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History of Polk County, Florida

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Title:
History of Polk County, Florida narrative and biographical
Physical Description:
35 p. : ills. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Hetherington, M. F
Publisher:
The Record Company
Place of Publication:
Saint Augustine, Fla
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History -- Polk County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
letter   ( marcgt )

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Statement of Responsibility:
by M.F. Hetherington.

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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usfldc doi - C54-00011
usfldc handle - c54.11
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SFS0036427:00001


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History of POLKCOUNTr FLORIDA NARRdTIVE dND BIOGIUPHICAL By M. F. HETHERINGTON '!liE RECORD COMPANY-PIUNTE!tS SAINT A UGUSTINE, FLOIUD A .,..

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COPYRIGHT by M. F. HETHERINGTON LAKELAND, FLORIDA COPYRIGHT 19>! by A. H. CA WSTON

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Histwy of Polk County, Florida MANAGING EDITOR AR.TH Ull H. CAWSTON dDf/ISORY BOARD HoN. HllRBERT J. DRAN>:, M. C., Lakeland. HoN. PARI< TRAMM>:LL, U.S. Senato r, La keland. HoN. J. ]. State Senator, Bartow. HoN. THos W. BRYANT, Representative, Lakeland. HoN. S. L. HoLLAND, County Judge, Bartow. J. E. WORTHINGTON, Editor Lake Wales. Lisu: W. SMITH, Banker Haines City. L N PIPKIN, Banke r, Mulberry. H. W. SN>:LL, Banker Winter Have n. L.A. MORGAN, Citrus Grower Ft. Meade.

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To Thote Who Have Gone Before-To the men and women wlw out this land, amt findig il as it came tile Creators Jiand, declared it good; wh(}, ;,. the lone liness of the darkling woods, v,oorked out their salvation, dreaming, perhaps, of the better day tlwt civiJ.isotion: s miracle WO'Iwre adverse, renewed lwpe an4 inspiration; tltat, seeing the foot-f>rints on the samts left by tlwse hardy pioneers, they may take heart again, and by their toil, their per severance, atul their acc&mplisl-..>wtats, tlwre may be in this fair land more stately t>>ansi(}nS, spim11al and material, ever "as the swift seasons roll"-These simple annals are inscn'6td With hope for the future With pride in the past!

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Contents PAATI Dedication For eword Chapter I -Polk County Chapter II Bartow Chapter III -Ft. Meade Chapter IV -Lakeland ChaP.ter V Auburndale Chapter VI -Socrum and K athleen Chapter VII -Winter Haven Chapter VIII -Davenport Chapter IX -Haines City Chapter X Lake Wales Chapter XI -Frostproof Chapter XII T hriving Small "Ridge" Cities Chapter XIII -Mulberry and the Phosphate Section Chapter X I V -some Smaller Communities Chapter XV Educational Chapter XVI -Some Early Churches Chapter XVII -Polk County s Good R oads Chapter XVIII -The Phosphate Indu stry C hapter XIX -The Citr us Industry Chapter XX -The Cattle Industry PAAT U B iographical 5 9 13 39 74 85 125 132 135 1 4 2 146 150 154 157 162 165 167 172 174 178 180 183 187

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Hiftrny of Polk County, Florida FOREWORD T H history of Polk Cou nty is no t replete with spectac ular in cident. It in the main a si mple {eC()rd of many in di viduals woricing independently though harmoniously, toward the end of the transformation of a fine section of country from the wilderness stage to its present splendid development The intention ofthis work ha s been to present, in chrono logical order, such incidents as may enable the reader to follow the processe_, of that development, and to not e the p r ogress that has been c:ootinuous and consistent. These incidents, some of which may Se
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10 HIS'fORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA The beginnings of places and things are always of int erest and importance, and these have had more attention than the happenin g s o r the persons of later years Some things have been pu rposel y omitted. Petty strifes, sordid murders; unfortunate peculations; personal tragedies-there has been no inclination to bring these out of the oblivion that has me rcifu lly enve lope d them. There has been an effort to treat each community as its importance and the historical interest attaching to it might justify. Some places, natura lly, furnish more historical material than others ; some cities or towns have more complete records tha n others; the people of some places have been mo re interested and more helpful in furnishing information or material than those in others Certainly there has been no i nt entional neglect or discrimination as regards either commu n i t ies or individuals . The task of compiling this History has been arduous, and, in some of its phases, tedious; yet it has been an interesting and most pleasant labor For some weeks the author has lived with those who made this History; thrilled with them, as the railroad mighty factor qf progress, slowly came toward them and their hearts stirred with anticipation of the great changes to come; sorrowed with them when disaster overtook them and wrought ruin on the groves into which they had put their very hearts and hopes; rejoiced with them when some signal accomplish ment sped them on the way to prospe rity. To him these people have become v ery . real; an!l he .feels a glow of friendship for those who fought the good fight and kept the faith amid the hardships and d i scomforts of the long ago Grateful acknowledgment for assistance rendered is extended to each of tl1 e members of the Advisory Board; to t he newspapers of the county, whicli, without exception, have been helpful and more than kind; to Messrs. H. J Drane, John M. Keen and D H. Sloan, of Lakeland, Frank Fuller, of Auburndale, E. B. Simmons, of Lutz (formerly of Fort Meade), for valuable information relative to life in the early days in the county; and to many other citizens, who have taken a kindly interest in the work and have given it aid and encouragement. . -.

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HI STORr OF POLK COUNTr FLORIDA Part I NARRATIVE

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u;;u-0/tl Cout1 Bartow Cut1 Cowrt HOIIJt. Cllrlf.W.

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History of Polk County, 'Fiori"da CIUPTU I. THE pririlal s!age$ of the occupancy of Polk County by the white man is veired in the mists of the years, and we can catch but fleeting and uncertain glimpse s of these early scenes There w ere some s tragglers from the out s kirts of civilizatioin almos t, if not quite a hun dred years ago. E. S. Whidden city clerk of MulberTy, states that his father wa s bor n in this county in 18U, and that his grandfa t her h'ad lived in the county, and in other parts of South Florida' many years before that event. These few pioneers, and o t hers who came after them, were hardy souls, who sought the adventure o f a wild countr y, which provided a paradi se for the hunter and fisherTRan, and which afforded freedom fr om the restraint and conventions of civilization. A little later soldiers who partiCipat e d in the Indian wars, and who grew attached t o the country during their period of service, with the re t urn of peace elected t o remain in the land they had learned to love. Some of them went back to their homes in the northern part of this S t ;lte, or in 'other State s,.and loading a few effect s u pon wagons, usually 'drawn' by oxen, ret urned with their families t o make rude homes in the wildemess. Others were attracted by the benefits offered by the Government, w h ich p rov ided free land and other bounty for those who became bona fide settlers of the new country. It is hinted, and there may be some truth in the suggestioo, that bceasionally a fugitive from justice would seek refuge and freedom among these wildS. some of the "firs t families,. of many lanCis have been built on such foundations. Whatever the varying motives that impelled them, gradti.all y, but with increas, iug' frequency, people drifted in, and esta blished rude habitations on the shores of the beautiful Jakes and amid the wooded area s of what is now the c o unty of Polk. The desire for human compan ionship would t end eve ntually to the location of se v eral of these dwellin gs within a radius o f a few miles, and thus would be formed; a settlement. A man's "next-door neighbor" might live a mile, or five mi le s dis tant ; but for the day and the condi t ions that was close enough Aside from the inconveniences of pioneer life-and these settler s did not re gard these inconveniences in the light of hardships, as would people o f this tat .er was far from unpleasan t. Li f e was simp le, and great effort was not requ ired to meet its demands. A patch of sweet potatoes. furnishei:l a article of d iet as well as a coffee s ubstitute-the potato, cut up into small cubes and dried, then parched and ground; providin g a not unsatisfactory be'verage' . An; patch-
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14 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA which all articles of wear were fashioned, besides shee t s, piUow cases table cloths and other household necessities Tbe fertilization of these patches, by the cow-pen method was a simple matte.-. Cattle were impounded in an encl osu re fenced in with poles or s plit rails, and when the area enclo sed in a pen was sufficiently fer tilized, it was ready for planting, and anol'her enclosure was given over to the fertilization process. Here, then, with very little l abor were provided all the requirem ents of rai ment and the necessiti es of f ood. But the luxuries of the table did not cost eve n the small effort that was expended on the necessities-they were provided not by labor, but by spo rt. The wood s abou nded with every kind of desirable game. Venison wild turke y, quail, squirrel, and water fowl were i tems of the daily menu. Then every stream and lake was alive with fish, an d the sport of a pleasant hour or two would provide a welcome change of. diet for a large family. In time, around the rude dwelling a few orange trees would appear, grown from the seed and these would furnish 'lusc i ous fruit for the family. After a while, when the orange trees bore more heavily, the sett ler would toad a few hundred of them in his wagon, and haul them to the village of Tampa, wt1ere he would recei ve about a cent eaeh for them. A journe y of thi s kind. however, required several days, and was not t o be undertaken without considerable preparation and forethought and was seldom made more frequently than once or twice a year. The more industrious of the settlers would also have so me surplus cotton and this, too, would be taken to Tampa and sold "in the seed", at 10 cents per pound. "In the seed" meant that the seed had not been separated from the fiber. For home uses of cotton, the seeds were picked out by hand, the ch ildren doing much of this work; later a crude, homemade gin was employed And so, with hunting fish ing and not too strenuous labor life for the pioneer residents was not unduly hard. Their pleasures were simple, but !'hey we.-e enjoyed as much-perhaps much more as are the multiplied diversions of the present day. There were camp meetings where the people for mile s around came into friendly and pleasant social contact; ther e were cane grindings, suga r boilings, quiltin g bees, debating societies, and many other occasions which though they may seem abs urdly simple to the sophis ticated, were more of a treat, and looked forward to whh more plea s urable antici pation than a season of grand opera, or a European tour would be to the blase product of the present day. Hon. Ben F. Blount prominent for many years in the affair s of t11e county, to which he came as a small boy, had a wonderful fund of information conce rning these early days, and it was our good fortune to find the following remini sce nces, which he contributed to the Bartow Courier-Informant in 1908, and whi ch gi ve a more vivid pict ure of life in the per iod of which he writes than could be furnis hed by any other than an e ye-witness: "In Octo ber 1851 my grandfather, Readdin g Blount, and four sons, viz: Rile y R., wife and four children; Owen R, wife and two children; Nathan S., unmarried; Jehu J., not grown; Streaty Parker ( his son -in-law), wife and two children; John Davidson, \vife and one child (later Mrs. Solomon Page); making 21 white persons and about a dozen negro slaves, constitu ted our colony that came from near Alligato r now Lake City in this State, and loca t ed abou t one mile west

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PART I-NARRATIVE 15 of the present Court House in Bartow. My father purchased a small improve ment from the noted Captain James Green, and paid him $40 for it, and later laid a pre-emption claim upon it, embracing th e 160 acres which was the land sold to Mr. Summerlin, and which now constitutes a part of the present site of Bartow. The country was absolutely new, as there were not more than a dozen families in what is now P olk County. Silas McClelland and a Mr. Hill lived near the present site of Medulla. Rigdon Brown and his son, William, lived three miles northwest, .. and N. R Raulerson (Uncle Rabe), three and one-half miles east of Bartow, where he settled in 1849, and where he still re s ides (1908) with his son-in-law, Enoch Whatley, being abou t 90 years old. "Two or three families lived in that sec tion known as Socrum, and a few in the neighborhood of Fort Meade. These, with our colony and a garrison o f United States soldiers, and a hundred or more Indians belonging to th e Seminole tribe composed the population of the present Polk County. The Indians were living in the eastem portion of t'he county, and had farms on Catfish and Rosalie Lakes. Game and fish abounded in great quantities. Wild beasts and smaller vermin were just as numerous. It was no uncommon thing for a bear to run the dogs and hogs under the house in the daytime, and you may guess where the women and children went, especia lly the n egro portion of them. E very family had to keep a good pack of dogs and plenty of guns and ammunition. D ogs were not allowed to run deer and turkeys. as they could be shot down at any ti me when n eeded. Venison was a lways kept on hand for the dogs, but the people got a l most as tired of it as t11e Israelit es did of the quail and manna in t he wilderness. If a man ate a fox squirrel, h e kept it a secret to keep from being laughed at. This being only a few years after t he close of the Indian war of 1835, and the Indians still being a little hostile, and t h r eatening an i nvas i on the country settled up very slowly, and only four years elapsed u nt il actual hostilities began in 1855. There were but tw o trading stations accessible to u s Tampa and Fort Meade The market was very good, however, for all kinds of country and our wants i n the clothing line were easily met, and I can assure you that there was not a very great bus ine ss done in gents' fumishings, nor ladies' dress goods. Hickory stripes, osnaburgs, narrowed homespun, calico, brogan shoes, ammunition, tobacco, soda salt, coffee, flour, and occasionally a few yar ds o f linen checks and Kentucky jeans, wit h threa d and buttons thrown in, composed our dry goods and grocery assortment We had no preaching but the people wo uld visit each other on Sunday, and tell each other of the thr i lling incide nt s of the week, and s ing a good many songs from the old "Sacred Harp"; one of which !still have on hand, contai n ing the foUl:-s hape d notes, fa, sol, Ia, me. Men usually carri ed their guns wher ever tltey we n t, and it was not an uncommon t hing to meet a monster 'gato r measu r ing from eight to twelve feet in the middl e of tlte road ready to dis put e the right-ofway and if you had no gun, he a lway s kept the road, and as you passed around h im o n foot; he would ri se on his feet an d show you the f ull status o f his 'gatorship. He would keep his head tumed toward you, and as yo u passed around him with his mou th open fro m six to ten inches wide, exhibiting a full view of ordnance supplies and his r eserve force in the rear, measuring one-half his length, and a little elev a ted, ready t o come

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16 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA to the front at a m oment's warning s hould h e be Aanked fro m either side. While thus stand in g lik e Goliath, clad in hi s shield of bone an d armor of mail, you could look through between his upper and nether crushers and behold an ope n repo sito ry with ample room for the storage of one or two of the young Jonahs of t he present day. When you would make your circuit around him and get started on your way, he would seem to malce an effort to go you r way. which would take all the gravity o u t of your feet and give you a very graceful and irresistible stride down the road. His saurian in stincts would then lead him on his sea rch for the most expansive morass to be foun d. "Vv"hen we came to thi s county we had to build som e roads, and causeway some of the branch es, t o get to our de sired spot But it is a mistake to s a y there were no roads in this coun try at that time In the Indian war, which la sted from 1886 to 184Z, General Winfield Scott opened up a number of good roa ds leading to h i s many camping statio n s Tampa was connected b y good wagon roads with For t Mead e, Fort Clinch, Fort Capron, Fort Myers, Fort Carroll and many other places that I might mention. And then in the Seminole war of 1855 the roa d s were reopened and new ones bu ilt. "The Ind ian war of 1855 bronght many n ew recruits into this county, who, after the close of the war in 1858, remain ed here and others hearing of t he country's resources, came her e and its development was very rapid until the begi nning of the Confederate war, two years later. This pla ced a ch ill on everybody 's ambi tion, but patriotism took h old of the people s heart s and minds and a militi a company was organized with Cap tain W. B. Vam as its head. The compan y at once began to practice drilling at the newly selecte d county site (Mud Lake), and kept this up at times until t he more seriou s phase of t he war changed the prospective into actual bostilities, and the old militia company was reinforced and reorganized under Capt ain N. S. Blou n t, and left the vicinity o f Bartow after a great dinner had been given them earl y in March, 1862. "During the conflict w ith Seminole Ind i ans from 1856 to 1858, the peop le had an opportunity for exploring this part of the State, and after the war, the new recruits who enli s ted in the State service, lo s t n o time in locating home s in the most fertile section s of the co unty, and by the year 1860 t h e r e were a good many families. known now a s the old settle rs of the county. Ever yon e o f these old settlers have now pas s e d aw ay (in this year of 190 8}, so f a r as l know, e xc ept Uncle Rabe Raulerson, who is still living where be first settled in 1849. The localities consid ered tbe most desirable then are today among the leading centers of wealth and population the lake regions and phosphate districts coming in later for a full share of their honor s. "Some of the earlier settlers were t he Blounts, the Varns, the Browns the Mc Lellan ds, the Hamiltons, the Sewards, th e Scotts, the Durrances, the Whiddens, the Summerall s, th e Guys, the Hendrys, the Moodys, the Singletarys, the Pearces, the Wilsons, the Greens, the Laniers, the Hookers, the Bryant s, the Wilders, the Friers, the Deesons, the Harrisons, the Summerlin s, the Pollards, the Costine s, the Collins', the Hulls, the Sloans, the F utchs', the Gunters, the Fewels, the M cAulays, the Kendricks' the Wilkersons, the Crums the Parkers, the Cumbees the David-

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PART I-NARRATIVE 17 sons, the Haymans, t he Pylants, t h e Englishes, t he Steven s the Skippers, the Holl ing sworths, the Rogers', and o t hers t ha t I cannot now r emem ber Some of t he m settled here prior to the close of the Seminole wa r but most of t he m settled during the yea r s 'GS-'59 and 'GO. The most o f these settlers ha ve l eft large pos terities behind them, who are among the influential and useful citizens of the county. "During these early years there w e r e n o t only a great many occasions of pri vation and endurance but also a great many acts of bravery a n d co nfl ict and risk of life that would make the blood in one s veins almost curdle to hear them truthfully na r rate d. I h av e had some thrilling encounters with b ears, panthers, wolves, d eer, wildcats, coons, snakes, etc., all of which I cannot her e rela te, but will tell you of one or two exact.ly as they occurred. "I have been in such close proximit y to deer i n t he swamps an d ham m o cks while hu n tin g that I had to give t h em the right-of-way by o n e or two fee t or be l iterall y run ove r On one occasion I shot a buc k dow n i n so me thi ck brush and palmetto, and when I approache d him t hree others, with very h eavy sets of ho rns charged on me and stopped abo u t s i x feet distant, and showed terribl e anger and a de termination to murde r me right there, and it was only with the use of rn)' e mpt y gun, whi ch I us e d as a club and kept motioning them for seve ral m i nute s before I cou l d get t h em bea t back ou t of sight. I then strung the dead one on my back and started tow ards my horse, when a yards away I met ano ther one in my pat h that began to show fight, an d without r idding m yself of the one I h ad, I raised my gun and sho t h i m dead i n his t rack s at only a f ew s t eps distant, where the brush and palmetto was very t h i ck. "On e afte r noon when I was about fourteen years old. my br o t her John t hree y e a r s my ju nior7 and I, sta r ted on a turkey hunt, a n d w h ile i n the hammock right where J R. Davis is now maki n g ca bb age, we discovered a large be a r at close range. He was standing perfect ly erect like a m an an d see m ed determ i ned to ho l d h i s posi tion. I had a double-barrel r ifle and sho t gun, muzzle loader. I made no delay i n firi ng at him with the rifle and s t ruc k h i m j ust below the c h in, and his Jiead an d sho u l ders came to the dir t bu t his hind parts kept jum ping over back and forth, and i t looked like he would get on his feet every moment, and there seemed to be no time t o ho l d a council of war, so I ran as quickly as po ssible to within a few feet o f h i m while he was j umping, blowing, snapping and growling, it s e e med all at the same time and sent thirteen buckshot int o the side of his head and put a stop to that part of the exhibit i on. Well, my dear re a der, if you have never been in a bear fight, nor heard or seen a b ear di e I can't tell yo u anyt h ing a bou t it. If you have, yo u don' t need any t elling. He weighed about 4 0 0 pounds, and we got four ga llon s of oil out of him. "In the summer of 1866, j ust after I was marri ed, Seaborn Smith, my littl e b rother, James, and I went after supper to hunt the coons out of my father's corn field. We had three good heavy dogs and a s mall bore single-barrel muzzle loading shot gun, loa ded w ith No. 6 sho t W e put the dogs in the field and sat at the gate to tell stories until the dogs t reed. After a while we heard a bark over in the hamm ock. We went there w i th one ligh twood sp linter that we picked up on tlie way, and on arriving t here an immen se animal of some sort jumped out of

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1 8 HISTORY OF POLK COU NTY FLORIDA a tree and la nde d within a few feet of us. The dogs chased i t a s hort distance and treed again We broke our s plinter into three piece s and struck a light an d shined up th e tree. a very large sweet gum. and di scov ere d the most a wf ul looking pair o f eyes I ever saw. I sho t at them with m y little gun. which only put him in a rage. He stayed up there for a while, going to the top of the tree, growlin g, mewing and snapping, but the limbs and brush hid him from view He finally decided to come down and w hen he did he made no delay, but l anded himself ju st between Smith and myself who stood about four feet away We h ad only a. small fiic k ering blaze of light, about two inclle s l ong. The vine s and brush were very thick, and the dogs covered him instantly, when he fell on his side, cat-like, and then and there began one of the mo st terrific encounters, and under the m ost unfavorable circumstances I ever en gaged in. He would hold every one of the dogs at on e time in his grasp and seemed to be eating them up alive, and they were each on e squallin g at their f ull capacity and he ma king almost as much noise as they, but a cattish kind of noise. The fight la sted about five minutes an d it was terrifi c from start to finish. I bad a medium si zed two-bladed knife and stuck the larger blade in his neck and shoulders about a dozen t i mes, jumping to him and from him with all m y power each time, while he wa s making a d e sperate effort to get me. He finally knocked the knife o ut of my hand and I lo st it until next morning, but he was so near dead he gasped his last. We stayed ri gh t there through the nig h t, and s l ep t with thi s terrible bea$t until morni n g, when we pro cured some h elp and too k him home. He weighed abou t 250 p ou nds. His hide was nine feet long from the end of hi s nose to the end of his t ail." The reader will note a reference by Mr. B lount to a company of militia form ed at the beginning of the War Between th e States with Capt. Vv. B. Varn at its head, a nd it s subsequ ent reorganizati on under Capt. N. S. Blount. This company lef t Ba rtow as Mr. Blou nt n otes, "after a g r eat dinner had been given them", Mar c h 8, 1862. The membe rs of the company needed to be fortified with that dinner, for th e y set out on a march through the woods to Gaines ville, where they w ere mustered in as Company E, 7th F lorid a Regiment. The following muster roll of the com pany was furnished by G W. Hendry t o t he B artow CourierlnfoY'tiUJitl in 1893. The notation "killed" w a s placed after th e names of Lieut. Henry Manseld, Wil liam Hook er, W. P. Rogers Albert Seward Jim Smit'h,Simon Turman, and George Woodard. "Mis sing after battle" i s the notation afte r the name s of L. Vv. Cor neli u s and Joe Varn:

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PART I-NARRATIVE M usTR Rm:,L. N. S. Blount Captain J W W hidden, First Lieutenant Z. Sewa rd, Second Lieutenant Henry Mansfield, Third Lieutenant Hamp Joh nson First Sergeant Willia m Gay Altman, Luke B lount ]. ]. Blount, 0. R. Bulloch, A J. Brown, \Villiam Brown, Rig Brandon, Dave Brown, Daniel Cornel ius, L. W. Cathcart, William Crum, Daniel Cook, Wilson Carlton, Wright Carlton, Reuben Davis, Edmund Dav i s, James Driggers, Henry Durrance, Raford Ellis, Jack Fletcher, James Ferguson, Daniel Gaskins, James Guy, William Hendry, William Hendry Albert Hendry, J. !1'1. Hendry, ]. W. Hooker, William Hooker Stephen Hancock Martin Hancock, Sam Hull, Stephen Hillard, William Hill, Henry Jackson, William Johnson, Sol Jordan, Daniel Keen, A. J. Keen, Jim Henry, D T McAu l ey, Robert McAuley, Will McClelland, Si McClelland, Joe Marsh, Put McClelland, Mac McClelland, William O'Neal, John Pat, Da,id P olla rd, John P itts, Jim Patri ck, V i ck Pearce, T. C. Rogers \. P. Rimer, Alex Seward, Jim Seward, Felix Sew ard Albert Smith, Jim Sheppard, Wash Sheppard, William Turman, Simon Underhill, John Varn, W. B. Varn J9e Williams Lew Williams, N ath William s, John Williams, Jim Waldron, Daniel Whidden, Max Weeks, Cary Woodard, George 19 We are indebted to an article written to the Coo.rier -lt>{ON>Iaott in 1908 by Captain Ben F. Bloun t for the following excellent resume of the early political history of the county: "In the year 1860 Hillsborough County was divided and the eastern half of it became a new county under the name of Polk in honor o f President Polk. "The first board of county commissioners we have any record of, and we have no record of how they came in possessio n of thei r offices, was composed of Read ding Blount, James H amilton, Isaac Water s and Joseph Mizelle L. W. Cornelius was county jUdge. "On June 17, 1861, a business meet i ng was held by thi s board, and the county was laid off into public roads and county commissioners' districts. Some time in the year 1860 or '61 an e lect ion was held to determine the loca tion of a county site. The place voted upon was a beautiful parcel of land lying four miles south of Bartow, on Fort Meade road. James Hamilton an d Zachariah Seward, Jr. built a hewed log building on this land, they owning it a t the time, and put a stock

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20 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA of goods in it and made some concessions to tbe county as an inducement for the county s ite, but this only created a jealousy, which defeated that place, and Mud Lake was the county site of Polk county for about one year. "Capt. W. B. Vam's militia company mustered at that place a number of times, but the place was impracticable and was destined to be discontinued and accordingly an election was again called on the 7th day of October, 1861, and Mud Lake was again voted upon. as a tract of 160 acres of l and one and one fourth miles south of the present Court House, to-wit: The northeast fourth of section 18, township 80, south of range 25 east. Tbe name given to the place was Jefferson, which was the lega l county site for about five years. "This last named place was chosen as a county site and was named Jefferson after t'he great constitutional writer and leader of the Democratic party This city of Jefferson was surveyed into town lots by W. B. Vam, county surveyor, by order of the county commissioners' court, and the lots sold to the highest bidder to raise money to build a c
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PART I-NARRATIVE; 21 were held in these years of strife, and all the taxes collected during that t ime, after paying the commissioners and sheriff for their services, were used in supporting the poor soldiers' families. C ommittees were appointed for each commis s i oner's district to look after their wants, and the tax money was turne d over to them for that purpose by the sheriff. Spinn ing wheels were provided for the soldiers' wives, and J a mes B. Crum was el ecte d wheelmaker at a cost of $8.50 per spinning wheel, and he did his work faithfully and honestly. "There was no court h ouse built at t he city of Mud Lake, d u ring the one year's time of its existence as the capi t al of Polk County, neither at Jefferson during its four years' term, but there was a hewed log store-house, not in use as such after the war, four miles south of Bartow, and a hewed -log Baptist church house two and one-half miles south of Bartow, in both of which circu it court was held for two years after the war by Judge Bush and Judge Gettis, and also in t he old Sum merlin Institu te; which was comp l eted before the new court house was begun by John McAulay. A part of the court house reco r ds being los t and others being ineompl ete i n t hese re spects, and my memory being somewhat at fa ul t, I cannot give any more defin ite account of the eourt held in these two years after t he war "On June 15, 1867, the county commissioners awarded the co n t r act to build the first court hous e in Polk County to John McAulay for $3,800. The house was to be framed and weatherl>oarded o n the o utsi de a n d ceiled on t he i ns i de. The frame was very heavy, being heavily braced top bottom, and every brace tenoned and drawpinned into the timbers at each end, and all the studding was tenoned and drawpi n ned into the sills above and below. A good deal of the tim bers were hewn out by hand and all the weatherboarding and ceiling were dressed by hand, and t he house was n ever pa i nted. '!'wei ve month s was allowed in which to build this ho us e, and it was to be paid for in current money or its equivalent in county bonds at 25 per c ent discount The firs t jail was also built at t he same time at a cost of $1,600, and paid for in cash or bonds of the same valuat i on I t was built by U. R. Durrance out of hewn timbers eight inches square, laid on t op of one another. It was about sixteen feet square and two stor ies h i gh, and was utterly worthless, as prisoners could not be k ept in it It was soon condemned, having become rotten, and was afterwards burned to t he ground by some good, law-abiding citizen. The second jail was buil t a few years later and was worth little more than t h e 6rst, and was later u sed as a city ca l aboo s e for the city of Bartow." It wa s no t until about 1880 o r 1881 that t here wa s an)' mater i al change in conditions as outlined i n th e f oregoing or any considera b le accre tio n in popu l a tion. This is evidenced by the fact that the State census of 187 5 shows only a gain of twe l ve inha b itants ove r the Federa l census of 1870. With the ushering in of the 'SO's, however there began t o be v ague rumors of the coming of the railroad, with its prom i se of development and improvemen t, and n ew sett l ers began to flock in, while those who were already here began to feel the thrill of an t icipation of a new era. In August 1881, a meeting was held at Bartow to form a County Immi gration Society, but it was not la rge ly attended P. R. McCrary was chai rm an and Fred N. V arn was secre tar y

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22 HISTORY OF POLK COUKTY, FLORIDA Hunting and fishing were good in these days in all parts of the county; deer, bear, and wild turkeys we. re plentifu l also there was a sufficiency of rattle snakes. In 1881 a wildcat attempte d to invade the h ome of Mr. Colli ns at Foxtown. Polk County did not have a "grog s hop" in August, 1881, but, as now, there was m u c h complaint about the ille gal s ale of liquor. Many peo pl e wer e p roving up land claims in 1881. I t was possible to secure 160 acres of c h oice l and by paying the Government entry fees, which at that time totaled $14. Land cou l d be bought close to Barto w for $50 an acre; good orange land for $25 an acre. There was complaint that land was being hel d at price s that were too high, thus retarding settlement. It) 1881 Polk had a population slightly in excess of 3,000 The assessment rolls showed 23,000 cattle 555 horses and 900 sheep. The as..
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PART I-NARRATIVE 23 As early as 1882 the no-fence proposition was being discussed', though it remained a vexed and u nsettled q uestion for many years Some fear was expressed at this early day that the Republicans might make an effort to capture the State. The Bartow paper at that time undertook to inform persons elsewhere h .ow to come to Polk County. We quote: "Per so ns have the choice of four methods of reaching Polk Count y The first by on the commo n roads; and we believe that all p ersons living in any of the Southern S tat es, within SOO miles of us, woulct do best to adopt tlle old met hod of the road wagon to bring such artides of fur niture, etc., as are actually nee ded; t he n they have their stock, wagons, etc., when they get here a nd mules and wagons hamess, etc., are always expens ive here. But mechanics and others who do not need these things can come from their nearest railroad station to Cedar Keys, and fro m there b y steamship to Tampa, and it is only 45 miles from t here to Bartow. Or, they may come to Jacksonville, and then ascend the St. Johns river to Sanford, and then by rail to Orlando F ro m there to Bartow, 70 miles, by p rivate conveyance. Another rou t e from Jacksonville i s up the Oklawaha to Leesburg or Fort Mason, thence by boa t to Yalaha or Oka humpka an d then by private conveyance, 75 miles, to Bartow. They may also, instead of going to Cedar K eys take the Peninsular road at \Valdo, and come down t o the present terminus, near Sumterville, and thence by private conveyance to Bartow, 80 miles. The cost is nea rly the same by either ro u te, from the railr oad or ship to Bartow. and person s can govern t h emselves by th e fare to the end of the public lines of transportation from their starting points." At the fall term, 1882. of the Circuit Court the following constituted t he grand jury : N. J. Arnal J W Deeson, J. J. M ill s, M. G. Fortner, Jr., J. W Johnson, E. J. HiJiiard, R. W. Trapnell, A. G. Zipperer, Timothy Alderman, T. J. Altman. J. T. Pollard. B. S Boothe, J eff Crews, George A. DeVane, L J Taylor, J. H. Ivey Petit jurors: W H. Hogan, Matt hew Davis. T. L. Rogers, W. P. Ferrell, D. H. King J. E. Godwin. Richard Sparkman, Robert McKinney, Silas B ry ant, J. J. Simmons, J. R. Durra n ce, William Cochrane There was no jail and the court house was a dila pidated s tructur e. In Novem ber, 1 882, the County Commissioners advertised for bids for building a jail; also for constructing a ford across the creek on th e Tampa road beyond T. C. Pearce's The remnants of the old jail had been burned during tl1e summer in order to get the gratings, which were used for the new calaboose jus t erected for the town of Bartow. D u ring 1882, and in the early part of 1883, property was s old in th e county amou nting to $500,000, more than the whole tax valuation two years before. In the period mentioned 500,000 orange trees had been set out in the county, while the population had increased from 3,50(} in 1880 to 6,000. In Febru ary 1883 when settlement was made between the county offic.ials and county comm i ssio ners the county was reported out of debt with som e money in the treas ury Po l k Count y especiall y the settleme nts of Bar to w Fort :Meade, Medulla and Medora in the year ending June 1 883, had what was then thought and called

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24 HISTORY OF POL K COUNTY, FLORIDA a wond e rful boom Lands in many place s had increased in va lue five hundr ed-fo ld; new hous es and new improvements of eve ry kind having been built or added, and business in all tine s keeping pace with the general progress. In the spring of 1883, colonists from Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, some forty in number, located east of Fort Meade. They had been preceded by about twenty others, the colony being the project of Dr. C. F Marsh. Barrooms closed on expiratio n of their licenses in 1883, but there was "evi dences of sly dealing s in alcoholic drin k s." The grand jury presentment of the spring term, 1883, urged t he building of a new court house and jail, the need of the latter being apparent from t he statement t hat "crim i nal s are n1nning at large in the county, or s ta ying a t home and atte nd ing to their bu si n ess." She riff c C. Gresham, who was criti cised for thi s s tate of affairs, very reasonably asks th e ques ti on, "What will I do w it h a prisoner if he is arrested and cannot give bail? There i s no jail in the count) for t he safe-keeping of a prisoner, and the Judge has told me he will tell the Sheriff of Hillsborough County not to receive any more prisoners from Polk." That being that, the Sheriff presented his resignation. In August, 1888, the county asses sment had grow n to over a million dollars an i ncrea se of over $400,000 in a y e ar. In Oct ober 1883, the commissioners advertised for bids and p l ans for a new court house The co unty tax rate was then 7 mills, and it was proposed to l evy an add itional 3 0 mill s to build the court house. A pet ition wa s circul ated against the mov ement. The proposi tion prevailed however, and the court h ouse was bui lt at a cost of $9,000, J. H. Thompson being the contractor. In March, 1884, the old court house wa.s sold for $100, and it was considered to have brought a good pnce. On January 10. 1886. a cold wave lasting fonr days enveloped Florida. A minimum temperature of 18 degrees was recorded for Tuesday morning, January 1 3 th F reezing temperature bega n on Satu rday night and di d not disappear until Wednesda y night in the week following. Ice formed in the little pools of water o n the streets of Barto w A po s t office was esta blished at Eagle Lake in 18 86. In 1 887 county division was be ing agitated by the Lakeland News, and the discussions between Lake l and and Bartow newspapers were q uite acrimonious. A new apportionment this yea r gave Polk two Representatives in the Lowe r House and one Senator. Before that time she had been allowed only one Repre sentative and one Senator. After a campaign lasting several weeks, during which many meetings were hel d at different points in the county, and much oratory was used, Polk County went dry by a decisive major ity i n an election held on Sept e m ber 1, 1887. 'fhe vote stood: Fo r se lling 341; again s t selli n g, 839-a to tal vote of 1 1 80 with a dry majority of 498, almost two to one Frank Cla rk, who was at t hat time a residen t of Bart ow, was very active on the proh i b ition side at thi s elec tion. In 1887 taxes for all county purposes were at the rate of 18 mills.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 25 There were some ca ses of yello w fever i n Tampa d uring the s u mme r of 18 87, and t h e communi ties of Polk naturally were somewha t excited and fearfuL There seems to have been no case of the disease in Polk, howev er. A qua rantine camp was main ta ine d near L ake la nd, under Capt J W. H arwell. I sham Walker was "chief cook an d b o tt l e washer ", accord ingto the re cord of the time, and Ben F. Blount was clerk and q ua rtermaster. T he adv ent of coo l weat h e r relieved appre hension of the dread disease. Coroners' juries in those days were m ore formal i n t he verbiage of their ver dicts than at thi s time. Witness thi s repor t of a coroner's jury in a cas e wh e r e Dr. S. P. l\ofull wa s fata ll y wounded in an altercation with John Clark. The verdict was t ha t John Clark, i n the county aforesaid, in and upon the sai d Dr. S P. Mull, with a certain knife. whic h he t hen a n d there had an d hel d a mortal wound did inflict of w hich said mortal wound the sa i d Dr. S. P. Mull died. "The ha ndsomest a nd mo s t subs tan t ial jail buil di ng in Florida" was comp l e ted at Bar t ow late in 1887. The jai l was so secure that many p ris one rs were brought t o iHrom other co unt i e s f o r safek eep ing. T he county comm i ssio ners voted to give $ 2 ,000 for a Polk County exhibit at the SubTrop ical Exposition at Jac kso nvi lle in 1 887 The idea of water transport ation to Bartow was b ei n g c o n sidered, as in 1887 t he channel of P eace river was reporte d open some three m ile s above Fort Meade. G. W. Gandy, who se t tled ea s t o f Bartow in 1867, dropped dead while hunting a lligato rs i n June, 188 8 In July, 1888, an "Open Propositi o n", signed b y many prominent men of Bartow, For t Meade, Hom elan d, etc., was addressed to J. \V Bryan t Epp s Tucker, L, L. Bristow, A. A Scott N. B. Bo wyer F R. G r een, W. B. D r J. M:. Per ry and other citi zen s o f Lake l a n d an d north Polk, asking that the agita tion for cou nty division be discontinued, and that they join with t h e s ig ners i n "bu rying any pas t differences that m ay have ex i sted, and nominating a11d support ing a good, D emocra tic legis l at iv e ticket for the best inte re s ts of t he e n tire county To t his communication an amica,ble reply was made, s t ating t hat i t had been t he sentiment expressed at a meeting he l d in Lakeland that the discussion of co u nty division be discouraged for the present Bartow and Lakeland were d istrus tful of e a c h othe r in t he se days, h owever, and the was not satisfied with the r e p ly, ma i n taining that the r e was "nothing in it." County com m iss i oners in 1889 were: District No 1, H Schipman; N o 2, E J. H i lliard; No. 3, T. W. Anderson; No 4, Harri son J o nes; No. 5, A. c T homp son. The ta x levy for that year was: County, 3 mills; public roa d s, 2 m ills ; spe cial tax 1 Yz m ills; Board o f Heal t h, Yz m ill ; State 5% m ills; total, 12% mills In : May, 1893, ther e was a County Poor Farm, bu t it had only one i nmat e. Capt. A. C. Thompson was i n charge of t he farm for many years. It was located near Lakeland on the site w here I. Da l e Williams now has a beautiful ho me. A County Court had just bee n created, and the first se ss ion was held on August 1, 1893. J ordan Durrance wa s Judge of the Court, a n d C. CWilson was Prosecuting Attorn ey. The jury se rving at t h i s term was comp os ed of the follow-

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26 HISTORY OF POLK COUN'I'Y, F LORfD.'\ ing: G. W. W i ndham ,]. M Keen, A. Zipprer, W. P. Sherretz, H A. P rir.e M. D Raulerson, H. F. Blood, C. E Reed, 0. J. Pate A. H S l oan. and J. W. Hollings worth. E. C. Stuart was offering l ands for sale at Mounta i n Lake, for groves and trucking That section is now t he location o f a retreat for millionaires. In 1893, the real estate va l ues of the count y amou n ted to $3,515,000; personal propert y $665,000; total assessed valuation, $4, 180 000. A rural correspond e nt of a newspape r of t h is time contributes t11e following item: ' Drink i ng juice and eating sc um is in orde.r now. In s u gar .. maki ng the cane juice is liked b y many, just a s swee t cider i s North, and after the j uice i s boiled down and is pu t in t h e trou ghs to gran ulate into sugar. a fine scum rises on the syrup, and. with little paddles made from cane. this is scraped off and eaten by little folks, and even by some not small. With us a man is t hou gh t to be Jacking in hosp itality if you go to his place when he i s grind ihg cane and he doesn't ask you to have a drink of juice." The county comm i ssioners called a "wet and dry" elec tion for April 189'1. The result was a dry victory by a ma jority of 144 The vote stood: For selling 280; against selling, 284. In 1887 an e J ection on t h e s ame question re s ulted thus: For selli ng, 300; against selling, 8.21; dry majority 521. Another el ection in 1 891 resul ted : For sell ing, 125; against. 5.24; dry majori ty 399. A 32 page pamphlet set ting forth the "Resources and P roduc t ions of Polk Co u nty" was i ss ued by the County Com m issi oners early in 1894 There ha d been no l iterature of this character dissem inated for a period of eig h t year s In September 1894, the com m i s sioners. appropr i ated $GO to bny a pair of b loodhounds. The population of the count y increased from :1,181 in 1SSO to 7.905 i n 1890. The grand jury prese ntment s in Octo ber, 1894, recommended the purcha s e of 30 aces of' lan d lying ea s t of t he Poor Farm, and between the same and t he rail roa d, provid ed it could be purc h ased at $5 per acre In the Cong r essiona l election in the fall o f 189 4 S. M. Spark man rec e ive d 455 votes and :McKinno n .280 in Polk Count\', The Terra Ceia P hosph ate p l ant burned N ove m ber .28, 1894. Satu rday, December 27 1 894 was the coldes t day on record u p t o that time, the mercury going down to 1 8 degr ees. Practically all the o range s in the State were frozen, and many of the tree s we re killed, espec i ally the y oung one s N early all growing truck was killed. Notwit h s tan ding the magnit ude of the di s a s t er, the peop le were not discouraged; but on February 8, 1895 a little more than a mont h later another cata s trophe was vis ited upon Flo rida. A second se v ere cold spell was experience d, i te m perature of 2 0 d egrees b eing admitted by the c hronicle s of this t ime tl1<>ugh it is probable t hat the m i ni m um was s ome deg re es l o wer. A blizzard descended upon this section on t h e afternoon of Thursd ay, February 7 t h and o n Friday m orning the mercur y h ad g one down to 20 degrees The tempera ture remained at or near freezing all da y Friday. and o n Fri day n ig h t i t dro ppe d again to 24. Saturday n ight it was again below f reez i ng. T h i s continued cold wrought great destructio n amid th e orange g rov es of t h e State, entirely wpmg

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PART I-NARRATIVE 27 out many of them. Many growers were rui ne d, particula rly those who did not have sufficient capit al to tide them over the period of dep re ssion inevitable to s uch a blow to what wa s the n F lorid a's pr incipal i ndu s try. Some were disco uraged and l eft the State. Others turned th eir ener gies and effor t s into differ ent chan nels. But the g reat majority, with a resiliency seldom equalled by an y people, "ca rried on", rehabilitated their groves, varied their crops, and developed many hitherto u nsuspected re sources of the State, resulting in the building of a more permanen t prosperity t han the sect ion bad eve r before enj oyed. The people of the o ran ge belt decl ined any assi s tance, and decl ared they wer e able to take car e of themsel ves, when a n invest igatin g co mmittee, to look into the i r co n d ition, wa s propose d b y the Legisla t ure. At its February, 1895, meeting, the Board of County Commissioners passed a resolution thanking ex-Treasurer B. F. Holland for "the courteous, punctual and accurate manner in wh ich he has discharg ed his officia l duties durin g his se veral terms Postoffices w e r e esta bli s hed early i n 1895 at Galloway, with E. G. Gard ner as postmas ter and at Waverly, with F. W. Ohlinger as pos tma ster. The latte r place had previously been known as Buffalo, or Buffalo Ford. At its meeting in March, the commissioners appropriated $1,000 for an exhibit at the Atlanta Exposition, and D r. F. W. Inman was made Commis sioner ln addi tion, a Central Exp osi tion Committee was ap pointed a s follows : Di strict No. 1, E F. Du rrance, J. A. Kilg ore, D. C. La n c aster ; Di s tri c t No. 2 D E. Ryan, \Viley Parker, W B. Gardne r ; Di s trict No. 3 E. W. Codingto n B. F. Blount, W. T. Whitledge; District No.
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28 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORlDA among the Florida optimists during this period. After the depression incident to the freeze, prosperity was brought back, a local chronicler tells us, due to the fact that "thousands of men were cultivating the soil who never did manual labor before." There is a suggestion here that might well be applied to conditions at the present time. Pineapples were an important crop of Polk, especially in the southeastent part of the county Josiah Vam was employed by the commissioners to make a survey of the public roads of the county, to establish their locations, etc., and to record a plat of said public roads in the county road record book. The county levy for 1896 was 10 mills; State 3y.j millS-total levied for all purposes, 13y.j mills. In addition there was a special sub-school district tax of 3 mills in Lakeland, Fort Meade, Branchboro, Eloise and the Winter Haven districts. Taxes for all purposes in the county that year amounted to $37,485.25--over half of which-$19,474.60-went to the public school fund. These were the days when everybody was busy saving the country, the free silver people, the Populists, and the "sound money" advocates each insisting that ruin would overwhelm the nation if a certain special panacea were not adopted. Feeling ran high, and politics frequently degenerated into personalities-but all passed, as ever}1hing passes, and the country is still here, regardless of dire pre dictions of disaster. In 1896, despite the recent freeze, Polk was one of the foremost counties in the State, including her financial condition. She bad n o indebtedness, and con siderable money on hand. In June 1896, in order to s ettle the status of the county with respect to the legality of the sale of liquor, petitions were circulated asking for another wet and dry election. The commissioners called the election for August 5th. The result was a signal victory for the drys, the vote standing: For, 213; against, 450. Various industries were flourishing, although orange production was coming back but slowly For the season of 1897-98 the estimated citrus yield was 30,000 boxes for the county and 225,000 for the State. The cattle business was good, however-Jasper Summerlin, S. H. Page, J. M Crum, Ioumoy \IV'atts and others were driving large numbers of cattle to Tampa where they received good prices. Tobacco culture had also grown to important proportions. There was another cold snap in February, 1897, which damaged truck con siderably, but did no other injury. W. B. Bonacker, of Lakeland, T. L. Hughes, of Bartow, D. C. Lancaster, of Chicora, W. H. Lewis, of Fort Meade and A. B. Harrington, of Winter Haven, were appointed county commissioners in 1897 i n accordance with the recommen dation of the Polk County Democratic Executive committee. P W. Daniel was elected Supervisor of Registration. The year 1898 was ushered in by a spell of unusually severe weather. On the morning of January 2, the thermometer stood at 25 degrees, and remained close to the freezing point all day. Monday morning t he mercury reached 18 at Bartow, and there was considerable ice. Despite the low temperature, the damage was not

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PART I-NARRATIVE 29 great. Most of the had been picked and the trees were donnant, so that only young trees wer e injured Temperatures ranging from 18 to 25 degrees were reported all the wa'l down to Punt a Gorda, and at Fort Myers 28 degree s was recorded. In parts of Polk, such as Waverly and Frostproof, even th e oranges on the trees were uninjured. On February 2, there was another cold spe ll, the temperature going to 31. The first Polk County Fair opened at La keland, March 1, 1898. The grounds were located in the vicinity of Lake Morton. A grands tand seating 1,500 people had been erected, a bicycle track prepared, and there were buildings to house the displays. The Fair was of county-wide scope, and there were exhibits from all sections. There were baseball games bicycle and oratory by Clark, Jefferson B. Browne and others Mr. Plan t owner of the Plant System of Rail ways, with Mrs. Plant, was an honored guest. Tbe Fair showed a net profit of $320. Capt. w. H. Cobb organized a company for service with the Spanish-Amer ican war, compos ed of Polk and DeSoto County voluntee r s. Tbe f ollowing wer e members from P olk: Hugh G. B l ount, W. L. Boynton, S. L. Canter, B. F. Child s, James S. Day, Jasper C. Ferrell, J. L. Gilmore, F. F. Hendry, Luther L. Johnson, John J Swearingen, M. A. Wilson, Eri e L. Wirt, T. E. Wirt, all of Bartow; R. 0. Boyd, Winter Haven; Carey M. Car lt on William J. Lovette, Curtis Lang ford, Fort Meade ; Henry D. Hend erso n, Lakeland; Lock Bingham, Geor ge Vischer, John K ennedy and Jake Page, from the vicinity of Eagle Lak e and Winter Haven. M. A. Wilson was elected firs t se r geant; Erie Wirt and John Gilmore were also sergeants Other Polk County boys had minor offices. The company was in camp for a time at Macon, later going to Cuba as a part of Ray's regim ent. After service in Cu ba. the regimen t returned to Macon in April, 1 899, preparatory to being mustered ou t. The Polk County boys reached Bartow on May 3rd, and wer e given an ovation on their arrival. Bartow boys who participated in this bome-ooming were: Lieut. M. A. Wilson; Sergeants E. L. Wirt, John Gilmore, T heron Wirt; Corporal Luther Johnson; Privates Jim Dill, Jasper Ferrell, To be Hendry; Bandmen, John Swearingen and R. C. Blount. J. S. Day, S. L. Canter and Frank Childs had also returned from Cuba with the regiment, but did not come to Florida at that time. Snow fell in Polk Count y, and over m uch of South Florida, on February 1 8, 1899. At the same time extreme cold prevailed in every section of the country and it is said there was snow in every S t a t e in the Union. At Bartow the ther mometer stood at 28, and the snow m e lted almos t a s rapidly as it fell. The fol lowing morning, however, the temperatur e had gone to 22. There was more se vere cold, and greater damage in other sect ions of the State-particularly at Miami, where the trucking indu st ry for the lime, was almost annihilated. Such growers, however, as Yam Bros., G. L G riffin, J. R. Da>-is, J. S. H owa r d, of Eloise, and others, by a little forethought saved much of the i r truck and were shi pping immediately after this cold spell. The aggregate 'alue of real estate in Polk County, for the year 1898, was $2 1 02,140; personal property, $6 1S,HO; railroads and telegraph lines, $3,508,180. Polk s tood seventh in valuati on in the State at that time.

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30 HISTORY OF POLK COUN'i'Y FLORIDA In M ay, 1899, the following were recommended by t he CountyDemocratic Executive Committee to be members of the Board of County Commissioners for the ensuing years: T. L. Hughes, Bartow ; A. B Harrington, Winter Haven; Arthur Keen, Fort Meade; W. T. Hull Chicora; H. J. Drane; Lakeland. Ben Hampton, of Lakemont, was comm i ss i one r to secure exhibits from Polk County fo r the Omaha Exposition i n 1899. Byron S. Ashley was also active in this connection. Polk County's second Fair \Vas held at Lakeland, beg i nning l\Iay 25, 1899. There were bicycle races, horse races, and many other spor t s, but it seems that the items of agricultural or industrial exhibits had been overlooked. The Fair Assoc iation seems t o h ave fallen into evil days after t his meeting, several suits being filed against it. The property of the Association was sold to satisfy some of the claims and judgments, and the enterprise became defunct In 1899 Polk's tax rate was 9 mills, and with a State tax of 5!/z mills, the entire levy was 14!/, mills for all purposes most of this being f or schools and roads. It was boasted at the time that ''we owe nothing, and pay cash for everything as we go, including school warrants." There was a yel low fever scare, and quaran tine complications, almost every year prior to 1900. In 1900, Polk's orange crop was estimated at 100,000 boxes. There was com plaint (there is always complaint) that the market was glutted with inferior and u.nripe fruit and that t he growers were only receiving $1.50 and $1.75 per box on the trees. The thermometer went down to 28 or lower and ice formed on February 23-24, but there was the usual report that no damage was done. A. J. Whidden gave notice of a petition to divide the county, proposing to cut off a large territory from the eastern portion and annexing it to Osceola. The matter died in the legislature. County Commissioners appointed in May, 190 1, were: Peter C. Hayes, R. C : Langford, Judson B. Pylant, James E Marshall, R. 0. Cresap The latter resigned in February, 1902, and John M. Keen was appointed to fill o ut the unexpired term. Temperatures of 27 degrees December 21, 1901, and 21 degrees, January 14, 1902, were recorded. T he burning question in 1902 was the fence or no-fence proposition, hogs being the storrn center of the controversy. T he hogs apparently remained cool and unconcerned, which, however, could not be said o f those participating in the arguments. In 1902, the Peninsular Telephone Company was extending its l ines to Fort Meade and Home land, and planning t o serve other points. There was quite a fight on blind tigers in 190 2, instigated large ly by Editor D B. Sweat, of the Bartow Courier-In{Mmu .. t. Sheriff J. D. Tillis made numer ous arrests, and Judge C. A Boswell assessed heavy in some in stances. In February, 1903,. Judge J. B. Wa ll held that prohibition was null and void in Polk County, owing to the fact that the returns of the wet and dry election, held in 1896, had been canvassed by the county canvas s ing board, instead of by the

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PART I-NARRATIVE 31 county commtsston ers. The ruling was in cases appealed from the Cou nty Court to the Circuit Court, in which fines of $1,000 each for violation s of the prohibition law had been assessed against sun dry parties T he prohibit i on people naturall y were exercised over this development, and petitions were circulated asking that another election be held. The petitions were granted, and the election called for May 19, 1903 The result was a decisi ve victhry for. prohibition, the vote being 501 against the sale of liquor in the county, to 334 for the sale This was the fou rth election held on the question in the county, and the "dry" forces were victorious in all of them. As late as 1902 there were people living quite isolated lives in Pol k J. 1\L Thomas. a vegetable grower and stock raiser of the Fort Bass inger section, came into Bartow one day in June of that year making the trip of 85 miles by horse and wagon. It took hi m a little over two days to make the journey from his home to Bartow. but he said he enjoyed it and that "a fellow makes better time when he travels by himse lf"-a sentiment endorsed by Lindbergh a quarter of a century later. Taxable property of Polk i n 1902 amounted to $3,700,000. The levy was rnills-5 mills for s chools, 5 for State purposes and for county. John M. Keen was appointed to rep resent Polk County and look after the county's exhib it at the State Fair. which was held at Lak e City in 1902. On November 20, 1902 fire at Land P ebble des troy ed the large phosphate plant of that name, enta iling a loss of $150,000. Conv i cts had been leased to naval s tores operators, etc., but in 1902 the system was changed, and the prisoners put to work on the roads. In 1903 the county commissioners were : R. C. Langford, chairman; J. N. Hooker, John M. Keen, L. H. Altman, and J. E. Marshall Ambition for good roads ran high in the county at the beginning of 1903. Hope was expressed that ten miles might be added to the good roads of the county, but there was doubt that so much could be accomplished There was not a decent piece of road reaching any definite point at the t ime. What road s existed were pieces of patchwork. In January 1903, John S. Howard was appointed County 'l'ax Assessor to fill the unexpired term of L. J. Marquis, who died a short time before. The appoint ment was made on th e recommenda tion of the Democratic Executive Com mittee. The Poor Farm wa s di s continued in 1903 For many years it had been con ducted in a highly sati s factory manner by Capt A. C. Thompson, but it never had many inmates, there having been remarkably few cases of destitution in the county. The tax levy for 1903 was 16 mills The tax values had increased to$4,033.070. A new steel bridge was ordered built across Peace river at Fort Mea de in 1903. On September 12, 1903, a severe s torm swept over Florida, but in Pol k the damag e was confined to the loss of considerable fruit that was blown from the trees. Bartow reported 7.42 inche s of rain, most of which fell within 24 hours. The thermometer went down to 28 on November 28, 1903 an unusually low mark for so early in the s eason.

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32 HISTORY OF POI,K COUNTY, FLORIDA County officials nominated in the primary election, May 10, 1904: State Sen ator, Park Trammell; Prosecuting Attorney Solon G Wilson; Clerk, Aaron Fer guson; Assessor, J. H Lancaster; Tax Collector, W. 0 Jordan; County Judge W. S. Preston; County Superin t endent S S. Niblack; County Commissioners, John Keen, J. E. Marshall, J. A. Durrance. In the June, 1904, primaries, A B. Canter, of Fort Meade, was elected t
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PART I-NARRATIVE sa Polk's a ssessed v a l uatio n in 1909 wa s $ 6,294,313. Tax rate 1 9 mills. Polk C oun ty's fis h indu stry was b ringing in abou t $90,00 0 a year in the period between 190 5 and 1910 Frostproof shipped $18,000 worth of cat fish in 1909, whil e the fishennen at Fort Gardner and Rosalie were paid about $50,000 The cat fish shipments went to St. Louis and other points, where it was said the product was colored and ca nned, and sold as salmon. Polk County's first legal execution took place March 18 1910, at Bartow, when Robert Dekle, colored, was hung for the killing of another negro man and a woman at th e Dominion Phosphate Co. Thi s execution was quickly followed by another, when on June 3, 1910, Ed Sims, colored, was hung at Bartow for the murder of Mr. M artin S. Reddat Mulberry so me time previous. Officials elected in the primaries of May, 1910: Representative s A. J. Ang le and Georg e R. Fortner; Tax Collecto r W. 0. Jordan; County Treasurer J. T H amm ; County Commissioners, District 1 E. S. Whidde.n; D istrict 2, R. C. Lang ford; District No.3, A. J. Lewis; District No.4, J. Everett B ryant; District No.6, T. F. Holbrook. On account of irregularities in the office, W. 0. Jordan resigned as Tax Col l e cto r and, in June. 1910, F. M. Lanier was elected to fill the vacancy. The Polk County Medical S ociety was organized in August, 1910. Dr. J. M. Ogl e sby, of Bart ow, was pres i dent; Dr. W. R. Groover, Lakeland, vice -pres ident; Dr. S. F. Smith, I..ake l and secr etary The Polk Co u nty Boar d of Trade was organized at a meeting of citizen s fro m various parts of the cou nty held at B artow. October 3, 1903. John F. Cox was president and C. H. Walker, secretary. The County Commissioner s donated $1,000 to the Board to advertise Polk County. Meetings wer e held in succession at Lakeland, Fort Meade Mul berry Auburndale, Bartow, etc. and the organi zation did much to foster interest in good roa ds. A bond issue in the sum o f $500,000 for good roads was submitted to the people an electi on being held October 10, 1911. The be nd propo sition was defeat e d. the vote standing 276 for an d 927 against. "The people want good roads, but w ere opposed to t h e bon din g system of prov iding t hem," was the expla nation offe red at the time. Suc cessful candidates in the primari es of 1912 were: H. ]. Drane, State Senator; ]. C. Brown and R-W. Hancock. representatives; C. M. Trammell, county judge; John Logan, sheriff; J.A. John son, c:lerk of the court; J. j. Boyn ton, assessor; F. J\.1. Lanier. tax collector; C. A. Parker, county superintendent; J. T. Hancock, county surveyor; P. W. Daniels, superviso r of registntion; R. B Huffaker, prosecuting attorney County Commissioners: Dist No. 1, E. S. Whidden; No. 2. W. T Hurst; No. 3, A. J. Lewis; No. 4. J. Everett Bryant; No 5 T. F. H o lbr ook. On October 20, 19 1 3, the county commi ssio n ers inspec ted and a ccepted three new stee l bridges-tw o of these over the fork s of Saddl e Cree k betwe e n Lakela nd and Carter's; the o ther ove r Lanier Creek, on the road to Kathleen. In December 1913, the Cou nty Commissioners purchased for $3,000 two lots on Ch urch s t reet. Bartow, as a site for a new county jail. The contract was

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34 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA let March 3, 1914, to McGucken I& Hiers. of Tampa the contract price being $54,000. Work was begun in May, 1914, and the building was completed in December of the same year. T F. HolbrO()k resigned as in October, 1913, because of ill health, and h e was succeeded by J. C. Swindel. Officials elected in the June primaries, June, 1914: Representatives, Reed Robson and R. W. Hancock; Tax Collector. F. M. Lanier; Treasurer, W. G. Jones; County Commissioners: Dist. No. 1, J. E. Lan caster ; No. 2, F. B. Swear ingen ; No.3, A. T. Mann; No. 4, Robt. H. Bryson; No. 5, J. C. Swindell. The vote between \Verner G Jone s and E. J. Young, for county treasurer, was close, and Mr. Young contested the election. Judge Whitney appointed a commission, composed of M. F. Hetherington, W. L. Cleveland,' and W. L. Grier, newspaper men of the county, to make a recount and decide the matter. The findings of the commission upheld the election of Jones. A postoffice was established at Florinda in July, 1914, and Andrew Ploucher was made postmaster. A postoffice was established at Alturas in October, 1914. C. A. Parker, County Superintendent, aroused much interest in rural schools through the formation of Rural School Associations. The Mountain Lake Corporation was organized in December, 1914, F. S. Ruth, Frank S. Washburn, G. V. Tillman, E. C. Stuart and !VI. E. Gillett being directors. A quarter of a million dollars was expended in community benefits such as roads, club house and public utilities. The property was laid out un de r the direction of Frederick Law Olmstead, a landscape gardener of world-wide reputation. F. B. Swearingen resigned as commissioner in March, 1915, and W. T. Hurst was appointed to the vacancy. In November R. H. Bryson resigned and John S. Howard was appointed Commissioner for District No. 4. F. M Lanier resigned as Tax Collector in March, 1915, and ]. P. Murdaugh was appointed to the office. The com missioners appropriated $1,000 to the Polk County Fair at Lakeland, and $1,000 to the South Florida Fair for the exhibitions of 1915. The first-named was opened at Lakeland February 22, 1915, with a parade and an address at the Fair grounds by Governor Park Trammell. ]. C. Swindel won the cup for t he best farm display At the canning clubs' exhibit held in Bartow in November, 1915, Miss Nellie B arrett had on display 120 products, and was given the county prize, a short course in the Woman's College at Tallahassee. County officials for 1917 were: Kelsey Blanton, county judge; J A. Johnson, circui t clerk; John Logan, s heriff; J. P. Murdaugh, collector; J J. Boynton, asse.<;sor; Dr. W. L. Clifton, county superintendent; J C. Swindel, A. T. l\iann, ]. E. Lancaster JohnS. Howard, and J. C. Durrance, county commissioners. J. C. Swindel was suspended from the office of county commissioner in 191'7 by Governor Catts, and R. L Mayes was appointed in his stead. The Senate, however, refused to concur in M r. Swindel's removal, and be was reinstated in office, the charges against him falling Hat.

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PART I-NARRATIV 35 The Polk County Y. M. C. A. was organized in April, 1917. Charles E. Ernest, Bartow, was chairman ; E. B. Phillips, Bartow, rec o rding secretary; D. B. Eames. Winter Haven treasure r. Fay Cilley was cou nty secretary The Polk County Battalion of Home Guards was organized in 1918 and was officered as follows: Staff: T. W. Gary major; E. L Mack, adju tant ; W E. Arthur, quartermaster; E. F. Carter, surgeon ; Rev. Wallace \Vear, chaplain. Company E, Mulberry J. W Keel, captain; A. L. Campbell first lieutenant; D. S. Craig, s econd lieutenant; Sim o n Loeb, second lieutenant. Company B, Lakeland-W. Y. Carter, cap tain ; L. w. Bates, first lieutenant; L. C. Noyes, second lieutenant ; D. 0. Rogers, seco nd lieutenant. Captain Carter resigned after a short tim e. and the company was in command, u n til the dose of the war, of Charles M. Jones. a graduate of West Point, who was pri n cipa l of the Lakeland schools at that time. Company C, Fort Meade and Tiger Bay-H. M. Mansfield, captain; Paul Watkin s, first lieu tenant; L. L. Bean, second lieutenant; J. V. Chapman secon d lieutenant. Company D, Bartow and Winter Have n-C. B. Ayerigg, captain; George Seymour, first lieutenant; Theron Wirt, second lieutenant; W. F. Hutchinson, second lieutenant. The county commissione rs pr ovided rifles, uniforms and other equipment The companies drilled regularly, and the Guards undoubtedly would ha,e been efficient and dependable had an emergency pre s ented itself. W. L. Clifton vacated the office of school superi ntendent in March, 1918, and John A. Moore was appointed t o th e position. On April 26, 1919, a strike was inaugurated, involving all the employee s of the phosphat e mines in Polk County and the pebble phosphate district. The workers dema nded an eight -hour day, with increased pay, which t he mine operators refused. There w ere numerous disorders a n d consid erable violence, incident to other workers coming in to take the p l ace of the strik er s. Four persons were killed during th e strike, n otably among them Rodney Wilson, member of a prom inent family of the county, who was stabbed while acting as peaoernaker in the course of a difficulty at Mulberry. On August 12, the four companies of Home Guard s were called out and mob ilized at Bartow, but negotiations between officials, repres entatives of th e operators, and the str iker s, re su lted in. the Guards bein g dismissed. Although Sheriff Logan w as diligent and tactful in handling the situation, he was removed by Governor Ca tt s. This action was emphaticall y demned by a mammoth mass meetin g o f the citizens of the county, held at .B artow August 24th J. M. Langford was appointed sheriff by Catts and served for two months, but it becoming apparent that the charges against Logan could not be StLStained, and in deference to emphatic public sentiment in the county, Logan was reinstated October 25th. An agreement was finally reached between the workers and the opera t o r s, and the st rike was officially called off December 11, 1919. The American Agricul tural Chemical Company fenced in a large tract of land it owned near Brewster, for the purpose of operating a farm for raising fine live

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36 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA stock. Cattle men of the vicinity cut the wire fencing put up by the corporation in order that it might not interfere with free range for their cattle. On the night of January 2 8, 1920, Sheriff Logan and a posse visited the scene, and came upon four men cutting the fence The officers hailed the men, and were answered by a fusillade of shots, which they T. W. (Tinker Tom) Albritton, A. J. (Shan) Albritton and Hiram Alde rm an were killed, and the fourth man, Joseph Aldennan, was captured. "Fence cutting" was not an unusual offense in the county prior to this incident; but this appears to have been the last trouble of this character. In February, 1920, through the efforts of J. W. Sample, a car l oad of grape fruit was shipped free of cha rge by the Florida Citrus Exchange to Chicago, for use of the sufferers in the "flu" epidemic in that city. Jasper Summerlin, who owned several hundred acres of la nd near Crooked Lake. stated in 1920 that in digging wells for his cattle, he noted evidences of oil. He refused offers of interested parties who wished t o buy the .land t o prospect for oil. In the June 1920, primaries, the following were elected: State Senator, 0. M. Eaton; county superintendent, C. A. Parker; sheriff, John Logan; representa tives, John M Keen and A. J. Morgan ; county clerk, Derieux Raulerson; county attorney, J. H. Peterson; county judge, Spessard Holland; commissioners, E. C. Flanagan, S. C. Sloan, J. T. Hancock, A. T. Mann, J. L Robison. ''\'Velcome" signs were erected at the entrances t o th e county of the ma in r oads from Osceola, Lake, DeSoto, and Hillsborough counties in 1921 Nominees for county officers in the primaries of June, 1922 were: Circuit Judge, John S. Edwards; representatives, Thos. W. Bryant and B. K. Bullard; county commissioners, Reid Robson, J. L. Robison, J. T Hancock, A. T . :Mann, J. H. Pryor, In 1922 the Polk Co u nty Federation of Women's Clubs was presented free of cost a 10acre tract of land on Lake Marion, near Haines City, for perpetual use as a camp site and park, tbe donor being James T. Miller, prominent Haines City citizen. Representatives of the Federation who inspected tbe site and accepted same were Mrs. J. H. Pryor, president, of Haines City; :Mrs . George M Wright. of Lakeland ; Mrs. Vet Brown, Misses Moselle Preston and Louis Godbey, of Bartow The tract is covered witb a g r owth of giant cypress, magnolia, and other subtropical trees. The Polk Co1t0ty Federation has since established a large summer camp at this place for women and children the camp being used especially by the girls of the Home Demonstration work. On May 16, 1923, L. N. Pipkin, D. M. Pipkin and Hugh W. Wear sold a tract of land near Pauway (now Eaton Park) to the Southern Phosphate Cor poration of New York, for $991,500. Phosphate is being mined from th i s tract, whicb lies about four miles southeast of Lakeland. A County Board of Trade was formed at a meeting of representatives from various communities of the county, held at Bartow, July 20, 1923. Organization was effected by the election of E. L. Mack as president and T. J Appleyard as secretary.

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PART I NARRATIVE 37 Polk County, by a vote of nearly three to one, abolished the open range for stock on December 15, 1923. There had been for some years much sentime nt against c attle running at larg e a ' no-fence" organization having been formed, ]. W. Sample and Vet L B rown being pa r tic ula rly active in the movement. The bill providing for an election on the p r oposition was passed by the Legislature in 1923, and the election was held at the time and with the resul t stated. The l aw became effective J uly 1, 1924. An act was passed by the Legis l ature of 1923 authorizing the C ounty Com missioners to establish a cou n ty hospital and f arm for the i n digent sick a n d paupe rs, au tho ri zin g the Boa r d to borrow not to exceed $100,000 for providing the same, and to make a tax levy for maintenance The voters ratified this Act December 31, 1923, and a well-equipped hospital a nd County Home, located at Bart ow, have resulted. Edward Bok offered a do nation t o the cou nty of 2,500 acres o f land near Templet on a portion of Tiger Creek swamp-as a public park and gam e and bir d sanctuary, i n April, 1924. A County-wide Flower Show was held at Bartow May D ay, 1924. There were floral exh i b its from aU sections of the county. County officials elected in t he June 1924, primaries: State senator, Joh n J Swearingen; representatives Thos W. B ryant and B K. Bullard; sheriff, Alf Wilder; collector, J. P. Murdaugh; county judge, S. L. Holl and; s u pervisor reg i st ration, John A. lvfoore ; school supe r intendent, A B. Connor. In June 1924, a photograp h app eare d in the Titues' magazin e section of five women who had followed the wagon trail from 'I'ennessee to Florida in 1881. Three of these women were still l ivin g at the t ime in Po l k cou n ty. They were:-Mrs. M McCalle)', of Fort Meade; Mrs. W. R. Wolf of L akela nd and Mrs. John Mitchell, of Mulberry. Wm. Comme who had ably filled the office of Cou nty Agen t for Pol k county for severa l years re s igned in August, 1924. Miss Moselle Prest on was appointed Home Demonstration Agen t of Polk county in August, 1 924, in addit i on to Miss Lois Godbey, who had already been engage d in this work. Train se r vice over t he new ra ilr oad throug h Polk cou nty the Florida Western & Northern, was i naugurated J anu ary 24, 1925, with the in it ia l r u n of the Orange B lossom Special from New Y ork t o Pal m Be ach. Large crowds greeted the trai n at Polk City, A u burndale Winter Haven a n d Lake Wale s, points i n the cou n ty tou ched by the new r oad Presiden t Warfi eld a.nd other officials, and many p r om -inent c it izens, were aboard. D ur ing what was known as t he "boom period," extending back as far as 1923, and i n cluding t he years 1924 and 1925, practically all communitie s i n t he county engaged in a very active and e xtensive program of improvement and development. In a broader way this c ondition affected the county as a who l e, expressing its elf in a demand for additional go o d roads. Special road and bridge dis t ricts were f ormed in practically every portion of the coun t y, and large issues of bonds were vot e d wit h whi ch t o build many additional mil e s of new roads, and to w i den t hos e already

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38 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA ouilt, thu s achieving one of t he most complete and extensive systems o f paved roads to be found in any county in the United States. Tire Bok Si11ging Tower. Edward W. Bok, for many years editor of Tlie Ladies' H o me 1 ortmal, in 1922 bought the top of Iron Mountain at Mountain Lake, n ear Lake \Vales-a tract of 14 acres, to be used as a park and a bird sanc tuary. The altitude is 324.9 feet, th i s being the highest point in Florida. Later, Mr. Bok conceived the idea of establishing at this point the l argest and probably the most perfect carillon in the world A magnificent tower is being erected, 202 feet in height 527 feet above sea level, and will soon be ready to receive the bell s, 61 in number, which recently have been finished at Longborough, England. The oells range in weight from seven poun d s to eleven tons, the combined weigh t being 123,114 pounds The cost is said to be one million dollars. They will be sh ip ped to the United States as soon as a jury of musical experts approves the ton es of the bells, and their harmonic combination. It is expected that the bells will be in place by February 1, 1929, at which time it is p lanned to open the carillon to the public.

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Upper-ButinuJ of Rnrl(}4l: in tlu Early Days, fr(}m tM IJid prhrt l.owu-Bruinrss Crnt,y ofllnrtn-w Today.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 39 CHAPTER II. BARTOW T HE first settlement in the vicinitv of Bartow was mad e about 1851. In that year several families moved from Columbia Count y, in North F!onda among whom was Riley Blount, Streety Parker, John Davidson, and others, and they settled in t he vicinity of where Bartow now stands Rilev Blount -owned the greater part of the town site, wh ich he cleared and cultivated for a time, until he sold the land to Jacob Summerliit. The latter donated it for a county town, the proceeds of the sale of lots to be divided as follows: Forty acres for county purposes twenty acres to the Baptist church, twenty acre s to t he Methodis t church, and forty ac r es for the erection of an institution of learning. In 1867 the town was laid out and named in h onor of Gen. Francis F. Bartow, the Confederate General. Four frame houses were buil t immediately, two dwellings, one stoe house. and a two-story building to be used for a sc hool house and a ll !asonic hall Soon afterwards a two story Court House was erected on the square John MacAuley was the architect of these public structures, as well a s mOst of the public buildings then erected. In this condition. Bartow remained with but little additional improvements, a mere village for many years the county t!))VIl of a sparsely se ttled county of vast area, being some fifty by sixty miles square. David Hughes and w. T. Carpenter conducted the two retail or general stores of the place. The court ho use and schoo l buildings \vere used church purposes as well as all public gatherings. John Davidson, Nathan A. Blount and Benjamin F. Blount were the principal county officers from time to time . During this period Bartow a t n o time had a population in e>
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40 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA B ac on wa s 11 cent s a pou n d ; l a r d, 15 cent s ; flour. 6y.j c ents; s ugar. cen ts; coffee. 20 cents. Aside fro m t hese staples, there were few a r ticles of food included in the local s t oc k s The school was ab l y co nducted by D. C. Kantz. It was even then kn own as Summerlin Ins titute M r s N. C. Gresham was postmistress ; a little later she )vas assisted by Dr. Waldron, a s deputy. A new postoffice was completed in 1 882. and loc k and o pen bo xes were 'ins talled The only lawyer in the community early in 1881 was John Snodd y During the year, however. two others were added-a Mr. King and Jud.ge G. A. Han so n The two physician s w e re Dr. E. C. Morton and Dr. J. H. Ve r dier . The l atte r died d urin g the year. Dr. D. C. Ferguson and Dr. J. P. S t a tha m arrived in 1882 T r ansportati o n was by horsebac k or wag o n O ne could t r a vel front Orland o to Bartow by the mail buggy for $7; the fare from Tampa to Bartow "by private s ubscription" w as wagon $2 if the passenger furnished ration s "Uncle Bob" M cKinney ran his buggy between Bartow and F ort Meade during court week on Monday, Wednesday and F riday, for the convenience of persons attend ing court. In Dece mber, 1 881, Dan McLeod and so n, A P. McLeod, Wm. McLeod, L. B. Bu sh and M. Atwell, from B a rbour Cou n ty, Alabama, arrived in wagons-as did p rac tically all tho se who came t o settle at that time. There w as a liv e ly busin e ss i n t o wn lots which s old for from $30 to $ 50, while lands t h ree miles .from the tow n brought from $1 25 to $5. Improvement wa s the order of the day. Mrs. M. L Snoddy opened a ladies store early in 1882. Dr. J. P Brookin s, a dentist came in and opened a drug store, the Bartow Dntg H ou se, an d T M. Lybass open e d a Liquor Saloon." There was oppositio n to the latter enterprise, the ladies circulating a petition against it; but Mr. Lybass seems to have won out, as he a dve rtised his est ab lishment as "a p lace to get your l itt le bro w n jug or flask filled as preventive for s nake bite." \V H. Pearce, near Barto w, had what was cons i dered one of the most vigor ous an d symmetrical ora nge grov es in the State. A ci tizens' meeting to cons i d e r incorporatin g the to wn o f Bartow wa s h e ld May 3, 1882. Capt. Da vid Hughes was chairm a n and J. H. Hum p h ries secretary. It was decided to in corpo rate, and W H. Pear ce, F. F. Beville and J. H. Humph rie s were appoint ed a committ ee to 6x the boundaries and arrange for the election. On Jul y 1, 1882, the election was held resulting as follows: J. H. Humphries, mayor; C. C. G resham, marshal; W T. Carpenter, clerk an d treasurer ; D. Hughes, D. W. Smith Streety Parker, F F Beville and G. AHanson counci lmett. The counci l organized by electing Capt D. Hughes cha irman. Mayor Humphries tendered his re signatio n in S eptember, 1882, o n account of leaving for Lexington V irginia, to co mplete a law course. L at e i n 1882, the growt h of t h e communit y was refl ecte d in the increa se d postal bu siness. At that time th e re w ere vOO l ette r s a week s en t off, and probably as many r eceived.

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PART INARRA'l'IVE 41 Many hou s es were buil t during the year, but there was a demand for more. In January, 1883, Cap t Hughes ha d torn away his old house, preparatory to the ere<:tion of "a magnificent new residence that w itt cost over $3,000 and be an ornament to Bar to w." It was finished in June and was by far the finest dwetting in Bartow, if not in t he c ou nty On February 6, 1883, Dr. J P Statham was elec ted Mayo r Mr. Kilpatrick marshal, and Mess rs. Lyle, Eugene Blount and Dr. Brooki n s, councilmen. Early in 1 883 there were four general stores, one drug s t ore and another being built, one m illinery store and another soon to be started, an d in the year there had been erected some 25 dwellings, five business houses and a sawmill, two churches and a pa r sonage. More than 40 new families had been added. How ever, there was no public school in operation at the tiine. Boys would be boy s in those days. The e ditor of the Bartow I nformant however, was not witting to let it go at that, for he refers to some of them as "sl eek-faced young scamps, who are training for outlaws an d cut-throats in the near future, or for a penitentiary celt." The edi tor's wrath was occasioned by a series of i ncidents, such as the p l acing upo n the comm u nity Christmas tree of a pack of cards and a bot tle of whiskey for a venerab le minister who had been waging war on liquor. On the same occasion an empty whiskey bottle was sus pended over the head of another m in ister. Later, too, when a vis i ting minister was preaching at the court house, a cat with a tin can tied to its tail was sent into the audience, and, as may be imagi ned, caused considerab l e distraction and diverted attention from the speaker 'l'he same offenders, it was believed per siste d i n breaking into the calaboose and releasing the prisoners. The editor was outspoken against such doings an d thunde red anathemas at the pepetrators . A stage line betwee n Bartow and 'l'ampa was estab lished in 1882 There was a thrice a week se rvic e The stage would leav e Bartow for instance at 6 o'clock Monday morning, reaching Tampa at S that night returning to Bartow on the sam e schedule the nex t day The fare was $7 for the first round-trip, $6 for the second and SS for the third. Whether thi s system was carried through further, until finally one co ul d take the trip without cost does not appear. I n March, 1883, the calaboose was set on fire an d destroyed. A reward of $150 was offered by the town couocil for the g uilty pa rty. J. W. Trammell, who had recently come to the sec t ion from A l abama, was immediately given the contract to build another local bastile A Metho dist church bui lding was dedicated on Sunday, March 9, 1883, being Bartow's first h ouse of worship Rev. W. C Jordan officiated, assisted by Rev. P. R. McCrary and Rev. S. B. Carso n An organ and bell had been secured through the efforts of the l adies. The occasion was m emora ble, and one o f dee p gratification to the citizens ifl"espective of denomination On April 1st of the same year the Baptists dedicated their chu rch, this being t he second church building erected in Bartow. A military company was organized early in June, 1883. J W. Cri t c hton was ele<:ted captain; T. L Hughes, f.rst lieutenant; F. F. Beville, second lieutenant; A. T. Jv!ann, first sergeant 'l'he company wa s called the Bartow Rifles.

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42 HISTORY O F POLK CO U NTY, FLORIDA Tuscan Lodge No. 6, F & A. M., was organized in 1883. The officers for the first w ere : Streety Par k er, w M.; Perry O'Keen, S. W.; Wm. M. McAu le y, J. W.; W H Johnson, T re as.; Francis M B ev ille Sec.; T h os W. Lucas, S. D.; Wm. S h e r r etz J. D.; J o hn J. Bunch, T y l e r. There were t h irt y members. The l odge really existed under d i spensation for se v eral years prio r to the date o f the charter, which is January 18, 1883 A Masonic Lodge was first organized in Bartow on June 12, 1865. On that date thirteen men, doubtless most of them back from the war, and all e xcept one mem be rs of Hillsboroug h Lodge No. 25, F. & A. M., met in Bartow and o r ganized B a rtow Lodge No. 9, F & A. M. T be fir st set o f officer s of t h at l odg e were: R. M Py l ant W. M ; R obert Wilkins on, S. W.; Samu e l C. Craft, ]. W.; Jaspe r Summerl in, Treas.; J. :M. Hayman, Sec.; A. P Hampton, S. D.; W R. Hollingsworth, J. D.; James T. Wilson, Tyler; T. ]. Kinney and Louis Lanier, Stewards. These men were all county builders By midsummer, 1883, Bartow' s population had increased t o about 400. The re were two chu rches, two hot e ls two ste am sawmills, four general stores, a drug sto r e, a milliner y store, a l iv ery stab le, bl acksm ith and w h e e l w right's s h ops a baker's s h op and a sa l oon. About July 1 1 883, B. J. Oeland, of South Carolina, arrived to take charge of the Bartow telegraph office, relieving Mr. Pearce. )ir. Oeland held this office continuously for 41 years, a n d is at the tim e of this publication s till an honored r esiden t of B a r tow. He ma r ried Miss Ma r y E. B l ount i n Jan uary, 1884. J. D Ba sk in was e lecte d M ayo in July, 1 8 83. Far-se eing folk began t o visualize the need of a cemet e r y "There a r e old people among us who will die sometime," was one of the fortcast s. In August, 1888, Thomas L. \Vilson stood his examination, which was con ducted by Gen. J B. Wall and Col. S. M. Sparkman, and was admitted to the ba r Abo u t t his time, M. D. L : Mayo wa s e n g a g e d in bringing g oods from Tamp a t o Bartow and u sed t e n wagon teams o n this w ork. The d i st ance was but 45 miles but this hauling, it was est imated, cost t h e community $ 35 a day. Mrs. Gresham, the postmistress, died in August, 1888, and C. C. Gresham became postmaster. Bartow, which has always taken much interest in local baseball, had a good club as ea r l y a s the summer of 1883. Kiss ingen S p r ings was t hen know n as De Leon S prings. An amus ement enterprise w as operated t her e in t he summer o f 1883 by Dr. ]. A. Huddlesto n H. W. Snell, who arrived in Bartow early in 188 2, was conducting an impor tant store there in 1888. In November of that year he was married to Miss Ida Kent, of Wrightsville, Ga. In 1883 S A Jones & C ompany who o pe rated in Tam pa also, and F. F. Be v ille, we re the two contra ctors w ho did m os t of the b uilding in Bartow ; Mrs Edna Hay ma n opened a st ock o f millinery a n d notions; Dr. W S. Rudi sill, dent i s t located in the community ; M r s. G E. Mann purchased the general store of J. O'C. Blount; the St. Marks Hotel was opened by Mrs. G. M. Gates; and Bartow was feeling the need of a bank.

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PAR T I-NARRA'r!VE 43 In January, 1 884, there was a masked ball at Hoo ker' s Hall-perhaps Barto w' s most elaborate soc i a l a ffair up to that time. I t wa s noted that the music was splendid, being "rendered by those skilled artists Mr. Frank Fuller and Miss Lois Full e r. M r. Frank Fuller still resi d es in thi s county, neal"' Aubur ndale; Miss Fuller was the famous "Loie Fuller'' of the stage then visiting a t Auburndale, later winning fame and fortune, w ith intimate contact even with the courts of royalt y On Januar y 1 7 1884, all reco rds for quick transportation were broken when R. T. Kilpatrick ate breakfast in Sanfor d and supper in B a rtow the same night. I n F ebruary 1884, transportation faciliti es had increased to such an extent that it was possible t o make the trip from Jack sonvil l e to B artow in 24 hour s A dair y was bad l y neede d in 1884. The price of milk was $ 1.00 per gallo n, but it was hard t o get. In April 1884, Dr. Frank Wilson set up the prac tioe of me di cine. By M ay, 1 884, the populatio n o f Bartow had increased to nearly 1 000, as perhaps 100 two yea r s bef ore. In the same month the town council decided to establish rack s on the streets for hitching h oi"'SCS. Notwithstanding the characte r of the roads, three to five hacks were run daily between Lakeland and Bartow, and were alway s filled with passengers. Stree ty Parker died at Bartow, October 2, 1884. He had b een a re s ident of the county for about forty years Lake Parker, at La keland, was named for him. Bartow had been await ing the advent of the railroad w it h eager anti cipation. In 1884 work wa s begun ou a branch of th e South Flor ida railroad fro m Barto w Junction t o th e county seat. Capt. J. L Morgan had the contract for its con structio n. The road was co mpleted ver y early in 1885, and train service began January 25th o f that year, thus giving Bartow its first rail connection with the world. The occasion was one of great gratification and there was a celebration which a ttracted people from all over the county, many of whom saw a train for the first time. "Among those present" were a number of Seminole Indians, who were greatly i n terested in the spectacle. In Decemb er, 1884, o ranges for s hipment w ere coming into Bartow at the rate of 40,000 t o 50,000 per day Individual oranges were counted, not boxes There was not a dwelling or business h ouse for rent d uring thi s peri od. In 188 5 it wa s said that the Bartow bt.fortuant and the Tanvpo, Tr/, bune were the best papers in the State. A freight and passenger statio n was built in the spring o f 1885; also an express of!ioe was established. Bartow at this time claimed 1 ,000 inhabitants. In June, 188l5, J B. Mitchell, of Bart ow, was bitten by a rattlesnake four feet long He immediately chew e d up a plug of tobacco and sw allowed the juice, and s uffered no bad because of the bite o r its remedy. The Mill s Hou se, o f B artow, was stntck by lightni n g on the night of August 1, 1885. Mr. M cEwan, who was in the buildin g, had one of hi s shoes torn to shreds, and his soc k s burned from hi s feet, but as ide fro m a sli ght bu rn, was uninjured. In Ma y, 11186, tw o brothers-Dan and Lonnie A. S. Campbel l marshal of Bartow, and dange rously wounded his assis tan t, Jack McCormick.

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HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA The Mann brothers had gotten into a dispute with a Mr. Johnson, who kept a saloon, and when the officers tried to quiet the m Lo n nie shot McCormick in the head, and Dan shot Campbell in the breast. The latter was killed instantly, but McCorm ick rec overe d The Manns jumped into their buggy and fled, but were followed by a large crowd, captured and placed in jail. There was much excite ment, and that night a large party of men stormed the jail, and h u ng the brothers fro m a nearby tree. The people of Bartow made up a handsome purs e for Mrs. Campbell. In 1887 Bart ow claimed 2,000 population. There were then three c h urc h buildings, two town halls, a bank, 24 stores, 5 leading hotels, a laundry and at) ice plant In June, 1887, yellow fever having been declared epidemic at K ey West, Bartow adopted quarantine measures. An effort to nm a steamer line to Bartow--{)r, at least to Kissingen Spring was made in 1887. Capt. Hall ran his steamboat "Shipman" up the Peace river to Fort Meade, and negotiated the channel on up to Kissingen in a skiff. Joe Humphries, long prominent in Bartow, and Miss Emma Blount were marrie d in November, 1887. A few months later he went to Bradentown and established the M analee J ()!Wnal, which, with some intermissions, he con ducted until his death. a few years ago. How quickly effete influences follow in the wake of development is shown by the fact that Bartow, only a few years before a pioneer village. had a manic u rist in 1888 in the person of Florence Brewster. In 1887 R. Hudson Burr was a resident of Bartow; G. P. Freema n was, and had for some time been, Bartow's photographer; and H. D. McLeod was operating a sawmill. Mrs. Beulah R. Stephens, wife of G. A. K. Stephens, formerly ed itor of the Informant, was the poet laureate and literary genius of Bartow about this perio d. Her contributions to the Bartow papers were much above the average in merit, and later she developed a suc cessfu l literary career. The Bartow Rifles came to life again, the following being officers of the com pany in March, 1888: Captain, W. L. Jeweii; first lieutenan t, L. H. Rider; second lieutenant, Warren Tyler; second lieutenant, F w. Bosworth. T here was a considerable fire in Bartow during this year, th e block s ou th of the postoffice being burned. This was not a permanel)t disaster, the wOQden ho uses b urned b ei ng replaced b y more s ubstantial buildings. The Polk County Bank was organized in 1886 with a capital of $25,000 Frank W. Page was president; Willard J. Eme rs on, cashier. Evidently the bank did no t urge the editor to borrow, as we note the pape r states "a first-class bank could do a rushing business in Bartow." The editor evidently heard from this squib, as in his t)ext issue be printed a lengthy explanation, sta n ding pat on his statement, howe ver At the time, the Polk County Bank was the farthest south in Florida. It became a national bank in 1888. In June, 1887, Mayor J N. Smith vetoed an ordinance that would have granted a fra nchise to the "People's Street Railway Company."

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PART I NARRA'riVE 45 Bartow had a Board of Trade at this time, with E. W. Codington, president; D D. Stanley, vice-president; W. J. Emmerson, J. N. Hooker and L. S. Oppen heimer, directors. In July 1887, D. J. Baskin was elected mayor; J. N. Hooker, J O'C. Blount and C. E. Reed, aldermen; D Quinn, clerk and treasurer; J. K. Stuart, tax assessor, and J. F. McCormick, marshal. During the first six months of 1888 W. J. Pearce, a mighty hunter, killed eleven deer and sold them in B artow for a total of $70.50. H e lived only ten miles from Bartow and some of the deer killed were in five miles of the town. That was only forty years ago The Bartow cornet band gave a concert every Sunday afternoon during the summer of 1888In August, 1888 there was the annual yellow fever scare, customary in those years, and Bartow had a run-in with the United States government on account of it. Armed men stopped the train bearing mail, and because the latter had not fumigated, it was sent back. Bartow seems to have won out, and received her mail fumigated or not at all Quarantine was rigidly enforced by both Bartow and Lakeland Captain David Hughes, pioneer citizen, and on e of Barto w's fir st merchants, died January 19, 1889. In midsummer of 1893 Bartow claimed 2,500 people, a n d had two railroads. Clay of superior quality hav ing been discovered in the vicinity it was decided to grade and clay the streets. "Bartow maca dam was the name given to this clay which later figured prom inently in the construction of Polk's r oad system. With the coming of the smooth streets, bicycling became the favorite method of loco motion in Bartow A new pump, in front of the court house was an improvement noted. I t was thought, however, that "the aut horities might have gone a step farther and had a cup for the use of the public. This could be secured by a chain: and stop the present method of suc king the water fro m a nozzle." some time now, th ere bad been appeals to the powers to "cage the night cow." A comprom ise was agreed upon bulls and cows wiih b ells on being pro h ibited the use of the streets. Later the reg ulation was extended to forbid the cattle roaming on the streets at night. While Marquis and Garrett were making strong efforts to be appointed post master Senator Pasco, ignoring both these applicants, endorsed for the position J. N. Hooker, who was not an applicant at all. L. J Marquis finally captured the plum. In the fall of 1893, an election was held on the proposition to issue bonds as follows: For school imp rovement $7,000; for s t reets, $8,000; for waterworks, $15,000 The Advmu:e Courier opposed the proposition, and the controversy be tween the editor and Mayor Codington was heated The bonds carried by a fair majority In advocating the bonds just mentioned, Mayor Codington doclared that there was not then a man, woman or child in Bartow who was a proper object of

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46 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA charity, not even e>
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PART I-NARRATIVE 47 The Bartow Board of Trade, which had been somnole!lt for a while, was reor ganized, with E. L. Roche president, E. W. Codington vice-president, D Warwick Stanley secretary. In November, 1894, :Mayor J. N Smith was requested to resign, because it was alleged that he patronize d blind tigers. The matter was tabled at the meeting of November 8th, but it was passed at t he next meeting, by a vote of 3 to 2. The Home Building and Loan Association was organiied in September, 1894 E. W. Codington was president; E. L. Roche, vice-president; J. W. Boyd, secre tary; J. H Watson, treasurer, In 1894, Bartow had no vacant houses, and more were needed to accommodate the people; E. E Skipper took a trip to Europe; Brady and Olliphant d issolved their law partnership; table board at the Mabbett hotel-one of Bartow's best hostelries--<:ould be had for four dollars per week; C. E Reed, who operated the Bartow Tube Well Works, was th e leading plumber; the city advertised for from 300 to 1 ,000 oaks to plant as shade trees; the Polk County National Bank had deposits aggregating $100,000; Miss Sudie Baird was one of Bartow's prettiest belles-she is now Mrs. George .M. Wright, of Lakeland; McKendrie Tucker was the express agent; and Ben Bradley was writing poetry for the papers. In Febnary, 1895, the waterworks system was completed. This was a n im portant event in the life of Bartow. The officials of the city at that time were: ]. N. Smith mayor; D. W. Stanley, clerk a n d treasurer; Jefferson Yam, city attorney; E W. Codington, '1\Taterworks Commissioner; Warren Tyler, chairman of the council; B. B. Tatum, D. E. Freeman, J. T. Carson, T. L Wilson, T. L. Hughes and Frank Clark, councilmen. B. J. C. Howe, Sr., and his son, B J C. Howe, Jr., were the contractors to install the plant. A volunteer fire department consisting of two hos e companies, and a hook and ladder company, was organized i n Ap ril. R. L. Rogers was elected chief; W P. Talmadge, assistant chief; W. 0 Jordan, secretary and treasurer; Ira Fields, janitor The city purchased a hose cart, and E W. Codington pre sented the department wiih another. The office of fire chief was created in December, 1895, and E. W. Codington was appointed chief, and ]. Mont Reed assistant chief. The new waterworks and fire department came in to good play shortly after they came into be i n g. 1'errell's Wagon Vl'orks burned early in May, but the fire was prevented from spreading T he whole town was threatened. Dr R. H. Huddleston sold a half interest in Kissingen Spring in February, 1895, to M. F. Brown, the "Economy Bin" man for $25,000. It was the intention of t he owners to put in a bottling establishment and market the water, but the project apparently did not progress far. Frank Clark, who had been a residem of Bartow for a number of y.ear., received an appointment as District Attorney for the Southern District of Florida, and had to cha nge his residence. G. A. K. Stephens was named as councilman to fill out Mr. Clark s unexpir ed te rm. In March, 1895, Miss Mollie Stanley, with a visitor, Miss Ruth C r aven, of Ringgold, Georgia, and Mr. C. F. Carpenter, went out to Hancock to fish. They brought back a ten-foot alligator. Mr. Carpenter shot and wounded the

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48 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA 'gator, then turned the gun over to the ladies, who finished the saurian becoming heroines of the hour. Rev. 'vV. B. Dye, who for years had been pastor of the Bapt i st church at Bartow, died in February, 1895. Pedestrians, even in these days, were wondering if they had all) rights. Jacob Fretz an aged citizen, was knocked down on the streets by a team. In the spring of 1 895, the followiug city officers were elected: Ma y or, E C. Stuart; clerk and treasurer, D W. Stanley; marshal, C. E. Jones; tax a s sessor, George E. Walker; tax collector, H. L. Davis; councilmen, H T Dial, U A. Lightsey, J. P. Glover. In 1895 Bartow celebrated July 4th on the 3rd. This was done so as not to interfere neighboring cities which had planned events for the Fourth The bicycle figured largely in the exercises. Miss Maude Wright and Mr. Allie Wilson were awarded prizes as the most graceful riders. There were several bicycle races. In the main races, Allie Wilson won first prize, and Mel 'vVilson, second. J. P. Murdaugh and Miss Mattie Dial were married August 18th. The young couple ostensibly went for a drive, and the wedding took place in th e shade of the trees near McKinney Branch, where they l1ad arranged for Rev. R. L. Honiker a n d Mr. A R. Fo r syth to meet them. Baseba ll held much interest throughout t his summer and fall and t here were games with Kissimmee, Orlando, Gainesville, Tampa, e tc. The game was taken seriously in Florida at that time-so much so that an editor a t Gainesville, who criticised an umpire, was arrested on a charge of criminal libel. In August, Ben Rice, a notorious characte r of the county, was killed by a negro in a gambling quarrel at Land Pebb le. He had been an habitual offender, and had a long criminal record Prof. Hood, of Summerlin Institu te, with hi s clas s in botany, made a collection of over 200 flowers and of Polk, and nearly 100 kinds of woods. Active in assisting the professor were John Swear i ngen and Erie W i rt. Some incidents of 1895: There was an effort to get a telephone l ine to Bartow; Dr. L S. Oppenheimer, who had been one of the leading surgeons for some years, removed to Tampa; everybody was selling the "Economy Flour Bin;" Bartow entertained the Grand Lodge of Odd Fe ll ows in March; John Swearingen cele brated his 17th birthday at the home of his brother, W D., on May 20th; So l Page was maki11g fine crop records; Bartow's tax rate was 10 m i lls; \Villiam Lyle was one of the county s most progressive farmers; G. A. K. Stephens removed to Abbeville Georgia. The Bartow Dramatic C l ub gave some entertainments, and like all home talent players, they were "better than professionals." A cigar facto r y was established by Carlton & Streeter in January, 1896 The firm dissolved after a short time, and Mr. Streeter later operated a factory in Lakeland. Bartow held another big bicycle tournament on February 27, 1896. The prizes were won by Ferris, of Tampa, and Wirt, of Bartow.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 49 In April, 1896, the following municipal ticket was nominated and later e l ected : B F. Jackson mayor; S. G. Wilson, c l e r k and treasurer; D. W. Stanley, collector; C. E. Walker, assessor; W. S. Dial, marshal; Warren Tyle r, G W. Smith Wm. Lyle and J. L. Wirt, councilmen. : McKendrie Tucker s o n of Judge Epps Tucker, w.as the bicycle champion of the times He was the winner in numerous races Byron S. Ash ley moved to Bartow to take u p the practice of Jaw. He had been far m ing successfully in the Waverly neighborhood. He was a strong free si l ver advocate hi s con t ributio n s on tbe subject being voluminous. Weymss Jackson, o f Fort Meade, was Mr. Ash l ey's mos t active adversary in this contro versy, which lasted t hroughout the campaign. So l on G. Wilson stood his linal examination and was admitted to the practke o f J aw in September, 1896 Uncle Ben Moody, one o f the earli est settlers of the county, d i ed October 13t h, i n his 86th )'ear. He was the father of Mrs. Benjamin F. B lount. The Board of Trade awoke from one of its per iodical naps in October, 1896, and was active in the advocacy of good roads and in f ostering tobacco cul ture. In Janua r y 1897, Col. E. L. Roche was re-e l ected president; E W. Codington vice president; W. R. Anno, second vice-president; E. C Stuart, D. E Freeman, T. L. Hughes, and C C. Wilson, directo r s. A b and was organized in the fall of 1896, C L. Huddl es t on h eading the move ment, with the following members: L Franklin H. R. Bivins, Epps Tucker, Guy Culver Max Hankins, W. 0. Jordan, George H. Wright, Frank Blount, R. M. Highman, John Swearingen C. L. Huddleston, Jim Steele, J H. Gwiner. Christopher W. Dud ley, aged 15, was killed by the accidenta l discharge of h i s gun whi l e h u nting December 28 t h. He was a son of G. L. Dudley Looking back over the record of 1896 we find: W. T. Whitledge very active in real estate; Dr. J. 11'1. Oglesby, the l eadi n g s urgeon; Henry Payne, a very enterprising mercha nt; many shade trees being p l a n ted on the streets; J Mont Reid appointed fire chief by E. W. Codington resigned; Fred Gemme continuing to be the town's tonsorial artist; H T Dial still furnishing much of t h e materia l for building. A n electr i c light plant was projected by W. H. Tow l es in Februa ry, 1897. The plant being loca ted near the city waterworks Mr. 'l'owles contracted t o do the pumping for th e city also. The electric lights were turned o n April 18, 1897, making a big forward step i n the city's history. David Hilderley invented several usef u l articles, on which he secured patents. In March, 1897, a Library Association was formed with 61 members, and the following executive committee: Dr. G. H. Perrine, president; Mrs E. W Coding ton, vice-president; Miss Julia Ham, secretary and tre asurer; E. W. Codington and B. S Ashley. It was decided to purchase some books at once, which would be rented to patrons. In the f all of the same year the follow ing officers of the asso c iation were elected: Prof. W H. Hood president ; Mrs. E. W. Codington vice preside nt; Prof. J. A. William, secretary; Dr. J. S Wade, t r easurer; Mrs. B. F. Holland, Mrs. G. H. Perrine Mrs. B B. Tatum, executive committee. Start

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50 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA ing with this organization, the library idea seems to have been permanent, culmi nating in the poss ession by the cit y of its present excellent Ca rnegie Library. Many entertainments were given for the benefit of the Library When we noted that the A ssociatio n sponsored a debate on the all-important question as to whether the school house burned up, or burned rlown, we we re hopeful that this vexed point bad been permanently settled. It is to be regretted, however, that the judges, after weighing all t he argum ents of the affirmative and negative sides, left the matter rather up in the air, by deciding that the school house burned up and also burned down. E. W. Codington and J:W. Brady represented the "up" and B. S. Ashley and Jefferson Varn the "down" s ide. In March, 1897, the Southern Express Co.'s office was robbed of $2,500, two paclcages aggregating that s um having been taken from the safe. Although $500 reward for the apprehension of the th ief was offered by the co m pany, the mystery was never satisfactorily solved. In April the following officers were chosen t o serve the municipalit y for the ensuing year: H. P. Logan, mayor; C. C. Gresham, marshal; G E. Walke r, assessor; D W. Stanley, clerk; U. A. Lightse y, D. E. Freeman, and W. M. Bur dine, councihnen. The graduate s of Summerlin in 1897 were: Misses Katie Blount and Effie Forsythe, and John Swearing en At Joe Skipper's store in Bartow, Clark & Wi l son, tobacco growers, paid off the lit tl e colored boys, who had wormed the firmls tobacco c rop. One Saturday night in May, 1897, the boys were paid for catching 43,475 worms, at 25 cents per hundred. Bartow had her Fourth of July celebration on july 17th of tliis year. There were bicycle tro tting horse races foot races, and other sports. In a game of baseball Bartow was victorious over Orlando. There was a "Horse Swappe rs' Convention" in November. W. R. Ritter was adjudged the best swa pper. W. H. Johnson wa s marshal of the day, and ex Sena t or E. M. Hammond was orator. J. L. Skipper and Ed Singletar y won the fat me n' s race H. E. Memminger, who had just graduated from Auburn (Ala.) In sti tute, as an electrical engineer, came to Bartow to spend the winter with his brother, C. G Memminger, who was living there. In 1897, Uncle Billy Hankins was a noted hunter; every garden plot i n Bartow was devoted t o tobacco culture; Chas. E. Earnest was doing a ftourishing mercantile business; and in November, Jas. Harden was appointed postmaster. On January 5, 1898, there was a showing in Bartow-as in other F l orida c'ities-{)f the wonderful "Biograph," a machine that presented living picturesthat is, "the characters portrayed are moving, and the effect is wonderfutly realistic The exhibition was pronounced the most wonderful exhibit ion of the age. and tn.l y so, for when the pictures are thrown on the screen, they do not appear to be pictures but real life." Captai n T W Gary, who had gone up to South Carolina, and there married Miss Willie Cassells, returned with his bride to Bartow on January 7, 1 898, and a New Year's ball was given in honor of the couple-a brilliant social affair.

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PART I-NARRA'l'JVE 51 The Bartow Band, which had been quiet for a while, again made a noise early in 1898. The members at this time were: L. Franklin, leader; George Wright, John Swear i ngen, Epps Tucker, Fred Gemme, Roy Bushnell, J. B. Bowers, J. B. Wilson Allie W il son, Sam Dunlap, J. N. Baggett and three Messrs . Chaille-Joe, Floyd and Lloyd Municipa l officers selected in April, 1898, were: H. P. Logan, mayor; D. W. Stanley, clerk and treasurer; G. E. Walker, assessor; P. W. Daniels, collector; R. P. Henderson, C. E. Bay l ey, E. C. Stuart and Warren Tyler, councilmen The martial spirit was awakening, with the war with Spain looming large, and Capt. W. L. Law was organizing a military company, while W H. Johnson was getting the Home Guards in line. At the close of Summerlin Institute in May, 1898, Miss Maude Hooker was sal utatorian, and Miss Matti e M VanFleet was valedictorian In the summer of 1898, an exodus began from Bartow and other parts of Polk to the promising young city of Miami W T. Carpenter, a resident of Polk since 1866, and either the first or second merchant in Bartow-this distinc t ion seemingly belonging either to him or D avid Hughes-died in Bartow August 31, in his 82nd year. Sam M. Wilson and Henry B. Blount opened a drug store in September. Hugh Blount and Streety Smith, who were with the U. S troops in Cuba, died there in September, 1898-the first named of fever the latte r through acci d entally shooting himself James S. Day kept the papers supplied with news of the boys in Cuba who were with Ray's Regiment, through frequent let ters. JI.Iel Wilson also wrote interestingly from time to time. C. A. Bosw ell s t ood the examination, and was admitted to the practice of law in October, 1898. The following March he was engaged in his first real case, which he won. A Dr. Weightnovel had sued th e Medical Board of this district for $10,000 damage s because the Board bad refused him a license to practice medicine. Mr. Boswell r epresented the Board and won the case. Edward 'W. Barber, of Jac k son, Michigan, and associates, organized a com pany and started a cigar factory in Bartow early in 1899. The factory lived and died and is forgotten, but Mr. Barber, at this writing, stiJI Jives on the shores of Crool,
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52 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA A military company the Oak City Guards-was organized in Bartow in July 1899. W. L. Law was captain; Warren Tyler, first lieutenant; W. Lacy Boyd, second lieutenant; Erie S. Wirt, first sergeant. The volunteer fi re department was reorganized in August, 1899 Two com panies were formed T. A. Price being captain of Co. 1, and ]. C. Potter being captain of Co. 2. The library continued to be a helpful and i nteresting institution, and Ziba King, the wealthy cattle man of Arcadia, was allowing it to occupy a building he owned, without rent. During 1898 and 1899, many residents of Polk, particularly of Bartow, moved to Miami and most of them prospered there. Among t hose leaving Bartow for the new and promising city of the East Coast were B. B. Tatum, editor of the Cotrn.a11t; the Annos, the Burdines, the Q uartermans, the \Vhalers, the Montforts, the Rutberfords, etc. In 1899, Gen. E. M. Law was elected Commander of the Confederate Veterans of the State; a clay road from Bartow t o Mulberry was agitated; Mr. and Mrs. Solon G. Wilson both had handsome new bicycles; a pri vate telephone line was installed from the residence of C. G. Memminger to the Palmetto Phosphate mines, and also to the mines at Tiger Bay; and the scholarly S. S. Green was one of the county s literary lights. The city officials chosen in May, 1900, were: W. H. Johnson, mayor; D. W. Stanley, clerk and treasurer; P. \V. Daniel, collector; G. E. Walker assessor; J. R. Wiggins, Warren Tyler, E. C. Stuart, J. :IlL Lowry C. E. Bayley, councilmen. D. E. Freeman, who had been railroad agent at Bartow for fifteen years, and other.vise prominent in the life of the city, was transferred to Tampa in liiay The Bartow Strawberry Growers' Association was organized in 1900, with \'1. H. Johnson, president, and W. J. ]."Whidden, secretary. C. G. Memminger, who had been a res i den t of Bartow f or son1e years, and a prominent factor in the development of the phosphate industry removed t o Nash ville to e ng age in business there. In 1900 a telephone e xchange was being talk ed of; the cigar factory which had been operated by Byron S. Ashley removed to Tampa; Dexter Summerlin bought the Crystal Ice Works from E. W. Codington ; Luther Jo hn son was s tu dying law with H. K. Olliphant; J. W Brady was appointed Florida Commissioner for the Paris Exposition. At the K. of P. carnival, held in January, 1901, Miss Lula Wright was chosen and cro wned Queen of the Carnival, and Misses Billie Boyd, Corrie Jordan, Knox Moore and Janie Belle Palmer were selected as Maids of Honor. City officers elected in May, 1901, were: Mayor, W. H. Johnson; aldermen, J. R. Wiggins, U A. Lightsey Dr.]. S. Wade; assessor, G. E. Walker; collector, P. Vv. Daniel; clerk and treasurer, D. W Stanley. A baby show was held in May, 1901, and Anna Laura Wilson, daughter of Hon. C. C. Wilson, was given a silve r spoon for beauty, a similar prize being captured by Master James W. Williams son of Prof. and Mrs. ]. Walter Williams. Harry M. Wear was awarded a pair of cuff buttons as th e handsomest young man,

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PART I NARRA1'lVE 53 and a cake spoon was given to Miss Creola Lamareaux as the most beautiful young l ady. In May, 1901, while fishing from the bridge across Peace river, a mile cas t of Bartow, a young white woman of the neighborhood was assaulted by a negro, who killed his victim and threw the body i p the swamp. The negro Frank Rochelle, escaped, but through the aid of some of his own race, was captured the following day, and was burned at the stake. An interview with merc hants in the summer of 1901, disclosed that all were doing a splendid business, except Mr. VanFleet, who sold newspapers and maga zines. Mr. VanFleet held that business was so good with everyone else they had no time for reading, hence his business a l one was dull A two-story brick school build ing was contracted for in August, 1901. W illia m Lyle for many years one of the most active growers and s hippers of the county, died October 7, 1901. His large interests were placed in charge of C. H. Walker. Wilson & Bowers and Charles E. Earnest, Jr., were the liv e merchan t s in the community at this period. The latter has continued to be a leading mercan tile factor through many yea r s. On January 21, 1902 Mayor W. H. Johnson, of Bartow, called up Mayor Wing, of Tampa, and messages of good-will on behalf of the two cities were exchanged by their executives, thus inaugurating long distance telephone service in Bartow. The Peninsular Telephone Company's exchange in Bartow was for mall y opened Febntary 11, 1902, and it was an occasion of much rejoicing. There was one operator -Mrs. Ella Clark. The S t uart building, a brick block, corner Main street and Central avenue, was completed in February, 1902 The brick was made by a plant owned by Mr. Stuart, and the building was, in all respects, a credit to the city. Bartow had its first moving p icture show-a one-night affair-in February, 1 902, but the people were not pleased with some of the "illustrat i ons." The Board of Trade had one of its periodical awakenings and r eorgan iz ations in 1902. E W. Codington was elected president, and E C. Stuart, vice-president. The need of a tourist hotel was the reason for the renewed activity. The Bartow Hote l C om pany, with a capital of $25,000, was the outgrowth of t h i s movement, which ultimately re sul ted in the build ing of the Hote l Oaks. Luther C. Johnson was admitted to the practice of law at the March, 1902 term of the circuit cour t A mass meet ing in April, 1902, no m i nated the follow ing municipal officials for th e ensuing year: Chas E Bayley mayor; D \V. Stanley, clerk and treasurer; George E. Walker, a s sessor; P W Daniel, collector; E. C. Stuar t Capt T. W. Gary, M. Parks Jordan and Chas. H Walker, councilmen. Parks Jordan r esigned as councilman the follow ing November, and C. R. Earnest -Jr., was appointed. In June, 1902, a Retail Merchants' Protective Association was organized H P Logan was president; J. R. Holb roo k, vice-president; Lott Allen, s ecretary and treasurer; Y.l. 0. Pearce, assistan t secre t ary

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54 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA An election on the question of issuing bonds for $15,000 to purchase the elec tric light plant, was held November. 11, 1902, and resulted in a victory for the proposition, the vote being 76 for bonding and 13 against. The city bought the electric light plant in March 1903. The firm of Wilson & Bowers dissolved in 1902. It had been an active mercantile establishment for some years. Blucher Wilson establishe d a men's furnishing store. In 1902 Milton Wilson was voted the "noisiest boy" and "bigges t dude" in Summerlin; and, Uncle Ben Bradley's pipe was 34 years old, and still going "strong The first Club of Bartow, and probabl y of the county was the Smart Set Club, organized in January, 1903. Mrs: D exter Summer lin was president. Municipal officers elected in 1903 were C E. B ayley, major; Dr. J.P. Statham, collector; George E. Walker, assessor; W. 0. Stanley, clerk and trea s urer ; C. E. Earnest, Warren Tyler, U. A. Lightsey, E. W. Codington, E C. Stuart, council men. E. C. Stuart was chairman of the Board. Will Stanley went fishing in Lake Alfred, and, as he had to bait his hook very frequent l y, shoved a few minnows into his pocket. He caught a fish or two, and then, as it was necessary to bait his hook, he put his hand in his pocket and fou nd there a four-pound trout, which bad gone in after the minnows "Them was the daysu when fis.hin' was fishin' Bartow ha d one of her big Fourth of July celebrations in 1903, only it was held on the 17th. In the floral parade Mi ss Maybird Overbay won the prize for the best decorated bicycle. Allie Angle denied the story that when he wa s buggy riding with a young lady, his fair companion fell out and he drove ten m iles further before he missed her He declared that the hind wheel might come off, the spring break, or the horse fall from between the shafts, without his knowledge-but lose the girl, never! Carl Schulz, a German tailor, who lived in Bartow many years, died Septem ber 2, 1903. It was known that he bad received some money from the Old Country some time before, and it was finally discovered, sewed up in a neat little package on the inside of the trousers he bad been wearing. The amount was $805, which he had been carrying in this manner several months. They were as insistent upon collecting water bills in those days as now. An election on the prohibition question was the talk of the town, when City Clerk Stanley hung up a sign in front of his office reading, "Water bills due todayhow'll you have your hydrant wet or dry?'' Another month he dropped into verse with this plea, or ultimatum: "Be you drunk or be you sober, Pay your rent in October ; Whether at home or on the ranch, Pay up Satu r day, or go to the branch." The first record of football we have in the county was when the game was Introduced in the South Flori da Military Academy in the fall of 1903 A game was played between Company A and Company B on Thanksgiving day.

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PART I-NARRATIVE In December, 1903 an attempt was made to assassinate Col. John Beatty from ambush, as be and his wife were drivin g to the mines Col. Beatty was general manager of the Green Bay Phosphate Co., and it was though t robbery was ihe motive prompting the shooting. He was hurt o n ly slightly, hi s wife more seriously. Circumstantial eyjden ce pointed to a negro, who was arrested and p laced in jail. A mob attempted to storm the jail at night, but the coolness and bravery of Sheriff J. D. Tillis and his deputy, Bert Childs, foiled their plan. The negro was spirited away to Tampa for safe-keeping, and was later tried, convicted and given a twenty-year prison sentence. Miss Lula Johnson was sponsor of the Confederate Vet erans' Reunion at St. Augustine in December 1903. The Bartow Camp was sponsored by Miss Lula Wright, and Miss Billie Boyd was maid of honor. In 1903 Lott Allen was a Jive city marshal, and went after the e vil-d oers p roperly; whist parties were the popular form of entertainment; "Push the hard roads!" was the slogan of the progressives of the county; and Spessard Holland headed the honor roll of the 7th grade at Summerlin, in October. There was considerable sickness and some deaths in Bartow during the latter part of 1903 and the beginning of 1904. Investigation d is closed that pollution of the ci ty water supp ly cau sed the trouble. An artesian well was put down as quick ly as possible, and the usual healthfulness of the community was restored. Hon. and Mrs. J. N Hooker celebrated their silver wedding March 19, 1904, entertaini 'ng about 200 guests. The Bartow Whist Club was organized in 1904. Mrs. T L. Wilson was the treasurer. Officials elected in 190 4 were: M A. Wilson, mayor; A. J. Angle, clerk and treasurer; Dr. J.P. Statham, assessor; J. N. Hooker, W. Z. Overbay T. \V. Gary, C. H. Walker and C. E. Reed, councilmen. In 1904 J. R. Davis and B. F. Holland were cited as among the county's best and most successful farmers The former had a crop of corn that would yield 50 bushels to the acre. Cadets Walter E. Bunker, Milton D. Wilson, Cicero J. Buttram, and Charles W. Parrish constituted the graduating class of South Florida Military Institute in June, 1904. A boiler explosion, at the Green Bay Phosphate Co.'s plant August 25, 1904, killed Jack Johnson, night foreman, and three colored men. The Oak City Guards attended the State Encampment at St. Augustine, and was one of the companies selected for the Florida Provisional Regiment, which took part in the army maneuvers at Manassas in 1904. Albertus Vogt, said to be the man who first discovered phosphate in Florida, and once known as the "Duke of Dunnellon," was conducting the Hote l Phoenix in 1904. In 1904, Rev. F. G. Railey was pastor of the Presbyterian church; new side walks were being laid on Main street; and on November 18, there occurred the death of Wi. lliam B Varn, pioneer citizen and Confederate veteran.

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56 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA After considerab l e delays, Bartow's arte s ian well was completed in January, 1905. giving a water supp ly of unquestionable purity In 1 905, Bartow Method i sts w ere planning for a new church building O n April 3 the good work was started by the raising of $5,000. The proje ct was pushed by an organization known as the Ladi es' Church Building Association, o f which Mrs. B. F. Holland was president and Mrs. C. E. Bay le y was secr etary. There were live circl e s in the association, the chairman o f each being re spective ly, Mesdames D. W. Stanley, C E Reed, T. L. Wilson, A. A. B r own and Lewis Hooker The comers tone was la i d o n Januar y 12, 1906, the ceremonie s being in charg e of the Masonic Lodge. J. W. Bingham, presiding elder of the district preached the sermon of the occasion. The building was co m pleted in 1911, and was dedicated Nov ember 12 of that year Bishop H. C. Mo r rison delivered the ded i c ation sermon. City officials nominated in May, 1905 were E. W. Codington, mayor ; A. J. Angle, clerk and treasurer; G. E. Walker, a ssessor; Dr. J. P. Statham, collector; E. C. Stuart, Harry Wear, C. E. Reed and S. A. McBride. councilmen. Hugh and Harry Wear shot and killed an a11igator at the junction of Saddle Creek and Peace River, that measured 7 feet and 10 inches in len gth. In 1905 a new ice factory, finish e d in April, was bui lt by E. W. Codington; Barto w sh ippe d over 100 cars of tom a t oes; Prof. H. A. Ferrell was principal of Sum mer lin; J. R. Davis put out 75 acre s in cabbage; A H Sloan took the State census and announced Barto w's popula ti on a s 2,270. The Buckman bill, passed by the Legislature of 1905, did away with the South Florida Military Co11ege a s a Stat e institution, and the school did not reopen after its closing in June of that year. The buildings and grounds were sold in March 1906, to local parti es. Two negroe s were lynched in July, 1906 while on their way from F ort Gard ner to the eounty jail in charge of the sheriff A mob of some fifty men met the prisoners about a mile and a hal f from Bartow, and shot them to death Their crime wa s the murder of Ed Gardner, manager of the turpentine st ill for which they worked. Bartow had a $20,000 fire on the night of August 10, 1906. The property destroy e d was the block west of the court house. including Sample & Ramp' s real estate office, Pike' s harnes s sto re Jenkins' grocery; Schueiderman's grocery sto re and Lewellan & Co.' s dry goods s t ore. Col John J. Swearin gen, who had been practicing law for some year s at Arcadia, returned to Bartow to make his home, in June, 1907. In 1907, Bartow wa.!i bidding fair to be "famous as an automobil e town." '!'here were seven cars "das hing about the streets,'' and it was said, "truly Bartow is putting on metr opolitan airs." Before the close of the year there were fifteen machines in the community and B artow was referred to as "the au tomobile city.'' The fiftee n own ers were: 0. vV. Summerlin, who had a Premier ; E L. Wirt, a Reo; H W. Wear, a Reo; P. B. Johnston, a Reo; E. E. Skippe r, a Cadillac; R. B. Lyle. a Reo; Dr. Crum, a Reo; Mrs. R. A. Dixon, a Reo; J. D. Crum, a Cadillac; E. A. Law, a Cadillac; Milton Wilson, an Olds; C. E. Reed, an Olds. The Ford

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PART I -NARRATIVE 57 had not yet made its appearance, to nose all other makes off the road. All re cords for speed were broken when. in A u gus t 1907. E L. Wirt with J W. Sample, R. F. Eures, and D ou glas made a trip to Frostproof, covering t he 26 ntiles in one hour a n d thir t y minu t es A fine record, truly considering the roads at that time The Bartow State Bank was organized and opened for b usiness August 12, 1907 J. N. Hooker was president; E C. Stuart, vice-president; T. W. Gary, cashier. The capi ta l s t ock was $50,000. Ba r tow' s postoffice was rai sed to the s econd class July 1, 1907. Dr. J. P. Hilburn resigned the pastorate of the Methodist church in order to accept the presidency of Southern C ollege and Rev. S. W. Walker succeeded him in t he pastorate until th e latter par t of t he year, when Rev. \V. A Myers became the pastor. C. C. Wilson die d November 27, 1907, in San Francisco, whither he bad gone in the hope of improving his health. He was a son of Judge J. T. Wilson, and was the county's first prosecuting attorney. He represented the Senatorial district in the Legislature, and was a member of the Constitutional Convention that frame d the State Constitution. ln 1907. U. A. Ligh tsey was known as th e "cattle king of Polk''; Chas H. Walker and J. \V. Sample were heading th e movement for a State organization of fruit and vegetable grower s ; the Lanier Literary society was flourish ing; the City Council ordered a census which gave Bartow a population of 3,069; Prof. and Mrs. William Hood on December 26th, cel ebrated their fiftieth wedding anniversary; and Lewis & Lightsey sold theil' livery business to P. G. Lockwood, after Mr. A J Lewis had managed the concern for fifteen years. Several brick business houses, besides a number of residences, were going up in the spring of 1908. In 1908 a clayed road between Lakeland and Bartow was completed and accepted; E. E S k ipper was appo i nted postmaste r, December 21; Rev. W. T. V17aller was installed as pastor of the Presbyterian church. The court hou se clock at Bartow was installed and put in operation the week of March 20, 1909. On April 20, 1909, Bartow voted a $50,000 bond issue for sewerage, by a 5 t o 1 majority. City officers elected in May, 1909, we re: Mayor, W W. Clark; mars hal B C. Williams ; assessor, G. 0 Gresham; collector, S. S. Niblack; clerk and treasurer, B. J. Oeland; councilmen, J. N. Hooker, chairman, H. M. Wear J A Fort, C L Wilson, A. J. Lewis, J. R. Wiggins, John Bishop. The Bartow Commercial Club was organized in September, 1909. F. R. Mc Connell was president; T. W. Gary, vice-president; Erle L. Wirt, secretary and treas urer. These officers with A. A. McLeod and A. J. Lewis, consti tuted the Board of Director s. Free delivery o f mails was inaug urated in Bartow on June 1, 1909 ; in Sep tember of the s ame year the Bartow postoffice was moved into the new Marquis jlUilding-quite an improvement over the old quarters, but the people were ho p ing to get a building of the Uncl e Sam brand.

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58 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, Fl.ORIDA The Board o f Trade had a not her reorganizatio n in October, 190 9. E:. C Stuart was mad e pre s ident; Chas H. Walk er, vice-president; J. A. Fort, W. B. Swearingen, A. A. McLeod, J. J. Swearingen and S. M. Wilson, direct ors. J. C. Thomson was made secretary. In 1909, the Courier-Informant installed a linotype machine; in October, T. L. Marqws opened Bartow's first moving picture theater, "The Amusu"; Rev. C. F. Blackburn was pastor of the Methodist chu rch; in November, Mayor W. W. Clark resigne d his office on accou n t of press of personal business, and J. N. Hooker s u c ceeded him; and the Reformed Presbyterian Synod of the South, rep resenting nine States, co nvened in Bartow, November 1 8 22 There was a great "back to the farm'' movement among the people of Bartow and vicinity in 1909 and 1910. Trucking on a large scale was carried on. Amo11g the larger operator s were J. R. Davi s, S. P. James, E C. Stuart, Fort & Tate, Lockwood & Lewis, J A. Moore and W. J J Whidden. A debat e between Summerl in Institute and the Arcadia High School was held February 25, 1910. Wayne Thomas and Borden W il son were Summerlin's rep r esentatives, and t hey won the debate. City officials nominated in April, 1910, were: C. H. W alker mayor; Ellis Gibso n collector; G. 0 Denham, assessor; B. J. Oeland, cler k and treasurer; B. C. Williams, marshal. C o uncilmen-]. A. Fort, A. J. Lewis, G V. Tillman, and H. M. Swinson. Mr. Swinson resigned in July, and T. G Lockwo od was chosen t o fiij th e unexpired term. Arrangements for the ins tallation of a day curr ent f o r Bartow's muni c ipa l electric plant, were made in April 1910 Service was inau gurated August 7th Fire swept East Bartow, Sun day, April 17, 1910. A restaurant and fifteen negro hou ses were destroyed, together with the storage tanks and stables of the Standar d Oil Co. A spectacula r feature was the explosion of a 10,000-gallon gasoline tank. wayne Thomas. a Bartow boy, and a graduate of the Cor
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PAR'!' I-NARRATIVE 59 t.o save her. Curtis Langford threw a life preserver to the couple, but they were unable to reach it, and, fastening a li f e preserver on himself, he went to their rescue, but they sank when he was in a few feet of them. Mr. Langford the n t ur ned his att ention to Miss Stanley, to whom he had given a life preserver, and who had also jumped from the la un ch. Assistance came quic k ly from those on shore, and Mr. Lan g ford and Miss Stanley were saved. The bodies of Mr. Marquis and Miss Lewis were not recovered until after more than 36 hours of f rantic effort. Few occurrences in the county ever caused more general sadness. T. L. Marquis was t he son of Mrs. Ella Ma rq uis. The beginning was made toward the securing of a public building for Bar tow in 1910, when an appropriation of $5,000 was made by Congress to secure a site. T he bill for the public building was signed by the president in March, 1913, the appropr iation being $50,000. Bids were advertised for in January, 1917, the appropriation having been i ncr ea sed to $60,000. The Richardson Construction Co., of Bainbridge, Ga., was awarded the contract. There were a thousand acres in truck in the Bartow se ct ion in the season of 1910-11. Among the lar ger operators were J. R. Davis, S P James, E. C. Stuart Lockwood & Lew is C. M. Boland, Bartow Smith, A. B. McLean, Jasper Ferrell, Fort & Tate, J R. Wiggins, E. C. Sooy, S. W. Caldwell, J. H. Dean. In 1910, N.H. Williams was pastor of the :Methodist church; o n October 19th and 20th, the Twentieth Annual Reunion of the Florida U. D. C. was held at Bartow; and Rev. W. M. Plaxco, who had been pastor of the A. R. P. church for five years, left for South Carolina and was succeeded by Rev. N. E. Smith. For about fifteen years, the Library Association had maintained its activities urider difficulties, occupying rented quarters, with frequent changes. In March, 1911, through the efforts of S. S Green, a proposal was received from Mr. Car neg ie's secretary, offering to donate $8,000 to erect a free library building in Bar tow, provided the city expend not less than $800 a year for maintenance. A suitable site was purchased and Logan & Townsend, of Lakeland, were given the contract for building the library in August, 1914. It was finished in December of the same year, and was ready for u se on Christmas day. The library was formally opened March 16, 1915. Miss Eunice Coston was the first librarian. Municipal officers elected in 1911 were: R. L. Earnest, mayor; B. J. Oeland, clerk and treasurer; G. 0. Denham, assessor; E llis Gibson, collector; J. H. Lan caster, A. A. McL eod, Leon Hebb and C. L. Sensabaugh, councilmen In 1911, S. L. Caldwell slaug htered a hog, in February, that weighed 700 pounds; telephone wires were put underground in March; Bartow's first Chau tauqua, in charge of Rev. Dr. Benjamin, of Milwaukee, was held the week beg in ning March 23; and Rev. John T. Walters was pastor of the Bap tist church. There was a $30,000 fire August 18, 1912. The stores of T. P. Carpenter & Co., hardware; G. W. Smith, dry goods; Joe B Johnson's garage, and Camales Bros'. fruit store, were destroyed. The Seaboard Air Line Railway entered Bartow in 1913, the first train arriv ing on March 9th. J. E Windham was the first agent at Bartow. Meanwhile, in 1912, the Railroad Commission ordered a union railroad station to be buil t at

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60 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Bartow for the A. C. L. and S. A L. railway s. Work on the extension of the S. A. L. to Lake Wales, was begun in April, 1914. W. W. Chase operated an automobile line between Bartow and Fort in 1913. The fare was $1.00 each way, and roundtrips were made morning and afternoon. Municipal officers chosen in April, 1913, were: R. C. Hatton, mayor; B. J. Oeland, clerk; G. 0. Denham, assessor; Elli s Gibson, collecto r ; J. A. Garrard J. T. Burrows and H. L. Fin ney, councilmen. Misses Evelyn and Geneva Graddy, aged 15 and 17, respectively, were burned to death August 10, 1913 in a fire that destroyed the home of their paren ts, Mr. and Mrs. A. 0. Graddy, in Bartow The fire occurred about 10:30 at night, and its cause was never ascert ained, t he house being enveloped in flames when the fire was discovered . E. E. Skipper retired as postmaster August 1, 1913, and was succeeded by S. M. Wilson. Spessard Holland was winner of a Rhodes scholarship in the Universi t y of Oxford, England, in 1913. On account of conditions incident to the coming on of the World War, Mr. Holland was not able to avail himself of the privilege of attending this famous institution In 1 914, E. L. Mack was elected mayor; G. 0. Denham, clerk and treasurer; L. W. Bates, asse ssor; Ellis Gibson, collector ; and J. E. Ch il ds, J. D. Clark, L. Hebb and L. Z. Tate, counc ilmen. The new three-story building erected by E. C. Stuart, corner Central avenue and Summerlin street, was completed in June 1914. Roy Gallemore was feted by twenty of his young friends June 8, 191 4, on the eve of his departure to enter the U. S. Naval Academy. The Board of Trade had been reorgani:ted in October, 1913, with T. W. Gary as president. Shortly thereafter, a full-time paid secretary was employed, the position being efficiently filled by Jas. E. Mear s. There wa s a big Fourt h of July celebration at Barto w in 1914, and an attempt to give an exhibition of a flying machine on t hi s occasio n was probably the first introduction of aircraft into the county. The Right was not very successful, the machine not getting much more than ten feet above the ground. An e lection was held on October 6, 19f4, on the proposition of issuing bonds for $75 ,000 for further street improvements, the people to vote on the kind of paving preferred before co ntracts were let. The bonds carried by a vote of 116 to 7S. A site for a new city hall was purchased in September, 1914 Previously bonds for $17,/lOO to erect a. building, had been voted. Plans of Mark & Sheftall, Jacksonville architects, were a ccepte d in November A con tract was l et to Howard & W read, of Sarasota, in February 1915. The building was completed in Octobe r of that year The Catholi c church building was completed in the fall of 1914, and Mas s was celebrated for the first time in the structure on November 1st. William Hampton Johnson died January 25, 1915. He had been a citizen of Polk since 1861, residing in Bartow for thirty years prior to his death. During

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PART I -NARRATIVE 61 this long period he held many public positions, and was one of the most prominent men in the county, as well as one of the most popular. During the year of 1914 Barto w constructed $130,000 worth of n e w paving, spent $40,000 in enlarging the city-owned lig h t and water plant; $25,000 for additional sewerage; $8,000 for a public library building; $5,000 for a motor driven fire-fighting apparatus, and at the end of the year was preparing to spend $125,000 more on street paving. The city council also bought the old jail building from the county in 1914. Bartow's death ra te in 1914 was rep orte d as the lowest in Florida. The foundation of a new gymnasium building for Summerlin, the gift to the city of Mr. Leon Hebb in memory of his wife, was laid in April, 1915. Shipments of t ruck t o the value of $400,000 were made from the farms con tiguous to Bartow during the season of 1915. One man sold vegetables during the month of June in that year, whic h brought him $19,312.71. A. T. Mann had a fifty-acre field of corn that summer, the stalks of which would average nine feet many of them having two and so m e three ears to the stalk. Municipal officers installed June 1st, 1915: Chester Wiggins, mayor; W. S. Wev, clerk and treasurer; Ellis Gibson, collector; Bord en Wilson, a ssessor; Leon Hebb, R. M. Oglesby, W. J. J. Whidden, J. E. Childs Dr. J. A. Garrard and L. Z. Tate, councilmen. The Polk County Natio nal Bank absorbed the Citizens Bank in July, 1915 After two and a half year s of faithful se rvice J. E. Mears resigned as secre tary of the Bartow Board o f Trade, in April, 1916. He was succeeded by W. F. George. J. Forres t Caldwell was elected pres i dent of the Board of Trade in November. Roy Gallemore, midshipman at the U. S. Naval Academy, won the medal for fencing, in a tournament at the Hotel Astor Belvedere, New Yo rk, in April, 1916. Bartow voted a bond issue for $20,000 for school purposes June 13, 1916. $15,000 was for an add ition t o Summerlin, and $5,000 for equipment eteR. E. Lee of Fort Meade, was given the con tract John C. Blount died at Bartow December 30, 1916. He was one of the first settlers of Polk coming to the county when a child of three years. He served as county treasurer for eight years, and was otherwise prominent He died at the age of 68. Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Blount celebrated their golden wedding in February, 1916; and, in August, the Postal Telegraph Co. es1ablisbed an office in the city. Misses Annie Fran.klin and B ernice Jones, and Mrs. J. E. Wagner, of Bartow; Miss Janie B. Currie, of Winter Haven; Miss Myra Curtis, Lake Wales and 1\ofiss Mildred Morse, Lakeland formed a party making a trip to Washington in March, 1917, as guests of the Cour ier-hi{Qr1>10.nt. They were winners of a contest con ducted by that paper. Prof. Wm. Hood died February 25, 1917, in his 85th year. H e had long been one of Bartow's best loved citizens, and was principal of Summerlin Inst itute for s evera l years.

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62 H IS'rORY OF POLK COUNTY F LORIDA A new bank was organized at Bartow i n April, 1917 J J. Boynto n was president; R. B. Huffak er, first vice-president; Irving Trask, cashier. It opened for business June 6, under th e name of the Citrus Exchange Bank. The institu tion was consolidated with the State Bank of Bartow in December. T. M. Lybass, a resident of Polk for 35 years died June 10, 1917. Bartow's officials chosen in the spring of 1918 were : Mayor, Chester Wiggins; clerk and treasurer, George Seymour, Jr. ; co}. lector, Ellis Gibson; assessor, L. C. Olive; councilmen-G. 0. Denbam, E L. :Mack, J. E. Childs, and J. D. Clark. Spessard Holla nd returned from service in the World War, a captain, in July, 1919, and assumed the duties o f the office of Prosecuting Attorney, to which he had recently been appointed. Gen. E. M. Law died October 31, 1920. All business in Bartow was sus pended for the funeral, and the banks closed for the day. He was given a military funeral, veterans of the War Between th e States aitd of the Spanish-American War, and the American Legion men, par ticipat ing in the exercises. General Law was born in Darlington, S. C., in 1836. E. E. Skipper, lon g a prominent citizen, was found dead at the home of hi s daughter, Mrs. E 0. Douglas, at Sebring on November 2, 1920. Death was due to an attack of heart trouble. Armistice day was ce lebrated November 11, 1920, an estimated crowd of 13,000 being in town. The Lakeland Band headed the big parade which formed despite a rain: Hon. Park Trammell and Hon. H. J. Drane were spealcers o f the day, E. L. Mack presiding. About 5,500 persons were served a free dinner at the noon hour The body of Know les Gittings Oglesby, Bartow war hero who was killed in France August 22, 1918 while administering first-aid to the wounded, reached Bartow April 7, 1921, and funeral services over the remains were held the following day. He was 29 years of age at the time of his death. "One of the finest men sacrificed in the war," was the expression used in commenti!lg on his death. The Bartow Post of the American Legion was named Know les Oglesby Post in his honor. City officers elected May, 1921, were: Mayor, Harry Taylor; clerk, Clyde Olive; assessor, E. B. Hatton; collector Ellis Gibson; councilmen, J. A Garrard, T. T. Hatton and V. G. Kelley. Milton Skipper was appointed postmaster in June, 1921, to fill out the six months' unexpired terin of S. M. Wilson, resigned. In January, 1922, he was appointed for a full four-year term. On August 30, 1921, an election was held to select a Charter Board to frame Bartow's charter for conimissioner-city manage r form of government. Those elected were J. E. Childs, R. B Huffaker, Leon He bb, C. E. Earnest, and Parks Read. Forty-five candidates offered. In December, 1921, an election was held and the city-manager form of government won by a majority of 19. On January 24, 1922, U. A. Ligh tsey R. B. Huffalcer and Leon Hebb were elected city com missioners; Chester Wiggins was appointed city a ttorn ey, and E. S. Jackson city clerk and auditor. On February 28th, Anton Schneider was appointed city man-

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PART I-NARRATIVE 63 ager; j. L. Albritton, municipal judge; Young Dial, chief of police; D. E. Bivens, superintendent of Public Utilitie s R. B H uffaker was chos en mayor, by agree ment of the three commissioners Installation of a White Way was begun November 29, 1921. There were 70 posts in the system. The lights were turned on ihe night of January 14, 1922, in celebration of which a big street dance was held. On February 5, 1922, the automatic telephone system was put in operation in Bartow. There were 545 phones in use at the time. On March 8, 1922, Dr. Mciver Law, son of the late E. M. Law, was killed at Arcadia, through contact with a wire carrying 2300 volts of elect ricity He was making a fluoroscope picture of a child's arm, and in adjusting the machine in a darkened room the trage dy occurred . On April 20, 1922, the Bartow Kiwanis Chib received its charter, at a banquet at Hotel Oaks, and Kiwanis was thus formally launched on its active career in Bartow. In the Spring of 1923 Bartow residents went into the tomato industry o n a large scale, and in May shipped fifty carloads, which brought approximately $60,000. May 4, 1923, City Manager J. W. Greer, who had succeeded Anton Schneider, resigned, and C V. Turner was appointed to fill the vacancy. Mr. Schneider had resigned to accept the city managership at Lakeland. Georgia Day was celebrated at Kissingen Springs June 14, 1923. L A. Morgan was president of the Georgia club, and over 1,000 represe n tative s of that State were in attendan ce. Judge W. M. Gober wel. comed the Georgians, and Col. W. A. Brady made a stirring addre s s. A fine dinner wa s enjoyed. In July, 1923, J. L. Albritton resigned as municipal judge, and 0. Edgar Williams was appointed to the office. Workmen broke ground for a new theater building in Bartow on Ju ly 16, 1923. On July 17, 1923, Bartow voted $270,000 for new s treets, sewerage impr ove ment, extension of the water system, drainage of McKinney branch and a municipal auditorium. The bond issue carried by a 3 to 1 majority. On the afternoon and night of July 28th, 1923, the Chamber of Commerce staged its most success fu l Community Day celebrati.on, 2,000 persons gathering to dedicate the City Hall lawn to public uses. John W. Martin, then mayor of Jacksonville, was the principal speaker, and there were addresses by President G. 0. D enham, of the Chamber of Commerce, Mayor R. B. Huffaker, and Band Director F. E. Storm. Mrs Harold \Vilson, prominent young society matron, and Miss Dereene Floyd, were killed in an automobile acci dent nine miles east of Tampa, August 23, 1923, w h en the ir car skidded o n the wet paving. Miss Ardelle Hill, Mrs. W. F Hill and young daughter, Janette who were also occupants of the car, escaped with bn1ises. Mrs. Bertha M. Kn ight became postmistress of Bartow August 20, 1923, . succeed i ng M. E. Skipper

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64 HISTORY OF POLK CO U NTY, FLORIDA On &ptember 6, 1923, the City Commissioners bought the Hackl subdivision property for the purpose of creating a municipal park. The purchase price was $12 000. In &ptember, 1923, l\Irs L. B Epperson ro unded out her 30th year in the millinery business in Bartow. F. H. Heard, a resident of Bartow since 1882 died October 18, 1923. George H. Clements was se<:ured as secretary of the Chamber of Commerce in June, 1922, and he has ably served the city and the organization since tha t time. Jasper Summerlin was awarded prizes offered by the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce on Old Settlers Day for being the youngest old se(1ler, and also for being the oldest settler owning the most land in Polk. The firs t "Georgia Day" was observed July 13, 1922, at Kissingen Springs, 1,200 Georgians being in attendance L. A. Morgan was chairman of the day. Officers of the Georgia Club elected were L A. Morgan president; W. S Myrick, vice-president; George Brantley secretary; J. E. Johnson, treasurer. There have been other observances of the day in succeeding years. Benjamin F. Blount pioneer resident of Bartow since 1851 died October 30, 1922, aged 77 years. He had been for many years a leader in the life o f the county. J. W Gr ier, formerly city manager of Tallahassee, succeeded Amon Schneider, resigned, as city manager and superintendent of public utilities, M r. Schneider leaving to accep t the position of city manager of Lakeland. Leon Hebb was elected City Commissioner De<:ernber 5 1922, for a three year term. Judge \V. S. Preston, who had served two terms as County Judge, and other wise had been prominent in county affairs, died De<:ernber 15, 1922. In 192 4 the Baptists were planning a new chur c h building. 1'he o ld building, which had served since 1900, was moved and a splendid new edifice erected on the site. Mrs. Bertha M Knight was appointed post mas ter in January 192 4. She had been acting postmaster for several months, succeeding M ilton Skippe r The Ernada theater, owned by Hugh Wear, was opened February 1, 1924. The Bartow Woman's Club purchased the h i stor ic home of Gen. E. M. Law io 1924, as a permanent home for the organization. A housewarming was held October 30 McKinney branch was drained, at a cost of about $25 000, in 1924 In Ma y, 1924, Leonard 0. :E)oynton was elected presiden t of the Chamber of Commerce Jerry L. Wirt, a resident of Bartow for o ver forty years, died July 8, 1924. On July 7, another pioneer business man, George W. Smith who came to the village of Bartow in 1880, passed away. A City Hospital was planned in 1924". A fine bu ilding was erected as a result. It was opened March 1, 1928. James G Gallemore, for thirteen years ed ito r of t he Ba:rtow Rccord., died very suddenly July 25, 1924. He was an able editor, a successful publisher, a splendid citizen, a kindly, gentle, noble man. Few men ill the cOtulty were ever more gen erally loved and respected.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 65 Thos. J. Hamm, former county treasurer and a res ident of Bart ow 32 years died November 28, 1924. The com er-stone of the new municipal auditorium was laid O c tober 2, 192-1. Congr es.Sman H. J. Drane was t he principal speaker. A Rotary Club was organized in Bartow October 29, 1924 . Previou sly there had been a "Wednesday Club", culminating in a full-fledged Rotary Club lnsti tution of the club w as by Chas. H. Williams, secretary of the Lakeland Rotary Club, who directed the ceremonies The fir s t officers were Leonard 0 Boynt on pres i d ent ; W. F. Eger, vice-president; J. Forrest Caldwell, secretary -treasurer; C liff Harper, sergeant-at-arms. The f ormal ceremonies of insta llation took place November 6, when a large delegation of Lakeland Rotarians were in charge of the in itiator y exercises. During the years 1925 and 1926 buildin g operatio ns in Bartow approximated $1,000,000 for each year. Public improvement s of all kinds kept pace with the building program the result being a city supplied with everything requi s ite for the conveniences and comfo rts of modern life. Electricity, gas and water are availab l e in ample supply and at rea sonablerates. Well paved streets an adequate sew erage system, unexcelled schools, and fine church buildings, repre s enta t ive o f nea rly all denominations, present a contrast to the struggling little town with whi c h this narrati ve commences, without public improvements of any kind, n o t even a c hurch buildin g, and on l y one s mall an d primitive school. Being essentially an agricultural communit y, Bartow's pro sper ity has the s u bs tantia l basis of a rich back country, which y ields trem endou s quantitie s for the northern market s. More ove r th ere are in the city, or in its tributary territory, numerous manufacturing plants lumber mills, the mammoth phosphat e indu stry, a cigar factory can nin g factory. etc ., which provide subst antial payrolls. Thi s History being in no sense a "booster publication, these facts are here set down mere ly to indicate, by a glance at present co nditi o ns, the contrast between the city of today and the so mno lent of onl y about forty years ago, sh o wing the remarkable progre ss that has been made in that compar atively short time. NI\WSPo\nRs. The first new s paper pub lis he d in Polk Coun t y was the Barto w lnformalll and the first i ssue o f that pape r w a s da t ed June 9, 1 88 1. It was establi shed b y D. W. B. Boull y, who cam e irom Blountsville Alabama, where he seems t o have been engaged in trying t o make a newspaper "go", apparently with such unsatis factory re s ult s that he decid ed be could better himself by setting up his lodg e in the wilderness, and i nci ting the wilderness t o Undoubtedly, he had the sp irit of the hardy pionee r coupled with s uperabundant optimi s m, for at that ti me Ba rt ow had but a little ove r 100 inhabitants, with but three i n s tituti o ns that could be called business houses-two general stores and one drug store. Of these only one-David L. Hughes-had an advertisement i n the firs t i ssue, and he wa s a consistent and liberal advertise r thereafter. However, Editor Boully had some adverti sements in his paper. He brought them with him, ready set in type, from his old home in B lount sville Alabama

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66 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Back at that p lace there were peop le who had made h im advance payments, both for s ub scription and advertising. These contracts he car ri ed out with his new paper. Consequently, people in Bartow for many issues, were urged throug h the advertising columns of the to take advantage of the bargains offered by firm s in Blountsville. Meantime, in the news col umns, Blountsville people read all about Bartow happenings Editor Boully was a man of principle, and having been paid for advertising and subscriptions he punctiliously gave the service. The l"fonntmt was a four-page paper, six columns to the page, and it was all printed at home. Editor Boully was proud of this f act, having the prejudice of the true journalist of that time against "patent insides." He remarks in his first issue that he thought it "better to get out a four-page paper in this way than to gull our readers with a sheet of 8 pages, 6 of which are printed abroad." The sub s cription price was $1.50 per year . The paper was clean and well print ed, and was remarkably free from t ypo graphical errors. However, it was necessary to miss the second issue, because t he "frisket and tympan" of his press were not the right size, and he was compelled to wait until the Cincinnati Type Foundry could send him a new press. Later, Polk County was to see presses that had to be onjered months in advance of delivery, and that were shipped as carload lots-but not the simple affair which Mr. Boully operated. He engineered the whole machinery with only assistance of a Sometimes, perhaps, he thought that, instead of "a devil" it was "the devil" who was mixing in his affairs, for issues were missed occasionally, and he frequently mentioned his troubles, though always in a rather cheerfu l vein Once, he notes that "chills and fever laid their icy and burning hands alternately upon the editor Occasionally he explains some shortcomings of the paper by the fact that he had been "deprived o f our devil." In a very short time after reaching Bartow he had acquired a lot they probably were not hard to acquire in those days-and was putting up a building to house his business and his family. During this period his t roubles multiplied, for he laments his experience in "trying to put up a n ew building with next to no money", and expresses the hope that he will never have to pass through such an ordeal again. Once, wh il e engaged in this task, he hurt ''our leg", and that week's paper was only one page, i. e., a single sheet printed on one side only. The following week he reports "our leg" i m proving, and hopes to have a full sheet next week. Yet these annoyances were offset, perhaps, by compensations. F r equently there were acknowledgments of donations, such as iced cake and lemonade and other nice things, showing that the peop le of that day were not unappreciative of the editor . In referring to a wedding he usua lly acknowledged receipt of "the printer's fee", which it is believed was a portion of the weddiilg feast, or at least some of t he bridal cake. For his first Christmas in Florida he received as a gift from Jerry Poppell a 14-pou.nd wa t ermelon On the community Christmas tree, however some wag hung as a present for th e editor a hornet's nest-not an incon gruous gift, for the editor didn't hesitate to stir up a hornet's nest when he deemed it expedient.

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PART I-NARRATIVE G 7 Consid ering its limited field, the ltfonuat was a wonderfull y good local pape r. The new s of the world seeped int o this then isolate d sec tion very s l owly, and t he paper of cours e coul d handl e littl e of it . T he issue of September 22, 1882, was printed with black column rul es, becaus e of the death of Presiden t Garfield. As soon as the editor had gotten establi s hed, his family came down from Alabama, making the j ourney by wagon, as wa s c u stomary at the time Five weeks and two and onehalf days was the time required f o r the trip. "Our family having a rrived", announced the e ditor, '\ve are now ready to receive chickens eggs, butt er, potatoe s corn, fishin fact, a nything that can be put t o u s e in a family, i n pay for subsc ri pt i on. About s i x month s after the paper wa s started in January, 1882, Mr. Boully evidently f ou n d hi s duties too many and varied for he turned over the edi t o rial department t o Judge G A. Hanson, retainin g th e business man agement Judge Hanson showed considerable ability as an editor, though not confining his labors entirely to editorial work as we judg e from this paragraph: "Our edi tor gives all his spare time to the plow, and when the devil seeks for copy be has to put on rubber boot s and take to t h e sandspur s to find it. The ed itorial articles deal t largely with nati o nal politics an d there wa s conside rable poi n ting with pr id e and viewing with alarm, th e Republican adm inistra ti on a nd th e tariff receivin g some doughty blow s. A hig h mo ral tone was maintained. An agricultur al depar tment was added which was i n charge of the "Ag. Ed." This paper e>rplained, meant "Agri cultura l Editor", and not "Aggravated Edito r", though it was admitted the editor wa s often aggravated. Human natu re wa s much the same t hen a s n ow Befor e the paper had com pleted its first year, and notwithstanding Bartow had only about 1 25 inhabitants there was talk of anothe r paper The rath er outspoke n policy of the paper and its tendency to print news which t hose concerned would rather have suppressed, may have given birt h to the idea of an oppo sit i o n paper. Such paragraph s a s these might cause such talk in a very s mall comm unity: "Our c alla boose had o n e c us tomer this V--, who got off for abo ut $14.00 "Our corporat i on has had a liv e l y week. The followin g ease s w e r e disposed of: Peter C. H-, d runk and di sorder ly, $5.00 and co sts; Thos. C. Sa nd T h os. K-, s ame offens e ea ch fined $8.00 and costs. At any r ate, in Apr il 1883 o n e F. C. Hunt was soliciting-stock for a newspaper, $1,000 being the amount sought t o be rai s ed. The "Hunt" for the $1. 000. however, was unsuccess ful. Much space wa s consumed in a controver sy running through several weeks for an d against dancing. The editor was fiMIIy compelled t o r eject further com m u nic atio n s on the s ubject. Then, when Mrs. Mann was abo ut to open up a milli nery store, the building befo r e bein g occupied was dedicated" by a soc ial dance. A brief accoun t was contribut ed to th e paper the writer statin g t h e d a nce was attended by "the best o f our youn g people." This bade fair to open the R ood gates of controver sy again, som e one writin g under a nom-de-plume, t akin g excep tion to thi s descripti on o f those who participated i n the dance. and chara c t erizing the affair as th e "dedi catio n o f S i ster Mann's new s tore to the diabolical ser vice of

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68 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA undeconpopulated scholas tical shindigg ing." This brought forth a rfply signed by Samuel H. Tidner, W. McAu lay. H. W. Snell, M. Courtney and A. T. Mann, on behalf of the dancers, in which they stated the objecti ng con t ributor was "too well known as a good-lor-nothing, worthlfss character, who neither commands the respect or esteem of the respectable ci t izens of Polk County to deserve even a passing notice in the columns of the press." The editor declared the controversy closed at this point, but the incident illustrates how large small matters loom in small communities The first delinquent tax list, printed in the summer of 1881, comprised twe lv e descriptions, making 33 sing le-column lines, which, presuming the legal rate to be the same a s at pre s ent must have n etted th e publisher as much as $5.00. The 18S3 li st, published in March, 1884, occupied nearly a page and the publisher's revenue must have been over $100.00. Perhaps it was on the strength of this greatly enlarged public business that the next issue of the paper contained an announcement t hat a contract had been made for a new press, capable of printing an 8-column paper, and of doing all kinds of job printing. A little later an adver tisement offered the old press and all the other material theretofore used in printing the InfMmont for In June, 1884 the lnf()ftllan t was enlarged to seven columns to the page. Shortly t hereafter G. M. Holder and Mr. Sessions became associated with Judge Hanso n in the publication, Boully retiring. Bartow s second newspaper, the Barl0111 Express, appea red in 1885, but after a few months was bought by F. F. Crawford and removed to Fort Meade. In September 1886, B. B. Tatum bought an interest in the lnfonm:mt, he and G. M. Holder t he owners, and the paper was enlarged to a 9-column f olio. After a few months the business was sold to E. W. Codington, and Messrs. Tatum and Holder established the Adwnce-Couri'r in opposition to the lnfor .. ant. No important matter was overlooked by the Argus eyed reporter of the Adwnce-Cortrier. Witness this item: "The proprietors of the Georgia House have employ ed an extra cook." In July, 1887 the editors of th e Adt'Once-Coz
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PART I-NARRATIVE 69 The Advance-Courier was en terprising beyond its time. \Vhenever there were happenings of sufficient interest to justify them, ext ras were issued. Miss E. Nellie Beck was local and society editor, and she was a good one. In January, 1888, E D. Barker, who had been associated with the severed the connection. The paper was owned by E. W. Codington In July of the same year it was sold by Mr. Codington to J. H. 'fatum, a brother of the Adva,.cc-C ouricr' s editor. Shortly there after the A and the b>formant were c onso li dated under the name o f the Cottrier-I,.for ... umt. In Novem ber, 1888, the paper was bought by James Har d en and G. A. K. Stephens, the latter becoming the editor, and he remained in charge until May 1894. W. F. Stovall established the Polk Coomty News in 1890, and was editor and publisher of that paper until1892, when, deciding to seek a better field, he moved his plant to Tampa and established the Tampa Tri/Jime. In May, 1893 the CourieY-ln{ormcmt was sued for $25,000, action for libel having been brought by C. A. Hanson, an early editor of t he A sion ilar suit was filed against the Progress, Bartow's other paper. The basis of these suits appears to have been that the papers demanded tha t J udge Hanson make a report of the finances o f Summerlin Institute as treasurer of that institution, charging that he had made no such report for eight years, although he had been requested to do so. T he papers treated the suit as a joke, and Judge Hanson finally made his report, and it was published. There is no record that he s ecured the $25,000 from either newspaper. Meanwhile, the Progress had been established at Bartow u nder the m anage ment of A E. Seddon. It was purchased by E. B. Barker and J. D. Garrett in the summer of 1893. Both Bartow papers agreed that if whiskey must be sold in the county, it would be better if the sale were placed under th e supervision of the law They opined that there would not be one-tenth as many persons engaged in the liquor traffic under proper supervision as there were then operating blind tigers. Of course, this drew the fire of the ardent prohibitionists. The controve rsy waxed "dure et forte," Elder Nash (and many others) for the prohibitionists, and Editor Stephens, of the C owrir-hoformat>t, doughtily defending his position. He chron icled the loss of one subscriber, but a committee called On him with 100 pennies no one person having been allowed to contribute more than a single pennydonated to replenish the C.-I.'s treasury after the loss of the ex-subscriber's financial support. The Courier-J.nformQJit was accorded a circulation of 1,750 in 1893, a very creditable list for its field. The fish liar was abroad in the l and these day s as he always has been and ever will be. A correspondent of the C.-I. from Bone Valley, relates that four silve r quarters were found i n a fish caught near there. This was in the days of free silver agitation, and the business depression accompanying it, and it was suggested that perhaps the swallowing o f sil ver by fish was one cause of the financial stringency.

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70 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA There were journalist ic differences in these times as well as later. Editor Stephens, o f the C.-I., thought that Editor Seddon, of the Progress, was cribbing liis local items, so he slyly set a trap by printing this paragraph: "Mr. W. A. Bay man, a wealthy citizen of Missouri, i s looking around Bartow with a view of locating." "Mr. Bayman" was a purely mythical character, and there was no foundation whatever for the paragraph; nevertheless, the item was copied with considerable elaboration in the Progress. And Editor Stephens chortle d wit h glee! People had more time, and perhaps more inclination, to write for the papers in these earlier days. The most casual comment would precipitate a controversy, which would run on like the brook. But a pleasanter phase was the interest taken by many correspondents in sending in the happening s of their various communities. Irving Keck, who reported from Bow lin g Green and South Polk, was an unfa iling and liberal provider of copy, and interesting copy, at that, though editors of today would have preferred that Mr. K eck f urnish mo re news and less of his views. J. I. Wilson for years, rarely missed having a budget of Haines City news i n the Bartow papers. Such community correspo ndents are a blessing and a comfort to the editor-but their tribe seems to have decreased. Mrs. Beulah R. Stephens, a very talented lady, became associate editor of the C011rier-lnforma11t in December, 1893. She was t he editor's wife. In May, 1894, the Polk County Printing Company was organized to publish the C()urier-lnf()rtlta,.t and G A. K. Stephens retired from the edi tors h ip. The new company had the followin g officers: E. W. Codi ngton, president; F. Vv. Inman, vice-president; B. B. Tatum, secretary and treasurer. A number of other prominent citizens subscribed to the capital stock. B. B Tatum was the managing editor. The Sheriff seemed to have caught up with the Pr()g. ress about this time, and its plant was sold at sale in July, A. E Seddon purchasing the o utfit and resuming publication of the paper, which thereafter called The News. It s eems to have advocated Populistic ideas which at that time were quite preva lent. L. W. Crompton was city editor. Bro. Seddon, who was a preacher as well as an editor, printed an article in his paper criticising Sheriff Hiram Ballard because of the condition of the cou nty jail. The Sheriff and the editor met on t he street, and had a slight mix -up, but no one seems to have been seriously hurt. For a minister and editor, Mr. Seddon seemed to have had a good many troubles for another personal encounter is noted in August, 1896, this time with T. L. Marquis, who struck the edito r a blow on the head with a cane. These troubles of The N tf"&s evidently were not growing pains, for the paper ceased publication after a brief life. In December, 1895, the installed a 2 h. p. gas engine.--a big progressive step in t he operation of a country newspaper at that time. The C.-I. was the only paper in Bartow at this period. In October, 1896, the Messrs. Henry purchased the outfit of the defunct S()llth Florida News, preparatory to establishing a new paper. R. J. Morgan, of St. Petersbu rg, was contemplating a similar venture. These parties became asso ciated in the publication of a newspaper called the Polk Cormty The

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PART I-NARRATIVE 7 1 first issue appeared N ovember 21, 1896 Mr. Morgan being publisher and A. C. Henry local editor. The papers were handing out good advice then, as is their custom. "Quit t al king hard times and they will vanish is an admonition just as timely now as it was then "Flori da is passing through a period of hard times, bu t the end is in sight," was an optimistic paragraph in 1897. The Lnt He h a d purchased t he Met.ropolis, at Miami, and shortly afterwards went t o t h at city to make his borne Col. J oh n B. Johnson, of Dade City, succeeded Mr. Tatum as editor. After a. few months, however, Col. Johnson resigned to return to Dade City, t h e people of Pasco County desiring him to represent them in the Legislature. Prof. Wm. Hood succeeded Capt. Johnson as editor of the iri May 1900. In his sal utatory he stated that he was relying on S. A. McBride,

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72 HISTORY OF POLK COUN'l'Y, FLORIDA who had been with the paper several years, to keep the pt1blication up to the high standard t hat had been ma i ntained. Mr. McBride was continued as business manager. In the is sue of February 20, 1901, a liquor advertisement, measuring about 6 inches down two columns, was printed in the Courier-ln{OfflaiJ'Ill. It chanced in this way: There was a legal adverti s ement of the sale of the Disston properties, which occupied more than a page, and which was run in a number of papers. One of the papers printed a two-page sh ee t containing the advertisement, and sold it to "the other papers in which the publication was orde re d, t h u s saving the work o f typesett ing by each paper. The liquor advertisement was printed on thi s sheet, and when delivered for distribution as part of the Courit>r-lnfornaanf it was too late to remedy the matter. However, every effort was made to des troy the offend ing advertisement by printing a solid block over it. Of course, this made the advertisement tenfold more conspicuous, but it was also made plain that the paper disapproved of it In May, 1921, Miss E. Nellie Beck, who had some years before been local editor of the Courier-Informant, became the editor, Prof. Hood retiring. Miss Beck ably filled this position for a year, resigning in May, 189 2 D. B. Sweat, formerly of Waycross, succeeded Miss Beck, he having bought an interest in the p;oper. Mr. Sweat was able and successful. In S eptember, 1902, the Co!<1-iC'lnfonnant installed a new Cranston press, and the old country Campbell, that had served long and well, was hauled through the country to Plant City to grind out o pinion s and new s at that place. Some time in 1902 J. N. Hale began tl1e publication of a paper in Bartow called Tlu It seems that T. A. Bivins had also transferred his field of labor from Mulberry where he had published Tire Phosphate Era, to Bartow, where he was conducting Tlu South Florida Denr.ocrat. All of this evidently gave Bartow too much of a good thing, for in October, 1902, T. A. Bivins moved to Tampa, having sold his plant to the colored people, who used it in producing a denominational paper. The Bartow Cracker, under Mr. Hale's ownership, rocked along until March, 1904, when he sold it to a company composed of C. A. Boswell, J. A. Garrard, L. 0. Feagin, M. 0. Feagin, and Jordan Durrance, known as th e Bartow Publis hing Co., and the paper thereafter was called the Bartmv Record. A Mr. Witherspoon was the editor for a short tim e, the n Prof. Wm. Hood was in editorial charge unt i l July, 1905. Prof.]. 0. Christian tackled the job briefly and h e was followed by J. F. Hovey and G. H. Bell in rap i d suc cession. In 1906 E : M. Canova, of St. Augustine, took charge, but the task was so strenuous that he suffered a nervous breakdown in t he summer of 1907', and the e ditorial chair was again vacant. George G. Matthews took charge in Novem ber, 1907, and early in 1908 he and P. B. B owie purchased the plant from th e Bartow Publishing Co. About a year later S. S. Savage, of Ocala b ecame a partner of Mr. Matthews in the publication of Tlu Record. He soo n bough t Mr. Matthews' interest and was sole owner until August, 1911, when J. G. Gallemore arrived from Washington, Missouri, and purchased the paper. From that time,

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PART I-NARRATIVE under Mr. Gal le more s splendid management, The Record grew 111 popularity, influence and circulat ion I n May, 1904, after two years in which the Cowrier-lnfor numt progressed and flourished, D. B. Sweat decided to give u p newspaper work for the ministry, and he seve red his connection with the paper, to affiliate with th e F lor ida Methodist Conference He was succe eded by Edward Fitzgerald; who came to the paper as editor f ro m Pensacola S . A. McBride was continued as business manager. After a little over a year under this regime Editor Fitzgeral d and Manager Mc Bride resigned, and they were succeeded in June 1906, by Gen. E. M. J.aw as editor and P. A. Ruhl as business manage r 1\'[r. Ruhl ably managed the paper u nti l November, 1907, w heo he resigned to enter t he newspaper field at Fort Myers, W. H. Bulloch succeeding him as manager of the CM
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74 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY FLORIDA CH-.\PTER Ill. FORT MEADE FORT :ME., DE is probably the oldest sett l ement in the county, tho ugh some claim that there was a settlement at o r near Socrum whose beginnings were as early. D.uring the Indian war s t he value of the location as a military base was recognized and a fort was built and garrisoned. As a strategic point it was important, and its perfect drainage and general healthfulness were advantages appreciated by the military authorities. The military station which later bore the name of Fort Meade, acc<>rding to some evidence in hand, was originally known as Fort Clinch. It was established in D e cember, 1849, and was abandoned in 1854. It was reoccupied during the disturbances that occurred between 1856 and 1858, being finally abandoned in September, 1857. It was named in b"onor of George Gordon Meade, Second Lieutenant, Topographical Engineers, later Major Genera l and commander of the Federal army at the battle of Gettysburg. How it was given this name is told in a letter which was written in 1896 to Hon. T. J. Mtnor, at that time mayor of the town of Fort Meade: "Norwalk, Conn., Aug. 11, 1896. "Mayor of Fort Meade: "Dear Sir: I have often tho ug ht of writing you w ha t I know about the l ocation of your city. "In 1851-2, I being on duty at Fort Chockonicola, on Pease Creek about ten miles from Fort Meade, one day General Twigg took with him Lieut. Meade and myself, in connection with an escort of horsemen, to hunt for the site of old Fort Clinch, of which there was considerab le ambiguity in the description of the location. "The General left the searc h entirely in Meade s hands, and when a little before dusk Meade announced that he had found the correct place, the General, m uch overjoyed, said, 'Here shall be Fort l\>!eade' "Lieut. Meade, I know, up to that time had thought that the Genera l was prejudiced against him. "Trusting that this communication wiU be of inte rest to you and the people of your beautiful city, "I am, truly yours, uDa.riu-s N Couch, "Ex-U. S. A. and Maj. Gen. U. S. Vols." Capt. Sam Hope, who was a veteran of the Indian war, in an interview m 1905, gives the following account of a fight near Fort Meade: "At tha t t ime (1856) the settlers in what is now Polk cou n ty ha d g athered in forts and block houses for protection from the Indians; but an old Indian fig h ter, named Willoughby Tillis, h ad refuse d t o come into th e fort at Fort Meade, preferring to take his chances on his place near town. On June 14, 1856 the old man was attacked by a small ban d of Indians, who finding his fire too deadly

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Uppcr-$/ntt Sane in MeaJt l-0 Years .4po LfJIWtr F IJrl MtaJe TfJ da,,

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PART I-NARRATIVE 7 5 finally withdrew t o a neighboring fence corner. At thi s juncture Lieut. Car lt o n, who had heard the firing at the Fort, came up. He had with him four men William Parker, Lott Whidden, John Henry Hollingsworth and a man whose name I have forgo tten Disregarding Tillis' warning, the little party from the Fort closed i n upon the Indians. In the melee, Carlton, Parker and Whidden were aU killed, while Hollingsworth was severely wounded. The fifth man escaped without a scratch." Capt. Hope, in describing the details of this skirmish, said that be fore Carlton and his brave compan ions fell. they managed to la y violent hands upon one Indian brave, whose throat they cut from ear to ear. Such was life in Florida in the days of old. There i s also a record of th e killing by the Indians of George How ell and Robert Prine in a battle on June 6, 1856 The old Fort and barracks were demolished about the year 1890, and an attractive residence and fine orange grove, constituting the home of L. A. Morgan, occupy the site of these early fortifications. Soon after the erection of the Fort settlers began making their homes near about, and the town of Fort Meade sprang into existence, and for many years was an important trading post for that section of the country. It is probable that a few settlers located in the vicinity of the fort-possi bly a soldie r or two, who had been stationed there, came hack and brought his family to the surroundin gs to which he had become familiar. '!'his is all a matter of con jecture. '!'her e are no records bearin g on the se matte rs, and t hose who played a part in the dram a of these ear l y days have disappeared from the stage. 'l'he firs t s ettler of whom we can find any record was Capt. Lanier, who wa s on the ground in 1851. The settlement wacs made in what was known as "The Deadening" -a tract of land about twenty miles square on the west side of Peace Creek. It may be stated that Peace Creek is a corruption of the origina l name Pease Creek," which name was given it because of the wild peas which grew in great profusion along its course. No treaty of peace was ever made on or near t hat river, and the impression that it was ever named Peace Creek because of its being the scene of suc h a treaty, is erroneo us. A newspaper, published in Tampa in 1858, refers to what is now Fort Meade a s "Peas Creek", that being the name of the postoffice at that t i me. '!'her e was an advertisement of the store of R. R. Blount, and this apparently was the first store of the settlement Polk county did not exist at that time. The land s which included the site of the settlem ent were called "The Dead ening'' from t he fact that years before all the large timber in that area had died. Indians say that there was a very heavy hail at one time, and the stones were so large and fell with s uch force, that they bruised the trees, and worms got in the bruised place s and killed the trees. This explanation is plausible, as the death of the trees was not likely to have been caused by fire, as fire does not kill pine trees when the woods are burned. It cannot b e said that in 1881, the curtain goes up on th e scene of Fort Meade in its infant s t age, but rather that we get a glimpse of the setting of that time. A sl eepy village of perhaps 150 souls, two dry goods sto res, one fanc y goods stor e, and a drug store. The following year a church bui l ding was erected, and on

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76 HISTORY OF POLK C OUN'l'Y, FLORIDA :May 7, the Methodis t chun:h was dedicated, thi s being one of the first church buildings in the county. The s tructure oost $1,200. Rev. Pelot officiated, and Rev. Carson, of Mississippi, preached the dedication sermo n That the people were eager for the spiritual advantages of a church in the community is evidenced by the circumstance t hat a couple of days after the dedication a church festival was held and although ther e was less than 200 pop ulation at that time, $635 wa s realized. The Baptists had a church orga nization at thi s time, but no church building There was a schoo l with 40 pupils enrolled. In addition to the business ente r prises mentioned, there was a tan yard, a saddlery and a shoe shop; a doctor, a dentist and two boarding h ouses. C. L. Mitchell was the physician; S. G. Hayman was the dentist. Some other leaders besides these two professional men were Capt.. Lanier, J. N. Hooker Georg e W. Hendry, Major Phil Dzi alynski Capt. Lights ey, John Skipper, R. C. Langford and S. W. Carson. The latt e r was somewhat of an auth ority on citrus growi ng and agric ulture at the time. An important industry of that day in Florida was provided by the alligato rs, which were very numerous in the swamps and waterways, and this industry seemed to center in the Fort Meade section. In 1881 Phillip Dzialynski had the cont ract to supply 5,000 alligator hides to a leather fim1 in Paris. Some of the sau rians captured would measnre fifteen feet in length. One industry t h a t appea red to be under the ban was the liq uor business. In 1881 th ere was no "liquor shop" in Fort Meade, and nea rly every pers on o wning lan d in or near the place, had s igned an agreem ent never to sell or to rent any person a house, or land upon which to build one, who intend e d to deal in liquor. Dr. Mitchell retired from the practice of medicine in 1882, and Dr. M 0. Arnold succeeded him as the community physician. The Fort Meade postoflice was robbed in Sr!ptember, 1882, but there wa s little grief expressed, because the money sto len seems to have been some that was being sent off for liquor to start a barroom. George W. Hendry, in 1883, advertised a s a real estate agent and stated th at at that time he had been a resident of Polk lor thirty years in other words, since 1863. Deer were plentiful in the vicinity of Fort Meade in 1883. J. D. Tillis killed one with a pistol on the outskirts of the village. The urge of the eff ete wa s early felt in the community, for in April, 1883, we find the first barber shop established. By the s u m mer of 1888, the postoffice had been made a money order office, and th ere was a daily mail from Tamp a. That the people of Fort Meade always stood for fair play and ju stice to white and black, is evidenced by a circumstance occurring in April, 1 884. Unknown persons fired into a house aecupied by a Mr. Beard and his colored help, injuring one of the negro men. A public indigna tion meeting was held, and a reward of $50 0 was offered for the conviction of those guilty of the outrage. In 1885 there w ere persons in Fort Meade who had never seen a negro

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PART I-NARRATIVE 77 The railroad l ocated its station nearly two miles from the town. T o obvia te the inconvenien ce thu s caused the citize ns formed a corporation, and built a stre e t railway conn ecting the town with the railroa d. This street railwa y was in opera tion f o r several years and was q u ite a profitabl e ente rpri se. Reif B r os. were l ocated in Fort Meade in 188 7. Cecil H Alleyne and Capt. E. A. Cordery were in the real estate business In Fort M ea de in 1888 Man y English settlers came to the Fort Meade section in 1888 an d 1 889. Capt. Alleyne, an Engli shman, was largely instrumental in bring i ng abou t t his inftu x of his cou n try men Mr. Ernest B. Simmons contribute s the following concernin g this phase of Fort M eade' s hi s t ory: "Until the coming of the Englis hmen with their purses of mon ey, the onl y money in circulation was u su ally obtained fr om the sale of beef cattle, p r in cipa lly to the Cuban market The E n glishmen, m ostly younger sons of well-t o-do fam ilies, who could not inherit any lan ds in England on account of Engli sh laws of pri mogeniture t ook a great int erest in sport, especially in racing. With their tight cordu r oy o r broadcloth knickerbockers, and their Rat jockey saddles with s hort stirrup straps, they made a gay sight as they trotted or galloped through Fort Meade. Their riding bobbing up an d down, most of the time en tirely out o f their sadd le s, wa s a sharp con trast to the Cracker cowboy ride rs who at any gait, sat in their saddle s a s tho ugh they were a part of th e horses t hey ro de. The liverymen at Fort Meade mad e quite a s uccess of helpin g these gay young scions of Englan d in spending t h eir mone y, by s elling them racin g ponies. At their race track eas t of Fort Meade a certain po ny would outrun everything. Of course, some sporting English man w ould just have to have that pony to add t o his stable s. The price was inva riably several times the market price of Florida ponies. The Cracker dealer would have the time of the winning pony, an d before the ne>--t race would h av e o btained from somewhere in the bac k woods another pony a little swifter than t he former one, and he would n ot only again win the Englishman's m oney, but would sell him the new po n y a t another fancy price." The Fort Meade Jockey Club held a race meeting on February 2, 1 888. A s pecial t rain was run from Sanfor d and intermedi ate points. This race meet w as an annua l event durin g the time the Engli s h peopl e remained at Fort M ea d e a nd was a very pop ular in s titution. The tow n ado pted a new code o f o r dinan ces in June, 18 93, prepared or com pil ed by W. S. Akins. The State Bank of Fort Meade was establi s hed about this time Weymyss Jackson was cashier. Fort M eade wa s paving Broad street in September, 1893; and in October of that year Henry Roc k ener was appointed p ostmaster. In 18 94 Fort Meade held a municipal el ect i o n which was a curio sity. Seventy votes were cast, but all but three were thrown out by the inspectors. The three votes elected T. J. Mino r, mayor ; T. B Sherrill marsha l ; F. B. Harles s, cler k and treasurer; ]. G. Carter, Weymyss Jackson, M. Rei and B. F Perry, aldermen; ]. E Robson and R. C. Hodgso n, schoo l trus tee s. The votes were thrown out because in some in s tances the ballots were too wide, and the word "for" was imp r ope r ly used before the name of each office.

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78 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Fort Meade was vi s ited by a disastrou s tire in 1894 the th ird i n four years. At this ti me the store of Cante r ; Evan s & Co ., the drug sto re of J. M Stanfield & Co., Wise P err y's pool room, and Light sey & Lewis' meat market were all de stroyed. The los s wa s about $10,000. As late a s 1894 wild turke y s were seen within the town limits, and two fine deer w ere killed within a mile o f the postoffice. Fort Meade had a football association in 1894, which issued a challenge to "any eleven gentlemen o f Bartow, between the ages of 18 and 25, for a game o n Christmas da y." In March, 189 6 it was found that all the town records, tax books and dockets had been stolen. A reward of $100 was offered for informa t ion r elative to the theft. In 1895, according t o the local chronicl e r of the t ime, the followi11g were among the most active business insti tu tions: "Mrs. J. C. Reif was carrying a l arge and varied st ock and was also propri e tor of a well managed livery stable; Mr. Hodgson reporte d boa t-buildi ng o n a boom ; James T. Hancock, J r., was hustling, while the well-known and well-esta b lished firm of Flood & O'Connor were increas ing their l a rge s t ock, and doi .ng a good business. W L. Stephens had all he co uld attend to; neit her were there any idle moment s in the State Bank of Fort Meade. Dr. Mitchell wa s a lw ays interviewing, or being interviewed, and had n o idle mo ment s on his hand s. The Pebble, the l ocal newspape r was always rolling. M M Loadholtes & Co., W. A. Eva ns & Co., and Stanfield Bros. & Co. invariably opened up early and closed very late, havin g no tim e for anyth ing but s e lling goods and takin g in the c a sh." About this time Capt. E. A. Cor d ery was promoting a la r g e tobacco growe rs' association. A citizens' meeting was held to discuss the project, and over 700 acres of land were donated for its purposes It was proposed to grow high -grade cigar t obacco. "The Cuban Tobacco Co., Ltd.," was incorpo rated with a capital stock o f $150 ,000. Early in Dec e mber 1895 a large party of Cubans, direct from H avana arrived t o form a colony for producin g the tobacco, and they wer e given a r oy al welcome, a b i g barbecue being arran ged in hono r of the n ewcom ers. A hundred or mor e Cubans came in all. Ernest B S immons tell s us that "when th e C uba ns carne it was a sig ht to the natives to see the little dark-skinned workmen in the fields or on the s tree t each with a hu ge machete h ung to him in lieu of a pocke t knife These immense knives t hey used f o r all the p urpo ses a Yankee jack knife i s u sed for, and for many things a pocket-knife is too light for. Spanish signs appeared upon the sto r e fronts and one enterprising firm Stansfield Bros., spo ke Spanish. Huge tobacco bams were erected and carpenters were quite busy. The methods of the Cuba n carpenters were n e w to the A mer icans for they had strange tools and in using a rip-saw they cut from them, instead o f towar ds them, as an Amer ican ca r pente r would. T he home boy s w ho work ed with them soon t he Cuban n ames for their c arpe nter t oo ls. W hen the Cuban s l eft and building acti viiies ceased altoge t her, and f arming was c urtai le d, a peri od of finan cia l d epre ssion hit Fort Meade which was undoubted l y the severe st ever known to that place FortuMtely th e phos p hate b oo m soon succeed ed it and Tiger Bay mine and Jane Jay were built. The n ew Fort Meade begins here."

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PART I NARRATIVE 79 There was a great deal of activity in the new i n d us try, and many thought it would prove a way to quick wealth. For two or three seasons it seemed that crops and prices were good. B esides the operations of the company mentioned, many indi v iduals, not only at Fort Meade, but in many other parts of the county engaged in tobacco culture. Vol. A. Evans and A. Gardner had eighty acres o f irrigated tobacco in cultivation in 1898. The business languished, however, for various reasons, and tobacco-growing was finally abandoned. T he principa(reason for the decline of the industry according to Mr. Simmons, was because, after the con elusion of the Spanish-American war and the achievement of Cuban independence, the Cuban growers returned home, their Spanish tor mentors having been driven out of Cuba. It is said they were crafty enough to mis-cure the tobacco left in t he Fort Meade tobac co barns in order to put it out of competition with the Cuban grown cigar tobacco. At least, this was common gossip at t he time. Philip Dzialynski, who lived at Fort Meade for many years, died in Jackson ville in 1896. The following municipal officers were elected in April, 1896: Mayor T. J. :Minor; marshal and collector, J. J. Hooke r ; clerk, treasurer and assessor, M J. O'Connor; councilmen Weymyss Jackson, Max Rei and W. L. Stephens. School board, V. B. Webster, L. B. Flood and Wrn. Lebo. There was a s mall-pox scare in Fort Meade in 1897. A Cuban woman, re cently from Havana-evi dently one of the colony of tobacco workers-developed the disease and died. There were a few other cases, but no other dea ths. In April, 1898, a municipal election resulted as fo llows: William Thompson, mayor; F. F. Crawford, clerk and assessor; J. J. Hoo ker, marshal and collector; F. F. Harless, L. H. Johnson, and P. D. Buzzi, councilmen I n1899 Dr. C. L. Mitchell, who had been a resident of Fort Meade since 1872, removed to Bartow; and vV. B. Gardner, who had gone prospecting to Cu ba re turned, cured of Cuban fever, and convinced that there was no place like Fort Mead e. City officials elected in 1900 to serve the ensuing year, were: 'Max Rei, mayo>'; E. 0. F lood, clerk and treasure r ; H erman Gay. marshal an d coll ector ; M. M. Loadho l tes, D. E. Ashton and J. 0. De nsf ord, councilmen. In 1901 T. J. Minor was elected mayor; P. E. Alfred, marshal and collector; E. 0. Flood, clert< and assessor; W. L Stephens and M. F Damphier, councilmen. In 1901, hogs were banished from the streets by municipal ordu1ance ; J. W. Powell was appointed postmaster in July; and, in June, the Fort Meade Strawberry and Vegetable Un ion was organized. P. Cu mmings president, and E. F rank lin Childers, secret a r y of this organization. In 1901 Fort :Meade's street ra i lway company paid a 16 per cent dividend. In 1902 it paid a dividend of 1 2 per cent : Max Rei was president of the comp. any; M. M. Loadholtes, vice-pre side nt ; W. H. Francis secretary; E. 0. Flood, treas urer ; J. G. Carter, gene al manager. The Peninsular Telephone Company coupe into Fort Meade in November, 1903. Tbe first message was s ent to P resident Brorein on Saturday, October lOth. Mi ss Roxie Lebo pr es ided over Fort l'vleade's first telep hone exchange.

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so HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA A Board of Trade was organized at Fort Meade in January, 1905. M. M. Loadholtes was president, T E. Haye s was vice-president, and \'/. H. Barr, sec retary and treasurer. A new telephone system, fathered by Max Rei. was installed in 1907. It was put i n operation in August of that year. Alex Perry established an ice plant which began operation in July, 1907; in the same month and year, the Charleston mine, near the town, began producing phosphate. A new Baptist church was built in 1907 Dr. 0. B. Lewis donated the ground. Members of the Church of God erected a tabernacle for holding annual camp meetings at Fort Meade, in 1907. Elder W. 0. Williams was the moving spirit. They also built several houses to accommodate their m in isters and visitors. In 1907 Fort Meade was doing much building and improving; the Fort Meade Ol>servcr was la unche d by Dr w. F. Zander, in August; and Rev. Fred Pixton was pastor of the Methodist church. Jn May, 1908, a postoffice was establi shed at West Fort Meade. There had been so.me contention between the citizens of the east end and those of the west end, as to which would have the postoffice, and the argument was settled by each end having one. L. D. Roberts was postmaster of West Fort Meade. August 3, 1909, fire destroyed the buildings occupied by Moody's drug store Auschewit z's jewelry sho p, Welsh & Sapp's barber shop, an d A. B. Jones' general merchandise store. A large portion of the stocks and furnishings were also de stroyed. Loss about $10,000. Fort Meade Lodge No. ll, Knights of Pythias, was organized in Fort Meade August 24, 1909, with the following officers: A. B. Jones, past chancellor; J. J. Singleton, C. C.; Wm. Bowers, V. C.; L F. Warren, prelate; Phil Langford, M. of A.; C. ]. Wilson, K. & R. of S.; J. A. Newsome, M of W.; Chas. Langford, M. of E.; W. E. Arthur, M. of Ex.; Dr. Williams I. G.; vV. H. Leviner, 0. G. The Fort Meade Citrus Growers' Association was formed in 1909, incor porators being W. A. Evans, S. A. Hart and D. F. Russell. The town of Fort Meade was incorporated October 25, 1909. There were 121 qualified voters in the territory of the proposed municipality, and 91 of these were present at th e incorporation meeting. 'fhe vote to incorporate was unani mous. Officers were elected as follows: Mayor, Dr. 0. B. Lewis; clerk, George L. Broderick; marshal, Aaron Simmons; councilmen, M. H. Wilson, J. J. Single ton, Kline 0. Varn, S H. Brown, and P. J. Langford Much enthusiasm and good feeling attended the event. Monday, November 22, 1909, the extension of the Winston & Bone Valley branch of the A. C. L. Ry. from Tiger Bay to Fort ll leade, was opened to Fort Meade, giving a double daily train service. Old Fort Meade had for some time given place in a business way to West Fort Meade. The former however, has continued to be the principal residence section. Rev. ]. L. Moon was pasto r of the Methodist church in 1910, and Rev. E. Sanford was the Baptist pastor.

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PART I -NARRATIVE 81 Fort Meade Lodge No. 67, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted August 24, 1910. The following were the officers: J. L Lloyd, N. G.; J. J. Singleton, B. G.; L F. War ren. secretary; J. M. Maddox, treasurer; L. F. Warren, A. C. Joh n s, E. B. Sim mons, trustees. Fort Meade's special census taken by order of the City Council September 1, 1911, showed a population of 1,923 The Federal census of 1900 showed 300; in 1910 1,165. A new brick school building was completed in July, 1912. The local school board, under whose regime it was built was composed of ]. M. Maddox, B Y.l. Gardner and J. M. Keen. On May 11, 1913, fire destroyed the building and stock of W. S. Wilson and three other frame stores adjoining. Loss about $10,000. Tbe City Council of Fort Meade submitted a proposition to issue bonds for the following amounts and purposes in August, 1914: Municipal building,' $7 ,000; brick paving, $25,000 ; extension of waterworks and sewerage, $35,000. In April, 1915, bonds for $58 ,000 for a municipally owned electric lig ht plant were voted. An unusual method of determining who should be postmaster was resorted to when on June 2, 1914, an election was held to give the people of Fort Meade an expression as to who should serve them in this capacity. S. Edwin Booth was the choice of the majority. Mel Wilson was mayor in 1913, 1914 and 1915. An exchange packing house was built in Fort Meade in 1915. Chas. H. Walker was at the head of the movement, '" A. Evans, Kline 0. Yarn, E. R. Childers and J. A Acree represented the local people interested. F. Bartow Swearingen was appointed postmaster in January, 1915. In 1916, Main street was being paved with brick, and the First National Bank erected a handsome, two-story brick building. The Fort Meade High Sehool building wa s dedicated March 2, 1916. It was claimed to be the best school building in the county at the time E. H. Dudley, of Mulberry, purchased the ice plant i n May, 1916. He oper ated similar plants at Mulberry and Bradley Junction. The South Polk County Fair was held at Fort Meade January 29 to February 2, 1917, and was in all respects a creditable affair. Max Reif, long a leading citizen of Fort Meade, and prominent in the politics of the State, died September 25, 1917. City officers elected September 9. 1919, were 'M. A. Wilson, mayor ; E. L. Wade, city clerk; W. D. Smith, J. M. Riv ers G. T. Hill, councilmen. Capt. E. A. Cordery, prominent in the community's affairs since 1885, di e d Decembe r 7, 1920. Fort Meade had a destructive fire in the business section on the uight of February 2, 1921. The fire originated in Cohen's dry goods store, and cjestroyed Zanders' Sisters Quality Shop; Head's Haberdashery, Phillip Cohen's, Powell's Bic ycle shop, Southern Hotel, Heath's Grocery, Mattox Hardware Store, and the Langford drug s tore. Only valiant work of the Bartow fire department prevented

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82 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA the entire busines s section from being wiped out. A l oss of $90,000. wa s sustained, with little insurance Funeral services over the remains of Rev. J. L. Moon, who died in France, February 22, 1919, were held in Fort Meade, July 21, 1921, the body having been sent home by the government at the request of the widow. Fort Meade celebrated the turning on of t he first unit of her White Way, November 15, 1 924. The commissioner-manager form of government was adopted by Fort Meade, April 22, 1925. The vote was 184 to 109. Mr. A. L. Cleveland, editor of The Fort Meade Leader, furnishes the following e xcellent review of present conditions in Fort Meade: "Conditions at present obtaining in Fort Meade are most encouraging. This has always been essentially an agri c ultural section. The soil is rich, a combination of light and heavy, and admirably adapted to the growing of various kinds of small frui ts, citru s fruits. general and staple crops, trucking of all kinds. and of late years has become the hub. of a vast acreage in watermelons. "Fort Meade has never bad booms in the same degree as neighboring towns have experienced The community is made up principally of pioneer settlers, families who settled the country half a century ago, and who, with their children and children's children, keep right on living here. The community, therefore, suffered least of all perhaps, of any town in the county True, the town grew and e xpan ded, but it was not explo ited and real estate va l ues did not go skyrocketing beyond contr o l "Of recent years Fort Meade ha s had erected a beautiful and commodious primary school building, built almost in tbe center of a beautiful oak-studded four acre plot, just across the s treet from the grammar, junior and senior b i gb. Also the erection of a handsome $40,000 city ball ; a vast grading and paving o f streets; a modem white way ; a sewer and waterworks extension, permitting modem s ani tation to all parts of the city. During the past ten years steady progress bas been going o n in the erection of modern-styled residence s, as well as the of many store building s The community has been under the commi ssion-manager form of govern ment for the pas t two years. "Since the cessation of phosphate mining, cutting off a regular pa yroll of $40,000 per month, Fort Meade communit y ha s been and is at present coming into her rightful heritage again as an agricultu ral section. Large cabbage acre.1ges have realized for the growers small fortunes, as lik ewise have the bean, squash, sweet and Irish potato, cucumber, peas, peppers turnip greens, cbufas, egg plant. and various other small vegetables and fruits, not overlooking strawberries, which have proved a money-making crop. Thi s pa s t season ove r a hundred acre s were s et to tomatoes. The crop was very successful and marketing sp le ndid, and final resu l ts satisfactory. Green corn also came in for a goodly s ha r e of the past seas on's farm product s, between 250 and 300 acre s having been plan t ed, and "roasting ear corn" was plucked, packed and shipped by the carloads, bringing the growers an approximate net price of $4 per bushel-and not near the demand could be supp lied

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PART I-NARRATIVE 83 "For the past three or four seaso n s Fort Meade ha s been ste adily grow ing in favor as a watermelon cen ter. The acreage this past season was approximately 560 acres. While the melon crop in the state as a whole suffered by the elements, buyers declare the Fort liIeade section suffered the least of all, and the crop here was the equal of any in the state and the quality of the melons the best, the total number of carloads being shipped this season being 138 Already plans are being matured for practically doubling the acreage for next spring. ''And in addition to the renewed interest in agriculture, the citrus industry continues a staple crop-most every farm having a small grove which is an annual income-bringer, In addition to the big citrus acreages, which are small annual fortune -winners in themselves. there has sprung up another industry during the past three years. Reference is here made to the several small poultry ranches, and the addition of a second dairy for the community. "In concluding this article on the resume of recent progress, mention shou l d be made concerning beautification. A beautification campaign for lawns and yards has been waged by the loca l Exchange Club for the past two years with excellent results. Every week some yard is awarded a prize yard sign. This stimulates and keeps up the work of beautification, and a cleaner town perhaps, can't be found in Polk county than Fort Meade. The city commission is working on a project now whereby the phosphate pools within the city li mits will be converted into a civic center rivalin g the beauty spots of her sister cities. Also a strip along Peace river is included Some of this beautification by the city comm issi on is already under way." FoRT MJ>AD!l NJ>WSt>AI'F.RS Fort Meade's first newspaper, so far as our resear ch discloses was The FfJ1't Meade Pioneer, which began publication in 1886 or 1887, and Crawford being editors. It was succeeded by the So11th Florida Progress in 1889, A. L. Mc Farlane, Mr. Dickinson Mr. Dawson, and A. J. Seddon being editors in turn. Mr. Seddon moved the plant to Bartow in 1894. T!r,e Fort Meade Peb/Jie, the first issue of which appeared August 1, 1893, was issued in the heigh th of the phosphate boom. Kline 0. Vam promoted the enter prise, and was editor of the pape r for about two years, resigning in July, 1895. Capt. ]. Northc utt took charge of the publication, F. Crawford later becoming editor. In July, 1896 the plant was leased by Prof. F. W. Graham, who changed the name to The Tim;es. Editor Graham retired from the management i n 1898, and was succeeded by F. F. Crawford, who had formerly been in charge. There was a period o f suspension, Fort 11-leade being without a paper in 1900. In March, 1901, E. Franklin Childers estab lished The Port M.eade Ex(>ottt, he being editor and proprietor. Mr. Childers occupied the editorial t ripod only a few months retiring in August, 1901. There seems to have been no paper pub lis hed in Fort Meade for severa l years after this, until Dr. W. F. Zander estab lished T/r,e Fort jt,[ eade i n August, 1907. The plant was destroyed by fire, September 5, 1909 After conduc ti n g the paper about two years, Dr. Zander traded it to E. L. Hockersmith in exc han ge for the latter's drugstore, and Ed Glaeseker became editor, with Frank Stephens as business manager. The Observer,

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84 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA under Glaeseker's guidance, espoused the whiskey side during the memorable amendment campaign of 1910. Ernest B. Simmons o ffered some astic les in reply to Glaeseker' s anti prohibition diatribes, but was unable to get them published and determined to print a paper of hi s own, in order to get the prohibition side of the controv ersy before the peopl e. The resu lt was the birth of The F ort Meade Leader, the first issue of which appeared on March 10 1910. Mr. Sim mon s had no plant, but had hi s pape r printed at Bartow, and later at Arcadia Within two months Glaeseker and Stephens sold out to Simmons and The L eader began then to be printed at home, Th.: ObstrV e r then, of course, ceasing to observe. Mr. Simmons, after editing the paper a little ove r a year, sold The Leader to Kline 0. Yam, and the latter in tum sol d it to R. 0. Meek, early in 1912 Mr. Simmons however, con tinuing a s editor under both these ow nerships. On June 1, 1912, A. L. Cleve land, of Mississippi, purchased a half-inte rest from Mr. Meek, and became editor. T his ar-rangement has continued ever s ince, Allen M eek as s uming the business manage ment upon the death of his father. In the nearly score of yea r s that The Leader has been published, the greater part of the time under the present ownership, it has faithfully adhered to the high principles and ideals on whieb it was founded, and has steadily grown in circulation and influence

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Upptt-fliew ()/ Mtlin Strtrtt. L alult;nd,II!Jout jc> II (1ft Mitldle-lfi/Jtrt. tlu Ci
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CHAPTER IV. LAKELAND THE history of Lakeland as a community does not begin until 1883. Prior to that time there was n o t hing to indicate that a town w ould e ver be built at this point. Here and there were small clearings where early settler s mad e their ho mes. At Medulla-in the C o inbee neighborhood-at Socntm-these primi tiv e homes were a little more closely grouped-that i s, there we re perhaps a half-dozen more of them to the square mile. Medulla was the principa l of th ese possess in g the only postoffice for miles around There is evide nce that prio r to 1881 this settlement was known as Spring Hill The name was changed to Medulla in the year mention ed Let us r e view the typical case of o ne o f the settlers t b whom allusio n has been made: In 1866, when Jesse Keen came to seek a homes t ead in what was t he n a wil derness, he ended his journey at a point whi ch is now in the w estern li m its of the then undreamed-of city of Lakeland. There was no reception comm itte e ; no ho t e l pro viding room with bath. Mr. Keen placed his wife is living i n the s uburbs of Lakel a nd a t this their two small ch il dre n at the foot of an oak tree for she lter, while h e set about cutting pine poles t o build a home The dimensions of this first house, built of logs or poles, were 10xl2 feet, with a dirt floor, an d Mr. Keen spent five or si x days getting it ready for occupancy. When he looked about him for human asso cia tions, Mr. Keen foun d that his near e st neighbor was a mail named John F u tch, living on what has since been known as the Futch homestead nea r where Winston now stands John Futch was the grandfather of J K. Futch, of Lakeland, and of J. M. Futc h who now liv es about five mil es south of the city. There was a man named Powers, who live d abou t t hree miles to the north, on wha t was known as the old Ra ulerson p lace, where there was la t e r a littl e water mill, loca ted on a stre am, which was called the Raulerson Mill. A family n amed Rau le rson lived adjo i ning the county line separati n g Polk and Hillsborough cou n ties, and t his is still known as the R aulerson place being now owned by a grandson of John B. Raulerson-Derieux Raulerson who is at this t ime clerk of the Circui t Court of Polk cou nty. Five miles southwes t was the George Hamilt on homestead, now owned by George Hamilto n, Jr. This homestead was es tablished in 1842, and still r emains i n the family. Further investigati on by Mr. Keen found another neighbor a Mr. Hollings worth for whom La ke Hollingsworth was named. On the east side of Lake Parker there also live d Elbert Combee--the name seem i ng to have been Coumbe a t that time-who the father and grandfa t her of the large Combee family that still lives in th at neighborhood These constituted the habitatio ns at that time in the vicinit y of the site o n which L akeland is bu ilt. Other settlers came m slowly, and for many yea r s t he i ncrease in populati o n very gradual. 85

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86 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA The first voting place in the vicinity wa s at a little country store located at about one-fourth of a mile north of Lake Gibson, the locality being known as Red Bug. At thi s store 50 cents would buy a quart of first-class rye whiskey, and the people from the Socrum and Combee settlements would gathe r there on Satur days and engage in horse-racing and otherwise have what they considered a good time. Most of these early settlers were "squatters." and did not own the land they occupied but in the decade between 1870 and 1880, they began buying the lands on which they had lived. in some instan ces for many years; and there was much activity in taking up Govemment home steads. The first school in the vicinity was built by J esse Keen and J. W. Futch-the latter, as heretofore stated, living about four miles to the southwest, on the place now known as the A. B. and D. B. Kibler grove and farm This little schoo l house \vas a small log buil ding. floored with split boards. wide crack s in the walls, and without a door to close the opening. There was ample ventilati on, furnished by the openings between the logs. The teacher was a niece of J. W. Futch a Miss Eliza Jackson, who was reared near Tampa. Her salary was $7 per month for a term of three months. There were seven pupils-three children of J. W. Futch, three of Jesse Keen's, and on e niece of the latter. The f urniture of the school consisted of two ceda r logs, hewn flat by means of a cleft axe. Hole s were bored in these lo gs, and pegs fitted in them, which formed the legs of the crude benches. One of these cedar benches preserved as it came from the school, may be seen today at the home of J. M. Keen, of Lakeland. About the year 1873 there was another school near Crystal Lake taught by a man named Grover. Among the patrons of this school were the Combees, Bates Polk, Holloways and Hulls. Tampa was the nearest trading point, and in 1866 it was the nearest postoflice. I t required three days, with horses or oxen, to make a round trip, and it was not usual for more than two or three trips a year to be made t o that metropolis. In the late '70's and early 'SO's, this section, in common v.>ith most of Po lk county, felt the thrill of coming development s. The railroad was heading in this direction, and many perso ns were anxious to be on the ground when transportation opened up a new territory. During this period Archie McLeod arrived from Ala bama, and bought land and planted an orange grove on the north side of Lake Hollingsworth, this property being now occupied by the grounds and buildin gs of Southern CoiJege. Jessie D. McLeod also located on Lake HoiJingsworth about the same time, as did Rev. W. H. Goode. Rev. P. R McCrary was living on Lake Hollingsw orth as early as 1 877; Judge Epps Tucker was at Medulla about the same time; Dr. J. A. came to Medulla i n 1882; John W. and E. R Trammell arrived from Alabama about the same time; Dr. J L. Derieux reached here from Tennessee early in 1883, and located on a tract of land he bou ght from Jesse Keen on Bonnet Lake, cleared land and planted one of the first groves in or near Lakeland. Dr. Stephenson, of Kosciu sko, Mi ss issippi, was au early home steader with his son, V. W. Stephenson. J. A. Gullett, from Alabama, located on lands just east of the present site of Southern College, later selling this property to Dr. J. W Vineyard, of Virginia; Dr. J. A. Hart was located about three miles

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PART I -NARRATIVE 87 south of this point; and there was a Mr. King, a Dr. Preston, of Virginia, and a Mr. Holt, of Kent ucky, besides others whose names we may have overlooked or failed to learn. All these newcomers, it should be understood, were here before Lakeland was thought of, though but a short time be fore the city s birth. Medulla, with its postoffice and two stores, was then the metropolis of its section. L M. Ballard was postmaster, and was conducting one of the stores, and his brother, H. D Ballard, who had been living at Bartow, came over to be associated with him in business. The other store was owned by Nathan Cochran Miss Minnie P earce was teaching the school; James A. Kilgore had the best cultivated orange grove in the section; D. M. P ipk in and John Trammell were adv ertising orange trees for sale; A. J English, P eter C. Hayes and I. 0. Harris were mentioned as residents of the community. Things were still pretty new and crude, and wild animals were yet disp uting with man the ownership of the la nd In 1882, Mrs James Futch and daughte r killed a large buck with an axe near their home in the vicinity of Med ulla The animal had been chased by dogs and ran into a deep gully, where it was cornered and dispatched by the ladies. In 1882. L. W. Bat es made a fine record in farming, producing from one and one-quarter acres syrup, sugar and corn valued at $310. H. H. English, from t hree acres, got sugar and syrup to th e value of $728. Jesse Keen got 400 bushels of potatoes from one acre, valued at $120, and le ft enough in the ground to fatten ten meat hogs. The railroad gradually worked its way southward and westward into the county-a few miles would be constructed, and trains would be nm to that point, and then a further extension would be built. Finally, Sanitaria was reached, and crews were sent ahead to clear the right-of-way, and cut the cross-ties and grade the road-bed. Meanwhile, the road was reaching out from Tampa, and gradually the two sections drew together, until finally they joined, the cow -catch e rs "kissing" at a point about six miles east of Lakeland-where the station of Carter's stood-at 9 o'clock on the morning of January 23, 1884, the last rail hav ing been laid on January 19. Some months before this event-about june, 1883-a railroad construction camp bad been located on Wire Lake. It was in charge of Herbert J. Drane, a young man who was s uperintending the building of the section of ra ilroa d that passed through this point. The laborers were all colored, and Mr. Drane seems to have been the first white man to have made his habitation in the territory com prised in the original limits of Lakeland. There were settlers in the countr.y con tiguous, some of whom have been named in this narrative, but on this particular tract-the 80 acres that formed the original Lakeland-there was no human habi tation. A prairie schooner came through the woods to the camp one day-driven by a man of fine appearance, with his wife and several children. The man was W. B. Bonacker, who later established the first rea l store in the village. He stopped at the camp to inquire his way, being in quest of some friends, who he said a short time previous had preceded him, and had brought a small sawmill with them. Mr. Drane bad heard the whistle of this mill. and was able to direct Mr.

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88 H ISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Bonacke r t o wh ere h e co uld find his fri ends, on Lake Hollingsworth. They were 1\Ir. Barhite and Mr. Watso n the latter being the father of Ilk George W. Watso n. So, the railroad camp formed a nucleu s that attracted one after another to its neighborhood. The commercial aspects were quickly recognized, and L. M B al lard packed up his goods at Medulla, together with his small postoffice fixture s and moved the whole t o Wire Lake, without taking the time or trouble to con s ult with the government Only a sh ort time thereafter Mr. Bonacker built a s tore, over which he .a rran ged living quart ers for himself and family. This building s tood on the present site of the Deen-B ryant buildin g, and the lot on wh ich it wa s built is sai d to hav e be e n the first business lot that was s o ld in the town On Saturda y, Decem ber 1 5 1883. a m eeting of citiz ens was called to name the new town. There are numerous s tories as to who was respon s ible for the name "Lakeland" having bee n given to it; but a tradition that has been generally accepted relate s that the name was agreed upon by three men wh o presented it to the meeting, wh ic h ad o pted it. These three men were Rev. P R. McCrary E R. Trammell and Dr. J. L. Derieux. All three of these men have descendants ti ving in Lakeland at this time. There may tie some argument a s to who gave the town its name or a s t o s ome other phases connected with its beginning s, but no o ne disputes the claim that Abraham G. Munn wa s Lakel and s founde r. About 1881, Mr. Munn, who wa s a wealthy manufacturer of Louisville, Kentucky, purchased from the trustees of the Internal I mprovement Fund of Florida several t h ousand acres of land in the sout h em portion of the State. His so n Morri s G. Munn, was then residin g at DeLand and at his father's request, he undertook to locate the lands that had been purchased. The journey from DeLand to Bartow then was a l most equal to one across the con tinent now. First, there was a trip on a river boat to Jacksonville, then a s low and zigug j o urne y a c r oss the State to Cedar Ke ys on a narrow -gauge railroad. At Cedar Keys he boarded a small steamer the Lizzie Henderson", which con veyed him to Tampa, and from that village he traveled with the Star toute govern ment mai l agent to Bartow a distance of 45 miles, in the buggy which was used to convey the mail s at that t ime. With the aid of County Surveyor Sch i pman, he located the lands, whic h were in-scattered parce l s, se le c ting an ei g hty -acre tract as a town site, and on this tract the tow n of Lakeland was built Sam uel Muon, a brothe r of Morri s G .. s urveyed and platted the t o wn-site While matters were at this stage Abraham G Muon came down to loo k over his interests and i n F e bruary 1884, the Lakeland Improvement Compan y was o r ganized the in co rporat o rs being Abraham G Munn Samuel A. Hartwell and Charles E. Hillman The object of the corporation as stated in the appli ca tion for a charter, wa s the laying ou t of a t own -s ite with streets, avenu e s and lots, design a t ed on the map w hic h will be on file in the Clerk's office in s aid county of P olk, the sale of the town lots so marked and mapped,'' etc. The authorized capita l s t ock was $50,000. Coincident with the begi nni ngs of Lakeland, or possibly slightl y in advance of t hem, t here was begun the establish m ent of another town, abou t two mile s east of Lakeland, by a col ony of english people. An English gentleman named Han-

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PART I-NARRATIVE 89 bury had acquired some lands in Florida, and the idea was conceived o f establish ing a town thereon, and selling the lots to his countrymen. The town was called Acton, for an English lord of that name, and P. E. Warburton was in charge of the operations. Prominent i n the colony were: C. E. Garratt, who later for man y years had a fine grove and home on Lake Gibson; Cecil Alleyne, Montague Villiers, a Count Bemstorff and others. A considerable element of those who were induced to come to Acton was composed of younger sons of B ritish families, who came out seeking fortune and adventure in a far land, a number of these being what is known as "remittance men." Mr. A. Hardak er, who is at this time a resident of the Gal loway neighborhood, appears to be the only person left in this section who was a member of this colony. A town was laid ou t there was a sa wmill, a couple of s tores. and an Episcopal ch urch building, and several residences In fact, in t he very early stages of the two places, Acton was more of a town than Lakeland; but it was in an impossible location, on low-lying lands between Lake Parker and Lake Boney, and the enterprise was doomed to failure. In a few y ears it became a deserted village; its buildings were wrecked, and the materials hauled off b)' any who wished to us e them in construction elsewhere and eventually all traces of the settlement were obliterated. The postoffice was discontinued in 1889. Meanwhile Acton was for a time in a sense a rival of Lakeland, particu l arly in its relations with the railroad, and were it not for A. G. Muon's timely and diplo matic treatment of the situation, the embryo city of Lakeland would have received what might have been a fatal check. The railroad refused to stop its trains at the new town unless concessions were granted that were deemed unreasonable. It threatened to locate a station at Acton, and to pass Lakeland by. Indeed, a station was built a or so east of Acton, called Lake Parker station, but it was destroyed by fire; meantime, Mr. Munn had treated with the rai l road on such a liberal basis that Lakeland's train facilities were insured Besides giving the right of-way and several acres for terminals, trackage, etc., Mr. Munn built, at h i s own expense, a station costing$2,500 a very much more commodious and attractive structure than the railroad was accustomed to b u ild at much large r places This was the begin ning of Lakeland's importance as a railroad town-an importance that grew with the years, and was a great fa cto r in the communi ty's progress and upbuilding. The tow n was nicely laid out, with its park in the center, and liber al prov is ion for streets, alleys, etc., and it speedily began to grow. Durin g th e ensui ng year, Mr. Muon's capital and f a r-sightedness provided a further splendid improvement in the shape of a fine hote l-the Tremont, which for a l ong time was regarded as one of the best hostelries in Flor ida For some years it was under the manage ment of Col. ]. H. A. B ruce, who eventually purchased it. He was a man of unusua l personality, and made the h otel extremely popular. J. A. Erskine was al so an able manager of this hostelry. M eantime population was increasing by immigration-and otlierwise. The first child born in the commun it y was Dora Bonacker, now the wife of Dr. J. S. Hel ms, of Tampa; the second was Lillian Derieux now Mrs. M. F. Hetherin gton, and the first mal e child was Ossian Drane, sou of Hon. Herbert J. Drane. At least, this is the record that has been generally accepted as correct.

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90 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA On J anuary 1, 1885, a meeting was held for the purpose of inco rporation Judge Epps Tuc k e r having prepa r ed a suitable charter. Twent y -seven p ersons gave their approval to the articles of i ncorpo r at i on at th is meeting, and elected municipa l officers as follows : Mayor, John W. Trammell (father of Senator Park Trammell); C o u ncilinen-W. B. Bonac ker Robert Bryant, E pps Tucker S r. F. R. Green, J. M. Clough, John D. Torrence and E. W. Toney. Dick Green son of Councilman Green, was the first clerk and treasurer, and George F. New ell th e first marshal and collector. Mr. Trammell resigne d as mayo r, a fte r h olding the office but a shor t time, and J. D. Torrence was chosen to fill the u nex pi re d te rm. George New ell also he l d the position of marsha l but a sho r t time, when he was succeeded by Ben Parks Mayor Torrence, w h o was a civil engineer platted th e site of Roselawn cemetery, and donated i t t o th e city as a comm unity bury ing groun d, and was himse l f the first person to be bur i ed there. The removal of the Medulla postoflice to Lak eland by L M. Ballard, without the sanction of t he government, has been mentioned. Mr. Ballard made arrang e ments w i t h th e carrier who b r ought the mail fro m Tamr>a to B arto w thre e t i mes a week, to deliver mail addressed to M e dulla to his new loca ti on. The inaugu r ation of trai n s erv ice and the incr e ased vo lume of mail, drew the attention o( the gov ernme n t to t his matte r and a postoffice ca lle d Lake l an d was establis h ed, with Or. F. L. Brooks as t he fir s t post mas t er. Mr. Ba ll a r d was i nstruc t ed to carry his postoffice back to Medulla, but he did not care t o do this, and r elinquished h i s official connection, con tinuing his mer c antile business in Lakeland. Afte r the two stores we have mentioned, other business houses followed in about the orde r named : the late Robert Bryant and Burns Canning, of Tampa, ope ne d a general store; Dr F L. Brooks and L W. Cowdery established a f urn i t ure and drug store; D H. Sloan, a general sto re, where the Bowye r block now s tands; H J. Drane al s o conducted a d rug store for a time; Epps Tucker Sr., was the first lawyer, and D r. J. L. Derieux the first physician. It m igh t be m ent i oned, however, that before Lakeland existed, Dr. J. A. Chapman, of Galloway, was the only practicing physicia n i n the entire sectio n. He is st ill l i ving in that vicinity, at an advanced. but vigoro us, age. Dr. J. M. Perr y was a l so an ear l y phys ici an of Lakeland. Epps Tucker, A. A. Scott and F. R. Green established a rea l es t a t e agency quite early, and Torrence & Bri stow was a civil engineering firm. The Florida Southern Rail r oad, extending from Pemberton Ferry to Lake land, was built in 1885, the rails being laid i n to La kela n d i n August of that yea r The first train, having President Ingraham f o r a passenger, was nm on A u gus t 21st There was a formal opening of t he road, with a celebration, Octo ber 15, 1885 Samuel M. Munn was marshal of the day, his aides being C. H. Alle yne and Count :Bernstorff. There was a baseball game bet ween Lakeland and Kissimmee, a barbe cue and sp eeches by Mayor Torrence S. M Sparkman Col. G. A. Hanson, St. Clair Abram s and Count Ilerostorff-the latter a Pruss ian noblenian, who ha d recently located in the vicinity, having bought p ropert y on Lake Hollingsworth. Others who were active in the celebra tion wer e Manage r Timber la ke, o( the Tremont hotel, "Governor" J. M. Palmer, C. H. Billings, etc A calaboose was an early necessi t y It was called the McDer m ot t House being so named for its first occupant.

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PART I -NARRATIVE 91 The Presbyt erians seemed to have had the first c hurch building, and it wa s used by other den om inati o ns for their service s It s t ood, until a few years ago, on the s it e of the Collins Arcade. Rev. C. E. Jones wa s the first mini s ter in charge of this church. The Baptists had a small church bu ilding at or near the l ocation of t he pre sent First Baptist church alm ost as soon as the P resbyterians. The Meth odists put up their first church building, at a cost of $Z,200, in 1 888. The first school building was located in a piece of woodland, at the point where Tennessee avenue and Lime street now intersect. C. M. Bishop was the first t e a c her. He i s now Dean o f the Southern Methodist Universi t y of DaUa s, Texas. The sc hoo l was know n as "The Academy." It remained at this loca tion until1902, w hen it ope ned in a new brick buil di n g on Lake Wire. whic h had jus t been com p lete d, built with the procee d s of Lakeland's first bond i ssue amounting to $10,000. Lakeland's fir s t bank was establis h ed in 1886 by L J. J Nieuw enkamJ) It served the communit y well for abou t 1 8 years. failing in 1904. Lakeland had a colored population in 1887 of 160. They had a neat church and a good scl!ool, and were described as industrious and thrifty. Lakeland Lodge No. 91. F. & A. M., was organized in April, 1887. ]. L. Derieu x was W. M.; Col. F R. Green, S. W.; W. B. Bonacker, J. W. In 1887, Ed Tison was conducting a nursery in Lakela n d. Mr. Tison at this writing lives in California and claims to ha ve originated the Marsh Seedless grape fruit from cuttings of a tree growing on the place of J. H. Hancock in the Kathl ee n se cti on. About the time he h a d thi s fruit perfe cted, however he sold his nurs eries to C. M. Marsh, who gave his nam e t o this variety of t he citru s family. C. E. Garratt, orig inally with the Engli s h co l ony a t Ac t o n, later l ocated o n Lake Gibs on, where he had a line home and grove. He brough t many old country customs with him. One of these was an annual sporting e\ent in May, and "Ga. r ratt's P icnic" was for a long time a well-known and popula r institution of t his section The.re would be all kinds of sporting and athletic games, numerou s prizes bei n g o ffered to the most profici ent. The roll of honor for the school in January, 1888 held these names : Mi nnie Boswell, Nettie Boswe ll Leila Ga ll oway, Jennie C r esap, Ros a Marshall Mamie McCrary, A l thea N i e uwenkamp Addie Ballard Mattie Flanagan, Rebecca Boswell, Wilma Trammell Ali ce Bo nackcr, Sallie Carlt o n Jay Derieu x Betty Toney, Mag gie Hardaker, Maggie Ca rlton Frank Bowyer, A l bert T o rrence, Clinton Brooks, Harry Jone s, Caswell McMullen, Edgar M cMullen, Joe Evans, Walter M alsby, Hubert Marshall, Phil Evans, Fred Bowyer, Otho Cresap, Harry Derieux, Worth Trammell The LAkeland C.-acker complained of the Aeas in town, and suggested as a remedy for the situation the elimination of hogs from the s treets. J. W. Emerson bought the Tremont hotel and other valuabl e prope rty in 1888. He lived on "The M ount on the south shore of Lake Hollingsworth. In 1888. the Lakeland comet band was organized; the town had four doctors and each was "out of a job"; there was no barber in town; and J. L Hollin gswo rth and Miss Adrienne Tison taught the term of the Lakeland school, beginning in the fall o f that year.

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92 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA In the winte r of 1888, H S. Galloway demonstrated the profitable character of the strawberry crop, and its adaptability to this section. by over $600 from a single acre of s t rawberries. Mr. Galloway was the originator of the straw berry i ndustry i n this county, and it has ever since been one of the mo s t dependable and staple of our agricultural resources. Sons o f Mr. Galloway have been, and are at this time, growing berries with marked success in the neighborhood named for their father, and where he first demonstrated the possibilities of berry culture in this section The Lakeland Park Association was form ed in July, 1888, for the purpose of beautifying the Park. Each member was required to plant a tree or shrub and take care of it. The ladies gave entertainments and "festivals", and otherwise raised money for park improvement. A small building was eventua ll y put up in the Park, which was called the "Pavillion", and which was the civic center of the community Besides being used for public gatherings at various times', it was t he meeting place of the city council. The public records were kept there, and a por tion of them that is missing is said to have been devoured by a pet goat, which was browsing in the Park and wandered into the building in search of a change of diet. The goat was the property of Wakefield Ramsdell, the young son of Mr. and Mrs. W. P. Ramsdell, who are still residents of Lakeland The building fell into disuse after the erection of the first City Hall in 1905, and was moved to the Lake Wire school grounds, where it helped to relieve overcrowded conditions during a period of inadequate school accommodations. Lakeland's first electric lighting plant was built and operated by Harry C. Sloan, now a res i dent of California. Mrs. E. B Briggs, it is said, furnished the money, the plant being purchased by tl)e city later. I t was located at the corner of cedar street and Massachusetts avenue. Lights turned on May 26, 1891. The first arc lights, five in number, were located, one on the corner of Main and Massachusetts; one in the center of the Park; one at Kentucky and Pine; one in front of the depot, and one at the power house. It is claimed there were only two towns-Jacksonville and Tampa-that had electric lights at that time. Mrs. Mary Vineyard was appointed postmaste r of Lakeland in June, 1889, succeeding Mrs. W. M. Boswell. In 1893, the head office of the Winston & Bone Valley railroad was moved to Lakeland, and it was expected that trains over that line would soon be running regularly; John W. Trammell (Senator Park Trammell's father) was appoin t ed superintendent of the State Hospital f o r the Insane; a cigar factory began opera tions; many lemons were being shipped; W. A Poteet was leader of the Lakeland band. Miss Minnie Boswell was referred to as "one of Lakeland's c h arming young ladies" in 1893 She is now Mrs. George W. Watson. Others mentioned as belles of the time were Miss Maude Talley, Miss Amtie T uc ker, Miss Jewell Scott Miss Donnie Pipkin, Miss Ellen Boss, etc. Assessed valuation of Lakeland s property in October 1893, was $168,000, an increase of $11,000 over the year previous. A Literary and Social Society was organized in 189 3, and weekly meetings were held.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 93 In the latter part of 1893, Captain L. M. Ballard opened the Florida House; Lakeland's ball team was beat ing Bartow's-sometimes; J. C. Wilbur was town marshal and Capt U H. Hane was night policeman. The burning of a house belonging to Mrs Rountree, near the comer of Pine and Tennessee emphasized the need of organizing a fire company. In December, 1893, an attempt was made to blow open the safe and vault of the Lakeland Bank. The would-be burglars secured a carpet from the Episcopal church, and after wetting it in Mirror Lake, proceeded to the Bank, where they wrapped it securely around the safe by means of a rope. They then drilled holes in top of the safe, and placed dynamite in them. The explosion accomplished nothing except t o disfigure the exterior of the safe, and to destroy a few papers of small value. Lakeland was early an important railroad center. It had twenty trains arriv ing and departing dai ly in 1893. The annual "foot-washing" at Mt. Enon used to be one of the events antici pated by Lakeland people, many of whom attended. The S F & W. railroad was contr i buting a payroll of $2,000 a month to Lake land's prosperity in 1894, "and yet", comments the chronicler of that time, "some crooks dislike the railroad company In 1894 Lakeland was shipping more strawberries than any other place in the State; H. J. Drane was doing a "rushing insurance business all over South Flor ida"; Clarence Boswell was mayor; a hose company was being organized; L. N. Pipkin was manager of the Farmers' Alliance store; W. B. Bonacker was chair man of the city councii; Baldrick's Hall seems to have been the place where public gatherings were held; and C. W. Waggoner was preparing to establish an ice factory Kinney Bros., who had been growing truck and fruit in the Haines City sec tion, located at Lakeland, with their niece, Miss Addie Brock in 1895. Excursions to Picnic Island, at Port Tampa, were not infrequent social evenis usually under the auspices of the Sunday School. Lakeland was launching an advertising campaign in 1895. The city council voted an appropria tion of $25 to assist the Lakeland Sun in issuing and distributing a pamphlet. At the November, 1895, election, the following officers were chosen: C A Boswell, mayor;]. R. Foster, marshal; C. D Clough, clerk and treasurer; W. 8. Bonacker, C. T. Henderson, S. L. A. Clonts, J. H. McCreight, L. W Malsby, A E. Sloan, and W. K. McRae councilmen. In 1895, C. M. Marsh was operating a nursery; Otho Cresap won a competi tive appointment to the naval academy ; Prof. Arthur Williams, Miss Rosa Long mire and Miss May Harrell were teaching the public schoo l ; a round house was erected by the railroad company; and Capt. L. M. Ballard, who opened the first store in Lakeland. re-entered the mercantile field in December, buying th e N. B. Bowyer stock of groceries. N. B. Bowyer was not carried away by the eloquence of the "boy orator of the Platte" in 1896. He was a gold standard advoclite, and wrote some strong article s to the papers defending his position.

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94 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA N. L Turner was offering ce nts per pound for good seed cotton, c:ash or trade, delivered at his g in in Lakeland. ]. P. Thompson was appointed justice of the peace for the Lakeland di s trict in November, 1896. He held this pos ition for many years. In November, 1896, J. P. Thompson was elected mayor; J. R. Feaster was marshal; C. D. Clough, clerk; T. J. Darracott, A. E. Sloan and W. D. : McRae, co uncilmen. R. 0. Cresap was appointed postma ste r in 1896. He took charge February lG, 1897, and was assisted by L. T. Morgan and his son, Phil Cresap. Mrs Mary Vineyard had been postmaster for about seven years, with Dr. J. W. Vineyard as her assistant. In 1896, the Duvemette Bros. were progressive truckers; Judge Epp s Tucker was a candidate for State Comptro ller; there was talk of building a bicycle track around Lake Wire or Lake Morton; W. H. Streeter moved to Lakeland from Bartow, and commenced the manu facture of cigars; and there were 305 re gis tered voters in the Lakeland district H. J. Drane was reelected as Engrossing Clerk of the House at the 1897 session of the Legislature. T he graduating class of the Lakeland High School in 1897 was composed of the following: Miss Alice K. Bonacker, sa lutatorian; Mrs. Allie Lewis, Misses Emma Hane, Lucy Thompson, Rebecca Boswe ll, Fannie Rogers, Florence Scott; W. Norman Withr ow, Albert M. Torrence; and Miss F l oss i e Wilder, valedictorian. The school was conducted that year by Prof. Arthur Williams, lat e r for many years connected with the Florida State College for Women. Mrs. R W. Erwin had charge of the primary department. A Board of Trade was organized in June, 1897. One of it s first acts wa s the appointment of a committee consisting of C. M. Mar s h, J. W. Reno, S. L. A. Clonts, Robert Bryan t N A. Riggin s, E. P. Hansard J A. Erskine and Pierce Tucker which was to take steps to o rgan ize a county fair The proposed site was near Lake Morton, and a race track was one of the features contemplated. Lakeland agreed to take half the stock, and other places in the coun t y pledged co-operation An organization was effected October 30, with the following officers: C M. 1\.farsh, president; N. A. Riggins, first vice-president; E. W. Codington second vice-pre s ident; F W. Inman, third president; J. A. Erskine, secretary; L. J J. Nieu wenkamp, treasurer; H. J. Drane a ss i sta nt s ecretary and twenty-three director s from different sectio ns of the county. A s an outcome of this movement, fair s wer e held in Lakeland in 1898 and 1899, as relat e d in the chapter of General Polk County History in this work. In 1897-8 the principal of the Lakeland High School was A. B. Lampkin; a ssis tant, Mrs. Arthur Williams; primary principa l Mrs. R W. Erwin; assistants, Misses Lucy Thompson and Rebecca Boswell. P r of. A rthur \V illiam s was prin e ipal of Sum merlin Institute that year. The Lakeland school buil ding, with all its coments, bu rned October 4, 1897. It was supposed to have been set on fi. re by a tramp. School stopped for one day only, the new Bryant building being utilized A temporary building was hastily constructed. There were about 200 pupils at the time.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 95 Bicycle paths from one town to another were being agitated as earnestly as m otor roads were later. In 1897, Riggins & Waggoner were operating a rice mill; S. Raymondo was having a business block erected on Kentucky avenue; Prof. J. A. Cox moved from Auburndale to Lakeland; and S. L. A. Clonts had bought a lot, preparatory to putting u p a business building. Lakeland's Plant System ball team i n l:897 was composed of the following: C. E. McMull en, J. :III. R oberts, A. Torrence, A. Armistead, Carl Bowyer, Ben T edder A. Brasington Bryan Chapman, Fred Bowye r, Jim Karnes, John Thomp son and T. F. Griffin. J. L. Skipper was appoi nte d postmaster o f Lakeland in November, 1897 He was a res id ent of Bartow at the time, an!l had ap plied for the position of postmaster of that city, but the powers, in dividing up the spoils, gave him the Lakeland office. H e moved to Lak eland and ass umed hi s duties on New Year's day, 1898, and made an efficient pos tma ste r for nearly 16 years, r esi gning late in 191 3. Harry Der ieux, only son o f Dr. J L. Derieux, Lakeland's first physician, was drowned in Bonnet Lake, April 19, 1898. He started across the lake in a small row boat, which was l at e r found adrift in the lake, but as h e was an expert swim mer, the manner of his death was neve r known. He was a brother of M rs. M. F. Hetherington and Miss Gertrude Derieux, who are reside n ts of Lakeland In May, 1898, troops were mobilizing in Florida preparatory to being sent t o Cuba, an d th ere were about 6,000 soldiers en ca mped at Lakeland, a considerable number of whom were colored. There were numero u s disturbances a notabl e instance being the killing of Joab Collins on May 16th. Two or three negro sol diers entered a ba rber shop in a building where the First National Bank now sta nds and d emanded to be shav ed They .were refus e d and cam e out swearing, but were forced to move on by the police Returning l ater, they began to smash in the windows of th e b a r ber shop, and to fire th eir gu n s into t he air Collins, T. F. Griffin and others, who were on the oppasite side of the street, started across t o see wha t the disturbance was abou t whe n the negroes opened fire. One ball barely grated G riffin. ano ther killing Colli n s ins tantly. Two negroes were arrested and turned over to the civil auth orities by Col. Young, wl)o was i n command of the troop s at Lakeland. The negro sold ie t s w ere disa rmed an d s p ecial g uar d s were placed o n duty The two negroes arrested were give n a preliminary t ria l and bou n d over to the g ran d ju r y after which they were sent to Tampa for sa f e-keepi n g owin g to feelin g i n La ke land running high A spec ial term of the C i rcuit Court was held i n Bartow to try the negroes. One of them was released for lack of evidence; t he other was gi ven a life sentence in th e penitent iar y There was a no ther distu rbance on A u gust l'l' when one w h ite soldier shot and k ille d anothe r in a gaming house. The same day a cap t ai n of t he commissary suic i d ed b y shooting h imself The negro S
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96 HISTORY OF POLK COUN T Y FLORIDA was i n charge of the primary departrmnt assi s ted by Miss Alice Bona cker and Miss B e ssie Sherman The follow ing city officials were elected in November, 1 898: Mayor, J P. Thompson; marshal and collecto r C. H. Peavy ; clerk treasurer and a sse ssor C. D. Clough; councilmen J. R. Foster, F M Smith, F. P Hansard, N. A Rig gins ]. C. Street In 1898, W H Miller, of Galloway, sold strawberries in New York f o r per quart; some street paving had been done wit h Bartow day; the Oriole Club flourished as a social orga nization ; Judge Tucker moved back to Lakeland from Bartow, where he had resided tempora rily on account of official duties; there were no vacant stores or houses in Lakel and, and there was demand for both; handsome pews w ere pu t in the Baptist church ; a whist club was organized, with W. B. Bona cker president, and]. A. Erskine, secretary; and, in December, the Van Huss opera ho use was opened by the "Imperia l Col ored Minstr el s ." I n 1899 it w as su ggest e d that "a rack be p ut in the Park and o u r count r y cousins be allowed to use same as a wagon yard T h i s w o uld ruin the g rass, bm as it is already used as a barn lot by some, a few m o re w o uldn t hurt." ]. ]. Evans and hi s d aughter Hope while retur n in g from prayer m eeti ng on t he night of November 5, 1899, were struck by an engine in the yards. Mr. E van s was killed in stantly, and the young lady died after a few ho u rs. "A re spectab l e s choo l bui lding and wate rwork s were the things stre ss ed as being the m os t n eeded in Lake land in 1899 In N ovember, 1899 R R. Herron the business he conducted here for man y years, and which is still being carried on by his son and daughter. R R. Herron and Mis s Man o na Herron. D r J. W. Vineyard, S .M. Stephen s, th e K inney Brothers and J. A. M acDon ald were gro win g and s h i pping much fine truc k in the Lake Hollingswort h section in 1899. A Tam pa paper referred to Kinney Bros. a s the largest stra w be r r y growers of the State. The postoffice at Medulla, wh i ch had been discontinued, was re-establi shed in 1899, and T. ] McMullen was appointed postma s ter. In 1899, W J. Carter wa s building a big lumber an d shingle mill at Carter s ; $1 and $1 .25 a quart was netted on some strawberry s hipments; in Mar c h there was a smallpox s c are ; hou s es we re in demand and rents h igh ; Roscoe S kipper celebrated hi s 7th birth d a y on March 23rd ; the nee d o f a fire depart m ent or bucket brigade was felt ; Park Trammell hung ou t his s h in gle as law y e r t hat summer; an d S. Ra y mon do t oo k a trip t o Ital y S W Ellerbe seems t o have been th e tow n s first barber D. \ 'l'in g ood s ue ceeded him in Mar ch, 1900 Early in 1900 Col. ] H A. B r uce resum e d the management of the T remo nt hotel after it had bee n in ch arge of J. A. Erskine for seve ral years. Dr. W S. Irvin, who had been livin g at Auburn d ale for some yea r s opened dental offices in Lake l and in August, 1900. He ha s been a successful pra c titi o ner o f dentistry at pra ctic all y the sam e s t and t o thi s date

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PART I-NARRATIVE 97 In 1900, W. J. Carter had his big lumber and shingle mill in operation; A. J .Morgan, of near Winston, was s hipping much tru ck, particularly egg plant; W. J. Bryan spok e briefly to the people when passing throug h Lakeland in February; C. E. Garratt went to England to enlist in the Boer War; and Park Trammell, who ha d been part owner of the Lakc/a .nd St
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98 HISTORY OF POLK COUN1'Y, FLORIDA Capt. J. P. Scarlett. one of the oldest railroad men in Florida, was struck by a train while cro ss ing the tracks, arid died in a few hours. 1'his occurred in No,ember, 1902. At Christma s time, 1902, teachers of the Lakeland school presented Rev. W. M. Boswell, chairman of the County School Board. with a hand some gold headed cane. In 1 902, Ex-Governor Glick of Kansa s was spending the first of a number of winters here ; J. E. Swanson was conducting the Sunnyside hotel; and both Park Trammell and H. J. Drane were elected as representatives. The Lakeland Building & Improvement Co. made plans early in 1903 for the build in g o f a brick business block-the second in Lakeland-N. B. Bowyer having erected the Bowyer block a short time before. The new structure was called the Kentucky building, and was for some years the best business building in Lakeland, and even at this time is a creditable structure. The company \vas composed of M. G. Munn, H. J. Drane, W. R. Groover, U. J. Simmons, and W. T. Johns. W. B. Talley was the architect, as he was of practically all of the imporUnt build ings erected in the earlier days of Lakeland. T. B. Kirk wa s prir.tcipal of the Lakeland sc hool in 1903; Miss May Tomlin son, first assistant; Mrs. R. W. Erwin, primary department; assistant Mis s Pearl Gracy; second grade, Miss Lena McCrary; third grade, Miss Lula Cochrane; fourth grade, Mis s Hattie Sherman; fifth and sixth grades, H. L. Swatts ; seventh and eighth, Miss Leitner : In 1903, Forrest Clonts was pronounced a "musical prodigy," playing the piano with remarkable skill; W. J. Reddick came from Pavo, Georgia, and engaged in the grocery business, continuing in the same line without interruption, f o r more than 20 years; J. Wes Bryant 5old $25 ,000 wonh of cattle to Dr. Lykes of Ballast Point. for shipment to Cuba; Dr. John Griffin, who was about to graduate from the Atlanta Medi cal College. was helping Dr. W. R. Groover with hi s extensive practice; and, in june of that yeat. Lakeland voted bonds in the sum of $85,000 for public impro vements. S. T. Holling s worth, who died at Galloway, October 3. 1903. had lived in his house at that place for half a century. He was the father of Mrs. E. G Gardiner of that place The following c it y officials were elected in 1903: S. L. A. Oonts, mayor ; John F. Cox, clerk and treasurer; A. J. Mills. marshal and collector; 0. J Pope. G. L. Tate. L. ]. J. Nieuwen kamp, Jr., U. J. SimmOn s. councilmen. In November, 1 903, a camp of the U. C. V. was organized at )..akeland. J. A. Cox was commander; Epps Tucker, first lieutenant-commander; R. 0. Cresap, adjutant; W. M Bos well, chaplain; L. M. Ballard, treasurer. In 1903, J. M. P eacock was operating the Lake land Lumber Company of w hich the Lakeland Manufacturing Co. i s the successor; Callahan & Co. e s tab lished a considerable lumber and naval stores industry at Pridgen, once a sta. tion between Lakeland and Haskell, where a village flourished, of which there is at present scarce a trace; in August, S. L. A. Clonts comp leted his hand some brick building, corner Kentucky avenue and Pine street; the State Bank moved t o its new

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PART I-NARRATIVE 99 location in the Kentucky building; R. Morse & Co. bought Riggin s rice mill ; john F. Cox resigned as ass istant cashier of the State Bank, and engaged in real estate and insurance; and there was not a vacant house in Lakeland, either business or residence. On February 10, 1904, L akeland was visited by a disast rou s fire, two blocks in the principal business section being destroyed. The buildings burned included 21 business houses and resid ences two hotels, three offic e s and a number of out buil
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100 HIS'l'ORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA being known a s the Carter Man ufacturin g Co. T h e business had been estab l ished by W J Carter, a brother o f H. B. Carter. Municipal officer s elected in the fall of 190 5 were : John F. Cox, mayor; C. E. McMullen, clerk, t reasurer and assessor; John Logan, marshal and collect or; E. 0 Flood C G Memm inger, L. M. Ballar d and J B Arnustead, council men. J. C Owens was elec ted cou nci lman, vice A S Win good, resigned ; and L M. Ballar
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PART I-NARRATIVE 101 The Christian church was dedicated Sunday, March 22 1908. Rev. H C. Garrison conducted the services. 'rhis church, a small wooden building, stood at the corner of Lemon street and Missouri a\enue. A Polk County Fair was he ld at Lakeland, March 25, 26 and 27, 1908. The County Commi ssioners had contribu ted $300 toward the enterprise, a n d after pay ing all expenses and p r emiums, Secretary Paul Gardner turned back to t he cou n ty treasury. There were fine d is p l ays of fruit, vegetables and other produc ts. The Association presented Mrs. M. F. Hetherington with a chest of silver, i n recognition of her work in behalf of the project. Similar fairs were held for several years under the auspices of the Farmers' Club and they were always he lp f ul enterprise s. An auction sale of lots in Dixieland was held in January, 190 8. The lo ts brought from $130 to $150. Municipal officers in 1908: : Mayor, John F Cox; clerk, treasurer and assessor, H. L. Swatts; councilmen, P B. Haynes, A. S. J. McKenney, W. P. Pillans, G. B. Murren, E. 0. Flood. At a meeting of the city council in April. 1908, the city park was forma lly given the name of Munn Park, in honor of A. G. Munn who donated it to the city. The re were twelve graduates of the Lakeland High Schoo l i n 1908. They were: Misses Nora Hart, Frankie Raulerson, Hattie Patton, Bessie J ohn son, Bessi e Adams; .Mary McRae, Bertha Brassell Ruth Thorpe, Vera Quaintance, Winnie Streater, and Messrs. Robert F Walker and Grover Tillis. The F ats vs. the Leans was a baseball game that afforded much fun in August, 1908. The Fats were: Dr. J. F. Wilson, R. M. Marler, Wes McRae, J. L. Skipper, U G. Bates. F. D. Bryan. Jack S car lett, A. S. J. McKenney and E. G. Tweedell The leans were: Arnold Armistead, E H. Hopkins, N. A. Riggins M. F. Hether ington, John F. Cox, B. F. Wilson, J. W. Buchanan, W. P. Pillans, and R. E. Scipper. The Leans were victorious. So much fun was had by everybody that the game was repeated the follow ing week. On his retirement as superintendent of the Light a nd Water plant, September 1 1908, C. E. McMullen was give n a rising vote of thanks by the city council for faithfu l and efficient service. Herron's Opera House was opened with a home talen t minstrel show on October 22, 1908. It was a great improvement over any show house Lakeland possessed the r etofore. Fire in t he sp ring of 1908, dest r oyed a large part of the block on Main s treet between Kentucky and T ennes see avenues. The buildings were o l d and d ila pida te d, and their removal evidently made the lots more val u able, for in September all rec ords for h igh values in re a l es t a t e were broken, when what was known as the Bonacker corner, at Main and Kentucky, which had heen made vacant by the fire, was pu r chased by C. W. Deen and Robert Bryan t for $13,500 Gen. J. A. Cox was e l ected Comma n der of the T hird Brigade at the Confed erate Veterans' Reunion held at 'l'an1pa in October, 1908. The first i nma te s of the M e thodist orphanage at Enterprise were two children sen t from Lakeland in October, 1908. '!'heir mother Mrs. Jak e Nelson died suddenly, and thei r fathe r was u nab le to care for them.

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10.2 H ISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA A voluntary fire department was organized in January, 1909. H. L. SwattS was chief, and Clarence Perry was secretary. At the celebration of Lee's birthday, january 19, 1909, Gen. E. M. Law was orator of the day. There was an oratorical contest in which a medal was offered by the U. D C. Ior the delivery of the best original essay on the subject, "The Battle of Gettysburg." Miss Beulah Hooks was winner of the medal. William Jennings Bryan delivered his famous lecture, "The Prince of Peace", in Lakeland February 6, 1909, and there was a very large gathering to welcome and listen to him. On February 9, 1909, a negro made an attempt to assault a young white girl who lived about two miles north of Lakeland, while she was walking in to attend the city school. When the fact became known, a mob formed, and as one negro suspect after another was brought in, there was difficulty in preventing a lynching. One Charlie Crumley was thought by the girl to resemble her assailant, and on this dubious identification the jail was stormed, the negro marched through the streets, accompanied by hundreds, to the scene of the crime. Here he was about to be burned, wood having been piled around him, and oil poured on him. Just before the match was applied, however, the girl's appeared and de clared it to be his belief that Crumley was not the guilty party. Taking advantage of the momentary diversion thus caused, Sheriff Logan seized the negro and man aged to get him back to jail. Excitement continued, however, and it was expected that another attack on the jail would be made that night. A dead-line was thrown around the building, and a dozen or more armed citizens deputized by the sheriff, stood on guard until the night train from Tamp;t brought out a company of State Guards, who took charge of the situation. Meanwh ile, a report had been received that a negro answering the description given by the young lady, had been seen going through Socrum, and he was traced to Trenton. Deputy Sheriff Scott went to Trenton for the purpose of bringing the negro to Bartow, but at Bartow J unc tion a mob boarded the train and brought the prisoner, Jack Wade, to Lakeland. He was taken to the girl s home and positively identified by her. She requested that they put him to death some other way than by burning, and they took him into the woods and hung him to a tree, and riddled his body with bullets. In April, 1909, when the amendment submitting the prohibition question to a vote of the people was pending before the Legislature, a delegation was sent to Tallaha s see in behalf of the measure. Rev. J. R. Cason, Editor M. F. Hethering ton and Mayor John S. Edwards composed the party. The combination of a Methodist minister, a Baptist lawyer and a Catholic editor, working in behalf of temperance, was commented on. Lakeland's home talent theatricals were voted much better than any provided by traveling professionals, in 1909. Among bright particular stars were H. D. Mendenhall, R. E. Lufsey, :Miss Manona Herron, Dr. J F. Wilson, C. E. Mc Mullen, etc In 1909, one--half section of the Drane building was erected by H. J. Drane. In 1911 the other half was added, completing the building as it now stands.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 103 Municipal officers for 1909 were: John S. Edwards, mayor; R. E. Scipper t marshal and collector ; H. L. Swatts, clerk, treasurer and assessor; J. E. Buss ard, C. M. Weeks, 0. :M. Eaton, P B. Haynes, G B. : Murrell, a n d E. 0. Flood. coun cilmen. A curfew law was in operation in 1909. Three blasts of the whistle at th e e l ectric light pla n t were blown every evening at s :15, g iving notice that all children under sixteen should be off the streets. The ordinance worked well. An election was held on November 22, 1909, on the question of issu in g bonds in the sum of $65 000 for the following purposes: $25,000 for school improve ments; $18,000 for the improvement of the light and water plant; $22,000 for the extension of water mains. The bonds carried by a vote of 5 to 1. C G. Mem minger, N. A. Riggins, and C W. Deen were chosen bond trustees. The Sixty-Sixth Annual Conference of the M. E. Church, South was h eld in Lakeland the week of December 12, 1909 On that day the new Methodist church building was dedicated, Bishop Atkins officiating. The hand s ome new edifice had been completed a year earlier, and at the time of dedica t ion was free from debt Rev. J: R. Cason who had been the pastor four years, wastransferred, and he was succeeded by Rev. W. K. Piner. Rev. G. W. Shepherd, of Kentucky, succeeded Rev J. L. Tharp as pastor of the Bapiist church in May 1 909. Baptists bought land in East Lakeland in 1910 and erected a church buil
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104 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA State President of the U. D. C.; a recitation by Miss B e ul ah Hoola; ; and an oration by H the Veterans, and Gen. j. A. Cox responded in behalf o f the Veterans, who pre sented the monument t o the city. The response o n b ehalf of the city was made by Mayor W. K. J a c k son. T here rem ained so me debt on the monument and pa yment in f u ll was comp le ted in March, 19 12 Lakeland's first Chaut auqua was held under the auspices of C Rucker Ad a m s February 1 2 -24, 1911. The Ch autauqua w a s an annual i nstit u tion for severa l ye a rs. R e v W. llf. Boswell d ied whil e on a vis it to Elbridge, New York, September 10, 1911, fo llowing a s tro ke of apop lexy. He was long one of Lakeland' s leading citizens, particularly active in t be educational i nte rests of the c ounty, wh ich, as chairman of t he school board, he efficien tly directed. Municipal officers e lected for 1912 were: S r . A. ClOiits, mayor; \V. P. Pillans P B Hay n e s, M. G. Muon and G E. Southard, councilmen. Illinois day was celebrated in Munn Park on February 5 191 2 the first "State day" obse rved in Lakeland. Over 200 ex-residents of Illinois, and vis i tors fr om the State, w ere present. W. F. H allam, M r s. William Steitz, Mayor S L. A. Clonts H J D rane, M. F Hetherington and John F. Cox made addresses. The Citizens' Band, a fine musical organization of the time, furni s hed the music. Illi nois Day was a p lea sant annual occasion for several year s thereafte r Free mail delivery was i naugurated May l, 1912, with two carrier s an d o ne s ubstitute. The workof surveying the streets for s e werage began in March, 1912. J. N. Haze l hurst, of Atlanta, was the engineer in charge. The work of installing t he sewerage system was completed d uring the following yea r An o rdinance was passed in March, 1912, requiring the A. C. L. railwa y to erect gates at crossings at Kentucky avenue and Florida ave n ue. "Uncle Henry" was doing some very in teresting writing for the Lakeland Tel e gra1n in 1 91 2 and later. Uncle Henry wa s Mrs. William Steitz. The Auditorium, buil t by the Chautauqua Association, was erected at the head of Main stree t overlooking Lake Mirror, in 1 9 12 It was the largest in the State, seating 1,700 people, and was the scene o f many n otabl e gatherings, durin g the d o zen or more years of its e xist e nce It was opened on November 6, 1 912, an addres s by H. ]. Drane preceding the theatrical perfo rmanc e. T he property was eventually bought by the city an d the building was torn down to make way for t h e new Civic Cen t er. Lake lan d Methodis t s buil t a c h u rch in one d a y June 27, 1912. It poured rai n that day but thi s did not dampen t he ardor of t he workers and the building wa s co m pleted Bishop H. C. M orrison of Lees burg, drove t he first nail at 6 :05 i n the mo rnin g and conducted se rvices in the church .at night. The building was on the s ite of the presen t Co llege Heights Methodist church Mrs W. C. Norvell, Mrs. W. F i ske Johnson and Miss May Tomli nson each drove o n e of the first six nails The firs t mail boxes-thirteen in number-were insta lle d on t he streets o f Lakeland June 17, 1912.

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PART I NARRATIVE 105 The Georgia-Florida Land Co. bought the Skipper grove, on t h e south side of Lake Morton, comprising 13 acres. fcYr $30.000 in June, 1912 Eight years previous it had changed hands for $5, 000. The land was s u bdivided, and is now the site of numerous handsome homes. around which are man y of t he fine citrus trees of the old grove. 'l'en papers were being pub l ished in Po l k Co u nty in 1912, and five o f t hem wer e issued from the press of the Lakcll"'d Evening Telegram. In addition t o these, two State papers-the Florida Clrristia11 Ad,ocate and the Plssibl e to exteni:t Rose street from Kentucky avenue to the city limits.. M W. Rogers, for severa l yea r s prior to this, had cultivated a fine straw berry field and truck patch on the n orth side of Lake Mirror, between the rail road and the lake. Joe LeVay made a trip to New York in his .Cadillac car, with T. E. Burdette, Howard Gray and Olin Chiles, in the s u mmer of 1912 He was on the road 10 days, which was considered a re marka bly good record.

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106 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA The road be tween Lakeland and Auburnd a le was impassable and it required detou r s that made it necessa ry to travel about 40 mile s to get from one of the s e places t o the other. The following buildings were put u p in 1912: a new A. C L. passenger station; South e rn Express Company building; Chautauqua auditorium; Lakeland Ice & Refrigerating plant; Smith Hardin building; Deen & Bryant building; Gentry Futch building; Lakebnd Highlands Club House; Citrus Exchange building; Stephen s Apartment s, and others. In 191 2, the Myrtle Street Method ist c h urch was built; the V an Huss Opera House wa s move d to Mai n s t reet and New York avenue, to make room for the new Van Huss building; sidewal ks were ordered t o be put down on a number of streets-there were prac tically none at the tim e outsid e o f the busines s sect io n ; Miss Julietta Patterson wa s chosen Sponsor for the F lo rida Division U D. C., for t h e Lake Cit y Reunion; the city limits were extended one-fo urth mile on the north, east and west sides, and one-half mile on the south; and the Bapt ists of Florida held their Sta t e convention, opening December 1 0. Members of the Lakdand Board of Trade set out on a "pathfinding expe ditio n to l ocate a passable road t o St. Petersburg, one day in March, 1 913. They reported a trip from Lake land to St. Peter sburg "feasi ble." The National Hardware Dealers' A ssociation visited Lakeland March 22, 11)13. There were repr esentati ves from many S t ate s. 'l'hey were given an auto mobile r ide around Lak e Hollingsworth, and were served liberally with straw berri es, ca k e and coffee in the Park. W K. Jackson was secretary o f the National organi7.ation, and was res ponsible for their visit t o Lakeland The first troop of Boy Scouts was organied in the office of Judge Kelsey Blanton on the night of j une 4, 1 9 1 3. Judge Blanton performed the duties of Scout Master for a conside rable peri. School bonds in t he amount of $50 ,000 were voted july 5, 1 913, by a majority of 6 to 1. This bond issue p rovide d an addition to the existing school on Lake Wire, and for the purchase o f a s ite on Lake Morton, and the erection of a schoo l building there on. In October, 1 913, H. L. Swatts, who had long been chief of the Fire Depa rt ment, was succeeded by J oseph LeVay. A banquet was given by the fir e co mpany to the retiring and incoming Chiefs, and : Mr. Swatts was presented with a hand some Morris chair. A change from the aldermanic to the form of government was effected in October 1918. The Commissioners elected, the first undtr the new form of government, were: 0 .M. Eaton, J. E. Bussard, Guy W Toph, E. C. Flan ag a n an d H. D. Mendenhall The Hotel Kibler (no w the Thelma ) opened N ovember 10, 1913. lt was built by A. B. and D. B. Kibler at a cost of $ 125,000 J. L. Skipper resigned a s postmaster in November, 1913, after serving near ly sixteen year s. He was succeeded by R. 0. Cresap, who was appointed March 7th, following.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 107 I.a keland citizens turned out and did work on the county roads for one day, Nove mber .21, 1913, in recognition of a proclamation of Governor Trammell, calling on men of all avocations and conditions to make this gesture for the purpose of awakening good roads sentiment. The Governor, himself, came to his home town and set an excellent example by wieldin g the shovel. T be first Elks' Minstrel show was hel d December 2, 1913. 0. M. Eaton was interlocutor, and C. H. Barr directed the whole affair There was a K. K. K. organization in Lakeland in 1913, bu t no on objected to it. It was composed of the younger society set, and was the ''Kwit'yer Knockin Klub Among buildings erected in 1913 were the Hotel Kibler, the Skipper building; the Van Huss building; new City Hall; the Dickson building; the Kimbrough building; the Bassett building; the Elliston building; the Evcni>ag Tclegro,m, build ing; the Hendrix buil di ng ; the Combee building; A. C. L. freight station and sheds; and many smaller buildings and residences. In addition, street paving to the amount of $225,000, and $60,000 worth of sewera ge, were completed. In 1913, the State Federation of Labor held its convention in Lakeland, beg i n ning January 14; a LaFrance fire engine was purchased; in February, Hon. w. J. Bryan was a Chautauqua attraction; the Twentieth Annual Conference and Camp Meeting of Seventh Day Adventists of Ftoiida held a 10 days session, beginning October 30th; telephone wires were put underground; H. ]. Drane was president of the State Senate; John S. Edwards was appointed a member of the State Tax Commission by Governor Tranunell ; stores c)osed Thursday afternoons th at sum mer for the fir st time; a new city ha ll was completed; the Lakela>ul Bveni"g Tele gram was one of only five papers in Florida receiving Associated Press service; Vv. E. Pugh was pastor of the Lutheran church and Richard Bolton was the Episcopal rector; and Misses Mabe l Drane and Olive Summerlin made a tour of European countries. On January 1, 1914, Lakeland celebrated her thirtieth anniversary. Thou sands witnessed the parade, many blocks in length, which was the most brillian t pageant in the city's history. Miss Dora Bonacker was Queen of t he Carnival, and Os s ian W. Drane was King. Miss Bo nacker s attendants were Misses Kath erine Cowdery Ma bel Drane, R uth Skipper, Emma Rob i son and M argaret Southard. The King's attendants were: Fran k Thompson, Ray Weeks, William Sammon, Truby O'Steen, and]. P. Getzen. A feature of the parade was an ox team driven by L. T. Keen, escorted by a number of cowboys, members of the Keen, Combee, Costine and Robson families. G H. A!Jield was marshal of the day; Dr. W. S. Irvin, B. S. Rivers and J. Neilsen Lange, assistant marshals. A. J. Hot worthy was mainly responsible for the success of the celebration. In January, 1914, All Saints Episcopal church was made an independent parish, instead of an organized mission dependent on the Bishop. Lakeland's white way was turned on f o r the first time on the night of Febru ary 7, 191 4. The Chamber of Commerce, and particularly its secretary, A J. Holworthy, had been working on this proposition for exactly a year, overcoming much opposition a nd many objections. There were 63 standards, five lights to each

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108 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA A bond issu e for $165,000 was voted October 7, 1914. Of t his. a mou n t $130, 000 was fo r enlar ge m en t of t he light a nd wa ter distdbution system; $20.000 fo r improvement and enlargement of the Fire Departmen t a nd $15,000 for building and equi pping Morrell -Memorial hospital. J. F. Co u nci l, L F. Hen ley and N. A. R iggins were elected bo nd trustees The Twenty-Fourth R e u nion United Confeder ate Veterans was h eld i n Lake land the week of N ovember 1, 1914. J. D. Richardson a vete ran, who lived in the vici nity of Griffin, d roppe d dead while wal kin g from town to ll i s home. A "Welcome" arch was erected on the occasion of t his Reu n i o n, i t s l ocation spa nnin g Kent ucky aven ue midway between Main and Rose street. It was electrica ll y lighted, and for some years it was maintained, and for me d a hospita b l e gesture that brought many expressions of appreciation from visitors. Several important co n ven tions assembled i n Lakeland in 19 14. The G r and Lodge of Odd Fellows of Florida hel d it s deliberations April 21st, the RebekallS also be ing in session a t the same time; the Florid a Ba nkers' Association c onve ned April 24, and at a ba n quet hel d the night of April 27, Vice Pres ident Thos. R. Marshall was the principal speaker; the Twentiet h Annual Session of Wome n' s Clubs was held November 17-20; and the Florida Educational Associa tion con vened December 29, for a two days' ses sion In July, 1914, Rev. Wallace Wear was called to the p astorate of the First Baptist church, an d Rev F. H. Callahan became pastor of the Cumberland Presbyterian church. W. S. Irvin assumed the office of city commissioner, January .2, 1915, to fill the p lace o f J. E. Bussard, A f ranchise bad been granted the Lakeland Gas Co. on September 7, 1914. W ork was begun on the pla n t January 4 1915; service was inaugu rated-the gas turned into the mains for t he first time-July 1 6, 1915. Col. J. H. A. Bruce, who for m any years conducted the Tremont ho t e l, when that hostelry was considered one of the best in Florida, died February 1 5, 19 15, aged 81. Lake land participated in the Gasparilla celebration February 16, 1915. T wo floats h a d been but the larger got stuck in the road between Lake land and Tampa, and never reach ed its des t inat ion T he del ay p reven ted Lakeland from taking its p rope r p lace in the pa rad e ; but t he Lak e l and Elks, i n striking regalia, head ed b y t he Lakela nd Military Ban d, with the othe r float c arrying n in e beautiful Lake land girls staged an indepe nden t parade t hro ugh t he streets of Tampa, which attracted more attention than if things had gone in accorda nce with t he orig inal program. Esp ecia lly was this the case when t h e main procession was met, and the bys t anders were given the specta cle of a parade goi ng and coming The yo ung l a dies o n t he float, w ho tossed o ran ges and manunoth strawberries t o the t h rongs as they pas sed were Misses Mary Groover, Mary McKay, Myrtle McRae, Mi l d red Hampton, Mary Owen, Frances Straw, B r u nn elle S win d ell, Edith Tomlin son and Reva Fletcher. A more ambitiou s Polk County Fai r t ha n had hi therto b ee n attempted, wa s hel d at Lakeland the week begin ning February 22, 1915. It was ope n ed with

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PART I-NARRATIVE 109 impr e ssive ceremonies, Governor Park Trammell delivering the opening address. 'rhere was a fine live stock exhibit, splendid agricultural displays, and the Woman s department and the Educational depar tment were especially fine. The Fair was held in the ball park in the northern part of the city. The Louisville Colonels had their training quarters in Lakeland in March, 1915 Their expenses etc., were guaranteed by a number of the citizens, but there was unusually unfavorab le weather that season and the backers of the project were called up o n t o put up a 60 per cent deficit. T here was a great revival of the Chamber of Commerce in April, 1915. Three hundred members were secured, and the organization placed on a substantial financial basis. John F. Cox was elected commissioner in J une, 1915, to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of H. D. Mendenhall. A new site for the lig ht and water plant-where the latter now stands-was purchased in 1915. The "Member ship Council" of the Chamber of Commerce was the forerunner of the luncheon clubs in Lakeland. It held weekly luncheons, at which matters for the benefit of the city were discussed. E. H. Youngs was first chairman, and later for some years these meetings were presided over by M. F. Hetherington with A. ]. Holworthy as secretary. The American State Bank consolidated with the First National July 6, 1915. In 1915, Francis Beach, L akeland's first amusement enterp rise of the kind, was opened; A. H. De Vane and A. B. Hull purchased the State Bank of l.ake land; w. B. Hendrix, father ofT. B. Hendrix, diro December 16, aged 100 years; Dixieland Methodist church was dedicated by Rev. I. C. Jenkins, October 24th; the corner ston e for an addition to the First Baptist church was laid November 10; L D. Lowe became pastor of the Methodist c h urc h, and C I. Stacy, of the Pres byterian chu rch in D ecember. Lakeland's first tourist headquarters were opened January 27, 1916, though for a season or two a portio n of the upper floor of the Auditorium building had been used for this purpose. The new quarters were in the Van Huss Building in the rooms now occupied by the Western Union Company. There had been tw o voting precincts in Lakeland. A third-No. 36-was created in February, 1916. R. T. Caddin, age d 75, died : Marc h 21, 1916. He was one of the pioneer preachers of this section. In 1916, the Peoples' State Bank opened with W. T Overstreet as president, and John L. Fouts as vice-president; the First Nati6nal'Bank was remodeled and enlarged; the South Florida Chamber of Commerce, with 500 delegates, convened in Lakeland in May ; the new Light and Water building was erected; and Lake land furnished the government with a United States Senator-Hon. Park Trammell-and a Congressman, Hon. H. J. Drane. John S. Edwards, who had bee n serving as a member of the Florida Tax Commission, r es igned i n 191'7, to accept appointment as Circuit Judge, Hon. F. A. Whitney having resigned.

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ilO HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA L akeland's first golf course was opened Janu a r y 1, 1917 About 300 persons en j oyed a p ic nic on Scott Lake as guests of the Golf C l ub A comfortable Club House had been erected and was open .ed on t his occasion: \V. F: Hallam promoter of the project, and was assisted by a number of Lake l and citizens. who too k stock in t he enterprise. It flourished awhile, but war conditions and the unfortunate death of Mr. Hallam, caused the course to f all into di suse. Theodore Roosevel t spoke on th e war situation in the Park, April 1, 1917. H e was heard by a very large audience. In 1917 the Gamewell Fire Alarm system was installed in th e city; wire tappe r s paid Lakeland their first visit; the Kni!(hts of Pythias hel d their conven tion here in March ;and Dr. L. F. Henley. beloved physician and l ong-time resi dent, died D e cember 28t h Fire almos t comple t ely dest r oyed th e A. C. L. passenge r s t a t ion February 1, 1918. Loss abou t $25,000. It was rebuilt, a second story being added to the plans of the origina l building. The station was reopened January 31, 1919. C i ty Commissioners for 1918 were : E. C Flanagan, 0 J. Pope, John M. Keen, Frank Thompson, and T. B. O'Steen. Lakeland los t h e r first soldier when W. K. Tillis died in hosp ital a t Camp Wheeler, January 12, 1918. The stores closed for the funera l and he was given a military burial by th e Home Gua r ds Wire-tappers were busy in the winter of 1918, and some tourists were vic ti m ized. They operated also i n the win ter o f 1919 . A Rota r y Club was organized February 18, 1918, when, at its first meeting, nine were elected, who in turn, elected officers. Directors were : C !\L Cla)--ton, 0. M. Eaton, W. W. Chase, C. E. Todd, F. '1'. B enford, W. S. Moore, C. 0. Pinch, A: J. Holworthy and M. F. Hethe r ington. Officers chosen were: President, W. W Chase; vice-p re sid ent, M. F Hetherington ; secre t ary, A. J. Hoi worthy; treasurer, C. M Clayton; sergeant-at-arms, E. G. ParcelL It was s ai d that Lakeland was the smallest city in t he cou ntry t o have a Rotary Club. The firs t funct i on held in the Elks' Home-before even it was formally opened was the i n sti t u tion o f the Rotary Club by the Rotarians of Tampa, on the night of March 20, 1918. Secreta r y of Agric u lt u re David F Houston was one of sev eral distinguished guests on this occasion Paul Gardner, one of the best known and most popular men of the section dropped dead at his home on Banana Lake, near Lakeland, on June 11, 1918. Lakela nd contributed her share of sacrific e on t he altar o f pa trio tism in 1918. Hugh Siins, 17 was drowned while in service, at Key \Vest, and was buried at Lakeland, with military honors, August 2-1 ; Bert Lane went down on the U. S. ship Tampa which was sunk b y a torpedo in foreign waters, in September; L. W. Y arnall, Jr. was a n other hero killed in action O c tober 20 ; Woodson Williams died while in service in the Navy, and was given a mili tary funeral in Lake l and, October 27 : William E. Ferreand was a l so a Lake l and sold ier killed in F r ance. The latter's funera l took place July 20, 1921. Sunday, October 13, 1918, the churche s were closed for t h e firs t t ime i n the h is t ory of the city, as a preventive measure against Spanish influenza. Publ ic

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PART I -NARRATIVE 111 gatherings of all kinds were discouraged during this period, the thea t ers being closed for some time. In 1918, George Lizotte was conducting the Elks' Club ; Rev vVallace Wear resigned as pastor of the First Bapt i st church t o accep t a pastorate at Corde le, Georgia; the First N ational Bank and t he Peoples' State Bank cousolidated, in August; the Florida Methodist Publishing Co. dedicated its new building, August 21; the High School Cadets were drilling under instruction of Principal C \\!. Jones; over 1 000 Shriners met and had a big time in Lakeland, November 21 ; the asphalt drive around Lake Morton was completed in December; the most inter esting uews in the papers was letters from the boys who had gone across; and the First National Bank's earnings were 20 per cent. The Presbyterians began a new church building earl) in 1919, and on Novem ber 2 of that year, they held their first service in the structure a beautiful brick edifice overlookiug Lake Mirror. The church was built during the able pastorate of Rev. C. I. Stacy. I n the City Primary held July 8, 1919, Frank Thompson was elected Mayor Commissioner; and 0. J. Pope, S. J. Roland, L. P. B r oadfield and Truby O'Steen, commissioners. A. C. Armistead was treasurer ; H L Swatts, clerk, and A. R. Carver, municipal judge In 1919, the boys who had gone to war were being welcomed back hoine; H. B Carter bought the H otel Kibler. which was l ater named the Thelma; and a curfew ordinance was passed, but" indifferently enforced. On the night of March 28, 1920, Lakeland had a destructive fire, losses sus tained aggregating $200,000 Fire star t ed outside the dry kiln of the Lakeland : Manufacturing Company and totally destroyed the large plant, also the Weaver laundry, Peacock building, and business liouses be l onging to N. A Riggins sweep ing the entire block between the railroad and Main street, and between Florida and Missouri avenues, except the building then occupied by the Todd Hardware Com pany, which was not seriously damaged. All were rebuilt on a more substantial scale, particularly the plant of the Lakeland Manufacturing Company. Vv. F Hallam was drowned while bathing in the surf at S t Petersburg Beach, :May 29, 1920. He was one of the premier developers of this section, having in 1910 purchased 13,000 acres of land a short d i stance south of Lakeland, and created the magnificent Lakeland Highlands development. with its fine club house numerous homes, and several thou s and acres of fine g rove. Among the builders of Lakeland, he is entitled to a place in the first rank. The Centra l State Bank was organized in July, 1920. Officers were: A. F. Picl
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112 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA named the city, on May 19; and M r s. W. M. Boswell, mother o f Mrs. H J. Drane, December 6. The Lakelan d Country Club was organized in July, 1921. The Club House and Golf course on Lake Parke r were opened in October, 1923 . The primaries of July, 1921, resulted in the election of the following: Mayor, H. C. Petteway; a ssessor, A. C. Armistead; municipal judge, J. D. Allen; clerk, H. L Swatts; commissioners, E. J. Bowyer, S. J. Roland, L. P. Broadfield, Wm. Steitz. A movement to build a brick church in Dixieland was inaugurated by members of the Baptist faith in 1921. This resulted in the sp lendid South side Baptist church, the first service in whic h was held on Sunday March 9 19Z4. The structure cost about $100,000. Rev. P. C. Barkley was pastor. The Polk County Trust Company opened for business in February, 1921. A. H. DeVane was president, T. L Wilson and E. L. Mack, vice-presidents; J. L. Davis, secretary-treasurer; C. D. Judson, trust officer. The Legislature of 192 1 passed a bill authorizing the lowering of the water level of Lake Parker two feet, draining a large area of submerged lands In December, 1922 Thorpe Bros., of Minneapolis, and local associates, Edwin Spencer and L. M. Futch, began the lowering of the water levels of Lake Parker and Lake Boney, preparatory to developing Shore Acres. The comer-stone of the first building of the Southern College group wa s laid May 25, 1922. Dr. R. H. Alderman, president of the college was the principal speaker. In 1921, the walks in Munn Park were paved; G. E. Everett of Kentucky, took charge of the Lakeland sch ools; Dr. Sylvester was making quite a success growing grapes; the Wilsonian apartment bouse was erected on Lake Morton ; Lakeland was building a house every day; George Haldeman was thrilling the people with air stunts. A. ]. Holworthy died February 1, 1922. For ten years prior to June, 1921, he had been secretary and manager of the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce. Dur ing all that time-a period of grea t growth and development-there was no for ward movement in which he was not a most active agent. Overwork in behalf of the community good caused a physical breakdown, necessitating his resignation as Chamber of Commerce secretary in June, 1921, and his death followed a few months later In the opinion of many, he deserves t o be regarded as Lakeland's most useful citizen up to t hat time. A Kiwanis Club was organized February 27, 1 922. A. R. Carver was presi dent; W. J. Bolin vice-president; Frank Sanf ord, secretary; E. N. Good, treasurer; W. 0. Lemasters truste e. The charter was presented Friday night, April 21, by Edward C. Branch, governor of the Florida-Alabama district. A new charter estab lishing the commi ssioner-ma nager form of city govern ment was adopte d at an electio n h eld Augu st 1, 1922. The charter board was composed of the following: J. F. Council, J. C. Owens, Chas. I. Dwiggins, John F. Cox, J. F. Wilson, 0. C. Lanphear, W. W. Chase, and L. W. Bloom. The first election under the new charter was held September 4, resulting in the choice of

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PART I-NARRATIVE 113 J. W. Buchanan, Jr .. D. C. Boswell and J. T. Hodges as commissioners. j. T. Hodges was made chairman, or mayor-commissioner, and he also served as tem porary city manager, pen di ng the appointment of Anton Schneider who sel ected early, but who wa s at the tim e city manager of Bartow, and was unable to take up his Lakel a nd duties until November 1st. J. L. Dav .is was made city c lerk and auditor. The contract for a $30,000 Methodist Sunday School buil ding was let in September 1922. The building consisting of 35 class rooms and a gymnasium, was opened for use February 9, 1923. Ossian \>Vright Drane son of Hon. H. J. Drane, and the first male child born in Lakela nd, died December 29, 1922, as a result of illness contracted while in s ervice in the World \Var. He was buried with military honors. On July 1, 1922, in connection with a general strike, the employees of the A. C L. shops in Lakeland quit work The strike lasted several weeks There were some disorders. The Lakeland postoffice became a first-class office July 2, 1922. On Aug>1st 2 1, 1923, a bond issue of $450,000 was voted for exte11sion of light and water service, and refunding earnings of power plant; also an item of $25,000 for the purchase of a library site. :Miss : Mary Weaver re presented Lakeland in the Beauty Pageant at Atlantic City in September 1923. C. M. Clayton died December 31, 1928. He was lon g one of Lakeland's m os t prominent bankers. Tn 1923, a Buyers Platform was provided by the city openi n g January 13; J. Bunyan Smith was elected commissioner, J. T. Hodges, retiring; the Christian Scientists held services in their own church bui lding for the first time on Sunday, December 9; and on December 28, contracts were let for 3 2 miles of street paving to cost $672,488, Stidham & Hughes, of Bartow, being the successful bidder. R. H. Naylor was appointed postmaster in January, 1924. Episcopalians erected a handsome new cl1Urch building, which was used for the first time February 24, 1924, though not entirely finished. It was dedicated Sun day, March 9, 1924, B ishop Cameron !>!ann officiating, assisted by the Rector, Rev. G. I. Hiller, and a former Rector, Rev. W. B. Curtis. Up to that time the con gregation had worshipped i'n a small wooden building, older than the city of Lake land, it having been built by the English people who established the t own of Acton, and moved from that pla c e to Lakeland when Acton was abandoned. John F. Cox, long prominent in business and civic life of Lak eland, died sud denly February 7, 19.24. He had been mayor several times, a nd was one of the earliest and most active real estate developers o f the city ln re cognition of his pioneering in the development of the Lake Parke r section, a grammar school, ju s t erected on Lakeland Hills Boulevard, has been named the John F. Cox school. The first meeting of the Exchange Club was held on the evening of April 17, 1924, at the Thelma hoteL On the night o f August 20, the charter was presented to the club by L. L. 'l:brower, of Tampa, acting for the national secretary. The

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114 HISTORY O F POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA officers of th e c lub wcoe: T. S Trantham, pre s ident; G E. C h ilde r s, vice-pr esident; Paul M. Hender so n, s ecretary The Clevelan d baseball club -the "Indians"-had their training quarters in Lakeland in the spri n g of 1 924 returning the spr ings of 19 .25, 1 9 26, and 1927. On June 1 0. 1 924, Lakeland voted a bond issue of $1,069 ,000, as follows: Municipal hospital for white patients, $300,000; site ior city hall and auditorium, (Munn property) $100,000; athletic field an d equip ment, $87,000; city library, 575,000; fire station, north s i de, $25,000; municipal abatto i r $40,000; hosp ital for colored patien ts, $25,000; stoc kade for priso ner s $20,000; combination jail and cen tral fire s tati on, $40,000; incine rat or, $20,000; improvement of lake shores, etc., $17,000; improvement Rose lawn cemetery, $15,000; comfort station in Munn P ark, $10,000; fire station so uth side, $20,000; city hall and auditorium, $275,000 M iss Margaret Swindell was cho s en to represent Lakeland at the Beau ty Pageant in Atlanti c City, in September, 1924 T. J Apple yard resigned as secre tary of the Lakeland Chamber of Comme rce in August, 1 924, and D Hodson Lewis of Lockport, N. Y., was e mployed as secretary manager, assuming his duties in October The Lakelan d Terrace Hotel was the o ut growth of Chamber of Commerc e activities. Agitation of a new hotel res u lte d in the purch ase of a site in January, 1923. The Adair Realty Co took over the project and work was started in October. The hotel ope ned Monday, October 20, 1924. Largely through the efforts of T. J. Appleyard, F. H. Callahan and J. E. Mel ton, H. A. Stahl of Cleveland, Ohio, and his assoc iates, became int erested in Lakeland, and in Octo ber, 1924 they purcha s ed se veral hundred acres of land on tbe south side of Lake Hollingswo rth and exten ding t o Lakeland Highlan ds. The beautiful d e velopment known as Cleveland Heights resulted. Nume r ous high grad e home s we r e built. a splendid 1 8 -h ole golf course "'"s created. and a fine club house was erected. which has been the center of many social and civic activities. H. B. Carter died at Ocala, November 29 1924, as the result of an aut omob ile accident occurrin g while he was en route t o that city: He was fo r many yea r s one of Lakeland's leading c itizens. The Civitan C lub received i t s charter December 11 1924. Offi cers were: A. H. DeVane, president; T. F. Sheridan, secretary, and C. F. O'Doni el, treasurer On Decem ber 80, 1924 the city l imits whi c h had included f ou r square mi l es, were extended to include thirty square mile s. "Uncle Wes" McRae, beloved citizen since early days of the c ommunity, died January 9, 1925, aged 64. The Pio nee r Club, later the Busin ess and Professional W omen's C l ub, held its first lunch eon meeting March 18, 1 92:;. On April 3 o rganizat ion was effected by the election of Mrs. A. N. Paddock. pre sident; Mrs. A Callan. vic epre s ident; M r s. Eva Spiva, secoetary, and Mrs. J. 'N. Kutrow treasurer. Harry Brown was made Grand Commander Kn i g hts Tcmplar State of Florida, at the meeting held at Tampa, March 19, 19 25. On April 25, 1925, the Chamber of Commer ce closed a three-day drive, result ing in securin g $108,075, representing 4 ,823 member ship s.

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PART I-NARRATIVE u s The State Convention of the Order of Elks was held in Lakeland, April 29, 1925. Paul :M. Henderson, of Lakeland, was elected State President. Dr. Ludd Spivey became presid ent of Sou thern College, June 5, 1'9.25. The Cumberland Presbyterian church, e re cte d at a cost of $75,000, was dedi cate d November 1, 1925. Rev. S H. Eshman delivered the dedicatory sern1on. Rev C. A. Raymond was install ed as pasto r of the First Presbytel'ian church November 23, 1925, Rev. C. I. Stacy, who had se ned the church for severa l year s, having resigned in January. S. M. Stephens, pioneer resident, died November 19, 1925, aged 62. The corner stone of the First Christian church was laid August 22, 1925, the parsonage having already been built. The bui lding was dedicated in May, 1 926, Rev. P. H. Mears be i ng the pastor. The stntcture cost about $ 65,000. The Pionett e Club was organized March 1?', 1926, as an outgrowth of the Business and P rofessional Women's Club, twent y young ladies having been invited as guests of th e latter organization on the date mentioned. Miss Vesta Todd wa s the first president; Miss Reva Fletcher, vice-president; Miss Roberta Beauchamp secretary; Miss Elma Robson treasurer. The congregation of the Chur c h of Chri s t completed a church buildin g in June, 1926. The structure with furni s hin gs cost about $2 0,000. Rev. T B. Thompson was pastor at the time. Anton Sc hne ider resigned as City Manager April 30, 1927. During his ad ministration the greater part of the city's extensive program o f imp rovement s wa s originated, and much of it completed He was succeeded by D. B Kibler, who held the position for a year, resignin g iri April,. 1928, because of impaire d health ). F. Council has since filled the position of City Manager. In 1925 there was much expansion of public improvements. Many miles of paving were provided, a group of fine municipal buildings, including the mag nificent hospital, were erected ; public utili t ies were la r gely extended This pro gram overlapped into 1926, and is only at t his time ( 1928 ) wholly completed The same comment may also be applied to individual activities. Building permits ran into the millions. Among buildings erected during the period was the ten-story Marble Arcade; the Florida Hotel ; the Peninsular Telephone building ; the Succes s Furniture Co. building; the OatesCor ley building; many lesser business struc ture s, and hundreds of residences, many of them of a ver)' high type. During the years 1924 -25, Lakeland like practicaUy all the communities in the State was affected by what is known as the Florida boom. Previous to that time, growt h bad been steady and sub stan tial; but with the influx of great number s of people, mostly intent upon speculative operations, a hectic condition resulted, whi c h affected old re sidents as well as newcomers. Proper t y was bought and so ld without consideration of actual valu es, but with the sole i dea of speedy re-sal es at a profit. The sudde n increase of population strained tl1e capacity of public utilities, housing fa cilities, etc., an d heavy bond were floated to make provision for the abnormal demands Public improvements on a large scale were launched; and the building program, already active was speed ed up until an average of three buildings, or e v en more, were completed every 2! hours. In tlte latter part of

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116 HISTORY OF POLK COUN'fY, FLORIDA 1925 a slowing up in the real estate market wa s noted, and earl y in l 926 it became evident that the era of wild speculatio n had become a thing of the past. The sudden c e ssation of real activities was at once reflected on all line s of busi nes s, and both individuals and the com munity as a whole, awoke to the fact that over -optimism had resulte d in ove r -building and general o ver-expan sion. D uring the p eriod ind icated, bond issues for paving, se werage and other pub lic im proven1ents ran int o the millions; sco res of sub-div i s ions, many of which had no logical reaso n for existence, we re platted and put o n the market; and many business structu res and hundreds of dwellings were erected in anticipation of the demands that in the beginning o f the boom period, were imperative. Inevitably, this reacti on created considerable dep ression; but the net result obtained is that Lak eland has improvements that make i t a complete and up-to-da te city, in addi tion to all its 11atural advantage s, which are as outstanding now as before the boom. Irresponsible spec u l ators, "bi nder boys" and flyby-nigh ts have disap peared. The substantial citize nry ha s lo s t none of its confiden ce in the city's future, and co n ditions are steadily tending toward the n o rmal state of steady and permanent growth, based on real values and undisputed advantages. Lakeland Chambtr of Co"mtrct.-Numerous attempts to maintain an efficient Board of Trade in Lakelan d met with the resul t s usual in all small communitiesthe movement would Hare up for a while, soon to die down and the spark of civic ambition would then be k ept alive by a few patri otic citiz ens until fanned i nto flame by some new imp ulse. This co ndition obtained until 1912 when the first real organizatio n wa s accom plished, and a full-tim e sec retary empl oyed. A. J worthy was chose n for t his position, and for nearly ten years !Je labored tireless l y and unselfishly, doing a work for community advancement the effect s of which it is impossible to estimate. In 1921, failing health caused him to resign, and Thomas J. Apple yard was chosen to succeed him. Mr. Appleyard served abl y and success f ully for three years and was inst rumental in some noted civic a ccompli s hments, amon g which may be noted the securing of the Carpente rs Home, the erect ion of the T errace hotel and the initial conc eption of the Civic Ce nter. H e resigned to engage in other b usines s in August, 1924, D. Hodson Lewis s u cceeding him, and also making an efficient and popular secretary. Mr. Lewis resigned late in 1927, and shortly thereafter Hen ey W. Laird was installed in the position, and he is at this time giving splendid service to the o r ganization and the community. Ira W. Hopper is presid ent of t he orga n izat ion, and among others who have ser ve d in t h i s connection in the past are. E. R. Bentley, E. L. Mack. C. E. Todd, W. W. Cha se, H. D. Mendenball, John F. Cox, C. 0. P in c h, Dr. S. F. Smith, W K. Jackson, John S. Edwards. 'fhe Chamber at this time is fun ctionin g smooth ly and effectively, and is doing much to further the interests of the communit y. Carpmurs and Joiners Home. Announcement having been made that the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America were contemplating the establishment in Florida of a National Home for aged and disabled members an effort was l aunched by th e citizens head ed by the C hamber of Commrce, to secure the locatio n of thi s i n stit ution at Lake land. In July, 1923, W. L. Hutc he son, general president; Frank Duffy, national secretary; and Thomas Nea le

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Carptnftrl' HIJmt Ntllr Lalulnnd. LtJutf'-Ont of Soslllurn Colleg,'s BuiJd;ngs, Ld,fand.

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PART I-NARRATIVE !17 national treasu rer, v isited Lakeland and wer e s hown t he s uggested s it e b y t h e com mittee in ch a r ge. T h e execu tive commit tee of the B r oth e r hood c arne to in spect the pro po s ed IO<:ation on Decembe r 3, an d on December 1 5, announcement was of th e pu rc h ase by the B rotherhood of a tract of 1,700 acres of l and just north of the ci t y, at a price o f approximately $'700,000 Much credit for the successful culmination of this matter was given to J. J. Haldeman, who worked out the details and conducted the negotiations, visiting Indianapolis to confer with the organization heads. In 1926 work on the imp r o vements was begun, and the i n itial unit will be co mplete d a n d dedicated on O c tober 2, 1928 at w h ic h time th e Nat iona l Conven tion of the organ iza ti on w ill a s semble in sess i on at t h e H ome. This first unit will be the result of the expe n dit ure of at l eas t o n e m illion d o llars, and w ill comp ri se th e magnifi c en t Home bu ilding proper fully and sp l e ndid l y eq ui p ped, a power h ouse, a la undry building and equi p m e nt, a unique and beau tif u l water tower etc. The p resent Home makes provis i o n for 400 re side nts, but it i s d e signed to serve many others, the ultimate plans being that it shall serv e as the center of eighty bungalows or residences grouped about the beautifully landscaped grounds over looking Lake Gibson, and surro un ded by hundreds of ac res o( o r ange groves, whi ch are i ncl u ded in the holdi ngs o f t he o r ganization. The E lks' Home. L akeland Lodge No. 1291, B. P 0. E., w as organited October 24, 1912, in t he hall of the Groo v er-Morgan building (no w B u chanan's Hotel). There w ere 35 c harter members, an d t h e foll o w ing were t h e first officers: Exalted Rule r, 0. M. Eato n ; Esteemed L eading Knight, H D B assett; Esteemed L o y a l Knig h t 0. S. Van Huss; Esteem ed Lectur ing Knig h t, H. J. Drane; Secre t a ry, Geor ge Moore; Treasurer, T H. Monk; Esquire, E. F Bailey; Tyler 'f. B. O'Steen ; Inner Guard, E. G. Alexande r ; Chaplain, H. L. Swatts. The Elks' Club was incorporated in January, 1917, as t.'le preliminar y step toward building a Home. O n Ma r ch 28, 1917, a contract was l e t to Logan Bros., of Tampa, for a building t o eos t $ 35,800, in accordance with plans that had been prepa red b) Bonfoey & Elliott, o f Tampa. The t ota l c os t including furnishi n gs, w a s abo ut $75,000. T h e E lks met for the firs t time in the new Hom e on Janua ry 10 191 8 T h e cor n e r stone was laid Ma rc h 29, the honor of pla cing the s t o n e in position falling to D r. F. D. B ryan, who was Exal t e d R uler a t th e time. Ass i s ting i n th e ceremony were Di s trict D ep uty Grand Exal ted Ruler 0. M. Eaton, Past Exa l t ed Ruler M. F. Heth erin gton, Esteemed Leading Knight W. S. Irvin, Esteemed Loya l Knight Joseph LeVay $teemed Lecturing Knight A. C. Jones, Esquire T. B. O'Steen, Chaplain L. W. Yarnell, Secretary W. L. King, Acting Tyler W. J. Merrill, Inner Guard G. J. Trimble, Trustee A. J. Holworthy and Guy Toph and J.D. Wadkins. The bnilding was formally opened A pril 3, 1918. Over 2,000 persons atte nded, it b ein g on e of the most brilliant so cia l e v en ts in the city's his t ory, a nd the E l ks' Hon1e ha s eve r si n c e been a cen ter of sociabi l i t y and hos pita lit y The build i n g committtee con s isted o f M F Hethe rington, Chairman ; W. L. Kin g T. B O 'Stccn, F. D. Br y an, and 0. M. Eaton The Lake l an d l odge of E lks h ad 8 7 o f its member s i n Worl d War service. It has enter t ai n ed t h e State Conven ti o n of Florida Elks twice-i n 1 920 and in 1926.

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118 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Morrell Me m.orial Hospital.-On March 'l', 1914, the will of Mrs. F. A. Mor rell was made public giving certain property on South Missouri avenue to the city for the purpose of providing a hospital to be known as Morrell Memorial Hos pital :Mrs. Morrell was a lady of much charm and culture, who had made her home here for several years. To carry out the provisions of this bequest, a bond issue, voted October 'l', 1914 included an item of $15 ,00 0 for building and equipping the hospital. P l ans drawn by A J. Poteet were accepted November 1, 1915; the contrac t for the building was l et to E C. Angell at $12,500 December 1 4, 1915. The comer-stone was la id February 24, 1916, and the hospital was opened for service on August 11. Organizations and individuals assisted in the purchase of furnishings and equipment The first operation was performed August 15, 1916, by Dr. Duffy, assisted by Drs. Groover and Love. The hospita l served for about ten years until the present fine Morrell Memorial hospital was completed in 1926. Lakeland Lakes.-Lake Parker was named for Streety Parker who formerly liv ed on that la!nce called "Israel's Dish," though by whom so named or whv, cannot now be learned-given it s present name because of the fact tha t the Union line from Ocala to Punta Rassa f ollowed the old "wire road," and crossed this lake; Lake Beulah, for Miss Beulah Wen tz, an attractive visito r ; Lake Bonnet, because of the "bonnets" or water lilie s on the surface of the lake; Lake Mirror, first known as Deep Lake, then called Bushy Lake, and finally named Mirror because objects were s o perfectly reflected on its waters. Lakes Gibson and Hancock were also named for old settlers, who, like Parker, Hollingsworth and Boney, were Indian fighters. C elebrities.-Lakeland claims at least four citiz.ens of nationa l prom inence. Three of them being m en, they will probably not object to first place in the group being accorded to Miss Ruth E l der, who on October 11 and 12, 1927, thrilled the world with ber "glorious failure" in attempting to fly across the Atlan tic Her co-pilot in the attempt, George W. Haldeman, reared in Lakeland, is an outstandi n g figure in the world of aviation. Senator Park Trammell, f ormer Governor of F l orida, now United States Senator and Hon. H. J. Drane, now entering upon his seventh term as representative in Congress from the First Florida distr ic t are men of high standing in the Nation's councils Wonum's Clubs.-The first woman's club in Lakeland seems to have been the Lotus Club, established in 1900, tho u gh there were some literary and social groups that came and went prior to that time. The Lotus Club, however, seems to have been active for more than a decade. The origina l members were Mrs. E. J Bowyer, Mrs. C. M. Marsh, Mrs. Alice Saunders Mrs. L. W. Cowdery, Mrs. W. R. Groover and Mrs. A B. Lovell. There is a record in 1908 of the presi dency of Mrs Morris G. Munn other members at that time being Mrs A. B: Brown, 11-frs. A. R. Bond, Mrs. L. W. Cowde ry, Mrs. W. R. Groover, Mrs. A. B. Lovell, Mrs. McKay, Mrs. Orme, Mrs. George M Wright, Mrs. Par k T r ammell

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PART I-NARRATIVE 11 9 Mrs. N. A. Riggins, Mrs. P. H. Fuller, Mrs. H. J Drane. Other names found on the membership r oll at vari ous time s were those of M rs. \\1. l\.f. Boswell, Mrs Sage and Mrs W. K. Jackson. The present Woman's Club was organied March 1 4 19 1 2 when fourteen l ad ie s met at the home of Mrs. S. T. F l etcher. Mrs. Earl May was chosen pre si dent; Mrs. R. R. Sullivan, secretary; Mi ss Julia E t ta Pat terson, treasurer. Ot her members at this initial meeting were Mos. Ca rl Bru s h, Mrs. H. D Mendenhall Mrs. H. C. Stev ens Mrs. F. E. Ohlinger, Mrs C. A Cole, Mrs. S. T. Flet c h er, Miss Annie Browning, Mrs. G. E. Southard, Mrs. John Patterson Mrs. W. D. Edwards. The Club was federated in 1912; a ffiliated with the county federati on in 1921, an d with the General Federati on in 1924. I t was hostes s to the State Convention of \illoman's Club s in 1 914, and sponsor ed the Congres s o f Woman's Clubs at th e Pol k Count y Fair in 1925. The C lu b's motto is: "In great things Unity; in small things, Liberty; in all things, Charity." The Club colors are green and gold. The Club has done much good work for community betterment and for years it maintained the first an d only library in the city se r ving the public On May 30, 1 923, the Club purchased a lot over lo oki ng Lake Morton at a cos t of $4,000. The lot wa s paid for du rin g the two years of Mrs. Maude Gard ner' s pres idency. In 1927 it was decided to build a Club House Work wa s begun in July of that year, a nd th e corne r-stone was laid on Augu st 16. The building was ready for use in the fall of 1927, being formally dedicated M arch 14, 1928. 'l'he cost of the structure was $18,000. I t was built during the incumbency a s president of Mrs. Joshua Graham. Those who ha v e served the organi zat i o n as presidents are Mrs. E. C. May, Mrs. E. C. Angell, Mrs. J. W. Scarr, Mrs. Geo. M. W ri g h t, M r s. G. E. Southard, Mrs. Guy W. T oph, Mrs. W W. Chase, Mrs. A. W. K rau se, Mrs. W. D. E dwards, Mrs. Eleanor Allyn, Mrs S. E. Jones, Mrs. Pau l Gardner, Mrs. W B. Sewell, Mrs. Joshua Graham, Mrs. W. J. DeLoach. The Sorosis Club was organized March 27, 1922, Mrs. George M. Wright being the founder. Mrs. William Steitz was t he first president; Mrs. W. F. Sneed, vicepresident; Mrs. N. A. Riggins, secretary; Mrs. E. J. Bowyer, trea surer. Other charte r members were Mrs. L. W. Cowdery, : Mrs. George M. Wrigh t, Mrs. W. S. Irvin, Mrs J. B. Hannah, Miss Helen Cochrane, Mrs. Estelle W h itted, Mrs. George Peterkin, Mrs. W. D. Edwards. The club was affiliated with the Polk County Federation June 14, 1922. O n March 14, 1928, the Club dedicated it s magnificent new Club Hou se, erected at a tota l cost, including f urn i s hings, of $75,000. Those who have served the Club in t he c apaci t y of president are Mrs William Stei tz, Mrs. E J. Bowyer, Mrs N. A. Riggins Mrs L. W. Cowder y and Mrs. W. F. Sn eed. The Club motto is: "Not for Ourselve s, but for Others." C olors, purple and go ld; C l ub flower golden rod. Co,.pany D .-On the night of November 23, 1914, twenty young men met at the City Hall to consider the organioation of a milit ary company. The Governor accepted the application for the enlistment of a company of State troops in Lake-

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120 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA land. The company was mustered in on the night of June 30, 1915, by Major Collins, of the 2nd Florida regiment. There were 75 members. William Steitz was elected captain and C. A. Wills was elected first lieutenant. Later Egbert Lusk was elected second lieutenant and Morgan Groo\er was appointed first sergeant. With the appearaoce of the Mexican war cloud, the company was called t o service, and le ft for Black Poi n t, near Jacksonville, on J u ne 21, 1916. They were given an ovation on departing. Company D was the first Florida company mus tered into the service of the United States. It re mained at Black Poin t t hree months, entraining for the Mexican border October 2, 1916. The company was s tationed at Laredo, Texas. Returning, the soldiers reached Lakeland March 19. 1917, and were warmly welcomed, and tendered a banquet. The company was called for service in the World War on August 5, 1917 and at 7 o'clock on the morning of September 16 the members entrained for Macon, a great throng assembling to see them off. They were stationed at Camp Joe Whee ler until sent overseas News of the arrival i n France of a number of the soldiers was received in La ke land July 6, 1918. The Officers while at Camp Wheeler were: William Steitz, captain; C. A. Wills, fir st lieutenant ; Ossian W. Drane, second lieu tenant; Frank E Was hburn, first sergeant; William T. Gibbons, supply sergeant; W ill J. McLain, mess sergeant; Shelton W. Meharg, William A. Hardaker, L. V. Lewellin, sergeants. Lakekmd Civic Center.-The outstanding municipal improvements of Lake land are included in what is known as he r Civic Center. This great accompi.ish ment, practically completed, was ded icated with impressive ceremonies July 4 1928, Governor-elect Doyle Carlton being the speaker of the occasion. In the presentation of the workto the city, the following description written by S H. Farabee, editor of th e Vzckewnd Ledger and Star-Telegram, was used, the manuscript, enclosed in a leather case, being presented by City Manager J. F. Council, and accepted on behalf of the city by Mayor-Commissioner W F. Reid : "Although the idea of a dvic center on Lake Mirror had been germinating in the minds of many Lakeland people for years, it was not until 1923 that this vision assumed definite form '!'he late Thos. J. Appleyard, manager of the Chamber of Commerce, advocated it vigorously, and an election called by the city commissioners result ed i n its ap p rova l by an overwhe lmin g majority. "The city acquired business property along Massachusetts avenue and pur chased th e Jones grove on the southeastern side, eleven acres between the lake and Orange street. The late Chas. Wellford Leavitt, la ndscape architect, was called from N ew York to put the idea into blueprints and specifications. "He planned a gracefully curved seawall along the northern and southern sides of the lake w it h a pretentious st r ucture at the foot of Massachusetts avenue. Here a loggia with rest rooms was erected, the lo ggia itself carry in g two grea t columns adorned with cluster lights. Ac ross the lake from this point is a smaller orname n tal construction, likewise bearing columns and cl uster lights. A white way e xt ends all around the lake.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 121 "From the J o nes grove to the loggia i s a wide pro menade followin g the s hores of the la ke From M assac husetts avenue M ain street was ext end ed in a gracefu l c urve to Ro se s treet to the eastern side of the lake where East Ma i n was projected from L ake avenue. Thus, the motorist gets a comprehe nsive view of the whole as h e rides through the city from east to west. "All buildings in the civic center conlonn to the municipal plants on Massa chusetts hall auditorium, central fire s tation, almost butting the lake itself. The commodiou s ::11orrell Memorial hospital and nurses' home, a mile to the north, conform to the general plan. "The arti st saw Lake Mirror, w i th wooded buildings on one side and high grass and weeds along it s edges and converted it i n to a t h ing of beaut y and a place for recreat ion and pleasure. 1'he plans approved, Anton Schneider c ity manager, in 1926 emp l oyed J. W. Br ad ner, young enginee r to see that they were carried out. 'rhe work, intmsted to H. B. Trauger and I. B Purdy in two separate projects, was performed faithfully, and all city officials cooperated loyally in mak ing the Civic Center approach the actual conception of the designer. Concrete and steel were combin e d to enhance the natural beauty of the take front. Flowers, shrubbery and grass have been planted, playgrounds and equip ment are being placed in the Jones grove and club house and bandstand are under constr uct i on. The Amer i can Legion is to erect a memo rial buildin g in the grove. All bui ldin gs w ill confor m to the general plan of arc hitecture, essent ially Spanish. "The Civic Center deve lopment was pro j ected at a period when finances were p l entiful. It was e ected when times were normal, the result b eing that for a millio n dolla r s the city has obtained a projec t t hat many believed would cost three millions. "It is the most distinctive piece of architecture in America It is a combina tion of art with nature to develo p a beautiful picture, where one may rest or play or dream or think. LAKELAND NllWSPAPERS The first new spape r pub lished in Lakelan d was the Lakeland News, which was established by L. M. Ba llard who h ad moved his store from Medulla to the "new town on W i re Lake." He erected a two story buil d in g at the corner of Florida ave nue and Pine street, the first ftoor of which h e u sed as a gene ral store, the second floor being the quarters of the newspaper. Mr. Ballard purchased a few cases of second -ha nd type and an old Army press. The first number of the paper was issued June 1 0, 1884. Mr. Ballard was editor and D. W. D Boully, Jr., was publisher. C. D. Clough, who afterwards edited the LoU/mid Sun, was connected with the paper as "devil." Prof. G. A:. Crichet bought The Nt:ws from Capt. Ballard in Aug u s t 1885, and anothe r change is noted in April, 1887, when The News was sold to S. P. Watson & Com pany, A. W. Mabbett be coming editor. The name was changed t o The Florid a Crack e r in ; Ma y, and in July of the sam e yearS. P Watson & Co. so ld the paper to the Lakeland Publis h ing Co. L. L. Bristow then became editor, and H. J. Drane was local editor. D. W. D Boully purchased an in terest in October, 1887. Alter this C. E. McMu l len was in charge for a time. Then, the paper was bought b y A. G. Muon,

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122 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA L. ]. J. Nieuwenkamp and E. H. Briggs, the latter be ing the editor in 1889. For a t ime the paper was called the Lakeland Advocate. In July, 1893, we find the newspaper ag ai n under the management of H. J. Drane and D. W. D. Boully, these gentlemen having leased it. Very soon there after B. M. Barrington of Arkansas, pu r chased Tile Cracke r and changed tbe name to the Lake Regum Sum. Another quick change was made i n two or three months B. M. Barrington retiring for the very good reason that the paper did not carry a single display advertisement of a Lakeland merchant. Mr. Barrington was persuaded to reconsider and to continue publication of the paper, the business men promising him better support. Evidently they did not make good their promise, for Mr. Barrington left a few weeks thereafter. It seems there was a temporary suspension, but in December, 1893, it was announced that Tile Sun would appear regularly therea fter, under the owners hip and management of H. J. Drane and D. W. D. Boully, with C. E. McMullen in charge of the mechanical end. In the wet and dry campaign preceding the election of April, 1894, the Lake Regi
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PART I-NARRATIVE 123 two or three years. In 1904 the Mme of the Polk County News was cha nged to The Lakeland News. About this time a Bartow paper commented that the Lakeland editors, Tomlin and Clough, got along like twin brothers. Ed.itor Clough was given a hat by an appreciative candidate, but he was not entirely satisfied, stating that he could also use a pair of breeches. In the latter part of 1904, M F. Hetheri ngton who, with B. B. Tatum, had been publishing the first daily paper in Miami, came to Lakeland to get out a special edition of the Lakeland News. Thi s was the first piece of community pub licity the town ever had. While preparing it, Mr. Hetherington decided to locate in Lakeland, and he bought the interest of R. R. Tomlin in March, 1905. A few months later he bought the inte rest of C. E. McMullen, and became sole owner. In 1906 C. D. Clough sold the ukela"d Stm to Park Tram m ell and J. V. Hutchingson. For a time Robert W. Ben tley was in charge of the paper, but the returns were unsatisfactory, and Mr. Bentley resigned to seek a position where the remuneration was more in keeping with his ability. Mr. Trammell had launched on a successful political career, and desired to dispose of The S1111, so in 1907 M. F. Hethe ri ngto n bough t the paper and consolidated it with The News . For the first time the news paper business in Lakeland was placed on a sub stantial basis, and The News grew and prospered. A linotype was insta lle d, the first in the interior of South Florida. Paper was bought in carload lots i n stead of by the bundle, as had been the system in vogue in earlier days November 1, 1911, Mr. Hetherin gton launched The Lakeland Eve>ung Tele gram, the first daily in Polk, if we except the temporary daily issue of the Bartow Courier-lnfortnJJ.t!t for three months d uring the Spanish-American war. The paper was a success from the start, Mr. Hetherington stating that from its first issue u ntil it was sold to Harry Brown, in 1920 it had been self-sustaining paying its own way at all times, and tha t not a cent had been borrowed from the bank for the pu,.Poses of its publication. In 1913 The Evening Telegram building was erected as a home for the paper by Mr. Hether i ngton and in April, 1914, a p.iblic reception was given, in the nature of a house-wanning, and hundreds of called to inspect.the building and plant. In 1915 a company was organized to publish a morning newspaper, which was called The Star. Dr. W. K. Piner, a minister and a very scholarly gentleman, was engaged as editor, and Royal B. Child was business manager. The paper did not seem to have been the result of popular demand, as after three or four months it went into bankruptcy, and suspended publication. Its difficulties were finally adjusted, and it resumed publication, Mr. Child retiring, however, and establishing Tfte Lakela>1
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124 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA conducted the St. Agu.sti11e Record In Sept ember, 1922, The Evening and Tile Star effected a consolidation, and the paper became Th
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CHAP'rl\R v. AUBURNDALE FROM such inf ormation a s can be obtained at this late day, it would appear that a man largely responsio le for the beginnings of development in the Auburndale section, and indeed i_!l Polk county and other parts of Florida, was William Van Fleet, who for many years preceding his death conducted a small business at Bartow. To begin with, about the year 18'/'l' there was a railroad wreck at Ashtabula, Ohio, in which a man named Alfred Pars low received severe injuries. In settle ment for his injuries t he railroad paid him $10,000. With this money he and his close friend, WiiJiam Van Fleet, came to Florida, and procured a charter from the State to survey and build a railroad This ultimately resulted in the construction of the first railroad through thi s section, originally called the Jacksonville Tampa and Key West railroad, which was built from Kis simmee to Tampa, and from Bartow Junction to Bartow, in 1883. The pioneering operations of Messrs. Parslow and Van Fleet extended over much of north central Polk, and they located and named many of the lakes. Lake Alfred was named for Mr. Parslow and Mr. Van Fleet conceived and worked out plan s for a wonderfully beautiful hotel; orig;nally intended to occupy a site on this lake, but Tampa interests s ucceeded in locating it at that place. When these men completed the railroad survey in 1880, they ret u rned to their home in Chicago, and while on this visit influenced the Fullers to come to Florida. Mr. Frank Fuller, a pioneer resident of Auburndale, has furnished u s an account of this migration, and ina sm uch as details of the circumstances attendant upon the coming of this family to the State are illuminative of conditions a t that time, we are g;ving the story in Mr. Fuller's own language: "My father had been stricken down with inflammatory rhe u matism, and was advised by the doctors to make a change of climate. Mr. Van Fleet's advice was Florida, always Florida, and the question arose in the family councils as to who should go with father. He couldn't take mother and sister, Loie, into a wilder ness; my brother was quite young, and it devolved upon me to accompany father to F lorida. I was at that time leader of an orchestra at a theater in Chicago. I gave up my position and came with father. The Florida climate was so beneficial to him that four months afterwards he and I went to Gainesville and homesteaded 160 acres each, having acquired informatioo from Mr. Van Fleet that enabled us to locate on the line of his railroad survey. Father's homestead was on the west shore of Lake Mariana, and I went a half mile inland and located all the land lying between Lake Mariana and Lake Bessie. And right here I wish to correct an error, which does me an i njustice I think. When I located my homestead this lake had no name on the government maps, so I named it "Bessie" for my little step-daugh ter, Bessie, who is now Mrs. Bessie Bryan, wife of Hon. Charlie Bryan, 125

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126 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA ex-governor of Nebraska. The old -timers here all call it Lake Bessie, and not Jessie--and if asked who gave it this name, you will be told that Frank Fuller named it in 188 1. "Now, jumping from leading an orchestra in a theater to a wildernes s where one ha d to rely on a shotgun and a fishing pole for meat, and would have to walk six or seven miles for a little cor n and sweet potatoes, a nd ca r ry these home on one's back, di dn't quite suit me, but for fa t her 's sake I stuck. The fine hun ting and fishing that was here was a big factor in inducing me to stay. I could go out any morning, and by noon I could be back with a nice deer, turkey or bear; and fishing I in twenty minutes I could catch sufficient fish to feed twenty people. We "!Ould t hrow back into the lake any fish weighing less than five pound s Father called these fish bass, as they greatly resembled the northern bass. "I must tell the great benefit experienced by father through t!>e glor ious climat e of Polk county. On arriving in Jack sonville, I had almost to carry him to the hotel. This was in December. In the l atter part of January we went to Gainesville to make entry of our homest ead and he could walk with assistance of a cane. The following May, we started for Polk county to locate and improve our claims. By this time fathe r had discarded his cane. Now, what I have to relate is almost beyond belief. We took deck passage on th e steamer to Sanford, an all-night journey f rom Jacksonville \Vhat little sleep we ,got was on a coil of rope, out on deck. Arriving at Sanford, we took a little narrow-gauge railroad io Kissimmee, which a t the time was as far as the railroad was buil t. Then we had forty miles to make the best way we could, so we started out. carrying about forty pounds each on our hacks. From Kissimmee we struck right out on our way to our homest eads. The first night out it rained on us all night. I thought the trip was done, on account of the exposure to which my father was subjected, but not so, for the next morning he was as fresh as I was, and full of go. We started out, and should I live to be a hundred old I will never forget that beautiful sunr ise. We had gone hardly more than 200 yards when a big flock of turke ys went by in. single file, and crossed the road not over .200 feet ahead of us, and never flew up. By this, one can realize bow wild the country was, for I don't those turkeys had ever heard a gun. We reached Lake Mariana next day. and found that we had been preceded a year by Drs. John and Hugh Pat terson, who were of great assistance in locating the lines to our property. V.'e made the necessary improvements-, and as the spring rains were over, we returned to Jack sonville, and this was a still harder trip than the one coming down for the s pring rain s had flooded the ftat roads and cre eks. We had a hard time s wimming Reedy Cree k and wading its marshes. When we arrived at the junction of the r oads, where one le d to Kissimmee, the o the r to Orlando, we concluded to go to Orlando-and that was sOme trip! That flat land between Kissimmee and Orlando was all under water, and we waded in mud and water from ankle to hip deep, for eleven of the twelve miles. We arrived at Orlando about four o'clock in the after noon, went to a hotel and changed clothes, and what we did to that hotel room was a scandal. The nig h t before we had camped in an o ld she ep pen, the only dry p lace we could find. I will never forget the sig ht when we to o k off our clothes-

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PART I-NARRATIVE 127 the air was absolutely b lack with ficas! I t hou gh t t hey were gnats at first, but no, just fleas we had gotten on us sleeping in that o l d sheep pen. Father's rheumatism had left him with a big running sore on the side of his leg, just above the a nkle. This sore was caused by him having rheumatism in former years, and had grown to t he size o f a silver dollar and had eaten into the bone. A bout two weeks after we had arrived in Jac ksonville he s aid to me, 'Frank, my sore is entirely well and has hea le d over' it was. The ou tdoor life, the climate; and wading those swam p s all day had cured him, not only of his rheumat ism, but of his rhe umatism sore as well. "When we returned to Florida, father and I kept a hote l and later we built a town, the largest between Kissimmee and Tampa, and named it Sanitaria. 'l'he railroad would not give us a station, but located it one mile west, and ca lled it Auburndale." The first i nci dent we find mentioned as of public interes t, centers about Patter son's store, on Lake Ariana, where on J uly 4, 1883, a barbecue and barn dance was given, and .290 persons attended-such a large gathering undoub te dly being drawn from a considerable area. In August, 1883, a p o stoffice was located at Patterson's store, and the name Sanitaria was given to the village Among those who were living in the vicinity, in addition to others who have been mentioned, were John H arris J. A. Voyle, J. E. Reeves, Daniel Moore Berrien Platt, H. Graves, H. Watkins, John Roberts, William Collins, G W Griffin F. W. Long. J. L. Bartle s, Lee R eeves, W. L. Patterson, R. R. Foote ] D. Torrence, J. H. Martin, J. W. Hampton, A. B. Newman and others Jvfax Myerson opened a store ''<:ith a hall above it in March, 1884. Although what development had been made in the vicinity was at Sanitaria, the railroad for some reason established its station one mile west, naming the station Auburndale. It is said the village was so named by Mrs. Pulsifer, wife of the publi sher of the B()S/.()11 Herald. Major Louis McLain, who supervised the building of t ha t portion of the railroad, was a friend of the Pulsifers, and he wrote them a glowing descrip tion of the place, and asked that they give it a name. M rs P ul si fer sugges t ed Auburndale, the name of her home town, Auburndale, Mass Late in 1884, the voting precinct was moved from Foxtown to Sauitaria There were rumors o f a contest on the part of a new station called Auburndale, although the l atter did not boast of a single house at the t ime. It seems that the railroad was stronger than the preferences of the people of the small community for early in 1887 we find the latter gathered about the new station, with a postoffice called Auburndale. The village then had several business houses. John Patterson, John Mullen, and C. W. Knapp had general stor es ; Joe P. \'Vilson operated a sawmill and a real estate office; L. C. Bowyer was in charge of the depot; Woodfin & Co. cond ucted a drug store; T. B Watkins was the post master,. carrying groceries as a sidel ine; and J W,'Hampton was the host at the Hampton House. Trucking Wi'S conducted on a considerable sca l e in the late eighties and early nin_e ties and the Auburndale section was cal led the home of the tomato. C. Irving Page was a real estate dealer in the early nineties ..

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128 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA The officers of Auburndal e Lodge, F. & A. M., elec ted i n December 1893, were J. A. Cox, W M.; B. F. Costine, S. W.; L. C. Bowyer J. W.; E. M. Howa rd, secreta ry ; E. M. Bay nard, treasurer. H. P. Walker was active in many lines, as teacher, lecturer and writer but in 1894 he was particularl y active in baseball. In a game at Winter Haven he was injured, and was rendered unconscious for an hour or more, but he made five run s before being knocked out. Not long afterwards he was struck on the arm in a game at Tampa, and disabled for a time. These mishaps did not prevent him from making a fine run for representative that fall, tacking only a few votes of election. He is sHU living on the farm near Auburndale which has been hi s home for so many yea rs. The Raymond Lumber Co. and the Raymond Railroad Co. inc orporated, with headquarters at Raymond, which was located a few mites nort h of Aubumdale . The incorporators were Cyrus Raymond, Peter M. Osborn, W. C Edmi s ton, Herschel P. Walker and G. Bert Raymond W. S. Preston who was later prominent in the life of the communit y and the county, arrived in September, 1894 . E. 0. Carver for a number of years operated a lumber and crate mill at what was then called Fitzhugh. His plant wa s targely gt'en over to the manufacture of tomat o crates, while this product was being grown so extensively in the locality. Auburndale had a library and free reading room quite ear ly in its existence. In 1895 it was believed that this library wa s farther sou th than any other like institution in the country. In August, 1895, it wos decided t o incorporate the Library Association, and the following officers were chosen: W. S. Ryall, presi dent; S. R. Walker vice-president; A. D. Bowyer, secretary; W. S Preston, treasurer; E. M Howard, L. C. Bowyer and K. N. Webb, directors A public library building was contemplated. In 1'895, the Auburndale Public School had forty pupils, L. C. Bowyer being the teacher; the town boasted of a good hand; Rev. Thos. C. Marshall wa s pastor of the First Presbyteria n church; and venison was reported plentiful and c)teap In Januar y, 1896, the Ladd sisters, two maiden ladies who had been vi c t lmized by being sold worthle ss land at Medora aroused the sympa thies of the people by their condition. Later they were pronounced crazy, but one o f t hem ended the dispute so far as she was concerned, by dying The other was sent to the county poorhouse, but "Miss Jennie" soon showed up again at Auburndale, having left the poorhouse and walked all tbe way back. The record is silent as to her further experiences, but it i s hoped that the kind people of the neighborhood cared for her properly. Mr. Zachery wa s appointed postmaster, and took charge of the office in April, 1896 Venison could be bought almost any day on the streets of Auburndal e in 1896. In January, 1897, it was planned to have the stree t s of Auburndale paved, or, more probably, clayed. A com mittee consisting of W. C. Edmiston, W. S. Pres ton, John Patterson Jr., E. M. Baynard, D. B. Cosby, E. M. Howard and S. B. McKean was appointed t o take charge of thi s matter.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 129 l,.oie Fuller, t hen enjoying fame and popularity as a dancer, visited the folks in the old home town in February, 1897, accompanied by her mother. She had paid a previous visit in 1883. Referring to his sis ter, Mr. Frank Fuller says: "I want to correct a story that ha s had quite a lot of publicity regarding Loie and her dancing in the old opera house at Sanitaria. This i s not true. At that time Loie was not dancing at all, and dancing did not enter her career until years after her visit to us and Florida. Loie was an actress, engaged with such people as Aldrich and Parslo Nat Goodwin, Frank Mayo, an d others equally prominent. She created the serpe ntine dance, the dance that made her world-famous in New York City in 1891. In 1892 she went to Paris, and she made her ho me in Paris until she passed away January 2, 1928." In the Legislature of 1897 Auburndale furnished a r epresentative-and a good one-in the person of Prof J. A. Cox. Auburndale had one negro in 1897. Even in the non-prohibition days of 1897 t hey were mak ing moonsh in e in the Auburndale section. Sweet potatoes and Florida syrup formed the basis for the beverage, which was said to ha,e been "villianous." An Auburndale correspondent, in 1898, declared that Capt. John Patterson had "more friends and well-wishers than any other man in the county." Raymond postoffice, which had been discontinued, was reestablished in Febru ary, 1899, and Rev R. P. Owen was postmaster. In February, 1899 A. H Zachary resigned as postmaster of Auburndale and W. A. Sands was appointed to the office. Mr. Lincoln, who had been pastor of the Presbyterian church, resigne d in 1899. and he and his daug!1t ers started in May on an overland trip to Connecticut. They had three horses hitched to their "house-wagon", and carried a comp lete housekeeping outfit. They expected to be three months in reaching their desti nation. The Ford of today would be highly amused i f it could contemplate this trip. E. M. Baynard, long in the merchandising business at Auburndale, sold out in 1902 to A. E. Dickey. William Collins was shipping some fine fruit from his place near Auburndale in 1902, at which time he was eighty years old. and had been living in Florida fifty years. In Nov ember 1902, there had been no death in the town of Auburndale for two years. A Board of Trade was organized in 1903. W. A. Sands was president, John Patterson, Jr., vice-president; Elmer E. Cline, secretary and treasurer. Mr. Cline had arrived not long before and had established the Cline Engineering Co. Mrs. \'1. C. Edmiston made guava jelly on a large scale, and it was a very su perior article. In 1903 Auburndale established a "color line", which had a radi us of ;t quarter of a mile from the railroad station, which was then the exact center of the town. No colored person was allowed to live i n the area bounded by this line.

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130 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Auburnda l e was exci te d in July, 1904, over a factional fight concerning a new fence that had been put around the Park. The old one had fallen into decay, and the habit of making shor t cut s acros s the Park had been formed The Board of Trade and the railroad company had a new fence put up but this displeased those who had been accustomed to enter the Park from the various openings of the old fence, and at night unknown parties sawed openings in the new fence to suit themselves. Rev J. K. Nutting was pastor of the Presbyterian church in 1905. Col. R. R. Foote died May 19, 1906 at Auburndale. He had lived in the Auburnda le section since 1886, having taken up a homes tea d on Lake Arietta, where he .died. He assisted in the survey of the South Florida railway and all the lands around Auburndale. He and his son-in-law, \'11\illiam Van Fleet, named most of the lakes in the vicinity of Auburndale. A. E. Dickey and others petitioned the county commissioners to close t he streets, avenues, and alleyways of the former town of Sanitaria, in 1907 The petition was granted, saving and e xcepting Central avenue. The Club House, on the east shore of Lake Ariana, received its first visitors the week of December 20, 1908. It was called the Seminole Club, T. H McRorie being the promoter. In Februa ry, 1909, this Club House was enjoying excellent patronage under the management of Col. J. H. A. Bruce formerly of Lakeland. The State Bank of Auburndale was organized in May, 1912, \vith a capital stock o($15,000. W. S. Ryall was president; A. J. Mobley, first vice-president; C. M. Clayton, se cond vice-president; Fred O'Doniel, ca shier A bank building was erected. A schoo l site was chosen at Auburndale in May, 1913 on Ariana Heights, this being a free gift from Capt. John Patterson. The location was selected by a vote of the people. Practically the entire bus'iness section of Auburndale, with the exception of the State Bank building, was reduced to ashes November 23, 1913. The fire started in the H. P. Walker building. The los s was estimated at $50,000, with insurance of only $3,000, this being due to the high rate of insurance at that time $16 per thousand It was a great calamity, but there was an amusing incident in connection with it. Services were being held at the :Method ist church, and ex Marshal Cro sby appeared at the door, and rai sing his hand, called out: "Mr. Preacher, I don't want to interrupt your sermon, but the whole d-town is burning up." Until recent years Auburndale had enjoyed only a gradual though steady growth. In the period since 1924, however, development has been marked, a hal f million dollars or more havin g been expended for civic improvemen t s. A com. plete network of paved streets has been constructed; the Auburndale Power & Light Co. has extended its service; there is a liwe Chamber of Commerce ; an active Woman's Club; five flourishing churches, and other social and welfare organiza tions. Additional school building's were provided in 1915 and 1923, and more recently $70,000 wa s e xpen ded in further additions to the school facilities. The advent of the Seaboard Air Line railway gives the transportation advantages of

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PART I-NARRATIVE 131 two main line rail roads All these things conspire, with na tural beauty o f environ ment, to make Auburndale a most attractive and up-to-dat e littl e city. Auburndale N ewspapers.-As early as 1888 we find reference to a newspaper published in Auburndale, called the Aitb l!rtuiale News. A newspaper of another town refe rred to The N ews as "small, but full of good reading, with plenty of typographical errors." In 1893 Auburndale had a newspaper known as the Polit ical Educator. I t is evident from the name its purpose was t o educate its readers along s ome line of political thought, and there are indications that it favored t he policies of. the Farmers' Alliance, which was active in this section at that time. Its life was short, as late in the same year it was mov ed from Auburndale to Ocala.. where it merged with another paper and became a populist o rgan Earl Chapin May, who is now a frequent con tri butor to the leading magazines, established the A"bumdale Herald, in 1912. L. J. Urlwiller and E. E. Cline pub lished the At4b!Jdale New Era in 191 4, John G. Hanna taking charge in 1915. Later, the paper was called The News . George F. Gale conducted the Advocate in 1917, publication being discontinued in April, 191 8 The News was established in 1923 by Harry Corneal, who is still in charge of the publication. The Auburndale llmrnal is one of the Smith Pub lishing Co.'s chain of publications-the town also being served by the Tri-Ci ty Times, published at Winter Haven by J. G. Metcalf.

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CHAPT>:R VI. SOCRUM AND KATHLEEN TH Socrum settle ment i s one of the two oldest communities in the county, there being some doubt as to whether Socrum or Fort Meade has the sen iority. As early as 1850 there were a few families in the neighborhood. The Friers, the Hancocks, and the Sloans seemed to have been among the earliest settlers. The first white child born in the county is said to have been J R. Frie r, who is still Jivlng, being now a resident of Longwood, in Orange cout1ty. The date of his birth was June 18, 1850. He is an uncle of D. H Sloan and father-inlaw of Rev. L. W. Entzminger, a former pastor of the Lakeland Baptist church. J. J. Lewis, father of A A. Lewis, and grandfathe r of Henry Lewis, was among the very earliest settlers, and he is said to hav e built the first dwelling house in Bartow. M. D. Raulerson Asbury Robertson ; Alonzo Robertson, M .C. Fortner, and ]. D. Poppell, were among early residents of the section. John Bryant, patriarch of the large and prominent family of that name, came from Columbia county and located near Socrum in 1862. He was the father of eleven children, and, at the time of his death in 1903, he had nearly 100 grandchildren. There were 37 regis tered voters bearing the name of Bryant in the Kathleen precinct in 1901. Hon. D. H. Sloan, who was born in the Socrorn section, in referring to these early days, says: "I never saw a cook stove until I was nearly grown. The cook ing was do ne in heavy pots in open fireplaces. Most of the clothing we wore was made of cloth woven on theold-time loom, and it was sewed by hand-there were no sewing machines. There were no sawmills. The houses had split puncheon floors, and there were split boards for doors, roofs, and all. There were no wire or plank fences, but split boards, nailed lengthwi se or upright, on rails that were also split, were used to enclose pastures or yards. People drove in ox or horse carts or wagons-there were very few buggies-often ten miles or more to and children often walked several miles to school over pig trails, wading branches or creeks. Sometimes it was necessary to swim the horses for those on horseback to reach the church; now, if the church is further than just around the corner, some think they cannot go unless a car is provided. People then sat for two hours listening t o the sermon and were not tired, but now thi _rty minutes is con sidered too lo ng, though hours at a picture show is not long enough. Of course, those good old days didn't have all that was good, nor does the presen t have all that is evil; but we didn't have short skirts then, or many divorce suits; no lip-stick painted cheeks, but cheeks that were rosy from plenty of open-air exercise with occasionally, maybe, a little red pokeberry juice smeared on the cheeks. I was about to forget the bulged and hooped skirts, and the now ridiculous bustle. Oh, well every day and time has its charm, its ridiculous aspects, its good, its bad, its joys, its sorrows." In 1881, civilization had not made very great i mpress upon the wild life of the section. Hiram Bryant, of Foxtown, was attacked by an alligator as he was 182

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PART INARRA'riVE. 133 crossing a stream; and \>Villiam Collins, who lived not far distant had to defend his home from a wildcat wh ich dis puted his ownership, and put up a good fig ht. A neighbor at the time declared that this fight with the wildcat did Mr. Collins more good than a dozen preachers would have accomplished. There was a debating society in that section in 1881--Qr, perhaps two of them. At any rate, Foxtown and Gapway were wont to meet in forensic battle. In September, 1 881, Mr. Browning died a t Foxtown, aged over 100 years. There was considerable trou b le in getting the planks or boards necessary to make his coffin. In July, 1882 0 J. Frie r after taking Miss Georgia V. Hayman as his bride at Bartow, returned to the Socrum neighborhood, and taught school at Socr um church. Mr. Frier, with A. A. Lewis, also taught a singing school at the church. A Mr. Robertson, about the same time, taught a school at Ebenezer Lodge, and Profs. Ege and Williams taught a singing school at the same p la ce. N. A. Cochran conducted a store at Lanier's mill for some time prior to 1883, later removing to Medulla, and engaging in bus in ess there. Socrum seemed to be a magnet for preachers, as in the Spring of 1883 Rev. \V. A. Bos twi ck, of Georgia; Rev Keith, of Texas, and Rev. Silas Turner, of the northern part of Florida, all located there. The two last named engaged in mer chandising a t Nathan Cochran's old stand Capt. R Bryant conduc te d the store near Socrum in t he ear ly eighties. He donated lands to the Baptist and Methodist churches, on which the people of these denominations placed church buildings. Kathleen and Socrun> may be considered as practically one community, aJ. though the former as a business poin t is younger, coming into existence with the advent of the railroad, and the establishment of the station. It is said that the town was named for Mrs. Catherine Prine, who moved to that section from Hills borough county when a small chi l d, and died there in August, 1916, a t t he age of 76. 'l'he first re ference to the place we find in print gives the spelling as "Cath leen." That was in 1887. At that time the community of Kathleen, exte nding to :&>crum, included many families which have later figured in the business, social and political life of this section. Among these residents at that time might be mentioned: H l\of. Frier, W H. Hancock, Orville Sloan J. W Lanier, G. A. Bryant, J. T. Poppell, Rowan Sapp, Dan Moore H enry Bryant, Rufu s Br ya nt, B elila Foote, J. J. Lewis, T. H. Bryan t A. A. Le wis, George Bryan t Tim O'Gara, Nutt Mizelle, L orenzo Bryant, Fred Miller, Rev. W W. B ostwick J. R. Frier, E. G. Wilder, Jasper Br yant, Emory Bryant, S. S. Nib l ack, Clater Sherhouse, J. W. Bailey, J J. Sutton, J. H. H ancock, J. W. Tucker, W H. Stafford, John Gavin, E S. Ma llory, etc. There was a Baptist and a Me th odist church, and a school house. C. G. Fletcher and family came from Georgia to Socrum in 1900. He con ducted a general store there for a number of years. Providence complained in 1900 that it had only one public road from Fox town to Pickpocket-but boasted of a fine school, where the pupils were studying

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134 H ISTORY OF POLK. COUNTY, .FLORIDA from "Latin all the way down to mileybright.'' Mr. Taylor, the teacher, was described as a "long keen, good one.'' In 1903 Strickland & Roberts bought a large tract of land in the Kath leen sec tion and established a lumber mill The firm conducted an extensive business there for nine years, closing its operations in May, 1912. E. G. Wilder was l ong a leading citizen of the section He died March 24 ; 1911. Kerfoot Bryant made the best yield of corn among 34 boys contesting from various parts of the county, according to the report of the county demonstration agent, in 1914. He obtained 56 bushels to the acre. Kathleen was incorporated in December, 1914. W A. Casebier was mayor; A. S. Keith, clerk; Henry Rutledge, marshal; W. Lanier, chairman of the council, and Messrs. Rose, G reen, Baldwin and Robinson, councilmen. In latter years there has been considerable increase .in the population of this section, the fine farming land s attracting many newcomers.

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Upper -Eatt llavnz, 1S(}5. Lo'f.r:er-S(lme .4ven u t 19z8.

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WINTER HAVEN T HI> earl y of Wmttt Haven, like those of other communities that slowly e volve from the wildern ess, are somew hat obscured b y the mists of the years. The first settler s in the s ection of the country that in cludes the present s it e of the now flourishing city, see m to hav e been the Boyds, the Jacksons, the Syke s and the Eycleshimers ; the se families being foun d on the sc ene as early as 1883 R. Q. Boy d was the head of th e family of tha t name, and his so n, W. F Boyd, now a prominent citizen of Winter Haven is the o nly pers on appar ently who wa s on the ground a t the date menti o ned. Winter Have n was laid ou t in 1885. Blount & Whitledge realtors of Bartow, owned most of the lands comprising the site of the proposed town, an d they had the clearing done. t he l ots staked and the street s lai d out. This work was done by M essrs. Bailey and Kennedy who were am ong the recent arrival s It is said that deer and other game would wander in to t h e n e wly open ed streets at night and numbers of these were killed. The first store seems to have been establi s hed by Hovey & Harris-it was F. A. K. Harri s, but we fail to find Hovey' s first n ame. T he buildin g was a "com bination s tore and public house"-presumab l y a lodging house-and it wa s erected in March 18 87. Henry Tandy is credited with conducting the first mer cantile business, and with having t he first teleph one, which for some years was the only telephone in town. Meanwhile, the railr oad bad been built from Bartow J unc tion (now Lake Alfred) through to Bartow. and a station was established at this point. It is sa i d t hat the 6 r s t r eligious services ever held in the community was held in the waiting room of the d epot by the Rev. M r Shives. 'rhe first c hur ch bui l ding was erected by th e Baptists. It was a small frame st ructure, built about 1886 or 1887, durin g the pastora te of Rev. Crozier For a time the Presbyt er ian s used the same buildi ng for their services, but erected a church of their own in 189 2, and the same year the Baptist church wa s r emode le d and enlarged. Thi s building served until the present handsome edifice was erected in 191.5, at a cost of about $30,000. The first school is said t o have been built o n the site of the present graded school, and opened in 1886, with Miss Bessie Walker a s There were seven pupils in attendance In 1909 an Annex was added to the schoo l build ing, '5 W Bryson having the contr aet. A fine new schoo l building was erecte d in 1916, a n d in 1922 a splendid Hig h School buil di n g was provided, to care for the rapidly growing demands, the school enrollment at th at time having reached 800 Dr. F. W. Inman was on the ground in 1 887, and he built a resid ence, t o which he added from time to tlme, until finall y he h ad the famo us Floren ce Villa Hotel o ne of the m ost noted hostel ries of Florida. W ork o n this building wa s done by A. B. Harrington, th e firs t of Winte r Haven' s builders. l35

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136 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA In 188'1, P D. Eycleshimer was raising strawberries extensively and there were a number of growers with good crops of tomatoes. Things were still a bit new, however, for one day in that year Robert Page shot a very fine buck deer only about a mile from town. In 1893, Dr. Inman was adding to his mansion. When the addi tio n was completed it provided 36 rooms, furnishing accommodations for 75 or 100 guests. Winter Haven had a canning factory in 1893, which canned considerable of g u avas and tomatoes, products which were grown extensively in that locality at the time. In 1893: H. W. Snell was merchandising in Winter Haven; T. A. Currie was successfully farming at Eloise, near by; A. B: Hughes bo1Jght out the mercantile business of R. H. Peacock & Co.; E. R Wharton was justice of the peace; erick W. Ohlinger was granted patents on two very ingenious inventions-one a fertilizer distributor, and the other a seed planter; F. H. Bevis patented the Bevis Transplanter ; and, in October,'the death of Rev. S. T. Wilson, who had been pastor of the Presbyterian church for five years, caused much sorrow. President H. B. Plant. of the Plant System, was among the distinguished people who visited Dr. Inman at Florence Villa in January, 1894, and he was surprised to find that his host had several acres in pineapples growing in the open without protection. Dr. Inman said there had been no frost that would kill a. tomato plant in the seven years that he had been living at Winter Haven, hence considered that region immune from frost. Later he was to learn that, though greatly favored by location, that section, as well a.s any other in Florida, has frost damage at some tlme. Wniter Haven was a great trucking center in those days, tomatoes, particu larly, being grown in large quantities. ]. B Briggs, of Kentucky, had one field of 300 acres in 1894. 123,000 crates of tomatoes were shipped from the vicinity in 1893-4. It wa.s sajd in 1895 that Winter Haven was the greatest shipping point for tomatoes in the world. Instances were recorded of sales as liigh as $13.33 a busheL T here were numerous sales at $10 per case of three pecks; an average price, however, wa s about $3.50 per crate. R. H. Burr, later State Railroad Commissioner, was appointed postmaste r of Winter H aven in the spring of 1895. In 1896. som e of the stree ts we re surfaced with Bartow clay; in March; :Miss M. L Verdier established the Lake Region Gazette, Winter Ha.ven's first news paper, which lived a year; and t he Florence Villa ha d its usual throng of guests. R H. Peacock was appointed postmaster in 1896, but the matter was held up and Charles G. \'\Tilson became postmaster. There was a broom factory i n 1897, operated by Mr. Seel ey. Henry Tandy had the contract for .. carrying the Eloise mail, at $225 a year.. J. R. Davis was raising fine crops of truck, la rgely eggplant, at Eloise, near by. in 1898; and in 1899 there were large shipments of peaches made from Winter Haven T he peach industry grew to such propo rtions that i n 1900 Dr. Inman was shipping fine fruit by the ca rload.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 137 In 1899, the record notes that "F. A. K. Harris kiUed an old settler last week." However, as further along reference i s made to the old s e ttler's" rattles, the s to ry is not as bad as it first appears. Ric hard Klemm's n urscli es were in successf ul operation in 1900. The beauty of its surrotmdings, and the excellence of its management, were attracting many guests t o Florence Villa. The fine hostelry was filled in the season of 1901. There were nearly 300 acres o f groves connected with the property, through which the guests were allowed to wander at will. During the season of 1901 it was said that every citizen and near l y every resident was a pro duce r, and the section surrotmding mark ete d more t han any other in the county. Amo n g the more successful shippers were Col. L. B. Boyd and his sons, W. F and T. J. In 1901, Winte r Haven was host to the rest of the county at a big Fourth of July celebration. Bob Bryson was manager for the day, and Boyd s Hall was the headquarters. There was a barbecue, spee ch es, and sports of all kinds. The Winter Haven Social Club was at the head of all social activities at this time. A postoffice called Wahnita was established at Florence Villa in 1901. Robert Bryson opened a real estate office in 1902. H. W. Snell e stablis he d a general merc h andise store in 1903 with W at son D. Yonally as manager. This made three stores in winter Haven at t hat da t e Winter Haven had a destructive fire April 16, 1903 I n fifteen minutes after the alarm a dozen business houses and residences were in flames, among thein Boyd's Hall. the old Parker store building, and the store of H. W. Snell & Co., in which the postoffice was loc ated The store of F. A. K. Harris was saved by the heroic work of the bucket brigade, some thirty in number. The depot, the Baptis t church and Henry Tandy's store were in .hnger, but were saved. The loss was in the neighborhood of $10,000, with insurance of l ess than one -fourth of that amount. The were of an unsubstantial character and the fire resulted, as is usua l in growing conuuunities, in great impro vement. By mid summer the bu rne d buildings had been rep lace d by much better ones, incl udin g a store h ou se for H. VI. Snell & Co .. in which the postoffice was located. Winter Haven had a big celebration July 4 1904, addresses being delivered by Rev. D. A. Dodge and Judge C. A. Boswell. W. H. : McLean was in charge of the arrangements In Winter Haven was building a new hotel; many people of wealth in the nortli were being attracted to th e community; Robt. H. Bryson was booster in-chief. Dr. D A Dodge, who served the Presbyte rian church for years, left for the West in May. 1905 A reception was tende re d the minister and his wife, and an elegant go ld-h eaded cane was presented the Doctor by P. D. Eycle sh imer on behalf of the congregation. Rev. James Winnard, of Hamilton, Illinois, succeed e d Dr. Dodge. In Augus t, 1905, Dr. Inman added 43 rooms to the Florence Villa hotel. In April, 1906, he sold the hote l and 695 acres of land to the Florence V ilia Hotel Co.

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138 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA T he W inter Haven brass band. organized in 1905, had Prof. McLean, of Auburndale, as leader, and the following members: H. W. S n e ll, E. C Howard, E L McLain, C h as. G r eenwood, Duval Gates. W. F. Johns t on, De ll Drawdy. Israel johnson Clarence Eycleshimer, Earl Haskins and R. H Bryson. A Method ist chu rch congregation was organi zed in December, 1905, t he Bishop having appointed Rev. T. J. Fink as o rganizer and fir st pastor. A small wooden build ing was early erected and in t his the congregation worshipped until the pastorate of Rev. H. C Barnett i n 1914 and 1915, during which a handsome brick edifice was built at a cost of $16,000. A b r ick parsonage was also built at the same t ime, and, in 1921, a Sunday School building was erected in the rear of the parsonage At a meeting held at P l an t City to o r ganize the Florida Growers' Co., Winter Haven was chosen as headquarte r s of t he organization 1 osiah Yam, Bradentown, was president; J. W Sample, Bartow, vice-president, and R. H Peacock, Win ter Haven, secre t ary. In 1907 the Winter Haven Co-ope r ative Store was building a business hou se with hall above; Mrs F. A K. Harris, whose store had been b u rned, had reb u ilt, and had opened with a fine new stock ; J. N. Ac k ley was co n ducting the Lakeview hote l ; Dr. S . H Woods. l ate of Fort Meade. had opened a new drug store; Bowen & Smi t h had a grocery and ma rket; Henry Tandy's big store was doing a thriving business; W. \V. Mann, besides h is mai n business house, h a d opened a furniture store; Roger Lyl e's feed store was under t b e management of Volley Hallman; and L. S Wharry had let the contract for a n e w hotel. In 1908 t h e P r esbyteri a ns who had built a church in 1 892, erected an Annex for Sunday Schoo l and community welfare purposes. T J. Bingham died at Eagle Lake February 27, 1908. He had resided there for 18 years. Henry Tandy installed a n electric light plant in April. 1908. The Winter Haven te l ephone sys t em was connected with the o u tside world in November, 1 908. The tow n t he n boas ted twenty telep h ones. Win t e r Haven Lodge No. 26, F & A. M was organized in December, 1908, a n d rece ived its char ter in January, 1909. The first meeting was he l d December 23, 1908, in a building known as the Co-operative Store Building T h e following officers were elected : L. L B a rnes. P. M of Lodge No. 6. W. M ; Henry Tandy S. W.; W A. Clark. J. W.; E L. Has k ins, secretary; .T. N. Ackle)' t reas urer; W. C. Stacer chaplain; H Kronmiller, tyler. A fine home for the lodge was purc h ased in June, 1917. The Firs t Christian church was organized in 1909, by Rev. Sam White, an evangelist who was conducting a serie s of meetings at W inter Haven. M L. Hinderliter and Willis Smith were the first elders, and Bert Harris the firs t deacon A c hurc h b u il ding was erected in 1912 under the pastorate of Rev. E S. Allhands. It was the first brick chu rch build ing in t he cit y. H. W. Snell & Co. opened Winter Raven s first bank. June 8, 1909, which ever since h as been a most prosperous institution. H. W. Snell was Chairman of the Board and cashier, the directors being A. B Harrington. Vol. N. Denham. W C Bentley and W. B. Sweari n gen. A substantia l bank building was ere cted in 1911,

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PART I -NARRATIVE 139 which was remodeled in 1921, a third story being added and the building extended. It is now the Snell National Bank. The Walola Hotel was erected by W. W. Mann in 1909. The Florence Vill a Citrus Growers' A s sociatio n was established in August, 1909. George E Koplin, H. Guy Ni ckerson, Sidney C. Inman and C. H. Thomp son were the incorpo rato r s. The Winter Haven Association was formed about t he same time, the incorpo rator s being Charles Pugsley, Lester Windsor and T. J. Boyd. A packing house was erecte d at once by the Winter Haven Sub-Exchange. Ten years later this building was replaced by another structure, said to be the largest and best pack ing house in th e State. In the vicinity of Winter Haven in 1909 t here w ere over 300 acres in citrus nurseries, and over acres in groves. In 1910, there were fifteen automobi.les in Winter Haven; E. G. McLean was pastor of the First Presbyterian church; Henry Tandy donated a fine lot to the Masons; the Winter Haven band was much i n demand; that summer there was more building in progress in Winter Haven than e\'er before; Henry A. Marks inv ented a grove heater; William Boyd in stalled an ice plant and waterworks; and Creel & Gilmore patented a fruit washer, dryer and polisher. A Board of Trade was organized in October, 1910. E. L. Haskins was pres ident, Cha s. \V. Barnes secret ary, W. W. Mann treasurer. \Vinte.r Haven's first motion picture show was opened by R. E. Nor man in the Cason building, early in Decen1ber, 1910. The Bonita, Win te r Haven's first theater, was built about the same time by Mr. Ripley. It was d<:Stroyed by fire in 1915. J. N. Ackley buil t the Ackley hotel in 1910, th is being the first brick building in the town. In 1910 there were fifteen autos in Winter Haven. L. Collins was said to have owned the first in the city-a Reo-and J. N. Ackley and W C. Bentley were car owners a little later. Kee-Moore & Co. established a private bank in 1911, opening for business November 1. 0. B. Kee was president, J. E. Moore vice -president and W. F. Hutchinson cashier. In 1912, J. D. Porter bought a controlling interest, and the institution became k11. own as J. D. Porter & Co. It became the First S tate Bank in September, 1914. John L. Fouts bought a controlling interes t and became president. The Florida Chief Winter Haven's first real newspaper, was first issu ed Sep tember 30, 1911. The Winter postoffice was raised from third to second class in July, 1914. The Catholics, who had been holding services at the homes of members of that faith, bought the old Methodist Episcopal church, and moved it to th e present site. The first :Mass was celebrated on Than ksgiving day, 1914 Father Latalois officiating. It has b een necessary to enlarge the building to accommodate the growth of the congregation. Municipal officers in 1915 were L. P. Worden, may o r ; C. H. Davidson W. C. Be ntley, Dr.]. E. Crump and A.M. K.lemm, councilmen; Bruce Woodham, mar shal; Raymond Hedrick clerk.

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140 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA The fine home of Mr. and Mrs. Alvey, on Lake Ebert, was destroyed by fire o n the morning of December 28, 1914. Those attracted by the brilliant flames were unab le to do anything to check them, and the house burned to the ground. It was at fir s t supposed that the family, consisting of Mr. and Mrs. Alvey and t heir three daughters was absent; but investigation disclosed that all live had been burned. The charred bodies, impossible of recognition, were found Mrs. A lvey being ident ified by her wedding ring. The ori gin of the fire was not known. The contract was let early in 1915 for the con n ecting of twenty lakes adjacent to Wint e r Haven, by canals The Beasl ey Contract i ng Co., of Atlanta, was given the contract. The Peace Cr e ek Drainage District was crea t ed i n 1915 for the purpose of draining 48, 000 ac res of land in the Winter Haven section. T he contract for the drainage work w a s let i n J ul y to A. B. Wil.lis & Son, for a sum in t he n e i ghbo r hood of $ 50 000 The distr i c t had been bonded for $256,000. E L. Mack, R. C. Hatton and Lycurgus Burns were the commissioners. In 1915, the first asphal t paving was laid, th e streets paved being Eas t and West Park streets, the Villa road, and Central avenue. Municipal officers elected t o serve for the year 1 917 \Vere: W. W. Hampton, mayor; H. W. Snell, S. F. Poole, and Max V ie rtel, councilmen. Winter Haven held a big cel e bration i n con nec tion with tl1e opening of the Dixie Highway, December 6, 1917.. There were speeches, spor t s, and other fea tures J. Walker Pope was master of cermonies. In 1917, the Epi scopalians erected a house of worship a dedication service being held on April Stb. Rev. Davet rector of the churches at Bartow and Mul berry. also incl u ded the Winter Haven church in his charge. In t he s umm e r of 1922, H. E. Cornell, with George Haldeman of Lakeland, made a t rans-cont i nental airplane trip, t he lon gest tip ever made by civilian flyers up to that time. The National Bank of W inter Haven was opened for business Jan uary 26, 1922, with Max E. Viertel, chairman of the board; Roswell C. Irwin p resident; Charles A. Faircloth, L P. Kirkland, B. B. Marshall and Chas W. Adams vice p r esidents; 0. R. Lindstro m assis ta n t cashier In 1922 a program of improvement was l aunched that during that y ear and the year fo ll owing gave Winter Haven all the advantages of a real c ity. Ten or twelve miles of asphaltic street paving were laid, w hi ch, with about 4% miles t hat had been previously constr u cted made it a well-paved city ; a handsome ci ty h a ll was erected ; a w hite way was installed covering the business section, and an adequate sewerage system was constructed. An Orange Festival was held in Winter HaYen Jan uary 2224, 1923, and th i s pleasing and spectacular exposition has been an annua l event of interest eve r since. The HaYen Hotel. which had been an amb i tious u n d ertaking ina u gurated some years previous, was comp l eted i n January, 1924. An Exchang e Club was organized a nd received its charter December 15, 1925. The officers were Hart McK i llop, president; R. E Gilber t vice pre s ident; .M. W . H art, secretary.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 141 Dr. J. H. Ross. founder of the Citrus Exchange, and one of t he most able and useful ci tiz ens Polk County has ever boasted, died at his home at Winter Haven, December 29, 1 925. The Woman's Civic League dedicated its new building, one of the finest in the State, January 22, 1924. The business houses of the city closed during th e dedication, as an expression of the esteem in which the League is held. From a straggling village, the mere shipping point of a splendid but sparsely settled agricultural section, Winter Haven has emerged in recent years a full fledged city, with every municipal improvement-many miles of paved streets, an extensive white way, an adequate sewerage system, a sp l endid water supply from two deep wells, etc., these improvements having been provided at a cost of about $600, 000. A network of asphalt roads, including the Dixie Highway radiate in every direct i on from the city ; and two great railroads p r ovide excellent transpor tation facilities. The Seaboard Air Line Railway, which was built through the section in 1925, has erected a beautiful depot of Spanish design, costing $52,500. Winter Haven upholds her traditional importance as a producing point by shipping one-half of the citrus fruits grown in Polk, there being 9,000 acres of produc t ive groves in the immediate vicinity of the city, in addit i on to the largest citrus nursery in the world These things make for the prosperity and substantial progress of the city which prom i ses to maintain and continue in this respect its splendid record of the past. Winter Havm Newspapers.The fir s t newspaper venture at Winter Haven was undertaken by Miss M. L. Verdier, who became editor and proprietor of the Lake Region Gazette in March 1896. There i s evidence that Miss Verdier dis. played considerable ability as an editor, but it is probable that the field was too small at the time, for after a year's trial she decided to discontinue the publication. Miss Verdier, in her valedictory, said she had had some useful experiences; had made some friends, some enemies, but no debts; and that she would not pass through another such year "for all the riches of Golconda, for the combined love of Cupid and Adonis." This experience seems to have deterred others from vent uring int o the Winter Haven newspaper field for many years; until in 1911 Ivf. l\L Lee, hailing from Kansas, recognized the potentialities of the growing village of Winter Haven, and established the Winter Haveu Chief. There seems to have been thus effected the combination of the man with the opportun ity for during all these years The Chief has worked unceasingly for Winter Haven, and Winter Haven has evidently appreciated The Cl1ie{, and both the paper and the town have grown remarkably. The Chief has kept pace with all newspaper demands, going to a semi-weekly in September, 1921 and then to a daily September 15, 1924. The Sat .. rday World was published early in 1915 by Park H Adams. It was "the only penny paper in Florida." It lived on ly a few months. Tire Penhrsu/ar Patriat was published in 1917 by H. G. Camp, but its existence ended early. Tire 1'ri-City Times is a weekly newspaper, conducted by James G. Metcalf. This paper also serves Auburndale and Lake Alfred.

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CHAP'l'R VIII. DAVENPORT (Compiled by W. S. ALLEN) THE first white settlers to locate in Davenport were Henry Goodman and James E. Bowen. Goodman came in February of 1 883, but little is known of him. Bowen came from Statesboro, Georgia, June 2, 1883, with his wife and seven children. James E. Bowen is now in his 78th ye _ar, hale and hearty, and claims 115 children, grandchildre n and great-grandc hildren, a number of whom live in or near Davenport with their familie s. He earned a living by huntin g deer and wild turkey, which he furnished to the Tropical Hotel, operated by W. L. Douglas and owned by the South Railroad, at Kissimmee. James Bowen raised an abundance of green garden truck and planted a seedling orange grove, which is still bearing fine fruit. In 1883, the South Florida Railroad started operation through this section. A small station was built about a hal f mile north of the present Atlantic Coast Line depot. Only two trains a day were operat
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PART I-NARRATIVE 143 Northern newspapers b y the Florida Development Company, who sold lan d for fanning and fruit growing at $25 an acre. Some staye d and succeeded, while others from lack of sufficient fuods and experience, wer e forced to abandon their earnest efforts. Some of those who came and ret u rned held on to the i r land and i n later years came back to make t heir home in Davenpor t and see their land in crease in value. When t11e Dixie Highway was paved in 1917 by the McDonald Construction Compan y a veritable cow path of ruts was converted into a velvety ribbon and transportation became more comfortable. About a mile nort h of the city limits, the Bell Land Company cleared 4,0 00 acres of muck and farm land, started planting experimental crops. The opera tions ceased upon t he dea th of Vv. Vv. Bell, the owner, the son, Lawrence Bell, devoting all of his time to the administation of his father's estate. This land was later bought by the Davenport Farms Corporation in 1926, who plan t abou t 500 acres in staple truck. C. A. !I:Ionohan, now a resident of Tampa, built and conducted the first genera l merchandise store in 1911. There was only one small store in Haines City at that time, but most of th e trading was done in Kissimmee and Lakeland. Two sources of inf ormation are given as to the origin of the name Davenport One gives it as coming from old Fort Davenport, used in the Seminole Indian war and located altvut 12 mile:; northwest of the present townsite of Davenport An other version is the name was derived from a conductor on the old South Florida Ra ilr oad named Davenport. In 1919, the development of Davenport was started in a big way. Lorenzo A Wilson, president of the Wilson and Toomer Fertilizer Company of Jacksonville, and Frank W. Crisp, field manager for the same company, selected Da venport as the s it e for a grove and community deve l opment They formed the Holly Hill Grove and Fruit Company. They brought hundreds of people from all pa rts of the country to see the groves Starting w ith only a forty-acre tract, the demand for groves became so great that the Holly Hill Groves grew in acreage by leaps and bounds, until today they a re known throughout the nation and cover a territory of 5, 000 acres. The groves gave impetus to the growth of the town. New families, who first carne as visitor s came and built homes and made this community their year around home. The population grew from 1 40 in 1 920 to 440 in 1925 and the 19. 28 estima te is placed at 800 whil e t he country adjacent to Dav enport claims some 200 to 300 additional inhabitants. S hortly after the Holly Hill Groves were started, the communi ty builders vi sioned a city. Stiles an d Van Kleek, nationally known city planners, were called into consultation and instead of allowing Davenport to develop in a haphazard manner, the town was scientifically planned and platted. Zo ning restriction s pro vided three distinct sections; namely, residential, commercial and industrial. Over 275 acres of the city plat allowed for parks, together with 16 lakes. Streets were laid out with the utmost forethought for the future growth of the city.

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144 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Sites for public and civic buildings were allocated. Plans were perfected for street paving, storm sewers, city lights, white way system, municipal water works and extended telephone system. All of these improvements have since been in stalled and built. Looking to the future, the city plan wa s designed with the o f provid ing for a population of 30,000. As provided in the section of the city plan for parks, the first nine holes of the Holly Hill golf course as des igned and built by Stiles and Van Kleek, was finished in 1924. The second nine holes, now making one cont in uous 18-hole golf course, was first put into play during the winter of 192'1'-1928. Forest Park, heretofore k nown as a jungle of entrancing beau t y, located adja cent to the city on the north and forming a part of the present 18-hole golf course, was incorporated in the system of parks and now provides one of t he most inter esting tropical parks of the state. The community builders laid pa rticular stress on home building. As a result, nearly fifty new residences of modem type and construction have been built in the last f e w years Visitors to Davenport, impressed with the idea of home building, were attracted by the beauty of the home sites, embodying a plan of beau tification and 21 orange and grapefruit trees on each site. The sawmill operations in Davenport during the early days, had almost com pletely denuded the community of trees. When the city planners wer e busy on the plat, they included a complete plan of beautification. As a result, thousands of Australian Silk Oaks were propagated in the Holly Hill Nurseries and p lanted along the streets and avenues. Palms and shrubs also added their touch of trop ical beaut y to the community highways as the plan of beautification was carried out. I n 1926 the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad completed a handsome passenger and freight station at a cost of $11,000. In 1927 a city hall of Spanish and American architecture was built at a cost of $20 000. Three modern business b locks were built, the Miller Building in 1925 at a cost of $25,000; the Brenner Block in 1916 at a cost of $30,000, and The Mart in 1927 at a cost of $22,000. In the summer of 1928, the Holly Hill Fruit Products Incorporated, a coop erative ci t rus fruit packing organization, owned lry the individual owners of Hill Groves, erected its first unit of a packing hou se at a co st of $30 000. The plant was equipped with the latest type of citrus packing machinery. It is located along the Atlantic Coast Line railroad at Pine street. The concem and packing house resulted from the increasing production of the Holly Hill Groves. An increasing number of winter visitors popularized the Holly Hill Inn, the resort hotel of this comm unit y which has grown from a four-roo m affair in 1920 to 26 rooms in 1928, with the addition of twelve 4-room cottages, which were built in 1925 They were equipped with adjoining bath and modernly furnished. Apartment houses and winter cottages take the ir place in caring for the growing winter population. T he first newspaper issued in Davenport was known as The Dav1!'11port M.esse11ger. It was first i ss ued in 1912 and operated on a weekly basis until 1914, wjth C C. Beatty as editor. The printing was done a t Lakeland and about 500 copies

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PART I-NARRATIVE 145 were issued each edit ion. The paper was discontinued by its first owners, the Florida Development Company, when they closed their office. After this, the Bell Land Company i ss ued the paper monthly for a period of about ten months with C A Parrish as editor, when it ceased publication. On Jul y 17, 1925, the Times made its first appearance as a biweekly newspaper, with W. S Allen, as editor and publisher. The owners include a small group of local business meri headed by Frnnk W. Crisp. Up to this writing the paper is being issued regularly with a circulation of 1800 copies each issue. It has been printed by the Kissimm ee Valley Gazette of Kissimmee; ever s ince the first i ssue. Among the early white settlers who are now living ih Davenport, are: E. T. H itchcock. T. J. McKnig ht, James E. Bowen, SiJa,; E. Bowen, John L. Schmidt, A. S. Huffman G Klink, H T. Nafzi ger, J. Roehlk, H. E. Swarts A. Harringto n, Henry Roeblk, R. I. Mainland, Frank W. Crisp, Mrs. C. C. Dent, Mrs. A nne Ingram, Mrs. Sadie Howe, l\Irs. V D. Adair, and Peter Jorda n.

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CHAPTElt IX HAINES CITY HAINES City came into existence with the advent of the railroa d in 1883. The locality seems originally to have been called Clay Cut. The promoters, and presumably the ow ners of the site, were William Leadwitb, John M. Bryan, D. B. Stewart, j. D. Wofford, and Harrison Jones. F. J. Hinson (who was called the South Flori <:Ia town-builder), is cons idered the founder of the town-that is, the parties entered into a contract with him to plat the town-site, allowing him o ne-half the lots. This was in 1884. A year lat er, in 1885, "Old Timer," writing in the Hai11es City Herald, s tates that the re was a depot, a s awmill three gene ral stores and a drug store. James Flye had one of the first h ouses, as did Harrison Jones, S M. Hodgman, N icholas Graddick, A. B. Stroud, and a Mr. Wood, whose house wa s on Lake Eva. Harrison Jone s donated lots on which was built a two-story school bouse. In 1887 there were 37 pupi l s enrolled There seems to have been a newspaper almost befor e there was a town, as in 1885 the Times Publis hing Co. was issuing the City Times, with S. W. Pritchard as edit or. Apparently the publicati o n was shortlived. Haines City wa s named for Colonel Haines, an official of the South Florida railroad. There is a sto ry that there was difficulty in getting the railroad t o s t op its trains at thi s point, and the tactful act of n aming it for this official enli s ted his goo d offices, and resulted in the establishment of the station. J. I Wilson came to Hai nes City in 1884 and he was for many years an activ e booster. L. W. Yarnall was also one o f t he early residents. Pat Bannon homesteaded in that section in 1893. The following yar a part of his orange trees and his h ouse were destroyed by fire "Old Timer," who is quoted in the fore going, s tates that the freeze of 1894-96 caused Haines City to be virtually aband oned, hardly a dozen familie s r emai n ing. There is some rea son to believe that the exodus, which may have been grad u a l was in progress before the freeze, for at the gene ral e lection in 1894 on l y three votes, beside s th ose of the inspectors, were ca st in the H aines City precinct. Also, in 1 894 there is found an item in a Bartow new spape r to the effect that a general store was needed at Haines City, it being thought that t here was business enough i n that locality to make such an enterprise pay. Shortly afterwa r ds, H. A. Pa rker went there from Bartow and opened a general stoc k of goods. Mr. Parker also ran a hotel i n connection with his store. In Septem ber, 1894, Haines c;ty had it s 6rst burial in four years. Lewis Crane, first settler on Lake Hamilton Island after it was aba ndoned by the Indians, came into Haine s City in the last stages of con s umption, and died next morning. T here was no cem etery, and the deceased wa s buried on lands of E. L. Scott. Dr. A. B. Young and A. B. Stroud installed telephones in 1 894, the first in that secti o n. H. D. Allison, who was an acti v e grower there for many years, located in 146

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PART I-NARR...<\TIVE 147 t hat vicinity in 1895. Tomatoes were largely grown in the Haines City section during this period. N iagara grapes were also produced on a commercial scale. For many years J. I. Wilson was correspondent at Haines City for the county papers-and a good and faithful one. In March, 1896, he writes Tile lnfonna ... t: "If you fail to get a letter from here next week, it will be on account of no tomato wraps to write it on. Paper is scarce up here." Mr. Wilson joined in the exodus to :Miami in 1899, following the completion of Flagler's ra i lroa d to that point, and eventually became a wealthy man. His death occurred not long since. Judge C. A. Boswell performed the first marriage of his official career at Haines City on March 8, 1897, when he united Mr. John H. Crane and M iss Hariett E. Johnson. A. B. Stroud was for many years agent and postmaster at Hain es City. In 1899 be was transferred to Seville, and Mr. Goodale was appointed post master. The Seminole Palm Co. has been an interesting and somewhat important in dustry at Haine s City. It produced ornamental palms, leaves, etc., treating the plants so they were permanently preserved. Shipments were made to many foreign countries, a s well as to points all over th e Uni ted States. H. E. Robi nso n, who was general manager of the p lant, died in Ni:>Ve. mber, 1902. The enterprise is owned by L. S. Moore, who started it at Davenport a quarter of a century ago, and after operating there a couple of years, it was moved to Haines City, where it continued to flour ish. Whatever the reason or combination of reasons, Haines City seems to have languished for a good many years, many people having abandoned their holdings and moved away, their property reverting to the s tate for taxes. Malloy & Miller, naval stores operators, located there in 1903, and thi s brought some indust ria l prosperity. Peopl e were attracted by the fine character o f the country, but were unable to buy property satisfactorily, owing to the fact that the lands were held by the State. About 1906 or 1907, F. W. Ohlinger and others set about redeeming the properties, securing tax deeds from the State and warranty dee ds from the original owners; and they were thus able to put the town lots and other lands on t h e market. It is said that one owner cheerfully deeded to these parties 150 lots for $50, so it will be seen that there was not a great deal of optimism at the time relative to the future of Haines City. "From this time," quoting from "Old Timer" again, "things began to look upward. :Malloy & Miller and J. W. Sample purchased a site and built quite a respectable hotel in 1910. Then came 0. L. Huie, from Wisconsin, and purchased two lots in 1911, where the Park Hotel now stands, for $75. Two adjoining lots bought for the same price, were held until 1922, and sold for $7,500. This is where the Growers' Commercial Bank now stands. About thi s time the Ohlinger cement house was built. These few improveme nts seemed to stimulate others. The Haines City nurseries \vere estab lished. J. W. Sample and his brothers went into the real estate business, and they accomplished a great deal of good work for the whole community. They were instrumental in bringing a fine class of people from Kansas, who were enterpris ing and added much to the efforts others had made and 'vere making."

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148 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA 'l'he building of a branch railroad from Haines City through the Ridge section added to the activi t y of the community, but even at this s t age there did not seem to be any adequate vision on the part of the residents as to the future of the place; for about that time a mass meeti n g of the property owners was called, which re sulted in a decision to cut dow n the width of many of the streets-some to one ha l f the original width and to eliminate many other streets. In some instances several b l ocks were combined into one making th e area available for orange groves. This was done up to within one block of what might be supposed to be the business center, and to within two blocks of the depot This action was taken by the l eading citizens of the town. So we find a statement that, 1914, the town site of Haines City consisted of vacant lots laid off in rows, with a sand road between, and a few frame build ings By 1916, however, there seems to have been considerable progress, for the HOes City Herald, established in Ju11e of that year, presents the following contrasting picture : "Today the same town site is a beautiful little city, with magnificent brick and s t one buildings. Lining Sixth s t reet are four large, brick buildings, a concrete and a frame building. On Ingraham avenue two beautiful brick buildings are located Across the tracks are two stone buildings, one o them two stories in height. A new ice plant is being planned and machinery being ordered; a new brick packing plant and a four-story grapefruit juice factory are in the latter stages of completion. Haines City boasts more automobiles than any c i ty in the State, according to population; a band of twenty pieces; two enterprising Women's Clubs; public library building; fine system of day streets; and a news paper.'' Much of this growth was probably due to the efforts of a Chambe r of Commerce, which was organized in September, 1915, with the following officers: J. W. Sample, president; J. R. Yale, vice-president; F. M. Long, secretary-treas urer. The State Bank of Haines City had been organized in 1913, with Arthur E Donegan, president; J. T. Mill er, vice-president and C. C. Young, cashier. The "Monday Study C l ub" was organized in 1914, to secure a library build ing . In 1916 the Club had built and paid for the library building, opposite the union station, which provided reading rooms and a place for the C lub meeting s "Leisure Lodge" was the name given to the building. It was dedicated June 3, 1916. The officers at the time wer'\: Mrs. Rosalie Yale president; Mrs. Esther Smith, vice-president ; Esther Angle secretary; Leila Randall, treasurer The greatest stimulus the community of Haines City had received, came in 1920, when Isaac Van Hom carne to the city and associated with him a number of the livest citizens in a program of deve lo pment and improvement that the commun ity forward to a point beyond the dreams of the most pronounced optimists Mr. Van Horn's associates were D. B. Ohlinger, Jedd R. Yale C. G. Somers, J. F. Angle, W T. Mathis, C C. Young, and J T. Miller, their purpose being the development of an industrial district for locating wholesale distrib uting and manufactu r ing i n stitutions. A large tract of land suitable for such develop ment was purchased, and trackage, terminals, etc., provided. In 1920 a con t ract for $60,000 worth of street paving was awarded. By March, 1921, this paving was progressing rapidly ; Marq ui s & Leach let the con tract for a modern motion picture house; a waterworks system was being planned;

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PART I -NARRATIVE 149 and a bond issue of $16,000 for the new school b u ilding was carried by a vote of 34 to 0. On Feb ntary 28, 1922, a bond issue of $75 000 was voted as follows: $50,000 for waterworks, $15,000 for sewe rs and $10,000 for a fire de partmen t Over three m il es of pipe lines for th e water system was p r ovided f o r as was also a modern septic tank for disposal of sewe ra ge, a itd a fir e truck with pumping o u tfit chemical engine and hose wagon. In 1924, the .Cham ber of Commerce emp loyed a paid secre t ary, M. Ted Jacobs assuming t he du t ies of that pos it i o n o n July 7th . I n Janu ary, 1925, t he Commission-Manager fonn o f government was adopted, the fir s t commissioners being H D. Corw i ne, Eugene Bryan and Lisle \V, Smith. Eugene Bryan was maygr .. commiss i oner. Quoting again from "Old Timer," we present t his pic t ure of the modern Haines City: "Th e A. C. L re cently built a new station, w hich is a little bea u ty, a nd have beau tified its surroundi n gs A park, between the bus i ness stree t and t he depot was taken i n charge by the lad ies, who have added a Le i sure Ho u se, in which there i s a fai r library and where all are welcome to come and wait and rest The Dixie Highway runs through the town; and the Lee and Jackson Highway, toward La kelan d a n d Tamp a and the Sce nic Highway, tow ard Lake Wales Frost proof and Sebri n g, intersec t the Dixie Highway here. Also; the Moore Haven branch of the A. C. L Railway con n ects h ere with th e main li ne The surround in g country is planted in orange a n d grape fntit grove s and there a r e millio n s of dollars i nvested in this business in t h i s locality, which has n o superior i n the production of citrus fruits. The city h as its own waterworks, storm and sewerage system, regular up-to-date fire department, paved st ree ts, sidewalks and large park grounds, two fine school build in gs, etc." In addition to all these im p r ovements, Haines Cit>: has a magnificent new Polk, erec t ed at a cos t of $500,000. Altogether it has far surpassed the expec t ations of t he earlier ci tiz ens, and the city seems desti n ed t o st ill greater growth and prosperity Hai?JcsCityNewspape-rs.-HainesCity had a newspaper almost coincident with tpe birt h of the commtto ity, the Hai11cs City Time s having been in existence as early as 1885 In is probably a correct expression of the circum s t ances, for how it could exist in such a t ime and place is a myste ry. Howe v er, it seems t o have lived for two years or n1ore, as there is mention found of it in 1887 S. \V. Pritchard was the edi tor, and he mus t have been optimistic and resourceful For many yea r s t hereaf ter Haines City neither needed or possessed a news p aper. Bu t with the per i od of progress setting in about 1916, the village presented a field sufficiently inviting to attrac t an opt i m i st i c newspaper man; and i n June of that year Orville A. Po rter who had been connected with the Lake Wales High lander, came to H aines City and started Tlie He-rald as a weekly paper. No plant was in st alled, the pri n ting being done by the Ba.-tow an d that paper bought Tire Herald in 1917. In December of the sa me year H W. Schimpf purchased The Herald and es t ab l ished the first newspaper p l ant i n Haines Ci t y. Abou t a year later Mr. Schimp f so l d Tile Herald to :M. M. Lee, of Winter H a ven, and M. J. Lee became edi tor an d publis her. First as a week ly, then as a daily The Herald has been splendid ly conduc ted u nde r Mr. Lee's m anagemen t and has given its community the best of newspaper service.

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CHAPTI!R X LAKE WALES IN APRIL. 1911. a statement appeared in a Bartow newspaper, from a Winter Haven correspondent, that "A. C. Nydegger, the civil eng i neer and surveyor of Winter Haven, has been engaged to lay out a new town and site for a new colony on Lake Wales." The project was inaugurated by the Lake Wales Land Company, composed of E. C. Stuart, C. L. Johnson, G. V Tillman, B. K. Bullard and M. Sessoms. Lake Wales existed at that time only as ari idea. The promoters set about to Jay the foundations for a real city. Substantiai improvements were provided, a hotel was built, and ice factory established and throughout the early stages of the community's gro\yth they made possible con veniences for which other places had to wait for years. I t is said that when the ice factory opened for business there were but two customers to pa t ronize it, but the builders of Lake Wales were looking to the future Likewise, an electric plant was installed before the population justified it, but it grew to such proportions that eventually it furnished lights to the Ridge towns from Davenport to Avon Park. The first business house was a store conducted by Mr. and Mrs. 1'om Parker, who had living quarters above the store The Parkers were passengers on the first train to run through Lake Wales. 'fheir store, the Hotel Wales-built by Tate Bros. of Bartow-and the small railroad station, comprised the finished buildings in Lake Wales late in 1912. The A. R. P. church was in course o f construction, as was also what was called the "Boarding House," la ter the Ridge Hotel ; and a bungalow adjoining the church was nearing completion At this time-in October, 1912-T. L. Wetmore and N. E Stewart, with their wives, arrived being probably the first newcomers from outside the county. They were t h e first guests of the Hotel Wa l es, and then took up temporary residence, until a house could be built for them, in the bungalow, mention of which has been made, and which then was really the only residence in the town. George Wetmore and Sam Mitc hell had joi ned them in the mean t ime, bringing Mr. T L. Wetmore's auto through the country from Lakeland, where it had been unloaded. This was the only auto nearer Lake Wales than Bartow and as there were no roads leading to the town, there were some thrilling experiences in "navigating" the machine through the woods. Mail was received three times a week from Bartow, Marion Buxton bringing it on horseback This arrangement was in effec t for several mo n ths, and it was a source of much satisfaction when finally the mail was brought daily by the train. T. J. Parker was the postmaster J Walker Pope was the pioneer real estate dealer, having his office in the building that is now occupied by Lake Wales exce ll ent newspaper, TM Hig/,. lander The first religious service held in Lake Wales was in the hotel of that name, on January 19, 1913 Rev. N. E. Smith, o f Bartow, preaching the sermon on the occasion The hotel was used as a place of wors hip until the fall of 1913, when 160

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Sunt in Lakt Wn/11 ;, 1918. Lowtr-Samt Sane in 1918.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 151 the A. R. P. church was completed. The lot, building and furnishings of this church were donated by E. C. Stuart. The organization of the church took place on June 4, 1914, there being 25 members. A. C. Thulberry was elected elder. The first school opened in 1913 with eleven pupils. Miss Maude Blackburn was teacher, and she continued to teach through several terms. In 1917 a fine school. building was erected and shortly thereafter a Junior High School. At this time Lake Wales schools are in fine condition and sple ndidly equipped . B. K. Bullard was among the first merchants. :Mr. Minnis put up a concrete store building in 1914, and at the time it was predicted that "our little tow n is going t o be on the map for sure when the Seaboard reach es it. The grading forces have reached Lake Wales." Another concrete building was erected by T. J. Parker about the same time. The first bank in Lake Wales was opened in February, 1913. It was operated under the name ofT. J. Parker & C o., Mr. Parker being cashier. What was described as "Lake Wales' first real calamity" occurred on the night of October 5th, 1914, when "the whole roof of the liv ery bam" was discov ered to be on fire. The city seems to have survived this calamity. In 1914, "everybody met at the postoflke and waited outside while the post master read all the postal cards In the evening the citizens all met the passenger train, and excitement ran high if a single passenger alighted. T h is was another social center, where the citizens met and visited At that date the Seaboard had not. reached Lake Wales; the only public buildings were the ice plant, the power plant, and the Associate Reformed Presbyterian church; the only houses erected were those of W. A. Varn, R. N. Jones, A. C. Thulberry, C. L. Johnson, G V. Tillman, B. K. Bullard, S. B <:;urtis, and the J. A. Caldwell house; the Hotel Wales was the scene of the socia l affairs of the community; Park avenue was the only business street, and on it was located the Jones Hardware Co., while at the intersection of Park and the highway there was a large two-story frame building, in which there was the postoffice, the bank, Anderson's drug store and a notion department store, while B. K. Bullard conducted a departmen t store in a one-story brick building. J. B. Briggs and A. B. Canfield were also building residences, and the Ridge Hotel was nearing completion, and was first oceupied by Mr. and Mrs. Guy Pugh. E. C. Stuart and associates decided to erect a two-story brick bank building, and the State Bank of Lake Wales was organized in May, 1915. The capital stock was $25,000; E. C. Stuart was president, A. C. Thulberry was vice-president, John G. Sessoms was cashier. The bank building was erected later in the year, J. F. Townsend being the contractor. Dr. Griffin, who moved there from Haines City, and Dr. R E. Wilhoyte were Lake Wales' first physicians. 'rhe A. R. P. church, the first in Lake Wales, dedicated its building May 24, 1914. Dr. G. D. P h illips of Chester, S. C., preached the dedication sermon. A "small fire department" was organized in December, 1914. A new telephone exchange was installed in 1914 0. A. Hill was in charge The loca l teleph one plant was acquired by the Peninsular Telephone Co. in 1921, R. R. Snyder being made manager. The first train from Lake Wales through to Tampa over the Seaboard Air L ine Railway was operated April 5, 1915.

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152 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA A brick double building was erected in 1915, by Rhodes & Varn. A crate mill was established in April, 1916, by C. L. Morrison and J. 0 Dens ford, o f Fort Meade. The Lake Wales :Methodi>1 Episcopal Church, South, was organized in October, 1916 Rev. J. H. York w as pastor; C. L. Johnson, T J. Parker, W F. Smith, trustees ; C. L Johnson T .J. Parker and R. M. Jones, stewards. An adequate church building a six-room Sunday School Annex, and a parsonag e, .were erected. The First Baptist chu rch was organized Jul y 23, 1916, with 25 members. Rev S. J Kenney was called as the fir s t pastor. 0. G. Tillman served as clerk, H M Frazier as Superin tendent of the Sunday School, and Mrs. J. F. Townsend as pianist. A splendid church building was erected at a cost of $30,000 in 1923 the comer stone being laid July 6th, and Rev. J. A. Holt, of Arcadia, being spea ker of the occasion. The Legislature oi 191'7 passed a bill incorporating the city of Lake Wales. The first city officers were: M. R. Anderson, mayor ; George Schwantke George Wetmore, B. K. Bullard, L. L. Barne s, cou n c ilmen; M .M. Ebert, clerk ; C. L. Johnson, assessor; S. J. Abernathy, collector. Lake 'Vales l1as an excellent library, the result of the efforts of the Woman's Club, which continues to maintain it. The movement was started by the Club about 1917, and had very modest beginning s each of the club members being asked to donate one or more books A line collection of books, available to resident s or tourists, i s now maintained Lake Wales Lodge No. 242, F. & A. M., was instituted and had it s first regular meeting June 1, 1916 On June 18 a charter was granted by the Grand Lodge with the following officers: George E. Wetmore, W. M.; M. M. Eberr S. W.; H. M Frazier, J. W.; R. E. Wilhoyte secretary; 0. G Tillman S. D.; J. C Allred, J. D ; and B. P. Kell e y, tyler. The Woman's Club of Lake Wales was one of the earliest, as well as one of t he most active, of the city s organizations. It grew out of a "thimble party," held at the Hotel Wales in May, 1914, to wh ic h all the ladies in the village were invited Those present were: Mrs. T. J Parker, Mrs Lewis H. Parker, Mrs. C. L. Johnson, Mis ses Irene and Maude Johnson, M rs. A. C. Thulberry, Miss Margaret Thulberry, Mrs. R. :M. Jones, Mrs. Guy Pugh, Mrs. S. B. Curtis, Mrs. Clicker, Mrs. C. D. Ahl, Mrs. C. C Thulberry, Mrs 'Marshal l Nidy, Mrs. Frank Thoma s Mrs George Wetmore, Mrs. Oscar Hill, and Mrs T. L. Wetmo re. The organization wa s fir s t called the Merry-Go-Round Club, the name later being changed to the Mutual Aid Society. In October, 1916, it became the Civic League, with Mrs. R. N. Jones as first president, and Mrs. J '1'. Rhodes, secretary. Tbe Woman' s C lub affiliated with the Florida Federati on, wa s the final development. Pres iden t s of the o r gani z ation beside s those mentioned, have been Mrs. M. M. Ebert, Mrs. J. M. Stritmater and Mrs. Irvin Yarnell. The Woman's Club has a ccom plished much for the beautifica tion and general improvement of Lake Wales. Lake Wales' white wa y, exten ding from the Sce nic Highway to First Street, a distance of 860 feet, was lighted for the first t ime on the night of j une 9, 1923. There were standards Jesse G Rhodes was given much of the credit for the accomplishment of this im provement.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 153 A Lodge of Odd Fellows was instituted in June 1923, with 20 m ember s. The aspha l t highway between Lak e Wales and Hespe r ides was opened for traffic in November, 1925. On this n ine-mile stretch of road is loca te d the l argest individually owned orange grove in the world-the 2,000-acre Temple o ra nge grove of August Hec ksher. Approximately one million dollars was the sum represented by Lake \Vales' bu ild ing operations fol' the year 1925. During the same period over half million dollars was expended at Mountain Lake for something in excess of fifty new homes in that magnificent development, to say nothing of other improveme n ts. T e n years earlier t he site of this beauty spot was raw Florida land, F. S. Ruth being mainly responsible for the ma rvelou s transfo rmati on. The Lake Wales Rotary Club was organized in November, 1925. The first officers were: J. E Wor t hington, president; L. H Kramer, vice-president; C. E. Noyes, secretary; J. F. Dubois, treasurer, and C. C. Thulberry, sergeant-at-arms. In the State census of 1925 Lake \Vales showed a gain in population for five years of 245 per cent the greatest gain during that period made by any Florida city. In 1920 the popu l ation was .'l'9G; in 1925 it had increased to 2 747 Lake Wa l es is the center o f numerous fine developments, principal among these being Mountain Lake, a p lace of wonderful beau ty; where Edward W. Bo k August Heckscher, Irving T. Bush, E. T. Bedford, and about forty other i n te r nationally known men of wealth and posi tion have winter hom es. Highland Park is a $3,000,000 development, fostered by Irvin g Yarnell. Ridge Ma nor, West Lake \Vales, Templeton and East Lake \Vales are high-class residence communities, composed mostly of winter homes of persons with grove interests. The groves a re the backbone o f Lake Wales' prosperity, it being estimated that in the territory tributary to the city there are 23,000 acres of citrus plan t ings, s i x large packing houses being engaged in handling the fruit. Two of the larges t groves in F lori da Mammoth Grove, and the grove of August Heckscher-are included in this area. Like other Pol k county c ommunities, Lake Wales ha s done much building and improving in the past two or three years, a notable addition to the city being the e rection of the splendid DixieWalesbilt hotel, which opened January 1, 1927. Lake Wales N ewspa(>ers.The first newspaper at Lake Wales was es tab l i shed very early in the life of the town, being published by F. M. 'fhomas, and the first issue being dated February 21, 1914. The paperwas ca lle d the Lake Wales News. It was described as "abou t the size of a shee t of m u sic paper," and was short-lived. In March, 1916, t he La/Je Wales Highlamfe r was es t ab li shed by A. R. Nason In September, 191, 8 Harry M Gann, who came to the State from Minneapolis, bought the paper and very ably conducted it until his death which occurred late in 1920 On December 3, 1920,]. E. Worth in gton became the owner, later asso ciating with him Tom and Rebecca Caldwell, the newspaper now be ing the property of the Highlande r Publishing Co. It remained a weekly unti l January 5, 1926, when it entered t he semi weekly field. Under the manag ement of Mr. Worthing ton Tire Highla>ufe-r has stood for all that is goo d and progressive and for the hi ghest standards of ethical jourualism. In 1926 the L'ake W
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CHAPTER XI. FROSTPROOF T HI!; name Frostproof was orig inall y applied to the Lak e Clinch section, former l y k n own as Fort Clinch. The name is said to ha v e been give n by the cowboys who h erded their cattle i n this h igh land la ke re gion during the winter months and wh o would note ihe absence of frost there even in the coldest spells. This was particularly noticeable d u ring the severe col d t hat pre vailed through Flor i da during 1894-5 when th e damage at F rostproof was v ery s li gh t, and t he for tunate growers who Jived th ere sh i pped fruit t he following year, for which they received very h i gh prices This sectio n has always b een no ted for its adaptability to citrus c ul t ure, and a splendid indu st ry h as bee n de vel op ed seven l a rge pack ing houses being neces sary to handle t he large crop of super b fru it. Notwithst a nd in g its great natur al attract ions la ck i:lf transportation facilitie s made development very slow, and for many years only a few settler s e n joye d t he unsurpasse d advantages of the s ection. T he Carson family the family of V. P Simmons "Uncle Wash" Hend ry and B. M. Hampto n were among the earliest on the scene. I t is cla imed t hat "Uncle ''lash Hen dry built the fir st house at Frostproof. B M Hampton was called the "Wit o f t he S and Hills i n 1898. The Ohlingers were also among the "first families." The Carson brother s, Joe W and Munsey B .. were for a long period i nd e fatigable boosters for thei r section, proving its wonderful fitness for citrus cu ltu re by producin g oranges and grapefr u it of superb quality. '!'hei r exhibits a t t h e \Vorld's Fair in Chicago, t he Pan-A m erican Exposition at Buff alo, and t he Charleston Expositi on, were inva luab le a dv ertisements for the who le State of Florida W H. Overocker was an early postmaster the mail b ei n g b r ought in by rural carrier from Fort Meade, 1 9 miles distan t The carrie r would make the t rip sometimes by bicy cle, so m etimes b y team, and later by auto The p o stoffice was the social center and as the time for t he mail to arrive drew nigh, the whole po pu lation would repai r to the office and enjoy an hour of social converse. Charles Barri ngt on Coleman son of Mr. and M rs . Chas. Coleman, was born June 25. 1904, being the t hird baby b orn in the community. The re cord a s t o the first and second child was not available. There is a tradi tion that a sea serpen t, or a lake serpent, u se d to hau nt Lake Clinch. '!'he Indians many years ago i ns i s ted there was an immense serpe nt in this l ake. In 1907 residents of Frostproof de cl ared they had seen the mons t er, and that it m us t be thirty feet long-this, too, befor e pos t -pro hi bition liquor was known. I n 1911 railroad constr uct ion work was nearing the settle ment and a cit ize n of the place commented th us: "Stran ge t o say, negroes are becoming a common s i gh t i n Frostproof. Before this, they were not allowed to sleep her e more t han one ni gh t." 1 64

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Uf!furGII()d Roads Meeti"l. 1-'NutproQj 191 5. 11)18.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 155 On October 1, 1911, Railroad Commissioners Dunn and Blitch, visited Frost proof in company with Supt. Morton Riddle, of the A. C. L. Railroad, and the location of the depot, 150 feet from the well-known Indian mound, was definitely decided upon. Deputy County Surveyor J. W. Tillis at once started surveying and platting the town-site. Frostproof's first telephone was placed in Carson Bros' office, October 6, 1911, and was connected with Fort :Meade. The Hai nes City extension of the Atlantic Coast L ine railroad reached Frost proof January 5, 1912 A correspondent of the Lakeland Evening Telegra"' fur nished that paper with the following account of this notable event in Frostproof's history; "Frostproof has a railroad. For 25 years the first family of th i s community lived here in faith, waiting for this year of 1912 when a railroad should open up this territory, connecting it with the civilized world Two other families followed this first one after six years, and one by one the number increased until now almost 250 people reside here, and others spend the winters here. "Eighteen miles from any railroad, and with no certain date when one would reach us, there has been planted in this country a thousand acres of oranges and grapefruit. Where else on the citrus dome has such faith and enterpr ise shown forth? When Rev. Carson the first s ettler, brought his family here, his former neighbors assured him he would soon starve out, and that they would come out and call him back to Fort Meade in time. Since then, some of these neighbors have followed the trail and now have tine homes here, too. "Until seven efforts to inject steel rails into the hill country, each promoter's scheme failed although about as much local work was done on each as was required to finall y build the road. "But in telling our children and their children of the good men who have helped to make this country fit for civilized men to inhabit, we should never forget the names of those men who have labored and lost. "The 5th day of January, 1912, was the brightest day in the history of F r ost proof The first passenger train that rolled into thi s depot arrived a little later than was seheduled being 12 o'clock on Friday last. The citizens of Frostproof and vicinity were out to meet the train, and a war-whoop went up through the forest and groves, as the locomotive screamed us a signal of its arrival. "On this train were many passengers among whom was noted E. 0 Flood, of Lakeland, who has done much for Frostproof and the railroad." It took the people a little time t o adjust themselves to the new order of things, for the Frostproof correspondent of the Bartow Cot
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156 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, !'LORIDA There wa s much building and busine ss activity i mmed iately after the adven t of the railr oad. A hot el was opened June l, 1912. A Met h odist ch urch was comp lete d in September of the same year A bank was established, first known as the McCormick Bank, but bought by E. E. Skipper in the latter part of 1912. Skipper & Co. put up a bank building in the fall of 1914. J. C. Burleigh also put up a new brick building abou t the same ti m e F ros tproof w o n t he pennan t during the World War as the m ost efficient town in Red Cros s work in Florida in proportion to populati on. The Frostproof State Bank was organized in 1915. The Citizen s Bank, John Maxey, presi dent, was established in 19 20. A Board of Trade, under the leader s hip of Arthur P. Cod y, has been an important factor in the growth of Frostproof. One of the assets of Frostp roo f is its e x c ellent newspaper, Highland Nrws, which was e s tabli shed in 19 1 6 by J. Arney Hendricks, who had moved the plant an d equipment from Beau fort, Ga. Mr. Hendri cks edited and published the pape r, with the aid of hi s family, usin g an old ha n d -power S implex pre ss and very meager equi pment P. A. Ru hl, who at the time was publi s hing the Sebri ng Whit e Way, purchased The News in 1918, and conducted it until1920 when his so n Guy P Ruhl, returned from France and was discharged from the army Young Mr. Ruhl took charge of t he publication and has since conducted it ably and success fully. The paper was at first published in a fertili zer wa rehouse in t he rear of the office of R. W. A. Duncan, but in 1923 Mr. Ruhl p urchased a l oca tion and erected the brick buildin g that now houses the plant. Instead of the o l d han d power pres ses and other obsolete equipment, t here is now a model 8 linotype, up to-date presse s, and other modem equipment, all electrically driven Assisting Mr. Ruhl in the co nduct of the paper are Annie B Ruhl, soci al editor; Angie E. Jacq ues bookkeeper; Georg e M LaRa, mechan ical foreman ; Cul p Dott ery and Elton R ountree. "Pa" and Ma" Rub !, be loved by all newspaper fol ks of the section, have assisted from time to time in the editorial and advertising departments.

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XII. THRIVING SMALL "RIDGE" CITIES LAKE HAMILTON C HAMILTON was named for t he beautiful lake on which it is located, one of the largest in the State with a sho r e line of 35 miles. The lake seems to hav e formerl y been called Lake H amblet on. It was a camping place for the Indi ans in the time of th e India n troubles of 1854-56 and later Grover Cleve land v isite d and fished in it witlr sati s faction and success. The community came into being in 1913. The first residence wa s built by W i lliam Hosmer, who also put up a store building. In December 1913, the coun ty school board voted $3QO toward the establishment of a school, the agreeing to furnish a site and all necessary expenses above $300. The A. C. L. railroad completed a station building in April 1914. A post office was established in October, 1914, and L. G Anderson was appointed post' master. Giley & Tichnor put up a two-story building and engaged in general merchandising in August, 1914. A Woman s Club was organized almost as early as the beginning of the t own ; and in 1915 a Board of Trade was functioning, with U. S. Marti n president and H. R. Mosnat, secretary By 1916 there were forty members. Lake Hamilton set the pace in the matter of connecting lakes, the first project of the kind being the construction of an 800-foot canal, connecting Lake Hamilton with Lake Sara. The first child born in the community was Jessie Louise Hamil t on Denty, daughter of Mr. Mrs. Jame s Denty. She was born October 13, 1914 A band stand was built in 1915, and a concert band was organized by Mr. A C Roller. There were a dozen or more bui ldings erected in 1915. Among those putting up residences were Messrs Payne, Bradberry, Harvey and Davis. A polling place was established by the County Commissioners in January, 1916. In April of that year Lake Hamilton became a money order office. In April, 1916 there were 63 voters, the community being only three years old. The progressive character of cit i zenship is indicated by the vote on the big county-wide bond issue for good roads, that precinct giving 51 votes for t he prop osition, and none against. The first wedding occ urring in the community was that of James Coarsey and Miss Violet Pinaire, which took place April 27, 1916. On October 4, 1 9 16, the Ornamental League gave the contra ct for platting the town, R. T. Wedding securing the contract Plans included boulevarding three Jakes, beautifying the depot grounds, school grounds, etc. 167

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158 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLOR IDA The hot el at Lake Hamilton, owned by Mr. Stillwell, one of t he largest in the county, was destroyed by fire on S u nday, December 9, 1917. There was no way of combating the flames Loss was about $30 000. The Lake Hamilton National Bank was organized in 1920. On August 1, 1924, Lake Hamilton district voted road bonds in t h e sum of $75,000. Several miles of clay roads through the district were built with the proceeds. From au interesting article written by J. 0. Parrish, of Auburndale, we cull the following concerning the occupation of the locality by Indians d uring the war of 1854-57: An island Lake Hamilton was the refuge of a band of Indians, about 75 iri number, under the leadership of Chief Chipco When, about 1854, the Semi noles gathered at a point a short distance northeast of Lake okeechobee, and decided to begin anew hostilitie s against the whites, Chipco would not join them. His fellow-chieftains gave him ten days to come to a decis i on as to whether he would join them in war against the conimon enemy, or fight his own people Chipco called together his followers, in number about 100, and gave them t h eir choice as to whether the y should follow him or join their red brethren in war against the whites. About young braves cho s e the latter course ; the remainder of the band, under the direction of Chipco, weut various ways, assembling at a certain date on the shores of L ake Hamilton, a hundred miles or more to the north. There they made a permanent camp on a large island which afforded them protection from their foes, who could be seen before they could reach the camp. There was a settlement of whites at a trading post called Ichapucksassa about seven miles northeast of the present siteof Plant City. Chipco frequently did the settlers good service by \varning them of attacks or raids of hostile Indians. How ever, there was a bounty of $300 offered for every Indian brought in alive to 'l'ampa or Fort Myers, and, white t h e people of Icbapucksassa were loyal to Chipco and his band, others learned of the presence of the Indians on the i sland, and their cupid ity was aroused by the prospect of the bounty. A man named Kendritk organized a band of adventurers who made plan s to capture the Indians With great secrecy they constructed a number of light boats and canoes and hid them in a hammock near the s hores of the lake. They proposed to make their raid at early dawn, when the unsuspecting Indians would be asleep, expecting to capture the entire band of 75, and to recei v e $300 for eath of them. At the last moment their plans were learned by some one at Ichapucksassa, and at midnight a lone hor5eman left the settlement, riding through the woods and swamps to carry a warning to the Indians. Arriving on the shores of the lake he was able to signal the Indians by means of waving a bunch of burning gra s s, and Chipco tame s ilently in response, and was told of the plot to capture hi s band. At dawn the adventurers encircled the island only to find t h at the Indians had flo wn, and the camp deserted. Chipco settled on the shores of Lake Pierce, known as Catfish lake, and ids said that a few old orange trees still remain to mark the location of his camps. He lived many years after the incident related, and was known and respected by many white people of the county.

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. PART I-NARRATIVE 159 The rider who conveyed the warning was William who lived for probably sixty years on his farm between Lakeland and Auburndale, dying there about fifteen years ago, at a very advanced age. LAKE ALFRED Lake Alfred has had more names than most communities of similar age having been successively known as Bartow Junction, Chubb, and Fargo before it was finally given the name which it seems might have been suggested in tb,e first place by the beautiful lake on which it is built. This fine body of water was named Lake Alfred, for Mr. Alfred Parslow, a pioneer citizen and a railroad prospector, who was associated with 1Villiam Van Fleet in some rallroad projects in the early eighties. When the railroad was built from that point to Bartow it was called Bartow Junction-and we have found that it was sometimes called worse names than that, for the schedules were inconvenient for persons who wished to make connections there. They also found it uninteresting, for in 1893 it was state d that there was nothing there except a little station abou t 6xl8 feet. There was not another ho use for miles around, and passengers from Bartow had to wait four hours for a north bound train Haines City also complained of the inc onvenient schedule, which necessitated spending the night in Bartow if one had to spend more than one or two hours there. In 1900 Mr. Gilber t agent and postmaster at Bartow Junction, resigned. A correspondent comments on this incident: "As there is on l y one family and six billion mosquitoes living there, the post is generally shunned." J. J. Wallace succeeded Mr. Gilbert. For a number of years there was practically no growth, but in 1910 a group of capitalis t s from Fargo, N. D .. purchased a large tract in the l ocali ty and the Fruitlands Co. was fori ned to develop it. The promoters planned wisely, selling the lands on which to make groves, and planting and caring for these groves u ntil the owners were ready to build and take charge themselves. Because of these methods, t here liave been no grove failures fn the Lake Alfred development, and no n eglected or rundown groves. Frank C. Gardner, president of the Fruitlands Co.; Frank P. Goodman, manager, and S. F Poole, citrus expert, have been largely r espon sible for the s uccess of the development. The town of Lake Alfred was incorporated September 15 1913 F W. Froemke was mayor; C. F. Jester, clerk; J. C. Cox, treasurer; D. Rowe, marshal; W. W. McCan, president of the councif; M.G. Dennison, H. A. Wast, J.D. Miles, W. A. Lyon, councilmen; S.D. Adams C. F Jester, J. C. Cox, sc hool board. A program of wholesale beautification was put in operation in the spring of 1917. Old houses wer e moved, and golf links established; old store houses re moved and parks located. F. W. Froemke died Dece mber 29, 1917. He was one of Lake Alfred's foremost developers. A $100,000 packing h ouse was e r ected by the Lake Alfred Citrus Growers' Association in 1921. There were 3 000 acres in citrus planting in the Lake Alfred territory at the time.

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160 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA In 1925 there was much building activity, both in business houses and resi dences. A white way system, ten miles of sidewalks, and twelve miles of pav ed streets, were items included in the ambitious program launched. A wonderful transformation has been effected in Lake Alfred in recent years, and instead of being the crude, unattractive and unpromising way station of earlier times, it has become a very beautiful and progressive community. One of the finest school buildings in the State has been provided ; there is an excellent hotel and a g()()d banking inStitution; and orderliness and beauty have replaced the early crudity and ugliness. Men and concerns of wealth and influence have become largely interested, notably the :Mexican Crude Rubber Co . which has 650 acres in citrus groves, besides large holdings of und eveloped citnts lands, and Alexander Mackay, who has also made large investments in the locality. Lake Alfred had a newspaper in 1921-the Lake Alfred News, Maynard Froemke, editor, but it Was published only a short time. At present it is served by one of the Smith Publishing Co.'s chain of newspapers-the Lake Alfred Post. DUNDEE Dundee was the first new to wn platted on the Haines City-Sebring branch, and the first depot was erected at that point. The town grew out of a devel opment fathered in 1911 by Wm. W. Sheppard, who organized the Florida Highl ands Co., with associates a nd friends living at Minneapolis, Minn. The holdings of this concern included about 14,000 acres of land, located on the Ridge from Lake Hamilton to Mountain Lake, or Buck lake, as it was then called. This section was probably the first large citrus land development in Polk County. On these lands they started the towns of Dundee and Starr Lake. A hotel-the Highlands Hotel-,wa s built in 1912. It has since been remodeled and improved. The Glen St. Mary Nursery Co. bought 900 acres of land in and around Dundee in 1912, and located their citrus nurseries there. They put out several hundred acres in nurseries and groves. The State Bank of Du ndee was organized in 1915, with R. E. Waterman, president and cashier, and C. E. L anier, vice-president. A splendid school build ing has been erected, and a beautiful. Community House provides a center for social activities. There is also a live Board of Trade. Being located in one of the finest citrus sections in the ')'Orld, the progress of the community i s chiefly associated with the development of the grove lands, which is steady and satisfactory. BABSON PARK Babson Park was formerly known as Crooked Lake, so named for the beauti ful lake on which it is located. The Crooked Lake section has long been known as one of the loveliest and most productive in the county, but it lay dormant for a long time until "discovered" by H. E. Fairchild, a Minneapolis capitalist, who, about 1912, bought a tract of several hundred ac re s of l and and proceeded to develop it. His organization, known as the Southern Land Co., built a handsome Club House in and a numher of fine re s idences overlooking the

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PART I -NARRATIVE 161 lake, were also built. l'vleanwhile, E. W. Bar ber, a newspaper publisher of J ack son, :Michigan, had made his home on the lake for many years, and had given the section much valuable publicity through letter s to his own and other norther n papers; and others, attracted by t he charm of the l ocation also had established homes there. A Crooked L ake Imp rovement Company was formed in 1919, compo s ed of T. L. Wilson, H. E Fairchild, Fred Kiser, K. H. Gerlach, J. W. Carson, I. A. Yarnell, Frank L. Cody and others. The community had advanced to the point of i n corporation, and on July 21, 1921 an election was held ratifying a charter which had been passed by the Legis lature. There were 81 resident vot ers at the time, and the first officials chosen were: M ayor A. M Davis; councilmen, .M. J. Yarbrou g h, J.D. Coburn, W. H. Flowers, S. D. Creel, E. D. Way; clerk, R. M. Hayes; assessor, N. E. Thornhill. In April, 1923, Roger W. Babson, the economist and statist icia n, purchased 100 acres on Crooked Lake, including the greater portion of the town-site, and t he name o f the town was changed to Babs on Park. Much imp rovement followed, in clu d in g a $60,000 packing ho use erected by the Babson Park C i trus Growers' Association, F. L. Cody being president, H. E. Fairchild vice-president, and A. H. Stafford, secretary and manager. The State Bank opened in March, 1924. The development of a very high-class residential district und oubtedly will continue, and the connection of Mr. Babson with the community it is believed, will attract others of national prominence.

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MuLBERRY AND THE PHOSPHATE SECTION How M ulberry received its name is a matter of some interest. W h en t he ra ilroad first extended its line to reach the immen se output of the p hos phate pl an ts, there was a poin t convenient to the four big p l ants in ope r a tion i n the vicinity-the Palmetto P h osphate, tlie Kingsford the Bo n e Valley and the Land Pebble--where there stood a large mulberry tree. ]t was c usto mary to s top the trains and put off freight n ear this tree and goods frequently were mar k ed, "Put Off at th e Big Mulberry Tree." When t he railroad built a statio n and e s t ablis hed an agency at thi s point, it was quite natural tha t i t should have been called Mulberry. Later the postal au tho ri ti es adopte d the same name This famo u s mulberry tree is still standing, having weathered tire storms of many years. I t has been struck by lig htning once or rid dled with bullets freque n tly, and it i s said that at least one negro was s wurig from its li mbS-'Some say it bas figured in several lynching bees 'rhe city authorities h ave been giving this t ree some attention in latter years, and it bids fair t o r emain f o r a long t ime an object of historical interes t Bef o r e Mu lberry came into ex i ste nce a postoffice had beeri esta bli shed at Kingsford about a h alf-mile to the so ut hwes t This postoffice was discontinue d in Novem b er, 1897, and E. E. Webs ter seems t o ha v e b een Mulberry's first post master There is some confusio n abou t th i s perio d, as we find a stat e m ent t hat a postoffice was established at Mulberry in May, 1900, John B. Potter being ap pointed postmaster. L. N. P ipki n conducted the first store, a nd he has ever si nc e been a very prominent facto r in the business a nd civic life of the tow n Murdaugh B ros. estab lishe d a store the r e in 1895. J. P. Murdaugh, now tax collector of the cou n t y, b eing in cha r ge. The town of Mulberry was inco r porat ed in February, 1901. The following were the first officia ls: Mayor, L. M. Ballard; a lde rmen, L. N. Pipkin, A. F. F let cher, M C. Cain, H. B. Blount and :M. B. Payne; mar s hal, Silas Clark; clerk, Joh n B. Potter. By 1904 Mulberry claimed nearly 2,000 inhabitants. There were seve n phos phate plants in the vicinity, employing 800 to 1,000 m en, with a pay roll of $ 10,000 a week. 'l'he town had nine general stores a dru g s t o r e and a m ill i ne r y store, two m eat mark e ts and a bakery; a l so a gas plant an e xc e ll ent graded sch ool and three churches. In 1907 the Bank of Mul ber r y was es t ablis h ed, with L. N. Pipkin as president, and he has ever since been the guid ing force of this financial institution w h ich at present ranks among the strongest in the county In the same yea r, E. H Dud ley <:arne from Bartow and established th e Mul ber ry I c e Works, a n insti t u t ion that ha s re ndered splend i d service. Mr. Dudley doubled the capacity of t h e plant in 1910 E le ct r ic li gh t s were i nstalled in 1 908. 162

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PART I-NARRATIVE 163 John B H o w e es tabli s hed the M"lbe rry Tim es in 1907, succeede d by the Mulber'ry lo11n101 i n 190 8 the latter being c o n d u c t ed by L. Z. Overba y and R. Q Gresham. J anuar y 19, 1909, the new scho o l b ui lding at Mul berr y was ope n ed, P r o f : M oor e pres iding. The occa sion was d e voted to t he dedicatio n o f the building and th e cel e bration of Lee's birthday. Rev. S. W. Lawler was s pea ker of the d a y. The com munity continued to advance until in 1910 there were engaged i n bus i ness t he following fir ms-and perhaps, some others: S. R osin & Co., I. Stat berg R B. White, W. G. O verstreet, H. B. B l ount, Sat c h et t & Mit che ll Payne & DeVane, Wolf Ba r gain S t o re ; W. S. Yate s A Mend elson, Whidden & Whidden Houghto n Clothin g Co. Mulberry Furniture Co., W W. Matchett, J J Peop les, 0. C. Parrish & Co., R. L B aker, S E Gibson J. L M iller, T. C. Coar se y A B. Byrd, Mrs. H. F r az i er, M J Bass, Prairi e Trading Co., W C. Harri s & Co H. S. Babcock & Co., George Nicol op u lo s Bank of Mu lberry S. Dani el. A M a so n ic Lodge was i ns tit u t ed a t Mulberry Februa r y 1-7, 1910. The fol lowing were the officers: 1: B. Potter, W. M.; M. W. Moody, S W.; W. C Nabors, } W.; Z M Bowden. treasur er; J M. Damphier secreta ry; J. E. Barber chap l ain; L Sih erman S. D.; R. Hough t on, J. D. ; L. W. Clayto n S. S.; W. Bol den, tyler. St. Luke 's Episcopa l c hurch opened for worship in June, 192 1. The Citizen s Ban k was established in June, 1912 E. W. McCormic k was presid ent; L. S. M orro w, vice-president, and W. M :Mills cash ier Mulberry adopted municipal o wner s hip of w a t e rworks in 1913. L N Pip kin had ins talled a system i n a d v ance of t he ab i l it y of the to wn to o wn its u t ilities and t h e city bought his plant. D r. Murp h y, who was mayo r in 1 912, resigned to become postmaster. It could not be said t hat the city gov e rnment was extravagant a t th a t time, as the city clerk was being paid only $100 per a n num. Dr. P L. Goss d i ed in F r a nce f r o m wounds received i n a cti o n i n October, 1918. M ulberr y be i n g the c en ter of the phosphate industry is naturall y v ery respon s ive to th e fluctu atio n s of that busi n ess. Whe n the war began i n Europe prin cipa l markets for phosp hate were closed, and so re m a ine d unti l after the c o nclu s i o n o f peace, when e x po r ti n g was r esumed D u r in g th a t period there wa s n o gre at c o mmunity progress; bu t with the close o f hostilities th e ind\tstr y speedi l y ca m e ba ck and the city has been p rosper o u s. Mul berry will al w a ys be the capital o f the phospha t e section, and as it is si t uated in the center of numerous great plants, working inexhaustible deposits the future of t he city seems to be a ssured. I t has a sp l endid public school, an accredited High School, several churches, and all t he im pr o vement s of an up-to-dat e muni cip ality. Mul berr y Newspapers. T he Ph
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164 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Herald was published i n 1913 by Will H. Bulloch and later by Miss Georgia Beede. If suspended in August, 1914. In March, 1915, it was revived by Messrs. Fur leicht & Lancaster. A company was organized and a plant of considerable propor tions was installe d It apparently did very well for a while, but there were further changes, W. J. Fripp being at the helm for a time. He was succ eeded by Irvin Wyatt and C. White. Early in 1926 the paper became the property of Terrill H. Smith who organized the Smith Publishing Company, since which the business has flouris hed, Mr. Smith publishing in addition to the Mulberry Press, the Lake land Journal, the Bartow News, the Hai>tes City Times, the Kathlem Heraid, the Aubttrdale News and the Lake Alfred Post. These papers are all issued from the plant of the Mulberry Press, and are edited and managed by the organization of the Smith Publishing Co. OrHtR PHOSPHAT!; POINTS. The thriving phosphate towns of Pierce, Brewster and Nichols, are more interesting from an industrial standpoint than from the historical angle. Each of them were brought into being by the location of a great mining plant-the Amer ican Agricultural Chemical Co., at Pierce; the American Cynam i d Co. at Brewster, and the Phosphate Mining Co. at Nichols. Each of these places might proper ly be designated as a "Spotles s Town,'' each being indeed a model town, with nicely Jaid-o'lt streets, attractive homes, well-kept yards and lawns, excellent schools, and unusually good sanitary conditions. Little has occurred to disturb the peaceful routine of the people occupied in this great Polk County industry. One incident, however, might be mentioned, the burning of the phosphoric acid plant of the American Cynamid plant at Brewster with a loss of $500,000 which occurred June 28, 1923. Bradley Junction is located in the phosphate section. It came into existence as a community in 1910, and was incorporated April 25, 1912, under the name of Bradley. The following were the first officials of the town: Mayor, W. V. Ran som; councilmen, W. 0. Surrency, J.D. Robinson, J. W. Collins, H. B. Pearce, and ]. F: Kilpatrick ; clerk, J. C. English; marshal, M. C. Turner.

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CHAPnR XIV. SOME SMALLER COMMUNITIES HIGHLAND CITY H IGHt.AND CITY WM, until recent years, known as Haskell, that being the name of the s tation established there when the "Pemberton Ferry" rail road was built south to Bartow. For many years it remained a quiet little village, with only the station, a general store, and one or two residences. When general real estate activities began in 1924, Haskell felt the upward urge, and began to expand. The great Hallam citrus development near had already been a force for improvement, and in 1925 the citizen s secured authority from the Legislature and decided to incorporate, changing tbe name from Haskell to Highland City. The territory included in the incorporation was three square miles. Tbe following were the first officers of the com munity: Mayor, 0. H. Stringer; C. C Moon, J. S. A. Walker, E. F. Miller, T. L. Fentress, and E. C. Morris, councilmen; Norman Wynn, marshal; J. A. Wil lia ms assessor; \V A. Womble, clerk and treasurer. In 1927 a suit was brought by a number of citizens to have certain lands owned by them excluded from the co rporate limits, the suit being decided in their favor, thus lessening the area of the town. A fine school ha s been built in late year s, and an excellent and upto-dat e hotel, a large packing house, and a canning plant, are additions to the business and industrial life of the community. HOMELAND Homeland is o ne of the oldest communitie s in the county, but there have been few incidents in it s peaceful career, and little change. The writer, in conversation with an old r esident of the county, asked the q u estion : "Why is it that Homeland, with many advantages of location, h as not shown more growth in all thes e years?" His answer WM that it was because the people were too well satisfied. It impre sses one who views it as the "Home Land" of contented people. Homeland was origina ll y known as Bethel so named for the old Methodist chu rch that was located there. When t he county began to settle up, a meeting was caJied to decide upon a name for the village, and an Irish peddler named Jack .McCormick, who had bought a borne there, s uggested the name Homeland, which was adopted. Mr. Jame s A. Wilson, an o ld-time resident gives us the names of some of the early citize ns, who were there about 1873. Among these were Rev W. C. Jordan, the Me t hodist minister; John B. Bunch, Dr. Stanford, J. B. Pylant S., William Durrance, J. L. Durrance, J. M. Crum R. B. Mitchell, John Parker, Newton Parker, T. 0. Parke r, Judge Jas. T. Wilson, W. R. Hollingsworth, Dr. A. S. Johnson, Dr. Hayman, Martin Hayman Benjamin F Moody, Simpson Singletary, etc 165

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166 HIS'rORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA LOUGHMAN L<>ughman, located in the extreme northeastern part o f the county, ha s been an important industrial community for many years. Its chief enterprise has been the Everglades Cypress Lumber Company, established in 1905, which it is noted, in 1906, employed 300 men, turning out 200,000 feet of lumber daily The concern sustained a $200,000 fire August 2, 1913. Its successot, the Everglades Cypress Co., is the important industry at this time. T here is a Baptist and a Methodist church, and the Woman's Club, a very active organitation, recently completed a commodious club house. POLK CITY I n 1922, Isaac Van Horn laid out a town in northwest Polk which wa s given the name of Polk City. The foundations of this enterprise were laid in keeping with Mr. Van Horn's characteristic thoroughnes s and liberal policies. The town site is beautifully loca ted and the streets avenues and parks admirabl y laid out. Many substantial improvements have been provided by Mr. Van Horn, among them being the beautiful Wayside Inn. The tO\vn has been incorporated, its mayor being J. Harold Addison; city engineer, George Axtel; chief of police, G. C. Lanier. The Polk City Chronicle was establishe d by Mr. Van Horn i n January, 1925. Previously, Mr. Van Hom had published small papers in Polk City, the first being the Florida Bull, succeed ed by theM erry-Go-Round, and Tire Chronicl e was the outgrowth of Ralph H. Patterson is associate editor. ALTURAS Alturas bad its beginnings when the Seaboard Air Line was built from Bartow to Lake Wales, being a station about mid-way between the two cities named. It is in the heart of a rich grove section. Improvement has been pushed by the Woman's Club and the Civic Club. The latter was formed in August, 1923, and the following officers were elected October 4: J. A. Flanniga n, president; G. M. Cranston, Vice-president; Mrs. J. A. Flannigan, seco nd vice-president; E. L. Grass, se<:retary; Mrs. G. T Voight, treasurer.

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CHAPTJ:R XV. EDUCATIONAL IN rHE early days of the county school facilitie s were naturally very meagre and very crude. Here and there, where there was a settlement, there would be a small log school house, which was also generally used as a meeting house, or an assembling place for religious or other purposes. A few of these schools were mainta i ned by public funds. Sometimes two or three families would join together and employ a teacher to instruct their children in the rudimentary branche s Teachers, for either public or private schools, were poorly paid, $7 per month being considered a s ufficient salary. Hon. D H. Sloan draws this picture of school conditions in his boyhood days: I n early times there were only log school houses in the county, except in the two villages of Bartow and Fort Meade. There were no desks, even the teacher had none, and the pupils held their books in their laps. There were no stoves, and only an occasional open fireplace. When it wa s too cold to sit in the log building, with cracks in the wall and open floors ; school would adjourn to the outdoors, the pupils sitting around log heap fires, often in a drizzling rain. There were few roads to school-only cattle or pig trails. The average school term was three months, seldom more than four. The pupils were taught by faithf ul God-fearing, rod using teachers, and teaching then did not consist of merely hearing lessons, nor did it require years before t h e pupils were able to spell and to read intelligently. The boys tried to please the girl s and sometimes the girls tried to look sweetand did look sweet -at the boys. Those were never-to-be-forgotten days. The boys ran off to fishing holes, to the woods to gather grapes or other fruit, but seldom played hookey. Wrong-doing meant a severe licking at schoo l and the same remedy at home. "I and many others alternated in going to school with cotton picking (nearly every little farm then had its cotton patch) potato digging, hog killing, etc Child r en learned how to talk, and spell and figure, as we termed it. Being raised thus I could appreciate the need of better conditions for the children of the later day. I got through the Florida Legislature a district school bonding bill, and we now have buildings finer than we really need, and terms so long that chi ldren get completely tired out, so they can neither study nor learn. So it goes-none of our systems, conditions or methods are perfect. Back to the old log school house its open cracks, and the pig trails leading to it-never I But God give us again the godly, patient, helpful teaching spirit of the good old days." In 1880 or 1881, when the era of development may be said to have begun in Polk, there were eleven organized schools, in which 242 pupils received instntction. We note that in 1881 there was a teachers' exam i nation held at Bartow, conducted by Prof. D. C. Kantz, who was the principal (and the entire facul ty) of Sum merlin I nstitute. In October of that year, the School Board held a session, and 16'1

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168 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY FLORIDA teacher s were engaged as follows: Medull a M L. Menges; Bethel, F. M. W i lson ; Foxtown, Smith Coachman ; a school at Bowlegs, below Fort Meade, Miss Mattie Blount; Ellis' school house, Eugene Hunt. To operate the schools that year $2,200 was required. The county commissioner s levied a three-mill tax, which yie lded 81,400. The balance was secur ed by the payment by each pupil of $1.50. The school f und was in debt-as usual-the indebtedness being about $500 A Mr. Ro binson, or Robert son, taught a school at or near Socrum in 1 882, and that same year there is mention of the clo sing of the schoo l at Foxtown, with an e x hibition and a declamation co ntest. Lafayette Bryant was given a prize a s the best speaker, and after the exercises a supper was given at the home of J. Wes Bryant. In 1882 the following pupils attai ned the Honor Roll at the Bartow sc hool: Master Allie Good e Miss Emma B l oun t Mi ss Minnie Pearce, llliss Julia Hewi tt, Master J.D. Boo th. There was a school with an e nrollment of 2S pupils taught by R. 0. Brow n field at Lake Seward in the fall of 1 882. A good schoo l was also in progress at Gan dy, A. B. Ferguson being the teacher. At the close of 1882 there were 36 organized schools in the county, and the school fund wa s nearly out of debt. The assessment for school purpo ses for t he year am ounted to $2,054.11. In 1887, $40 per month was the usual salary paid t ea chers, they havin g during that yea r bee n granted an addition of $10 to their monthly pay, "to enab le the teacher s to pay the i r own board." The membe rs of the co unty sch ool board at this time were M D L. Mayo James T. Wilson, and J. W Brandon John SnoddY. was secretary and county superintendent. In 1888 the Homeland school, taught by Miss Swearingen, with 75 pupils, was reputed to be the largest in the county. A s develop ment progr essed, the school inter ests k ept pace, and improvement in the num be r and chara cter of the schools wa s co n s tant. It is not poss ible to trace the evolution of the s mall and infrequent co untry school to the prese nt s tage of our magnificen t county public sc hool system To do so woul d necessitate a volume of the propo rti ons of this entire History. Three i nstituti o n s have been of unusual importance and interest and a brief sketch of each of these follows: SU>OIF.RLIN INSTITU'm. Jacob Summerlin, known as the King of th e Cracke rs," a very w ealthy cattle man, purchase d the pres ent site of Bartow shortly after the close of the Civil War, a n d laid out the t o wn. He donated forty acre s of l and for public buildings; twenty acres for uses of the Methodist Epi scopa l church; twenty acres to the Baptist church and forty acre s for educational purposes. He then proceeded, with the Masons, to erect a twosto ry building, in partnership with that Order, the lower story of which was to be used as a school room. This was Summ erlin Institute as we see it when D. C. Kantz opened it in Octo ber, 1881 with thirty pupil s th ough during the yea,. a maximu m attend ance o f forty pupil s w as reached.

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PART I -NARRATIVE 169 The most important forward s tep in the next few years was the erection of th e real Summe r lin Ins ti tu te. A portion of the lan d dona ted by Mr. Summerlin had been sold, and the s u m of $8,401 had bee n thus realized. The people of Bartow contr ibu ted an additional $ 5 000 The c o ntrac t for t he building wa s le t March 5, 1887, to J o se ph Thomps on, th e contract p rice being $17,000 Completed and finished, the i ns titution repr esen t e d an outlay of $20,000 At the time o f the ere<:tion of the building, Capt. David Hughe s Col. G. A Hanson and Jacob Summerlin were trustees The corner-stone of Summerlin I n s t itute was la id with irnposing ceremon i es on May 12, 1887, th e Gran d L odge of Maso n s of F l orida being in charge. This was, perhaps Bartow s greates t d ay up t o th a t t ime. A spe<:ial excur sion train was operated; t here was a barbecue, and a gre at thro ng. The pri ncipal address was delivered b y DeWitt C. Dawki ns, of the Grand Lodge. Lacy Boyd, then a s m a ll boy, d e live red an address of welcome a nd appr ecia tion to .Mr. Summerlin, and M iss Maggie Johnson made a p rese nt ation speech, tendering Mr. Summerlin a handsom e, beautifully chased, gold -h eaded cane. To th e s e addresses Mr. S um merlin made a suitable response. The school was for many y ear s the most important in the county It was finally, by arrangement betwee n the city of Bartow and the trustees of S ummerlin merged with the Bartow H igh School, and the latter still bears the name of Sum merlin. Among distinguished educators who have been in charge of the s chool were Arthur Williams, William Hood, Tom F. McBeath, R B. Huffaker, B B L ane A B. Conner, and others. SouTH FwatoA M u .. t'I'ARY INsTtTum. In 1894 Gen. E. M Law, a noted soldier and educator, came to Fl orida for t he p urpose of selecting a suitable loca tion for t he establis hmen t of a military school. He decided on B artow for thi s purpose, and in September, 1894, he ope ned the South F l o rida Military I n sti tute, in temporary q uar ters The 1895 session of t he Florida Legi s lat u re v oted State ai d to the extent of $6,400 a year to the in s t ituti o n the condition being that o ne s tu d ent fr om each S e natori al d is trict of the S tate be to the school b y the Senator from the district, wit hout c harge for board or tui tion T h irt een and o ne-half acres of land in t he city limits were secured, and s uitable buildi ngs ere<:ted, a p ort i on o f these buildings having been completed in time for the opening of schoo l i n t he fall of 1895. J. W. Malsby, a son of Ca p t. L. W ll.fals by, of La kelan d, was the first studen t a d mitted from Pol k u n der t h i s arrangement, tho u gh th ere were a dozen applicants who stood the competitive examinat i oh. H. G. K ee n also of La ke l a nd, stood second h i g hest in the examination. W ith the enlargement of the i ns titute, Capt Thos vV. Gary, of So uth Caro l i na, was added to the fact ilty. The Florida L egi sl atu re of 1897 increased the S t ate's appropriation to annually, instead of $6,400, as it had been u p to tha t ti me. There wer e two g r adua tes at the close o f the first year i n June, 1896-W. L Boyd a nd E. A. Law Graduates from P olk cou n ty in 1898 were E. L Wirt, .H. G. Keen and Me l A Wilso n

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170 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA In 1901 th e State Legislature purchased the South Florida Military I nstitute anclit became a State institution In June, 1903, Gen. E M Law resigned as superintendent, afte r conducting the Institute with marked success and ability for eigh t years. Gen. Law's popu larity was so great that eleven members of t he graduating class of t h irteen, quit at the time of his resignation. Their places, however were filled by new appointees from the various senatorial districts Gen. Law was succeeded by Col. H. P. Baya, who ably conducted the Institute, until the Buckman bill, passed by the Legislature of 1905, did away with the school as a State institution and i t did not reopen after its closing in Jun e of that year. Many men who have gained distinction in the State, received their education in th is institution. SouTHERN CoLLEGE. The acquisition of Southern College in 1921 was one of the most important events, not only in the history of Lakeland, b u t in that of Polk County. When it became known tliat Lake la nd might be considered as a location for the in stitution, a vigorous campaign was launched by the Chamber of Commerce and othe r citizens, to provide substantial inducements The decision to bring the college to Lakeland was made at a meeting of the Trustees in Tampa on l\ofay 3, 1921 A tract of eighty acres of beautiful and productive orange groves, lying on Lake Hollings worth, a cash subscription by citizens of $90,000, and a donation of $50,000 in light and water on the part of the city, were the considerations offered to bring about the location of the college in Lakeland. A brief history of the i nstitution follows: Southern College, F l orida Methodism's institution of higher learning, opened its new doors in Lakeland in the fall of 1922 after having carried on for more than thirty years at Leesburg, Sutherland, and Clearwater Beach. Economic de pression following the damaging freeze of '94 forced the college to close it s doors for a yea r. In the later '90s the plant was moved to Sutherland and there flourished until the disastrous fire of 1921. For a year and half following that catastrophe Clearwater Beach was the temporary site, the housing of the college plant there being made possible largely thr ough the loyalty and generosity of E. T. Roux of Plant City who was then a member of the Board o f Trustees. Upon being moved to Lakeland the institution entered upon a new era of growth. Two large buildings, said to be among the finest college edifices in the United States, were ready for occupancy in 1922. In planning the immense build ing program those behind the project aimed toward a cultnral atmosphere as well as toward mere physica l comfort. Later came t he erection of a dormitory for men a large gymnasium and an ath.letic field. The two first bui l dings were the dormi to ry for women and Social Hall, the latter housing the dining hall kitchen, class rooms, l abora t ories, and library. The college site is in the m i ds t of a si xty-acre orange grove on a slope over looking Lake Hollingsworth. In order to prov i de boating and swimming for the students a dock and boat house were constructed

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PART I-NARRATIVE 17'1 Early in the summer of 1925 Dr. Ludd M. Spivey, then Dean of Birmingham Southern College, Birmingham, Ala., was named president of Lakeland's Southern. It was then that Southern's phenomenal growth began The new president, through his energetic efforts and th rough the whole-hearted cooperation of loyal Southern friends throughout Florida, soon placed the institution on a progressive path forwar d When he took the helm there were less "than three hundred students enrolled. Within the comparatively short period of three years the n u mber had been increased to nearly eight hundred, and the institution was drawin g students from all parts of the United States Though under the supervision of the Florida Methodist Conference the col lege has enrolled a large per cent of students representing many different denominations. When President Spivey took charge an indebtedness of more than $400,000 hung over the institution. In less than three years he had wiped out the debt and had set about the task of securing a half million dollars for endowment. Southern offers courses leading to bachelor of arts and science degrees, and has special departments for normal work, music, voice, art, dramatics and expresston. This institution enjoys the distinction of being the southernmost college in the United States.

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CH APt'ER XVI. SOME EARLY CHURCHES PoLK co unty today is rich in many splendid temp l es of w orsh ip, but the beginnings of rel i gious practices in this sectio11 were naturally and necessarily crude. Early religiou s observances l argely took the form of camp meetings, or outdoor gat herings. These were encouraged b y the climatic conditions, which favored out-of-door life, and were almost necessitated by the fact that there were no buildings that could accommodate an) considerable number of persons. For the minor occas ions of worship, where the congregation comprised only a few families, there was someti me s a small building that was u sed as a combinati on church and sc hool house Circuit ride r s and other itinerant preachers-godly men who endured many hardships, that they might bring spirit ual instruction to these rem ote plat-preached at some of these meeting places at s t ated times, while in other settlements the visits of the preacher were infrequent and irregular A camp meeting would draw the people from a distance of many miles. These meetings, or any kind of religious gatherings, were no t only importan t as affording spiritual refreshment, but they furnished the chief, and sometim es the only, opportunities for social contacts The people, as mos t people living in sim ilar conditions were s impl y and deep ly religi o u s, and the c amp meeting provided an outlet for the emotional in their natures Besides this, it partook somewhat of the character of a picnic giving the people an opportunity to mingl e toge ther to discuss crops and other concerns, and, doubtless, to do a little love-making The progress of many of the fine churches of the county is noted in connectio n with the stories of the variou s com munities. The beginnings of a few of them are brieRy s ketched herewith: It i s uncertain as to when or where the first church building i n the county was dedicated There seems to have a church at Socntm as early a s any we find, a small log struct ure having been built by Henry M. Frier, Daniel Sloan and a few others nearly 80 years ago. There was no church building either at Bartow or at Fort Meade in 1880. At Bartow the Bap tists and the Methodi sts had church organizations at that time J. l\I. Hayman preached to the Baptists on the first Sunday of each month The Methodists had services twice a month -G. W ftchell co nducting them on the third Sunday, and P. R. Mc C rary on the fourth Sunday. Robert M. Pylant was preaching at Medu lla There was a Su nday School at Medulla also J. A. Kilgore being the Superintendent. We have referred to the Socru!" church as being at least among the earliest. It is brought to attention by an incident occurring in connection with it in the summer of 1881-an instance of what was consider ed divine healing. Mrs. Susan ]. Hanoock, of that secti on, had been seriously afflicted, and had been treated, without receiving any benefit, by physician s of Hernando co u n ty and from Atlanta She finally lost the f acu lty of spe ech and was reduced to a s kel e t on. She was 172

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PART I-NARRATIVE 173 prayed for by Elder Alderman Wilson and several members of the Socrum church and it is s tated she was completely cured Faith wa s stronger in those days t han n ow. On January 7, 1882, J. B. Crum called a meeting to take steps toward the erection of a :Methodist church building in Bartow. The Baptists also made a start toward building at about the same time. A Presbyterian congregation was formed at Bartow in February 1882 and a house of worship was planned. John Richardson and family, Mr. McLeod and family, and Mesdames Hyland and Smith were active in this work. Mr. Lytle o ff ered to donate a site for the building. Mr. Richardson was the flrst Elder The church was not built until some years late r having been dedicated on Sunday, May 20 1888. The sermon was delivered by Rev. Dr. Sproull Elder M M. Dunlop made a financial statement, showing the cost of the building to be about $3 500. A G Zipprer, James B. Crum and W. T. Carpenter were the first trustees of the Methodist church at Bartow. S. A. Jones & Co., of Tampa and Bartow, was given the contract f o r the building in April, 1882 By August the organ of the church had arrived, but the building had not been completed. In October of the same year the ladies of the church formed a misisonary society, Mrs Dr Fer guson being president l\Irs. Leah Moreland recording secretary, and Miss Angie Hewitt treasurer. The church was dedicated on Sunday March 9 1883, ibis being Bartow's first house of worsh i p. Rev. W C. Jordan officiated, assisted by Rev. P. R. : M cCrary and Rev S W. Carson. Work was begun on the Baptist church at Bartow, in March, 1882, and on April 1st of the following year the bui l di n g was dedicated. Rev. Mr. Gordon, of Tampa, preached the dedication sermon. J M. Hayman and W. B. Varn were trustees A Sunday School was organized in the Methodist church at Bartow in March, 1882, with 63 attendants. H C. Wentz was superintendent. A church building was completed by the Methodists at Fort Meade in March, 1882; it was dedicated on May 7th In the fall of 1882 Epps Tucker organized a Congregational Methodis t church which held services in a church building at Seward Lake. A Sunday School, of which J L McClelland was superintendent, held regular sessions each Sunday. The Episcopalians at Bartow hel d services in the Opera House in 1888, Rev J. H. Weddell coming for the purpose on the second and fourth Sundays. Prob ably the first Episcopalian church building in the county was at Acton, the English town which was s tarted in 1883 on Lake Parker, about two miles east of where Lakeland was built a little later When Acton was abandoned, this church build ing was moved to Lakeland and served the Episcopalian congregat i on of that city for many years until the completion of the i r presen t beautiful house of wor ship. In 1900, the Christian congregation purchased the old Baptist church building at Bartow, to use as a house of worship by that congregation, the Baptists having built a new that year.

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CHAPTER XVII. POLK COUNTY'S GOOD ROADS TH E history of good roads in Polk County, as in F l orida generally, prior to' a decade and a half ago, may be described as "the short and simple annals of the poor." Good roads just did not exist; passable roads were few: Most of the so-called roads were little better than trails, their course alternating between mire s loughs and unbridged 'vater courses and deep sands, through which travel was painful and slow. Better roads were as the most pressing need of the county for many years, but securing them was for a long time an ap parent(y insuperable task. There was not the "metal" or gravel, that is abundant along every water-course in many northern States; there was not the rock which in other sections is a convenient and inexhaustible for road construction. A new and undeveloped county, with little weaith and sparse population, could not consider brick or concrete roads, because their cost was prohibitive. The problem presented many phases, and for a long time it vexed those who were interested in public affairs and anxious to see the 'county develop and prosper In the early nineties clay of a superior quality was discovered in the vicinity of Bartow, and it was used on the streets with reasonable success. "Bartow macadam" was the name given to this new road material, and it was thought wat the problem of road building might be solved. An attempt was made to clay some of the principal roads of the county, the first road so treated being between Bartow and Fort Meade, the C:ost in large part being paid by popular subscription. The results attained constituted some improvement, but was by no means as satisfactory as had been hoped for. I t was found that it was one thing to clay a few blocks of city Streets, reaSonably well drained, and firmly packed by years of traffic, and quite another to extend this work to miles of country roads, presenting varied and usually unfavorable conditions. Tlien, there was the constant warfare of upkeep the roads were constantly being washed away; or, in dry weather, they reso lved themselves into dust and were blown away. So, what with the first cost of constructio n, which was not light, and the expense of upkeep, which was un doubtedly heavy, progress towards a satisfactory road system in the county was extremely slow. 'In 1899 Polk County had less th an five miles of improved roads, most of which had been built by public subscription. In 1900 a t otal of ten or twelve miles had been attained. For years things went on in this way, little patches of road being built here and there over the county and going to pieces before they could be joined to other patches. Experiments were made with different material-clay, sand-oil, and even straw-but all were unsatisfactory. There waS no attempt at a county-wide system, and it was not until less than twenty years ago that there was what might be considered a travelable road between any two important points in the county. There are young people at this tim e, scarcely grown, who remember when a trip 174

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PART I -NARRATIVE 175 through t he country to Bartow from Lakeland was a difficult and laborious under taking. Then the influe nce of the automobile began to be felt and the demand for good roads became urgent and insistent. It culminated In a proposed bond issue for $500,000, in October, 1911; but th e proposition was not well worked out, nor was it properly presented to the people, and t he bond issue failed It was not until June, 1914, that t he movement for a county-wide system of good roads t ook definite and decisive s hape. The Polk County Good Roads Asso ciation was organized, being the outgrowth of vari ous meetings of the Boards of Trade of several communities. The most important of these meetings up to that time was held at Bartow, on July 6, 1914, Capt. T. W. Gary being chairman, and A. J. Hot worthy, secretary. Another meeting was held on July 23, over which Dr. J. H. Ross presided, Mr. Holworthy being made permanent secretary A Board of Di re cto r s was chosen a s f ollows: Dist. No. 1, D : M Pipkin and W. W. Keen; No. 2, W. H. Lewis and F. E. Ohlinger; No. 3, C. H Walker and E. E. Cline ; No.4, C. C: Palmer and H. J. Lewis; No.5, Dr. W. H. Conibear and H. L. Kelley. John S. Howard, of Eloise, was made Governor-at-large. Through the agitation of the Association, five quarter-mile experimental stretches of asphaltic oil-sand roads were contracted for by t he county commis sioners, one piece in each commissioner's district. ]. T Burrows was appointed to supervise the construc tion of these experimental pieces of roads, and they were goOd enough to make the people wish for more. Chairman Howard and Secretary Holworthy, of the Polk County Good Roads Association, with two representatives from each commissioner's district, held many meetings at various points, and travele d over the State i n specting different types of road that had been put down. Information was secured from all available sources as to costs, materials and other details of road construction. A m ap was prepared showing t he exact locat ion of the roads it was proposed to build, the s logan being: "a good road from every point in the county to every other point." After a year or more of this campaign of education and invetigation petitions were circulated asking th e commissioners to call an election on a bond issue, the amount t o be determined by the contract price of construction of the roads sought to be built. The petitions were subm itted to the commissioners at their October, 1915, meeting, and a resolution granting t he petition was adopted by the Board. At the November meeting the Jau don Engineeri n g Co., of Savannah, Georgia, was given the contract for preliminary survey, at 3 per cent. of the total cost of the roads. Fifteen engineering firms submitted bids. This action precipitated an avalanche of discussion, pro and con. Many people wanted good roads, but doubted the wisdom of incurring a heavy bonded indebtedness. The coun ty ha:d hitherto never issued bonds. A multitude of facts and figures--and some statements that probably were not facts-was promul" gated through the press and other mediums. The co mmis sioners were in session practically the entire week, beginning Aprill8, 1916; and contracts were awarded for the pav ing of 217 m iles of stand ard shee t asphalt highways, at a cost of $1,500,00()-the larges t t ransac tion of the

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176 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORTDA kind ever entered into by any county in the South The project was let i n five sections, the successful bidders being: Edwards Construction Company, Tampa; E. C. Humphrey, Hackensack, N. J.; W. P. McDonald Construction Company, New York; and Eureka Paving Company, of Houston, Texas. These contracts were conditional upon the adoption of the bond p ro posi tion by the people, which was to be submitted to vote on June 1st following. Immediately there was launched a stirring campaign by the Good Roads Association. Meetings were held in almost every community in the county. Dr. J. H. Ross was among the most eloquent and able advocates of the proposition. and, with such men as A. J. Holworthy, John S. Howard, J. Walker Pope, and many others he carried convincing argume nts into practically every precinct. The campail(n culminated in a monster good roads meetiog at Bartow on May 25. it being said that 800 automobiles-practically all in th e county-carried good roads boosters to this meeting. The election was held on June 1, 1916, the vote being more than two to one in favor of the bonds. There was great rejoicing throughout the county, it being felt, as the outcome proved, that a wonderful step had been taken iri the direc tion of progress and development. John S. Howard, having become county commissioner, resigned as President of the Good Roads Association, after two years of tirele ss and efficient service, and J. Walker Pope, who had at all times been in the forefront of the fight for good roads, was elected President. There are many who take credit, and are entitled to a measure of such, for the success of this good roads movement, but the impartial opinion of one who was in very dose touch with aff airs at that time, would consider the e fforts of five men as contributing very largely to the secu ring of Polk County's great county-wide system of roads. These men were: Dr. J. H. Ross, John S. Howard, J. Walker Pope, J. C. Swindell and A. J. Holworthy. Of them all it would not perhaps be unjust to state that the greate s t share of work fell upon A. J. Holworthy. For at least two years before the bond issue was sub mitted to the people, Mr. Holworthy, with tireless industry and infinite pains, carried on a tremend!)us volume of correspondence, compiled data, prepared au thentic figures, and otherwise was instrumental in there being presented such a clear-cut proposition, backed up by such unanswerable arguments, that it was accepted, despite its unprecedented magnitude, and the strong opposition, which characterized its earlier stages. The Good Roads Association did not relax its efforts with the passage of the bond issue, but continued active and alert until the roads were completed. Five men-one from each district-were selected to serve as an Advisory Board, acting in conjunction with the Bond Trustees, and with equal authority. These men were: District No. 1, C. C. Martin, Mulberry; No. 2, H. M. Mansfield, Tiger Bay; No. 3, J. N. Hooker, Bartow; No. 4, H. W, Snell, Winter Haven; No. 5, M. F. Hetherington. The Bond Trustees were: T. L. Wilson, Bartow; W. H. Lewis, Fort Meade ; and C. M. Clayton, Lakeland. A. B. Leach & Company were successful bidders for the bonds a t $101: 79. Despite some complications, due to the coming on of the World War, the roads

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PART I-NARRA'I'IVE 177 were completed without undue delay There were some mi s takes an d im perfec t i ons, as was but natural in carrying out suc h a mammoth project ; but i t is con ceded that the roads have been worth to t he county many times their cos t, and that the construction of this system was a prime fa ctor in the rema r kab l e development of South Florida that immediat ely thereafte r followed. Following t he countywid e bond issue, distric t proj e c ts were launched by Winter Haven, Auburndale Lak e H a milton, and other communities, whic h desired additional good roads; and the county system has constan tly been enlarged and i mproved, until Polk is second to no se ction in the country. in the mileage and character of her roads

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CEIAPTIIR XVIII. THE PHOSPHATE INDUSTRY PeRHAPS the most important industry of Polk county is the mining of pebble phosphate, in the prosecution of which there are many millions invested and large numbers of people employed. The origin of this grea t industry might be termed accidental. In 1886 John C. Jones and Capt. W. R. McKee, of Orlando, while on a hunting trip on Peace River, between Fort Meade and Charlotte Harbor, discovered phosphate, bone, and other material in the river. In January, 1887, through their efforts, a syndica te known as the Peace River Phosphate Company was formed, including Messrs. Jones and McKee, Messrs. Hill and Hunt, of Bir mingham, Ala., and G. W. Scott, of Atlanta. These gentlemen organized a corps of scientists, who, with major M. T. Sing ler, a well-known geologist, of Alabama, and Mr. Pratt, a chemist of Atlanta, visited Florida for the purpose of making a scientific examination of conditions. Capt. McKee accompanied the expedition as a civil engineer, and he was assisted by M.G. Darbyshire, of Fort Meade. People who lived in that section claim that the greatest secrecy was preserved as to the real purpose of the expedition, it being ostensibly to investigate the possibilities of producing tannic acid from the roots of the palmetto. It is claimed that owners of lands it was desired to pur chase were told that if these lands could be bought at a reasonable figure factories for the extraction of the acid would be installed, which, of course, would be advan tageous in the development of the country. A t any rate, a thorough inspection of the river bed was made, and there was found what seemed to be an almost inex haustible deposit of phosphate rock. which in the territory examined averaged 61 per cent pure bone phosphate, which is about three per cent higher than the South Carolina deposits. Being encoura ged by the rich find the company at once secured forty-three miles of the river fro nt, including both banks, making a tota l distance down the river of twenty-one and one-half miles. Capt. Scott, in a sta tement made in 18 88, states: "The company propose s at an early day to develop this valuable property, and will, i n the near future, send a cargo of the rock to the Scott Mills in Atlanta to be worked up and put practically on the market. This shipm ent will, in all probability, be made via Punta Gorda to Columbus, Ca., and thence by rail t o Atlanta. During the session o f the Legis lature of 1887 a bill was passed granting G. W Scott and associates the right to prospect and remove from the navigabl e river s of the State any phosphate they could find. This bill, of course granted a general, but not a special right. Acting under this authority they purchased a small steame r and secu red the services of scientists to make a thorough investigation All the navigable waters of th e eastern and southern portion of the peninsu la were examined without discoverin g the bone phosphates of quality and quantity sufficient to be worked with profit, except that on Peace River ; but here and there, in Marion and Alachua counties light deposits 178

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PART I-NARRATIVE 179 were f ou n d ranging from about 30 to 35 per cent of phosphate of i ron and illum in ic, which is too low a grade for commercial fertilizers." In May, 1888, G. W. Scott was arranging to ship phosphate from Arcadia, having contracted with a Mr. Morehead for 200,000 tons, to be supplied at the rate of 200 to 400 t011s per month. He reported that the entire State had been carefully looked over and that the s ection mentioned was the only place where phosphate beds could be found. The discovery of phosp h ate in Florida inaugu rated an era of speculation unparalleled in the State up to that time. Pine lands that would have been thought dear a year earlier at $1.50 per ac re jumped to $200 or more per acre, and were eagerly bought. Companies were organized in feverish haste and stock was issued by the ream. The man who could not talk capital in millions and phosphate in thousands of tons was of small importance. How ever, the bubble burst as rapidly as it inflated, and, starting from the insecure foundation of the era of wild sp ecu lation, there was built up an enormous industry that has done business in a prac tical, legitimate fashion, and has developed steadily and strongly. There was in 1893, when the business had settled dow n to a substantial basis, probably 200 com panies on paper organized ostensibly to mine Flori da phosphates; but hardly one tenth of that number were actually in operation, producing and shipping. The first shipments of Florida phosphates were ll)ade in 1888, aggregating about 3,000 tons for the entire year. Up to 1890, however, it seems th a t not a ton of pebble phosphate had been mined in Polk county. The pioneer in the field was the Pharr P hosphate Company, which commenced operations that year on a property located about a mile and a half from the town of Bartow. In 1891 other companies were organized and commenced develop ing in about the order named : The Bartow, the Land Pebble, the Bone Valley, the Virginia-Florida, t he Phosphoria, or Florida Limited, the Terra Ceia, etc. In the deposits of Polk there is much of .great interest from a scientific stand point, as they abound in fossils of such la nd animals as armadillos, elephants, mas todons, horses, land turtles, etc. Also there are frequently uncovered many evi dences that t he beds were once the scene of abundant marine life, such as the teeth and vertebrae of crocodiles, great quantities of sharks' teeth, also teeth of the ray and other bones and fossil remains. Among Polk county citizens who have been prominent in phosphate develop ment are E. C. Stuart J. N. Hooker, and C. G. Memminger. The latter built several of the largest and most efficient plants in this section and i s a nationatly recognized authority on all phases of t]te phosphate industry.

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CHAPTER X IX. T H E CITR U S IND U STRY T growing of citrus fruit as a commercial industry in Polk County is comparatively a recent proposition. It had its beginnings not much more than fifty years ago, when settlers who had a few trees would haul the surplus fruit to Tampa, or other settlements, supplying a necessarily limited de mand. Owing to the almost total lack of transportation facilities, there was little incentive to produce more than could be used for local needs. Oranges were early an important item in the people's food supply; grapefruit was regarded as hardly edible until much later, when, in response to demands of northern taste, this fruit was given more attention, until finally it was developed into its present superb quality. It has been generally accepted that in 1835 there occurred the coldest weather ever experienced in Florida, and that practically all orange trees in the State were killed at that time. Old timers contradict this statement however, and claim that as early as 1842 wild orange trees were found in the hammocks eight and ten inches ln diameter,.and which must have been growing prior to 1835. The luscious orange, with which we in Florida are so familiar, was not always plentiful in this section. Mr. E. S. Whidden, now of :Mulberry, a native of Polk County, states that in his early boyhood a sweet orange was perhaps a greater novelty to him than to the children of the North. There were wild oranges, but they were hardly edible, owing to their extreme acidity. Orange culture started from srnal! heginnings-at first a few trees around the shack of the settler; then, small, irregular plantings, gradually taking the systematic arrangement of the grove So, in the life-time of a person not yet old there has grown up in its entirety the gigantic citrus industry, with its vast groves, its mammoth packing houses; its complicated machinery and other equipment, incident to the shipment and marketing annually of millions of boxes of superb fruit. In 1913, the late C. D. Clough, in writing of a visit to the home, near Youmans, of Berrien Platt, one of the pioneer citizens of this section, states that in Mr. Platt's grove there was then a tree which, year after year, for a long period, had produced 10,000 oranges annually, the equivalent of fifty boxes. Mr. Platt related that an orange seed had been planted in a cigar box in Tampa in the year 1838, and as a result a small tree came up, was carried to Platt's homestead and transplanted, and in the 75 years that had intervened, there had developed from this beginning the mammoth and productive tree described. An orange tree authorities state, mll. bear fruit until 150 years old, and there are recorded instances of orange trees 500 years old that are yet bearing. About the year 1880, orange culture as a commercial proposition, may be said to have only fairly begun. People counted their citrus holdings by the number of trees, rather than the number of acres; they counted the individual oranges, rather than the boxes. Quotations were by the hundred or the thousand. When hauled to Tampa they brought $10 to $12 per thousand. Small shipments were 180

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PART I NARRA'riVE 181 occasionally made by water fro m Tampa to northern markets -usu ally by steamer t o Cedar Key, and thence by railand in 1881 there were some sales made in Philadelphia af$4. 00 per ha l f-barrel box. In Chicago t he price quoted was $5.50 Some growers o f this section hauled the i r frui t t o Wildwood, which was then t h e nearest railroad point and were thus able to sell their fruit more advantageous l y than a they had taken it to Tampa Local buyers, c ollecting the small crops to haul t o the point of s hipmen t paid $5 per t h ousand on the trees, or $5.50 per tliousand if the seller picked them. Even at this time the matter of marke t ing was an absorbing problem to t he grower, for in September 1881 there was a meeting held at Medulla to organize an agricultural and fruit growers' association. George Hamilton W.s chairinan of this meetin g and G F. Smith was secretary. There was no machinery for handling fruit at t hat time, a ll the operations inddent to packing and shipping being done by hand. Probably some machinery was used in other parts of t he Stat e, but it was not introduced into Polk County until during the latter 'SO's. In 1882, George Summerlin, of near Bartow sold his crop of 25,000 "br ight and juicy oranges" on the home market for $15 per t h ousand, an u nusua ll y good sale. People were no more averse to a quick tum-over i n t hose days than in later boom per i ods. R. R. Blount boug h t a nursery of 1,i70 t rees four and five years old, from B. F Blount, for $31. He sold it t o S. I. Pearce for $60, and Pearce sold it to Danier McLeod for $100, all of these trans actions taking place in one . In 1883 it was estima t ed that the value of orange shipments wou l d not exceed $3,000-t hough of course, if those consumed i n the county were considered, the value of the crop wa s very much mor e. With the coming of the railroad, orange c u lture was given a gre a t impetus. There was a ma r ket at remunerative prices for all the fruit that could be produced, new groves were constantly being planted, and old ones became very profitable, and were h e ld at high prices. In 1888 Judge Jas. T Wilson of Homeland sold his grove for $40,000. By 1894, there were many groves i n the cou nty wort h even a larger s um. There was constant progress and development i n fruit cu l ture until the great disaster of 1894-95, w hich appea r ed at firs t to be a death b low t o this great and profitable i ndus t ry. On December 27th ; 1894 a cold wave swep t over Florida In th i s section t h e temperature went down to 20 degrees This was followed by warm, pleasant weather The ungathered fruit was frozen and ruined. Many believed the trees were killed, but a few days deVeloped the fact that the trees we r e hardly injured. T h e old leaves dropped, and i n a short t ime the trees were entirely bare of foliage The warm wea t he r soon caused the buds to swell and new l eaves to appear By Februa r y 7 1895, t h e date of the second freeze, the trees had assumed a green h u e and it was apparent that they had been little dall)aged by t he cold. On the n i ght of February 7, 1895, the second cold wave of that swept over the State. Tha t night the temperature dropped to 18 degrees some claim even lower. Tbe trees were flush with sap, and the tops were covered with tender

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182 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA half-grown leaves. This second freeze proved to be a knock-out blow. The orange trees would have s ustained the one freeze, but two proved too much for their vitality. The horticultur ists of the State, in their discussions in annual meet ings, have been of t he unanimous opinion that the trees would have pulled through either of these cold waves singly. It was t he two c:ombined, with a specially warm interim betweaJ, forcing the trees into a vigorous spring growth, that did the damage. In many groves practically every tree was killed to the ground, and owners who had been well-to-do were reduced to poverty overnigh t. Some were discour aged and aband oned their holdings; but the majority set to work to rehabilitate their groves, making a living meantime throu gh developing other and hitherto unsuspected resources, principally products of the soil. In a few years citrus pro duction was brought back to a volume equal to that of the freeze, and new plant ings covered thousands of acres with magnificent groves. We note this comment of an old-timer in 1901: "A few years ago, dwellers in the flat-woods laughed to scorn those who planted orange groves in the .higher lands. As one expressed it, 'Those miserable old sandhills are good for nothing but to get lost in'. Patiently the pioneers kept at th eir work, too busy to listen to these croakings, and with too much faith in th eir own good judgment to be discourag ed by them Now the hills are dotted with dwellings and green with orange groves." Long and per s i stent efforts on the part of citrus growers of the State to organi ze for better s hipping and selling methods, finally crystallized into a deter mination to send a party of growers to California t o study the marketing organiza tion of that State, which had proven quite successful. On April 20, 1909, a party of about fifty persons left on this miss.ion.. Those from Polk County were: Mr. and Mrs.]. W. Sample, Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Clark, Mrs. A L. Lyle, Chas. H. Walker, of Bartow; Dr. and Mrs. F. W. Inman, and Miss Belle Inman, of Winter Haven; H. G. Nickerson and G. H. Thompson, Florence Villa. On J tlne 1st a State-wide meeting of Florida cit rus growers assembled in Tampa to receive th e report of this committee and the Florida Citrus Exchange was the outcome An organization committee of thirty was selected the Po lk County members of the committee being F. W. Inman, Eugene Holtsinger and J. W. Sample Dr. F. W. Inman was subsequently elected chairman, and Dr. R. H. Peacock, of Winter Haven, secretary of this organization committee. In the final organization, Dr. F. W. Inman was made president of the Exchange; J. W. Sample, vice-president, and R. H. Peacock, of Winter Haven, secretary. Tbe Florida Citrus Exchange idea originated in Polk County, and her progressive growers were very largely responsible for the success of the movement. While its operation, perhaps, has not at all times been satis f actory, the formation of the Citrus Exchange was a great forward step io the citrus industry, and was pri marily responsible for the wonderful development of that industry during the past two decades. At this writing efforts are being made to further impro ve the selling processes, and the agitation will undoubted ly result in benefit to the industry, which only reguires a solu t ion of the problems of marketing and distribution to render it one of the State's greatest and most dependable resources.

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CHA PTI!R XX. THE CATTLE TNDUSTRY WHJLf; o t he r interests have overshadowed the cattle industry in latter years, it was for a long time one of the most important and remunerative pursuits in t his county With the unlimited range of the earlier days, cattl e coul d be brought to mat u rity a t a very nominal expense. They were wild c reature s largely left to shif t for them selves, except that once a y ear t hey wer e ro u n ded up and mar k ed arid branded. C ub a affor ded a ready market. H on D.' H. Sloan wh o is a native o f t he county, says that "in the early days cattl e-raisin g was practically the o nly m oney producing occu patio n in South Flor ida. T h e r e was no home mar k et, the cattle being shipped t o C uba, or driven to some distant point to the north. The principal medium of exchange was Spanish gold, the doubloon ( value about $16.7:!, varying somewhat at times), being the coin most frequently in circulation; also there was the half-doubloon and quarter doubloon. There wa s little silver, and Ame rican gold and gree n backs were rare. Catt le buye r s went t hrough th e cou n t r y often alone, wit h s a ddl e pockets across t h eir saddles filled with gold-n o arm ed bodyguards, n o arm o red cars. They campe d or spent n igh t s at ruralliome s, l eaving their bags of gold o n the front por ch, with o u t fear of molesta tion. If a man owed a d o ll a r or a th o u sand, as a rul e h e paid it. Few notes were given; there was rarely a l aw s uit, and the courts were seldom used, excePt, perhaps, to try some fellow for mu r der because some one had called him a liar There were few land deeds-people as a rule respected each other's claims, and there were no sui t s to get the other fellow's lands." F r om an old newspaper article, printed while the cattle industry was in i t s heydey, we gather the following regarding certain phases of this industry: The natives, o r "Cr ackers," are brought up to the busines s from youth, know noth ing el se and l ike nothing better, t h an to be given a h o rse a n d dog and the care of a herd o f cattle. On acc o un t o f the f ree r a nge and th e danger o f los ing cattle s m a ll herds can not be man aged as p r ofita bl y as large ones. The owner o f a thousa n d bead of cattle i s hardly considered a stoc k man. Most of t he stock men own from 6,000 to 10,000 cattle, and there are a dozen, probably, who own from 1 2,000 to 30,000. The owners employ to look after their heads, each stock-keeper being placed in charge of from 1 00 to 500 cattle, any one of which he can recognize i f mixed with a n other herd. They are allowed for their services two beeves a year, and every fifth ca lf. They help each o ther, six or eight of them riding together, each herd being l ooked after every m o nth o r two. Once a year each o w ne r gathers his cattle together, and all the ca lv e s are mark ed w i t h his l a wf u l brand and ear-marks. T hese are m atters of pub l ic r ecord and o f lega l advertis ement. One wh o takes up a new spaper in a cattle coun try will be much 3!l1Used by t h e col um n s of, bold black characters, which on examination prove t o be coars e en gravings of cattle marks. Each large stock owner usually owns numerous marks which he acquired 18S

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184 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA in purchasing herds. The brand is s tamped on the riglit hip by means of a heated iron ins trume nt, the face of which represe nts two letters, the initials of the owner's name, or one letter within a dia mon d or heart. It is said that the branding should be done on the decrease of the moon in order that the scar may not spread. Y ear lings that are found without a brand are called "heretics." and may be taken up and branded by any who may find them. The ear-marks are made by slitting the ear or cutting a piece out of it, t he right and left ears being cut d ifferently The cuts are of various shapes, and have distinctive names, such as a split, crop, under-bit, upper-bit, pail-handle, under square, upper-square, fleur,de-lis, cross-nick, etc. In addition the skin under the neck is sometimes cut and allowed to hang down. This is called a dewlap. Cattle marking is almost as much of a science as heraldry. The combinations of brands and of right and left ear-marks, are so varied that there need be no dispute about ownership and if there is, there ifb co
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PART I-NARRATIVE 185 dangers; he dresses, lives, talks and trades as a poor man might, but he gives to the poor, and defends the cause of the fatherless against the landsharks as only a rich man can. Queer stories are told of him and of other rich cattle dealers in South Florida. Credible witnesses state that in the rude log cabins of these men uncoun t ed wea l .th lies unconcealed. Many have seen the King of the Crackers, in his blue shirt and rough trousers, paying out money from a peck of gold pieces, heaped otr a rude pine table. Fat, yellow, Spanish doubloons each piece worth more than $15, are bundled into a corn sack and left t o lie in a corner, or are stuffed into s l eeve of an old homespun shirt, or given by the tin cupfull to a child to play with Old cigar boxes, tin meat cans, old woolen socks, are favorite holders of money for the Flor i da cattleman. These anicles will very probably be set on a rafter, or poked behind a door frame. None seems to take care of mere money. They know some men are mean enough to steal calves, and put on them the wrong brand, but who would be mean enough to steal dollars and cents? Prouder of his nickname-or title-than of his money, the King of Crackers, who works his own garden, and waters his pet mule with perhaps an ostentatious humility, makes his boast of lack of all pretences. "I am no th in' but a Cracker. don't you see?" he would say, pausing a; he le ads the old white mule. "I don't try to ape the quality I aint wore a coat in twenty year; I aint settin' up for a fine gentleman; my old blue t rousers and my check shirt suits me, and a good pair of sto ut galluses Rain or shine, I don t want any more. -My boys can dress up in store clothes i f it sui t s 'em-go to college--talk big; I'm going on just this way unti'l I drop in my tracks. I'm going to work when I please--and play when I please--nothing under the sun but a native born, sun-baked, old Florida Cracker." Another cor r espondent who visited Mr. Summerlin at Punta Rassa, writes: "At the time of my visit he was living aione, with one or two colored servants, his family residing e l se where ; bu t with ves sels freque ntly landing or touching at his wharf, and with drovers const antly coming and going, he was seldom without com pany. His receipts for cattle are large, a nd being mostly in Spanish gold and s ilver, it would seem that this would be a source of anxiety and danger ; but he does no t allow riches to be a burden to him i n any way; a peck of silver in an old sack is flung under the bed, and a few hundred doubloons, in a stocking, are laid away in a sly place un t il needed for use Pu nta Rassa, the writer de scribes as a desolate, storm-swept, sandy cape, which, with neighbor ing islands, forms a very good harbor. "On its inner shore are built a wharf and several plain buildings It would see m that no one would live on such a spot from choice; yet, here in this desert like place, in that ugly old building, with the bare necessities of life around h im, lives one of the richest men in Florida, who could, if h e would, live in princely style anywhere in the State. But Jacob Summerlin has no t the spirit of a nabob. Knowing poverty and hard ship from personal experience, associated through life with the poor and ignorant class of people, he has r etained the personal hab its of a poor man, and ba s ever been tbe poor man's friend and protector. Owning as be does, the wharf at Punta Rassa, and a thousand acres of land adjacent, houses and orange groves elsewhere,

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186 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA and tens of tho u sands of cattle, I could n ot realize that the litt l e old man, whom I found engaged in cutting up a s l aughte r ed beef, was the King of the Crackers, whose nam e is known throughout Florida and Cuba." Large operators in the early days of the county were Ziba King, H. T. Lykes, Summerlin Bros.-the latter having bought the herds of Jacob Summerlin in 1 883, making them the l argest ca ttle own ers in t he State at the time. Lat e r T. M. Ly bass George W M ann, w H. Tow le s S. H Page, L i ghtsey ; Lewis & Carruthers, and Lightsey & Lewis, Thos. Godwin, A. 11!. Ryals, and E. E. Skipper, were la r g e operators. In northwest Polk, ]. \Ves Bryant, A. ]. Morgan, the Keens and t he Costines have been largely identified with the business.

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HISTORrOF POLK COUNTr FLORIDA Part II BIOGRAPHICAL

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lS an

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Biographical of Leading Citizens of Polll County, Florida C. W. ADAMS Among Polk County's distinguished c itizen s, none have greater claim to achievement t han Dr C. W. Adams, of Lake Alfred, owner of the largest dental office in the world, located at Detr oit, and who is also one of the largest grove owners in the State of Florida. Since 1911 Dr. Adams has been l i ving the ideal life-spending six months of the year in Det r oit, a n d the remaining six months in Florida; enjoying the many and varied outdoor sports of this favored section during the winter season, at the same time looking after his large citrus intere sts. For a number of years Dr. A d a ms' magnificent bearing grove of 1 ,000 a c res at Lak e Alfred ha s been the show place of that section. Ora nges, grapefrui t tangerines and 1 ,000 avocado pear trees make of this grove one of the fine s t prop erties of the kind in t he e ntir e State. To properly handle tbis fruit for market, Dr. Adams has just completed the Adams Packing House at Auburn dale, a modem, well-equipped packing plant. Dr. Adams' hobby is aviatio n, and he owns a flying field at Lake Alfr ed. H e is an enthusiastic sportsman, and has a number of fine motor boats on his l ake, which borders his property at Lak e Alfred Dr. i s an ardent Florida booster, ready at all t i m e s to further the i n terests o f his adopted State, a n d he i s r ecoguized a s one o f the l a r gest developers of the Lake Alfred sec tion He is vice-pre sident of the American National Bank of Winter Haven. H e is a member of the State and National Society of Dentists, and fraternally is a Mason Shrin er, Knight o f Pythias and an Elk. ALVIN I. ALBINSON Among the newer residen t s of t h e county who are accomplishing things in a large way is A I. A l binson, contractor of Bartow. He was born at Minn eapolis, Minn e sota, and wa s ed u cate d in the schools of that city. Mr. Albi n son has been i n the building and co ntracting busi n ess since 1907, being h ea d of a large firm in M i n n eapo li s before coming to Barto w i n His oompany has recently co mpleted the Bartow Municipal Hosp i ta l, erected at a cOst of $130,000; a large canning plant for Page & Hill; the Peace River bridge; Stat e b ri dge at Leesburg ; the bridges and control levees for tbe drainage of Lake Han1st

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190 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA cock; the lovely home of S. P. James and a number o f other residences and business houses are amon g the contracts handled by thi s firm. Mr. Albinson d oes a large business all over the county, and in fact, throughout South Florida. He con structed the Bartow Fire Station and the stadium for the Athletic Field. Mr. Albinson is a Rotarian and an arden t booster for his adopted home town. He was married at Minneapolis in 1914 and has four children: Bernice, Maria, Barry and A. I., Jr. HARRISON WILLTAM AMBROSE H. W. AMBROS>;, manager of the Ambrose groves at Winter Haven, was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, October 24, 1882, the son of Harry T. and Elmira Rebecca (Dash) Ambrose. The former is a Kentu ckian and the latter is a native of the State of Ohio; his earlier ancestors were from Scotl and and Ireland and his maternal grandfather (Patten ) fought with distinction in the War of 1812. Mr. Ambrose took his preparatory work at the Newark (New Jersey) Acad emy, and in 1906 was graduated from Princeton University . Upon the completion o f his education he was connected with the manufacturing department of the American Book Company, o f which his father is owner. Mr. Ambrose located at Winter Haven in 1913, and since that time has devoted himself to citrus culture. There are 350 acres of citrus groves unde r his manage ment, these being owned by hi s father, H T. Ambrose. Mr. Ambro se was one of the organizer s of th e Hav en Villa corporati on, and is a director of the Florence Villa Citrus As sociation and the Snell National Bank. He is a Rotarian, Director of Red Cross Work, and a member of the Presbyterian church. He belongs to the Princeton Club of New York, and while at schoo l became a member of the University Cottage Club, and he belongs to the Lake Region Count ry Club at Winter Haven During the war he was an athletic director for the Y. :M. C. A., and spent a year ov ers eas serving in this capacity. His wife, who before her marriage at Toledo, Ohio, June 7, 1916, was France s Kin .ney, is an active member of the Civic League and the American Legion Auxiliary. Mr. and Mrs. Ambrose have t wo children: Harrison W., Jr., and Elizabeth Manzie s EDWARD .KINCAID ANDERSON E. K. ANDeRSON was born in South Carolina, February 23, 1876, the so n of Thomas and Eugenia Anderson. His ance stors, early se ttlers of South Carolin a came to this country from Scotland and Ireland, and fought in the Revolutionary war. One of his mother's early ancest ors was the inventor of the cotton gin. Mr. Anderson received his higher education at Davidson college, and before coming to Florida was in turn a travemng sa le sman, cotton buyer and merchant. He removed his family to Auburndale in 1914 and e stablis he d a mercantile business. He is a large property owner, ha ving several groves in the Auburndale and Lakeland sections. Mr. Ander so n Is an active civic worker and has been instrumental in securi ng for the community various improvements He was mayor Of Auburndale three tenns and has served an equal length of time on the Council. During the war he was a leader in bond issues and Red Cross drives

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 191 Mr. Anderson and Rhea Laird were mar ried in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1901, and they have three children: Edward, of Brooklyn, N. Y ; Laird, a student at Clemson College, and Eugenia (Mrs. George Richard), of Los Angeles, Califor nia. Mr. Anderson is a Presbyterian and an ex-member of the Kiwanis Club M. R. ANDERSON M. R. ANDERSON, one of the lead ing citizens of Lake Wales, was born i n Russell, Illinois, May 30, 1883, but is more of a Floridian than the majority of northerners as he came to this State when less than a year o l d, his parents, Frank and ll.fartha Eveline Anderson, settling in Bartow in 1884. The former was an orange grower for many years, and is now City Clerk of Lake Wales. After completing his education, Mr. Anderson became a reg ister ed pharmacist, and at the presen t owns a splendidly equipped drug s t ore in Lake Wales, one of the largest in the count y He first engaged in t he drug business in Bartow, and later owned stores in Daytona and Jacksonville. He came t o Lake Wales in 1915 and opened the first permanent drug store in the town. Mr. Anderso n was honored by his fellow citizens by being elected their fir s t mayor, and he served in tha t capacity for four terms. While he was mayor the city government was organized, the ordinances framed, and the contract for the first street pav ing was let. Mr. Anderson is a Rotarian, a member of the Chamber of Commerce, a Mason, Shriner and a K nigh t of Pythias. He owns severa l fine orange groves, and takes much interest in these valuab.le holdings. He was married at Daytona Beach to Jane Hankins They have t h ree chil dren: M. Ross, Jr., graduate o f the University of Florida in pharmacy; Louis, and Doman WILUAM FRANK ANDERSON W. F. ANDERSON, a resident of the county for 43 years, was born i n Ohio in 1859, and until 1885 was in the drug in the western part of Illinois. Desiring to become a Flori dian Mr. Ande r son removed hi s famil y to Polk County in 1885, locating at Bartow, where he was manager of a drug store for a number of years. He had varied interests while living at Bartow, having at one time conduc te d a grocery, engaged in the insurance business, and was one of the pioneer tomato growers of the Lake Eloise section. In 1912 Mr. Anderson removed to Lake Wales, where he owned a fine orange grove, bu t he has since disposed of same, and now devotes his entire time to the office of City Clerk, 'l'reasurer and Coll e c to r of Lake Wales, which office he .fills most satisfactorily. H e is also Justice of the Peace for the Lake Wales district. Mr. Anderson is a member of the Presbyterian church. Fraternally, he is an Odd Fellow. He was married August 1st, 1882 at Vincennes, Ind., to Martha E. Milam. They have four c hildren: Milam R., F. D., H. L., and Pauline. . W. H. ANDERSON W. H. for t he pas t twelve years owner of one of the leading drug stores of \Vinter Haven was born in Cross Roads; South Carol ina, Flo r ence

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192 HISTORY OF POLK CO UN l'Y F I.ORTDA County, 1888, t he son of James A. and Lula May Anderson. His paterna l grand father was killed in the Civil War; his grandfather on his m aternal side was a Baptist minister Coming to Florida in 1900 Mr. Anderson s pent several years in Kissimmee and for five years from 1907 untill91 2, was with the Magnolia P h armacy at Plant City In the latter year he bought the Goodyear drug store at Winte r Haven, changing the name to the Anderson Drug Store. and has conducted same in a high-class manner, the concern having enjoyed an excellent trade under Mr. An derson' s management. Other business interests of importance claim Mr. Anderson's attention. He is owner of the Winter Haven Book Store, and is also president of the Wi nter Haven Building & Loan Association, and one of its o r ganizers He has served as president of the Winter Haven Board of Trade, and is a l way s ready to do his share in all matters of civ i c advancement Mr. Anderson is a Mason, Shriner, Odd Fellow, :Modern Woodman, Knight of Pythias, D. 0. K. K. and a member of the Royal Neighbor s Pythian Sisters and Eastern Star He is a l eading member of the Baptis t church of Winter Haven and the s uperin t endent of the Sunday School. He was married in 1913 at Plan t City to Ruby Mary Barker They have three sons, W H., Jr.; J B. and Robert M. EUGENE CHESTER ANGELL E. C. ANCELL, one of t h e best known educators of the county, was born in Delevan, Wisconsin the son of Stephen Frances and Anna Angell. The former, a native of Rhode Island, was the cousin of the late James B. Angell, ex-president of the University of Michigan, whose son is now president of Yale University. Prof. Angell graduated f rom the Delevan High School and from Wayland University. Later he attended Shurtleff college for t hree years, and in 1895 received his A. B. degree from Brown University. Prof. Angell removed to. Lakeland in August 1898, and has taught in the schools of that city for fifteen terms, one year as principal. He has also served the schools of Clearwater and Tampa in this capacity From 1921-1928 he has been head of the Department of Science and Instructor in Chemistry in Lakeland High School. From 1 912 until 1921 l\Ir. Angell was engaged in the contracting business. The structures erected by him include the old Morrell Memorial Hospital, Rose Keller Home, Baptist and Presbyterian churches and scores of residences. He also served as superintendent of construction for numbers of business houses. Dur ing the World War Mr. Ange ll did no t eworthy work at Car l strom Field, Arcadia, one of the leading aviation fields of the country. Prof. Angell is a member of the F irst Baptist church and wa s t eacher of the Baraca class for over twenty-five years. Fraternally he is al li ed with the Odd Fellows, and is Past Grand of th e Lakeland Chapter. He married Grace Emerson at S i sseton and Wahpeton Indian School in 1897 this school being located at Good Will South Dakota. He has one step-son, WiUiani C. Emerson.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 193 PORTER MARCELLUS BAILES PoliTER BAILES, pastor of the First Baptist church of Lakeland, was born March 28th 1888, at Fort l\'lill, South Carolina, the son of Z. T. and Ellen (Hill) Bailes. His paternal ancestors were from E nglan d, one of whom, Ezra Alexander was o ne of the signers of the Mecklenburg D eclarati o n of In dependence His maternal ance stors were from Holland, and were early settlers of North Carolina. An uncle on his mother's side, Rev. Kessler, was a pioneer preacher in that State. After attending t h e public schools of York Cou n ty he was a student at :Mars Hill College for two years, and i n 1912 graduated from Furman U niversity with an A. B degree. He t he n attended the Southe rn Baptist Theological Seminary from 1912 until 1916, graduating from that institution in the latte r year. Having equipped h imself for the ministry, he accepted the pastorate of the Firs t Baptist church at LaGrange, l
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194 TUSTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Upon the completion of his educat ion, r eceived i n the school s of his home city, Mr. Bailey became a rea l estate operator and citrus grower. In point of service he is the oldest real estate mar{ in Winter Have n and is an authority on citrus culture, his advice being often sought by growers. He owns about one hundred and twenty-five acres of bearing trees and is int erest ed in a number of other groves, all of which with one exception are located in Polk county. Mr. Bailey is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, Benevolent and P r o tective Order of Elks and Knights of Pythias. He was married at Winter Haven, March 1, 1926, to Mi ss Maud Hardy, of Iowa. They have one child, Virginia. JOHN E. BALLENGER jOHN E. BALLENCllR, vice president of the Wm. P. JvicDo nald Construction Company, o f Lakeland, Florid a was born in Alexandria, Virginia, : May 1, 1884, the son of j ohn Thomas Ballenge r a nd Lou Emma Balleng er. He attended the public schools of Washington, D. C. and McKinley Manual Training School, in which city he lived the greater part of his life, before coming to Jacksonville, Florida, in 1911. He completed his education at Univer sity, South Bethlehem, Pa. A short time after entering his professional work as civil engineer, he wa s associat e d with the Di s trict of Columbia Engineering Departmen t where he became Assistan t Engineer In the Supe rvisor' s office, and the Engineer of Highways Division of that Department leaving in November, 1911, to assume the position of Engineer of Highways and Assistant Commissioner of Publ-ic Work s, of the City of Jacksonville During the World War, Mr. Ballenger acted in the capaci t y of Civil Aide to the Public Works officer at the Naval Operating Base at Hampt on Roads, Virginia, and was in direc t charge of all engineering problems and construction work for a period of two years. After the World War, he was associated with J oh n CiU & Sons, of Cleveland, Ohio, and left this firm in. 1922 to become general manager of the Wm. P. McDonald Construction Company operations in the State of Florida, and is now vice -president of. this company. The operation s of this c ompany durin g the years 1923 to 19 2 7 included the building of thousands of miles of road in Polk, Hardee, Hills borough, Manatee and DeSoto Counties, and many other countie s in the State o f F lorida. The Wm. P. McDonald Construction Company, which is one of tbe largest Road Construc tion firms in the United States, bas the distinction under Mr. Ballenger's direction, of what is probably the world's record for road-building in one month having constructed in the month of No vember, 1926, approximately fifty miles of roads, aggregating nearly one million dollars in that one month of operation. Mr. Ballenger has a very attra c t ive home in Lakeland and anticipate s making t his his per manent home. He was married to !IIiss R ut h Nolan, in Washington D C., on October 6, 1913, having f our daughters-He l en Louise Martha, E lizabet h, and Charlotte.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 195 ZERNEY BARNES Among Lakel an d's constructive citizens, who was one of the city's major developers in the city's later period of growth, is Z emey Barn e s, who, in partner ship with W L. Everhart, was among th e first to catch the vision of a Greater Lakeland, and who transformed much un im proved l ands into ex clusive resid ent ial districts. A native of the county, born in Bartow, September 30, 1894, t he son o f L L. and Ka th e ri ne Barnes, his ancestors on h i s mother's si!le were from Scotland, being among the early pioneers <)f South On his paternal side, his ancestors hailed from Ireland, his grandfather being an ear l y seWer of Flotid a and a large plantation owner. Mr. Barnes acquired his ed uc atio n at Sunimerli n Institute, the Winter Haven High Schoo l and the Baptist college at Lake City For eleven years, with the exception of the time he s erved in the \l'{orld 'War he was connected with the Atlantic Coast L ine Railway in the Commissary Depa r t ment During the war, "1\fr. Barnes was commissioned an ensign in the N avy a n d assigned to sea serv ice as assistant supply officer. A t th e conclusion of t he war he resumed his position wit h the rai lroad, resigning in 1924 to engag e in the real estate business, in which he was e m inently succ e ssf ul. Among t he h igh-dass developments put on the market by M r. Barnes' firm are Casa Bella and Otrmpiah Park, in which are located some of the city's fines t h o me s. Mr. Barnes is a Scottish Rite Mason, a Shriner and a Knights Temp l ar. He i s a member of the Rotary Club, the Chamber of Comme rce and the Met hodis t church. He was married at Gainesville, Florida, June 30, 1924, to Eunice Inez Pipki n, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. L. N. Pipkin, of Mulberry They have two sons, Zerney; Jr., and Richard Pipkin. Mr. and Mrs. Barnes own a handsome home on the north shore o f Lake Hollingsworth, adjoining Olympian Park, which is one of the most admirab ly located places of res i d en c e in the city. . . CHARLES H. BARNETT C. H. BARNETT was bnm at Tatesville, Bedford county, Pennsylvania, March 22nd, 1883. He is a son of George and Catherine Barnett ; who came to this country froin England Mr. Barnett spent his early childhood in Pennsylvania, and at the age of te n removed with his parents to Rockwood, Roan e county, Ten nessee, where he remained until 191i. Following the completion of his educational trai ni ng, which was received in the public schools o f Tennessee and at business coliege; Mr. Barnett forme!! a cort nection with the Roane Ir6n Company, and remained with the fum ten years: Inl911 he accepted a position with the West Construction Company o f Chatta nooga, rema ining ""with this finn 16 years, and gained valuable experience whil e wo rking for this organization. Mr. Barnett came t o J1torida in 1924 for bls firm, and for three years was engaged in building roads contracted for by the West Company. He was assistant trea surer for this compa n y six years and had cha rge of financing the $2,250,000."00 worth in .. Polk F l orida completed by the company; also the $3,000,000.00 worth work CO!llple t ed by the West Con struction Co., in Leno i r county, North Carolina, and the State of North Carolina. ..

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196 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Barnett and E. T. Embry, whose biogTaphical sketch appears elsewhere in this volume, formed a partnership in 1926 and they confine th eir activities to the building of roads and streets. At the time t h i s i s written their principal project is the Vero Cross-State h i ghway, and othe r projects totalling 40 miles completed in 192 7. Mr. Barnett is interested in the Concrete Pipe Co., manufacturers of con crete pipe, at Brooksville Fla. and is an owner of rea l estate in Polk county; also a member of the Kiwanis Club of Bartow, Fla. Mr. Barnett was married in 1914 to Rose Hudgens, of Anderson, South Caro lina They have one daughter, Catherine Celeste. FRED 0. BARROW FR11D 0. B,\RROW w.as born at Sande r sville, Georgia, October 3, 1901, the son of J. K. and Mattie (Tanner) Barrow. His paternal ancestors were from Ireland. and his maternal from England, both being pioneer citizens of North Carolina After graduating from Chatham Academy in !'917, Mr. Barrow graduated from th e Southern College of Pharmacy in Atlanta as a pharmacist in 1919. For two years he was with the Knight Drug Company in Savannah, and for two years w 'as a pharmacist of Lakeland, being first with the City Drug Store and later with the McMullen Drug Company. Jn 1924 he went to Auburndale where he bought the City Drug Store of that place. later opening t he Ariana Pharmacy, of which he is sole owner. In October. 1927, he opened Barrow's Pharmacy in \'llinter Haven, both of which stores he now operates. Mr. Barrow is a Kiwanian, a Mason and a member of the Baptist church. He was married October 9, 1925, to Bertie Carlton at Rockmont Georgia ARTHUR WEISER BENFORD A. \V. BENFORD, acting secretary of the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce, was born in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, April23, 1859. He is a son of Thornton Leroy and Mary Catherine (Hoffmeier) Benford, and a grandson o f Charles F. Hoffmeie r, who was a minister of the Reformed church. When quite young, Mr. Benford removed with his parents to Illinois and was educated in the schools of that State. At the age of sixteen years he became a mailcarrier at Washington, Illinois, and shortly thereafter entered the grain business at Peoria, where he remained thirty-five years. He spent eigh t years in this business at Chicago before he and his wife came to Lakeland, where their two sons are promitient merchants: Frederick Thornton, of the Benford Stationery Company,' and Charles Franklin Benford, owner of the Benford Bootery Mr. and Mrs. Benford, the latter before her marriage in 1885 being Elizabeth Ann Hill of Washington, Illinois, came to Lakeland in 1924, and since that time Mr. Benford has been connected with the Chamber of Commer ce, being at the presen t time Acting Secretary of the organization FREDERICK THORNTON BENFORD One of the most progressive, active and able business men of Lakeland is FRED T. BENFORD, who has owned and operated the leading book and stationery

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PART !I-BIOGRAPHICAL 197 store in this city si nce 1912. He was born in Peoria, Ill., Febrnary 25, 1888, and completed the high schoo l course in his home city. His paren ts, A W and Eliza beth Benford, al so make their home in Lakeland his father being acting manager of the Chamber of Commerce. His only experience in working for someone el se was in Peoria, where for a period of six years he was connected with a wholesale shoe house. At the instance of the late Dr. W. H Conihear, a life-long friend of the Benford family, he came to Lakeland in 1912 and bought the Lakeland Book Store, seYeral years later changing the name to the Benford Stationery Co. The firm carries a complete line of stationery office furniture, radios, phonographs, and books. Mr. Benford is the owner of broadca sting station WMBI,, which has been instrumental in gain ing muc h publicit y for Lakela nd and Polk County, being strong enough to be heard from Coast to Coast. The firm has recently moved into its handsome new quarters on South Kentucky avenue, and it is recognized as the best equipped store of its kind in the State. Mr. Benford has always been recognized as a builder, and any project for the good of the community has been enthusiastically received by him. He is a director of the Interior Traffi c Bureau, ex-president of the Merchants' Association director of the Chamber of Commerce and a charter member of the Rotar y Club. He is also a member of the Benevolen t and Protectiv e Order of Elks. Mr. and Mrs. Benfo rd own a lovel y hom e on South Success avenue. Before her marriage, Mrs. Ben ford was Katherin e McCord Booth ED R BENTLEY ED R. B>1NTL1W, member of the law firm of Jud so n & Bentley Lakeland, and past President of Lake land Bar Association and Secretary of the Conference of Delegates of the Florida State Bar Association is a native of Valley View, Texas, born December 8, 1888. He is a son of C. E and Grace ( Holland ) Bentley, the former a pioneer resident of Texas. He received hi s A. B. degree at Texas Christian University, afterwards studying law at the Universities of Texas and California. He took his LL.B. degree in this profession at Cumberland University, Leba non, Tenne ssee. For several year s he was Superintendent of city sch ools in variou s c itie s of Texas, and for a time held a college deanship. At the time of the entrance of the United States in the World War, Mr. Bentley enlisted in the infantry and was stationed at Camp Pike, Little Rock, Arkansas. He came to Lakeland in 1925, and formed a partnership with Norman S. Stone; a year later he j
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198 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Education. He is a member of the Masons; Shriner, Rotary Club and Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity. Mr. Bentley was married in Chattanooga, Tennessee, oil October 30th 1924, t o Edythe Bryan. WILLIAM F. BEVIS WILLIAM F. BEVIS, of Ba rtow, was born October 23, 1893, at Bascom, Jackson county, Florida. His parents were Robert F. and Emily Bevis, the former from Georgia, the latter from North Carolina. Mr. Bevis received his hig her education at the University of Florida. Coming to Bartow, he was with the Polk County Abstract Company for seven years, and with the Polk County Nati onal Ba!;lk for six years, being assistant cashier a nd trust officer of the latter in s titution. . Having been admitted to the bar, Mr. Bevis began the practice of law in 1926, and is associated with Judge S. L. Holland, the firm having a large and lucrative practice. Mr. Bevis is a member of the County' Bar Association, is vice-president of the Kiwanis Club, i s a 1neinber of the Kappa Alpha college fraternity, is a Mason and Shriner, and a director of the Polk County National Bank. He is a member of the Methodist church. Mr. Bevis was married oit Jtme 18 191!i, at Greenwood, South Carolina, to Aug-Usta Blake. WILLIAM MARION BEVIS WILLIAM MARION BEVIS was born in Bascom, Jackson county, Florida, October 16, 1882, the son of William AUen and Julia Grant Bevis . . His first higher education was gained at the State Normal at DeFuniak Springs, Florida; and in 1908 he graduated in medicine from the University of Tennessee at Nashville. Prior to taking up the practice of medicine he taught school for one year at Fort Myers in 1903. Coming to. Lakeland in 1909 Dr. Bevis opened offices and practiced medicine for seven years until 1916 when he was appointed a member of the medical staff of the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee. He remained there four years when.he. went to Washington, D. C., where he was a member of the s:taff of St. Elizabeth's Hospital for a year. In 1921 he was commissioned as Passed Assistant Surgeon in the U. S. Public H ealth service and was assigned to active duty as Psychiatrist in the Govern Hospital at August a, Georgia, later being transferred,. in the same capacity, to government hospitals at Little Rock Arkansas, and Perry Point, Maryland. He returned to Polk county late in 1925 to organize and direct the Polk County Health Unit which position of importance he now holds. Dr. Bevis is recognized as one of the leading authorities of the State on mental and nervous diseases and all branches of Social Work, and has made an enviable record. At present D.r. Bevis is a member of the Consulting Staff, :Morrell Memorial Hospital, Lakeland. . Dr. Bevis was married April 11, 1909 to Susie E. Davis, of Marion, South Carolina. They have one so n Marion Leonard.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 199 KELSEY BLANTON ]AMES KELSEY BLANTON, commonly known as Kelsey Blanton, prominent member of the Pol k County legal fraternity, was born in Hillsborough county, Florida, May 29, 187'6, the son of James J. and Mary Frances Blanton. His father came to Florida from Georgia at the dose of" the Civil War, his family coming to Florida from the same State, prior to the second Seminole Indian war. The subject of this sketch was educated in the schools of Hillsborough county, graduating later from Stetson University with an LL. B. degree. He began the practice of law in Tampa in 1906, continuing until 1911, when he removed to Lakeland. In 1916 he was elected County Judge, se rving for four years. Judge Blanton is anElk and a Woodman of the World. He was married September lOth, ina, at Winchester, Tennessee, to Miss May Williams. They have one son, James Kelsey, Jr. JOSEPH R. BOLEY J. R. BoLEY, for many years a resident of Lake Alfred, was born in the State of Kentucky in 1862, ti-ie son of Benjamin F. and Virginia Boley. His boyhood days were spent in Kentucky, and at the age of 20 years he re moved to Kansas City, Missouri, and engaged in the flour milling business. Mr. Boley came to Lake Alfred in 1910 and purchased a young orange grove. He planted more trees, and at one time was one of the largest growers in that sec tion. He has since disposed o f the majority of his citrus holdings, and devotes his time to his real estate and insurance agency . Mr. Boley is a direCtor of-the Lake Alfred Citrus Exchange, and of the Lake Alfred State Bank. He served on the old city council for eight years, and, under the new form of government, is a city commissioner. Mr. Boley has been a member of. the Woodmen of the World for 31 years and attends the Baptist church of his home city. Mr. Boley was married in Kentucky to Miss Mittie A. Coursey. His first wife died in 1916, he has since married Miss Maymie L Fortner of Polk County, Florida. CAPTAIN WILLIAM B. BONACKER The pages of history revea l outstanding fig ures in every age and i n every loca lit y-those who have hewn the way and paved the road for those who are to come after-and who by their exemplary liyes and high standards of citizenship, have left to posterity a heritage above price. Such a mao was Captain William B Bonacker, one of Lakeland's first citizens, who came to that section in a covered wagon in 1883, before the advent of the ra ilr oad and who was a leading factor in the early growth and development of that community and a highly honored and esteemed citize.; for twenty-eight years, until his death in 1911. Identified with every movement of importance in Lakeland's history during its formative period, Captain Bonacker gave freely of his time and means in the work of transforming the unbroken forest as he found it, into the thriving, grow ing community, on the eve of far greater development, as he lef t it, and though the work of carrying on has fallen on other shoulders, the Bonacker name will ever bold a prominent and an honored place in Lakeland's history

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200 HISTORY OF POLK COUN'l'Y, FLORIDA Captain Bonacker o n Marc h 23, 188 4,erccted Lake land's first busine ss h o u se and soon after ere cted his large and commodi o u s home, which still s tand s in the cen t e r of the busine ss s ec ti o n at the corner of Kentucky avenue and Le m on street. He served as city councilman and pre s ident of the Board; was also a member of the School Board and a county co mmi ss ioner for seven years Born in German y, November 15, 1 834, the son of William and Dorothea ( Bostert) Bonacker he came to tbis country with his parents when only seven months of age, the family loca tin g a t Baltimore for a time, later settling perma nently in John stown Pa., where Capt. Bona cker was reared and educated At the outbreak of the Civil War, Capt. Bonac ker was general man ager of the Johnstown Foundr y and Machine Shop. This he closed to enter the war on Ap ril 20, 186 1. He served for three months as 1 st Sergeant o f Company F, Third Regiment, Penn sy lv a n ia Voluntee rs, of John s t own, Ca mbria county and was mus tered out July 29, 1861. He then formed Company I of th e 54th Regiment, of which he was Captain and in which he served throughout the war He was wounded in the Battle of New Market, Virginia May 16, 1864. After the war he again entered business, resigning as general manager of the Jo hnsto w n Mechanical Works in 18'70 to become S h eriff, which office he held for three years. He was interested in the Asht ola Lumbe r Co., and wa s one of the incorporators of the Johns town Water Co. He was identified with variou s civic organi zatio ns of Lakeland, was a member of th e E piscopal c hu rch; a Mason and an Odd Fellow. He was married December 22, 1 864, to Eliza bet h K ing Andrews, of J ohnstown, Pa. Seven children were born to thi s union : Char l es S., o f Pensacola ; Willia m A., Harry (deceased), Joh n H., Alice K. (Mrs W. Guy Wilson), Wesley R., and Dora (Mrs. J. S. Helms) all of Tampa In the dea t h of Captain Bonacker which occurred in Lakeland May 4, 1911, his associates lost a true community one of its most worth-while a nd sub stantial citizens. CLA RENCE A. BOSWELL C A. BosweLL, a pioneer citizen of the cou nty, and in point of se rvice one o f the o ldest l awyers in South Florida, was born in Lee County Alabama in 1870. He is a so n of William M. and Achsah E. (Scott) Bosw ell, who rem oved to Lakeland in 1 886, and were leading figure s in the life of that com munity in the early days. Judge Bo swell was educated in the SA:hools o f Alabama an d Lakeland and received bis Jaw training in the offices of Tucker and Tucker an d through a cor respondence cour s e fr o m the S prague School of Law. H e has been engaged in the practice of hi s pr o fession s ince 1897, and in 1898 formed a partners h ip with Solo n G. Wilson, the firm being known a s Wilson & Bos well. Judge Boswell was 1\Iayor of Lakeland s everal ye ars, and d uring his admin istration planted out the trees in Muon Park, being assisted in this work b y Tom Marshall. He was elected county judge in 1897 and se rved two term s He i s an ardent Democrat, and for twelve years was Cltainnan of the Count y Execu t ive

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 201 Commi tte e At the time this i s written he i s secre t ary and treasurer of thi s organ ization, and is a member of t he State Executive Democratic Committ ee. He i s a member of t he Count y and State Bar A ssoc ia tions, and fraternally i s a n E lk, K. of P., and a Ma so n O n September 2, 1897, be marded Sue H Hood, of Bartow. They have four c hildren: Clarence A . Jr.., Martha, Frances and Elaine. B. M. BOYD. E. M. BoYD, prominent citru s grower of Eag le Lake, was born in Lumber City, Georgia the son of Thomas C. and Theresa E. Boyd. After acquiring his educat ion in th e sehoo l s of Georgia, Mr. Boyd enga ged in the banking business at Blakely, Georgia, until 1905, when be came to Florida, l ocating in the western part of t he State, where he e nga ged in the turpentine bus iness Desiring to raise citrus fruit on a large scale he came to Polk County select ing Eagle Lake as his home where be purehased a tract of 75 acres which be planted to grove. He later bought an a dd i tional 1 5 a c re s of grove which give s him 90 acres in citrus fruit. His wife also owns 30 acres of grove wltich gives them a total of 120 acre s in which the y have a very valuable property indeed The majority of the fruit i s of the Valencia variet y with some grapefruit and tan ge rines. Mr. Boyd is prominen tly identified with the citrus industr y of the county, and is vice president of the Eag l e Lake Citms Exchange. Mr. Boyd was a member of the city council of Blakely, Georgia. Fraternally, he is a Mason and a Shriner. H e was married in Georgia to M yrt i ce McMichael who is now decea sed. 'l'hree chi ldren were born to thi s union: Thomas M., William G., and Nan T He married Mrs. Ethel C. Swearin ge n of Winter Haven, Florida in September, 1926, and the latter has two ehildren, Harold G. and Mildred E. Swearingen. WILLIAM FRANKLIN BOYD Numbered among the mo s t pro s perou s and successful citizens of Winter Haven is W. F. Boyd founder and former owner of the Winter Haven Water and Ice Company. For sever a l years he bas been interested in citrus growing and has over $200,000 invested in groves. Mr. Boyd is a nati v e of Tennessee born in Marsha ll county, l\Iarch 4, 1872, the so n of L. B. and Rosina S. Boyd. At the age of ten, he came to Winter Haven with hi s parents, the move being mad e in the hope of benefiting the health o f h i s mothe r Their home was known a s Boyd's H omestead, and is now in the city limits of Winter Haven; thirt y acre s o f this property p l anted in citrus in 1883 wa s killed in the freeze of '95 was rebudde d and brought back, and after the death of Mr. Boyd's father was sold f o r $S5, 000. Late r Mr. Boyd bought it for $4 2,000, and resold it for $ 80,000 The land cost his father $14.00 and this trans action i s an interesting example of t he rise in values of the land in tbat section. W F Boyd received h is first business experience dealing in phosphate Later he built and operated live dredges ; he did some important work at PassaGrille and dredged and filled in the land along Bayshore Boule vard Tampa.

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202 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA . He came back t o Winter Haven in 1909 and establis hed th e Water, Ice and Ligh t Plant, and lackin g capi t al, began with money loaned him by the Snell Bank. He owned and operated the plant until 1922, when he sold out to Ston e and "Vebs ter for over $300,000. H e deposited a check m th e Snell National Bank for $280 ,000, said to be the largest s ingle chec k ever deposited by a customer, thus setting a record in banking circles of t his section. Mr. Boyd started busi ness with thi"y water an d light customers, and sold about one ton of ice per week He constantly improved and increased the facilities of the plant, and, in so doing, spent more money than he made. He attributes his s uc cess to hard work and determination, and to the fact that h e always kept his credit good at the ban k Mr. Boyd is ex Mayor of his city, and bas also served as Commi ssioner. He was married in 1910 to Creola Lameraux. R. E. BRADLEY R. E. BMDLI!V wa s born in Hunt sville, Kent ucky, February 22, 1898, the son of E. and Addie Bradley. After attending the schools of Kentuck y, Mr. Bradley, having become a citizen of Florida in 1915, gradt.tated in law from Stetson University, DeLand in 1920. H{began the practice of la w in Palmetto, where he remained until 1 923, when he moved to Lake Wale s, where he has since re s ide d, and where he has built up a good practice. During the World War, Mr. Bradley was a Lieutenan t in the pay corps of the U. S. Navy and wa s s tationed at Charle s ton Sou t h Ca r olina He is past president of the Kiwanis Club, a member of th e Count y Bar Association, a Ma so n, K: o f P. and an Odd Fellow. He. is a member of the Sigma Ni.t coliege fraternity, and t h e Sigma Nu Phrlegal fraternity. Mr. Bradle y's wife is May L : B radl e y, and they have one son, R. E., Jr. H(fRRY H. BRENNER Among the n ewer residents of the county who are doing things in a l arge way is HARRY H. BR&NNER; president of the Davenport Lumber & Supply Company, who established this business in 1926. H e was born in Fairfield, O hio, April 3, 1877, the son o f George H. and Mary Brenner. For some t ime prior to his remova l t o Florida, Mr. Brenner was connected with the Cooper Corporatio n, of C i ncinnati, manufacturer of tires. Realizing the possibi lit ies o f Florida be came t o this State in 1 925, and formed his company whiclt manufactures blocks, bricks and stucco, and handles lumber. He has a mill for grinding colors for the brick s, and this is also located at Daven port About 85 per cent. of the material u sed in building the city hall at Dave nport was furnished by his co mpany. Mr. Brenner is of the Busine ss Men's Assoc iation of Davenp ort, and is a Mason, Shriner. and Knig ht of Pythia s He o wns valuable p r operty in the county inclu ding an orange grove. He was married in Dayton, Ohio, to Bessie Davis. They have five children Corrine and Clyde, of Cincinnati, and Dor o thy Amy and Irene, of Dav enport.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 203 HENRY E BRIDGES Henry E. Bridges was born in Polk county, September 4 1891 the son of David C and Mary M. Bridges. His public school education wa s supplemented with a course at the Business College, Jacksonville Florida At an early age Mr Bridges was associated in business with J. D. Rogells who conducted a m e rcantile establishmen t Kath l een. Hj: later was in the fruit marketing business. He entered his choice vocation in life-the real estate business-in 1915, being associated in business with H. J. Lewis, the two forming one o f the strongest realty firms in the county, their w i de know l edge o f conditions and long residence making their adv ice to prospective buyers of great assistance in selecting a hom e or i n making an investment. M,r. Bridges i s a member ofthe National, State and Local Realt or s Association, is a 32nd degree Mason, a Shriner and an E lk . He was marr ied September 25th, 1912, to Norene T il ton, of South Carolina. They have six children: Carey Elmo, Edna Bernice, Charles Leslie, Dannie Carvell, Annie Elice, and Har ry ]. MRS. HARRY BROWN Recogn i zed as a leader in her profession, Bartowans feel fortunate, in deed, in se6Jr ing the services o f Mrs Harr)' Brown as superintendent of the Bartow Genera l Hospita l completed February 1s t, last Mary Connoley Brown was born at Mou l trie -Georgia, the daug h te r of L J. and Anna Connoley In her early childhood her parents removed to Orlando where her father practiced at t he bar u n til h i s death in 1910. She attended the schools of Orlando and later graduated f rom the Nurses' T r aining Schoo l at the Thompson Hosp ital, Lumberton, North Carolina. She also took po st-gradu ate work in an eye and ear infirmary in New York City and a special course in chemistry and bacteriology at Columbia University. Several years ago Mrs. Brown, then Mary D Connoley, came to Lakeland to ta ke the pos i tio n of supe ri ntendent of Morrell Memorial Hospital. Three year$ ago she ma rried Harry L Brown, fonner owner of the Lakeland Star-Tel e gram, and resigne d to de v ote herself t o home aff airs. Late r h o w e v e r, she took a special course in anaesthesia at Howard Hospital in Philadelphia and rec eived an appointment as anaesthetist in t he University of Pennsylvania Hospi tal. Mrs Brown her prese n t du ti es on March 1st. This h ospital is said to be one of the most comP,Iete in t he Sou t h. WILLIAM H. BROWN WILLIAM H BROWN was born near Wilmington North Carolina, in 1872, t he son of W. H. Brown His father served i n the Civil War with distinc t ion, having the rank of Captain He was the o wner of a large p lantation nea r Wilmington Mr. Bro wn first came to Florida in 1900, making his home at that time at Punt a Gord a He later engaged in the manufacturing business in Jacksonville, and i n 1926 removed to Frostproof to manage the M allett -B r own Company, in

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204 HISTORY OF POLK COUN TY, FLORIDA -------which he own s a one-half interest This eompany has large orange int erests, and also handles fertili zer and insectici des on a larg e scale. They represent Lyons Fertilizer Co. of Tampa and Wilson & Toomer of jacksonville. Mr. Brown is president of the Frostpoof Citrus Exchange, and i s a membe r of the Rotary Club. He was married in North Carolina to Almira Parker The y hav e t hree chil dren, William D ., a lieutenant-eommander in the U. S. Navy; Thomas 0., of Frost proof and Mrs. S. G. Hicks, of Jacksom-ille. LEON G. BRUCE LEON G. BRIICE, o wner and mana ger of the Coca-Co la Bo ttl ing plant s of Bar tow and Winter Haven, is a Georgian, born at Rochelle, February 15, 1890. He is a son of Sila s J Augustine Bruce the latter a veteran of the War Between the States. Mr. Bruce received a splendid public school education in the Irvin County, Georgia, sch oo ls, and when quite a you n g man engaged in the sawmill business. Prior to coming to Florida he conducted a bottling business in Georgia a n d received valuable experience in this line. He made his home in Lakeland for tw o years, and u pon moving to Bartow in 1914, ass u med manag ement of hi s present busin e ss. This firm t horoughly co.-ers the ea s tern part of the county, an d has an output of a milli on and a half bottles per year Mr. Bruce has not on l y been a splendi d business man but has given generously of his time and m oney to civic matters. In addition to o the r services he ha s been one of the city commissioners for three years Mr. Bruce is a Mason, Shriner, K of P. and Odd Fellow. He was married in Georgia to Josie loman and they have three chi l d ren : Eloise, Leon G., Jr.; and James L. EMORY BRYANT A resident of Polk county for nearly sixty years, Emory Bryant has seen the forests give way to the march of progre ss, and c itie s, towns and villages spring into existence, filled with progressive citizen s from all sections of the United States. Mr. Bryan t was born a t La ke City Florida Novem ber 30, 1 865, th e son of Thomas and Susan (Nibl ack) Bryant. With his pare nt s he remove d to Polk county in 1869 and after receiving hi s educati on in the schoo l s of the county,' he enga ged in farming ope rations until1904 when he settled in Lakeland, specializing in real estate also opera ting a popular bill iard room Two o f Lakela nd's first s ub di vi sion s were put on the mar k et by Mr. B ryant in the city's early days. He owns a handsome home on the shores of Lake Wire and much other valuable property. Mr. Bryant wa s married June 19, 1889, to Nellie Blocker, of Plant City. Si x child ren were born to this union: Thomas W. Bryant, well known Lak eland attor ney and member of the Flor ida Legi slature: Emory Leroy, Olin G., Charle s Ed ward, Cecil Berni ce, and Viv ian Gray. Three of Mr. Brya nt 's sons in th e W orld \Var-one in the Merc hant Marine, one overseas, and one in the artillery

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 205 f. WESLEY BRYANT Probably no man in Po l k Cou nt y was more prominently identified with Its affairs during a tong period of t ime t han was ] Wesley Bryant who for 68 years was a resident of the coun\y and a leader in it s political and financial circles. Mr. Bryant wa s born in Columbia County Florida November 10, 1845, the son of John and Myram ( Osteen) Bryant, both of the latter being native Florid ians. At the age of twelve years, he came to Polk County with his parents, and when fifteen years o l d enlisted in the Civil War as a me mber of Capt. Py l es' com pany and late r was a member of Capt. Leslie's company. For sixty years Mr. Bryant lived at Orangedale, north of Lakeland the last fourteen or fifteen years o f his l ife being spent as a resident of Lakeland. Coming here when the whole county was a trackless wilderness, Mr. Bryant, by his native ability and shrewd management, amasse<} a large fortune, the foun dation of which was gained in the cattle business, Mr. Bryant having been a pioneer stockman of t he county. He later made wise investments, and was re garded as one of the county's leading financiers. For many years prior to his death he was vice-president of the First Nationa l Bank of. Lakeland and chairma n of the board. Mr. Bryant represented Polk County for several y ears in the Florida Legisla ture, and the first Senator from the county aftel" it became a senatorial dis trict. He was an active member of the Masonic .order, being the last surviving charter member of the Ebenezer L odg e of Kathleen. Mr. Bryant was married three times: his first wife before her marriage was Myram Hancock. Four children were born to this union: Manuel A., Texas ( dead), L a Fayette (dead), Georgia (dead). He next married Julia A. Holly, now deceased, and one daughter, Alice L., wife of Mr. Reid Robson, was born to this union. The present Mrs. Bryant; nee Ruth Robinson, makes her home in Lake land, and has hvo young daughters, Julia May and Katherine Elva Bryant. Mr. Bryant died at Lakeland December 8, 1926. ROBERT BRYANT That success will not be denied to the man who has a certain amount of business ability and is willing to work and work hard, is demonstrated by a review of the lif e of Robert Bryant, who lived in Polk County 56 years. He was born i n Lake City, October 2, 1849, the son of Thomas and Susan Bryant, the former from Georgia and t11e latter a nativie of this State. Robert Bryant was one of a famil y of thirteen, all of whom assisted in the upkeep of the home. He attended the school at Lake City one year, the remainder of his edu cation being rece ived at home. In 1869 the family removed to Socrum, where Thomas Brl'ant took up a homestead. Robert Bryant was a merchant of Kathleen for 25 years, and had large cattle interests. I:Ie came to Lakeland in 1903 and became a large property owner and builder. He and W. D. McRae developed two important sub-divisions and gave the site for the Lakeland High School to the county. In 1904 Mr. Bryant built a large busineSs house, the Bryant building, occu pied by Jewett' s drug store and other concerns, with offices above . In 1913 he and C. W Deen erected the Deen-Bryant building, corner of Kentucky avenue and

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206 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Main street, and in 192 4 :Mr. Bryant reb uil t the Adams' building and erected a building a t the corner of Pine street and Florida avenue. H e was repute d to be one of the wealthiest men of the county. Although a member of no denomination, Mr. Bryan t gave libe rally to every church i n Lakeland. He wa s keenly interested in governmental matters, but never sought public office. He died in Lakeland M a y 29, 1925 THOlviAS W. BRYANT. THOMAS W. BRYANT, a leading member of th e Polk C o unty bar, and at ent serving his third term as Representative from Polk County in the Florida Legislature, has achieved s!lccess "and distinction while yet quite a young man. In addition to his fine record in civil life, he has to his credt an active military career, having served his country in the World the fields of France. He enlisted in January, 1918, being a s s igne d to duty with the Second Battalion of the 319th Field Artillery, 82nd Division. He participated in tlie battles of St. Mihiel, the Argomte Forest, and the ArgonneMeuse campaigns. Mr. Bry ant was born in Polk County, Mar ch 28, 1890, the son of Emory and Nellie (Blocker) Bryant. He is a member of a distinguished Florida pioneer family, his grandfather, Thomas Bryant, hav ing come to the State as a soldier iii the Indian Wars, being a veteran of two of these wars, and also serving in the Confederate army. His father is a 11ative of Columbia County, but was among the early settlers of Polk. His mother, Nellie B locker, is a native of F lorida, as was also her father, S. W. Blocker. Mr. Bryant graduated f rom the.schools of. Lak e land after which he took both the literary and law courses at the University of Florida, receiving h i s degrees in 1915. He was admitted -to the bar the same year, becoming a member of the law firm of Whitney, Spencer & Bryant. The. war interrupted his legal career, whicli was re sumed with the advent of peace, and for some years he has been senior member of the firm of Bryant & Trantham, which enjoys the patronage and con fidence of an extensive and infl.uential clientele. In 1922 he to the Florida Legis.la ture and at once won as one of the outstanding members of tha t body. He was re-e lected in 1924, and again in 1926 Mr. Bryant is a member of Lakelan d Lodge No. 1291, B. P. 0. E. He is a director of the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce, and is otherwise prominent in the civic life of the community. He was in 1920 to Miss Lydia Steitz, daughter of John and Lydia Steitz, of Lakeland. They have three daughters, Margaret Nell and Betty: F. C. BUCHANAN F. C. BucHANAN, prominent citizen of Lake 'Vale s was born in -Torrey, Flor ida; December 29, 1895 the son of S. Terrill and Elizabeth H. Buchanan. Mr. Buchanan was educated in the schools of Jacksonville, and began the study of law at the age of 1 'l' yeats, but never practiced. In 1918 Mr. Buchanan engaged in the automobile business in Orlando under

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 207 t h e fir m n a me of Buch anan Bros h aving th e Paig e age n c y m t ha t city. He remained there f o r t w o yea r s befor e c o min g t o Po l k county. M r. B u chan a n picked Lake Wa l es a s a winner, l oca t ing in that city in 1920 a t o nce be coming a fact o r i n t ha t h u s tli ng town's deve l opmen t. H e is president o f t h e F. C. Buchanan Corporation, which has the Buick agency and handles all kinds o f automobile accessories ana supplies He is president of F. C. B u chanan, Inc., special i zing in estate and property management. H e is also president of t h e Toco boca Corporation, anothe r r eal estate company whic h b a s large h o l dings. Mr. B ucha nan is vice -president of the Citizen s Ban k of Lake W ales; is a membe r of the C h amber o f Comm e r ce and th e Rotary Club Frat ernally, h e i s a n E l k a Ma so n a Kni g ht of Pythi as and a Shr in e r H e w as married Se ptember 5, 1 925, a t La ke Wales t o Marion P Hunt. T h e y have one little daugh ter, Betty Frances aged one year. JOHN W. BUCHANAN, J R. A FLoRIDIAN, not by adoptio n b u t by birth, and proud o f it, one of Lakeland's leading citizens, John W. Buchanan, Jr., was bom at Wellborn, December 23, 1879, the so n of John W. and Mary Alice (Murdock) Buchanan Mr. B u chanan's father, who was a ra ilroad man (rood mast e r), cam e to South Florida in 1 886, t h e family locat ing at B artow. Mr. B uchanan s first business experi e nce wa s in Tampa wher e he was as s i stan t tic ket age n t for t he A. C. L r ailway, com ing to La k e l and in 1 901 wher e h e se r ved the roa d as tic k e t age nt for t wo ye a rs. With hi s f a ther he e ngaged in the r es t aurant b u si n es s in Lakela n d, whi c h h e ba s s u c cessfully conduc t ed for the p a s t twenty-five yea r s t h e B uchanan restau rant bein g the o l dest in Pol k cotinty, and the second oldest in the State in point of contin u ous ownership Besides owning the r estaurant Mr. Buchanan o wns a o n e-h a l f in terest in the Buchanan HoteL Mr. Bu c h a n an h as served Lak elan d as City Commiss i oner f o r five years, one year of whi c h t e r m h e was m ayor. I t w a s d u ring his r egime as m ayo r t hat Lake l a n d's civi c buil d i ng prog r am was i n au g u ra ted and later carrie d t o comp l e tion i nvo l v ing a n e x pendi ture of abou t $9 000,000 for c ity halt, mu nicipal audit o rium muni ci p al hospi tal, fire sta tion sew e rage p lant. ath l etic field, co l ore d h osp ital, S O mi l es o f add iti o n al streets an d the selec t i o n of two additio nal city park s. M r B ucha n an is a director o f t he First Nationa l B ank, exdirector of the Lakeland Cham ber of Commerce, a Maso n and Shriner, life me m ber of the Elks and a membe r of the K. of P. He wa s married February 17, 1903 to Emma Domingus, of Alabama and t hey h a v e two chi l dren, Mary Frances a nd Charnelle. B K. BULLARD A m a n o f l arge affa i rs and one who ha s a deep i n t e r es t i n ma t ter s pertain i ng t o th e welfa r e of the cou n t y is B. K. B ullard, o n e o f the f o u nders of Lake W n l es, an d f o r t he p a st s ix yea r s a re p re s e n ta tive i n t h e Sta t e Legi s l ature He was born in G r aham cou n ty Geor gia, October 7, 188 1 the so n of B. F. and A m orette ( Kenn edy) Bullard. He was rear ed in Savann a h, and received his

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208 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA education at Crowther 's private school of t hat ci t y and the Gordon Ins titut e at Barne .sville Georgia. From 1902 until 1910 he reside d in Tampa and J ac ksonville where h e was engaged in the wh o le sa le grocery and nav al s t ores b u s ine s s. In November of the latter y ear he came to Lake Wal es since which time he has been a recognized factor in financial and business circles of that city. He is vice-p re sident o f the Lake Wales State Ba nk and was instrumemal in the building of 80 per cent of the business h ouses of Lake Wales, amon g therri being his own, the h andsome Bullard buil ding. Mr. Bullard ha s been a member of the State Legis lature since lfJ22, and in tl1e june primary wa s re-elected by a large majorit), proving that the people realize the y are being ably represen ted. He is one o f the State's most enthu s iastic believers, and i s a man of unquestioned integrity. He i s a Ma son, Shriner and Elk and wo rs hi ps at the Presbyterian church. Bullard and Nanuie Lacy Butler were married in Charle stown, West V i rgini a. January 25, 1905. Their children are Bern K., J r .. Henry B., Dougl3s B. and Amorette THOMAS E. BURDETTE THOMAS E. may well be called the dean of Polk count y automobile men, hayin g been iden tified with this the greater part of hi life and established in' thi s in _Polk county since 1908. He was liorn at Parkers burg, West Virginia in 1885, t he son of Thoma s and Mary E. Burdette, .ansi received his in the schoo l s of that State. In 1908 he came to Tiu!lpa to engage in automobile work, then a new indu stry, and re moved to Lakeland live years later opening the lir s t garage in that city In 1 910 he was appointtd agent for Ford cars. thereby becoming lirst man in the county to handle this car. He establis hed a Ford agency in Bart o w in 1913, and since that time ha s made h i s home there He disposed of his Ford agency in 1920, and acquired the Hudson Essex company, incorporating the business four years later, the firm doing busi ne s s as the Bartow Motor Company. Mr. Burdette i s the l argest stockh older, and is presid en t and mana ger of the company. He was married at Fort Meade, 1915, t o Mary C. Col e, member of an o ld Polk Count y famil y. They have one daughter Patricia, aged six, who was born at Bartow. Mr. Burdette i s an ardent booster for his city, an d is an acti ve mernbe r of the Chamber o f Commer ce. NICK B URNS The combinati on o f a frie n dlv mannH keen sen se of humor and t he abilitv to judge human natur e co rrectly; coupled with ambit i o n and hard work, h as made Nick Burns, at 29 years of age one of the out s tanding developers of Fl o r ida. Mr. B urns is a nativ e of th e old country, h aving been born in Ardee, Ire l and January 1 1 899, the son of James and M ary Smith Burns. After finis hing hi s s chooling at St. Patrick' s college, he came -to th e United States, arriving in New York Marc h 1 1 920, with in hi s pocket The

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PART 1IBIOGRAPHICAL 209 following year he engaged in the real e state business in Miami, enterin g a field in which he had no previous traini ng but as his success attests. a natural aptitude. f n 1 922 he opened offices in Lakeland at 324 East Main st reet doing bu s iness as the Bur ns Development Company. "Country Club Estates," "Lake Gibson Heights," "South Florida Avenue Heights" and "Westwego" are hi s own enter prises and have been highly popular with prospective home builders. In t he comparatively short time Mr. Burns has been in the real estate game he has signed 3,800 deeds. He is vitally interested in civic matters and i s president of the Civitan Club, a member of the Lakeland Real Estate Board and the Chamber of Commerce. He also bel ongs t o t he Old Colony C lub the Benevolent and Protecti ve Order of Elks, the Clevelan d Height s Golf and Count ry C lub and t h e Lakeland Country C lub Mr. Burns is a golf enthusias t and is frequently seen on the l ink s of the la s t named places. : Mr. Bums was married in Tampa on Fe bruary I 19.23, to Carmen L. Futch. The y have one child, Nick Jr. T. HARRIS BURRUSS T HARRIS BuRRUSS, one of Lakeland's successful lawyers, member of the firm of Callaway and B urru ss, is a native of Lake City. South Carolina, born M arch 5 1 889, th e son o f Thomas Harris ond Minnie (Perry) Burru ss. After graduatin g from the school s of Madison Georgia where, with hi s parents he removed when qu ite young, Mr Burru s s s tudied civil engineering at Mississippi A. & :M. College. He then decided to become a law yer and pursued this line of study at the Universit y of Kentucky receiving th e degrees of LL. B. and M.L. Mr. Burntss practiced at Madison from until 1922, when he came to Lakeland. The firm, of which he is a member, is one of the best known in this section Mr. Burruss i s a Mason, an Elk K. of P. and belongs to the Kiwanis Club. b oth Country Clubs and the Baptist church ROBERT A. BURTON R<>si(RT A. BURTON was born a t White Springs, Florida December 12, 1893, the son o f Willie Thomas and Bessie (Harrell) Burton. His paternal ancestors were English coming to Virginia in the early days later settling in South Georgia. His maternal grandfather was Colonel Enoch Hall, an Indian fighter in the Slst Regiment of Georgia Militia in the year of 1836 and Lyman Hall one of his ancestors, was a signer of the Declaration o f Independence. H e received his education at White Springs and Madison of this State. After atte n di n g school in Georgia for two years he entered the law office of Col. James H umphreys, of Moultrie, Georgi a, an d ot the break of war enli s te d in the U. S. Army, and served on th e Mexican bor der until May 14.1919. After bein g hon orab l y discharged a t San Antonio, Texas, he went t o California, where he again took up the study of law. Returning to Mou ltri e, Ga. in 1921, he again to ok up th e s tudy of law in the office of Hill & Gibson, and in 1923 came to Lakeland, Polk County,

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.210 HISTORY O F POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Florida, and continued the s tudy of law with Childers and Ragan, Chi l ders a':'d Howell, and later with W J. DeLoach. H e was admit ted to the Supreme Cour t of Flo rida on May 5, 1 925, and in April, 19 27, was admitted t o practice in the Distric t Court of the U nited States at Jacksonville, Florida. He has been engaged in the practice o f law, independently sin ce being admitted Mr. Burton is a member of the American Legion Post No. 4, and is a member of the Odd Fel lows and Moose Lodges. He wa s married May 31, 1924, to Anna Mae Edenfi e l d of Lakeland, Florida. LEONARD 'CALDWELL LEONARD CAIJ>WELI. was born in Rand o l ph county Alabama, November 17, 1884, the son of William Robert and Susan Frances Caldwell. Mr. Caldwell was reared on a farm, receiving his education in the schoo l s o f Alabama. In 1912 he came to Polk county and located at Nichols where he was employed as clerk in charge of the commissary departmeot of the Phosphate Mining Company He started in as a clerk at $60 per month, but soon became manager of the commissary In 19ll 4 he and associates D. S. Waters, J. 'w. Keel and R. N. Bryan bought the H. A. Ford Consolidat ed Stores and changed the name to the Mutual Stores, Incorporated. H e was vice -pres i deot and manager at first, and since January, 1927, ha s been president and manager. The Mutual Stores Com pany cla i ms t o d o the largest business of any retail store in Pol k county. The growth of the bus ine ss ha s increased 100 per cent under the new own e r s hip due to Mr. Caldwell's t ire l ess efforts and interest. Mr. Caldwell is a member of the Business l\1en's Club of Mulberry, and is a member of the Masonic Lodge. He was married Dec. 21, 1917, a t Columbus, Georgia, to Mary Louise Fuller. They hav e two sons, Leonard M. and Edward. Mrs. Caldw ell bas been one of the capab le t eachers in the Mulberry school for the pas t four year s. ELVY E. CALLAWAY Among the leading lawyers of Polk County wbo has identified him self with various forward movements of his home city i s ELVY E CALLAWAY, an Alabamian by birth, the son of Rev. Benjamin W and J oan C. (Holly) Callawa y. Mr. Callaway was born February 28rd, 1889, at Weogufka, Alabama, the son of a Baptist minist e r. He a cqu ire d his literary education i n the public and high school at Weogufka, Alabama, and Sta t e Normal College and taught school f o r two years He then entered the law offices of Mullins & Smi t h of Clanton, Alabama, and read law for three years. He entered the practice at Columbus, Mississippi, in June, 1 916, where he lived for a period of eight years from 1916 to 1922. In the latter year he came to Lakeland and ope ned o ffices, having as a partner T. H. Burruss. Mr. Ca ll away h as restricted his practice to civil cases, banking and real e s tate transactions, and i s recognized as an able authority in the lines in which he s pecial izes. Mr. Callaway is a membe r of theM. E. Church, Lions Club Chamber of Com-

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 2 11 merce, is a Mason, Shriner, K. of P ., Woodman of the World and an Elk. He is also Past Patron of the Eastern Star. He is a member of the local, county and State Bar Associations. Mr. Callaway was married August 6, 1 911, to Annie Levie of Weogufka, Alabama. They have one son ; Ullman. ALBERT B. CANFIELD A. B. Canfield was at' Litchfield, Ohio, April 24 1849, the son of Abial and Harriett (Northrup). Canfield. He attended the public schools of his home town and in early m anhood became a farmer. Until 1913, when he removed to Winter Haven, Mr. Canfield lived in Litchfield, and in addi tion to his farming operations, was a stock dealer, wool buyer and grain operato r. In 1912 Mr. Canfield bouglit five acres of land for $625.00 in Lake Wales and subdivided it, selling it later for $86.000. This is now in the heart of the Lake Wales business diStrict, and on part of it now stands the handsome Walesbilt hotel. He built the second and third houses in Lak e Wales. Mr. Canfield was married" at Chatham, Ohio, to Lena M. Robinson, daughter of Robil\son of London, England. Their children are G r ace LeOna, wife of H. L. Hallada y. of Litchfield; Pearl wife of Earl Rice, of Elyria, Ohio; Tresso L., w if e of Arthur Heintz, and Florence E., wife of E. W. Heintz, who live at AkTon, O h io. Mr. Canfie l d is a member of the Con gregationa l church at Litchfield, Ohio. . H. B. CARTER H. B. CAaTR, one of Lakeland's foremost citizens, whose death on November 29, 1924, as the result of an automobile accident, brought sorrow to the entire CO':"munity, was born in Lumberton, North Carolina, November 29, 1872, his untimely death occurring on his 52nd birthday. Mr. Carter, who was one of the county's wealthiest men, was orphaned when an infant, his fatbe1 dying when he was six month s of age, his mother when he was two yea r s old. He was reared by a relative, a Mr. Edmondson, until he was sixteen years age, when be ran away, joining his elder brother, W. J. Carter, and with whom he engaged in the turpentine busin ess .at Odum, Georgia He workedand at' the Slime time went t() sc hool. and at the end of four years had accumulated sufficient money t o buy a onehalf interest in his brother's store at Odum, which he managed. In 1895 Mr. Carter came to Florida, locating near Pen sacola, where he mane aged h is brother s turpen tine interest s, se lling same at a good profit He C-1me tQ Polk county in 1898, operating Carter's Mill, one of the largest p lants of the kind in the county, l oca ted six miles east of Lake land, the s tation at that time being named for Mr. Ca rter. He also operated a large h,tmber.'mill at St. Petersliurg. In addition t o his large mill int erests, Mr. Carter also engagtd in the turpentine business, and in citrus Shortly before his death he built the Palace Thea tre at Lakeland. He was a director in the First National Bank of Lakeland . and in the National Banko! Waycross, Georgia He also )lad inany other business interests, both in Florida and in Georgi a

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.212 HlSTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA About 1901 Mr. Ca rter moved his family to Lakela nd, and beca m e a large property holder of this c ity, buying the Hotel Kib ler now the Thelnt a Hotel (named for Mr. Carter's eldest daughter), and a l so thousands of acres of l and in the north ern part of the county and two fam>s in Geo rgia and one in Florida. Mr. Carter was a devout member of the :-.iethodist church and for many years a steward of the church. He was one of the mainstays of Southern College and of the Methodist orphanag e being a large contributor to both institutions. He was a public-spirited citizen, and aided many worthy undertakings of the community, and had many sincer e friends in both Georgia and Florida. M r Carter was a devot ed husband and father, and befo re h i s death had built f o r hi s fami ly one of the handsomest home s in Lake l and, overlooking Lake Morton. He is survived by his wife, Lula S. Moody, whom he married in Georgia in 1893, and three children : Leonard L., Thelma E. (Mrs. Georg e Ca rr), Ethel (Mrs. C. E. Tate, of Birmingham). Three children preceded him to the grave: David B., James L., and Lula May. ALVA R. CARVER ALvA R. C.Rvt:R is a nativ e of Florida, a s was his father; he was born in Suwannee county March 26, 1890, the son of Rayford H. an d Jane (Parnell) Carver His mother was descended from an o l d and aris t ocrat ic South Caro lina family .Mr. Carv e r atte nd ed the schools of Suwan n ee coun ty, an d subscquentlv matriculate. d at S t etson university, from whi c h institu tion he was graduated 1916 with an LL. B. degree. During the Chri stmas holidays of 1915 be moved to Lakeland, where, since his graduation, he has been an outs tandi ng figure in law and civic circles. It was in 1919 that he bteame a member of the firm of Peterson, Carver and Petteway, which is now k nown as Peterson & Carver. There are two other law yers connected with this institution, and it has the distinction of being the largest legal firm in the city. In addition to his private practice, Mr. Carver has served Lakeland five years as Municipal Judge, and is at the present time As s istani Solicitor of Polk county. He is a dir ector of the S tate B ank of Lakeland, al)d is its legal ad visor. Mr. Carve r is ex-president of the Polk County Bar Association, holdin g this position for two years, and is a member of the American and State associations. He was the first President of the Kiwanis Club of his city, and belongs to the Chamber of Commerce. He is a member of the Baptist cbqrcb, and fraternally is affiliated with the Masons, Shriners, Elks and Knights of Pythias. He is past master of the l ocal Masonic lodge No. 91. The attractive home of the Carv ers, which is located on Hollingsw orth road, has been m uch admired. Amo n g -his o ther properties i s a beautiful orange grove. Mr. Carver and Kate Winn w e r e married in Lake land in July 19 26, and have one child, Peggy Jane. M rs. C arver' s grandfather Mr. Stephens on, was one of the first settler s of this sec tion, an d hom esteaded a large plot of land, including much of the territory where Lakeland n ow sta nds.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 213 WILLIAM H. CHANDLER, JR. WILLIAM H. CHANOI,ER, Ja._ was born in Milton, Delaware, January 16, 1890, the son of William H. and Sara (RusseU) Chandler. His ancestors were among the early settlers of Delaware, and were veteran s of the Revolutionary and Civil wars . After fini shing the public schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania, Mr. Chandler attended Cornell University. His taste and inclinations leaning toward the growing of fruits he pursued that pleasant and profitable occupation in Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1917, when be transferred his activities to Florida, locating at Lakeland in 1917. Since coming to Polk County Mr. Chandler has engaged in the growing and shipp ing of oranges, grapefruit, tomatoes and watermelons on a large scale, and has offices covering practica lly the entire State. His firm ships on an average of 1,000 cars per year of fruit and vegetables. Mr. Chandler and Ralph Davi s are associated in the fruit packing business under the firm name of Chandler-Davis Co., b:avirig their headquarters in Lakeland. Mr. Chandler was married in September 1921, to Jessie Bennett of Scranton, Pennsylvania. They have one daughter, Margaret. JOHN D. CLARK A Floridian by birth and a resident of Bartow since he was two years old, J. D. Clark ha s had ample opportunity to study co nditions in the State and county, and is a succe ssful member of business and political groups. At this time he is serving his home city quite capa bly as mayor, and much of a progressive nature is being accompli shed. J.D. Clark was born at Live Oak in 1884, the son of W. W. and Luttie B. Clark. The former, a native of tbe State of Kentuc k y, was an early phosphate ope .rator and citrus grower in Polk and Pinellas counties. Mr. Clark wa s elected city commissioner o f Bartow in 1927 for a term of four years and has se rve d as mayor commis sioner for the past two years Under his administration the new hospital was. built, and the city was given gas service, ga. being piped to Ba rtow from Winter Haven. He is heavily interested in citrus growing in Polk, Pinellas and Highlands counties, and in truck farming in Polk Count y. Mr. Clark is owner and manager of the Crystal Ice Works of Bartow. Mr. Clark is president of the P olk County Building and Loan Association and president of the Bartow Association of the Florida Citrus Exchange . He was a member of the old city council for seven years. He belongs to the Methodist church and the Benevolent and P rotec tive Order of Elks He was married to Laura Belle Menge at Fort Myers, April 30, 1907. They ba,e three sons: John D., Jr., W. W., and Richard. CLANTON M. CLAYTON CLANTON M. CLAY'I'ON, for m any years one of Lake land' s most prominent and popular citizens, wa s born June 17 1880, at Wellbome, Florida, the son of Jeffer son and Josephine C. Clayton, and at the time of his death Decembe r 31, 1923, was 43 year s of age.

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214 HISTORY OF POLK COUN'fY, FLORIDA Clant Clayton, as he was affectionately known by hundreds, climbed the l adder of success rapidly, atta ining finandal independence early in life, through his close attention to business matters, combined with his genial personality. He came to Lakeland about 1901 and was with the Railroad Express for a time, later forming a connection with the State Bank of that city. His banking career thus started, he went forward rapidly the First National Bank securing his services as cashier to take the place made vacant by the death of T. W. Conrad, and eventually he be<:ame president of that institution. He so ld his interests in the First National Bank in 1920, and went to Miami where he was connected with the Miami National Bank, and at the time of his death was vice-president of the Commercial Bank & Trust & Title Company. His death, due to a stroke of apoplexy, came when he was apparently in the best of health, and was the occasion of widespread sorrow wherever he was knov.on. He served as president of the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce, and presi dent of the Rotary Club, and was affiliated with practically all fraternal organiza tions. He 'had large property interests, owning several orange groves and his handsome home, now the property of W. P. McDonald was one of the show places of this section. Mr. Cla}oton was married October 16, 1912, to Cora Sullivan, at Lewis t on, Illinois, and a daughter, Mary, was born to this union Mrs. Clayton and daughter still retain their residence in Lakeland owning a lovely home in Cleveland Heights, which Mrs. Cla) ton recently built. GEORGE H. CLEMENTS There is perhaps no group of m en, who, without thought of reWard, give more unstintingly of their services to the betterment of community interests than those connected with Chamber of Commerce work. An unusually good example i s George H. Clements, secretary of the Bartow organization. He was born in 1860 at Stevens Point, Wisconsin, t he son of Thomas and Katherine (McAuliffe) Clements, both of whom were natives of Ireland. Mr. Clements is an able newspaper man, and formerly was connected with leading publications of New York and Chicago. During the World War he served as one of the Food Commissioners of Texas, and as a member of the publicity de partment. Later, his newspaper assigned him to Siberia as co rrespon dent, and he remained overseas until the close of the war. Mr. Clements came to Bartow, July 22, 1922, to accept the post of Secretary o f the Chamber of Commerce, and his excellent work in this connection has gained him widespread recognition. He is a member ohhe Episcopal church and is President of the Down town Men's Bible Class. He belongs to the Kiwanis Club. Mr. Clements and Caroline Nathan were married at Lancaster, Wisconsin, in June, 1893. They have two sons, Joseph of El Paso, Texas, and Thomas, of Hollywood, California.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 215 JAMES RUDOLPH CLEMENTS J. R. CLSMNTS is a native of Eastman, Georgia, born January 13, 1893, the son of Walter M. and Ida Clements. He was liberally educated, attending the University of Georgia for one year after his graduation from Eastman High School. He later entered Emory University, from which institution he graduated with the Bachelor of Science degree. He removed to Lakeland, April15, 1923, and lias law offices in the Spencer Futch Building. He does a general law practice, giving special attention to title work and corporation matters. Mr. is a firm believer in the future of his adopted city, and owns con siderable property there. Mr. Clements is a member of the Masonic order, Delta Tau Delta college fraternity and Cleveland Heights Golf and Country Club and attends the Methodist church. ARTHUR LLOYD CLEVELAND . A man who has worked unceasingly, although effectively and unostentatiously, for the betterment and upbuilding pf his community, and of Polk County, is Arthur Lloyd Cleveland, who for sixteen years has edited the Fort Meade Leader. Mr. Cleveland was born at Charlotte, Arkansas the son of James Rice and Emma (Harrington) Cleveland being .of Irish ancestry on his father's side and Scotch on his mother's. His father was a native of. Georgia and served in the Third Georgia Regiment in the Civil war. He was educated in the schools of Arkansas, and graduated from Meridian College, Meridian, Miss in May, 191 2, \\1th a B. C. S. degree. Prior to this four years' literary course, he had attended business college. Before graduating he began to cast about for a location in which to engage in the printing business, preferably in Fiorida, having alway s had a desire to live where oranges grow. Some fr i ends acquainted with the section, suggested a pos sible connection at Fort Meade, and Mr. Cleveland secured leave of absence from coUege, visited Fort Meade and bought of R. 0. Meek a half-interest in the Leader. After closing the deal he returned to college and graduated, and arrived in Fort Meade to take up his newspaper work May 31, 1912. The partnership wiih Mr. Meek continued until his death nine years later, when his son, A. B . M eek, took his father's place, and the business connection has continued ever since. Mr. Cleveland was put on the reserve list for the World War, but was active in the Home Guards during the entire period. His four years' military training in school attained for him the rank of Lieutenant. He is a member of the Methodist church, was Sunday school secretary three years, and has been a teacher of a Sunday school class of boys and young men for the past twelve years. He is a member of the Masonic Order, Knights of pythias, the Chamber of Commerce and the Exchange Club, and bas been a Scout Master for ten years. He is at this time treasurer of the South Florida Press Association, and vice-president of the Polk County Press Association, and is a member of the Florida Press Association. He was married May 26, 1914, at Meridian College, Meridian, Miss., to Clyde Howell of Louisiana. Four children have been born to this union: Vela, Opal Jean Loy and Pat.

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216 HISTORY OF POLK CO lJ'NTY, FLORIDA Mr. Cleveland's career has been built upon character, and he is strictly a self made man. He lived on the farm until his 15th birthday, when he took his first train ride to the village in Arkansas in which he was to take a job as "devil" in a country printing office. From that time he made his own way, working a while and saving a little money, then going to school, and in this way obtained an edu cation. He stands high in the regard of his fellow-members of the newspaper profession, and is an example of right living and good citizenship. ELMER E CLINII, who has been identified with the affairs of Auburndale for the past 31 years,.was.born 16, l861, at Alliance, Ohio, the son of L. D. and.M. J. Cline. His father owned an' iron works at Alliance, and here Mr. Cline received his education, attending the public schools of that city, later graduating from Mount Union College. After his educati and was instru mental in securing for present fine system of roods.' He has been justice of the peace for District No. 6 for t))e i;>ast .four years, was' president of the Board of Trade and of Auburncj.ale' for over : 18 years. Mr. Cline has a splendid .J:!'lilitary _record, having served in both the war and navy departments during the Spanish-American .. War, serving in the shrapnel de partment in Frankford Arsenal at Philadelphia and engineering departments at Key West. . . He is a m ember of the Junior Order of American Mechanics, Knights of Pythi as, D. 0. K. K., Elks Odd Fellows. He was married to Miss A. E. Adams at Meadville, Pa., in 1881, and they have one son, Harry, of Auburndale. S. L.A. CLONTS Among t .he leading pioneers who occupied a large place in the record of the progress of Lakeland, was'S. L. who for 39 years was a highly honored citizen Coming to Lakeland in i886, when that section was little more than a wilderness, Mr. Clonts established himself in business, joining the firm of D. H. Sloan & Co. who had one of the first stores i n the community. Mr. Clonts later opened a grocery which he conducted a time later disposing of tbe grocery line and confining his attention entirely to dry goods, in which undertaking he

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 217 was eminently successful having built up one of the largest me rca ntile establish ments in the county. He erected a fine brick building in which to house his busi ness, and until about a year before his death he was in active charge ill health necessitating him to sell his sto re, which brought to a close a l ong and successful businesS career. : Mr. Clonts was a useful citizen, a kind l y gentleman, and enjoyed the es t eem of all with whom he came in contact. He was a Geor!iiian by birth, born at Dalton .in 1856 the son of Michael and Rachel Clonts. His father was a Baptist minister who served various churches in Georgia and in Florida. When a young lad, Mr. Clonts came t o Florida with his parents, locating at Live Oak, where Mr. Clonts conduct ed a store before coming to Lakeland. His interest in civic matters was always keen, and he served Lake i and as mayor for three terms the first time he was elected to this office being during the Spanish-American war, at which time many troops were sta tio ned at Lakeland There wePe many exciting occurre nc es in those days, and Mr Clonts, in h is official capacity always rose to the occasion nobly, doing his duty ably and well. He was always singing Lakeland s praises, and did much to help in the making of the Greater Lake l and of today. Mr. Clonts wru> a faithful member of the Baptist church, and was a Mason. He was married at Live Oak to Harriett M. Powell, and eight children blessed this union: Zeta (Mrs. H. L. Parker), Dr. Koopman Clont s of Spokane, Washington; Samuel Fannie (deceased) Rachel (Mrs. T. H. Getzen) Forrest, ins t ructor in Wake Forest College; Arthur, attorney, of Stuart; and E s ther (Mrs. Kinsey John Hampton). Before his death, which occurred in September, 1925, Mr. Clonts built for his family one of the finest homes in the city, loca t ed in Casa Bella. R. E. COATES R. E. CoATES, Postmaster of Fort Meade, was born in Suwanee county, Flor ida, October 31, 1880, the son of Philip J and Sarah Pemelia Coates. His father who was a doctor and a B aptist minister, was a native of Alabama, while his mother was a Mississippian. At the age of 16 Mr. Coates lef t Suwanee c oun ty and in 1896, the year following, located at Miami, where he lived for a number of years. He was t he first delivery boy to be employed by the Western Union at Miami. Later he was a bookkeeper, and for a number of years engaged in the photograph ic business in In 1914 Mr. Coates came to Polk county and entered the Postal service as rural mail-carrier out of Fort Meade, and in August, 1923, was appointed Post master at that place, which position he has since filled most satisfactorily. For ten years Mr. Coates was a member of the National Guard of F lorida, entering as a private and being promoted u n til he was a First Lieutenant. He later etit ered the Coast Artillery, was transferred t o the infantry with the rank of First Lieutenant and was promo t ed to a capta incy, which r ank he now holds in the Officers' Reserve Corps with assignment in 127th Infantry. He served from August, 1917, until December, 1918 i n the World War.

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.218 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Coates is a member of the Baptist church, is a 32nd degree Mason and a member of the Blue Lodge at Fort Meade LUTHER W. COBBEY LtrTHU W. CoDBIW was born in Beatrice, Nebraska, October 18th, 1895, the son of Joseph E. and Lottie S. Cobbey. Luther W. Cobbey is one of eight children. His father practiced law in Nebraska for 35 years, published an d annotated the statutes of N ebras ka during the years from 1890 to 1911, inclusive ; they were called "Cobbey's Annotat ed Statutes." He also was called by New Mexico when it became a state to publish its first statutes. He a)so wrote and publis hed several text-books among which are "Co bbe y on Replevin" and "Cobbey on Chattel Mortgages," etc. Mr. Luther W. Cobbey received his training in law at the University of Nebraska, and at the beginning of the Mexican trouble enlisted in the regular army. He was first stationed on the Mexican border, and later went overseas where he saw service at the front, and was promoted a private to First Lieutenant. Upon his return, he became connected with a large firm as salesman, and con tinued his study of law at Omaha, removing in 19.26 to Haines City. Here he formed a partnership with Oliver C. Maxwell, and the firm enjoys a fine business. Mr. Cobbey is commande r of the Haines City Post of th e American Legion, is a 40 and 8 member, and belongs t o the Delta Tau Delta college frat ernity. He was married in May, 1920, to Charlotte M. Maxwel l, and they have one son, Maxwell E. Cobbey. MISS HELEN COCHRANE There is probably no woman in Lakeland who is held in higher esteem than Miss Helen Cochrane, who, throu g h her own efforts, bas become financiall y inde pendent, a success having attended her that an y man might envy. A Tennesseean by birth, born near Columbia the daughter of Dr W. W. and Elizabeth Cochrane she was educated in the schools of her native State coming to Lake l and in 1900. Miss Helen, a s she is affectionately known by her many Lake land friend s, conducted a very popular boarding house for many year s where the Marble Arcade now stands. Here many young men of the city made their home-and it was a home in every sense of the word for all who entered. Miss Helen's table wa s far-famed for its excellent cuisine, and so bountifull y did she serve her guests it was always a matter of conjecture as to how she could sel such a table and make any profit. Several years ago Miss Cochrane retired from active business. and rem oved to her property at the corne r of Tennessee avenue and Lemon street, in the center of the business section, where she built an apartment house and where she now resides. Later the apartment house was moved to an adjoining lot, and th e Telfair Stockton building was erected on the corner of Tennessee avenue and Lemon s t reet, this valuable building being also owned by Miss Cochrane Miss Cochrane is very much interested in all matters of civic importance, and is a prominent club woman having been for a long time a member of the W oman's

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 219 Club, later serving the Sorosis Club as vice-president for several terms. Through out the period of the World War she was house chairman of Red Cross work in Lakeland. She is a member of the Presbyterian church. HENRY EDGAR COLE H. E. CoLE, one of the owners of the Cole Jewelry Store, Lakeland, and one of the progressive business men of the city, is a native of born at Bloomfield, July 12. 1869. He is a son of Enos Terry and Julia Ann (Cheever) Cole, whose people were pioneer settlers in Ohio and Virginia. He received his education in the schools of Hamburg, Iow a, and Illinois. Mr. Cole has made a life-study of the jewelry business, and is recognized as an expert optometrist as well. At the age of 12 years he entered the jewelry store of his brother, C. A. Cole, and eight years later established a store of his own at Mount Carroll, Illinois. He operated this business for 18 years, when he disposed of his interests and went Vi est for a short time. He then came to Florida, locating at Kissimmee, but removed to Lakeland six years later. The Co le & Hull jewelry store was establishe d in 1912; about twelve years ago Mr. Cole purchased Mr. Hull's inte rest and since that tim e the firm has been lmown as the Cole Jewelry Company, and the Cole Optical Company. M r. Cole is fortunate in having a son who is taking on a large part of the burden of manage ment and furthering those ideals which have made the company lmown as one of the most reliable firms in Lak eland. Russell H. Cole, his only child, is active in business and civic circles, and has a thorough knowledge of the jewelry and optometry business Mr. Cole is a Mason, Shriner and Modern Woodman; he is a member of the Methodist church and belongs to the Old Colony Club. He was married in 1894 to Mrs. Lola G. Hoover, (deceased) ; h e ma rried Ruth Rountree in 1919 HENRY C. CONNER HENRY C. CoNNIIR was born at Cherrytree, Pennsylvania, on August 31, 1865, the son of JacobS. and Catherine Conner. The forme r was a farmer and alum berman. After completing his education, Mr. Conner naturally turned to th e luinber business, in which he was engaged at various points in Pennsylvania until 1904, when he came to Florida, locating in Polk county near Bartow. At that time he bought 55 acres of orange grove, which has been developed i nto what is now lmown as Connersville, Mr. Conner having largely increased his holdings, having at the present time 450 acres in citrus at Connersville. He bu ilt his own packing house and has his own waterworks. When he locat ed there, no highway nor railroad touched his property, and there was no electricity available, but every modem improvement now makes of. Connersville one of the attractive spots of the county. Aside from his large property interests, Mr. built a handsome home, and four other houses at Conne rsville, and is thoroughly interested in everything looking toward civic i mprovement.

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220 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Fraternally, Mr. Conn e r is an Odd Fellow He was married in Pennsylvania to Lucy M. Du n can. They have seven children: W. Harry F. Loy, Lowry A. (deceased), Ben F., N. R., Chole (Mrs. K. E. Ewing, of Bartow), and Ruth. JAMES W. CONNER JAM>:S W. CoNN!R was born in Walton Count y Georgm, June 25. 1858, the son of Mitchell and Emily Conner. His father was a Civil war veteran having served in the Georgia Regiment: Mr. Conner wa s educated in the schools of his home State, and spent his early manhood o n the farm. For a num be r of years he was engaged in the life insurance business and bad an extensive territory, his travels taking him over th e States of Georgi a arid Florida In 190 3 Mr. Conner decided to become a Floridian, and with his family re moved t o Lakeland having been engaged in the real estate business in tha t city for the past 25 years He has specialized in the handling of ac rea ge, and ha s sold many fine groves in the county. Mr. Conner ha s great faith in Polk County and during his long residence has seen wonderful development in all sections. whi c h he believes Will co n ti!'ue to even greater proportion s. He was married at Midland Muscogee County. Georgi a December 20 th, 1887, to Nina Louise Huff. They have two children, Mrs. Eliz abeth Conner Deen, widow o f C. W Deen, and D. Watson Conner, secreta ry to the P re sident of the Coronet Phosphate Company. HAROLD EDWARD CORNELL HARow EowARD CoRN>:I.L, prominent Winter Have n citizen, was born at Dubuque, I owa, June 21, 1 888, the son of George B. and Fannie (Banghart) Cor nell. His father was originally from New York S tate his mother from Iow a Educated in the schools of Wisconsin, receiving his higher education at the State University, where he specialized in civil engineering, Mr. Cornell first went to Chicago, where he followed his vocation as a civil and construction engineer for four years. In 191Z he came to Florida, locating at Pens acola, later going to Gle n Saint M ary, where he made a connectio n with the Glen S ain t Mary Nurseries Company. His ability soon gained for him r ecogni tion and advancement and in October, 191 3, he was put in charge of the company's plant at Winter Haven He is now Vice-President and General Manager of all the company's South Florida inter!'StS, a recognized authority on citrus culture and a director of the Florida Citrus Exchange; a director of the Polk County Sui>-Exchange and of the Winter Haven Growers' Assodation. The Glen Saint Mary Company owns 1 000 acres in Polk county and is the largest citru s nurse r y in the world. During the past 16 years the company has done over $5,000,000 worth of business, its succes s being largely due to Mr. Cornell's abil ity and efforts. Mr. Cornell ha s long been intere s ted in aviat ion a n d s everal years ago, in company with George W. Haldeman, world famous avia t o r made first long civilian trip in this country, Hying from Dayton, Ohio, to Seattle, thence across the continent to New York City and down to Florida. Mr. Cornell is an accom-

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PART IIBIOGRAPHI CAL 221 plished aviator and keeps a plane for use in his business as well as for recreation purposes. Mr. Cornell i s a public-spirited citizen, always interested in any forward movement. He was Cha irman of Town Council of W i nter Haven for one term, and has done much toward the development of good roads' in Polk county, whic h is famed far and wide for its splendid system of highways LOUIS W. COWDERY Louts W. CowDERY, who is remembered as a loyal and constructive citizen of the pioneer epoch, came to L akeland in 1884, and from that year until the time of his death thirty-two years later; was closely allied with any move for the civic or moral advancement of his commun i t y He was born in Columbus, Georgia, Aprill9, 1859, the son of Lester L. and Evelyn Cowdery, and was a representative of an old and distinguished family of that s ection Upon his arrival in what was later to be known as Lakeland, he formed a partnership with F. L. Brooks, and engaged in a general merchandise business. He was a member ohhe city council for years and planned many far-sighted measures, which have sinc e been accomplished. He urged that Main street be extended to Lake Mirror,. an:d sugges t ed that lire ter of up-to date b rick stores with offices above He also owned valuable grove interests in Poik county. He was a Mason and a Knight of Pythias, and was junior and later senior warden of All Saints Episcopal church. He was married in Lakeland, January 17, 1892, to Florence Barlow of Mis sissippi. Their children are. Catherine (Mrs. Erne s t Adamson), of N e w York City; Evelyn (Mrs Ralph :Murphy), of Miami. and Louise, of Lakeland. 0 JOHN F. COX Mayor of Lakeland for eleven years, and one of the first developers of real estate in the city. J ohn F Cox played an important part in the history of his com munity, and wielded a mighty influence among his fellowmen. He was born in Silome, Mississippi July 29, 1874, the son of Gen. J. A. and Mary Adeline (Anderson) Cox. The former, who lived in this section many years, was prominent in the activities of the Confederate Veterans, was for many years a teacher, and represented the CQunty in the State Legislature. Mr. Cox atten_ded the schools of and the Atlanta Business College, establishing i n .. Lakeland in 1890 For years he was connected with the State Bank, now the Lakeland Bank & Trust Company. As the developer of Dixieland and Bon-Air subdiv ision s he gained the distinction of being one of .. the pioneers in real estate circles In recogniti o n of the work he did for Lakeland, the new grammar school on Lake Hills Boulevard ha s been named "The John F Cox Granunar School."

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222 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Cox was president of the Lakeland Real Estate Board, a member o the Chamber of Commerce and a Knight of Pythias. He wedded Edna Henderson in Lakeland May 1, 1901, and their children are Elsie, Dora, (wife of I. B. Phillips), Lamar, Ruth, John F ., Jr., Edna Gene, and James Lee. Mr. Cox died in Lakeland February 7, 1924, and thus was removed one of the most indefatigable civic workers Lakeland has ever had, and one her early citizens will not soon forget. FRANK W. CRISP Few men in Polk County can point to a record of s uch noteworthy achieve ment made possible by experienced abilit y, the power t o grasp every detail of a large undert aking, and the energy and interest to carry it to successful completion as can Frank W. Crisp, vice-preside n t of the Holly IiiU Grove & Fruit Co., of Davenport, and general manager of that concern for the past nine years. Actively engaged in development work on a large scale Mr. Crisp has wrought a great transformation in the Davenport section, his company, under his direction, having planted 4,300 acres in citrus fruit, the groves of the Holly Hill Grove & Fruit Co. being among tlie finest in the county. About 250,000 boxes of fruit were shipped the past seaso n from these groves. T he success of the development has been due in large part to the fact that ihe company has its own large nursery of over 100 acres, and only trees exactly sui ted to the soil of Davenport are produced In addition to their large grove undertaking, the company has handled nearly 10,000 acres of land in the Daven port section. Mr. Crisp gives his associates great credit for their C(H)peration, which has assisted materially in the s uocess which he has attained. While his energies have naturally been exerted in the interests of the concern he heads, Mr. Crisp has been a great force in the civic development of his com munity, and due largely to his efforts as chairman of the City Council, Davenport is acknowledged to have the most oomprehen sive park and beautification plan of town in the State of Florida, 275 acre s havin g been set aside for park purposes. It. was the first town in the State to adopt a comp rehensive city plan which had been worked out by landscape archit ects. In addition to its other. high-class attractions, Davenport boasts a fine 18 hole golf course. -A South Carolinian by' birth, born at Laurens, South Carolina, July 7, 1888 the son of C. C. and Alice L. Crisp, Mr. Crisp graduated in 1908 from Clemson (S. C.) Agricultural College, where he specialized in hOrtii::ulture and chemistry. His business career from the first has been a series of successful advancements. His first venture was in the insurance busine ss at Woodruff, S C., later going with Bradstreet's at Greenville, being their travelin g represe ntative for a period of two )-e3rs. H e was next sales manager for the Uriited Merca ntile Agency, his terri' tory being the Carolinas, Georgia Alabama and Florida. lie came to Florida in 1913 as Field Manager for the WilsonToomer Fertilizer Co., and was with this concern for six years, until assumi n g active management oi the Holly Hill Grove & Fruit Company at Da;venpol;l in 1919.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 223 In addition to hi s duties as vice-pre s id ent and active manag e r of the above company, Mr. Crisp i s presiden t o f the Polk County Associa ted Chambers of Commerce; president of the Davenport City Council; pres ident of the Holly Hill Fruit Products Inc.; president Davenport Chamber of Commerce; president Davenport Realty Board; treasurer Davenport Investment and Securities Corp.; treasurer Orangdand Homes Corp.; president Florida Mortgage & Holding Co.; secretary Board of Trustees Davenport schools; trustee Business Men's Association and a member of the Haines C ity R otary Club. Mr. Crisp wa s married to Mary Alice Powers of Barberton, Ohio. One son was born to this union, Frank Wells, Jr., deceased. T. A. CURRIE Among the older residents of the county who have materia ll y assisted in making this section known as one of the most produ ctive citrus centers in the world i s T. A. Currie, who settled at Bartow in 1886. Mr. Currie is a North Carolin ian, born at Laurinburg, May 17, 1862. He is the son of Neil A. and Christian Currie; the former fought in the Civil war and bis father was a veteran of the War of 181 2. T. A. Currie was reared on a farm the princ.ipal crop being cotton. Coming to Bartow in 1886 he planted a grove and lived there seven years, when he re moved to Winter Haven, and, for a number of years, was engaged in tru c k farm ing. He returned to citrus growing, h owever, and is now one of the leading fruit men of the county. He is interested in about 280 acres of groves throughout the central and southern parts of the State. Mr. Currie was a member of the Board of County Commissioner s for six years, and during this time made motion to build the new Court House. He is a staunch Democrat, for twenty years having ser\'ed as a member of the Executive Committee of his party. He was marri ed in North Caroli na December 6, 1888, to Mary McNair. They have four cht1dren: Roberta, wife of J. B. Whitesides; Jane B., of Pensacola, member of the State Board of Health; Hugh M., and 'Marguerite Mr. Currie is an Elder in the Pres byterian church. L B. CURTIS LuTH&R BARKER CuRTIS was born in Moline, Ill., November 17, 1879, the son of Corinth P. and Maria A. Barker Curtis. He is of English, Irish and Scotc h descent, his ancestor s being among t.he earlier settlers of Massachusetts and Penn sylvania. Comp leting his high school e dutation i':' the schools of )foliue and Galesburg, Ill. Mr. Curtis came to Florida in 1896 locating at Crescent City. He enlisted in the First Florida Regimen t Company D, and saw active se rvice in the Spanish American War until its close in 1899. A graduate of the Philadelph ia college of P harmacy, Mr. Curii s e s t ablished a drug store in St. Augustine in 1910, later being one of the incorporator s of the Miami Drug Co. at Miami. H e sold his inter est in these concerns and came to Lakeland in 1920 to take the management of the City Drug Store, of which he became sole owner in 1 927.

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224 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLOR IDA Besides possess in g the attributes t h at make for splendid citizenship Mr. Curtis is a member of the Congr egational chur ch; is a K. of P Mason. and an ex-member of the Phi Chi Epsilon Cha pter of Philade lphia. His attention to l i u siness and genial per so nality have enabled him t o make a marked success, the Cit y Drug Store being rec ognized as one of the lea ding co n cerns of its kind i n Lakeland. Mr. Curtis was married to Rosalie Price April 1 7 1906, at Palatka, and they have one daughter, Ruth Rose Marie. wh o i s a s tudent at Holy N a me Academy, Lake Jovita, Florida. MRS A. H DARRACOTT MRs. A. H. DARRACOTT, for man y years prominent in c hurch and club work in Lakeland, i s an A l abam ian, the d aug h t e r .of John E. and Athalinda (Robeson) Halm a Her parent s were So uth C arolinian s, her a ncest ors ha ving lived in tha t State since the Revolution. Mrs. Darracott wa s reared and educated in Georgia. She come s of a long line of distingui s he d ancestry. Her mother's famil y ha s been traced back t o 1624 in Scotland and 1 654 in America. Her father's family ha s been traced back t o 1296, her first paternal ance sto r comin g to this co unt ry in 1753. Mrs. Darrac ott came to Lakeland with her lat e hu s band Cap t. T. J. Darracott in 1 895, and during her 83 years' re sidence in that city she has been a leader in various line s of endeavor She founded the United Daughters of t he Confederacy and Daughter s of Ame rican Revolution Chapters at Lakeland, and served as President of both organizat ions. She was vice presid ent of the Park A ss ocia tion, a_nd it was l argely through her effort s that the Confede rate monument was placed in Munn Park. Mrs. Darra cott, o ne of the two who organized the Ladies' Memorial Society an organization in exi st ence a number of years ago, which had for its purpo se the beautification of the city's cemeteries. She has always been an arde nt temperance worker, having been prominently identified with theW. C. T U. for years. She has been an active churc!l wor ker, being pat:\icularly prominent in the Missionary soci ety, of which organization she served as Pres ident for m an y years. She has had wid e experience in socia l s ervice work and i s regarded b y all as one who has done much and done it well Captai n and Mrs. Darracott were married at Blackshear, Georgia, in 1882. They had one son, J o hn W. Darracott now deceased, but who was until the time of his death January 10 1927, a prominent Lakeland ci tizen The latter married Patrie Riggin s, of Lak eland fou r children being born to this union, Jack W ., Dora Lee Margaret and Annie Clair. T. !. DARRA COTT T. ]. 0ARRACO T1' for many years a highly esteemed ci tiz en of Lakeland, wa s bom at Qu itman, Georgia, N ovember 11th, 1 854, the so n of John F. and Harriett Johnston Darracott. Captain Dar racott was educat ed in the schools of Georgia his early life being s pent on a farm. He later gave up this profe ssion, and engaged in the railroad business as s upervi sor of bridges and buildin g. He was with the railroads of

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 225 Geo rgia and F lorida in this capacity fo r thirt y years, the l as t e i g h t years of which he was with the Atlantic Coast Line i n the Lakeland distric t Captain Darracott removed his family to Lake land in 1895, when that city was but a small village. They imme diately made a plac e for themselve s in the comm uni ty, and t hough de:tth has removed Captain Darracott from those who knew and loved him, the memory of this good man will ever linger. He died at Coronet, in this eounty, March lOth, 1910. Captain Darraeott was a member of the Methodist church, a Mason and a K n ight of Pythias. He was marri ed in 188 2 to Anna Hanna Darracott. One son, John W., n ow deceased was born to this union. JAMES ROBERT DEAN DR. J. R o lde s t chiroprac tor in the co u nty in poi nt of service, was born at Benton Harbor, Michig an. He received his general education at the University of Michigan. and fitted himself for his life work at the Palme r School and the Michigan Ross School of Chiropractic. Following his graduation, he opened offices at Chicago, removed to Binning ham, Alabania where he remained three years, and in 1914 established his practice at Winter Haven. He treats any disease and has a full ele ctrical equipment, enabling him to give therapy treatments. That Dr. Dean's ability is recog n ized b y hi s associate s i s demon strated by the fact that h e has hel d every office i n the State and Co u nty As s ociations of C hiro practors, and has served as vic e president of the State Board of Chiropractic examiners. D r. Dean has owned sev eral orange groves and ha s other property. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce Masonic order, Shrine and Knights of Pythias. Dr. Dean was ma
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226 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA He was mar ried in Georgia to Emma Mann, an d four children were born to this union: Grad)', Grace (Mrs. W. H. Pritchett), Ellis ( deceased), and Ula (Mrs. W. H. Shepherd (deceased). G. O.DENHAM G 0. Dr.:NHAh(, pioneer resident of Polk coun ty, was born at Altamonte Springs, this State November 10, 1875. He is a son of \V. T. and Louisa D enham, natives of Georgia who removed t o Homeland in 1883, and are still residing t here. Mr. Denham was educated in the schools of the county, and received his bu s i ness training at Macon, Georgia. Upon his r eturn to Bartow he accepted a posi tion with Mr. E. C. S tuart as secretary, and severed this connection after 23 years to engage in the real estate business. H e has been an ind ependen t agent since 1924 Civic matters have claime d a large share of M r. Denh am's time, and he has served h is ci t y faithfully and well. He was a member of the City Council three years; is chairman of the local board of School Trustees, and was city clerk and treasure r one term and city tax assessor a number of years. Mr. Denham is vice president of the Polk County Building and Loan Associa tion; he is a member of the Kiwanis Club, Woodmen of the World, :Masonic order, Knights of Pythias, a member of the Baptist Church a n d secretary Board of Trustees of Florida Bap t ist Children's H ome. He married at Bartow December 2oth 1903 Ruby Oeland, and they have four children: Raymond 0.; E liz abeth, Billy and Bobby. !. 0. DENSFORD J. 0. DENSFORD, a prominent resident of Polk County for the pas t 36 years, was born at Seymour, Indiana, the son of Wesley and Elizabeth Densford. boyhoo d was spent on a far m, and when branching out into b u siness for himself he engaged in stock-raising and the lumber business, in both o f which undertakings he wa s quite successful. Leaving I ndiana in 1892 he came to Florida and s ettled at Fort Meade where he enga ged in the crate manufacturing business. H e late r mo ve d to Lake Wales, follo w ing the sa me line of bu si ness only on a much lager scale. He wa s one of the p ionee r orange crate manufac t urers of the State : H e 5otd t his b us in es s about te n y ea r s ago and now devotes his attention to other less exacting interests, includ ing a fine orange grove in the Avon Park section Mr. Densford has been a leader in commu n ity affairs of the county H e was the princi p le organizer of the old Commercial B ank of Fort Meade, later changed to the First Nationa l Bank, la ter merging wit h the Ban k of Fort Meade, now t he First State Ba n k of Fort Meade, of which he is a director and stockholder. He has ably served on the City Council of that city. Mr. D ensford is a member of t he Baptis t church and for years has served as trustee. H e was married at Seymour, Indiana, to Ellen E. Love. :Mr. and Mrs. Densford have one daughter, Mrs. B. L Keen, of Fort Meade DR. !. L. DERIEUX Among the first residents of the Lakeland section, and o ne of the three men who gave the to wn its name, was Dr. J ames Lafayette De rie u x who set tled o n

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PART II -BIOGRAPHICAL. what is now the n orthwest portion of that ci t y in 1883, befo r e Lakeland had come into existence. Dr. Derieux was born in Sevier county, Ten n essee, in 1837. He received his education at Hiawassee College and served in t he Confedera t e army during the War Between t he States. At the close of the war, with his wife and child, he went west, cross ing t h e plai n s in a covered wagon. The trip required six months, and many adventures wer e e n countered, six fine horses being stolen from him by the Ind ians He spent two years i n Nevada, and six yea rs in California, returning then to Tennessee, where he t aught s c hool some years, then took up the st u dy of medicine, graduating in tha t science f r om Balt imore Medica l College He came to F l o r ida in 1883, and planted one of the first groves in the Lakeland section now known as t he Getzen grove. He was the first physician in Lake l and, practicing in the community f rom th e time of his until his dea t h in 1898. Dr. Derieux was a charter member a n d t he first Worshipful .Master of Lake land Lodge No. 91, F & A M He was married i n Sevier county, Tennessee, in 1862, to Fannie Huffaker Six children were hom t o t his union: Gertr u de, Lillian (llofrs. M. F. Hetherington, Lakeland), Jay (:Mrs. J. D Hobbs Key West), and Wesley Louis N and Harry, the three last named being deceased. ROBERT T. DEWELL R. T. DewELL, attorney-at-law and public spirited citizen of Haines City is a native of t his Stat e, hom at St. Augustine, June 5, 1885. He i s a son o f Charles H. and Fanny T. Dewe ll and a nephew of J ame s D. Dewell, f ormer Lieu t ena ntGovernor of Connect i cut. Robert T Dewell was g r adua t ed from the Connecticut State University as a bachelor of science and received an LL.B. degree at Y al e U niverSity. Following his educational train i ng, he practiced a short time in New York City and at Jack sonville, this Sta te, twelve yea r s. In the latter part of 1924, Mr. Dewell opened offices at Haines City and does a gen e ral practice. H e has served his city as Judge and as a member of t he Com miss i on At this ti m e be is attorney for Haines City and Dundee. He has large i n vestments and is a d i rector of several firms, including the Dixie Investmen t Corpora t ion and t h e Central Drug Company. Du ring the Worl d War Mr. Dewell was a member of Legal Adviso r y Board No. 3 of Duval county and served on the Fosdick Commissio n wit h headquarte rs at Jacksonville. He is vice-president of the County Bar Association, and is a mem ber o f the. American and State organiza t ions, t he Masonic Lodge and The Phi Alpha De lta lega l fraternity, and is Pres i den t o f the Rotary club. He was marri ed Novembe r 11, 1914; at New Haven, Connect i cut, to Mary E Hollister. They have two c h ildren: Mary F ran c es and Joh n Hollister . J E. H. DORSETT E H. DoRSETT, ()wner of the weil known pin,.; bing and heating estab lishmen t bearing his name, is a native Floridian; he was born in Key West, January 2; 1881, the sol of Octav ius Henry and Romala A. Dorsett . His father, an English sea captain; was a shipbuilder of Key Wes t ;md la ter moved to Jackson ville, whe r e Mr. Dorsett was educated; i t was also in this city tha t Mr. Dorsett learned the plumbing busin e ss.

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228 HISTORY O F POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Dors et t m ade his first visit to Polk county 17 years ago, and wa s so impress e d with th e possib ilities of thi s seetion that he established hi s home and busines s her e in 1921. From the very firs t Mr. Dorsett's firm has enjoyed a splendid business, among the larger contract s handled being the heating and plum hlng for the Florida Hotel, schools of Lakeland heating plant for the Marble Arcad e Lakeland; plumbing in the Ocoee school and a Brevard county school ; and the Indian River Hotel at Rockledge. Mr. Dorsett also bas a large business throughout the county, particul arly in Bartow and Auburnd ale. Mr. Dorsett is a membe r of the Kiwani s C lub Chamber of Commerce, Knights of Pythias and Knights of Khorassan and Shrine member of Egypt Temple HERBERT JACKSON DRANE When Herbert Jackson Drane, a young engineer in charge of a force of rail road workmen stood in the ce n t er of the present s ite of Lakeland one June d ay in 1883 an d looked around upon unliroken with no h uma n habitati on in sight, h e little dreamed that the l ands in the range of his vis ion would be covered in his life-time with paved street s and stately buildings. Yet this has come to pass, and the only white man then on the original tract constit uting the site of Lakeland now l ooks about him sees hurrying thro ngs and countle ss activities and all the pulsin g life of a modern city. Throughou t the forty-five years that have brought about thi s transfo _rtn'!-tion, fir st white man on the scene has been prominently identifie\1 with the community's life and growth I t i s entirely proper, therefore that he has been chosen to repres e nt its people, with those of the district, in the balls of Congress. Mr. Drane was born at Franklin; Simpson county Kentucky, June 20, 1863, the son of Ossian A and F. ( Dickey) Drane. He attended the countr y schools of the neig hborhood, but at the age of 14, owi n g to ill h ealth, he was forced to give up and his further education was mostly t he result of pri vate school. His first work wa s at the age of 18,-w.hen he was se nt from Nashville Tenne ssee, to Macon Georgia to purchase and handle yellow pine lumbe r f o r a l arge lumber concern. His llealth failing in this work he decided to go farther south, and arriving at Jacksonville, he by boat up the St. Johns Ri ver to Sanford, going thence by rail to Kissi mmee Here he met a cousi n H. M. Drane an official of the Plant Devel op ment Co. The company bu ilding a railroad fro m Kis simmee to Tampa and H. M. Drane gave young Herbert employment supervising the construction o f a portion of this r oad. It was in pursuit of his duties in this connection that he established a camp on Wire La ke nea r the center of the present city of Lakela nd, e stab lishing the first drug sto re in the village. Meanwhile he had planted an grove, and this wa s fr ozen down, and for a time he worked as local editor of a newspaper, the Lakelo1rd Crocker, for a wage of $5 a week. In 1887 he establi s hed an in s urance busin ess whi c h has been in succes s ful operation ever since, and wh ich is now the oldest in s u rance business in Polk count y. In 1889 h e bought the property where the Drane building now s tand s for $500, payable $100 a year. In 1909 he erect ed onehalf of the present buil ding, and in 1911 he added the other half, makin g this one of the best bu si n ess blocks in Lakeland. He was al so one of those who built t he Kentucky Build ing, the second

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PART IIBIOGRJ\PHICAL 229 brick building in Lakeland and he now owns a controlling interest in propea'ty. Besides his other intere sts he is also an orange grower, his home "Hillcrest,'' being located in a fine ten-a cre grove. Mr. Drane ha s held ma,ny positions of honor and trust. He has been clerk and treasurer of Lakeland; mayor for several terms; count y commis s ioner ; a mem ber of bot h branches of the State Legi slature. and p r esident of the State Senate; was elected to Congress in 19 16 taking his sea t the day the country .declared war, April 3, 1917, and ha s just been re-elected to his sixth term. He was marri ed at Franklin, Ky .Decembe r 31, 1885, to Miss Mary Wright, and these young people were the first bride and groo m in Lakeland. Three chi l dren were born t o thi s union: Ossian W. (deceased-the first boy born in Lake land), Mabel (Mrs. W. S. Moore), and Josephin e (Mrs. J. W. Passmore). M. R. DRIVER M. R. DarVF.R, large property owner an d real estate dealer of wa s born at Lumber City, Georgia, but has made his horne in this State at different times for the past twenty-five years, an d is well acquainted with conditions and values i n Florida. His parents Char le s H. and Mar y Kate Driver, were of Welsh extraction, and lived in Georgia many years where the form e r wa s a pioneer in the turpentine industry; prior to that time he oper ate d a brick factory. 1\
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230 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA that firm for a number of years, resigning in 1907 to establish the Mulberry Ice Plant, of which concern he is owner and manager. Mr. Dudley also owns the Southern Ice and Power Co. at Fort Meade. His other interests include an orange grove at Lake Wales. Mulberry owes much to Mr. Dudley, as it has been through his active in terest and energy that many of its civic improvements have become a reality. That his fellow-citizens appreciate him at his true worth, it has only to be stated that for the past eighteen Y.ears he has been Mayor of Mulberry and Chairman of the City Council. He has also been Vice-President of the Business Men's Club of Mul berry since it s organization. His energies have been devoted to various civic improvements, including lights, water, sewe rage and streets. The fine sewerage system of Mulberry, whic h extends to all parts of the town, was an improvement which he was largely instrumental in securing. Mr. Dudley is a Mason, Knight of Pythias and a member of the Presbyterian church. H e was married October 26, 1902, to Pauline Pelot, of Bartow. JESSIE C. DURRANCE ]. C. DuRRANCII, prominent orange grower and shipper of the county, was born April 3, 1879, near Bradley Junction. He is the son of George and 1\Iartha Durrance, the former from Georgia and the latter a native of this State. After acquiring his education in the county school at Chicora and the Normal school at Wauchula, Mr. Durrance too k a business course .at Massey's Business college in Jacksonville. He also taught school in DeSoto County. For three months he was engaged as a bookkeeper at Mulberry, but severed this connection to assume charge of the 0 td family far.m at Bradley Junc tion. Fo r the past si xteen years he has lived at Fort Meade, where he is extensively engaged in the citrus in dustry-owning a grove at Fort Meade and one at Frostproof. He i s also a leading buyer and shipper of citrus fruits in the Fort Meade section. Mr. Durrance has served his city and county ably i n his official capacity as city councilman and county commissioner, which offices he filled with credit to himself and his constituents. Mr. Durrance is a faithful member of the Bapt ist church. He was married July 23, 1913, t o Blanche Addison, o f Fort Meade. Mr. and M rs. Durrance ha ye two sons: ]. C. and Ralph. CHARLES I. DWIGGINS CHARLES I. DwiGGINS, ex-banker and now deve loper of orange groves and city property, has, in the eight years of his residence in Lake la nd been one of the progr essive and constructive men of the community. :Mr. Dw iggins was bo 'rn in Shelbyville, T ennessee, i n 1886, the s on of H. C. and Mary Dwiggins. He received h is higher education .at Washington and Lee university, and immediately after his graduation, entered the banking bus iness in Tennessee, later following this profession in Oklahoma. Upon his arrival in Lake land in 1920, he organized the Central State Bank, which later became the Central Bank and Trust Company. He was active vice president of this institution f o r three years, disposing of his interests to. engage in the mortgage and loan business.

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PART IIB I OGRAPHICAL 231 :Mr. Dwiggins ha s a marked interest in civic m atters, and is now a member of the city commission, being first appointed t o this office and later elected for a term of three years. Prior to this appointment he was chairman of the City Planning Board, and is enthusiastically in favor of the beautification program He was also a member of the charter board for the commission form of gove r nment, and is an ex-di re ctor of the Chamber of Commerce. . He is a Mason Shriner and Elk. HARRY P DYE HARRY P. DYE was born in Indiana, July 17, 1874, the son of James M. and Hannah Pugh Dye. His paternal ancestors were from Holland, being descendants of the French Huguenots. They came to America in 1642, s ettling in New York. His maternal ancestors were early settlers in Baltimore, coming during \1\Tilliam Penn's time. After completing his high school education, Mr. Dye graduated in 1893 from Central College, in Indiana, and for four years t hereafter was deputy in the R ecorder s office in Lebanon, Indiana. Later he beCaine a traveling salesman for the Troy S t ove Works, and in 190'1' entered the hotel business, operating hostelries in Jackson and Vicksburg, Missis sippi, and in Birmingham, Alabama. In 192 4 he came to Winter Haven and acquired a one-half interest in the Haven Hotel, of whiCh he became active manager, and tinder his direction the hotel which would do credit to a c ity many times larger has been most succeSs fully conducted. Mr. Dye is an E l k, a Knigh t of Pythias, a member of the Chamber of Com merce and the Methodist church. He was m arried in 1905 to Anna P. James, of Chambers County, Alabama. They have two sons: Baxter J:, and Harry P., Jr. CHARLES E. EARNEST C. E E,\RNEST, owner of the l argest department store in the county, and a resident of Bartow since 1897, was born near Sanford, Florida, in 1870 He is a son of Charles E and Lucinda M. Earnest, who were Tennesseans; the father was in the contracting business in Sanford, Orlando and Kissimmee, and his father, Felix Warren, was a pioneer merchant at Fort Reid, near Sanford Mr. Earnest was educa t ed in the public schools of Sanford, Orlando and Kissimmee and in 1894 entered the business world at Kissimmee Three yea r s later he came to Bartow and established his own store, having one room next door to his present location. In 1 906 the Charles E. Earnest Mercantile Company was incorpora t ed with Mr. Earnest as Presiden t a n d active head. This firm has gradually grown to be a complete department store handling drygoods, ladies' ready-to-wear, art goods, millinery, shoes, infant wear and draperies An up to-date beauty' parlor is run in conjunction with the s tore. Mr. Earnest is Chairman of the Board of Stewards of the Methodist church arid is a member of the K i wanis Club, the Chamber of Commerce, Masons Shrine and Knights of Pythias. He is a director of the Bartow Home Building Co. Mr. Earnest and Amanda Chaney were married at Arcadia February, 1894.

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232 HIS'l'ORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Two children were born to thi s u nion, both of whom died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs: Earnest have, however, reared two of the former' s s ister's children. M M. BBBRT M. M EBERT was born June 14, 1885, in Kansas Cit), Missouri the son of John A. and Marie T. Ebert. Graduating from one of Kansas City's High Schools Mr. Ebert later attended Yale Univ e rsity. He began his business career in Chicago, wh ere he was engaged in the ad ve rti sing business for eight Coming t o Lake Wales i n 191 4 he first became as&ociated with Clarence Thulberry in general work in connection with the de velopment of orange groves and in 1915 he and 0. B. Huffa ker bought the hardware business of R. N. Jones. About three year s later Mr. Ebert bought his partner' s interest, and is now President of the concern which is the largest hardware store in the southern part of the county. The business was moved into the Bullard building in 1920, where ample space is provided for the large stock of hardware, paints, t ools, t oys sporting goods, etc. carried by this fum. A n other ent erprise in which Mr. Ebert is interested is the Agricultural Humus Comp any, manufacturer s of "Compo-Humus,'' the plant being loca ted near Lak e Wale s. Mr. Ebert i s secre tary and trea su rer of the company and associated with .him in the concern is C. F Bur110ws. Mr. Ebert wa s the first City Clerk and Tax Colle ctor of Lake Wale s He is a Ro tarian a member of the Chamber of Commerce, a Past Maste r of the Lake Wales Masonic Lodge, and is a Shriner He has seen Lake Wales grow from a villag e of 200 population to its present proportion s and has been an important factor in its growth and progress. H e was married April 24th, 1918 to Lee Sample, of Haines City. H. DOUGLAS BDW ARDS H. DoucL.< S EDWARDS, cashier and active head of the First State Bank of Fqrt Meade, is a native Flor idian, born in Citrus County i n 1882, the son of Henry D. and Mary J. Edwards. His pa rents were Georgians and his father w as a farmer. For so m e years after h is graduation Mr. Edwards was with t he Florida Bank and Trust Company, of St. Petersburg, removing from that city to Fort Meade in 1919. For four years after coming t o Fort Meade Mr. Edwards was in the c loth ing business with his brother-in Jaw, Harmon Head In 1 924 Mr. Edwards joined the First State Bank of Fort Meade, as Cashier, and the growth of the bank sinc e tha t time has been highly fl.attering t o his financial ability, the depo sits in 1924 h aving been $470,000, and in 1928, $940,000, e>eactly doub l e what th ey w ere when he formed a connection with t h e institution. Mr. Edwards, aside f r o m his bankin g intere s t s, finds time to devote to several orange groves he owns, and derives mu c h pl easure as well as profit t h erefrom He is a M ason and a member of the Baptist church. He w as married in 1905 to Josie Head, of Marion county, and they have three children: Celest e, H. B., Jr., and Scott.

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. PART H BIOGRAPHICAL 233 JOHN S EDWARDS Joli' N S. EDWARDS, eminent lawyer and ex-judge of the circuit court and a resident of Lakeland for nearly a quarter of a century, was born in Randolph county, Georgia, July 4, 1872. He is a son of Captain M. C. and Tommie (Roque more) Edwards, the former captain of cavalry with the Confederate forces during the Civil War. Judge Edwards was educated at Mercer University, receiving the degree of LL.B. and started the practice of his profession at Macon. He came to Polk county in 1904 and settled at Lakeland, and for several years was in partnership with Park Trammell. He was a member of the Tax Commis sion of the State for three years, and eight years served as judge of the Tenth Circuit Court of Florida. He ha s been attorney for the city of Lakeland and in 1909 was elected mayor. Judge Edwards is past pr esident of the E xchan ge Club, ex-secretary of the Chamber of Commerce and is a Mason. Professionally he is identified with the National, Florida, Polk County and Lakeland Bar Associations. In 1911 Judge Edwards and Somerville Booth were married in Chester, South Carolina. They have tw o children, Margaret Tommie and John S., Jr. EDWIN T. EMBREY E. T. EMBREY, of the Barnett-Embrey Construction Company, Bartow, is a native of Tennessee, born at Chattanooga, July 6, 1894, the son of Hugh H. and Cece lia T. Embrey. He was reared and educated in that city, and at the age of 17 became connected with the \'If est Construction Company, remaining with this firm six tee n years. In 19H, Mr. Embrey came to Bartow for hi s company, and helped lay the first asphalt streets in the coun ty. He returned to Bartow in 1924 to supervise more paving, and during the following three years did $2,250,000.00 worth of street and road paving in Polk counry. In 1926 he became associated with C. H. Barnett, who was also connected with t he \Vest organization, and since that time they have done business as the Bamett-Embrey Construction Company. They have been quite successful, build" ing about 40 miles of paving last year. Part of this work was on the Vero cross state highway, whic h, when completed, will be one of t he leading roads in the State. Mr. Embrey is interested in t he Conrock Pipe Company at Brooksville and also owos real estate in this county. He is active in all Masonic work at Bartow, and is a member of Egypt 1'e mple Shrine. He was married at Sebring, March 3, 1917, to Bertha Baylor. BRADY DEXTER EPLING B. D EPI.ING, M.D wa s born at Cant Creek, West Virginia, September 4 1886. He is a s on of James E. and Sarah Margaret (McElrath) Ep ling, and a grandso n of Colonel Isaac T. and Elizabe th (Kessinger) Epling. Dr. Epling received excep ti onally good training for his life work. He at teuded Coucord College, Athens, West Virginia, and received his degree at Virginia Medical College. For one year he was an interne at the Sheltering Arms Hospit al at Richmond and took a post-graduate course at Mayo Brothers.

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234 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA He began pra ct icing at Petersburg, lllin o is, where he remaine d 16 years remo ving to Lake W ales February 5, 1924, wher e he has established a sp l end id practice. Dr. Eplin g owns a l ov ely home in Highland Park, and has three o ran ge groves. He is a faithf u l member of the Pres byterian church and belongs to the Kiwanis Club and the Highlands Golf and Country Oub. Fraternally, he is allied with the Maso n ic order and the Shrine. Dr. Epling wa s married in the latter part of 1911 to Lou ise H urt Green e grandd au ghter of W i lliam G reene who was i dentified with the earl y car e e r of Abraham Lin coln. Or. and Mrs. Epling have two sons: B rady Dexter, Jr., and James Greene. ROSWELL C. ERWIN Rosw .LL C ERwiN, during his few years' residence in Florida, carved {or himself a place in the business and social life of this secti on that will not soo n be filled. An able financier, and an expert on grove matte r s, he made an enviable record for a young m an, having died in Winte r Haven at th e age of 3 1 years. He was born in Chicago, Illinois, September 23, 1892, the son of Charles R and Rachel M. Erwin, and was educate d at the Allen School for Boys. With his parents he came t o Florida at the age of twelve years on a visit, and thereafter spen t a part of each year in Polk County. His fath er invested largely in groves, and when the subject of this s ketch came to Winter Haven in 1916 to make hi s perma nent home he took of his father' s property. At the time of his death he was manager and part ow n e r of one of the large st individual grove holdings in thi s s ection. . \'1/hen 29 years old, he in establishing the American National Ban k of Winter Haven and was unanimously chosen president of the institution. He identified himself wit h the community life of W inter Haven, and gave liberally of ihi s time and money to any good cause. He was marrie<\ at Sturgeon Bay Wiscon s in, Oc t o ber 16, 1916, t o Laurene LaPlante. Their chi l dre n are Charles R oswell, Rac hel Mo rri son and Thomas Churc h. Mr. Erwin died March 1st, 1928. HAL 0. ESTES HAL 0. EsTes, developer and bu il der and in every respect one o f Hain es City's most substantial and worth -while citizens was born in Palatk a the son of Dr. William W. and Minnie (Riley) Estes, the former a Tennesseean and the taller a nati v e of South Carolina. Dr. Estes was a leading dentist of Palatka for a number of years until 1890 when he remove d to Tampa where he practiced until the time of. his deatl). After acquirin g hi s e ducation in the $ C h oo l s of T ampa, Mr. Estes turned his attention t o th e wholesa l e and retail drug business. At various time s h e h as owned fourteen differ ent drug s tores i n various town s of the State, in the con d u ct of which be wa s hi g hl y s uccessful. On coming to Haines City in 1917 Mr.' Este s e s tablished the Highland Whole sale Grocery Company, which h e later sold. He has been instrumental in the

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1 .. w:l?::.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 235 development of Haines City on a large sca le, having eretted some of the town's most substantial buildings, among th e number being the Van Buren Hotel, the Fountain Square Arcade, Liggett Bui lding and other build in gs. He owns much valuable property in Haines City, and is one of the to\vn's largest ta>q>ayers. He is a member of tbe Masonic fraternity, Rotary Club, which he helped organize and was its 6rst president, and is an a ctive and Joyal worker in the Chamber of Commerce. He was married October 10, 1914 to Constance M. Davis of Tampa. Their children are Lawrence, Kenneth, Betty and Bobby. G. E. EVERETT PRoF. G. E. EvtRJlTT, for the past seven years superintendent of the Lake land schools, wa s born in Glasgow, Kentucky, January 30, 1885, t he son of Edmund and Victqria (Wright) Everett. The former served in the K entucky regiment during the civil war, with valor and distinction He received his education in the schools of his native State, his college work being gained at the West Kentucky Teachers' College and Peabody College, Nash ville Tenn. graduating from the latter institution with A.B. and A.M. degrees. Before coming to Lakeland in 1921 Mr. Everett taught in the rural schools of Kentucky, and was supe rintendent of the schools at Benton and Maysville, that State. Since coming to Lakeland six grade schools have been erected and two colored schools; al so Junior and Senior High Schoo l buildings. Tn the se ven yea rs the enrollment increased from 1900 to n early 6,000. Under Mr. Everett's leadership numerou s cha n ges were made in the curric ulum of the High Schoo l at Lakeland. Home Economics was made a two year course; the commercial departmen t was made a two-year course; and new courses added were journa lism, public speaking, music, physical education, library training, Spanish, penman ship, a Glee Club dramatics and manual training. Other simi lar changes for the betterment of the junior high SJ:hool and the graded schools were also introduced. Mr. Everett is a member of the Phi Delta Kappa tolleg e fraternity ; belongs to the Kiwanis Club, Baptis t church, and is a Mason, member of the Blue Lodge Royal Arch. He was married in K entucky December 27, 1913, to Pearl Collier. PETER D. EYCI.ESHJMER PETER D. EvcLESHU4ER, one of the first three settle rs of Winter Haven, and who claims the distinction of having named the town, was born in Pittstown, New York, in 1839, and at the time of his death in 1909 was 70 years of age. Mr: Eycleshimer came to Florida in 1884 for his health, locating at Winter Haven, then an unbroken forest, and purchased 76 acres in and around the present town. He planted a large orange grove on the west s hore of Lake Howard, the planting including oranges, grapefruit, mangoes, guavas and o t her fruit s. Mr. Eycleshimer was a member of the Presbyteria n church. He was mar ried D ecember 10, 1867, at Pittsto wn, New York, to AnnaT. Herrington, of that place. Two children were born to this union : Clarence M. and Hattie L. (Mrs. Chas F. Greenwood). Mrs. Eycleshimer i s a l a rge property owner of Winter Haven, among her holdings being the Ridgeland Hotel. She and her daughter are members of the order of Pythian Sisters.

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236 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA SAMUEL HOWARD FARABEE Seldom has a man come into a community a stranger and so quickly and firmly entrenched himself in the confidence and esteem of its people as has "Sam' Farabee who in a period of four years has established a v ery definite right to be regarded as one of Lakeland's leading citizens. Samuel Howard Farabee was born in Forsy t he County, North Carolina, the son of John A. and Elizabeth Caroline Farabee He received his elementary edu cation in the public schools of his native State, later completing a course at the University o f North Carolina. At th e conclusion of his college career, he eng aged in the profession of j ournali sm, editing papers at Hickory, Salisbury and otbet North Carolina cities with marked ability. In 1924 he chanced to visit Lakeland, and was so impressed wit h the beauty, progressive spirit and possibilities of the city that he resolved to make his home there. Accordingly, be set about the establishment of an afternoon newspaper, and on September 1, 1924, the first issue of the Lake/all([ Eve11in g Ledger appeared, with Mr. Farabee as edhor and the Ledge r Publishing Co. as publisher. Mr. Farabee later associated with him Bryan Mack as business manager, and in 1927 Jay C Smith bought a substantial interest in the newspaper property, Mr. Farabee remaining president of the corporation. In July, 1927, the Ledger and the Lakela11d Star-Telegram were consolidated, and the paper is now known as the Lakeland Ledger a11d Star-Telegram. Mr. Farabee's editorials, always temperate, sane and constructive, have been a definite force for all that is good and progressive, and have brought the paper circulation and inRuence. Mr. Farabee is a member of the Met hod ist church, the Rotary Club and the Order of Elks. He is also a member of the Masonic Order, and is a Shriner. He was marri .ed in Raleigh, North Carolina, on November 24, 1908 to Miss Jennie Mabel Powell. Three daug hter s have been born to this union: Jean Pow ell, Elizabeth Carol and Sarah W illard. T. D. FELTON T. D. FEL'l'ON was born at Old Town, Lafayette County (now Dixie County), Florida, the son of George William and Lucy Annie Felton. He sp en t his boyhood days on a farm and cattle ranch. Mr. Felton graduated from the University of Florida in 191 2 with B. S. C. E : degree; and located in Polk County in 1913 since which time he ha s been prom inently identified with the phosphate business of the county. In his fifteen years' residence in Polk County he has been connected with the Phosphate Mining Com pany, and for eight years was Superintendent of the Phosmico plant of this concern near Bartow. This company formerly 'operate d about six mines, bu t due to increased efficiency and the use of larger equipment t hey get as large an output out of three mines as they formerly did out'ofthe six Mr. Felton is now general s uperintendent of the company. Mr. Felton was married January 21, 1919 to Susan Pylant, member of a prominent Bartow family, al)d they have tw o sons, T. D. Jr., and Eugene Robert

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PAR':( II-BIOGRAPHICAL 237 They make their home at Nichols, and have been actively. identified with any move ment looking to the betterment of conditions in their community. EDWIN CHESTER FLANAGAN E. C. Ft-ANACAN, for the past 37 years a resident of Lakel.and, and who has been prominently identified with municipal and county affairs, was born in Duval County, February 21,1870, the son of Thomas and Hariett (Dees) Flanagan. His father was a contractor and a native of New York State; his mother was a Floridian. At the age of 16, Mr. F lanagan began a railroad career of 34 years' service, terminating eight years ago when press of other business necessitate d Mr. Flanagan giving his attention to other matters. His first work with the railroad was in the car department, from which he advanced to fireman and then to engineer; the last twenty years he was with the Atlantic Coast Line, being in the passenger service between Sanford and Port Tampa an d Lakeland and Fort Myers. Mr. F lanagan came to Polk County in 1891 locating at Lakeland, and he has at various times taken a prominent part in the city's affairs, being City Councilman for si x years, two of which he was mayor. While on the Council Mr. Flanagan was instrumental i n having a number of progressive measures passed, resulting in the city s steady and continued growth. He also ably served on the Board of County Commissioners for a period of four years. For twelve years Mr. F lanagan was vice-president and director of the State Bank of Lakeland. He has much valuable property in Lakeland, and owns three fine. orange groves, two at Haines City and one at Polk Lake. He recently com pleted a lovely h ome in Cleveland Heights, where he and his family reside . Mr. is a Mason, Shriner, an Elk and a Knight of Pythias. He is also a member of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. On June 6, 1893, he was married to Te.xas Griffin, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Griffin, who were among Lakeland's first families and who were honored and esteemed citizens for many years. Mr. and Mrs. Flanagan's children are Herman, who is a Chemical Engineer, a graduate of Georgia Tech; Pat, who is a member of the firm of the Dixi e Paint Co.; Ruth (Mrs. Nat Patten), and John Barnard, a student at Georgia Tech. CHARLES ROBERT FO RD CMARI-S FORD, who for twelve years was a highly respected citizen of Lakeland, was born June 9, 1865, at Nichols, South Carolina, and died in Lakeland, June 23, 1924. Mr. Ford was the son of William and Elizabeth Ford, and for several years after he grew to young manhood, operated a store and hotel at the Place of his birth, mo ving to Dunnellon, F lorida, in 1911, where he conducted a hotel for one year, removing to Lakeland in 1912. Until th e time of his death Mr. Ford operated the Ford House, a popular hostelry among the tourists, on North Kentucky avenue, and in 1916, in partner ship with his three son s engaged in the shoe business. They succe s sfully con ducted this business for five years, disposing o f same in 1921 toT. E. Rogers. For.

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238 HISTORY O F POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA his ow n recreati on and to give pleasure to hi s friends, Mr. Fo.rd would, from time to time, make up fishing parties and bein g a skilled ang ler himself a bountiful s upply of the finny tribe was always secured. Many delightful outings were enjoyed in this manner by him and those fortunate to be included in h is expeditions. Mr. Ford was married to M. Elle n Anderson, of Fair Bluff North Caro lina, April 12, 1893 and four children were born to this union: Dennis, Lee A., Roger F. and Mary Ellen. Mrs. Ford is a capable business wom an a nd since her hus band 's death has continued to successfully conduct the F ord Hou se ROGER FLOYD FORD RoGER f(.()vo F o ao, one of Lakeland' s 1 >rogressive young business men, was born at Fair Bluff, North Carolina, January 13, 190 0, the son of Charles R. and Ellen M. (Ander so n ) F ord. His ancestors w ere from Scotland and Ireland, and were amon g the pioneers of North Carolina. After graduathlg from the Lakeland High Sc h ool, :\1r. Ford attended the University of Florida and in 1 92-t graduated from Stetson Uni versity with the degree of LL.B. For one year f ollowing his graduation, Mr. Ford was associated i n busine ss wi t h the law firm o f Callo way & Burruss, but the lure of the mercantile business, in whkh he had grown up proved too strong for him, and he establi she d a drug store, which he conduct ed for one year. He later turned hi s attenti on to the shoe busine ss opening a shoe departm ent in Myrick's department s tore, of which he is owner and manager .Mr. Ford is a Mason, a Shriner and an Elk, and is an ex-member o f the Exchange Club. He was married M arch 1 1 925, to Florrie Hawkins. The latter i s one of the city's m os t capable young business women having been with Myrick's for the past thirteen yean as bookkeeper, comi n g here from Milledgeville, Georgia, in 19 2 1 \vith W. S. Myrick to establish the Lak eland sto re JAMES A. PORT J. A. FORT, one of the most progre ssive and succ essful truck grower s in the county, was born in Darli ngton County, South Caro lina, November 1 3, 1870, the son of James W. and E lizabeth M. Fort. His father enlisted in the South Carolina regiment at the outbreak of the Civil '" ar and rendered gallant service. Another interesting figure in his family is h is mat ernal grand father, who was a noted pro fessor of theolo gy. In his early childhood Mr. Fort's family moved to Fayetteville, North Caro lina, wher e his father had turpentine interest s, and he was educated in the schoo ls of t hat city. Followin g the work of h i s father, he came t o Polk Count y in 1 904, settling at Eagle Lak e. For many years, h o wever, he has been a truck g rower. and his farm between Ba rtow and Lakeland i s one of the show pla ces of the cou nty, parti cularly admired by the touri s t s. A great part of the forty a cres i s planted to cabbage, but beans, potatoes, eggplan t and peppe rs .are also grown He has a 42 0-foot well on thi s tract which supplie s a wonder ful system o f irrigation with large v o lume s of water at all times.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 239 Mr. Fort has served hi s home citv as member of the loca l school board a nd as city comm i ssioner. He is a the Baptist He was ma rried in Georgi a, Apr i l 27, 1898, to Sally B. Harper. They have one son, James A., Jr. JOHN L. POUTS JoHN L. FoUTS, prominent financier of the county, was born at Warrior, Alabama, in 1 875, t he son of James D. and Sarah Fouts. He was educated in the schools o f Alabama, completing his education at Birmingham College. Untill912 Mr. Fouts was engaged in railr oad work, being connec ted with the Southern Pacifi c Railroad. He came to Florida in that year, locating at Orlando, the following year comin g to Po l k County at which time he bought the Citizens Bank a t M ulberry whi c h wa s late r consolidated with the Bank of Mulberry In 1915 Mr. Fout s bought the First Sta t e Bank of Winter Have n which he still owns, and in 1917 bought a controlling interest in the First National Bank of Lakeland, o f which institution he is Presid ent. He als o owns the State Bank of Bartow, the First National Bank of Auburndale and the Lake Alfred State Bank, o f which concerns be is Presiden t When Mr. Fouts became identified with the First National Bank of Lakeland, it bad depos its of $1,000,000; it now bas $2,250,000, and the surplus bas been in creased from $50 ,000 to $200,000 It i s one of the stronges t financia l institutio n s in South Florida. Mr. Fouts and W. T. Overs t reet own a Fruit Compan y at Winter Hav e n, several fine oran ge grov es and have other important interests Mr. Fout s was married to Miss F ornia Ferguson in Leesville, La., April, 1901. They have one son, Jack Fouts, one son (Louie) being deceased. I. L. FRANCIS JoHN L. FRANCIS was born June 9, 1856 the son of John and Mary Francis. His father was a native of Scotland, and was a weaver. \Vh en a young man, Mr. Francis became a resident o f Peoria Illinois, where he engaged in farming and s tock trading. He was a large and succe ssful farmer o f t hat section and held large stock sales. I n January, 1914, Mr Francis came to Lake land and bought a s i x -a cre grove on the south shore of Lake HoUingsworth, where he has since resided. He has greatly improved the grove, and his amusement pavi l ion, Francis Beach, built over the waters of the lake has always been a popular bathing place during the summe r season During the height of the real estate boom, Mr. Francis was a salesman for the Hollywood corporation on the East Coast, and was one of their best, influencing large numbers to invest i n that section. ll.fr. Francis wa s married at Mackinaw Ill. Mr. and M r s. Franci s came to Florida o n account of the latter's health which has been completely re s tored. Mrs. Fra ucis mana ges the bathiug beach, and to her efforts i s due it s popu larit y and success.

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240 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA GROVER CLEVELAN D FREEMAN Since com ing to Lake land in 1923, G. C. Free man has been r ecognized as one of the f oremo s t authori tie s in the state on d i s eases of the heart, lun gs and chest. He doe s no g e neral practice, and spend s th e majority o f his tim e in co m batting tuberculosis. He was born i n Chester, Pennsy l van i a Septem ber 1 0 1 886, t h e so n o f John R. and Margaret ( Stapleton ) Freeman His fat he r was bom i n Belfa st, I relan d, and after coming to thi s country, became a pro s per o u s s tock dealer ; his gran d father was an Epi scopa l rector Dr. Freeman received his ntdimen tar y educati o n in the schools of Griffin Georgia, and graduated from the university of that state a s a Bache lor of Arts. From the University of Penn s y lvania he received the degrees of Ph.G. and M D. Following his graduati on he spent eighteen m o nth s in St Mary's ho sp ital Philade lphia. Dr. Freeman wa s between the years of 190 8 and 1923 a m edical officer in t he United State s Nav y, h o lding the rank of l i eutenant-commander when he re s igned. Doring the war he '''"" 0 n the tran sport "America, and mad e about forty trips to Europe. After the Armistice wa s signed, he was stat ion e d a t Los Animos Hospital C o lorado Springs, Colo. This i s a Nava l tuberculo s i s hosp ital an d is one of the largest in the world. Dr. Freeman is a member of the Board of Governors oi the Morrell Mem o rial Hospital, and belo ngs to the Lake l and Clinical Association, the American, So uth ern, Florida and County Medical Association s, the Ro yal Insti t ute of Public Heal th of London, England, and the National Tuberculosis Association. He i s a valu ed member of the Lakel and Chamber of Commerce, the Kiwanis and Old Colony clubs and i s a Mason Elk and Knight of Pythias Dr. and Mrs. Freeman o wn a beautiful h ome on Edgewood dri v e C l e veland Heights. Before their m arriage she was Mar y A. Durden, of Georgia. J H. FULLER J. H. manager of the Winte r Haven Wate r Ice and Light Company, the Plant City Public Serv ice Company and the Dade City U tilities Company, wa s born at Boston, Ma s s ac husetts, in 1884, the so n of H enry A and Jessi e Fuller. Mr. Fuller was ed ucated at Boston and u pon leaving school formed a con nection with the Erie railroad. In 1912 he accepted a position with the firm of Sto ne & Webster in the sales dep artmen t of the Pen s acola (Florida ) Electric Com pany and came t o Tampa in 1919 to become sa le s manager of the Tampa Electric Compan y Five y ear s ago Stone & Webster purchased from W. F Floyd the Water, Light and Ice p l ant at W in ter Haven and appointed Mr. Fuller man a ger Under the new management the electri c plant has been increased three-fold, the water department enla r ged an additional ice plant purchased, and the bus iness doubled. In addition, a complete sales departm e nt o f electrical equipment i s maintained. Mr. Fuller is president of the Rotary C lu b a Mason, and a m e m ber of the Board of Governor s of the C hamber of Commerce. He was married at Boston to France s Hans com, and they have two children : William H. and Patricia

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 241 LAWRENCE i'U. FUTCH L. l'vl. Fv-rcH, president of the Futch Undertak ing Company, large property owner and pioneer citizen is a nati,e of Florida, born in 'Webster in 1872. He is the son of D. J. and E. J. (Brown) Futch, the former a Veteran of the Civil War. Mr Futch was educated in the schools of Sumpter county, and when quite a young man moved to Tampa, where he conducted an insurance business. He removed to Lakeland in 1907, a very small community theh, and has been an impor tant factor in the city's development. He was first engaged in life insurance and real estate bus i ness, and in 1910 established the Futch Un der taking Company, the oldest firm of its kin d i n the city. H e ha s valuable real estate h old ings, owning one-half interest in the Spencer" Futch building, besides othe r valuable propert i es. The Futch is one ol the show places of Lakeland. Mr.. Futch was married in Fort Myers : to Fanny Dyches, and they have three children :Mildred L. and Earl G., who are in business with thei r father, and one y oung daughter Frances Elizabeth. The fraterna l memberships held by Mr: Futch include the l\
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242 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA also served as trea s urer of the South Florida P ress Association, and i s at the present vice-pre s ident of the Polk County Press Associat ion. He was married in December, 1919, to Miss Virginia Holland, of Barto w and. three lovely chi l dren have blesse
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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL banking career, serving as the first cashier of the State Bank of Bartow, of which institution he is now t he active head. Major Gary's military career in Polk Count) has been one of marked dis tinction, he h avi ng served as captain in the Nationa l Guard and duri n g the World War was major of tbe Home Guard Battalion o f Polk County. Although many claims are made on Mr. Gary's time, he has given free l y to th e betterment of commun ity i nter ests. For man y y ears he served on the City Counci l and i s ex -City Tax Collector of Bartow. He is Past President of the Ki wanis Club. Past Maste r and Past High Priest of the loca l M aso nic l odge, Past Eminent Comman der o f Bartow Commandery of Knigh t s Templar and a mem ber of the Shrine. Mr. Gary an d Willie Cassells were married at Johnston, South Carolina, December 29, 1897. They have one son, T. W. Jr., who, following his graduation at the Citadel, accepted a position with the First National Bank of Tampa. GUS GENTILE Gus GeNTILS was born in Cincinnati, the youngest son o f Joseph and Liboria Gentile. His father was born in Italy, coming to thi s country when 25 years of age. Mr. Gentile was e ducated in the sc hools of Cincinnati an d h is father having established a fruit business in that c ity in 1879, under the firm nam e of Jos. Gentile & Company, it was natural for llim to become a part of the organitat ion which w as later to become one of the large st shippi ng concerns of citrus fruit in Florida, k n o wn as Gent i le Bro s. Co. Mr. Gentile is Polk County manager for Gentil e Bros., who own and ope four packing houSes in the county-at Haines City, Aubu rndale Frostproof and Bartow. Last yea r they shipped about 760,000 boxes of fruit from Polk County, abou t 25 per cent. of which was their own. Mr. Gentile and his brothers own 2000 acres of bearing groves in Polk County, the greater portion of which are in the Frostproof section. They also own 500 acres of unimproved land. They have been property owners in Polk County for the past sixteen years, Mr. Gentile first becoming interested in the Fros t proof section in 1 912 Fraternally, Mr. Gentile is a Mason and a Shriner. GEORGE H. GIBBONS GeoRGE H. GIBBONS, a re s ident of the coun ty for the past f orty-six years, and owne r of th e Scenic Highwa y Nurs e ries, the l arges t in the county, was born i n Cordose, Brazil, the son of Asa and Isabelle Gibbo n s. Hi s father wa s a contractor and builder and did much work in the gold mines of B ra zil. W h e n a mere infant, Mr. Gibbon s came to t h e United States with his parents, who first settied in Texas, corning to Florida in 1882, at which time they located at Bartow. His education was secured in the schools of Te."
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244 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA :Mr. Gibbons' main l arge development is t h e Sceoic Highwa y Nurseries, which he states is the second oldest and the largest nursery in the county. The stock is all guaranteed to be well rooted, well grown, tru e to oame, and satisfactory in every particular. As a resul t of a policy of fair-dealing and absolute honesty in providing high class stock, the Scenic Highway Nurseries has been deve loped into one of the most successful propositions of the kind in the State In addition to his nurse ries, Mr. Gibbons also owns a large part of the prop erty in the town-site of Waverly. M r. Gibbons is a Mason, Shriner, an Odd Fellow and a Knig h t of Pythi as. He has one child, an adopted daughter, Lois. HOMER G GIBBS HoMER G. Glll
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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 245 Mr. Gibbs is a singer and is president of the Winter Haven Municipal Chorus He is a member of the C hamber of Co mme rce and is a Presbyterian. He is a Maso n and a Shri n e r He was m arried i n 1925 in Allentown, Pa., to Ma y E. Gei st. JOEL L GI BSO N J. L GIBSON w as born in North Caro l ina, January 31, 18 72, the son of Sam B. and Sarah J. (Earl) Gibson, the former an officer in the First North Carolina Cavalry of the Confederate army. Upo n the completion of his educ ation, received in the schools of his native State Mr. Gibson b ecam e an agent and telegr aph operator for the railroad Later, he was in the wh olesale grocery busine ss at Bryson City, North Carolina Mr. Gibson came to Lakeland in January 1920 and o rgan ized the Gib. son Plot t Company, the large:."! wholesale grocery house i n Lakeland. The oflieers, all of t hem former T a r Heels, are as follows: J 0. Plott president ; J. L. G i bson, general manager; A. E. B rown, vice-presid ent, and Horace W. Gibson t reasu rer. Thi s comp any thoroughly co vers Polk County and ha s been enlar ged fro m time to time, to care for incre ased busin ess. Mr. Gibson is a Rotarian, member o f the Baptist ch urch and a l oyal supporter of t he Chamber o f Commerce. During the Spanish American War Mr. Gibson served as Captain of Co mpany L, North C arol ina infant ry, and while a resi dent of that State was commissioner of Swain county. Fraternally, he is affiliated with the Masonic bodie s. H e was married in North C arolina, September 29, 1895, to D o u gla s Franks. They have two children, Horace W and Fern. MANUEL M. GLOVER MANUEL M. GLOVIIR, of the law 6 rm of Glover & Beer, was born near Lake lan d in 190 1 the son of C. H. B. and Lena (Brewer) Glov er. The former now d ecease d was a pion ee r resident, comin g to this secti o n from South C arolina; and wa s a citrus grower. Mr. Glover is a gradu:tt e of th e Lak e land H igh Schoo l and o f the University of Florida, graduating with an LL.B. degree from the latter institution in 19 25 Immediately thereo.fter he opened offices in Lakeland having as h is partner, Frank VI/. Beer, a classma te. M r G love r i s Jus tice of the Peace of t he lOth di s trict ha v in g r ece ntly been re-e l ec ted to this office He has discha rged his duties co nscienti ously and cour teously, :t nd rece ived a co mfortabl e p lur ality in the primary. He is member of the Chamber o f Commerce, and was vice-president of the Civitan Club. He belongs to the Kappa Sigm a and Phi Delta Kappa fraterniti es :tnd to the State and Cou nty Bar Associati ons. He was married to G ladys L Wil so n in DeLand STAPLETON D. GOOCH STAPLETON D Gooca is a native o f the State of Virg; oia, born at Louisa on Aui(Ust 3, 1888, the son of W. S. and Mary Stuart Gooch Mr. Gooch received special training i n chemical engineerin g at the U niversity

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246 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA of Virginia, and shortly after the comp le tion of this course, accepted a position with the Coronet Phosphate Company. He left this company a short time t o work with the DuPont Company in New Jersey, but returned to th e Coronet Company to accept the position of chemist and was promoted to superintendent and later to assistant manager. He is now vice-president and manager of the Diamond Sand Company, the iarge s t si lica sand company in the State. This is incorporated for $300,000, and ships from 500 to 2,000 t ons daily from the two mines which are located at Diamond near Lake Wales in Polk county and North Diamond in Putnam county. Mr. Gooch was e l ected president of the Chamber of Commerce for the 1927-23 term, is a director of the State organization, and a member of the loca l school board He belongs to the Rotary Club and is a Mason. "He wa s married to Anna V Knight in Plan t City, F ebruary 10 19 1 2, and they have two children, Stapleton D ., Jr., and William R. P. D. GOODYEAR Po:.ARLIE DuBms GooDYEAR was born at Waldo, Florida, October 2 1 1 884, the so n of William Pinckney and Louise (Jolly) Goodyear. Educated in the schools of Rochelle and Micanopy, Mr. Goodyear started his business career early, securing a position with the Atlantic Coast Line railway when but a lad of 16 years : For 28 years he has been with the same company and si nce 1904 has been a well known and popular conductor of the road, main taining his headq uarters in Lakeland for the pa s t 25 years. Mr. Goodyear bas seen Lakeland grow from small beginnings, and ha s alwa ys been interested in any progressive measure l o oking to it s development He i s a member of the Methodist church a Mason, Scottish Rite Shriner Knights Templar and an Elk. Mr. Goodyear has acquired consi derable valuab le property during h is resi dence in Lakeland, and has great faith in the future of this section. H e was married December 23, 1 906, t o Anna Roland Lofton of High Springs. They have one son, Ernest DuBois. WILLIAM D. GRAY WILLIAM D. GRAY, banker, is a native Floridian, born at Midway August 8, 1890 He is a son of William J and Mary F. Gray, the former a retired Methodist minister having come to thi s State from Georgia, and the latter born and reared near Madiso n this State Mr. Gray graduated from the Madi son High School and attended Emory University tw o years. Returning t o Madison, he taught school six year s and resigned from the teaching profession to become cashier of the First National Bank of that city. Mr. Gray carne to Winter Haven February 15, 1923, to be cashier of the Ameri can Nation al Bank, which office he now holds. He is prominently identified with other branches of the financial life of this section, being treasurer an d a director of the Florida Sout hern A bst ract and Title Company, and a director o f the Winter Haven Bui lding and Loan A ssoc iation

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 2 4 7 Mr. Gray is deeply interested in civic and spiritual matters. He was a mem ber of the City Council of Madison, is a member of the Winter .Haven Board of School Trustees, ex-vice-president and a director of the Chamber of Commerce, and past president of the Exchange Club. A devout member of the Methodist church, he is on the Board of Stewards and teacher of the Oxford class, which is the Bible class of tlie Sunday School. During the war, he served as Chairman of the Liberty Loan and War Savings Stanips drive. His fratemal memberships include Masonry, Woodmen of the World, Knights of Pythias, and Knights Tem plar. He is treasurer of the local chapter of the Masonic Order and K of P. Mr. Gray was married December 22, 1915, at Madison to Wynerna Burnette. They have one daughter, Mary Elizabeth, aged 10 years. B. H. GRIFFIN B. H GRU'FIN, prominent citizen of Frostproof, and a Polk County resident for the past 41 years, is a Georgian by birth, born in Decahtr County in 1876, the son of Dred and Margaret Elizabeth Griffin. Coming to Polk County in 1887, his parents first located at Lakeland where they lived four years, later moving to Mulberry. Mr. Griffin was connected with the Palmetto Phospha te Company for eighteen years, removing to Frostproof in 1917, where he had for several years owned valuable property. He lived later at Fort Meade, but in 1925 again became a resident of Frostproof l'vlr. Griffin is a large orange grower, having about 100 acres in bearing groves in the Frostproof section. For recreation, he finds much pleasure in hunting, this being his favorite sport: He has hunted over practically the entire State. He was married at Mulberry to Sarah G. Maxcy and the y have four children: Mary Elizabeth (Mrs. M. E Stevens), Julia (Mrs.]. K. Enzor), Sarah Naomi and Ben H., Jr. Fraternally, Mr. Griffin is a Mason. WILLIAM ROWAN GROOVER WILLIAM Row,\N GRooVER, M.D., is a native Floridian, having been born in Columbia County, August 9, 1867, a son of Rowan Joseph and Julia (Douglass) Groover. His father, who served the Confederate army with distinction during the War Be tween the States, was a native of Georgia; his mother was bom in Columbia County, and was a member of a prominent pioneer family. S he died last year at th e age of 82 years. Dr. Groover attended the public schools of his countY., and taug h t several years in order to secure money to attend Emory College, receiving his degree in medicine from that institution in 1892. Following his graduation, the subject of this sketch practiced at Fort White, moving to Lake lan d in 1898, where he bas been a successful practitioner and an exceedingly popu lar citizen. Doctor Groover has also been one of the lea ding financial men of the county, being president of the Southern Finance Corporation, which he organ ized in 1923, with a capital of $100,000.00, and is president of Groover & Soi:i; Insitrance Agents. In addition to his other interests, he owns five valuable groves, three of whieh a re at Lakeland, one at Kissimmee and one at Lake

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248 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA P lacid His l ovely home on Lak e M o rton Drive, where he has live d for thirty years, is situated in the midst o f one of these Dr. Groover ha s a lway s been active in any movement for the good of the cou nty and can be depended upon to give his time and mon ey to s uch an enter prise. He is a charter member o f the Kiwani s Club and belongs to the Chamber of. Commc;rce, Order, Knights of Pythias and the American, State and County Medical Associations; also a member of the American Legion and 4 0 and 8. He attends the First Presbyterian c hurc h He was married in Columbia County, April 11, 1891, to Mary Mathilda Knowles, now de ceased; their child ren are : M o rgan, who i s engaged in the insur ance business with his father; Sue Ella, wife of R. N. Skip per, and Mary Agnes, wife of Judge Spessard H olland of Bartow He married Katherine Lyl e, Decem ber 7, 1927 at Lake But l er, at the home of his mother. GEORGE W. HALDEMAN W. HALDE .. AN, transatlantic flier and reno wned Lakeland citizen, is playing a large part in the development of aviation possibilities, and in so doing is gaining for Lakeland and Polk County much favorable publicity. In addition to his memorabl e flight with Ruth Elder, which took place October 11 and 12, 1 927, he also in th e late s pring of 1928, broke the w orld's record for sustained flight Mr. Haldeman was born in McPherson, Kansas, the son of J. J. and M aude Haldeman. He attended the schools of hi s native State, and graduated fr o m the Lakeland High School, where he removed with his parents a number of years ago. Later he was a student at the Milita r y School of Aeronautics, and re ceived practical expe rience durin g the war, when he was a member of the air s ervice and wa s one of the you n gest commissioned officers in the service. After the war, Mr. Haldeman organized t he I nter-City Airline Corporation, and conducted a school for fliers from 1919 until 1922. From the latter year until 1925 he was owner of the Dixie Highwa y G a rage at Lakeland, but continued ftying and also had a half interes t in the waco agency for th e State. For two years th ereafter he was a ssoc iated with his father in the real estate business. Mr. Haldeman and Ruth Elder attempted a transa tlantic flight in the (all of 1927, and their miraculous rescue at sea is kn ow n to residen t s of e very country in the world At the present time Mr. Hald eman i $ assoc iated with Eddie Stinson in the airplane bu siness. He is a member of the Order of Quiet Bir dmen, a national organization of arm>' pilots who are continning the development o f aviation. He belongs to the Kiwanis Club of Lakeland and th e Benevolent and P rotective Order of Elks Mr. H al
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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 249 farmed for a pe riod of ten years, and later entered the insurance business, remain ing in Kansas until 1914. He opened offices at Lakeland twelve years ago and in addition to his real estate activities has been a developer of orange groves and farms in central Florida and the developing of poultry farms near Lake Gibson is now being put over in a large way, under his supervision He worked with the Chamber of Commerce in bringing the National Carpen t ers' Home to Lakeland, and negotiated the sale of the Cleveland Heig hts proper t y t o the H. A Stahl Company, of which organi zation h e is a director Mr. Haldeman was president of the Lakeland Real Esta te Board for five suc cessive term s. He l ent his assistance in organizing the Board, and is a director and chairman of the Appraisal Board. Mr. Haldeman was a member of the count)' committee formed for the p r<> motion of good roads; he has se rved five years on the board of di rectors of the Chamber of Commerce, is a member of t h e Kiwanis Club, and is serving at p resent as chairman of the local school board. He was married at McPherson, Kan sas, on August 11, 1895 t o Alpha Maude Fields, and they have five children: May, wife of Roy Amidon; George \V world renowned aviator, a sketch of whom appears elsewhe1 e in this volume; Ruth, wife of Dou glas Van Sickler; Grace and Walter. G. WALLACE HALL G. W. HALL, owner of the Lakeland Sheet Metal Works, was bom at Slina, Pen n sylva n ia, November HI, 1901, the son of T. C. and Elizabeth (Lampman) Hall. On his paternal side he is of Scotch-English descent, arid his mother 's ancestors wer e from France and England. Tl!ey were pioneer settlers i n Pennsyl vania, and Mr. Hall's grandfather was a veteran of the Civil \'lar. G. W. Hall attended the public schools of Erie, Pennsylvania, and for two years was a student at Harvard. H e came to L akelan d in 1 923 and established his business, in which he has been quite successful. In 1923 he employed sev e n people, and, due to enlarged bu si ness, has enlarged thi s n u mber to 68. This firm ha s been awarded some of the larges t contracts in the county, including M o rrell Memorial Hospital, City H all and Auditoriul)l, of Lakeland, se'eral schools and also the Marble Arcade and Florida Hotel at Lakeland. Mr. Hall is a member of the 'Civitat> Club and the Maso ni c order and worships at the Methodist church. Mr. Hall and Edna York were married in J u ne, 1923, at Erie, Pennsylvania They have one daughter, B etty. WI LI-ARD FORDYCE HALLAM 'WtLLARD FoRDYCil HALLAM was a builder whose work stands as an endur ing monument to his visi on, judgmen t and business acumen. He was one o f the fore most developers who l aid the foundation upon which the superstructure of Polk Couoty's greatness has been builded. Mo reover, he was a man of. t h e highest type, whose record in business, citizo;nship a':'d friendship is without blot or stain. Mr. Hallam, who was born i n Monmouth ; Ill., in June, 1867 was the son of

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250 H ISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Absolom and Miriam (Bowen) Hallam. W hen an infant his parents removed to Iowa in which State he was reared and educated. Before engaging in the develop ment bus iness his career was varied, beginning as a telegrapher and then becoming station agent at Dubuque, Io wa. He was later in the publishing business, being connected with the S11cccss Magazine, the E11C)clopedia Brillanica and Messages cmd Papers of tile Presidents. During this period he maintained offices in many of the principal cities of the country and at this time, also, he built a magnificen t home at Harper's Ferry, W. Va. Coming to Florida in 1910, he became interested in the Lakeland section and bought 13,000 acres of land six miles southeast of that city, which has since been far-famed as the Lakeland Highla ndS"-a beau ty spot wrought from the wilderness -5,000 acres of bearing citrus trees now standing as a living monument to the mao who created this undertaking, and whose vision of a Greater L ake land enabled him to achieve what at that time seeme'd to be the impossible. As when in the publishing business, Mr. Hallam had offices in all o f the larger cities of the north and east, and was the means of bringing much outside capital to the Lakeland section. He sold tracts for groves only to those people who would agree to develop their property-indeed, after a very few first sales, he sold only planted groves--<1nd as a result this is one of the most thoroughly developed prop ositions in the State. Mr. Hallam's untimely death, o n May 29, as the result of drowning at St. P etersburg Beach while in bathing with a party of frien ds, removed one of the most honored and most use f ul citizens of the county. Mr. Hallam is survived by his wife formerly Mary Van Dake, o f Indianapolis, Ind., and two children, Mrs. C. R. Gladman and Willard Van Dake Hallam. The family make their home i'! Lake la n d and carry on the affairs of the estate, owning about 3,000 acres ofland in the Highlands, arid about 250 acres in citrus groves. W. H. HAMILTON \V. H. HAMILTON was born in Santa Rosa County, this State, January 11, 1892 the son of Edward M. and Rosa Lee Ham il to n both of whom a re native Floridians. He attended the schools of his home county, subsequently graduating with an LL. degree from the Atlanta Law School. He began the practice of h i s profession iil Atlanta. In 1923 he established offices in Winter Haven, arid recently formed a partnership with Hart McKillop. This firm, one of the largest in the city, does a general practice with the exception of criminal work, and numbers among its clients many in1portant companies and banks. Mr. Hamilton has a splendid war record. He was a member of the 82nd division of the Field Artillery, stationed at Camp Gordon for one year, and from August until November was at the front during the Argonne drive. He held the rank of corporal. He is a director of the Snell National B ank ; and ow.ns citrus property. He has a well-rounded iliter est i n other matters than those pertaining to bus iness. being a member of the Masonic order; Shrine, Knights Templar, Knig h ts of

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PART U BIOGRAPHICAL 251 Pythias, Bapt ist church and Chamber ;a, and three sons, Marshall, Jack, and William, all of whom were born.in Winter Haven. . . . . DR. M GRACE BLACKMAN HANNA DR. M. GRACE Bl-ACKMAN HANNA is a Lakeland woman who has carved for herself a career of usefulness, help f ulness an d inspiration to all with whom she

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HISTORY OF POLK COUN'l'Y, FLORIDA comes in contact. Her influence f o r good will live long after she has passed from this earthly sphere. She is owner and proprietor of The La keland Sanitarium, one of the most complete institutions in the State for the treatment of all kinds of "un-health", physical or mental, to which flesh is heir. Dr. Hanna was born near Harrisburg, Illinois, January 31, 18 79. She is the daughter of Elder James Hugh and Sarah Elizabeth (Church) Blackman. Her father was a "good and faithful servant" of his Lord, a minister, both pastor and evangelist, of the Baptist faith ; revered by all who knew hl m and loved by he served, to a degree of rare devotion. He was of English descent, the Blackman f amily having figured in the English Parliament from tim e immemorial. Her mother was a devout and faithfu l co-worker with her husband and her God in the extension of His Kingdom; and has to her ancestry Captain Church who figured so e..x(en sively in making our own fair Florida safe from 'Indian warfare. Her line also reaches back to Thomas Rolfe, the only child of John Rolfe and "Lady Rebecca," the little Indian Princess, Pocahontas. Dr. Hanna has in her private museum some feathers from a mattress used by Pocahontas, and at present is much inter ested in the permanent preservation of the dowery of Pocahontas, as purposed in the recent Rocke felle r purchase. This is said to be the oldest b rick building of English construction in the U. S. and is s ituated across the James River from Jamestown, Va. Having been a diligent student from childhood Dr. Hanna has secured a liberal education, both from a literary and professional s tan dpoin t, an d is i ndeed, wonderfully equipped for her life work. She graduated from Creal Spring s Col lege with the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy, later from the American College of Machano-Therapy, taking both the degree of Doctor and that .of Diplom at of Suggestive Therapeutics. Before coming to Florida she was elected to the office of County Superintendent of Public Instruction of her ho,;,e county in Illinois, a position which she was in every way well qua lified to hold. She was also elected to the cliair of Mathematics and Literature in her first Alma Mater but declined in order to chase her favorite phantom" in the "Land of Flowers." Coming to Lakeland fifteen years ago (January, 1913) Dr. H anna established The Lakeland Sanitarium which institution occupied the second floor of the State Bank Buil ding for ten years. Her reputation, ski ll and close personal attention to each patient, coupled with the remarkable results obtained, gained for he r insti tution such a large patronage that larger quarters were found imperative. T his led to the purchase of the commodious Tweedell home w hic h was rec onstructed, enlarged and converted into an up-to-date sanitarium. This was soon outgrown and an annex and more elaborate equipment came forth. As one su rveys the sco p e covered by these wonderful forces of nature by the equipment, he i s made to feel tllat the term-"The Natural Way" -is re qu ired to define the marvel ous therapeutic measures employed. This is "The Natural Vvay" originated by that sage of our age, Dr. George Starr White of Los Angeles, California, who is known through his many marvelous books and appliances throughout the civilized world. It is he who devised the first electric light bath cabinet and other electric light treatment outfits now used in

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PART IIDIOCRAPHICAL ever y modern h ospi tal and sanitarium in the world. I t is he who discovered t hat the "orientation" (fi nding their \va y home) of birds and othe r animals was cau s ed by the effect on them of the maguetic meridian, and that any constitutional disease s ca u sed the l oss of this power. It is he who harnessed the "Finer Forces of Nature," s uch as the meridian. ultra -red rays, rhythmic lights, gravity and complimentary col ors for the diagno sis and treatment of all ills; and it is he to whom Dr. Hanna g ives praise for having so altered her understanding of Na ture's laws, and enlarged her sphere of usefulnes s to suffering humanity. Dr. Hanna's sanitarium, nestled on the s hores of Lake Morton, is an ideal place for rest and recuperation as the environment is particularly cheerful and homelike. Lovely flower s adorn the grounds which force t he casual observer to realite that here, indeed, is a plaoe where ills w o uld vanish amid surroun dings both ideal and uplifting. The spirit of the "Brotherhood of Man" pervades thi s in s ti tution. "Upon entering," one ha s said. "a sweet feeling of peace and security seem to enfold you. And you will understand wh y, when you behold the Scripture texts on the walls and the bold declaration ove r the doorway: 'Ch rist is the Head of this House, the Unseen Guest at every meal, the Silent Listener to ever y con versation.' Care seems to vani s h and unkind thoughts far removed. So con s cious are you of the Uns een Presenc e that you have the feeling of having entered an ancient cathed ral where th e prayer s of the sa int s have ascended like incense, and thoughts turn to holy things .'' Dr. Hanna's scope of usefulne ss i s not confine d to her profes s ional career alone, s he is a Bible student of repute. and a tireles s church worker, having for yea r s taught a large Sunday school class in the First Baptist church of Lakeland. She is a recognized auth ority on the Bible, and lives her religion. She is an able lecturer and her influence is far-reaching. She gives liberally of her mean s for the furtherance of any worthy cause, and has done much toward t he advancement o f ber communit y, both from a civic and spiritual standpoint. Her steadfast fortitude under trial and her hopeful optimism under difficulties c hallenge the downcast "To take heart again." This thought is corroborated in the following appreciative l ines to her by Mrs. Alice H. Muir: "Beca use you let me wann my heart by you r steady fire of love, And fed my shriveled, famished soul with wisdom from Above, And fired my laggin g brain with ambition s t rong and true, Though wo.rld should part, I'll always have a tender love for you ." Briefly summing up: 1'he keynote of her life may be sounded forth in the song of the angels at the advent of the world's Redeemer: Glory to Cod in the highest and on earth peace, good will toward man." JOHN BROWN HANNAH ]. B. HMONIIH was born in Braichnel, lll. April 12, 1883, the son of Jam es and Janet Hannah. His parents were bom in Scotland, and his father was engaged in the mining business for a number of years in t he West, being superintendent of a mine in Kansas.

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254 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA liir. Hannah came t o Lakeland eighteen years ago since which time he has been prominently ident ifi ed with the Atlantic Coast L ine shops of that place, be ing foeman of the Locomotive Department, which handles an average of seventy locomotives H e attendee! the schools of New Mexico and Kansas and his first business experience was gained with the Cent ral Co al and Coke Company in Kansas. He was engaged in various parts of the west and northwest with differen t railroads as machinist, coming to Florida in 1907 Mr. Hannah owns va l uable property in and near Lakeland, his hoine being located amid a fine 12-acre orange grove just' north of the city, between Griffin and Galloway. He was marrie d at Lakeland in 1916 to Beulah Hooks, a Lakeland girl who was a teacher in the schools of the county, is ex-secretary of the Sorosis Club president of the Board of Sponsors of the camp Fire Girls; and is prominent" in club act ivi ties of all kinds She is a daughter of the late Col. T. ] Hooks. Fra t ernally, Mr. Hannah is affiliated with Lake lan d Lodge No. 1291, B. P 0 E. A. B. HARRINGTON A. B. HARRINGTON, Winter Raven's first contractor and builde r, was born in Warwick, Rhode Island, in 1S53, becoming a resident of Polk County in 1885, when he settled in Auburndale, two years later loc ating at Winter Haven, where be Jived until his death on November 2, 1918. Mr. Harrington received his education in the schools of Rhode Island and Connecticut, and began his business career as a builder at Brantford, Conn., fol lowing this trade tlie of hiidife. He bui l t all the .,;.rly bitildings of Winter Haven, and erected the first part .. of the Florence, Villa Hotel in 1889, which was originally a house of ten rooms, the ho!fie of tlie late Dr. Inman He later built the addition of twenty rOoms, and in 1903 added 43 more rooms. In addition to the hotel he built other buildings in Winter Haven, i ncluding 'the first school buildings of any importance. Mr. Harrington helped to organize the Snell National Bank, and was one of its directors. He was also one of th. e organizers of the Florence Villa Citrus Growers' Association, and was vice-president and one of the directors of this organization until the time of his death. He was a member of the Board of Co11nty Commissioners for four years. He was progressive in all matters, and was always interested in any movement looking to the betterment of his community. He was much interested in school affairs and served as a member of the loca l school board. . Mr. Harrington was largely interested in citrus culture and owned several fine groves, one of which his 'vidow still retains Sin c e his death, Mrs. Harrington built one of the finest homes in Winter Haven, and like her husband, has a k een interest in the community and aids wherever possible in i t s a d vancement. Mr. Harrington was a Mason and a Shriner. He was married in 1880 to Hartley, of Willimantic Connecticut.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 255 ELMER E. HARRIS. ELMER E. HARRIS, the son of F. A K. Harris, was born in Winter Haven, August 12 1894. His education received in the \inter Haven schools was supplemented with advanced work at Rollins College, later graduated from the Case School of Applied Science. Mr. Harris spent several years in the north, being electrical salesman in Pitts burgh and Cleveland with the Electric Control and Manufacturing Comp any. He later engaged in electrical contract w ork In 1921 Mr.' Harris returned to \inter Haven where he has large interests, to which he gives his time and attention. He built the Harris Arcade, one of W inte r Haven's modem business buildings, and owns a one-half interest in Grand Theater. Mr. Harris was married in Cleveland, Ohio in 1918 to Geraldine Clark. They have two children: Margaret Jean and Catherine Adele. FRED A. K. HARRIS Among the very early settlers of Winter Haven was F. A. K. Harris, first postmaster of the community and builder of the firs t business house of that place. From 1884, when he arrived in Florida, until the time of his death, in 1920, he was identified with every public-spirited movement in Winter Haven. Mr. Harris was born in Lyndon Vermont, in 1858, the son of Amasa 0 and Caroline (Bigelow) Harris He attended Lyndon Institute and the Eastman Business College in Poughkeepsie, New York, and at the age of nineteen years went west for his health, owning a sheep ranch in Nebraska. Five years later, he removed to Florida and purchased 28 acres of land near Lake Lul u, which he planted to citms fruit. He purchased the first lot sold in the Winter Haven local ity, and erected a store building, in which, besides his business, the post office was housed. Mr. Harris was quite successful and accumulated valuable property. During the later years of his life he made frequent trips to Vermont to attend to interests in .that State, and also gave his personal attention to his s t o re and groves at Winter Haven. He served as J ustice of the Peace for some time before his death. He was married i n De Witt, Nebraska, to Adelle Kennison, and two sons were born to this u nio n : Bertram A . and Ebner K., both of whom live in Winter Haven. DR. JAMES HARRIS DR. }AMES HARRIS was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, J uly 18, 1862, the son of James T. and Julia Ann Harris, whose families were originally from Scotland. He attended the local schools, and in 1893 graduated with an M D. degree from the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery. He practiced in Cincinnati for f our teen years, and was very success f ul, being financially able to r etire at the end of that time. In 1919 he removed to Lake land since which time he has devoted his energies to the promotion of the citrus industry in Polk Cou nty. Dr. Harris owns a fine grove and home in the Lakeland High lands, and for two years wa s Manager of the Lakeland Highlands co-Operative

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256 HIS1'0RY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Association. He wa s a member of the committe e whic h d rew up the clearing house plan for the marketing of c itrus fruit and is now a member of the committee of fifty to put the plan into e ffect. Dr. Harris was instrwn e llt al in organizing the Florida Interior Traffic Bureau, and has given this organiz ation loyal support. He was president and director of the Highland Cit y Light and Power Company at the time it was sold t o Lakeland. During the World War Dr. Harris was a member of the Examining Board at Cincinnati, personally exami n ing 3 ,000 men. He was married in Cincinnat i Apr il 7, 1897, to Gertrude Keene. He is a member of the Masonic Order, Scottish Rite and Shrine. \Vas a charter member of the Southlan d Lodge 256 F. & A M N. W. HART N. Vv. HART was born at Invernes s, Florida Oc tober 1, 1897, the of Edward Hart, a native o f this State With his parents he early removed to Wau<:hula, and attended the high s<:hool of that His higher education was received at the State Unive rsity and at Vanderbilt. Mr. Hart became identified with the furniture business in 1920 at Bartow, and afte r a few months moved to T a mpa, where he was with Tarr's. In 1922 he established his own business at W int e r Haven, and the follow ing year erected a s u bstantial b uilding i11. whic h to f!ouse it. He purchased the Polk County Furni tu re Company, locate d at Ba rlow, and in th e same year, 1926, established a branch at Lake \I!Jales. Eac h stor e is incorporated and M r Har t is pres id ent of th e th ree concerns. Another rapidly growi ng enterp rise of Mr. Hart's is th e Auburndal e Furnitu r e Factory, which manufactures fiber furniture and over-stuffed cane back and wicker furniture. This is the only plant of the kind in Florida, and the output finds a ready market all over the State. Mr. Hart has recently purchased new equipment for the plant, which will increase production. He is a member of the Exchang e C l ub, the Chamber of Commerce. the Alpha T au Omega colle ge fraternity the M asonic order and Egypt T emple Shrine. Mr. Hart and Mary D. Danieis wer e married a t Ba rtow, an d they h ave o ne son Norman W., Jr.. E L. HASKINS E. L HASKIN S wa s born i n Elk Garden, We s t Virginia, July 24 1 884, the son of R. J. and Josephine Haskins. The f ormer now makes his home in Tavares, moving to that city fro m Winter Haven, where he settled in 1903. Mr. Haskins entered the real estate business in Winter Haven in 1906, and also engaged in fruit growing. He bas been in partnership with Paul Bailey since 1907, with the exception of three years, and the firm is tbe oldest of its kind in the city Mr. Haskins and Mr. Bai ley own m ore than one hundred acres of bearing trees; and the f ormer has plan ted several citru s nul'$eries. Mr. Haskin s is a membe r of the Board of Governo r s of th e C hamber of Com merce, and was the first s ecretary of that organization; he was also the first sec re-

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. PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 257 tary of the first :Masonic order of W in ter Haven and a charter member. He is also President of the Lions Club He was re-cently appointed field manager of the Polk County Sub-Exchange of the F lori d a Citrus Exchange. Many forward movement s of worthwhile development have had the hearty support of Mr. Haskins, and he holds a prominent place in the civit life of Winter Haven, in addition to being one of that section's recognized citrus authorities. Mr. Haskins was married to Carrie E. Jaehde in Leesburg on April 8, 1913. T. T. HATTON T. T. HAT1'0l<, superintendent-elect of public instruction of Polk County, was born in La Mesa New Mexico, June 22, 1888, the son o f Robert .C. and Clara E. Hatton. He was educated in the schools of that State, completing his preparatory education in Ken tucky and was a s t udent at Vanderbilt University. He received hi s LL.B. degree from the Atlanta Law School. The family removed to Bartow in 1910, and until his death R. C. Hatton was vice-president and manager of the !'outhem Land Securities Company, and a man highly honored by the entire community. T. T Hatton was connected with the Southern Land Securities Company for fourteen years, at which time, in 1924, all the company's holdings were sold. Since that time he has engaged in a general real. estate and insurance business, in part nership with his broth.er, R. C .. Hattoo. T he y are sales agents for La Serena, one of the outstanding developments in the Bartow sectio .n. Mr. Hatton's civic duties have been many He has served on the city council eight years, and was mayor two terms, during which time the erection of the city hospital was begun and other improvements made. During the war he was deputy food commissioner, and was chairman of the public speaking for Liberty Loan drives, being a recognized leader in all undertakings of t his character. Mr. Hatton is ex-president of the Kiwanis is a Mason and belopgs to the Sigma Chi college fraternity. He was married May 8, 1920, in Bartow to Pearl C. Holliday. They have three children: T. T., Jr., A lex F., and Virginia Lee. W.A.HEATH W. A. HEATH, owner of a chain of Five, T en and Twenty-Five cent Stores; was born at Grafton New Hampshire. Before coming to Winter Haven in 1916, :Mr. Heath was engaged in the mer cantile business at Lyndonville, Vermont. His Florida enterprise, which has been markedly successful, was begun at Winter Haven. Here he his first store, expanding until he now has a chain of these stores, located at Bar t ow, Lake Wales, Plant City, Avon Park, Eusti s and Leesburg, known as the Associated 5-10 and 25 Cent Stores. In 1925 the firm' s business amounted to approximately $600,000.00. Mr. Heath has been interested in growing citrus fruit, and has several valuable groves He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, and fraternally is affiliated with the Masonic Order.

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258 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA CLAIRE HENJ.EY CLAIR>: HENUIY, one of Lakeland's progressive and successfu l citizens whose business capacity has enab l ed him to acquire much valuable property, including three of Lakeland's leading drug sto res and one in Tampa, has lived in Lakeland for the past t hirty years coming to that city in August, 1898, from Apopka, Florida, the town of his birth. The son of Dr. L. F. and Sallie Jane (Cook) Henley Claire Henley took up the reins of business laid down by his honored father at the iatter's death, and has earned the deserved success that has been his. For many years his father was one of Lakeland's much beloved physicians, whose skill brought h im a large practice, and whose many noble traits of character will live long il) the memory of his friends. Claire Henley was bom in Apopka, January 6, 1886, and came t o Lakeland when a lad of twelve years. After graduating from the Lakeland High School and Stetson University at DeLand he took a course in Pharmacy at the College of Pharmacy in Atlanta, and jo ined his father in the manageme nt of Henley's, the main Lak e land store and the only one then e s tablished. Wi th the coming of added population to that city, Mr. Henley branched out and now owns, in addition to the big main store, the Magnolia Pharmacy, the Arcade Pharmacy, and a drug store in Tampa. He has also accumulated much valuable real estate, and is half-owner of the brick business block on North Florida avenue occupied by the Ford agency Mr. Henley bas, in years past, given largel y of his time and means in pro moting baseball in Lakeland, and was the owner of the Lakeland team when Lake land was a member of the State League. Through his interest and efforts Lake land enjoyed baseball of the highest type for many years. Mr. Henley is an Elk, a member of the Lakeland Country Club and attends the First Baptist church. H.e was marri ed in May, 1908 t o Sallie Lou Battle daughter of L. R. a nd Emma Battle, one of Lakeland's prominent families who early s e ttled in that community. Mr. and Mrs. Henley hav e one daughter, Mabie clare. THOMAS B. HENDRIX T. B. H>:NDRIX was born in Eufaula, Alabama, in 1S'l'2, the son of Whitfield and Mary Jane Hendrix. The former was a veteran of the Civil \'lar, a member of the Alabama regiment. He removed his family to Orlando in 1882, where he was engaged in the mercantile business until the time of his death. Mr. Hendri x removed to Lakeland in 1895, and for e ighteen years conducted a grocery and market, and was in the eattle busines s, in which industry he retains valuable h o l d ings in Lee County. Mr. Hendrix is a large property owner and builder He ha s recently com pleted a large business building on North Kentucky avenue and erected the build ing in which Venable's Mark e t is located He owned valuable property on Massa chusetts avenue, but sold same to the city three years ago, and on this property is now loca ted the central fire station. He i s a member o f the Rotary Club, and fraternally is allied with the Benevo len t and Protective Order of Elks. He was married in Apopka, this State to Theodos ia Cannon, and t hey have one daughter, Hilda (Mrs. R. Alderman).

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PART UB I OGRAPHICAL 259 RICHARD A. HENRY R. A: Henry, one of the organizers of the Haven Villa corpotation, and a citrus wower of note. was born in Montgomery county Indiana, June 12, 1865, the so n of William H. and Martha (Simmons) HenrY, The former, a pioneer of Indiana, was engaged in raising stO<:k and farming. After his graduation from Union C hri s tian college, Mr. Henry formed a connectio n with the Indianapolis Stov e Company, and was with this firm 25 year s. He removed to Winter Haven January 1, 1922, and became interested in the Brogdex company. He is manager of the brokerage department of the Haven Villa corporation, and is a director of the orga nization S in ce his arrival in the Polk county ci ty, M r Henry has been a member of the Board of Governors o f the Chamber o f Commerce. As chairman of a com mittee t o get gas for the city he persuaded Ralph B Wagner to form a company for this purpose. The plant, which recently began operating, was c:OO,pleted in March, 1928, and Mr. Henry i s vice-presiden t of the company, known as the Central Florida Gas corporation For his work in this connection h e was p r esen t ed the "Ba nk ers' Cup" for 1928, given each year t o the citizen performin g the most outstanding service to his community. Mr. Henry is a member of the Presbyterian church, and was instrumental in secu ring the contribution for $11,000 w o rth o f chimes. He belongs to the toea!, S tate and National Realty Boards Mr. Henry and Lou Retta Hormell were married in Montgomery county Indiana, May 29, 1890. They have one daughter, Eleanor ; wife of R : M .Inman, of Winter Haven. M.P. HETHER{NGTON M. F. HnaiRINCTON was born December 27, 1867, at Elkton, Todd Coun ty, Kentucky. Both parent s died when he was an infant, and he started life in an orphan as ylum nea r Bardstown Ky. He grew up in the latter t own and received an education by alternately working as "devil" in a country prin ting ofli<:e, and with the money thus earned attending S t ]06eph's College Bar dstown. In 1891 he purchased the Let>amm Enterpris at Lebanon, Ky., and for seven y ears con ducted that paper, then f o r two years edited the Marion Falcon, also at Lebanon. Co n side rations of the health of his family cauted him to leave Kentucky and come to Flo rida in July, 1900. He became associated with B. B. Tatu m in the publica tion of the Miami l"f"etropolis first a weekly newspaper, then becoming Miami' s fir s t daily. 'l'his paper is now the Mia"'i News, owned by Hon. Jame s M. Cox, of Ohio. In 1904 he removed to Lakeland and p ur chased the News a s mall weekly. He converted Tile News into the Lake land Eve ning Telegrar> in 1 911, this lieing Pol k County's first dai ly. He owned and edited the E venig Telq;ram until December, 1920, when he so ld thi s property, retiring from active news paper work. In Kentucky h e was Deput y Collector of Internal Revenue under Cleveland' s second administration. He was a member of the Advisory Board o f Polk County representing the citizens in the project of constructing the county-wide road sys

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260 HISTORY OF POLK COUN1'Y, FLORIDA tern; is cha i rman of the City Advisory Board; a n1ember o f t h e Cat h o lic churc h, the Rotary C lub ; Past Exalted Ruler of the Elks and past president of the F l o rida Pre ss Associati on. 'For ten succ es s ive years he has bee n treas urer o f the Lak eland Chamber o f Commerce, and holds that position at this time. M r. Hetherington has been tw ice married -the first time to Lillie Blanford, of Bardstown Ky., in June, 1 891; the second marriage in October, 1903, to Lillian DeriellX, daughter of D r. ]. L. Derieux, Lakeland's first physic i an. There are three sons, Eugene, William and Marion by the first marri age and on e daughter, Marjorie, by the second. DEAN HICKMAN DEAN HtCKIIIAN was born in Jerseyville, Illinoi s October 28, 1 868, the so n of John B. and Sylinda E. (Chapman) Hickman His ancestors wer e fro m Wales and England and set tled iri Illinoi s in 1 832. His father and uncl es were veterans of the Civil War. Farming engaged Mr. Hickman's attention a fter the comp let ion of his edu cation, which was obtained at Shurtleff college and Blackburn University. He removed t o A u burndale January 9, 1920, an d four year s later became connected with A E. Strong, who is a real estate and insu rance broker. At this time he is operating independently. Mr. Hickman was in s trumental in organizing the first city government and in framing its charter. He was Mayor for one term. H e is President of the Rotary Club and i s acting Secretary of the Chamber of Comm erce. Mr. Hickman a nd Adeline Robert son were married at Brighton, Illinois, October 7, 1896. I. T HODGES ]. T. HODGS was born in Johnson City, T ennessee October 9, 1877, the son of Wilbur an d Ellen (Taylor) Hodges; his f ather was a veteran of the \o'{ar B etween the Sta te s, and fought valiantly for the South Mr. Hodges secured his higher educati o n a t Milliken College, where he specialized in mechanic al engineer ing. Upon graduating, he formed a conne ctio n with the C C. C railr oad, which later came to b e kn own as the Clinchfield When twe nty years of age, he becam e conv in ced that greater o p portunities awaited him in F l orida, and located at Hig h Springs, entering the Plant System which is now the Atlantic Coas t Line. He he l d variou s positions with this com pany spending some t ime as train route examiner. Except for an interlude of three yea r s, during which he was .. the S. & H. Hne (later absorbed by the Seaboard), he has been with the Coast Line ever since, and bas lived in Lakeland many years. In Dece mber, 1922 he was promo t ed from engineer to road f o reman of engine s for the Ridge and Tampa district s having the same authority over engineers and firemen as, in the trans portation departmen t a !rainmaster has over trainmen. Mr. Hodge s has been chief enginee r for this distric t for the Brotherh ood of Locomotive Engineers. That his ability is w e ll -kno wn and appreciated by this organization is shown 'by the fact that he h eld thi s position for tw elve years.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 261 : Mr. Hodges was the first mayor-<:ommissioner of Lake l and, serving the city for one year. He is a member of the Lions Club, Maso ns, Elks, Knights of Pythias and Woodmen, and has held all offices in the l ocal chapter s of the two last named lodges. He also belongs to the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, Air Brake Association Traveling Engineers' Associatio n and the Southeastern Railroad Club. He was married in Alach ua County, Florida, to Edna O'Steen. They have one daughter Billy who is a student at the Lakeland High School. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN In every community there are certain citi zens who are utterly devoid of selfish motive; who strive uncea s ingly to better the moral and civic tone of their town, in many instances negle ct ing their own busine sses to assist in accompli shing these things. Such a was Benjamin Franklin Holland, for forty-four years a resident of Bartow. He was born in Carroll County Georgia, in 1846, and attended the schools in that State, graduating from Bowden College. The son of Lindsey Holland he wa s descended from an old and aristocratic Southern family, and ahhough o nly a boy, was accepted for service in the Confederate army during the last two years of the Civil War. Near the close of the conflict he was wounded in the oottle of Powder Springs near Kennesaw mountain. Prior to coming to Bartow i n 1881, Mr. Holland ta u gh t school several years, and upon his arrival in Bartow he worked in the genera l s t ore of Capt. David Hughes. Later he e s tablished the first abs tract compan y in Polk County, the business being known as "B. F. Hollan d, Abstractor." This concern wa s l ater sold and organi%ed as a corporation under the name o f the Polk County Abstrac t Compan y. He was also interested in orange groves and general farming, being an early organizer in t he local b ranc h of the Citrus Exchange. Mr. Holland was cha irman of the local school board for a period of 20 years; he was county commissioner and county trea s urer, and upon his re s ignati o n from the latter post wa s given a vote of thanks by the Board of Commissioners for loyal and effici ent service. H e was one of th e leading members of the Methodi st church and was a steward and trustee. B. F. Holland and Fanny V. Spessard were married in West Virg inia. Three children were born to this union: Spessard L., for eight years county judge; Frank, of Lake Wales county agent, and Virginia wife of Roy Gallemore. FRANK L. HOLLAND FRANKL. HOLLAND, County Agricultural Agent, wa.< born on October 7, 1895, the son of Benjamin Franklin and Fanny Spessard Holland, early residents of Polk County. He was educated at Summ erlin Institut e, and the University of Florida, receiving the degre e of B S in agriculture in 1917. Mr. Holland enlisted the day after war was declared, as a member of th e Second Florida Infantry, and s pent two and one-half years in the 5ervice, five months of which he was in com mand of his own company.

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262 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA U p o n his retum from Franc e h e b eca me i den tifie d wit h Carson Brot hers, of Fros tproof, l a ter formin g a co nnection with the Frostproof state Bank, where h e remained one y ear. Subsequently, he became superintenden t and horticu l turist for Mamm oth G roves at Lake Wales. M r. H o lland, who is recogni z ed as an ex pert in h is line, e n gaged in b u siness for h im s elf a s a consu l tfn g h o rtic ult uri st, and i n 1926 was made a g ricu ltural age n t o f the count y, which position he has admirably filled. He is a of the American Legion, Kiv.>anis Club, and the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity. Mr. Holland and Dorothy Ann Burright we r e married in Bartow, and they ha ve on e daug h te r D orothy A nn SPESSARD L. HOLLAND A lega l mind, combined wi t h the practice of highest ideals, u ni fo rmity o f fai r treatm ent and clear -sigh tednes s, has made Spessard Holland while a young man, o n e of the outstandin g figures in the State. I n 1920 he was elected J u d ge of Polk County and f o u r year s late r w as agai n c h ose n for this honor. It is ad m itted by all that had he want ed the office a. third time it woul d have his but he annou n ced before tbe campaign that it was his wish that he be allowed to resume his practice and therefore in January of the coming year he will devote his en tire tim e to his law practice. J u dge Holla n d was boru i n B a rtow, July 10 1892, t he s o n of B enj amin F and Fanny V. Holland, and in 1909 graduated from Summerlin Insti tute in that city. y ears later he received his Ph.B. degree from Emory Univers ity, and in 1916 graduated from the Univ ersit y of Florida in law. He wa s princ ipa l of the High Scho o l of Warrent on, Georgia, for two year s and wa s instructor of l'of.atbematics at Emory Summer School. While a student at the State Univ ersity h e taught Latin and mathem atics. Upon his graduation at Florida, he started the practice of his profession in his ho m e city with Mr. R. B. H uffaker; the following year, however, his career was interrupt ed by the World War, and he immediatel y enlisted, holding the rank o f seco n d lieutenant in the Coast A rtiller y ; wa s promoted t o first lie uten an t and l ater to captain. Later, h e was transferred to the a viatio n corps and sa w activ e servic e for ten months, Aying on four ba ttlef ro nts. At the close of the war he was decorated for brave ry, receiving the Distinguished Service Cro ss. He returned to Bartow in 1919, and was appoint ed prosecuting atto rn e y for the the f ollowing yea r bei n g e l ected county judge. H e is a m e mbe r o f the Masonic order, and is a fa ithful membe r of tbe Meth odis t church, being a teacher of the Men's Down-Town Class in the Sunday School. He is a mem ber and ex-president of the loca l Kiwanis Club, and ex-li e utena n t governor of the Florida dist r ic t He also h a s been p resid e n t of the Bartow Cha mber of Comme r ce H e wa s ma r rie d i n Lakelan d February 8, 1919 to Mar y Gro ove r, y ou ngest d aughter of Dr. W. R. Groover a n d Mrs. Mo lli e Knowle s Groover, and they have children: Spessard Lindsay, Jr., Mary Groover, and William Benjamin.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 263 J.A.'lace is shown by the fact that in Democ ratic primary he carried e very county in the State. Mr. and Mrs Hoppe r moved to Lake land in 1925, s i nce which t ime they have been acti ve in every good wor k. Mr. Hoppe r doe s a gene r al law prac tice, and has been quite s u ccess ful. He is a member of the American, Florida, Polk County and Lakeland Bar Associations; president of the Lakeland Kiwanis Club; presi den t of .the Lakeland Cb;unber of Commerce; Chairman of the Salvation

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264 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORlDA Anny advisory board; past commander of Lakeland Pos t No. 4, American Legion, and a member of the board of d irectors of the Rose Keller Branch of the Florida Children's Home Society. He spent fourteen months with the American Expedi tionary forces in France as battery commander in the 20th Field Artillery, 5th Division, taking part in several major engagements and going into Germany with the Army o f Occupation, and now holds the rank of Lieutenant-Colo n el in the Officers' Reserve Corps. Fraternally, he is a Mason, a Shriner and an Elk. He was married in Illinois October 29, 1921, to Nettie Suzanne Jobe, and they have one child, an adopted daughter Dorothy Sue. E. C. HOSFORD E. C HOSfORD, of Lakeland, is one of the leading architects of the State, having des i gned many handsome structures in this section and elsewhe re to bear ou t this s t atement A native o f Cochran, Georgia, he is the son of C. C. and Hettie Belle Hosford, and was born April 24, He atten ded Gordon M i l itary School at Barnesville, Georgia, and graduated at the Georgia School of Technology. He is a represen t ative of an old and distinguished family, tracing his ancestry to pre Revolutionary days. Mr. Hosford began the practice of hi s profession at Eastman, Georgia, among the important jobs handled there being the court house in that town and a t Hamilton. He operated "in Florida for several years prior to his removal to Lakeland. On his frequent visits to the State, he became much enamored of this section, and settled in Lakeland in July, 1920. Mr. Hosford drew the plans for the court house in Bartow, doing this work in 1910 He has designed many important ed i fices including numbers of schools, banks, court h ouses, and business houses, among the latter being the Hartzell, Oates-Corley Smith Hardin and Success Furniture Company's buildings in Lake land. Among the handsome Lakeland home s he designed are those of W. S. Rogers, H. E Pritchett, Ange l o Raymondo and Mrs. George Nelson .Mr. Hosford is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, is a Mason, Elk and a Shriner. He and Alice M. Baker were married in Georgia and they have one daughter, Mildred. R. B. HUFFAKER His record as an educator., lawyer, civic and chu rch worker being one of which any citizen might well be proud R B. Huffaker has, during his 23 years' residence in Bartow, made an enviable position for himself in his community and the county at la rge. He was born at Henry's Cross Roads Tennessee, 28, 1878 son of Abner and Mary Huffaker. He attended th e public schoo ls o f Ten nessee, receiving his higher ed uc ation at Peabody College for Teachers at Nash ville. After a number !)f years spent in teaching he graduated in l aw from the U niversity of Florida. Mr. Huffaker's te aching career included five years spent in teaching in the schools of Tennessee and Georgia and five years as principal of Summerlin lnsti-

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PART U -B IOGRAPHICAL 265 tute, Ba r tow. He came to Bartow in 1905, and in 1911 opened law offices, since which ti me he has enjoyed a lucrative practice, Mr. Huffaker being se n ior member of the firm of Huffaker and Edwards Since taking UP. th e practice of law Mr. Huffaker has served as Prosecuting attorney of the County Court of Polk County for se'en years; i s at presen t attorne y for the Board of Public Ins t ruction for Polk County and has served B artow as mayor commissione r for three and a half years. H e is a di'rector of th e S t ate Bank of Bar tow. M r. Huffaker is a member of the American and State Bar Associations is a Mason and Shrine r and a member of the Met hodis t church. He was married i n Brownwood, Georgia August 8 1904, to Theresa Shackelford. They have four children: Ma ry, Theresa Elizabeth and Robert B., Jr. T. L. HUGHES T. L. HtiGH>:S, who has liv ed in Bartow since March 1 1882, h as the distinc. tion of being the oldest ci tizen, in length of residence, in his community. He was born in the northwes tern part of Georgia, May 8, 1857, the son of Henry and Sarah Hughes, and his education was secured in the schools of his native State. Mr. Hughes can tell many interesting facts regarding the early days of t his section. He has witnessed the building of every h ou se in Bar tow and Lakeland, and was one of the first commissioners of the coun t y, serving from 1884 unti11892 D uring the twenty-five years following his arrhal in Bartow he conducted a mercantile business, which was known as the T. L Hughes Company. He is best known to the present residents of Polk County as a builder of roads, the firm being known as Stidham & Hughes. Among the noteworthy pieces of work done by this company may be named the ma j ority of streets i n Lake Wal es, Lakeland, Wauchula, Tavares, Arcadia and Mount Dcra, the roads from Bartow to Winter H aven and from Bartow t o Lakeland, and a great number in Hillsborough county Mr. Hughes and Jul ia Wil so n were married in Bartow April 23, 1897. They have two chil dren, Augus t us :M. and Katherine (Mrs. T. C. Banks). ULRIC HUGUENIN UI.RIC HuGUJ;NIN was born a t Gadsden, South Carolina, A u gust 9, 1880. H e is a son of Captai n Abram and Leonora C. (Guerard) Huguenin, the former an attorney at law. His mother is a descendant of Jacques Guerard, Lord of Nor mandy who in' l679 brought over a col ony of French Huguenots and was granted a tract o f 4,000 acres of land in South Carolina The Huguenin family owns 800 ac res in Beaufort county which was d eeded the m in 1735. Ulric Huguenin was educated in the public schools of Cha rlesto n and at Clemson college and entered the railroad service under the guidance of his grand uncle, Colonel C S. Gadsden, vice-pr es ident of the A t lantic Coast Line. He came to Lakeland to work with Mr. J. F. Council of Charleston, S. C., former division superintendent of the company, and has been a popular and well-known conductor for the past seventeen years. Mr. Huguenin attends the Episcopal church and fraternally is identified with the Masonic order and the Shrine, and Knight Templar Commandery. He was ma r ried at McCiellansville, South Carolina, June 8, 1909, to Mary Louise Doar. They have one daughter, Mary

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266 HISTORY O F POLK COUNTY, Fl.ORIDA WILL.IS SAMUEL IRVIN W. S. IRVIN, o l dest dentist in years of practice in Lakeland, was b orn in Neosho, Mis souri, October 17, 1875 His parents, John A. and Sarah (Farr) Irvin, were born in Missouri, their ancestors being early settlers of Vi r ginia. Coming to Auburndale in 1884 with his parents, Dr. Irvin a ttended the public schools of the county and in 1900 from the Southern Dental College, of Atlanta, with the degree of D.D.S. In the year of his graduation he established his office in Lak()and s inc e which time he has built up a large an d lucrat ive prac tice Dr. Irvin took s pecial post-graduate work in surgery in Chicago in 1920, since which time he has s pecialized in dental s urgery. Dr. Irviq served for six years as a member of the City Council qf Lakeland, under the old form of gover nment; he is a member of the State and District Denta l S ociety, is an e x -Ro tarian, and is prominently identified with the Order of Elks, having served Lakeland Lodge No. 1291 a s Exalted Ruler and i s als o Past District Dep u ty. Dr. I rvin h.\s always been helpful in matters of civic import and in all things th.\t make for good citizenship. Dr. I rvin was married in l\fay, 1901, to Jessie E. Bailey, of Auburndale. They h.\ve one daughter Maxine, who i s specializin g in music at Ward Belmont College, Nashville, Tenn. DICKSON F. JACKSON D F. jACKSON was born in Cartersv ille, Georgi a January 31, 1901, t h e son of George M. and F l orence A. (Dicker s on ) Jackson. He is a descendant of" Roger Williams, fo under of Rhode Island, and hi s ancestry were Scotch -Iris h His p aternal grandfather was a shipbuilder of Charl eston, while his m other"s fa ther was a prominent physician, giving his services to the cause of the South during the Civil War. Upon the completion of his e ducation, which was acquired at the Georgia School of Technol ogy, Mr. spent one year in Canada; the year following he was with the Southern Cotto n Oil Company and in 1920 he became connected with the Coca-Col a Bo ttling Company, travelin g all Sou t hern States a s an in spector In 1925 he came to Lakeland to assume charge of the local Coca Cola bottling works and under h is the busin ess ha s increased one-third. 1'he o ut putof this concern is 8,000 bottles daily and is dist ributed t o Aub urndale M ulberry, Polk City and Lakel:u1d. l\1r. Jackson is a Rotarian, a Mason and attend s the Presbyterian church. He was married Decembe r 2-t, 1924, to Loraine L Fariss, of Chattanooga, Tennessee, and they have two children, Samuel Fariss and George Dic k son CHARLES W. JACOBS Hav i ng seen Lakeland grow and deve lop and h aving been a factor in its progress for the past 27 years. Charles W. Jacobs has earned well the title of one of the city's fore most cit izens who has don e the co mmunity a great service in assisti ng in the building of its back c o untry. Mr. Jacobs' h ome State is Maryland. but since 1901 he ha s been spending practi call y six m onths of each yea r in Lakeland. during which time he has been

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 267 engaged in the fruit brokerage business. .Until the last year o r tW'o he has delioteCI his attention mainl y to the l)uyiog of Strawberries. transacting a .large of business each year, paying tbe growers spo t cash for their p roduet on the platform. In this way he has been means of distributing thousands of dollars annually to the gro\vers, relieving them of all risk in the sale and distribution of :their frui t He now buys and ships citrus fruits exclusively, operating under the finn name of the Polk County Fruit Company During the summer months he extends his operations to the States of Maryland, New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia and No rth carolina where he each season handles a large amount of f ruit. Besides his attractive home on the sho r es of Lake Hollingsworth, Mr. Jacobs owns other valuable p r operty including a l arge orange g rov e oil C r ystal Lake. Mr. Jacob s is an Elk and a Knight of Pyth ias. He was married t o Sarah V. Heathe r o f Maryland. S. P. JAMES That farming in Polk County may be made to pa)', and pay well, has been clearly demonstrated by S. P. James, one of the largest, if not the l argest, t ruck growers in Polk County. Mr. James came to Bartow twenty-five year s ago, purchased twelve acres of land abou t one mile north of the court house, half of this small t ract' being raw land. The. :follo\ving it was recorded he had shipped his c rops ea rly and received good prices, ma king suc h a s uccess tha t his openitions were mentioned in some of the lea ding papers of t h e State He has gradually ex panded his farmin g and no-,v ownS: 250 acres, of which 125 is piped with Skinner irrigation. His land lies on tl>e Bartow and Winter Haven r oad just out of the city limits oi Bartow, and h e has recently comp leted one o f the finest homes in the county on this property. Cabbage has been hi s chief crop, but he also grows lettuce, pepper, potatoes, to; matoes and other vegetables. Mr. Jame s given much study to proper grading and packing of all vege tables, which has helped him in the succe ssful marketing of all crops in the prin cipal markets over a wide territo ry. In order to facilitate th e proper loading and packing of his produce he has a side-tra ck and packing house adjoinin g his farm from which a s high as four cars per day of his p r oduce i s lo aded. H e has .been mu c h int erested in the agr icultural dev e l opment of the State and has bought and so l d considerable real estate. He is a director of the Po l k County National The subject of this sketch was bom in Gibson, Tennessee, in 18'l'7, the son of Dr. John P. and Sophronia James. He was educated in the schools of his native state, and spent his early manhood in farming at Gibson. Shortly before moving to Bartow, Mr. James and Miss Edna Blackb)lrn married i n Tenne ssee. They have hv o children: Martha, a grad'!ate of the U ni: versity of Tennes see, who is a teacher in the Barto'oi High Sclii>ol; al)cf a who has j itst comp l eted Hig h School. BEN. W. JOHNSON B. \V. JoHNSON, in point o f se rvi ce the o l dest real es tate and insurance man in F ort Mea de, was born January 16, 1 882, In the so n of L. H. and Mary Elizabeth Johnson. His father a nf,tiv( of South Carolina, removed his

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268 HISTORY OF POLK COUN1'Y, FLORIDA family to Fort Meade May 22, 1897 and was a merchant of that city for many years, doing business under the firm name of B W. Johnson & Co .Mr. Johnson received his education in the schools of Micanopy and Fort Meade, and completed it with a course at the Tampa Business college. He entered his father's business, which he conducted for several years after his father's death in 1905; later being with the Palmetto Phosphate Company at T ige r Bay, as paymaster, for two and a half years and with the Compagnie Generate des Phos p!Jates de Ia Floride, a French Company under the management in the United States, of P. Jumeau, until the outbreak of the World War. In 1915, h e established a real estate and insurance business. He represents the .i'Etna, Hartford and other companies, handling all kinds of insurance. In addition, he is agent for the Florida Dynamite Company, selling explosives for agricultural purposes. Mr. Johnson is a member of the Board of C'.overnors of the Exchange Club, and fraternally is affiliated with the Woodmen of the World. He was married in Bartow August 23, 1905, to Miss Leila Dudley. They have two children, Louise D and Carolyn S., both of whom were born in Fort Meade. Coined by him a few years ago, his business slogan, "TALK IT OVER WITH BEN JOHNSON", has beeome well known over his part of the section, many sending mail to him addressed that way. JAMES A. JOHNSON J A. (JIM) JoHNSON, recently elected sheriff of Polk County, is a native of Bartow, born October 2, 1875, the son 0 William H. and Sarah A. JohnsOn. The former came to this section in the early fifties from Tatnall County, Georgia, and was prominent in public affairs. hoiding for fifteen years the office of clerk of the Circuit Court. Jim Johnson was educated in the public schools of Bartow, attended the South Florida Military Institute which at that time was located in his native city. His training for public office has been particularly good, as he assisted his father in the County Clerk's office until 1912, when he himself, was elec ted to hold that office and to be recorder of deeds. He also served on the board of county commissioners, and was auditor for the county. I n addition to his other official duties, Mr. Johnson was. from 1914 until 1921, a deputy sheriff, and during the war served as a member of the Bartow draft board. Any dealings Mr. Johnso n has had with the people in his official capaci t y and as a business man have been marked by honesty, fairness and impartiality His unfailing courtesy and genial manner, coupled with his close attention to any matter of public business, has enabled him to make an env i able record for h imsel f, and that these virtues are appreciated by the people of the county is shown by t he large plurality he received in the electio n held June Gth. He has valuable citrus holdings, and h as also been engaged in the real estate business. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, Kiwan is Club, Knights of Pythias, Elks and Woodmen of the World.

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PART IIB IOGRAPHICAL 269 LUTHER C. JOHNSON L C. JoHNSON, member of an old and promi nent Polk County family, was b
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HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA For several years prior to being chosen by t h e peop le t o take hi s prominent part in the affairs of the county Mr. Jone s wa s e ngaged i n merchandi sing at Auburndale In 1912 he suffered the loss of his store and s tock by fire He rebuilt and re-stocked his store only to be visited a yea r later b y a repetition o! the disaster, another fire wiping out the accumulations of his years of industry. Notwithstanding t hese reverses, sufficient to crush the spirit of the average man, Mr. Jones faced the situation with courage and optimism, and is now regarded as on e of the county's mos t substantial and successful men Werner G Jone s w as born in Gile s County, Tennessee April 24, 1874, the son of J. P. and (Gilbert) Jones, who al so were natives of Tennessee. He was educated in the sc hools of Tennessee and A labama. A t t he age of 18 he came to Florida, engaging in siach work as offered until able to go into bu si nes s on h is own account and in 1905 established at Auburndale the mer c antil e business mention o f which has bee n made. In all his relations, offi cial and business he has so deported himself as to hold the confidence and esteem of his fellowm e n, and h e counts hi s f riends in large numbers in all parts of the county. Mr. Jones was married May 4, 1 898, at Auburndale to.Isa V. Irvin. They have five children, Bernice, Eugene, G l adys, Genevie ve and Myrtle. He is a member of the Presbyteria n church, is a Mason and a Knight Templar. CARROLL D. JUDS O N CARRO!.L D. jUDSON, eminent lawyer and land title s pecialist who liv es in Lakeland, was born in Medina Count y, Ohio April 11, 1867, the son of Horac e and Florence (Rouse) Judson. His paternal ancestors, who were English, settled in Connecticut .in the 17th century; a branch of the family migrated to Canada in 1765, and rem oved. to Ohio early in the 1 9th century. On his maternal side he is of Scotch-Irish descent, his mother's family living in New York before the days of the Rev0lufion. Mr. Judson received his education in the public schools of Ohio and Kansas, and graduated in 1893 from the National U niver s ity of Law, Wash ington, D. C . with the degre e of LL.D. and took his Master's degree in the fol lowing year. Mr. Judson's residence in Florida dates from 1901, when he locat ed a t Jack sonville, where for severa l years he was identifi ed wi t h an Abstract and 1'itle Com pany. Later he practiced law, and in January, 1921, moved to Lakeland to become title and trust officer of the Polk County Trust Company. A year and a half later he resigned, and in 1925 became associated with Ira C. Hopper in the practice of law. The following year they were joined by Ed R. Bentley, and upon the retire ment of Mr. Hopper last year, the firm name became Judson & Bentley. M r Judson has given much of his time and talents to the simplification of the title s y stem and i s known throughout the State as the Dean of the abstract fra terni ty. He h o ld s a life membership in the F l orida Title Associati o n which he helped t o organize i n 19 07, and in the sam e yea r was active in the e s tabli shment o f the Amer ican Assoc iation of Title Men Throu g h the influenc e of th ese or ganiza tions, all abstracts prod uced in this State meet the sev erest tests as t o form, completeness and reliability. M r Judson has also been pro minen t in introducing title insurance in t o Florida.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 271 He marrie d A. Belle S mith at Cleveland O hi o, i n 1 888 They have o n e so n V i rgil Ray, of B arto w w h o s erved with d ist in c t io n i n the navy during the World War. Mr. Judso n was quit e a c tive in l oan d r ives, and was a me m b e r o f the draf t boar d i n Jac k sonville. M r J u dson is a member of the Episcopal church, Excha n g e Club and Order o f Elks. JOHN MILLEDGE KEEN Joa N M. K!N, representativ e of one of the oldest fa m i l ies of Polk County, was born S e p tem be r 2, 186?', about 2 % mile s southwest of the present site of Lake land, and wh ich is now within t h e corporat e limits o f the city. He i s the so n of J es se and Eli z abe t h E K een, who came to Polk County in 1866. Much of t he history of Lakelan d a n d e nvirons is woven ab o ut t h e K een family and M r. K e en' s mother who i s riow in her 83rd year s till liv es nea r Lak eland, enjoying exce ll ent he a lth an d a k ee n mind, her age sitti n g l i g htly upo n her s h o ul d er s. She has nev e r been out o f th e State thoroughly s a tisfied with Florida a n d not caring to e v en visit any other part of the country After attending the schools of Polk County, Mr. Keen taught in the schools for seven years He was in the grocery business for four years, s elling his business to E. G. Tweedell, after whic h he engaged in stock rai s in g and farming on a l a r g e scale. M r. Keen has bee n m uch in the publi c l if e of Lakeland and P olk Co unt y, having ably s erv ed t h e ci ty a s councilman f o r s i x years and was a member o f the B oard of Count y Comm i ssi oners for se ven years. H e s erved in the State Legis lature for four years, of w hich b o d y he was a promine n t and i n flu ential member. M r Keen has seen not onl y Lak el and but the e n tire c o u n t y merge from a wilderne.sS, with no roads, no conveniences, no schools except on e room log struc tures, and in comparing the county as it then was wi t h the Imperial Polk of today, he can have the satisfaction of knowing that in t he develop me n t work that has marked t he years that have gone, he has bad hi s share, and has eve r 611ed a high plac e in the rega r d and esteem of the c itizen s h ip of t he e ntire c ounty. Mr. Kee n w as forst marri e d on A p ril li, 1891 to Eug enia Platt, deceased. Three children w ere bo rn to thi s union Albert Y. a n d L o t tie E., both d eceased, a nd My rtle D. H e married Flo r a F. Trimbl e, September 1 6, 1905 and t hey h ave o n e daughter, E liza b eth." f W KEEN J. W KEEN, life-long residen t o f the coun t y, was born in Fort Meade, May 26, 1 874, the son of Arthur and Nancy (Hancock) Keen. His father, a merchan t came t !l this section f rom Lake C i t y, and for some time was in the employ of James H oo ker, later taking u p a h o mes t ead at Fort Mead e Mr. Keen was reared o n his father's farm, and a tten ded the loca l schoo l s. Upon reaching young ma nho o d, he move d t o Tiger Bay but came back to Fort Meade later wh e r e fo r twenty years he conducte d a mercan til e bu s ine ss. D uring thi s time he wa s a l so engage d in settin g out orange grov e s in tbe F r os t p r oof dis trict, and w h il e his perma n e nt home i s at Fort Meade he li ves in Frostp r oof during t he s hip p in g season.

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272 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA In 1926 Mr. Kee n organized the Highlands Packing Company, of which concern be is president and manager. He owns and controls about 150 acres of bearing tree s, and last year the company shipped 200 carloads of fruit Mr. Keen was also organizer of tbe Frostproof Packing Company. He was a member of the County School Board six years, serving as chairman one term. and is an ex-member of the Fort Meade Board. He was married near Fort Meade to Minnie L. Stephens, representative of an old Polk County family. They have three children: Arthur A., Frostproof; Stephen W., of J.ake Worth, and Evelyn (Mrs. Wade E. Saunders), of Fort Meade CHARLES E. KENSINGER CH ,\Rt-Es E. KENSINGER, lawyer and educator, was born in Hawkin s County. Tennessee, October 2 2, 1875, son of Jame s V. and Anne (Lyons) Kensinger. His great grandfather was a pioneer se.ttler of Tennessee. He attended Emory and Henry College, received his A. B. degree from Southern College, M.A. degree from Cumberland University, and graduated in law from Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee. Mr. Kensinger has s pent the greater part of his life in bettering educational facilities. He taught at Southern College and for a number of years was super vising principal of the Winter Haven School s He may truthfull y be called a pioneer in school methods a s it was during his regime that Home Economi cs, Kindergarten and Dramatic Art were introdu ced. He established the Kensinger Debating Club at the Lakeland High School, and gives a medal each year to the student making the best record in this line. Mr. Kensinger is a Mason, Shriner, K. P. and was forme rly Worthy Patron of the Order of Eastern Star. He is a member of the Methodist church. In 1908 he married Nannie lola Rauler son. They have one daughter, Elva Reta. CARL ALEXANDER KERN C. A. KERN, of the Southern Office Equipment Co., Lakeland, is a native Floridian, born at Apopka, Octo ber 18, 18 94. He is the s on of Louis e Jane Smit h and stepson of Dr. S. F. Smith. :Mr. Kern removed with his parent s to Lakeland in 1907, and attended th-; s chools, including business college of that city. His higher education wa s received at the Georgia School of Technology Mr. Kern represented the L. C. Smith Typewriter Company in thi s seetion prior to opening an Office Supply Company. He later accepted the post of secre: tary of the Clearwater Board of Trade and remained there one year. For a period of six years he was sa lesman for t he Burroughs Adding Machine Company at Jacksonville. Several yea r s ago he launched the splendid business of the Southern Offic e Equipm ent Co., which specializes in office furniture of all kinds, typewriters and in fact everything to be found in a modern business office and in thi s und e r taking he has been quite succ essful. : Mr. Kern is a Rotarian, Scotti s h Rite Mason and i s vice-president of the Lakeland Shrine Club. He attends the Episcopal church. Carl Kern and Laura Agnes Southard were married N overnber 30, 1916, at Lakeland

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PART IIB I OGRAPHICAL A B. KIBL ER A. B. KIBLER i s a No rth Carolinian b y b irth, b orn at La G ran g e Apr il 2 1, 1874. His p a r ent s wer e John :M. and Alice K i b l er. For t he past 21 years Mr. K ib ler an d his twin brot h er, D. B K i b l er, have been associ a ted in busine ss, their operatio n s being on a large scale embracing the phos pbate and citrus industries, in which they have been eminently su=ssful. For many years Mr. Kibler was a leading citizen of Dunnellon, and from that point he conduc te d his pho s phate operatio ns an d other activ ities u n til 191 2, when he became a c it i zen of L akel and. M r K i bler and h i s b ro t her gave to L ak e l a n d it s fir s t large, modern h o t el, i n the Ho tel Kibler l ater k nown a s the T h elma, whi c h they conducted for five yea r s until sold to its p r ese nt o wner s in 1 920. Mr. K ib l er, aside f r o m h i s large i nt eres t s in Ma ri o n C o unty o wn s a n u m be r of line o r ang e grove s in Polk Coun t y a n d h as other valuable pro perty i n Lakeland H e was marrie d June 16, 1903, at Valdo sta, Georgia, to Mat tie Grace Johnson He has s;x children: A. B., Jr., S. B. John M., Louise, Helen and Virginia. DAVID B. KIBLER DAVID B KIBLU, one of Flo rida's l eading phosphate operators f o r many y e a r s, was born-i n LaGra n ge, No rth Carolina, the son of John M. an d Alice Kibler. Mr. Kibl e r b ega n a ve r y active busin ess caree r w h ile y e t a you ng ma n forming a connection with t he P l a nt Sys t e m railroad n o w th e Atl antic Coa s t Line, and it was while in th e e mploy o f thi s compan) that h e ca rne to Florid a, l o catin g i n t he S t a t e 32 years ago. Three counti e s hav e claimed him as a citizen-Citrus, Marion and Polk. In 1907, Mr. Kib l e r e ngaged in the phosphate b u siness on a large scale, in whic h business he and his b r other, A. B. Kibler, bave since been associated the company of A. B. and D. B. Kibler, Inc ., being capitalized at $500,000.00. M r Kibler while retaining large phosphate intere s ts, has retired from a c tive pa rticipa tio n in the conduct of th e business, and for a number o f years has lived in Lake l and, wh ere he enjoys lif e in h i s han dsome home, w h ich g race s t h e eas t s hore o f Lake Hunter Because o f his interes t in his adopted ci t y a n d b eca use of his d e s ir e to ser v e the community, h e accepted the pos i tio n o f City Man a ger in May, 1927, w h ich h e mo s t abl y filled u n til 1928, res igning o n a ccount of ill h ea lt h Prior to his accept a n c e of th i s position he was city commissioner for three months, re s igning to becom e ci t y manager. Mr. Kibler an d hi s brother, A. B. Kibler, built t he Thel m a Hotel in 1 915, and was cond u cted for five years under their ownership, being sold in 1 920 t o H. B. C arter. I t \vas known during that time as the Hotel Kibler. Mr. Kibler is an ex-mem ber o f th e Rotary Club, and frate r nall y i s affiliated with the M a s o ns. He w as marrie d in S o u th Carolina t o L illy J C l a rk. 'l'hey have three children : D. B., Jr., Lucil e (Mrs Herma n Watson). C lara (Mrs S. P. Davis, of Cle ve l a n d, O h io) W. L. KING W L KINe, well known insur ance man of Lakeland, wa s born in Telfair county, Georgia November 25, 1885, the son of William E and Estelle (Dop son) King. His fat her was a No rth Carolinian by binh, his mother a Georgian.

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274 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Afte r graduating from the South Georgia college, Mr: King engaged in railroad work, being first connected with the Atlant ic Coast L ine Rai lw ay at Wilmington, North Carolina later in Jacksonville, coming to Lakeland in 1912 as Chief Clerk to Superintendent J. F. Council. He remained with the railroad until 1919, when he established what i s now one of the leading insurance concerns of South Flor ida the King Insurance Company-and also found ed the : King Bond and Mortgage Company, hoth of which concerns have enjoyed a splendid business He is also secretary of the Florida Machinery and Supply Company. Mr. King is thoroughly interested in all matters of a civic nature, and ha s done much constructive work for his home ci t y. He is a membe r of the Rotary Club, Chamber of Commerce, both Country Clubs, is a l\bson, Shriner, Kni ghts Templar and is P;u;t Exalted Ruler of the Lakeland Lodge of Elks. He was married i n Atlanta, July 26, 1917, to Louise Hare, of Tuskegee, Ala. They have one daughter, Bett)'. MRS. BERTHA F. KNIGHT MRS. F. KNIGHT, efficient postmaster of Bartow, is a native of the county, having been born at Homeland. Her father, Augustus M. Wilson, came to Florida when quite young, in the year 1852. He was a cattle man, farmer and grower of. citrus fruits, and was actively identified with the early development of this section. He was married to Ca led onia Cntm, daughter of J. R Crum, more familiarly known as "Uncle Jim," in his early manhood, and moved to Manatee county when Mrs. Knight was an infant. She was educated in the schools there and Polk county She wasmarried to Frank J. Knight of DeSoto county Three children were born to this union, E. W. Knight of Tampa, Mrs. M. E. Skipper of Sebring and Frank J., J r After the death of Mr. Knight in 1920, she entered the business world, and' for one year was connected with the Polk Coun ty Record as advertising manager, resigning to accept the position as acting Postmaster. I n 1924 she was appointed Postmaster by Coolidge, and is now serving her second t erm in this capaci t y. Mrs. Knight enjoys the highest es t eem of her large circle of friends and of the public ;u; a whole .She handles matters pertaining to her official position as postmaster with skill and dispatch, the office being splendidly managed under her able direction. GEORGE LEE KRAMER GEORGE LEE KRA}lER, whose ability as an architect is w i dely recognized, was born in Akron, Ohio, August 26, 1882, the son of George Washington and Harriett> (Blackman) Kramer. M r. Kramer's ancestors were Scotch an d English, being pioneer settlers of Ohio and In diana.. His father was an authority of natio nal renown on church archite ct ure having during his active career of nearly fifty years des i gned over 4,000 stntctures, the record for an)' architec t. For forty years he devoted his entire time to church architecture, de s igning over 2 000 of th e finest edifices t.n

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 275 t he United State s. He als o published several works on ch urc h architecture, and collaborated with other publications George Lee Kramer, after completing his educatio n in t h e schoo l s of Ohio an d New York Citv, became associated as a partner in the architectural firm of his . father, with studios in the Metropolitan Tower, New York City. Having special ized in chu rch architecture, M r. Kramer, while a member of this firm, assisted ih designing 250 church edifices in the U n ited States, including six in Florida, one ii1 England, China, Jamaica, Australia, a:nd several in Canada. In addition to his arc h itec t ura l career, Mr. Kramer was also connected with the Hanover National Bank of New York City for ten years. Coming to Florida .in 1924, Mr. K ramer chose Winter Haven as a place of residence, buying property and opening arch itectural offices, being associated in business with Homer G Gibbs Among the buildings designed by M,r. Krall)er is the Presbyterian church of W i nter Haven, one o f that city's handsomest edifices. Mr. Kramer i s a member of t h e Chamber of Commerce and the Christian church. He was married in 1907 in New York City to Amelia A Be neke. They have two sons George W ., and Robert L. J. HARRIS LANCASTER One of the earliest residents of the county, and a man whose life has bee n devoted to the interests of his community, is J. Harris Lancaster, of Bartow, who was born in Clinch Coun ty Georg i a, November 27, 1871. His parents, Dav i d C. and Pen elope Lancaster, who were of English descent, removed their family to Polk County in 1873, settling near Fort Meade. D . C. Lanca ster was among the first county commissioners, a m ember of the county schoolboard and a leader in the Baptist church. J. H. Lancaster was educated in a little log school house near the home of his parents, and l ater was graduated from Sum m erlin Inst itu te. He taught school for three years and was assistant pos t master at Bartow for a short time. From 1905 until 1913 he was t ax assessor of Polk Coun t y, and for three and a half years following this service he was connected w i th the State Department of Agr ic ulture Mr. Lancas ter is engaged in the real estate bu siness, has la rge grove interest s and buys and sells fruit. He is a faithful member of the Baptist church, and fraternally is affiliated with the Elks, K. of P., Woodmen and Moose Mr. Lancaster was married at Brewster to Florrie V. Pearce, and they have t hree children, Lamar L., Melba and Lowell H. CHARLES W. LANGFORD C. W. LANGFORD, proprietor of the Langford Drug Co. of Fort Meade, was blilrn in that city, llby 24, 1881, the son of R. C. and Meddie E. Langford. The latter was a native of Geor gia, while the former was from Madison county, this coming here in the early days to engage in f arming and cattle-raising. Mr. Langford received h i s higher education at the School of Pharmacy, Macon, Georgia, and upon his graduation entered tlte Langford Drug Co of which firm he has been active head for the past 21 years. In ad d ition to this

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276 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA business, which under hi s management ha s s t eadi ly grown and pro spered, he has an orange grove and raises s trawberries on a cons i dera ble scale. Mr. Langford is the second vice-president of the Florida organization o f Exchange dubs, is a Mason and a Shriner and a member of tbe Presbyterian chureh. He is an ex-member of the city council, having served one and one-half terms, and is a director of the First State Bank. In 1907 he and his father built the Langford building. He was mar ried at Fort Meade, October 7, 1908, to Anne John son, and they have two chil dren, Richard H. and Mary Elizabeth. CHARLES LARSEN CaARr.!ls LARSitN, Superinte ndent of the Lakeland Light and Water Depart ment is a native of Nebraska, born at Minden, February 28, 1888 His parents, Henry and Christina Larsen, who were born in Denmark, removed to Fort Pierce, this State in 1894. Charles Larsen attend ed t he schools of that commu nity, and was later graduated from th e U ni versity of Florida with t he d egrees o f B. S. and E. E. Upon the completion of his education, Mr. Larsen held various engineering positions He was connected with the Atlantic Coast Ljne and Central of Georgia railroads; the Consolidat ed Engineering Company at Jacksonville and the East Coast Lumber Company. Prior to his removal to Lakeland to assume charge of the Lig-ht and Water Department, he held a s imilar position with the city of Fort Pierce. Under Mr. Larsen's management, the Lakeland plant, which is thoroughly modem, has been p ractically rebuilt. The lighting capacity is given as 9,000 ki lo watts and 6,000,000 gallons per day is th e capacity of t b e water department. Mr. Larsen belongs to th e Blue Lodge and Royal Arch Mason i c bodies, an d is a Knight Templar and Shri ner He is a member of the Florida Engineering Society, also a member of the Chamber of Commerce, and worships at the Metho dist Episcopa l C h urch, So uth. He was married at Starke, Florida, June 26, 1911, to Faye Langford. They have one son, Charl es, Jr. GLENN R. LASSITER GL!INN R. LASSI'I'I!:R was born in Ashboro North Carolina, :March 14, 1896, t h e son of E. C. and l\Iada L. Lassiter. Upon t he completion of his ed u cation, received in the schools of Greensboro, North Carolina he e ngaged in the tex tile business, being secretary of a company in Anderson, South Carolina. He r emained in thi s connection for twelve years, until September 20, 1 925, when h e removed to Lakeland. Mr. La ssiter is manager of tbe rental department of the Mars h all-McLean real estate company, and is an expert on value s in his com munity. He was a seco n d li e utenant in the air service, ballo on division, and spent t hree months oversea s during the World War, mak ing the t rip on a special miss i on for the United States Shipping Boa rd. Mr. Lassiter is a member of the Masonic order and t he Shrine and attends the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He was married in 1924, at Elberton, Georgia, to Frances Mattox.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 277 MILO MORTIMER LEE M. M LEI!, the able and versatile editor of the Wi11ter Havet Chief, was born at Hartwick, Otsego County, New York, January 20, 1864, the son of Morell and Augusta (Robinson) Lee. He was e ducated in the public schools and at Hartwick Seminary, and in November, 1 884, graduated from Eastman's Business College at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. He emigrated to Kansas and in January, 1885, started the first newspaper in Greensburg, that State. Upon th e o rganization of Kiowa County, Greensburg was made the county-seat, and t h e Greensburg Sig..aJ was the first official paper. After ten years at Greensburg, Mr. Lee sold hi s newspaper interests and bought the St. Marys (Kansas) Eagle, which he owned and edited for fifteen years. He served the people of that city as postmaster for thirteen years, holding com missions under both the Cleveland and Roosevelt administrations. He sold h i s paper and res igned as postmaster to come t o F l orida in 1911, at which time he s ettled in Winter Haven, where he established the Winter Haven Chief September 28, 1911, publishing the paper as a daily since September 15, 1924. No man in Winter Haven is more widely esteemed than Mr. Lee. Since coming to that city he has been a great power for good; he has done much for the development of not only his im med i ate section but the entire county and his editorial utterances are always timely and to the point. He has done much for ''linter Haven and its citizenry app recia te him. Mr. Lee is a Knight of Pythias, Odd Fellow, bel ongs to the Order of Red Men and a member of the K. & L. of S. He was married to Kate Welte r at Greensburg, Kansas, june 29, 1892 Five children were born to this union: M. J., editor and owner of the Hai11es City HcraJd; C. L. ; secretary of the Florida Chief Publishing Co., and business manager of the Winter Have" Chief; Mrs Fairfax T. Haskins, of Sebring; Vesta, of Winter Haven, and Mrs. Har old Duggan, of Orlando. JOHN G. LESTER, M.D. ]. G. practicing physicia;, of Lakeland, was born in Kentucky, Feb ruary 27, 1894, the son o f Dr. W. W. and Belle Lester, the former a wellknown practitioner of that section. Dr. Lester g rad uated at the University o f Louisville in 1918 with t he degree of M.D., and became an interne in the Louisville city hospital, which at that time was under government supervision. He remo ved to Bartow in 1919, but has been a resident .of Lakeland the past four years. He conducts a general pract ice and has offices i n the Marble Arcade Dr. Lester is a member of the County, State, American and Southern Medical Associations, an d bel ongs to the Phi Chi liied ic al fraternity. He is a l so a member of the Maso n ic order, the Shrine and the Cleveland Heig ht s Golf and Country Club: He was married to Gladys Patterson in Kentucky. They have two children: Louise and John (Jack) G., Jr. JOSEPH LEVAY For 21 years a merchant of Lakeland, Joe LeVay points wit h pride to the fact that he owns the second oldest business establishment in Lakeland, having with one exception been in business longe r than any ot her firm in Lakeland

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278 HIS'l'ORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Born in London, Mr. LeVay came t o thi s country when he was sixteen years of age. He liv ed in New York City until 1907 when he came to Lakeland and open ed a men's furni shing store in a buildin g on rennessee aven ue just west of ::\1unn Park. From small beginnings he has built up a fine busines s, and ha s a branch store at Haines City, both stores being haberdasheries. Mr. LeVay is a member of the Kiwanis Club, having held various offices therein; is a Knight of P}1hias and an Elk, being Past Exalted Ruler of Lake land Lodge No. 1291. Mr. LeVay ha s always been interested in any forward move, and has done his share in the development of his home city. He was at one time chief of the Lake lan d Fire Department. ASA L8WIS AsA Ll\WIS was horn in Fort Meade, December 27, 1891, the son of W. H. and Sally J. Lewis. When a vt.ry young man be engaged in business with his father, W. H. Lewis. one of the most prominent cattle men of the county. He has also been largely interested in the citrus industr y, owning 72 acres of groves in and about Fort Meade. In 191 9 Mr. Lewis purchased the Fort Meade Hardware Company which he still operates. Although the company has been incorporated Mr. Lewis owns the cont r olling inter est, and is in acti ve c h arge. He is an ex-member of the city commission, and is a member of the school board. He is a consistent worker for the Chamber of Commerce and Exchange Club, and is a member of the Tampa chapter of the Knights of Pythias also mem ber of the Methodist Church and se.rving on t.he board of stewards. Mr. Lewis was married February 6, 1 9 1 7, in Fort Meade to Lavinia Canter, and their children are Margaret, Asa H., and Richard C. A.!. LEWIS A.]. Lv.w1s, Barto w citr u s grower, is a native of Georgia, born in 1863. He is a son of A.]. and Nancy Lewis, the former killed in action during the Civil War. 'Wi th h i s wid owed mother, Mr. Lewis came to Florida in 1877, and was educated in the schools of Hillsborough County. He engaged in farming operations in that section for some time and on October 1, 1890, removed to Bartow In partnership with U. A. Lightsey he established a livery business and later, joined by his brother, W. H. Lewis, the three men engaged in cattle raising, the venture proving quite profitable. Mr. Lewis now confines his business activities to the growing of citrus fruit. :Mr. Lewis served o n the Bartow Council for 6ve years, and was county com missioner for one term. He is a director of the Polk County National Bank, and fraternally is allied with the Mason i c order and Knigh t s of Pythias. Mr. Lewi s wa s married in Hillsborough County to Isabelle johnson, now decea sed. Three children were horn to them : Christine (Mrs. Holtsinger, of Tampa), Daphne (Mrs. M. D. of Bartow), and one son, Walter. Mr. Lewis married Mrs. Ruth Pender at Bartow.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 279 HENRY J. LEWIS H!INRY J. LliWJS, native of th i s county, was born August 10, 1880. His father, A. A. Lewis, came to this sec tion from West Florida and engaged in stock raising, and later in truck farming Candace (Frier) Lewis, 11is mother, was a native o f P olk, as was her brother J R. Frier, who was probably the first white child born in Polk County. Henry J. Lewis was educated at Socrum and received his bus iness training a t Jacksonville, Florida He was connected with the W. J. Carter :Mfg. Co. at Loughman 1900, and later, travelled for Wm. H. Osborne AgenC)', ha ving his headquarters at Tampa. He established a mercantile business at Kathleen, dis posing of it a few years later, then entering into the produce business, and i n 1910 blending this with the real estate business, in 1918 gave his time to real estate ex clusively and in 192 removed to La ke land. While i n Kathleen he served as post master for ten years. Mr. Lewis is in partnership with H. E. Bridges, also one of Polk county's sons, and a general real estate business is conducted by the firm, (Lewis & Bridges), with special attention given to acreage. Mr. Lewis is a member of the National State and Loca l Realtors Association. He was president of the Lakeland Real Estate Association 1926, and is a member of the First Baptist Church and of the Chamber of Commerce. Fraternally, he is identified with the M a sonic bodies, Knights of Pythias and the Elks. Mr. Lewis was married at Kathleen July 9, 1903, to Maude T ucker, eldest daughte r of Rev. J. W. Tucker. They have one son living, Joseph A. W. H LEWIS W H. LEWIS, of Ft. :Meade, pioneer res i dent of the county, was born in Georgia, Sept 2, 1859. His father, who was a member of the Georgia Regiment, died during the Civil War. With his mother, Mr. Lewis came to Florida in 1873, settling near Keysville, in Hillsborough county, \vhere he engaged in farming. I n 1883 he came t o Fort Meade, where he has since lived. H e was one of the pioneer cattlemen of Polk county, and for many years was engaged in the cattle business with U. A. Lightsey, the firm name being Lightsey & Lewis, and they bought and sold cattle and shipped to all se ctions of the country. :Mr. Lewis and Mr. Lightsey also c onduc ted a large livery stable at Ft. Meade and Bartow and their 180-acre orange grove near Frost proof was one of the finest groves in Florida. These gentlemen have disposed of their interests, and are now enjoying the fruits of their labors, having made a re markable success in their large undertakings. Mr. Lewis has been prominently identified with city and county affairs, having served on the City Council and City School Board of Ft. Meade, been a County Commissioner, and was a trustee of the bond issue which position he still holds. He was a member of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, being one of the first members appointed on the board by Governor Hardee. Mr. Lewis is a devout member of the Methodist church. He was married at Homeland, Fla., N o v 17 1887, to Sally J. Singletary. To them eight children were born. Six of them are still liv ing: Mrs. C. L. Morrison of Lake City, Asa

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280 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY. FLORIDA Lewis of Ft. Meade, M r s R. I. Harris of' Purit.a. Gorda, Mrs. H. M. Wiggin s of Lak e Wale s Jame s H. Lewis and V.irgi nia J.;ewls,. whb are still living at home. . U . A. LIGfl;TSEY . U. A. LICHTSr.v, long a prominent arid' influential citiz.en of Polk County was bom io DuPont, GeOrgia, F ebruar y 8, 1860;the son of q. B. and Sarah Lightsey. For the past sixty Yell!'$ !le had been a residel'lt of t he county, having settled a t Fort Meade with his pare n ts in when a lad of but' efght yea r s. His dea t h, which occurred at his home in. Bart ow, May,, l928, brought the deepest' sorrow to h undr eds lhrougbciut the cpunty. : Mr. Ligh tsey wa s ed ucated in the schools of Polk Coun ty. Until he attained his majority ; h e w orke d in liis father!s mercantil e establislimen t at Fort Meade but being of an indepen dent nature, he then we11t in t o the catt le business, with no O u tsid e finan cia l assistance-merely deP,ending on his own efforts and energie s tO attain succe ss. How well he succeeded is illustraied by the fact that for years h e was known as the j:at tle king o f Polk County, owning. thousa nd s of head of ca ttle throughOut South F l orid a. In this business he was associated with W. H. Le wis, of Fort Meade. . .'. Mr. Lightsey ,l!ved at Fort Meade f r om 1887 until 1 893. In 1894 he mo ved to Biirtow where he engaged in the livery stable business for five or six years, his being an iinP,ort.ant .one' in those early days, and the largest of !he kind in .Afte r disposing of the livery b u si ness he .devoted his entire time to his cattle intere sts, but later sold these and h,ad retired from active bu s in ess for som e time prio r 'to his death. Mr. Lightsey was a director of tl)e P.olk Coun t y National Bank ; a member of CitY Council; served Tax Assessor of Polk Coliri t y frrim 1885 thro u gh 1886, and Poll< Cou nty i n the Legislature in 1887""'-.tbe last y ear the county had but one He was a de\fout membet' of tbe Methodist chutc b ; He was mal"''ied a t Bartow to Helen Wilson : They had two children: ]. Carlisle, a re sident of Bar tow, and L T. F.' Alexander) . ioiiN iocAN : . . . . . . . No man \n Polk CountY. ever made a more env iable record in publi c ofl)ce than di d the late J o h n Loga n for s ixteen sheriff of the c o imty and .one of its finest citizens; wtio!e worth was appr ecia ted by tl1e.courit y as a whole, to the hi ghest degree. . . Mr. Logan w:ts bom at' Da '(is Creek Alabama, August 3 1 18'12. His father, Ellis Logan was a fa. rrper, aqd for m:;ny years sh erlff of COOsa cOunty, A l abama After securing his educatio n .in the schoo l s of Alabam a, Mr. Logan left home at the age o f tw ent) years, goiri g west. "He liyed for two yea rs in Indian Territory, working on a ranch He then reui rned h ome to sta y for a while, later going to Lake l and Florida during t he Spanish-Ameri ca n War, and again return ed h ome in the year 1898. In the year 1900 he. wa s appointed Census Enumerator of the Sixth District of A l abama, holding this office until t h e yCjlr 1901, when h e went to Tuscal oosa, Alabama. There he was made foreman o{ a large farm and re mained for two yearS.. 'Hi fie to Elizabeth L yles of . .

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 28 1 Tuscaloosa, Alabama and came to Lakeland, Florida with his bride to re s ide, Mr. Logan worked for two years as a carpenter in La keland, and was later made Chie f of Police, ser vin g three years. From that office h e s tepped into the lar ger sp h ere of sheriff, which position he filled with such universal s atisfaction that he cou ld have retained the office indefinitely had he so desired. A t the end of sixteen years of splendid service, however, he retired on account of his healt h having held office longer than any other official in th e his t o r y of the county. He was fearless as any man who ever lived, yet gentle as a \\oman, and k ind to e very livin g thing He rarely carried a gun or weapon of any kind yet it is a matter of recor d that when he went after a criminal he got him, and with the minimum of display of authority. Ii was through hi s coo l-headedness in several Ins tance s that made him widely known, not only in Florida but also through out the S tates. The county has had all too few John Log-.1ns. His influence will l ong be felt; his memory will be cherished by th e hundreds of warm friends who loved, admired and esteemed him one of the finest characters the county has ever kn own, and whose conduct of the important office he so long filled was so satisfactory as to be above reproac h. Mr. Logan died September 4, 1 926, and is mourned b y his wife an d five chil dren, namely : Nila (Mrs. J. H. Streator), of Gainesville; Shasta (Mrs. Roy Thomp son), of Eagle Lake ; John; Clayto n, and Betty Mr. Logan wa s a Mason,-Eik, Shriner, Knight of Pythias, and an Odd Fellow. A year before h .is death he built a fine hoine on beautiful Eagle Lake in the midst of a ten-acre oran ge grove and farm, his fami l y riow reside. ROGER BiARE LYL.B R B. LYLE, citrus growe r realtor and representative o f an old Polk county fami ly, was born at Bartow December 30, 1886, the son of William B. and Annie Laura L y le His parents we re from Tennessee, and after their arrival in t his section, W. B. Lyle became a grower of citn1s fruit. Mr. Lyle was educa ted at Bartow, and at the Florid a Agricultural College at Lake City, this in sti tuti o n now being a pa1t of the S tate Uni ,ersity. During the World War he served nine mon ths as First Lieutenant in the 3 1 st Division S ince 1923 he bas held the rank of Major i n the Florid a National Guard, and is in command of the 2nd Battalion of the 116th Field Artillery. Mr. Lyle ha s been a realtor since 1910 specia l iz ing in acreage. He ha s ora nge g r oves throughout the county totalling over 100 acres of bearing trees. He belongs to the Kiwanis Club American Legion, 40 and 8, Shrine, and and Protective Order of Elks. He was married at Lake City, Flo rida December 24 1902, to M amie Irvine and they have one child, Abbie Laura. .. WILLIAM P. McDONALD VI'ILLIAM P. M cDoNALD, whose rise to financial affluence and poston has been phenomenal and who is now rated as a milli o naire, started his busines s car eer as a newsboy on the streets of Tenafly New Je r sey. F r om the lower rung of the l adder to the t op, his rise has been marke d by a long series of accomplishm ents and achievement s, based on the highest grade of serv i ce, his ability to choose able

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282 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA assistants who would carry out his orders to the le tter, an d his ambition to give absolute value, dollar for dollar, in any undertaking entrusted to his firm. : Mr McDonald was born in Tenafly, New Jersey, September 4, 1880, the son of Patrick and Mary Cullen McDonald, both of whom were born in Ireland Edocated in the Cat holic schools of New Jersey, Mr. McD onald's first bus i ness activity as a young man, was with the American Express Com pany, as a delivery man. From that work he stepped i n to the r oad contracting business in 1898, and for th e past thirty years has been engaged in this work, building up one of the largest contracting firms in the United States. Contracts handled by the W. P. McDonald Co m pany in P olk County alone total $10 ,00 0,000, in addi tio n to which they have done a vast amount of roa d buildiiig i n New J ersey, New York, Georgia and at various points in F l orida. The ma i n offices of the compan y are at Flus h i ng, New York, their Florida headquar ters being l oca'ted at Lake l and, where the concern occupies a suite of nine offices in the Ma r ble Arcade. Mr. McDonald i s president of five other large concerns: the McDonald Mort gage & Rea l ty Company, of Lake.Jand, owners of Biltmore Park, one of Lakeland's exclusive sub divis ion s, where many of the city's finest homes are l ocated; the McDonald Development Company, of Flushing, New York, which concern owns the docks at Flushing; the Consolidated Ro c k .Company wh i ch h as a large plant at Brooksville ; the Macaspha lt Co., of America, and the Macasp halt Co., of F l orida. Maca s pha l t is a road material perfected by Mr. McDon;old, which can be laid without being heated, and is taking the p la ce of asphalt io much of the r oad build ing now being done. Mr. McDon ald is also chairman of the Board of Conso lidated Quarries Corporatio n of Atlanta, Georgia. In addition to his l ong list of triumphs in the road construction busines s, none have b r ought him the wide acclaim tha t attended his recent supreme achievement in refinancing the State Bank of Lakeland, preventing that insti t ution from dosing its doors and th us saving thousands of dollars for the people of the Lake l an d sect ion. This bank, which is now known as the Lakeland State Bank & Trust Company, is largely owned b y M r. McD ona ld who is president of the institution, and whose entrance into the financial circles of Lakeland has p ut the ban k ing busi ness of that city on a thorough l y sound and stable basis. Mr. McDonald is a member of the Queens Boro ugh Chamber of Commerce, the La k eland Chamber of Commerce th e American Road Builders' Association the Lakeville Golf and Country Club, th e New York Athletic Club, and fraternally is affiliated with the E l ks. He was m arried at Tenafly, New Jersey, to Mary Langan, and t he y have three children, Ruth E., Grace E., and Hazel .M. The family spend the winters in Lakeland at their handsome home on Lake Hollingsworth Road, one of the show places of this section, the summer season being spe nt at the home i n Flushing New Y ork. D-R. WALTER NOBLE McKAY DR."' N. McKAY, prominent dentist of Winter Haven, Florida. was born at Indianola Iowa, January 7, 1856. His father, Charles M cKay, was clerk of the Circuit Court of Warren County for 12 years, and in 1882 was appointed

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PAR'l' II-BIOGRAPHICAL 283 Registrar of the United States for the Postoffice Board. He held the latter office for a period of 35 years, returning to his home, Indianola, Iowa, until last year when he died at the age of 99 years. Dr. l\kKay graduated from the Northwestern Dental College of Chicago in 1893, taking honors in a class of 42 in crown and bridge work. The graduates from this school now admitted to practice th r oughout England without further examinations. An upper bridge made by him, the first full bridge to be con in t he institution, is on exhibition in Berlin. It was the talk of the college as well as Berlin, for it was said "such work could not be done." From the time of his graduation until 1913, Dr. McKay practiced dentistry in DesMoines, Iowa, and during 15 years of his residence there cared for the teeth of orphan children in the Home for Friendless Children, free of' cl-gs, while Mrs. McKay gave talks on "Care of Children's Teeth" once a month and supplying these children with tooth brushes, tooth pas t e and tin cups. D r. McKay has practiced his profession at Winter Haven since 1913, and makes specialty of crown, bridge work, metal plates, also pyorrhea of gums. He is a member of the National and State Dental Associations. W. N McKay and Louise Richey were married at Chicago, Illinois, on July 4, 1886, and they have one son, Lawrence, a florist of Philadelphia, Pa., who is a veteran of the World War, honorably discharged. Dr. McKay is member of t he Congregationa l church. The Doctor has an enviable practice in his home ci t y, respected by all. Dig nified in bearing, careful in treatment of patients, he is acknowledged one of the most progressive dentists in the State. LOUISE NOBLE RITCHEY McKAY LOUISE Nosl.ll Rtrcnex McKAY was born in Franklin, Indiana, August 20 1867. She graduated from high school and college, and married Dr. W. N. McKay of Indianola, I owa, and is the mother of one son, Lawrence Noble Ritchey McKay Mrs. McKay came to \Vinter Haven in 1914 and early took an act ive part in civic affairs, one of her first activities was what she characterizes as "clean-up" day for the schools. She has ahyays taken an interest in the Republican party and has recently been selected as sta t e committee woman to organize a "Hoover Club" in Winter Haven. ANDREWS. McKILLOP ANDREW S. McKILLOP was born in G l asgow, Scotland, in 1866 and with his mother and brother came to this country when a small child. The family settled in Georgia, and Mr. McKillop lived in that State until he was 21 years of age \Vith Senator J J. Swearingen, he came to Florida in a covered wagon, and located at Homeland. Mr. McKillop was manager of the commissary of the Palmetto Phosphate Co. from 1900 until1907, when he es t ablished his permanent home at Mulberry. For many years he was engaged in the mercantile business, and now has an insurance company.

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284 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. McKillop is prominent in financ i al and civic circles of his community. He erected the first brick business building in Mulberry, and own s a large number of small houses in addition to his home. Mr. McKillop has been mayor or a member of the city council for 20 years, an d served as school trustee for a long period. He is vice-president of the Bank of Mulberry, and a member of the Bu siness Men's Club. Mr. McKillop and Jennie Wilson were marr. ied at Homeland. They have one daughter Mrs. Herbert F. Gaines, of B irmingham,Ala., who was born in Mulberry. HART McKILLOP One of the youngest, and by concensus of opinion, ohe of the most able mem bers of the leg'al fraternity of the county, is Hart McKillop, of Winter Haven. He was born at Homeland, Florida, October 20, 1901, the sori of James H. and R?sa Belle McKillop, who have made their home at Homeland for 42 years. Mr. McKillop received his higher education at the -Georgia School o f Tech nology and the University of Florida. At the former schoo l he took a two-year engineering course and graduated at Ga;nesville in 1922 with an LL.B. degree, one of the youngest men to comple t e the law course in the history of the University. The same year he graduated he opened offices at Clearwater, with G. Wayne Gray, under the firm name of McKillop & Gray. In 1923 he removed to Winter Haven, and after practicing alone two years, formed a partnership w ith W. H Hamilton. Outstanding among the achievements of Mr. McKiUop is the Fl<;>rida Southern Abstract & Title Company, which he organized in 1924. This company, which has a capital of $100,000, has its main office in Winter Haven and branches at Bartow and Lakeland. Before the organization, Mr. McKillop made an extensive study of all Abstract plants in t he United States, and the Florida Southern is unusually modem and complete. Title insurance for the New York Title & Mortgage Company is handled by this firm. Mr. McKillop has, for several years, been a member of the Board of Gov ernors of the Chamber of Commerce, and is past-president of the Exchange Club. He is a member of the Masonic Order and Shrine Theta Chi college fratern ity, and the American, County and State Bar Associations. He was married at Bartow November 27, 1923, to Marie \'\Tilson, who died .March 20, 1927. ANGU S BENJAMIN McLEAN A. B. McLEAN, one of the l a rgest t r uck growers in the co unty and a real developer of this section wa s born in Robinson County N orth Carolina J u ne 12 1864; he i s the son of Archer and R ebecca McLean, the former a veteran of the Civi l War. Mr. McLean was educated in the schools of his native State, and when a young man moved to Georgia, where he was a turpentne operator. He came to Bartow in 18 99, and for some time followed his first line of work. Teo years ago he became interes t ed in commercial t rucking, and he now has a 290-acre farm between Bartow and Lakeland, 150 acres of which are under culti vation, 90 acre s of which are irrigated. Mr. McLean's business ability is unquestioned; that is clearly demonstrated by the up-to-date methods employed by him in conducting his farn1ing operations.

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PAR1' II-BIOGRAPHICA L 285 During t he winter months cabbage is grown in enormous quant i ties, and in the spring and summer the land is plan ted to com and sweet pota t oes wit h gratifying results Mr McLean was marrie d at Uma tilla, Flor i da, to Annie Shelton They have four children: Don ald, Mary, Ruth and Benjamin Mr. McLean is a director of t he Polk County National Bank and worships at the Methodist church. E. L. McLEAN E. L. "Roy" McLEAN was born at Bordeaux, South Carolina April 8, 1879. He is a son of S. S. and Ali ce E. McLean, who moved their family to Bartow in 1893, where Mr. McLean owned an orange grove : E. L. Mcl.ean removed to the Winter Haven section in 1896 He grew to matoes on a large scale for some years, and in 1900 set out an orange grove of 25 acres At this time he and his brother own _more than 100 acres of bearing trees. Mr. McLean was engaged in the mercantile business about fourteen years, but has since disposed of this business. During the World War he was Supply Sergeant at the balloon school at Omaha, Nebraska, and at this time is Master Sergeant of the 116th F i eld Artillery and past Commander of the Winter Haven Post American Legion. Mr. McLean is particularly prominent in Masonic work. He is a 32nd degree M ason, Scottis h Rite, and in 1913 was Master of the Winter Haven lodge, and is a charter member of Egypt Temple, Tampa. He was one of the organizers and was first Worthy Patron of the local order of Eastern Stars. Mr. McLean assis t ed in the organization of the American National Bank ; o f Winter Haven, and is a director of this institution. He is a member of the Cham. ber of Commerce and the Presbyterian church, serving as elder for many years. He was married to Eva Maddox at Tampa June 17, 1922. GEORGE J ,'-fcNAMEE GEORGE J McNAMEE, office manager of the Armour Fertilizer Company at .Bartow, is a native of Chicago, I llinois, born May 6 1887. Fo ll owing the completion of his preparatory education, which he received in Chicago, Mr McNamee was a studen t at Notre Dame U n iversity for three years. He has been connec t ed w i th Morris & Co. many years first in Chicago, l ater being transfe rred to A tl anta, Georgia, where he was office ni anager of the Morris Fertilizer Works H e came to Bartow i n 1924 to assume charge of the company s office t here, this bei n g short l y after the merger of the Armour and Morris companies. Mr. McNamee is prominent in governmental affairs of Bartow, being city treasurer and collector 'auditor, clerk and ex-officio tax assessor He was ap pointed to these offices in July, 1925 He is a member of the Chamber of Com merce. He was married in 1906 to Ei l een D. S t reet, of Chicago. '!'he y have two ch il dren, Geo rge, Jr. and Jame s M. W. D. McRAE One who ha s seen Pol k County grow from sm all begi n nings i s W. D McRae who has lived in t his section fort y-five years, and done muc h of a constructive

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286 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA nature. He was born in Chesterfie l d, Sout h Carolina, in 1858, the son of E. H. and Mary Ellen McRae ; the former was killed i n the War Between the States. Mr. McRae attended the public schools of his State and later became a farmer. Coming to F lori da in 1882, Mr. McRae was connected with the railroad at Sanford, but removed to Fort Meade the following year, making the trip in a covered wagon. Several months later he came to what is now Lakeland, where he was quite active in the upbuilding of the community. He was a m ember of the o l d Town Council, and was one of the first tru stees of Lakeland. He started work as a carpen t er, later becoming a contractor. He f ollowed t his line of work for many years, until failing eyesight caused him to retire. He was also prominent in the mining of phosphate, being connected with Mr. H. E. Memrninger. He was the contractor for six phosphate p l ants in which Mr. C. G Mernrningeiwas interested, inclwling the one at Coronet. Among the noteworthy structures he built in Lake lan d are the Munn and Memminger homes on East Orange street, the Bryan t building and th e Loyal and Eureka hote l s Mr. McRae was one of the organizers of the State Bank of Lakeland, the oldest financial in-titu tion of the ci t y, and was a director for a l ong space of time. He is a life-long mernber of t he Methodist church and fraternally is connected with t he Benevolen t and Protective Order of Elks and the Woodmen of the World Mr. McRae and Lulu Annie Cason (deceased) were married in Chesterfield, S.C., and their children are Dr. Earl e H. : McRae and W. V. McRae of Tampa; Estelle (Mrs. T. I. Woods), Rose Aileen (!\Irs. Harr)' Hillden), and HenrY,, Mr. McRae has many other relatives in the city, about 75 of thi s family making their in Lakeland. . A: T. MANN A. T. MANN, a resident of Bartow for the past 61 years, and one of the county's leading citizens, was born i n Brooks County, Georgia, in 1863, the son of A. V and Georgia E. Mann. Mr. Mann was the son of a doctor, and with his pare n ts came to Florida in 1866. The fami ly loca t ed at Tampa where they remained u n til the following year, when they removed to Bartow. The sub j ect of thi s sketch has been an important factor in the development of Polk County, and has taken a prom ine nt part in its affairs, having served as county commissioner for the past fifteen y e ars, and for the past eight years has been chairman of the Board. Mr. :Mann, in t he early days, engaged in the cattle b u si ne ss on a large scale. From 1894 until 1911, a period of seventeen years, he was in this business at Fort Myers. In the latter year he returned to again make Bartow hi s horne, contin uing in the cattle business, in addition to which he owns a number of fine orange groves in various parts of the county. He owns a 1,730 -a cre at Madison, Florida, and has other large hol dings including his fine home place of 395 acres just south of Bartow. When Mr. Mann first settled in Ba11ow there were on l y 75 voters in the county. \'Vhen he first became county commissioner hi s salary was $2.00 per year, the salary of this office now being $2,400. Mr. Ma n n is a member of the Methodis t church. He was married at Madison

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 287 Florida, to Pau line W. Coffee. They hav e five children: Tappin Coffee, Myra (ll.-tension s t aff of the University of Florida and the U. S. Department of Agricu lt ure cooperating; Professor of Science, Wes ley College, Greeuville, Texas; Assistant Professor of Biology at A. & M. College of Texas; Professor and Director of the Department of Rural Arts in the College of I ndustrial Arts at Denton, Texas. He later served as I n s tructor of Floricul ture. and Ornamental Horticulture at Cornell Universi t y. These years of preparat ion and teaching have eminently fitted Mr. Manning to be the head of a successful florist and landscape company and when he came to Lakeland September 2, 1924, he established the Manning Floral & Landsc ape Co., which is one of the leadin g of the kind in South Florida. Mr. Mimning hold s mem bership in the Society of American Floris t s and Ornamental Horticult urists a nd The Florists' Telegraph Delivery Association. Mr. Manning is a Mason, Elk, member of American L egion, Kiwanis Club, Cleve land H eights Golf and Country Club, and th e Baptist Church. .Mr. Manning was married August 19, 1919, to Janie Stroud, of Lakeland. They have one son, Edmund Mitchell, Jr. H. A. MARKS H A MARKS, who has lived at Winter Haven since 1899, was born at Sal em, Massachusetts, July 21, 1861, and is the son of John B. and Rebecca Haw thorne (Perkins) Marks, the latter naf11ed for Nathaniel Hawthorne. Mr. Marks is descended from an old and distinguished family, who settled in Massachusetts in 1686. Although 77 years of age, Mr. Marks has the appearance of a man of sixty or less and attributes this fact to the healthful climate of Florida. After graduating from the schools of Lynn, Massachusetts, Mr. Marks engaged in t he coal, shipping and dredgiog business in that city. Prior to his removal to Florida he spent one year at M emphis and three years a t Bethlehem, P ennsylvania. On coming to W inter Haven Mr. Marks raised a grove from the seed up and lived th ereon ei g hteen years. In 1918 he established the Winter Haven Wagon Works, the business consisting of two shops, one at vVinter Haveo, the other at Lake Wales. He ha s since disposed of these interests, and has retired from active business.

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288 HTSTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Mark s wa s a member of the Board of T ru s tees of the P ublic Library of the City o f Lynn for twelve y ea rs du rin g whkh time the library i n creMed it s volumes from forty t housand to more than one hundred tho u s an d He was also ;o member of the Board of Ald ermen o f the city, and in 1892 was elected a delegate 'to the N ati onal Democratic Convention held in Chicago. H e is a member of the Masonic Fratemiry including the Scottish Rite and Shrine bodies. . He. was married June 21, 1899, at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, to Annette M. Butler . Mr. Marks has been married twice his first wife h a ving been Carrie : Louise Spinney, who died in 1 89 4 He had one so n by t h is marriage, Irving S. Marks who marrie d He len M. Koplin, daughter of George E Kopli n, o f Winter Haven. THOMAS L. MARQUIS A builder lit e r a ll y and figuratively-:T. L. Marquis was responsible for much of the substan t ial growth of Bartow; h e identified himself with the community life, and at one time, was regarded as one of the most prominent men of affairs in Bartow . He died in that c.ity Dettmber 22, 1 920. Mr. Marquis was born in Tuskegee Alabama, June 16, 1863, the son of Georg e an d Mary B. (Fitzp atrick) Marquis. The former was a native of the State of Ohio and wa s a well-known lawyer in Alabama and Florida, remov ing .to Milton in 1868, where his son received hi s preparatory education The latter later graduated from the B usiness College o f At l anta, Georgi a. T L Marqui s wa s one o f ,the earliest resident s of Bartow, and with his b rother L J. Marquis, CJid much building and co nstruction work, being one of the first to erect bulldinis in Bartow. They also did railroad construction work on a large scale. .Mr. Marqnis built an d owned the Dixie Opera House which, hOwe v er isnot now in use. . Mr. Ma rquis was wed to Sarah Ree ves in 1912 at Barnesville, Georgia, and one child, Sarah was born to this 11nion. Mr. Marquis was a faithfu l membe r .. of th e Presbyterian cliu rch : . : (J(J y ,p; -MARTIN GuY. F . MARTIN owner of t he Fren ch Dry Oeaning estab lis hment ot Lakeland ',' was bOrn 'in Veede r s burg, Ipdiana, June 21, 1876, the son of Luciu s G. and Alia M. (FQster) Martin His p aternal gra,"dfather was fr o m Ireland, while his JjlOther's father was Scotch, and tbey were early settl ers in the Hoosier State. Mr. Martin wa. s educated in the scpoo!s of Attica, Indiana, and for twenty years was an accountant in that city, and in Wheeling, West Virginia. For three years P.rior to h is removal to Florid a he was e ngaged in the auto accessory busi ne5s.and assistant agent Mutu al B enefit Life Insurance Co. in Dan ville, Illinois. In Mr. Martin and his fam ily established their h ome in Lakeland, and o rganized their p resent business, which ha s grown rapidly and substantially. He is a member o f the First Chur ch of C hri st Scie n ti st, and i s a Mason. From 1906 until 1909 h e wa s connected with the Republ ican Central Committee of Ir diana. and the war was active in Li!>erty Loan work at Wheeling He wa s June.l4,. 1S99, in -Attica, fndiana, to Pearl R. Robinson They have one daughter, Mary Margar,et.

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PAR'r TIBIOGRAPHICAL 289 EUGENE CARTER MASON Euc&NE CARTER MASON, vice-president and ge neral manager of 11Iammoth Groves, Inc., wa s born in Oakland, I llinois, February 22, 1897, the son of Walter Augustus and Grace (Ca rter ) Mason and th e grandson of Lorenzo D. and C lara ( Norton ) Carter. He attended the Gilman School for Boys in Baltimore, and lat e r graduated from the University of Chieago with the degree of B. S. For some time there after he was a corporation tax accountant in Chieago, later in West Virginia as a consulting tax expert f o r s everal bitumin ous coal compa nies, and before removing to Florida was in Indianapolis as a war and ex cess profit tax expert. In addition t o his interest in the Mammoth Groves Company, he has inves ted heavily in many other projects in and about Lake Wales. During the war he was stat ioned at Camp Pike, Arkansas, as a First Li eute n ant in the Seventh U. S. Infa ntry and is a member of the Amerian Legi on. M r Ma so n and Ann Robinett were married in Little Rock, Arkan sas, June 4, 1919 They have three chi l d ren: Genevieve Ann, Grace Marjorie and Robert Clifton. MRS. CATHERINE (FUNK) MAULTSBY Active in the business life of Lakeland for the pas t 23 )'ears, Mrs. Catherine (Funk) Maultsby ha s a record of achievement of which an)' man might well be proud. Mrs. Mault sby wa s born Charlotte North Carolina, June 30, 1 893, the daughter of Claren ce S. and Mary Virgini a S lifer Funk. She is of German, French and Swis s descent. Her grandparent s were from West Virginia and her father was a veteran o f the Civil \Var. Coming to Lakela nd in 1904 with her parents, Mrs. Maultsby attended the Lakeland High School, and in 1909 accept ed a position in the law offices o f J oh n S Edwards a s s t enographe r. Her main bu si n ess ca reer opened in 1910 when she beeame the efficient secre tary to Supe.rintendent J. F. Council of the Atlanti c Coast Line Railr oad Company She held this position fo.r fifteen years, until th e r etir ement of 1\I.r. Council when she severed her connection with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company for the purpose of assisting in the establishm ent of the Live Wire Realty Company, in which compan y she se rved as officer, being secretary and treasurer of the o rgan ization Her associate s later so ld their interest to Mrs. M ault sby, and at the writing of thls history she is now the sole owner and operator of the Live Wire Rea lt y Company. In addition to her real estate undenakings, she is also representing the foll owing fire insurance companies : Hudson Insurance Company, Royal Exchange Assurance Lafayette Fire Ins urance Compa ny and Gua rant y Fire Insurance Com pan)', as well as representing the Fidelit y and Deposit Compa n y of Maryland a nd the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the U nited States. Itwas while in the emp lo)' of the railroad th a t Mrs. Mau lts by, then Catherine Funk met her husband, Augustus Steel Mault s b y, y ardmaster for t he A. C. L. Railroad Company at Lakeland. They were married December 19, 1926. Mr .Maultsby saw activ e se rvice abroad in the World War, haviog been stationed for two years at Brest in ihe transportation service with the 106th Engineer s

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290 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA JONATHAN MAXCY JONATHAN MAJCCY, prominent banker of Frostproof, was born December 25, 1884, at Columbia, South Carolina. His father, James Gregg Maxcy, came tO Florida many years ago, locating first at Lakeland, later at Mulberry, and i n 1905 he removed his family to Frostproof. Mr. : Maxcy attended the Lakeland and Mulberry schools, and h i s educa tion completed, he engaged in the phosphate business, being connected for twenty-four years with the Palmetto Phospha te Company, now the American Agricultural Cor poration. He was mining foreman, and when he left the company ten years ago he was the active head of the plant. His rise t o t his place of respons ibility came through years of well-directed effort and interest Mr. Maxcy stating that during most of the 2 4 years he was with the company he. was on the job twelve hou rs daily. Fo r the past eight years Mr. Maxcy has been a leader in the financial and civ ic circles of Frostproof, being au organize.r and director of the Citizens Bank of Frostproof one of th e strongest banks in the county, and since the death ofT. C. Banks, has served as the institution's president In civic matte r s, Mr. Maxcy has been a recogni z ed leader having for t he pa s t eight years served as a member of the city council, being at th i s time pres i de nt of t his body. He is a member of the Rotary Club, a Mason and a Shriner. He wa s married at Fort Meade to Viva B. Tillis, a member o f one of the county's oldest families 0 C. MAXWELL 0. C. an ab l e lawyer of the county, was born in N ebra ska H e attended the public sc h ools of his home State later graduating from tile Uni versity of Nebraska with the degree of LL.B. He practiced law at Omaha, and repre se nted the Union Pacific railway and other large corporations while engaged i n h i s profession th ere. Mr. Maxwell came to H ai nes City in 1925, si nce which time he has taken an ac tive part i n civic affairs, being at the presen t time president of the .Haines Cit y Chamber of Commerce. For two years-M-. Ma xwell was in partnership with R. T Dewell but for the past year has had as his partner Luther '\V. Cobbey, the two maki n g a strong firm and one enjoying an excellent prac tice. Mr. Maxwell is a member of the A. T. 0. and P hi Delta Phi fraternities H e was mar r ied at Haine s City to Louise Leek. GEORGE D MENDENHALL GIOORGII D. MENDENHALL was born at Mobile, Alabama, January 12, 1857, t he son of James B. and Winifred (Dunlap) Mendenhall. Mr. Mendenhall liv ed in Alabama until t he close of th e Civil War, when he and his parents mov e d to Brazil, South America. While in that country learned engineering under a Russian engineeer and did eng ineering work for the Braz ilian government. He re t urned to the United States when eighteen years of age, and after a year or two spent in Illinois, came to Florida in 1 876, l ocating a t Gulf Hammock, in Levy cou n ty where he was a pioneer orange grower. Upon the discovery of

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 291 phosphate be moved to Dunne llon. and was in the mercantile business there for a number of years, moving to Tampa in 1900 In 1906 lie moved to Coronet where he became connected with the phosphate interests. In 1912 be became a citizen of Lakeland, becoming the senior member of the firm of G. D and H. D. Menden hall, civil and construction engineers and architects. Mr. Mendenhall has done much engineering work in thi s section, and is far famed for his thoro u ghness, honesty and conscientious handling of all work en trusted to him. Mr. Mendenhall superintends all the surveying work of the firm, and is an authority on land lines. He is Dean of the surveyors of, Florida, and is one of the oldest, if not t he oldest, surveyor in the State. He is an ex-member of the Rotary Club, member of the Florida Engineering Society, a Mason and a Shriner. He was married in 1882 to Eliza Drummond, of New York City. They have three children: H. D., Mabel, (Mrs. B. M. Sullivan, of Tampa), and Fred D. of Tampa. The latter made a brilliant war record, having been decorated with the Dist inguis hed Service Cross for bravery while on the battle fields of France. HERBERT D. MENDENHALL HERDF.RT D. MENDENHALL was bom at Gulf Hammock, Levy county, Florida, February 7, 1883, the son of George D. and Eliza (Drummond) Mendenhall. After attending the scbools of Levy county and Dunnellon, Mr. Mendenhall attended the F lorida Agricultural College for one year, later graduating from the Unive rsity of Texas as a civil engineer, and also with a B. S. degree. From the day of his graduation, Mr. Mendenhall's caree r ha s been a series of achievem ents, and be was the fifth engineer in the entire United States to be granted a reciprocal registration license, which permits him to practice his profe! sion in any State in the Union without a registration e>.-amination. For a number of years Mr. Mendenhall has been a of tbe firm of G. D. and H. D. Mendenhall, Civil and Consulting Engineers, Architect s and Sur veyors, o f Lakeland. He had his first professional experience with tbe U. S. Engineers at Galveston later being transferred to Tampa. He resigned this position to 1{0 to Nicaragua to do engin!!Uing work for the Nicaraguan government and on his return became chief assistant to Mr. C. G. Memminger on the design and constructio n of five phosphate mining plants in Florida, among them being the Coronet : Mine s near Plant City. He was one o f the first engineers in the phos phate business in t he State. Mr. Menden h all's activitie s have extend ed to all parts of Florida. He de signed and superv i sed the Commodore Point Terminals at Jacksonville; a con crete lock on the Witblacoocbe e river below Dunnellon for t he Florida Power Company; laid out some of the most important subdivisions of Lakeland, in cluding Shore Acres, Dixieland and Casa Be l la. During 1925 he had 34 engineers and over 100 engineering assistants working out of his Lakeland office. He did the architectural work on the Citrus Exchange building. the Peninsular Telephone building, the Southland building, the Vanity Fair Arcade. the Federal Ice Plant and many others, all of which are among some of Lakeland's most substantial buildings. He was also architect for the addi t ion to the Lakeland High School the

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292 HISTORY OF POLK CO UNTY, FLORIDA Shore Acres and Cleveland Court Grammar School s, All Saints Episcopal church, Cumberbnd Presbyterian church and Christian Science church, all of Lakeland; H oly Cross chu rch, Sanford, and St. Paul's church at Winter Haven. During the W orld War. Mr. ).>[enden hall served for tw o years as Capt ain i n the Engi neering Corps. While in France h e was deco rated by the Frenc h Governme nt with the l ordr e de E toile Noi r Legion d'Honneur. Mr. Mendenha ll was a member of the C ity Counc il of Lakela nd whe n the Commi ssion form of government was voted, and was one of the first cotnmis sioners. He bas served at va r ious times as engineer for the ci t y He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Past President of the Florida Engineering Society, member of the Florida A s sociation of Arch itects, and a member of the Soci ety of American Military Engineers. He i s a Rotaria n, a Mas on, Shriner and a member of th e Chi P hi College fraternity. He is also ex-presi dent of the Lakeland Ch amber of Commerce . Mr. Mendenhall was first married to Clara Summe rlin of Tampa in 1907, who is now d=sed. He married Lucy Conibear in 1921, and they have one child, Mary Lucy. WALTER J. MERRILL WALTF.P. J. ME.RIULL, president and general manager of the Lakel and Packi ng Co., was born in Burlington, Iowa, October SO, 1885, the son of J ohn N. and Luella C. Merrill. Mr. M e rrill's father was with the Burlington railroad for fort y-one yea rs, and now live s in Lakeland. Mr. Merrill received h is education in the Atlanta schools, having lived in that city f rom 1895 until 190? He attended Georgia Tech for three years, and as a member of the Tech basehal.l team b e gained for himself such favorable acclaim a s a hall player that on completing his col.lege course he wen t t o J acksonville in 19 07 to play on that city's team. His acti ve busi n ess career began when be took a posi ti o n with C. W. Bart leson & Co., wholesale groc ers, later holding positions with the Clyde Steamshi p Co. and the Central of Georgia railroad being in the freight depart ment of the latter com pany for two year s M r Merrill came to Lakeland in August, 1 9 1 4, at which time he becam e assi stant manager of t he Lakeland Packing Co. In 1917 he purchased the com pany, of which he is now general manager an d principal owner, and i t is now o ne of the l eading packing concern s o f the county. The house has a capacity of abou t six cars daily, and a n annual business o f 75,000 to 100,000 crates per season. The Lakel a n d Packing COmpany was established in 1914 by f our com mission men of the north. Mr. Merrill is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, and is a Mason and a Shriner. He was married in Jacksonville, to lllma Hollenbeck. They have two children: John J. and Eunice Joan. J. E. MILLER Few citi zens of the county hav e made a more remarkab l e success in the devel opment of a large and extens ive busine ss th an J. E. whose Mode l Market in Lakeland is the largest concern of the kind in the South.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 293 Mr. Miller was born in Elkton, Todd Coun t y, Kentucky, August 17, 1888, his parents being J. W. and EJla (White) )1iller. His paternal ancestor s were pioneers of Virginia, while his mother's family were among the early settlers of Virginia. Coming to Lakeland in 1914, Mr. Miller was with the Po lice Department for five years. Desiring to enter the grocery business he established a chain of Grocerterias in Lakeland in 1919 having three stores in various section s of the city. Seeing the need for one large store, he sold his smaJler concerns and built the Model Market, which is a city block long and contains 15,0'00 square feet. Here everything the housewife can wish i s to be found under one roof, and this big store draws trade from all sections of Polk county. Mr. Miller is a progressive citizen and a real builder. He was married December 6, 1914, to Lucile Warren, of Lakeland, who, besides her other accom plishments, is a most capable busin ess woman, rendering Mr. Miller invaluable assistance in the conduct of his splendid enterprise. Mr. and Mrs. Miller have two sons, Edwin and Howard. EARL HOUSTON MOORE E. H. MooRE, veteran nurseryman, was born at Wedgefield, South Carolina, Septembe r 24,1883. He was reared on a farm in Georgia and attended the schools near his home. He came to Bartow in 190 5, wh e re, for five years, he was engaged in the citru s nursery business. He removed to Eagl e Lake and continued this line of w ork. His original ideas and well-directed efforts have done much for the advancement of this industry. For three years he was in the construction business, building roads in the county, and in 191 5 formed a connection with the Standard Groves Exchange. At this time be is manager of their packing house at Lynchburg, near Lake Alfred This branch of the firm packs between 75,000 and 80 000 boxes of fruit a year. Mr. Moore was married at Eagle Lake to Bessie Louisa Long. JOHN A. MOORE JoHN A. MooRE, a resident of Florida since 1878, was boru at Fort Deposit, Alabama, October 16, 185 5, the son of Capt. R. N. and Elizabeth (Fields) Moore, the former dying in action during the Civil War. His mother was left a widow with seven children. Anyone passing through those perilous times knows what that means. Mr. Moore attended the schools of Alabama, and at the age of 23 years, came to Pensacola, where he was engaged in the merca ntile business. He removed to Bartow in 1895, where he was a truck grower .and fruit dealer, forming a connec tion with tire Florida Citrus Exchange in 1914. He was appointed Superintendent of Schools of the county in 1918 and held thi s position until 1921 when be again entered the truck and produce business. In 1924 he was elected supervisor of registration for Polk County, and in the primary just held, was re-elected by a large majority. He "'-as responsible for the bill passed by the Legislature which specifies that t he office of registration be

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2 9 4 HISTORY O F POLK COUNTY, F L ORIDA kept open the enti re y ear. While he i s an arde nt D emocrat and has b een all hi s life, he is conserv ative, and gives every one the right to his own view s reli gio u s, political or o t he nvise. Mr. M oore has been a member of the M e t hodis t c hurch for 5 5 years, a n d f o r forty years he has been a mem be r of the Board of Stewards H e is a Knight of Pythias and Odd Fellow and has a prohibitionist all his life. He neither drinks, c h ews or smokes. He wa s m arried in Ala bama, Oct ober the 31st, 1876, to Laura K. Brownl ee. Thei r ch il dren a r e Marvi n B. o f Tampa; Lois, ( M rs. D. F. Jackson ) of Georgi a ; Lizzie Lee, (Mrs. C. P. Hartsfield) of Harde e County ; Nell, ( M r s. Bert Foy ) of Tampa, and J ohn Ri chard deceased. LACY ALBE R T' M ORGAN L. A MORGAN was born a t N ashville, Georgia, :May 22, 186'1', the son of Rev. Martin F and Sarah E. Morgan. His f ather served as chap lain t hrough the war in the Confederate army, and was in charge of various Baptist churches in Georgia fo r 37 years. Mr. Mo rgan received his education in the common sc h ools of Georgia, his first busi ness venture being .as e di t o r o f the Vkt1t> (Ga.) P.rogre s s from 1888 t o 1 893 He w en t t o Washington in 1898 wit h Chas. F. Cris p speaker of )he House of Representativ es, wh ere he s pent six years. He r e-e ntered the news paper b u s i ne s s a t Americ\' s, Ga in 1 899 and hanif\ce 19 1 5 been an honorary life m ember of the Georgia Press Assoc iation. : Mr. Mo rgan moved h i s family to F lorida i n Nove m b er, !920, l ocati n g at Fo r t M e ad e, where he bought a fine orange grove in the city limits an d where he has since resided. Since coming t o P olk County he has served a s president of t he Polk County Fair Association; Y..'3S appointed by the county commissioners in 1925 as Beautification Commissioner of the county and has been the only one to hold t h i s office He organized the P o l k County Georgia C l ub in 1 922, and served as i t s presid en t for three yea r s. He is a me m ber o( th e Co mmittee o f Fifty, now engaged in wo r king o u t a plan for th e be t ter mark eting of citrus fr u i ts, and h as given much time t o t h e o rganizat ion of the citrus industry of F lorida. He is a Mason and a Shriner and ha s served as a Dea con of the Bap tist c h u r c h f o r the pa s t twenty-five yea r s M r Morgan was m arri e d J uly 14, 1 892, at U n adill a Ga. to Mis s Hattie Spei g ht. Their children are Margaret (Mrs. R. R. Dugger, Fort Meade), Louis A., of Clewiston; W. E., of Fort Meade; Hatt ie (Mrs. James]. Singleton), Fort Mead e ; Sanders M Morgan, aewiston, and Mary, who lives at Fort Meade. HARLEY B. MORSE HARLY B. MORSII, a respected citi zen of Pol k C o unty from 1886 until the time o f his death, J u n e 2 0, 1925, was bOr n A u gus t 28 1874, at New W oods t oc k, New York, the so n .of Roscoe and Lucy Morse. Mr. :&forse w as o f E n glis h descent one of h is early ancestors, o n hi s pa t e rnal s ide, comin g ove r o n t h e Mayflower.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 295 He came to Polk County when twelve years of age, his parents having located in that year, 1886 at Auburndale, where his father engaged in the sawmill busi ness. When quite a young man, Mr. Morse became associated with his father in the mill business and for a long period they conducted a rice mill in Lakeland In those early days the family lived at Auburndale, Lakeland and Lake Gib s on, returning to make Lakeland their permanent home in 1903. For a number of years before he died Mr. Morse was with th e Lakeland Manu facturing Company as Superintendent of their mill. He was an expert wood worker, and gave invaluable service to the: concern. He was with the Lakeland Manufacturing Company for 16 years. Mr. Morse was a devout churchman, and was a prominent member of the Cumberland Presbyterian church. He was a man who possessed tlie highest sense of honor, and enjoyed the esteem and respect of a wide circle of friends. Fraternally, Mr. Morse was an Odd Fellow, and he was also a member of the Junior Order o f American Mechanics. He was married at Auburndale in 1894 to Una Cox. They had five children: Mildred, (Mrs. F. E. Johnson), Helen, (Mrs. J. S. Wilson), Harley B., Jr., Una Margare t and Ethel D. . 4BRAHAJ\1 G MUNN .AaR..\HAM G. founder of Lakeland, and one of the State's foremost d eveloper s in its pioneer days, was bOrn in Orange, New Jersey, January 8, 1819, but spent th e greater part of his life in Louisville, Kentucky, where he emigrated when 19 years of age." His education was gained through his own efforts at boarding schools in New Jersey and Massachusetts. Mr. Munn :who was a successful manufacturer of Louisville, being in the s eed and agricultural implement business in that dty for 57 years, spent about forty consecutive winters in Florid a, and on his. first visit to the State i n 1879 became enamored of the of Fiorida. In 1882 he bought several thousand acres of land i;, Florida, including a tract of eighty acres, now the center of Lake land, and engaged his son, Sa!"uel M. Munn, a civil engineer, t o lay out a town, which was named Lakeiand Many of the r esidents desired that the new town be called Munn,-ille, as a des erved tribute to its founder, but this Mr. Munn not . allow, and the name of Lakeland having been suggested, it was chosen for its unusual appropriateness. Mr. Munn had the privilege and pleasure of witnessing this city s growth and development until the year when he was called to his reward at the ripe old age of 90 years. Could he have lived to have seen the beautiful Lakland of todav, . with its magnificent Civic Center, fine public buildings miles of paved streets and modern improvement s of every kind, he would, indeed, realize, as do those who have followed his steps in the work of development, that his foresight and faith were not misp laced_. One of Lakeland's early business firms was the Lakeland Improvement Com pany, incorpora ted by Mr. Munn and associates with a capital stock of $50,000 for the development of Lakeland. Mr: Munn spe nt a la rge sum in building up this section, and he was much interested in the cit.ru s owning a number

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296 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA of fine g.-oves. He built th e Tremon t Hotel in 188 4 at that time one of th e finest hotels in South Florida. In the nearly half-century he was a winter resident of Florida, M r. M unn divided his time between Lakeland, Winter Park and DeLand, in all of whkh towns he was a recognized force and fac to r. l l'(r. Munn was mar r ied at Louisville, Kentucky; in 1845 to Rebecca Morton sister of the l ate J. P Morton also a pioneer deveJoper of this section, and for whom Lake Morton was named. He and Mrs. Munn had seven children, but only two now survive: wmiam Garnett Munn, of Louisville, and Morris G. Munn, of Lakeland. ' MORRIS G. MUNN l\IoRRIS G. MuNN, son of the honored founder of Lakeland, A. G. Munn; wa s boni in Louisville, Kentucky but for the past 47 years has been a resident of the State of Florida His preparatory education was acquired in Hackensack, New Jersey, and h e later attended Antiocli College; Yellow Springs, Ohio . At the conclusion of his college days Mr: Munn returned to Louisville, where he was associated with his father in the latter's agricultural implement business, coming to Florida i n 1881, at which time he located at DeLand. He was a resident of that place for twenty years, and whi le the re developed a fine, bearing grove only to have it wiped out by the freeze of '95, His faith was no t shake n however, and he took his losses and went forward in his work of development, looking after his father's interests in Lakeland as well as caring for his varied business affairs at DeLand. In 1901 Mr. Munn became a permanent resident o f Lakeland, at which time he was sales agent for the Lakeland I mprovement Company, founded by his father. Three years late r the Lakeland Improvement Co. deeded him all their holdings i n Lakeland, wbich embraced some of the most valuable business and residential property in the town. While still retaining e xten sive holdings in the business dis trict, l'vtr. Muon, a few years ago, disposed of an entire ci ty b lock then occupied by an orange grove, to the city of Lakeland, and on which are now located th e magnificent municipal buildings-the City Hall and City Auditorium, Mr. Munn, during hi's long res idence 'in Lakeland, covering a period of 27 years, has been interes ted in municipal improvements of all kinds, and for ten year s was a member and presiden t of tl)e city council. While in that office he served h i s consti tuents ably and well, many forward movements d urin g the city's early days being due t o his p rogre ssiveness He has also served Lakeland as Mayor. Mr. Muo n is prominent in financia l ci r cles of Lakeland, being chairman of the Board of Directo r s of the First Nationa l Bank, and active vice-president of that instit u tion, in which connection he has ably served for the past t en years. Mr. M unn is also president of the Morris Plan Company, secretary-treasurer and gen eral manager of t he Lakeland Improvement Co., member of the Chamber of Commerce, C levela nd Heigh t s Country Club and is a life member of Lakeland Lodge No. 1291 B. P. 0. E He is a Republican in politics,' and a member of the l;Jnitarian chu r ch. He was married at DeLand in 1884 to Mrs, Annie B. Robb,

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 297 JOSIAH P. MURDAUGH J.P. MuRDAUGH, pioneer resident of Bartow, and since 1915 talC collector for the cottnty, was born at Charleston, South Carolina, February 10, 18 74, the son of Josiah Putnam and Anna (Davis) 1\Iurdaugh. His paternal ancestors, who were from Scotland, were early sett ler s in Sou th Carolina. On his mother's side he is of English descent; the original site of Charleston was owned by her family and was named Dorchester. His paternal ancestors were Scotch and were early settlers in South Carolina. Mr. Murdaugh was educated a t Eastman, New York, and for severa l years was connected with the Leopold Adler Department store. He came to Bartow in 1894 and was in the mercantile business disposing of t hese interests t o become a railroad construction contractor For some time he was connected with the county as superintenden t of t he road sys t em. In 1915, at the time Park Trammell was Governor o f the Sta te, Mr. Mur daugh was appointed tax collector of the coun t y, to which office he has since been re-
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298 HISTORY OF POLK COUN'l'Y, FLORIDA stores and lumber business there Mr. Murrell ca me to Lakeland in 1903, and since tha t time bas been one of that city's substantial citizens. Until four years ago be was in the mercantile business, operating first as Murrell & Sharpe, later as Murrell & Grafton, and finally independently. He has taken an active interest in school and civic matters. He served as a member of the county school board for ten years, t he local board six years and for six years was a member of the city coundl. When he became a member of the Lakeland board there was one school building in the city and there are now seven large, modern, buil dings. The number of teachers has been increased from 17 to 167 ,.. Mr. Murrell, as' a member of the city council, laid with his own hand s the first brick in the paving of the city streets. He is a member of the Methodist church, and was on the building committee of the First Church. Fraternally, he is a Knight of Pythia s. Mr. Murrell was married in Williston, Florida, to Lillian Ne\vsome who for the past ten years has been treasurer of the Missionary Society of the First Meth odist church and is registration officer of Precinct No. 36. They have four chil dren: Grace B., Albert N., Clifton H. and David P. ROLLIN H. NA.YLOR R. H. N.WI.OII, th e efficient and popular postmaster of Lakeland, wa s born in Topeka, Kan sas, November 25, 1883, a son of John W and Emma (Morris) Naylor, who are also residents of Lakeland The s ubject of t his sketch is a de scend ant of Robert Morris, of Revolutionary fame, and is a grandson oi Osborn Naylor, who wa s killed in action near Fort Scott, Kansas, in the \Var Between the States. His maternal grandfather, Isaac Morris, was a Captain in the Federal Army in the same conflict. He was buried at Los Angeles, California, April. 1018. Mr. Naylor secured an excellent education in t he public schools oi Topeka and St. Joseph, :\{issouri, and upon his graduati o n was appointed as clerk in the U. S. railway service, with headquarters at l
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PART ll-BIOGRAPHICAL Z99 in the infantry. Upon his discharge after the Armistice, he formed a connection with the George B. HiUs Engineering Co. at Jacksonville, remaining with this firm for two years. He then became assistant sanitary engineer for the Florida State Board of Health, which position he held until March, 1925, when he resigned to come to .winter Haven with the Snively-Giddin gs Co. He has been City Manager for the past year and has handled his duties ably and with fairness; he has made changes in the interest of economy, and is Pl!tting forth a strong effort to collect money owing the city. Among other things, the ball park has been improved and Winter Haven was made training headquarter$ this year for the Philadelphia baseball team. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Chamber of Commerce, and belongs to the Florida Engineering Society, the City Managers' Association of America, International Rotary and t he Masonic order. He was married to Leo Johnson in Jacksonville, January 2nd 1919, and they have three children: Alfred C III, Richard 0. and Marjorie Leo. H.S.NORMAN H. S. Norman was born in St. Paul, Minnesota, February 9, 1895 the son of Edward and Hannah Louise Norman. He attended the Shattuck Military Academy, and upon the completion o f his ed ucation entered t he manufacturing business in St. Paul hi s firm making hat s, caps, gloves, etc. Mr. Norman came to Lake Wales in 1915 to enter the orange industry, and has done much toward its development. He is interested in extensive holdings of bear ing groves located at Waverly and Lake Wales. He is one of the organizers of the Ridge Manor Development Co .. and is secretary and manage r of the company. The property developed by this firm is located just south of Lake Wales. He i s p res ident of the Princes s Realty Com pany, a holding and building corporation, that owns the Scenic theater. He is secretary and treasurer of the Lake Wales Mortgage Investment Company. Mr. Norman was a member of the city council of Lake Wales four years, is an ex-director of the Chamber of Commerce, and is president of the Rotary Club. Fraternally, he is a Mason and a Shriner. He was married in Knoxville, Tennessee, to Marian Stuart Morison. WILLIAM COOK NORVELL Loyalty to his work, his friends, his church and to his community, was, in a great measure, responsible for the popularity of the late W. C. Norvell, affection ately known to his hundreds o f friends as "Captain." He was born in Lincoln county, Ceorgia, May 10, 1864, the son of Thomas Benjamin and Mary Norvell. The f o rmer, a native of Virginia, and a veteran of the Civil War, was a graduate of Princeton University, .taught school for a number of years and had the unique distinction of being Norvell's only instructor in the school room. Captain Norvell was reared on his father's farm, and his first employment was with the Georgia railroad, later entering the service of the Atlantic Coast Line in Florida. He established his home in Lakeland in 1904, and for. many years was

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300 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA a conductor, in charge of the train between Fort Myers and Lakeland. Capt. Norvell had extens ive property holdings i n and around Lakeland which included severa l choice properties in the city and a number of citrus groves. He was a member of the Board of Stewards of the First Methodist church, and was largely interested in bringing Southern College to Lakeland. Fraternally, he was a Mason, Shriner and a Knight of Pythias. Capt. Norvell and Kate Bonner were wed in Augusta, Georgia, July 11,. 1894, and two children were born to thi s union: Erma, wife of S. W Taprell, of Winter Haven, and William C. Jr., who graduated this year from the Jaw s chool of the University of Florida. Mrs .Taprell has two daughters, Katherine and Jane Frances. Capt, Norvell died in Lakeland, August 15, 1925. WALTER D. OAKLEY w.' D OAKLEY was born in Columbia,' A l abama, March 10, 1889 the son of N. J. and Johnnie (Daffin) Oakley; on his father's side he i s of Scotch-Irish descent, while his mother's early ancestors were from Holland and England. Mr. Oakley attended the schools of his native State, and received h i s training in law while in the legal department of the Atlantic Coast Line railroad, being wi t h that company for 14 'years with headquarters i n Jacksonville and Lakeland. From 1908 until 1911, Mr. Oakley was connected with the wholesale grocery business in Lakeland, and from the latter date until 1922 he was connected with the civil engineering department of the Atlantic Coast Line. In 1922 he was transferred to the legal branch, at which time he was moved to Lakeland. In 1925 Mr. Oakley severed his connection with the railroad and opened offices for h i s own private practice, and in 1927 formed a legal partnership with Wm. R. Cade, now operating under the firm name of Oakley & Cade. Mr. Oakley is active in Masonic circles, being ex-Worshipful Master of Lake land Lodge No. 91, Scottish and York ri te, and i<; a member of th e Shrine, his membership being in Egypt Temple, Tampa. He also bel ongs to the Knights of Pythias and Odd Fellows. Mr. Oakley is: a member of the various bar associations, the Chamber of Commerce and the Baptist church He has taken quite an active part in local politics. He was married May 18, 1911, to Ardilla Louise Roquemore, and they haYe two children, Nathalie and Walter Daffin, Jr. Mr. Oakley is an ent husiastic golfer, this game an d hunting and fishing taking up his hours of rec reation. BENJAMIN!. OELAND BENJAMIN J. 0!1LAND, pioneer resident of Bartow, and for more than forty years Manager of the Western Union office of that city, is a native of Spartan burg county, South Carolina, born December 30, 1858. He is a s on of Peter J. and Nancy C. Oeland ; his father was a large land owner in the days before the Civil War, and after the conft ict, in which he fought valiantly for the Sou th, he became a mill owner.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAI, 301 Mr. Oeland came to Lake City in 1877 and engaged in the mercantile business. Four years later he to St. Augustine, where he learned the telegraph busi ness, and in 1883 settled at Bartow, going there to become Manager of the Western Union office. He held this post unti11924 when he retired from active duty, how ever, he is still on the payroll. Mr. Oeland has also owned valuable groves, buf has disposed of these in terests : During his residence in Bartow he has devoted much of his time to civic matters, and is now serving his second term as city commissioner. Before he retired from active business, he was city clerk and treasurer, serving in this capacity seven years. He is a member of the Baptist church and is a Knight of Pythias He was rnatried at Bartow in December. 18S3, to Maty E. Blount, a native of Polk county. Four children were born to them: Ruby (Mrs. G. 0 Denham), Pearl, Beulah (Mrs. Paul C. Griffin). and Vernon, now deceased. DR. !. M OGLESBY Among the very early residents of the county and one who has rendered in valuable service to its people, is Dr. J. iM. Oglesby, whose residence in Bartow dates from March 19, 1887 Dr. Oglesby is a native of Johnson County Missouri, tbe date of his birth being September 1st, 1885 Upon the completion of bis fundamental education, attended Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, and received his degree as Doctor of Medicine. Following his graduation, he practiced in -Missouri for seven years before moving to Polk county. Dr. Oglesby is President of tbe Bartow Drug Company, and still maintains his practice. He is an indefatigable worker, and his influence has always been on tlieside of progress and civic improvement. He is a member of the American, State, County and Southern Medical Asso ciations, and is a Mason. He was married in Missouri to Eva G. Gittings, and four children were born to them: R. M.; E. M.; Eva M. and Knowles G. The latter was killed in action in France, and the local Post of the American Legion bears his name. CLYDE OLIVE CLYDF. OLJVF., clerk of the criminal and county courts, is a native of Fayette county, Alabama, born November 24, 1888, the son of J. N and Alabama Olive. His maternal and paternal grandfathers we r e veterans of the Civil War. He attended the high school and State College at Jacksonville Alabama, and took special work at the University of Alabama. Following the completion of his education, he taught school in Alabama for one term, and came to Bartow in 1 912. For twelve years after his arrival in Polk county he was Chief Deputy Sheriff, serving under the late John Logan, and since 1925 has held his present office. Mr. Olive is prominent l y identified with Masonic organizations, and with the exception of the Shrine, of which he is also a member, has been past presiding .

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302 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA officer of each body. He belongs to the Knights of and worships at the Baptist church. He was married at Bartow, November 7th, 1914, to Maxie Stansell, and they have two children, Myra and Robert Lloyd CEO. WESLEY OLIVER Gm. W. OUVliR, able member of the bar and ex-mayor of Bartow, was born at Paducah, August 2, 1869, the son .of James N elson and Emeline (Bowerman) Oliver. His educational advantages were unusually good; after graduating from the local high school he attended a select preparatory school and his training in law was received from judge William M Reed. Prior to coming to Florida, Mr. Oliver. practiced in Kentucky and Ne"' Mex.ico. He established his home in Bartow in 1912 and moved to Lake Wales in September, 1925, where he conducts i general practice, specializing in chancery and probate matters, corporation work, land titles and drainage laws. There are se venty-fi ve drainage districts organized jn the State under the general drainage laws prepared by Mr. Oliver. P articular ly has his work in reclaiming lands in Polk County re ceived favorable notice. Mr. Oliver was Mayor of Bartow for two terms of one year each and during the World War was .Chairman of the United War Work Campaign. He is a Mason, a Rotarian, and attends the Christian church. He was niarried at Louisville Kentucky, in 191 3 to Inez Parker of Paducah. They have two s oiis, George WesleY., Jr., and James Parker. -HORACE KING OLLIPHANT Juoce H. K 0LLIPHANT, one of the most able men practicing at the Florida Bar, was born at Enterprise, Mississippi, October 28, 1858. His father, Dr. Sam R. Olliphant, became a practition e r in Mobile, Ala., and it was principally here that the subject of this sketch received his _educati on After attending the Barton Academy at Mobile he tatight schoo l near liiobile for several years." Judge 011iphant came to Pensacola in 1878 a11d entered the U. S. railway m;>il service. It was at this time he decided to become a lawyer ; he carried on his studies in his spare tim e and two years later was admitted to the bar. He became a clerk in t he office of W A. B lount, well-known laW)' er, for se vera l years and later esta blished his own office in the Coast city. He came to Ba\iow in 1892 and formed a partnership in the prac t ice of law with J. \. Brady, whi ch continued for two years a nd then he practiced by him self but for the past twelve yea rs his son, H. K. 01\iphant, Jr., has been his partner Mr. Olliphant has served Polk County for the past five years as Judge of t he Criminal Court. Several time s h e has been requested to accept the office o f Circuit Jud ge, but declined as it would mean the giv in g u p of his law practice. In additi on to other official positions he has held, Judge ()lliphant served as U.S. Commissioner while at Pensacola an d als o State Circuit Court Commissio ner. He married Olive Wood, of Mobile, who d ie d in 1914. T he y had two chil dren, Katherine L., deceased, and H. K., Jr. In 19.20 Mr. Ollip han t marri e d Mamie L. Blount, of Bartow, and two children have been born to theiJ1: May mie Eve lyn and Rheta Lillian, now deceased.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 303 MISS GERTRUDE OV.ERSTREET One of the outstanding civic workers of Lakeland is Mis s Gertrude Overstreet, who is a leader in all good works. Born in Baxley, Georgia, October 16. 1890, her parents being Henry Hane and lvliriam ( :1\Iiddleton) Overstreet, she was educated in the public schools of Georgia. She received her first business experience in Baxley When she did stenographic work in the office of tbe county clerk. She came t o Lakeland, September 20, 1912, at which time she accepted a position in the office of J. E. Melton as the latter s secretary. In September, 1922 she became l' real e state operator under the name of Calvin & Overstreet, but at the present time is acting independently. Several sub divisions were developed by h er, these including Lake Hunter Terrace Heig h ts, Avalon Place and College Park Addition. She built and sold a number of houses, her r eal estate operations running into many thousands of dolla rs. Miss Overstreet has always actively engaged in any work looking to the development of Lakeland or its i nstitutio ns She has been a leader in drives for such worthy inst itutions as Southern College, the Chamber of Commer ce Red Cross, Liberty Loan, etc She is a member of the City Planning Board, the Advisory Board the Bus i ness and P rofes s io n al Women's Club and the Eastern Star. She is a member of the Methodist church, having served on the Board of Stewards for a number of yea r s. MRS. ANNE NOLO PADDOCK One of the leading business and club women of Lakeland, Mrs. Anne Nold Paddock, was born at Fort Scott, Kansas, July 30, 1878, the daughter of William Bryant and Alice Margaret (BoUes) Nold. One of her early ancestors wa s Robert Bruce of Scotland. Her first American ancestor was Roger Williams of England, and when driven out of Massachusetts for h is religious beliefs was given a tract of land by the Indians whi ch later became the State of Rhode Island, and he founded the City of Providence. Cincinnati, Ohio, and Fort Kansas were founded by her great-grandparents and grandparents, respectively. Mrs Paddock was educated in the schools of Fort Scott, Kansas, Kirkwood, Missouri, and St. Louis, Mo. She is a graduate o f a business college of the latter city. Coming to April 14, 1914 Mrs. Paddock was for six months assistant secretary of the Chamber of Commerce. For four years thereafter she was with H J Drane as private secretary, and for the past several years has been State Secretary of the Pan -America n Life Insurance Co., being one of t he best posted insurance representatives in the State . Mrs Paddock was the organizer of the Pioneer club, now th e Business and Professi onal Women's Club, of which organization she is President. She is a member of the Woman's Club is Chairman of the Ways and llofeans Committee of the Rose K eller branch of the Flor ida Children's Home Society, and was chosen to present Lakeland's plan of beautification as prepared by Charles Leavitt, to .all

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304 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA the civic dubs of the "City. She is a member of the Presbyterian church an d was the first Secretary of the Red Cross work in Lake la nd. Mrs. Paddock was married June 26, 1907, in Chicago, t o liiartin Luther Pad dock, now deceased. CHESTER PARKER CHESTER ALLAN PARKR was born in Fort Meade, March 2 7, 1884, the son of Everett S. and Arta Francis ( Lewis) Parker. His maternal grandmother moved to Fort Meade from Georgia in the county's early days, living there until her death, at the age of 99 years. Mr. Parker was educated in the rural schoo ls of Polk County and at the Florida Normal I nstitute. He taught school in Polk County for twelv e years prior to his election as Superintendent of Public I nstruction which office he filled for eight years. Since holding public office he has been the State representative of the Dameron-Pierson Co., Ltd., and the Columbia School Supply Co., of Indiana. These firms have warehouses i n Lakeland and d istr i bute school supplies, desks, etc., over all of Southern Florida. During Mr. Parker's administration as school superint ende nt the school terms were lengthened; the special tax districts were inc reased from 30 to 59, and the rural schools, particularly, were improved, modern buildings taking the place of old structures, and the standard of teaching raised so that a pupil from the rural schools could enter any city school without examination. Mr. Parker is a faithful member of the Baptist ch1.rch, and has been an active civic worker whenever called upon. He is a member of the Odd Fellows and the J u nior Order of Mechanics. He was married February 14; 1911, to Myrtle Fields, of Kissimmee, and they have six child ren: Everett Love Velva, C hester, De nn ison, Francis and J. W. T.J. PARKER T. J. PARKER, one of the f ounders of Lake Wales, has the added distinction of being one of Bartow's first citizens, having been born in that city then a pioneer village--<>n November 20, 1864. He is the son of Streety and Mary Parker, of North Carolina, who came to Florida several years before he was born. The former was a pioneer cattle man and farmer, and a 400-acre farm near Bartow. During his lifetime he was a prominent figure in the county. Mr. Parker attended the Bartow school and in 1884 graduated in law from Washington and Lee University, but never pra cticed his profession. He and t he late T !:, Wilson and J. H. Humphries were classmates at Washington and Lee. Mr. Parker returned to Bartow shortly before his father died, and for several years th ereaf ter he was engaged in settling up tbe estate. After the freeze of 1895, his groves havingbeen killed, Mr. Parker engaged in th e cattle business, his pastures being near Kissimmee. After several years he retired from the cattle business o n acc ount of ill health. He removed then to Sick Island near Lake Wales, where he planted a grove. He lived there until 1912 when he became one of the founders of the town of Lake Wales. He bought much property i n the town, and went into the mercantile business there. He organized t he first bank in

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL. 305 Lake Wales, which was called T. J. Parker & Co. His interests wer e boug h t by E. C. Stuart and associates, and the State Bank of Lake Wales was established. Mr. Parker was one of the organizers of th e Citizens Bank of Lake Wale s and was its first president. He sold his interest in this institution in 1924. His mercantile establishment was sold by him several years ago to B. K. Bullard. He i s still one of the largest property owners i n Lake Wales, but has practically re tired from active business. Mr. Parker is a Kn igh t of Pythias and an Odd Fellow, being past commanding officer of both o rga nizations. He was married February 2, 1888, to Julian Hankins. of Suwanee county the wedding t aking place at Bartow ADOLPHUS D. PARRISH A. D. PARRISH was born in Johnson County, North Carolina, May 31, 1882, the son of W. G. and Sarah Parrish He attended the schoo l s i n his native State, and at the age of twelve years entered the service of the Southern railroad as messenger boy He continued with this company for many years, hol ding th e positions of telegraph operator, chief clerk train dispatcher and train master In 1902, Mr. Parrish left the Southern for the Atlantic Coast Line, and was made train dispatcher for all territory from Jacksonville to Port Tampa Later, he removed to Sanford where he lived for ten years, and in 1917 was transferred to Lakeland. In 1924, he resigned from the railroad service and engaged in the real estate business in Lake l and. He also buil t 25 houses in Lake land 1 7 of which are in Dixieland, one of the best residential sections of the city. In the spring of this year ( 1928), 11r. Parrish announced as a candidate for sheriff of the county, but a few weeks before th e primary he became seriously ill and upon the advice of his physician withdrew from th e race. That h e wou l d have been a strong coniestant is admitted by all, and his hundreds of Joyal sup porters throughout the county were so rel y disappointed that his physica l con dition compelled him to withdraw. Mr. Parrish is president of the men s board of th e Rose Keller branch of the Florida Children's Home Society; is past exalted ruler of the E l ks and chairman of the Kiddie s Committee of this organiza tion; i s a Civitan and a member of the Presbyterian church. His leadership and enthusiasm was particularly helpful during the World War, when, as a resident of Sanford, he served as chairman of four drives. Mr. Parrish was married to Mazie Saunders in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1897. At that time he was 19 years of age while she was but 15. They have one son, Harvey and a grandchild, Harvey, Jr. NAT J. PATTERSON NAT J. PAT1'ERSON was born at Wellborn, Florida, March 2 .7, 1883, the son of Nat John and Sarah J. Patterson. His grandfather Nat J. Patterson, was a mem ber of Georgia Legislature and also served in the State Senate After securing his preparatory education, Mr. Patte rs on graduated in law from Cumberland University, and located in Fort Meade in 1915 where he en gaged in the practice of law with Mel A. Wilson under firm n ame of Patterson

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306 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA & Wilson. Aside from his law practice, Mr. Patterson is also city attorney of Fort Meade He is a member of the State Legislature, having been elected to this office in 1926. He is a member of the County Bar Association, the Exchange Club, and is a Mason, Sh r iner, and a Knight Templar. He worships atthe Methodist church. He was married February 21, 1917, to Gladys W. Francis, of Fort Meade. They have two children: N at J .. Jr., and Emily Ine z MISS NUNA PATTON A successful business woman of Lakeland since 1904, Miss Nuna Patton, owner of Patton's Ladies' Store, has seen her home city develop from a s traggling village to its present large proportions, and has lent her efforts, whenever possible, to any worthy cause contributive to its general advancement. Miss Patton was born in Greensburg, Kentucky, the daughter of Alexander Lee and Ella (Durham) Patton. Her great-great-grandfather, William Patton, moved to Kentucky from Virginia about 1781. His eldest son, Alexander, mar ried Sarah Simpson, of South Carolina, and their son, William S. Patton, married Margaret Lee, a daughter of Joshua Lee, of Virginia, who was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. Alexander Lee Patton, their son, the father of Miss Nuna Patton, was a Confederate soldier with Gen. John H. Morgan. After attending Peabody Normal College, Nashville, Tenn., Miss Patton re turned to her home in Greensburg, Kentucky, where she conducted a millinery establishment for four years In November, 1904 she came to Lakeland and en gaged in the miUinery business, since which time she has conducted establishments of her own. all of which have been markedly successful. She now owns one of the city's leading ladies' stores, in which a full line of ladies' d r esses hats, coats and accessories are carried. In addition tO her store, Miss Patton owns valuable real estate in Lakeland. She is a member of the Daughters of the Confederacy, the Business and Profes sional Women's Club and the Baptist church. She has also been active in Red Cross work of various kinds, particularly doing splendid work during the World War. ROBERT PEACOCK PEACOCK, of the firm of Peacock Bros. machinists, Lakeland, was born in Carluke, Scotland, and grew to manhood in tha t country. He is t he son of Thomas and Mary Byers (Kerr) Peacock, and his grandparents were Andrew Peacock and Grace Ritchie. Mr. Peacock is a grad ua te of Car l uke High School and later atte n ded Cam busnethon Tech at Wishan, Scotland. Upon his arrival in America in 1913 he became a toolmaker for the National Cash Register Company, and later accepted a similar position with the Ford Motor Company. Prior to coming to Lakelan d he was comiected with the General Electric Company as turbine construction neer. During the war, Mr Peacock was an inspector for the government in the steamship service.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 307 The subject of this sketch established his home in Lakeland six years ago and conducts a general macltine shop at 410 East Pine street. The firm specializes in cylinder regri nding a n d rebuilding motors. Mr. Peacoc k is a mem ber of the Masonic fra t e rnity, the Old Colony Club and the P r esbyt erian church. He was married in New York City, Octobe r 7, 1919, to Annie Kean Rowatt, of' Glasgow, Scot l and The y have two so ns, Thomas and George R., and a daughter, Roberta Anne. JOSEPH ROGERS PERSONS ]. R. PERSONS, identified with important and la rge m ercantile int ere sts of Flor ida in the ownership of twenty-four l adies' wearing appare l s t o res and a farsighted, discriminating and re sourceful business man, was born in Marion County Georgia, May 2, 1888. He is a son of James M. and Betty (Rogers) Persons the former a na t ive of the State of North Carolina. Mr. Persons entered the mercantile business in Moultrie, Georgia, going into partnership with his brother He later established a ladies' read y-to-wear and department store at \IV aycros s. He opened the Ladies Haberdasher, of Lakeland, in the latter part of 1922, and makes his home in that city. Co-owners of his othe r twenty three stores in Florida are his brothers, G W. Persons, of Kissim mee, and Charle s Persons, of Fort Myers. These men are arde nt believers in the future of the State, as e vide nced by t he fact that they d isposed of all their property in Georgia t o i nvest in Flo rida. Mr. Person s i s a member o f the Knights of Pythias, the Benevolent and Pro tective Order of Elk s a nd is a steward of the College Heigh t s Methodist church. He married Ver tie Sinclair in Moultrie, July 20, 1916. They have one son, Joe Rogers, Jr. JAMES HARDIN PETERSON Although in IUs early thirties, James Hardin Peterson has a long list of achievements to IUs credit which would constitute an enviable record for a much older man Since 1923 he has served the county as Solicitor, and previous to this time was prosecuting attorney. With the exception of one year since 1916 he has been city attorney of Lakeland, and now serves Lake Wales, Eagle Lake, Highland Park and Hillcrest Heights in the same capaci ty. Mr. Pete r so n is a South Carolinian by birth, having been born in Batesburg, Febr u ary 11, 1894, the son of Newton F. and Willa E ( Geiger) Peterson. He is a representative of an old and dis t in guis h ed family, tracing his ance s tor s to the days of the Revo luti on. When au infant his parents removed to Florida, first settli ng in Alachua County and later in Hamilton. They established their home in Lake l a nd in 1903 and Mr. Peterson attended the IOQI high school, graduating with honor s Spurred on by a relentless ambition, he worked to help pay his tuition at the University of Florida, and was graduated from that institution in 1914 with the degree o f LL.B. During the World War be served in the U. S. Navy as chief yeoman, and was in active service about one year.

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308 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA He started practice in Lakeland and in 1919 formed a partnership with A. R. Carver, this firm now enjoying the distinction of having the largest law offices in the city. Mr. Peterson is a member of the Knights Templar, Masonic
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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 309 Mr .. Pinch has been active in work, erected a number Of light and wate r pianfs throughout the Siate . . . . He removed tp in 1 9 14; and established the Pinch Equipment CO. and Radio Laboratory. Mr. Pinch served two tenits. as president o f the Chamber of Commerce, is acting executive of the Lakeland Community WeHare League, and is a member of the Boy Scouts Council. He is a Rotarian, a me mber of t he Elks and wor s hips at the Presbyterian church. He wedded Helen M Cwriley in Chicago, January 25,' 1908, and they have 'four children: Jack Qwen, Helen Mary William Claude and Janet Mabel. . . L. < N. PIPKIN L. N. PIPKIN, prominent banker of Mulberr y for over twenty years and a resident of tlie county sirice 1883, 'has wielded a mighty influence in the business, social and religiou s life of his community. Mr. Pipkin was born in Alabama in 1866 the son of Nathan and Margaret Elizabeth (Hart) Pipkin. His parents rem oved to Georgia when he was small, and he attended the schools of Pulaski county, that State. The family came to Florida in 1883, settling about three miles northeast of Mulberry. where his father t ook up a homestead. Mr. Pipkin was engaged in the butcher and meat bilsiness in Lakeland and Baroow from 1889 until-1894, wh .en he e s tabli shed a store in Mulberry.' tile first store of any consequence in that place . Mi. Pipkin remai ned i n the mercantile business there for fifteen years during which time he accumulated a large amount of real estate. He organized the Bank of Mulberry in 1907. and has been the active head of this institution ever since. The deposits of this bank are about $800,000, and the handsome building in which it is housed was erected in 1924. Mr. Pipkin bas been active in the phosphate industry, having bought and de veloped several phosphate properties which he sold to companies who organi1.ed and are operating mines. His activities have ever been progressive and ii is an acknowledged fact that he with E. C. Stuart and others were responsible for getting the S eaboord Airline railway to run through Mulb erry. and Bartow and Polk county It' was due to the efforts of Mr. Pipkin that Southern College was located in Lakeland, as he gave, in addition to his time, a large amount of money that this might be accompli shed. Re was the donor of all land on which tbe school buildings of Mulberry s tand, hiS persOnal attention being given to the schools of that place since first be became a reSident, at whi ch t ime the town had only a small frame building and one teacher was in charge. In to his other banking activities, Mr. Pipkin was one of the organ izers of what is now the f'irst Nationa l Bank, of Lakeland, and was a mernber of d1e boar d of directors for some t ime Mr. Pipkin has l)een a lif e -long and devout membe r of the -Methodist church. Mr. Pipkin and Florrie B. were married on January 31, 1898. Their children are Juanita (Mrs. 0 0. ,Luther N , Thelma (Mrs. B. E. Hewitt), Eunice (Mrs, Zerney Bam.S), Berni ce {Mrs. B. L. Feaster), and Ruth Elizabeth. :

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3 1 0 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA E. A. PLATH E. A. PLATH, one of the l eading civil engineer s of Polk County wa s born in Waseca, Minne sota, February 14, 18 77, the son of : Mary and Chas. L Plath. After attending the schoo ls o f his home State, Mr. Plath attended the Univer sity of Minnesota, and for a time was connected with the Chattanooga (Tenn.) Ti11us. In 1 898 he took up his engineeri n g career with the Southern railway by whom he was first employed, his wo r k being on a new line from Chattanooga to Stevenson Alabama. His next work was for the governme n t at Chattanooga, where he remaine d until1902, when he w e nt to Birming ham and made the original survey for the Seaboard Air Line Railway from Birming ham to Atlant a. He next went to Texas and made s urvey s for the T. & B. V. railway running from Clebourn to Mexia Tex. In 1906 Mr. Pla,th came to Florida, and was located at Tampa for a year and six months while making surveys a nd supervi sing ronstruction for the Tampa Northern Railway. In 1907 he came to Bartow, and for six and one half years was a ss;stant superintendent of the Florida Phosphate Mining Corporation. He wa$ next superintendent of the Swift Co m pany for three years, and for a like pe riod was superintendent of the Lakeland Phosphate Company. Mr. Plath had charge of all street paving and su rveys for the streets of Lake Wales, and also did much road surve y work in Marion and Pasco countie s Since 1924 he has enga ged in private practice at Barto w where he ha s e s tablished eni?Jneering office s, and since locating in the coun ty permanently has made the su rveys for most of the roads built in the county since 1924, and has supervised the construction of about $Z,OOO,OOO worth of highways. At the present time he is engaged on road contracts at Frostproof and Babson Park. Mr. Plath is a member of the Kiwanis Club and is a Mason and a Shriner. He was '!13rried at Bartow to Bessie M. Summerlin, member of one of the county's most prominent families. Two children were born to this u nion: Bessie M. and Harriett Ruth J. W ALKBR POPE Varied important projects have occupied the attention of J. Walk e r Pop e d uring his 17 years' resi den c e in Pol k County, and his enterpri ses have been markedl y successful. H e was born at Macon Missouri, July 23, 1868, the so n of A. R. and Nancy L. Pope; the fonner was a veteran o f the Civil War and held the rank of colonel. Upon the completion of his e ducation, received in the schools of Mi ssouri and Minn esota, Mr. Pope lived in California for some time. Prior to his removal to Winter Haven he made his home in Minneapolis for fiftee n years, where he was a real estate broker. Mr. Pope visited F l o rida in 1909, and so impressed was be w ith the climate beauty and natural resources of the State that in 1911 he brought hi s f amily to Winter H aven and establis hed his home there, the city at that time having a pop ulation of 400.

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PART II...:. 311 For a number of years Mr: Pope successfu ll y conducted a r eal estate business, and the year following his arrival in Florida he became one of the founder s of the town of Lake Wal es W ith few exceptions he handled all the r ea l estate sales in that communi t y d urin g the fir s t four years of its exis t e nce. M r Pope is k n own through o u t this section for h i s progres s ive spi rit, and h e ha s co o perated whole heartedl y w ith the civic w ork : He wa s l a r ge l y instrumental in sec u ring good r oads for t he co u nty, organized an d was pres i d en t o f the Good Roads Assoc iation which was responsible for putting over t h e $ 1,5 0 0,000 bond issue in 1 9 1 4. H e was also p resident of the No-Fence Leag ue o f Polk Co u nty. Mr. Pope has o wne d from time to time many fine citr u s groves, and served for years as director o f the Lucerne Park Fruit Associa ti on, b uilder s of the fam o us Lucerne grove. He was one of the workers with the Committee of Fifty which made the citrus fruit clearing house a possibili t y In 1923 he saw one of his cherished dreams come true when the handsome Haven Hotel, of whicli be was promoter, was erected. :Mr. Pope and Esther Malco l mson were married in Minnesota, and they have four children: R. D (Dick), Inez (wife of Thad Hal linan, publicity director of the citrus fruit clearing ho use), Malcolm and Louise. OSCAR J. POPE 0. J. PoPE was born at Monticello, Georgia, N ove mber 11 1 871, t h e son of Capt. Mille r Woodson and Mar y J ane (Hooks) P ope His fathe r was C a ptain of Compa n y B 44th Georgia R egi m ent and served thro u g hout the Civi l War, hav ing been wo un d ed twice in ba ttle. After acq uirin g h is public school education in t he town of his b irth, Mr. Pope came to Florida w h e n h e was 21 years of age, settling in Lak e County, where he engaged in tntck f a rming for five year s, going to Lee County, i n 1897, where he was similarly engaged fo r two years. Mr. Pope settled in Lakeland in 1899 where for eighteen years he was in the strawberry business on a large scale. The last few years he has given his atten tion to road contracting. Since coming to Lakeland Mr. P ope ha s alwa ys been active in political affairs, having served as co u !lcilman for eigh t years under the old for m of government, and has been city co mm issioner for four years, serving on the Board when the commissio n erm a nage r form o f government was adop ted He h a s been prom ine n tl y i dent ified with the schoo l i n teres t s of the co un ty, havi n g serve d on the loca l boar d for two years d u ring which perio d three fine sc h ool buildings w ere erec t ed at Lakeland, and is now serving his s ec ond y ea r as membe r o f t he County School Board. Four sch oo l b uildings have been built in the Lakeland district s i n ce he has been on the Cou nty Board. Mr. Pope is a l ea d e r in c h urch affair s, being S u per in t en d ent of the Myrtle Street Methodist Sunday School at Lakeland for the past fifteen years; a steward of the church for the same period and the only district steward since the church was organized. He was married June 16, 1898 in Lee County to Walton Colbert. They have five children : Fanny, Miller, Grace, Louella and James. Mr. Pope built a home at 846 North Massachusetts a venue where the family have resided the past 26 years.

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312 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA JAMES W. PORTER Among the younger bus ines s men of the county who are making successful strides in the business life of this section is J. \V. Porter, of Bartow. He was born at Ripley, Tennessee; July 11,1899, the son of James A. and Fidelia (Woollen) Porter. The former is a retired doctor of medicine. J. W. Porter was educated in h is native State, and graduated from Columbia Military College and the Universit y of Tennessee. H e came to St. Petersburg in 1925 and removed to Bartow the following year. H e purchased the Ford Agency and handles Fords, Fordsons and Linco l ns This is the largest business of iis kind in the city. l Mr. Porter attended the Central Officers' Training School during the war, and was statione d at Camp Gordon. He is a member of the American Legion. LEON PRINE LEON PRINE, recently elected to the State Legislature, was born August 3, 1878, at Kathleen this county, the son of Henry Alfred and Katherine Prine. His father was a North Carolinian, his mother was a native Flo ridian. After acquiring his education in the schools of Kathleen, Mr. Prine engaged in fanning, moving to Mulberry in 1898 where lie engaged in the phosphate busi ness for a period of eighteen years. He has been eminently successful as a real estate operator, ha ving large holdings in Polk and DeSoto counties, and also large orange interests. For the past 20 years he has Jived at Fort Meade. Mr. Prine is one of the county's favor ite sons who perhaps has as many friends as he has acquaintances. His jovial manner brighten s all with whom he comes in contact, and did much to paye the way for him to the State Legislature Mr, Prine is a Knight of Pythias, a Mason, Shriner, D 0. K. K and is a member of the Met hodist church. He was married at Mulberry to Annie L. Ross. Four children were born to this union: Inez, Louis, Margaret and Gertrude. HENRY E. PRITCHETT H. E. PRtTCHI!.TT, retired naval stores operator, was born in Brunswick county, North Carolina, in 1863, and attended the schools of his native State and of Georgia. Mr. Pritchett entered the business in which .he attained success when quite a young man. His applicat ion and energy woh for him recognition, and in Feb ruary, 1906, he was elected president of the Hillman-S utherland Company, at that time the largest producers of naval sto. res in the world. .. Mr. Pritchett resided in Jacksonville for years, and in 1915 removed to Lakeland. During his residence here he has been largely interested in the fruit industry, owning a 40-acre grove in Lakeland and 80 acres at Leesburg. He disposed of his interests in the naval business seven years ago. He is a member of the Masonic order, Egypt Temple Shrine, Knights of Pythias and Elks. Mr. Pritchett and Effie McRae, daughter of Daniel McRae, of McRae, Ga., for whom the town was named, were married October 1 4 1901. Mrs. Pritchett, one of the most beloved women of the county, died at her horne in Lakeland this spring. Their children are Elizabeth (Mrs. Maurice V. Dunavant), of Charlotte,

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PART' II. -BIOGRAPHICAL .: North Carolina; William H. ; The lnia (Mrs, V. H: Miller) ,-:Effie. and Charles, .all of Lakeland. . .' .. The Pritchett residence located on South Florida aveni.te, was completed last year and is one of the handsomes t in the city. " B PYLANT, SR. . Altho)lgh not born in the county, ]. B. Pylant, Sr., claims the : distinc,tion of being one of the oldest citizens, in point of residence in this section ... A nat i ve .of Tampa, born June 7, 1860, he removed with his family the following year t<> Home.: l and, which was tben a .P.3rt of Hillsborough County He i s a son of N. and Susan Pvl'ant. The former, came to the State for his hea l th,' was a ministe; and a carpenter He served on the county sc hoo l in the days, and was otherwise promineittly with the civic and moral welfare of his community, exerting a strong inH;uence .in the cause of prohibition J. B. Pylant's maternal grandfather was commander of the Home Guards at Fort Meade during the Indian wars, and was killed .in action. Mr. Pylant has been engaged in farming, fruit-growing and He developed a fine grove three miles south of Alturas, which property he originallY. homesteaded, and which he has since disp<>sed of. He is now the owner o(a fifty-ac re bearing grove which is l ocated six miles south of Alturas. Mr. Py l an t ha s been a resident of Bartow for many years, his father having proposed the name for that city, h onori n g the Con ,feder ate commander, F_ranci$ S. Bartow. Mr. Pylant was a well-known cattle man of the county for. some time, but is now out of this business. .. . He i s an ex county cominissione r and for eigh t years was school supervisor for the distrfct south of Alturas Fraternally, he is affiliated with the Masonic order, a member of the Blue Lodge. Mr. Pylant was wed to Molly McAulay, representative of a pionee r Fort Meade family Thei r children areS. L., George R. J. B., Jr., who is vi c e -p resident and cashier of the Polk Couilty National Bank; Sue (Mrs. T .. D. Fel ton), and Alice (Mrs. Charles Brown). lQHN DERIEUX RAULERSON . . . RAuLF.RSON, clerk of the Circuit Cou rt, is a Polk Coun ty product'. He was j)orn May 8 18. 87, near Lakeland, the son o,f D A,. and Dicy Raulerson : His father was al.so born in this sect ion, the grandfather in what is. now Polk Cotinty about 1854 . . Mr . Raule_rson was educated in the local schools, and taught for two or three years In 1913 he. entered the office of the Cle r k of the deputy clerk and held that position unti11920 when he was elecied clerk ; lie was re-elected in 1924 and in 1928 without o pposition in the primary on all these occasions. At this time it is estimated that there are four times as m any documen t s recorded annua lly as when be assumed office. The necessity for a larger office. force serves as an index to the growth of this departmenti there were thi s office when Mr. Raulerson became connected with it, seven when he became'tlerk and at this time a s t aff of twenty-five Pe
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314 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA work. Last"year the a)stcm of.recording was changed and the office i s known as one of the most effic ient in the : country During the war Mr. Raulerson served ove r-seas as a non-commissioned officer in the 316th Heavy Field AttiJlery. He is a member of the Kiwanis Oub, K. o( P., Odd fellows and Woodmen of the World. He was married at U kelan d July 21; 1920, to T helma Poe, and they have one son;J. D., Jr. ANGELO RAYMONDO RAntONI/0, wh(? bas made his home in Lakeland his entire life, was bor'\ ;!'that city 189?', the son of Salvedo and Elise (Legler) Raymondo. Interesting fact s conce rning the family hi story and ear!i days in this county may be learned by reading the sketch of his late father which appear:_s elsewhere in this volume. Upon the of his which was ob tain ed in the local schools and finished at University, M r Raymondo formed a connection with the State Bank, remaining with institution two After this he wa s with the First National Bank where be was teller for a period of seven years, giving efficient and courteoUs service. . Si1;1ce the death of his father, w hich occurr ed in August Mr. Raymondo has devoted liiniself to the management of his estate, which indudes much v a lu ab le . . ' . . property: :. . ' I ' ,, :Mr. Raymondo is a member of the :Maso ni c order ; Elks and)11odern Woodmen, and is a of the First Methodist church.' He Wa;: wed to Zannie E'eeples in Bart ow, 21, 1 9 17 . They have two daughters, Mar y Elise anq: Elizabeth Ann. The Rayrnondo home is one of the handsomest in La k eland, in Casa Bella . SALVEDO RAY MONDO A resume .of. the of Salvedo .Raymond o affords an example of the success that may be attai'*d by. hard work and a s teadfas t adherence to high principles. Mr. Raymqndo came to this country when a bo y, with little or no capital, and at the time of his deat h in Augu st. 1923, was one of the wealthie st men of Lakeland. Mr. Raymon do was born in Naples, Ital y, and was educated in the schoo l s of that country coming to America at the age of 16 years. He remained one year in Baltimore befote coming t o Florida, at which time he resided for several months in Tampa. Mr. Raymondo, about 42 years ago, walked from Plant City to Lake land, and opened a lit tle sto re in the localit y of what is now Pine street. Here he had a varied stock. gradually expanding until 1904 when he built the Raymondo build ing, which occupies a block on Kentucky avenue. This structure, which contains eight store s and 4.8 offices, was the lar ges t building i n the town at the time, and is one of the most important now. During the la s t few years of his lifetime Mr. Raymondo devoted hi s attention to the real estate busineSs, in which he was very success ful. Among other projects, be owned ore of the largest in t he Lakd,and Highlands. .

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PART IIBIOGRAPHI CAL 315 He was a member of the Woodmen of the World, and worshipped at the Catholic church. Mr. Raymondo and Elise Legler were married in Lakeland, November 25, 18'1'4. Their son, Angelo, resides in Lakeland. GEORGE H. REDFIELD GEORGE H. REDFIELD was born in B rooklyn. New York, the son of James H. and Katherine (Herschel) Redfield. His paternaf ancestors came from Eng land and settled in Connecticut. while his mother's family, who were from Holland, were early settlers of New York. After graduating from the Polytechnic Institute at Brooklyn, Mr. Redfield engaged in the paint business in New York. and later in the fur business with the John Ruszit Fur Company. For seventeen years, from 1904 until1921, Mr. Red field was connected with the American Sheet and Tin Pla te Co., at Pittsburgh. Having owned a large orange grove in Polk County since 1911, Mr. Redfield naturally had an unusual interest in the State and in 1921 became a permanent resident, locating at Bartow. His grove interests are at Alturas, where he first owned a grove of ten acres, but now has 300 acres in groves. He bought the original to\Vn site of Alturas and developed it. He assisted in establishing a fine packing house in Alturas, affiliated with the Florida C itrus Exchange. Mr. Redfield is particularly interested in good roads, and since taking up his residence in the county has been an active worker in their development. He is a Mason a member of Tuscan Lodge No. 6, and i s a member of the Episcopal church. He was married to :Mary McCord in Br ooklyn in 1884, and they have one son, Richard S Redfield, of East Orange, New Jersey :Mrs. Red field is very active in church and social work in and about Bartow. DON REGISTER DoN REGISTER a leading lawyer of Winter Haven and chairman of the County School Board, was born at Dover, Hillsborough County, Florida, January 14, 1881, the son of Ivy and Mattie (Alderman) Register. The former came to this State from Georgia and the latter was born and reared near Plant City. Don Register attended the schools of Hillsborough County and graduated from the Florida State Normal School and from the Peabody College for Teachers, and possessing energy and ambition, pursued the study of law at home. He taught school four years, and when admitted to the bar in 1907, began practice at Fort Myers, where he remained four years. He spent nine years there after at Jacksonville, and in 1921 removed t o \1\linter Haven, where he carries on a general civil practice. He is president of the Polk County Bar Association, and is a member o f the American, State, County and local associations. He belongs to the Exchange Club and is a Mason and a Shriner. Mr. Register been chairman of the County School Board for the past two years; during this time many new school buildings have been erected, the admin istration of schools greatly improved and finances have been put on a much more substantial basis

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316 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Register is a well-known figure in the financ'iat life of the county. He is a director of the First State :Bank of Winter Haven and the State Bank of J..ake and owns three valuable titrus groves. In 190 8 Mr. Register and Frances Kelsoe were married in Louisiana. They have five childrl'n : Don L., Billie, F rances, Scott and Nell. JAMES MITCHELL REID ]AMES MITCHELL REID was born in Scotland, March n; 1859, the so n of John and Janet (Mitchell) Reid. He traces his ancestry back to. Percy Reid, of tbe KnightS of the' Round Table. With his parents, Mr. Reid removed from Scotland in 1870 going nrst to Ontario, Canada. H is father died in 1878, and ihe family removed-to the United States in 1884; living first at Chicago and later at Elgin, Illinois. . Mt .. RcHd was educated in the schools of Ontario and Toronto, and also at tended a medical college in Detroit. 'Mr. Reid was engaged in the wholesale riage business in Ontario, and later was in the manufacture of farming machinery in in which connection he moved to Winnepeg in 1904 : He was in that city :for seventeen years as western manager for the Ontario \Vind Engine & Pump Company of Toronto. Retinitg from : active business, Mr. Reid came to Florida in 1918,. locating fir s t in Walton county: In 1923 he became a resident of I:;akeland;erigaging lri the real estate Some very large deals have been consummated through Mr. Reid's office, agd in May, 1925, the office hung up a high record of sales to the amount of Mr. Reid look s upon January 12, 1928, as a red letter day in his career, as it was on that day that he ... a naturalized citizen of the United States-a matter of considerable pride to him. During the World War .Mr. Reid was one of Canada's active workers in Victory Loan drives. He is a member of the Presbyterian church and tea cher of the senior men's bible class. He was ma rried July 7, 1886, to Jane Hulse, of London, Ontario. Four children were born to this union, three of whom are deceased. Their son, Roy Hulse Reid, is connected with his fathe r in business being in cha rge of the in surance departm ent. He has two son s twelve and fifteen years of age. WILLIAM FREDERIC K REID. Among the prominent young business men of Lakeland, whose ri se has been rapid, steady and substantial, none has a more outstanding record than tha t of William Reid, well-known banker of Lake l and. Coming to that city scarcely more than a boy in 1911, he accepted a place as bookkeeper in the State Bank of Lakelimd. I n a short time his ability and industry won for him a pro motion to the position of assistant cashier of the institution. Later he became cashier, hand lin g the resp(>nsibilities of that important post in a r emarkably capable manner for several years, or u n til the recent reo rgan izati on which r esulted in the creation of the La keland State Bank & Tn1st Company, when, in recognition of hi s splendid service'jn the past, he was roide vice-presideit and cashier of the new institution.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 317 Mr. Reid's unu s ual capacity a s a busine ss man and financie r attracted public attention, and the peop l e of the community, desirous of enlisting these qualities i n an admini strat i on of their public affairs, drafted him into service by electing him city c ommissioner in October, 1927, during hi s absence jrom the city His asso ciates on the commission chose h im as their l eader, and be is at present mayor commissioner of the city of Lakeland. William Freder ic k Reid was born at Jacksboro, Tenn., August 15, 1 890, the son of J. Henderson and Mary Jane (Lindsey) Reid. His fath e r was a Virgi ni an, his mother a nativ e of Tennessee He com es of a distinguis hed family, his father having been a prominent attorney and hi s grandfat her a noted minister of the Baptist fai t h. Mr. Reid received hi s prima ry educati on at Ba ker Hime l Prepar atory Schoo l Knoxville, l ater attending the University of Tennessee, American Unive rsi ty at Harriman, Tenn., and Maryville College Maryville, Tenn. After completing his education he held a positio n with the East 'l'ennesllee National Bank, of Knoxville, deciding, however, to try his f ortune in Florida about the time he attained his m a jority. With the entry of the United States into the World War, he enlisted in the navy, reporting for du t y at Key W e st. With this s light intermission, he has been almost continu ously "on the job" w i t h t he Stat e Bank and its succe ssor, the La kel and State Bank & Trust Co. Mr. Reid has also been prominent in the fratern al life of the city, bein g a member of the M asonic o rder Shrine rs, Knights T e mplar Elk s and M oder n Woodmen of the World. He has the unusual distinc tion of havin g serv e d the Lakeland Lodge of E lk s as Exalted R ule r two terms, an honor never accorded to any o ther head of the lodge. Mr. Rcid was married September 4, 1 9 1 5 to Ellie Kibler, daughter of A. B IGbler, of Lakeland. There are two lovely children, W. F., Jr. and Mary Louise. DR. H. MER CER RICHARDS Merited success ha s marked the profe ssional career of Dr. H. Mercer Ri char ds, one of the leadin g physician s and surgeons o f Lake land who was born in Craw fordsville, Georgia the son of Quintus and Florence (Mercer) Richards. Dr. Richar ds attended the s chools of Sandersville, Georgia later the Atlanta School of Medicine and in 190 7 graduated from the Souther n School o f Pharmacy of Atl a nta. He graduated in medicine from Emory College i n 1 909. After his graduation, Dr. Richards served as House Physician and Surgeon of the Grady Municipal Hospital, Atlanta, Coming to Florida he located at Nichols where he practiced medici n e until 1914 when he establ ished his resi dence in Lakelan d, engaging in the practic e of his p r ofessio n He als o owned the City Dru g Stor e, whi ch he late r s old D r. Richard s has a large general pra ctice and is a skilled surgeon. A s ide from his prof essional career he has been s u ccessfu l in sever al real estate tra n sa c tion s. His home on Sou th Succes s avenue i s one of the handsome s t in th e cit y, bes ides which he has other valu able property.

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318 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Dr. Richards is a Rotarian, a member of the City, County, State and National Associations; is a K. of P., being pas t Chancellor of the local lodge; and is an Elk, a Mason, and a Shriner. He is a d ir ecto r of the State Bank of Lakeland. Dr. and Mrs. Richards, the latter Stella Emily Nesbit t befo re her marriage, have two sons, William Thomas and Hugh Morgan. . NORMAN A. RIGGINS NORMAN A. RIGGINS, pioneer resident of Lakeland, and who se parents, M. P. and Fanny ]. Riggins, were among the town's earliest settlers, was born in Mont gomery County, Tenn. September 25, 18ii8. He spent his young manhood in Kentucky and in southeast Missouri, and made his first visit to F lorida in 1882. Coming before the advent of the railroad, he had many interesting experiences get ting to Polk County Two years later, when th e railroad penetrated this section, he returned to the county, locating at Lakeland where h e remained for thre e years. In 1895 he brought his family and has since been a leadin g fa ctor in the growth and development of Lakeland and its environs. The Riggins family have had a prominent part in Lakeland's history. Mr. Riggin s fattier, M. P. Riggins, came to the town in 1884 and bought eigh ty acre s of land in what is now about the center o f the city, for $ 7 per acre. The o riginal Riggins home, built over forty years ago, still stands at the corner of Tennessee avenue and Lemon stree t, then one of the most pretentious homes in the county. M P. Riggin s, father of N A. Riggins. was one of the town's first mer chants. the Riggins & "Vaggoner store at the corner of Main street and Tennessee avenue being the trading center for the citiz ens of northern Polk When Norman Riggins came to the then small village in 1895 be engaged in farming, and had a small sawmill on the shores of Lake Morton, which he later move(! to the intersection of Florida avenue and the railroa d His sawmill and novelty works were the beginning of the Lakeland Manufacturing Company, now one of the city's la rgest industrial concerns. For a time Mr. Riggins was engaged in the mercantile firm of Riggins & Waggoner, but sold his interests later. In later years he has devoted his energies to his large property interests, and bas built over forty homes and various busitiess buildings on his own property. Mr. Riggins ha s always taken an active part in civic affairs-particularly in the city's early deve lopment. He was one of the bond trustees elected t o supe rvise the i n sta llation of the water works system of Lakeland; was bon d trustee for two other i ssues of importance; was member of. the old cit) council for two terms; member of the local and county school boards, the former for many years, and has seen Lakeland grow from a mere village of 300 souls to the present City of 25,000 inhabitants. Among the less important, though quite interesting even t s in M r. Riggins' ca reer as a Lakeland cit izen, it migh t be mentioned that he hauled the first load of clay used in making Lakeland s streets, and that he and Mrs. Riggins owned the second and third bicycles ever brought to the town

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 3 1 9 Mr. Riggins was married to Sallie Richardson Three children were born to th. is union: L Wallace, Pattie (Mrs. J. W. Darracott), and Fannie Mr. Riggins and fami ly are members of the Cumbe r lan d Presbyterian church. JOHN L ROBINSON }OHN L. RoBIN,SON, successful fanner and county 09mmissioner was borit in Leon County, February 26, 1864 He is the son of Larkin and Sa. rah (Chason) Robinson, the former a North carolinian by birth, and the latter a native of this State. Mr. Robinson was educated in the Leon County schools, and for many years was a farmer and turpentine operator in that section . He represented Leon county in the Legislature two terms having been elected in 1903, and re-elected in 1905. He removed to Christina in 1908 and five years later s ettled at Medulla, where he has since m ade his home He has a farm at Chicora and one at Medulla, and owns much property in Leon county . Mr. Robinson has been county commissioner for 12 years representing Dis trict No. 1, which indudes the majority of the p hosphate min es in the county. He was married February 18, 1887, to Lilla N. Levy, of Leon county, and they have one son Richard B. REID ROBSON REID RoBSON was born at Lake City, Florida, April 25, 1872, t he son o f Wiley and Susan M A. Robson. Mr .. Robson' s fathe r se!tled in Lakeland in 1884 and was a pioneer in g rowing strawberrie s for commercial purposes in Polk County. Upon the completion of his education, rec e ived in the schools of Lakeland, Mr. Robson followed i n his father' s footsteps engaging in ihe growing of straw berries and in cattle-raising. For years he ;hipped catt l e to Cuba. He also has engaged iri. land o peration s on a large scale. He wa s always inter es t ed in po li tical matte r s, and represented Polk County in the Florida Legis l ature t wo terms, from 1915 t o 1917. He has served the county for the past six. years as C0\1nty commi s sioner of D istric t No 5, anins one of tlui organizers of the State organizatio n o f Cou nty Com m issioners, and he was one of the promoters o{bard-surfaced highways in P olk Coun t y. Mr. Robson always take s an active interest in all public matter s having the time and means to devote to same, and has g i ven freely of his t ime and moneyto further any cause he f e lt \voul d be for the betterme n t of his tO\vn. and county as a whole. . .... Mr. Robson is a 32nd degree Mason, Elk, Shriner and a member of the astern Star. H e is also a member of the Methodist church. . . Mr. Robson was married S epten>ber 16:1899, to Alice Bryant ; daughte r Of the late J. Wes l ey Bryan t one of the pionee r citizens .of the county. They six children, Holly E lma, Bernice (Mrs. C. G . Knight), Wayma, rva May.and Dorris. They also have two gran d c hildren, Holly Robson, Jr., and Charles G. Knight.

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320 HISTORY OF POL K COUNTY, FLORIDA DR. J. H. ROSS Dn. J H. Ross, moving spirit in the founding of the Florida Citrus Exchange and one who accomplished more for co-operative marketing of citrus fruit than ll.ny man in. the State, was born May 17, 1844, in Rockingham county, Virginia the son David and Eliza Ann (Whitsell) Ross. H is death at Winter Haven, Dec ember 2!1, 192 5, removed from the county one of its greatest developers, an<;! one enjoyed the highest esteem and admiratio n of all with whom he came iri contact. . . [lr. Ross .moved with his parents to Indiana when a young Jail, and when nipeteen .year;s. age enlisted in the Union Army as a of Company K, 115th Indiana Infantry. At .ihe cl9se of the Civil. War he studied medicine in the Upivers ity o( :Michigan, and l ater graduaicd from the Si. Louis Medical College in 1873. He practiced his professionin Kokomo Ind., for twenty years with great si1ccess. As early as 1895 he began spending the winters at Winter Haven, later moving there permanently. .. I n all the yea r s Dr. Ross made his home in Polk County he was recognized as a lead e r ill all progressive movements ; part i cularly the citrus industry in recognition of his services to the latter industry, ih' e Florida Citrus Exchange granted him the degree. of Co-Operative Service at the time of his death. He was a splendid orator, and was in demand as SP,eaker when any forward movemen t was to be presented to the people. Particularly effective work was accomplished by Dr-. Ross when the county bond issue for good roads w:is being agitatl:d. his presentation of the matter 'in.addresses throughout the county, being in large measure respon&ible for the issue of $.1,500,000 for paved highways the co unty, being passed. . . Dr. Ross was insinn,:,ent3 1 !n having the Seaboard Air ;tine Railway enter Havtn, and was a in lll!lny other that rl:dounded to the benefit o f ihat commljnity. . Dr: Ross owned several fine groves, but. had sol .<:! practically'. all of his holdings before his death. He was vice-president of the snell National Bank, presideni of the Florida Citrus Exchange, president of the Exchange Supply COmpany, president ; of the Winter Haven Hotel Company a director of the Florence Villa Citrus Growers' Asrociation, of Lucerne Growers' Association, the. Growers' Loan and Guarantee Company, al)d was a director and vice-president of the Fiorida Grower Ptibiishing Company. Dr. Ross was married in June, 1875, to Mary M. Dr age, hav iiig to. that time follov.:ed the shoemaking t rade in Europe . On coming to New Yo.rk in 1885 M(. Roth was connected wit .IJ the nationally kno\vn firms of Hanan & Sori, a l so Cousins'. He was foreman of a slipper factory

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PAR1' II -BIOGRAPHICAL 321 in New York, and so proficient was he at the shoemak i ng trade he later established a business which made a specialty of shoes for cripp l es. Mr. Roth made a fortune in New York City in the wholesale leather bu s ines s, having at one tim e had five stores in that city. This fortune was used in traveling all over Europe seeking health for his wife wh o i s now dec eased Later he chose Pittsburg as his base of operations and there opened a who le sale leathe r business, amassing another f o rtun e, which he lost during the war. In 1918 Mr. Roth came to Lakeland where he opened a store, specializing in government goods, which he turned into a dollar s tore later engaging in the shoe busin ess again. Mr. Roth is an expert shoe maker an artist in his line, and since coming to Lakeland has enjoyed a splendid busin ess He owns a nice home and other val uable propert y, and is one of Lakeland's substantia l cit izen s. He was first married to Lena Strauss, now deceased. He l ater married Esther Bokur, of New York. Mr. Roth bas five Max Roy Roth, Juliu s Roth, who is a lieutenant in College Park Military Academy in Atlanta; Leonard Roth, George Roth, and Mrs. Rae%, an only daughter. GEORGE W.SAFFORD GEORGE W. SAPFORD was born at Augusta, Maine, September 1, 1893, the so n o f C harl es W. and De E lsa N Safford. He represents an old New England family, the first members of which came to thi s cou ntry fro m Sc otland. Mr. Saff o r d graduated from the High School at August a and for some time thereafter was a new s paper repo rter in that city. In 1922 he received his LL.B. degree at the Washington College of Law, and the day after he was admitted to the bar began practicing. It was during his days at law school that he became secretary to Hon Herbert J. Drane, member of Congress. He remained in thi s connection until December, 1927, when he resign ed to devote his entire time to the practice of law. Mr. Safford made a s plendid record at co llege He w a s president of the Senior class, speaker for the J unio r class, and duri ng his first year wa s o n the prize debatin g team. He was one of the organi zers o f the Oliver Wendell Holmes Chapter of the Sigma Nu Phi legal fratern ity, and was the first delegate from his ch apter to the National Convent ion. Mr. Saff o rd is an arden t Democrat, and while in Maine took an active part in matters pertainin g to the party. He is a member of the Benevolent and P r o tect ive Order of Elks. Mr. Safford and Lucille Kinkaid were marr ied June 26, 1 924, at Washingto n, D. C. They have one dau ghter, Alice Fay, aged 2}4 years. Z H. SANDERS Z. H. SANDERS wa s born at Trenton, Gilchrist County (formerly A l achua County) Florida, October 9, 1902, the son of Albert L. and Edna E li zabeth (Gay) Sanders. His an cestors were ScotchIrish. His parents were ea r ly sett lers of this part of the State, co ming from Troy, Alabama, about fifty yea r s ago. He graduated from Trenton High School later attending and graduating from Georgia N o rmal College & Business Institute, .Douglas, Georgia. Fro m

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322 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA June, 1921, to May, 19 22, he wa s connecte d with Conso lidated Grocery Co npany, Jacksonville Florida, wholesale grocer s. From May, 1922, to January 1 1928 he was connected with Telfair Stockton & Co m pany, Jacksom ille, Florida com ing to Lakelan d in 19 25 as manager of the Lakeland branch o f that firm continuing in that ca p a city un til Janua ry 1, 19 28, when he established his own office, ha ndling real estate, mortgage loans and insurance and co ntinuing as local representative of Telfair Stockton & Company and as mortgage loa n representativ e of New Yor k Life Insurance Company. He is a member of the board of director s of the Lakeland Lion s Club, a mem ber of the Chamber of Commerc e and affiliate d with the Southside Bapti s t church . He is also assistant of the Lakeland Rea l Estate Board. Mr. Sander s married Miss Sarah Stephen so n of Hartselle, Alabama, on June 5, 1927. BENJAMIN B SCARBOROUGH B11iNJ A lii:I N B. SCARBOROUOH was born at Scarborough, Tennessee, the son of R. H and Anna Scarborough. Tbe town of his birth was named for his grandfather, who founded it, and by this graceful act the h onored name o f Scarborough will be known and r espect ed not only by the present but s uc ceeding generations. Mr. Scarbor o ugh was educated in the schools of Tennessee, later attending Rhone College and the Law School of the University o f For several years Mr. Scarborough was president of the Southern Marble & Stone Company of Georgia He sold his int erests in this concern and came to Polk County in 1919, locating at Frostproof where he has been one of that se c tion's leading developers and most sulistantial citizens. The condition of hi s health brought him to the State, and since locating at Frostproof he has found both health and success in many large business under takings. When he first came to Frostproof he confined his activities t o orange growing, and later established the West Frostproof Packing Com pany, which has enjoyed a successful bu sines$. The officials of the Am erican Fruit Growers' Association own a considerabl e interest in the Packing Company, and they will soon enlarge the plant. Mr. Scarbor o ugh laid out the town of Wes t Frost proof, and built and is the owner of all its business property. He is the President of the West Frostproof Land and Oil Company, which is now drilling for o il at West Frostproof. Mr. Scarborough states that he started the oil well drilling in West Frostproof and that as a resul t of discoveries made in dri llin g the oil well the State geological m ap is bein g considerably ch anged. In addi tio n to his othe r large intere sts, M r Scarboroug h is owner o f the Ridge Cigar C ompany,located at West Frostproof Mr. Scarborough was married in Tennes see t o Mary McCarth. Four c hildren were born to this union: Nellie (Mrs. C. C Dempsey), Ralph Zed and Georgia. J. L. SCHMIDT ]OliN L SCHMIDT was born January 19, 1883, at Steel ton Pennsylvania the son of John and Margaret Schmidt. His parents were German born, and Mr. Schmidt receiv ed his educ ation in the school s of the old country, graduating as an electrical engineer.

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PART UBIOGRAPHICAL 323 After comp letin g his education in Germany, Mr. Schmidt returned to tbe : States and settled at D ayton, Ohio, where he was in t be automobile and bicycle business for se veral yea rs. In 1919 Mr. Schmidt came to Davenport, establ ishing the first garage i n that town. There were only three automobiles in Davenport at that time and the popu lation numbered 62. As the community g r ew, hi s business li kewise expanded, and in 1926 he built a fine new garage. He is the Studebaker agent for that section. Mr. Schmidt has served as member of the City Counci l of Davenport for two terms, and is a member of the Business Men's Association. He is thoro ughly in terested in all matters of civic development and importanc e Mr. Schmid t was married July 28, 1912, to Anna Stam m at Dayton, Ohio. They have two children: Northington M. and Mary Catherine. ANTON SCHNEIDER ANTON ScHNF.IDR, whose achievements have been many, was born a t Summit Hill, suburb of Philadelphia, in 1 87 1 the son of Anthony and Sarah ( Winterstelsa) Schneider. After gradua ting as a civil engineer from Lehigh University, Mr. Schneider was with the Union Pacific Railway until 1899, when, after having served in the Spanish-America n War, he went to New York City and engaged in building e l e vated railroa ds. His construction work was for t he :Manhattan Railway of New York. '!'hence he went to South America as c hi ef engineer in the constru ction of the Sierra de Pasco Railwa y in the Andes mountains. O n e year later he refurned to New York, where he w a s again engaged in subway constructi on, later being e ngineer in charge of construction of the East River terminals in New York for the Interborough Rapid Transit Co. In 1908 Mr. Schneider came to Polk Coun t y as manager of the American Agricultural Chemical Company's mine at Pierce. Later h e s upe rvised the con struction of the Amalgamated Phosphate plant at Brewster, managing same until 1919, when be retired from active business. His retirement was not for long, however, as he was pfeva iled upon shortly thereafter to become city manager of Bartow. He held this posi t ion one year when he was appointed city manager of Lakeland, which office he held for 41h years, ser ving ably and well. During his incumbency, Lakeland's largest and most pro gressive de v e lopment became a reality-4.he city's fine mun icipal buil di n gs, includ ing her magnificent city hall, auditorium, ho sp i tal and athletic fie l d being projects i ni tiated by Mr. Schneider. Bo nd s were voted and the impr ovements made during h is tenure of office. A b usy life, a life of accompli s hm ent, has been Mr. S chneider's, and that others of his famil y are li kewi se leaders though in a differen t v oca tion, i s evidenced by the fact tha t his brother, Herman Schneider, is president o f the University of Cin cinnati one o f the leadinJO:: instittltion s of learning in the United State s. Mr. sChneider is a Mason, and a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. He was married in Utah to Mary Robinson: and they have two daugh te rs, Elizabeth and Margaret both graduates of Smith College with M .A. d e grees The former is now a teacher at Temple University, and the latter is doing res earch work in Biology at the University of Maine. Mrs. Schneider is a prominent club woman o f Polk County.

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3U HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA CARL E. SCHRIBER CARL E. ScHRIBER was born December 18th 1814, at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, the son of Charles Schriber and Jennie E Schriber, whose ancesto r s came direct from Germany to Wisconsin. After completing h is public school education at Oshko sh, Mr. Schriber spent two years a t the Universi t y of Wisconsin and two years at the Mich igan College of Mines, compl e tin g the mining course in 1901. Mr. Schiber's first employment was in Mexko where he served as mining engineer for various mining companies Later he established a general mining and engineering business in Durango, Mexico, wi t h a branch office in Torreon. In 1 9 1 2 he returned to the United States, going wi t h the H. C. Dornan Co. a s construction engineer, manufacturing gas engines. He later was with the Vaughn Constr uction Co. engaged iu build ing eight miles of railroad for the Norfolk Southern Railway In 190 4 he helped to construct the first power house on the Hillsborough river for the Tampa Elect ric Company Mr. Schriber came to Lakeland in 1925 and with Mr. Earle E. Baird estal> lished the firm of Baird & Schriber, Civil Engineers. Bes ides doing a general engineering business they specialize in blasting drainage ditches and canals with dynamite They are also city engineers for the t owns of Lake Stearns and Indian Rocks Beach. During the Worid War Mr. S.chribe r entered the service at Fort Sheridan, Ill., and was co mmissioned 1st Lieutenant, assigned to the 159th Depot Brigade at Camp Taylor, Ky., where he was detailed to iqstruct recruits; he wa s promoted to a captaincy and after the armistice was sent t o the Constructio n Division at Camp Knox where he was discha rged October Slst, 1919. Mr. Schri ber is a member of the American Legion and the Benevo l ent and Protective Order o f Elks. W. W. SCOTT W. W. ScOTT wa s born at Racin e Wiscon sin, in 1877 After comp leting his education in the school s of Racin e, Mr. Scott r eprese nted the ].1. Case Threshing Machine Comp any, of Racine, and later was with a whole sale confectiooery of that city. In 1911 be came to Haines City where he and R. E. Philpot, together with A. B. Pickett, established the Plant & Land Food Company, Mr. Scott being secre tary and treasurer of the company. This firm has mrge deposits of muck-peat at Dunde e, in this county, and from this "Humite", a steamed, sterili2ed and bacteri zed humus is produ ced. The capacity of the plant is 40 ton s per day. Mr. Scott i s active in civic matte rs, being ex-secreta r y of the Chambe r of Commerce of Haines City He is at the present time secretary of the Rotary Club, and is a director of the Haines City State Bank. He is also trustee of the Badger Gro,es Company. W. H. SHINN W. H. SHINN, president of Imperial Products, Incorpo rate d, was born at Alleghany, Pennsy lvania. He atten d ed the school s of that State, and graduated from W estm inster Colle ge. His father, J. K. S hinn, ob tained in England the in formati on necessa r y for making Portland cemen t, and the knowledge was acquired

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 325 'by the subject of this s ket ch, who manufactured the first cement of this kind in the United States. The plant was established in 1876, and was located at Wampon, Pennsy lva nia. It '''as known as the Shinn Bros Portland Cement Company, and for seven years .Mr. Shinn was superintendent. Later, he was connected with the Mansfiel d Coal and Coke Co., of Carn egie, Penn sylvania, which was s u bsequently purchased by the Pittsburg Coal Compan y. For several years prio r to his removal to Florida he operated independently as a coal dealer of Pitts burg. Mr. Shinn cam e to Lake Alfred in 1921, and became interested in the growin g of citrt1s fruits. He served his commun ity two years as Mayor and has been 3' member of the Cot1ncil. Largely due to his efforts, a system of waterworks has been installed, a nd during his term as Mayor, the white way was built. Mr. Shinn spent much of his time in Carnegie Pa., wor king for civic betterment Mr. Shi nn organized the Krystal Rok Stucco Co mpany at Lak e Alfred i n 1925, the name of which has been cha nged t o Imper ial Products, Incorporated This firm manufact ures Venetian stucco and marble flooring, a nd carrie s a com plete line of material in stock for builders. The project has been markedly success ful, and does a large bt1siness all over the State Mr. Shinn is vice-president of the Carnegie N ati onal Bank and is prominent in financial circles of Pennsy lvania and this State. He and Inez L Osborn e were married in Penns y lvania 41 years ago. They have two child ren : Marie, wife ofT. W. Greer and Charles M., who i s secre tary and t reasurer of the Imperial Products Company. GEORGE W. SINGLETARY G>:oRGF. W. SINCL>:TARV was born near Fort Februa r y 11, t8Gl, the son of Simpson and Martha Ann Singl etary, who came to the State in 1 850. He attended one of the county schools, locited at Homeland, and had as his first teacher Col. S. M. Sparknan, ex-cong ressman. Mr. Singleta r y has devoted Practic a lly all of hi s l ife to fannin g and the growin g of citr u s f ruits ln con nection w it b the latter work he h as served seve ra l year s as P residen t of the Homeland Citru s Associatio n Mr. Singletary is vice-pre side nt of t he State Bank of Fort Meade, and wa s instrumental in the organization of that institution He is a la rge land owner and has sold hundreds of acres of property-farms, grov es and phosphat e land. From 1892 untill900, Mr. Singletar y was tax assessor of the county, and in 1892 was a deleg ate to t h e Democrat ic State convention, which n ominated Mitche ll for Governor. He is an ex -trus tee of the Homeland schools and is active io. Chamber of Commerce work. Mr. Singletary has been married twice. His first wire, Edit h Bos s whom he marrie d Novem ber 22, 1911, died August 8, 1917 and his second marriage was to Clam of Ohio, November 30, 1922. He has one daugh ter, Edith Elaine, by the first marriage.

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826 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA JOHN 0. SINGLETARY J. 0. Su:TARY, representat ive of one of the oldest families of the county, was born near Fort Meade in 188:>. He is a son of James W. and Laura A. Single tary, the former a farmer and stock man, who lived his entire life in this sect ion His great-grandparents were re s ident s of Fort Meade, and were buried at Home land. Upon the completion of his education, which was received in the county school located south of Fort Meade, Mr. Singletary assisted his father with his farm. Since 1910 he has been engaged in growing and shipping citrus fruits. He has about 40 acres in groves, which are l ocated in the Alturas section. Mr. Singletary is ably serving the county as Commissioner from District 2, and amon g other things has advocated the replacing of timber bridges and all wooden structures on paved highways with concrete. He was married at Fort Meade October 8th, 1911, to Nora D ishong, and they have two children, Johnnie Ruth, aged three years, and James Edward, six mon t hs Mr. Singletary is a Meth od ist and active member of the Business Men's Bible Class. GRAY SINGLETON GRAY SINGLETON was horn in Gadsden, Alabama, April 28, 1890, the son of the late J. J. and Florence (Gray) Singleton. The year following his birth the family removed to Arcadia, and h e attended the schoo l s of that city, graduating from Emory Universi t y Atlanta, with the degree of Ph.B. For many years Mr. Singleton has been connected with the Tillman Phosphate Company, first as chemist and later superintendent. At this time he is acting as consulting cheniist for plants in Florida, Georgia and Alabama. Mr. Singleton is chemist for the Sealed Sunshine Corporation, which sells alxrut 1 000 bottles of citrus fruit juioe daily. For the past two years he has been doing chemical work f o r citrus growers of the county. During the World War Mr. S i ngleton served as a second lieutenant in the air serv1ce. He was married at Fon Meade to Lillain Varn, June 24, 1913, and they have son Frederick Gray, aged 13 year s. Mr. Singleton is a Mason and a Shriner. J. 1 SINGLETON J. J. SINGLETON, a pioneer in the phosphate industry, was horn in Georgia and graduated in engineering from Emory University. Until his rem oval to Florida in 1889, he was an engineer for the government in lock and dam construction work. For severa l years after he came to Florida M r Singleton was manager of the Peace River at Arcadia. He prospected the land and assi sted in the establish ment of the Charle ston : Mine near Fort Meade. Subsequently, he estab lished the Tillman Mine and was manager of the company until 1920, when he retired, and his son, Gray, succeeded him. Mr. Singleton was married in Georgia to Fto re!'ce Gray, now deceased ; their c hildren are Gray, Mary, Howard, Dav is, Joe and Jim, all of whom survived their father who died at Fort Meade, October U 1927

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PART IIBIOGRAPHI<;AL 327 D. H. n, H SLOAN, native born citizen of Polk, and one of the county's most in fluential and tireless upbuilders, from its pioneering days through its more pro gressive stag e s, was born ten miles no rth of Lakeland, October 18th, 1864, the ron of Orvil and Sarah :M. Sloan. His pare nts were born in Georgia and, with his grandparents, were among the first settlers in Polk County. Both his father and grandfather were farmers and stock raisers. Mr. Sloan received his education in the country schools of Polk County. He worked on the farm, taught school an d clerked in store until he was about eighteen years of age. For a time he owned a store at Bloo111field, in Lake County. Moving to Lakeland in 1884 when village just starting he opened a mercantile business, building one of the first store buildings in the town, located north of the railroad. He conducted this business for many years. He is secOnd or third oldest resident of He has had large grove holdings, and although he has sold a number of groves, he still retains three. Mr. Sloan is one of the largest property owners in Lakeland, and owns much valuable business property, re si dences and acreage. In the upbuilding of Lakeland and Polk County, Mr. Sloan has dorie his fitll share He was a member of the town's first Board of Public Works the first paving having been done under his administration. First water system put in at this time also. He served as a member of the City Council and the local sc hool board chairman of the latter for years, and one t e rm in the State Legislature in the lower house, and one term as State Senator. He introduced and secured the passage o f the bill requiring all hotels and to be screened; the anti racing and anti-gambling bill and several others including the district school bond ing bill, which has resulted in many fine, modern school buildings throughout the county . Mr. Sloan is a devout member of the Baptist church and for thirty years served as the chairman of the Board of Deacons ofthe First Baptist church <;>f Lakeland. He was married March 14th, 1886, to R uby E. Wilder, member of an old and prominent Polk County family. Seven children were born to this union: Lula Pauline (Mrs. Tom Cason), Nellie (deceased}, Fred T., Marion W., D. H., Jr., Edward 0. and Ruby Estelle. E. W. SMITH E. W SMITH was born Marc h 1, 1884, at Sullivan, Ohio, the son of Thomas W. and F lora Eldred Smith. His ancestors, who were from England, were early settlers of Ohio. His maternal grandfather lived in the Wes t and participated in the India n wars. Mr. Smith wa s educated in the schools of his native Stat e and hi s taste and i n clina tion s nmning to thing s m e chanical, he became a steam engineer, until the automobile industry changed his activities. He i s now recognized as one of the bes t automobile m echanics in Polk C o unty. Coming to Lakeland in 1923, Mr. Smith was with the Lakeland Buick Com pany for three years, establis hing his owri business in that city in 1927. He has built up a s plen did auto repair business and service station, expert work-

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328 HIS1'0RY OF POLK CO UNTY, FLORIDA men being employed, and honest reliable service being given. His garage is one of t he best equipped in Lake l and. Mr. Smith was married in October 190 4 He has one son, Sidney Max and two daughters, Fern and Hazel Mae, LISLE W. SMITH L ISLE \V. SMITH, prominent Polk County banker was born at Seward Ne braska, May 23, 1888, the son of Edward P. and Margaret W. Smith. Mr. Smith completed his education at the University of Nebraska, and for several years was engaged in the lumber business in Nebraska. He came to Flore ida in 1910 and located at Haines City where he engaged in the citrus business. When the United States ent ered the World War Mr. Smith went into the service as a second lieutenant. At the close of the war, he returned to H aines City and became cashier of the State Bank o f that city, later becoming vice-president, and since January, 1928, he has been presi dent of the institution Since h i s connection with the bank its business has tripled, having deposits at t his time of $800,000. Mr. Smith has also been president of the Bank of Lake Hamilton for t he past five years. While he has been busy with the financial affairs of the banking establishments which he heads, Mr. Smith has found time to be helpfu l in civic m atters, and was for three year s mayor of Haines City, city commissioner for one year, chairman of the .local board of schoo l trustees for five years and was elected in the June primaries to the county school board He has always been vitally interes ted in school affairs and in his enlarged sphere he will doubtless he a great factor in the school development of the county Mr. Smith is president of the Polk County Bankers' Association, ex-president of the Haine s City Rotary club, past commander of the Haines City Legion Post, a member of the 40 and 8 o( Polk County; and is a Mason, a Shriner and an Elk. He was married in Osage, Iowa September, 1914, to Esther Jane Pettit They have two young daughters, Mary Jane and Nancy Pettit PAUL H. SMITH PAUL H. SMITH, well-known builder and contracto r of Haines City, was b9m in Dublin, Georgia, January lOth 1894, the son of J. N and Georgia Smith. Fin ished grammar school at fifteen and left home to make his own way. He leaned to the trade of his father, that of building, and worked up as be went. Coming to Florida in 1912, Mr. Smith continued his ,\>ork in the building trade in New S ll\ yrna, Orlando, Arcadia, and Jacksonv ille. Then in 1919 going to A von Park to take partnership with his brother, Wm. L. Smith of that city, in general contracting, and in 1921 moved to Haines Ci t y and comme n ced business by himself where he built up a large organization with necessary capital and equip ment for handling the larger and better class of buildings, since which time he has handled such projects as Centra l Grammar and Ward School buildings and Ex chang e Packing house in Haines City, Dixieland School and 1924 addition to High School in Lakeland, High Schoo l and City Hall in Auburndale, Grammar School, Arcadia, addition to Polk County Court house at Bartow, City Hall and Auditorium .

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PART IIBIOGRAPH:! CAL 329 for Wauchula, Charlotte County Courthouse at Punta Gorda, and Glades County Courthouse at Moore Haven and numerous other buildings in this section of the State. In addition to his l ong list of achievements in the building line, Mr. Smith is the builder and owner of the Hotel Paul Smith at Auburndale. He is also owner and developer of the Sunset De velopll?ent at Haines City. Mr. Smith is one of Haines City's leading citizens, and that he is recognized as one of South Florida' s most reliable contractors is evidenced by the large num ber of important contracts he has handled. SAMUEL F. SMITH Dr. SAMUEL F. SM!Til, a resident of Lakeland for th e past twenty years, was born in Marietta, Ohio, August 21, 1873, the son of Samuel F. and Hannah M. (Dibble) Smith. He comes from a line of distinguished ancestors, being a de scendant of Miles Standish on hi s maternal side. Coming to Florida in 1883, Dr. Smith's parents located at Fruitland Park, and after atten ding the schools of that section, D r Smith graduated from Stetson University with an A. B. degree, and l ater at the Cincinnati Med i cal coll ege he graduated with the degree of M D. Dr. Smith began the p ractice of medicine in Leesburg, where he remained for a number of years, coming to Lakeland in 1908. He first did general practice, but having fitted himself to be a specia list by post-graduate work in Philadelphia, he has, .for a number of years, confined his practice to the eye, ea r, nose and throat. Dr. Smith is recognized as one of the leading specialists of th e State, and enjoys a large practice, covering not only Polk County but a large part of Sotith Florida. Aside from his prof essio nal life Dr. Smith has found time to devote to civic matters, having been a member of the City Council of Leesburg, and President of that body and has also served as President of the Chamber of Commerce of Lake land. He represented Lake Coun ty in the Legislature, while a resident of Lees burg. He is a Rotarian, an Elk, Mason and a Shriner. He is a member of the Ameri can, State, County and Lakeland Medical Associations. Dr. Smith was married September 7th, 1905, at Leesburg to Louise J. Con nor. They have one son, Samuel F rede rick, Jr. WILLIAM D. SMITH \ViLL!A M D. SMITH was born at Cedar Creek, North Carolina, September, 1872. He is the so n of Benj amin M. and Susan Smith The former, a Civil W,ar veteran, was capt ured and held prisoner d uring a greater part of the war. Mr. Smi th secured his e duca t ion in the schoo l s of his native State, taking a business course later at Nashville, Tennessee. He ta ught schoo l for some and t hen engaged i n farming. He l ived in Georgia for two years, coming to Florida in 1899, locating at Jacksonville. He engaged in the naval s t ores business there, moving in 1900 to Lake County where h e was superintendent of a turpentine farm until 1906, when he went into the turpentine business on his own account at Sorrento. He lived there for a number of years coming to Fort Meade in 1916.

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330 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Since locating at Fort Meade Mr. Smith has been engaged in the mival storeS bll1;iness, but has now about retired from active business He has identified him self with the growth and progress of his home city, having served it as mayor for a term, Cluring. which tinie ihe handsome new city hall was built. He was a mem ber oNhe qity council for six years, is a director of the First State Eank, of Fort Meade, a Maso n and a member of the Baptist c hurch. 'He was ; m:irtie'd in Georgia to Amelia Rooks. They have 6ve children: Lor ina, /fhehria, Mildred, Talmage and Lillian. W. F. SNEED W. F. SN>:JU>, Lakeland lumberman, was born August 9, 1868, at Morven, Georgia, tl)e son of Clinton and Eliza (Everett) Sneed. Mr. Sneed liited on his home farm until he was grown, then came to Alachua County, Florida, where the phosphate indusfry was just opening up. With prac tically no education but with plenty o f good health and energy he applied himself and soon developed into a structural engineer and built more phosphate mining plants than any other one person in the state. In 1906 he came to Polk County, his 6rst place of residence being Fort Meade, where he had charge of the building of plant for the Charleston Mining Company. 'His last job 'of. this kind in thi s coun ty was the building of plant for Armour Fertilizer Company near Bartow. In 1907 he came to Lakeland, and in 1911 organized the Lakeland Manufactur ing Company; and has bee. n its President and Genera l Manager since that time : 'l'his firm handles lumb er; millwork ; a!ld a. complete line of building supplies, and ha.s orie -of tlie--Iargest and best known millwork plants in Setith Florida, with an e>itensive'wholesale and retail business throughout this section: Mr .Sneed is a Rotarian Mason, Shriner, a life member of the Elks; a mem ber of' the Chamber of Commerce, and both Lakeland Country Clubs. He is al alnong the leaders iri any civic movement, and an force behind anything for lbe good of !he community. He is Vice-President and a Director of the Mine & Mill Supply Company, also a Director of the Florida Lumber & Mill' work AssOciatiOJ>; andowfts'much vahiable property, including a block of stores on East Main street 1n. H104 Mr. Sneed wa:s at BrOOksville to Mary Elizabeth !'.forgan. They have t)YO children, Helyn ClintQn, who graduated this year from the Florida State College for women, and William F., Jr., a in High School. HENRY W. SNEL L . Hl.tilRY w . SiNELL, president of the Snell National Bank Of Winter Haven, was born at. Wrightsville, Georgia March 12, 1858, the soh of William B. and Jane (Hkks) SnelL The former was a fanner and business man of.that section and served in the Confederate army. Mr. Snell came to Florida in 1882, locating first at Bartow where he was in t he mercantile business, and had branch stores at Mulberry, Fort Meade and Chicora. In 1892 be established a store at Winter Ha,en, and bas made his home in that city ever since. He began his ha. nking career by lending money in connec tion with his store. H. W. Snell & Co.

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PART II-B IOGRAPHICAL 331 The private bank of H. W. Snell & Company, Bankers was opened in 1909, and was converted into the Snell National in 1913,Mr. Snell being president. At that time the deposits were less than $200,000, and now run well over two million dollars. Under Mr. Snell's guidance this has become one of the most successful institutions in South Florida. In addition to his banking iriterests, Mr. Snell is largely interested in the citrus industry. He served Polk County for one term in the Legislature, is a member of the of Commerce, the Masonic order and the Methodist church. Through all the years he has been a leader in everything for the upbuild-. ing of his community and the county as a whole. He was married at W rightsyille, Georgia, in 1883 to Ida B, Kent, and their children are W. Ray, Clara C., H. W., Jr., and Mary Louise. JOHN A. SNIVELY Among the foremost developers and citrus growers of the county i s J. A. Snively, of Win te r Haven. Mr. Snively is president of the Haven-Villa Com pany, vice-president of the Florida Citrus Exchange, and vice-president of the Snively-Giddens Company. He was born in B edford County, Pennsylvania, April 24, 1888, the son of Frank B. and Laura May Snively, and attended the schools of his native State : Mr. Snively came to Winter Haven in 1911 and acquired valuable grove interests, having at this time one-half interest in an 800-acre tract. He has been active _in real estate since 1924 when he organized the Winter Haven Company, developers of Inwood and Eloise Woods. Each of these properties contain 2 ,000 lots, making them the largest subdivisions in the county. Since its organization, Mr. Snively has been president of the Haven-Vi.lla Company. The volume of business done by this firm has amounted to $20,000,000. He is also a director of the Florence Villa and Winter Haven sub-Exchanges and the Snell National Bank. Mr. Snively was married to Dorothy DeHaven, and they have three children: John A., Jr., Eve l yn Jewett and Avis. Fraternally, Mr. Snively is a member of the Masonic order and the Shrine. ISAAC SOSKIS ISAAc SosKIS, Mulberry merchant, is an example of what pluck, determination and energy, coupled with a certain amount of business ability, may accomplish if properly directed. Born in Ustulce, Russia now Poland, in 1889, Mr. Soskis planned and dreamed of some day being a citizen of the United States Twenty-two years ago he began the journey to New York City, which took him a year to complete. Without funds, he took employment on various ships as a sailor, hoping that some day one of these would land him in the United States Finally after a year he reached New York, remaining there from 1907 untill912, working as a mechanic I n 1912 he came to Florida, spending eight months at Ocala, and the year following he spent at Lakeland where he was connected in business with his brother-in-law, Cyrus Wolfson, in the conduct of the Famous Department Store.

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332 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA In 1914 he loca te d at Mulberry, where he established a s m'!ll store, which has grown to extensive proportions, being known as Soskis' Department Store. It carries a full line of men's, women's and children's clothing, a store whic h would do credit to a mueh larger place than Mulberry In addition to t his establishment, Mr. Soskis owns the entire block where his s tore is l ocated. Mr. Soskis is a member of the Business Men's Club of Mulberry, is prom inently identified with the Knights of Pythias and is an Odd Fellow. He was married in New York to Gertrude Wilson, a siste r of Mrs. Cyrus Wolfson, of Lakeland. They have two children: Florence and Albert. GEORGE E SOUTHARD GEORG E. SouTHARD was born in Erie County, Pennsylvan ia in 1857, the son of Allen and Jane Southard. The former was a sea captain After graduating from the schools of his home coun ty, Mr. Southard engaged in the oil-drilling and contracting business in Pennsylvania. He was also a sales man of mining machinery for eleven years. Coming to Lakeland in 1907, Mr. Southard engaged in the well-drilling busi ness, his activities taking him to all parts of the State, where he had many large contracts. He also represented the Sullivan Machinery Company, of Chicago manufacturers of mining machinery . For four years Mr. Southard was a member of the old ci ty council of Lake land, and for eight years was a director ofthe Chamber of Commerce. He was among those pioneers who advocat ed the paving of Lakeland's streets, and was active in securing sewerage, sidewalks and other public improvements for Lake land. He was president of the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce when the $1 ,50 0,000 bond issue for roads was passed by the voters of the county. Mr. Southard has been one of Lakeland's larges t property owners, and has done his full share for the community's advancement. He is a Mason and a Shriner. He was married i n New York State to Effie M. Tuller, now deceased. He has three children by a former marriage: George E., Jr. Margaret (Mr s. 0. E. Yonge) and Laura (Mrs. Carl Kern) THOMAS R. SPILLANE THOMAS R. SPlLLAN>: was born September 18, 1896 at Roxbury, Massac hu sett-S, the son of Michael and Mary (Barry) Spill ane. M r. is of English and Irish descent, his father hav ing been au Englishman who saw act ive service in the Boer War, being a lieutenant in the British army, a member of Queen Vic toria's Guards. His maternal ancestors were from I re land, and were early settlers of Massachusetts . Mr. Spillane graduated from Boston College in 1917, and in 1921 from Vannai's Institute of Accounting. In 1927 he received C.P. A. and LL.B. degrees from the Blackstone Law Institute. His first work was wit h the city of Boston as engineer, and later he went with C. G Brooker & Compa ny as certified accountant. He has also served as Field Auditor in the United States Revenue Department, which work carried him over the States of Georgia and Florida.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 333 In January; 1925 Mr. Spillane came to Lakeland and established a public accounting office, the firm now being known as Spillane & Hunter, the business, started on a s mall basis, having grown to s uch an ex tent that four large offices are now used in the conduct of the concern. In all civic work, Mr. Spillane i s always an active force, having done excep tionally tine work in various ilr ives of the Chamber of C<>mmerce' and other worthy undertakings. H e is chairman of the Republican party in Precinct 25, L akeland. He enlisted in the World War and served as a private in the air service at N ew York City, spending eight months overseas. He was discharged with the rank of first lieutenant in the Air Service Reserve Corps. . Mr. Spillane is a member of the Exchange Club, Old Colony Club, Repub lican Club, American Society of Certified Public Accountants, and is Secretary of the Lakeland Merchants' Association. He is a member .of the Catholic ch.urch. Spillane was married to Elizabeth Morgan at Asheville, North Carolina, June 10, 1923. They have two children: Janet and Thomas. LUDD MYRL SPIVEY Rated as one of the leading educational men of the South, Ludd M president of Southern College, has done much for that institution, and a s proof of his interest in and affection for the college, has refused many Battering offers to accept a s imilar position with other schools. He was reared on a farm in T exa s, later go ing to Oklahoma. .At the Univer sity of Chicago he received the degrees of A.B.. M. A .. and B.D .. and the d egree of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon him at Birmingham-Southern, Birmingham, Alabama. Dr. Spivey came to Lakeland in 1925 to become president of Southern College, and under his able administration the institution has made remarkable progress. Among other forward steps taken under his regime, $500,000 has been added to the endowment fund; the stud ent body, representing 35 States, has been increased from 209 to 836, and a d ebt of $492,000 on the college has been paid in full. Dr. Spivey takes a keen interest in civic affairs of Lakeland, and is a member of the Kiwanis Club. H. A. STAHL Lakela nd boasts o f one of the finest residential developments in Florida-not a mere subdivision, but a community made up of people who desire the best. Such a place is Cleveland Heights, and the person responsible for it is H. A. Stahl, of Lakeland and Cleveland, Ohio. Mr .. Stahl is a native of Ohio, having been bom at Talmadge, in that State. He first came to Florida eigh t years ago visiting St. Petersburg. and it was on this visit he became interested in the possibilities of Lakeland and vicinity, attracted to that place by the fa c t that the Cleveland Indians were in training there. Cleveland Heights is comprised of 500 acres, which includes a magnificent club house, one of the finest 18 hole golf courses in the South, and a number of the handsomest homes in Lakeland, over one hundred fine residences having been built in this exclusive development the first year i t was placed on the market. The Club

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334 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA House, golf course and playgrounds are for the exclu siv e use of property owners, and Cl eve land Heights has been the social center of the community since its estal> lishment. Mr. Stahl has been engaged in the real estate business in Cleveland for twenty years, his projects-in t hat city being "Ridgewood" and "Ma dison Golf Lak elands." In addition to the real e sta te activities, a general brokerage business is carried on. Mr. Stahl has given splendid cooperation to any forward move in Lakeland, and is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. He was married to Agnes Whitmore, September, 1907. MRS. MAYMIE JOSEPHINE STARLING MRs. MAYMIE. Jos.;PHtN>: STARLING, one of Lakelan d's most progressive young business women, was born at Fort White, Florida, January 13, 189 8, the of Patrick Timothy and Emma Timmons. Coming to Lakeland in 1917, Mrs. Starling was for a munber of years con nected with Lakeland's largest department store, and to her good taste, tireless energy and unfailing courtesy was due much of its success. In January, 1928, ll'lrs. Starling opened an establishment in Lakeland, the Starling Smart Shoppe,' which has been .' a success from the opening day. The interior of the store is finished in Spanish style, the compartments for afternoon and evening dresses, sports wear, and coats, be ing built to resemble the exterior of tiny Spanish vil. las, and the artistic arrangement makes this store one of the most attractive in Lakeland. Mrs. Starling has ably demonstrated he r ab ility as an exceptional business woman; attentive to every detail, giving service a nd satis faction at all times, and her s uccess has in every way been merited. On April 14, 1918, Mrs. Starling, then Maymie Josephine Timmons, was married to Glenn S. Starling. The latter i s a successful young business man of Lalceland, being vice-p resident of the C. E. Todd Hardware Company. . WILLIAM STEITZ \IVILLIAM ST!IITZ was born in Germany, April 17, 1880, the son of John and Ida (Ringleband) Steitz. The fam i l y removed to Paris, France, when the subject o f this sketch was an infant, and resided in that city one year, coming to America in 1883. Captain Steitz made his home in Peoria, Illinois until 1910, and on September of that year came to Lakeland. Since that time he ha s been engaged in the r ea l estate busi ness. Since early manhood Captain Steitz ha s bee n a military man H e j oined the Illinois National Guard in July, 1901, was made a corporal J an uary 8, 1903, a. sergeant August 16; 1903, and a first' lieutenant July 14, 1909. Beca use of his Florida residence, he was placed on the retired list August 5, 1912. H e enlisted in the Florida National Guard January 3, 1915, and was made captain of Company D, Second Florida Infa ntry serving on the Mex ican border the following year. During the World 'War he served ove rseas t wo years as a cap tain and was dis charged October 31, 1919, returning soon after t his date to Lakeland where he res umed his business.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 335 Captain Steitz was th e first commander of the Lakeland Post of the American Legion, was department commander of Florida in 1926 ; is president of the Polk County Chapter of the Reserve Officers' Association, and is a member of the 40 and 8. He is a former city commissioner, a member of .the city planning board; secretary of the Lakeland Chapter of the Red Cross; secretary-treasurer of the Rose Keller branch of the Florida Children's Horne Society, and is a member of the State Conference of Social Work. He has been secretary of the Lakeland Lodge of Elks for a number of years. Captain Steitz was married in Peoria, Illinois, November 28, 1906, to Bertha Ellen Hayes, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this volume. Captain and f,Irs Steitz have two foster children, Bertha and Marie Cales. BERTHA HAYES STEITZ (.';IRS. WILLIAM STEITZ) BERTHA HAYES ST>;ITZ (Mrs. William Steitz), one of Lakeland's leading club women, was born at Five Comers, Knox County, Ohio, Febntar y 11, 1883, the daughter of John Henry Riggs Hayes and Altha (Weaver) Hayes. .She is a de scendant of the Boones, the Riggses, the Waltons, the Greggs, and other early American families. She is also related to the late Bob Bu r dette. Mrs. Steitz graduated from the Peoria, Illi n ois, High School in 1901, and in 1906 she married Captain William Steitz, of that ci t y, removi ng in September, 1910 to Florida, locating at Lakeland. Soon after coming to Lakeland Mrs. Steitz became an acti-.e force in the business life of th e community, buying a one half interest in the Lakeland Book Store, having as her partner Fred T. Benford. She later disposed of her i n terest in the book store to Mr. Benford and became city editor of the J.Akiclan
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336 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FtORIDA years in business in At l anta. He was also a successful farmer of that State for many years .Mr. Stepl).ens came to Lakeland in .Ju ne, since which time he has con ducted one of that city's leading groceries, SP.w kn. own as Greylocks, one of the show places of the Lakeland section. He was an authority on citrus culture and was interested in a number of grove s in Polk county and on the East Coast. He was .for 1i1any years among the largest shippers o f citrus fruits in t h e State, and ow n ed a packing house at Sparling. Mr. Stephens built the Colonial Apart ment house in Lakeland over looking Lake Morton; the first apartment house to be built in that city He was much in terested in civic matters and was one of the original boosters for good roa ds, having in 1900 subscribed to a fund for a road arotlftd Lake Hollingsworth, long before the county's splendid system of highways became a re ality. No man in the county gave more liberally or more frequently to charity than Minor On every list of such a character ever printed in Lakeland his name could : be f ound, and f o r a worth-while amount. He was a splendid ci tiz e n, one highly ho nored a nd respected and his passing caused wide-spread sorrow wherever .be was k nown Mr. Stephens was married in 1893 to E llen Rogan of Russellville, Tennessee, and they im mediately came to Lakeland where they established their home, sur rounded themselves with the beauties of nature and made lasting friends, their l ovely ho me being far-famed for it s hospitality. Mr. Stephens is survived by his widow, who continues to rruLintain residence at Greylocks, and an adopted daughter, Ellen.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 337 MILES E. STEW ART MrLES E. S'l'F.IVAll'l' was born in Hillsborough County, Florida, J une 23 1871 the son of James R. and Martha A. Stewart. His parents were Floridians, his father owning an o range grove near Edison Junction in Hillsborough county. An orange grower all of his life, and an expert in th is line, it is not to be wondered at that Gentile Brothers, among the State's largest growers and shipper$ .of citrus fruit, selected Mr. Stewart to be their grove manager and also put him in charge of their packing houses at Frostproof. He looks after all their groves in Florida, aggregating about 2,200 acres, having served the company in this re spons ible capacity for the past twenty years. Mr. Stewart, while a very busy man, has found time to give tliought and active interest to civic matters, and .for four years s erved as City Councilman of Frost proof. He was also on the Bowling Green council d uring his residence at that place. Mr. Stewart was married 1 5th of May, 1904, to Ettie H. Thomas, of Plant City, Fla. They have five children: Jack son E., Geraldine Rachael, i\{iles E. and Lawrence C. NILE EDWARD STEWART NILE EDWARD S'l'EWAR'l' was born :March 23, 1873 at Henderson, IIIinois, the son of Andrew J. and Mary R. (Edwards) Stewart. After completing the High School at Galesburg, Illi n ois, : Mr. Stewart attended Knox College. locate d in the same city. For a number of yea r s he was engaged in clerical work for various mercantile and street car compan i es. In 1912 he came to Polk County and opened the Stewart Hotel, Bartow, which he conducted in a highly satis factory manner, dispo s ing of same to become the proprietor of the Wales Hotel afLake Wales, one of the most attractive hostelries of the county. During the World War, Mr. Stewart took a leading part in Liberty Loan drives. He is a veteran of the Spanish-American war, being a non-commissioned officer. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, is a Rotarian, and fraterna lly is affiliated with the Elks and Odd Fellows. He is a member of the Baptist church. Mr. Stewart was married in December, 1898, at Ontario, Illinois, to Nellie Evelyn, daughter of Isaac U. Wetmore, of that city. DR. NELLIE V. STEWART DR. NELLIE V. STF.WART was born at Roanoke, Virginia the daughter of E. H. and Ida (Leps) Stewart. Her ancestors were men of science and ministers of the Gospel. Dr. Stewart is of English and French descent on her paternal side, and one of her early ancestors, James Stewart, was, in th e pioneer days of Virginia, granted one-hal f of Spottsylvania County by the King of England. Her father E. H. Stewart, now a prominent orange grower of the Winter Haven section, was at one t ime one of the wealthiest me n in Roanoke, where he opera ted a wholesale and r.etail furniture store, and was president of ten different land companies. H e served that city as mayor and was prom i nently identified with t h e life of that community until coming to Winter Haven in 1919

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338 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Dr. Stewart was educated in m u sic at the Royal Victoria College of Music in London and is al s o a graduate of the Presby teri an College for Women located at C h a rl otte, North Carolina, and the American Schoo l of Osteopathy, of Kirksville, Missouri. In addition to .he r D. 0. and D. S. degree s, Dr. S t ewart was given a degree in theology by the Presbyterian Assemb ly Training Schoo l for Lay Workers of Richmond, Vir ginia. Dr. Stewart came to Winter Haven in December, 1921, and established an osteopathic office in her home. She in vestigattd Abrams Electronic treatment and finding many had been cured of cancer by its use, went to Boston and studied same. On her return she establisihed a sanitarium, which soon outgrew its quar ters, and it has been enlarged to an insti tuti on of 45 rooms and 14 baths. A staff of five nurses and a dietician assist Dr. S t ewart in its conduct, a nd they specialize in suc h d i seases as r espond to osteopathy, medicinal baths and the electronic reac tion of Abrams' treatment. A branch sanitarium, with a capacity of forty patients, is also conducted at St. C lou d by Dr. Stewart. Dr. Stewart is a member of the Civic L eague, the La dies' Violin Club, the American Electronic Research Association, the Florida Association of Osteopath i c Physicians and Surgeons is a Kappa Sigma and a member of the Methodist church. 1VORMAN S. $TONE One of t he young men of Ukeland who is making a name for himself as an able and conservative la wyer is N orman S. Stone, who is a native of Uni on City, Tenne ssee. He was born July 6, 1898, the son of GeorgeS. and Ada B (Short) Stone; both of his grandfathers were engaged in fighting for the South's cause in the Civil War. Dur ing the World war Mr. Stone served two years in Panama with the Coast Artillery and held the rank of sergeant-major. He remained in the army for some time after the close of the war, and is a captain in the Officers' Reserve Corps In 1923 he resigned to continue his studies at Vanderb ilt University, and graduated in law in 1926. He practiced in Nashville for a short time and in September of the year o f his gradua t ion removed to Lake lan d, the home of his wife, who before her marriage was Meek'y DeVane They were married September 3 192 4 at!d have one son, Norman S., Jr. :Mr. Stone s offices are in the Polk County T r us t Com pany building. Mr. Stone is a Mason and a Shriner, and belongs to the Li ons Club, of which organ iz ation he has been secretary since it was formed. He is a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha and Phi A l pha Delta fraternities. NORMAN A. STREET . NORMAN A STRl\1\T was born October 8th, 1876, in Chicago, Ill., the son of Charles A. and Emily K. (McReyno l ds) Street. Grandparents on father's s i de were English and came to this country about 1820. Grandparents on maternal side were Scotch and settled nea r D etroit, Michigan, about 1800

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 339 F a th e r was en gaged in lu m ber bu siness p ri o r t o 1871 a t C h icago, Ill., a nd f o r some fift y years ther ea f t er. Has th ree b ro t hers who are all gradu a tes of Ya l e College. Graduat i n g from Yale in 1898 wit h a n A. B. degree, Mr Street t h e n attended Northwestern University, Chicago, from which i nstitution he gra duated in law in 1901. He was a prominent lawy e r of Chicago until 19ZZ when be became a permanen t r esident of Winte r Haven Si nce 1886, lllr. Street had be e n coming to Florida for th e w inters, and during these years had v isited e v ery part o f the Stat e. He finall y deci d ed t hat Winte r Haven o ff ered m o re vari ed attrac tions-, havin g more a d vantages that a ppea l ed t o hi m th an other sect ions of t h e Stat e an d he a cqui r ed valuab le p roperty t h ere a nd becam e a perma n ent citi zen. Mr. Street i s m u c h in t ere sted in the citrus ind u st ry owni n g a onehalf i n terest i n a large grove nea r W i nter H aven. He was one of the o rigin al member s o f th e C ommittee of T wenty and the Committee of Fifty, to form u late the new Flori da Citrus Growers Clea ring House Association and was manager of t he finan ce cam paign of said "Committee of Fifty" in organi zing s aid association. Mr. S t r eet is vice-presid ent of t h e Lake Region Savi ngs A ssociation, and a director of the Lake Regio n Co untry Clu b at Winter Haven He wa s mar ried in C h i cag o, June 4 t h 19 10, to Luell a O'N eil, of Detroit, M ic hi ga n. J OHN BAXTER S1'REATER JoHN' BAXTl\R S'l'Rl\A'I'F.R w as born at Ch esterfie l d, Sou th Carol i na, November 2, 1874 t he son of W. J. and M ary C. Streater. A fter a ttending t he schools of South Carolina, he came "to Lakeland with his parents 35 years ago, the date of his arrival in Lakeland being January 27, 1893. M r Streater who is a well known contractor of the county, did his first work of this kin d when be worked as carp e nter and foreman for his u ncl e W. D. McRae, in Lak elan d's pio n eer days. He wa s with Mr. McRae for nirre years, since which ti m e he has operated indepen dently a s a contract or, a lt ho u g h for a time h e was i n partner s hip with W. F. K ennedy unde r t h e firm name o f Stre a t e r & K enn edy, a nd for th e pa s t t h ree years h as been in partn ers hi p w it h hi s t wo brothers, J oe a n d W. H Stre a t er, the firm bein g known a s S t reater Bros. Amo n g t h e buildings .Mr. S trea te r has constructed are : T he Polk County Trust C ompany building, Stockton bu ildi n g, brick plant, South J a cksonville; school buildings at Mulberry and Auburndale, Methodi s t church, Winter Haven and the following public buildings at Lakeland: Webster Avenue School Central Avenue School, Nurses' Home, and Cle vel a nd Court School, which is n ow nearing com pl e tio n. Other business buildi ngs a nd residences have been bu il t b y this firm in th i s sect io n, their reputatio n being s u c h a s to make t heir s erv i ces m uch i n dema n d. M r Streater was ma rri e d t o R o s am o n d C. B u chan a n in Lake l a nd. The y have fiv e chi l d ren : James Harold, Rosamon d C l aire (Mrs. Harve y Hen derson) M ary Floy Alice and J. B., Jr.

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340 HISTORY OF. POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA (!.. C. STUAI?1' E. C . STUARif; an honored and highly esteemed citizen of Polk County for the pa st 41 year s, having been a re sident of Bartow sinc e April 15, 1887, was born in South Carolina December 8, 1852, the son of J o hn C. a nd Ann .El. iza : (Cros land) Stuart. His grandfather, Dugald Stuart came from Scot l and i!lst after the Rev oluntionary War and settled in North Carolina E. C. Stuart reeeived his education in the common school s of his county, was reared on a farm and followed that business until he came to Florida Mr, Stuart, who i s recognized as one of the o utstanding men of Polk Cou!)ty, whose-achievements have been many, who s e works have been good, and whose in business, church and civic circles have been far-Yea ching, is a citizen who has wrought wen and who has at all time s enjoyed the esteem of those with whom he has come in contact. Gaming to Bartow in 1887 he was f o r two years manager of the Polk County Abstract Company, whkh concern was es t ablished by his brother. ln 1839 he engaged -in the real estate business, and for a number of years his efforts and energies were concentrated on the development of th e great phosphate indu stry of the county . Mr. Stuart was living at Bartow when phosphate was first discovered, and it has been largely due to his effort s that the industry has attained its present proportions in Polk County. With C. G. Mem minger, Mr. Stuart developed the Coronet Phosphate Company's holdings at Coronet, and he is still a director of the company. He owns mpJe phosphate lands in Polk, Hillsborough and DeSoto counties than any otber one individual. Mr. Stuart i s one of the leading financier s of Florida, probably being an official in more banking t1)an any other banker in the county. He is a direetor of the Polk County National Bank of Bartow, the Lake Wales State Bank, th e First National Ban k of A von Park, the First State Bank of Avon Park, the First National Bank of Sebring, and the Tropical State Bank of Lake Placid In the history of P olk County, the name of E. C. Stuart holds a prominent place; in the chronicles of this county's various forward movements, he wa s always a leader, a builder and a for good. He se rved Bartow as mayor in 1896, and has always been interested in all movement s looking to the upbuilding of hi s city and the county as a who le, Mr. Stuart is a devout member of the Reformed Presbyterian church, Beside s being a large factor in building the handsome new church at Bartow he and bu ilt A. R. P. churches at Tampa, Coronet, Lake Wales and Lake Placid Flori da. He was Moderator of the Sy nod of his churc h in 1897. Jl,fr. Stuart was married December 27, 1882, to Miss Laura Ellis of H.ickory, North Carp! ina, now deeeased. On October 14, 1896, he married Mr s. M : E. Williams, daughter of Prof. Wm. Hood of Bartow Florida, formerly of South Carolina. He has two s ons, J. Kolb and W. H., by his second marriage.

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PART IIBIOGRA PHICAL 341 ALBERT HENLEY STURGESS During his comparatively short residence in Lakeland A. H. Sales Manager of the H. A. Stahl Florida Properties Company, has actively identified himself with the business and social life of the community. He was born in New York City, February 20, 1895, the son of Alva h and Carolin e (Henley) Sturgelis. He attended Worcester (Massachusetts) Acade my and Dartmouth, graduat ing from the l atter ins tituti on in 1917. During the world war M r. Sturge ss was an Ensi gn in the Navy, and served 20 months at sea. He entered t he real estate business at Lowell, Massachusetts, and was connected with the Cambria S,teel Company, of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, for some time. He came to Lakeland in 1925 with the Stahl organization developers of Cleveland Heights, recogn ized as one of the m ost beautiful s uburba n communiti es in the State. M r. Sturgess is Presid ent of the Lakeland Real Estate Board, and is a member of the Bapt ist chu rch Exchange Club and C l eveland Heights Golf and Country Club and is vice-president of the West Coast Golf League. He married Julia Elizabeth Krieger, daughter of WiUiam C. Krieger, of Johnstown Pennsylv ania on May 1, 1920. They have two sons, Albert x enley, Jr., and William Krieger. HUGH C. SULLIVAN HucR C. SuLLIVAN w as born December 12, 1892, in DeSoto County, F l or ida, the son of Matth ew an d Elma Sullivan. His parents were both Floridians, his father being a leading fruit grower at this time of Polk County. When a mere infant, his parents moved from DeSoto to Polk County locating in 1893 between Fort Meade and Frostproo f His educatio n was received in the schools of this county, and he later gradua te d from the Tampa Business College. Havin g been in t he citrus business all of his l ife, sta rting when a l ad of twelve in the packing end he i s today President of the Frostproof Packing Com pany, and genera l manager of the concern. This house ships about 300 carloods o f fruit annually. Mr. Sullivan is a large citrus grower, owning several fine groves in the Frost proof section, and be has a wide reputation as being an authority on all matters pertaining to the citrus business. Like other busy succe ssfu l men, Mr. Sullivan has found time to devote to civic affair s, a nd since the town of Frostproo f w as incorporated he has bee n a member of the C ity Council with the exception of one year. Mr. Sullivan is a member of the Masonic lodge. He was married at Frost proof to Mattie B. \Villiam s, of Tennessee, and three children were born t o l itis union: Victor H., Rundell C. and Harry, all of whom were born at Frostproof. ASBURY SUMMERLIN ASBURY SUMMERLIN, one of Winter Haven's leading lawye rs and ex-M ayor of that city, was born at M oultrie, Georgia, April 16, 1889. He is a son of Georg e and Nancy Sum merlin and his gra ndfathers w ere veterans of t he Civil War.

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342 HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA Asbury Summerlin received his law training in the offices of learned members of the bar, and practiced in his home city five years. He came to Winter Haven in 1915 and opened offices, practicing alone unt il the present year when a partnership was formed with Judge !;. C. W imberly. Mr. Summerlin was Justice of the Peace for about six years a t Winter Haven, and from 1920 until 1924 served as mayor During his administration the city hall was erected, the white way was ins t alled, $400,000 worth of paving was done and the first sanitary sewers were la i d. Mr. Summerlin is interested in citrus culture, and owns several groves in the county. He is a member of the American State, County and Winter Haven Bar Ass ociations and is a former president of the latter He a l so belongs to the Chamber of Commerce, Masonic order, Knights Temp lar and Shrine. He is a Methodist and teaches the Men's Bible class He was married in Georgia to Sarah Clar k They have three children: Arline Doris and Rob Roy. JOSEPH EDWARD SWANSON JoS!IPH EDwARD SwANSON was born in Spring Hill, Alabama, November 26 1866, the son of Joseph and Carrie (Mulkey) Swanson. His family moved t o Georgia when he was a young lad, arid he received his education in the schools of that State, later engaging in farming there comitig to Lakeland in 1902. For the past 26 years Mr. Swanson and ]lis wife have conducted the E u reka hotel Lakeland, in addition to which enterprise Mr. Swanson has engaged in farming on a large sca l e, the growing of being one of his special t ies. He hold s a positi:m with the Non-ACid Fertilizer Company as salesman, and being a recognized authori t y on f arming, is of great assistance t o growers who seek h i s advice Mr. Swanson has owned and sold several farms and bas also brought into bearing a fine orange grove. Fraternally, he is affiliated with the Odd Fellows, and is a member of the Baptist church . Mr. Swanson was married November 20, 1890, at Randolph,. Georgia, to Ida Young daughter of John Young. JOSEPH E. SWARTZ J. E. SwARTZ, of Lake \Vales, was born at Schenectady New York, Novem ber 10, 1887, the son of Andrew a n d Louise ( Arnet) Swartz. He attended the public schoo l s of his city and in his early manhood established a plumbing and htating business at Port Henry, New York Mr. Swartz came to Lake Wales in 1919, and continued his chosen line of work, doing business as J. E Swartz & Co: This firm handles roofing and sheet metal in add ition to doing plumbing and heating work. The concern is housed in a modern brick business building which was bui l t by the owner.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 343 :Mr. Swartz belongs to the Rotary Club, Chamber of .CQIIUilerce and Knights of Pythias and was a member of the Port H enry lodge of Knights of Columbus. He attends the Catholic church. He was married at Schenectady, June 4, 19!)6, to Jessie May Gre ene; of Troy, New York. They have one daughter, Virginia Louise. JOHN !. SWEARINGEN JoHN J. SwEARINGEN, State Senator from Polk and one of the most brilliant lawyers of the State, has a long record of worthy achievements to bis cred it, and his name has been cl<>Sely woven i n to the ltistory of the :C