreme sacrifice It was li ttle wonder, the refore that Sarasotans did not complain about the seemingly endless red tape and inconveniences of all forms of ration ing, about restrict ions against traveling, o r about going short occasion ally i n a few items of food. Their only thought was: "Will our boys come bac k again?" And, as so ldiers on the home front, they buckled down to the job of putting over war bond and Red Cross drives, and doing every thing else within their power to hasten th. e war's end. Throughout the entire war, and for months afterward, Sarasota was crowded with servicemen, due to the proximity of Sarasota Army Air Base and t he V enjce Air Base. The housing shortage in Sarasota became so acute that OPA put a ceiling on rents which was not li fted until January, 1946. Termination of the war, and the departure of the servicemen, did not mean the end of Sarasota's housing shortage. During the winter of 194546, more winter visitors came to Sarasota than had ever come before, and every available house and room in the city was filled. Hotels were crowded to capacity. A building boom was retarded in 1946 only by shortages of building materials and government restrictions. As early as the late summer of 1945 i t became obvious that Sarasota was entering a period during which it would grow as it had never grown before. And Sarasotans decided that it would be necessary to overhaul and streamline the city's form of government to prevent a repetition of the growing-pain headaches of the Roaring Twenties. To accomplish this, a new city charter, providing for a city manager, was drafted. It was approved 1499 to 405 at a special election held on November 5, 1945. On December 4, five city commissioners were elected. They were Francis Walpole, J. Douglas Arnest, Arthur E. Esthus, Ernest Sears and Clarence J. Stokes. On January 19, 1946, the commissioners appo inted Col. Ross E. Windom to be the first city manager at a starting salary of $9,000 a year. Colonel \Vindom had been city manager of Westerville, 0., from 1930 to 1940 and of Portsmouth, 0., for a year before he entered the army to serve in the en gineers' corps. He assumed his new duties here February 1 and soon began making widespread changes in governmental procedure. His success or failure can be reponed by the next person who atte mpts to record the history of Sarasota.

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CHAPTER 13 AND THERE ARE THOSE WHO WORK The Land of Swrasota is known throughout the nation as a winter playground for thousands of northerners who migrate south with the birds to escap e the frigid blasts of the i r home states. During the season o f 1945 46, the number of winter vi sitors totalled at l east 40,000 Providing for the needs of these guests constitutes the major industry of the City of Sarasota, as well as all other communities of the county. But that has not always been the case. Back in the days when the town of Sarasota was in its swaddling clothes, and the back country was still a frontier reg ion the ma in industries were fishing, cattle raising, and the growi n g of fruits and veget ables for home consumpt i on and exporting to Cedar K eys, Tampa and Key \VI est. As related before, the first settler in this region, \o/illiam \Vfhitaker, made his living by selling salted sun-dried fish to Cuban traders. In 1847, he brought the first cattle into this section. He a l so planted the first citrus groves and gardens. Let s briefly sketch the development of the early industries. Fishing Itinerant Spanish and Cuban fishermen l ived in palmet t o thatched huts along the shores of Big and Little Sarasota bays and out on the keys, long before the coming of the first American settler s The waters of the bays and Gulf were literally alive with fish and the main work of fisher men consisted of salting and drying the fish after they were caught. The dried fish were sold to traders who plied up and down the coast. American fishermen followed in the footsteps of the Span i ards and Cu bans and for many years Sarasota was k nown as a "fishing village." The industry was stimu l ated in 1895 when a channel was cut through Sarasota Bay and the steamer Mistletoe began maki n g regular runs to Sarasota from Tampa, bringing ice so that fresh fish could be shipped co norther n markets. Contrary to general belief, more fish ar e being shipped from Sarasota County today than ever before. Nearly 6,000,000 pounds pass yearly through the hands of the three wholesale fish companies in the county : Chadwick Fisheries, headquartered in Sarasota but with four branch

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TH.E STORY OF SARASOTA 253 houses i n the southern part of the county and in Chadotte County; the Lemo n Bay Fisheries, in Englewood, with two bra n c h houses, and the Midnight Pass branch of East Coast Fisheries, of Miami The Chadwick company, now owned and managed by R \VI. Chad wick, was started in 1900 by Chadwick's father and uncle. Since then the concern has become one of the largest in the state. It wholesales about 4,500,000 pounds of fish a year and bring s over $200,000 a year into the county. About 75 boats and 125 families sell fish directly to Chadwick. About 90 per cent of the fish handled are sold out of rhe county and about 75 p e r cen t our of the state. Approximately 80 per cent of all fish handled are m u llet. Be f ore the hurricane of 1921, fish warehouses were located along the municipal pier and railroad dock. These warehouses were destr oyed by the storm and the industry is now centered at Payne Terminal. Since early in the Twenties, commercial fishermen and tourist anglers have been waging intermittent warfare. The tourists contend that the netting done by the commercial fishermen has almost ruined their sport. The commercial .fishermen reply that their catches in the bays consist principally of mullet, which do not take the hook. Which side is right is lnyone's guess. Mention should be made h e re t hat on June 12, 191 2, A J. and Henry Vicker s of Atlanta, Ga., caught a manatee a mile off shore New Passthe first manatee which had been captured since 1888 The mammal; which weighed 41 0 pounds, was taken tO Cedar Point where it was placed in a water pen and e:
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254 TI-iE STORY OF SARASOTA south, Jesse Knight ( q. v.) established a veritable kingd?m of his own, dominating the entire region southeast of Horse and Cha1se. The herds of these cattlemen, as well as the herds of men who were not rated as "big cattlemen," grazed on the open range-unfenced land owned first by the federa l government, then by the state, and chen "sold" for little or nothin g by the Internal Improvement Board to land specula tors or so-called "improvement companies." For many years, most of the cattle raised were shipped to Cuba, Shaw's Point and Punta Gorda being the main shipping points. The standard price received was a doubloon a head-$15.60. During the Spanish American war, while thousands of troops were stationed at Tampa, the cattlemen made a killing, the demand for meat boosting the price to hitherto-undreamed of prices. When the war ended, the island of Cuba was almost stripped of cattle; as a result, the demand for Florida cattle continued strong for a number of years thereafter. In the spring of 1900, the big cattlemen attempted to drive out the "small fellows" by fencing off huge tracts of the open range, not only in this section but in adjoining counties. They didn't own the land but they tried to preempt i t by strong-arm methods, bringing in gun-toting rough riders from the \'iT est whom they managed to have deputized. As a result, a cattle war devdoped between the large and small owners The "little fellows" banded together and one night at midnight cut literally hundreds of miles of fence. The deputy "toughies" rounded up nearly 150 of the small owners and their friends and took them to Bradenton for trial. But while they were in jail, another siege of fence cutting occurred and the judge was forced to admit that those arrested perhaps had been wrong fully accused. All were released. Thereafter, the big fellows did not again cry co fence the land in this region until they had bought it and thereby acquired a legal right to fence it in. After the Cuban demand for c attle ebbed, the Florida industry began going i nto the doldrums There were reasons. Many of the cattlemen were tight-fisted and unprogressive, to put it mildly, and they refused to do anything to improve the breed of their ca ttle or to safeguard the cattle's health. As a result, most of the cattle raised were scrawny and tick infested, and the meat was tough and unpalatable. Hardly anyone exce .?t the very poor ate "native beef. In 1915, when Mrs. Potter Palmer began importing prize bulls tO 1mprove the breed and also introduced tick eradication methods, other cattlemen scoffed. Her ranch, called "Meadow Swee t Pastures," probably would have been developed imo one of the best i n the state had Mrs. Palmer liv ed to carry on her program In 1923, other states began chcowing up qu:uantines against Florida

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THE STORY O F SARASOTA 255 cattle because of the tick. Florida cattlemen fina lly admitted they would have to do somet hing if they wanted to retain even their small market. And, ultimately, all were forced into line and required to dip t heir cattle regularly. During the past two decades, the unprogressive cattleman of bygone days has almost disappear e d Today, all the grazing lands in Sar asota County are owned by men with vision who are determined to make Florida beef as good as any Western beef. They are cross-breeding the tough little piney woods cow with better strains: Brahman, Black Angus, Here fords, Shord1orns, and some Devon and Red Polled. They also are seeding the grazing lands with Para, Bahia, Dalla s and Berm uda grass. The largest ranch in the county was developed, beginnin g in 19 37, by Ros s Beason, a business man of New York. This ranch, named the Hi-Hat, is now owned by H. E. T urner. Other well-k nown, progressive cattleme n in this region are Charl ton H. Downs, who brought in the first Brahma bull, and Fred House, who brought in many Black Angus, A. Y. Carlton, George T erry, Albert Blackburn, Tracy Calhoun, Lewis Haw kins, Jesse Tucker, D ouglas Pearson, and Henry Vanderipe. In 1946, approximately 150,000 acres in Sarasota County were under fence and about 10,000 head of cattle were being raised. CitrttS a11. d Prod1tce During the past 20 years, Sarasota County has been makin g progress in rhe deve l opmen t of fertile back country land. Only a small fraction of rhe available acreage is under cnltivarion, true enough, but each year the number of farms steadily increases and so does the quantity of products grown. County Agricultural Agent W. E. Evans reported in 1946 thac 6,00 0 acres in the county were planted in citrus groves. The larg est are rhe Hyde Park Citrus Groves, started in 1922 by Honore and Potter Pa lmer, Jr. In 1946, the groves covered 1,200 acres and produce more cit r us fruit rhan any other grove in this section of Florida. The biggest "money crop" of the county is celery and Sarasota County now ranks as the third lar gest celery producing county in Florida. This was made possible by the format i o n in 192 3 of the Saras ota-Fruitville Drainag e District which drained s;ooo acres near Frui tville. This project fathered by Honore and Potter Palmer, Jr., cost $600,000. The draine d area included 2,000 acres of rich muck land, of which 1,400 acres have since been planted in celery A large part of the crop is marketed by me Palmer F arms Growers Association, rhe largest celery "co-op" enterprise in the state. Ics member s include indivi dua l s who purchased tracts of land from Palmer Farms.

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256 THE STORy OF SARASOTA Other large growers and muketers are: Burquest & Stockbridge, F-an-Cce Farms, Muck l and Celery Co., the Raoul Co., and the Sarasota Celery Co A pp r oxim ate l y 1,500 persons ace empl oye d in t he r aising and marketing o f the ce lery crop ; 70 per cent of those e mp l oy ed are negroes. It sh ou l d b e record e d he r e t hat drainage o f Pal me r F arms wa s started i n 192 4 ; t hat the fi r s t p lantings were made in J anuary, 1927, and that t h e first sh ipment o f p r oduce, co n s i sting of three c a rs of toma toe s and one car of potatoes was m ad e Ma y 3, 1927. Later, t he Farms specia l ized on t h e production of cel er y A New ludttstry Is Born in Sa. rasota Back in the lat e fall of 1924, when Florida was booming at a dizzy pace, a man came to Sarasota to e n ter the plumbing and heating business. The newcomer wasn't just an ordinary plumber or an ordinary cash register ringing type of business man. He was a skilled heating engineer. Besides, he was a ma n with ideas. Good ideas-practi cal id e as. Photo Not A v a ilable Photo Not Available THE INVEN TION WHICH MADE A NEW FUEL POSSIBLE Green's Fuel is stored in an underground system outdoors. Left: Underground system bdore lowering into ground. Right: Tank in ground, puti.lly covered and with copper tubing run intO house. Cast iron ground levtl box, not shown, covers equipment .. hen i nK>IIati on is compl
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 257 His appearance was deceiving. He looked and acted shy and retiring. He was, more than a little. But what he might have lacked in dynamic aggressiveness, he mo re than made up for by unl im ited perseverance and a dogged determination to make his ideas become realities. That man was James B. Green, a na t ive of Crenshaw County, Ala bama Because of him there was born in Sarasota a new industry. The product produced was a new fuel a fuel which now has become inte r na t ionally known a s Green's Fuel. This fuel, made out of h eat-rich gases which formerly went to waste in the oil fields, has been a boon to countless thousands o fami lies through out the South, particularly in suburban areas. A safe dependable, inexpen sive fuel, it is today being used in a cons t antly increasing number of l ocali ties and Green 's Fuel, Inc., the p ar e n t concern, is ranked among the fastest grow in g companies of the nation. Green conceived the idea for the new fuel because of complaints from customers of his plumbing establishment. Not complaints regarding the service his company gave but complaints regarding t he lack of satis factory fuels in Sarasota back in the midTwenties. At that time Sarasota's municipally-owned electric plant was over taxed because of the city's boom-time growth and the power often went off when it was needed most. To make matters worse the city then had no gas system. As a result, most people had to use kerosene and wood for cooking and heating. They constantly demanded something better. They compla ined so often t o Green that he finally decided to provide a fue l which would satisfy the need. He knew that tremendous quantities of hydrocarbon gases were being wasted daily i n the petroleum industry and he made up his mind to devise s o me method by which those gases could be utilized. Other heating engineers told him he was undertaking an almost im possible task. But he persevered. E ventually, after month s of laborious research and correspondence with scien ti sts in many parts of the world he discovered the formula he was seeking. But that did not mean his pio neering work was completed. Far from it. He next had to find a company which could produce the exa c t fuel he demanded. He thought that would be easy, but it wasn't. Months more passed before h e finally located a com p any in Tulsa, Okla., the Miller Refining Co., which assured him it could devise a method by which the fuel could b e made, in quantities as large as might be desired. Late in 1931, samples of the desired fuel were received. Green te sted it, a gain and again, in his tiny shop on Main Street. It was exactly what he wanted-a fuel which was a liqu i d under pressure but which vaporized as a gas when the pressure was reduced, and would pass through d istribut-

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Photo Not Available Photo Not Available Photo Not Available Photo Not Available EVOLUTION OF GREEN'S l 'UEL, lNC. Uf!/1er left: ln this t iny he>cing and p l umbing establis hment, J. B. Green conceived t h e idea of Green's F uel. i n 1925. Upper right : J. B. Gre en was proud of his staff of s i x emp l oye e s in 1929, when his concern was jus t getting start-ed. Center : Employees in the home office a nd plant i n 1941. B r low: 1946 home o Green's Fuel I nc

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 259 ing pipes to gas appliances. I t gave an intense heat, hotter even than natura l gas. Furthermore, tests proved that the fuel was harmless inas much as the gas would not cause asphyxiation, either in the raw state or after co m bustion. To d istr ibute the new fuel for domestic and ind u stria l purposes tanks for the sto r age of the l iquid and apparatus for the control of the gas wer e necessary. To devise t hem seemed at fi rst to be jus t a simp l e bit of engin eering. But Green was balked by patents covering so called "bottled gas," previously marketed, and weary months of experimentation followed. During this period, Green often became discouraged But just at the t i me when he needed help most another Green entered the picture -\Y/. R G r een, one of the origina l paten tees of the famous Daniel Green Com f y Slippers who had retired and come co Sarasota. The two Greens were not related, but that made no d i fference "\Vf. R." became as enthused over the new fuel as "J. B ." was h imself, and he e n couraged a n d inspired "J. B." to go ahead w ith his experiments. Three associates helped him greatly : his son, Tayl or Green, offered engineering suggestions; Miss Sarah Jackman served as a tireless secretary and J. H. Hunter assisted in carrying on the mechanic a l expe r iments In 1932, Green finally s u cceeded in perfecting a system by w h ich the fuel could be stored and distributed Exper i mental installations were made -and i r was l earned that the system worked perfectly I n 193 3 an a ppli cation for a parent was filed and this w a s granted in 1934 by the U. S. Patent Office, g i ving Green the :first patent o n an und erground system for distr i bution of liquificd petroleum gas The first experimental in st allations, made in Sarasot a were teste d
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260 THE STORY OF SAR ... SOTA The value of the new fuel for domestic and industria l purposes was thor oughly established. Then followed an expansion program carried out by franchising the right to disuibute Green's fuel in other sectio ns. It swept over Florida and then into the states Progress was retarded by the war but when the war ended, the company soon began to make up for l ost time. From the beginning, the business has been built along sound lines. Emphasis has been plac ed on alloting territory only to distribut ors of character, business abilit y and financial responsibili t y This policy, with careful collaboration and direction by the home office, has resulted in approximately doub l ing sales each year since the inception of the business. The marketing compan y, Green's Fuel, Inc., was incorporated in 19}5 with J. B. Green as president, \VI. R. Green and Taylor Green vice-presi dents, and Miss Sarah A. Jackman, secretary-treasurer In 1940, after the death of \VI. R G reen Kenneth H. Koach was made vice president and general manager. In 1940, Green's Fuel attracted the attention of Hall Roo sevelt, brother of Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt who at that time was experin1enting with low-cost housing units in Hyde Park, N Y. Mr. Roosevelt a con sulting engineer, flew here to discuss the idea of installing two complete Green's Fuel outfits in his hous ing project. Mr. Green and a mechanic ar Mr. Roosevelt's request, spent a week at Hyde Park supervising installa tion of the outfits, which proved completely satisf actory. The home office of Green's Fuel, Inc., has been loca ted since 1940 in the concern's new building at Broadway and Green Street.

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CHAPTER 1 4 SARASOTA COUNTY IN REV I E W THE LAN D OF SARASOTA Und of $.oln.t.otl. is known to the nation at dut se!C:ti6n of the .. whieh border; o n tltc o f lby and LiLtle Bay infant 5 ini:n o f t h e be-autiful Gul { of Mexieo. S..nuot .. County, di vi d ed I rom County jn 192 1 utcnds to includ e rhe communi q o f J \ng-le wood o n L:nw n ll ay. It i1 on the eut by Dt Soc o Count)' a n d on t h e rouch by Charlotte County. The line betwftn $-ara$OU an d Counties, on the north, dividu B:ay Lon&boat KC"y bctwttn l.hc: two countits. In J S:U, titer Florids h:ad becOrM tur-icory of United States., Peninsular Florid2 as diced Uno eounries by the Land of Sst1wu wu indudl'Cf i n : \.tosquiLO County ,.,hich a.'-!nty seat was csu. b lishC'd i 1 t .8radcnt-on her a hod) eonte$tcd battl e i n which the n('W cown of Sanson cried i n vain tQ be d e $ ignatc d "' the "ea.piul" of the county. Str:atou fina ll y voctd .in o f Sudcnt on ins tc:td of Mttnll!cc, bcc:auu it wu 1!'1 M ana t ee t h at poss e h ad been o r g:an izcd to round u p the member$ Q( Sua Sotll Vigibnce (q.v.) llnd old S:a!a Sou.ns eoold never forsive the action. l'he bnd o( rcm:ainocd in Cooney uftta July Saruou County W1f by the: .state lqishnut. Rcocn for diis.ioo, the deu .. ih of the dhi1ion bacllr. :t given in tbt g.eneul u:xt, in Ch.11pttr X. P:arenthetic:ll-lly, jt $h.ou1d bt mentioned hc-te chac m:any wrjtets havt st:ltcd ch:.c 'A'.a$ o rigin.11lly a put of Dad e County. T his i t dtfi nit e l) not the cue, dnpite the h't thac O:.dc County W:l$ pl-aced o n thtl w es t .si d e o f loridA o n o n e o r more maps of the I SJO'$ O:ade County wat not unti l cwo yn.tt .Jeer 1-fillsborou,sh ;a.nd ,..,,u .Jiw.J)I'l in tho aouthnutrn pu-c ol tbt suet. l'he mi.p trUic:tn implr nrcd. n.c ftnt o!iei.a.ls of Sarasou Cou.n.ty, :appoinccd br tl.c .;:.overnor, given jn Chapter X. Hue ue tht 6rst county ofli,iab e.h<.>$en b)' the people at the nrn coun t y c leccio n o n j u ne 6, H: County commi.uionen4i. L. 'Wrud, l>itt. 'No. 1 ; r A. Albriuon, No. 2 ; M. L. lown s cnd, No. l; J.D. Andcron, No.4, al'ld W. f. Hn.nc:ock No. s. School board m c mbtrs dcct .. ed 'A'c. rct A. L. Joiner District No.1; T. L. Uvctm ore. No. 2, and Guy R.:as:;an, No. J officids <:h osc.n. Wf:C'CI: W Y. county judge; l. 0. Hodge1, sheri.(; Herbert S. S:awyct ptosec:utinJ attorney; 0. E. 1\ocsc:h, duk of circuit coun; E. G. E:ancrlins, ua collcc-cor; Thomas A. Hughes., cu u1c.uor: T. W. Yubtough. supc:rviaor oE publte iru.tncdon. :and R. 8. Chadwick. $Vpervisor of J H. Lord .u u th.c firs.c rtprt:SitnC&tiv-t of Covnf)' 10 the! state lt'gis laturc. fo11owin.g :are the names o f alJ c;ounty olficials from 1,92( t htOU$h COUNTY COMMISSIONERS Oiscr ic:c NQ. 1 : A Walpq le, 1 921; M. L. W rct d 192!; louis-lancaster, 1921: J. P Mil lcr. 192919}2 John W. Dav is, 19H-l .. O: Ocit J Howcll. IJ411946. Oi.saict N o. 2: L. L M;a), U21"2; T. A. Al briccon. 1'2)-24 ; B. I,:U-1'; J. Sr . .,17; W. S. H..J.trif 192t-46. Ddcric:t No. S: F. J. ffiydcu.. "2:1; :'of. L Townsend. 19ll-16; Guy M. Rq.1n, U17-19l0: Gc0rse Hisel. 1931-H; J. L. M,Alli.stcr, 1"' untiJ hiJ dt. ath Avsutt 2}, 19-45 when M. waJ ap pointed tO $ u eut!d him. .OiJtrict No. 4: P . l\uchan, 1921: j D. An1923 ; Floyd L. Zicg,ltr, 192Sl9l0; f J ZieJ:;-Itr, IPH-H: P. E Buc h;.l), Oi11criet Henty H:ancoc k 192 1-2%; W. F. Htnc:odc t92J24; J. J. Cro..l ey, 1.91S-'2&; ''. 0 Wyatt, 1929)6; lt. L j ohi'I:SOCI, 19l7U: A.. Y. C:atlcon, 19)9-L,.f2; Oli\ocr Ald c-.rman. 194)'. CLR K OF CIRCU IT COURT 0. E. RO(Kh, Ull-26; Joh.n 1\.. Pueoclt, 19'271944 ; "II' A. Wynne,. TAX ASSESSOR A a EdwArdS, 1921-22; 'lhomu A. 192).928 1 J. Paul G1.intos Sr., 1929 u ntil hi s dt2th Nov. IS. 1 .9)9 when hi$ w i d ow w:. J appoi nted t O w rv.., Q\lt his \ln<:xpired t
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262 THE STORY OF SARASOTA TAX COI.l.I.CT OR l\. i\'1, W i lron, 1911; (j, 1 ?25424> C b ud..-E. 1 92, 1 ?)%; C. J9Jj ulllil h it dc :tth April U 44 "''hen \'if. P. O ozlo:r W3$ to lill ou: his uno:xpict:d SUPf.Rll'>Tm-:DENT PUBLIC INSTRUCfiO'N T. W. Y1tbrouch June-22, t'ZI, took oflirc jaly t, I'll, .1nd Krvtd until he recircd jJ.n1.urr I, 1'4S. SiJC c:andldJ!es r:m in det t riln 2, l ,H. Results Vrrm:1n 'Kimbrough, 959 A. Jl At')dcrson, 9lS: Dor is Browndl. 780; D. C Ki d d ito:r, 774; J uli;m C. Rob r r u J5(., C. Wuodbu r n J)). II\ the rmloff dccti o t 1'u c sd11y l. l...:vi, l?Zl22; L 0. l,H-23; 1\ Kc.:-1'1. lll'29J2: G. IS, U)} until ill,,cs, furc40 .and JSJin in UH. COUNTY JUDGE Y Perry, U21 until his in 1914 "-hen Pul C. Albrit.ton "' "' tO 'uccctd him; J u d ge Albricton wat elected in 1 ,, .. and serve d until he was t!.ppointcd c ircuit ju dge i n I 27: Anhur R. Cb.rkc w : u elected in 19:28 :1nd &crv\.-d l htough 1932; francis C Dnrc, 19}J \mt i l he r<:) i g nc:d l :m: i n 193 7 ; Forre s c C lupm:tn, 19}$:-46. rROSF.CUTINC ATT ORNF.Y 1 :unlt R\.'l.ld, 1 92 1-22: Hcrbctt S. Saw) c r 1?2:l H: Hmry P. Philpu. 1911-28: Thom11 L. Clc:nn. Jr., lfl,.J2; H en!') P. 19)).)6; bm.u B. Do7.icr. lf)7--Ho W. I Dixon 19) ) 46. STATF. 1\F.l'l\eSEN TATIVI; ,1. H. L>r d 192124 : louit 1 925 26 ; Ev j Jhcml 192728; (. o ui J Lt11lC3.scer, J. Velma Ke::1l, J9J IJ2; john 1 .. Early 19H-lS; Winde r Surr< n .:y, 19)?4 0 Wi lli:am W recry, 1941 -4 2 ; j{'rry Collin:s. 194). NOTE: b.u n;smcd oJ(.ci:..lh in 2bov.: lius ere wt,.ins untxpi!Td lc:trtrt in 1946-.. TOWN OF SARASOTA The fo\lnding of chc town o f Sar3.sou concci \' ecl in br o fficials of th e Fl<>r i d a Mongage k Investment C<>., l.td., :. bddth COI\ Ce m wh.i(.h purc::ha$<:d )0,(100 acres in this region, fr o m Hamilton OitHy L<:..-. i \ Cu i :a c o l ored m a1l, who rcm:ained h ere tvwn 1>l: n dt ow l in Edinburgh :itnd t he lint s:alcll f ro m it wer e in Scotland :md Eng1Jnd i11 che hce llltt1l met nt'd fall o f 18115. A cul ony o f 6$ m e n '''o:sdy (torn Scod:u-.d, i11 S:t.ruO!a. D:vn1bober 1,, 1907, to Octobe-r l.f, J90t; G. 'W. franklin, from Oetober 2 1, uoa. to Oc tobtr 20 U09; G illespie, f:on) O c t obtr 20, 1909 t o October 17, 1910; Hamden S Srnith Oe l obcr 17, 1910, to October J$, 1.?11. 3nd Harry L N ige l { r() m O<:tober 18 191 I, to j1nu:nr 1, 1914. whl) &crvcd 1U cou nci) ) l t n dutiJ\ 8 chis pet iod wcte: Or. J. 0. D rown, two ter ms; J B Turner; W J, I-1111: L. Higd, five (trms: C..:orgc: W, Ubckburn ; S. 0. M eKn'' tY.() teems. die d in April 2 JI}O.S: Judgot l. P Md>2nic l two W. F. by: J. A Rcdd; T L Ellc-.rbre; J L. !Y cr.ten; K M. t k:bb. two tftms; WiUi::am )dfcou. thtc. cnrru : Dr. J"'"k G. W J. W. Kttntt; C. C. MeGin1y; John Hamilc.on Gilfespie.; T. J 8ry2n; J. A. Clark; G. \\'f Barker; C. M. B;onyth, cernu: Dr. Joseph l hhon; J. W, H:trvey: C>rgt Robc:ru; C h)r les W A Chapell; J W lluur; Hu,;h )(, JlrO'A'n_ in&: C M. 1-J()\\ud 3nd J. D linen el ected doting this pcciod n. 0. Gullctc, C. V S. Wil s on, E. \VI. ro., 1orrill, S. ]). J .6. Jr., 111nd J Louis liou l e. M:arJiulls T f. Bl-ai r, 0. S. McRllc, C. J 1\ o.u, C. V F. C. and L. D. tlodacs. A B. was the co-. n's ta!< :asklsor. tw:ing lint October 9. 1907. wu in 1 909 .Jnd 1911 CITY OF SARASOTA Ssruou wu inc.orpont t'd at a eit1 by JCPial o( the nate lq:i $ 1ature .signed by Covtt-tnor Park Turn melt M:a)' u. 1,)}, The act became dfti ve J:mu1t)' I, tjiJ4. A 8 J!dw.tr d s '\\'tiS the fint m nyor fleeted u nde r the new cicy He served durins J$114 and 01 1 S. During t he nex.e 30 )'tars t h e rt'l:l)'()U wtri: : H1tr y L HhJd. 1 9 1017 ; G W Franklin, 1918-19: A. B f.dw:t.rd,, l'l(l-21; t. j. 1 922 throuah I'll;

PAGE 263

THE STORY OF SARASOT A 263 H. A. Smith J 'N2 ch:O\I,;h I ?)7; Vcrm.Jn Kinlbrou g h 1 9.\S-.'9, . A S m ith t hruush 194). Councilm<:n f rom 1914 duough 1945 wete J. W. Uax.tcr, 19 14 15; T W. Y:r.rbruugh. 1914-IS; George 1.. T hacker, Goorgc L Robcns, 1916 -17-JS; K. M. Hcbb, UIJl617-1S; E. j. lbcon, 1916 -17; 1:. J. Mwf'c:, lfU; B. Priru. 191!-20 to Fd>ruur 21, lt21: \\'fiU McF.uland, 1920; ). H. '1:.U:n-, 1Jl0-2l.l2; I. G. Archib:dd. Jnl22; Rumll C. 1'21; WiJli,m M. Tuttle, t.92of2S; frank 'R. Oillin&tr, t92Ji; W H 151?-4-25-26; J. B. l-a.ng, L9U; T heron Burts, J9l7-2S-2?; 'F. l.Jndt-C'.f, 1927 -lS; O:m:2 MiiHg:m. 1927; Sc:ulley l.ongnlitc, 192$-3 0 ; J o GiJI, l9l9; L. C. Stto ng, Ur. A. 0 Mor ton ISI29 HtH; f A Log:tn, 1929-)0; C M. 1 9>0-> J :>2-}J; R.:.y RidurdJ.On, JSIJO-.H-32; J G Whitfield, t9l0-.H; $. 1\. j v M i' 'S' J9)J t hrough 19J6; T G. Archib:.ld 19JlHH; W. C. J\1n gmeyer. J9J2-H-H; Russe-ll A. Currin, ISIH-l,S-;.6; Mihon R. 1.9lS U -JJ; W. V. Usnh, 19H-:.6-l7; U... R. 0.01, "u ohrou,h 1941; A. W. Kttapp. 1')7 through 19-4); VI!. W'an1er, ISI'J7-JI ).9; C. 1'.)7 throu,h 1'40; E o.\. S:C"W:srt, 1.933).9-40; A. W . l'40 th.tough U.f); Or. john R 194lU-4); Ju;:k A. C. H2hon, 1?4 1-4 2 -43 ; W;alrtr C. l'-il through 1945 John B. Drowning, !?HHH .. ,, otnd J. V l.uwrc oca:, 1944-45. Johrt P. "Burkt!!t &erved at c it y from l:ac JSIJJ until he rcsi&n cd CHarly irl 1,927. Tlu eity t h en < mp 10)'cd the la w firm of l<.inQ &: C() it$ work for two yc:.u. HuriJon lh.trinstr "''U city ncorne)' He 5Crv00 f rom 1'2.9 throuth U;>2 luu from 1.9}) 1')7. J. J. Willi2.ms, Jr., str'\"'d d\lrif\& 4.nd .a,gMn from 1931 throu&h 19-40. C L.. urv. ed (rom 1941 duough IJ4,. wu succded by Fnnc-U C. D.1.rt. City c.krks h.tvc-Pnnlc Hi,J:tl, 1914 15, j. Pau l ThompsOn, 1916-1.920; Frederic A. Sv."3in, 1921; j o Gill, 15'21 22; H. J Southwick 192}-27; Harry Mufu:w$ 192S, 2nd J. E. Ridurdt, com 1929 throush r 94S Richard s :.l'o urve< ( :.s ux colleeto.r. During M:.yor U:.con 's :t d mi niu(ati n tax. m e n u were deccrmin c d b) city co u ncil. Riclurdl1 then the work \Hltil 19)7 when 0 F. G ill W:tt .10 poi n ed .Atter he tenC'd a lew mont hs, Ch:.rics H.. }Jickert t o the pc.ition and h e '5ervcd through 19 4 5. Alex Bt011'nint w2t tht" chyjs &nt c;ommissioner of publie wodu. st.rvi.l'!lg I '20-Z I. Since then dX" t:Ommis.sionc" have-been: Uon Pickett, 1922.2:>; j. R. Bnamby, 1914-28; Dr. John R. Scully, 1929-H; Guy M R:as:1n, 1.935-)6 ; Dr. John R. Scully, l9J7-l9. and E. H Knight, 1'}9. Knight W.ll succeeded b) J, Fred w h o rc.sisned in May. .tf6, w:.;i succ eeded by J. S E":ans, Jr. Hcnr)' Beh rens Jerv:: lU chic( of chc fire dcp:.rcment (rom the tir:ne ;t wat organited, btc in I 9 0S. until he v.:.$ $ ueceeded b y C. l. i n 1.922. }.hitl2nd Kno'IW)cs W1l :.ppoirued chief i 1924 j.lmts R.. w:u u ppoimcd chi d iu I?H. He twO yur$ :.:.n d Kr)owhs w:as I'C:II)POiUlcd. L. 0. Hodge$ S(lrW:d a s rmuhull :and police c hi d from J 908 thi'Ough 192! w h en he wu b y S. 'flldcn D:tVis se!'vcd hit cluth on .. uny lJ 19)7. Luther ''2-' acting c.hid 1il A Gun-cr appointe-d in Much., 1'17. A new city durt. providins for the city ma.oform of 1499 co .fO, at a tptebl Non:nber ), 19 U OR S, five city comm.i:Ncioncn ,.c-rt ekC:tC'd: Fr:anclt H. Wafpok, j Dough$ Arne$t, Arthur E. EnhuJ, Ernest C. Sc:us, :mJ J. The nW chatter t,.c .. c:rmc effective Dcct'mbcr 7, 19-4,. The comm itsio ncrs .,.otcd ro hne A r ne3c Jcrve u nlllyor a nd W:alp<>lc. liS mayor. Joh n L. Eo.rl y :.ppt>inltd u lir$t ml,Jni e ip:el J. E. w:.s '":adc cit)' sudito!' :.nd H. P ie lt .. ctt, eity coll ector -and ustuor. On December ZS, l.$145, the eommlnioncn ed :t ._ ,cn nu1rt Citi x.e:u' Advisory tO act u an on mutt'N o{ cj,ic nt. Those n.untd were: Hotr.. Yi-pruidt"nc, Palmer &nk 6C-Trvst Co.; A. L. Ellis, pre.Jidc:nt, J. L. Bl'yant, prW dnc. Cenu\lll ir3.d-ts ;atld Labor Union; C. L. McK.ais; 1\. W, Knapp, form.u eouncilm1n ;and JUOiint er; fnnk G. Berlin, prrsi dcnc of th e Chamber of Com men:e and of : md J. J. WiHi;1m$, Jr., On 19, t he co rnmiuionets app o int rd Rou E. Win d om co be the first cicy l'l\3n:IJJCt'. He. 100k oflic<> 1. POPULATION The lirs.c ruuJ fi&urcs report! by the Fedu.a.l o Ce-nws foe the cown o( S,r;uou was in 1'10. At tl.:at time, UO mom, 'llf()men o.nd childrc:l'lo lind in chc cown. By 1920, a cion of' 2. 1U. Ourlng the Rooting Twenties the population br 193 0, to 3,}91, 1.940 fixed the cotd :n I, l,H1. The Ceruus o the Stalt o f 'florid:1, m:rde by tn,ployc:s in .,,,, s h o"cd that the city h:.d grown to ll,S$7. C O\Jrrtr, whic h il'lto ex i$CCnce July I was br the o( lli}O t O :r POJ>ullltion of 12 ,4-40. i h e U40 toul 16,106'. The Hate ccnus of got\'C the count)'' pop1.r latio n as J 9,201. FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS Tn nly 1.9H. dviin& tbc depths o! d)( Grcu JX... pression b.anlc dtpo$lt$ in 5.1tasou tOC3IIed ltn han S 1,500 ,000. figu re indud< depo1iu ci< up the 'R.inalill g Bink & 'f rutt Co. went into volunury liq uid at i on, Aug u s t 29, JH2. (Set X). By l "46, i n CM> S:ar:asou bnnkt the n'ings ind invcnr n ent :.cc:ounu i n t h e First Fe4,

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264 THE STORY OF S ARAS O T A T h e i n c r e-ase in d e po sits :md ""'"i ''S" durin.,; H-yc.u pe riod providc:t $triking JHOOf of Suuou's recovery from t he d o11bl c blo .. o( lhe bursti ng of the Florid3. b \ 1 bblc : u H.I th e nacion:al dcpress.ion. PALME R NATIONAL BANK & TRUST CO. lbnk tc Trust Co. was est,tll John n. C leveland, c. r. Hogl und, 'lllld R.. f(, J h o n'IJ)SCH), T h e opene d july 20, l$12!J, in t h e b uild ing i c now o ccupies. O n Occembtr )1, 1929, i u depos its were $))8,0(1 0 Six ye) r s blttr duty incr e. l $ C d U) Sl7.29. U y De-mbcr J J l9U, hey dimbed 1.0 $10 lli. 2-4,...H, of the bank in 19' were : Honore Palmer duirm2n of the bo.lrd; !,, W, Powdl, H. W'. Whitm.:an, aeeutivc .2nd OJhicr; P H. Husott. iccprt1tdenc ond tr1uc odic:cr; Domld S. M:ac;:kincosh .. msunt c:.shter, on d A.. H. l h.ykn, lljsi.Jc.2nt The dirccton were: H o n ore P .. dmec B W Whitn u n C l u tlcs. -.1nd C L. Rewure(!$ of the o n OC(:t:mber 3l, 1945, toulled $11,41l,$2).$), SARASOTA S TATE BANK The State :Bank w inco rporated julr 7, it)9, .ll )d lor bu11in. $2, 71c.i3c i o n wt.s incOI'pOratOO under the l:t.ws of lh e U niLed Suces 19, J9)>4. l u llr n oflice r s wcr.: : S h o p ;ud. pte. s idene ; n C K i cklitcr, vice-p re s ident; J J \ .Maahs, .secr cury; J. E Moote, -and J. J Jr., t lttOrn e)' Organi;r;cd with .2 Cllpiul o{ ,$2,S0 0 i t h:.d asstu in 19<46 l()tallil.S: S.2,21l ,li7. J6. 'fh c usod2tion h.n bee n inStO)m c n u l in 2 hr4e J)C:tcMta,s:C! of th.e M W h.omts in Suasota Jin iu or,aniut;on. 'the obju of the 1uoc:i u ion t.re to pt'OmO( thri.ft by pro-riding a conw-nknt 2nd f afe method for people co $ave inves-t monty nd to p!'Oide foe the SO\lnd ;an d eeono m ical fin:.ne.ina of homC'S. S hc:p;,rd ha ,serv< u si ne t h f oraani ,;a ti o n ol du: Muh s se rve d u JtC r euty until hif d.:-:.tb in l?l9 when h e w : u b y T R.. c,.U t r Jn 1946 officers w e r e : "fl. G J>CCiidcnt; U C Kicklit.er, ti r$C v ice-ptt$idc:n q J T Ilia lode Jeco n d v ic e -pres ident; T. R. C ull e r CXul ht vice-preside n t a nd M rs;. Add11 M aahs, u sisunt .s-C'erc:ur y an d J J. Williams, jt., Dr. 0 H. Cribbitu, Cht.tles Hull Ewi ft.l, Richud E. Lindpy and C Tay&or aOO ue dirc<:tON Tnc .a:.ociation's climbed tO Ut4,"9.15 b, tkc:c:mOn >I, t'l'; t o Sl,}78,1S9.U by Dcctmmc:r )I ,.,,., artd to $2, 20,117." b1 Occcmbcr H IJH. VEN I C E NOKOMIS llANK T he:-Ven ice-Nokomis B>1nk wu I n l9lS by Dr. Peed H. A l bee who became president. A. L. J o i n e r 1 \ Bell we r e 11nd D.att W. S l u rbto\lgh, cashier t. rownc:, d, J r ving M. Shaw, Albert Bl2ekbum 111d S idne y R Ptrry also o n t h e b osrd of dir:con 'fhc b an k was lim l ocaced in Nokomis; i r w.1s m o\ to Vcn iee Febnat ) ll. 1927. Or. Alb continued co suve u: pc-eftcknt urttilllis ddth r-cbruuy 16. I"'S In j u ly, 1'4 ) Robc:r'l: S. Bl,nud Wil1 cltC'd ptt"Sid'cnt Other oificcrs in 1'-4' w e re James T B ldock v ice-presid ent: A L. Bbloc;k. C2.Sh icr, S i na M a c Moore, :.ssisu n t euht c r D i w.:rc B aynard, Mildred M Ba y n ard Albee, Jnmts T Bhl ock ,nd J. J Willi:tm & Jr. Ott Detcmbtr ) I 194$, the b3nk had de t'ti tJ of S1,07 , H 2.8 :.n d ruo u rccs tototlling S l,l 18,0,9. 1 ,. l u l oans dist:.O\!Rt-f tOt'o1Jl cd $8 248 P U BLIC UTILITIES The dcvtlopntttt.c of public: u t:ilitiain Saruou hu h dif.cuucd in in cht IC'Ji'l The (C)).. lowing: arc-giw-n t o ftw refer-ence:. LIGHT AND POWE R A (un c b itc t O pro vide S >1rasou w i t h elcccric lialn and power wu g u nt cd t o H. P. Porter an d Anociucs :. .Jpcciol election, April 8, \'OW ) I t o 4. Portet" f ocmrd rhe S:tusOt.J Ice & Electric Co. R E Ludwig w ; u m : mager for many y t;art. Power ttlrned On t.ttl) j u 1910, but' 01lly fron tO mid110 lish.n on moonlit nig hu,

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 265 On Decembe r I I 1911, service" provi m 1 L O 11 2. m., wu pro vidcd June 9 l 916, co accomnlod::m: All night scn:jc c was nanc-d 'No,cmbc-r 1, 19 I 6. i\n sao.ooo bond iuu for purc:hu&ng the p-rivate-It owned plant aod buildin.a a new piant was :appre)1oed <42 co 12 1 U a tpKl,al cokc.tion Dember 2)1 UJS. Gty took OYer pl..ant June 20, 1919. The plant o( thC' 1 ec Electric Co. ""' U sold iR Novtmbotr. t o the Ex.edsjor Jc:c Co.., of lSn.dcncon, a.nd the A:J.mc ch-tnged tl> ke k Col d Co. On N o vember 26, It 19, t h e voter$ 3 SH.OOO bond ish1C' fot i:XL.:nding electr ic light l i n es ;tn d compJccin g muni cip:.al pbnr bui lt b) Mt:Jr$e Co. The p1ant w:u accepted by c:ity M3rch 19, I.Y2.(l, 24hO'Ur "rvic:e wu J>tVvided for t he: fint 2J, 1920. Due to the rllpi.d growt-h of during the bGom, the pbnt 100n prond and v.rCy in 192S, the city sold SHO,OOO wonh of bonds to build ll tiC',.,. on N. Or.anse A.Yenue nC"-..tt Uth Suttt, -a.nd SJ2S,000 moore bondt tO mllk,e uu,nPom. the n-ew pbnt compl.ettd, city deto .sell its munkipally owned y.ntm fot SI,OOO,. UOO to th<" Po .. 6C Lishc Co. to obuilt tnon. C)' to build l> "'.Iter hJtbor. The sale was 'approved 461 to 21+ :1.t 1 specia l dec:tWn 12, I 926. Jot H G ill vlc:c l > r eti d (lnt of c:on,p:my, gave: the c:ity il check for S 1.000,00 0 Much 4 1.!)26. l'Jte jmmediately beao n cotutruction of high \'olu..gc tt:tl'l$minion to tie the Sarasota a rea into iH intu-conntoe t ed r.tt.,ork Ht\ed by greJt base-load gmt'rati.ng pb.nu. Suvico was utended to Frvitvitle $hortly afterward to Venict, Durins: th.: summtr of U41, tht Florida Power&: Lht Co. stut< the connruccion of a ntw n,ooo Kw. su:am turbine geeer2cin,s pf:r.nt <1t P11yne Tet"mlnlll. 1c w<11s pbced in optt':a c ion Jan'-:r.t)' U, 1!H6. The plant i$ of $"t:fficient co c.ury the load of the Co;ast Provisi.on has been for :1. second unit beer, ith a }0,000 Kw. c:apo.city whkh the contpany :tnti<:i,utes will b<: nttd e d within the next deca de. S i _nCt! .acq1.1jriog the plant, the Flocida &: Light Co. h u inet<"ucd the: numbe r of confrom H)O 1 0 6H8, u a Ct$Ui t of the growth of the city and the ol lines into $\llxlrb:tn ucas. WATER for a qu:uter et.ncury :aftHem wn :tppro,i Oc:tob,e.c )0, 1912; abo $15,000 lor .sewc.u. The watct obtained from che 'Well prowrd and on july 20, lfl4. th4! citt c;oc.tnc.il YotC'd co bur an utesi:ltl well u PiiiC'apple and Umon owned by J. Loois Houk (q.Y.) A M'C'ond w<-ll on eM Houk l o t drilled in Oc:-tobn, ttJ4. Tbi' w-ell w : u n N. A'anuc. D urins :a &nnt o $H,OOO Waf to hdp construct ;t sofc WA(V t phnc u., PWA projr. Jhe p lant, which cou U0,1'' was built by hey H Smilh Co. Jackson"nle, work being .carted No,cmbcr 16, 19}7. eompletC'd, t-he plan, had .a <-apxit)' of .a sllonJ o( Wll.kf' a cby, softMd to a. ha.rdntSt of .Qx s:nin1 pe-r &:a lion. Durin1 .,U. a SUS,OOO WPA projtct w:u .approved for bu.iJding :a 250.000 JaiiM ntel tank reservoir ncu the hospit31. The project: aho providro lot Jayinn ,,000 feet Of W:JCCt pipC' Of V.UiOU$ $11;($ inullins J3 6 r e ltydunCJ. A coul ol 2:50 rntl'l wuc cn\pl oyed oa the projc.ct f o r six n\Onth1, On 18, 1946 the dey conlll\iu ion emp loyed Smith coruulcins engintt:r;S, t O prtp.t(l.' r.onstructi<>n dr:twing s and spcci6. eationt, for city'$ t11pp l y Tl1e al projecc planned was the doublin g of rht tap1city of sofc p l1nt and tbe or linC"S lo Jay bland, re'idential seion on SknJ> Key included io c:icy limit$-Thc citJ commia;oneu a.4o )ud vncfcr -ation pl:an' fot modt:rnizin& the uist:in,c sys by m:altin,g into ddcricu and by build ln1 di.spos:al pbnu. TELEPHONES 'f.:=lophOrtil btt\\eeo and tltl." Out .. $id e worl d wu en:tbli.shcd i n f:all o r t 899 1 "ground line" w:u strung M :u\1ttt', pine trttt U5C'd prindp11iy for t ele phone The: lim CJ;Il c11.me throvgh on Novcmb
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266 THE STORY O F SARASOTA with S Abb:: U..\ )(ICJ I and Wuod, t l ur-:ru.t nr. rh-.: t<:
= On of w V. l.:l.tllr<>p, Cdntp.t \Y lut>l:tint n l l.:nt h;ad g otten c h c ft:.n.:bi:sc ftom t bc <:o.uu:il. When the scone bloc;k" building, no.,.,. kno ... n .as Ph.lrm2q b,uldln.g, crt< in I 90S oo ;he Mnnhwc:st Worn("r o f M:ain PirKlppk. clte nctuPcd p:a:-t o( the J19. t h e re wc r (' 2H in SO'Ir:U(\t!l !lnd 9 8 i n the r!' lll :.i r hfcr (J( the C11u r n y. lrl 1?2 2 the-tdtJ)hOr\e b uii Jm;: M Mira M:.r Cmtrt wa s Cr'\."Ct<'l l :tnd i" 1?2), the ButOnl:tt i e c-xch:tti,SC '4':15 rue in ,,(r,i.:c. At tlut tim.: (here were $ubicrlben. Ry IH7, t h e numbcc-lud (0 2662, showi n g the r-l l('nomc"nll j:;mwth o( tht-c ity during the boom. U11rin,; Grc;at in .,)), tlw: nvmbcr tt( s.ulxcribcn dropptd co I,U, hut since d.tt>n r-he nnthas: upidly. [n Septtmber. I 9H, "t"'<' 4<402 in :tl4.'1fK'. GAS T"h e Sc>uther 'r\ G:tt & E l eccrie of which John A. Rttd '1\"U fii'H ptcsi de n c, received a f r:rnch i se fro m irt Jun.o. 1926, to provid e .to;1:S fllr t he; city T h e compan y bousht th e g:rs pbnt i.n dentotl, then ov.n< b y city, :.nd bid pipet t d Sdnsot a in 1927. Gas WM turned on December 28. 19'27. c h.: dM: comp3ny co-ncinttcd tn C)l:tcnd mJin' w thl: buihur stetioAs of the-citr. Jn 19}). W. t. Ad.an1' .1d .auocinn tCIOk d"tC property. In l'o. ch. c COnlp.any .tdckd lnown :as .. t o c11rr of che 5uburb.an dis cricu. df tile COIII)llllY in "''Crt' W. L Ad2ms A J L21wl or. vice-pre s iden t J. C 'X'a1k...-r, se<:ret' o\t)'H.ti st/11\t GREEN'S FUEL G;rs lor huci lJ; :md o t her purpo5Ixll, Jr .. f. S. bn<', S. C. crnd R C. J(ln' .l r T he stacion w u formllly dcdk .ucd I 1 940, WSPU j oine d thcColumbill Bro.\dc,mirr.t:; Ox11pan} On No,embcr 21, I'H John Browni:ns ;, now rn;snaf$C-r and JUri aw n o( th.c 't.M'on. JUNGLE GARDENS Gudcns, known throuJ;hout che sutr : U a won dcrhnd o.f tropic1 l was dc-"cl optd il\ J 9}9 by David U. Lind s 1 )', P ment of the Jungl e h.as ste a<.!ay 111)9. At mo r e th1n 7J of p1ln t tt ,_,.elJ :..1 lavi)h hibi seu.s hn:uu tt:t, Bricith Guian:a ":1 JUJIC crtn, colorful n:aJcu. rubber uccs. m-Jm moc.h dC'p.t:ant odd :1ppruin.&: scrfW pine1., tn:1AY wu"Wttk-s of and count\n$ o( (uru in dudin,s the n.ndy tree Jftd virm. Hc.re :and the((' comes ;acrou :1 phc:id pool in ,.: hic:h bti,;hdy c olored d H t benc:ad l flonin,; on th e suthcc. Mi n iatuff w.He r!ol h sphsh into 501l'IC o( the pools whic h meander away i n $tr eamt cromd by runi c bridges. At int el' vals :.ro (o\l n d : e 1t.t wher e v isit o n pau s e a s t h ey c;:OJltemp1Hil th e clws bcJucies o f natu re. given hdpin,:: h:snd by m.an.

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Tl-IE S TORY OF SARASOTA 267 W AR M SAL. T SPRINGS J.'Olll \ t:J.ins o f Y o l th, rtt1Ui cd (() COll:li n cb.:o 1 \t:tgi.c: Wllttr3 !10\I()IH by l e W;lY in 1 H 2, l1:aVC! l)(!en "tted. A thorough study of docurnc-nu in be Libruy cf Con&tC$$ in the in m:Wr in rt:Dt yu" by Dr. jon.u Mi1kr nd hit colbbonton. indi C2tti th2t tht-founu.iu for whteh \M)n soug_ht ''as hue in S:aruou CountJ' about n milu southeast of Sau:x>u. and two miltJ notth of tiM! 'fnil. h i s loc:..ll)' :u SJ)ri n.l;. or War m S:.l t Spri ngs The: fir.st w h icc m :u\ w h o evtr 5:1\\' the $ pring-s, :'1< cordins tO old docun t n t $ Will Friu )lliln Ortiz w h o l u d bee n ;::..p tutcd b y th.e lndi::ln S in Lhe F l orida irl 1 :ttn d t:.tkc n up t h e cout to the $printts from the (':1Cth. Tho (ri:u, i t\ ll letter co leon, 8-.l\'C c.xa"t d..:;fc:-ription o f the: spo t M it JlOW aiSoO told of cur.uivc: poer.s o( tc:r A$ a rC'lUit o( tht f.rin's kua, De: Leon nro uips co find tht sprincs. buc $\aeceeded. For the pease SO yesn. frorn rn.any pa.tu of dW' West Coa.n-h;YC: 1 tll\c1td \0 w,_rm Springs tO b:uhc i n it$ waru. Thy the ..,.atcr helps to cure ncut i t iJ v:tri0\1$ fldn infccrio n s, 1or-e eye$. Al$0 t hat it h as lnuivc (ll.lal i r)' a n d js 1 h c s pri ngs w e r e owne d (or rn11n y )'eUS Mr$ L ill y G Bro\'l:n, o A t o n e ci mc she 1e ( used $250,01)0 for the property, which 45 0 11.crc:s. l n M.J.rch, t 9 4 S, she sold the prope rty t o F W. md Ni.c k Corbisc:ll:1, of R.oc:hener, N. Y., for Ph.ns e' well '*dv.anced in 1946 for aub.li,_ltin:;: a Ha.ltboril.'m 'Jt tht sprin&1. the dC'\-doptntnl 10 cost approximatel)" $100,000 BURIED TREASURE lhc:k in 1924, a $.1 ()\en ly, l,i{dtu fe-llow and kis wilt 11'10\'Cd into a 0" SitfU Key. They lh ed :and dres se-d J i k c rnmpt. Hlct d to '\\ 'ork-and J1t irh et did. But o n e day in October. tJ1e m m showe d a ndghbor a hlndful of so l d c:oins a n d ilinre d myste r i ously u t h a\ing found 11 buri e d t rusure c:ht$t A {cw days btcr, h e b o1.1sJ1t ll n e au tomobile, and nun}' for hlmscl a n d l1iJ wic--2nd th(Jl he dis:ap )"UJ. jllst one of the buried uusurr stor-i.cs au su.rc:. of the w.uedrone lort of S -uuou. U onlr half of tht nocic.s 1Wtr uuc, crtOu&ft trcuu.te WOI:Id h a ve unearthed on the t1on_g the eout to pay o ff the city's Unfort.un:auly, oot oneo f the -5tOriet can be \enlicd. T h e f:ct is. all 1hc $ubnant.i2 ted trCJ;sure hunt ,\torie3 have a tusic: money $pQt., :.n4 n o t ro!:.sure f o ttnd F M i nst ance, i n M a y 1926 \l $)' n d ic:;ue hudc.d by Ge<>r ge W i l hel m of Dradc:nton, leucd z dredge, employed deep divers. and hunting f oe t he tef:uc horde of 10ld'' which W i 1 hdm waJ h ad b ee n b util!'i.i n e u th.c: l)oint o( Rock s o{ Jollus we r e $pent b y the t-)n d icue i n of the piratC$' c:he:t, $\l()I )Otcd c o conuin $A,OOO,(lCl0 l 1 t &old, b ... :1l:tS a1td a l ack, it WIIS found. Yc1rs W, C Shcp:1rd z,\d A. R. "Pop" Fil.son .llw on :1 u.:uurc hunti.n.g cJIOpedition h
PAGE 268

268 THE STORY OF SARASOTA o r e l ) :llne r ;1nd Por cer J):alm(r, n$ outtight )n memory o l du:i r m o(hu. Thl1 p ardcul11r tuct eX on Mth '!.ide of Su,., B owl Ro-ld ..... the va ll e y be twlr n the: Up))tr :md Lc>..-:cr b.krs, -.tnd w:u fwn :u fl'c: Old Picnie 0J'oun(k" Thrn Edward s :and Albritton took steps h) obuin tht rc.-.nu.i.ndu o f la.n4 L ow ct subtl'runun o-.ned by the hei'l of J. F .2nd S. Cvrty, of Marui'. finally, dt4 viul atea, eomprit.;nt ,,000 acru, acquired. lbe inttr of I'HU, dcvdopm c n c of th e '!1.'1f by CCC worltcn v 1dcr the dir uild iogs. 1c h "'I'Oned the work ton m ore th::u:t $ .ooo.ooo. l'ht 11tltC r\Ow owrH .appN)Xitn.Jt.d)' 21,000 in tit< regio n. 0( thi1, .about IJOO JUts bftn for 1dc putpoK'I the rtnUinin.& J9.}00 have bcotn "c tde a, a state {oren. The part.: W3J otlici.ally dcdic2tC'd Fcbtt:uf 21, wuopc:.ncd t o che publk June I. 19-2, The first p n k S u p .:.rin ce n d ectc w u Otmf 192} th t pou <>flic:e mo, c d to tht Cummcor Art llde jun COIY'J>Iete d by A 1 : Cum m cr. liCHner T. 'Welch W:l.$ ftitt\Cd flO'LI'IU.HC'C July 16, )9l} 2nd IC'CYtd until b ... uined. At fiut, the-lib r u y W:t$ open jutt Saturda y :a(tcrl\001 :.nd ('vcning; Jntu ic J!iO Will opene d on 'Wcdnc s d:ty aftfrnoon. T h e Woflwt's Club t oo k o ver tht l ibruy i n "14 2nd O I>Ornttd i t until J 9 when it u ken O\'CI by t he tity, libru}' was in the Woman's CJub bui ld i n g from l91S until IJJ2 when il wn ,no,td co tht"" old l'td b s-crvt""d :rs Bbrar ia n s from 1907 H > 191 4 wei'CI Mi n S:.rnh Mrs. Jc-ni e D. CrOsby. Mr1, C. \VI. 3nd F W. S c h u ln. M i n Nellie S pitts wu dtt first fullcime liburiur 1111'1d urvcod durins J91 6 Sh e suttttdtd by Mu. .hn<"c Furner. SCt\cd until Mrs, C. A. ScrY;tc, Jt,, th t libruian. ppointC'd in JUT. I n 1'46,, th< libnry h2d 2 of .appro.xi rnud ll.ftoOO boob -..11 dirc< by J: board hudfd by llt'. R INGLING AR T SCHOOL The Rin.aling School q f A is 1n ouc sro\\ch of johr1. R\ng\ing: J\l nior CoU tlt :and School o( Art hi.ch wic h 'mprc:n i,-e: Oc t o ber 2 19. n w h en R in glinf;: ml.ollirit was op:ned t o the p.1blic. Or. Ludd M. SpiVt)' prc idl"n t or Sooth (' .rn College, w u tht fir.s< prt""sidC'nt o f 1 h c Khoo\ whi.d'\ wa.
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THE STORY O F SARASOTA 2 69 br: u 1 cb of the coiJc g.:. T h i J prov-e d u n u t i s f\licto ry. Mr. R.i n g lin& Silver! ..:.onnect ion w i t h the s-choo l i t w:as i nco rpor otc d M :.y I S 19 H \li$ 'n indepe n d ent itutitutian wid V('ri'IU.l'l K.imbr o u s h u pmldent. 'fh c Junior C<.lltgt w:u din:Ontinue d i n UH. Sine< then the ;art 'chool h:u provid e d only such wbjffu 21 nt nudt.nu might ws.nt. Tiw: Khool opentN :u up.acity durin& I '-4' ;at tuc:tint ut nudc-nu from all pcuu of countty. VENICE NOKOMIS The sis ter communities of VcJ:UCc N ok o m i s :.rc loc..nc d in c h e secti o n otiginully kn()w n Hone O ili$1:, flrtt b y Jcsso ( q.v.) Fo e s c v cnl y cul in c h e 1 n i d f:ig ht ic.s t hco (()cal icy W M k now n :-.s Eyrc-scvcr:tl o1d nups g i vc il M "Eyr) ". T h e n1:mt Venice by t h e ,o,crnmcnt whe n 3 pon ufficc in 18 It 'A'ith 0. Cur e)' u tht: first pOStr'IU.SUr. Tho name Nokomis "''as 2dopt.d for the old communitr aft.cr Suboud had n:tendtd itt uxks throu,h the ttttkmmc 2nd built a natton ""way down in ttw uick .s." (Sec Gcnenl inc.) Eagle on Bay, w..u m:adt i.nto ;a ..-ide lyknc>wn w-in.ttt' t"eson bc!orC" W'ol'ld War I by Miltc Eva1\S who succee ded in ind \ICing scores o f n:u io na lly and :ii10rttrnel\ to be h is I n )920, Fred B o u d lctt A l b, fam cd O('t he)pa ed i c boiH' 11nd joi n t .)U I",(;eM bcgal\ buy in s luge tn.cu of hnd in t h e Venic e-No k o m i s r eg i on iJ' 1921 tl1c Po llytnna Inn, a t N o k om i s which '9>'\U f o r m all y <>pencd Jo nuary tl. 1 9 2 2. H e -soo n a{tec.,.u d t h t VcniccNokomi$ Chamber o f Commcrec ;,, J9H orgnilW tlu:: Vcnicc-Noko mis JL.nk 1'hot ptC'!oCflt city o-f Vcni wat built by the Bret:htrhood of l.oc;omotivc En,cinccrs ln I '15 u an ntinuted con ol $1,,ot0,000. iut) The-c-ity wu ieCilrpora.trd by the st;ltl' h.tc in 1 t26 :..nd the 6m m-eccin& of the ci.t)" offic:::i.Jb, llppoinc ed b y t h e s<>vernor, wat hi!l d I n6. t.. \V orthinaton was the mayor C h.,rles S Breul e y lt. l.. Wellivcot and 1-1. N W imm e r c ou n cilmen. Jor 1'1 nu mbc:r o f yu.rs :after t h e e n d o t h e 1\ig Boom, Venice wat a & h Oit c;ity. its CJ:(';cllen t 2nd th<' hct that i t 11.dl laid o u t u lr.imtttly uusod h tO co"e to l ife again. Durin& summer of I,H, the Venice tnd S n Mar co Hotds -ere by the K('ntuck r ).filiury lnuitutc-, of Lyndon.. Ky . 2nd durin5 tile winte-r of l'}lH. the Institute-bcg.an .Mnclin.&: iu nuurch asc:d mos-t o { r h ese h o l din # J (rom Dr. A lbee' widow h Wli-S .ctp<)rte d thllc 14,000 tlctC:$ W CI:( acquic'4.'d for HOO,QQO ;an d that the d t1l inclu ded h r ge portionJ of the c:it y of V'cn icc the town of No'<:otnis. puu of che I'C't:identilll developments of Bay J)o:ot and ;and 12,000 acre.: of fsrm lind._ The purduw did not iodudc an) of the buildif\&.S uloefl by tht Kcntudy Milicu-r Institute ot tht' Florid Ccnte t .\trf, HciSo' Rom: Sl.Jc bn city elc-rlc of Vc,\icc sinccl9ll. E NGLEWO O D The cown ol En.gl e wood a t dtt cxucme w u ch e rn end ol Snrgt(ll-il CQunt}', o n 1 emoo 8:'1)', -.'laJ e d in JR96 by H erbert N. Nk.hols, of C hicag o w h o n:'lmtd it :'I(Lu a $Ub u rb. T he plll l w:'ls tt:e<>rded 17. 1896. Nicholt achcrtised the commun ity iddy a.nd in 1!97 c.anized .a OOmp1n)' "Whic.h bllilt a he). eel on tht 1ho of lAmon &y c alkd tht' En,&cwood Inn.. Tht dtvt.lopmcnt of the ttetion w;u nurdtd. hoW<".,tt, by t complete lxk of tnn$porc:uton facilities ;aMI or nnny ye.1.r.s I n slewood wat noth i ns but :1 6shinc h:am.Jc:t. The ho t e l but"n e d 1bout 1910. Dvrini:J the Fto .. noo m, t he CO:TIRlUI i cy !pureed ahud b r i efly :an d :1 b1nk 'llnd se,..-n l new noret op e n e d Howtvcr, the fa i Jcd d \ 1 t in g the .:ra.sh a n d ;all cxetpc o n e o! t h e tt4rtt d< M M h \ 1946, Engle woo d s howed of b eing o n t h e o f the devciOJ)mtllC inevit:ably wi ll come, sooner or later, of the supcrb o( the conmuni c y .and the public.-s;picitcdness of iu CHURCHES Pcrhllp.S no one-will kno w (
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270 THE STORY OF SARASOTA S o the c hutdt W;l:> du;: Ike Rids c Jhptist Church. c hurch was b ei n g :It Ike Rid.:;c, Jesse Kni;.:ht th" mcmbcn; o hit' hrgc f:-uuily, ; i d b y llCighh< lrs. built: a p b nk church :tt w h:1t ni)W N ok omis. W h e n i t mcd by the Mcth odl$u w ith K night p:mor. Jn lSS7, a s econd lhp<: i st C h u rc h w ; n in FruitvHtc. I t w.,s c.:mn t uctcd b y C. L R c:. \ 'CS, John T:tttt m su .. phcn j esse, Fl'.:lllk :l.ltd Emmett Tucker. They \\'e r e by hnc Rcdd w b o b v t hen h;td b e c o m e 3 tninistc!'. T h e Bee R id ge, H<:>..-se :md Fr ui t v i lle w ere rcpb.cc d years by mo re Jntldcm stntcturcs. T h e i .t h .we c cminucd to meet: Sund:ay w i t h out. i ntcrrt ptit Hh c.:\lrn<:r < ,( M ;md l'iuc:,ap)l i C w z s d(la:tte<,l t o t he c hurL';, by H z 1'C') L. Higcl A phin b uil d itlg wzs o n the &ite jn 13?3, the firn $ct\ ices b eing c.:ondtc t cd br Rev .t\ 0. n r o w n In 1897 , P bl)i lc :. belfry on rhe c .hurch :.nd :Hide d :t .Ho;c_ plc. Wor k i n g $till hudcr, ther ni.s-<"d f u n d s to b o y p:1in t tlt c 'I.itt1e w t ,irc Church :tt Five P() ims" 1.':'11\l(' intO elii.stel l CC T h e \'\foma n s M issi on-at}' Socict)' o r g-:.nizOO i n l?t>} b)' Mrs J. S P :ltccrwn .-and Mn. J-hmdeo $ S m i th D u r in g t h e followi n g de<-:u:lc, the chuxeh grll.' s t c:odily. lly J?ll it b ec;amc o b vious dm :t clwrth ncodOO. T h e < .ongr cga tion so ld t he F i v e .Poims: site toJ H. t.o-:d {or $1600, M d lord mov e d th:: church b uild iog t o 2 V:aCJ.nt lot on P inc:.p plc .wcn.uc . Pl';l;ns were sc;ancd itnmeopk 3 youth t h e p:.stor re $Crvins one t>!l\ for hi-s study. oi t h e c.:htc d in 1946 were: G t. Th:.ck cr, john Fire Robert$On, li.. S. Smith, C Hitchings J. M. Muon, 7 W. Y :tr b rough, C. L McKaig, J. C. Cudwdl C lyde Wilso.n. Stcw.1r d$ we re: M r s. J. H. Bbcksh c :tr J C i.:kett John Fite Robcrtsoo, C. R S h:trtnM, G. L. Thac.ker, J\' l rs. v i n \'V,Uc<:t, Siblcr \Vh it.e, C. E Hitc;h ius$ SJ:m D HiJJ. ]\o{(s. C n C L. Mc KaiJ::, M E Cox .tn d John Bh.:kmor::. School SupcritHCitdent w:u J. M 'M:tson. CHURCH OF T N REDEEMER ( EPISCOPM,) An mi$$l o n w;as fotwded i.n S:n:t$<)l.l by the J H:.m i lton G i lle$pie in 1 SSG for st\'et1 1 ye:.us meeti ng s were hdd i n h is h o .ne :tnd b eer in the tQwn mt2ti n8 :\L t h e north w est c o r ner of Main and PiM:tp p l e streets. r n 1 ?04, t b c litdc of I Z mcm be:s built a snul1 cht)rc;b on Pina p p 1 e nc-.t r S ixth. T hi s buil ding W.1$ me>vcd t O cor n e r of StrJwbecry :.n d P : 1lm ncrtuet itl !906. After abou1 $}00 itl remodelin g the nnl<.:ture it found t h 1c 1he propcny on wh i c h it stood w.1:s morL'fhiSc c-:tused ';1; l i ttle trouble ;amon g t.h t Cllngtc S:ttio n until Bishop Gt o r. More r<;t:n t l } t11e luvc b een : l fu be r W. Weller, G H L. Thom:ts Wilti1m A. tillyc ro p R cgiu1fd tstnu n :tn d John H:.r,ey Soper A m issi o n w"s c-st:tblishcd i n Venice in l 'l' by Clurles H. Ra<;h and James 0 Gudner who hzd bcctt -:IJ)J>Qinted by the Mens C l\)b o f the church t o 3$1'iSC Rev iilly crop t h e wo-rk.. 0\)tins.; next lour yc:.n, the little group met in :1. v:tctnt store bt)ilding and services conduc ted br hymen. St. Jo,.brk's M il>$ion W';l;S e recte d in 19!9. Rev T DeWitt Po-'C\Uns. :t rti red m in i ste r $ C rved :.sprie st i n charge until 194 6

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THE SroRY OF SARASOTA 271 when he b} Or. l.>n :ard Srtykc,. Ofii<.:<:n i n were : C(IL A. J. B t:'llldon, w:udcn ; Philt\. Huguen i n H S T:.ylor. ur<.(, E H\ .llS, FIRST BAPTIST CHURC H 'fhe Fir n Baptist Church was org-.mil.d )hr<.: h 23, 1902, wi t h five mcmbc:rs: Rev. Henry j. 0. Millet W :'lS the rcguhdy e lected p:asco t 1nd j:1mcs D:ucs t he Jir$t <;)t;k I n Dc..:cmbcr. 1903 Rev. H. H. Noni $ elec ted nu.d S chool organized i n Ju1y, J.!)04, with t!1e :IS s u per inte n de n t. T h e first church build ing w3.s c r:tcd <>o Eish th Strtte n e-ar Ccntr>l l ;\venue in 1904 :Jr. d w:u d t :uOO o( debt in 19 11. The \v:'l $ builr Of\ 1n 1 d joi:lirtg: len i n 1912. T h e Jhpti.st Young Propl e$Uuion w a s o rg:t ni:r.ed in November, 1915, with M iss 'fh:np 1 s presidenc The M inionuy U.n.i0)1 WM o rganj;,t,ed jn 19\6 to $\lt:&::ti:d the Aid Sow h ic h founded il'l 1904 I n De<jn wd cOn $i.sting o! C ).1. How. :ml \V. E. C E. Wood, B. F. McC 1 il W. D. 1 h on'I2S, 1'. S JcrkiM and J N. P o t ter. 'fhc n e w church was O,OOO md dc dico:at<:d DC'C<'mber 16, 192<4, \\'i t b De-. S B. Rosen pt'c:)ch ing t h e dedic :ttOt'Y $<:rmon. T h e p1s:<>r ium :It 5 J 5 t\del i:: Avenue w:u co:np}ctcd in ]11\U:I!Y 1925. l,asrors of the chu r c h have be-en: }>, 0 Mill er H. H. Norri s, D. R J. H ThMp E J. Dnhcr. T J Sp.lrkm:1n, H. A Goer ing, C. H Fer rell, S G M ullins John R. E:'l.och P icke r i lS:, Dr. A. j. U e e k j. S . Dr. J. P Curti n, Or. Stew:'ltt Lon g, Or. T 0. R e ese Dr. Andrew Ca.rakcr Dr. C laude T. A:nmernun, Dr. E. M. Stcw;m :m d Dt. H C. \';;'.ayman. The church \\'!'1 $ incorpor1ted in Ausust, 19 { 91 1\hilc-l)r. Hk \\"!'IS pmor. Officcu of the .,:hllt c h in 19 wer e: Dr. H. C. \\'. Jl. D o:t.!e_r, T R. Cui .. l er, tr<:: u urer of t he-b u il ding f und; A D H i1lsty, fiaancial se. Du6n g thi! boom Yt;&rs of 19H-26, the c:h.urd t wlS our!o:J:O\\'n $.Crviccs wc-.re hdd :a.t vuious liiJlCS i n t h e Mir1 Mar Edw1rds T f u ':lt re, :ttld the GoJi Succr sc:hoo l a uditorium. ConsCQucntl}:, tho.: origin.1l v.as rold and :toothcr 1 o c u i on. $0:curtd at t h e c:m e n d of O:.k The first tlllit of lhe new church building w1s ere-cted in th.e llltmmcl' of t ns :tnd d ed icated t h e f ol1.;,wi n g Febru a r r Dur ing the next f e w foun:n Sund1 r Sch c o l r oorns we re ;1 m:a.nte .sc:cun:d. l'as tots of t he-church h:we bee n : Kjng sl cy, J F!".u:er Cocks, C W la.th:atn, 1\ugu s(uS E Barne-tt 8 L. Bownun, Dr. John E Abbort, Dr 8. L Bowm:1.n. Dr. Abbott ministere d t o the <:hurch whil e D: U O wln:t n sc n ed ;l$ in the U nited Su.ces Army fron'l Seprembu, 1 '-4 2 t:<) U16. Or 'llown111l'll retun\, Or. Abhott went t O M i artli ln 1946 the ch urch ha d :l me m bers h i p of umdy 5 00 aJ>d to a ddjtional hundred s of touriH$ durin g wjntet SC:t$0n Three SOJI.S o f the c h urch :ate UO'I\' Htd nvo served :..s in World II; a forme r supcr inccndem of Sunday Sc h ool $Cr, cd )'eU$ ;J,S ;m Two lts ;lt N inth :and '\\ Cro! dO-nated 1.S a si t e for 1 c h urch i n t h e f:tll o f 1911 b y Mn. Burns o:and modest fume build ing wu $00il erected o n the Jot. On August 26, 191 2 Joh n Sa'';eat:<:d o n Adelia Avc:.ou N inth.

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2 72 T H E S TORY OF SARASOT A St. littl e gre"' rapi d l y dut i n g t h<: yc-.u$. T h e pastor re :.l il'. c < l thtt :.. brt c r c:h u r d l W 3S ::uld $tJrtc d 2 b u ildin g C..m d in the C"arly t hirt i("', Additional prOJ)Ctt)' u the o f O r : m go a n d Nint h S trt. G r o und ?.as b r ok c n (o: t h e new build i n g on Septemb e r 9, 1940, ami t h e w1t l a i d N ovtro her 9, ISJ40. T h e < h u rch w:ts $ u flic icntly c o m pl e t e d t< ) permit the offer ing: Q ( t h<: Mas.s o n 3.st t r 1 9 41. S t M3nha'.s ne w ch u rc h, co-nscnu;ttd of l igh t col ored brick q( t h e $ p:.n ish R c n .1i:ss; mcc t)' P Q{ tc<:ture w ith 3 .sc3tin g c:tp:ac i t y o f s ilC h undr ed, ,,,.-:.s dcdic:ncd on Fe b n u r y 15, I 942, b y t h e Mou RC\'t r c n d Jo::CJ ) h P. H t :olt}', 8 i.\h op of che Diocc:$C o f S t Au Thi s c hurch which W3$ com p lctdy f o r by the: of J9Ji), w:t5 :1.t :1. cost o( $ 7!1, .. 0 00. l n t h<.> ()( 1 9 4 6 a dri v e J:u.m c hcd t o ni1>r $'.i0,000 t<> b e u ;cd in b u i l din& ::1 p:trl)chi:al schc..'OI on tin! Or:ms;c a"cn u c p ro p c n ) j ust liOuth o f t h e FIRST C H U RCH OF CI-!RIST, SCIENTI ST I n :t s m all g ro u p of Chri$ti:.1n Scicmim bcg:t ) hold i n s $er vke< i n :. p rinte homc. I n t h e f:11l of 19 H (ot o f the sociecy by Jn (l:hc r l!hurc h t h e tlm C h ur.; h o f Chri st, Scicmi st i n Bo-ston, W l $ lnm p leted in O ctobc..-. 1 9lf the Chri:sti : m Science or .. th3t JU ) c h urc h t:a n be d c d icHCn, filled th e p u ]pit. The church c:.lled 'Rev. n C.he31Ch:tm to its m i t)istry in 1 941 a n d h e rem'i1'1Cd until h e bec:ame 3 ch-apl ain in t h e arm y He was b y R e v. John M csSJet w h n r(' m 3 i n N with t h e ch1)rc;h thtee Rc'i. R o y S J o h nHon q ( Lexing t on, K y ..... h<> ,setve ( f fou r yc.trs in the ;1rm )' l S cb:ap):.i n i n Worl d Il, beco ming 2 b e<::.tnl c o f the c hurch i n April, 1 946. I n 19}2, t h e c burc: h purch:tsed Amerka n Legion p r tlpcrty at G olf S tro.!t W3shington Bh d. l c beer remodele d t h e b\)i lding, ,PUt<:hased additiO:l:tl lou. added Sunday Schoo l rooms-and l n l94 6 comp-l eted 3 ri'<:re: n i o n al whic h 31ho is used for Su n(.)3y Scho o l t h.: charter m e mbers of the church w h o nill live in Sausou Mr. a ld Mcs. Henry H u tc.h i.nwn M rs. Ellis-, Mrs. Mrs G o $ K Ste,.ens-:. n d John CiUis Amo n g the m ()t t active c:.r l y m e mbe r s i n a dditi o n t o the :tbc>"e, w.:rc R rcn, 0. T H :.l c :.nd John J jun ic e I n 946, the c.h \ r c h htd I m.: mb.;r$ and tl1e member-sof its offi.t.i:tl bo:tr d H. 0 Rla.sit1ga.mc, chairm:an; Miss Gr:ace BiUs secrct;uy; A M t reasurer, : m<:n y "alucd at mMdy $20 000 i n c.lu ding chorch build ings. Sund1y school r ()()n'IS 31\d p utor'.s h o m e. S in i cs -a n umber o f its young men h:1vc entered t h e mioisuy :and arc no"'" -srrv i n g >liS puton in v3ri o u s se.hx. G rcenburs C hil k and W il

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 273 li:am Gold. The temple w:a.s fotma ll) d cdic:ttcd February 2-t, 192?, by Dr. Ad.,)ph Spcig<"l. Music W i.S furnished by Miss Ruth ldehon, Mn. L. I. Freis, Ike :md M i n ., Bun<)n, Scc" icc s 2rc C()nduc c\'d \'CC)' Ftidzy n ight. Memoriall'ark is :t f>cauLifu l Jiuk ccmetet)' loca ted dtc muoicipz1 golf course. h W:\$ fouLtd4 cd in J9}2 by P. H. levy, Hnr) ChjJk, W'illiam Gold H:trry Augus tine, ,Arthur O>JJmaQ. a n d Joe ldtl$0n. ORGANIZATIONS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE ' H.ords ()n tht M:tlut:ee Jti cr li lled with \isicor.t H ece in S::tal(H:'I, hoed; a re em1ny. 'l'he rc:asOJl i s simpk.-wc do not 1dvcnisc. W'h:ac m ore chan anything dsc is-a pro gn:s.siv e :Board of T r:tdc or Cb .1mber of Comnwr(:C which wHI <.:<.>n.Ccntnti." on tellin g th.e nation about our s upub :a.trracti()M ' So wrol c J::ditor C. V. S W'ilson in his S:at;ason Timei c:arly in 1901. Years were t o bo'.lcvu, l>tforc h is suggestion w:as h <:cded. I n the faiJ of 1904 a Comm(;r<:ial C lub w:as with H3rry L. Hisel 2t buc the Wa$ urnble tO ob t3 in enough money even to pay for a socret:trr, to say nothing of conducting an adverti sing c:tmpaign .. About all the dub W;il$ :\blc tO do.'' recalls A. a "w:l$ co get behi .nd as Ju;v ing new bo:1.rds h i d on M2in Street or: getting after the m:'lrsh all to do som ething rhe h o gs waUowjng in the mud .-.roun d the waccr troughs i n the center of town. We had the hogs with us f o r Y"" 2fctn\atd $0 1 g1.1es; the dub didn't 3CCGrd c :une dmost to :a dud h a l t 'and it did not come to life agai.n uotil the f..tll of U16. It wa$ then reorsaniud wit.b j. H. Lor d as I R. Burns -.2nd cre llurer. and Or. B:a.rne}' Low, $ecreucy. John F. :Surk.etc H:a.rry l. Higel, Owea :Surns A. B l:dwards were elec t ed to ser.c on the bou d o f directors dong with the o fficers. On November IS, 1916, the. memhc..u c:h.ippc:d in t o pa)' !or a new c:ity booklet <:ost $1,-000 J.or I 0,000 copies-printing d tup in t h ose days J. H. Lord A C Honore 3g reed co p :t)' for Z 500 and 0-;o.cn llunu for 500. Lord served t wv ye.us and w:u succc!!d ed by J C. Archibald Th.M \VI. Y Perry choset \ c o hea d the otganizarion On No\embe r 24, l920 foll ow ing :t t i ol\ meeting, the n11n1c of th.c l\'as dung ed to the CourHy Ch1-mbcr o( Comm<-r. were: Hamden $. Smith, C N hononry presid ent; A. L. Joiner, v icepresi dent, and I ron Rem, trc . lnm:c. of t h e bo:.rl<", C. E.. H i tching$, MN. C. V, S Wi lson. F. H. Guenther, S E. O.lron, W. M Tuulc, Otis F. L3ndcn, Dr. Allton, j. H:unifton G ill esp i e, and J. H. Lord W:. l ccr M. Ford, of Cbk:.go, ;appointed full time secrcury. T o relate fhc of the Chamber of Commer sine 1.920 wou l d Jike repc:a.cin g hiuory o( tf1 c city. Con l posed af tbc <:it}''$ ln0$C pr<>g:ressivc citi?.eu, ::tnd playing no in politics, it a ided in countless 'll:ays to ma k e Sarasot2 a finer place in which t o live h has advocated and obtainx, Ltn Crtet, "f. R. Cul-

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274 THE STORY OF SARASOTA ler, C. K. S. Dodd, Ben J Otym o n A. P.. Esthus, Roy 1' L Clcnn, Jr., J O. fitl'n'IOil, Phil Hugutl'lill, D F. Jolt rit MeCulle)' Bent o n Powell, W ilftid Robarts, Ernest Sc::au, Ouy Stu :p.Jcd, Ed Shoor, E. A S mit h, :.and Mn. E lise Stoke.t. l,resident s o! Clt.tmtH:r h:ave H:!t'!l.Ckn $. Smith, 19'20-21; A. 8. f..dnrds. 1922-24; Cltulet Ringling, 1925 -27: john Rin.sl i n,s, 19!7-)0; E. A. Smith, I'HJ2; .R.:Jr jack.on, put o! tt)2; U7. LVsn.O s me, !9H; Or. W.allc1' C. 19H-JS; Frank A.. Log:an, I'HJ'; L Thsckcr, 1936 -J7;: Ro_g:. O. P. Colli ns, l!tto G rate, Montie G. F i sh., C2rrie LuZiet JMrothy I:Xnt, Mn. C. V $. W Uton, Mrs. K. M. Hcbb Mtf, G W fnnklin, Mts. L D. Kni.Jhcon, Mcs .. M. Louiu H:aun .Mn.. Phillip D. Lacey. Muy L. )dn. E. Doane M. T Gcruud; G. Alice Bt\ghc lk:ssie Arnold. Rote Grit&th Bryan, Hsrritt On Cu n Elitt Ellion, Met. T. W. Yu .. brour;:h, MN. Owe!\ Burns, Mn. James G. Campbell # n d M ra F. William Schultz. Jntmcdil'ltel)' a ftcc t he dub began t3k i n g an in c:rcu ing role in civi c ITain. O n e of its ptojcccs during the first wu c h e iuo Ro:semarr Cemetery wh ere 1'1 r e d was gud cd curbed 1nd :shelled :and the grounds be1uti6 ed with shrubs. P und .t for the work obuin cd by v.ariou J mechcds, nngin_g from uld and pub l i u don of coo k books t o t h e sponsorship of The abo coo k o,c:c the opc-r11tion of t he libruy i.&inUir suf""...ed io U07. by the: SnU Library *til outgrowth of 1-hc: 'Town lmptO\'emtnc Stx: i e -ty 'X'hcn the libnr')' wu turned over tO the club it 600 volume book r :u:kt, and :. bui l d in8 fund o ( US. The libury ,.,. m 2 int2incd b)' the W'onun't C lub i n tl11! Cil14tl ,ic B lo<:k ( n ow k n ow n M chc Badcc r Plurmo.ty bui ldin$L until tl1e o{ J SIU w h en .it. was moved to t h o n ew h o me of the club :It J):al m Av en ue Street. The brt:;ak.ins !or this new dub houJC WllJ hel d )2nuar y 1 19JS. John F. Burk 1at 3U. cd u o f ceremon i es. ibe invoc:nion doeli't'fftd by Dr. Gcot'gc L. Thompson. Spc.altc:n were M;a.yM A.. B EdwJnh, L R )\lrns, R C. (Apks, H N. Hllll, J Elwood Moon, D.-. j. &.arne)' I,.o.. Jftd Mrl. Guenther. The c lub house was form:tlly opened Wc-docsday, Apri l J -4, J 9 1 S, with public te(:(' .ptions in the dtcrn OO I \ a n d C:\'Cning. M rs. Guenthe r served a s f o r eigh t CM .. After she decli n e d t o be the club m e mbers d'O"''c:d for her t o n g )'ca N of wor k by 1'111\ling ooe of the club jn hc:r honor. Suced i n g p res idents o the club h11.ve becon: Mn. josep h f-hhon Mrs. F. W. Schulu. Mtt. Cuoline Stt'hn Mn. Fnnk Mr,. C. H. Dc:aD, Mn. Oon Mrs. W. F Phillips. Mn. Jamt:s 0. Gudnn, Mrs. H:ury Gocto Mts. Ennk Bin:t. Mr:t. Bob Mno. L. Cocrdl Mrs.. Bob Nt'W'holl THE AMERICAN LEGION lhy Pon Number 3 0 o( tht Arncr i c1 n l.tgion, formed in Feb rl.l
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THE STOJJ. y OF SARASOTA 275 tic-. Homer Hebb, lo!wi < Combs :md Homer Ho .... ud were prom i nent, the post h:ti :'IC<:Qoopli.shcd outst:'lll(l i ng work. To it g<>es credit for m:uly civic such 3S J;nd since culy twentitll of the Leg ion Tomil :md Adeno i d Clinic in which more t h:an 600 cllildren b<:en opcr2 tcd on reg::.rdlcss oi Legion 'aftiliuto l, :and Ctt:tbli.d .unent oi "Point \X1dcome" and suppotccd by :tnd Al.Jx il iary .mtm lx!n !rom its O{Xning o n ])eccmber 7 l.?H, through tlut winter, which the city o1fercd financ ial aid Point W elcome" occup i e d lhc cri1n.gle :tt the county city Ji, nit$ fo-.:mc.d by the 'fna and B-:.ys hore Orivc. Here l.eg i onnair:cs h aifed cars en tering S:ausot:a County, il\vited tourists to stop :ll)d !<'$( in a prett) palmctco4<:onstructed b uilding:, serv or.1nge juiCo! w i houc <:h:trge, 3nswcrcd qustions :'lnd t)(pl:.in i .ns of )n Durin g i n -six-yc--:.r life i t W;t$ litcull}' Point Wckome, .. :'lnd res ponsible (or .n:tny v i$itors becoming reside nts of Suasot:t. Abo the-post participaced in the dedic:'lt ion of lh;Jt section or }.bin Street between Or-ange Avc n\lt 1-rtJ tbe prtstnt Cout L i oe as "Vict or) Aver.uc." Earlier, the \X1om2 n's Club o( sou h:'ld planted 18l trees, one for C3C-b vctenn of \'if odd I, 3 1ong thir pordol) o f chc -choroughbrc. Follo wing a s torm which dmroyed a previo us :tt F i v e Point-s, the p<>st erected dedl C :'lttd r o S:1r:U()t:t't W:'lr dead. T 'l1e llrst ouut;1:ndin,s ceremony : a t h e il'ilgpole in h ich the t egion cook part was held o n Armistice Day, Nove m ber 11, 19U. W Y. Perr)' wiiS the S:ltasou Bay Post Numh<'r lO h:'ls been noted not only for genero usly suppOrcins c i,ic diorts ill g enCI bl.lt for i n;cit\lti o,s n 1\ln) ori g i n JI or rhe of city :'ln d C<)ul"lty. One $uc), p l:m ftom M. C. Poss in 1928 :tnd 'o\':'IS promptly adopted by the post. It pro"ided for t h e of a mc:rit o a ward caeh to the perS<>n .,...,ho, in the Legion's (llJinion, h:td mo.tt StcJ.tly hel pe<,! the comm unir)' :'It hrgc dur ing the pre-ce d irlg 12 months. F i r -st of these a.,...ards \\'C nt-to Anhur C l u ke. A m ong o'hcn tO t(:CCive tht"1'11 were Dr. Jack H3olton, Capuin li. Young, R.ev. Willi -un A l.i llycrop, Ral p h C. Capl es, Arthur" B J:d wud.s, Mrs \V. Y. Pc(ry, Katl A. B i<:ckcl Mrs. S:lll) l>dot1 Mrs. Willi:.am Donalds<>n Kennet h Ko:.c h and :\. E. Esthus During WOrld \\:l3r ll the post-provided sleep ing 3t the Coli.seum for: hetwccn 50 and 60 serv ice m e n ;1: night4 h furnished Eve .:linncr .1nd f o r >lpproximate l y 1 ,4 000 service rnen :'lnd '9i.'Olllcn in 1944, rept1til"lg the pl:tn for :tbout 800 in 19>15. Tfu: n, too, ;o 1944 the post $Cnt more tb:'l n 500 Cbri.,:tm:u g ifts to ho.spiu t .. ized per$onnd, t3:ch g ilt t\'Orth 3bcut $10 Thi $ :'llso :as rtpe.1ttd in :;iits numberin s $()me I _50 1nd worth $15 e:ach For many ye2tS th!! post h\ls prov i ded Chrjum3s b:'lskets for-l lctd}' rcsardle\S o( Legio n aai Add to chis 3 poliC)' of comntunity hdp :ut d you 'll have a f 1 i r p i ctut<: o f t he o r ga ni : a n h ome in t h e C o liseum .1nd h:.s :t comfon.\blt fl;,anci:al \uck 1og The first of vetct:'lll$ we re held i n the old Masonic 1 empJ e O\ cr-the Uhckburn Building, a lso in thelkllc H:l\"en In.t, :t1\d thelhdscc P hum:'IC)'. the c h.1ncr "'-'S secured jn Febn.au)' !91Sl, 3 mting W:'l$ hdd irl l::d ro.hus tO otgaoi;, e J?WI 1.1ndcr sute resuLn i o ns, which include d electi o n o( <)!ticer-s :md o ;1 bO>Jrd ol d itCCt()r$. '"t>:'lst Conun:'lndtrs'' Dr. j1ck Halton_ P:rul C. A lbri t4 con, :.nd Ur, Sdtultz were U;'lntc-d t o compl} \\ich the new rcsubtions. A.. t j()i ner bc<:J.me the ftr$t <111'1-11\:'ll\der under n:ne durtct. The tirst bo..ard of directors cons isted of C. Albritton. Arthur Chrkt, Le wis Combf, Dr. J:.:ack A. L jo!"li cr ::end Homer 1-low:.rd. Ch:lrter an-d prcc -h:uter membcu inc;hu k-d the di rectors 3.nd J immie Lonnie H:.rn, C l:'ludc 1\;asin. Beet W4)1!skiel, Byron Olsttl, O cc :ttu r Pelot, l.ynuo B i orseth, (rvin lii o ncth, John Lacey, Cyru.\ Uyrd; R. M. ] .M. C.1hin Hodge!, Oliver .Bbc kburn, j:rke Miller :'IJ\d Homec Hebb. The fir.\t l egion home was a bui ldi ng 011 the piet, but the bulld i ng )od pjc..-de. $ti'O)'cd by t he hurric;ane (If October, 1 n t 1.nd alon g with thetn the urly teco rds the n : u c ihis, however, did not dUcour.1ge the post which 3fter con,)nl)ing meetings wherever j)OSsibk. tin.Uh took (lv<:r the cit)' cou ncil at the {<,X)t o Street Her e the L cgi<.m m ade jt$ he : 1dquar tcrs \ u H il it moved t lu: n e w M i ra Mar 3udiwriurn in l9l4. W'hile t l1ere, t he pon it must b uild ot buy perm:rncnt home, $US;ed :z s eries of co.terui n mcms as p:ut of 3 f o r b1.1ild i:1g: fund. Thi s j,,<;hu ltd a big p i c n i c w hich .sur led the ball ro H Clutles Jones, d ea ler, don .ated 1 !"lew e2r co be to mo n c)' Su:mgdy, it was wo n l w M i: Alice whOS>e l:nbc r d i $3pproved o( ;aftlcs :t n d wh O pers uaded her tO l)i\'e back the cu. J h u chc c:'lr w:'ls rcJIIy sol d t'o\k-c t h c seoond for :1. lump c :a$h sum. $(1(1n :tftc:ward the b u i Jd i r.g eo1nmiuce t<>t busy plans !or ;1: $50,01>0 home 2nd b()ught :l V:'l c:aot lot opp<>(1 w:ts made for the lot and the Legio1\ so 1 d the propert)'. ccce i \ in g $20,000 <:-JSh iitcr e were more re:.l estate de 1ls mote ch.1ngc s of opinion, u n til the post fin:tll}' bought a lot on Golf Str<:et :tt i ng ton Hc>ulC\'1td upon wh i ch it-erected a bu,ld dl:'lt u$ !or six yc:'lrs However. 3 popub.r boxing matc h v.hich drc-A b ig c ro wds 6n:.r.l1)' convinced the build ir.s C()I.Tlrnic:ce and tcgi.on mem b.:rs t h2t the w1s too $ml-ll. w e re m:'ldc co te$t out the prC$Cnt Col i seum bu il c b u t ocvu occupied by 2n :mtomobilc ;ag(:ncy !tnd g3nge. The blJild il"lg was f<:11.1nd to be so \ veil .suited t O t11e

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276 THE STORY OF SARASOTA J)lht's n eeds th-at it. w;u purcltlt'cd 'o\lld ttmod dt:d, :'11ld h3$ time 1111(1 1gain prove n it$ v:1luc to t h e f'tJ.;il>ll. P.:.n indudc ch<*: 3l men tion4 r lnon. Officc r s o( tl1c 1\t 1 946 were: \X:ilfri d Rllt".:llHat-Hm.s; DuugiJ.S Arnest, :adjut:un : juJ Uoybton, Or. Rkh;ard H:alt(ln, \tuy Lew" v,n .nul Dr. WiU l. No..-thdil'l."C'tors; Oou,.lu Arnnc. Vn Wnd :md Dr. lblton.. trutcces.. KIWANIS CLUB 'l'h e Kjwani' Club of waa Nov emlxc $ Hl22, with 61 c lurtcr members : P aul C. A lbrittM, I G. Arc hibald, E. J. B11con, J. E. B:m)e A. J. Beck, E. H. Burch john F. B\l r.c:t Ra lp h C C:.ple s R M Coffi n J. W. Cuwrord, R.. 1}, Curry, P A. B. Edw:acdt, 0. S. EIUt, H. G!lllup j:amc i 0. Gardno:r, Jo Gill, J. thmilc o n Gillespie, Ha.r ry C Grcxn, j01ck jo.se1lh Halton, F. J H:ay d;.:A, J, J), H3:Xen, C. F.. W J, Johnuo n A. 1 .. j.MI'W'r, J. Vdm:a I t I.e Roy, Phil b''Y r. 1 .. liYttmOrc. Su.nleJ '1111. J. H. Lord, R. Msrtin. l;unk C Mucin. L S. Moody, Will J. Nichol1, S. f Olson, VI. L le:uu.ll, W. Y. Verty, John W. Philip, William 'Fred Prentict, George B. John R. Proctor, N. T. Ril,.bnd, Hury Risby, Michael Roth, Herbert S S aw yer, H:al' r y J F S humi1:tc. E. A. Smjth, H. S. s nith, H. \X'ut S.nith, D. R.. K. C P. Grorgc L Th:u: ker R. C. 'fho1nps on, R uMdl K. T h SOn, Paul ThompjOil, F N. Tyler J, H. W<11 kC'I'. Fran k A F ..... Weu. C. R. \Vilson, 1\l mer Whittl e W. K. Wo lf, M. L. :and 1'. W. Y .1rbrough. The lint ol!i. R. K Thompson. "fitt-pc-oide:,u; Hcrbttt S. S:twy<.r. $ntuy. :a.nd C. E. Hitchinp. trc,urcr. TM F .. A. Smith, F. N. rykt. M. 8. Rodt, El.mt:r Whittk, J. Hamilton Gincpk, Phil li. l.ny, 2nd Dr. jos.eph H2lton. Prc.sJde,u. s of the havr been; A. l J oine r :E. A Smith, Homer T. Wdeh, Mich:aC'I C-2nl2Cu:t.ene, Dr. Will Northern, Herbert S S01wycr. Or. Joh n R. Scul l y, Or. Jose p h H: alton, Or. A. 0. Morton, Hooper W. Rus.idl, Dr. W j J o hn ston, J>au1 C. Albritton, Ray H. J:ao;;k$on, Verr.un Kimbrough, J j J r., Ch.u le.t C M<.muqu e. Or S. P1ul S:andtr$, A. R. Shogr.: n, E.v1m, C. E. Uri C Stwdc, Hnrt)' Cos;get hall, Mel t o $. lhm j. llon -and C. Row l ;md S humon. Since il.$ ors:a li7:ac ion c h c doh h u uen a keen in l )tOvid in g for unde r -p rivileged chil dr.: n : md :aho I1:&J b) commended. by .. lntcrn:uion:al lor .t:ucccnful children'.t pro&rtanu. Jn 1944) the M."ljor project o thee club wa.f the ttublishI'!M'nt of a home (or the o( CoutuJ .a ccmpOnry home for dept_ndcnt. children to be k nown as the Kiw2-n.it Wd.brt-Homt. The club owns tho s.ice for : home on Orange A'cn\tC and c:on. struction wa:J ;U $00n bui ldins m a urt:ah btU inc: av:aih.ble. C lub mi:mbcr.t i n 1 9-16 w-ere: J. M. Alnon, M V. A ltnun, J. l){)u,:;l:a.t ATn tSt, U:trker, C. R. Ukk ford E d ward A Ro:.l c, fr:ank C. boo n U. L. Uownu n Col. A. ,J. Uwu;lo n Br:azil, J. B Bwwnin8. Rudy 6undy, W. It Dr. J. M. Butcher, Arc h Huc J. C. C:ardwd l J. F. C hapo 1;a;n, John T. Chidsey n J.l. Coue1h1U, J L. F. J. Conud, A. D. CorJOn, E. Crowl-:y, Rw5eJI A Currin, Ch:ula DcmpMy, C. K. S Dockt, L A. C. H DownJ, Be-n J. Drymo,_ A. L t"f:aM, Or. B. Fu51u, E. A. Gune:r, E. E. Gridky, Ben lbbtr, Ben J. D. H:armon, Or. J. E. Harris. C. L. He-r ring, nu&h R. Hick. K. 0. Hlpp, P. :S. VI. L. Jioou, A. R. Howard, B. H. 1-Jopk int:, Boyd t.. Hud&ins, C. A. Ihrig, F X. j.o1o. nell, M S. Kcrelt:, K. H. Ko11eh, L. M. Lc, in son H. 0. Leuschner Abuh1m l,c,y, R C. Liean, 8 F M :arkham, J. 11. McA n h ur, L. W. McL11i n, C. E. Mc:E:a.chcrn C l l\lrl cs MUit:, S. C. Mont.aom cry. Or. A. 0 Morton, C. j Mt1ir Gor d o n H. Norm11n. Dr. J. C. Pucc.non, H. j. P.:ll(lcier, J. 0. J>ortcr, J. M Or. S. r. S1ndttt, W. 1-:. Sco& gan_. C. R.. Sh:annon, C. D. Sh.-. A B Shoa rcn. 0. Shoor, F .rn<"'t C. Smlth, C. C. Scroclc. C.t&<" L Tho<:ke<. Cop<. M. C. Thomu, R.Jpb F. Vtm. Jr. Of6cen in 194' "'crt: C. Rowland Sh.umon, prcs.ident; Phil S. Huguenin, first vic:e-prctidcH : C. K S. Dodd fCCOnd [d,., .. rd {), Shoor, tnas\lro:r, 1nd A B. Shogre n Dlrc:c:tcm: Dr. John M .6ucc h cr, C h et A. Jhrig L 'W. Mcl11in, A. R. Ho'l'ard, CJ11t les L. Herring, Joh n B. Urowning ErntH C. Smilh. :.nd n F Markham. A.. B. E d wards is an h onor-.u-y member ol club DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION nc Sau ck Soto Oupt.er o thr o( chc Amcrtcan R.cW>IutM>n u Of3J>niud M11"Ch 21. ltU. at the home o( the orpni7.in& MrL Ja-nn O. G:ardncr. The .naciontl number-;, JU,, anntcd Apri.l 16, 1924 tnd the u:a.ce :H1line B.Jc hdler Mcleod M:ar')' lda Dromlcy. Ethel Ud l t Wut, S:allic Yc:arger :.n\ i ,l)ne l.o"'' 'J'hompson

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 277 l,ut rege nts c f rh c n Ttl .. ford Miss Polly SrehbiM iclfor< f Floren ce V a nder .. kloot, Louise Dodge H ildred Williams ;md Anni e G Woodruff The h i shw:.)' marker 3t. Broadway and 18th Stree t call in,:; tO the h<:>roC$ite \1nd tOmb of Ma:-)' Wyatt Whiu.ker 'Wa$ erected by the ch:tJ>tet day. Decemb e r 2 19S6. A t t he uM..-il ing of the k e r w;u N an c)' \X!hita kcr Hdveston then 84 }'C:lrs o l d, old$t-d-au ghter of Mr. and Mrs. 'X'illiam Whit'itker. Hur:t Sturgit o Mr. Mn. VoJt.:ajre and g:und daughtct o.f the Whit-aken, unv eiled the pbque. lt W a$ p.r esenttd t() chc eity by Miss n Na.sh, :.nd ac eptc-d by E. A Smith SARASOTA BAY COUNTRY CLUB Eatly i n t,27, H. L ;md Ar$<>ei3-t('$, OWtlctS o f Estates offer e""ned by the club Ju 1Urne was du,ng:ed ca the SC>t:t B:ty Countr)' C lub. The p r e s idenu o f club hotve bco:n: Dr. E. '! Pinkha m Cootgc P Lind $11':, AHrl S.1.xe, J ohn S and Col. A. j Bran don. T h e club h o u se 2 nd g<>l v2lued now :u more tha n were eon.ftcucted in 192 S by t he Rc3hy Co. of Atl:lnu., in c o nn ect i on with t-he W.hit6.el d de"elopmcnc. i h c 1 8ho l e <;ourS<, b uilt by D<>:nl d R. O$$ was offic i ally janu-acy 22, 1926 when Robby Jones Tommy Atmou r de .. fc.md Long Jim nu,,e_s. and Johnny Farrell .t up and 3 to g o ROTARY CLUB The Rotar)' Club of Su;'U.()ta W ; n ocgan iud Fc b urur 17. a t a mti ng hel d ) t Resuunnt O n lvbin S t r t. Ap prox i m ately 75 me..n utcnd..-d. In co the 24 c h:trt cr mem bers there were tepresenuti"ef of o ther Sar'aso-ta c i"ie dub$ and maor Yisi t i ng P r d.iminU)' work to get the dub C-H'-"bli shcd was done the by Rota r i:.an$ front och e-r citi es who h;.d <:orne to Sar:uou t o live: Jku l\:lgty, of Ill. ; James C. H ug h ey, of Col\lm bia, Tenn., :.nd l b.rrisor \ E. B;-.rringcr, o f J a c k sonvill e T he charte r from Rot:.ry l n(crnation:al w:u for m.ally ptc.scntcd to the l oc:d dub 26, I n6, b)' R W al den pres i d t :nc of rhe St Petrsburg Ro t:l.t)' Club, who h:.d been. dcsignar e d by Gp, W;-.ltcr Munroe W E f.\an$. T. R C tdlcr. Hat-en, A. W. K napp. Jerr y V:tn Orden, H S lor. i R. Re v Geor ge F oster, 11\d M. E. O>x, (n the office t s of che dub v.ere: Emest Sear -s, presi dent: George 1---hll, sec recary.trosurer; M. E. Co.x. v ice presi dent; and Edw2rd H. lhke r. R Culle r, james R.. Griffin, H S. Tay l o e, and J M Hu mo n. member!! o( t.h e boar d of directors I n a ddition to c.he above, t h e memberso f the chab in ISI46 were : Wade A da ms. Po"'cll Aldrich, R. 0. llaj l e)', l. C:trt lidg-e, C W, C olli"er, C C-on.su.nt-ine, R. n. Oscu 1.. {).el:ano, ... E E v :.nf, L. F F c nnc S P Floyd, l htry Gocio, G -reen, R. Griffin. G W Groff R. Gro\c, M '15.'. Hammond, H a r m on, E F. Hoergcr, F. J. HOeC$ting, W C. A. W. KnJpp, W. S. E.. Ly
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278 THE $TOP-)' OF SARI\SOl. A 1 H Mc:Cullcy, C. t. Louis MQC:abcc, '1 F. :\ioldeor, W. N Mtmr ( .>e, H J Uob Ncwh11l, f. n O 'Ndl O'Neil, Harry 1 'tio c M. E Rus Tay lo r Scott Karl l!tatl c J. H Sccdm:an, C. J Stoke$, H.$. T:.ylor, Edg::ar Thompkim, teo Wilson, H. lind jJmei UNITED DAUGHTERS OF TifE CONFE DE RACY The Col. John A. Fite ChptC'I', No. ISIH o f the United O::tughtcr$ o( tbf!' Con{cdcncy. wat organiz.(:d Match )1, 1 927, by Mn. 0. Brownell, w h o scrv<"d :u: r re\idc n t until 19l0. The: cllll p l c r w:u n:,mled i n holo r of Col. j oho A Fitc w h o :a co n1p:my of mi:n :&t CArthage T c 1n., ;tt. tltC dse. 'th-e otticen' quoneu a t S27 O h io Htl were bought in l9JS. Tilt Army h u de \tJt with kind o ( relief provid i Rg food co needy l;amilics, 8ivin& 'lid co hundreds of $ick. J.nd $uf1erins, provid in& fuel and tlhins to lhose in wal'lt, cuing (or the vnm.urMd moth' and si,il'lg :advic and spi ritc:al suidaoc.c to chc dispirited so they might become r uon.t :t.nd Kif '"'pp0rtiog:. Most or the work of the poH wu done while Adjuunt and Mrs:. J:a.mcs Hallidoa)' were in chargt irom Sepl t mbcr, J9lS. co June, 1'<4S, when they ""'ere tnm$f4rrtd 10 Oayrona. T h e oAloeu ''ow in CoJ)C. and Mrs. Loui$ Mockoabet. Membc u of the lint ad,i sot} were : Fnnk Rcdd, Phil H. Levy, C. E. Hitchings. A. L Joiru:r, t. t. j E. 1htt!e, George B. Prknc, J A Chrk, May, lt. l. Kennedy, H. MunJ o n, W, F.. Stcpho:nJ, V. A. S1.undeu, W. S. H.1.ris, W. L. Dunn, and 1-:. M Pakc The 1'4S--4' advl*"Y bt. r l Bicltel. One of c h c :un b i tiou s undcrukinas ol c h t fcdc:rMi O ha $ bC'C'n che dcvdopene m of Luke J)nrk sinco A l )ti1, 19 34. Oiffcwn par u of IIH: park h:we bt:.:-n dt:velop< b y the various circlet che

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 279 Ring l ins Mcmori.d F t u ult:lin the ravine pool, :\nd bird s :anctuu}' :all sund f o r cooperative efforts jo the park bc : Hltifi c :nio n. 0\cr one t h o u sand pl:ant s and U t(';S been pb.ott:d. Ocher projccu o( the (edec:ation Juve been 11le ground$, t h e pool :and gudcn 1t the chic center, the 2Vhlu e of i n fcont of the au ditorium, tht <1vcnuc of jacuandas 'ilnd white bau hin ias :at the civi c c:c:ntcr, phntins$ on P<1Jm :af)d Gtllf St.teJm the hig h sch.ool ground!} a nd pi.tf!ic benches 2l0:1g che Rin$1 ing cotuseway. Over $11,000 have been spent on civi c btauti6c:nion. The dub has hcfd ten flower s h ows, curic:d on "'I.' at "-'Ork, has worked fo r the o $ igns al ong Ius urge d d1to hell.ltificuion of Jllling $f:l.tiMs 2nd worked for flrst rct:en t ' enture a ndi o pr()gr.,m Wn, beginn ing in J:tnuary 1,46. Infot nu.tjon g:trdening problem.s w:ts during che t:t l ks. 'flle m:t i n object of -all the d ub rnemben i s the s ame tod-ay as when the dub w:a$ .Gut organiud: co <;reate ;1 more more F l o r i d;t. COUNCIL O F P.-T. A. ASSOCIATIONS The Sat\tsOt'3 County Council of P:arc n t -Teachu J\$1i(>ei:atiOn$ w .T. A's in t h e i r w(lrk for the welfue o( childrM. T he first otllcert a( t l1e counci l were: Mr-s. Fnnk Logan. president, Mi ss :Dor is Browndl, b.rn vice-prC$id cnt; Mn. R. Y. W'oodhull, secon d Mu. Rose, $;tctur. Mrs A. 0. Skasss. M r s ChuJes Br)'cse Ox n:tm l\o.frt. J. 0 Hendry. Mu. Paul D Boggs :and Mrs. W. (;wyn n P.1'.A pretidentS for 1?45 -4 6 wc:e: lhy }-h, .. ven -Mn. A. F McFadyen; Bee R i dge Mrs A. L M.hn.s; S a r-:arou. H igh School-ch3tles L. HC"rring; Soutlsidc-Mrs M E. Cox; Eng1cwoodMrs. Jos i e Croxon :and A L lli .Joc k The first pro je-Gts o f co unty council undert:tkea i1\ J 9.29 "''C.t'e t O obuin &ood hc3ting $Y.Stcms for the tchoo l s )' a CO\Int y ;chool 'J'hes e aims wtrc rtali z ed. Durin$ the dcprsion yeus, 2 milk fund r:tistd 111d :1. soup kitchen maint:tincd f o r nerdy children. F o r m any the counciJ a Geor g e ccle b r;'lt ion f o r the c:.e h Ftbn.ury. The eoun c i l a fro a i ded in the c:fublishment of the Y01.1t h Cent<"c. In l946 the P .T. A. membe-rshi p in chc county toull ed 1 0 1 7. THE PLAYERS The Playert, .-n aro2teur thcacr i e3l group,)$ one. of S;ar .1$QU's most p<)puht: m ial Jt is n a tionally recognized u 2 lt:.dtr in che fidd o f I.ittlc Thettr<'. The organiucion was born in I n9 jn 31\ dOIJcd cadd)' lOu$e o tbe Siesta K e y G ulf Ch;b. lc W:a$ i n eor.pOr::tted in Dtcember, 19}1 b)' Frtd A Loring lboul. J W. Ralph C. CJ,ple$ -snd Paul M. Souder. Mrs. Hul1 E'lloing 'tY:I$ drctcd Drst pridcnt. For sever:tl ye-.1rs the met in a n empty M:t\n Stn:rc s tote room in cb.e Crisp b uildin g. The .fi.nt pby 'i\'as pre $Cntcd early i!'l J9H and o r or.e night OrJJy. Sillee then the ph y e n hav1Yt Mrs. Ftederic de C:mir.ares Mu. J arvis Livermore 1-hrdisty, Mrs. Lowe ll Morey Mrs. Clarence Stokt-s. M rs. Richud Hdton, Mn. F r ed Steven son, Mn. Alex3nder Blcxh Mr$ . F r<1nk Evan..'", Mrt. M r$. Home r K. Gai),in, M rs Frederick Mrs. CoMad, Mr-1. E W. PinkJum, Mrs. E. A. Smith, Mrs. Owen Burns, Mn. Cl)dc S. 'Fo rd, Mn. 'W'aher G. Mn. S Jo yce Mrs. Trunun Fassett. T.he Pl:a}trl fiint production in the .ne w thea tre w:..s the GiJb ert :t.nd $ull i v:u\ opeu, "Th e S orcerer." which w : H p resented lace in l>ecembcr, J9J6. Sin ce then the Phyrrs h3ve p l tyrd to a udiences tOtalling m ore t ha n 10,000 prnons. LONGBOAT CABANA CLUB l.()n gbQ-:at Club W 2 $ organi.z<"d il' 19l6. A dub ;;nd C::ib:m on Lom:;bo:u Key wer e built tha t hit opened Dtcember 6, l9l6, with A B ickel ch c tlm preside n t. After the. firstyear, the pte$idcm o f the dub has been LIONS CLUB The S:l.t'asota Lions Club w:u orga nized and char t e r ed b y L i o n s I n cern. u i onal on January 6, 19>.9. with t h t' follow in g chnter memlxr$': Dr. '1'. Ma r .. t -in, John Nee!, A. L. Ft1n k McLain, j:.ck

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280 TH.E STORY OF SARASOTA R hoads W ill i an\ Tcrrdl, O<.>n11l d Dubois, lkrr mons PreStO!\ ltthwhHt proiccu dctignt:d to aid in the upbuilding of Sar;tM >n. lu nuin 3ttivitics ccn tct'c d on <:(tnSol\'.l..ld lh:boiJ, St:anlc-r S. Grey. Gi:lbtn Htrrin.gtOn, Gcorgt luins Hunt.:r D. D. jJrne$, Huty Hopkin!, F'loyd j4JhntOn, Wcrncanon, Edsel Albert .8. Roohc, Wil(red T. Robuu, Sch u t, H. G. Seymour. lynt\ A S ilwrtooth Rob\lbUc libut)' (5 J nde>:: Library) and .a(rcr buildln-1 ,.,.u c:c>rutruc tt'd, ni.scd enou&h 1o furniJh it The. Junior Ou.mbcr abo hu played a IC'adiog role in m<>$qu:itO eudtc::n'on work .and i" I'U c.arritd out 2 county-wide t:radM:.uioo Ptot:t11m. Ofi.cen for the Junioc Ch:ambtr for .,,., .... 1 wccc Chula W1ckcrlcc. prt.s:ide.nt; T:aylor Groen., first pte.tidrntt B-en Hopkins, second v iccpresidrnt; Arthur Cbrk, th ird ' iccprcsi. dcnt; Robc.rc Walceu, tecrct:uy; M .E. uca$urcr. D ircc::tl>rl: were W M. Jhrm on, J. L. O:ale U r)e. Lamar U. Dozie r. WilliBM T. $\llnmcr.t:ll, W il f r i d B n d Baylest. VETERANS OF FORE IGN \VIARS Sunt:hine Post No. )2H, VetcnM o{ J:orci,n of rh e U"ictd Sut es, wu 21, The <-ksru.was signed by James .B. Andrews, l>.nid. T. Auttin, Auautus D. Bohoo. AUred B. O.ar k A). mtr M. r>h V. R. H. Lcnce, John C. Pelot, a td 1\lbcn M. Ettinger. Tht pott O""''JU lcs c::htbhouse lit .lIS S. l) inea j>pl c A\c-nue where (llti.li.t i es arc <1'o\aibbl e handling the :J(LivitiC:' Of dub in 2dditi0n tO futnithing c::lub sc-rv;ce {or iu members. The buildin& was acquired in July, J9-4S AMERICAN VETERANS OF WORLD WAR II Post l\o. 5, Arr.eriopn Vctcnn:s of Warn W:lS in Au&usc. .. ,,by group o f v e terans of World W'u II. The :tpplic.ation for a. chutcr, submitted 3t t h e S:ond n:ati onal con 'encion o the <>rganiution in Chica .go by Col. E t in$Ct1, carried '*' "ames. A(cc:-r chuter w11.> rii i \Ctd, l h t pon hel d iu titu t l c:ctiOI\ o( Officers Novtmbclr U, 194S. Officers were: Donal d t. Smith, Col. E E. Linsect, 3Cnior vice c:ommander; Cha.rlc.s Webkr, jl.ln io r er; Wtllfam Hisel. junior vi.olmm2ndc-r: Howud Andtr$0n, adjutant; WilH-am Edgu, finance o&t.r; John Pinkmon. sd-roc -ue; Leo Hunw. publit rclatiom otEcc-r; Burns. scr,unt"J.Cum; and Thonus M Bromley, TM tint metri:ng.s of che post hclcl V.F. W, clubhouse, n che Elks dub, and on Fcbr"Uuy IS, the Amvcts c::lubhou.se at l-41Y, R.ing lin.g Roulcvard -....u dcdlc::aced 2 t an. <>pen tt which more th:&n a thouu.nd gt:t3t3 wer c enteruincd. In t h e summer o( J,H, the posr h ad tn ore c h a n 2'0 n1c:m ben. Since iu orga ni.-z:uion the p os t hu taken .a ste-adily inerusing part in cj,ic:: aff ain a well 2s i n behalf of aU ''C-t tn.m of World W:ar U.

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* LEST WE FORGET Photo Not Available * Names of Sar:asot:l County's men and women who sc.rved in rhe armed forces during \\'l odd \\'lor II wer< dispbyed on n Honor Roll erected ner the wat erfront on Majn Street by theAmeric-an Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars, Disabled American Veter:tns George T eerers i s shown above spe akin g at services held in f r ont of the Honor Roll on Armis t i c e Day, 1944 When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and plunged the United States into World \Var II, hundreds of men and women from Sarasota County already were in the nation's armed services, preparing to aid their country in the crisis which for months had seemed inevitab le. Before the war ended on August 14, 1945, the total of the county's servicemen and women had leaped to 2,285. Of this number, 67 men and one woman made the supreme sacrifice. Their names shall Jive forever in the annals of the Land of Sarasota. To perpeltuzt t lhc 1nt!1nOr'' of tbe Sara5ota. Count)' -me-11 and womau. wbo ditd while ;, their nation'.< urvict during \17 orld \17 u 11, 11mubers of Sara sola Bay Post No. )0 of the A?llaican Legion sponsoretl this chaptu of tiN Story of Sara tofa.

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Photo Photo Photo Not Not No t Available Avai l able Available Photo Photo Photo Not Not Not Avai l able Ava i lab l e Ava il able Photo Photo Photo Not Not Not Available A v a i lab l e Ava i lable Ht! tU IEitT IRqN SuJJ, I\'AN

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 283 LT. COL WflliAM NY AT'f HACHE botn July l8 1 90$ C it y Okl:a., of ,.fr. and M rs. B enjamin F t;'lnklin ll:acht. Wu from U. S. Military Ul2. Mo.rr ied Min Muilou Cl<1rk, 30, J9J). Wu killed May 7, tle.ar Dnton Js.land in the South Pa cific ._ignal c:x.ccuri\'' offi. ccr of Sixth Army. by hi. hlhn; his widow; chrt'l' MugltC't Oar; k A.ob-c Hyatt and \Vii Alle-n :&cbt; c-.. Y 1?, 1'11, 82-ltimott, Md., $()11 ol William H. S.JloMc (Ea5tonJ lkU. ducutd Andovu Academy, lillr'l School, Yak Uni"t'tsiry and N.Y. U. School of Com r:nr.r-Entered $C.IVtu June 1,, l:t.f2. Bub.u.J B .ryan, J:anu.Jry )0, 1'40. Killed April 16, J'U, .u Atnburg, with C:O.. 8 14th T:a.nk .Bact:tlion, Fifth DtvlJjon. Sun-ivcd b)' h i s w i do"'' :tnd two d:aughtcts, Funcct N:tnq Wii1Jhip BcU; his p.lttna and one "iucc, H1crkt H. .Bell. CAPT. JOHN WESLEY LONG BENBOW, bow Mardl Zl, 19J S, G rtl!rubor<>, N.C., s.on of C. D Jr., Md }.t::..rjorie (tong) lle1\b0'01 F.d\lea.tcd a.t GuiHord Collcg a.nd Uni,crsiry of North Carolina Entered tcnic:tin J9-1J. MarricdMargarctCoe,JunelJ,l9o4<4. Rcpoctf u mmlng: in Juoe 16, 1'.fS, whjk wicl, 4}7tb Sqc.adron SO,th Ftghu.r Group. u tw o jima. Ciutioni: Air Mtdal. by his widow and pcartnu. T /SGT. HAZEL MAR IE BINGNER, WAC, bo Bay Nc"'' Guint-.1 May 15. t945, while w it h H q., 1nt or. Sec. Di$. D i v.-Ghap bjQ'$ Se<.:tiOJ\ Comp1ny A Sur\ ived by htr pa r ents, a Fr:u\Cis R. Bingncr and a "itttr, Mrs. F.sth<'r M. Sunfield. LT. WIU.IAM DICHY CLARKF. JR., born A uuH 17, 1 9 11 Phihdelphia P a., 400 o( Willia-m 0 and (Grooktt} Chrke. Edut.utd tt r:uou Hi,gh Sthool and Univc-nicy of Florida. E n tere>d vice jn Au,tp.a. l 94 J, M:.rricd Rt.bc:cJ MeDuh, Ju.l). 19<42. Killed in European Augu.sc 1 4 I ,H, .w:rving u .2 pi:loc. w ich .f.f' Bontbt:r Squadro n )22 Bombu AAC. Surivtd by ,;&c .. M1 and rwo btotb-1, DuuM G. :Eric:: T. Cbrkc. SF.AMAN 1ST CL. THOMAS WOOO CLEMENi, born Septembe r 2,}. l.9'H, Tu-rycown, N Y., son of T. and (M:.tiss.t) C lcJOWI'It. Edueucd at High School. .E:ttcr ed OttObct' H. l?41. i n D<::"on, England J un 2 1 1944, while with Jllcct. Ai( Wi_Og 1. Suf\ivcd by hi 1 and siucr, '}.trJ. Shirley Clement S c hafu. PHM 1/C GRAHA>I INGLE CRAI G, born Au&un 2,, 1916 P:L., $C)n of Joseph 1 nd AIm (MeQudd Cnig. He the (onu .son o( S. .21nd S. R\1h.tmah (Smith) Row in 1,1,. Gndu:atH from Su110t.a Hish Sc.hooJ. Entcd nict: Apri.J, r,u, KiUtd Julr :u. 1.9,.4, u Gu3tn while u to H'dq Co. 1ft }rd Marinn )rd Dlv. Sut'vivc:d by h is .fostu-mocher and hif J'l:lttnu .. CPL. JOHN WILLIE DAVIS, JR., born Octobet 29, J911. G:a. $On of John W. a nd (Min t er) Dllvh. Sata$0Ca schools. 'tr \kc Ap ril 28, 1944. Arnold N. 'Risl>y, j une D, 19J2. Oi< January 26, 1 9 .. 5, .in Fn ,c wl,il_e with t.hl.\ 75' Bntalion, 7tb Army. Citnions: llron:te Sur and l,vrple Hea.n. by his widow, .21 dtu.c.h tt: r Batbll"l jo:an Dnif, his n10,hrr. tlu1,, whil e wjth the U.S.S Atlanta. Ciutions: Pre.Ja11d Purple Hc-ut. Survivtd by hl t pa renc1 (our Mrt. J. W. Hall. Jr., Mn. E. 8 Mrs. Calvi1 \ Mcrcr M:.ccilyn S/SCT. JACK OOZJtR. boro O.C
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 285 S:at:I.S(It:l Sc hool :md :lttCnd!!d o( Flot id t f:ntcrcd Dtcen)b e r J 1? .. 2 M:arricd Janice T:.yJor, Scpc embc:-1 4 1944. O i Jr., :m d tw() Mrs. Birds c y t' :uld Mn. Will i.am Ridc n o u rc. RADIO TECH. WALTER JOSEPH DRYDEN, bOX'n in l, i n.sburgh, P3., son of Waltc r S)'dney 3n d Mucha (.BI:.tck) Dqden. A (){ BNdc::n ton Hig h School. Entered n:t\f N<>"emb<:r l, 1? .. 2. Died "h.} 2, 1944 in th e Pacific Survived by his p:.rnduct Medd. Sucvivc d h)' parents and 3 brother, Sgt. Joho L. Fol.fe PVT. :RGIIERT BLAIR FRAZEE, bom Avril 5, 1,24, $<)no Bla i r and Gucc (Conover) Fr3-zce. Maz:io.e C<>rps O<:tobcr J 19-41. Died June J-4, J942 3t 1\hrinc Kirkwood Mo., while with Co. 2:;, Secc ioo F, N:t\a1 Sutioo {Aviation) Nav y Pier, Chkago. Survived by his J?U" Cnl$ a.,d a $i$t<:r, Jane. tl HAROLD E. GLOVER, born October 10, 191 S, Fott Pensaeob, So n o f Mr. and Mrs. Abner Clover. Graduated com h igh s.ch ool at. New Bern, N C Entered serY'i ec November lS, 19'11. K illed ;n C lovi.s, N c"ll>' Mexico, M3rch 27 I?H p.i.locing B 29 B<>mber o f che 2 nd Air F o rce 20th Bomber Comnund 472nd G r ol.lp. b y hi-S p1rcnu 3nd a .sister, .Ann. SGT. CliFFORD NOI\MAN GREENWOOD, born August 29, I, .Ft:.. of T h o mas and LiJJie Viol a (Morris) Grceowood. atcd from S3nfOU High SchooL Ente red serv ic-e Feb I,, I !1+1. Married Lee Died f.>cccrn. btr }0, 19H in Belgium while with Hdq.r. Co., I ZOth lnf. lOth Oi\ision (Old H ickory D iv.) Citations: Good Con duGt Medal, Bronze $ 1-:.r Purple lii:a r l. Survive d by hi.s C a rol a lee Greenwood, his pare nt$, L hr<:.'C Hardt Mrs. John Lowe, Mrf. I t i f two br<>thcc-S, Paul R 2r.d Lee-S. Gree nwo<)d FIF.LD MUSICIAN I / C JAMES HURST HAL Ul>AY, born 2 4 1925, $On o( $;ah-2tion Army Adjutant j 3m es and Llcwe!b i\f:.y {John$<)n) Ha. Uid 3y. Co-mplet e d three y e ns-3t S3usot'l H 'igh School. Entered -Senoice Septe mber 21, 194}. Killed October f 3, 19-44, S i ap3o hlands, hile with Hq. Cofflpan)', 1$t B:ett::tlion, 2nd ]\h.rir..e Divi $ L Un, Fleet F orce, in the field. SurviYccl by ;md three Si$ters M.u)' Chriscinr, Llewefl3 Ma;a nd g cline Hdlidar. CHIEF HECT. MATE 1\0tANO UGN E HAltKELL, botn Augun 9, 190?, son of John Gordon Johnnie (Dr : :umon) Harrell. Y.ncered service May 14, 1926. Murted Ba.mm3 Lou ctc. K clf> June-15, 19J2, Died Augu):C. 6, 1944, a prisoner of w3r in bid Priwn, Mo1nil2 He h ad $(:tvcd On the U.S.S. nOpl.l$ Suro; ived by his 'll. idow, tWO $01\S, Ru$$<:11 Lee ::.nd Midud Gordon H3rtell; his m o cher, Mcs. John. nk Chambliss; cw o si.scers, Mrs. Johnnie McGarvit 'and i.\o1r.s. Bob Marshal, 'lnd four brothers Oon31d, David 0., -:.1:\d l .t. Rum.tl A. Haudl. CII.I'T. AL8E R T DEXTER HINSEY, JR., born 6 1 918 Quinq, Fb. o{ A. D L i llie (BJour'll) Hinsey. \t1u s;r3d U3ted ftOI'Q the Sa.r3so ca. High School a nd the Uni,wsity o f F l otida Ente re d scrvi..x wich the Roy, 19-11. Muricd Pto Sep temhcr 9, 1'1}, M.:yc r$cblc, .S01 t of A. J>. 3nd (0ill) t
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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 287 be-r, l ? l 7 Killed October H 1942, at w hile sctving ;al( div.; bomber pilor with t he U .S Airc .raft Carrier M:eti"e Ai r Medal F leet aod Purple Hc:m. Citi zens o( N. C., rai s ed O\'Ct SS.OOO,OOO in bonds to J>ay (or a destroyer escort whic h was named USS i n hi.s m<:mQry. S1.1rvi,cd by hit p:t.r<:nu and 3 s isccc, Kcpharr. SGT .IOSErH GLENN KIMMEL, JR., bom Mr ), 1920 Amcricu.$, of M r ;m d Mr::;. j. G Ki.mmd. Gndu2ted from S:at:uou Jiigh School and :ett e ndod the Unhwsity of Horid2 n,ro years. :E. ntcred scr\'icc October, 1941. R eported m i ssing i n -act io n 1\ugust JO, 19. on 3 wc;athc r rcconn:ti$u.ncc missiC)I\ the M:ap i a a n d Waigco blandt, while in t h e 15th Wcathet Squ:tdro l, at Ui:&k 'Jsbnd. offici d ly d c .td in 'M:atch 1946. Surviv e d b y h i s ;1nd :1. sister Mrs. C. H od gson. LT. }!! ROME CAIROI.YI KNIGHT, born Jn ary 2} 19 1 2, Bndenttln Fb., 30 n of[.. C ll<11.Jiinc (Culcon) Knight. Gt:tduaced from $:u:tSQt1 H igh Sciu)o\. EntC'r ed service September 17, 1942. Married Eugen i:e E liz.;tbct h Van Orden, D, 19}4, K ill C'd 21), 194 4, at Ba.s-t<>sne, lklgium, w hile w ith Co l .>rd Bn. 506 P:.r:u: :huu: Jnf., Ait borne Div. Citations: Oni c Citation 1nd tl1e .Pucplc: Hc-Jrt. Sltrtivrd b)' his widow Md two d:tughter:.s, S)'Jvj a <1nd Karon LaR\le K.oishc. and h il J):lftJ'It$ CArT. THOMAS LEONARD LIVERMORE, born O ctober tS, 1908, TelluJ i dc, Colo., son of Tho1n .tt l.t<>n:trd, Jr., .1nd SibbeJ Hall ( O l iff) Attended ,:;nde $hool, River.sido: M i lic;uy Academy, Patks nusinet$ C<:>llt;;e, Denve r -.and Park$ Air College, St. L o u i s Eme rcd C:t n u li:.n A i r Force in 1940, .scrv< 3S a fcrt)' pilot with R.A.F. After $tltdying navig:3tion hew-a$ l<>lncd by R.A.F. to t h e ; \ i C of t h e U S. Army 2nd "'' '-at .sc.cvins in. this capacity at the time of his de1th Ocrobec 14, 194 21 nC'ar Trinidad, B.W.T. Sun ivcd by his w ido11. Clarine Whitner to w hom he wa.s married in J.tnuuy, U>5 OM Barbara Kay, his mother :tnd :t sister Mrs. ).trvis L. H.trden}' CPL. CARlETON DOUGLAS McA L LISTER, bow J.t nu:.ry I, 1.916, Dehvo 2(t, Ark., .son of J. L and 1\Jii c M:ae (H:tt6dd) McAll ister. Attended Venice liigh School. Entered SC'tvice Septembe' 14, 194!. M urk d Blanch.C' Fcbruuy 22, 1944. Killed 1t lwo Jima M2rch 4, 19-45, while with Co. A Hst. RC'pl. Draft F.M.F. 5th U. S )\heine Corp$ Ciutio": Purple Su r vived b) h i s widow, h i $ cnu1r.d t h re e sisters, Violet McAIIistc,, M rs. Osc;at S:UldoY:al and MN. \'11. A. Butr. LT. li.TCHARD HARDING McCRACKfN, born October 28, 1 9 2} Colon ia, N. J., son of Willi2m H and Bcnhc B. (W01$lr) Mc:Cuc:kcm. Attended N1.> kom i $ H igh ScltOQI. service Februan 18, 1.94 } K illed )lme 1, 1945, M Cordele, Ga. while :'It T'utne r Ait F ield, A lb3n)', Ga. Survhcd by hi$ nt$ :.n d f<:>ur brothers, Wilford H. Jr., Ed,.,:.r d 0 Kenrttth J. a1ld L. McCr:ac:ken TECI-J SGT. GEORGE cPI-JRAM McGEE, born Augu st 1,, Morg:antown W .V3. $On. Qf'Geor g e and Ann:1 ne S i $te r Mrs. l-lild:t G. Richards :.n d {()ur bl'Othe r$, Harry J., Harold G and C laude!. SEAMAN 2/C JAMES RUSSElL MANN, lwn M:ty 15, !923, O:t) con Ohi o, -$00 o f Funk .tnd Ann:a (Sh .tltockc-s ) AttendC'd Sar:uora Hi.g b School. E ntC'rC'd scrvice March, 1 .942 Died Sept 25, 1942. in the Athn cic whHc $erv ing on the S.S. Wcu Cheuc. C i t:tcion: Puq?1e fieur. Survhed bt Ms rooth .. c r :t\ri.tl Crws. Survi..:ed by p.uents, a sister, Mario n M Pec k :and brother$, R:tlp h E. :;n d U. G. Matherly. CPl. CONSTANTIN MATAUSCH, bother, $ist cr, Antoinette Lhree

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 289 bro the-.u, Funk J r ., Gcorae William and SEA.\IA N 1..:/C CHARLES WILLIAM MAYS, born Febru u y 22, U IS. Lone Boac Key, Florida, ron of W. P 2-nd SJdie (GrantiU.nl) Gradvatc-d from S:ausot.J High Sc.hool. .st.rviee DemII, 1941. DjM Jt Md., Muda ... bik with the-United States Coast Guud. SutviYed by hit and nc-p-bthu, Mr. and M.n. F. T. Pinard, a Jamn B. 1\.hys:, a .. brochc-r Ted P1nud a.nd a h!l-$i.Her. PinJrd ioS$1 CHIF PTTY OFF I CER HAROLD VAL LERY MICHAEl, bor n Jul y 17, 1!)00, Ft. Mors.1o s o n o( John E. :md Muy (Pcc:kinJ>IIugh) Mic h :u:l. Enltd tc rvit;e Februuy 6, 1942. Mauied to G h dys Lo uis Fl>nn Lyuon in J"nc, lSI-40. Dcd Jo] y }0, at Fla. white with the U. S. Coast Guard. Surrhcd by bi.s widow and a daus_htu, OorCKb)' Mi (had Pohocsky, cwo Frtd M srtd Edwin AJ. kn Lyr:on; one-S2 / ( Nan.cr Lytton; ).is brocbcr, Cknn, a nd two M:s. Eunioce Smith. PVT. flOYD MULKEY, JR., bo'n Fcbru-try 20 tSIZ6, Smidvilk G. son of lkn;-tmjn F and E. (Bate' ) S :tr:tsou s..:hools. Entered .tt.rvicc April lt, 1,944, Missing in !lCtjon :tt Mind:tn;ao .\flly 8, 1 9 4 $ while w i c h eo. E. 2l.t l In!. (Vi<:tor y D i v ir ion), S urvhc d b y h i s mother, Mrt. Fnncu H and, (our $iH4:tS: Mn. Gcnh2 Mul l innix, Mrs. Flou Fi eld, Mr1. liHic Belle Mo rris and Mn. Mi.Ltnje Conley; :ant.i f ou r bro t.hcrs: E. C., )J. mes, Funk and Donald Mulkey. CPL HUGH EDWARD CARY NEVILL, born Sl:pt. 22, I 907. London, Enl4Ad .son of Hu,sL Uwia: and Dorothr (E.IIin.c ron ) Nevill. duc4ctd at We-U.. ington CoUtge-2nd rM Royd Milif'ary Attdcmy, Woolwkh, Eng ,t(rvicc 11, l94l. MarriOO Morbnd Csrtcr Aptil 2,, 1'4Q. He die d in Engbn d januuy )-, UU, 3.ht h;a\inS; been there from Franc:.c where he $((\'Cd j n ccr y .8 69Sth f ic:l d Ani1Jtry. C itatio n : Pres i dcJuid Oni t Ciuli ()l'l 11nd GO<>d C'.onduec Med:al. Survhcd b) his w idow :and w n HuKh Timothy Allen Nevil) : h is mother and broth e r M.11jor William Ncvm of Surrey, E nthnd. LT. JEFF LOWERY PE ARSON. born Joly 11, IJ u. ... .on of Clem B and 'Willie E. (WiUi 2mson ) Parson.. Gr.aduued from Hl&h School anuwkd Uni vc-:sity of a s.cmcstu. ntend service-Muc;h 2, I 942. M2rricd l illian C. Nobn November lO, lU9. Killed )2r.uuy 26, ISIH. England while "' ith H5ch Squa dr()n .}36 Bomber G roup Cit.ati., ns: Ai r O:ak l.caf clus c crs aod tion. Survived b y hi$ widow, h i s mothe r t bre e broth. crs, n. D., C B \ilnd Funk R.. Purson and t htee $iS tcu. Mn. Jtmts Adki., ,o,., M n. Crc(d Rymer and Mrs. Robt. 0 Pint. Ll'. S"J'JU.MAN O AVJO PECK, born February 1 $ 19tl, CAlif. so n of Mr, J.n.d Mu. Stillman J lomcr Ptck. Edoca u d '" U nivenlt y of 2nd Pomona Jr. C<>llcgc.'Eoc.er4ch Marine-Div i s i on Ciutioo: Purple by his wid ow and dl)ughu:c-, Glen d a Virinit J)eten, pan:nts a sisttr S.Ctry al:ld Jour brothtn, :Edwud C.rl. L T. COMDR FREDI.'RICK WARI\N PURDY, bot-. 4, Uti, C'-ic.p. Ill., 10n of W'atftft F a nd M:ui(' (H\1bbud) Purdy. Ecfuu;l It Sutu Audt:my tild continued on active duty 1\J-.rritd Molly Ftobruuy 22, 19<42. Ht WJt fXC'C:utive otlicer of th(! u.s.s. Stront Oft Oper 111ions in Kula Gulf a t the tlmet of his deach july 4, U.U. Amer i c2n 'Oe(c::nre Scrvic:c Medal (FJ"c Clup), 1\nwric: ao Aru C :unpais n MedllJ, Asi Ar i\fed:aJ, (U .S.S. Stro ng ) S .lvtr Stu Mcd:tl Sf1 d He:art. Survived by hi .t widO"A', his mothtt, -. $i.st t'r, Elisabtah ond broth'>' r Richard H. Purdy. lJl ce-cog.nirion ()( hi$ hcroie 5UViee tht U .S. N")' mmcd a new desrr o)er lhe U.S.S. Purdy in his honor. It "''25 dlris:uned u: Boston July 11 44 l T ANDRE GARDNtR REMBERT, bo. Suf'o ive d b y his fnt hcr :t1'd molh tr, Mrt. Jantc R. Bn! ey. lrr l'r. JONN HTE ROBERT SON, JR., botn N ovc:mber 26. U:ll. Ub1n<>n, Tenn., son of Jobn Fitt and Msrtha Lyl\oe ( B.uch.an1n ) Rober tson. Educ.uN i n SatutHJI schools. Cut.k Nalu.ry AeckMr Ubmon, Ouoichon D.a'richon, N C . chc Univttnity of Flork1.11. Commissione-d 'lad Lt. of lnfilntry, O R .C. in sprinJ of 1'42. nrvice Ncm:mbcr I 942. D ied from wounds July J 1, 1 9-H, ncar C.ci.1u luly. Silver l>t:r plc Ht3rt, Combat Jnillntry rru n'J lh.ds<' and Di-st inguished Uni t with two clutter$. S11rYived by p.1renu 11.n d m brocher lH l c E. RoberUQn, (Sec I nde-x) PVT. ORRY l KENNETH ROBLES. botn rr I' 192$. P J ., son of Col. Orryl S:.1m\ld and M i ldred Kerwin (MaJokco) Robl es. F.rmred scrvjre

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THE STORY or-SARASOTA 291 j:.nun}', l9-H, when .1 se n;,,, jn hig h sdu)o). KH itd Novclllbc r + t.?H, in tuxenl!JQ\I r s serving with Co. F J2nd i\CCO\\, $1)11 S\I(V;vJ b y h\s p:UCn1S, <\ b sochcr, Fr:'ll)c.iS P. Ro-Mts. and sist<:N: Mrs. john C. J33ss M l{ob1.:$ AUL NEU.SON ROTES, l xu : n j01l e 15, i917 Bnbc:rt(ln O hi o SOl) o G :md Ndlit E.. (Khnd. C\:t.nion.s: O F C.. t\. .M. 011ld > Leaf S11Cvivcd by his p.tttl'\ts :and tW O bro1he:<: John j. : m d fuscoc R. R o t c s. TECH. n u CRAOE WllLIAM li0\'('IN ROY At, born July 26, 1914, Ray Cit) ' $ Otl of Mr. .1.nd .Mn. Fn11Cclin R<.t)'31. E n tere d strvi ce Novcmixor 7, '.?41. :t.h r6ed L uis R.. Coo1t.)on, .?, 1941. KiiJed :\u,:;us t 25'. 1944, ; u fran ce, whjle with )Jrd Field Artillery 6n. lsc J,,{r t nH)' Oi"". Ciutions: llcon7.e :wd i?11r p t e Hc:.1rc. Survived b) w idow 2nd son, D nib$0n A.M.M. 2/c ROBER1 ELLIS ROLE b<>rn M';lrcb ll, 1924, Q , SCH\ of Ellis ';tOd (Appel) Role. Attcndtd SH:tsou High School. En4 tcrcd servi c e M:ay D. 1.?4 L Killed No, c-mbcr :H, l94J, T ;tUWl.1 abn the P ur1,Jc }'fe::.rc Survhed h) bis-puenh 10d tWO brothers, ;1,n d J<)scph Rul e. CPL. I.ORTN RUSSELL. born I, I.?J 5 S :. ta$Ott f'h. $Oil of H. an d Carrie Belle (Jones) Ru$.Sdl. GrJduatcd fr<)m Sarasota H ish School. E mer.:d 11<:r,i<.c June J9, 1941. Fl.t:ally woc.:nd cd fcbruar)'' I ti, 1.?45, 'a.hi!e lSi .. )ng tC) rntn b:ntle for Bilibid i t He wa$ a .t i d m1n t>.ith E 14Stl. llfan. U')' Rtgimtnt, 37rh Oiv Citations: Oi$tinguishcd Scr viec Crou, .PrC$id('nt i31 U ni c Ciu.c io n 2nd the Pufpl c Hun. Sv:\'ived by his l!istcu, E\c :tnor ::tnd Dototlt)' R and Surcue. CAPT. HUBERT CARL SCHUCHT, born june 15, 191-4, ]J.cksonville, n1. son of W2lrer :.n d E m ma (R .. ndall) Schudu. Gf::tduued S .. r:asotl. H\th School and he. Univttsity of FJocida. Bmered senict janua!y JO, 194(. K i lled in Franc-e August B, 1944, "'bHe with 78t h Field Arti llery, 2nd Armored Di\i$lOn. Survi ved by his mo{her S/SGT. jASPER ( JACK ) NELSON SCOTT, born Ma)' 2.?, J.?;B, Br:.denron, Fla., son of Ta) Jor Carver and Edith H11cper Scott. gradv-lted from Suasor1 H ish School : m d :.tce.,d< the U ni versity of Ch::ttt31\00g::t ouc o n t hJ.lf ye:&n. Eu t crcd service Mat< h S, 19-4}. Reponed missing on J:u\ UU)' 201 1945, while on a miss ion o ver S u icb"'':l n1 He w:u ::a s:unnc:r with the .49)td Bom b 5<}uadr (ln (H) Bom b Gtocp. The. W::.r Departme-nt ot!ici J.! h litted a.s dead l:tbru:Lq' 10, 19. Sur\'i ved. b}' hi;; p.1 rcncs ;'tnd tWO broth-:-r>: l t. T<1ylor C Jf. and TIIOJll:lS E Scott PVT. JR. V JNG JACOn $li00R, botu janu.1r)' 6. 1920, Alban>' N. Y., $On of Dcl'ljan,in a.n d S::tra h (Sn)der) Shoor. Attended S.tr3$0f3 s c h>ls Md Union Cd} cory o Music. Entered $ecvi,ith Co I, l,:!J:J.UOOP ln(;uury, JOI Airborn O tvjJJH:>n. Sur, iv ed by :and :t daughter, Barb::tn Ann Sn1ith 3nd his mother. PFC. WOODROW born O
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294 THE STORY O F SARASOTA ')?d l)i \ . Cit:ltit>u: J'utl ) lt: J f .:.lf t, b) (IM<: Mr:.. l{o bcrtltm of W \lltcl' n E. (M:ul$ lldd) Sur k Gr:Hiua tnl ( rmn V e n if,Nukami.s His h Sc:h>c,L Ent(t-.-d {)(tobu 4, I 'J-1 l M:arritJ J\n. na M. B(>lmb. Ht" l)i... Surwiv'Cd by h is w i dow. hts pu..:nlS, a Mn. .,Johb T. Hill. Jr., 11M broth. Cl.rl M Svrlf. PVT AlfREO SURR E NCY, born Jul y 10 192S, S:.raKtt-a, F l :t., son of Windet Hi.lldlotn ""d '\\:1ilt i e Euhu (Ha:.)et1) E.due--au.d i.n Su:u&u p u blic lChqoh. Entered Decembtr, J 94). Kille d August 1, 1944 during :u\ m:zck on H i ll 20), ne3r \'ire-, France, 'Ah ile whh Co. "F", t 16th (ni:lntry. 29th D iv. G tl'IVt # 176, R.o w ? Plot A" f.ui\Ce. C'tatiQ n : P u r p l e Heart. Survived by hi $ parcnu: mother sinc e deSCT. FR ;\NKI. YN l.AMONT nMBERtAKE, bnfn I, .,II, .Stcv('mon,J\b., son o( Phillip F r11nklin 11nd M3c: (Jl.o bo) Timbtrl-ake. Entere d 3er vi.ce Septumbcr 19 19 Killchy :and l.oruinc-PFC. RUFUS HUGH TUCKER, bo, Cump Hun, O..Ji. while w it h U : u C 216 A A A S. L. nn. CitJ. t inn U nit Ciution. Suniv< by hi, p3.r cnu a1ul brother, Tild en rudttr. c;OX'N J)I-[(UP ElBERT W;\LKER. born !\hrch 12. l,2,,
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 295 J>FC. ORRIN SHLnY WELLS, bom Nov. 11, 1'92 }, O.m:th:t, Nebr., ron of Or6n Master llld I Iden (Shdb)') 'Well$. !com High Schoo l and :l.ttC 1lded U n ivr$ity of F l oc id:t Qe.nl)' two y.:us. Mcmbct of K1tpp.t S igma ch:tJ,... tcr). Entered scrvkc April 6, 194). Died Novembe r 12, 1 9 44, 12th Evac:uation Hospit-al, Nancy, Fran ce w hile wich Co. A. 104th Jnf. Res. 26tb. Di,. Cit:n i ons: Good Conduct Merlal, Bcon7.e St:ar Pu.... pie Hc:trc. Survived by his p:tccms-. S/SGT. HENRY YOUNG WILUS bom june 2, J?J7, Tan1p3, Fl:t ., son of ihcnn:u Y oung :.nd E":t i\rtcd mining in 3Gfion Jul}' S 1944, while w ith the V Air Force Ser\i Command 1t Paupan, Guin ea. li$ttd dead Marth, 1946. S u.c by hi$ widow, on e $iStcr, Nor" S i 1lglet on, tV<> "f hoout Hill Robut J:.n1es. PRIVATI: RJCHARD D. llA. RBER, bo:-n Scptembtt 13, 192), Tylor, Fh. son of Henry and Rosiil (John ;on ) 81rbtr. servi ce J : u'l.uu} lO, l!l'H. lo.hrrird Wi.llie Bess Much S 1942, Died in Av gust ZS. 1944 wbiJ e w idl H 9' Q.M. sv, Co. Sor,ived by hit widow :and p.arenu. Photo Not Avai l able The above cha. pter of The Stor) of SariUOia was s/Jtsom( by me-mbers of the Sarasota Bay Post No. )0 of the American Legio11 to perpet.uzle the mCm OrJ of tbe Sarasota C omz.fy 11um and women who died 1uhile ilt tbeir nation's service dttrin s WI orlrl \17 ar 1/.

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WHO'S WHO I N SARASOTA uHis t ory is the essence of innumerable biographies.H -T l>om. a s Ca.rly l<.

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THE 51' 0R y OF S ARASO'I A 299 WILLIAM H WI-liTAKER W illiam fl. the first S<:ttk r in tl1e S:.r:a. W t:J rcgio", was born Ca. Augus t 13 21. hi $ e:1rly I h i s seeding hert, :and h U cxpe rtcn ces :as ;.t p i ortccr a r e given in CJupttr U On June 10. 18S1. Mr. Whiukcr w!lS rn. m :i ed t o MAh o Wtr< am ollg the tirS"t who fou1:ded the vill'ilgc of Man'ittce M the Man:t t ce River. (Ah o $CC Chaptcr II}. Mr. and Mrs. White a ker bJd children : who be.<:.am e the wife oJ John J-Je lvtfton; Lo u i se, who became t he w ife of T h om a s Gordon l:dmon dson ; Furwh.o Iacer became a ph)si<:i:tn; H3m l i n Va lentine who mf Gc.or gc 2nd 1'atum They $Cttlcd (>n 01 k now n t o dty a-o; c h e T atunt pbce in East Ike Ridge T h eir c hild r en J.ft: Mn. l d3o H.:md h a :tc A Ada Drigbcrs. B eck i e H ull Asnc$ Lowt, Hdna P latt, :an d Cbr:t Nash. A ll of her childre n :are li'lins except 'fex:u lbwls die d jn 19(M :md Ida H::utd w h o die d Fcb cu3.ry 7 1.9}5. Mr. T:ttum d i ed Mar J9H. M r s h e r home with h e r davt;htcr Mn. N1sh, in San AUGUSTUS MARION WILSON M u i o n w as b o r n i n Count}', Occn ( ] t u lge .Mrs. J:.mes Thoma s H e nurried CaJladonia Crom D;.-cc:m ber H IS6S, few y e ars c:.me t4) F l or i d a set tling near Myakka where h e conducted :1 sto re a nd poHfo r more th:t n thitty years. He late r bec1m1e ()r :c of the le:tding cattl e m en i n thls part o( c hc suce. M r Wi l son pltycd :l pro'Yii nenc part jn t h e div i s ion of M:t n a t cc Count.y -:esulted i n cru t ion o f S ua,sota Couftt)'. E:.r lier, he h:ad b-1t :sute scn"at<>r for one tc:nn, of the .st:ltc f csidat-ure lor three te r ms, mcmbct of the Man3-tce County C O m m i .ssione n for one tc:::rrn, a m.:mber ()( th e M:an'ttec County !.Choo J b01rd !o. r c isht r e:ars tnd served t?. i c e a s entfn\'ra l Or. also scrwd t'i\'0 ye:.,.,. a$ t u aMe.I::JOr of Mam.t C ounty ;\nd th first ta:< coUecco r o f che new Su:.Jwta Cot::nty Mr. W ihon wa.s I nd)an :agl!n r {or one ye;ar a n d vi site d all t h e Sem in o l e in F l orida in a fnrit le$$ etl'ort tO tet them to fon G Cullen Bl')' an t Fnnc is, Flor ence, juJi:. Violi, Alic< :>.hbcl Arflo t Estlo:}', SJu:lby Auguuus, Robin C:.Jrlist(', Cla i re Ruth R.odncr Cnm Senator Wil.s<>n died Octt>btt 8, J?H. CHARLES L. REA YES C harles L Rea ves-was born in G eoro i a A,ugust 1 2 I 847 W h e n a yo\lng c ame tO what i.s S:.ra.sot:t C<>un t s bcc:. m e t h e fo-'Under of the rom rlO"O.; 'O!O'<''Il u Fruitvil k Afte' new settle:s came, Mr. Re3' 'es' as ed the first postmaster at Fr1.lit,; ille. lie marr!cd M:.Jrth a T:.tum in 1 875 Mr. and Mr s Rc-.1v cs h1d {ou r c hild:c n : 0. K .. born O ctober 16, U 7 7, !l n\l m bcr of }'Can cir c uit itHfr.e for t h i.s c i r cuit tod now a pt;)C(ici ng attorney in Ta'Tipa; F '-::m ces Re b e
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300 THE S TORY OF SARASOTA built the p ublic: sch oo l Fr'Uitvilte dc edi n s tht ptopcrcy t o che: jch oo l "fhe build in g u s ed until d te ne w eo n.1ol i d;actd sch ool w:u (On J t ructed 'and tht: old schoo l WJS chen. sold by the JC:hool Mr. ReJ.\'(!S o wned the HCOnd phone in what is n o w Cou nty. Ht: bore chc dpe!Ut of build in ,s his o...-n line from Suuou to Fruitvilte. Ht pid :a portion of the co of buildina: the firs:; from S2nsoc-s to Fr-uit" illt, si xty )'dts 1go. Mr. died September 11, l')l. Mn. Rdvn, -..0, 1c the: age of 9S. M r o,nd Mrs. Crocker settled o n the lhy( ron t i n JS72 'Jnd tOOn :afte r ward bough t a t rac t of h.nd ()n w h'3t is now Ri dge ro.1d ne.1c O$p t ey AV(lnuc:. H e there buih h : c h iJ still n:a"di.na a n d it cu piJ by Mn. Cunis. It is k non 1U old Crocker Place.'" Wh('n )IR. Curtis .a.s a child, this KC.tion of Florida ...,, truly a !rontie: rt-gion a.nd the .-dl how the scruma! :at niche: and wlld dter boldly ent..c::rtd the t-a.rdc:-n even durin;' the day time. One o( htt ca rlien tub "'"' to the wild tuth)'S from the b.mil)' pea pt.teh. T h t turlt.c:ys were s o numerous the)' ui\l:tll y ucG d < in gobblin& up m os t o( the p :as despit e everyth ing (()\lid d o She viv id l y r emtmbus the tifllC i t wat a corn mon sight t O Gee :lli gators in every t"9.lmp the recalls h o w $he u.sed to enjoy Jeei na mothe r coons ukins thei r b:1bies for :1. .st rol L Mr. Crocker ,:::re' the Srst 1ron i11 chit p;arc: of F lorid::a f rom sd him by hn \ldek in CuM. He gave c:obXC<> phnu t o ht, nrich bon :and cfu,.ing tl!<. next growing w.uon chey vi.ed with (.M aMChet to Jee .-hid. could ,row k.af. Some of it use:d to make cigars and IOtM -..u uK!d (or cut p lu g. 'l'he urly Kttlcrs 1ho were to d,c C-rocku family for intrOdueins coffu growing i n t h i s Mn. C tocku found som e ruffce bt11n s "' h i c h h.1d s prouted i1\ a hrse bag she: ha d pun: h:a.scd. and J)l:amed them. So
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THE STOlt. y OF SI\RI\SOT A 301 A trul y (ll:m 1\oh. grew up in t pdmi c iv e . pion:r cq nlmunit y o p wo:rc :elmo>t n o n4cxistent. l$ut what h e h ckcd i n i)ppottu nities, he nude up for: in dectrtnillJ.tion and zctl. G ifted with :an i nquidng mind, bcgln Ienning when t tiny budoot young nc.--,;nd he i s still tOdly, :edding tl) :e scor e of knowlcdse w hic:h is envied by \Jf)i v crs h } ,Sr:ldl.lt(C$ with degrees-. He was 6.ut u.ugh t by Pro f. T C. C:alhn, an lrifhm:an c.:eme (!'om nooAhctc :lnd wem non e kn0'\11/$ w hcrc"-1 m m wh o l oved n :uurc. l ife, and lud 3n unco'ln ny h<:ulty of otbl c tO i np:u c h .is know l e dge to o thc r s T t1c live d in :l little <:3bin n c:er the Edwards' home a n d John tmploycd him to tt'e:tn. Later, Arthur hi:s b rother!: 'fl.:alki 6\ e miks morning :md tO :wd from public $<;hool. Befor e M r. Bd'll.:ar< h tift c e n p::IC $ o ld both hii pueucs d ied ;and h e '0.$ Jdt wi(h t h e of carinf; (or chte-t' b :othert. H e foun d (:tn p l o pnCM with pioneer t :attle men 1,1ntil I when h e j o ined the Qu:artcrm:uters !>put snc nc of t h e Ull i tcd S t :at e:s Arm y 1nd "'':IS assigne d t<> ;a rc.spo n s i b le pos ition d m:ing the Amtri c:an occup1 -t i o n of at the tl()se of $p.tnish AnKtiC 11\ W.tr After returnins t<> chc Mr. Edw:acds wu 1uttt i ed o n Jul) 22, 190 0 co F Lowe, gno.dd1ugh tct o Jesse Knig ht, f ou n der o! Horse :and Chaise ( q ..... ). Shortl} :t!terwnds he ;.pp<>inted C<)unty in tJ,(: F.!t h distri c t o( Collnt-}'1 o{ whk. h the Lwd o f w u chen a fict l n J90J, w hc11 the Sc:1bo1rd t 1ilr oad v.u ut sreker s 1od in,eston. He w rote to the development :and co{oni.zation de1'accmenu of ladin8 ro'li)ro1d t throushout t he and a s ked them t<) len d h i m the n:ame1 ( per sons il)quiring ::tbour F l o rid3.. Long: lisu soon btg:a n pour i n g in, 1nd Edwards w ro 1e peuonal knen to c:ah penon ll:ho h ad asked for infc> c mation. H e advcrti.,cd Sna-sou f:ar and w ide -:uld, 2 ro!$uh of hit efforts, m1ny per.rons 1ttnctcd here:. A s c h e communit)' progrcsstd, Mr. Edw;ard$ btw cam e attivc i n the ci vic, pi>\itie-al and life o f Sa.ca.sot.t t h < $VH01-.mding t(rtit o ry. ln his real e t U tt" operation s he was not so m u c h :1. broker 3. S an OW ilC r and dc\el o pcr. He is now devoting h is t ime exclusivel y t o the red c .stue :and hnd ap pHiu ) busincu. ARTHU R liR!TfON 1\DW ARD S Mr. Ed-o.uds WM the first clcc:ted tax of t h e [()wn o { Sms<>u $ctv i n g from 1907 throagh 191 }. Whtn S:ar:awu '':IS ineorp!>Ptrd a lty he wn c:l.ted ;.s the tir-.sl nuyl)t t() sc rv t under the Mtll city <-hatter, uking oftice 1, 1 914. lie d e clined to run w hen h is ttrnl expired buc h e W3.S 2$:t in dcctcd in 19U u> head (he city through 1919 and 1920. Mr. Edw;ards ph)! a l e <'ding pan in. the cr<;tLio n of S:tr:c50t..., County 1nd wheQ t h e eou.n;y camt jnto e.:cist c ncr, he was commis!fioned by Gov. Cat)' A. Harde e to esu.bli.sh the t1X :mmor's offic e w rite tht' jir5t books H e h a r bec11 .a continuous m e.mOOr o the Ch1mber o f s ince i c w:1$ .fint .il) t904 the Board of T r:1de. He served 3.t its e-uly tacy .ln d as pretid e n t for m:.my yc::trl. he w ;tS ,) seh oo J tnmce. He wu the hm presiden t of the C itrus Grt>w ecs Assocj.;;tion, 1 d u r:ec member of the S:tr:t"'U Count)' Fi.sh ::.nd Game-.A.u<>c;(ation and )ater it.t ptesidcnt, : m d i s 1 former m ember of t:hc: s,.re 3-nd fresh W accr Fish AsSO<:i atio n Mr. Edwud s is now s erv in t the fifth yc:tr 3 mem bet of the; F tc>c i d a &1rd o{ F o restry an d Pub recently \\3s c o the He is ab :servin g the fouub 1nd member o i City fk>nd of Adiustm'l.'nc He W:t$ v ic e-pre sident :md .l dlrc:e t o r (<>t m an y years o f the-fim bank or-

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30 2 THE STORY O F SARASOT A g : uti z::d i n He also Q r g:mi:r.c.:l the fi.nt hlld tide :lbstNt cornpan)' in Covnty. He w a s _,ppointcd :1ssi-sunt. c:i>mm:lndcr-inchicf of the So n s 1)( C>n icdcr3 t<: V ctcnns. In U135. .811y Post No. 3 0 AnlCric;m Leg io n 2Wardcd him ( .;tu(inc :tnd :O.br t h3, l 'J\uskia n s For many yc;u$, Mu. Edw1.rds ha$ bee n :tctivc in the Wom:.n's CJub :.n d y o u n g plc:>pl<:'i: work DR. CULLEN BRYANT WILSON Or. Cul!.m 1\ty:tnt W i lso-n, son (lf Mt. Md Mu. A. M. W i bl) n w a s boCit i n t ltC <> what now S:trasou County July ll, 187 8 He w:t$ tdue 2 tt' d th< Sour h Milit':'lry (now t h e ()( t h e Uniwuit y l)f A laMed ical Sch ool. D r Wilso n W;'l$ a pe:tcti cillg p hy;si ci:m in $ 012 from 1.907 t<> 1'41. H e ov.ne d the tlr$t lutOMI) b il c i n the tOwn. He was :1 me mber: of t h e first Methodist Churc h ser"cd for m;ar.y yt2rs on the b o:ud of . l n U124 :tnd 1925, h e W$S p.tts i d ent o chc Fint .B: tnk & 1 :usr Co. a n d ir<>m 1 925 t O t 941, pc-.::t idcnc. of the First T c-ust Co. of S:tt:tsot3.. He l Ct,cd M t ht' su.ff o f t h e S:eu.tOtl 1-lospiul f rom t!te t i m o ic W-'S f o\ m d e d up t o the t ime o f h i $ d cHh. On Scpttmbe c 26 190,., h e w a s m:ur ied t.<> Fun -1.7<'$ Ro:beec:e Rcavcs da u ght<'r of Mc-. <1n d 1 .. of 1-'ruitvilk They h1d twl) chil d rctt : W il.sun, J; ph).siei:tn -:tnd, duri ng Wotl d \'<'ar II, "' m ajm: i J1 the Atlll} O> tps; an d C lyde H Wilsot t { q, ,,) l)r. WilsM died Febt\l.l.t')' 1$141. CARRIE SPENCER ABBE C;arrit Spe ncer A bbe pos tmi.scrcsso f $ ;ua!ou for }I w:as botr\ in B ohon, Conn., in 18 57. Sh<: c:une hccc in 1878 o t her honeymoo n with hec-hus b an d Or. Myron Abbe, den t i s t who w:'l$ 2 e<>u:bert Gre-er. She hel d tfle office until Augu.s:t l6, U22 when $he resign e d Mn. Abbe's service t o t he c ommu nity so out sunding th3.t. thl! &truou T i mes stated at th<: time of her res-ignation: "When t h e o { Sl(a$(1ta )$ written c h e r t ill no pe rson \\lo wi ll sta n d l)ut more pWmi nently in its p i o neer d:ty s th:ill. thi s dcarl)' woman wh o has bee n a mothcr to everyone i n sor ro w 3C"d d i stC'C.S$. C<\. RRI E SPENCER AB'BE Mc-s. A bbe mo r e ch:.an ju.st a c i vil l n :.djeCt$ :en d wa $ one of the most tirele ss workers oi the Wom3;n'$ Town lmpr ( >Vem(ot S<>Ciety Unaided s h e p;ti.J. Hed :lll the tr:uh b1rrtls whi ch the Soc i ety placed i n t h e busine s s .se<:t ion tl) st o p M .ai n Strt from being l i t tec-ed with debr is. She wa,s ch.uter m ember o( Sar3.SOU Rebekah Lodge No. }7, Orde r of $ t3. t and of tht Wom:an s Club. Mr:s. Abbe died No\<-mbcr 19, 1 940, a n d wu buried i 1 t Rotcnury-Cemetery. HENRY HAWKINS H<:nr)' Hnkin s, pioneer canle-man a1:1d o lde.'lt resident o f Sarasot
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THT:: STORY O 'f' S ARASOT A )03 Afrcr being nu. r r ie d, M t : m d M rs. 1-l:l"' k it H I tiW t h e R i ve r r c oi o n H<: <>n e o f the nn)cn e n in c h i $ sectio n ,, one tim t' Q'o\ n in g a b o t lt ? 200 h u d of c:mle-well 3. $ 11h e cp :m d I ,100 hc:ad .:.f h ogs. M r :tn d Mts. H11"-' k i n s tud fi" e c h ild r e n : W i ll Fun k A n d r ew M o llie 2 n d l. i1.1:ie. After h i .t i 1 \ 1 S 9} h e H::tM1 :1h o { ll:Ut o.,... o n 1 S I 3?4. The y J u d thrCIC c hild t cn: E m m a Lewis and T h e .n u r iL-d n a mes of t he uc: Moll i i! the L :.nd o f S:.n w u w ith oth e r of the J-Jiscl fam il) \\ hieh at For sev e n yt-Jn M 1:. Higd hdpc d h i s with h i s i n m:akin g sur c h f r o m C.LU,t\':1 wo u -:tn d ; n ma k ios n rup 1:nd (;1nn c d l-ie '0\)so occ:ui o ully f o r the l<1ig h u ( q .... ) w h o t h t n c o nuoUcd pra c t ica lly :.11 t h e hnd i n the Ven ice M r Higd cam e tc) $00l l after c h t' tow n W3$ lovndc d J nd i n the ninc:ti h e p urdustd t h e dock :11 the f oot o f }\.bin Street b u ilt b y the Flori1. h Mottg 1 g e & lrwt s tmc n t C o :and ah;o the c<>mp,tny' s H e a l so oP" n tcd h i $ b o3.t "Ncm o.'' cond uc t e d a nltr<:.,n(it c : m d handll J hnd s3.Jes for J Hamilt. J n JS:99, h e .sol d his note t() C3s on h i s toc;k o f t o H i g hsmi t h & T u rner t h e n ju$t tst:abl i s h c d ( n 1 9 07, Mt. Hig c l th.e d evelopme-nt o f tbt end of tbe Sa c a sot) Key w h i ch h e M n )ed Siest-a. T h e d e\elo p m tnt p ro j ecr 11; 1 s rct:. r d e d soon :.f t ccwa r d b y the n a,ioo a l fin:mc:i a l d e p r essio n bu t i t 'W:l.S ccs u m e d in 1 9 11 on 1 m uc;h. h rge r sca l e ( See l 1 \ dtx : S iesta ) Mr. Higd 3h O b uilt ch e H i g e lhum H o rcl u t h e o f Bis P ass. The h oed WlS c o m p letel y dt3troye d by in Mare h ) 1, 1 9 17. So o t a l t e t Mr. Hig cl began t h e Siesta d e dop::nc n t h e le d the mo,emtnt t() t h e S 3ru<>ta Y:.cht C:lub {q,. v .) and l>tc.tme ics Jir s r comm: a dort. f<:w n hU c t h a n ;1; lu:.rtcr t:\ 1\(<"T' M r N ili:d w as o n e o ( Sar.Hw n city e o l mc;il :ln d thr<-: t erru s a.s Hls work fo r S 1 t3Wt:. c:1n be jtuzsed o nl y by rc.,dill l\ th full n\u y of t h e de, dt'lp 1'1'\t!l t o f t h e city, a < &i\'C!l in the g t llt t:tl tSI. A t th..: time o f hi s hl' \\'<\S a dire eto r o f tht J hnk o f S:arli$ O t:l; t h e O n 1 8 1!96, M r W : l S nur titd t o Ge rt rude E dmo ndson. M r. :.otd Mn. Whlukc r fiut $ ettlen )n t h e bud of .SO t:l. M e d i ed J:uw:.ry 1 9 2 1 h i x body buri e d i n RO'$o:m : :.r ) C-eme t e r y I (c "jj,'J.:> :;ur, i \ cd by h i s w id()w J 1 t d t h r e e .:hild r e n, L ouist'. 11'd H3.ct)' Gordon; b y h is tn(lt hc r :. n d fi, e brothe r$, Fun k R:.lph, Geo r ge :'lt H f \X' e s I cy K THE B R OWNING l'AMIL Y 01 411) d l t Scot c h w h o eam< : tq ll''Hi c ; n S3ra so u Qn l)(;embet 2 7 I R R 5 noJnt re m a i ned to :.id in the
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304 THE STORY O F SARASOTA In Seoch nd, Mr Ur(lwnin g had been c:J,e (lwtter of a .nill tlnd woodworking s.hop. He n an e xpe-rt crafum:m, be :t.rri ved hw: he was kept bu:sy buildingf for the Florida Mortsasc & lnveument Co. iu official$. Later he di.d general eo..ntr:t.eLin& tnd tll whcr he w:ts art :t.ssisum : Hch itcct on the T:amp:1. Ihy Hotd. Af((r h is wor k on t h e hotel fin i 1hed i n 1891, he in i:ampa "Worl:i rtg :t. t :a contr:tcwr. ihcte he .me t muricd Annie M21rron. in JUl. During the next jive yc2rf1 Mr. Browning bu.ilt the Coc bb:.k :tnd ochu bulldlf\$1 .in Br:u:lentoA. P:tl nld.tu 2nd F.llcnton. In 1199. ht wcot to Cub:t wht:re IK" wss by chc Uni'cd St21tc:s so,er-gmmc ,wpc,..ising r-tconst.rU(Iton work i.n After his worlc: in CulD W)j Me. Browning "''ent north :and supervised tht COn.Jtru(:"t:,i()n of luge bujJdi:ng:s in Chic::a,co. Buff..alo, Toronto, Ont., :u1d H:tmilton, Ont. Durin5 World W:at) he on p h11s for the D o n 1inio n of C:art:u.h Shit,buildins Co. in l 9t9, he returned co S ar:asoQu w ith the il'lttntion <>( retiring, (onc:.d, he W2J appo inted miss ioner of publi(: works. Lucc, he d rew the pl:t.ns :md his .son. llrownin,, TIT, did the c;ont ra(.ting for bu ild i ng. including the Fran(: es-Cnlton Aputmenu, The lodt;e, 21M numerou' privllte He ditd on $eptcmbta Johl'l Brc>wning wu educ-ued irt i'oronto a n d in 1 9 1 7 chc Royal Flying Cor ps. ln the of 1918 he t() th1: Roya l Air and an instructor. Ht we11t in October, 191 S, 2nd &Ct\'td s yur. He tbel\ e2rne lO Sttruotll and wu with his ftthtr in the rontr:.ccins bu 1incs3. In 1924, he went. lnco che nal esutc I n h: employed by the Sunou Heuld, 6rst :.s eircul:ttic:>n manager 1nd Jattr 11-t t.d\trlis.ing man:ag<'r. In 19H, h e l e(c thc &r:.Jd to publish weeklr ... The N"" Adw:uinr, which be httr so&d tc> a putner, A. J. Saul In I,U, he wu nplo)otd by Radio Sbtion WSPB ulamJ.n and in IJ.U w.u nudt: m-trt2&U 2.nd On April H, 1921. M ss murted to Gc-t1rudt W. Berry. of Gray. Me. Mr. 3Jld Mn. 8rownil'lg: hnt three childRn: Alex, John, J.r., and Hden. He suved a.l' 11 member o( th_ e city counci.l rom l'-41 co 1945 and is a mf1nber of the A neri c : m leg:ic>n, Kiwanis Club. E:Jks, nnd S:arJl,SOt:l P:trk no:.rd, He is .tbo a mem ber of St. M11nha'.s C:atho l k Church. Flis h t Sc-fgennt Hugh Bto'll n ing Johnn,on, aon of Dr. :.nd Mr$. jc>h11$t<>O, was the first S:aruou bo) tO be killed j,, World w_,r n. He left his in S:ank)ta 1-ii&b School in F.ebruuy, l'.fO, tO join R .C.A.f., and. aJrcr becoming tNined 2t n J.ir gun net. he wu K'Ot to England in M-areh, 1941 on m2ny bombing-nid. o'tt Germany and 11/ti kilkd Novfttlbu 1S .,_.., twenty cby.s after beinc t:r:aJU.tO dltt Sutt the;:.tre o( opeutiOni. Huah K Browning. brother o( Alex, tcrvi MVtt 2l yc:ar1 11 11 member of the city council. Ht w-u gaged aJ a con ttll<;tor hctc for m-nny Yc-lrt had :a h o,,o On t he wate.rl.cont. ju$t 5omh of t.hc B<:Uc f-hvtn J nn. He died irt Trenton, N.J . in 1938. Mr $ wi1\11 llro\\ning Hollowell, of Sc. Andrews Blt)' Fl:a., js now lhe only one of t h e orig inal Seou: h colo,jsts uill living. JOHN HAMILTON GILLESPIE (Phoifl&rJth OR 101) John Gilkspte. S:ar.uou, No. t citiua. (or I"WO dcc:ad.es 21nd om of th-t pfonccr a:olfus in America, wu born i:l Dumfrtcuhirt, Scotbnd, in 1 852 the son of Si.r john Gill"pie. he:td o( the Florida Mot:tg:age & lnvatment Co. (q.v.). He m ditd law i n Edinb1,1rgh a n d 2 member of t h e RO)':tl Comp:t.rt}' of Archer$, Queen's lot Scot land. He l ater went co Aunr-ali:l "'jth d1e Midl ot hian Attillcry Briga de of Vol unecch. On his ttturn tO Sc:otl a n d, be got m.rrjcd ""d was !tAt to Suuou tO repres.ent hi$ eompJI\f urivina ln the scpring of Jts6. :tfter pnctic:ally 11l the Scoc-ch colooiu:.s h-ad kft. (Stc GeM-tal Text). Mr. Gllk:lptc dominncd Sarasot-a for m.sny btcau o( bU Yibn.nt pc:rsonJ1icy and putly bii\lst the comp;t.flly he ownoed pnct.ic:ally t.ll the oriain21l town site. 21s well 3.-, 50,00 0 11CJ adjoinjng. He W2S tht: onl y rt:tl HUtc :.gent in the community t1ncil aher J?OO. h e served m:"'Y ;1.$ ju&ti c o t h e pelCt1 he w.u one of che founders of L h e s hortlived and W o b b ly" roJlro:ad ( q ,'i' ) h e helped to 11n appro priacio" from the fodcml g overnment for the Jim in SutJOt:a B3y in 1893-97, he btlilt the Oc Soto Hott1 (luer named t-b.c Bdlc.n Have., [nn).

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 305 Sarasota w111 l $ :. t o .... n 0,, Occ o b.:r 14, 19 0 2, he on c-yc u ccrm.s ll$ m:.:ayor :.n r l one term ;'IJ CO\tnc:tlrn ,.n. All this, :tnd n11.1ch, much <1S hn in chc Story of Suuou . Mr. Gilkspie ht bn "'i&l,-cnditcd fot hnin:s hid out the 6nt ,off cour!l l:iir, and Cuba. He is cre-dited w ith b:uing dd B. \\7es:: Co.t.n uilroAd builder, of p)pul:uitins golf tbrouahout u :a rr.uns to :anract cou risu. Mr. Gi!lc-$pic rclu rncd to Scot h.n d May 7, 191-1, hi,, t h e r e h y a '" dte n2-LI Otl:l l f;utrd which broktn up whe1 ) tho: Br i ti.Jh umy wu mobilized. He wu b.ter given C"ommmd of :a voluntcc.r corps 111M! still l:uecttl1irwd :1 COC'pt. H e co S:at2JOt.t in June, l.9l?. Mr. G illesp i e wo1 m:trri c d cwiee. .first wi(c died in Scotbnd in 1 901 l()ttr yeus lattr h e m: u ricd llbnc;:h e of n. P. Mr. GlUnp.ie suff('tcd 2 hesrt ucsc.k on .Xprcmbtr 1, In), whik-wallc ing on :a golf C001'11t he had found ed 11.nd h<-died soon Hi_s body w;rs buriotd in Rooc:m;,try Cemetcc-y. 11rhid: he to S:t nsot;J in 190). JOSEPH H. LORD Jowph Lord. for m:any yan ln8''St p.ro. pcc-c.y OWtler in wh2t is now Coun t y ras born Decembe r a. 11$9, J t W't!l s Oepotj Me. He. w.n from Brown Ullivttsity, :H l'rovidtn, P.. J ., \o\idt :an J\.8. degree in JS8S Hu was m:uri< co Fn.nc Wt"bbc-r. a gpduu e o Doston Uni\'e r Uc-,. In the f:aU of IUS, Mr. Lo-:d umc to pri muily loc his huhh sec.ondtrl f 'Ahic.h he snd Mrs. Palmer owned. T his p.a.ny started the Bee Rid.tt: ckV't'lopme.nt and <'Onduc-t td :11 nuioo-wide sdv<:rtislng which )UUCt m2ny nc-w JCtdeu (0 thi$ re sion. l'he wide ra11ge of Mr Lord't 1.C:tiviciC$ it covered in the gener:al tex t. (See I nde xr Lord, J. H .). For m
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306 THE STO!l.Y O F SARASOTA of Tr1dc during d'lc when Suarou fi.r.1t beg:u'l to cmers;! lr<>m the f\;hii'IS tugo.=. F r<>rn 19H l until F;!bru1ry 121 1 .?14 he: m:ai min4ld his hf!';ldquutc:rs in Chi c:.go, h .andli n g for c h c S a r:tsouVc:nic c Co. He ch.:n r ctv.rnuf Charles W. Jr., 3 l ieutenant c o l o n el in W orld War 11; Y Fe. S i ll, Okb.; Ran d olph Y., :. o.ttOl n c r in <1nd l !non G., 2. Firn I i c u u :n: u ' in t h e arnt}' i n World War U BENJAMIN F. ST I C K NEY &n;amin F. S1id 1ncr. i n whow honor St-ic.k ncy Poi.nt 8rid,sc-was n2.mtd w.tt born Janu:ary J$.41-. .ia Sc. l.ouir A.ft ttt'a,cd in m inin.c 2nd ct.e hottl business f o r mJny )'C'I.rs. ht c ame to S3rasou. in t 194 a n d w: u proprietor of the old De Soto H otd for 2 y e:ar. H e the-n r e ti red and homC'ttt:ad e d on S<'u so u Key, one()( t he first sett l ers on the ke). He was kn o wn t o everyone in th is rc:,ion a t "Uncle lkn." He died in his 011 the J'lebru:&ry tO, l9J2. W rol(! Geo q;c 'Nemo .. 1-li atl in. the S::ar::asou T imes: "The gt::and old Wk$ li k e a recn ttncincls -Ail1 gu:.rd the s pot he l oved so 'Wtll .. LUKE A. WOOD A Wood w.1s born in W oo n toc k\'lC1 R. l. February 2), 18-H, the s<>n ol Mf. a nd Mrs. Thom u J W'ood. duccndtnl $ o l old New M r Wood inhe r ited J l u ge !arm nc;1.r Woonio.:k c t which h'd bun by his bMily IOf optr')ttd it mor-t chan twcmy-fivt On April 5, JU,, M r Wood u tO S. JaMtl. o{ Ht..tlni.Ml, Mo. Earty in the NinrMrt. Wood's hCJ.Ith bctan co bil and the I amay phy1-ician advise-d he r t o go to a p lac-e which h1d mi l der clinmr. Mr. nd M n Wo od c.ame to F1orid:a for c:bc first dtnc: in I U2 and $ pent m ost of sc'c n l w i n te r s jn Pal mc:cto n n d Budenton In M : m;:h, J 896 afccr 'di n)f widdy ove r t h e $late t he}' Saraso ta a"d duri n g h e nct month, M r W qo d p urclu$t d the 10.CtC h O I UC'Stt:ld o f Alfre d n Bidwell as a lOyeu wc ddin$ annlnnat)' p rescm (o: his wilt, who had stlccccJ che phce :1s cht most d csi.rablc in Florid:a TJ\c home on the-BtdwcU property, which was u.rw:ompkted wMn t.hc Woods bou5ht tbc hOfl'loNtad, is thC' oldnc in thC' city limiu of Saruou and Ol'le of chc mon hinork. Bidwell wu a ltadu of c he Sua Sou Visilanccs Committee (q.v.) and on Chrisc.mts day. Ul4. h ilc ., h o\l s c wumtns p:arty w :u bf.. in# h eld :11 phce, the Vigibn tc$ mtt in hit old L UKE A WOOD

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Tl-!E STORY OF S ARASOTA .lO/ house, ad joini ng, :.nd pl:.an ned che .mutdct of m:.sttr Chadcs Abbe. 1\(t<;c B i d well's convic t i on a nd tri:d the h o ust wa5 for: a number of The \\7ood' .finished build ing it 2nd !:\lOved int O it dur)ns t h e t e r of 18%-97. Close to the houst i $ :t ri ppli1tg cttck through a ra\inc, the b :tnk.s of whkh were d en se l y CQ\'ttcd with semi tro pic a l trs. M r -.tnd Mrs. Wood d..:vdoped t h e ta\'in c into one oJ the most b t:tudful s pots in hi.s adult l i f e Mr. Wood W3$ :an avtive m<:mbet of t h e Ma.so.njc Ludg<: and w hen he came t o F lori d:t was deputy g:und m:.scer of Morning S car Lo dge of Wooosockc t, R I O n Dec.:mlx r 17, 19H, 'vhcn cere m onies were hdd in t h e lod ge Woonsocket to 50ye :.r mentbetdtip jewd! t O old memb ers :.. spec i a l teltph one connec t i on w a s m;ade to t he Wood home here so h i s voice c:ould be hcud O\cz: l oud spc3;ker i n t he lodge rOOm$. T h e occ:unnce w:t.t so unique th:tt Knig:hu l'emphr of S.:cr;tsot:'l. w en t co Mr. Wood's h o me in a body c o p:Hti cip.:cte in the event. Twel ve of t h e Wood prOperty, cxt .: ndins from Ospre y Avel\ u C".:clit tO the Tuil we-.re turned O\'ct t o the ciq on Oeccmbcr )0, 19H. The t r act c:onvcr-rc:d into :1. park and Mmed L u k e 'W'ood PHk i n honor o( M e Wood. f ertil e bod "'as bcautilicd bt the Garde n C lub and a and $Utuary were in i t :1 l.l)Cfi\Otihces hc-c at the cop of S anasou's w inter vis icon' Jist. M i ss Wood, who .spends summers on C3pe Cod, ;tt O n $ct, Ma$-$., h:lf bet:n 3$.SOc:iacc:d with Mn. E Willi.:cnu i n tbe since UH. CORNEUUS VAN SANTVOORD Cornelius \'( ilson W:l$ born :It Mohtwk, N. Y., July 10, 1S}7. On Septem ber 28, L S65 h e Harriet A n gelin a Hunter, o( Schenec:tady N.Y. :.nd .soon :. ftcr 010\'ed to M:td iro n Ga. A few yc:.n latet tO Longwo od Fla., where he the l o ngw ood New$. In 1$$5. he mov ed his lamily to wher'! h e e-subl i shed the County Advocue. Ducing t h e yetlo\\' fe"er epidemic in M a n :tt c e irl 1887, Mr.f. W;Js ol d i ed, $ ix. A )'Car laccr the oldest son, Arthur, died Ort Marc h S, 1S9S, Mr. '' ilson was nuni ed to M i u Rose Pbillirn wh()$C pJ.rnt-s, former!}' <1f C l ;$ c o w, Scochud, lud mo ved from C a nad a to f 'loridt ;a f e w b efore Mr. WH.son d i.s.continued of the Ad io. }\i:ly, 13,9, ;1nd moved p l a .nt t<> S;ara$0ta and on June I the S:anMc:a l ime:t h i $ 6nt j()b c leck oJ the L2. k e Erie&: R:1il r o1d i n fost<>r ia. Aft e r l eaving C()lleg:e, he suc.cessivdy J).1SSCilf)Ct' 2ge 11t o f t he Mobile & Ohi-o. puscnger :l gent of the Dela'l\::re, \\':,J;nn a a;nd 'X'estcrn, at Nocl<>lk p;a$$Cnger agent o( the Detr()it & l .i ma :and m:.tl'l:ager o f the National Steel & Wire Co. He joined the New York Ccncul in f91)f and be cam e general agent of t h e n ilrood being thc-. right man <1f Vice-president Chutes F DJl)' o f th
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308 THE STORY OF SARASOTA RAlPH C. CAPLES ir.k;t o f buiklillJ; :l tO link wit h T,m_ l le eben the Wnc Co1u RU Co. (q..) but btfoR hoc cou\d &<'-RU1d byif'&: tucks.. the Se.lbcnrd "'uc. hirn tO it,"' ;as )(r. Vpl 1 2y.s. built a bl'anch line hrre 6vc yurt eudu!l the ra ilto1d 's oniciJb had phnntd. Mr. a'l d Mrs. C;plc: v i sited SuuClu frequently durin,s: the yts which fo11oo:t.t d 2nd on Juty 20, 1909. purch:tsed the W, H. E n glis h h o me :tt Shdl Bcttch Thc:y h:wc b(l(ln wln1er residenu ever When the first moved to Sh<'ll lk:u::h th.c ood$ tnils wcrQ J ll nn. 2nd a luge adjoining: tr-att o( land, md induced Jolln and Chuks Rin,slins to make their w int('r homes. joJtn Rir.g ling bough t du: Tbompwn homt and :t. lug e tt:tot from Ciples on j:t.nu.u y ) 1 1912, and Charles Rin gling boug h t ncuby soo n 1f I n Sep tember, 1 9 1 2 Mr. Copies a n d Joh n F .Su r he putch:ascd t h e H:.vcm Inn ftonl chc Southem lnvcnmcnt Co S oon :t.fccrward, Mr. Cap les :tl .io bought S cit)' lou :Uld tncu fro:TI the $a me c:om -pl'-nf. t h e su1nmer of J9ll, h e buitc the C11ples b uilcli oll o n M:ai n Street. i\ pcrcnnitt.l booster for Mr. CaJ)Ics h u l11.uclt d c h e city th r uug hout du:: bod h :.j bfoushc nuny c:cl cbritit! J htr(', :and h:as induced tfi_s now has offict:i in New York, Chic-ago. :and Lor Angeles. I t lj)Cc:i d iz($ in the o f II(C()Unl.$ of Me. Cpl cll t \ ., member o tht U ni o n of N e w Yo rk the tl l i<)n of tho J)rinc.e ton C lu b o( New Yo(k, Banktrs Club ol N<:w Yo r k, R c ccf..1 Club of New York the Nassau C lub of .Pril\te to: , th'!' Hllc) Q n d i s 1 life m.:mbcr of c h e Kiw11ni-' Club 11n d chc Ohio Soc ioecy o i N e w York. for ye11.n h e h.u bttn :an accivt of S.2lv:.tion Army. Mu. C.:aplcs, 11rtlo w2s a sok>Uc f yc:Jrs o( the Pint Vrnbyctri2n Church. of Nc:w Yorlr.. has bn active in church work and JOCi.al in Sansou for many GEORGE B PRIM E George D Pri m e born in AlhI the Mason i c l<>d ge. Egypt Tctu p1e S hrine, :tnd the E l k s l o dac. Mr. Prln1e w :tt one of t h(l orisinJI advoc:at e.s oi Tami3mi 'fnil :and 20 othet men took par( in the "cuil blazing .. crip :a.crou the sutc il'l Ap r il

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THE STORY OF SARASOT A 309 GEORGE 8. PRIME 191), d-creoost.racing rhu chc route: fcui.bte lndu: Tnil). tile f-.e.r Mn. Prime n i.n dl ci"ic orpniut.ions fOc"mtd tO ,;d in rM dtn1optntnt of e;ty. Sbc: was particularly :active in tht Sara .ou. County WcUa.rc A>Citdon whi.t:b Ute helped 10 found, it -wu lugdy bccautc o( hu dfo.ru tl,:at l h e ;usociation fin:ally $\IC'C<-eded in obtaining :a hospi t:. l for S:aarot"* M r 3Jld Mrs. Prim e h :td five child re n : Anne, bo r n J ul y 2S, J 9 01; Katberim :, b<1rn Sc:ptem bi:r J>, I ? Ol, t he w i f e of W G. S h cp.1rdi 1}., born Scpten\bf!r Ui, 1905; Rose\\., bon\ fcbru 1H)" 9, 1912, wife of k. j. Alict EUubcth, born Novem be r 24, !91&, now l:aboutot) Cor Hos piral, Pan:ama C2n:al Zonl:. JUDGE PAUL C. ALBIUTION Jud ge Paul C. AlbrittOn wu bOrtl July 1S, tt96, i n Polk County, fJorida. eM $01 \ o( Thom:as A and Martha J::me (C)ance)') A lbritton, of p i o neer Fl<>rid:t A. Albritton wu citt\lt &r<>wer an d in 1900 h e C -tmc here "''it h h is fran1il )' lind bo u ght d1e old Scbon R a w ls grove Bee Ridge He has been cng-.tgtd in the (:jtrus indu,tcy evtf tinc:t. Paul A lbritton the counly 1choo l 11t Bee H.i ds<. o.nd W3S Sara.sOt'l H i a h School in I I 5 in rho: schI's secon d c:lus, in which there were boy$ :and five g;rb. He then John B. Stcuon University, :at. Dtland Fh . he nudied unti l he enlisted in tht n:lvy in 1917. For u:aining, he Knt to the chmtcu lnnitute of TechnoJooy and Winafooc: Ld.c lil,httrdunair c .nini!)8 at Akron, 0. In lt.hy, "U he .... u commissM.med n Prou.coh .. Fla., W'here he M!I'Vcd *' flis:ht irwc.r-u c-tof' until May, 1911. In 'ht 1ucumn of 1919. l.e Rlurned to Sttt son wbere ... at sNdUll.ted with !In A.B. in 192:0, He cnt<:rcd che bw school :at Su:uon 11nd wa.s grad u>'ltcd in 1922 l m nwdil'td} J.dmined 1 0 t h e sure ond !ed ct 3 l bu, )1c bcg :u' 1>uct i<:in8 h e re d ur in s tht 1ummer of \922. Ill 192), 11.: wu :.p )>Oint .. cd actocney :an d sencd n earl)'
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310 THE STORY OF SARASOT A Judsc Albritton w:u t Ma.o n, Shri ner, m emb<:r put comm:Jnder of B:J)' Pos e A Mcoric:tn an Elk, put pre-side-nt <>f the-K i Wllll'lis Club, and 3. communktnt 01t the f:. p i sc o pal Churt 2t HAMDEN SIDNEY SMITH A n t h ony (or a mo :Hh: H \ 0 ye11rs lucr h t was m:..d t l\SCnt (n 1 90) he was sent to Siir.l,Qt:l t(l the fiuc o the Sc.1board. He arr ived On the kOOod tui n w hi c h ume into the town, on Muc h 2.). {Ste Jndu: Su.boud). 1'0), he nucc:d #I &encnl ,tore and lute usocia tcd with Hi&h rmich, Turne-r tt Co. Whitt in the mch.aod i zing bu-Jtnus. he '-'impotwd .. the town's fint milliner Mi$s M.uy Manning, ol B:ahfmorc, who l:atn .,';!, r; o Fred pioneu dru.pUt. (n 1'01, Mr. Smhh. -..as per,uaded t o btc:om m.1n o the .Belle Haven Inn which h:ad become: b:adly nu\ down. He ic and succc:ed< ill moking ic tt popuhr te,j.Qrc. He then wcnc wtth the Suuot'3 lee: & {'..o. :tS and bter ent
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 311 DR. JACK J-1,\I.TON In 19)2 he reccit:
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312 THE STORY O.F SARASOTA t o the po)i li(ln IHHI secvcd unt. il h e rcdrcd at t he: e nd o f 19H. February 26. l9-i6. Mr. Yarbro u gh prob:.bly wa,, kno.,.,n t o more -Su.lfot:ans than an)' 4)dwr During the e ntire time he t h e fchoo ls he J>crsonall)' handed 01)t di J)louu.s to every gradtutc of Saruou H ig h S choo l 2t commcnccmc-nt c:.:ercis.cs.. On AU$USt )0, UO,, Mr. Yubrou,th w-at r:urtitd to M.ar&-Jr T um\xiU, o( f1a., who died Stptem.btt 16 t'l). On juuuy 1929, he "*" rM-rrilt'd to See jtJtwuc of H:utwdl. G;a:. He surTivtd by hi.s widow; chrce (hild"" Thomn Wayla.nd, J r., tlail(y, 11nd Geo c gt:; tht brothers, O r H:arri.t Y2rbroug h Millcdge\illc, . H:t) goo d Yar broug h Hu1Hington W V:J., ;1n d t he kc\', j o hn Cuv in atun. CLYD E H. WILSON C l yde H. Wilson 11.'11$ born in F ebruuy 11, 19k o O ice, m ore Lhnn a thousand crimi nal prosc cutiOJU hll\'C been in nirtHcd by Mr. W;Json. Many of chc wn, Di$tcic t of Cohm1bi:a, n d toon :.ft e rwards, )n 1$71, was roarc i cd to Potter l)o.lmer, on.t o{ tJ)e 13rgen pr<>pert}' owners in Chic.a,go .and lucr owner of rhe worl d HouH. In lUI, Mrs. Palmer wu prt"Jidt:nt of tht Board of L::rod)' ).bntgut of 1ht: Olic_,o World' Columbitn &-position of U'l and vi.rittd Europe to inttrctt fotciJ.n &0\'"ffruntnr:s in the AI a ol the efort:s of her bo.ud, eM wu bui:h on tht h.ir cro-uncb: a wonu.n's building in which were exhibited u.:amp(es of women's :arc 2nd handi .. crau lrom all puts of the wo rld. Jn 1900 M:n. waJ o_ppoince d by Pres ident Will i-am as th e o n l y 'A>Oman mem ber of the n:uiond si on t() rep resent the United States :at t h e Pari.t .Ex po5it-ion :and WJI$ :aw2rded the decoratio t o( the Leg i o n d'Honntur b y the Fcench &overn meJu. In the f0Ci: a 1 L ife o bee d2)', Mrs. P2lnttr long hc.l d a pos;ition of leadership. For 2 number of yen Jhe homes in Loa.doa :and Psril where he well known. The Xins of Ena:l:snd W'1.1 a fnqucnc &uc:tt J..t hec London home. Mrs. Pahnt:r jointd htr noccd btub.a.M of hit work# or the l ie JOOCl and ber J)f'tKIC\2-l c.huitiu were bro.t.d :and rc2ehi"J. Mn. Pa l mer wa.s noted, not onl y for her urnsu..al gnee o m.IMCI:' :and wci.al a":Unmcnt.s: but u a bu.s ineJs wo nun o t h e b.i,ttht3"t order. She wav quick to g r tup cite o! opp<>tcvnity a n d w u ca pabl e at a dC' clopu of her ph!t!l. A c the de-ath oi her huband on May 4, 1902, Mrs. Palmer came in r o a fomme o( 2pproxi.mard y $3 )000_,000. By cap

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THE STORY O F SARASOTA 313 a b l e and f a r si ghted chis (onune wa.s i n creJ.scd until c h c time o{ J1er dc u h M:a)' 5, 191 8 ;t W3S etti m:.u;d ;1$ J.I;})CCgo of bet btlutiful honw, "The: o,kJ: on Little ]by. of an acai"<' :1nd cntrgttie n:at ute, she t ook .an aggrcnivt p.ut jn t hC! devdopmti\C of the an d :. t the tim e o! her death o w ned or CpmMC of the Venice n.sion. wbc .sM h21d rn2dc pbns for the en:t lish.rnenc of ''intu colony on whttt d)C rd'e:rred to .. the mott b1r in the ld."' Mn. Palme:' dtcd ac 01h .. J.lter J. $bort ill ness. Upon lcuning of her deuh, Mayor G-. W. F ranklin lowered c hc:: eity il:ac to haJf ma.st at :a t r ibute o( r espe<:t t11e cit)' council pass.cd 2 r esolution e x pres s i tl g t h e S()t'I'OW of t h e entire:: Her bod)' w a s imcrr ed in che f:t mily v:ault in. Chi c ago. S h e wa s $ u r v i vc::d b y he r two sons, six-gun d c h il d r c.n, two broth< n A C. <1nd N :uh:anicl Hon o re; her siuer, Mts. Frederi.:.k. Dent Gt'J ntl her niece, Princ e ss Ca.nucuul'lc, her nephe-w, U. S. lrd. Her ton }lotttt PJimc-t, Jr who df.ed September 1942, w:u by two .om. POtter ID and Gordon. Pa.lm, both of whom :as licuttm.!U comnundert in the USNR durin& World ll, 1nd rwo dauchtcrs, Bertha. wife of 0 Jklti.th Thorne U, o( New York, Pauline, the wife: of Arthur W ood, o( Chica.go. HONOR E PAL MER HollOre P;al mec bot-n in Chi c:lgo, February I 1814, t he so n of Ponct and 8tnha (Honore) P 3lmcc. After 1. ptepa.n. toty education at Sc. M ; u:k"s S chool, hor was in UJI from Harvud Uni ...-enity itb -a dc.s,ue of Bxhdor of Arts.. fn IUS ud 1*99 hi: crndtd ;a.brwd <1nd upon hiJ nturn hOtnC C.tlttftd his uher's o!ict:. A(t. his bt.her' death on ).hy -t, 1'0!, H onore Palmu exceucivtof the Palmer ettatt:. SinC'e' t hen h e has devoted ,hin'l5clf pri.nc:ipall)' t o the :ad mi ni.&c ra t ion ::.nd of projects with whic h his father and. l :u:fr, hit mot. h er, w e re $ 0 e x tCn,ive:l y eone cr.oc d H e wu c:lectcd c o c h c Uoud of A lderm e n from 2ltt Ward i n J 9 01 and w-21 re-elec r e d in I'Ol, boc h timet on chc: D emocr.-ci c t i c::b c i n a lugcly Re public"' wHd. H ON O R E PALMER Mr. P.-lroer tQo Sa.c.11.$0t.:ll fine i:n 1ht winter o ( IJIO 2nd has bftn t'Omi.ng heTC CYc:r-y wine" 1inu. ln I'll, M his bcot.Mr, Pottu Palmer, Jr . buih their home-' "lmmoblee .. on a tnct fo-rmcrlr bown 1 1 the old Peek pbcc.. Later, HoooR P.1lmer Jt:qui.red hU btochtr"s io.terest i:.. thi$ od, ther t:hcir mother' dC"Ith, Potter Paltner, Jr., his ,..,intC"r homo at "The: 01ks.'' Honore: Pal me r itrved a t <>n e o the first o( the Co., f o rmed to dev el o p t h e cxctntivc h old ing.s.. I n L ?2 2 h e 111nd his broth u m:adc the first in wh11t is now know n u lhe Hydo Citrus Grovet. Al the groves cover l,200 11c res ;and produce mort c itrus fruit th2n ::.ny ather grove in this .sc-c::cion of floridJ. I n lUl Mr. P2.1mt.r J.nd his brhcr aided in the fOttnation of dw Sua:sou-Fruitvilk dcain.J,JC' di.nricc otu Fna iti llc uad Jt::lte h:w and district opcntioPs in wbic. h more du.n 1000 acres were :anihble !or c:uhivuion. In thi$ project :\fr. Palmer and his br'Ot-ber acced u trurtHS o f chtir mothu' estate, and lhe land bcc.ame known a t the: Pa lmer farms. Sinc e the IJnd wu drain ed a luge. p)tt of it hu bee n ro l d t o p rivau"l j n d i v idual.s w h o uc now m c m Mr1 o( t.h t P almer Faun t G.fo w e n A'-SOC.iaci o n, :1. coopu:u ivt o r saniuti O I \ w hich runt a f:atl)e t<:Jc::ry potkill $ :and Wl.lh lna phnt, cbe or tblppina, a nd rnarkcc.s ic in the nonh. Oudflg seaton of 19-H

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314 THE STORY OF SARASOTA 4 S a t QUI of i,22,28S Ct:ltt:s ,>{ were shipp<.1 by chc u w ell :1$ Ja.rgc qo: m.t ic ic r o f oth e r truck produce M r l>a 1mtr i s chzin n a n o th bo:.rd of the P :tl mc r lhu\k & T rmtt Co. {q.v.), n d is tlte ;t ctiv c head o f the P :.hn e r flo rida Cc>rp. ao.d otht t P:almcr org :.n iutioru A rc t iri n ,C: man, M r l).al mcr sddo nt i n the lim t:l i ght bu t h e i $ the dir e ct i nl) f orce whin Lmth of t h e S u s a r ll o'ol.'l R o ad :1$ j t cr.;.sscs-the V ;tll cy bctwOCI\ a n d l.<)wer lakes and i:.: ku>wn : u "the <)(d p icni c It was "l!Y { 'd 10 th e I N IS t'. of th e Tntcrl\:'11 JmptO\'<:mern Fund t<) be used sold) f u r purp()S(s. Mr. tn J r r icd i l\ 190.\ i n J.o n d ol'l, l: n r. (;t,,d, to Gn.c;c G c c e nW:a)' llro w n o f M d M r anJ M r$. P:,tlmer l u .d t wo $ Q ns: J>ottcr D'Q Qa)', b orn i n 1? 05 Jr., botn i n 1903. 1'he fMmcr in I the huer i n 19)3 OWEN BURNS O wen B u r ns .,.,,_ u b orn in Frederick town, M d Octo ber > 1 13(}9, t h e son of ;t n d Mar d:u An n ( t\rm$ trong) Burnt. His gnndf:l thcr, C 31?L 0 r9>-ay U\lrml, f:amc d for his cxploin during tf1e wat of 1 H 1 2. The V. $ l'Xstroycr O t.,.,'J.)' Burns m med i n bml(lf, O'ol:c n .Bucm W:l$ cwn, an d later stu died at B ;t l t i m ore Cl)ll \ .1;1.' in Afccr le:lVin g s c h(ll)l WJ.S w ith bro ther, I R i n C:t l ifornia {(It about a returned co the mid-west and. d u r ing the w hicJ, follo w ed. m ade 2 for tunc the m:uketing o f home sav ings whi ch were t pcny, buyin g the h olding.s o f J H am ilton G illesp i e an.d t h e Flos:i < .h :.nd C \ ) there b y beoomi n g t h e larg est land o-.,tcr i n S:ar:t so t:a. (S<' I ndex: Bu ro s Owen). few mOnths he bc:g:an t<) u k e :111 -acti\C pan i n c i v ic In 1 9 1 1 M e. Burns-org'llnind w d b e c-am e 6nt p1esidcnt o f t h e -C itizen s o f .,.,.hi c h h ter the I n Novcn'li.>cr I ? II, he w a j t e d presi d ent n( t h e noard of Trade. H e S001l alcccw u d pl:t.yc d p:trt in reorga n i:t.atiu n of the Sausot 2 Yacht C l u b He wa s a l ro in $ t rum<:nuJ in C'$U bl i shing t h e golf ch1b Hc i n t h e Club and jn OWEN B U R N S bui lding S t Church. H e was ;1 me mber of variou s civi c o rgan izat i o n s <'tnd 3 32nd deg r ee M :u o n. Jn 192 6 Mr. Burns built El H o tel ( q v .). O n June. ,. 1 .912 M r B\lrns to Vee non a H i ll Frtem:m. ()( M r Burns d>cd in S:m uou, Al.lg us-t 2$, 19)7. He s-urvi ved by hi$ w i dow :and fi, e lillian Gr:aot 13ur,u, O""en U\Jrns-, J r Leonard Hill D urns Ver nona Burns ;tn d Harr iet Ptckud Burn s E VERETT .J. BACON vcrett ) .B:acon w:as-born October 2?, 1883, jn W iJi i :unsU eJd Aduotbul:a Coul\ tf, O h io, the son o f P h i l i p C. :tn d ff i e {\'1/em ple) Bacon. He ch c p ubli c scho ol s o f Geauga County, O h i o. ""'d being gr.ldu atcd f rom hig h sc hool took a btiS)QC$t 1nd oourse i n M r .Ba c(ln tO in 1!/J() and al 1\,osc partn e n h i p "'ith J. \'\>'. naxcc r i n the r e :tl busi ness-. Sh o re!} he t ook o ver the entire busincst 2fld 2 lro csublis h e d an insu t:t nce d cp:tr t men t i n con nee cio n w i t h cb t red In 1917. M r. Baco n was t O n;u n:tge \hi! M:ar<1 cntcr p r i$CS con$ isti n g of the T(lwn <)f Marc:(),

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THE. STORY OF SARASOTA 315 EVERtTT J. nACON mcrc2ntik noteJ :..nd daming bvJine,t, W"ich u Muco, i.n Ltt Couruy in 1918, ht :at M:arco and bc<:ame m:an:aacr of the Puk Vitw Apa.ttmtnt Bui&d.in&:. in Tam5, :and bearoe u 10e:iattd 'Wiith W. C. Blac.k of thu cicy. Early in U20 rcrurntd to Suasou and re...atabli1htd hit inrunn and real estate businen. In addition co hi1 but.inets ctiv itict, Mt. lhcon ha1 had long as -a publi e official. In J 9 U h e w:as elecced to 2 tWO)'CIIC ttfm on the cit)' <:Ounc il :and w ar :alro dtctcd at juuice o( t h t for t h e i'th dist ric t of County. ll\ 1 921, when Sausot1l County w as c:rC'at< he \1/JU tlccted to t h e s-smc office for che entire county In the f.JJl of 1921, Mr. &cOl\ wu elected mayor o( the Ot.y o! Sausot:J. :and he fi,.c terms of IWO yens e.zt:h. Ou. ril'll$ hit wnurc of snw (rom :a town co :1 rftOc'< ciry. J-k durin.& tbc hcicht of tht boom :tnd ..-ss n tht cicys hthn ben the rucionsl dcprclfion hit. He as mayor &-ood rimt:f bd. Hi.s r-:ord of c:tn w s;augcd only by :nding in d}t tt"Xt of Sar.nou' :u:c;ompli.shmcnts during the Roaring Tweoties. During hi$ ten ycaf.s in office, che eic.y built ju ne,. pier ;at the foot of Street; uungcmenu ''ere made wit), Andrew Mc:Ansh and tO giv 1 Modun hOt4!l; 1he (:it y police lnd lire.' were mod ern:i1.od; m(lru t han fifty miles of IVtd 1 1r ce t $ and s i dew.1lk $ were l aid; Payne Termintl wat devel oped; a owned 80l f <:ouuc :a.nd solf club houje were obu,intd; t h o SuaJJ(I(a Tuilcr Puk wu esublished; th e ci.ty wo rks pl:.nt on Orange: Avenue built; the Suasou Hos piu.l w;u erected. Jnd the eity limiu wuc uunded from onco mile-squ:u't' to 17 milts. In thorc, while: Mr. w:u mayor deYdoptd from a small mediocre: cown into the pro &reshvt winter raort city which it it tod1y. IR addition to IC"l""ing: u mayor, Mr. Bacon was C"le<:ted nate trprcsenut.iYt' in UU and ten'td in U'27 Mr. lheon i.s :1 of che Muon1, Knic1m of Py t hi:t\ a n d Loy1l Order uf Muou. He tlfo i t 1 ncmOOr Q( (h4 C lwtch. All h i $ h\1 hu bc.cn imcruccd in hunting :.nd hil t owned tt\linrn in Woukegan, Ill ., Oecoi.Mr :20, U77, t J1e Q( Heney nd Hurict. ()(.jurid&t) Afte r be i ng from the high tc hool in he suntd in the o!i<:<: of the of Cbj jn Occobor, I SilO, becau1e o f the poor af h is )'Ouro.ge\C Georg e K . who httd s uffered fro m brortchid.s :all thr0\1gh the The f3mi1y phys ici:ln advise d Mr. ulo:e hi,, sQo co :t milder clinute and h e bam intuesttd in $lr3SO-tl thrOug h the advoni.Jlng in papers by J. H. Lard. Upon .rrtn1 in Ssrasou. Mr. Thsckc.r found wat. no store here .so he su.rud one almost im mediately in l wif'd01to of the Badger Pharmacy Jn un. ht nw t.he. storioU,t need of :1. funcul dir:tor in S.arttOta tO he tMk and tbC' Florjda $tttc Bosrd examlnstion. l11 Augus.t, J 91 2:, nuttd fint funertl home In J92S, he $ Old his jc\\C"Iry busj. ness ond built his pccsc n c uncnl h ome 11 14% N. Oun3c A\emC, flein g Seventh f.ycr in C()llliJ'S to So2uso t:a, M.r. 1' b:atktr ha.s a mMI 11Ccive i n ci,ic a(f:.irs. H:C" h :u tvtry "otth'll>hile undertaking pon

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316 THE STORY OF SARASOTA GEORGE 1"HACKER sottd iiH'Iumant ptriodf in Sau$Gb's his t ory, Mr. Th:.dter $t-tvt:d J;l a rncmbt r of d:.f: citr council. He w : u elected fim on Ot-mbec 6 19U, to un c on :tb c first council her S1tuot a h ad been i n co r por ated a1 a ;ity. Doring the f o JlowiJ"'S yc;m, 'he took $H!f.1 co 1novidc nttd ed P''blie i m p r O \'C:Ilttnu. (See Cener:al Text ) Mr. Th1eke r n e x t on the council d uting the pc-Jk o f the F l orid:.. boo-H d.e city w;u hard hit by the nuioml de-prulion and the was h.ardpra:ted t o p:ov;dt wor k fo r dte unemplo)t( d i re<:COt$ of t..he Tou rist Club now l h-cre:uion Club :tn d h u be e n a mcl'l\bcr of it i!wr $in<:.:, H e i; .t b o ;'t o f SJr:a J()t:l Lodge l47 f.. &. t\.1". the (tlmily mc>Ved to Chie3S0 Mr. Mucin',s first folltintc:: job u ll dnhsnun fM the: C'* Co of C h it250 o. concern ""htc:h m3nuf2Ctured wooch .'OC'lcins m.JchiMry. He worked his ..-.ay up to bxomc ll'dn:a& of the: com psny. W'hik wit h the f\rm he stud"=d ucl1iteccurc and conntucdon and socv.\ 2fuc the: turn. o( the tur)' wtnt into busit\e$S for himsdf tn uc:hitt s.n d bui'ldtr. One o( Mr. Martins dic::nu Mn. Poncr P2!1nM er. W'hen Mr.t. Palmer b eg :t n m a kins brge rel'll est:tt.e p u rch:a:.et l n che Sa r:a.soca reg io n in t?IO, s h e co ld Mr. M a rti n lhAC th i f o f F lori d a had u ol i mited pos .tibi l iliu. "' 3 r esult, h e c:amc here Jn Octobtr, 1? 1 I a n d s pent the winter. The f o ll ow ing summer Mrs. c:nli:l&i hirn tO build Oak$, her famou on Licde S:u-aiOC.:l B:a.y t'leir Ospr ey. By cho time The O.aks w;a.s c:omplc:tc:d, Mr. hlld brcomo eomplc:cdy sold on Unci o( Suasou and he dccklod to mU:c it hi.s home:. Ourin: three dc:udn wh.K.h followed he dc::Min< more dun 500 in thit nn.ging: in COJt I rom several thouund dolh.rs to $100,000 and motC'. He also 11-'U t.hc uehicec..' f o r many buildiog1 in cho buJinen s;tion. Tw() o ( lhe b u ildings ;n BayfrMt the m u n icip11l aud itorium ao d libruy. wert built c<:o rd ins t o hi p l a r u :t n d $pl6c:ac;om::, H e nude cl1o orig in:al (or j o h n R i ngling '!! p-ah ti:al hom e Mr }obrcin is cre dited with havi. n a modern methods in t o S:aruoca A n d in order tO that work would be done the way he

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TNE STORY OF SARASOTA 317 THOMAS R MARTIN it, he brough t many J.k.illcd utisa.os int.O t}le city. Oo February 19, tUO, Mr. Marti:l 'hS n" .. u-ried to VI. Co6in, of ChiQIO. 1 dcs:ndcm of Benj :unin Franklin. OM ol .M:ucin's predeccs.sor.s, in c.NientAily, "'.2$ Lcwb CaSJ, the :w:ctu:a.ry. of su.ct in President Mr. 2ld Mr:o;. M :min h:.v c four c hildrt'n: dJ1:1., born April 26. 1891, now Jiving witfl them lo S;tn$Ot:a; fr.mk C., born Oct ober 21$, 189l; Jerome K ., born j u l y 29, 1 895, 2nd 'fhomn$ Ree-d, J r ., born De"cmbcr 1 0, 1897. A ll s<>ns Wtre t;r;,dlutcd from h ig h s hool in CHnto o N, J., where the f::uni]y sev eral ye-ut. Funk C. Martin j o ined hit father in a:ehitec.tunl work .2tt!r returDing: from Wor)d W:a.r I .uxl hu been astoc:isted with him tr $inet, On Much 22, 1921, bt WJ:I muried to )fa.ry Shute-, da\l&fltcr of Mr. and )fN.. E. A. They hn<" a dauahtcr, Je-.a.n, bom July 2 .,2). now Mn. fred $(ec-!;e. Mr. stlod Mn. Steele luve two c;hildrc:n. Fred, Jr., born Muc:h 2<4. 19-'44. and Nancy, born April 2) 19..,, Jerome K. M2rcin t1ho '"' auoci:ucd hit l or )'<:, 1 U u IUJ )iltvbi n g a.rcbit<:ct. I n 19)2 h e jo::ted th Wen Cout Lu m ber C"..o. :tn d hi! if now sccrcury-trcasu rcr of the C:OIIO(>rn. On Dcc<:mhcr 2S, J 91S, he w u mnrrie d t O Purl Hsrul. d:.u-; Jlttr of C harles W. .. hris (Ttltum) Jit1nd1 pion eer $Ctdtts of Eut 'Be Ridge. Th amu Rttd Jr. Ius boeR with the Pdmc:r si nc-e 19)2 tlrt d in 1?46 wu one o( d1e nlc of P:.lmcr F arms G ,owcN Coopcn civc Auociation Q,, August I f), 1'26, he wu r n11rrjcd to Edna JoncJ, daughter oi C:ipt. 1nd Mu. j ohn Coffin ] On.tf.. They Juvc 1hrcoc John C., bon'l Apdl 18, 19U; Thotnlu C.. bor M-arch 19, UH, snd AUu, born May 28, l,of}. MONTE LONG TOWNSEND long Townsend known .u M. L. Tuwnse nd, w:a.s born in W1Shington C o u nty, Mino uri, Feb ru:ary 2 J87S the son of Clurle s S:unue l :utcl .M:ny Sam:anthn ( Gibso n ) Townsend. H i s p:trci\Cf WCI'(l msrri.cd o n 29 J373, and cltvtn nine ol w l om are still Afut -'tending p\lblic .schools u U.Cl&ndc, Mr. Townsrnd ar Bclle v\l e Colfctiatc fnnitUt(', in C 2t <'donia, Mo. 8orn and oo a larm. 2od beins a mM1btr of a liltge h.mily, Mr. TownKnd h.a.d in c:ukucd inco his tn.i.nd v-2Ju e tt( h;ard wk and onomy. He: 2M his btothtN .spent their culy yun as.1i.scin,: thrir f.nhoer in :md in opcncing ;t gcncul mcrc:ancilc After hi, .sch ool Mr. wu c mplo>t:d M :1 ((>r .;a jobbing conel!rn in St. l.o uis, M o. :.nd corninu cd to 1hc p tln y f l)r l .f reus prior to coming co F l orida. .in 1 9 1<1. bcc:au.sc of poor h c11l c h A(cer two y c;m o f rc-, ni"S pl:.ying :md tithing he his strtnscb :.nd besAn u k ing :u'l: 2ctie J>!IU jn the affAirs of th e Lan d o f S.tNsot.a. Jn I P 11. M bou,sht 1nd mo,ed one& hit prc:tt:nt esutc, ''Hillcrnt," about one and Ofteh11lf 11'141tl tcnu:h of Osprey. At thn timc9 chen wtre no drcuie in th:at vicinity 1nd the t depbone line Yal uuc1-ld t o pine trtu. rw:ch wert I'IOn<"Xistent :and Mr tNnspOrted 11l J\is supp!ict Suuou to his home br motorbo:ac. Upon the crc-,uion of Sar;tSOtuc :advsnce .he W.J:.S v iee--prtsident :end u u s t offictr o f the First B:ank &-Tnst Co. He afterwords se rved, u 1uggcscion of Mrs. Chul n Rinslins 11nd hc:r bo:.rd as l' dii"<'UOt of the R i n s lin g Bank &: Tl'I.ISt Co., served 1.11 nil t he bnnk. l iC'luidued :.nd p:.jd oil iu dep<>sitor in { ull. J n Mt. rownsend w:u trustee, b)' o ( Circ-uit Judge W. T 1-hrrilon, o( the Lord

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318 THE STORY Of' SARASOTA MONTF. lONG TOWNSEND lmlding$, includin g the }lim & 'f ruse Co. build in).; and 3d_i<.>ini n & the b-. m k. In 1940. he rolrl the b:111k buil d in g tO t11(! P3.1mer National lhnk & J rusr Co. bter, h e .S()Id 10{; feet on l\bin Street and the rem a in i ng ptn of Lord t tO the $:ati.$!3.nion of t h e bond l t o f d cr s Jown$cnd h:M been cng3ged in the re1l csute f o r m:my ycu;. H e is :1 Mute r ;1. nu;mbcr of the Egypt Temple Mystic Order of the S hri ne, of T:amp:.. H e lu$ b<:cn ;tti,e in ch c ollhirs o f the Churc1l :lt Nok omi'i for m:.ny Hi.s gn.ndf:lthtr, Willi::un P G i bs on.., wat t Mcthod i $t mini lltcr a n d was on the l'Upcr;tnnu:.tcd lin of the St. Mo., Con fere n ce hen he di ed Mo-;c of his a n c:mors h::tvc been Mctho dins <)r lhptiiiu On jutlt 12, 1.900, Townsend wut o Docia N J ohnson, his of the da)'S when they -attend! c:ountr)' school 'Ihey h3vt :. J oseph B Towns.cn d, born August S, 1?25, who:n they cook intO f.:unily when he was 6\e Yhn old. He scncd in the Unito::d Sutc:-$ CO.lH Gu:nd durin g Wodd '':.x Jl. Mr and M r s T ownsend luve S:tr\\.Sota. gtO'II.' fro m t sm.21l fishing ,. jJJ:tgc into one o f the most p opular resor t cities in and codty tht}' are (ll)6dcot that t he city's re:.l gl'()wth is ju$t bcsi .nning. For many }'C -.HS Ju.,e lovod the buutiful counay ;t) o n g the Myakk:t Rive r and the)' now ow n -a hrsc tr3Ct there In this region, Mr. Town$end U$Cd to s take his cent wh ife hunri1 \S "A'ith h i s friends, and today h e l ikes nothing better than co return drea m of days gone pl a n for t he future. THE RINGLING$ there were eight--seven rons and one <.bughccr of 3 German maker -and his w i Je who h2 d s ought pt:J,c<: '"d lltWperity )Jl Amcric-t August-'lind M.uy (Juli:.r) Rungdin.g, whose was ;'ln_glcchcd into Ringling. -:1 h:llf ce:1tury and mor.:-, the Mmc Ringling Ins bee-n a lmos t syno n o mous w ith "Circus"-and fo r three dec ade-s, the c it ) of S :tr::soca Jus had 3 deep interest in the fortunes of ch c "Big gcH S h011t on due t o t h e th:.n o { t he R ingling mad e S.UMOU. their hoooe a n d tOOk roles i n the devdc>pmcnt of the c ity. The stvel'l. R i ngling brothers were A I AJf T Charles john, Ntnt)', A. G. and Ouo. A I the "A'11S born i n Chkago v.hcrc Mr. :t1l d Mu. Rins lin s first li.vcd: Otto W3.S born i n Bar:tboo, Wis. 1 h e other five were born in MacG J'( gor, w here the fam i l y l ived (or m3;ny yc
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Tl-IE STORY OF SARASOTA 319 One )j)tin g in t he: $-!VCIU ; I!; when the ice was outof the Miuiuippi :m d rhc r crdtic -o.as ginn i ng to move t h e R.ingllng bors su 01t a pier :t.t MacGregor and wat-c hed a tin}' circus unlo1d and up its tent. The younatcn were thriltcd nd the y h.ame dcLerminod co be men"' kl\es And they mos.r ccruinlr d:i.dl Surtins f rom t.er-.neh, they ultimucly u.eccctdtd in up 1n known throu,.hout the land. AJ RingJi.ftg 2 juulu, Ch.uflt.S w-u .J violi.niu, Alf p b)'C'd >rc>nct, and tht others wtrt acrobats s.in$(1'3 and john Rln,gli.ng wu the dowa. o{ the lint troupt> &nd in 11n old pro,gc1m, d:Jtt-d 1 a&2, W&J billed u "Tile .Emperor o Dutch Comedians-," TJ,eir croup t cl11!n ... a s known che R in g ling Brcxh crs C lutie and Co,nic Qper:. In J8U the br<>t her& w ith Y:lnkce" Robjnson t<>Ok u Y amk.ec Robin.son and Ring ling nrothtrt Great J)oub iC! Sh<>w.s, Circu.s Can van They bad a copiu.l o{ II wogo ns 2-nd 22 T h eir billin& announGCd the joint .u .. malti ng 2 combine o( t'tiOuts i n the history of tented 2muwmc:nu .. "' Ac that time: 8unum .-u the hc:fgbt of hi.s am:r &ilty wu 2 dow Heond. Also in the fronc tank were Fortp1.uch a nd tht Sells Bcotheu. In the yean co c.omc-, oil chtn "''ftC t o bt absorbed b)' bcoch ers Hnted in busii\C'U with 1 t w:a,go ns They 8,0 00 miles and j:'l\'C a thou sand ex h ibition$ bdocc: they COlld nf1urd to b u y :an dc:pl1ant. In J 890, .. R i ngling Brothtn Unite d M o nsterRail coad Great Tripl e Circu s, Mus.cum and Men a,&eri-e, R om:z:. H ippodrome a nd Uni. em1 Wotld'a had gro-.n hrgc tnoush tO uke tO !he nilroad with 2 tN.in o f 1$ eart-J.nd daroe dephao ta. From then on. the Ringlinp couldn't bt stOpped )n I 107, they &unum &: .B:allltf :t tld in ., 1 S tWO $hows combined. Since then bcm ling :tnd lhrnum !c. 8_,jJey: As the ye:trs chc liv e Rin&ling men who buiJc org:anizni o n into t he wodd'i s:re.1test eir t u s fined. iu o executive-posu. John be CDme t he r01.1te ;agent, AI( T. lundlcd the publicity, wu in ch;acgc (}( advance b i lling and :\Ctual r toducc jon, AI w:.s pc rS()nncl ma.-ager <1nd St:aged the performances. and Otto bc c.amc trt:uuru. fi\'C Ringl i ngs were acpauud onh b> death Flr.s-t, Otto d itd; thtn AI, and, .i.n 1919, AI( T. T h e c.oming of John and Ourf" ki.l'lgling w SaniJ rebted in the rrmral tut, as well tt put c.tdt m.:zn pbycd in the devdopmcnt of Sa.ruou. O.arlt"s Ring:li:nJ died Occtmhcr ), tn6. aft.::r :a illrwss. lie .. -ould h.1vc 6) ye,m old !)e. ct:mbtr IS. Ht w:u survlvcd by h i 1 wido"' the fo r nttr Edith. Con:ay of Wi s., to whom he wu nucricd in 1 892, a n d two child ren, R o bert and Hcstn. He wa.s b v ried i n Park. Joh", th.e o f the R i ng lin g Bro-thcr.s, died ecmb e c 2, 1 9}6, 2t th o ( 70 H is first w i fe, Mable, died ill t H e hltr matricd Emily Buc k from whom he wu s h or tl y before bla de1t. h. CHARLES RINGLING In hit wUI, M.r. Ringling bcq ut"lthtd to the nuc hi.s psluial home: on Su-UO-a Bay. v.Jiui at :appro1Unndy a..nd an d Rin,alin& Museum of Arc. at SIJ,OOO,OOO. Alctr ten work $('ttli.ng: dw nute-, xcric ni.n,&: it from,., :alf'I"'IJt impc-nccr:able w.rb of debts :al'ld cl.aims, tht nutOtl. Mrs. I d a R inglin.s Nonh and John Rinalin&: Nonb, the Rin_gling h ome nd m u .s eum ove r to the state !>, l 946 :and title w as a cc epted by Governor MilLttd w b o hc:re IIIC<:ompanjcd by hi s cabi1lC:t, Mn. Jd:a R i ng ling Nonh the wid ow o f Henry Wbirc-n<>ne Nottb, h.u f i"cd in Sansou since I!> 1 J For mony ye.an her hom e b.a$ boen O n Bird K ey. S h e has r .. o sonJ, john Ringlins: and Henry, who .Jt Kc.y Courth o use Subdivi1ion, lcruce H ou1 81nlu.) JOHN RINGLING NORTH j o hn R i ng ling North was born Aus:u u 1 4, 190 } il'l 8Jr.lbOO Wis. the son o( l-lenr y Whi re:atooe and

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320 THE STORY O F SARASOTA RINGLING NORTii ld:. Larraint 'X'ilhclnina (Ringling) Noeth. He :ncttHic:d dte of U2J.Z2 and Onivcr.11ity l?Z 2 .. 2<4. Mr. North w::.s litcnlly nised in the ei.t C1.11.S bwincu. He bq;Jn af 3. d, w:u of h1ndli ng bank in,g of 1tH'>Il4Y wirh the c ircus. From I'U co 19)6, Mr. North wu cutc:ornet's nun of j. k. Schmch,.cr &' Co., and then Pt.rrid'l &: 0>.. New York City: {T()n lt>.Z until john R1n,ling's deat h ;., he a.uincd J,im in n il :tffain of the c:i.r c:us, r e nt cn:ttc other From 19)7 ro ('4), he was pruidenc :and d i.r:to r oi Rin.aHns brothc:n :.nd &.mum & 8-Jiley Combi.Md Showt. For the: following three he sen-eel the H 2 di rector. 1n April, h e w as c lec:t.ed lint ,lcc-prts i d4-"n t tltccucivc o!liccr Mr. Norch i$ pres ident o m d director of Ringl ing ldH, tnc. ; St. louU &' H2rtnitu l R..R., White $\llphur Sprina:s &' YdlowstOM Park 1t. R Rockbnd Oil Suuou Oil Co., St. Arma.ndtLido Rcalry Corp., dirtor Sc. louiJ & Troy R.. R.. E:J.:Stb.nd, Wichit.z f:.ll s &: Gul( Jl.. R and praicknt and dir:tOf" of tM John M .. ble Rin&l ing Must\lm o( Arc. I n 1 940, he: wttf col one l J.idcdc-cam p Wj tconin N11tion:al Gu:ard, by Go,c:rnor Hcil, and in 1,+1, appOinted l icutcn;ant-c::oJon.cl in th.c: Suu o( I au. He is 2 fellow o! rbe Amcric2n Geoguphie Sockty, ,_ member o( the C:atholic Actors' Guild, Psi UpiUOI \ fraternity, o.nd t h e f.J>itcopal i an Church. H i s : m:: Yale, Ph.ye rs (N.Y.C.), a.od )'aeht. H e married Jane Oonndly, Stpc.trnbtr 2, J92:-4. (Divotd 19}0.) ... maine of Puis, Fr21n, M:ay II, 1t40 (di Yorocd "45). His hom<: is on Ditd Kc y. On Januuy 26, 194 61 ML. Norch t m d hi s motbc:r, of the c.st:ue of joh1t R iogling:, announced daat che $15,000,000 Ringling arc museum and John Rin5l in8' p:abtial htvne could be turned ewer-tO dx nate, :as sripubted in M.r. R.inslin,g's .,.m, -2nd of :.11 d cbu n nd i h c Jtat<: t ook pt meHi o n 9, 194,, ($eC" Inde-x: Ringling Art Mus cum ) JOHN F BURKET John F. Burktc w:u born in Findhy, O hio, June U, IIJS, the JOn of Judge F. and 0. 8urke-t Hit !3-ther wu one o Ohio'i mon ouuundin$ attorneys and served t !e \e.n ye11n as one of [he cite s of thc Ohio State-Suprtme Court, hold i ng the pc.sition of chid ju:ni.:e 2ll vniO'-li times. He te tir< in j2nu.a.-y. 190-;. b:ar.lie of ill health snd eben t:n t crcd into putnersbip with hit sons, Harlan F. :and J o hn F undtt the .firm mme of Burket, Burket &: Burlcec-, an d remili11ed w jch c h c la w 6 r m un t il hi.s dt3th on Octobct I,?Ot: The Burket tunily is o Swiu o.r SwW:-Gtcmm ori,i n and resided f l'o:'lt 1490 n or in the v;einity Cl( B:&tt-1, Swit?.erhn d. In 1711. the patern'lll gtutg r;1n dpnrcnu of Judge t o An'1cr ie2 a n d settl(d at Readltl$, Pa. One of che-ir sons 0 2med John, the snnd.uhcr of judge $Ct-ved in Von Httr' lisitt DrJCOns. dtsiao1ud by the tal Congr e u to st:tvc u a spi1l ft>r Gen uo.l Geo rge W:uhington. Sol o m o n hthc:r Judg e Bu rket, moved 10 Hancock Councy, Ohio, in October, l8>3, and llTtd th.cn u.ncil his de1th in Uof7, lenin$ a widow and l'li:te d\jldtt-n. John F. Burket was c duc,.ted 1t Phillips Exeter A c' dcmy, E.xw t r N. H., and was graduated in th e dut ol J 396 He then at Willlams CoUc-.gt, Willi:amttown. Mus., 2nd later at Oberlin College, Ohio. -whcR he wu 1 of the o( .. Ht completed his law education J.t che Uni\'C:Nit) of Michig-an in Ann Arbor, Mich., d:..s t o( 190). He w:u ildmi u ed tO t-h e Ohio .state b1r in. j u n.t, 190}, a.nd enctrtd the pnccice of bw ,.,.ich his brothtr under thefirm n2me of Burbc & Burlt:u-. In 15t12, Mr Burket ptnuaded to eomc to S1r21 a&OU. by Ral ph C whom he had kno>An for

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 321 JOHN F BURKET muy )'f:2t.S. Ht: C3plu cognhotr bought tht: lnn io September 21\d in thefoUowi.l)g month. came be with hiJ f llMUy to rn1b Suasou his He h2$ been promincndy ickncifikomi.s: U 1 7 w h en Or. Fred H. Albtt riude b.rge purc h:uet i_n that region. He handled 2-U cfw! lcgisb.t.ion pttujJ1jn,g tO che of Vtnice :ts 2 city for the Brotherhood o( loeomoti-te El'lgin"" 2nd later, pcruinin$ to the fee Hubor 2M Jn.kt Ddcrtcc. Mr. Burket wu 01'\l' o( ths in che movement co divide Co\lnty snd the new couoty of Sn-a.rou. T o aeoomp lih thiJ, he made c-o.:ndttt speeches aho t ook put in the political mancu"er il'lg otnd lobb yi.ng req uired to gee the spcoci :ll act through the sute lesi,),hu't, in t he tpr ing o! l92t. While O>un t y Jud,se W Y. PerrY. W 2f! ill M r l1:tnd lc d h i s work u sccornl:y for the b o acd of count)' an d the boud o( public iMtruc don, and Perry's dctth, w:u apP<)int! 2$ 2ttorncy for each of the boards 1od $Ctvt d llbout 11 )'C-:If. On Scp t embc l l'05,lvlr. Burket wu nurricd to I .oui J e Hocge, d aughter of O r. Georse L. :md Hrriett (Waldins) Hoege of Foscori:a, O h io. Mr. and Mn. Burket hHe two children: Mrs. Huticu BurkC"C Reinecke, o{ New York City, who .i.s ckcOt1 tion cdjc.or o! wonun' t H ome and Lt. Col. John F. Burl Jr., a gnd1.1.tte of Phi11ipt Eutc:r A<:adotmy. Princtwo Uninnity .tncl the law depue .. mtnt ol YJie Unhenity. who puwd the F1oridt n-ut bu cxaminuio:tt in Oober, 1'41. snd 'WU commis hOI'Ied and servie e a month btu. Lue in 194S he wa s honorably di.s.chuged from H'tVitt. He then entered his f:tth c r's o16cc, bccornins usoeia ted with him in t h e pnccic.c of haw, under the firm name ol Dur h t & llurkc;t. For m :wy yc:t rt, Bur.Jtec took \'1 mon -:.ctive JUtt in the work o f the Wom.:ut' J Club tnd other or ganitttion (ormcd co m:akc Suasot:a a beutr place in which tO livt, Mr. Mrs, Burkn h2vc a &nndehad, lt.on!\nd Rcintc'ke, born Aug-ust 22, 1'40. PHILLTP H. LEVY Phillip fi. Lev y one o f StcasQt:a'.\ p ioneer merchanu, was born o n August 5, 188 2, in Lithu1nia, 1\UI)h, the SOil of Mr. and Mn. joseph P11unce Levy Ht ctmo t o the Uni ted when 14 ye\l.U o l d 1nd Jived with .. is bro,hen, then engaged jn bu,sinesa in lbhimort. h i t brothcu ut2bli.shed :1 wholesale dothinJ bu1 itte.ts in Ntw Yock and Mr. Levy wcn c on road for thtm 2s a Ocsirin1 co live ln t mildt.t d im.att, Mr l.cll'y carm tO in 1'1) :aod establisbtd tiM York Scoro in the old ITenon Suildin,J. Hit 11ock of nur. dundik wu b1dlr in tM uoo,ooo nu in Much 1, IJIS, whm the .acw )uildin$ and IC\'C'rlll cuhe r b u ildingl went up in 1moke. When t h t Tonnelier buildios wu tcbuilt, Mr. Levy mov ed hit store into ;t 2nd, ;n l92J, moved into tht Cummtr on the nonhwest corner of Main" tnd Pine-appft, built by A.. E Cun1mer C'spcchll y for tht Levy uore. l1t t,H, he 1.110 vc.:d the nore tO the ntw Krcu Bui ld ing he mainuintd it unci l hi.t on April27, 1'}6. Mr Levy it bavlna introduced Modtro mtrchandisin& fflC'tbods i.fttO and hiJ dep:lrC mtnt .score aad, lac<:r, his womt:n's rudrto-wnr non: nnkcd :amon,s: the best on.. the-F1oricb Wa, Coan frocn tht day of hii urivd in ruoc:a until hit det.th Mr. IA"Y tOOk an 1c.cive puc in civic: affairs church wotk, phibnthropi' movements. He co org1niu tht Su.t.\ OU County Chunber of Con
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322 THE STORY OF SARASOTA PHILLIP ll, LE V Y Mr. Lt''Y w as :a bvildcr ,J!t wdl .u J. merc.ll u t t. lie bvih the Court. one o( tht: cily'.s pri.n.etp.d pcofc=mon.JI buikfin&t. n wtll :u odwr downtown uruc-tum. ..-u a Jlnd Muon. pau p.nron of the Suasou Cha ptec of the Ordu of httcrn Stu, 2 SJlrin cr ., Odd Fel. l o w lind a durccr tntmbtr o f the: Kj C lub. H e h.elpe:d ac:ctvt l y i n buildi.ng t he: S ara JOU Hospitll :and S('tvcd u chllirma n of the gcoup whic h organ i zed :&nd bu i lt. t h o Jew i s h Center; was an. m e mber oi nech Sho l om, : md l Cl()k. :a lbdint puc in the of a Jewi llh ctmetery. He wu survived by hit ldow, \) Dc:burah. a son Abuh1m. S in Uvs,'a: duth, his bu.s:in m tln been ot1 by his widow J.r'ld .son. JM!ES WARREN JACK CRAWFOR D W:u re n .. Cnwford wu born No vtmbcr ll, 1886, :ac llecch wood i n PuU, the $On of 3nd M:lrgucc (TcttviJ) J\(ter be in_g gPdullced I ro m hi,:;h sch<:l i n Ptris, Mr. Cr:t.wford t;t u dicd lAC the Georgia R<.>bertin Hffldtr& o n Tenn. While: .in c ollege. he: entere d work, firH work. i n,s u : tom po5itQr and t h en \l $m:lll $Ocicty nuwllp:lp.:t of his <)Wn <::Jicd "TI1c Eeful.'' UJJO n ltu\ ir\g college. he t.O w or k fo r the r:riseo i n llirningh1m Ah., 111 :a rcvisiJtg clerk, ,., bl e b potition h e h el d for fo" r )'C:U$. He went with the Bitl ulithic:: Co., of il'l.thsrn, snd began mtkiJ'$ c::ons:c:ruc:6on -.ork his lift occ.upnion. He lint co FJoricb in 1910 10 h:andlc a luif pnin :and drain.tg.e-contrttt i!\ Key Wac. dar nc:xc years be was mp:s:l on projccu i:o Mi.1omi, T,ampJ. ;md Br.u!cnto n. He c:amc: tO Sauwu i n 1914 with the Sou t hern Coruttuc. cion Co., the concero whi c h h11d the cone-n e t for c o,rring lhc bump)' Jjroject was M r. Cr.1wford WC!IIt i 11t 0 for hirn.el( 2nd during the ytllrs 'Oohich follo9.cd he speci11ixcd in paving rosd, 20d the rucrioo of bridgotJ. K'Wo'c:.rs, and "l'rwrotkl. He lud c::ontn.cu lo-r p11vin& muy o( che mou i1nponuc strts in Suasoa 11nd ci90-l hl.&hrlrs of the coun1y. One of the: coruractJ he lud W1$ lor dte a>n.strueciOn o( 'foot linkil'lg S:tr :rsou wich Vc:.nicc. Bee JAMES WARREN (JACK) CRAWFORD ( Photo taken
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THE STORY O F SARASOTA 323 and Frui c ... ;li.: ori);::illllr h Jd ,sl ,cn t et tho.' ComilCilt3l J > ubfic WOrKs Co. wh icb wcu& h2nknp: before c hc project W\lS well undc r w:.y !>.h. Crl\\lord 3 1S<> h=. ndled cntt:l(!t$ for hying app rox im:nd) 6flt miles of stofm :tnd unitary and ll.'3 tcr in Sar'lsou. In add i t i on, h e !;(mtrolct.s for numerous p.cojcct$ in n uny ocher p la ces oo t h e FJor i<$;1 W (!st Co: I$L J.n J 926, Mr. Cuwford rct i t cd f rom 3ctivc bu.s:iJ\CS1 :md in r.<:nt yc:.r$ he c:m be found putt.uing about c he gro;.md$ o( l1i$ "Shore 01k s'' i n the Bc:.tch sccci-on-or gcn ia ll} h elp i ng tb<: $pOrt ins t h eir uc.k l c and e q uiprocnt :t Tuck er's. On }\p(il 22, 19 0S, Mr. Cr:awfot'd was nuuicd t o Eliz:tbcth of Asbl:an d, Ky Mr. Mrs. Cr t h e CQ-u:tty Tintcs W'he n yeus old, Pn11eis "X13lpo l e q u i t schoo l and followe d his fath er's foomeps in the newtpaper He $tatted work 3$ a ' printer'$ beca.mf! 3 a n d gr:td u ally worktd hi s way up t o become a newsplper editor ownu. He gaind h i s first e xper ic!lcc o n the i\hcon New$, in M!\COn, Gl., :tnd on t h e A d :ll)ta Journal, in Athnu, Ga At t he -asc of l9, Mr. W' t h e Wildwood G : n:ette in W ildwood, Fl a 1 n d t wo y e ars later was ele-cted mayor of the town, b ecoming "th e youngC$t ma}ur in Florida. Lat.:t', Krved ot$ ed i tor: of d 1 e HeuM. He ne:' red h1it'cd .. >ditor" o( his f c-ule$S $t-::ll)d on i.ssues. In 1907, Mr. WalpOl e e n tered t h e d ru g busineu, buying dte Drug Co. 1n h e came to Sutsot-a .h. W:. l po l e then oper.ucd tw() s cores, the S1r1sotI e v.a.s o ne of Sarasou's om.Hud for }'<-11"$. He also w;tt; a memb e r oi Jvhsonic organiz ati ons, F.\ANC!S ALLEN WALPOL E Kn ishu of Pych i:ls, O d d F dluw.s, oi d t e the Kiw:.J.nis C hb Mr. W alpole phye d ::tn cxuemel) 1 Ctive p3rt in the of Saca$0t;1 County ( S I n dex, Sua$Ota County) and w:as che ven with. which Gov Cary A HardCI." -Signed the bill whic h the Mw count)' possibl e The pen is still jn .:he 'W'a1pole fam ily 's po s On M ar )2, IS%, Mr. Walpole wa; m<1r-ricd to Rub)' of W il dwood. 1h. and Mr$. W pole had three children : F ranc i s H3tt, born Sepcem ... bc:r 12, UHH; Cha rk$ Richard born N o vemb e r 1, 1 906, :ar.d M . born Aug-llst l, 19 1 J. Fnneis Hut was n:arr-ic:d co Corrin e Max well Spcoccr, o n M3)' 2 0, 19H. With his b r ocher C h ar i(!$ he tho: Wal pole Pharm:acr in 193 6 :and h:LS been in t fte eves: I n December, 1945 he wu elected a.s a C it y Commissio ner. Charles w;ts marr i ed to Prisdlh. A. Mwgold S, J9} 1 and d\ltins Wo d d War n SCr\ed u 1st C L bo: u.s-w:ain i.n the n:avy, \>l:in & station ed two years in che Altuti31l$ Robert was w BctC)' Tr" 1 son, Rob ere 'X' a lpo l e. During World War II he setved moxe thr ycacs in the navy a.s c;h{cf c:onuniss:tr) He '0\as hor.or-ably di.sducged i n AugU$f, 'll.':as honor:ab l t di$clurged in Sc:ptembet 19 45.

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324 T!-iE STORY O F SARASOTA FLOYD L. Z IEGL E R F loyd L. Z ieg l e r "'"" born Occobtr 2 1 S9 S'l r...Wu afccr the w11r M r. Boylno n the dru g but $00n lc:( c an d w o r ked !or w ho1cs:a.lc drug coa:I.Ccr:u )n .. n d Ntw York. He c:ame bade bcrc in U26 and for a wu c ng3,1<'CI in the r ea l estat e b usine. Durina t?!J and 192:1 ht a SiOCi.utd wit h Bad&t:r Ph:arm:.cy. H e c:ht.n bou_a.hc c!.e Md:to Water tht pbnt burned in "2' be in new location with 1 new pla.nt under dw name of the Puftton W'utr This conc;crn, which prO duca d i scilled wuer, h u o per-n ed t\tr since I n Ht)1, M r Boy l s t o n r Cntercd t..he r<'ll uu.te businc:u al 11 b r o ke:l" 1n d offi ces in 'he C un1 mt:c Por nun)' y6an, M r Boylsto n ha s bee n extem c l y ac:ti t in Sar:tSOta lby P<>Jt No. }() o1 t.ht 1\tn c r iu n hol d i n 3 ptllccicatly '3tl offi ce:. in the o r s ani n4 tion :tt variOVJ: time s : Dur ing he ICIVtd 31

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 325 \l?ILLIAM JUD SON BOYLSTON He has bun duirm.an o tht County Veun Commiucc linee it was org'2ni7.ed. H..-is 1. mtmber ol tM Sua.IOta Bo.!rd, cht Chunbcr of Comm, .and Ep0cop.Jl Mr. Boylnon hu two childrC"n: Robert J udson, born September JS, J9) 1, .and Jo.an A rlinC',. bo:n Ftbruny 26, UH. S DAVIS BOYLSTON S Davi$lk>) luon WJLS b o r.' in Aiken, S. C.. July 16, 1900, the son of Frank Garl11nd and ( R:k Icy) Boylston. He 1.Htnd4:d the p1.1blic .schools in Ai:ke:n .and "'.lit snd1.1.a1td from the Aiken h ish i.n June. f$Jt7. lit then to Su:uou whtrt M was employed .ll $bon time at Wa_ lpole's Phum.acy, le-nin,; to .enlist i.., the n..1vy. H e .lt'notd u phrm:acist' mne -and,. ,..-fliJ,e in tht scmcc, m:ldc: ri&ht round t rips acJ"())I.S the fu hntK. Afcer beln,g hon or:ably di.sc h ..r:ed from the n.ny, M r Boylston :attn thtn to :md wo111 by Walpole's 1U a ph3Cmacin Ht bec:.n:te the owner of Badger i n U2J h u bccn the pcopric:to r o l i t C \'tr 1inc c The Badscr in the buHding #t Mail\ S. DAVI S BOYLSTON and rintapplc <"tted b) J. H;amilton Gillespie 1inot t h e concern wu founded i.n 1907. Mr kylnon is a ment bcc of Su.a.t.ou1 No. I U', F at A M . and o( E$YPL Ten!pleo( chc: Nobles of the-Myu.tc: Shrine. fld: h.obhin a fihint; :and huncina: On May J, 1912, Mr. Bo ylnon w:u muricd tO Ca"' olin e T. Stcckut Mr. and Mn. Boyht o n hnt cwo -:h ildrtnl bocn M:arch 1916 and W i ll i:an 1 Stckqrc, born. Ocunbtt 21. t927. Mn. 8()ylu o n h u bn llt:t i vc in Red Ccoss \ CAL VIN NATH ANIEL l'A YNE C.l vin Natlun.5c-:l Payne,._, born 2 t lrv:lntton, Wa_c. ren County. P.L, M:a; 2S 11 4-4, btin,c the ton o{ N:athanirt .., nd fnmc-r who tetdf'd in Y:arrcn i n 18-40. 1ft.e lumber woods (c cduc:atioMI t O boy and s.ehoolins he w
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326 THE STORY O F SARASOTA CAlVIN NATHANIEL PAYN E in the oil with his foot in :a spcins:-p<>le nnp, wccking for :a..n oil driUtf A {('fl ynrs bttr hc bcpn drillinc wdb undu ecmtuc::c l nd by I 167 bt htd :lft oil producu on his ow:t x-count. ln U71 he bamt plrt owner and of the PayM McCny ptr chc first commercial oU line ever ph.oed in Cpt ruion. Jn Oe<:ember, lSSS, Mr. Pnyne accepte d :a. position w ith the St : u,d1td O il Co-. l() build up 1 n d m:a.n:.gc natunl g.as busine ss, and in b uilt the pipeline to.1rrying nuural gas co Bul lalo, N. Y., t he: lint big c ity tO u.c th:at fud for dorne:uic He W1.t ldcl'ltifie\l with Oil (Ne11. Jersey } until J 9LJ, holding potitions in many of the com subs-idi.uics 2nd :aJfiliat< conc:ecl'ls. From 19U tO l.is r on e of hi11 invtn ti ont was 111 dt)'('r for photph a t e calc ium, superi or to anything t h ('n Wben Mr. CunHmr wa.s 11 years old, h e 6.m carne to Flor ida, in U9l,

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 327 ALDRT EDWIN CUMMER t O in$tall the Cummcr d r yers in p b osph :nc pJams at Ptace R i ver, Dunnellon and other .sli<)ns phosphue W%t lxins I)J:Oduccd. Btc2u s e <>( the quate rnnsport:uion facil itie$ of those .fr. Cummer m:.n y yc-us abrood, 11upe rvisins install:nions $ 1ld t iding in t he of J)CW s-ubri d i a ric-$. Mr Cummer first e:.mt-to Sar ouot.t il'l 191 9 c ause o f Hl he;;il d i n s n o w nanding On tbe northwest corner of M:.in Pine:!pp l t Mr. Cumme..then b uilt the Cummer 'nl A \ e n uc to be as Sar tsou'11 modern po.stot6cc. The wu t h e pwt office opened t here, ..::rly in 1 92}. Mr. Ctunmer's mon r<:<;en t dc\clo pntc:'l.t i s Park (1-hrb or Ae rcs ) on the jun :'1. Jinle Wlll h of This de\do, mc:lt W:l$ ed in_ 19}7 b u t incnrupt e d by the v.ou Ot 7, 1 9 08, M r Cumm<'r w)J rn3rrie d t o l o uise West of S)'t:.tc.mc, N Y. Mr. :t nd Mrs Commcr h:'l.v e O:!e $On, 1W\1o.in West, born Septembe r 2 0 19!7, uh o was cducued in Un iV('r,s)ty Schoo l i n C l e \ ehnd, Prcpu :lt ory School Ya l e Univtr sit)' 21ld rhe t)nil ertjty of Mkhig :ln. An attomcy he i s n o w empl o yed by the Fint CJc ehnd Corpor2-cion, Clevel an d. Mr. Cumoo::r i11 3 m e m be r of the Union C { \lb :.nd Mayfield C ountry Club, C l e vehnd, :wd the Chutch of the (Epi sco pal), jn wh i c h bo t h h e Mrs Cuntmcr an u c i vc pJ.rt. M.n. Cummtr surted d 1 e Sa n-sou Cudcl'l C lub he l d the firs t two 3.nnu :.i flower shows in her h o me. SAMU EL W. GUMPERTZ W Gumper t? was bot11 in '"'ashi ngwn, D C., the .so n ol Herman (Mel ville) Gumpcrtl-. When he u a child, the f :.rn i ly tO w here he :lttcndt d pubHc tehoo h f 1 t thrc-.z ye<'tn. When n_ii)C years ol d he joine d the ]01cklc)" of J<:rob:tts with lhe Qureo Circus :lod travdc d with the troupe until hi11 mother died, o u r M r Gumpercz. chen adopted by Ned Napier, of Swe-etwater, . 'With "'hon\ he wOrked until he 1 R. Circus life 3.gain proved 1 n irrc.sif u.ble l ure 2nd h e joined the 8ufhJ o BiU Sh o w 3S :a to-ugh rid<'r-1 S _!>), h e c h ang.cd o ccul>:ltions. During rhe t.-i:'ltcr h e .sC"t\i :as manager of Lhe Col John D Hop kinll Circ u it o f Thutre-l from co Orle:. a and i n tbe .smnmer he opct:)t c d (out 3nlU$C mc n t p:.rk11 ill$:. louis. ln 1 394, mtnager o( J-lo pk ii'IS S how, h e tnS$ Scd E u gene S:tndow the ltfOJ)g man, from t h e i-:.thc r o f Zicg leld, with chc n ipul a tion thu h e t:t k c Flo Z1tg feld t o l ook our for S:mdows i\n. Mr Gumpenz was by H. Rcynofdt, of B r oo .kly n to hdp build Con ey hhnd's Drc:.mland, o n e of the 3mu s eme1n

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328 THE STORY OF SARASOTA puks in the rcn u incd there u n til i t burned in 19 J I. He .1Lso $rv< all g c n e n l rn:uu.ger for S cnl tor R eynolds in developing Long lkacb. L. I. One of his ''sturm" :at Long gained nuion-wid c p ub licity. He ch:.r t crcd :a special tt2i n and c ook six ele phants, along with o{ .. prospcct.s", to the isbnd. Then, while c:tmtt:as clicked, the '01-'W: u&c d to demolis h t h e ckvcn old buogalows and t'A'Ostory houses '9.hich had t o b e t<>rn down bef o r e the dc,dopmc -nt work could proceed. In two ho u ts, the dephanu W Ut! finished and the stoty w:tt he-adlined i n nesplpe.t' $ t hroushou t t h e country. In 1 912 Mr. Gumper t z general of Rc3.1t)' Aswci ates i n chc: dcvelOJ'mcnt o f Brighton 6rooklyn. He rcm3ined w ich c h c 20 years From 19Jl until 19}7, he senior v i ce prcs i d(:nt 2nd gener:el of Ringling Brotlters lS:Hnu m & Combine d ShOw $ From I!H8 tO t.htc, he h:es been m1n 1.gct for H :tmid's Mil .. liM l)olhr P ier in Atlanti c City. Mr. Gumpert?., ) $(: h i end of John Ringl ing !or n1:any ye:trs, first c::unc to Sansota in 1919 :.nd f<>r thre e w inters l ived in the Ringli.Qo J.ome. ln 1922, h e built his p-:-e.\ent h<>me on Sun se t Point. He was :essociued w ith Mr. Ringling from. 1922 to 19l2 itt R ingling Me,. In 1'24, he Mr. Ringling penuadc:d John McGraw to being the G ia n.ts tO S.u: :.so t a for tr:a i n ing. T9oO yuN lnc r the two m e n built the SAMUEl. W GUM PER TZ I.id o lkach B3th in& P:t ,ili o n tlte first modern bath ing pAvi l i o n i n t lt i s sect iOtl. In 1?32, Mr. G umpenz purch:ese d The Lo:lge, formed)' located nc-..tr the .h.CL depot, and h<1d i.e moved in sect iOn$ tO the wher e ic w:ell converted into t he Lido Hotel. Mr. Gurnpcrtz constru Gtcd furnished. tnd the pcntb O U$C O n the. Hospiul in which. J ,501> openti O I\ $ have been pctformed upon u nuts. Mr. h 3 s bee\ :tn t ctivc member of the Suasota P:1rk Board $ i ncc i t fi.rn cr.eaccd in J?J8 :1nd wodted con.H;mdy for of the c icy He 1 lso h elpe d to get the Lido lk""ach C:t ,ino :tpprovcd b y t hc fcdcr<1l g overnment. Since J 9 38, he h3$ bee n of che L ongbc.c Club Mr. fir s c w i fe. t h e (c>rm.cr E 'ic Steuon o f Bonon, who died .July 9. 19; 1 \V:Jt :t \':l u de ,illc {() r many rc:ars, ha\ing phyed "''ith Jane t Mel .. ,.iJie, sister o f Mr. Gumpcnz, under the billing Md,iJJe & Stct$0o.; she took Fa y Templeton's pla1;e 'IVith Weber & Fields and p la)cd a t the Bro:tday Musi c House On Septembe r 15, 1?413. M e G\lmpcrtz was t<> Beatl:ice F. Wood, of Methuen, ERNEST ARTHUR SMITH E rne.st Arthur Smi t h 'll.'a s bonl 1c Manehe sc e r N. H., July 1 S 1878, the .son o f A B. 'lnd Ida (Elliott) Smith, bot.h of New His f1rher jcwcler w:..s 2 o( che f amilr of Smith$ sectled in New E ngi1nd i n C o lonia l d a ys E l cv(:n genera tions o w ere born i n Bxcnt"J00d, N.H. A fter .St\ld)ing i n the p u bli c $Choob i1l }.bnehesur, he high .hool in Haverhill. Mass. bter, he worts.ing i.c>r .,. pi:1no stor t i1t ,.hn .. N H., of 'bi<:h he bcc1me .m:en:ager after he completd h is high $Chool cou rse. With hjs brother h e hter formed theSmit.h Brothers Piano Stores He then entered the auto mob ile b\ts iness and bc c1m e che h e a d of one of che brge$t :auto discribllting ;tge n c i e s in the New Eng.llnd states. Mr. S mith [rom his :ective endea vors in 1921 and came to Sarasct:t intending to ha\'e a l o o s vac1ti G n. B u c he soon tired of loofing and within 3 few momh:t ht bec:a m e :tn acti,e puticipa.ot jn com1:'1\\lnit)' alhin. He entered tJ,e t$Ute business latet' bec:.me p resident o f the S..nsota Abstnct Co. In 1 922 M r Smich pl aye d a l eading in clte reorganiz.ation of t h e Ch.:.mber of Commerce and for five $et\'cd a s executive v ice-pres-idellt of the o :g3ni.z:.tion, without pay, 'V.hile Chule.s Rir.glin g 'lnd Joh n Rin.gl io s w ere the presidents. He che n $etved t9.'0 )'e:trs i the Chamber. Mt. Smith was ele c ted bee j n l?)J when the city's 6.)
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 329 due to t he JU.ttons l When he toOk otliee, in jsnuuy. 19.)2, he found dut the city owed S6 in priMil)'l and put due int ercs.t, and dut iu cndic w : u uhnucd. The city wu chen obli&Jud t o pay fi,c-J)<'t cent inttcrttt on iu ouuunding bonds. Mr. Smich w;as rrtayor in l'H :t.nd UH. He did not run for rc-do:ctWn i n fl).)7 but hi_, !ri e n ds him to the. o!ice in 19)9 and he w:l$ r .;-clecud by :1 l arge nuj orit}'. A"d he was ;1\&0 i1\ 1 941 : m d 194). he :ts Snuou's nU)'Or (o r lWelve yeaN, csubltshing a recor d wbi:ch prob:a b l) never ill be $1.1rpaned b) sny man He left the oeice -hen the city form of gov..,cnc into dftct itt J a nw.ry. 1,4,, WhiJt hnd of cht c:ity, Mr. Smith succeeded i n ref10ndi.ns cht> without con to th.f c-ity, and che i.ncernt to three per nC:, thcnby dfting co SJra.s<>t.l of ;appro-xim:ltc:ly $100, 000 3 }'CH. Wl\en h e left chc c ity'' fin.anci d WC!rt i n n cxc<:l1cnt c;;ondic j o n a n d it.s cct:dit b een rc:o.tsu b l is h c d. the th3t cbe city h:td suffC"rod from the "''OUt 112tions l dc: p!'cuion in the country's b;stOT)'. Du r ing ).hyor Smith't in ollke m:any viully public improvements wert made wlch ouc any innn.sc in t.ll:(c:s o r lc:vyin& new bond iuoa. Thr ou.gh tht help of v:arious JOVr t w hidt. during t he wu. w:as use-d tiJ ait b ::LSc; be en.td e Lido Beach a payin& p roposition: he aided ln the dcvtlopmtut of t-he Suuou T' r.a.ikr Puk.. nukins ic OM of the best in tht countq, and wit.f. WPA htlp he manas<'d to put in the Onngc Avtnut norm $C'W<.t, build new w':ll14. by miln o JidC"W;aJics, widen Osprcr Avcnce bridge, an d oc htr M.otjor improvcmenc.J. He 1 m .. proved and txp : mdcd the pc>lice 3 1\d fire d cp.t(trn encs A s m oyor h e u j u dge of the court for t..,elvo wit h o n ly o n e tl>l )ta l to 11 higher COurt. He mtdc plans for :1 and syn c m c o uke earc of :a city cf $.0,0()0 peop l e and <1rnn.gcd lot &:OVc.rnmt:tu gnot$ to take cue o{ the cngine.erin,g: -u. )fr. Smith is now t'ng.lg<:d in the ckwlopoxnc :and N.lts o( H a rbor Acm. Since coming to lht' entire Smith fami.ly h 'ls been aet.ivt iJt civic His f,thtt, ao, ch1irl\\11n o b oard and w:u respOnsibl e for tho pbnti,g of thouuDd$ ()f cret f ; llh O wich che hdp o ( Fun k Binz., S r . ;n throus h t he Roury C lu b money f o e unifo rm s $1nd inttruments for che h igh school b:m d His b r o chu, W E. Sm.irh. c;tuirm:an of the OPA W :tr Prict and Radoniu.s Board t!uou.shout th e .u. In UH, J.fr. Smith wu rm.akd to Mn. Jean B. of Boston, M:w. M.r. Smilh h:ad two U:ne E Smith w h o died in umy during World W:.r I and E.l lto t H. Smi t h nom.anAJCt of F!orid:1. Power 8c Light Co . in Punt7. Go:d:.. }'h. A s tep Jon, Gtora o C Sh1.1te, died in during World W11r 11. H_i,s ncpdaughccr M\lt'Y Hall, i $ the wife of Frank C. MHn K"tivt i.n t':llisir\J morwy fo.r worrhwhilt civ ic: enterprise. Much of her time. during the twenty yur1, has been devoted to welfare work and hel p ing in tlttd. ANDREW McAN SH Andrew McArub, builder o r the fiut. hcul in Saruot:a, wu born in Scod.u\od, the $0.n of John aad (McGlll) M cAmh. Whco he W.ll$ 6\'C yeus old the fam il y co t\mc(iea, setdio: 6rn neu Toronto. C:ll) years lutr the bmily m oved to C hi c:#to Mr. Mc/\n.th 11Ucl)dtd public .it hools and b uJi nen coUeg
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.3.10 THE STORY OF SARASOTA .ANDR.E\'11 McANSli 1\ftcr t:l):n p lcting h i $ i\fc:,\nsh worked in the trcuurcr's offic e of Cook C o unty. He rh cn i<>r hims e lf, in \'C$ti n s ..,._,.,.j,\'-$ o f mllkll'l g a p r o 6 c ()f S4,900 J:t e n d of d'lc: fint yc:u. He s o ld the b-.:10incu after th.: first Chica.g<> in 189). M r Mc:\nsh. wat then e lected to the State &:ard of F.qmliu c i Q n o f llli n o i s 3nd hter o f th e bo:trJ After ccsignins from the boud h e t h e furniture busi ,,cS-1: e$t::.bljshins thtt( plants, o ne J:t Wis e., Oil i n liolbnd, Mic h. :tnd the th i r d in lcno: r N. C. H e w id the c:Ontp3ny in 190 7 and incorpor-:at c d the R3illi :J:y rrrm in3l W:ar hous-e Co .. i1l bc.comi ng iu se, rhe .Mira M:ar hotel wu St21'tcd .md eornp l crcd lace in t h e f:.ll. The M ir:a M.1r Auditoriu m, witlt J. $C.ating; capacity of 120(1, b'Ji!t :H the $)me tim e 1S the h otel. ln th e fall of 192S, h e statttd the d evelopment of Mir2 Mu Betch S u bdivis i on :an d built the Miu Cafino o n Si('$t:a. Ke> Mr .. i\ f cAnsh i s 3 'IJ.i do.;\t r his w i fe, Dertlu Dcxg : ul McAr u h l u v ing d ied on J u ne l(), 19-15. He h:l$ t"'O c hildren, Brron and Me$. W, D Foreman M r. Me .1 }Znd deg tee Ma$00. WILLI AM D. FOREMA N W llli:1m D. Forcnta n w;1s born i n Chicago, IJI.. June bil.t niC $ nun. T o d e monscr; ue the dutab iliry at the then "new hngS.S botsdcs$ hc m 3de m any I .no.n-stop c nd\Jt:tnce ruM i n the Chk:lgo diit!kt. W hile ,uiJI in hi.s twenties, he io, cnt(d :r. number o f {or n ukia.g; .Jut().S m o r e dficic:rH. H i s in vcnti o m ;ndudcd improvement$ in thc orbutet\on -:rnd dectri c.d which were w i ddy :.dopred in 'he i ndu st r y In 190$, be beg::tn manuf:tc t urjn g :lx lcs :1nd $ hilfts, 'i\ith :a. pl:a.nt i n C hi cago, :.nd c;ontinud head of th e conce.m unti l 1?0. ln 1 9>.9, he besa n m;anui:r.cturing: b:tuery chargi ng equipment 'l),hi cb hisc o ncer n i s $ t il1 produ c ing "'ILL! AM D FOREMAN

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 331 Mr. foreman fine c:smc tO Su1SOu in chc btl of 192l hcnily invested in '5'ottcr fronl He ;lifo b:i'ln1t: one of the origi nJI of the Miu Mnr Corpor:ation .,.,hi4.':h btilt the Mttr Hoed, :.nd Miro M111 AuditQl"ium. In 1938. h e beo;:tmc the Q'tHttr of the hottl :and i s .uiU -:.ct i vc i n che dircctiol\ of lu aihiu. l lo it n me mber of the Athletic C l ub Mo.sonlc IWsc : m d th e S h rine the Coil C l ub, of :m d i s prC$i d n t o f chc Sua sou Sun and S urE Club. He is :&l$o :a membe r of the Cbriui:an Churc h hobbiCJ are bo:ui" S and fi11hil&. His intcn:tt in boatjn g coup led with his inttrtH in C01'nptitive sports Jed him tO uk.t up h)dropl:al)( ncins nuny from 1924 to I" I he held the wo..ld's single-vtrntncnc tt th(' Puis for hi.f ] ende r,hip in the prod1.1c:tion ol a.utOmobilet Mr. Corrigan quit the .t.utomobile busine:ss in 1'1)1 tnd ng:aged in the o f fkxlb1e becomin' Tice-()l'C$idmt ot th Osboc-n Con duit Co.. ol New York. In 1907, he wfnt to riu burah ht rtK'rgcd the ccmduic ln:sincu with the CHARLES E C O RRIGAN Nniona1 Mcu.l Mold in g Co., of 'Ofbich he became viet president. In Pituburgh, : Mr. wu rfeOgniud u one of the <:ity', mos-t success-ful nunufu:turuJ, He wu a tMtnOO of m.a.ny clubs societies. Amon& t 'httt wt-rc the DuqueJnc Club, Picubvrch Prcu CJub, Pimburs:t. Country Oub, Old Colonp Cub, Au S,bk 'frolilt and Game Club, JOnd Woodmont Club. l'IC' also bdonged tO Mtnuftccurcrt" :aHII)(h.tom. On Fcbf'u-uy 6, 189 S M,r. Ctwt'i,C3n ,..-as to Alice Mdit.a Potw in d au g hter of Henry and Annie (Smith) Potwin, of .Mr. ""d M($. Cottig;3n e sublUhed chttr winter kom irt Sunsou during: the e2rly Twe nties and im mc:di:ndy idenci.6td wi, h th e Cit)' l c:i v i e at'ld ntf nin. The)' li.'O n the h igh rcaard of c h eir fellow o f t heir m:any philnn thro pic: daeds the &upport t he) &'-\'!! t o pro jcc:c for t h e bcncrmcnt o c ity. A t :a h o bby. Mr. c:mblishc:d a j)<'h1luy farm ncu BradtntO n, k now n a.s the Farnu, w hich h e deveJoptd i .nro one o the hrgtst and m01c scKncific.JIJy poultcy f1rms in the n:tcion. Mr. di-ed March 241 192S, :at Sc. Vift ce:nt't Hos:piul Jtck$0nV"iJle t.ftcr shon illne-ss. Puotnl KrYi
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332 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Mr. :tnd Mn. h'"d Ji, c hildren: Ruth Frances, bom july I I f UG, 1 1 0'1>' the wife o{ W a lur GordUI\ Ft3\ enh eim, of S3U$ 0t',); Jo\\n rt>tWin, born Janu:'lr y 1 I, J 898, -:m Cn$ig, in the n:.vy duriog World I :'lnd now a citru s grow.:;r t>f t he Glad : ohl$ Grow<:r$ Atsoc i ;u i .on, wi. h i n Saruuu; 1\hry A li ce, born Occcmbt r IS, tll.?.?, n ow the wife of Robert L MUtec:, of New OdcaM: Chults Euger. e Jr. born } 1901, now .1n j nveJ>t. .. mcnt Nnktr in Ne'll>' and Fnnei.s b<>rn .Fcb r u :.ry 21, 19()7, n<>"' m2n2get of Crsc;cnt M rs f Hlttfo r d 01nd :ac University l n i 92} h e to wit h Jcv iog :luthvr, H w inter of Winte r P::ark, :FJ:a., :almou pucc. huc.::l t he hnd now 9l a cres of i t known 2$ A\'On Hcighc;. b.ter the $.JmC y e;1r :1 S loc \t com p .:my w:u w ith S I SO,ClOO FRED F WOOLLP.Y in c:Jpiu l The cont pln)', known a s the O r cwc r (.Qrp., purchased Mc.Cidb.n Puk i n iu wlth u-.:cptio n t>f l()ts pre viou$\y :oold by the Misses and O:a.isy McC1e1bn, the origina ] developers. The spent much ti".e ::and J'OOM)' oping Avon.chlc-, putting i n streets, s id ewalks 1 $)'$t-t\'n 'lnd ph.nting. Tht hou!i:1 were built in subdi, i s i o n for pur 2t a cost o f S7S,OOO. H udson B:J.)'OU was dredged and &C3W21led. The Bachc ll cr-Brci\ 'Cr Corp. proved t o be profiuble to lhe a lso nude -a d efi. C:(}ntfibu ti.6n t o the Mt. 'X' ooll cy ;active i n Ch;amber of Commerce lff:'lirs for nuny )'Cll:'$. He is a member of the \h. $On.ie L;'wil e y tw.s
etmutit So, !tener$ 'W3)'1'1C on 3n d He:.tiug Systems ::a.nd Aurou Wucr tcms. J t aJso sell$ plumbing suppli es of the l<.ol1lec comp.1nies. During World n. M r .serv(d a )'Cat as e n s i neer for the Fcdcr:aJ Public ing Authority, Regjon NC>. 4 :an d .. n.s te sp onsible f o r plumbi n g aJ'Id heating in defense and wa r housing project $ in S .southe ut4: ro sta te$. H i $ hudq,uuters were in A tbnu. C:a., 2n d while there h e 1 nigh t t-OUrSC" io combustion cng)netring at Gc<>rgia Sc hool o( Technology. M .:. R h oade s i s 3. p :t$t president and :e me:nber of the S:tt3$0t:l M<1ster PJumbcr.s Associ:nion is dl2ir""'" of the \o:tr d of Pl umbjng Eumi.oers for the C it )' o{ ln 1 941> be -w:a, apl'(>inted

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 333 J OHN MORRIS RHOADES consult..,n t c o the bureau of sanitary of lhc F lorid:e Stat<: .Board o f He i s no"' presi dent o f the Horida Su.te Association o f Ma$ter J>lumb-e r J tiG: Heati n g Dealers, Inc He w's dt:erter mem ber of the Lions C lu b i$ n o w 1 1 M mbc r o f the Club; is a p:tn e xa lted ru l er of S:ara.$0U lodge N o. :an d i t :a member of the of Com merce and Junior Chamber o f Commec cc. On j u n e 29, 1.940 M r Rho:.de s was m::ardcd t o Mrs. Iizabe t h Odl (Smith) Nedy, of Mr$ h as twQ child ren : E liube t h Jc:m .. )C Neely, born N()\cmbcr 6, 1924 a n d :Elber t Fle m ing Nee)), Jr. bor.n Apr jJ J, 9 27 Eli"-abet h w.u sr:aduated from High School and Srct.son U n ivtr$ity and i s now b ookkeeper for J. M Co. El\xrr Fleming Ntel} .. vho :tl$.0 :mended S:tn sou High Sc hl and was gndu:ttcd from the Miliurr ir:t OH6 i n t he U. S. }.hrir.c Corp. M:-s. Rhoa dc s i $ a m<'mber of cb D.A R. Md the IX$Cuse SJ>ons ored m :tny imhw$. 01) lo c:t! i nterest, he was ;he Juthor Q( the b w w h k h : b e RingJjn s C:tu $e9.':t)', then JOHN L. I'.Al\l Y

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334 THE STORY OF SARASOTA in ba.d J.r 11 2nd h2ndkd O't'(:l' '00 claims of vctcuru and hmilies. Mr. MaC'btlk Chirc Brooks., of Ourlonesvmc, Va., a Khool teacher ho har uught in t-he S:u:atou public sehooh. Mu. Eul)' serve d ts tttuuret of t he O.A.R. and U.O.C. 2n d aho ll$ c;h_ ajr 11nn o f t h e Red C r04J during chc W:lt'. Mr. and Mt.t. E:u l y h :wc I* 10n Chules Edw:nd, who W:ll> gr;uJu\'l:tcd lr< m su, ,u() t a Higl l Sch o ol :H V ir g i n i a Milit:.try lnuitul(' lo r :1 yNr, ;ln d thc:n .:meted the M:trinc Corps A J til 14, 19H. \\ :u in rhe b :nlle ol (wo jimo and in 1946 ,_...., itt a n:aval huspic:al, not h:avi.ng fully from hi:. wounch DR. JOH N REGINALD SCULLY Dt. John Regimld Scull) wts born i n Orctmbtr S, 1 US, d'e o{ W illian\ 2rtd Eliubeth Scull)'. He attended the public $Choob jn JRc:.tur :.ncl a u cn(lcd the V11i \er.tity of Toronto, in Toronto, Canada. from w hkh h e was gt';u.JtJ;&ted in 1?07. He degree ol D.V .M. After being: graduated (rom colle g e, Dr. Scully uu,;l u at c h c Vtcerinary College, in T('tr.:-Nautc tnd. (rom I?Oitl tO l91 2, l-Je then mo\fd '4) Anwrkus. Ga ht: pt!Kticcd cwo He kh thcrr co become hoeahh ol C1.., whkh posicion he-unt1l 1924 with the CU('pcfon o( time he .,rYC'd in World W.n. from 1917 to 1'21, s.olng into ttni .as s second linlccm..ttt 1n che Cor-p5 and reaching t.he unk of nujor. Comi11g to in 192<4, Dr. Scully grvccl u ht1lth officer for bot h :tnd }.hnal counties from 1925 through 1928 and u hulth officer, thcre:dti!t <>f Sara so t:. Count)' until 19)), H e $CnOO twi ce u o l p ub liC worlct, from 1929 throug h lltJ4 :m d 1g.1in frvm 1?}7 chroush 1?}9. H e 2.Jso J.:rvcd ;U a men1b.:t of d111 city oounci l foe three }'CU$, 1 9.f l throu. t;h 194). He wu ch.tirnun of the S:.tn 1k>t:a P:.rk !kurd i n 1'42 3rtd l,,.), While c.ommiuioncr of publ;c -works., ol>uifttd '\"it;ally P'lblic: at 3 timt wMn the city's cdit WM bee:at.JSC of tbC' nu.iocul when the city h1.d a serious uM:n.lployment problem Or. Scully m.tna.gcd in various tO obtain the essenti.tl m3terials for C...tr)ins on nunltrou.s ptojccu fin:u\C:cd in puc by goYCtrl. mental ag<"ncics One of the tltst projects undc:rt:alttn w:u t h e con$1t u ction o f Ringlin g CauwA ay and Bcidgc-. Later, 11 new bridge '91 o ver Hudson B:1you, se J w:cll.s ,..ere constructed arou i ld tlu: Cicy Hall, m1n.y OR. JOHN REGINALO SCUllY Str\"tU wert: p;avcd--,nd b:lUS<' of Dr. Sc:ully, nuity, cbc d id n Ot c;wc. the eenc. Dr. Sc.ully supuviwd the: coanruccion of th(' mun.icip3l Lido Jk.Jch Cuii'O. and 2 w-attr plane. 2ad Us.o ditcetf tht wor k on 'uch projteu ,__. the extt*n-sion of the watc r syste-m. the of t.he Trailer Parle:. numerouJ other bad)y neede d improvemcnu. Or. Scull)"s Sm:11l Anim-al H<>fpiul loc:ucd o n liigcl Avem1 e ncar the Atlamic Coast Li .ne Depoe. hM w idely pra i sed being M e of the linen :'"i mnl h osp it'lh in e ncitc country. Dr. Scull)' is a member o t.hc Mas o nic lodge Scocci1h Rite )2nd dt,gr. t h e Shrine, and the Ilks. He i' a iJo a member o f the Church o the R.cdmcr, HlJ hobbitt are gardening, lanchc:lping and hrmin&. On )uM 27, Or. ScuUr wti mnf'itd to Edith J lAmscy. Tht-y have rwo childrt'n: 'Dofothr Sc.ully 2nd Msrion Scully Nobn. both c f RUSSELL A. CURRIN A. Curdn '\\'U bor:n M3)' 16, 1894.ln Hills boro. Ohio, the: son of Joh n l)hill ips -and Mary Ett-a (Jocdan) Currin Afccr attending dem:nt.u)' he studied two years :at the hish $Chool in Marion, 0.,

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T HE. STORY O P SARASOTA 335 RUSSEL L A CURRIN t...,O )'t.lr $ t Doane Acadtnl)', in Gr.trwill<', 0., :tnd tht:n went t o Ot-nlson U!tivt'rsity. Aft('C fi.nUbin g his junior in dtt utti\'crsity he 'rUtted umy :and wrv< 11 mondu .. mos-t of t.ht timein the A.E..F. Upon bci"' hononbly dis.chargt'd in 1919, h e returned tO DcniJOn a.nd w-.u &ndlated with o c her membe rs o f the clau of 'J 8 wl!.o h:ed. beto ln t b c .scr, icc. Me. Curr in then worke d chrec as :essisr :anr in the g:u p ro du c tion p l ant of Edg t .,.ood Arsenal. J n 192 ) he c:amc to b e c au s e his g randmother, M rs. J enn )' jol'd:an f oru:.ain e 0., h:ad been spen dilg h e r hctc $i.ne 1 9 1 6. S he was a member of t h e B d ldonuinc Club foun de d by Mr. H u bbud w h o : wu iusci umeatal in pt:rs:uading m.:an y other Ohio people to rn:eke S:er :asou the i r winter home Shortly :afur cotnins htrt', Mr. Currin formed :a panmrship with funk A l.osAn tO do g.tntnl co a tuccinJ. ;nrtNnhip w u c:ominiJ<'d uno1 the dt'ath o f M r logan io 19)7. Mr. Cu:ri.a caucd o n c h e businw persontlly chouah u ill under the firm n:tme of log<'lo & C u rri n Durins the Twencif..t, Losan 8c Currin built many line h omes :utd commrrcitll b ui l d ina and the firm c o n tinued .. to be bU$)' lo n g :'liter c h e b ig: building boom had P.l.$$e, 4 fncJudtd J M OI'tg the buil d in.p wer e dte ic:rrdl Aparm centt, Church th e unh of Saruot:11 Tiuckcr &: Gilder's f u m:r11l home, t he Amerc:an Lc g : o n Colifcum, t h e H a ll Sc l lool Radio Station wsrn, llutl h o mes f or R o l p h C. john So mer v ille \VI. M A rminc3d, E. n. All<'n, judge C Cbrcncc McKaig, and (X)u s.l1$ Arocsc Durill.J World "X1u It, Mr. Currin constructed man)' buildings lor the go, ernmtnr ::at chc Suuon Ajr Vc:nkt Air fc. M)'trt Air 8.ak, and 8vd:in.Jh.am Ftcld at ft. l.lye:I'S. Mr. Currin wu of dtr S:aralO'a Col:nty bo.ard oi publk i rucruction, J'JO-H; :a me:mbtr ol city counc:iJ, 19H->6. an d 2 o chc Sa.n sou dralc board UH u d HH5. He it :a. rnem b e r o( Sar:I.SOia Bay P o st Amedcan Lesio n Masonic l o d&r, l"bi Odu Theu fr: n e r n i t )' C lub. H e h11s: bCJ1 \'1 mem ber of t h e Firsr 811pd u C h urc h for 2) du>i 1 dit:eWf for ten ye1u. On J u ne JJ, J9.i4, Mr. Curri n w u Marritd to D u e h J n n, who 11.;as from San.sot:a Hig:l1 Sc h oo l jn 1 925 3dd fro m 1he F lo rida. State Co J le,;e for Womrn in 1927. S he wu libruit.n Jt San $0l.l Hish School ft>Om 1'2 1 tO 19'*1. Mr. :and Mrs Cttrrin h.:avc thrt'C child r en: Ru.udl Currin, Jr . born Janu.-ry 10, l9H. :\brdu Catbc-rint born u. I)U. -.nd Ft'iAC'f:S Pmtb. Jl, '' Cul'tin'' mOd1e:, M n .P.1mela Buch:an:a.n, brouahc her two c hUdree ro S:mu o ta i n C90SI fcom S. C and :after the de;at h of her hwband, i n l91 0, built :'1 h ome o n Laurel Screc t a n d &ervcd th.e C Otn:'YIU:I H }' u a nurs.c for more th11n I S FRANK A. LOGA N Fnnk /\. one o f Sa r.uo;a's: moJ:t promiftC'nt citiUill durin,s thor boo:n puiod s:ulHcqlltt'll rc$sion nd wss born in Norwich., 0 . Octobt:t 15, IUS, cbc 1011 of J ames W. :a..nd C.uollne ( Dailey) l.o;n. Afcrr atccndin,g hish s e hoo l in ZanC'Jvill.t, 0 .. he enccr< Deni\IM Univ u sicy, in Granv i lle, 0., and w a t w i(h a degr of b a c h e l o r of .scienC(' in J t 15. H e t hco ,..,ent w ith tlu: of t h e Good)'t1 r l'ite & Rubber Co. ln Akron, 0 ., "''h e r e h e rem1ine d unti l the Unittd S c11t cnr.e-rtd World War J. t n l inin.s i m mediate l r alter war w .u dccJ.rtd, he .,.,. usi,Jned c o the g a s defense sect i o n o { Warfare d'ivi.tion o f the :trmy. S c .n:ioned in Long Jd a nd Ory, L r h e COQ(haetcd with 8M m.u ks: and finally in ptrleec:in.c a ntw uaisc('t which p
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336 THE STORY OF SARASOTA fRANK A lOGAN in S:.nlot,l :uu l Soon h oweve r, he w;as u rged b y the :tr m y c o r cjoi r d 1 c Ch e m i c:. ) 'W':u a cmpl uy e l O build : md 3U,P(C vise :. g:u m :uk pl:mt 3 t Edgewoo d A r.scr\ 31. i\hryl :md ln 1 924, aher t h e pl:tnt lnd 3tl.ain cd :1. c a paci t y o 5<11) m.;ask s :1. d:a)', Mr. log:tn to <.>me t o :and IQ.rm the cont racti ng J'ir:n of Log : m C urrin i n pannctship w ith Ru.s$Cil A Currin. Duri l'ls t!u: yc.;ar s which fo llowed the tirm bu il t hundr;:-d$ of busi ness :.nd h o uses i n Saruou, 3 S -,..ell ;a.s rn;a.,y other nrucnucs i ncludi n g the Prcsb)tcri11'l Church C h ri ,Hia n C h urc h, the Th:.ckt"t" Hom e :and 1hc b uil dinl) <>f the Sansot:l. HospiuL Mr. l g;1n took :lrl uuu su:ally il<.:tivc p;arc in c hic df:a ir i .He. \.\\'(.} :'1$ of. the city <:o uncil, during 192.9 and 1 930 : I n 19H he "-'3.5 cd o f S:.rM.()ta Uay P ost No. 3 0 of the A mcri cat l.eg i<>n 3 n d while in ol(icc conce ived of Point Wtlcomc (see I n dex). ln recognition o f h i $ dur i ng his lim. term, the L esion M i res W:tivcd their by -hws pro h i biting :a $eCOJ).d t erm re-el ected h in t t<> theoffice. Afr:c t his term e:ch e wa$ doc ted president o( the Chamber of Com mercc. H e Wa$ a J\lcmbe-r of the R<>tary C-lub the f:l ks. He < m July 5 1 9 $8 On April 2 t 1921, Mr. Logan 'o\.' :1$ t o B e r .. nice l:ve l yn d;1;ughcer of Mr. :md Mu. George R H ilt}. M r anti Mr$. Logan C\\'0 c hildr en : Rhca D:t.wn, bo r n No \' e mber I 3, 1922, frank A., Jr. born J uly 2 2 1924. Bc>th were guduattd !rc>m liigh School. Fnnk cnlined in the 2rm y 1 2, 1942 w hil e the U ni\'ersity o Iow:l, t h.rce year$, ris in g from t() !l'c;aff D:awn is 1 )01\' the wife o f J ohn L McGruder 1 Wotld W1r li ''etcun who scrv4!d lour yc-1n. H e e ntered the as 1 pri ,:.te and re c i r ed :1 licutCn;an t colonel. Mrs. Logan i s no"' t he wif e of Glen C. Whi t btch. Ourl ng th e put twenty years $ h e h as t3kcn :an :active p;1rc in c hic aftajn, in che G-.a::dcn Club and A u oci:ation. CLAUDE D COLEMAN Cl3.u d e D Co l e m an was bo r n i n Shdlm:tn, Ga .. O ccober 18, 190J, the $00 of George D. and (Ri c h ltdso n ) C'..<>l em:m. A.ftcr beiug: graduated f r o m t h e Sh ellm a n hig h sc h ool, he atte1 ) ded the GeoT 8usi ncn College, ln Macon, Ga. C o m in g co Ftorid;z SOOn :tfte rward, h e bcC:a!Tie of ficc for t he bran ch o f Morcis & Co. p.:!Ck.f:rl:l, whcr h e r e maine d two yc.tr$. Durin g t h i s pcciod, h e s pe n t hit spare t ime $ tud)'ing a ceoun t ins. To co n1pl ete hi s he went t o A tla,, u where l1e ;r:ud i ed rw o at the Scho()l o f Comm<"rcc in J u n e 192;. ClAUDE D. COI.F.MAN

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 337 Wl,;lc the Atl-.nc:a K hool, he worked Olll for :a clothing i n th01t c ity. He ltfc the jn Augusi, 1 924, to come to Saraso t a where he $UrLcd the of Jn,bli e :accoundn.g o( which he is still the owner Hi1 jn the Pal mer NJtiq u.l B2nk buildin,. Mt. Colenun Js mt-tnbcr of the l\fa$0nic l od,ce, :h. Shrine (Egyp t T.,.pk, Tomp). th< Elks. ..,d the Ou.mbt r of Commeru. He iJ sbo president o f the Florida Associuton of PubiJc Aounu.nu:. He is :a of :he Mechodin church. On Deccmbtr 2.S, U 40, he was m1.rr ied to B. Wf.itt:, of Pcou.1;01.l, By :a formu m:arriage he h : u four child ren : M )uth-a, born Oc t o ber 16, Ch.ude D. Jr., born Mnch 22, 191'; lMuy ]oln, born Fcbru:ary 28, J)'I)O :and Uub:.t Ann, born A ugu$t }0, J?J). THO.MAS L. GLENN, JR. "fbom:u L Glenn, Jr. wu bom A pcil U, U02, in Sp.uunsburg. S. c.. tM JOn of 11Mxnas L. :and FJ1ilu ( Jlobtrt.so-n) Glenn. wa. 3:ndwtcd in Ju.M. 1919, fron1 ,))( S:anonah, C:a., hi&h "hool, 2nd in juOt:, l'lopern,ct Co., u M e r"phis renll. After cwo he! 'Mll crtnsf
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}}8 THE STORY OF SARASOTA WilLIA M CUY SHEPARD wllich sohl O\IC co the Wcu Com 0'>. in 192 6 Mr. Shcp1rd tl,en opomi \\ lumber y:ard tt Venice the: firm ru.mc of lumber Co. The: n'ltil'nlned iu y-srds u \'e:l'li :ct unti l tnSP the otllc:cs and ynrds wertmoved to Suuou, "Whore du:)' ha\1 since 'The con'lpllny now b one: of the lumber and buildi.n,g rruterial conf'rl$ Oft che Florida 'West CoJ.n. In l,H, Mr. played 1 luding role in Or ganizi .,g th(' Firs c Fcdcul SavinA$ & I.m.n 1\uociarion of S:.ra.sou :and h a; "crvnJ :u pruidtnt o( the in.u itu tioft fin it opened. Mr. Sht.par4 is a member of Suu<>ta Lodge No. 1-47 F. &: A.M .. of the f.s')'pt T emple Mysti c Order of Shrine, and t h e Ellu lodge On Juo e 12, ua. Mr. Shc-pud w2..1 muried to Kuhui.nt Prime-, d-sua.hur of one of tM pionr mtr du.nts of Sansota, Georse B Prime. M r. h u a tOn by 1 forme r WjJJit n. brn Aug usr 21, lSilS, who entered th e "my in December, IJ4), wu n :2 litutcM.nt "'-uSUK 2,., t94S. and ..,.aJ dif<':hugo:l after s.erviet iR tht P2ci6c .u on January 23, U46. Mrs. j :aclive in chutch 11nd thf: A A.U.V.' JAMES B. GREEN ]2n1es &. Gucn wu born in Crenshaw County, Ftbruary 18, tU2, tbc JOn of WilHam 1M jane (Md.ain) Crn, of o l d Ahbam1 hmi lies. Ht :an(ftdcd P'lblie sc:hoo h itt Crf:ml.-.w Co..anty 11nd then nudied a year at Troy Ston e Normal Col1ca c 11nd )'e"atS i n che Al3.bama J)oi)' Ce<:hnic then c:ompJcced 2 c:ommerial co urse at Eutman Bwincss in Pou,thktotpsic, N Y. Upon completion the couNt he for plumbing: :and ntlt suppl )' c<>ncc:rn tn Btrmuts l u m which l ate r :absorb(d by th e Cr:&n.: Com pa.ny. Mr. Gucn rcmalncd whh the cocnpuy lor two yu", "'rkin3 in Birm it\sJum and Savanftah During the p:.nic of I 907 he -.u requt$tcd tO go to G l enwood, Ala to hdp l iquidacc 11 ,genera l bu,i ne1s, WMn chit wu compleud, in 1,09, he wa plorcd in the Sa,annah branch of Lhe HaiOCl Cor p., p lumb in g nunu(ac.:t uring conce r n of P hiladcl phit. He r.::m"Jintd wich t h : concern or fif. tn yc-.us. workinc hit 11filY up co thf: pcKicion of mu at;eohip of the 1\hcon He rc::s.iantd in N ovember 1924 to comt to $1r :uou whtrti he focm.:d ll paccnc r $hip with. Bc:1t Ambrose:. form
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THE. S TORY OF SARASOTA 339 JAMES B GI\EEN Sunn, born Febtua.ry IJ, 19-40, born Jun e 26, 1941, and CarolirM: Gillihnd, born )\lne ), JhO. Mn. J, B. Ctetl'l is active in t he o! the Pint Chrin-iao Oturch 1ttd. u.kei pa.n. in a ll c hu rch :actividt:.,, W. FRANK EVANS W. Fnnk wu bom u Fb., Junt 2), IJOl, ton of R. J. .Adaline-( l".serillc) Evatn, The f:amil) ume t o f lorida from Flot' cnec, S.C., i.n 1U2, :and R. J. Evans engaged in the c:urp:nt..inc busi.ncss. Utr, in 1?10, he org.,.ni d a i.uuuncc comp . my whic h ewabl i shi ics home otlice lo jac ksonville, ,.,.here the bmily chen movtd. After :l c.tend ing public $Ch(')()I J in Jacklonvillc, Fnn k uundcd t h e Uni veuiq o F l orida lll'ld was gra.duat.ed f r om t h e t:aw c.oll rge wich an L.L.B. dqcee i n 15124. Upon c ompkticm o hi$ co llq:e ed uca tion, Mr. F.vant aSfoeiued in the p ractic e oJ Ia.,., with t..ht law firm of A ft. and King of Jaduonville. TbU .firnt opened a braneh office in Suuou ud Mr. Eva.n1 eame htrt ith the fu-m in ]\lDe, l !)2. In Oetobc-r, 192.' he beume usoc:iated with Thomas: l.. Gltnn, Jr .. i.n the pneti of law aod lhe partnership of Eant 8c Gka.rt was formed In 1,,., rhe firm of Evaru &: Gltnn n:udt : h e for cbt of county c:ommi.s:sioatrs of Sa.nsou Si.rw:c coming to Sarasota. M.r. vans hu been t c:tivc in c:ommu.nity Ht h.as terftd as prui dent o tht Junior Chambtr of Commttc:e, the Whit fi11ld Country Club, :utd the K iwanis Club ()f a dire<:t()r ctusurcr o f The Phyen of Staruou tnd llJ a director of che Cbmbtr of H e II a mcn-.ber of t h e Mechodisc C h ucch, chc Ma sons t h e Am erica n LtS i O I \ and t h e Bar In eol l ege, he: WP$ m ember of tht Alplu. Tau Omega Fr11 .. [ctni t y. Btu. Phi Sigma Fnurnit )', Strpe,t R ibbon "F" CJub, B lu e K.c) Honoc Society, 1nd m :u' o( t h e vusicy foot bdl te:u:n. His h ob biu ,re. lithJng and bo:uin.g. l n 1'42, Mr. ,ans was c ommi$t:ioned :1 lieuttn.ant in the U. S. N aval Reser,e :and reponed IM Kl:i, c duty in Aupt o{ th.u )t-a.r. Afttr <42 months o( active duty bt was rtk:aw-d ro inac:cive suna !rom the U.S.S. blidw.ay ( CY8.-4t) Oft Fcbru ary .,,.., u a lit-otcOJnt comm2ndtr, and he c:urDr'd tO his l.sw practice o.n M.srch I, IJ.$6.. On Nonmber 12. 1'26.:. Mr. W3.S murie:d tO lrtnt Chambtn, daugb;u o( Williun Pnun nd julia Ann (Cha.mbtn) of jac:k.sonvillc. Fh .. Mn. Evans i s :1 graduate of the F l orld3 Sute Coli.:JC for Women ;U T:allah;aJstt. a.nd U 3 mc n 1ber o( th Alpha Oe.lt Pi. SororitJ. Me. Mn. l!nns hs\l't :1 ron W. jc., b oc n Sep c embcr S, J9Jb. II\ L946 W. fi\AN K EVAN S

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340 THE STORY O F SARASOTA J1c w Hish Schoo1. Mn. hu t b een a c tivt in C()nmnmity :.ffair$, t h<: Mtth odi$t Church, the Circl e o the Cm!rn Club t he Ameril:; m Red Cron, and the S-:wuou H osp iul. Mr. E\':ltl.$ (ovf brochcn: Dr. T homoa; N. E.v:m.s a.nd Or. Evan.s, o Jacksonvil!t; J.)r Rober-t: J. Evans of O.akJs.nd, Cal., attd ."'.. C. Iaru. U.S. &my Retimf (dccc25Cd). He also a sctr, Mn.. E. VI. Mc:CullouJh, of Sc. Pttlburg, Fla. GLOVER E. ASHBY Glo\f!r F.. w.u born jn l the 11nd w.u w ith a l.L.8-. dcgr.:c i1\ l?2). He 2dmittcd to chc b21 in ;and, b ter to the bt: i.n Flor'd.a He c.al"'''( co in. 1924 nd lor t!\c followin& flghc yvn: workal in sbNCt ,. dR ASN1\Y tbt pta[ice of l:aw, with offices in t h e J,a ln 1er Bank bui ldinJ. Mr. AJhby bccatue assoc iated w i t h chc oftice of c.:O\IDt f tu in 19)9 u n de r chit Juc J Gainu. Mu. wa.s appointed by tht f;OVe ol and w:a.s rt-clcc:ud in J '4.o4 without Clppositioa.. MAURICE CORNIS H NEILL PREW Cornid\ Ndll Prcw W:t$ bot11 jn Lima, Peru, Fc b ru:uy 11. 1894, t.he $On of Ed.,ard j o h n u d Nndine C1nuc (Neill ) Prcw. H e WlJ.J n Quee n s Taunton. Engl and; l-h.ver!ord School, Haverford Pa., .an d Univnsity o f Ptnruylvani:., in Phihddphi:J, where he a B.S. decree in mh:tnical Our-in, World W'ac J he $e.tved in the: St:ata Sia:rul Corps. and httr he a .MWOd in tbt rntn'6. Alu:c the wu, ht hec.arm :a..uUt;ai'U fu.tOI}' supcTincendent of the England4 \V:ahon LC'nhtr eo... o( Phlhcklphi:t. In 1922 he entem! chc 1:uti.ty busintu tnd in J 92<4 be-came inte.re:s:tcd in Suuot--a retl aute. Co1ning here pe:-mncntl)' ln December ol that )'tar, h e c-ntacd the rea l t's-tJt e busincu ond lata the-insunnc:e b1.1$inen Mr. Pre\\' was i1l n o W 3)' rclpontible fo r t h e growch of He w as-highly .reg:"rded Md bc4 l o v e d by his llllli'IY lri e nd$ ;1nd :u.soci:atct boch here :tnd thro ug hOi.lt the c:ountty :nd wdl deserved hl t rcp\lta tion at: one of le.ldin g Mr. Pnw in community a(. bin for m:any yean. see-ved JCTC"ul cc.rnu a.t prrsi drnt of the Suuou Bo.ud of kH1tor.t :and tlso o( tbcS:aruou lnn1nnce Exdunge. He wa a dittOf' the Florida ADocinion of lnsunner J\sentt. He sho .,..u uuwrcr of Snuou Bay Cou"uy Oub, trusurer of the SaraJOn Club :and a founde-r encmbtr of the P h i)'Ctt: ol Suasota. In :tdditi o n he was :a mcmbtr ol the! Amc-tic:an Legio n a.nd t he C h : u t'lbcr of n1n s were On Oecober 1 2 1920 l\ fr. l>rew wn.J m:arric d tO Kathuine Deming: Robert$. and Mrt:. Prew h:ad twQ children: Anne Otming, now Mn. John FNnc:U born February 2 4 1922 2nd bcwn April U2J. )(r, Prcw May s. 1140. Hd idow c:.uritd on his real cturc and ituura.na bw-inC$5 u the Mauri C. N. Prt Act'ncy, i.:"e .Jddition to her work u hnd of Prew Sth<>c:ll, which sh in lt)l 2:f "" chool (or boys and g itlt. The Prtw School h:., beco m e -.idtly knon u onC' o f the ben privne schools o n the Florida W(jt Co.1.s-t As a of Mrs Pre w's ct6c:in1t and the! cxcd lcnc:e o( the on h e r scalf, a h e h as bc
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 341 MAURICE CORNISH NEILL I'REW' In the of 1 9.45 d nucd and the tuche r s n o w in tutori ng. Tlu.> seiiOI)I -at Z50 Morrill Strttt .. is k.no ... .-n as chc.: Prc:w School of Tutoring. Mts Prc:w wu m:uri:c:d eo R i chard H<":1th November 17, 1?4$. Mr. L udde.n h:as j oim:d htt i1\ tl1t r.::U c-. n a tc :1nd insuran business 1nd t h e :firm mme h3.s been changed tO P:e :and f..udd.en .Mrs. Lu dden is a member of St :Eiiz:'lbeth' s O t;t pttr o l t he Women'$ c.f the C hurch of tht ( Ep isco p::tl), :ar.d Founders' Circle of the Garden Club; C3puln of A m edc;tn Red ). lowr Cor_ps. WIL LIAM ALLEN W Y N N E WiUiam A l k n W ynn.: w:.s b or1:1 ;n. G:t., J:wu-ary .lO, 1897 the-son o f W ilHam A. :tnd Mat)' (Cook ) Wynne. When he w:.$ a chil d his mo\'cd to Sulphur Springs, 'fex. whe r e h i s father, a Presbyu-ri::m p:tno r o f t h e Fi r$t C hurc.h. His f:nhcr died in Sul phur Spri ngs in 190.5 and t h e hmily moved b !lck t o Georg i:a. Mr. '\l;tynnc was edu cated i n the publi c schoo l s of S u lphur Sprins$ a n < l . wh e te he was g;ndu1ted f rom high $Choo). He then attendod Meridi:alt College, in . p:aying l1i3 exp enses by '1\'orkin$ ()n the college brm the fUr rou11.d Soon aftet< wu was dc<:hrtd in J91 7 M r. Wynne enlisted in the n:avy whw: he se rved (or two A fter being h o n oubly dis c ha.rged, be wa s enlploytrked in a real estat e o.ffi(:(: during 1 9 24 In 0;..-<:embcr, l924, Mr. Wynne ctme to $Qra.sota and a cc ep ted emp l oyment in the c ounty <>{ .. fice w h ere he wo r):e d u ntil No\'<:ntb<:r. 1926. He wu then deput y cl.!r k i l\ tl11! 14, h e t<> $ ueoeed Mr. P e:accl:.. His te r m ts cl erk o f the circuit court bega n J:snuuy 1, l94.5. Mr Wynl"'.t i s:. ml!l !lbe r o f the M"sonie lodge, the Shrine the-American Legi on, a n d the Lions Cl11b. H e i$ t lso *member o f the P:hbyteria n Ch1.u:ch, i n which he i s ch2itm:u\ of che bo:..rd C>f He hu been 2Ctjve in S was grad u a ted from Sara.soca H i g h Schoo l in 1 9 4.5 tnd in vqt .ztte nding: Stephens O:>lumbi:'t, Mo. WILLIAM AL LEN WYNNE

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342 THE STORY OF SARASOTA THE DAVIS FAMILY John W D:tvis of S:luJou' s for fifteen ycu.s wu bot n in MiltOn County. Georg1:J, Novembe r 6, t881, th.l! JOn o{ john 2 nd Id.:t Lore ne Oavis After ;attcndina schools, he JUtted i.n the mcruntilc i.ft L:ttc:r, he: wu cngaJcd in the rur mtll buuntss, u Jakin and Doruldson, G1. On Octob 2) 1'10 he wu mar-rXd to Btt-tha Conn.tru;e Minkt'", da.gh,tcr of krrien nd UiJc: (O'Neil) Mi.ntcr. Mr. 02\is c.ame co SaullOU with his famjly in 1 92S a n d 'O.'J.S cnJ;21}td i.n the 'I'OGCr y bu.tiness u n til 19)2 when he w : u dcc;tc:d CO\Inty C(immissioncr f r om O i str'ict No. 1. He w:.$ rcdcctcd t h ree times to t h e bo.1rd. 'X'h cn h e cook office C'.<>unt} w;n i n tbe dcpchs of the d cprcni "'l.S a ft)t-mbtr of the J unic.>r Order o( Meeh2n i c!l. He had been hoMrcd thtee t in\f:t by b eing chose n of t h t bo1rd o( c ount)' He wa.s .sutvi,cd by widow, (our sons: John W illi-e. Jr., killed in Fr:anct 26, 19-H, "1\hjJe Jtrving in the U. S. army; P hilip Minrer, head of the Dais lumbecCo.; Glen Rai\Ciolph, wi:th the E:xpress Co... :and lb.rriC'n E-dwin, with the T amp2. T ri* bv.nc; :a d:aJJgh.tcr, Eu5cni2, MW che wife of Afnl)( B. Yaten1ber 2, 1 91 4 'iro'U gradu :m:d lton t h(: Su-atoca tli,;h School i n 1934 2nd the-n studie-d 3t the Rjn&l ins: Schoo l of A rc, whtre he took a. course, 2n d :lt Drou.gh,ton's School of i n Acbntll, where-he took coutK in ru::counti.ng. He then wod:c:d sut:c:cuively for the H. &:: B. Lofll>o Mr Co., the-Frank A. l..os.an Co.. 11nd l...ogs.a &: CurriA. During the wu he 'OC"ked fOC' the Cone Brothers Contnt:tint Co., of and u the eon struc:t ion of roads 1nd HMY camp,. O n Octobc( 1, l,H, he l)Ur
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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 343 RAl'ID OL PH CALHOUN lisb ed a law w hich he h:ts mainuined eve r ,;incc For eigh t yean be w:u a n auorMy Jot t he FedcN) b::d B : m k <>1. Cl)l urnb i a S C., and abo wrvtd 2$ attorney jn this scctioa (or the ge l'lenl Jiquid :uot' of FJor:id:. banks. l o 1.92.9 h e was si\'M 3 civ_il r lltin g as -seni o r :nco rney In I.!H h e w:u '1 c:wdid2tc for. E;arly in 1.946 h<: suvcd three months auisunt attomcy gcner:.l o{ the Sute of For DlMY yNrs Mr. Calhoun wu actin: in c ; v i c : uld club :.il'airs He JCr \ ed pre.sident of the Sat3-$0t3 E x<.haogc Club a nd w : u a mem ber ol the sute bo:m l of C()ntro.l of du: Exch :wgc Clubs of Florid:1. ten yc3rs he wa.s ct.:.irm\l n of the 3dvan c e com .. miette ()( the Sunny bnd Council () Bo}' Scouts of During and 1946 h o W3.S of the Su:t.W.U B:u: ,t\.'.".1(lC:i(lti()n. He 3ffiliued with the-first B:tp t ist Church. Mr. Calhoun m:tt.ried Decembe r 23, 1927 t o )l:t Godwin of Springs . G:1. M r Mn. have twO c:hild ren: J o hn R:andol p h born O ctobe r 29, 19H, ;a;nd bom Ausust 15, 1 9;S. LAMAR B. DOZIER Ltm:lt n. Oozier Wll$ born Jur.e 190(. il1 N uJlCY., .. the $ O n of P. ?>.tf:l.m:t (E-lliott ) Dozi er. After be in g g:r;lduated hom high schoo l i n S:illm()il!", Ga. he North Gtorgia College, in Ga. Ltter he studied lav. '.Ill; Sceuon Unhcnity, i n })(land, fla. In july, 1924, Mr. Oozier tO Sussot2. :and soon :afcerw.1rd was 3ppoin ced county judge' s (;Jerk, whic:b pos. i tion h e hel d un t il 1 928 w hen he W3$ ap J_)Oinled tlicia l c:irc:uic eoutt :and SCC\'ed unci) J9H. Mr. Doz ie( beg;1;n n u dying h w khile working judge-'t derk :1nd courc report er an d in i Y ;1 l 1 e w;u admitted t o the state b:tr. In J .9.}-5 he bi:,S:t.l\ J'r:.ct ic ins i n o;..icb Arthur R. Clarke un d er the firm c>f Cbrke & Dc>:tier. Since Mr. Cb1kc'$ d e :uh i n J941 )h D<>l'icr m::iuc:.ained the hw c>f6cc. uoder hit own I n J936, Mr Oor.t.ier w:Js elcc:tcd count)' ing attorn.e)r ;1nd he j s now $1et\ in g h is thi rd four ye.at tt(m. One of the charter members (l( tltc J unior 011mber of C<>.nu:n<:re, Mr Organ i:c-atiou WM in 19-42. In he wat d irector of tbc Jun.i o r be.r :.ho :1. d i rec t or' c>f the Sarasota Coun!y ber of Co. nmercc lie is 3 m ember o f the Bar AS$0Ciation ;1;nd t h e F i rtt B:.pti.u Chu r cl l. M r. P ozier t f :uher has been ,.,.it!, tht since the W3$ nm $t -atted tl'le Herald in 1,2S. He is now .auditor of tbc LAMAR n DOZ l El\

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344 THE STORY OF SARASOT A L:tmu D.n:icr w ; u murlcd on Jan\luy 20, 1?}9, 1:0 M illi cent o ( S:tr:u o tlrot:. lO ente r t h e rc-1 1 c s r u c bu.sincss. PAUL COBB Since coul ing here M r Cobb has uken 'aJl acti\'e interest in e.ivi c affairs. He .km::xl :l.S the b .ueball committee of tl11! of Com.mer<::e for m:tn y years a n d p l ayed an a.cthe role ln and, hter, ehe BostOn Rec{ S<>x eo t.uin h ere. For c:isht ye:tr $ he sencd as a m emb.er of S:ar:t.S()t:a Count y l3o ard of F.du cation. He i s >l o f the Elk.s C l ub 1nd tJ..c: Ugioa. His hobbic:s are hu.nting :and 6sh irlg. On J u ne 4, 192}, Mt. Cobb w:a.s muri< co Elh Rc:bb-e:t of Atl:un: t. M r. Cobb h:lS one .son. J ohn 'Pa.ul, J r. born Augu.st IS, 192-4. Mn. Cobb, who was a n at ive m e.,bcr of t h e Parc.u-re,cher d i ed in 1935 GEORGE D. LINDSAY Georse D. l.i1:1.d$:1}' W3-S bo r.n in McKec$po r t Pa. March J O J8:6 2, the son of O:tvid C. a nd j:aneL (Nic h4 ol.s) Lindsay. He studi ed in Washillg: con & Jetf4!r$on Wooster CoUcge 1nd (hen took couNes in t h e olog y i n We:\tern 1'heologic:a l Ser.nimry, Pins burgh, ln interest in the Marion Chronicle and btcame .rol e of the .nh \' $ p:tper in He s e r\ e d as ed i t o r for m an y y eus. Later, the p ub l ication was combin ed with the L e ader Tribun<:: ly publicatio n With his s on, 0-t'i'id ll Linds:ay, P1 u l Poynter, 1nd E-. N:tugle Mr. Lindsay esu. blished the Sua4 Heral d in I ?25. He .set\ td a s editor of the Heuld (rom 1925 t-o the wa$ c onsol id ;attd .... i t h t he S:t.ra$Ot:t Tfibune. He c o nc inucd :ts editor of t h e Sar a s ota unti. l h)i; on Sced in news4 p:tpcn religio u s sc-eu]u, "nd m:tny p;lStOr.s ,$ tbem. a.s themes for sermOn!:. For 2 J yeu$ Mr. L inds a y w:u active in the poliliC+I and so cid :aff01i r.s o f Sar:asou and he const:ant ly strO \'e in e''ery mannc-t tO m :tlt e the m\mity a better place: in whkh t o live. Kindly. gen erous 2nd gentl e he w2 s lovod by ev<:ryonc -....ho kne w h inl, an d he "''as respected by chc pe o p le o f Sarasota u {ew other m e n .. e b e en

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THE STORY O F SARASOTA 345 GEORGE 0. LINDSA Y Mr. Li.ndu y wu nurdcd to Bell Breed of Pittsbur&}l. Pa., on Jul)' II, lilt. Mrs. Linduy ditd io ,4}. Sur-wi,ing (:hild"n who W('I"C wi1IJ him whe-n dnch c:ame: Mrs. G-ardrwr J. "tbomu. Ind.; D2.vid .B. Lindny, pl#blishtr of tbt HtnldTrlbune. Mrs. L. Stn.:sou; MrlHugo C "Fischer Boston, and Richud E. Llnduy, advcr tiing man.lger o( O usinc.u Gi rl D2U:u, l'uu. A sist e r Mrs. Emma L. Arthur, Pa. 1J grandchildren :. n d se"erd a rc.)t -gul\dchildreo also s urvi ve him. David B l i! 1d s 1 y W:'ll a l ieuU!II:ant j n the Army A i r Corps-;n World W u I a m:ajo r j,) 1\'iation )n Worl d War II, rw o yeus with Majox L. Chennault's Flyins 1'iccn in Chin.a RichaTd Li.ndJay served u in the Navy Air Corps in Wocld Wu JJ. FLOY D WASHINGTON VAN GILDER F loyd \\7uh!ngcon Vu Gi.ldcr botn 28, 1814 in C2pc May Ne w J t:rsey, the son of W as h i ngton .1. n d Alli e (Hen) V:u'l After public: sch oo l in New Jcnc}', Mr. V an Gildtt' $ t udicd :II[ Pit rce C o lleg e and then wec u t<) Ecl
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346 THE STORY OF SARASOTA THE THOUREZ FAMILY T h e l3m H y 6vc mcmben of which b am4; :ICli \CJ y with llfhin, <-IUC t o 1he Uni tb:i Suu:s ltom :at the turn the c.cncur y in $C:&rch of arcat(t opponunici(!$. The htnily i ndudo:d' M.r. :and Mrs. Jnn Cbude Thoure'l., 1hrec Hipolyu. Viul and jowph. a n d two dau&}ltnt, ud LCM.!&.c:. The morning a.hc.r .arrivd in Nc:... York, the la1hc r ..-lis in hi.f room accMicntly ll$phyxi a ud.. He had aJ,.,a)' S uf'gi his childun tO "'' o r k iof' ucb othtr' s intl(tllphy :'lnd, :'1 fcwd"cr A s 11 rc:sult of this work, L<>uiies J. C. Smith, was 'by Fox News !ii.J new t p hoto gnphct tO co v e r North AJ r ic:a. Sht wtnt wit h him 2s intc.rprcter. l-liJ)Olyte sooo jolMd them and whe:a thtir concnct r..ded, they or&::aniud an cltpcdition to 'V#dt Africa with hc.adquutcu at D.abr. There the-y pc'odueed 2 6.1m dt:pietin' the tst'-ue 8y and ,kcpi"s: rid:nm. Th. is 6lm w.u pruc-nttd co the Academy ol Mtdicioe io Paris to bt: und in tbt nu.d) of r .hc Rerurnin' t o Ame-ric-a aftu t,.,o )'CUJ i n the African jungln, M r ThoutC$ an d Mr. and Mrf. J. C. Smith brthc:r' s s i de owned S llril\8,$ :at 1bou t the ti m e o ( the War Bccwctn th S u cct . Mr Walden p1.1bli<: S<:hooJs :and Schoo l n J ohn 8. Stetson Univer3ity, at Deland, Fh.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 347 J. !R V!N \\1 ALDEN I n l'l 7, he W:t.S :us i sc:uu chid clerk of the Hou s e o f Rtpfescnut ives, Dl)-ri:'ll) 'X1orld War I. he soervtd i n the ,:ev y Ftom ] \u)c 19(9, t(l J:enuan, 1 9 2 5, h e \\as county jodsc of DeSoto Fh. 1-h. W'dden then c un.e to Sar:asot3 -and he hu to p tactic-t hw C\'Ct sint(. Since June, 194 2, he been of Sut.e Demo-craLiC Ex c<:uti\e Committee. He is a member of th e J\ 1 nt-r ic3n legion a n d the B:a.pri st Church. His mai n hobby is l1$hins. 01'1 Novcmb:r 6, 1920, Mr. \'\/ :ald en w-as t o Emnl3 l<>1.1i$e O:eughctt)' His stc.p d'aughrcr, Mrs. E mm;a Ruth G r:tc c, hils thnx: chil dren : Shirley Jean, joseph a n d Nancy. ROY H. L OPSHIRE Roy H J.opsh itt born 011 -a fllcn'l i n Alle1' C>-..my, Indiana May 1S8<4. He wu c duc :nc d in tht dcmcntuy h igh $Chool s of Fort Wayn e l1)d, After leaving sch oo l1 h e h elped his J1Un :tge hrm ''e 2 r F t Wayne and in 19 0 5 he t>lnplo)'t:d by 1he Ft. W:1ync bra n c h of t h e Gentnl E lte tri c {".('), He wirh thi s conccr11. untiJ 1910. sure ing i n t h e wiring departm e n t 'an d law: w ork.i.Qg i n the d cpartroc:nt-. He then. w.:nt wi t h :a h r gc llti lity company o f Chiugo which owc!-td throughout the n o rthv.c:st :and during cht next $:ilC ) 'C1r$ he worked f o r tfl e lC:rn in Monuna, W ubi 1lgt o n :and North DJ:kora Mr. Lopshire (or m:l!\}' ndent ball pla ytb:aJI for o( yc:an. In 1916, Mr l.opshirc returned t o Ft. Wayne a nd went' int<) the rctl csu t e bus jness He :1$ a realtor 1ftcr coming to )n Sept em ber, 1 925 a n d has rem ained in the ever ltinc;c. He became a member o f tbt Re:.h)' "Board i1 Ft. \'\fa.ync in l,l6 and :t l$\0 been 2 member of Rnl Bo:.rd fot m:tn}' y c:us, SCt\ing 3 S dcnt of c h c orgmiz.:atioo j n HM24). He i.s -a membe r of ch.e Ljons C l ub, th e Elks. 2nd t he Cham be r of Commerce. He $tr"'ed 2$ o i the L i o n s Club in 1944-4$. l n M r lof><$hire wa$ of tbc Pack Comroi.uee o the Chambe r o! Commerce. Wbile he headed t h e com:'"ittee ti<>.n work and ge.ner:tl hyout fot tht ptcstttt Cit)' T:ail cr P:atk was done". On April 22, 19 1 9, Mr. LOf$h)rc W\1$ 10 DotQthr A of Ft. W:..yne fnd. Mr. 1\0Y H. L OPSH I\E

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348 T.HE STORY OF SARASOTA and Mr.s. topshire hav4 o n e so n R.obcn M. boro April 14 1927, who in the coast gu:1rd i n South Pacific bc:ins from Sua$OU liigh Schoo l in 1 SIH BYRD DOUGLAS P E AR SON Byrd J:>ou&bs PnnoG W2f bora i.d Ch2tnnoop, ic-n.n., March }, 1,.0, chc 10ft of O c m Bonner and Willie (WiUiarruon) Pt21noft, mt"rttbet'S of o l d T c nncnce /'Ut'ljJies. He: \\':'IS in chc elenlCI'ItJ.tY' s ehool of F:.y eucv ill c Tenn., i n S3t\UOCII. Jii&;h &:hoo l. His fuhcr e:zme t() S:uuota wich in 1 925 and was a member of c he ciry police f o rce until l9l2 "o.hcn J1e ele c ted 1 h criff o( S :.rasou County. He sc:rvcd a four-yeu U!rm rt dc<:te d in 19l6. He forced t o retire fro m the: otJKcin 1Sil9 btcnse o f iU l1e.alth. Aher fi nts.hing school, Byrd Dough s Pea ra>n wodr.cod u a n :zutomobile 2nd iasun.n uksm.aR for a numbt:r o f yart 2nd tO become t n tirpb.!'lt" pi:loc:. In 19}8., he suttcd workinc u :a dtput}' sherit! uAdgonvlllc J Ky .. October .), 1898 the $011 of JoJ1n N 2 11d Imnu (Mo.ss ) Scott. He w:ts cduc:tctd i11 the publ ic school$ :u Hoc.lscnvUie :and Bndcnton. Fl:a., where hi s l y m o,ed in IS'll. 'X'hilc atttl lding: H i gh School Mr. Seorc un away ro m home and the ntva.l militia wht:n 11 old. Hl.s-KCurcd hi f'C'k.ue and bo hen joi.ncd Florida Naciootl G\llln:l .and 'W'aJ inducted into the frCrf o cmcd in the n.cw town o f S11nsota.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 349 TAYI.OR CARVER SCOTT Mr. :tnd Mrs. S..:on had three $011$: Tllylc>r Carver, Jr., born Dem bcr )0, J910; j:u per Ndson, bor n M:w 2,, 1?21, and 1'ho nus l!d mund, born November 17, 1928 ]:'lspcr Nc1son, who a .st.tif $Ctgeant in chc Army CO ( p$ wu rcpottcd miS$ing il) aetion m:1C' Su ichwan, C hi n1, Janu:uy 2 0, 1945. T he W a r Oc parcrncnt est.imaccd d..at'(: <>f d e:uh :ts January 21, 1945. Mr. ;nd Mr$. Sc<>tt :are mem hers o the Mcchodin Church. LEE 0. RHODES Lee 0 R hunry, f lorida., Nowmlxr 24, J9041 rhc S.OJ l o f john W and Ddl;t (Dixso.o. } .Rho des, dt:Kcndenu oJ F l orid,. {:u,ilic$. \'V' hil e atten ding gummar schoo l he worked o n J1is f:achcr's farm When 19 old, he go t hi..-6rn paying" j<>b in ph:mer miH at Brewt01: A l a i 1 cenu hour ::111d w orking ten hour.s :t lie returned t o i n 1 924 :Jnd working s.hort (or 2 mill in he eamc to on Jan\IU)' 2.J 1925, :Jnd su:r t c d \\'Otking as :a cook on John R i ngling'$ cr "Suc.ccn \\:h i c h Wl$ u11C'd for bringing tile dow n the biy f ro m T am pa for t .he Ringling rd ::1.' ctmodlan of the F irst Bank k T rust Co. building now known :a.s the Ba1\k build ing lie t<'ttl3inc:d there )'Car On Ju1) 5, 1?27, Mr. Rhodes to Ja.ne Gacrett daug.hter of Jerry Eliubeth (Gri t.h) G:urett, oi F la. Returning co SuU 2 ftcr a honeymO<>" ttip, Mr. Rhodc.s se<:u(<:d :1 job :l$ .a driver of 2 truck lot ,_ lo c a l b:tkcry Mrs. Rhodes ;t )so worked {or du: b :.keq. 1'J1ey with t he b:tk(()' until the summer of 1923 when :Mr. Rhodt'$ went \ll.ith M.r. and Mu. lnghr:nn 1S "sur chef" in lh<' lnghnm$ Hamburger Hotd" on the T r i3ng}c, a c;i.nr pl;;:ce which wu !l oud only for the qu:Jiirr ol .osand wichu it sold ltt September, 1929, Mr. bougbt the sandwich $hop (or $800, wit h 2 down p-ayment o( $200 In to obt;;:in m oney ne ed e d to buy .n. "" d i11hes and equipm e nt he borrow ed mom)' witll his mobile s ecurit}' Mr. Mu. W<>t'ked t ogethu )n making th. c Ha-:nbutger a tc'3 l 'occe-o det1>ite t he f3CU th:zt tht ll::ltion wa. s t he n ()Jl t he do"''l'9.'atd r rtnd u t he r esult o th e .Cr:l$11 ol the stcck in the f:1H o J92,. By 1 931 th)' h2d accumubt ed enough capi u .l tO buil d t he M.oon" in the 400 bJ<>ck of Majn Strtd f o r .$2500. LEE O RHODES

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350 THE STORY OF SARASOTA Now wdl C$Ub lished in du: resuur:m t busine.ss, Mr. Rhodes b uilt che Silver Colfe e Cup i n 193 ) :and operued it until J9l9. ln 19l8 he o pened t-he Pa l m i n Cummc t $ Are;1de; in 19)9, he Op:'IJ ed another P\"lilm C3(eteri.l in Cleac.,..acer; in l940, he bought M:trtin' $ Resuunnt :1t M:t i n and Streets which he con,ctted into a c.-;'lfctttia in l 94 l. ln. 194:2, he bought :a b uilding at SLO Tamp.t in T :tmp;., 2nd C$t:abli$hed 3 P:alm whi c h soon wu doi n g :1 business of .$25 0, 000 :a reu. He sold che entire Tampa pro pert)' in l?H. f n 1946, Mr. R h ode.' emplo yed 1 20 pe rson s in hit in S:ar:uou. :and CIC'lrw:accr :and rh ous:andso! J'ICcsons c .. u in h i s d1il)'. .ttcnct cd b y the qu-ality of Jood Mr. Rhode.s :1lso own.s opcU!CS a 4S3cte c itrus grove in Count}' :and in Janu:arr, 1946 bcc:ame t h e owner of t he b u s in"'' blo.:. S.ull.SOU in M arch, 192}, :an d Wl.S g rc.1th imptC$scd witll the scn i d manner o f it s people, chc of iu dinu.cc, the n3cuc:.l bc.,auty of i t s setting and c he p ossibilities of its growth a n d d c\'clopmctlt So imprtsscd was h e that he tcturned to his 11:uivc Chicago, <.tl.lt h U l aw office ::znd return ed to to cn t u t h e rc.1l csut c busintts :md m a ke S;ara$0ti1 his pcrm;ancnt horne. Mr. Flory hu be e n co.ntin u ou sl y :.cci\e i n the t u.l Cftatt bu5iness here-evtr hu uk:en -an acthc interest in c ivic chat might te-nd co de\clop into t h e c icy he e n visioned in He h"s se r ved prsidenc o f the .8o.1rd o f Rc:&lcorJ three time-s: of chc Florida Ass ociation of Re1hors; p r tsidC'nt o the Ch:&mb t r ()f Commerce, h:t\'ing S<:tv e d :'IS :a mC'mber o f cht boud of direc tors for t(n years; of Su:as.ota Pos: No. } 0 The Legion : Suasot:t'$ o n tht Sut e E:l(ccuchc Committee and important ci\ic com .. m ictt (ll, I n 1'28 he produced t h e Guide, a.n :annua l publkacion d esigned t o visitor s t o Suu<>t:a. through illu str-at io n intim:m descript i on. copies of che 4 3-page p ublic a tion hJ.ve been dist ributed lo::aUy :&nd by ma.il through the Chamber of Commerce, resulti11-g in .man y a.ddi(i o n a J tour.ist.s permanent rcsi
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THE S TORY OF SARII.SOTA 351 one: o ( lic clc b a n d o( (orwunder of The Amuican Ugion." The Founders "-':tS pu$Cntcd tO hi.m tt the Arminico i n Sarasor a in 1'-41. During his .tl pr&dmt of the Sa. NSOU Cou.:uy Oumbcr of ComRJo in 19)S dw-um.,nign to build Jnd LM:Jo Bexh Cu:ino .u 2nd to the U2gt of :aetu.s! Flory i n 1946 wu ll member of t he go verni n g board of t h e AmttiClln Red Cross the Amcric:an Leg i on) Ch:a mbcr o f Commerce Servi..:e M e n $ Club, Fl o r i d a Auoci ati o n o f Ruhors and w:.s of t he Su.uota .Bo..ard of Rc,lcou. CHARL TON HAINES DOWNS Cb.ar!ton HaintS Downs WJI born july 2 1900, in Long VaJ.k}, N J., 'he .on of Arc.hibUd and Ad,bKie (Bc:;auy) Oowm. lrt J'l7, he wu tr.ill:tted frOm tht Roxbury hich school of N j.. atld aoon ,{cu.,ard went co w()-rk i n the main ofticc. ol chc Do Pooc Corp:>ruion W ilm ingto n D el. C HAR LTON HAINES DO'i'NS l:lter hi! wu el c d for Du Pone i n Notth Caro lin a a n d Flori da $tlling p;.int.s :md Vlltnhhc:s I n M arch, 1925, he opc:nc:d a stor e On Main w i t h the fi_ m f uJI carlOld of pa i rtt ever l O arri 'le in Suuou. Luc:r. h e open e d s t o res i.n an d Veni ce. Until St-ptem ber 194S, when he opened a laret new nocc at 1'0 Sixth St-reet-. "loS widely known u the okles : mtte&:;ant on Alain StteoH. In I''' Mr. OowM surttd in rllt C11Uk bwinm; at co-o wne-r of the-0-Bu-0 Rsocft in C".UCtcn pur ol cbc couotty. Sbordy J.ftcrward he brov1hc c:he firn puubred Buhnu buU to 5.1r'UOCa County. The nnch U now w;dcty kno.-n <1.1 OM of cht most suCctl6(u l in this sectio n of F lorid3. Mr. Downs h 3s bn in :all comm u nit} llfhiu $ lm:c: coming to S3.cUOhl an d is a membe r ol the K iw11n n i $ C lub t h t Mlii$Onic ::and S lit s J o dgcs. On OcLObc-r 1 0, 1 927, M r Oo.,ns was muricd tO l.conor1 Dnpcr of Hopkinsville, Ky. Mr .and Mn. Downs hne one CharltOn HJine., Jr., bora March 20. 11)1. CLARENCE LESLIE McKAIG Lulie: McK3.ig w3.s born in NormJ. ndy, j:ant 1.1ry 9, 139 9 t h e $On o jJmJ Mollie (MocrOio.) McK2ig:. Hit fuhct w:u c:n t;JI;t d i n the f:.rming ::and logging buti ncu u n til hh d eath i n 1902. Mr McKaig w.u e d uc3 tc:d jn the public JChooh of Jko.dford Cou nty, Teno . <1nd u Brandon Tuining School, in Sh.elbyv ill e, T en n He chen CIUollcd in Uni\>trtity, in Nuh,illc and was 1rad \need with *" L L. 8. ck-grH in June:, IU4. He WJ.t to the Tf'llnc:ute sute bu un Fdln.u-y B, 192<4, before he wu (>m V:aockrbilt. While-:attcndin,g the Mr arrl<'d moncr tO eomplcu hd
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352 THE STOll. y OF SAil.ASOT A CLARENCE LESLI E M cKAIG On Scpcc mbtl" 1 9 1921, Mr. M t K;aig W1S rtc:d co A l ice Funkhou 1.:r, of J oe l 2nd ).br4 cha (Md>ornt.ld) Funk.houxr of Phtuburg, Mo. Mn. \1UcndC'd W'ud&hqon( i.11 Nuhilk. Tttln., and .tincc conmtr; to Snnou h2S bttn acti'"t' i.n womc.n 's a.fbin, belonsin& t o the \\1om,n'$ C lu b the AnJieln Lq.ion A u xili.aey, and tJ,e C 1ub. Dmins put o f Worl d Il sh e -.u dtairnun o ( the. C:mp a n d Ho$p i cal comminceof the Red Ctost :and i s n o w v i ce ch2irman o ( the JOHN FITE R O BERTSON j o h n J;itc Rvbcrt_,On, the only .surviving child of N :nb : m Clctlll 2nd M :ui ld2 (Fitc) R o bc.ns on, W'2t born at LeNnon, Tenn., june 9, 1 894 md m med for his g u -ndfuhcr, Col. john A. 7th Ke lnf:mtry, C. S. A. Aftcr attending d)t public schools at Uln.eon., Itt c:ntc:ccd Unk 1-k ightt Xhool (bur C3$tle Militny Academy), i n 1908 'nd gnduatod in Juno, 1911. the o studied three :tt Cumbcrl:l,d Unive.r.si ty, :tt lebanon, .1nd 3 }'C:Jt and a at the Univ e r$ity of Virgini-a He dicn enteH-d t h e bw d e pll.rune!'lt of Cumbcrhnd 'Univctsity :trtd W2S g:radu llt e d in J:tonutary, 1 ?17. He i.s a member of K:tppa S igrn:.. l an d Sigma Nu Phi legal fu.ccrni ty. H e wu co dte bar of Tcnnenc:c Muc h l, 1917 3nd f orrnOO, "'itb hi$ {athu, th e la w fil'm o 1\ q b uruo n & R.obtr($0n and pr:tcciced liiHil the U ni tcxl Suctt tn(ettd World War J Upon che rai sing of a portion of 3 vo huueer company he a second o infa ntr-y :tn.d t$5ig.D'M marri ed t o M11r tha Ly nn e B u c h:&n3n, daughrcr of O r I W 11. 8m:h:an an (founder o C.1.stle He:lghts Prep:r :racor y Schoo l ) and 'W'illi(! ( E l kin ) Bu ch m.an. 0 thi s u n i o n two chi ldren e r born: ht Lt. john Fitc Robert son, Jr . A S. N. 0 4697J' who diN july II, I'H (Sec :1bon ) and I Lieut. '01illiam Robcrt.sOn, ASN O)HI,l, Co. F, l-4,c h Inf .. 17th Oiv. who fousht in the Sur Ba.sln, the &lgi\lm Bul,:c a.nd in Gc!-l'many where he w:.s w ounded and hospiulitcd. H e wu dccorucd wit h the Bronze Stu fot galla ntry i n acti on. JOHN flTE

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 353 Mr. Roben.son w n admitted to cht b1r of Florida i n M:1tch, 1925, and, u po n m o ,.in g to S:ar:asou in April 1925, lx:c:ame a mcombn o f the firm o f Garden11itt, Rohcruon, & R obemon with offices in Santon ar.d Bradent o n T h e firm was di.swl v< the f o ll owing yca.t :and the fir m o N. G a nd John Fi.tc }t obtruo n ,.. .,n imrMdi.u cly and <:onti.nt.Ocd u ntil em of Mr N. G. 'RobcC'UOn u UU, A ctively in J):'at ti.cot ol bw moiog tO FIOfid"2. Mr. Robe rtsOn i s a mtmbc r of tht A nw:ritz;,. a n d F lorMh St:ue ba.r u soc:iuiocu, tnd p resi d ent o tht ba.r o f the 12th j11dici al clrcuit. H t is a steward :tnd cnntet of the Fine M ethodist Churc h. He was a dcleg:at e from Ttnntstcc \0 the ARl( r ican Legi on caucus ac St. Loujs in 1919 w i th c ontinuous rncmbe r.shi p s ince. Organizc' d and W'M pa.st. Clyde 0. Br.attco Pon No. l 5 o( 1rtd past Sna.s o u B:.y J >on No. )0. Ou.rlng Worl d Wu U, :.nd b u r Mr. Rc-benson t en! :as memlx.r of Sa.r:uou Count y vic < Boa.rd N o. 1 H r d :. mcMbt'! of th< S.n.soca and Count)' Wclfuc Bond, S:aruota libnry :aiad Oub Bosrd LIEUT. JOHN FIT E ROBERTSON JR. lt1 Lieuc John fjtc R obert-to n Jr., \'\'tt born 26, 1.5'21, at Lc b;1" 0n T e nn. the son o f John F i tc and L y nne R o b cnso n :mende d school and juni o r high in S'1rtiSOt 1 and ente r ed Ca.id c J-le ij;hU Miliu.ry Acacl c my, :at LcbJ.Aon, i n Septtmbcr 19l6, t nd W3S gud uatcd June, 1.5'-40 H e tnurcd ( } n idso n Collese, in N. C., 1940, and com pleted cwo work. H t lllttMdcd '*umme r sc boo l at um .... emt y of Jo'loC'id:a in .,.n During the umm of un. he attended tht 'R. 0. T C u Ft . McCielbn., Ah., a nd .,..h.w 11 o( qu.alificnio.n fo r c mmis sion i n 0 R. C. eff11. ll.nd N J sailed oven<'.lS April. 19H. b ndin g in AfriCJ A fter lurt h<'r trilinir.g there he wu usi n e d tO 1 Hth Snf., )4th Di:v .. 5th Army. Landina: S)lcrno, h., foushc at thrte o f Vohvrno Rivtt, C3.ssi n o. He rurfe-red :a btokcn lq o n 1nd hospul .. izd 2t N2ples for two month s in the J.5'4-4. He w2s promoted t o a l.n lit-ut<'na"c f tn 1 Cain& bxk into xti.ol'l :abou: j..-ne 16, be placed in c.omm.1nd o l Co. A USth lnf, whtch cornn u n d held u ruil he .,;u (,ully Cdin11. J u l r 1 lS'H w hil e de ft,.dio g -Jtt:a.t<'glc: h1ll I J)tic>n near Jul } 11. w::.s bur i ed 1n ..'\mer,can Ceme tery lie was cite d fot: in the ene m y on June )0 lind July I n t u Dc<:ota-tiont: Silvu Sur : u )d HetN. Award : Comlnft.nttym;tn's B:.dg:t and Dininguithe d United Ci tat. iOI\ wit h tWO dusters. dbbont : /ul'\fr .. ican T h tarre o f Opcr2tions, Thucrt of Optruio n s with fou r battle scan :.nd on e bron7.e u co., h u d; vic tor y ribbon (5 Inda). JAMES D HARMO N JR. James 0. Ht.rmon, Jr., u born October II, 110 2. in Columbi a, icnn., t-he son of Janwt 0. and f.Uen Jane Harmon, dcscc ndi!nn of ol d funili u Mr. Harmo n WM in the C olunbi:a public: .sc hool s o.nd Jatc:r :men d ed the Camnl ttci:tl Uus i nns C ollosc of Q>lumbi
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354 THE STORY O F SARASOTA C. E. HarmO n, i n brokern8e busin(J$ i n I n \ 9}7 he entered t h e 1uc:n's clothil'l$ :al\d furni$h ings wit h his brot h er, W, M. H armon The firm, known as i s l oc:te cd at 252 }.hin Srrttt 2n d is one o( tl1e luding SC.OI"CS in S;ar:asou. Mr. Humon is :a mcn\bcr o the boud o f d i rtctors o f the Kiw,.ni.s Club, Lhe Charnbt:r of Comr'l'ffft, 2-nd Merchanu Auoduioo. He is :aiJo a member of the Ello :and th< Junioc Cl:ut:lbtt of Commerce. H e U with the F in. t Chris ti;a" Church. On rvby 15, 1,2,, Mr. Harmon w u married co Ebk Porter, of Col 11mbia, Tenn. h.n c tw() d:aughtcrs, Lcli-, Ann, born L6, 19H. lou E ll en, born October 12, 1?}2 Mrs Humon h as lx<:n ac:,he in clurdl a.td soc i:at wel(\lr..: \\'Ork 3(11.1 G:a r t i<:n Cirt lti:. WILLIAM M cCO Y HARMON Willi.:am McCoy Hun10n w.u born September 17, 1flOru, Mr. H1rmon t u., nude a hobby of r eMl.it, golf, fishi l\(1. 1nd s wimmil'lg. J n l'U, he e nl isted in th\1 nll' 'Y ami W:l$ mrtde :an ach lecic director with a r11nk of chief petty o1&ocr. He Sotrved :-wo yens jn Trinidad wu honorably disc:h.arttoC"'dt.y Viianrw: Gra.Mm who h:t.l bn an xrivc church worktr aOO bu puti
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THE STORY OF 355 CLARENCE JORDAN STOKES C h b the Jones Gulf Club, S :t n O U Insuran<: e Exclungc, Rc31(y lloard, t;ld t he C ounty Ch3.F\lb c r of Conuwuce. He is ;'IR Epi$C0pJ;li:w. Mn. Sto kes 1 f ou nder membe r ;1nd :. me:'llber o( the bo2rd of d irCGtor s of the fro"l\ 19}0 to 1942. She is act ive in Church Schoo l Ah:a' Gu ild Woman'$ Auxili :ny of the Epi-scopa l Ch\rch, : m d $<:rvcd \\'S of the boud of diccctorj of the Commu )il)" Chest 3 n d a o ( the b:>:trd o i d:rect o rs of the Ch3:nber of C omme rce JOH N JOS EPH WILLIAMS, JR j()hn J ose p h \'qiiJiam.-s, Jr. w; b4rr\ jn r>.'knphi s, T can. J\uguH 4 lSS6, the son of j ohn Joseph Md M :nti e (Chuh3.m) m e mbers of pioncN Ten nm p.1ny M.r. Willi :unt is a M;t.SOn, 3 Kn .i,gh.t Te mp .. ln. :t }lnd degree Mas o n and ;t member o( the Shrine He 1 l so i .t :l member of the E lk$ lodge ar.d the l\iwa.n.ia. Club, o i which he l s .;me of it\ p:ut pres; denu. He has $t(Ycd (m the boa.:d of dir.xt ors o f the Ch:-.n1br of. Coromerce io which he .also h:.d .served on m3.ny co:,miccees. He has suv< on the board o( rttOr$ o f d1e Slra.sou You;:h Ctnter and j$ menlber of t he ' bo1rd o{ che $;.1v,,ti<>n )\uny. JOHN JOSEPH WILLIAMS. JR.

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356 T H $TORy O F SARASOTA On April 17, 1917, M r. Willi ams was married tO Hauit: Moody, d3ughte r o f Thonu lSdwards g:aw (Moriwn) Mood> o f Grenada, Miss. Mr. Mn. hh c four c hildrC'n : Margaret VV . wife ol C Fitch, of Jaeltson v llte, Fb.; Chadone W., .,.,.j ft: of Oa.,i s Parker. o Oec:uu r Ca.; RidJcy W., wife ol J. A. McGregor, o( W'onon, M d .. 1J)d John jOkph, IV, b..o in .,.,., was fe'rvina in t b e Sutf:f army of occupation in Gt-tnuny. Mr. and :\(n.. William s have hn of d)( Firn Prab;rterU n Cl'lll-rC:oh for rruny yan. M r 'Wil Iiams is n ow ln elde r in the duuch and 2 mcm bc.c of bo ard of ttustt. ARTHUR E ESTHUS Arthur E Enhus wo bern UJ. Oc-1 0 bcr I 3, 189,.., the sort of George E mel ie (En gem) H e -.at edl.IC;'Iletl in the l) ubli e s dtO<>Is of C hic:1go :tl)d o f Mjondakl\, Norway, he livtd K"tn l yc-.a.r s whro hi1 p2.rcnu murnrd for 'l'isin t o their natiYt bnd. He-bttt nudiC'd n Nonh--esttta. Bwincss Colk,se 2nd lAwiJ in Cbig&o. In 1'12, Mr. F..uhus bc:s;an wot .. ina-(o:r the j. Yn& Ekuric eo., in Chi for t wo and l s a member and form er clu.ir ,man of the Saruou Oiur;c:t o( Boy Sc:ouu. 1'-U is al10 cceuuu of tbl" Y M. C. A. In lf4-4, Mr. Esthus rc:c:ci.c-d the-Amtrtun con:muniiJ' awud for outnandi ng work lor Sau ..... On Octobe r 17, 19t9, Mr. ... u married co C h n W And-erson, daughtc:r of Rtv. :.nd Mu. C. A. A nderso n of Chic :tgo. Tlley hue three l iv in g c hi) d rc n : L bor n October 14, 192); Ra ymo n d A b o r n Mar c h 17, l92S a n d George l bo rn Oc tolxr 10, 1 929. Do h a n d Ra )'mond wc:re 00 f r o m Hish S<;hool; Marjori e hter uwnd t d Scc:uon Uni v ertic y and R:a)'mOnd Florid a South c:r n Colle,c. He c mued the ::ermy i n IJH, and i n J 9H 11111.1 se-rving io tbt E u ropean rheurc.. ERNEST BOLEY LORD Ernfit. ,6oly L o r d 9tU born in Commerce, Ga., Stpcc:mbcr 2l, 1898 the .son of S umncr J u ll! and Lul u J:ul e (Dilyrmp l) locd, of o l d Georgia l am il il"j. N e :auc n dtd the publi c schoo l s :l. t J h. liiJd w h en 16 y CIItS o l d, suned wor k ing as :1. in :1. i n 1 1:'1, an d 1-ot.er in Ath en$, Ga. Mr. Lord t O Flor:id a in the h ll of 1 J20 :uld .rurted working lo r L. M Reh bin dc-r. ol Ft Mt:a dc:, Ford dnler nd but of South Florida S tarring u mt'(hanie in M r Re! :binder'' "UI$<. Mr. Lord w-ithin lew months btume 2 bus drhot-r on the F1. Lak('land, B.artow and l..ak c Wsl n nan. In July, 192), he WIS tn.n${et'ted by Mr. Rehbind cr tO Fore Myers to work on the South Flotkh 8w til)c bcntttn Fore Myen an d S:..ruot2. ln September, l SIZ6, he ..,..u tt'lntfeu ed c o S a ruou a n d nn o n t h c bet.wn and T:.o:tp.J. In July, 19)0, h e w:ts m a d e .Hatton l'n1nage.c of the Trail Tou r.t, J nc., : m d hu held rh::et poj irion e v e r .ril<:\!. Mr. Lord :abo <:ntcr< the: t a x i busineu in 19}2, scntin.J c h e Uut Station Taxi Servi ce, -whic h in 19)11', w:at n a m ed the: Ye:ll o w C a b Strvic e l1\ 1942, Mr.

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THE STORY O F SARASOTA E RNEST SOLEY LORD l.ord bouj::h t rbe Radio Cab S er, i ee from john L1.1 .. dcrnun :.t'Ht h e 1ll$ openated botlt (\'e r s i nce On M3y tO, 1926 Mr. t.ord W3.S ma r ried co DorisElder, of Mariann a Fh .. who d i e d in 1 ns. On Au g u H 2$, 19H, he nurr i ed t o Ann1 M i ddleto n of Robert f d alc, Mr. a n d M rs Lord lu"e a $On, W' illi 1:n ErnC$t Lord, born :kp tcmber 14, 1,42. Mr. L1>rd is :1 membe r oJ t h e Elks lodge lie is als o a me mber of the Miss:on:uy 'Bap tist C hurch. Mr$. L o r d i s a m crnbct of the :Mtc hodist Chureh. HOWARD OWEN C HENEY Ho,vard 09.cn Cheney born i n Steph ei)S, December 6, 1894, the $00 of Enoc h C. a nd M:artha (Smith ) Cheney. He wa.s educated in the Stephe n s publi c sehooh G ibson -Mercer College, in Dow m3.n Ga., t h e Athens Busio.e$$ Coll e ge, in Atbe.os, Ga. Whil e :t youth, Mt. Chtncy wocki,,g as a c -lerk in genenl :nerch1n d i se stor e jn Scel)hcn.s. During Wodd \W'u r h e scrw:d nc.trl}' :t ye.tr :md a h a H in t h e fidd AI t e e bdng d ish:tr go!d from the :trmy, Mr. C h en.cr en.terd c h e s(<>Cery bus i ness and in ]1nuH>' 1,26, ;:tm < t o S ua*Ot:t. Jn Much 1926, he wenc into b u $in.e ss for himself 1 t l 0 9 E N inth Streec. t u September, 19}-4, he m o\ed ncxc door into the mod e rn nQr e buitd.ing he jun Handlins: t he be$t merc handt$ hts busi 1tn s rew i l y A$ a res ult, h;'ts h 1 d tO enlatge .::nd remodel the store three ti mes l\>: r is 3. mem\:.cc o f t h e C l o b t he Amenc:an L egion, a nd t h e B:tpti.st Chu c-.:h On FebtU:'l t} 24_ 1 no, he W' U m arri e d t o 1brr How3.td o f S!ephen s Gl. a g r-.ldU1te o( Greensboro College f o r Wo:ne n Greensbo r o, N.C. Mr. Mrs. C h e Q e y ha d three ch ildr en: Owe n J r .. bar:-l J u l y 25 1.921 : lucyle, born May 12, t9lJ, M)d Cuol yn, bc>rn iO, 1 ?24. M r s Cheney d i ed WednC$d:ty, Apri l ), J 9 46, Ho-A :nd Che n e )', Jr., who W$.-S gnJu.1t ed from Emory Un i \ ers ity, in in Mly 194 2 hotd d :e F ebru:Hy in d1 e u s N .R. He served until Dtcc:nbe(, l945, \\hen w:as han discharged with t h e n.nk o f li<:lten:tnc $CI\ior grade. i s a grad u3 t c of c> G:t. Cuolyn atte n d e d the U n h crsi t )' o:J( Al:ab.,.m:a for t'Oi'O :tnd wu to J, P. Green Jr. of Anni.ston A l a., M:ay 26 19H. Mn. Cher.ey '-'1$ 1n :tct i \ e o f t h e Gu d.:n Club, t h e R e d Cross fi:
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3 5S THE STORY Ol' SARASOTA FRANCIS C. DART Fnn ci.s C. D:1rt wa,s born in Oou.r;l:tt G:t., April 2 1 the .son o( F Willitand Mat li c Datr, of pionr Gwr g i a hmili.es. F. Willis Dare, a n a c hc o( BrunJwick, G2:., wu from the Univtnicy of in 1893 and puctictd l:a.w i.a Douglz1 fM nu.ny years He $C-f\'Od SoCl'crd. yeus u judg.t of the iuprrioc c<>vn i n tM (;, .. c,ircuit In l,l:S, fat. c o FlMb .tnd pr.;ctletd in untit ,M summtr of 1916 whotl\ h.e c:tmt to S:uuoc:11, bomin1 asscx:i :tted wil.h t he bw 6 r m of Joh n F Burht. lone i n I 511' he (Q rmcd :J. p,;rtner.shi p w ich J .J, Will i:u'l'l$, Jr., undtt thf' tirm 1U1tte of Willi:unt JIIHI Out. He died Augun 14, 19}7. f.'r;tnci): C. D:.rt Jtrl.u;hlllt cd l rom tlu; 11ity q( Goors; i 1 with :111 1\ n in 1922 :.n d then nudi.:(l fou r :'It \\/:ul 1ing ton U tt i \'Ctsity 1 n \' :u:hi.n gcon, D. C., (rom he was sraduacfi'l wilh t.t.8. dct;rce in 1U6. Ht wu tO t he bu in F!orid.2 in Mnd1, 1921, .2nd Jt tlu.t time u.utcd hue in the cM6ct of John f. &rk. He to anoc iucd with Mr. Burke t until 1,}), when ht bec.J.mc county to whic-h hoe h-a-d btotn eltcd the prtdins !:all. He wu re-dcc.u:d in I'}' 11nd served v.mj J 11 $hO!"t t i rrc :s!te r dc;1ch o( hi.s w hen he r efigncd cou l\l)' judge: :Uld "'Cnt itl.tO che hw 6rm o( \'('i.Hi.Jnl.$ FRANCIS C. 0<\R T and wh i c h wu thc:n continued under it!l old name. II\ Dccc l nber, 1?41, Mr. Da n wu S ansou', city u torncy u n dtt the c i ty form ol Mr. Out is put exalted rulfr snd of the EJks, pan prtsidcnt of thC' junior o Conuncrcc, aGd U a mtmbrr o tM M.uonic: lodce, JA-Iu Tu1 Odu Frat<'mity, snd the Episcopal Oaucc:b On Much U, 1'40, M!'. Out murilt Fr:m ce, bCJrn Aprill:4, t.94<4. KARL A. BICKEL Karl A. Uitk d was born in G tnrseo Ill., Janu ary 20, JU2. Hr .graduued fr o m 1he Ge ne:feo Hi.gh While a 1'1\C'I 'I\ber of tht s.tnior clus. he Sited the lonl DjiJ) Ar<'na. of Geneseo. He edi tor ol the Rock Ishnd., Ill edition of the Davc:n pare, b Times. Enrollin' in Su.nford Uni"tulty, in Sun!ord. CU., i n UOJ, h.e 'llrOrlted hi, w:Jy ch rout:h by doing e:a mpu$ .,.ork fot nrlous CaJiforni:t newspapers. tk covC"ced the dts:11.stcr. Later, t1e j oir..: d lht: $t:l.tf of the Fr:anc.iJCO Examin er as n i ght c it y edito r With che. org.tn i z:nioll of the Unite d Pres" A n-ociHi o n in 1907 he opened a number of Uni ttd J1r41fJ b ure11u1 i n t he Patliic n o nhwC"n with hcad4 t'jU1lrltrl at Poul and. ln 110$, he J)Urc:ha.sed t.n intti'Cit In the G n n d Junct;on, C'.ol., 011il y NewJ, in thJt city unti1 1 91 h e returned to Unilcd Prib J, in tbe Nt"'' Yor\ office. He 'W'OC'k< hiJ ._.,)' up i..."l the Pn s.e-nin& bu.Jil'lftt maOJ5Cr new' nunaJC'r, sod fro:n 1922 10 I ')1, u A1 praldcnt, ht inauau nted and up.andcd cbot Uni.ttd Prns in Chin1, the July Sweden, Ccrm2t1)', Pohnd, and At.ucria 2nd signl :an J5, M r Bickel rcui1 u :a connection .,. .ith tht United at a dire-ct o r of the org:aniu tion. He iJ :tho c hairman of the of Scr ipp & Howa rd R 1dio Co ., a s ubs idiary of t he XriJ ) J )JHOw !ltJ ncwspJ,ptCJ 1 and is a o( the Inuitut:t o{ Cur rent \\'forld Atia.icJ., a Cnoc foundation. Whe-n the of the Unic.<"CC Su.tti' in.to World War U bumc imminmt, he esubli.shfd at the rcqlaC:It o f !\ebon .koc.ktfelkr the prns ttton o f tM Of6c:c of Coordiutor of lnterAmnican Affaitt. He sentd u s mcmbct of the of c.hc c.oordin:aCor's office :aod ditcted the work of counttt :acting enemy p topag .. ndl in Centnl and Sou1h An1er i ca by counterpfopllg:tnda. Thi.J. w : u nccomplithcd, i n by t h e publi cation of the magn: ine E n Gu:ardi11, whic h h e founded.. The F:tlilt;\t't,i ne, p rin1c d in Sp anish :tnd Ponuau.cJe. att:tiMd a t i tcula tio n of 1SO,OOO copies 111\ i t.sue in South Amtrka. Durin g Lhe wat, ht

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THE STORy OF SARASOTA 359 KARL /\ BICKEL tna.de sevu:tl tri ps o f invescis:1tion tO Mexicch Mr :.nd Mrs. Bicke l a dp interest i n alf:airs, particuhrl)' i n regard to the of the cit)' Mr .BicJo:d t()Ok a lu.di ,l g p:m in tbc: m.()'ven,cnu which led to the con$trl1Ction by tbe city 2n-d fcdcu\ t;:o 'ernnH' : n t of the: C i vic Ct1HCl' l ido pro jecu (q.v.). He h:M b('(n ol the S1:'1 s ou. Bo.1nJ $incc: 19}S. He is 1lso a member of t-h e bo:ard ol dirCGcor.s o f che Ch ambcr o He w;as one of the (qundt-c $ d!C ficst president of the l .ongbMt C lu b H i s c:h 1 bs ac e : New Yo r k Yacht CI\Jb, The Dutch :and Metro po1iun, of New York. :and the National Pras CJ\Jb, of W ashington. H e i s t h e audu>r o f "Ne"tO .En 1pires-The New.spaper & publis hed in 19l0, and .. The Mangcove Coast.'' publi.shcd jn I n 1.946 be w:as named of the Florida H i storica l Society a mero bc r o f chc: ()penni"g COm mitt oJ the boord of cotl.tro l of the john .Rin g lin g m\Jscums, and the Sar:asoa County member of tht ,crglades N;njonal .P;ark Co: nmisti J 946, s h e i nauguutod \1 o( radi o c;ast s sponsored by the Fcdcncio n de1igncd to cour"'gc lurther of the tity through s :u:icn p la.H i ng. ln I $hC W:l.t v i ce p res i d cnt of t-he f Jorida Feder atio n o( Garden Clubs. In 1?40, she organi zed the San$(lt:a County of the Britjsh \'(ftr inaugurated a week's drive to $2 00(} to purchase a motor kiH;ben for the Bri 1 i sh T h e drive resulted in .cai$in.g with "'h ic h m otor were P\ltcha.$cd. T hey were U$C d b)' th..: che London 'bl:cz', in Norrh Africa a.nd Ge r m :my. J)rafrcd f ron l the Brit.ish W ';lr Rclid b) Clt!'lirman Ja.mcs Halt:)' ()[ t he Saruct<'l Red C r oss, she ini ciat-cd the SJ:$t of t he two maj<>r J{cd Cross dritc.s. tripli:lg the q uoc.a.
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360 T H E STOR.Y O F SARASOTA Cby enter e d the w h olesa l e fi$h b u s-i .. ne tJ lll Pu n n G Qr<,l;a w itt! hiJ brochl!t'S m n d Hubb:ttd Ch:tdwic k, u J >ilrt"e r ll 1 :.n d < lul'ing t h e y ca u w hich f ol l o w ed buil t u p o e o f t h.:-hrgest on t-h e Flodd .t W u t Co!'ln H c ad q u ntcN of the tirm, k nown :. J t h e Fishcrie,, w e re: move d c o S:tu so r:a i.n J'2S and :tn d W:lrthousn w ere -u .P.aync Tumin2-l. J bJph Oud..-ick w .n cduc:.tcd in th<-Pu.nt a Gorcb public: schooJ.s ;and Wat crachuted from Punu Gord;a H i g h Schoof in 1,2,., He then Jtttnded lhe ve:r sity o f F lorid for three yc.us.. Ouring s u.mtntr va cati o ns, h e tt1\ e l ed widdy in Con tinenul Euro pe the B r i t i s h b lc$. n t92S M r c1,:.adY ri c k jUfiCll i workins foe C h;tdw i c k d t en o w n ed by l1it S t ep h e n C h a d w i c k. J n 1 9}6 S tt:ph c n r.:cii'C\i a n d C I :IY be.cam e 11ol c ow n e r of t h e c on c l!rn, w it h Ra l p h m anascr. In 1 ?-H, Cl:ay ... -d his inwcm W I! I C put o r n M:.re h 1}, U4). During t he wa r 1\' h on ht:lp was hard to get, M r t Ch.,dwi ck n sincd h e r i n (l'l:ln asin g th e fir n t B ENTON W POWELL lkruon W Podl u botn in Au r o r;a, l.nd., July U, 1199, t M JOn o( Win 8. :1nd X11rherinc-(SohiU) Powell. He the public Khooh in l.dinsc-on 2nd Slc;.,minscon. IlL 2t1d murieub.tcd 2t Ulinod 'We:deya.n Uni,'<'nity He madicd aceovnti n g and b usi :tdmiJli stt:ltion a t Northwcnttn and )C n;\;t e ns.io n U ni \'erf;:ity, Chkago, Ill. He beC2mil 11 certifi e d public acto1.1ntlln t i n Ill i no i s il'l 1 9 2 8 :.n d :1 n lcmb.er o f the IHin o it Soc iet) o f Ccni6cd Public J\c c o unt:IIHll. M r P o w ell 'O.'e1tt w it h t h o En:.c e <>rg-.ln i7.:t c i on in 1926, i n the ir C hic:1g0 offices H e w:r.s cr ;ms{ uro:d t U the offic e o{ l ho i n ru;ary, 1 9 3 1 and two mon c h J bur co the S:t.r:.s oll. ulficc. Mr. P o-.."C:ll iJ now ptutc:knr o( tM P:almec Nation al n:ank & T rtl$l a.ncl vtc-c-.prntden t :1nd Flor:tda mantgff o f the P 2 lmer Florida Corporation 1nd P 2lm P top(' rtic:s. Inc. Fro m 19H t o lUI, Mr. Powe ll w 2.s o f the S n.1sot a Tribun e a dai' l y new$p:lpc:r 'fAhich u b y Heuld Publ ishi n g Co. M r Powe ll is a ve teul'l of b od1 W o r ld Wan. ], Sept emb e r 1918, w hen l li! wat 18 )'MN o ld, he e nlist cd i n the !'lr m y )nd g n c d i n the in f a nr r y \l n ti l t he e nd o f r h c y cu. Ahn<.t 2 o n ]1nu 3ry 1, 19H, he w23 commiuior..e d c:tpu.in il) BENTON W. P O'WE l.l. the-umy serv ed in c he 6nar'lI <1f C i v i l 'Engi n ri n g H Unjv m i ty, t h e M e ggs Schoo l o{ Arc:h i tcclure. a n d Frankf Bu.si ntu Sc h oo l.

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 361 RALPH E. DEACON After fini sh i n s school, he: two ycar,s with the Vincennes Bri dge eo of ViclCCI\tlt$, lnd doing l;ayout \\.otk l:.ttcr he bcc :.mc a unio n .P:tinur :.n d :'1 union < :'lf.P<'ntcr i t \ Toledo 0., .ul d Somh lkl)d, Ind After a c q ui ring thi.s -ex.perien<;e, Mr. Deacon bcC3.1lll" cst h n;:,tor ;tnd c:on s c .nu::tic>n of the Lurnl.>e-: and M1nuf2ctuting Co o( SOllth Hem.!. H e rtm:tintd with thu conc.:crn Jor: /!v c ye21'S :tnd t h.:-n c :unc t o i n the bte s u rr uncr oi l 92 5 ;\n d bocamc C$t i m l1tor and milt superintcndellt o f the S u m.hine Lumber C<>. of $1. Petersburg. Mr. Dc<1COO to S:At..tsou J-anuary I, 1?}2, : md bcc:u"e ge n eral manage..of the West Co:.$c Lumber Co. lc,ss t h an -a n cer the: Unit<;d St1tes e n tered \\' ot1d W:u II, he in the co ser ve in the: Com b:.t I.ng il'leers Corps. After raking bMjc tnin in s :tt Ft. Ltooud W09d, Mo., he: "-' -'S $CQt to d1e oflicers' mtining Cw gencr.a1 president of : h e concern. On M:.tc.:h 27, 1,4), Mr. wu m .trried t o Connie: Le<: Nob l in. Mr. -tnd Mrs. Dc3COlt ha\'C a s.<>o, Jack, bom No\ember l l 1.944. Mr. :t l so 3 daushter by :1. formct muri:l.gc, Ju.nne, borJ\ Febru ary a 1 926 . Mr. i$ a member <>f the-lby Cc),mtry C lu b t he Amcric:tn 1.::gt o l. is dso id e nti fied with Su1.1.nt L:.nd ('.ouncil Boy Sc.:outs u{ ..t\medca, the: R{!d Cross Salvation Arrny, :and the Ch:unber o C<>mmerce. His hobbies -uc hunti ng :uld golf. MAXWELL E. COOKE Maxwell E. Cook(! wa.s b()rn i Or:mge, Mass Au gust 2S, 18.91. the son <>f Edward H :tnd Anna (LuC'iiS) Cooke .E'Iucated in. the Orange p ub li c sch o ols. he Wa$ &r.lduzted from hlgJ\ SChOOl in J9l0 $0011 st:trted to work i n -a c.:Jothing ltOrC Spr ing. Ji.dd, 1hs:s. In 19 J 2, he re t urned 10 Or:tnsc to so imo the truckin g bul:lint:1-$ w ith h i s hxher, w l c h whom he rc m a i n e d tJ. ntil :.ftet wat WtiS dec l ared in 19 7 when he cn1i$t ed in t he umy air corps. :H<: w:.l tr::.ined :1.t Kdl) F i eld, Tex as, $CnJ i n 1118. He ser\ed l S ooonch$ :1.n d waSc hono r abl}' ed in Julr. l9l9. Ahcr (e:avir)g the army, he wJ$ empl<>ycd t o u.kc charsc o ( the printing pl:ant of the Minut e Tapioca Co., in Orange; When thi s concern w:.s ai(Jrbcd by Genera l Food$, lr..: he remain d ;t.S of the E. COQ!;H

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362 T H E STORY OF SARASOTA printing pl:int w h i<:h tOOn :t.f t41r \\ : n d W 3 $ t-h e (;ri dle y Ston c Co., o f wh i c h M r Cuuk e o n d us.i&unt t rc a;uu t He with thiJ concctn until l9l2, whe n h e s o l d hi& intercs t s and ca m e m Sar:uo u . I n June o f tb c ume h e t h e out o rno bil e b uf i ne:tt. S in UH M h n born tht St.ntOu. sent for Cz.dila e aM Oldsmobik aucomobikt. hi 1u.a.se being loattd at. ll4 Six.ch strt. Mr. Cook e i.s member o( t.ht a.bsonk: lodge and Fine Prtsbyteri:a n Chur.:h. On Octob u IS U2t, he wu mucied tO Ed i th Gridl.,:y. of X :m u.,. Mr. an d M r$. h:t."'O: c-..u , Qns: E d .. n r \ 1 G. Cookt:, bor, July 6 J!IH, i rt ISIH b c c:mo: 11n c u i gn inch.: U.S.N.!{, ;ln d M.lX 'IIId l Cook e b c l r n J une 1( 1 19J I w h u i n 1 9<46 w : u :.1 !ltu d t n c i n SMasot:l H is b S d H .wl. M r , i $ : m o(;t i n mem b e r Q { t l w C h b the P.ue n Tndwr A \llt)ri lci ol. JOHN C. CARDW ELL John C. W'I.J born in Si:nptOn .ud o f d i rce1or s H e bn ac t ive in ( h u r e h w o r k lor nun y bod ;n 2 nd Su:a,ou He i s a n e wanl of the Fi rS-t M t t h o di $t Chur c h i11 chtir man of the finance JOHN C CARDWfLL COI''I'IIl'litctt. i t membe-r o f the C lt.tb the Oumbcr of On December ZS. U94 Mr. C:lrdwtll W'al nurcicd 10 M a tilcb lihhudc. .Mr md Yrdwdl chr.e chi ldffA, t-o $0ns 2nd li d:auJhur. Their oldf..r 10n .t putn-t:( i n th(! oldnt bttcd it l t h t public school$ of Camero n, S. C., Th.e Ci t:adcl in ClHarle-.JI O n S. C .. a n d .,. as sradu:accd f ro-n the G e o r g i a School o f Tt(hn o l og y. i n Atl a n u Ga., i.t1 1 2 J

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THE S TORY OF SARASOTA 363 THOM ,,5 R I CKENBACKER C UtLER. S hortly :tfccc I e avins coll-ege M r. Culler entec< the bank ing business, $tatcing with th e fjrst & Sa"jDg$ Co., of A"on P ar k, Fb. h e until the end o ( 192(.. H e then went with the Ob.io V3llc:y B:tnk, in J>ortsn 'louth Ohio. E.ouly i n 19.29 hoe returned to Flor i da -and lxc'amc the Avon P u k ol11ce mamgc:r o ( the Am eric an Fruit G r o wcr t Atrociatioat. He 1 e m zi n W with the until 19H whe n he cn tp l oyed by the Florida S t a t e B\ln k i ng D e part mcnt. Thereafter, he m ad e h is borne i n Su2wu. In 1939, Mr. Cullc:c bec1m e with the First Fedcr:d Sa, ing s & Loo.n A ss oc i a t ion, s.t'rving j.(!. the <-ap:adty oi c:xc:<-utivc v i ce presi deot. H e i$ the o w ner :md operator o a brgt c itnl$ g:r ove u A vorl Park. 'Jn 1946 h e serving 3S president o i ;he S3ving$ Buildin g and L o3n l ea sue. H ( 1lso 1 of the o f Comme!'(C, th.t S1r:Uota CouMy Welfare :\ssoc i:nion_ the Stnsota County Tl bercu1 o s i s Ass oc i:uion, t h e Sarasoc.-a Colnty H o\lsins Authority, the Sara$Ot3 Count)' Chapttr P revtnti o1' ()( l n ( :m t.ile Jlual yllis, : m d the SaraSQt:.. Rotat}' Club i n w hich he :1.lso s e r ved tctnu u ptcsident During the '9-:ar, Mr. Culler t ook an 1Gti \e p1tt il' a ll v.:at boc.d dcivtt and cccc-ivtd a ciutio n f o r h i s wod>fro m the Treasury Dc. p.utmcflt. He 3 1 so ha d pated j n local d ri \ 't-$ to o b t 3il'1 !uJ'Id s lor needed wd ac:t i itie$ and public improvemenu. Mr. Culler i $ a member of rhe f:)nt Btpti st Church in -which he i $ now serving on t he bo:.rd oi dea cons O n No\crnbcr lO, 1924 :'1-fr. Culltc w a s n a rried to Myra. Robcru_ o f W. A :1n d [ tt2 (Co l lier } Roberu, of A"'on Fb Mr Mrs. Cu l ler h;ne ;a 3 0ft, Thom-:.3 R J r horn November )(), 1 926', -who cmcred army in April_ 1945 and in 1 9 4 6 "-':tt 'er\ ing i.n th< Stb Army in Japan MORGAN DANIEL TAYLOR Mor g\lin 0-tn i el Taylor wu born in Coving t o n County, A l ab a m:a, .'\pril 16. 18SS, c h e $ 0Jl. of WilliJ.r.n '!$.'. and Ella (Hugg:iJlt) T ayJor. He 11ttcn d e d the Sta t:.: Norm:1l Colleg.:-;., Troy, Ah., :.nd the J ac k son\ il!e Ala., Non m l tnd gr3duttc d from J a ckson v i ll e in l9!1. M r T3rlot then uught s c hoo l i n W ih:ox Cou nt)', A b bam a unti) 1914 wb eo h e join ed t ho: Methodist Conference. H e tc:.n3ferml r o the f:lorid:1 c o.n.fcrt nc e in 19)2 and p2nor ir. M i3mi d\1ring 1 ,9} 2 )), In the wintc c of 934, Mr. Taylor c ame t(l S3t:1 sora :md o pened the Georg i a Produce ()n 12th Sueet-v.hich he o...,ncd oper2ttd lor nine ) 'Clrt. D u r i n g t h 2 t pe r iod h e :.ho a re:.l esutc bus-i nen. S i nc e .J:.nuuy l l 19H, h e h3s his en -MORGAN DA!';Itl. TAYLvl\ to l)'/JtJgrup!J1'1fl error /he unJu /be on this wer e rtrlt'1ftd The ntJfll( ;, liN lcftlnnd c-orner $houU. b.: MoR.G.'I.l-1 TAYLOR. TM 'tltJtne in. the comtr Jwuld 1H TKOM.-\S Rtcl
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3 64 THE STO R Y O F SARASOT A t i r e time to t h e !"C:tl bus i n e s, : u 'ld h:ls his offic e in R oom J 6 l.ords ;\ru he h:.s sivcn h i s to :til o r g : m i Z:tt ir, O<.:tober 4, !?1 6 :1nd j:wi T:.ylor On!X'r b orn Mu-ch H 1 926 M r s T a r l o r the -.,rc Met h o di sts. BEN]. DRYMO N n e l l J. lll 'fl'llCJII w.as lmrn in Will o w S p ring s Mo .. O<:tobcr I S { 897 t!1c S()n o f J!.lmCs :tn d NJ.omi (Ed Dcptwo dcsce ndcnu o( old T ennessel! w hich h;ad move d t o settl e i1\ Me. Ocymon p ub lic in W iJI<>.,... :tnd, b ei n g gc-;'lduaccd (rom high sc h. w h ere the pose office }ud :1 sccolld class J'J.ting, :1.n d t \\ehc wh i l e CooJjdge a n d Huo vc r wcre presi de nts. I n 19H, M r D t y mon C;tme tO <'lnd c d t h e :'1 A y e:.r h t e r h e :'1 bro ker, being with the fir m oi Jnc. l l 19l1 he s t: arLed .hi. ; own firm w hich he Ju s opcr..ttcd e \cr s in c e 'l'f) h i s k n owle d ge o f :tppr:t i s:tls h e ; m e n ded the Re:ll School of Columbia University in New York City, in 1937. Sine-.; co: u io;; tO $:tp$()U, "h D rrmon hils 1)4;1' tici l l:ted a ctive!) in civic i $ a p;ast p rmmtr(:e, a.nc.l is a past p R s i dcn t 3nd the pre sent pte,i d ent <)( the $.1r:.sota o f Rc:1.hon. H e s erve d 3.t oi the Hou sin g w hlch in J 9-t-2 COn $trUction of :t hou s i n g foe p>ple co a sz 1 0.000 He is a me:nber <>f the a )d Elk $ lod,gJ;.S-. I n 1936, h e p res i d ent o( t be l .audon foe C lub of O n J u ne l6. 192 4 Mr. Drymo n "-'liS nur r i cd t o Mary Ftllnci s Privett of J B an d K at e (Wh i t e s i de) P r ivett, o! Oxford, AI:.. Mr. :tn d Mcs. Dtym M h: rve rw() $On$: James Jo1eph, bocn Nbrc h 23. 1?26 w h o w:u High S c h o o l ill 1 9 4} o ne re,,, i n 1946 w:as i' t h e A r:ny Air i n the Phil J: p t ncs, 1ln d J ay. born SetH.e"''lbe r zs, 1927, who \\'M from His h Sch ;lo l De.u:ing J m yea r in high sc hool nc., J:t.>' wo n t h e Club !.I""':Ud fo t h e bc>t css:ty M d also an for bein g the out s t3ndin g boy i n the senior d:ts s I n 15ll6, h e wa.s attendi ng S o uthern C ol i n L:tke h o d JamC$ Jos..:ph i s a member o( C h i Fr:lterni t )'. M e a n d Mr s Oryanlt Pur du e Unive rsi t)'. J n 190,. he st-ar:cd workin g l $ for Bo w ser & eo . o f l;t. m:alluhctureu o sa$ pump s, t;ank$ :and d r y d t:ln in::; M r Spr inge c remai n e d v.:i t h the co nc-er n fol' yean, workins \ I P to t he of m:tnas:er

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 365 j l>l SPRINGE.R. "'it.h offices in Hf' then ume 1.0 Flori.d-a a.nd entC'rd businns in He r'ttnaiotd r4rs..;-and then. in 1t27, W
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366 TliE STORY OF SARASOTA LOUIS ROY BRACE toui; Ray Bnce w a s born in Casti le, \Vyomi.os C(lu:1ty, N Y., A ug ust H, lS8J, the SO l of Will i onn a n d M.uy Hd.:n (.Ackernun) lklq. He was cd uc3ttd in the public $Cbool t of Castik N. Y., ::.nd in Pimburgh, . :and bter liv ed iil N e w Cml c, P ; \ 0'> Lumbut, 0., Roc he ster N Y., Bu8';alo, N Y. Defore c o ming t o S .tro\SOU in October, 1934, ;\fr. Brace had tvr. e nt)'fiy c ) 'Cut' cxpe:-i er:ce in rc-..1l esute Md t11e l;ummobi!e indusct)' and unice. Sine< 19}S he been mtntger of Bu r nell SttJd i o For a n u mber of ) 'C;U$ befoce coming here he WJ.S Ol mcmb!:r oi the T cmp 1 e o f Cirde of Light His hobbict 2tt genoo l o g)' a n d gardc nin:;. On J :uu.ary S 1902. Mr. B race nlatritd tO j o $ C p hine M McH vgh, who died Apri l S, l ?28. On Jul )' II, 1940, he "' 'all co Risu Urcwcr H e h u -t W O SMS, E 3tl C .. both e Butf -do, N. Y. Mrs lJr:.c e w;u prc sidcn t o f the lndian l k3c.h Gar den C i rcle, 19}9-4 J pr(si dc n t of the Fcdc r :nd Cico the Garden C lul.>, J9H --1}; o( the ci, ic : 'llld bc:l u tific:.t ion committet o! the C:r den C l ub, me m ber of the botrd, Federated C ircle s o f Sara 5ota G arden Clu b, 1 9H-4S: ol the John A Fite Chapte r o t h e U.niced !.OUtS ROY B RACE Daugh.te(s of t h e Confeder acy, .. +6, a mem ber of the S:tt3S Ota W':l.r Mtl:llOri.ll O>;nmitt, 19-15--4-6. \Yf. EARL BURl'i"ELL 'X1 'Enl B urnell W:lS bon\ Jan u:.ry 4 1880 in Cu ci)e, W foming County, N Y. He acccndc-d l>ike Se11:1 i n Wyo m ing County. In 1904 he -:ncetcd the pbocognpbic b us iness: in Pike N Y., ;md 1Mcr did home in Buffalo. He then move d t o Pel'll'l Y a n, N. Y ., he h;zd a dio for C'Jio' e n ty both comJlllOtQgr:aphy. Mr Burne ll's skill :.s a pho cognpher Ius won n:ttion .-1 rc<;Ogn ition. He has been d c mo:lstr:&tor a t m:.n) reg i on al, a n d .nat i onal con \ ention.s n Uni ted Scnes In 192), he w : u of t h e Ph<>tugraphns Society of New )' od, St .Ht. l n 1934 Mr. n llrn d l C3.m e to ('$U b lished:. u u d i o l n 19}7 h e wu made p rtsidenc o f the F lorida Photognphe rs Associ3tion. To 1940, h e wat t lttf <>J c hc S<:>u t bea.m:rn P hotographtrs ciu:on, wl1ic h in clude$ $t:ven $0l.lthe<1$tcrn .suces. Jo th-:-.same reM he W:'IS h o n o r ed with th e deg ree o ( Ma.s W. 1\ARL nORNF.I.T

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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 367 tee of Pbot<>g-:aphy by Photoaupher$ o l A m c ri<:11. Mr. Burnell is a member o( tbt Club the Maso nic-lodge, a n d the Bal)tist Church. On October 190 1 he "'U married tO Me: E. Curtis. ... JOSEPH V. LAWRENCE Joseph V. WtJ born i.n 0 . April 2S, !87?, the-son of ]OKph and Nancy (Smith) He wu from. tbc. Marys v ill e high sch ool ln U97 nnd ye:u later joine d the 4th Ohio Volunteer l nl:lncry Rtgitncnc .scrvc.;l durins t h e Span.is h Amcric:an War in Porto R ic:o .A(u:.: r cturlli n g to li lc, he surted "''Or k i:eg u a travel i n g tcuil b ook ulcsnuo. Hi$ llrsc bus i1\CSll ven t ure was-in Lima, 0., ... here he started :a biqdr and automobile c:o-ncc:ro. Soon a(urw:ard he wcm to Chi.and for the: next H )'tars wu f'nga_ged. io the mOti,-e tirsr wllin.c can and btC"r curins 1-nd distributiftl automobik In ln5 he-f'nrC"rcd che rul tn.att bu.tioes.s in Chi c:aso u 2 b:oh.r .tc:lling lubdivittoru *Cc-i:og kas in,g 2 n d of so.mt of l:ar.gen i n che Loop. He con tinued COo be '.l<:tivc in Ch.ie:t.gQ un til 19} 6 whe n he tO tQ cQ sem i retire." Innad he soon began ukins :a most jJ) comm1.1nity :alhi rs. In 1937 h._. w:u ch1lrm11n o( the Lido IXJ.c.h <.<>nt mitt of The Chamber o( Con\merec which $UCeedtcl i n putting through the Lido Uc:ach Casil'lo project. During 1?3$ JSJH he wu pmident of the Cham bt:r. Ht' :t.ppc)tnted :t.nd wrv! on tht mosquito control GOMmiutt of dtt Clutnb' which ma.ppcd out a ty-widC' prognm fo.r thC' cndkation ol c-he pests-He al$0 W:&$ cbairrM-n of chc Chamber's deleme w.bic:h h-elped obuin ch.e Su:uota Ven ice air b:tscs. He served as a membtr of the: iution commltc of tht So.n.sou Bay Country Club. is chc onl y S" ra ,Ota h oldi n g a n hol'lor:er y in the Cha.nbcr of and t h e c.ountry c lub lie Sf.'t\'C d c ommand<:r o{ S u n$h inc P os t Ve:tcnns of Fore ign War-s;., 1 938 of the R<:d Cro.u d iusc cr commi ttee. Dur ins 1 9-44 a.nd I SJ4S he uncd :u city eoul)cilm:an He. still reuins memb ership in a o f Chicago dubs 2nd U 1: member of L2nd1nark <422 Masonic Lodge. He i1 oow president of eke P. ac: l. a rul Ht'ace orgroiurion and inJurano On Septe:mbu 1), 1,0,, Mr. Lawt'C'ncc: mu t-iotd co LiJli:ln L. Mus,ut. Mrs. Larcncc:, -ho wu a fashion artist in llt the ti_mc o( ht-r m:att'i age, hu uken 3on ac:,he pJ.tc. in c:orrununi t y 2fhir. s )n Sa.r3.J(It.a, p:nt.icuhrly in connection wit h the Sara-sou Gm.f en Clu b and the Red Cro. D u ri n g the ::h e j C rvcd as hcttss at che Ccntct and C lub o n the: Pjcr. She was <>I the F edct:ned Gu den Club$ and <>( the S:ansora Flowct for two }'eJ($. JOSEPH V LAWRE NC WALTER N. MUNROE W2her N. Munroe was bo,-n in Ckvehnd, 0., july 29. IU-4, tbe JOn of Lurt. Mary A. (KtndaU) Munr o.. He wu e:dut:ncd if\ the p1.1blic tehool:t of Bonon and bclng gndv:at ed !tom h it,h school :.t ttndod rhc Ma.snchu 3 ttu o( Tcchnolo,gy, wl1cr < he-c;omp l<:tcd :a f o o t )'Car coun i n c ltcuical i n 1 906. Upon Je;.vjl'lg college Mr. Munroe w 0as, Te.us. ""'here ht worl:ed for t h e Dal1:.$ E lectric tight & Pocr Co. until Ull. lie ''lJ t he11 5tnt" to Port Acthur, Ta. u suptrintcDdcnt of the Port Arthur Li,sht & Power Co. He ia UU to ac:c:tp: the posilioft of l!'l:u:u,ger o the Paris dlu,-icc for elM Tuas f'o"ll' & Us;he Co. Ht rtnuintd wi:'b d1n uncil J'n when he c ;amt to Florida lo ht-lp oq;-.1niu the Florida Powct &. L icht Co., whic:b -.;as i nc-orpon.tcd December 21, 192). Jolc then m:ad c m';ln;tger of the wenern di vision wich hc:..dqulltt C N in Lakdnnd whrt he: rc ml)inal until 1 9 H h e m:t.d e S:u.lSOtll hi h o me:. Jn 191<4, Mr. Munrq:;nnixin.g t h e Ro tary C lub i n Por t A.r d 1ur. and u chc ch:b'lim being clcclcd

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3 68 THE STORY O F SARASOTA wAtTF.R N. MUNI\OF. h:u bn :l Rut:ui:"' 11i"C: '"d h:M :l$ prct idtnt of tbc S:tr:uou Koury Ch1b. Mr. Muncw h;u :as pc'ntdcnt of Su.nn) bn:l Council Bor Scouts of Amcrtl:.t (or fCU$, tre3:sun:r o( tlte Ho.Jpul Jnd hJS betn .JC tiwin ci\"k wor k whcf'Cv-er t.ouud. An Epdeop.l1ian, he stned 2t Y:trious times u juni()r w .ude n, : m d ;a fi1C'n1bc.r o th.t. dioc;esan C -Se<:U tiv c bo ud. O n I'So' 19( I h t wu t o Cio:r in e R.t:b:c;. Gnb}\ o f T()C, Mr. : u t d M r t h : w c twu d i l d r tn: J nm:, m :.rrir d co J. Ii. Ned, :1t1d i u T :unp:a: a n d L., who Jcrvcd 2 7 mont h ; i n th.: s igna l i n ,\fric:t :uul July, :.n d is m :.rriC'd. 1\vin x in lk; tch. ,..,,_ Mvnnx i-s di.rtor of chc gu ild o f the Church. JACOB H AROLD ADDISON ].tc:ob Huold Add iso n w:ts bc>rn Dt>Cm'bC:r 21, t RSI, ( m /:.em Mar Freeho l d N. J., M o ,,. m01.1th 83ttlo= wa$ in l h e Revo!u t i onuy War H e '\\".'IS th<-son o ( i h o:t u a d Mary (Junicc ) A d d i son, of H e was c ducncd i n t h e public sthoo l s of Frtthold M.:.n 3 s qu:.1n, N. J . and W.:tj audu:ui !ro:u the M : u'IUqus n l li $h School. He then bes s n working lor tlu! T umcr Constr uc tion Co N ew York, t n d took ni s h c COUI'SCS i n e ngi n eering -sc. P rstt 1'eehnical School. Ahcr obtainin g ;a t r O ul\ ding ;n engi neer ing rubje<:n, h e
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THE STORY OF SARASOTA 369 c w r since, buil ding up th.: buJinC"n umil the co n cern h:as become o ne <>f th e )aram o ( iu kind i1\ thi.t cion of O n J-.:ly 17, lSI17, Mr. wu murkd t o Rt:id, of New Mr. Mn. Add ison two chil dren: R:chud, born Apri.l 2}, J9t8. who more th;Jn four yt':JU i n the umy :.ir for" during W'odd W u II. bcin1 ho.nou.bly dilcbuged with the n.nk of t.hnial Ktc<"Jiftl on }0, l t4,, 1-nd Bl:tocbe:, born !'-ioYt>m1xr 7, 1919, tht, wife of Ff't'd Byrd, of S2a. Anctlo, Tu., .,., ho st:tvtd :\ ine )'ears with the anuy a.ir corpt and wu honorably dis' ehs.rgcd early in J 94ii. :u a Krgunr. Mr. Addison is a mcmbu o f lhe Masonic Jodgc, Chapte r C()mm;mdc .ry and S hrine, t!1e Ellu J odgr, :.1nd the C h11mber o( Com m er c e M r. t u'd Mrt A ddis<>n ace membeu o! t. h e Pre 1 bytc:rinn Church. For n'l:l.n:y Mr. Addion was :an expert shooter bowler H e is o.n :t.rdcnt fishe:tm3.n and golfer, <1t1d L ikes :all o chtr forms: of outdoor sporu. E. LEONARD CREES E. Lton.trd C rtd, for nine )'Cart of S:ar:t$0U'$ most active civic ::and men, wu bnrn in Birmingham, Engl:tnd I cbrusry 9, 1!88, the son of Eusucc Emnta C rc et. When he w3s two .. yeu. old, h i s family came tO the U n ited St:ltts and scnltd in Provi dence, R. I. Mr. Cret.t auendtd public; fehool$ in. Pr<:>videncc :'lnd in 1906, :a(ter from high school, btcame 'tO i.n the oldtn whol e:u l e d'ygood.s houst in th e U Sutcs, 'Taylor. Symond s Co., aubliWd in Ptovidt.nct in lttl. Ht fro-n the in 19)7, ) I yesrs of :a.nd c:ame to Sarasota co rcc:irc. In 1' he esublish< the Crftl News aod Book Shop which he hYdoptci into C)ne o the la r sest busincnu of iu: lcind in the sate. Mr. CrH:s wat d ou:ly identified with dl'aitt until his death 2fttt :1 few da)' $ i.Unen, }\h rc h 6, 1946. He wu o n e of the c ity'' mwt 8tti boosters invo.lu:abl e 3ervice as ti, e hea d o f ''arious salvo.sc during t h e w-.1r. In strumental i n the ti!Otg:mi7.lltiO\ C) the Ass<)CiAtio n Mr. Crees ser"ed 111 its t:ary for two tic wu n1cmlkr of che b011.rds of directors of the Chamber of Comrnerc:e :.nd Y .M. CA. a..nd 1VU af6Ji:ucd with che Shtiot duirm2.n in charsc o! waste p.1pc-r he t;ab1i:ihed a ttarc rotd in J)Cf' c11piu. eollectjon. He alo he'tded dC)thin,g drives for wsr directed chc nlc of Christmas 5e:1h co help fin:u)CC acthitt t s of rhe tuber c ulo sis and health and "'U man of the LiOns' Club "blood bnnk" un it.. Mr. Crees W:t$ survived b) his widow; :t daughttt, Mrs. Mil n e, of 8r1dntm:, 3 son Arlhur Crees, o f Providenct1: a ttcp .. .ton, Rod ne y Coch r:1.11, o( S:.iruou; h.is fath-u, EuJUCt CtHS, of S3tll$()t:a; :t siner, F.. LEONARD CREES Mu. Arthur Rushtoo, of and ll arand d;aughtcr, S..andn Milne-. MAYNARD ER RUSSELL Maynard Erwin Russdl wu born il'l Darry CC>unc)', Michiasn, September 28, 1'10, the son of Gu)' brl tod .t\dll {Wrisbc) Rus::sell. Ahcr bciog sud\l:attJ hiah sc hoo l io Budc Creek Mid,., h e e n rolled in .L'hnl t Creek CoJic-gc:. Jn 1 ? 1,, Mr. R.uJseJl btgan se\Hn,g c h o E\'ening Pon in B:actle worked hi s way u p the pofit i o n of man3.gc.r o the central O h1o tory. HLt work foe the PO$t wu c:oncinuout oxc:cpt for cwo yurt sprn t witll the Kellon Co. in l9U 1nd 19)0. . Ht raia.:ncd !rem thC" Post o.rpnj:uc.on tuly '" 1')7 a.nd c:ame tC) S:tt1.$0b whttc be aubliihcd the Rumll Nun Agency, wh.ich distr ibutes l.udins mJ.& atind and aewtpape r t to reuil dule:n in Sar,...ou, Bradenton, Pahnu:t o. Vcniet, Punta Gord a f Myc.u. Hil eo nc:crn also di s tribute.J von c:ard1 n 1hu ttrthOt)' D11ring the $p ring of 1 945, lhc Jl,ufScll N cw J ASill l O )' was move d intO :t pl:tnt Sc<:on d b11ilt ftpteiall} tO permit the c:xpthCIOUJ ha1 l d li.ng numbet1 of

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370 THE STORY OF SARASOTA MAYNARD E RWIN 1\USSEU. ?.lr. Ru'.lsclt i s :a mcmlkr o f chC' Rou.ry Club. thC' S .u:uota Yscht Club, the Ch::ambcr of Commerce the Junior Cb2mb of Comnwrcc-. He is :also mctn bel' of the Mcchodis-c church. Hi' MbbiH ue tl:shin!-'. SJilif\3 and toweling. On u. I,H, Mr. .u marrK-d tO Ph)'lljs Allegra JloJS Mr. snd Mrs. four children: lhr'bar.t Sue. born August 2. l 9}6; born Aug\J$t 1"41; Jon Thomas, born Apri l 12, ltH Tom C., bor n Novembe r IS 1 94 1. Mr. :md MN Russd l are the owner$()( o n e gf the in S ;,rnsotlA, I o n the b:.y! ront t>n south s ide of Bayou. T h i s the , -ito: J).ivett by Mrs. Whiuku, widow of the first of Land of S:an_tou. tO her daugiuer upon hec m nr.i.a,sc to fnnk Broo k s. ERNEST C. SEAR.$ E rnert C born June-II, J 906, jn Wtbsur County ncar Richhnd, the Kin of M11fot'd W. :.nd A d:t (Reeves) Sc-Ju, dr,cend e nu; o( old Gtor f:amilic-1. publ ic achoo l s in S teW3tt C ounty, Ga., d11! h igh $Ch 00l in Bdi.son, .. :111d the-n tOOk lln demk coune in the Dl)ugh, A&riC\.lltural :and Me c h :mictl School in Douglas, . now known u the South GtOrgitJ Tea chers O>llcg:c. Before. finishing $Ch.ool, Mr. Surs worked cach $\lmtncr o.nd bttw\lc n couf1t".'l in the cxprttt office in Arli.ngton, Ca. o,arins 1.?25 lS'2,, he covued Ccorsi") :t"d west Florida for a whol culc-hud6.rm of Jhinb:-idgt, Jn j:anu:ary, 1927, M.r. Snn made his ho"l''C in here )!c b.unt u.sociat
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THE STORY O F SARASOTA 371 While he in c h ars;t, tile :.cc i d cnt frequ e ncy rate dropped J r o:n 65 5 )Me louu J>(r mont h to 19.5 H e in j:mu:lry, 191,, Ond t(tUrRC:d t() H ) rcsu.ne chuge of his conce-rn. Mr. Scars is a mcn1bcr o( cht of dirern OctolKr 1 0, 13))9. EDWARD HOWARD BAKER Ed .... nd Hownd 8.Jit.ct" -..u botn Ocrobcc 12, IUJ, i.n N2Sh.viUe, .. eM ton of Errl$ t N:to.ni { t1e-tthing: of hi$ brother sinct t.hu t.1rue. Mr. Bd:et workin& for the Cumbc-r-12nd T celcphone Co., unlil it by the SouWm Bell Tt:kphonr Co. He then ..-eat with the C9nrim:ar)' s c h ools in Monrovi, I n d . and was gradullltd fro1n h ig h school in Bu.dentO I \, He t h en :atl' t ndcd Southern Colleg-e in Sutherland Fl:r..

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372 THE STORY OF SARASOTA CHARLES ROWLAND SH ANNON After college he .tptnt 11ilc months in t he United Sutu Merch2nt M:a.rioe W'ocld War I. He thc:n work:N for tbt yc:an 21 a bookkeeper in the Firs-t Naci otul Bank. in BrNcnton: chtn was :agnt of W Co. in Bradenton !or thr yun. then suvtd tM yea.rt u suptrintcn.dcnt o( chc Florid2 Mccho din in .Entcrpri.te. Ft.. Mr. Sh:'U)non entere d 1hc !unerd profe&si on ln 19H aod lx:camc senior o! the R.ob-1ru-Sh:an no n funeul Home which now oc cup:e$ 1he b c:Hu i ful home b uil t b)' j ohn lhmilton Gillt-Spi c one of 1he fou n d ers of S:arasoca, w htn h e ceu r n c d here after iJ S<:otl1nd during World W:.r f. Mr. Sh.1.nnon :.3 \1 i n 1h e Boy S couts of Aueric:a for ten yean. He hu bttl\ :t membtt of the Methodist Chul"c:h since early childhood, hu 'ausht boY$' d2n for yc1rt, and h.J,., $n1 che Al2c.hua His.b Sehool, Mr. Robuu 2ttendeod the: CuJ>tOnJonu E.rnb:a),ning w hen stiU a boy, he turred wlth his l:ul1cr in the f uner al b usiness and w ith him unli l t9H w h en h c opc.>llcd a ho:nc wid1 his brolher. In 1 9l!>, he j oined with C. R S h :tnnon in csub IUhi_ng th e Fu ner:Jl H ome in S:an sot2. During: W odd \V:.r IT, ht: sencd in che U. S. n:avy :u' phunucin from SepteMber, 19-42, \ln til ,,.,. lit is a nxmbtr of the Lions Cl11.b. tht' llu, ()dd .... feJlowt. A!!Wricae Ugioo. and tbt junior Chamber of Commerce He i s abo member of the Mtthodin Church. On June II, 1940, Mr R ob:atu -.as muriod to Bonnie I!Jiii o! Suuora.. Mr. and Mr.r. Robarts h:ave a B.onnir C':lro), born September 2 1 1-'-45. WO.FRID TAL MAGE ROBARTS

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TH.E STO!lY O F SARASOTA 373 PHILIP BENN ETT HUGUENIN PhiJj p Bennett l-lugucnln wu born in Wilm ett-e Ill., 28 J 900, the so n o.f PhiJ ip ;nd Gtr crude { Bennet;) Huguenin Jic the public g.hoolt u 't\1ilmnte ,nd WinneLkt., Ill. Met: s;r-du 2t.ing from his h sc.hool. he t11Jined ;as ambul.:t.rt driver f o r che R(:c--mbrr 6.., 1,00, o( Amhh PJ;tCntl, Eli S. :tnd (Helmuth) Miller :.c: WdshJi.cld, Gc:;tuga County, Ohio H.: w:u r;tis<:d u Plain City, 0 he uc:endcd pub lic sc h oolt. He 1.tttp dcd M edical College New ]etuy C o llete o f Oste<>p2chy, ill'ld Un i ted St11te$ Sc hool of Nnuropuhy. For n\ 3n)' yt3n, Dr. Miller i n proc ti in Wa,llinilt o n D. C.. ar1d !ot six wat dircc.cor o f the Health Founduiol'l o( He ca.mc tO ):)or;da for the fi.rst time with his in IJI ... l u 19lt he-umc to S.u.uota to :1 .. :lt .uion and tvrnocf u cfot wint.tr theraft<"c unnl tM of wftcl'l ht home l:ut in C0'11munit}' >'f'h irs H e 4 m em ber of the Lio ns Club lind is chairnun of cho c lub't hal th :end co :r unittte which sponsored the blood b:ank durins World W':.r IJ. H e is also a m<'mber of C hjjmbt-r o f Coml'l'<'rec. the Flor ida N.anarop.uhk Phys.ic-i.ans. Auoc iuioo. tM Florida N'.atvrop.a1hic: S h)'Siol og) $nd is a staff contrib utor to i.t ziSC) editor of Suc:ttnful Uvina Ht i r the .Jutl\or of "Licdc Em)'l on .. How to Get '\Vltac You W.aJU In l.ilco ... Jnd *'TM Founbin of in 'Ficnida.', y-<".Jn aso, Or. ltfilltt btt-urw inccrw:cd in oi Pon"c:
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374 THE STORY OF SARASOTA " .. .:i; DR. J ONAS E. MlllliR Or. Miller i s a g radu:nc of lkthc:l B i ble School, D C., :md W:l$ ord:ainc d to t he: ministry in 1931. He jll m embe r of Sar;aS<>u :.n c f of the "3du1t Bible cbu. On Oeccmbtr }0 1 922, Mt. Miller w:n to lkachy 3t Nor f o l k Va. Dr. a.nd Mn. Mi.llcr h3d four cbj ldn : l.c:>is b orn 2 7 1:924; j ames Luke, born 2 7 192? died cembct 26 1 940; John Mark, bora J uly 4, 1 929, and M:t ry E)jz:alxth born Jul y 29, 1932. W l $ m"'rricd tO D:a,e H:armOn, of the U. S. N:.a\')1, w hile ::.. ttud('nt ntus c l.t Sibley Mospiu.l Washin g ton, 0 C. ?\k Mn. H:1rmon now Ji ve in S\lt:J..SOt:l. WILLIAM LAWRENCE ADAMS Will iam bwrcncc Ad:uns 1\'3S born Oeccmbet 16, 1 '08, in Crisfi eld, Md., the son of Willi.am J A n nie (Steve!lson) Ada-m:;. He W;lS from the: H igl 1 School in 1 926 from & Stutto n Bus-iness-8-,)cimorc Md., ir\ 1?27. After completin g c h e bus in e ss c our-se, Mr. wcn c into the banking busin$$ f o r Gille t 6c Co. jn :and in 1,28 beea.me u$Ocj2t ed with. L. S. & Co iMt$tmtnt of B3hi mare :and Ne9. Y ork. Soon :afrctwud h t s isun t t rc:u urer o f the firm J n l?H, Mr. Ad3tn$ tstablishOO h i s own firm o \'<:. L & O> . with offices ;lt 6) \'(tall S t reet New York City ) C ars Ja1er he sold this con cern :and c stab)i$h e d the investment b3nking: firm Lawtc ncc Adams & Co., with offi ces a.t 72 W:aU Stre. ec. ln 1939, the nlln)e of the iirm wa.s t h:u1ged to Ad:tMS, Keister & Co. r., I ?41, he \'tred his with. t he bu$ ine.ss t o bec orfie of the Southern G<2s & Electric Corp., o Bcadenton :1.1 1 d Mr. Adams i$ : m o l lictt a me mbe r of t he bo:trd of direct<>.cs of ;a number of oth