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A handbook of Florida


Material Information

A handbook of Florida with forty-nine maps and plans
Physical Description:
xx, 381 p. : ills., maps. ;
Norton, Charles Ledyard, 1837-1909
Longmans, Green & Co.
Place of Publication:
New York
Publication Date:
Third edition, revised.


Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Florida   ( lcsh )
letter   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by Charles Ledyard Norton.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - C54-00013
usfldc handle - c54.13
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Norton, Charles Ledyard,
d 1837-1909.
2 245
A handbook of Florida :
b with forty-nine maps and plans /
c by Charles Ledyard Norton.
Third edition, revised.
New York :
Longmans, Green & Co.,
xx, 381 p. :
ills., maps.
0 651
x History.
t City, County, and Regional Histories Collection
4 856









NOTE. THE right and title to "The Florida Annual," of which four editions have been published, has been puichas ed and the present Handbook is dGsigned to preserve its best features in a new form.



PREFACE THE first section of the Handbook proper is devoted to sketches of the several counties, with maps compiled fl'Om the best attainable authorities. In the context the different railroad lines crossing the counties are given, with tables of stations and distances, so that, if desired, the different routes can be followed from county to county. Take, for in stance, Route 40, p. 183 Jack(lonville to Palatka. The railway passes through Duval, Clay, and Putnam Cou n ties Descrip tions of the counties with their respective maps are alplia betically arranged, beginning at page 1. On page 25 are stations and distances in Duval County, on page 16 those in Clay County, and on page so that the movemen t of the train can be followed from one map to another throughout the journey. Distances are given in both direc tions as indicated by arrows at the sides of the tables. The frequent establishment of new stations and the discontinuance of old ones may account far discrep ancies between the maps and current time-tables. In future editions these will be corrected as rapidly as possible. I n the other sections travelling routes are describ e d in general and in detail, with as much accuracy as possible un der the changing conditions of a country where, a few yea1-s ago, railroads were unknown. The genmal plan divides the State into five sections, as


Vlll PREFACE. follows : The Atlantic Coast (p. 103) ; The Gulf (p. 228) ; Middle o.r Inland Florida (p. 273) ; Subtl'Opical Fl01ida (p. 309); West Florida (p. 329). Under these again . the towns and places of special interest are designated as numbered routes covering the principal resorts and lines of travel as they exist. Much information of value to intending settlers, as well as to tourists, will be found throughout the volume . 'fhis is especfally true in consideration of the county maps, which have never before been together iri such convenient shape. to the table of contents, pp. ix to xii, will the finding of any particular route or locality. Hotel rates, the usual prices for saddle-horses, caniages, boats, guides, etc. are in the main the tesult of personal ex perience, or from answers to lette1s of inquiry. Such rates, however, are always variable, with, in gene1aJ, an upward tendency. The editor will be grateful for the correction of any er rors, or for information that may the value of future editions. C. L. N.


CONTENTS. [In order to permit the introduction of new routes in future editio ns of the Handbook, without disturbing the general arran ge m ent, the routes are numbered decimaUy . Thus Jacksonvill e is 10; Fernandina, 20; St. Augustin e 3 0 ; while the intermedi ate n umbe rs, 11, 22, 35, etc., are assigned to routes subordinate t o, a.ud more or less connected with, each central poiut of interest.] PAOli. I ntroductory Matter, Hints to Tra v e llers, e t c ............ Paragr aph History of Flor ida.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx COUNTIES AND COUNTY ?.lAPS. Ala c htta County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Bake r Cotttlt) .................. ; ..................... . 6 Bradford County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Brevar d Cottnty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 9 Calhoun CO\tnty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Citrus County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Clay County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Columbia County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Dade County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 D e Soto County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Duval County ........... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 Escambia County ..... 0 0 0 0 27 Franklin County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 Gadsden County ................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81 Hamilton County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 H ernando Cou11ty .... 0 0 ................... 0 34 Hillsborough County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Holmes Cou11ty ....... .. ... ................ 0 0 8 9 Jackson Count) . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 40 Jefferson County ...................... :. . . . . . . . . 42 L a;fayet t e Cotmty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Lake Cot111ty .............. 0 .. 45 L e e Cout1t3.r. . . . . . . 0 0 0 49 Leo11 County . 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 51 L evy County ........ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 54 Libe rty County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 l!adison County ... 0 0 0 0 5 7 ltla.natee County 0 .. 59 1\farion Cottnty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


CONTENTS. PAGE Monroe County ......... 0 e 0 0 0 0 I I 0 0 0 6 4 Nassau County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Orange Cotlnty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Osceola County : ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Pasco CoUll ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4 Polk County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Putnam County ..................... ............... . . . 80 Saint John's County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Sumter Cou11ty . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 85 Santa Rosa County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Suwannee County ............................. . . . . . 89 T aylo r Co-qnty ...... : . ........ ,. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 92 Volusia.C ounty ......................................... 94 \Vakulla County .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . . 98 Walto n County ........ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : 100 W ash i ngton County ... .... : ............. . ........... 101 . I THE A'l'LANTlC COAST. BOUTB PAGE 10. Jackson ville . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 11. Jacksonville to St. Augustine and return .............. 110 12. J acksonville to Fernandina a n d return . . . . . . . . 111 13. Jackson ville to Mayport and return . . . .. . . . . . 112 14. Jacksonville to Pablo Beach and return ........ ....... 114 t5. Jacksonville to Green Cove SP.rings return ....... 115 16 Jack1:!onville to Fort George Island and return .......... 115 1 7 T he L ower St. John s River andDomenique de Gonrgues 117 20. Fernandina. . . . . ............. . . . . . . . 127 21: Am eli a Island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 22. Amelia River . . . . . . . . . . . ............... 130 23. Nassau Sound) ........................... ...... 0. 131 24. Cumberland Sound ............. . 0 131 SO. St. Augustine ............................... .......... 133 31. Anastasia Island .................. :. . . . . . . 175 33. Matanzas River and Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . 178 34. St. Augustine to J acksonville .................... ... 182 35 St. Augustine to Palatka .......................... : .. 182 38 . Jacksonville to Palatka by rail. . . . .. . . . . . 183 39. Jacksonville to Palatka by river ...................... 184 40. Green Cove Springs .................... . . . . 187 50. P alatka ....................... ............. 0 0 188 51 Lake George ..... o o 0 0 0 o 0 / 0 190 52. The Fruitland Pel) insula ..................... .. 1 1 91 53. Crescent Lake ... .. o o 191 &:l. Seville .... 0 0 0 0 : o 0 192 55 Palatka to Sanford by rail. . .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. . . 193 56. Palatka to Sanford by river.. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . . . 194 60. Sanford ........ ....... 0 0 196


CONTENTS. X l PAGE 61. De La11d . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 198 62. Lake Helen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 70. Daytona ............... ..................... ....... 200 71. Orroo11d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 72. Halifax River. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 80. New Smyrna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 81. Ponce Park and i)'fosquito Inlet ..... ................ 207 90. 'l'he Indian River .... ............... .............. 210 91. Titusville. . . ... ......................... ... ... 213 92. Rockledge ....................................... 2 14 93. 1\>Ielboume ....... . . ............................. 215 94. Jupiter Inlet ..................................... 216 95. Jupiter Inlet to Lake Worth ... :-7': .................. 221 100. Lake Worth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 101. The Sea Coast South of Lake wo rth .................. 226 II. TilE GUI.F COAST. 110. Fernandina to Cedar Key ....... ...... ............ 229 11 1. Cedar Key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 229 120: Jackson ville to Homosassa . . . .. . . .. . .. . . 2-33 121. Homosassa .... ..... ............... ... ; ............ 233 130 The Pinellas Peninsula ............................. 236 131. Tarpon Springs ............................... . 237 1 32. Clearwater Harbor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 133. St. Petersbnrg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 140. Tampa ............................................ 249 141. Po1t 'l'ampa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 142. The 1\ianatee River. . ........ .......... : . . . 252 150 Charlotte Harbor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 151. 'Punta Gorda ... ... : .. .. ... ........................ 256 152 St. J arnes ontheGulf (Pine Island) ............. ; .... 259 153. Punta Rassa and Tarpon Fishing ................. .... 261 154. The Oaloosa River ................................. 265 155. Fort 1\tiyers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 156. Lake Okeechobee .................................. 26 9 157. The Everglades .................. . . . . . . . . 270 158. Naples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 III. 1\>IIDDI.E FLORIDA. 160. Sanford to Tampa Bay and Port Tampa .............. 275 161. Winter Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 276 162 Orlando . . . . . . .............................. 278 163. Kissimmee .... .... ...... ................ .......... 279 164. Lakeland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 165. Bartow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 81 166. Plant City .............. ... . . . . . . . . . . .. 282


xii CONTENTS.ROUTE 170. Jacksonville to Ocala .............................. 171. Interlaclten ....................................... 172. Citra ................. ....... : .................... 173. Gainesville and The Land Office ..................... 174. Jacksonville to Leesburg. . .. . . . . .. . ......... 1 75 : Micanopy and the Seminole Wars .................. 180. Ocla . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 181. The Oklawaha .................................... 182. Sil ver Spring. . . . . . . . . . ...................... 183. Blue Spri11g: ........................................ 184. Dutlellon ......... ; ............................... 185. Lake ,Veir ........................................ 190. Leesburg .................................... ; ...... Dade's 1\+lassacre ............ : ....................... IV. SUBTROPICAL FLORIDA. PAGE 282 283 284 288 290 291 294 296 299 301 302 304 305 307 200. Biscayne Bay ................................... 310 201. The Florida R eefs ................................... 315 202. Key. West . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . . .. ......... .' 323 V. WEST FLORIDA, 210. Jacksonville to River Junction ..................... 211. 212. 213. 214. 1\tla.cclenny ................. 0

FLORIDA. THE State of Florida, owing to its semi-tropical climate, and its remarkable natuml attract ion s, is recognized as. the most favored winter sanitorium and plea.slll'e resort of Amer icans. Especially is this true of those who reside so far North that they are certain to he more or l ess incommoded by protracted cold. The Ji'l01ida Season.-As soon as the weathe1 begins to be wintty and disagreeable in the North it begins to be pleasant in Florida. Although the f ashionabl e season does not open until after Christmas, inva1ids o1 others desiring to avoid the first approaches of cold can always find co mfor table ac commodations near the principal places of resort. The lead ing hotel s usually open in J anu:ny and close in May, and the travelling facilities are at their best during that period. Railroads. New York is the natural starting-point for travellers from the Northern Atlantic States and Canada. Through tickets without change of cars to St. Augustine and the other prin cipal resorts in Florida can be procured at any general railway office. The Atlantic Coast Line is the shortest Time, New York to Jacksonville, twenty-four to thirty-six hours. Vestibuled train s are run through fl-om New Y ork. There are three ordinary express trains daily each way be tween New York and Jacksonvill e during the winter season. The v estibuled trains are made up of drawing-room cars


xiv OCEAN ROUTES. with electric lights, libraries, dining-rooms, smoking-rooms; bath, and all the luxuries of a modem hotel. The direct route passes through Philadelphia, Pa., Wil mington, Del., Baltimore, Md., Washington, D. C., Rich mond, Va., Wilmington, N. C., Charleston, S. C., and Sa vannah, Ga., to and St. Augustine. St. Lottis, Louisville, and Cincinnati are tile three points of depatture from the N01thern Central group of States. From these cities frequent trains run either to Pensacola or Jacksonville, ot direct to New Orleans, whence communic.ation with the Florid:l railroad system is constant and easy. Ocean Routes. Tlie journey to Florida may be pleasantly varied by making patt of the trip by sea, as indicated in the following list of steamship lines. Tfte Clyde Steamship Company, Pier 27 East River, office No. 5 Bowling Green. Tri-weekly steamers to Jacksonville (time, about three days). Monthly schedules are issued, giving dates and hours of sailing All these steamers t ouch at Charleston, S C. The Mallory Line, Pier 20 East River, New York, de spatches a .steamer once a week to Femandina, but little more than one hour's ride to Jacksonville (about three days at sea). The Ocean Stearn$hip Company, Pier 25 East River, New York : Steamers three times a week from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia (the latter freight only), to Savannah, Ga., five hours from Jacksonville (about fifty-five hours at sea). The Old Dominion Line, Pier 26 North River, New York. Tri-weekly steamers to Norfolk and Richmond, Va (about twen ty-four hours at sea), thence twenty-two hours by rail to Jacksonville.


HINTS TO TRAVELLERS. XV Hints to 01djit. Woollen undergarments, shirts, and hosiery of light or medium thickness, according to individual temperament, are best. Camels' hair, or some of the so-c!J..lled unshrinkable flannels are preferable. There are days in every month when thin outer clothing, suitable for summer wear, is desirable; but, in general, clothing of medium thickness is not uncom fortable. Moderat ely warm wraps, overcoats, and rugs are indispensable, and macldntoshes or other waterproofs are recommended. For men soft felt hats are best for general use, but sun-helmets of cork, pith, or duck are convenient for warm weather. Straw or palmetto hats can always be purchased in Florida. If much walking is anticipated high shoes are desirable, as deep sand cannot always be avoided. For men le ggings of leather or canvas are recommended as a protection against the tangled scmb" and its living inhabitants, especially the red bugs" and wood-ticks that frequent the undergrowth During the winter months snakes are rarely encountered. Leggings are also convenient for riding, and are very generally used by touri sts and sportsmen. All the articles specified cau be purchased in St. Augus tine or Jacksonville, at a slight advance upon New York prices, and most of them can be found in any of the larger towns The normal clear, winter weather of Florida is pel'fect for out-of-door life, but seasons differ greatly. While summer is usually the rainy season the1 e are occasional variations from the regular o1der. Sometimes there are rainy winters, and every season brings its "northers," when a cold wind blows, sometimes for several days in succession, and fires and warm clothing are in demand. With a limited !tmoun t of luggage it is often inconvenient to carry a full supply of thick under wear, therefore it is suggested that. these sudden changes of t emperature be met by donning two suits of light underwear at.. once. Railway bavel in Florid a is unavoidably dusty in f air weather, the dust being of that penetrating quality that ren-


. XVI HINTS '!'0 TRA. YELLERS. ders its perfect e:K.olusion from eat'S weJlnigh impossible. Dusters ru:e not pretty to look at, but they add greatly to the comf01t of tni.vel, and any anti-dust contrivances in the way of caps, nec]{e rchiefs, and the like will be found equally con venient. Camp Outfit. Two woollen blankets, army size : one sewn together at bottom and along two edges, to form a sleeping bag, and the other left un sewn, for use in warm weathet, $5.00 ; one rubber poncho, $1.00 ; one suit of oil-skin cloth ing, coat and trot1se1s $3.50; one p erfectly water-tight matchbox (a tightly corked, large-mouthed vial i s perhaps best) ten cents ; one pocket or watch-chain compa:::s. 'I' his is in'clispensable in Florida, fo1; in clot1dy weather is noth ing to steel' by in the piny wood s and the watercourses are ofte n so tortuous that bearings are ea.sily lost, fifty cents upward; one mosquito net. Florida hunters use "cheesecloth," as that is proof against sand-flies while the otdinary netting is not. The foregoing list covers essential s only. The aggregate cost need not exceed $12.00 Shooting Outfit. Guns according to preference, since every sportsman l1as his favorite. A light 32 or 44 calibre rifle will be found v ery conv:enient. Game of all kinds has been shot at so much since the intloduc tion of breech-loaders that it _has become very wild. The r ifl e ca.n often be used with good results when shot-guns are useless. For shot, Nos. 9 and 4 with a supply of buckshot for large game, and a f ew long-range cartridges have been found to serve well for general shooting. Fishing Ottifu. An ordinary bass rod, reel, and line is best for general purposes. Common metallic spinners or spoons are used for trolling. Florida. fishes handle trolling gear tather roughly, and "phantom minnows and tl1e like are apt to come to grief. For general purposes, Lime1-ick hooks, ringed anrl bent, are as good as any. A supply of gut-snelled hooks is desirable fo1 use in the perfectly clea.r W,ters of cert!l:in streams, but in general linen snells are best. The most useful sizes of hooks range from 610 downward, though, o f course, fo1 the heavy weights the larger sizes are n eces sary. Sinkers must be provided and floats are often useful.


HINTS TO TRA YELLERS. XYll Special tMkle for tarpon and kingfish is described under Uoute 82. 1lfoney. A list of towns having banks or bankers is given below. A supply of silver quarter-dollars and of nickel fiv e cent piec es will pe found convenient, as small change is apt to be scarce away from the larger cities. A stock of one dollar bills is preferable to t hose of l argei denominations since the weighty and inconvenient silver dollar is in F lorida almost invariably tendered in change. B ANKS. Ap opka, Orange of Apopka. Bartow, Polk County.-Polk County Bank. Brooksville, Hernando Coqnty. Hank of Brooksville (not incorporated). D1tytona, Volusia County. Bank of: Daytona De Land Yolus i a County.-F. S. Goodrich. Eustis, Orange County.-Bishop Bros. Fernand ina Nassau County .-Bank of Fernandi na. GainsvHle Alachua County.-FJrst National Bank. H. Dutton & Co. Interl achen, Putn am Couuty.-Taylor & Warren. Jacksonville, Duval County. -First National Bank. The Florida Savings Bank. National Bank of J'a.cksonville N a U oMI Bank, Stnt.e of Florida. State Bank of Florida (not incorporated) Ambler, :Mmvin & Stockton. Key West, Monroe County .-Bank of Key West John White Bank . Kissimmee; County.-l{issimmee City Bank. Lake City Columbia County. N S. Collin s & Co. Lakeland, Polk County.-1: J J N ieu wenknrop. Leesburo:, Sumter Stapyltou & Co. Yager Bros. Ocala Marion County. J.Iercbants' National Ban k. First National Bank. Orlando Orange County. National Bank of Orlando Orlando Loan & Savings Bank. .Palatka, Putnam County. -First National Hank . Pensacola, Escambia County.-First National Bank of PensacQla. Mercha nts' Bank. F. c Brent & Co. Punta Gorda, De Soto County. Sanford, Ora nge County: First National Bank. Seville, Volnsia County.-Bank of Seville. St. Augu s tine, St . Johns Count;y.-I<'irst National Bank. Stanton, Marion County.-'l'he B uffum Loan & Trust Co. Tallahassee, Leon County.-B. C Lewis & Son. Tampa, Hillsboro County.-First National Bank of T11mpa. 'l'arpoD. Springs.Bank of Tarpon Springs. Tavares, Like County.-Bank 9f Tavares (not incorporated). Titusville, Brevard Connty.-lod!an R i ver Bank. Travelling Expenses. lndi \'idual tastes and habits of ne cessity govern daily expen ses. Lawful rates by rail in :Florida are 3 cents a mile on the main lines, and 4 and 5 cents a mile on branches and local 1oads. If the trn.veller fre quents tbe most expensive hotels his daily bills will be from $3 to $5 a day, or even more, exc l usive .of "tips," but in


... XVlll HIN' l 'S TO TRAVELLERS. most of the r esorts comfo r table quarters can b e found at l ower rates, say $2 a day, or $8 to $ 1 0 a week With reason able econom y $5 a day should be a fair average, covering all strictly trav e llin g ex penses, and l ea ving sometliing to spar e for emergenci es It is e a rne stly recommen ded that trave l ler s give only reasonable fees to attendnnts. I n all respect able hotels they are pai d good wages and excessi ve f ees ten d to lower their sense of duty. Small fees of five or ten cents, given on the spot for services rendered, secure better atten d ance, and are l ess demor alizing to the recipie n t than large f e es postponed till the hour of de parture In the height of the season it is '1\'ell to te l egraph in a d van ce for rooms. If a prolong e d stay is made at a hotel an itemized bill shou ld be c alled for at l east a week, si nce errors can be most easily cor r ected when fresh in m i nd The fina l bill should be called for se veral hours in advance of departu1e-th e night befo re in case of an early moming start. This giv es tim e for the inevitab l e dis cussion conse quent upon the discovery of ac t ual or supposed mista kes In many of the small h ote l s aw ay from the p rincipal re so r ts bat hin g facilities are ve ry primitive, if not wanting al t ogether. A pair of bathing mittens carried in a waterproof sponge -b ag, so that they can be packed away even when wet, h as been found au untold luxury under such conditions ; and in the same category may be mentioned a cake of soap in a flann e l bag o f its own (not waterproofed). S uch a bag i s f a r better than th e ordinary trav elle r s s oap-box, in whi c h the soap rapidly deteriorates when not packed away in a perle ctly dry state. R iding and Driving. The o rdinary Florida. road i s not well adapted for pleasure driving, but t here are certain sec tions of the State, as in M arion County, where a. carriag e may be driven for many mil es at a moderate pace through the open wood s. Else wher e, in sec t ions where clay predomi nates, as in Gndsden an d Leon Counties, the road s ar e exce l l ent, save in wet weather. Near the coast,. too, there are shell roads of admi rable smooth n ess. T his is notably the case at Fort Geo rge I sland, Duval County, in the vicinity o f J ack son ville and near N e w Smyrna. Finally, ocean b ea ches


IDNTS TO TRA VELLlUtS. XIX from Fernandina sonth to Cape Canaveral are, as a rule, pel'fect in all respects for driving or wheeling. The only drawback is that for an hour ot two every day when the tide is at full flood the finest plut of the driveway is under water. Equestrians will find passably good saddle-horses at very reasonable rates almost everywhere in the State. Riding through the woods is always enjoyable, and a gallop on the beaches referred to above is exhilarating beyond descrip tion. Wulking T1ips. Extended pedestrian excursions are not likely to be undertaken in Florida, or, if unde1taken, are not likely to be repeated. Several weighty reasons are against them. The distance from one place of interest to another is usually too great to be covered on foot in a day. The coun try roads are always sandy, save in rare instances, and the scenery is, as a l'ule, very monotonous. From many of the resorts p1easant walks be talcen thl'ough the woods or along the beaches. Often the walking is easy and the ground reasonably clear of undergrowth in the pine woods as well as in the hnm111ocks, bnt where the saw palmetto is found pl'Ogress is always difficult. No s tranger should ven ture into Floridu. woods without a compass. None of the signs known to Northern woodsmen hold good here, and bearings are very easily lost, particularly under a cloudy sky or when night is coming on. All pedestrians in Florida will soonel' or later form the acquaintance of the ''red bug," an insect almost invisible as to size, but gigantic in his power of annoyance. High boots or tight leggings, afford some protection, but a salt water bath (natural or artificial) Ol' rubbing the legs with al cohol or ammonia immediately on reaching home is the only sure preventive of intolerable itching, which usually lasts several days.


XX PARAGRAPH H ISTORY OF FLORIDA. Paragraph History of Florida. 1497. The English claim to pLio1ity of discovery i s based on the following passage in Sebastian Cabot's narrative: Despairin g to find the pas sage I turned back again, and sailed down by the coast of lan d toward the equinoctial (ever with the intent to find the said passage to India), and came to that part of this firm land which is now called Florida, where my victuals failing, I d eparted from thence and re turned into England." During the same yNn, according to Francisco A dolpho de Varnha gen, Americus Ve spucius coasted the whole peninsula. 1500-150 2. Gaspar Corte" Real probably a Spanish tl"ader, furnished' data f ro m which was traced the first approximately correct outlin e of tbe North Am erican coast, clearly indi cating the Floridian peninsula (Cantino's map, Lisbon, 1502, now preserved in the Bibliot eca E stense, at Modena, Italy). 1513. :March 27. Easter Sunday (Pascu a .Florida, in Spanish) Juan Ponce de Leon the coast near St. Augustine, and named it in honor of the day .1 1513. April 2. H e landed in 30 8' n01th l atitude, ptobablynear Fe.mandina. 1513. Ap ril 8. He took formal possession in the name of the King of Spain. 1516. Diego 1\:liruelo, a pilot and trader, discoyered a bay, probably P ensacola which long bore his .name on Spanish maps. P once de Leon made a second voyage of discovery, but was diiven off by the natives, who killed several of his men. 1517. F ebruary. Francis Hernan dez de Cordova, while on a slave-huntin g expedition, landed at some unidentified place on. the west coast of Florida. His men were attacked by the natives and dl'iven off. D e Oordova himself was fa tally wound ed. 151 9. Alonzo Alvarez de P ineda discovers the coast i n the The year 151218 u@oally given as the date of this di sco very. Justin Winsor, Vol. n. cites oftlclal documents proving that 1 6 1 8 Is the correct date.


PARAGRAPH HISTORY u.r' F LORIDA XXl vicinity of P e n sacola, and proves that Florida is not an islan d. 1521. February o r March. P once de Leon, commi ssioned as govemor "of the Island landed at some point prouably not far from St. Au g ustine, and attempted to ta]{e possession. He was fatally wounded in a fight with the na tives, and the settlement was abandoned. Francisco Gordillo and Pedro de Quexos, sent out by Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, discovered a large river and named it St. J ohn the Baptist. They kidnapped about seventy of the friendly natives, and carried tllem away 'l''llOse Indians were subsequentl y returned to their homes. 1525. P edro de Quexos returned, by order of A yllon, regained the good-will o f the Indians, and explored the coast for two hundred and fifty leagues, setting up stone crosses beatin g the name of Cbal'les V. of Spain, and the date of taking possession. 1528 April 14. Pam philo de Narvaez a fleet of five vessels, containing four hundred men and eighty horses, landed in Bahia de la Cruz (perhaps Clearwater Harbor). The flee t w as sent along the coast, while the army marched inland and perished, all save four, who escaped after eight years of captivity. 1 539. May 25. Hernando de Soto reached Tampa B ay, and named it Espiritu Santo. H is force wa s five hundred. and sev enty men, with two hundred and twenty-three horses and a complete outfi t He marched northward and w estwar d, treating the Indians friend and fo e a like, with cruel treachery and violen ce. Passing beyond the present bound1n-ies of Florida he discovered the 1\:lississippi River, where he died and was buried beneath its waters. 1 549 June 25. Father Luis Canca de B arbastro, in charge of a missionary expedition, landed neat Clearwater Harbm, and w as killed by the Inclians with four of his. asso ciates. 1559. July 1 Tristan d e Luna y Arellano, with one thousand five hundred soldiers and settlers, landed in Icbuse (Santa R osa) Bay. A hUl'ricane almost destroyed his fleet, on September 19th. Explorations w ere undertaken, but"le-


xxii PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA. suited in no discoveries of importance. Mutinies followed among the troops, and eventual l y the settlement was aban doned. 1562. 1\fay 1. Jean R ibaut, a l!'rench Huguenot, with a colony of the fame faith, entered the St. John's Riv er, I 'e named it La Riviere de Mai, and erected a stone monument bearing the arms of France. No attempt at permanent set tlement was made at this time. 15()4. June 22. Rene de Laudonni6re, a French Hugue not, discovered the harbor of St. Augustine and named it La Riviere des D aupllines. July. Fort Cruoline bnilt by the French,. prob ably at St. J ohn's Bluff, near the mouth of the ''River o f (St. John's). 15 65. August 3. Sir J ohn Hawkin s entered the river, r elieved the wants of the F rench colony, and t old Laudon niere of an intended Spanish attack 1 565. August 28. Pedro M enende z d'Aviles, with a s trong Spanish fleet, reached the coast nmth of Cape Canav elal. 1565. August 28. He discovered St. Augustine harbor and nnmed it after Aureliu s A ugustinus, Bishop of Hippo. 1565. August 28. Ribaut reached the St. John's with re eoforcements for the French. 1565. September 4. Menendez arrived a t the St. J ohn's R ive r and prepared to give battl e 'to the French, who put. to sea, pursued by the Spaniards. 1565. September 5. Menendez returned to find that more French ships had arrived. He retreated to St. Augu s tiu0 and, finding the natives friendly, founded the city on its present site, the oldest in the Unite d States. 1565. September 8. Menendez landed the greater part of his forc e and took formsl possession of St. Augustin e in the name of the King of Spain. 1565. September 10. Ribaut's fleet wrecked in a. hurri cane ne1n Canaveral. 1565. September 29. Menendez received the surre.nder o f an advance party of the French who survived the wr ec k of their fleet at Mata.nza.s I nlet, and put 111 of them to


PARAGRAPH HISTORY .OF FLORIDA. XXlll death. Sixteen who professed to be Catholics we r e spared, a t the interc,13ssion of the Spanish chaplain. 1565. September 30. Menendez, having marched oyer land with 500 men, surprised and put to death the French garrison at Fort Caroline. A few escap ed including Laudonniere, the commander. . 1565. October 1. Laudonniere and the survivors of the massacre escaped to sea in two small vessels. 1565. O c tober 10. Ribaut, with the test of the surviv ing French, reached Matanzas. About half of them sur rendered and w ere put to death. The rest retreated to Ca naveral and built a fort. 1565. November 8. Menendez attacked the French at Canaveral. l\'Iost of them surrendel'ed and were spared. 1565-66. (Winter.) The French survivors who l1ad es caped to the woods incited the Indians to attack Fort Caro line, which the Spaniards had renamed San Mateo. 1566. March 20. Menendez returned to St. Augustine from a voyage, quell e d a mutiny with difficulty, relieved San Mateo, reorganized the garrisons, and sailed for Spain, which he reached in J u ly. 1568. April. Domenique de Gourgues, with the avowed iutention of avenging the massacre at Matanzas, captured the Spanish forts on the St. John's River, banged the. surviv ors of the fight, and destroyed the fortification. 1568-1586. European interest in Florida languished. SettlEiments were sustained mainly through the personal ef forts o f Menendez 1586. Sir Francis Drake, the English freebooter, at tacked St. Augustine. The Spaniards fled, offering scarcely any resistance,.and the place was burned. After Drake' s de parture the people retmned and began to rebuild the town. 1593. Twelve missionaries were distributed among the Indians on the east coast . 1598. The Franciscan missionaries wel'e nearly all killed by the Indians. 1612-i3. Thirty-one Franciscans sent from Spain. Florida constituted a Religious Province of the Order, and nam:ed St. Helena.


xxiv PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA. 1638. War between Spanish colonists and the Apalachee tribe, resulting in the subjugation of the In. dians. St. Augustine piUaged by English freebooters un der Captain John Davis. The Spaniards made little or no l'e sist.ance. 1655. The hereditary governorship of the lV[enendez fam ily terminated, and was succeeded by Diego de Rebellado, as Captain-General. 1675. Don Juan Rita de Salacar became Captain-General. 1680. Don Juan Marquez Cabreia became Captain-Gen eral. 1678. The commandant of St. Augustine sent out a suc cessful expedition against the English and Scotch settlement s near Port Royal. 1687. A large consignment of negro slaves brought to Florida by one De Aila. 1681. The Governor (Cabrera) attempted to remove sev eral Indian tribes to the islands on the coast. Hostilities follo,ved, many Christian Indians were. killed and others can-ied away as slaves. 1696. Under authority of the Viceroy of New Spain a settlement was made at Pensacola, and Fort Charles was built. 1702. September and Octo bet . Governor lVIoore of Sou t h Carolina laid siege to St. Augustine, by land and sea. The town was accupiecl and burned, but the castle {the present Fort Mal'ion) held out. Two Spanish vessels appeared and Governor Moore withdrew, losing his transports. ,. 1703-4. Governor Moore sent an expedition into M ... .ddle Florida mainly directe d against the Indians friendly to Spain. He destroyed several towns and carried off many Indians to slavery, at the same time defeating the Spaniards under Don Juan Mexia) who came to the aid of their Indian allies. 1708. Colonel Barnwell of South Carolina invaded Mid dle Florida and raided through the Alachua country east ward to the St. John's River. About the same time Captain T. Nairn of the same forces penetrated to the head wateis of the St. John's, and possibly to the Okeechobee region, bringing back a number of slaves.


P ARAGRA.PH HISTORY oF FLORIDA. XXV 1718. March. Fort San Marcos de Apalache erected at St. l\fark's by Spaniards under authority of the Governor of St. Augustine. About the same time the French estab lished Fort Crevecmur at St. Joseph's Bay, but soon aban doned it and the Spaniards took possession. 1718. May 14. The French under Bienville, the com,mandant at Mobile, attacked the Spaniards at P ensacola, and mainly by stratagem captured the entire garrison, who were sent to Havana in accordance with a promise made be fore the sul'l'ender . 1718. 'fwo Spanish ships appeared off Pensacola, and afte1 a brief bombardment received the surrender of the French commander. The fortifications were at once strongly ganisoned, and an unsuccessful attack was made on the French, who still held Dauphin Island. 1719. September 18. After a series of actions the Span ish at Pensacola surrendered to the combined land and naval forces of the French under Desnade de Champsmelin. Pensacola was destroyed and abandoned, and the captured Spaniards were taken to France as prisoners of war. 1722. Pensacola reoccupied by the Spaniards on declara tion of peace, and the town rebuilt on Santa Hosa Isl and. 1727. Colonel Palmer of' South Carolina, after certain un successful negotiations with the authorities in Florida, made a descent upon the northern part of the province, and with the aid of Indian allies harried the whole to the gates of St. Augustine, capturing many slaves and driving off much live stock. 1736. Spain formally claimed all tenitory south of St. Helena Sound, as part of her Floridian possessions, and warned England to withdraw he1 colonists. Futile negotia tions followed. 1739. October. War declareJ between England and Spain, because of alleged encroachments by both parties in the provinces of Georgia and Florida. G o vernor Oglethorpe of Georgia, having already prepared a force, at once invaded the disputed tenitory. 1739. December. A detachment of Oglethorpe's men


;u:vi PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF F LORIDA attacked Fort Poppa on the St. J ohn's R iver, opposit e Picolnt&, but were repulsed by tlle Spaniards. 17 40. Janu ary. Fort at Picolata captured by the Eng lish. 1740. June 20 till July 7. Siege of St. Augustine by the English under : Maj or-General James Edward Oglethorpe, Governor of Georgia. The defence was successfully con ducted by a Spanish garrison of 750 m e n unde1 Don Manu e l de Monteano. 1742. July 5. M:onteano led an expeditio n against O gle thorpe, sailing hom St. Augustine. H e was repulsed after having forced the English to abandon their first position. 1 7 43. March. General Ogleth01 pe invaded Florida, and surprise d the ganison of St. Augustine, killing some forty men before they could gain the citad el. Oglethorpe with drew, not being prepared to conduct a siege. 1748. Suspension of hostilities by treaty between Great Britain and Spain. 17 50. As the result of a tribal quanel among the Creek Indians in Georgia, S ecoffee, a noted chief of the tribe headed a movement for secession, and with a large number of followers settled in the Alachua country, Florida. These I ndians became known as Seminoles, i.e., seceders, out laws. 17 62. Hostilities r enewed between Spain and Great Britain. The English capture 17 63. February 10. B y treaty Great B ritain and Spain effected an exchange of Cuba for Florida, and the English at once took possession of Florida, and General James Grant was appoi nted Gove1nor. 1765. The "King's Road," constructed from St. Au gustine to the St .. Mary's Rive1-. 1766. Forty families emigrated from Bermuda to M os quito Inlet . 1 767. Colony of 1 ,5 00 Minorcans establishe d by D r Tum bull at M osquito Inlet (New Smyrna). 1776. Colony at New Smy1na hooke n up because o f al leged harsh treatment. 1774. In view of the disaffection of the northern c olonies


PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA. 0 0 xxvn pending the war for Independence immigration of loyal ists was encouraged from Georgia and the CMolinas. A consid erable number settled nea1 St. Augustine. 1775. August. An Arnericau privateer captured the British supply ship Betsey, off the harbor of St. Augustine, in sight of the British garrison. 1778. Neal"ly 7,000 loyalists moved into Florida from Georgia and the Carolinas. 1779. September. Hostilities resumed between Spain and Great Britain. 1780. Sixty-one prominent Sout.h Carolinians sent to St.' Augustine by the British authorities as prisoners of State. 1781. 1\:larch-May. The Spaniards under Don Bernardo de Galvez, with a naval force under Admiral Solana, invested P ensacola, which was defended by about 1,000 English under Genera l Campbell. A chance explosion of a magazine com pelled the surrender of the English, who capitulated on honorable terms to a largely superior force. 1783. Colonel Dev ereaux a loyalist fugitive from Caro lina, sailed from St. Augustine with two privateers and cap tured the Bahama I s lands, then held by the Spaniards. They have ever since remained under the British flag. 1783. September 3. Independence of the American col onies-not including Florida, which had taken uo part in the struggle-acknowledged by Great Brit. ain Upon this Florida was ceded back to Spain, Great Britain retaining the Bahamas. English subjects were allowed eighteen months to move their effects. The crown transported most of them to England, the Bahamas, and Nov a Scotia. 1784. Zespedez, the new Spanish governor, arrived at St. Augustine and took possession. 1795. Spain receded West Florida (Louisiana) to 1811. Iu view of probable war with England the United States Congress resolved to seize Florida in oriler to prevent the E nglish from taking possession. 1812. March 17. A number of pel'sons styling themselves "patriots ".met at St. l\fary's an d organized the Republic of Florida. Aided by United States gunboats they took pos session of Fernandina elected a governor, and. shortly after-


XXVlll PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF F LORIDA ward marched upon St. Augustin e, but were repuised. The United States soon withdrew its open support, but tho ... patriots'' continu e d to wage war on their own responsi bility a id e d by American volunteers 1814. August. A B ritish f orce under Colonel Nichols oc cupied P ensacola with the consent of the Spanish con1man dant and hoisted the Btitish flag. 1814. Novembe1 14. Pensacola captured by United State s f orce s under G ene ral Andrew Jacks on. 'l'he English, presumably with Spanish connivance, buiH rui.d armed a fort at the mouth of the Apalachic ola River and garrisoned it with I ndi ans and negroes. 1816. August. "Negro Fort" on the Apala chicola attacked by a combined fo1ce of Americ ans and friendly Indians under C o lonel Clinch, and captmed after one of the maga zines had been exploded by a hot shot. During th i s time Florida was in a state of anarchy, and India n fonl.ys into Georgia were freque nt. 1818. April 7. G eneral Jackson with a force of Ameri cans, severe ly chasti sed the Florida I ndians, capturing a formidabl e fort at St. 1\farks. 1 818. May 25. P ensa c ola, which had bee n r eoccupied b y the Spaniards, surrende red to G eneral Jackson by the Span ish after slight res i stance 1819. February 22. Florida c ede d by Spain to the United States . 1821. February 19. T reaty of ce ssio n formall y rati-fied. 1821. July 10. The Spanish fla.g hauled down and the United States flag h oisted in its place at St. Augu stine A like cer em ony took place at on July 21s t. 1822. l\farch 30. B y act of Congress Florida as made a territory o f the United States, and organized as such. 1822. J uae. The first legislative council met at Pen sacola and created four counties : Escambia, Jackson, St. John's, and Duval. 1823. September 18. Treaty of Fort 1\:[oultrie with the Indians, inducing the m to confi ne themselves to a reser va tion.


PARAGRAPH WS'rORY OF FLORIDA. xxiX 18 23. Octobe2. Tallahassee selected as the territorial capital. 1823-1835. Settlers began to press into Florida and en. croach upon I 1iclian reservations. Treaties made and set aside looking to the 1emoval of the 1834. April 12. Proclamation by the President pursuant to treaty finally adopted, directing the 1emoval of the Semi noles west of the 1\fississippi. 1835. Autumn. Friendly Indians murdered by .those who were disposed to resist the execution of the President's proclamation. 1835. December 25. Tile Seminoles made a descent upon New Smyrna, burned all the houses, and laid waste the plantations. Having been forewarned, the inhabitants escaped. 1835. December 28. Osceola, the Seminole chief, way laid and ]tilled General Thompso11, the Indian Commissioner, at F02t King-, with several companions. Ou the same day the command of Major Dade, U.S.A.,' 110 :strong, was am buscaded and massacred by Indians, under Chief Micanopy, near Dragem Junction, Srimter County. Four soldiers feigned doilath and escaped, three of them reaching Tampa Bay. Thus began the Seminole War, which lasted seven years. (See pages 291 and 307.) 1835. December 31. United States hoops under Gen eral Clinch defeated the Indians near the scene of Dade's massacre,, of which event they were at the time unaware. 1836. February 27 -March 6. United States troops. under General Gaines attacked by a large force of Indians while attempting to ford the Withlacoochee River. The troops intrenched themselves, and were besieged for several days, with constant fighting, until theil provisions were nearly ex hausted, when they were relieved by General Clinch. 1836. June 9. Indians threatened the stockade at 1\:Iican opy. United States forces under Major Heileman marched out and l'OJ.lted them after a sharp fight. 1836. 1L Major Pierce attacked Osceola's band of :Micosukee Indians near Fort Drane, and touted them. 1836. November 21. Colonel (late Ma]or) Pierce drove 1\


XXX P ARAGRAP H HISTORY OF FLORIDA. large force of Indians into the Wahoo swamp, but no de cisive victory could be gained owing to the impenetrab l e nature of the morass . 1837. January 20. A d etachment, marching to Jupiter Inlet from the head of the St. J ohn's River, found Indians . strongly posted ou the banks of the Locoha tchee. After attacking and the I ndians a stockade ( Fol"t Jupiter ) was constructed near the inlet. 1837. January 27. Engagement near Hatcheelust ee Creek. The Indians were routed and driven into Great Cypress Swamp. 1837. Feb1uary 8. Intrenched camp on .Lake Mu nroe at tacked at night by a large force of Seminole s 'rhe Indians were r epulsed with heavy lo ss. 18 37. l\'Iarch 6. T reaty of capitulation signed by Gen el-al Thoma s S. Jessup and Seminole ch iefs at F ort D ade. A large number of Seminoles nominally surrendered at this time; the influence of O sceola and the warlike faction proved too strong, and by the end of the summer hostilities were resumed. 1837. October 12. Osce ola and se venty-one of his band seize d by order of General J essup and confi ned as p1isoners of war. 1837 D ecember 25. Colone l Zachary Taylor with a strong deta chment, following the main body of tho Seminoles southward, overtook them on the shore of Lake Olteeo hobee Af ter a stubborn fight, lasting several hours, the Indians fled. Taylor lost one-tenth of his men in killed and wounded. Tllis action terminated concerted resistance on the par t of the Indians. .1\fter this they fought in small parties. 1838. M arch 22. Colonel Twiggs captured 513 Indians and 1 65 negroes near Fort Jupiter. 1 839. M ay. A council with the Semino l e chiefs resulted in an official declaration of peace. 1839. July. 'l'he Indians, without warning, resumed hos. t ilitie s in all parts of the S tate. Colonel Harney's command was nearly exterminated o.t Charlott e Harbor by an ovei whelming force of Indians. 1840. August 7 G ovemment station on Indian Key de stl'Oyed by a war party of Indians. D r. Perrine killed.


PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FI::ORIDA. XXXl 1840. December. Colonel Hru.ney conducted an expedi tion through the Everglades. Dming the year the Indians adopted the plan of miding with small parties and the whole State was harried by the se bauds. 1841. May 31. Colonel, afterward 9eneral, William J. Worth was given command of the United States forces in Florida. He inaugurated a summer campaign which proved effective. The Indians were, during the winter of 1841-42, eithe r captured, killed, or driven into the most inacc essible swamps. 1842. April19-August 14. The Seminole War was de claled at an end. The surviving Indians were removed to Arkansas, with the exception of about 360, who were tacitly allowed to remain in the EYeiglades. 1845. March 3. Florida admitted to the Union as a State. 1861. January 6. United States Arsenal at Chattahoochee seized by Florida State troops. 1861. January 7. Fort 1\:larion, St. Augustine, seized by State troop s (see p. 151). Fort Clinch, Fernandina, occupied the same day. 1861. January 10. Ordinance of secession adop te d by the conven tion assembled at rallahassee. 1861. January l 0. United States troops transferred from Barrancas Barracks to Fort P ic kens, Pensacola Harbor. 1861. January 12. All United States property on the mainland, including the Navy Yard and Forts Barrancas and 1\:lcRae, seized by Florida St-ate troops, the commandant of the Navy Yard with his men being held as prisoners. 1861. January 12. Formal demand made for the sur render of Fort Pickens to Florida St-ate troops. 1861. January 14. Fort Taylor, Key West, ganisoned by United States troops. 1861. J anuary 18. Fort Jefferson, Tortugas, garrisoned by United States troops. 1861. April 12-17. Fort Pickens reinforced. 1861. August 6. The blockade-runner Alvarado burned off F e rnandina. 1861. November 22. Fort Pickens (Pensacola) opens fire


xxxu PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA. upon the Confederate batteries on the mainland. Ail artil lery duel continued all day. 1862. January 16. Naval attack upon Ceda1 Key. 1862. March 3. Amelia Island e vacuated by the Confed:. erates, and (March 4) occupied by Federals. 1862. Mar ch 11. Jackson ville occupied by F ederal forces. 1862. M arch 14. B rigadier-General James H. Ttapier, C.S.A., assigned to the command of Middle and East Florida. 1862. March 17. Colonel W: S. Dilwort h assigned to the command of Florida, vice Trapiet, tl'an s ferred 1862. Ma1ch 23. New Smyrna partly destroyed by Fed erals 1862. April 8. B rigadier-General Joseph Finega n, C.S.A., assigned to the command of Confederat e for ces in Florida.. 1862. A pril 9. Jacksonville evacuated by Ule F edera l troops 1862. April10. Skil'mish near Fernandina. 1862. October 4. Jacks onville again occupied by the Federals and shortly afterward abandoned. 1863. Ma rch 10. JA.Cksonville occupied by F ederals. 1863. M arch 31. Ja.cksonville evacuated by Federals. 1864. F ebruary 7. Jacksonvill e reoccupied by Federals. 1 864. February 20. B attle of Olustee. Defeat of the Federals. 1865. October 28. End of the Civil War. O rdinance of secess ion rep ealed af ter which a civil govemment under the supervision of a milita1-y governor (General J ohn P ope) was temporarily established. 1868. July 4. The fourteenth amendment to the Con stitution of the United States having been adopted, wi th a new State constitution, Florida. was readmitte d t.Q the Union and military supervision withthawn. 1889. June. Discovery of highly valuable phosphate beds at Dunellen, Marion County, followed by similar dis coveries iu different patts of the 'State. 1890. Eleventh census of the United States. P opulation of Florida, 39 1 ,422. For population of counties and chief towns; see u n der each.


.Alachua f'.A>unty. Area, 1,260 aq. m.-Lat. 29 25' to 29 G5' N.-Long. 82 to 82 59' W.-Popu llltion (1890), 22,929.-Pop. (1880), 16,462.Assessed valuation (1888), $3,193,000. County seat, Gaineaville. The name is of Indian origin, pronounced al-latclt-u-alt, with the accent on the second syllable. Probably, howe ver, the Indian pronunciation accentuated the last syllable. '.t'l!e name was originally given to a remarkable chasm in the earth near Gainesville (see map), and is said to mean lit erally "the big jug without a bottom;" but there is probably a conveyed meaning to the Seminole ear implying, "the place where the waters go down." The settlement of this region by whi tes was effected by the agents of Fernando de la Maza Anedondo, an enterprising Spanish merchant of Havana. Messrs. Dexter and Wanton, under his authority and led by the account.s given by Indians of the high ing lands, rich sail, heavy forests, and abundant lakes and streams, penetrated to the vicinity of G a inesvil.le and there established a trading-post. The Indian accounts proved true, and Arredondo obtained a Spanish grant of about 289,645 English acres-rather more than one-quarter of the present county of Alachua. The exact date of the original se ttlement cannot be ascertained, but it was no doubt prior to the beginning of the present c entury, when the whole interior of Flo1ida was an unexplored wilderness, and the discoverer o f a fertile tract had only to ask for a grant in order to secure wlmt was then regarded as a clear title from the Spanish crown. Alachua is classed in the United States Govemment i:e ports as in the long-leaf pine region It contains, h owever, tracts of oak and hickory, hammocks and prai ries The eastern part of the county, at the point of highest elevatio11, is 250 feet above tide-water; the weste m part about 70 feet Near. the Levy county line is a l'ange of sand-hills, 120 feet above tide-water. The Cedar Key Railroad crosses this range between Archer and Bronson. Along the Santa Fe and .Suwannee Rivers the underlying limestone frequently crops out, forming picturesque and precipitous banks,


2 ALACHUA COUNTY. crowned ''ith rich llammoclc From Jlorthwest to south east, crossing the county, is an irregularly detached belt of fine hammock lands, the substratum of which is the pecuiiar disintegrated of this region. Oaks, hickory, gun. t rees, bay, magnolia, beech, maple, and other hard woods grow in great luxuriance, although along this belt rock is but thinly covered with soil. The total area of ham mock land is about 2,440 acres. It is of two grades, "black hammock," with a sandy loam soil, brown or blackish in color, and nearly a foot deep ; and gray hammock," with a lighter soil and higher percentage of sand, underlaid with sand or sand-rock. The Suwannee River and its tributary the Sant. a Fe define the western and northern boundaries of the county. The first named is navigable for steamers throughout this secti on of its course, and the second as far as Fort White, about eight miles above the confluence of the two streams. In the western part of the county are countless small lakes and ponds, most of them deep and well supplied with fish. They are connected by natural water-courses, sometimes on the surface, sometimes snl>terranean, and curious natural wells and "sinks" are of frequent occurrence. These wells are usually perpendicula1 shafts, three or four feet in diameter, descending through solid limestone 1ock to a depth of thidy or forty feet. Water strongly impregnated with lime is found in most of them, but some are dry and may be ex plored. This part of the county is sparsely settled as compared with the e astern, especially the southeastern section. This however, renders it the more attlactive for sportsmen and campers ; Large game has been hunted off in the more thickly settled portions of the county, but deer and turkey are to be found within easy ddving distance of almost any of the towns west of Gainesville, and the ordina1y game birds are reasonably !tbundant everywhere. Large lake!! are found in the eastern and especially in the southeastern portion of the county. Of t hese South Pond and Santa. Fe Lake are joined by ,a. canal, and are navigable for launches and small steamboats. Orange Lake, which


8 Lj U M \ JIB r/(1 >N ""-c 0 8 I A 0 R o 1 <( WI Ji'! I ('}'?' I -l!. .If VA \ "\J:IC" I \\) "" 1 / -. . .. -------------11I 1f 4 I s w I I ... ) I I )-8-, I I to to I 18 < rli 14-I 75 n '-' Lt. '"" .. < --..J f ALACHUA COUNTY {I. _, I -r- SCACE O> MILES v y f F9 E ,, E.. d p.d MARIO N n. 0 5 10


4 ALACHUA COUN'l'Y. bounds the county at its Sc)Utheastern. corner, is an irregular body of water, the largest in 'the county, but shallow and overgrown with aquatic vegetation. In the season these shallow lakes are frequented by water-fowl. The remarkably open character of the woods at once impresses the observant tmveller. The scrub palmetto is .wholly absent over large tracts, and one may ride or drive comfortably for miles through a virgin forest without a sign of a wagon road or of a human habitation:. Among the crops that are successfully cultivated in Alachua are artichokes, beans, beets, cabbages, celery, cucumbers, egg-plant, lettuce, okra; onions, pa1snips, peas, potatoes (Irish and sweet), pumpkinsJ radishes, squashes, tomatoes, turnips, arrow-root, barley castor beans, cassava, chufas, koonti, corn, cotton, pea-nuts, melons, millet, oats, rice, rye, sorghum, sugar-cane, tobacco, and wheat. O ranges are grown successfully whenever facilities for transportation render it possible to market the crop to advantage. P eaches of the and other early varieties are cultivated ; the Leconte pear is a profitable crop, and strawberries in very large quantities are shipped to the North during January, February, and March. The Florida Southern Railway (J., T. & K. W. ters the county from the westward, Palatka being the nearest station of importance. 'The stations next and within the county are: . Dist. fr. Pnlntka.. 21 .... Cones Crossing (Putna.n Oo.). .. 45 29 .... Colgrove ... : ................. .... 43 E Sl .... Hawthon1e ... .......... : .... .41 1\ 52 .... Constantine's Mill ................ 40 Diet. fr. S5 ... Grove Park ............. ........ ST Ocala. V 40 .... Roche ll e ....................... 32 W 45 .... Jifica.nopy.Jc ..................... 27 47 .... Evinston (Levy Oo.) ............. 24 'Crosses F C &. P Ry . (soo p. 5). Gainesville Br. (see below). For continuation of this line to Ocala, Lees burg, etc see p. 63. Gainesville Branch" (J., T. & K. W. system) : I ST ... Rochelle' ..................... . 8 E Dist. fr. 41.. .. Sink ............................. .4 1\ Dist. fr. Palatka. V 42 .... Oliver Park ...................... S I Gainesville. W 45 ... GalneavilJe2, ...................... 0 Connects with main line (see above). with S. F. & W. Ry. (Bel' p. 5), and Cedar Key Division F. C. & P. (see p. 5).


ALACHUA COUNTY. 5 The main line of the Florida Central & Peninsula Railway enters the county from the northeast afte1 crossing Santa Fe River. The stations next and within the are: 79 ... Hampton (Bradford Co.) ........ 51 85 .... \Valdo ........ ................. 45 N 90 .... Heights ................. 40 A 94 .... Camp ville . . . . . . . . . 36 Dist. fr. 99 .... Hawthorne z .......... ......... 31 Ocala. Dist. fr. Jackson ville. v 106 .. .. I.ochloosa ....................... 24 S 109 .... I sland Grove . ..... ......... . 21 112 . . Citra (Levu Co.) ............... .. 18 1 Cedar Key Branch F. C & P. (see below). 2 Gainesville Branch, J., T & K. W. For continuation of this line to Ocala, see p. 68 ; to Jacksonville, p 9 Cedar K e y Division, F. C. & P., crosses the county south westerly from Waldo, where it leaves the main line. Dist. fr. Waldo v sw o ... Waldo ........................ .. 7o 6 .. Fairbanks.... . .. .. ......... 64 N E 14 .. .. Gaine s ville 1.... .. .. .. .. ..... 56 A 18. . Hanm)Ock Ridge............... 59 1 20 . Arredondo ... ..................... 50 21. ... Kauapahu.. . . . .. .. .. . .... 49 24 ... Palme: ................... . ..... 46 29 .... Archer.. . .. .. . ............. .41 38 .... Bronson (Levu Co.) ........ ...... 82 Dist. fr. Cedar Key 1 Connects with Gainesville Branch, J., T. & K. W. (see p 4), and with Gain-esvme Division, S. F. & W. (see below) For continuation southwest to Cedar Key, see p. 55; northeast to Jacksom;ne, Fernandina, etc., sec p. 9. The Ge.inesville Division, S. F. & w. Ry., runs northeast from Gainesville to Lake City Junction, Columbia County. Tbe stations are : Dist. fr. Gahies ville. t NW o .... Gainesville .. .. . . .. . . . .. 36 11 .... Hague.. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . ...... 25 16 .. .. Newnnns ville .. . .. ............ 20 23 .... High Springs .. . .. .. .. .. .. .13 33 .... Fort White .............. .. . . 3 86 .... Lake City Jc. (Oolu?nbia Ca.) .... 0 SE Dist. fr. A Lake City [ Jc. }for continuation northwest, seep. 1 7. For connections at Gainesville, map.


6 BAKER COUNTY. Baker County. Area, 500 sq. m.-Lat. so 10' to 30o 25' N.Long. sz to 82 SO' w.-Popula tion (1890), 3 ,312.-Registered vote (1889), 651.-Pop. (1880), 2,812.-Asscssed valuation (1888). $544,308.-County seat, McClenny. The northern part of this county is within the limits of t.he greatOkeefenokee Swamp, which extends to the northBAKER COUNTY SCA L E OF MI LE S k P AEH'-xi ; I 0 o. :; 10 0 A N I 0 1 19 ____ .. ---CLAY B 0 ward across the Georgia State line. This portion of the county is hardly habitable, but is rich in standing timber which is rafted down the tributaries of the St. Mary's River


BAKER COUNTY-BRADFORD COUNTY. 7 to tide-water and a m:uket, or else finds it.-; way to the Florida Central & Peninsula Railway Company's stations in the southern tier of townships. The southern part of the county is moderately high pine land, with sandy soil. The p rinciJ>al shipments are tUl'pent ine a.hd lumber, with an increas ing quantity of peaches and vege t ables. Near the southwestern corner of the county there took place the most considerable engagement that occurred within the State during the Civil War. 'he W estern Division of the Florida Centrnl & !>enin sula Railway crosses east and 'vest near the southern border. The stations next to and within the county are : Dil! t fr. Jackson ville. 19 . . Baldwin (Duval Co.) ............ 186 E 28 .... McClenny ..................... 171 11 30 .... Glen St. Mary ................... 1 T5 37 .... Sanderson ....................... 168 39 .... Pendl eto n.. .. .. .. ............ 166 v 47 .. .. Olsutee .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... : ...... 158 W 52. : .. Mt. Cru:rie ( Oolwnbia Co.) ....... 153 Bradford Coanty. D st. fr. River Jc. Area 550 sq. m.-Lat. 29 40' to SOO 10' N.-Long. 82 to 82 40' W.-Popn lation (1890), 7,502.-Registered vote (1889), 1,370.-Pop. (1880), 6,167 -Highest e l evat ion, 210 ft. (Trail Ridge).-Assessed valuation (1888), $1,124,763.-County seat, Starke Bradford County is classified in the long-leaf pine region 'he bes t land is gently rolling, with sandy l oam, well suited for the cultiva t ion of cotton, corn, vegetables, fruits, and rice The most fertile land is found along the lakes and water-courses-mainly in the southern and eastern sections. Second class is for the most part a yellow sandy loam, covered with pine forests. It is capable, however of producing fair crops of oats, rye, and barley The third-

8 . BRADFORD COUNTY. are all available for rafting purposes, and many .of them afford good mill-sites. The more considerable lakes are South P1:ong Pond, one of the sources of Olustee (200 acres) ; Swift Creek Pond (700 acres), Lake Butler (700 acres), Samson Lake (2,200 acres), C1osby Lake (800 acres), R A L .. c BRADFORD C O.U.NTY SCA L E OF M ILES 0 10 Rowell Lake (800 acres). At the southeastern comer, be tween Bradford and Alachua Counties is Santa Fe Lake, the source of the river of that name, 137 feet above the sea. It is the largest body of water adjacent to the county, some eight miles long with its connections, and affording water transportation to Waldo, a 1aihoad station near the head of the South Pond. . The main line of the Florida Central & Peninsula Raihvay


BRADFORD COUN'l'Y-BREVARD COUNTY 9 crosses N.N.E. and S.S.W. in the eastem. tier of town ships The stations next to and within the county are : 61. ... Highland (Clew Co.) .............. 69 66 .... Lawtey . . .................... 64 NNE 61 .. Burrin ....................... .... 63 1\ 71. ... Temple ....... ................... OS '13 .... Starke ......... ......... ....... 57 Dist. fr. Ocala. Dist. fr. Jack-sonville. v 79. . Hampton ...... ................. 51 85 ... Waldo (Alachua; Co.) ....... ..... 45 SSW . For continuation of this line to Jacksonville, see p. 16; to Cedar Key, see p. 5. Brevard County. Area., 8,000 sq. m.-Lat. 27 10' to 28 50' N.-Long. SO 101 to 81 W.-Popu lation (1890), 3,399.-Pop. (1880), 1,47S.-As8e.seed valuation (1888), $1,007,474.(',ounty seat, Titusville. The present county was formed from St. Lucie County, in January, 1855. The county seat was successively at Fort Pierce or Susannah (185p to 1864) Bassville (1864 to 1873), Lake ville (1873 to 1879), and finally at Titusville, or, as it was forme!:lv known, Sandv Point. In 1879 the southern part . -of Volu sia County was a.dded to B1evard, so that the county now includes 108 mile s of Atlantic Sea-coast, practically em bracing the whole of the Indian River with its dependencies, and nearly covering two degrees of latitude. The coast-line forms the eastern boundary of this tract, it.s geneml trend being N.N.E. by S.S.E. The western boundary is defined for about twenty miles by the St. John's River, and then follows a township meridian southward to Lake Okeechobee, the great inland sea of Centrall"lorida. The greatest width is on the southern boundaxy, about for ty-two miles, marked by a township line from Okeechobee to the mouth of the St. Lucie River. Fronting the ocean is a strip of beach, broken by occa sional inlets, and usually varying in width rom a few hun dred yards to a mil e This is covered for the most part with a heavy growth of timber, and rarely rises to a height of more than fifteen or twenty feet above high-water mark. West of this is Indian Rive1, a narrow stmit or lagoon, averaging about a mile in width, but spreading out .to some six miles


10 BREVARDCOUNTY. at_ the widest, n.nd contractin g to bat ely a hundred feet at the Narrows. Near the head of the 1 iv e r are large i slan d s or peninsulas, and farther south, at the Jupiter and St. Lucie Narrows are innurperable small islands separated by chann e l s o ft e n not mor e than one hundre d feet wide, aner, then, are substantially the only inhabited portion of B revard County For a more de tailed de scription, the reader i s to Routes 70 to 74. It remains to descri be in general te1tns the climate of this coast, and this is best done b y reference to the reports o f the United States Signal Service.



BREVARD COUNTY-CALHOUN COUNTY. 11 The I ndian River Division of the Jacksonville, rampa, & Key West system at present; ends at Titusville, near the northern boundary. '.Vhe stations next to and within the countv are: r 23 ... . . . . .............. 18 N D 1 st. fr. 31. ... Aurant1a ......................... 10 1\ D;st fr E te >r. "'. 6 . n rprtsa V '"' ... d ms . . . . . . . . . . . . . j TituaviUe. Jc. 8 37 .... L a Grange ....... ................ 4 41. ... Titusvill e ................ . . . 0 For continuation of this line north and south from Enterprise Junction, seo t>P 70, 9T. For eteamboat routes from see Route 70. Calhoun County. Area, 1 ,160 sq. m.-Lat . 29 40' to so 30' N.-'tong. 85 to ss 40' W.-Population (1890), 1,611.-Pop. (1880), 1,580.-Assessed valuation. $352,862.-County seat, Blountetown. county was organized with its present lJoundaries in 1874. It was named after John C. Calhoun, a prominent Southern statesman, who died in 1850. 'rhe land is sandy, with clay subsoil and underlying limestone; for the most part heavily timbered and within easy reach of water transporta tion. The Apalachicola River, navigable for steamers, forms the eastern boundary, and nearly parallel to it are the Chi pola River and Brothers River, both of them navigable ex cept during low water. The bottom-lands along the rivers, especially the Apalachico la, rich alluvial deposits of in exhaustible fertility, but subject, of course, to periodical overflow. Springs of excellent water abound throughout the county, 11,nd the pine lands are for the most part of good quality. West of the Apalachicola the Chipola. River widens into Dead Lakes, sunken areas with dead cypress-trees standing or lying in water ten to twenty feet deep. It is thougllt that the subsidence of the lake bottoms is of comparatively recent occurrence. 'rhis l 'egion can only be penetrated in boats, but it offers great attractions and novel experiences to sportsmen who are not afraid of hai.d work. St. Joseph's B ay is a fine body of navigable water with sllores well adapted for camping.




Cl'XRUS COUNTY. 13 Citrus County. Area, 700 sq. 26 40' t!> 28 101 N.-Long. 82 10' to 82 50' W. Popu:ntion (1890), 2,387.-Elevstion at :Mt. Lee, 214 valuation (lSSS), $874,752.-County seat, l'tlllnnfield. This county was organized, June 2, 1887, prior to which date was included in Hernando County. It bmders upon the Gulf of Mexico, and is drained by the Withlacoochec Rive1, a navigable stream f'orming its northern and eastern L E V Y I 0 boundaries. The face of the country is level near the coas t, covered with heavy hammock growth, and bearing a rich soil . of varying depth underlaid with coraline and limestone rock rich in phosphates. Farther inland are rolling pine Iai1ds rising to a considerable height. The climate is tempered by the Gulf breezes, and northern and easterly winds are of very rare occurrence. Several of the wonderful springs peculiar to Florida. are found within the county. 'I'he fishing and


14 .CITRUS COUNTY-CLAY COUNTY. hunting are exceptio nally fine. Along the coast are numer ous shell-mounds antl islands, affording building sites. The Homos assa River and its vicinity offer especial nttractions to settlers, tourists, and sportsmen. The Gulf Coast is bordered by countless islands, or keys, of limestone, some of them CO\'ered with mangroves, others nearly barren. Navigation is ve r y dangerous owing to reefs, shoals and oyster -beds that extend in some cases miles from the_ coast. There are, however, two harbors accessible for vessels drawing not more than four feet, at Cr ysta l River, and Homosassa, Citrus is a rich orange country, and is the natural home of the Homosassa orange, which has, perhaps, the l ongest established reputation of any of the Florida varieties, and, it is said, has taken moi e prizes than any other. The Silver Springs, Ocala, and Gulf Rail road crosses the county from Dunellou on the "Withlacooc h ee River, to Homo sassa, near the Gulf Coast. The stations next to and within . the county are : 26 . . Dnnellon (Jfarim Co.) ........... 22 34 .... CitroneJie ................ ... 14 A Dist. fr. Ocala. ss .... Park Place ...................... 10 v 39 .... Crystal.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 9 48 .... Homosassa ...................... o For continuation of this line to Ocala, see -p. 64. C lay County. Diet. fr. Homosassa. Area, 640 sq. m.-Lat. 29 41' to ao 6' N.-Long. s1 atV to 82 1' W -Population "(1890), 5,134.-Pop. (1980), valuation ( 1888), $1, 200,000.-E ie vation on Trail Ridge, 1150 feet.-County ooat Green Cove Spring. Clay County was organized in 1856, from Duval County, and named after the Ron. Henry Clay, of Kentucky, United States Senator for many years, and a candidate for the Presi dency in 1824 and 1844. The St. Jolin's River, se'(>arating Clay County from St. John's County on the east, is here a noble stream varying from one mile to three miles in width. Black Creek, one of its tributaries, is navigable for steamers as .far as 1\'Iidclleburg, where two smaller branches unite to form the main stream. 'fhese branches find their sou r ce re spectively in the northern and southern sections of the coun-


CLAY COUNTY. liS ty. The South Fork again subdivides into Green's Creek and A tes Creek, which drain the lake r egi on of the county. The lan d is in the main modemtely high pine, intersperse d with h ammock an d scrub oak The best plantations lie along the St. John's R ive r, wh e re are many flouri shing orange0 z CJ.jAY COUNTY groves. Through this port ion of the county 111ns the mai n line o f the Jackso nville, rampa & K ey West Railw ay, a f fording direct and easy comm unication with all points north and south. The lake region is largely u noccupied as yet, but bas abundant natural attract ions for the sportsman as well as for t h e permanent settler.


16 CLAY COUN'fY COLU)lBIA C OVNTY. The J T. & K. W. Ry. follows the west bank of the St. John's River. The stations within and near the c ounty are: Diet. fr. Jackson ville. 11. ... Reed s (Duval Co.) . .... ....... 114 14 ... Orange Par k . .................. 111 N 18 ... Peoria ...... ............. ..... lOT 1\ 20 .... Black Creek . ............. . .. 105 24 .... Fle min g . ............. ... ...... 101 23 .... llfagnolia .................... . 97 29.. Gree n Cove SJ?ring ..... . .... .... 96 SO M e lro s e . . . . . . 95 v 33 ... Wall kill . . . . . . ........... 91 S . . WestTocoi.. : .. .............. 84 40 .... Bostwick (PutniVtlt Co. ) ... ....... 19 Dist. fr. Port Tampa. 1 Branch to Florence Mills and Sharon, 9 m. s o uthwest. For continua.tion of main linenorth, see p. 25 ; south, see p 82. The main line of the .F. C & P Ry. crosses the north westem corner of the coun ty. Stations adjacent to within the county are : n t I 55 . Maxville (Duval Co.) .. ... ...... 121 N fr. 56 ... . . . .. . . . ...... . 122 11 Diet. f r. dina V 61.. .. Rghlaud .. . .. . . ......... 111 1 Ocala S 66 Lawtey (BTadford C o ) .... ..... 112 For continuat i on o f this line to Ocala, see p. 9 ; Cedar Key, see p. 1 ; Feruan dina and Jacksonville, g ee pp. 25 and 67. The Western Railway of Florid a run s to Belmore, 1 4 miles southwest of Green Cove Spri ng. The stations ate : Dist. fr. Greiln Cove. v sw o .... Green C o ve.Spr lng ......... . .. 14 S .... Clinch's ............... .... ....... 11 NE 6 .... Willkinson . . . . .. . . . . . 8. 1\ 1 .... Novella .... . ..... .. ... .......... 1 I 10 . . Sharon . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 11 . . We s t Sharon ..................... S 1 4 . . Belmore .. .' ............. . ...... 0 C olumbia County. D ist. fr. Bel m ore Area, 860 sq. m .-Lat. 29 48' to 30 SB'.N.-L ong. 82 27' to82 50'W.-Population (189()), 12,844.-Pop. (1880), 9,589.-A s sessed valuat ion. $1,600,463. -Highest elevation, 200ft. (Lake City).-Dounty seat, L ake City. Co l umbia is one of the northern t i er of counti e s touching the Georgia line, and including a wide tract of unsettled flat pine land i n its northern half. The southern half is moa erately high pine land, with extensive tracts of g ood ara ble soil, the western porti on liy soft sandstone, and e l sewhere by clay, which has been used, since 1 84 7 fot brick. The lo:t;tg s taple Sea I sland cotton thr i ve s in this


G 0 .R G 1 A ---r-----a: COLUMBIA COUNTY I SCALE OF M ILES ,,. 5 e "n .Fri Lll 0 10 z z Tabor g!> A L H u 2


18 COLUMBIA COUNTY. county, and large warehottses have been established at Lake City and elsewhere. Good water is found in natural and artificial wells and streams all ove1 the county, save in the southwestern portion, where limestone prevails, and, of course, affects the water. The line of the Florida Central & Peninsula Railway crosses the central portion of the county, connecting to the eastward and westward with Jacksonville, Tallahassee, and Pensacola. From Lake City to Lake City Junction is a division of the Savann:nl;l', Florida & Western Rail'\Vay, leading to Gainesville and the Suwannee River at New Branford. Santa Fe River, separating the county from Alachua on the south, is navigable for steamers as far as Fort White, and is available for boats, and for log-rafting to its junction with Olustee Creek. Three of the largest creeks in the county sink into the ground; to reappear, probabJy, in some of the numerous springs along the principal water-c.ourses The exceptional healthfulness of the central region has been r ecognized by the Trustees of the State Agricultural College, who, after due deliberation, selected Lake. City as the site of the institution. The chief articles of export are Sea Island cotton, com, and tobacco, cotton being the largest and most profitable crop. . The Western Division of the F. C. & P. Ry. crosses the county from east to west, with stations, as follows, within and adjacent to the boundaries: I 47 .... Olustee (Baker Oo.) ............. 160 E Diet. 52 .... ..... .............. 155 11 fr. fr. J'!ICksonv 59 .... Lake City ...................... 148 I R i ver Jc ville. w 65 .... 0gden .......................... 142 71 .... Welborn (Suwannu Oo.) ........ 136 Connects with Lake City Division. Waycross Short Line, Lake City t<1 Lake Junction, 19m.; Fort White, 22m., and Gainesville, Al!IChua County. For continuation to River Junction, seep. 91; to J!ICksonville, seep. 7.


DADE COUNTY 19 Dade County. Area, T,200 sq. m.-Lat. 26 10' to 26" 10' N.-Long. 80" to so 56' w.-Popu latlon (1890), 726.-Pop. (1880), 257.-0ounty seat, Juno. Dade County is, at this writing, in the main inacce ssible to the ordinary tourist, and unopened to the average settler. Communicat ion by rail has been es tablished wi t h Lalte Worth, near. the northern boundary, but the only means of reaching Biscayne B ay, its southernmos t habitable district, is by way of the weeldy mail-packets-ordinary coasting schooners from K ey West. The seventy miles of bench be tween L ake Worth Inlet and Cape Florida are accessible only b y means of sea-going craft, or on fo ot, or in canoes along the tortuous water-ways that connect the various rivers and inlet s. The map indicates the scant line of settle ments along the coast, all of them within sound of the sud. The rest of the wide doma in is unsurveyed is inhabited only by the remnan t of the Semino l e Indians, and is visited only by the more enterprising and adventu rous of hunters and cowboys. Within the bound s of the county lies the major part of the great inland fresh-water lake Okeechobee. To the southwar d and eastward stretch the pathless E verglades, separated fl-om the sea only by a com p aratively narrow ridge o f coralline rock. From the southern reaches of I ndian River and from Lake W ol'lh something of an export has opened in pineapples, cocoanuts, tomatoes, fish, anu turtles. This goes northward by way of the Jupiter & Lake Wmth R ailway and the Indian River steamers. Tho settlements along Biscayne B ay send simila r products !l.nd o. considerable amount of koonti-root starch by sea to K ey West. To the spmtsman the inland and coastwis e waters of D ado County offer endless attractions, which are described more in detail under their appropriate local divisions. See Jupiter Inlet and Vicinity, Lake W01tb, H illsho.Pough River, New R iver, B oca Ratone s, B iscayne Bay, Lake O keechobee, The Everglades, etc. The only railway in Dade County, and the southernmost in the United States is the nal'low -gauge line seven miles


v R . 88 SCAlE OF MilES 6 89 40 z.. 42 48 44 r 46 46 c rn I I r H E -l1tld> E viE R 0 L A 0 E 8 rn I I E"l --0 z


DADE COUN'rY -DE SOTO COUNTY. 21 long, from Jupiter Inlet to the head of Lake Worth, see Route 75. It. belongs to the JacksonvUle, Tampa, & Key West system, and runs in coimection with their boats on the Indian River. The demand for pineapple lands led to a very considerable immigration to tho vicinity of Biscayne Bay and the Florida K eys during the summer of 1891. De Soto County. Area. 8,800 sq. m.-Lat 26 45' to 21 88' N.-Long. so 50' to 82 20' W. Populatio n (1890), 4,940.-Assessed v aluutlon, $1,983,640.---County seat, Ar cadia. This county was organized in 1887, as the result of a sub division of Manatee County, and was appropriately named after the g1ea.t Spanis h navigator, H ema.nd o DeSoto. It is still in the main a wilderness, some sixty miles wide, extending from the Kissimmee River and Lake Ok eechobee on the east to tlle Gulf of Mexico on the w est A nanow chain of settlements skirts the navigable waters and the line of the Florida Southern Railw ay, but a few miles on either side of these the pine forests are unbroken until they disap year in the prairies and saw grass borde1-ing the great in land lakes. And yet this region represents large wealth, for here begins the great cattle range of Southwestern Florida, ex tending from Peace River on the northwestern side of the county to the borders of the Everglades Thinvhole region is flat or gently rolling pine l and, interspersed with ham mock, and often openin g into prairies and savannas. Except ing in the dense hammock, the whole i s carpeted with grass, affording nutritious food for cattle the year l'Ouud, while no shelte r whatever is 1 equirell for the animals. The county is bisected by the twenty-se venth parallel of north latitude, about two-thirds of its area lying to the northward of that lin e With the contiguous county of L ee it con tains by far the largest tract of naturally valuabl e land South Fl01-ida. Owing to its low latitude, tropical fruit cultme and truck farming fo r early vegetables .are among its chief in dus tri es. The Florida Railway crosses the county from


' zs 3 9 28 30 40 .p,IA DESOTO COUNTY u OF MMH@drll .; 10 I 0 "' () l I I "' LAKE 0 a: < > w a: co 25 I I I I tC!f!iH OKEECHOBEE ,f#f, ,


DE SOTO COUNTY-DUV .AL COUNTY. 23 to southwest, ho':ing its t erminus at Punta Gorda, near tlie h ead o f Charlotte Harbor, where it connects with the :M:orgnn L ine o f steamers for New Orleans, and wi t h coas t wise craft plying to the southward. Harbor and its adjacent wate r s afford the best tarpon fishing on the Gulf C oast (see Route 81), and all the game fish of this region abound in the rivers and bay s D ee r and turkeys are fre qqent l y killed within five miles o f the railroad, but for the ce r tainty of good spol't the hunter must go farther afield, as the large game is generall y hunte d off in the vicinity of the p ermanent settlemen ts. Duval County. Area. 900 f'

2 4: DUVAL OOUN f Y This wa$ merely n. military post. The first civil settlement is b e lieved to h a v e be en made in 1 812, at the head of the old King' s road from S t. Au gustine, on the south bank of the. 3.' z "' ':1 0 % 0 "" 0 "' z ;.;I w .J < ..

DUVAL COUNTY . 25 Florida. Long before this, howev er the banks of the river wer e inhabited Ly Indian triJJes as evident from the c ountles s shell mounds that exist on Loth sides of the stream often containing rude poLtery, stone implements and the like, ming l e d with bones of m e n and animals in perplexing and suggestive confusion. The sea-atrast line i s a b out twenty miles in extent measming s ou t h ward from the mouth o f N as sa u Rive r The g r eater patt of it is fine hard bench, s uitable fo1 driving and bathing nnd usually backed by san d ridge s Ol' hammocks available for buildingsites. All the great railway lines of Florida !!entre in .Jackso n v ille. The mai n line of the J acksonville T ampa & Key West System runs to T a m pa, Punta G orda., and Titus ville. Stations within the cou nty and next to the southern boundary are: D ist. fr. Jackson ville. I 0 .... Jacksonville ..... ... ............ 125 N 4 . Edgewood .... .................. 121 D! t f v 9 .... Black Point ..................... n A A [ S 11 ... Reed's .......................... 114 14 .... Orang e Park (Clay Co.) ......... The Jacksonv ille, St. Augustine & Halifax R iv e r Railway ( J ., T. & K. W. System) c r osses tl1e St . John's River on a steel drawbridge, just above the city. Stations within the county and nex t beyond are : D ist. fr. Jackson ville. 0 . Jacksonville .. .... ........... 31 1. ... S. Jacksonville ................... 36 NW 3 .... PhiJllpa .......................... 34 A 5 . Bowd e n .......................... 32 9 .... Summ c rvil!e ..................... 28 10 .... Nesbit . . ..................... 21 11 .... .Eaton .. ... ...... ................. 26 v 14 .... Sweetwater ...................... 23 SE 16 . . Bayard ... . .... : .............. 2 1 l 'r .... Reglste1 (St. J ohn's Oo.) ....... . 20 For connections at St. Augustine, seep. 133. D ist. f r St. An guatine. The Plant System, Savannah, F l orida. & Western Railway, Waycro ss short line. From foot of B ridge Street. Stations within and near D uval County are: Dist. fr. 1 o . Jack@onville' .................... 20 J acksonV 12 .... Dinsmore ........................ 8 .AI ville. SE 20 .... Callahan . . . . . . . ....... 0 NW Dist. fr. Cal lahan For connections. see p. lOS. Connects with F. C. & P. Ry. sec p. 6T


26 DUVAL COUNTY. The Florida Central & Peninsula Railroad-Jacksonville B ra nch. Between Jacksonville and Fernandina. From foot of Hogan Street. S t a t ions a:r e : D lst. f r Jackson ville. 0 ... Jacksonvllle1 ST 1 ... Waycross Jc ... . .......... 86 S 5 .... Jackeonville J c ................. 32 11 15 .... Dnval . .............. ..... 22 v 26 .... Rd. Jc. ................... 11 N 27 .... Ha:.t s Road ...................... 10 S7 .... Fernandinas . .. .. . .. .. . .. . . 0 For eonne ctons, see p. lOS. D ls t. f:. FernMdina. with SouthemJ)Iv. F. C. & P., seep. 67. s Connects with llfallory Line f o r New York (seep. 12'1); and coastwise steamers for Georglll ports. The Jacksonville & Atlantic Railroad has its station in South Jacksonville. Ferry from foot of Market Street. The stations are : Diet. fr. Jackson ville. I ol ..... JSacJksonk ville .!. I .. i .............. 1176.! W .. .. ac eonVl e .. .. .. .. .. ... 11 1 !.8 .... St. N i chola ....... .. ; .. .. .. 14.5 v 6 ... Pottsbnrg .................. u.s i E 14.6 .... San Pablo ................... .' 2. 7 17.8 .... Pablo Beach : .... . ......... 0 1 CoiUJect8 with J., T. & K. W. Sys te lll.. Dlst. fr. Pablo Deacb. The Jacksonville, 1\fayport & Pablo Railway & Navigation Co. has its station at Arlington, on the south bank of the St. John's, three miles by ferry, foot of Newnan Street. The stations are : Diet. fr. Jackson'll v e. o .. .. Jacki!Onville ..................... 20 3 .. ...... . .... ......... 1 7 W 4 .... Egleston ......................... 16 A 7 ... Verona ........................... 18 s .... Cohassect ........................ 12 9 .... McCorm!ck .. .................... 11 10 ... Mill Cove ...................... .. 10 11 .... Pine Grove .. .. .. .. ... ; ......... 9 14 .... Idlewild . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 I 15 .... Greenfield .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 5 16 .... Bomeide Beach .................. 4 18 .... The Jetties. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 V 19 ... Jetty Cottage.. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 B 19t ... LightHoUI!e ...................... t 20 .... Mayport .............. .......... 0 --------------0----------Diet. fr. Mayport.


ESCAMBIA COUNTY. 27 Escambia County. Area, 720 sq. m.-Lat. 31 .to so 20' N.-Long. 87 40; to .ST 50' W.-Popnla tion (1890), 20,097.-Pop. (1880), 12,156.-Assessed valuation (1888), $3,649,758. -County seat, Pensacoh. The magnificent bay where Pensacola now stan

VICI"CITY OF' PEN.SACOLA H Ill '7 '>. 0 F M E X I c 0 1f L


ESCAMBIA COUNTY-FRANKLIN COUNTY. 29 The Pensacola & Atlantic Division, IJouisville & Nash ville Railroad, enters Escambia from Alabama on the north. Stations near and within the county are: o .... F l omaton ........ ." ............. 44 5 .... Bluff Springe ................ .... S9 N 12 ... McDavid ............... ......... 32 11 20 .... Molino .......................... .24 24. .. Q,u: ntette .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 20 28 .... Cautonmentz ................... 113 Diet. fr. Flomaton. .. Diet. fr. Pensacola. V 32 .... ........................ 12 S 87 . : 0live ............................ r 44 .... Pensacola .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 I uonnects with lines to New Orleans. Montgomery, and Selma. 2 Branch to five miles west. The Pensacola & Perdido Railroad connects Pensacola. with 1\-Iillview, six miles west, on Perdido Bay. Franklin County. Area, GOO sq. m.-Lat. 29 40' to 300 51 N.-Long. 84 30' to 85 15' W.-Popu lation (1890), 3,271.-Pop. (1880), 1,791.-Asseesed valuation (1888), $495,427.County seat, Apalachicola. Nearly the whole of this county was originally included in what was known as the Forbes Purchase, the result of negotiations made with the I ndians by an English firm, Forbes & Co., in 1819. This was just prior to the transfer of Florida from Spain to the United States. The sea-coast of this county is sheltered by St. Vincent's, St. Geo1ge's Island, and Dog Island, within which are broad sounds and bays navigable for Yessels of any size and affording fishing grounds unsurpassed by any on the coast. Dog Island Har-bor especially is one of the finest. on the Gulf. Owing to its isolated position Franklin County has not yet been penetrated by raihoads, and for this reason it offers attractions to the sportsman not possessed by its more ac cessible neighbors. Tributary these nearly land-locked waters are a number of rivers and estuaries, many of them navigable for vessels of considerable size, and all navigable for small boats, affording access to some of the best hunting lands in Flmida The region is most easily reached by way of the Apalachicola River, from River J1motion, wl1ence com munication by rail is easy and direct from all parts of the United States.


. .. C 0 _, .""' K 0 0 _, 'ii\ z .. _,... .d. ::= z < .:p. 0 n 0 z ....._:__!--.__ ..,


GADSDEN COUNTY. 31 Gadsden County. Area, 540 sq. m.-Lat. SO<' 20' to soo 40' N.-Long. 84 15'to 84 55' W.-PopuIM.ion (1800), 11,818.-Pop. (1880), 12,169.-Assessed valuation (1888), $1.018,149. -C'oanty seat, Quincy. Organized as one of the original counties into which the S _tate was divided in 1822, Gadsd.en County soon became one of the leading agricultural districts of Florida. The face of the couutvy is undulating, with a. subsoil of red clay, well :watered, and cove1ed with a heavy growth of hammock and pine timbe1. The Ocklo<;konee River forms the dividing 0 G l A 0 LIBERTY OF \.. line from Leon County on the southwest, and into this flmv numerous runs" and creeks of clear water, affording abundant facilities for water-power and natural irrigation for wide tracts of land. The hills rise to a consid erable height in the northern part of this connty-mo1e than 300 feet in the neighborhood of Quincy. Under the system of cultivation that prevailed prior to the Civil War, and before adequate means of transportation existed, the annual tobacco crop was something like 5,000 boxes of 350 pounds each. Within a few years this industry has been revived by Nort11ern capitn .l on a large scale in the vicinity of Quincy (Route 223). The culture of Cuban tobacco was intl'oduced into Gadsden


32 GADSDEN COUNTY-HAMILTON COUNTY. County in 1829, by a Vii:ginian wh_o in the vicinity of Quincy. He was so successful that 'his examp l e was soon followed, and until the Civil War in 1860 the value of the crop nearly or quite equalled that of cotton, the annual ship ments averaging 1,600,000 pounds. A great advantage of tobacco-growers was that the busy season timed itself so as ;not to interfere with cotton-planting. Thus the tobacco could usciiliy be haivested after the cotton was sta.rted and before it was time for picking, while the packing and boxing was necessarily done in wet weather, when out-of-door work was impracticable. The War first and the abolition of slavery afterward practically suspended this industry. Tlie Western Division of the Florida Centmi & Peninsula Railway crosses Gadsden County with stations as foUows : Dlst. fr. T allahassee. I v NW 9 .... Ocklocko n ee (I;eon Co. ) . . ...... 84 12 .... Midway ... . .................... Sl SE 24 .... Quincy ............ ........... .... 19 A 83 .. Mt. P l easant ................... . 10 I 42 ... Chattahoochee ................... 1 43 .. .. River Junctton ................. 0 Dist. fr. River Jc. 1 Connectfl Savannah, Florida & Western Railway, crossing at once into Georgia . Connects & Atlantic DiviSion L. & N. (see p. 16), and with Chat tahoochee River Steamer s Ha. m ilto n County. Area, 460 sq. m.-Lat. SO 20' to SO 40' N.-L ong. 4()1 to SS 20' W: Population {1890), 8,477.-Pop. (1880), 6, 790.-Assessed valuation {188S), $1,042 495.-0ounty seat, Jasper. The county lies between the Suwannee River on. the west, and one of its main branches, the Alapaha.; on the south and east. The surface is generally l evel, with rolling land near the rhcrs, and a fine growth of hammock timber and pine and cypress in some portions. Sea Island or long staple cotton is successfully grown. In the rivers wamps and ham mocks the soil is rich and dark. T .he Florida Central & Peninsula Railroad runs through the middle of the county from north to south, and the Florida Central & Western Rail r oad passes close to the southwestern corner at Ella ville, Madison County. The county contains a number of remarkable springs, sinks, and other natural cmiosities.


' HAMILTON COUNTY-HERNANDO COUNTY. 33 The Gaine!lville Division, Savannah, Fl01ida & Western Railroad, crosses the county with stations as follows : 130 .... Dupont ......................... 49 I 189 . . Forrest". .. . .. . . . ......... 40 N D t. f 150 ... Statenville ... ........ ....... A Dt"st. fr. iS r. 1.. J "" 16 Savannab. "" .. " .. I Live Oak. v 16S ... Marion ................ ... ... 11 S 111 .... Suwannee (Suwannee Co.) ....... 8 179 ... Live Oak (Suwannee Co.) t ...... 0 Connects F. C. & P. Ry. running east to Jacksonville, and west to River Junction (see p. 91}. For cont'lnnation to Oaineeville, seep. 91. The Georgia Southern & Florida Railroad enters the county from 'oeorgia on the north" with stations as follows : Diet. fr. Macon, Ga. G "' 0 I 167 . elrosf (Ga.).. .. . .. . .. ... 43 NW Dtet. fr. v 180 .... : .................. ... 30 A Lake City SE 199 .... Whlte Spr:ings .................. ll I 1 Crosses S. 1\'. & W. Ry. E w l:' HAMILTON'COUNTV G Hernando County. I Are&, 600 sq. m.-Lat. zs 25' to zs 4Q' N.-Loug. 82' to sz 40' W.-Fopu!a tion (1890), 2,474.-Assessed valu11.tion (1888), $900,000.-coonty seat, Brooks vllle. Until 1850 this county, then three times its present s ize, was named Benton, after the Hon. Thomas H. Benton, of 3


34 HERNANDO COUNTY. North Carolina, a popular of the day. The pres ent name was chosen when the original county was subdi vided in 1875. BroolJ:svill e the county town, lies in the midst of one of the finest agricultural regions of the State. The sul'face soil is largely a 1ich vegetable mould, underlaid with brown sa.ndy loam several feet deep,_ and resting upon a substratum of limestone, clay, or marl. In area the land is about equally dividetl into hammock, high pine, low pine, and swamp. The hammock lands are almost invariably high and rolling, C I T ANDOCO 23 p 0 with fine natural drAinage, and an exceedingly rich soil un derlaid with sand or clay, and having a substratum of limestone. All these lands, except the very poorest, are ex tremely productive, yielding cotton, tobacco, vegetables, and the field crops: In the central and-western parts of the county tbe 1idges rise to a height of some three hundred feet above tide-water. There are no navigable rivers, and the Gulf coast can be approached only by boats of very light d raught, save at Gulf Key 01Hammock Creek, where there is a good harbor accessible for vessels drawing six feet of water. Indian Creek, in the same harbor, is also a safe anchorage for small vessels. Elsewhere approaches to tl1e coast are shallow, with numerous oyster-beds, and an archipelago of small barren islands in the northern part .


HERNANDO COUNTY 35 The Florida Southern (J., T. & K, W. system), the South Florida, the Florida Central and the Orange Belt raihoads cross the ea s tern part of the county, and a branch of the first named penetrates to Biooksville in the middle of the count.y. Stations of the Southern wi thin and adjacent to the county are : Die t. fr. I 63 .. Pemberton Ferry I ........... 11 W Dist. fr. Ocala V 69. Couper .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 5 A Br!ks-. E 74 .... Brooksville . . . . .. : . .. ... 0 I VIlle Connects with South Florida Railroad (see be! ow). ]'or conti n uati o n of this line to Ocala, s ee p. 87 The Bartow Branch of the South Flo1ida Railroad has stations within and next to the county as follows : Dist. f r. Pemberton Ferry. v s 0 .... Pemberton Ferry L (SUmter. Co.) . 57 N 1 .... F itzgerald ....................... 56 A s .. Or i o le ........... ......... ... 54 [ 6 .... Bay City .... .......... . ........ 51 lO .... ?.lacon (Pa.sco Co.) ............... 47 J 11 .... Orange Belt Jc. 2 .............. : .48 Dist. fr. Bartow. 1 Connects with J., T. & K. W. system (see ab ove). Crosses Orang e Belt RaHway (see below). For continuation o f thi s line, see p:a The Tampa Branch of the F. C. & P. Co. crosses the east ern point of the county from nort h to south. The stations are: Di e t. fr. I 22 .... ........ . . ...... ?9 A Diet. fr. Wild-26 .. Lac oochee . .. . . . . .. ..... 32 1 Plant Wood . v SO ... Owensboro ........ ............ 31 City. 1 Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see below). 2 Crosses Soutli Florida Railroad (see P 76). eee p. 76. For con ti nnation of th:S line, : . The Orange Belt Railway crosses the eastern point of the county from northeast to southwest. Stati ons are : .. Diet. fr. I 66 ... Wyomin g i ......... : .... : . . NE D ie t. f r Monroe V 71. ... La cooche e .......... ...... ...... A St. P ete rs. SW 7U .... l'tl acon .......................... 75 1 burg. 1 Cro!l8es F. C. & P. Ry. (s ee above). 2 South F l orida Ralhoad (see above). For c ontinuation -of this line, see pp. 74 aJrd 87.


36 HILLS BOROUGH COUNT Y . Hillsborough County. Area, 1,800 sq. m .-Lat. 21 2()1 to 28 50' N.Long 8 2 to 82 5()1 W.-Popu lation (1890), 14,810.-Pop. (1680), 5,814.-Aeseesed valuation (1688), $ll,200,000. -County seat, Tampa. . This county, or the region adjac ent, ear l y received its name a f ter the Earl o f H illsb9rough, Secreta r y o f State for the k coloni es o f G1eat Brit ain during the A merican R evolution 4 The county was organized in 18 35. It i s mainly in t he l ong leaf pine region, natura lly all woodl a nd, w ith 1,1 85 squar e miles of rolling pine land 75 squar e miles of ma rshy low l and, o.nd 40 squar e miles of hammock. Of all the Gulf Hillsborough i s perhaps the most favo1ed i n her coast line, which exceed s 150 miles in leng th, although from north t o south the county i s only 36 miles wide. This is d ue to T ampa B ay, which wit h its branches, Hillsborough .Bay and Ri'ver and Old Tampa B ay pene t rat es far into the interior Abo u t one quarte r of the wh o l e exten t of is low an d mat:shy, whil e the 1 es t rises quite abruptly from the water's odge, often with bluffs and a borde r of fine beac h. The greater part of th. e county is good pine land, with a fair amount of ham m ock and som e open pl'll.irie. The better la nds agri cul tural purposes lie in the western part. Tampa B ay w as one of the first discovered and u se d by the early navi g ators, and it is almost certain that traders and f ree booters visit e d its waters prior to H ern ando D e Soto, who anc hored there on May 25, 1539, w ith a fleet of seveml ves se ls, and a force o f 5 70 men, compri sing the very fi owel' of S panish chivalry. H e brought with him, also 2'23 horses, and the whole e laborate e q uipmen t of armo r ers smi ths, an d se r v ants essential to the needs o f s u c h a fo r ce. The Feast o f Pentecost of that year fell on the day of arrival, and the noble bay was named Bahia Espiritu Sancto ( B ay of the Holy Spilit), aft e r the devou t custom of t hese earl y expl orers. 'l'he Spanish n am e was for centuri e s retained o n the maps, but it appears t o have been dropped in favo r of the still older I ndian name so on after the E ng lish gaine d a footh o ld. On the shores of the bay an d along the coast and t h e outlyfng K eys are many Indian mounds o f grea t interest to


... (4) t\ t-4. "'.!' 0 l"l'j Wate1 1--j Cl 0 HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY b a;ettgF I I 0 5 10 c 2 0 0 :.: ..J 2 9


38 HILLSBOROUG H CDUNTY . archreologists. So m e accou n t of them is giv e n elsewhere with a sketch. of the results of such exp l ora t io n s as have thus far been prosecuted. S e e Index. Tampa Bay is navigable for v es s els of t h e largest class. The bar carries 20 feet of water at low tide, and good an chorage for yachts can be found almost anywhere within the bay. There are no dangerous obst ructions, and the only difficulty likely to be encountered i s in running upon the shoals which make out from the shore, and occasionally occur in mid channel. With a yach t properly co n s tructe d for ser vice in these waters running aground is a matter of small moment For hunters and fishermen the woods and wa t ers of H illsboro ugh County offer abundant sport. All the game and fishes peculiar to Florida may be found within a few of the centres of population . The South Florida Road, main line, has the follo\ving named stations near and within the county : Dlst. fr. Jackson ville. 83 ... Lakela n d (Po l k Co.) 1 ... .. 48 88 ... Shilo h .................. : ..... .43 E 93 .. Plant City. . . . . . ......... 31 A 98 .... Cork . .............. .. ..... ... 26 1 100 .... Sparkman ........ . ............ 24 i D i st. fr. l O S ... SCffne> . : ... .... ......... ....... 2 1 I Por t 105 ... Mango ............. ....... ....... H l Tampa. 109 .... 0rient ......................... 1 3 I V 11l' .... East Cove ....................... 1lt W 115 .... Tampa.. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 9 124 .... Port T ampa a ....... :. .. .. .. .. 0 1 Connects with Bartow & P e mberton Ferry Branches 8. F. Rd. (seep. 80). 2 Connects with F. R. & N. to Pasco County, Dade City etc. (seep. 76) s Connects with ocean steam ers to K ey West H ava n a, New O r leans, and Mobile Also with coastwise steamboats. The Orange Belt R oad, from Mol1'toe, Volusia Co u nty, to St. Petersburg, ente1s Hillsborough County f ron1 the noi'th near t h e Gulf and 1uns southw ard down the coast. The sta. iions in and near t h e county are : Diet. f r Monroe. 106 ... .'Od essa (Pasro Co.) ..... ...... .42 114 .. .. Tacony ............ : ......... .... 34 n 11. 6 .... Tarpon Spring s .................. 32 A 120.. Sea Side ....................... 28 122 .... Suther l and ............. ..... ... . 2G 123 .... Yellow Bluff (Ozonu) .......... 2iJ 127 .... Dun e din ....................... 21 130 ... Clearwater Harbor. . . . . .... 18 1S2 .... Armour ....... : ........... ..... 16 V 138 .... C r os s Bayou .................... 10 S 142 .... Lellman .. ....... .......... 6 148 .... St. Peter sburg .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 D is t fr. St. Peters burg. 1 Connects with ferry to Port Tampa nnd -coa s twise steamboats. .J


HOLMES COUNTY 39 Holmes County. Area, 040 sq. m,-Lat. SO<> 43' to 31 N.-Long. 86 6' to 85 30' W.-Popula tlon (18$0), 4.836.-Pop. {1880), 2,190.-.Assessed valuation, $B39,954.-County seat. ,Cerro Gordo. The land in Holmes County is mainly a good quality of pine land, which produce s cotton,, corn, and t-obacco, as t h e principal field crops. The soil is clay and sandy loam. Peaches, grapes, and plums are successfully grown, and stock-A r "'I (J I C1lr)"V111t W A S H I N G T 0 N HOLMES COUNTY SCI\lE OF Mtt.:6 WALTON 0 10 mising is among the }H'ofitable industries. The Choctawhatr chee Rive r is the principal watercourse, finding its source in Southern Alabama, running in a southerly direction across the county, and falling into Choctawhatchee Bay. It is navi gable for steamboats beyond the county line, and is. available fo r logging purposes and small boats well up into Alabama. Holmes County is undetlaid with c:J.vernons white lime stone, which frequently forms remarkable "sinks'' and wells. Most of the lakes and ponds are of this nature, often occw l'ing on l'idges where there was a sufficient quantity of sand and dl1ft to fill in the cavity when the subsidence occurred.


40 HOLME S COUNTY-JACKSON COUNTY. The Pensacola & Atlantic Division of the L ouisville & Nashville Railroad crosses Holmes County east and west near the southern b01der. Stations in and near_the county are as follows: Di8t. fr. Riv erJc. v w 4 3 .... Chipley ( WtUhi ngton Co.) ....... 118 58 ... Bonifay .......... .............. lOS E 61 ... C arvville. . . ...... ............ 100 A 5S .... WeStv ill e . . . . .. . . . . . . 98 I 70 ... Ponce de Leon. . . .. .. . . . . 91 77 .. .. Arlrf l e . ... . . . . . . . . . 1M 81 .... De'l'nniak Sp ...... ............ 80 For continua tion eaat and west., eee p 101. Jackson County. Diet. !r. Pensacola. Area. 1,000 eq. m.-Lat. so So' to a1 N.-Long 50' to so 40' W.-Populal.ion (1890} 17 4 92. P'!J>. (1888}, 14 ,372.-Ae eeseed valuation (1888), $ 1,029,985. -county seat, Marianna. This county is in what is terme d the oak, hickory, and pine upland 1egion. .It contain s about 1 5 0 square miles o f te d lime lands, square miles of oak, hickory, and high pine, and 4 50 square miles of ordinaty long-l ea f pine lands. It is named aft e r Gen. Andrew J acltson, military Governor of Florida. and is one o f the original counties o rganized on the acquisition of the Territor y by the United States. It is on the eastern borde r of what is known ns West Florida. The Chattahoochee River separates i t froUJ Georgia. on the east, for rive r steamers for the whole distance The Chattahoochee unites with the Apalachicola R iver near the southeastern corn e r of the c ounty. Along the river i s a strip of bottom land from one and o nehalf to two miles wide, w h ich: i s of ex t n ordinary richness, b u t is subject to o ver fl ow. The Chipola River, rising in the northern part of the county, runs sout h, dividing it n early in half. This stream is .used for floating lumber to the railroad and to the Gulf, but is navigable only for small boats. Along the Obipola R i ver are rich hammock lands c over e d witl\ a heavy" growth of hard wood timber, as oalt, b e ach, magnolia., mapl e, hickory, 'll.nd bay The county is well watered b y the tribu, t aries of the stream s mentioned besides well supplied with lakes and springs. The soil is for the most part red


JACKSON COUNT:f. clay and sandy loam, and produces cotton, corn, oats, rice, sugar-cane, and tobacco, and all save the strictly subtropical fruits. The Pensacola & Atlantic Railroad crosses the county from A WASHINGTON A JACKSON COUNTY U N N east to west in its middle helt of townships, having stations near and within the county as follows: I o ... Rlver Jc. I (Gadsden. Co.) .. ..... 161 E 5 .. .. Sneads ......... ............... 15G A .Dtst. fr. 15 ... Cypress ......................... 146 Dlat. fr. River Jc. v 25 .... ....................... 136 Pensacola. w 84 ... .. .. ,. ....... ; ......... 127 44 .. Cb1pley (Wa,htngton. Co.) ....... 117 Connects with Savannah, Florida & W eatern Railroad (see p. 32), and Chattahoochee River steamers o -


42 JEFFERSON COUNTY. Jetl'erso n County . Area, 6GO sq. m.-Lat. SO" to 80 40 N.-Long. 83 35' to 84 li' W.-Popnla.. tion ( 1890), 15,699 .-Pop. (1880); 16,065.-Assessed valUAtio n (1888), $1,800 ,000 ...:.County seat, :MonticeUo. J efferson County str etc hes across portion o f the State known as Florida, touching G eo rgia o n the north G --:..!JTR:_: .. ,.r.:_ _ .fi. L z 0 3 l ... .. I I 8 2 0 R JEI<'F.ERSON COUNTY SCAL"E MILES be 1 r J 0 5 10


JEil'FERSON COUNTY-LAFAYETTE COUNTY. 48 and the Gulf of Mexico on the south. The Aucilla River, navigable for steamboats to the natural bridge, forms the boundary. The face of the country is unusually diversified, the \vhole of the northern part hilly and well wooded, Micosukee Lake forming its northwestern boundary. 'rhis lake is about twelve miles loug and six miles wide at its western end, a curiously h-regula1 body of watei, surrounded by exte11sive forests of pine. 'rhe soil is generally a sandy loam underlaid with clay, well adapted for :the cul tivation of early vegetables aud fruits. The field crops are mainly cot Lon, corn, rice, sugar-cane, and tobacco. About twenty miles from the coast the hills abruptly disappear, and from this point to the Gulf stretch the "flat woods" almost unbroken, but full of game, and affording an inviting field to the sportsman. The Western Division of the F. C. & P. crosses the county about twelve miles from the Georgia line. Its stations within and nearest to the county are : Dlst. fr. Talla hassee. I 12 .... Cbaires (Leon Co.).. ...... .... 153 W 18 .... Ll<:>yd., ......................... 147 A Dlst. fr. I 27 .... D r 1fton1 ........................ lSS Jackson-V 34 ... .......................... 131 vOle. E 41 .... Greenville Oo.) ...... 124 \ Connects with Mauch to :Montic ello, four mile$, and then with branch of Savaimab, Florida & Railroad to Sunny Hill, twelve m iles, a:.

lJAFAYET'rE COUNTY-LAKE COUNTY. 4:5 Ceda1 -Keys, the Gulf tern:rinns of the Florida Central & Peninsular Railway. The Gulf coast of Lafayette County is very shallow, and destitute of harbors, save at the mouth of the Suwannee and. Steinhatchee Rivers, where small vessels may find shelter and anchorage. The fishing is excellent in the rivers and along the coast. Gam e of a1l1dnds is very abundant in the heavily wooded and sparsely populated 1egion that covers the whole county a few miles back from the river. Lake County. Area, 1.100 sq. 28 20' to 2s 55' N.-Loog. 81 15' to 81 55' w. Population (1890), 8,020. Organized in 1887, no census.-Assessed valuation (1888), $3,724,116.-Higheat elevation, 600 ft.-()ounty seat, Tavares Lake Coun ty was formed in 1887 by an act of tl1e State Legislature uniting portions of the adjoining counties (Orange and Sumter). It is among the most beautiful of the inland counties, owing to the picturesque groups of lakes from which it taltes its name, and which cover nearly one sixth of its surface. The larger mem bel's of the group are known Lakes Harris, Eustis, Griffin, Dunham, Dora, Yale, Mi nnehaha 1\:lineola, and Apopka the last named partly within the borders of Orange County. Besides these there are small lakes, almost without num l>er, and abundant flowing streams. That the county is nearly on the "divide" of the Floridian Peninsula is evident from the fact that streams flowing through its territory find their way to the ocean through the three widely divergent channels of the St. John's, the Withlacoochee, and the Kissimmee; the first named falling into tlte Atlantic near the northern boundary of the S tate, while the others reach the Gulf of 1\:fexico, through Lake Okeec hobee and the Everglades. In point of fact, the highest elevations in the State, nearly five hundre d feet above tide-water; are found in this county. The approaches, Jwwever, are so gradual that only the surve yor's level can demonstrate the constant rise. The larger lakes are all navi gable for small steamers, and as some of them are connected


:23 "' p LAKE COUNTY e qF 1 ,.1"4 0 6 10 R 0 N 1 6 1'1 0 L K 0 s c It L U S I A G E


LAKE COUNTY. 47 by natural or artificial wat e rways quite an extensive and aried system of navigation e xi s ts. The Jacksonville, & Key West R ni lway system, through the Florida Southern Railway Company, affords abundant transportation facili t ies, and there are b e s ides the Tavares, A t lantic & Gulf, and the Orange Belt Raihva ys These lines int ersect in all directions, skirting tho lake shores and rendering all parts of the coun t y easily acc e ssible. Other branch ro a d s contemplated, notwithstandin g t h e multiplicity, for Lake County is one of the rich e s t oran ge growing counties in the S tate and it has heen abundantly proven that, to be profitable an orange grove must be .within a very few miles of a railroad. The. St. John's & Lake .Eustis Division of the Florida Southern Railway (J., T. & K. W. system) enters the county at Astor (forty-two mil e s from Palat ka) after crossing the St. John's River. The stations are : 0 .. .. Astor .......................... 25 4 .... D ryansville ...................... 21 N 6 .... C ummings ................... .. .. 19 11 7 .... Se ll ar's Lake ..................... 18 12 .... Summit .............. ............ 13 15 .... Ravenswood ..................... 10 16 .... Pittman ......................... 9 Dist. fr. Astor. Di e t. fr. Fort:Maw n 18 .... Altoona . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7 v 20 .. ;. Glendale ....... ........ ......... 5 S 21.. .. Umatilla .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 4 25 .... F ort Mawn .... ................. 0 1 Connects with branches to Tavares and Leesburg (see below). . Connections with the foregoing at Fort Mason (sixty-seven miles from Palatka). This line is U-sbaped, curving around the north shore of Lake Eustis The stations are : 0 .... Leesburg 1 ....................... 23 1. ... Orandvi e w. . .................. 22 NE 2 ... Belle'reva .................. . ... 21 & 5 .... Lanlers .. . .. . ................ 18 SW 6 .... Tilson ........................ .. 17 11 7 . Be n d ........ ...... ....... 16 8 ... LisbOn ............................ 15 Dlst fr. Diet. fr. 10 .... Lancaeter ... ..................... 12 11 .... Grand leland ................... 11 Leesburg. Lane Park. v 14 ... Fort Mason . . .. . . . .. . . .. 9 NE l 6 .... Eustis ........................ 7 & 17 .. .. lilt. Homer ... .. ................. 6 SW 20 .... Tavares 3 .. : .................... 3 23 ... Lane Park.. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 1 Con n ect s with J., T. & K. W svetem to Pemberton Ferry, etc ., and t o i>cala, etc. (see i> 48). Also with F. C. & P .. Southern Division (see p. 48). 2 Connects with J., T. & K. W. branch to Astor (see above ) with J., T. & K W. branch to Sanf ord (seep. 48).


48 LAKE COUN'rY. The main line Florida Southern R.ailway (J., T. & R. W system), from Oc ala, Marion County, aud beyond, has st!l.timts within and near the county as follows : 2l .... Soutb LakeWeir(Marim Co.) .... 53 24 .... Conant ........................... 50 N u .... Lady Lake ....................... 48 A 29 .... Chetwynd .. ................ : .415 I SO .... Fruitland Park ................. 44 34 .... burg 1 ....................... 40 36 .... Corleys .......................... 38 I 3S .... Helena .. : ........................ 36 v 39 .. .. 0kaht+m.Pka .................... 35 S 44 .... Cason s ........................ 30 48 .. .. Centre Bill (Sumwr Co.) ......... 26 Di st. fr. Ocala.. Dist. fr. Brooksville. 1 Connects with J,, T. & K. W. to Fort Mason (see p. 47); F. C. & P to Wildwood (see below) ; and Lake Gri1!1n steamboats. For continuation of this line. see p. 63. The Sanford & L ake Eustis Railway (J., T. & K. W. sys tem), from Sanford to Tavar es, has the following stations near and within the county : 8 .... Markham .. ...................... 21 E Sanford. v 11 .... Ethel ".. .. .. " .............. 18 16 .... Wayland ......................... 13 A Dlst. fr. w 19. .. Sorrent o ........ .' .......... ...... 10 24 ... Mt. J)Qra. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1> 29 .... Tavares. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. n Tavares. The Southern D ivision F C. & P. enters the county ftpm Sumter Count y on the west. The stations . adjacent to and within the coun ty are : Diet. fr. Wildwood. I G .... Bamboo (Sumter Co.). ... .. .... 17 N V 9 .... Mon tclair ........................ 13 11 11 .... Leesburg ...................... 11 1 14 .... Sadie ........................... 8 8 15 .... Eldorado ........................ 7 22 .... Tavares2 ........................ 0 Connects with J . T. & K W. sy.,tem (Eee p 47) Connect s w ith J., T. & K. W system (seep. 47). Dlst. fr. Tavares. The Tava l'es, Orlando & Atlantic Railroad has stations as f ollows within .and adjac en t to the c ounty : Dist. fr, Tavares. I o .. Tavares ....................... 32 N 4 .... Ellsworth .. .. .................... 28 11 V S .... V ictori a ............ : ............ 24 8 10 .... Galnsboro ( Co.) .......... 22 D ts t fr. O rlando. Connects with J., T. & K W. system (see p. 47), and F. c. & :P. (see above).


LAKE COUNTY-LEE COUNTY. 49 The Tavares, Apopka & Gulf Railroad has stations as fol lows: 0 .... Tavares 1 ... 29 8 .... Ellsworth . . .................. 25 N D iet. fr. Tavares. 8 .... Astatula ......................... 20 A 15 .... West Apopka . . . .......... 14 Diet. fr. 20 .... 1\lontv&de ....................... 9 Clermont. V 2S .... WnttsJc ........................ 6 S 27 .. .. Mineola.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 29 .... Clermont.. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. 0 Connects with J .. T. & K : W.; Tav .. Or. & Atlantic; and F. C. k P. { see The Ora nge Belt Railroad from St .I>etersbUl'g, on T ampa Bay, to Monroe, Orange County, has station s near to and . within the county as follows :. Dist. fr. St. Petersburg. 92 .... Cedar Hammock (Sumter Co.) ... 57 1!8 .... Mascotte ........................ 51 W 102 .... Sheridnn ...................... .47 A lOT .... Cltirmont 1 ..................... .42 I V 109 .... '}[ineola .......................... 40 E 110 .... 1\lohawk ..................... 89 116 .... Killarney {Orange Co.) ........... 33 Dlst. fr. Monroe. 1 Connects with Tavares, Apopka k Gulf Railroad (see above). Lee County. Area, 1,800 sq. m.-Lat. 25 50' to u 118' N.-Long. st 40' to 82 5' w. -Population (1890), 1,41!1.-AsseSsed valuation (1888), $815,884..-County seat, M yel!! Lee County was formed by act of Legislature in 1887 out of Monroe County. By a popular vote of the inha.bitants it was named after General Robert E. L ee the Confeder ate l eade r. Like the countie s of Dade on the east, De Soto on the nor th, and Monro e on the south, it still is a wilderness, mainl y forest, but opening toward the west into the vast lev e l savannas and everglades borqering upon Lake Okeechobee. The fact that until 1887 the county seat (Key West) was one hundred and e ighty-five miles from the north ern limit of the county gives an idea of '' magnificent distances" of this region. F ort My ers, or Myers as it i s no w called, is t.he present county seat. There are as yet no railroads in this county, the nearest terminus being at Punta Gorda, about nine miles north of the. boundary lin e. Access from that point is easy by means


50 LEE COUNTY of steamboats which run down the coast to Naples, and up the Caloosahatchee River. The Gulf coast is well provided with harbors in San Carlos nay, Chal"lotte Harbor, and Ostego Bay. uJ .. 0 0:: z ... 0 01; 0 ::;;. o 10 1-0 TP.e Caloosah'atchee Rive1 is the most important of the watercourses, finding its source in Lake Okeechobeo a.ncl flowing in a southwesterly direction to the Gulf. For twentythree miles fl'O!D . the mouth it. averages more than a mile in width and is navigable for vessels drawing about seven feet. Above this point it narrows, to about one hundred and


LEE COUNTYLEO N COUN TY. 51 seventy-five f eet, becomes d ee p e r, with banks sometimes ten to twenty f ee t high and clothed with a dense growth o f virgin forest. The Disston Land Company has strai g h tene d deepened th e channels conn ectin g with the great lake, so that now small steamers can go through to and fro m the Kiss immee R iver, crossing L ake Okeechobee. The county in general is flat and low, averaging some thirty feet above tide-water. T he soil is well adapted to vegetable s, oranges pineappl es, sugar -cane, and all the t rop ical fruits. The lands bordering the Upper Cal oosah at chee are largely v ege table mould, sever al feet in depth, and even in the pine lands muck-pond s are found at short inter vals, affmding valuable manure. C ons iderable quantities o f egg-plants and tom atoes are shipped to the North in J anmi1-y and F ebru ary, and the strawberry, which ri pens h.ere in, Jan uary, is already an impo rtant Cl'Op. Stock rai sing is the most important interest of L ee C ount y, and from Punta Rassa, at the mouth o f the Caloosahat c hee, the annual shipments to Cuba numbe r about 10, 000 head. Leon County. Area, 900 sq. m .-Lat. SOO 15' to 300 41' N.-Lon g 84 to 84" 051 W.-Popul a tion (1890), 17,785.-Pop. (1880) 19,662.-Aeseesed valuation (1888), $2,006,413 -Elevation, 250 feet, ncar Talla.ha.ssee.-Connty seat, Tallaha.esee. Leon County is one of the old es t and most prosperou s in the State. T o the stranger approaching from the generally l evel country t o the eastward it presents a pleasin g variety of landscape, with its wooded hills and picturesque valleys its hard c l ay r oads, i ts gl'Oves of magnolia and live-o ak, and the extensive plantations o f c otton, sugar-cane, t obacco, and grain. Pears, peaches and grapes aL e profitable crops a rid easily cultiva ted. The soil i s clay and sand, the san d predominating in what are known as gray hammock. s w hile in the rich lands or "veritable h ammocks," as they are lo cal ly termed, red c lay predominates and form s a p ermanently rich and practically inexhaustible soil, suitable f o r alm os t all agricultural pur r


52 LEO N COUNTY. poses. B ene ath this, at a depth of eight or ten f eet, i s a bed of through which run subterranea n rivers, and in whi ch are formed the remarkable "sinks" tl1at are among the natural curiosities of the tegion. As a grazin g count ry L eon County is noted all ove1 this part of the State. 'rhere are several kinds of native grass, which gl'OW with great luxurian ce, and a1e apparently quite as good for dairy stock as any of the standard Northern grasses A mo n g these w I( u I. A .., are the B ermuda grass, "crab "mow's f oot," and beggar weed." The last named is a l eguminous plant which springs up without seeding on almost all cultivated land, after the usual marke t crop has been harv ested. It possesses e xcellent fattening qualities, and if not used f or vastu ra ge forms a f erti lizing crop which returns to the sur face soil an abundant supply o f excellen t manme. The other k i nds of grass make good hay when harvested and cured. All kinds of live stock eat them w ith avidity, an d thrive as well a.s o,n the Northern var ieties


LEON COUNTY. 53 During the existence of negro s lavery, Leon County was mainly occupi e d by large planters, whose estates covered : thousands of acres, and whose wealth enable d them to live in trne batonial style. Their crops of cotton and tobacco were hauled to the St. 1\'Iark's River and shipped thence to the markets o f the world. 'l'allaha ssee, the capital of t h e State and the county seat, was the social centre of this life still retains many o f i ts former chal"acteristics. The great plantations are no\V largely subdivided an d sold 01 let to small tenant s, and the productive energies of the connty are adjusting themselves to new order of things. There are sereral large lakes within the borders of the county, all of which afford excellent sport for the fishe1man, and to the southward, :within easy reach is an almost un broken wilderness, reaching to the Gulf of Mexi co, where t here is an abundance of game. The eastern part of the county is drained by the St. Mark's River (see p.' 98) and the western part by the Ocklock onee Neither of these streams is navigable within the limits of Leon County. The Westem Division F. C. & P. crosses the count y from east to west, with station s in and near the county as follows : I 1 4 T ... Lloyds (Jejferwn Co.) .... ....... 6! E D tst. fr. 16S .... Chaires. .... : .................... 55. A Diet. fr. Jacksonv 165 .... Tallahassee ............... .... 43 1 Rive r :rc ville. W 1 7 4 .... Ocklockonee .................... 34 1 177 .... M i dway Co.) ........... 31 1 Conneets with St. Mark's Branch F. R. & N. (see below). For continua tlon eust !lee p. 4S ; weRt, see p. S2. The St. 1\fark's Branch F. C. & P squth from Tallahassee. . Stations al'e : n t fr I 0 .... Tallabas@ee ................... 21 N f':illa.' I 4.. .. Belai r ............................ 17 A DM. fr. hasWJ v 16 .... Waku lla (Wakulla Co.) ........... IS 1 St. Mark's. S 2l .... st.Mark's(WakttllaCo.) ......... o I 'Conne cts with Western Division F. c & P. (see above).


54 LEVY COUNTY . Levy County Area, 940 sq. m. Lat. 29 to 29 S5' N.-Long. 82 22' to 83 IY W.-Popnla tion (1890), 6 ,575.-Registered vote, 1,540.-Pop. (1880), valna t!on (1888), $1,101,369.-Elevation, 120ft., near :Sroneon.-Connty seat. Bronson. Levy County was organized in 1850, and named after a leading politician of that day, who soon afterward changed .. A l A LEVY .... oGor e his name to Yulee. He was a senator of the United States and prominent in the movement for secession. A large proportion of the land in Levy County is undulat ing pine with a sandy soil more or less mixed with l oam and underlaid with limestone. It is well adapted for the cultivation of fmits and vegetables. The whole county


LEVY COUNTY-LIBERTY COUNTY. 55 i s well within the latitude adapted for orange culture. The Suwannee River fotms the northwestern boundary, and is navigable for river steamere, as is the Withlacoochee, which forms the southeastern boundary. Midway between these two is the Wacassassa River, navigable for small and penetrating what is known as the Gulf Hammock, a rich, fertile tract capable of producing all the farm crops in great abundance. The coast is well provided with harbors for small craft, and at Cedar Key vessels of considerable size can find shelter and secure anchorage. The best oysters on the Gulf Coast are found in this vicin ity and are shipped in la1ge quantities to other parts of the . State. The Cedar Key Division F. c: & P. enters the county from the northeast. Its stations near an:d the county are : Dist. fr. Waldo. 29 .... Archer (Alach-ua Co. ) ........... .41 NE as .... Bronson ........................ S2 A GO .... Otter Creek ...................... 20 1 ]),st. fr. v 51 .... Ellzey .. .. .. .. .. ............... 19 Cedar Key. SW 60 ... Rosewood ........................ 10 70 .... Cedar Key. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 Connects at Gainesville with J., T. & K. W. system, and with F. C. & P. (see pp. 4 and 5). Liberty County. Area, 800 sq. m.-Lat. so to SO" 40' N.-Long. 84 4ll' to 85 10' lation (1890) 1,499.-Pop. (1880), 1,862.-Asseseed valnation (1888), County seat, Bristol. Liberty County lies between the Apalachicola River on the west and the Ocklockonee River on the east. The land is for the most part second and third class pine, with a sandy soil underlaid with clay. Oranges are successfully cultivated, and the rivers and lakes abound with fish, but the principal industry is stock-'raising, for which the open pine-woods admirably suited. No railroads have as yet penetrated the county, but the Apalachicola River affords steamboat communication with the Gulf of 1\fexico and with the Flor ida Central & Peninsula RailLoad at River Junction. . Bristol, the county seat, has a population of about three


56 hundred S()Uls. of small lakes z 0 LIBERTY COUNTY. In the miudle of the county are a numbe1 from one to five miles in length. Taluga JAC-1(60N F --7 ( 2 ., ......... RoCkBI N G K 0 .. .. ----c L l LIBERTY COUNTY River, a tributary of tl1e Ocklockonee, and New River, flo wing directly t o the Gulf of Mexico, d1ain the central portion of the county.


MADISON COUNTY. 57 Madison County. Area, 650, sq. m.-Lat. soo 12' to so SS' N.-Long. sa 10' to 83" 50' W -: Popnlation (1890), 14.288.-Pop. (1880), 14,798.-Assessed valuation (1888), 500,100.---County seat. Madison. The eastern half of Madison County is mainly pine land, the western is largely hammock of good quality. The natural division between these two tracts runs irregularly 0 Cl) E 0 T A Y L l\lADISON.COUN1,'Y I 0 SCA!..E OF MILES sz j ,.,., I I 10 LA FAYETT w z north and south. A clay subsoil underlies the whole r e gion, farther below the surface among the pines than among the hammocks In both divisions the soil is productive and so well adapted to the cultivation of Sea Island cotton that one of the largest manufacturing houses in the world has estab lished a fac t ory at Madison, the county seat. It is claimed that nearly one-twelfth of the entil'e long staple cotton crop of the world is grown in Madison County. The climate can hardly be considered semi-tropical, but the Gulf of l\fexic(}


58 MADISON COUN'I'Y. js near enough to prevent destructiv e hosts, the nights are generally cool, and the temperature i'll.iely rises above ninety degrees in summer, and the health of the settled portions of the county is exceptionally good Figs and gmpes aro among the most prolific of the f1uit crops. Fig-trees grow without cultivation, reaching in a few years a height of fifte e n to twenty and beltring abundantly. Grapes are l'aised in large quantities, includin g the native scuppernong, and foreign varieties, including the black Hamburg, and tho wine-producing industry has alcn.dy reached respectable pro portions. Le Conte pears have b een introduced within a few years, and with peaches can be ripened for the NOL-thetn markets long before similal' fruits come to perfec t ion in highetlatitudes. The Suwannee and Aucilla R ivers wi t h their tributaries dmin the county, affording abumlant water and numerous mill-sites. In the extremo southern portion, and extending into the neighboring counties of Taylor and Lafayette, is a great swamp, known as San Pedro Bay. It has never b een explored beyond a short distanc e along the edges. The whole ti:act, save occasional ridges o.nd i s lands, is under water, and four considerable streams flow outward in dift'erent direc tions. These are the Fin holloway and the Econfenee on we st, and the Spring Warrior and Steinhatchee on the east. The" bay" is a noted retreat for larg e game, including deer, bear, panthers, and wolves. It. is no trifl ing matter to hunt in this region, but with competent guides good sport may be anticipated. The Western Division F. C. & P. bisects the county, crossing it from east to we st, with stations at: Dist. fr. Jackson ville 94 .... Bncki Jc. (Suwannee Co.) ..... 113 I 95 .... Ellaville ....................... 112 E 103 ... Lees ........................... 104 11 1 101>. ... West ............ .. 102 I v 110 .... Madison ................... .... 97 W 124 .... Greenville ... ................... 83 131. .. Ancilla Co.) ... ....... 76 Dist. fr. River Jc. For continuation east to Jacksonville, seep. 91; west to TallahasseC, Pensacola, etc., see p. 43.


MANATEl!l CO UNTY. 59 Manatee County Area, 1 ,330 sq. m.-Lat. 1!6 56' to 2P S S' N.-L o ng. 8 2 to 82 50 W.-Popu lation (1890), 2 ,899.-Pop. (1839}, 3,544.-A s scsse d valuttt ion (1883), $1,21>T 922.40. -County scat, Manatee C o u n ty take s its name f rom the manatee, o r sea c ow, an animal form erly abundant a l ong the co asts of Flo r0 N 0 CO. SCALE OF N ILES 0 1 0 0 u 1-30 0 38 Q 3 9 ida, but now n early extinct (seep. 218). Lying mai nly be tween the tw en t yseventh and twenty-eighth parall e l s of latitude, it i s sem i-tropical in all its climatic char acteris tics, and b ein g on the co as t its range o f t empera t u re is s till further modifie d b y the e q u alizing i nfluenc e of the Gulf.


60 MANATEE COUN'rY. -Without prejudice to other sections it may be said that the county contains a greater area of strictly arable land than any other county south of the twenty-eighth parallel. There is a great variety of soil ranging from rich hammocks to worthless swamps, but the greater part is pine land capable of more or less successful cultivation according to loc ation. Some excellent farms have been opened in the flat woods, and crops can be grown out of doors the whole year round. The pra:irie lands, of which there are tens of thousands of acres, are believed to be productive, but at latest ad vices no considerable attempt has been made to cultivate them. The garden section of the county is along the Manatee Rivei, which is bordere d by some of the richest haJ;Umock land in the State, and smaller hammocks and '' bays exist all through the piney region. Early vegetables for the Northern markets are C"!Jltivated wi t h great success; The coast extends from Tampa Bay on the north to the headwaters of Charlotte Harbor on the south. It includes the mouth of the Manatee River and Sarasosta Bay with its outlying keys, and aff01ds an unsurpassed cruising-ground for pleasure craft suited to the navigation of tl1ese shallow waters. Fish, oysters, and turtle abound, the tarpon may be caught with the rod, and the devil-fish may be harpooned out in the Gulf. The keys are many of them quite high and well adapted for residence and the cultivation of the more tender sub-tropical fruits. The nearest railway connections are at Tampa, anll St. Petersbmg oi1 the north and Punta Gorda on the south, with which points there is constant communication by coasting steamers running t o the river towns on l\fanatee and Sara sosta Hay. T11e county is a great cattle range, with its principal ship ping point at Charlotte Ha1bo1 (see Route 81). The fishing is good in all the lakes and streams as well as along the coast, and deer are found within a few miles of any of the sett.Ie ments. The Manatee and the l\f yakka Rivers are navigable for small boats far up into the interior, and these afford the


MANATEE COUN'l'Y-MARION COUNTY. 61 easiest access to the best hunting-grounds, since camp equip age can be more easily carried by boat than by any other means of transportation Marion County. Area, 1,557 sq. m.-Lat. 28 55' to 29 SO' N.-Long. 81 S5' to 82 S2' W. Population (1890), 20,783.-Pop. (1880), 13,046 ....:.Asscssed valuation (1888), $4,-221:,200.-county seat, Ocala 1\Iarion County lies on the central ridge of the Florida. Peninsula, the natural drainage being toward the Atlantic on the east, and toward the Gulf of Mexico on the west. The extent from 1.1orth to scinth is thirty-eight miles, from east to west fifty-four miles; and it is one of the richest orange growing counties in the State, possessing besid e s some of tl1e most attractive natural scenery and many of the most popular winter resorts. The land is divided into the usual gndes of ha.mmocl>, first, second, and third class pine and sc111b, the last named, however, being confined almost wholly to the t ownships l ying east of the Ocklawahu. River, omitting, however, the bend of the stream from Moss Bluff to Eaton, where there are high rolling hills n.nd excellent soil. The rest of the county is very att1active, even to .one who sees it only from a passing train. The gently swelling hills clothed with open woods, a.ncl often carpeted with green grass, suggest, even in midwinter, some of .the most beautiful parts of the North. There is an almost total absence of the scrub palmetto, with which the traveller becomes so familia1 as the almost ever present undergrowth of the pine fo1ests, and while there are wide reaches of infedor pine baiTens, the general impression conveyed is of a naturally rich and productive country. The native growth of wild orange-trees suggested grafting to the first settlers, and the result has been some of the finest groves in the State, or even in the world. In 1889 valuable phos phate beds were discovered in the southwestel"ll of the county. Theil: extent is not definitely determined. (P. 302.) Of Yeritablo high hammock land it is estimated that MarioQ. County contains nearly one hundred thousand acres,


62 'MARlON COUNTY. covere d with a. rich and practically inexhaustible Tegetable mould. These lands were under cultivation by the aborig z "' -<( :J ... z ... :J: 0 y "'10-' <( ,\... J z <( 0 ina.l races long bef.ore Europeans came, and here the Sem ino l es made their most resolute stand against the United States forces during the war that resulted practically in their extermination or expulsion .


. MAn,ION COUNTY. 63 Orange Lake, Lake Weir, Lake Kerr, Lake B1'Yant, and countless smaller bodies of water are within the borders of the county, and Lake George, forming part of the St; .John's River, touches its eastern boundary. The Ockl awaha River nms across the county from south to north, navigable fo1 the entire distance. To this stream are tri.buta1'Y, Silver Spring Run, navigable to i t s source, and Orange Creek, the outlet of Orange Lake. The Withlacoochee River defines the southwestern boundary, with Blue Rive1;, a wonderfu1ly beau tiful "spring run" as a tributary. The main line of the Florida Southern R ailway (J., T & K. W. system) ente1s the county from Palatka, etc., on the north. The stations near and within the county are : Dist. fr. Palatka. 45 ... Micanop y Jc. (Alachua Co.) ... 101 47 ... Boardman .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 99 N 49 .... Mcintosh . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 97 11 52 .... L>chbie. . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. 94 55 .... Oak Lawn .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 91 57 .... Reddick .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 89 63 .... Martin .. .. .. . . . . . .. . ... 83 'TO .... F. c & P. Cross ing ..... ........ 76 72 .... Ocala 2, ......................... 74 82 .... Welshton : ......... ............. 64 86 .... Candler .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 61 88 .... O klawaha .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . . 58 V 89 ... Weir Park..................... 57 S 9S .... South Lake Weir.. . .. .. .. .. .. 63 96 .... Conant (Lake Co.) ............... 50 Diet. fr. :Brooksville 1 Branch east to Citra, 6 m. (see below). 2 Connects with Silver Spring, Ocala & Gulf Railway (see p. 64), and South ern Division F. C. & :e. (see below). For continuation sou th, see p. 48; north, see p. 4 . 1'he Southern Divi s ion F. C & P. crosses the outlet of Orange Lake f ro m Alachua County on the north. Its sta tions in and near Marion County are : 111. ... Citra t .. .. .............. 67 117. : . Sparrs ......................... 61 N 120 .... Anthony ........... ............. 58 11 124 .... Spring Park .. . . .. .. .. .... 54 1 1 26 .... Silver Spring Jc. 2 ... .......... 52 130 ... Ocala 3 .......................... 48 I v 141 .... Belleview .............. ......... 37 ,I S 146 .' ... Summerfield .................... 32 151 .... 0xford (Su'mter Co.) ........... 27 Dist. fr. Fernandina. 1 Branch west to Oak Lawn, 6 m.. (see above). Dist. fr. T avares. 2 Branch w est to Silver Spring, 1 m. Connects with .J., T. & R. W 11ystem (above); Silver Spriug, Ocala & Gulf Railway to Homosassa (see p. 64).


64 MARION COUNTY-MONROE COUNTY . The Silver Spring, Ocala & Gulf Railroad runs southwest from Ocala. Its stations in and near the county are : 0 .... ........ . . . . . . . . 48 8 .... Agnew ........................ 45 NE 8 ... 4 0 II Dlst fr Dist. fr. . Leroy .......................... Boma,.' Ocala. V ................ sa.ssa. SW 26 ... . .... : ..... ....... 22 84 .... Citronelle (CitM.t$ Co.) .......... 1.4 Connects With J., T. & K. W. system, and F. C. & P. (see p . 6S). Monroe County. Area, land and water, 2,600 sq. m.-Lo.t. 24 So' to 25 50' N.-Long. so 401 to 82 w.-Popnlatton (1890), 18,764.-AsseBBed valuation, $1,408,458;-County seat, Key West. The county as it exists is smaller than prior to 1 887, when the whole northern portion, now Lee (X>unty, was separated for convenienc e of administration. The popula tion prior to the division was 10,940 (1880). Nearly one-half of the present county is on the main pen insula of Florida, the most southerly portion of the territory . of the United States. The rest COJllprises the long line of keys and reefs that reach from Cape Florida on the east coast of the peninsula to K ey Wes t and the Dry in the Gulf of :Mexico, a distance of about one and forty miles. The peni nsula section is almost uninh abited, and has been only pattially surveyed, owing to the nature of the country, which has not yet' proved inviting to settlers, save bunters or fishermen .The and westem part of this tract is more or less availabl e as a cattle range but to ward the coast innumerab l e b ayous wfnd i n and out, forming a l abyrinth known as the Ten Thousan d Islands. This re gion has been partially mapped by the United States Coast Survey. It affords an attractive cruising -gr


MONROE COUNTY-NASSAU COUNTY. 65 sixth po.t-allels of latitude. Frost is unknown. within its bor ders, its is strictly tropica l and its climate milder than any other part of the Atla.ntic seaboar d. The keys (Spanish, cayo, island) are at once an aid and a menace to navigation. Th ey afford shelter to small craft, but the channels are so tortuous that they are extremely dan gerous for large vessels. Coral r eefs approach the surface at throughout a wide b elt of ocean. As soon as they are built up to within a few f ee t of the surface man groves take root and in a few years the foundation is f or a new island. Key West (seep. 323), iS the-only large city in the county, and theonly point to and fro m which there is at present any regular means of access. Railroads there o.te none, except tramways at Key West, the p oss ibility of a southern ter minus for a line down the eastern coast of the peninsula is in contemp l ation, Turtle Harbor being regarded as the most favorabl e locality. It has even been seriously suggeste d that a line carried on trestles frqm key to key is not beyond the resources of modern engineering Severallines of ocean steamers touch regularly at Key West, and there are mail packets once a "'eek thence to Biscayne B ay .and the intermediate K eys. Nassau County. Area, 600 sq. m.-Lat. 80'> Its' to so 461 N.-Long. 81 26' to 82" 5' w : Population (189()), 8,293.-Pop. (1880), G GS5.-Assessed valuation (1888), $2,-564,851 ..:...Highest elevation, 215 to 80 feet.-County seat, Fernandina. See p. 127. -Na ssau County, named by its early settlers afte1' William, Prince of Nassau, is the northeastern county of Fl01ida.. Its northern and western boundary is d e finecl by the 1\{aty's Rive1, separating it from Georgia, and navigable for steam b oats as faras.Trader's Hill, tbirtymiles from .tbe sea. The Nassau River, with its afflu en t, Thomas Creek, forms nearly the whole of its southern boun dary. The soil varies from the clays and marls of the river-l;lot t oms to sandy loam and sand near the coast and among the

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I" < ., 66 NASSAU COUN'rY. pines of the interior. The imme diate sea-coast i s formed by Amelia Island. It i s covered with calcareous sand .and is one of the island s where the fam ous long staple sea-island cotton originat ed. Similar soil is f ound along some of the sea-coast 1ivers ofte n in connection wit h what are kn own as 0 G I A 211 z "fresh marsh and blac k rush lands," which are con sidered ve1y valuable for gardening. Corn, cotton, and oats are the principal comm e rcial pro, uucts, and cady vegetables, strawberries, and mel on s are succ ess fully raised for the Nort hern markets. l \fany o f the se mi-tropic a l fruits ca n b e grown, but not wi t h sufficient certainty to make them pro fitable crop s. The Savannah Florida & Western R ailr oad, the main ave-

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NASSAU COUNTY. 6 7 nue of com merce b etween Florida and the North, enters the county at the northwestein: angl e, runnin g in a s ou theasterly direction tO Jacksonville, D uval, the adjacent county. Stations near and within the county a1 e : DlRt. fr. Way Or Oils. 1 v S W 35 .... Folkston ( .............. 41 40 .... Boulogne ......................... 36 NW 46 .... Hill iard .......................... 30 I\ 56 .... C allahan 1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... 20 ] 64 .... Din smore (Duval Oo.) ............ 12 76 .... Jackeo n vi!I e ( Duval Co.) ......... c D iet. fr. J nck sonviUe. Crosses F. R. & N., Southern Division (see below). Con n ec t s with J., r. & K. W. system F. C. & P. (see pp. 25 and 26) ; Jack. sonvJlle. )layport & Pablo Railway (see p. 26). Also with ocean steamers to the North, St. John's Riv e r steamboats. The Southem Division F . O. & P. t o O rlando) has the f ollo wing stati ons in and n ear the county : D !st. fr. Fer nandina v SW 0 .... Fernandina 1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .41 11 .... Hart's R oad J c ................. 36 19 .... I talia ......................... 28 27 .... Callahan .... .................... S2 .... C rawford ......................... 15 37 .. .. Dutton ........................... 10 41. ... Brandy Branch ..... .............. 6 41 .... Baldwm (Duval 9o.) .. .. .. .. .. o Connec ts with ocean ste amers. NE I\ Dlst. tr. Baldwin. Connects with J acksonville & Fernandina Branch F. R. & N. (see below). a Crosses S. F. & W Ry., Jacksonville Division (see above). Connects with Wes tern D ivision F. 0. &; P. (seep. 7). The J acksonvil l e and Fernandina D ivision F. 0. & P. runs n early from to Hart's R oad, thence east to Fernandina. Its stations are : Dlst. fr. Jack sonvil l e . I o5 .. .. .................... s .. .. ac .... onVl e .. c ................... I\ D' t fr v 1 5 .... Duval. ....................... .... 22 I N 27 .... Hart's Road .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... 10 37 .... F emnodlua 3.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 0 Connects with railroads and steamers out of Jacksonville (see pp. 2ll and 26). 2 Connects w ith South ern D ivision F. C. & P. (eee above). a Connects with ocean steamers.

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68 COUNTY. Oran ge Coy.nty. Area 1 250 sq. m. Lat. 2S 2 0' to 28 5!V N .-Lon g. so 50' to 81 40' W.-. P op ulation (1890), 12,579. -Pop ( 1880), 6,618. Assesse 0 0 E R sive groves i n the State. The bead wate r s o f the St. John's R iver form i ts boundary and a. group of lakes adds greatl y to the natural attractions of the r egion. L ake

PAGE 103

ORANGE COUNTY. 69 Apopka, lying mainly within the western boundary of the county, is second in size.only to Okeechobee, and Lakes :Monroe, Jessup, Harney, Butlex, Conway, 1\'Iaitland, and many otl)ers, range from a few acres up to thousands of acres in extent. Almost without exception the land rises from the watet in .gently rolling hills, securing immunity from mala1ial influences and affording unsurpassed sites for homes and for t he cultivation of the various crops. The face of the country is v.aried a.nd the soil corresponds. 'l.'here are high and low hammocks, high; m edium, and flat pine lands, bay-heads and savannahs, all of which are capable of different u ses for the agricultul'ist and ltorticultuti:;t. A partial list of the fruits that can be successfully and profitably grown in this county includes oranges, lemons, limes, grape-fruit, slladdock, citl'on, guava, pil1eapples, pomegranatel;!, Japanese plums, figs, etc. Rice, sugar-cane, cassava, strawbenies, plums, and e!uly vegetables are cultivated with success. The centlal and northwasterp townships are the most at tractive, and contain most of the population. Toward tho east and south there are few or no settlements and an almn dance of game during the winte1 months. The la.rger lakes ancl the St. John's River above Lake Monroe a1e navigable for launches and small craft, but there are at present no regular boats running above Sanford. The main line of the J., T. & K. W. system enters the county from the north, with. stations in and near Orange County as follows: Dist. fr. Jc. VI o .... Enterprise Jc.1 Oo.) ....... '( 4 .... 1\fonroe ....... : .. .. .. ......... s S T .... Sanford 3 ..................... ..... 0 N D:st fr. f Sanford 'Connects Indian River Branch J., T. & K. W. Byetem (seep. 91J. Connects Orange Belt Railroad (see p. TO). South Florida Railway (see p. TO); and S:tnford & Ind:au River Railway (see p. 71). For continuat:on of tbls l ine nonb, seep. 97; south. see below and p. TO The South Florida Railway, connecting with the J., T. . & K. W. system at a station used in common, has stations ll!! follows within a.nd near the countv :

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70 Diet. fr. Sanford. ORANGE COUN'rY. 0 .... Sanford 1 .. 124 3 .. .. Belair. . . . . . ............. 121 N 6 .... Lake Mary . . ... ,. . . . .... 119 A 10 ... LongwooclO ................. .... 114 13 .... Altamonte Spring. . .. ........ 111 15 .... lllaitlaod ....................... 109 18 .... Winter PaPk ..................... 106 22 .... Orlando 3 ...................... 102 v 21 .... Pine Cast! c ...... :.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 97 S 34 .. .. ll!cKinoon ...................... 90 40 . Kissimmee (Osceola Co.) ...... 64 Dist. fr. Port Tampa. 1 Connects J .. T. & K. W. system (p. G9). and Sanford & Indian River Rail way (p. 11). and St. John's River steamboats. 2 Connects Florida .Midland Railway (be! ow). s Connects Tnvru:es, .Orlando & Atlantic Railway. Connects Kissimmee River steamers. The Orange Belt Railroad, Monroe to Petersburg on Tampa Bay, has stations in and adjacent to the coun ty as follows: 0 .... Monroe 1 ........................ 149 2 .... Sylvan Lake ..................... 147 NE 4 ... Paola 1 ....................... 145 A Dist. fr. Monroe. 6 ... l$1and Lako ...................... 143 9 .... Glen Ethel. .. .. .. .............. 140 11 .... Groveland ...................... 138 12 .... Palm Springs 3 ....... ........... 1S7 -.... Grann
PAGE 105

ORANGE OOUNTY-OSCEOLA COUNTY. 71 . The Sanford & Indian River Railroad (S. F. Ry. system) 1s completed to Lake Chatm. The statio ns : Dlst. fr. Sanford. 0 .... Sanford ............ ............. 19 2 .... SpoorGrove ..................... 11 N a . .. FortReed ... ...... .............. l6 A 3.5 ... Oooro .......................... 15.51 4 .... Silver Lake ...................... 15 5 .... Rutledge ........................ 14 6 .: Lords ........................... IS 7 .... Clydoo... .. .. ................... 12 12 .... Clifton.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 v 14 ... .'l'nscawilla.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 8 19 .. .... .... ...... .. 0 Osceola County. Die-t. fr. Lake Charm. Area, 2,520 sq. tn.-Lat. 27 10' to zs 30' N.-Loog. so-OO' to Sl 31>' W.Popnlation (1890), 3,122.-.A.ssessed va!nat:on (1888), $1,6<;1,896.--County seat. m .ssim.mee. Osceola County, named after the famous Seminole Chief, was formed by act of the State Legislatme in 18 87, from parts of O range and Brevard Counties. A series of large lakes, Tohopekaliga, Cypress, Hatcheneka, and Kissimmee, connected by canals and natural channels, form the head. waters of the Kissimmee Ri>er, flowing southward to Lake Okeechobee, and thence through the Caloosahatchee River to the Gulf of 1\fexico. This whole system of inland water comses is na.Yiga.ble to Kissimmee at the head of the chain of lakes. The surface of the country is generally or slightly rolling, with vast tracts of rich, low-lying prairie land. The soil is especiaily adapted to the. cultiva.tion of v ege taLles which can be .brought to perfection, in ordinary: seasons in January and February. The latitude of the northern extremity of the county is 28 30', assuring almost entire freedom from frosts and an abun dance of grass for stock-n1.isiug during the whole year. A htrge number of cattle, sheep, and swine range the woods without shelter, and are rounded up" .at stated seasons, afford ing one of the most profitab l e industries of the county. Large quantities of suga1 -cane have been planted on the re cently reclaimed lands, with every prospect of a speedy and bountiful yield.

PAGE 106

72 OSCEOLA cOUNTY. The temperature at Kissimmee rarely rises above 90 in the summer, and the natural healthfulness of the l ocality 0 -, c.. < G E 29 f 30 -----D E S 0 T 0 OSCEOLA COUNTY 6CA L E OF M I LES b e i e 'fP 0 G 10 33 )> has been singularly confirmed b y the experience f the white w?rkmen .on the dredging machines of the Okeechobee drain

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OSCEOLA COUN'l'Y. 73 age company. Since 1&&1 these men have been employed without intermission, even in summer, and have enjoyed un interrupted health. Not a single deat h had up to March, 1889, and it had never been necessary to send for-a physician. As the work is ca.nied on in a region usually supposed to be highly malarial, this rec01d is certainly note-. worthy. Osceola County is s ettled only at its northern extremity. To the south of Lake 'fohopekaliga the wilde 1 ness is :tlmost unbroken. Game abounds, and a large part of the region is accessible in small boats by taking advantage of the Cl'eeks and numerous small lakes that abound throughout this 1e. gton. Within a few years past large drainage operations have been unde1taken unde r State patronage by the Okeechobee Drainage Company, which have reclaimed extensive tracts of land in Osceola County, and bid fair largely to increase the sugar product of the State. The South Florida Railway from Orange County on the north ctosses the northwest corner of the county with sta tions near and within t h e boundaries as follow : Dist. fr. I 34 .... McKinnon (Orange Co.) .......... 90 N 40 .... Kissimmee ....................... 84 11 v 44 .... Cam bells ........................ so 1 S 51 .... Davenport (Polk Co.) ............. 67 For continuation of this line north, see p. 70; south, see p. T9. Diet. fr. Port Tampa.

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74 PASCO CO UN'rY. Pasco County. Area, 1,700 sq. m.-Lat. 28 9' to 28 29' N .-Long. 82 to 82 45' W.-Popu Jation (1890), 4,'.149.-Aeseseed valuat ion (1888), $954,829.-County ijeat, Dac1e City. 'rhis county was f ormed in 1887 from the southern p1u-t of Hernando County. I n soil and climate it is among the most favol'ed of the Gulf counties, lying just above the twenty eighth pamllal of latitude and within the influence of the warm Gulf breezes For the most part the soil is natUl'ally of the better grade of pine lands, rmderlaid with clay, marl, o.nd limeston e. There are larg e areas of rich hammo ck, es pecially in the western townships, which send some of the most noteworthy exhibits to the annual fair at O cala. Cotton, oats, 1-ice, corn, and sngar-cane, are the stapler ... and all kinds of vegetables have been introduced withi n the past few years. The P ithlaschoscootee and Ancl ote .River s dr,nin the eastem part of the count y, and the Withl acoochee and Hillsbo1ough drain the w estern part. In some sections the land rises to the height of eighty or ninety feet above and the high hammocks are cover ed with a mag nificen t growth of hard wood. 'The hunting alld fishing aregood, but f o r l al'ge game it i s necessary t<> go ten Ol' twelve miles from the railroads,' and guides with camping outfits are indi..,pensable for stro.ngers. 'rhe Orange Belt R a ilwa y enters Hernando County on the north and crosses it southwest and northeast. The stations adjacent to and within tho county aro : Dist. fr. Momoe. v sw 66 .... Wyoming (Hernando Co.) ...... 83 71 .... Lacoochee I .. .. .. .. .. ...... :iS 78 .... M acon ......... .. . ........ 76 7 5 ... Leonard ........................ 74 7 8 .. .. Blunton ....................... 71 79 .... ChJpco .......................... 70 8 4 .... San Anton!o .. .. . .. .. .. ..... 65 8S .... Pasco .... ...................... 61 91 .. Big Cypress ..................... 58 98 .... Drexel .. .. .. . ............... 51 1 on ... Odessa . . . .. .. ............. 43 117 ... Sprlng s(Hillsbo rouoh Oo.)S2 'Croases Tampa Branch F. C. & P (seep. 76 ). Crosses J., T. & K. W. (see p 76) For continuation nortll. sec p. S> ; south, sec p. 88. NE A D!st. fr. St. P et ersbur:;;.

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,.. 0 \:l 0 0 l;;) ,_, PASC O C OUNTY BrookS"i lle OF o 5 10 H RNANDO I 1---rA .t. _._,.. ,--0 -1----.r" 24 .,. 0 Loyce Ft.T aylor g tf JUHe 1\ma A. r r I I rn I I :n

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76 PASCO COUNTY-POLK COUN'rY . The Tampa branch of the F C. & P enters from Hernando County on the north. Stations in and near the county are : Dist. fr. Wildwood. 22 . . Witblacoochee (Sumter Co.) .... 39 I 23 . . Lacoochee ..................... 33 N SO ... Owensboro ...................... 31 A v nG . . Dade City . .... ................. 25 1 S 44 ... Abbott ........................ 11 61. . Plant City (Hill8borough Co.) ...... 0 1 Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see p. 74). Crosses J., T. & K. W. (see be! ow}. fr. Plant City. For continuation north, see p 35. The Pemberton Feny Branch of the South Florida Rail way (J., T. & K. W. system) has stations within and near the county at : Dist. fr. Pemberton Ferry. G .... Bay City (Hernando Co.) ........ 51 10 .... Macon ............ : .. ... ........ .47 N 11 ... : Orange Belt Jc. 1 ................. 46 A 12 .... 0wensboro' .. : .................. 45 I D'tfr 16 .... Dade City ....................... .41 B:.iow: 22 .... Ellerslie .. .. .. .. .. . . .. ..... 35 V 23 .... Richland ...... .. ................. 34 S 32 .... Tedde rville.. .. .. .. ........... 25 87 .... Kathleen (Polk Co.) .............. 20 1 Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see p. 7 4). Crosses Tampa Branch F. C. & P ( s ee above). For continuatic:>n north, see p 35; south, seep. 80. Polk County. Area, 1,980 sq. m.-Lat. 27 35' to 28 10' N.-Long. 251 to 82 21 W.Populaj;ion (1890), 7,891 .:...Pop. (1880), S,181.-Assessed $3,500,000. County seat, Bartow. The county was formed in 1859, by net of the State legislatme, from portions of the large neighboring counties of Hillsborough, Orange, and Sumter, butits organization was interrupted by the Civil War, and not perfected in i ts pres ent shape until1874. It is named after James K. Polk, elev enth President _of the United S tates The twerit y -fifth par allel of latitude runs nearly through the middle o f the county It was settled mainly by cattle men, who had served i n the Indian wars and noted the naturl\]. advantages of the country. Its average elevation above the 'sea is estimated at 150 feet, and its greatest elevation, according to the levels run by the engineers of the South Florida Railroad, is 235 feet. Neady one-fifth of the surface is water, in lakes of every conceivable

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POLK COUNTY. size and sbaiJe, fl'Om Lake Kissimmee, eighteen miles long, down to litt.le pools too small to be shown on the map, but sometimes indicated by a dot. As a mle, these lakes are full of pure, clear water, and well stocked with fish. l\'los t of them are deep enough to deserve the nnme of lakes or ponds, but some are little better than savannahs. The lake region proper lies in the miudle of the countJ:". The north6UMTE.R POEKCO. Ml1#_!\ o 5 ro ern portion of this region is high rolling land, the bluffs rising sharply from the lake shores some times as much as six t y feet. 'l'h ese afford an endless number of excellent building dtes, with the. advantage, somewhat unusual in Florida, of a decided elevation. The land i s sandy and sandy loam, and the usual variety of high and low hammock and the three grades of pine land are well distributed over the county. Toward the south the

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78 POLK COUNTY . face of the count1y is more generally level, and prairies are more frequent. TheK issimmee River, here mainly a succession o f lakes, is navigable to the Gulf of through Lake Okeechobee and tho Caloosahatchee River. P eace River is navigable for small boats to Fort l\1eade. This stream falls into Char lotte Harbor on the Gulf of 1\fexico. Its tributaries, with those of the Alafia and the Withlacoochee Rivers, drain a wide region in the southern and western part of the countY: The best grade of pine lands in this region are considered most desirable for agricultural purposes, because, under judicious cultivation, their productiveness seems to increase, while the high hammocks deteriorate after a few years of astonishing productiveness. The dryeJ.: kinds of low ham mock .are prized fol' general farming and garden crops, es pecially the early vegetables that are becoming such an im portant facto r in the commerce of the State. The timber is mainly pine and cypress, but all the hard woods are found in the hammocks. The summer temperatUl'e ranges from 86 to 97 at mid day, falling some twenty degrees during the night. In the winter the ordinary range is from 45 to 75, with, however, occasional when the thermometer chops very sud denly to the freezing-point. After the of February im-. munity from frost is almost ce1tain, and the thermometer ranges from 60 to 78. The rainy season begins in June and lasts till the middle or end of September, rain falling, as a mle, alrp.ost every day. The vital statistics of the county show that general health is good, the death-rate from ordinary diseases very low. The county commissioners of Polk County certify the follow ing list of its products: Corn, oats, rye pumpkins, squashes, beans in variety (the snap o.nd lima runners being very pro lific}, peas (in variety), potatoes, beets, cal'l'ots, onions, pars nips, egg-plant, cucumbers, c:).ntaloupes, water-melons, cab bages, collards, cauliflow er, kohl-rabi, ruta-bagas, turnips, pepper, okra, tomatoes, lettuce, salsify, mustard, sorghum, sugar-cane, cassava, arrow-root, ginger, chufas, pindars or ground peas, goubel'S, grass-nuts, pie melon, etc.

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POLK CO UN'I'Y 79 Of plants and herbs, sweet marjoram, thyme, tea-plants, castor-bean, and benne. Of fruits, orange, sweet bitter-sweet, nnd sour; lemons, limes, grapes, peaches, LeConte ancl avo cado pears, tiger apples suga r apples, cit1 : on, shaddocks, grape-fruit, mangoes, Japan plums, bananas, pineapples, gnavas, plums, figs, oli\es, and peca.Is. Many of these are not recommended as profitable crops. The list is given to show the possible range of agricultural resources. The Polk County region was a favorite hunting and farm ing ground of the aboriginal mces, and mounds and other evidences of prehistoric habitations ate found. When the United States surveys were made in 1848 numerous evi dences existed of extensive cultivation, but the luxuriant forest growth has nearly obliterated most of them at the present time. The South Florida Railway enters the county from Pasc o County (northwest), and Osceola Coun ty (northeast), its branches fo1ming a triangle in the heart of the county. The. main line has stations near and within the county as follows : . Dlst. fr. Sanford. 42 ... Cmnpbells (Osceola Co.) ....... n Lake Loc ke. . ............... 63 54 .... Em manton ..................... 61 57 .. Davenport ..................... 58 61 ... Haines City ..................... l>4 68 .... Bartow J c. 1 .......... . ....... .47 12 .... Anbnrndale ..................... 43 11 .... Fitshughs ....................... 38 81. ... Acton : ......................... 34 SS .... J.akeland ...................... 32 v 9S .... Plant City. ........ ............ 22 sw 115 .... rampa .......................... 9 124 .... Port Tampa ..................... 0 NE A I Connects Bartow Bra nch (see below). Connects Pemberton Feny Branch (see p. SO). 'rhe Bartow Branch stations are : o .... Bartow Jc.' ..................... 17 5. . Winter B 1wen ........... ........ 12 v 9 .... EagleLake ........... .. ........ S SW 12 .... Gordonsville.... .. .. ........ 5 17 .... Bartow" ......................... o n:st. fc. Bartow Jc. NE A I Dist. fr. Port Tampa. Dist.. fr. Bartow. I () onnects with main line to Tampa. south. and Sanford. northeast. ., F. S. (J., T. & K. W. system) for Punta Gorda Cbarlotte Harbor, etc.

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80 POLK COUNTY-PUTNAM COUNTY. The Peru beli-on Ferry B ranch bas stations near and within Polk County as follows: D!at. fr Pemberton Ferry. 23 .... R ic hland {PaBoo Co.) ............ 31 32 .... TedderviJie ....................... 22 NNW 37 .... Kathleen ... ..................... 17 A Dist. fr. 40 ... Griftln'a M.ill ..................... 17 I Punta V 43 ... Lakeland 1 .... ................... 14 Bartow. SSE 51. ... HnKkeJI . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . 6 57 .... Bartow 2 .. .. .. 0 1 Crosses J .. T. & K. W. from Sanford and Tampa. Counects Bartow branch and F. S. Ry. to Punta Gorda. Putnam County Area 860 sq. m.-Lat. 29" 20' to 290 60' N.-Long. 81 W 2' W.-Popn Jation (1890), 11,166.-Pop. (1880), 6,261.-ABSeSsed valuation (1888), $4,130,508. -County seat, Palatka. Putnam County isone of severa l organized in a fter the :first Seminole war. It is named after General Israel Putnam, of the R evolutionat-y Army. The shape is very ir regular, some of the boundaries being crooked rivers, and others arbitrary l ines. A s is often the case in Florida, it is impossible to give a general statement of th e topography. The great river St. John's divides the county into two por tions, o{ which the western is by far the larger. Oran ge Creek, the navigable outlet of Orange Lake, just over the line, in Alachua County, joi n s tho O cklawaha. River at southern border, together they form a considerable strea m tributary to the St. Johns, and one of tho famous t ourist routes of Florida (Route 181). Except in.the i m mediate vicinity of the water-courses the western part of the county is gently undulating, covered with heavy pine fore sts , which are rapidly giving way to orange groves. Through tl1is comparatively l ow region there runs an elevated l'olling plateau, t e n or fifteen miles wide, and in some places said to b e two hundred feet above tide -water. This plateau h dotted all over with lakel e ts, surrounded by wooded hills. H ero and there are prairies and swamps of moderate extent. An attractive section of the county is the Fruitland P e nin sula, a t x act of lan d eight or ten miles wide, somewhat re sembling the plateau jnst d ef!cribe d lying between the St . John's River on the west and Crescent Lake on the east. Its

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PUTNAl\1 COUNTY. 81 surface is gene 1-a.lly hilly, interspersed wi t h lake s, f o1ests and occasinal marshes The J T. & K. W. Railway system passes through tho entire length of the }Jeninsula. Cr escen t Lake is a navigable body of wat e r, having easy steamboat connection with the St. John's Riv e r th1ough D unn's Creek, the outlet at the northern extremity of tl1e lake. T o the north of this stren.m, still on the east sh1e o f the St. J ohn's River, is a fine orange region, including so me of the ol dest and best grov es iu the State. The St. J ohn's River out this por t i on o f its course is practica lly a se1ies of l akes, varying in width from a mile to four miles H is slightly affected by the ocean tides as far up as Lake Georg e, and the cv.rrent is nowhere so rapid as to interfere with the u se of small boat s as a convenient means of trave l. The main line (J., T. & K. W. systen1) from Jackso nville

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82 PUTNAM COUNTY-SAINT JOHN'S COUNTY. and the north crosses the county nea1ly north and so u th. Stations are as f ollows : Diet. fr. Jack eonvlll e. 41. ... West Tocoi {Clay C o ) .......... 84 46 .... Bostwick . . . . . . . . . .... 78 11 49 .... 'l.'easdale .............. .......... 75 1\ 52 .... Sauble ........................ 72 55 ... Palatka . . . . . .... 59 56 .... Palatka 1 .................. 68 t ss .... Lundr ........................... 66 60 .... ........................... 64 63 .... Buffa! o n ; uff ..................... 61 64 .... Satsuma ............. ............ 60 67 .... s:sco .......................... 57 70 ... Pomona.. .. .. ................... 54 72 .... Como .. ................. . . . . 52 75 .... Hnnting toa ...................... 49 V 7 8 .... Denver ........ .... .............. 45 S 82 .... Hammond { Volmia Co. ) .......... 42 64 .... Sevtl!e {Yolmia Co. ) .... ......... 41 Dist. fr. Sanford. Connects St. Ang. & HalifAx River Ry. (p. 84); St. John's & Halitax River Ry. ( p. 86) ; and F. S. Ry. to Gainesville {eee below). F o r co ntinuat : on of main line J., T. & K. W. system eee pp. 16 nud 97. The main line Florida Southern R ai lway runs east from P alatka. The stations within the county and just b eyond its western line are : D!st. rr. Palatka. 0 .... Palatka 1 ................ ......... .47 1 5 .... F
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0 U V A L ST:JOHNS 00. SCAL OF MIL 0 5 10

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84 SAINT JOHN'S COUNTY by belts of rich hammock, which in turn give way to palmetto scru b that to the sea-coast A few small tributary to the St. Johns water the rollin g lands along the river and others find their way into Matanzas Inlet, Halifa x River, and North River on the coast Much of the land is, and probably must r emain, wort hless, but, thanks to its climate, the county is one of the most prosperous in the State, and attracts more tourists than any other section. This is due to the existen ce of St. Augustine, where nearly three centuries ago Europeans first learne d the salubrity o f the Floridian climate. The history of St. Augustine is that of St. J ohn's Count y, and wil l be found in the account of Fishing is good all along the creeks inlet-s, rivers, and l agoons an d game i s to be found by persev e ring h untsmen, thanks to the almo s t impenetrable scmb '' in which deer and turkeys still find shelter. It is wellnigh useles s ever, to hunt without guid es and dog s and even then hunting is no child's play. The harbor of St. Augu stine, with its connecting inlets, is a favorite resort for yachtsm en and a short day's run to the northwar d open!! the extensive inlan d cruising ground s of the St. John's River and i ts numerous lakes. The Jacksonville, St. Au gustine & Halifax River Railwa y (J., T. & K. W. system), St. Au gustine to, has stati ons as f o llows : Diet. fr. St. Angus tine. o .... St. Augustine ...... : ........... 31 0 .... Ne w S t. Augustine ............... 30 NE 4 .... Tocoi Jc ........................ 2 6 A 8 .... Smith's .... ...................... 22 10 ... 1\tidd.let on.. . . . . . . . . . . 20 12 .... Armstl'ong. . . . . . . .. . .. . 18 Diet f 14 .. .. Holy Brlillcb . . .. .. . . .16 16 .... OttlO?s ................. .......... 14 18 . Merrifiel d .. ................ ...... 12 20 .... Buena V ista ................ ...... 10 v 21. ... Patters o nville ................... 9 SW 25 .... East Palatk a J c. . .. . . . .. .. 6 Sl. ... Patatka . . . . . . . .. .. . ... 0 ' Connects with J ., T & K. W. systero to Jnckaonville (seep. 85) Con n ects with J., T. & K. W. to Indian River. Tampa and Punta Gorda (seep. 82 ) The sonvi lle, St. Au gustine & Halifax River Railway

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SAIN'l' JOHN'S COUN'rY-SUM'l'ER COUNTY. 85 (J., '1'. & K. W. system) is the most direct route between the two cities. Stations and distances follow : Dist. fr. Jack sonville. 0 .... Jack JlOnville' ................... 3'T 1 ... South Jacksonville . ............ 36 s .... Phillips ....................... ... C4 6 .... Bowden ............ .............. 32 9 .. .. Sommerville ..................... 23 10 .... Nesbit ........................... 2T 11 .. ,. Eaton.... .. . .. .. . .. ....... 28 14 .... Sweetwater .. .. .. .. ........... 23 16 ... Bayard.. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 21 18 .... Register .... .' ........ ............ 19 19 .... Clo.rkville ........................ 18 21 .... Durbin ........ ................... 16 V 2S .... Sampson ... ...................... 9 SE 32 .... Magnolia Grove . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. 5 37 .... St. ................... o NW A l For railway and steamboat connections see p. 103. 2 Connects with line to Palatka, seep. 84. Sumter County . D:st. fr. St. A ugus tine. Area, 625 sq. m.-Lnt. zs 15' to zs 511 N.-I,ong. 81 5S' to 82 18' W. Population (1890), 5,350.-Pop. '{1880), 4,686.-Assessed valuation (1888), $1,'T19, 018.-County seat, Sumterville. Sumte1." County is topographically part and parcel of the central lake region, and qf the large counties of Lake, 1\fari.on, Citrus, Hernando, and Pasco. It was OJ'ig inally organized as a county in 18 5 1, including parts of the p1esent territory covered by Omnge and Polk Counties. Changes to the present boundaries were made successively in 1871, '72, '79, and '87. The Withlacoochee River, which forms the major part of the western boundary, is navigable to Pemberton Feriy. In the winter of 1888-89, during a period of exce ptionally high water, a boat crossed from the vicinity of Lake Panasoffltee and the Witl1iacoochee River, thus demonstrating the possibility of crossing from the Atlantic to the Gulf. The shooting and fishing are excellent over a large portion of the county. Neal' Dl'agem Junction the scene of the massacl'e of 1\Iajor Dade and his com mand (see p. 305 ), which was practically the beginning of the long Seminole war, 1835 to 1842, which nearly exter minated the then existing settlements in South Florida. The Florida Southern Railway (J., T. & K. W. system) en-'

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M A R 0 Oxford 11 w 19 c f'--1>ISUMTERli.ILLE 20 t/J o.Aoes M A66AC R6 21 Hill :r I H<>r "' Pemberton Wereter 0 0 A s 0 ..J 24 COUNT.Y 0 SCALE OF MILU P 0 L l<

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SUM1'ER COUNTY. 87 ters the county at a point about twe lve miles southwest f1om Leesburg. The stations within the coun t y and near its limits are : Diet. fr. Palatka. 1 v SW 115 .... Cason's (Lake Co.) ............. 31 120 ... Centre Hill. . .. . ............. 26 125 .... Webster ........................ 21 129 .... Dragem Jc.1 .................... 17 135 .... Pemberton ..................... 11 146 .... Brooksville (Hernamdo Co.) ... .. 0 NE 1 Dist. fr. Brooks ville. 1 F. c. & P. (sec below) 2 Connects with J T & K. \V. system :for Punta Gorda. and Tampa. The southern division F. C. & P. enters the county from Ocala, Marion County, on the north. Stations adj acent to and within the county are as follows : 16 . . S11Dlmerfield (llfilh'Wn Co.) . .... 21 N 21. ... Oxford . . .. ... ... ............ 16 A 26 .... Wildwood . .. .. .. ... .......... 11 29 .... Orange Home. . . .. .. . .. . .. 8 v S1 .... Bamboo ...................... 6 8 35 .... Montclair .. . . . .. .. .. .. . . 2 S7 .. .. Leesburg (Lake Co.) ..... ........ 0 Diet. fr. Ocala. 1 Connects with Talllpa branch F. C & P (see below). Connects with J ., T. & K. W system (seep. 47). Dist. fr. Leesburg. The Tampa division F. C. & P. connects with the forego ing at Wildwood. The stations are : 0 .... Wildwood 1 ............... : ..... 61 5 .... Coleman ........................ 56 N Dist. fr. 8 .... Panaso1fkee ....... .............. 53 11 9.: Snmtel'ville Jc .................... 52 Dist. fr. 1 4 .... Bushnell. . .. .................. 47 Plant City. V 18 .... St. Catharine .................... 43 Wildwood. S 22 .... Withlacoochee ......... ......... S9 28 .... Lacoochee (Hernando Co.) ....... 33 Connects with F. C. & P. to Lee:lbnrg (see above). Crosses J., T. & K. W. system (see above). The Orange Belt Railway crosses southern part of the county. The stations nea.r and within the county line are : D!at. fr. Monroe I 51. ... (Lake Co.) .............. 96 E U.. Cedar Hammoc k ..... . .......... 91 ,.. 60 .... TarrytoY."D .. .. .. . . .. ..... 87 1 v 64 ... Wyoming ................... ... 83 w 70 ... Lacoochee (Herna11do Co.) ..... 77 71. .... :Macon" (Herncurui
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88 SAN1.'A ROSA 00'\JN'rY. Santa Ros a County. Area. 1,260 sq. m.Lat. 30" 19' to 80" 58' N.-Long. SG as' to 87 20' W. Poplllotlon (1890), '7,948.-Pop. (1880), 6,645.-Asaessed valuation (1888), $1,282 800. County eeat. !lf !ton. Santa R osa Count y, next to the narrow t erritory o f Escambia, is the westemmost county in Florida, and was one o f the original civic divi sions of the State. It takes i ts name from the fine bay discovered by de 'Luna in 1559. Santa Rosa has four navigable rivers, nam ely, the Escambia, forming the western boundary, and navigab l e into Alabama.; th e Blackwat e r, draining the north ern half o f the county, a tich lumber region, sparsely settled,

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SANTA ROSA COUN'l'Y-SU\VANNEE COUNTY. 89 and affording a fine cattle range ; the Yellow River, ctossing the county diagonally, and forming part of its easter n boundary, and East Bay River, parallel to Santa Rosa Sound, a short distance inland. 'rhe lumber and live-stock interests at e the principal industries, sheep raising having of late years taken a foremost place The subsoil is clay with a sandy surface, a .nd rice, corn, sweet potatoes, oats, Leconte pears, peaches, grapes, and figs are grown successfully. The pecan tree flourishes and makes a profitable crop when once the tl"ees are in bearing. The nuts are quite eq1lal to those grown in Te xas The finest and oldest grove iu the State i s in the town of Black water. The P ensacola & Atlantic division of the Louisville & Nas hville Railroad crosses the county on a line running nearly northeast and southwest. The stations near and within the county are : Dist. fr. River Jc. v SW 110 ... Crestview (IValton Co.) ......... 50 114 .... Chaffin's . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 46 122 .... Holt's ......................... 88 131 ... Good Rllllge .................... 29 141. ... Milton .. .. .. .. .. .. ......... 19 144 .... Arcadia ......................... 16 152 .... Escambia (EsccvmUa Co.) ....... 8 NE A Diet. fr. Pensacola. For co ntinuation southwest to Pensacola see p. 29; east, to River Junction seep. 101. Suwannee County. Area, 750 sq. m.-Lat. 29 52' to 30 24' N.-Long. 82 46' to sa 18'W.-Popu lation (1890), 10,505.-Pop. (1880), 7,161.-Assessed valuation (1888), $1,519,988.County eeat, Live Oak. The name Suwannee is of Seminole or Muskhogile origin, meanillg "deep water," and the fine stream tl1at bears it and gives its name to the county fo1ms the boundary on three sides. It is navigable for l'iver steamboats as far as White Springs during the greater part of the year, and with its numerous tributaries affords many desirable mill sites. The river gives easy access to the Gulf of Mexico, and the location of the county within reach of the sea-breezes from both directions renders its climate exceedingly eqnahle. The temperat:ure averages about 50 in the winter months, and in

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90 SUWANNEE COUNTY . summer rarely rises higher than 90, the average being 80 to 85. The soil is a sandy loam with a substratum of cl ay, fertile and easy of cultivation. Large tntcts of good land are still )> 17 y Luri>v!Uo Em.orson , . 6 SUWANNEE COUNTY SCALE OF MILE$ 0 5 10 c \ \ -\ open to settlement under the State and United States laws, and while considerable portions are held by c apitalists, the prices of land to actual settlers arc by no means exorbitant. The lumber within reach of water or railway tran sporta tion is abundant, and of excellent quality. Hammock lands

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SUWANNEE COUNTY. 91 border the bearing the finest varieties of .. hald wood, as ash, hickory, live oak, red oak, white oak, chel'l'y, red bay, beach, maple, ll.nd magnolia, while pitch pine and yellow pine cover thousands of acres of l'O!ling country. Sea Island cotton was largely cultivated by slave labor be fore the Civil War, and now, ate1 a lapse of many years, is resuming its importance. Some of the leading Northern and European cotton factors have permanent warehouses at Live Oak and elsewhere. The total annual shipment of cotton, according to the latest report available, is about three thousand bales. Oranges can be successfully cultivated, but not with the certainty that obtains in South Florida, and tobacco is becoming an important and profitable crop. Extensive plantations of the Leconte pea1 are in bearing, strawbenies are extremely prolific, and all the small f111its are in a . marketable condition a month ahead of the same kinds in Delaw are, and two weeks in advance of Georgia. The westem division of the F. C. & P. crosses the north ern part of the county on a line 111nning northwest and southeast; The stations within the county are : Diet. fr. Jackeon ville. I v NW 11 .... Welbom ......................... 94 SE 76 .... Houston .......................... !l9 11 82 .... LiveOak ....................... 83 I 92 ... Bucki J c. .. .. .. . . .. .. . .... 73 95 .. .. Ellaville ........................ 70 1 Crosses Savannah, Florida & Western Railway (see below). Connects with Suwannee River Railroad (see below). For continuation westward see p. 5S ; eastward, p. 18. The Gainesville division S., F. & W. Rd. (Savannah, Ga., to Gainesville, 249 miles, 9t hours). Stations within and near the county are : Dlst. fr. Savannah, Ga. 168 . . Marion (Hamilton Co.) ... ... 81 171. ... ..................... 71 N 179 .... Live Oak ...................... .' 70 11 184 .... Padlock .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .... 65 188 .... Pine Mount .... : ................ 61 190 .... McAlpin ...................... 59 V 196 ... O'Bri en .......... : .............. 52 S 203 ... .New Branford2 ................ .46 '216 ... Lake Clty Jc.s (Columbia ao.) ... 33 Crosses western division F c. & P (eee above). Connects Suwannee River steam ers. s Lake City division. Dist. fr. Gainesville.

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. 92 SUWANNEE COUNTY-TAYLOR COUNTY. The Suwannee River Railwa y r\l'Ds from H udson-on-the-. Suwannee to Bucki Junction. It is about twelve miles long, no l'egular stations between termini When the Su wannee River is low this road is convenien t for steamboat connections at New Branford. Taylor County. Area, 1,080 sq. m.-Lat. 29 40' to 3() 16' N.-Long. ss 221 to 84 W. -Popuh\tlon (1890), 2,122.-Pop. (1880), 2,279.-Assossed valuation (1888), $270,094. County seat, Perry. Taylor County was organized in 1 851, and named after General Zachar y Taylor; the popular hero of the war with Mexico, 1 847-48, and subsequently P1esident of the United States. The county has about forty miles of coast on the Gulf of Mexico, with shallow ha1bors at the mouths of the Al.lcilla Fenholloway, and Econfena Rivers, and in Deadman' s Bay, available only fot small boats. There are no lighthou ses on this coast The surface is generally l evel1 inter. sected with plentiful streams, some of which afford excellent mill sites, and in all of which the differen t varieties of fish are f ound in plenty. The piney woods are broken by several large h am mocks, the home of bear, deer, panthers, wild-cats, and tur keys. The game has not yet been hunted out i n this region, and good sport may be had with the assistance of comp eten t guides Along the Gulf the pine lands are very poor, but in the interior they a1e of good quality, the soil varying from gray to dark in color, and about two feet deep. The ham mocks are a dark sandy loam, unsurpassed in fertility. As a cattle 1ange the county has always afforded excellent facilities, owing to the abundant gtowth of native grasses. The climate is that of the Gulf coast of Florida, and ia healthy when ordinary judgment is u sed. Along both banks of the EGonfena River there is a healthy belt ten miles wide, while alon g the Fenholloway it is sickly; the rea-son being tba.t in the f ormer ease the wate1 is pUte, while in the latter case it is strongly impregnated w ith lime. I n the lime-water

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TAYLOR COUNTY. 93 regionscistern s for rainwate r are used by prudent r esidents The Econfen a Rive1 rises in W ashington County, southeast from Oak Hill. Its course is thirty miles from its source to .. 0 H (J ( OF MEXICO TAYLOR. CO.UNTY k OF. MILEs. 0 5 10 0 N I ,__, ... 4 LLI I'-6.J St. Andrew' s Bay, but this is interrupted by Natural Bridge, fifteen miles from the mouth, to which point the stream is navigable. B e low the bridge for several miles the voyager is delighted by the fr equent occunence of 1 emarka b l e springs along the west ban k. The lands a l ong this river t\l'e of fine

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04 TAYLOR C OUNTY-VOLUSIA COUNTY. quality and the locality has a. high reputation for heal thfu l n ess. Bear Creek, a navigab l e tributary, enters .the Econ fena f ro m the eastward, about four miles from salt water. B esi des the springs referred to are H ampto o..Spdng on Rocky C1eek and a chalybeate spring on Blue Creek. Perry, the county seat, may be best reached from M adison Madison County, thirty-one miles by mail rou te. Vol u s ia C ounty. . Area, l,MO sq. m. Lat. 28" 35' to 290 25' N.-Long. 81 l!O' to 81 40' W Population (1890), 8,463. -Pop. (1880), 8,294.-Aa.sessed val nation (1888), $8,994:-672.--County seat DeLand. Volu sia, as may be infened from the phenomenal increase i n its popul ation, is, to Northern settlers, one of the mo s t attractive counties of South Flo1 ida. This is largely ac counted for from its easy acc ess to Northern markets, its ad vantages of soi l and climat e for invalids, and the f acilities that it offers t o t ouris t s and sportsmen. The county warr organized under territol" i al government iu 1825, and its some w hat unfo }tunate earl y nam e was Mosquito County, a title which W(I.S naturally repudiated as soon as possible, and Orange was adopted. It originally included O!'ange and Brevard Counties. In 1854 Volusia. and pal't' o f B r evar d were set off, and in 18 78 the present boundaries were established. L ying between the St. J o hn's Rivel' on the west, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Vol usia Couutv has navigable waters on both sides, besides whi .ch l'aihoads cross it in four direct i ons, affol'din g ready transportation fot the enormous orang e c r op. The countt-y bordering principa l an d w atercourses, indeed is a l mos t a continuous orange grove, and the planters claim that no part of the State excels it for raising this favorit e crop. The land is largely high pine and hammock, and very productive for all kinds of crops. A l ong the ocean front ate found the narrow beac h es, sometimes, a.s at D aytona and Ormond, rising into ver i tabl e hammocks. Within these, to the westwa1d, are the coastwise rivers, the and the H illsbo r ough. We st-

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VOLUSIA COUNTY. 95 ward again is a wide bel t of the richest hammock, two or three miles wide, and cont-aining evidences of ancient cultivation in the s hape of d1;a ins, canal s, and ruined house s, con cerning some of which all record s l>ave been l ost, while the

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96 VOLUSIA COUNTY. history of the others, as the rurnbull tract at New Smyrna, is tolerably well known. Beyond the hammocks is a belt of prairie, broken by islands of cabbage-palm imd pine, rising first into "flat-woods," and again into the rolling pine-lands that extend nearly to the. St. John's River at the western boundary. The first settlement within the present limits of tho countv . was made during the British occupancy by Dr. Turnbull, a Scotch gentleman of wealth, who, having obtained a large conditional grant of hammock land in the vicinity of New Smyrna, enlisted a colony of some fifteen hundred Greeks, Italians, and Minorcans, and brought them over with the intention of ()rganizing an agricultural community. Dissension s followed, and the colony was b roken up, but not before a large amount of work had been accomplished (see Route 63). In 1803 a colony of n early twenty families from St. Augus tine resettled the abandoned lands of the Turnlmll tract, es tablishing, in spite of hostile Indians, quite a prosperous set tlement. In 1835, however, the Seminole war broke out in earnest, and the inhabitants were obliged to escape aeross the river and see their houses and plantations burned behind them. Until 1842 the county was abandoned by whites, and even after that time Indian alarms were so frequent that, in 1860, there were barely twenty-five families within the pres-ent boundaries. Then followed the Civil War, when New Smyrna enjoyed a sh01t lived and costly importance as an entrepot for blockade-runner s, but was presently shelled by United States gunboats, a .nd nearly destroyed. An expedition from Jacksonville was sent up the St. J olm's River, and is said to have cap tured every man in the county. Two of the prisoners were released, however, as too small of staiure for military duty, and for several months these two were the only -\vhite men in the county. At the first election after the return of peace there were twenty-one registered voters, and every one of them was present to organi ze the first court. Shortly after this the moveme n t began which bas so wonderfully increased the population of the county, and developed its resources.

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VOLUSIA COUNTY. 97 The main line of the Jacksonville, Tampa & KeyWestsys tem to Sandfoid (connecting for P unta Gorda and Port Tampa) and Titusville follows a generally north and south direction near the St. John's River. The stations within and near the county are: Diet. f1. Jackson ville 77 ... ,Denver (Putnmm Co.) ... ." ........ 82 81. ... Hammond .................. .... 78 N 84 ... Seville . . . . . . . . . . . ... 75 11 88 ... Baltersburg . . ..... ........... 71 89 . Pierson .. : ...................... 10 92 .. Eldridge ............ ............ 61 94 ... Barberville . . . . . . . . . 65 97 .. .. Deep Creek ... . .............. 62 99 .... Spring Garden .................. 60 103 .... Gienwood .......... ............ 51 105 .... Highland Park. . . . . . . . . 55 107 ... DeLand .................. ... 52 108 .. .. Bere sfor d '. . . . . . . . . . . 51 113 .... Orange City Jc. .......... .... .41 118 ... Enterprise Jc .............. ..... 41 126 .. .. . . . . . . . ....... ... so 131. ... Cow Creek ..................... 2i ISS . . Maytown . . . . . . .. .. . .... 18 147 .... Amantla (Hrevard Oo.).... . . 9 v lol . . Mims (Bre-vard Co. ) . . . . .. . 5 S 163 ... La Grange (Brevard Oo.) ......... 4 151 .... Titusvill e (Brevard Oo.) ......... 0 Dist. fr. Titus Ville. At DeLand Junction is a spur three miles eastward to DeLand, and two -miles westward to DeLand Landing 2 .At Orange City Jnnction ts the crossing .of the Atlantlc & Western Bailroad (see below). Atlantic & Western Railroad from Blue Springs on the St. John:S River to New Smyrna on the sea-coast, crossing the county from to west : Dle.t. fr. Smyrna. o . .. Blue Springs ................... zg 07.( . Ora nge City Jc...... . . . ... W S ... Orange City ......... ........... 26 11 SJ{ .. LakcHelen ......... . ....... 19M I V 22 . Waverly .......... .............. G E 25M .. Glen coe .. . . . . . . . . . 3M 29 .... New Smyma . . . . . . . . . 0 Dist. fr. Blue Spri ngs. At Orange City Junction is the crossing of J., T. & K. W. (see above).

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98 WAKULLA COUNTY. Wakull a County A ren. 580 sq. m.-Lat. ao to 30 20' N.Long. 8 4 5' to 84 45' W.-Popnlar tion (1890), 3,109.-Pop. (1880), 2,723.-.Assessed valuation (lSSS), $862,281.County seat, Crawfordville. This county is named after the famous spring near the Gulf coast. The Seminole word Wakulla means mystexy, and no one who visits the spring will ques t ion the fitness of the title (see p. 348). A further mystery, peculiar to this r egion is the alleged "Waltulla Volcano," a column of ,.. G) "' : -1 .<. .. __ WAKULLA COUNTY E N z 0 (/) a: 11.1 II. ... 11.1 .., smoke or vapor that perpetually 1ises above the trees at a. c ertain point to which no man bas as yet penetrated (see p. 347). The surface is mainly l eve l and sandy, with a clay subsoil and limes t one roclt, often rich in phosphates, not far below the surface everywhere. Heavily timbered hardwood hammocks cover a large portion of the county, and gamo is abundant. The Ockloclwny River, a considerable stream, f orms the western boundary, and its tributaries wate1 the weste1:n p::\l't of the county. I n the. eastern part are the St. Mark's and Wakulla River s, which unite, forming the Apala; cbee River, five mil es from the Gulf. The former has its source in the famous spring j ust refe1Ted to. The latter rises in a small pond, nineteen miles northeast from the

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WAKULLA COUNTY 99 junction of the st.reams Boats drawing four feet of water can ascend to the sources of both these streams. It is sup posed from topographical surveys that the St. 1\fark's derives its supply from Lake Micosukee and its tributaries (see p 52). Numerous sinks occur along a certain connec ting l ine, and sometimes the river itself emerges fo1 a time above ground. 'l'he Ocklockony River, forming the western boundary of the county, rises in G e orgia, and 111nning generally south, falls into Ocklockony Bay, twenty miles west of St. 1\fark's. It is navigable for steamboats about fifty mil es. 'Some. twenty miles from its mouth it divides, New River carrying a portion of its waters to the bay. Its principal tributaries are Tugalo, Little River, Robinson s Creek, and Rocky Com fort. The Gulf coast line is about twenty-five miles in extent, not attempting to trace its various indentations. It forms an extensive bight known as Apalachee Bay, early discovered by" the Spaniards, and the site of attempted settlements in the sixteenth centm-y. A t the mouth of St. Mark's River, on the east side, is a lighthouse showing a fixed white light of the fourth order, visible fifteen miles at sea. The tower is white, eighty-three feet in total height above the water. The channel is well b u oyed, and admits vessels drawing seven feet at low tide. The principal industries are tm pentine-making, stock-rais ing, bee-culture, hunting, and fishing. .There are many natural curiosities as sinks, springs, and the like scattered through the county. The supply of drinking water is mainly derived from cisterns, as the natural flow is strong l y impregnated with lime. 'fhe St. Mark's Railroad from Tallahassee, in Leon County, . to St. l\fark's, is twenty-one miles long ; through time, one forty-five minutes. I 0 .... Tallahass ee ...... ............. .. .. 21 N Diet. fr. v 4 .... Belair ....... . . . . .. . .. . .. 17 Dist. fr. Tallahassee. 8 16 .... Wakulla ......................... 5 1 St. ?.lerk's 21. ... St. Mark's . ... ; . . . . . . . . 0 For conDections at Tallahassee (see p. 53).

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100 WALTON COUNTY. WnJton County. Area, 1,360 sq. m.-Lat. ao 20' to 31 N.-Long. 85 52' to 86 39' W.-Popu Jat!on (1890); 4 ,811.-Pop. (1880), 4,201.-Assessed valuation (1888), $1,122,755. -County seat, De Funiak Springs. Walton County is bounded on the north by Alabama., east by Holmes and Washington Counties, sou .th by Choctawhat chee Bay and the Gulf of l\lexico, and wt:,st by Santa Rosa County. The land is mainly covered with pine woods, flat A 'WALTON CO. z: 0 1:t!l z -:r: near the coast but high and rolling to the northward. The soil is the most part sandy with clay near the stream s. 1'he land is highly productive and large are an nually made of cotton, com, sugar, vegetables, fruits, and bacco. Stock-raising, e s pecially sheep, is extensively fol lowed and is on the increase. This industry was originally introduced by a colony of Scotch Pres byterians who settled in the Euchee Valley in 1823, and whose descendan t s still

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WALTON COUN'l'Y-WASHING'l'ON COUN'l'Y. 101 remain among the .most pwspero us and thrifty farm ers o f this r e gion. The P ensaco]::\ & Atlantic divi sion of the L. & N. R d crosses the county from east to west. and near the county are as follows: The stations within Diet. f1. River Jc. 70 ... Ponce (le Leon (Holmes Co.} ... 134 I 77 .... Argyle.... . . . . . . . ..... l2S E 81. ... De lfuniak Springs ............ 124 1\ 9 4 .... :Mossy Head ................. .109 l V 1 0 1 .... Deer land ..................... 102 W 110 .... Crestv ie w ....................... 93 114 .... Milligan (Sa11ta Rosa Co.) ....... 89 Dlst. fr. P euaacoh\. For continuatlon of this route to Tallnbnssee, etc., eaitward, see p 40; west ward to Pensacola, p. 87. Washin gto n County Area. 1 ,930 sq. m.-Lat. 300 to 300 40' N.-Long. 85 20' to 86 3W W.-Popu lation (1890) 6,416.-Pop. 4,089.-Asses aed vn!uation (1888), $759,587.-0ounty scat, Vernon. Washington was one of the origina l counties organized after the United States acquitecl the tenitory of Florida Holmes and Jackson Counti es bound. it on the north, Jackson and Calhoun on the east, the Gulf of 1\:Iexico on the south, and Walton County on the west. The principal exports arc cotton, timber, and catt le. The soil is in the main sandy, with allu vial bottoms and hammocks along the rivers Some of the cultivated portions of the county have been tilled by whites fo1 nearly half a century and from time imm e morial by the aborigines who prece deu them. The sheep-growing industry has developed here, as in the neighboring counties, during recent years, and bids fail' to become a very profitable hrn.nch of farming. 'l'he fine bay of St. Andrew's and its vicinity offer exceptional attractions to sports men. The Western division of the Florida Centra l & Peninsula Railway closely follows the northern boundary line. The stations are : D !st. fr. River J'c. 34 .... Cottouclale (Jaokcm Co.) ...... :l'n I 44 .. .. Chipley ......................... 161 E I 53 .... ........................ 152 1\ 61 .... caryville ...................... 144 I v 63 .... Westvill e ..................... 142 W 7l. ... Ponce d e Leon ................. 134 77 .... .Argyle ( Waltoll Co. ) ........... 128 Dist. fr. P ensacola For continuatlo n of this route eastward to Tallahassee and Jacksonville p. Ill ; We$twnrd eo Pensacola see p. 40.

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W ASBJNG.TON COUNTY OF MILES u 5 o y. \.. 0 ll M' ,, c I 0 0
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JACKSONVILLE. 103 10. Duval County (C.H .). Populatio n (1890), 17,160.-lAit. so u N.-Long. 81" 40' \V. BoTr;Ls.-(Rates are given by tbe day unless otherwise stated. Where 1:ntes are omitted no reply to mquifr bas been received.) Carlettm Houl, $3 ll day upward; restaurant d la JTiew.-Gtenaaa, $5 to $ 8 .50.-Hotet 1'ogni $'t.-Lajayette.-Oz,jord.-St. James Houl, $4.-1'reJlousc. Windsor Hotel, $4 and $ 5. Spec ial rates are usuall y mg,de for permanent g u ests or by tbe week. Be s ides tb.c hotels there are neariy 100 boardugb.OUJ:l()S, at $8 to $15 a week. RAILROADS, STEAMBOATS, eTC. Jaclmnville, Tampa & Ke.IJ ll"est St. Augustine. Indian River, Tampa, Punta Gorda, etc.). Station foot of Bndge St. (see p. 25). Florid.' Central &: Peninsula Railway (to Tallahassee, PenS/leola, Fernandina. Cedar K ey, Orlando, etc.). Station foot of H ogan St. (seep. 26). Sa"Vannah. Pilrrnb &: Western Railwa.y (Waycross Short Line) Station foot of Bridge St. (see p. 25). Jacksomnlle, Mayport &: Pablo Railway &: Navigation Co. (to .Uayport and Burnside Beach). Ferry from foot of 1\larket St. (seep. 26). JacksonvWe & Atlantic Railro :ut (to Pablo Beach). Ferry from foot of New D8U St. (See p. 26). Ptotle's Line (St. John's R!Ycr Steamers). Astor'e wharf, foot of Hogan St. De lJary Line (St John'!l River St.emnera). Foot of Laura St. Be,ch ,e A{ iller J.line (to Fort Mayport, etc.). Tyson & Co.'s wba.rf. foot of Pine St. Clyde Line (New York, Charleston & Florida. Steamship Co ). Astor's whnrf, foot of Hogan St. 1.'rantways, with cars at five minute Intervals, run through Bay St. eastward, two miles to the rlver bank below Commodore's Point, where there are a race conrse nnd one or two hote ls, mainly for transient resort. Good view across and down the river. Westward tile Bay Stt-eet line McCoy's Creek into tbe suburbs. A cross-town line runs out Pine St. to the Sub-tropical Exposition grounds and beyond, and another ont LaurR St. two miles to the suburbs of Somerville and Warren ; uniform fare, Gc. carriage rate from railroad !!tation s and steamboat lamlings to auy part of cit:Y Uc. ; luggage 25c. piece. and may usually be best engaged tbrougb the hotel clerk; there are. however, many excellent livery stables where, it do sired, special terms may be made. The following are approximately the prevailing rates: Saddlehorses, T5c. to $1.50 an hour, $3 a day; teanll!, $1.60 an hOur, $4 a day; double teams with driver, $2 1111 hour, $5 upwa.rd a day. Bor:.ts and. Launches may be fouud nt the foot of :Market St. ; 25c an hour; with attendant, $2 to $5 a tlny. Speclal bare;alns mll8t be made for steam lannches an!l the like, or for protracted expedltwns. POINTS OF INTEREST IN JA-CKSONVILLE. The Sub-tropica l Exposition (p. 104). City Water-works (p. 104). Post 00\ce, Bay St., cor. Market. Bank 9.30 A..M. to 2 P.M.).-Ballk of Jacksonville.-First National Bank of Florida. cor. Bay and Ocean Sts. State Bank of Florida.-National Bauk, State of Florida, 16 Bay St.-National Dank of Jack:sonvme.-Florida Bank and Real Estate Exchan;e.-Amb!er, Marvin &; Stockton. O i gnr manufactories. F 11>re Works. Cllurohu.-Baptist, Rev. Mr. Rev. R. T. Hall, Bogan St.-Episcopal, St. John's, Duval St., near arket.:Methodist, St.'s, Rev. J. B. Anderson, Duval St., cor., Trinity, Rev. W. S. FJtcb,Monroe St. and City Park.-Pre.;;bytelian (North), Rev. S W. Paine, Ocean

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NOTE. Since. the present edition of the Handbook was prepared facil ities for trave l southward from Titusville have been pl ov1ded by the conat111ction of the Jacksonville, St. Augustine and In'dian Biver Railway, bom Jacksonville, St. Augustine, Ormond, and l)aytona through New Smyrna, Titusville and Rockledge to :Sebastian (Routes 70 71, 91, 92). This line closely follows the west shore of Halifax and I ndian Rivers touching all the points ()f ipterest hitherto accessible only b y boat. It is under pontrac t for speedy completion to Lake Worth, where a large hotel, "The .Royal Poinciaria," is announced to open the.present season (1893The is name d ftom the Poinciana R egia, a tropical ke6,..nne specimens of which flourish on the Lake Worth P en ; .A, road hll.l! been Qpened -following the coast from Lake Worth to. Biscayne B ay and st-ages make the trip in about t hirtysix b ours, stopping for the night at New River, where a eamp has been established for the accommodation of travelers until such time as The.East Coast Line is finishe d. Surveys for this lin e have been made, a.nd it is in contemplation to push it forwar d to completiou as rapidl y as possible. On Biscayne Bay there are already largely increased hotel ac commodations at Cocoa Nut Grove, and a regular steamboat servic e has been established to and from Key West .

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104 JACKSONVILLE. St.-Presbyterian (South), Rev. Dr. Dodge, Newnan St.-Roman Cathol:c. Father Keeny, Newnan St. There are also a l!lrge number of small <'Ongre gatious, mainly negroes, scattered through the city. The Sub-tropical Exposition. The buildings for this an nual exhibition of the products of Florida are in the City Water-works Park, on Hogan Street, about three quarters of a mile from the river, fif teen minutes' walk from Bay Street and the principal hot. els. Tramcars run out Hogan Street (fare 5c.). The exhibition pl'Oper is usu1t1ly open from early in January till about April 1st; 25c. general admission; 50c. on special occasions, gala nights, and the like. The build ings are open at all times, however, as some objects of in terest always 1emain, even when the exhibition is closed. Arpong these are the tropical plants within the building, the living manatee or sea-cow in the artificial lake with deer, and sometimes other Floridian animals and birds in an en closure to the west of the main building. In connection with the exhibi tion are the Jacksonville Water-works. The supply is drawn from artesian wells. The first of t hese was driven in 1883, and the last and deep est in 1889. The water is impregnated with sulphur, and emits a slightly unpleasant odor when it reaches the air. 'l'his odor disappears n .lmost immediately, and the water, as delivered to the. service-pipes, is pure and wholesome. The strata penetrated by the last and deepest boring, 1,020 feet, were as follows : Sand, 20 ft. ; clay (phosphatic), 2 ft. ; co quina, 20ft.; blue clay. 300 ft. ; fossil limestone, 2ft. (small flow of sulphur water, 8 to 10 gallons a minute); blue clay, 100 ft.; fossil roc];:, 30 ft. ; flinty rock, 6 ft.; open lime rock, yielding a strong flow of water, 100 ft. ; hard, sandy limestonf:), 350 ft., wi t h a constantl y incr easing flow of exc ellent sulphur water. The maximum flow is 2.333 gallons a min ute, at a temperature of 78 on reaching the surface. Shops. The principal stores are on Bay Street, running for a mile near and parallel to the r iver. All the ordina ry wants of travellers can be supplied h e r e at pric e s hut little in ndvance of the prevailing rate13 in Northern cities, and it is often easier to purchase here than to bring them from a distance. Drives. Within the city pleasUl'able driving is limited to

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JACKSONVILLE. 105 tl1e wooden pavements which now cover most of the prin cipal streets. As these are pleasantly shaded, and in the main bordered with pretty residences, they are quite popular. Out side the city the road i s the favorite drive. Follow Pine Stteet to Eighth Street, one and one-half mile from the Court House; turn to the left, and follow Eighth Street, which presently merges in the WJ:oncrief Springs Road This may be followed to its junction with the shell road through the La Villa precinct, and so back to town, eight miles. The Old King's Road, a relic of the days of English rule, is still in fairly good order for several miles out, anu so is the Pa-nama Road, following the north banlt of the river to ward its mouth. On the south side of the river are charming drives on e:x. cellent shell roads. Cross the river by ferry from foot of Newnan Street (moderate extra charge for horses aud car J'iages); follow direct road from wharf onequarter of a mile, turn slightly t o left, and cros s railway. This is the old road to St. Augustine and beyond, constructed under the admin istration of the Bl'itish Governor, J ames Grant (1765). Per" mission may be obtained at the gate lodge, one mile from fer ry, to drive through the pti\ate grounds of ViHa Alexnndl"ia. Eastward the road leads to Devins Point, AJlington Creek, etc. It is recommended not to divergo far from the shel11oads, as tl1e sand malces heavy work for horses. In the s addle, how ever, any of the wood roads may be comfortably followed. History. The site of J acksonville became important to aboriginal tribes long before the achent of Enropeans. At this point the St. John's River, aftet flowing for more than two hun dred miles in a tortuous northerly course, makes a sharp bend to the eastward, and fal'ls into the ocean twenty miles below the city. The elbow of the river formed a natural rendezvous fo1 tribal expeditions for war or the chase, and the existence of shell and burial mounds in the vicinity at tests its frequent, perhaps permanent occupation. The Ind ians lmew as "Wacca Pilntka," Cow's Crossing, whence its

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106 JACKSONVILLE. early Englis h name, C ow's Ford." The French and Span i a rd s w e r e not road builde1s, but dut-ing colonial times t h o English built what was kno\vn as the King's Road h om St. Au gust .ine and p o ints still farther south. Cow s Ford was the natural crossing point, and the King's R oad served as the hig hway for the pioneer. The early Indian and Span ish wars antedated the existence o f Jackson.ville. During the war for independence on tho part of the North ern C o l onies, Florida was, if anythin g royalist in sentiment. In 1816, Florida, having passe d agai.n from British to Spanish rule, one L ewis z. Hogans, a settler on the south side of the rivet married a Spanish widow, D oiia M aria Sunvez by name, w h o held a grant of two lmndred acres on the present site o f J acksonvill e Moving t-o his wife's l a n d, H ogans was ready to reap the benefit of the tide of immi gration that began in a small way soon after the transfer of the territory to the United States in 1 8 19 A ferry w as es t ablis h ed and an inn opened in 1820, by John Brady, and by 1822 i t became necessary to plan for the future. Streets w e r e accordingly !aiel out, and a town govenunent was organi zed The town was formally i.nc01porated in 1833, and named after G e neral Andre w Jackson, Governot of Florida prior to its organiz ation as a tenitory an d afterwa1cl President o f the United States. Until 1835 the to.wn g r ew with cons id e r able rapidity, but with tile outbr el\k of the Seminole War ( see p. -) in that year its prosperity was checked I t be came for the time a place of refuge; blockhouses were erected and a garrison wa s maintained until 1842, when the Seminoles were subdued. WHh the return of peace the t own resumed its gt;owth. It was the natural port of e n try for all traffic from the ocean, and t h e distributing point for such overland comm e r ce as sough t an outlet by sea I n 1860 the population was 2, 118, the lumber i nterest bacl a ssumed important proportions, and, as a shipping po int for all Florida prodnce, Jaclu ;onville wns without n riva l. 'l'be Civil Wnr (1861 to 1865 ) checked tllis era o f prosper i ty The C onfe derate authorities garrisoned the place, but no considerable measures were taken for its defence. On M arch

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JACKSONVILLE 107 11, 1862, the United States gunboats, Ottawa, Seneca, anu Pembina crossed the bat at some risk. The next day, with several lighter draft vessels that had joinl3d, the squadron steamoo up to Jacksonville, which was peacefully surren dered by the city authorities. The small that had been in possession retl'eated to the int erior. The report of Lieutenant T. H. Stevens, commanding the United States squadron, avers that he found many smouldering ruins of mills, house&, and other property that had been r!lcently burned, while the Confede1ates chatge the destruc tion of property to the Fooerals. Fortifications we1e erected and it was announced that the. . place would be permanently held by United States forces. Under this assurance a meeting of citizens, held on March 20th, repudiated the ordinance of secession, and called for a convention to teorganize a State government under the laws of the United States. days afterward, l\farch 24th, there was another meeting, pursuant to adjournment, at which a call for a convention was issued in due form. Notwithstanding all this, however, there came an order on April 10th, withdrawing the whole force, and sending it North on what was deemed more important service. Many of the inhabitants who had declared their allegiance to the United States Government feared to remain, and were given transportation to the North. On October 4th of the same year Jacksonville was again occupied for a short time by a Federal force under General Brannan, and again abandoned . An expedition, consisting of the First Regiment of South Carolina Volunteers, Colonel T. W. Higginson commanding, and a portion of the Second South Carolina Volunteers, under Colonel Montgomery, reoccupied Jacksonville on March 10, 18 63. These troops were negroes, lately slaves, and were recruited in South Ca1olina. They were among the first of the of colored troops afterward organized in the service of the United States. Jacksonville was at this time merely a picket station, a considerable body of Conf e derate troops being encamped some eight miles to the westward. The pU1pose of this expedition, as stated in the report of

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108 JACK SONVI LLE . Geneml Saxton, was to establish a base of operations in Florida, and harass the enemy more by invit-ing of negroes than by The three t m.nsports conveying the troops came up the river under of a gunboat. N o was mot with, the tran sports made fast to the wharves, and the men jumped a shore without W;\iting for the gang-plank. There was much consternation among the few i emaining inhabitants, on the unexpected arrival of the dreaded negro soldi e r s, but, as a general thing, they w ere kept well in hand during the period of their stay. On Ma1ch 23d, the Conf ederate s mounted a gnn on a plat form car, and ran it down the track within range of. the city. O n the next day the experiment was repeated, and seve r a l b uildings were stmck by shells. On March 26th, a strong reconnoitering party marched out along the railroad, unde1 command of Colonel Higginson. They had brush with the enemy, losing a few men about four miles from the t cwn .ro the surprise of all connected with the expedition, an order for the abandonm en t of Jacksonville was received, and on March 31st the Unibed States forces we1;e withdrawn. At this time there occulTed an act of vando.lism, tho) respon sibility for which could never be fixed. A mania for fi1ing buildings seemed to seize upon the stragglers and camp fol l owers who managed to escape from the control of their ofii cers. f,.. high wind was b lowing, and J ac k sonville was almost wholly destroyed. Tile fleet steamed away, leaving the place iu .flames. Even at the No1th the management of this expedi tion, involving, as it did, the needless occupation and abandon ment of a partly loyal city, provoked severe condemnation. On the afternoon of F ,ebruary 7, 1864, the few remaining inhabitants of Jacksonville, not much more than on e hundre d souls in all, sa w the not unfamiliar spectacle of a gunboat, with her crew at quarters in front of the city. A few w e re fired by the small detachment of Confederates on duty, when companies of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts and the Eighth U nited Sta.tes Colored Troops landed and took pos session. This was the most f orm idable expedition that landed at J acksonville during the war, uumhering about five thousand men, well supplied with cavalry and artillery.

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JACKSONVILLE. Pausing only long enough to land their material, and leavin g an adequate garrison, the command pushed on at o113e along the line of the railroad toward Lake Citv, and met the crush ing defeat at Olustee, describe d under Route. ']'he defeated Federals fell back upon their fortiftcat.ions at Jacksonville, and occupied them until the close of the war in 1865. The river was patrolled by gunboats, and no serious was afterward made by the Confederates. . Immediately after the restoration of peace, large ties of cotton, which had been stored for safety in the surrounding country, sought Jacksonville as a convenient port of shipment, and since that time her commercial prosperity ho.s been assured. Jacksonville has been a popular winter resort for Northern visit.ors ever since it becanie readily accessible to t ro.vellers. The tlact on which it stands was originally what is kno\m as rolling pine land, having good surface drainage to the river in front, and to McCoy's and Hogan's Creeks on eithe r side. The natural drainage, howeyer, is mainly through the sandy soil, into which the heaviest l'ains disappear at once, leaving the surface practically dry. The streets and pnblic squares are well shaded with live oaks, water oaks ancl other D!!otive trees, and in the gardens of many of the private houses are orai1ge, lemon, lime, magnolia, and other semi tropical trees and shl'Ubs generally unfamiliar to the North ern visitor. Many of the orange trees in the streets and elsewhe r e are of the bitte1 varie ty, cultivated merely for ornament and shade. The fruit is not usually considered edible, though it is used in the preparation of certain beverages, preserves, and the like. The uninitiated Nol'tbern visitor often learns the difference b etween sweet and bitter oranges by practical experience, for he is told to help himself freely from any of the trees in the public streets or squares . The climate of is that of the North Florida Atlant ic sea-coast (see p. 377). 'fhe city is near enough to the ocean to enjoy \ts influence in regard to temperature, while the force of the northeasterly gales that are occasion-

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110 JACKSONVILLE ally expe1ienced is sensibly diminished b y t .he intet>ve ning b elt of timber. A s a centre f rom which excursions can be mad e, ville is especially convenient, s ince all the principal railroad and steamboat lines diverge from this p oint (seep. 1 03). The pri ncipal streets are paved with the Wyc koff cypress pavement laid with cross !jections of cypress logs set on end, arranged according to size, and having the interstic es filled with cement The streets not so paved !l.l'e deep with the native sand o f the localit y or perhaps rendered a degree l ess impassable by means of certain waste material from the fibre factories Wooden sidewalks are almost univ ersal, ex cep t on the main business streets ExcunsiONS. 11 Jacksonville to St. Augustine J .. T. & K. W Ry., 66 miles by (1 hoar 40 minute s ) The trnin passes a lmost directly from the station to "the fine drawbridge acros s the St J ohn's River. This bridge was opened in 1889. It i s of stee l throughout, with a total l ength of 1 ,320 f eet. The draw is 320 feet l ong. South Jackso nvill e occupies the point of land fo r med by the b end in the river. It h as 800 inha bitants, an d is becom ing an attracti v e suburb. It contains many handsome r esi dences. Here terminated the southern section of the Old King's R oad from St. Augustin e, built by the English unde r the administrat i o n of Go vernor Gran t (1 765). The road is still in use. It may be see n t o the left of the track as the train moves away from the river. For a short time the line passes through a scattered growth o f oaks, m agnolias, and other hard wood trees, in terspersed with occasiona l orange groves Then it enters the pines, slightly rolling at first, but grad ually falling off into the fio.t woo ds and belts of hammock that border the sea-coast. F or stations and. distances see p . 85. B etwee n J acksonville and St. Augusti n e there are no important towns, but the soi l is prod ucti v e, and considerable shipments of agricultural products are made. Betwe en

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JACKSONVILLE. lU Sweetwater and Bayard the line crosses Arlington Creek, a tributary of the St. John's. A little south of Sampson it pass e s near St. 1\'Iary's pond, shortly after which the prairies bordering the Tolomato Riv e r, open to the south and eas t and soon the towe1s and orange-trees of St. Augustine are visible beyond. 'fourists whose time is limited, may Visit St. Augustine and return to Jacksonville the same day, having about five hours for sight-seeing. Engage a carriage at the station. Drive to principal points of interest (see p : 133). Visit Fort 1\'brion (see p. 157). Lunch, inspect the Alameda group of hotels, visit Anastasia Island or the North Beach (connection .by rail with the latter from Union Station). To accomplish all this in five homs ad mits of no loitering, and is not recommended. So hasty a visit should only be undertaken rather than lose a look at the ancient city alt ogether. 12. Jacksonville to Fernandina. By F. C. & P. Ry., S7 miles (1 hour 40 minutes). Passing through the suburbs of Jacksonville, the line runs nearly due north, crossing Trout Creek (five miles) a short distance above i t s junction with the St. John's. Three miles farther Cedar Creek is passed, and beyond this is the rolling pine forest of Duval County. Six miles north of D uval sta tion is Nassau River (seep. 131), and at Hart's Road Junction, the line curves to the eastwnrd. The station its name from a contractor who cut a military road through the then unbroken forest dUling the early Indian wars Six miles farther it crosses Amelia River on a trestle whose predecessor was burned during the Civil War (see p. 129), and then turns to the northward, soon coming in sight of.Fernandina. Tourists who have but a. short at their disposal ma,y drive al1out the ci ty and see the chie f points of interest dur ing the five or six homs that inte rvene b e fore the. return train. For description of Fernandina and vicinity see p. 127. Consult local time-tables.

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112 J A.CKSONVILLE. 13. Mayport and Burnside Beach. Part steamboat. part rail. Ferry from foot of Pine Street, Jacks onville. Boat connects with 1\fayport & Pablo Railway & Navigation Co. at bot h e nds of line. rweu ty roUes (1 hour 15 minutes). Fare, 50c. ; rouud trip, $1. Con su!t local t:roe -tables. The ri\'er below Jacksonville is described in det.uil, p. 117. The steam ferryboat from l\farket Street rounds Commo dore's Point, and connects with the l\fayport & Pablo Rail way on the south bank of the 1iver, three miles. Landings are some times made on signal, at intennediate wl1arves. The conspicuous grove at the mouth of Arlington Creek, is Empire Point, some times called Devins' Point, the coun try seat of General A. S. Devins, of Boston. The railway soon enters the pine woods, and for ten miles there are only occasional openings. The line then crossE.s a wide prairie intersr.cted by Pablo C1eek and l\It. Pleasant Creek. The clumps of dark cedars scattered along the prairie mark the site of shell mou.nds, the work of prehistoric dian tribes. Beyond the prairie the train enters a fine palm hammock. Here the newly arrived visitor from the North often make s liis first acquaintance with the lofty cabbage-palm in its nativ:e habitat. 'rhe hammock extends to the edge of the beach. The h-ain runs directly to a platform connected with the Pavilion and hotels, where good entert.ainment can be had. Btwnside Beach is largely frequented by excursionists from Jacksonville and the interior (Palmetto Hotel, $7 to $10 a week). The beach is at presen t making slowly out to sea ward, m that there is quite a stretch of dry sand before the hard, level, wave-washed bathing-beach can be reached. L ooking south oue may see the large hotel at Pablo Beach, six miles (seep. 114). Wheelmen often ride from Burnside or Mayport to Pablo Beach, whence there is a railway back to Jacksonville. The beach is admirable for driving, but teams be secured by telegraph to avoid delay: I n an:anging for a walk or ride between Pablo and Burnside the time of tide should he considered, and the start made just afte1 the tide bas begun to run ebb. 'rhis will insure a

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JACKSONVILLE. 118 roadway of ample width for severalhours, or until the tide again app1oaches high wate1 mark. From Burnside the tmin backs to 1\fayport, two miles, keeping just inside the line of sand dunes, between which pretty glimpses of the ocean are caught from time to time llfayp01t, at the mouth of the St. John's River, is so called from the name given by the J.t" rench, in 1562, "La Riviere de Mai," before the Spaniards took possession. 'rhere is no large hotel in the place, but meals and rooms can oe had at the Burrows House, near the railroad. The town has about five hundred inhabitants. There is much picturesque life to be seen along shore. among the fishermen and men engaged in constructing mattresses for the jetties (see p. 117). Toward the sea-beach are numer ous summer cottages, belonging, for the most part, to city residents. From the lighthouse a good view of the 1iver is obtainable. . The industry at Mayport is of considerable impOlta nce Shad begin running up the 1iver as early as Jan uary, and are taken in seines in large quantities; as many as ten thousand are said to have been taken in one day. There is a tradition among fishermen at the river mouth that shad are never known to go to sea again. At all e'ents, that they are nevertaken going out. Some of the fishermen believe that the shad perish in the upper reaches of the river. The shad season continues till Ap ril, and, when perfectly fresh from the water, the fish compare favorably wit.h their Northern brethren. The sand composing the Mayport dunes is of a peculiarly white, fine quality It drifts like snow acr oss the railroad, and great mounds m:ove to and fro, sometimes burying houses and trees in their course. Near Mayport the Spania1ds built a fort which was taken and destroyed by Dome nique de Gourgues, in 1565 (see p. 120). The conspicuous group of buildings on a large shell mound on the opposit e side of the river is a mill for grind ing shells for fertilizing purposes. It is possible somet im es t o purchase Indian relics from the superintendent or wolk men, but the supply is very uncertain. Small boats may be

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114 JACKSONVILLE. hired at Mayport or Pilot Town with or without attendants, to Axplore the neighboring sho re s and inlets. Fort George Island and Batten Island are on the opposite side of the river, and may be reached by 1ow-boat or ferry. A pleasant excursion from Jacksonville is to go t.o :Maypol't by rail as above, and return by boat, o1 vice 'ricket.s are available by eithe1 route. 14. P ab l o B each. Hotel, JfuTrrt1J Hall, $2.50 to $4 a day. By Jacksonville & Atlantic Railroad, f erry f rom foot of Newnan Street, Jacksonville, 17 miles ( fifty-five minutes ) The line i s nearly straight to the eastward, from South ;rack sonville, passing a few unimportant statious in the pine for est, and crossing a wide prairie just befo1e reaching the coast. village of Pablo is mainly a seaside resort, with a fine hotel, and a superb bathing-beach three hundred feet wide at low tide. The s eaward slope of this beach i s only eight inches in one hundred feet, so that to the. eye it is appar ently level, and as the beach is absolutely free from irregu lal'ities, the bathing is safe, even for children. Sand dunes covered with beach-scrub and occasional cabbage-palm s de fine the shore line, and for a mile these are crowned with cottages, hotels, and other buildings suited to a seaside re sort, among them a sanitarium belonging to a la1ge Catho lic inst i tution of J acksonville. T he large hotel, Munay Hall i s cleverly contrived to give its guests all possible advantage of its fine situation the parlor windows commanding an out look to sea, northward up the. h eac h to Mayport, and south ward till the breaking surf and the gray beach disappear in the haze. Carriages and horses for riding and driving on the beach cri.n be hnd from a well-furnished livery stabl e, at r easonable ro.tes. Visitors for the day have ample time for an exhilarat ing drive on the beach in either dilection, and it is possible ev en to drive to Burnside Ol' M ayport, and return to town either by boat or rail from one of those points.

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J ApKSONVILLE. 115 16. Jacksonville to Green Oove Springs . Bl' J .. T. & K. W. Rv. f.."'m foot of Bridge Street, 29 milea ( 1 hour 1G min uteS), or b y steamboat. By consulting local time-tables, connections can be ma
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116 JACKSONVILLE which is an whence is a fine outlook over the neighboring marshes, rivers, and ocean. The square top of this observatory is visible twelve to fifteen miles at sea. The hill, or mount," on which it stands is the most prominent natural landmark anywhere on the Southern coast, and has been, since the days of the early explo1 ers, the mark by which the entrance to the St. John's River was recognized by mariners. The island was originally settled by one McQueen, a Scotchman, who probably named it after some locality in his native land. Then it was purchased by a wealthy Southerner, by name, who made it p.n ideal plantation of the old school, maintaining a11 army of slaves, and largely cultivating cotton and other marketable products. The home stead, somewhat modernized, still stands, with its negro quarters and outbuildings near th_e northern end of the isl and, with a fine avenue o f venerable moss-draped cedars in front and along the river side. After the Civil War the family, pressed for money, sold the whole property for $7,500, and shortly afterward four hundred acres were sold to a Boston company, who erected a large house-the F01t George Hotel,-which fo1 many years was a favorite resort fo1 Northern visitors. This was burned May 1, 1889, and has not yet been rebuilt. Many handsome private houses have been built at
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JACKS ONVILLE. 117 17. St. John's River. C alle d Welaka (c h ain of lakes) by the I ndians, de Mai by the F l'e n c h ( 1 562), St. John's River by the Spani s h (1564). ' his is the largest stret\m in Florida. It rises in a vast tract of uncharted ancl unname d lakes anrl marshes neru: the Atlantic coast in Brevard and Osceola Counti es, about in latitude 28 10' N., and flows northward, in a di rection generally parallel to tile coast., but exceedingly t or t uous wllen conside1ed in detail, a distance of nearly three hundred miles. It falls into the sea in latitude 30 25' N.,. between Fort Geo1ge and Batten I s lands o n the north, and tho m ainland o n the south. B etween thi s p oin t and St. Augustine Inlet, f o r ty two miles sou th, the mainland abuts upon the ocean, a condi t i on 1arely f ound on the South At lan t ic sea-coast. Almost everywhere else a system o f i s lands or peninsulas Iles a short distance off the coast, affording sheltere d navigation b y an insi d e route In this case the St. John's River goes far to mak e good the lack of the u s ual channel, for vessels drawing five f ee t can ascend about two hundred and thirty mil es, where they are on l y about seven miles f rom the tide-water of Indin.u Rive r. The bar at the mout h of the r i ver is one of. the mos t tren.cberous o n the coast ; although the construction of jetties was begun in 188 0 an d still co n tinues Prior to thi s large s ums we re ineffec t uali y ex pended in dredging The orig inal plans called about one thousan d feet of jetties, extending in an easterl y direct i on from deep water inside the bar. It. was thought that the scour of the tides would thus keep clear a chann e l o f o.rpple width, ancl.with 1 5 feet depth at low water. The j e t ties had been carried out, n.ccorcling to the latest official figures moie than 3,000 fe e t on t h e north side of the channel, an d about 7,000 fee t on the south .side The c on t ractor reports 20 f ee t at high water The m ea n rise and fall of the tide at tbe bar i s 4 feet 6 inches St John's River L ight i s a reel brick bower w ith black lan t e rn s, 80 feet above sea level, showing a fued white light of t.he thirrl order, visibl e 1 5 miles at sea ( Lat. 30 23 37" L ong 81 <> 25 27").

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118 JACKSONVILLE. Approaching from sea and looking southw!!-rd along the beach, the houses and wharves of Mayport are seen on the left, with the works on shore where the jetty mattresses are made and launched. :Farther to the south are the hotels an
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JACKSONVILLE. 119 tachment of 1,500 troops, attacked the Confederate fortifica tions on St. John's Bluff. 'l' he Confederates soon abandoned the works, leaving 9 and a considerable quantity of munitions of war, which fell into the hands of the Federal forces. Beyond St. John's Bluff the rivel' widens to three-qual'ters of a mile. Pablo Creek and Mount Pleasant Creek find their way through the marshes from the southward in the order named, and Siste1's Creek, Hannah Mills Creelt, and Cedar Point Creek from the northward in the order named. These are all navigable for several n1iles, but are not attradive ex cept to sportsmen, as they are for the most part bordeted by marshes. A wooded shore, with a settlement known as the Shipya1d, borders the river for a mile above St. John's Bluff. A chain of marshy islands occupies the middle of the river for about two miles, with Clapboard Creek and Brown's Creek on the north shore. Beyond Long Island, the last of the marshy series, the river widens into 1\:lill Cove, and bends to the southwest. Dame's Point -Light appears about two miles distant. This is an iron structure, })ainted red, with white upper works, standing on a shoal in mid-stream, with deep water on both sides. It shows a fixed white light, '\"isible eleven miles. A mile below the light is Yellow Bluff (P. 0., New Berlin), a village of a. dozen houses, st.anding among trees on a bluff some thirty feet high. Above this the stream widens .to near two miles, with the channel c l ose t-o the northern shore, and trends to the northward and westward. Dunn's Creek enters from the eastward two miles above Dame's Point, with a peculiar group of pine trees on its eastern bank. One mile fart-her is Drummond's Point, between Cedar Creek on the east and Creel on the west Here tl1e river turns again to the south ward, and St. John's 1\fills is seen about two miles distant. The stream that enters from the westward is Trout Creek. At the south side of its mouth is Sandfl.y Point, and opposite, acrosstheSt. John's, is ReddiesPoint, marshyneadhewater, but with high land and numerous houses among the trees at a little distance. The next stretch of river is about four miles, trending

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120 JACKSONVILLE. southward. Just south of Reddies Point is Chaseville, a small town with a wharf. The easterly bank is high and heavily wooded. Here Pottsburg Creek enters from the eastward. On the west banlt, four miles distant, is Commo dOle's Point, with Jacksonville showing beyonu. On the south bank is the landing of the Jacksonville, l\fayport & Pablo Beach Railway & Navigation Company. Opposite Com modore's Point is Arlington River, with the village of Arling t on to the north of the mouth, and Empire Point, with General A. S. Divens' residence opposite. l\iany othe1 handsome country places line the east bank of the rive.r in this vicinity. Rounding Commodore's Point the city is in sight, with the bridge of the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railway system crossing the river to Oklahoma and South J acksonville. For description of Jacksonville and vicinity see p. 103. Domenique de Gourgues. There i s not in all history material for a more romantic pitiful, tragic, and heroic dxama than was enacted along the placid reaches of the lowe1 St. John. Somewhere bene:tth these shifting sands may still lie the stone cross, carved with the fleur-d e-lis of France, that Jean Ribaut raised when he discovered the river in 1562. Fragments of arms and armor are still found from time to time on the sites of the old Spanish forts. The first discoverers made their welcome harbor here on . tlw first day of 1\'Ia.y, and named the river in hono1 of that month, but the name subsequently given by the Spaniards superseded "I,a Riviere de Mai" of the Huguenots. Perhaps Ribaut took a rose-colored vi ew of the land after his long sea-voyage in a crowded ship, but he certainly was enamoured of the climate and country. "To bee abort," l1e Wl"ote in his journal, as done into _English (the original is not known to exist), "it is a thing unspeakable to consider the t hings that bee seene there, and shalbe founde more and more in this incomperable land" (Hacki't's Eng. 'l'ransla tion of 1582). H e did not long remain here, however, but., on June 25, 1564, another F rench squadron of three ships

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JACKSONVILLE. 121 under Ribaut's lieutenant, Rene de Lauclonniere, an ch01ed off the bar, and were welcomed by Satouriona, the powerful chief of thirty neighboring vHlages. The Indians had care fully preserved, and even sacrificed to Ribaut's cross with its mystic symbols. St. John's Bluff is the supposed site of Fort Caroline, which the French forthwith proceeded to build. 'l'he climate at once exerised its spell upon the members of the expedition even in the heat of July and their accounts of the region are enthusiastic. Venerable Indians were said to have been seen who claimed to be two and a half centuries old, and expected to live thirty or forty years more. 'rhe Indians, after some demur, helped in building the fort, which is depicted by Le llioyne, the special artist of the expedition, in his illustrated nan:a tive. The Indians were agriculturists, though, like all savages, they had their intertriba l wars, and Satouriona was glad of European allies. When. the fort was finishetl tl1e French Protestants, eager for gold as w e re their Spanish contemporaries, pushed their explorations inlnnd, and formed other Indian a llianc e s. Complica tion s and threats of war followed, and during the winte1 of 1564-65 dis satisfaction, conspiracy, and mutiny developed in the little garrison of the fort.. Laudonniihe fell ill, provisions ran short, the mutineers took possession under the leadership of one Foumeaux, and plans were formed for buccaneering expeditions against the Spanish West Indies. After a partly successful, but finally disastrous cruise, the buccaneers l'eturned to Fort Carolin e, and three of the leaders were. tried and executed. Their bodie s were hanged on gibbets as a warning to future mutineel'S. By May 1, 1565, French neared the end of their resources. In a land ready to yield an hundred-fold 11ot an acre hatl been tilled. The hospitality and resomces of the Indians w e re w ell-nigh exhaul1ltecl, and the colony watched wearily for reinforcements that had been promise d from France. By dint of threats ancl persuasions, Laudonniere managed to wrest provisions enough from the Indians to carry his m<:m tluough the summer. They were building a new ship, in the

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122 JACKSONVILLE. hope of escaping from the now hated land of their exile, when, on August 3d, four ships appeared in the offing, which proved t o be the English squadron o! Sir John Hawkins, who had been on a successful slave-hunting expedition to the coast of Guinea. Hatred of the Spaniard was a senti ment common to French Huguenot and English freebooter, and the visit of Hawkius seemed most opportune. He warned them of an intended Spanish attack, renewed their store of provisions, and sold them a ship in which, with their other '"essels, t -hey might hope to reach Fmnce. Pl epara tions for departure were hastened, when, on 4ugust 28th, another fleet appeared. It was Riba:ut with the long-expected reinforcements. All seemed favorable for the establishment of a prosperous colony, when, to quote a graphic sentence from Parkman, "at half-past eleven on the night of Tues day, Sept.ember 4th, the crew of Ribaut's flag-ship, an chored on the still sea outside the bar, saw a huge hulk, grim with the throats of cannon, drifting toward them through the gloom; and fl'Om its stern rolled on the sluggish air the po1tentous banner of Spain." It was the San Pelayo, flagship of Pedl'O 1\fenendez, accompanied by five other vessels bearing five hunched soldiers, and commissioned to exterminate the Luthei:an colony. The French ships were not ready for a night engagement, so when the Spaniards cleared for action, they slipped their cables and escaped to sea, lteeping up a running fire !l.S they went. Menendez pursued, but the French outsailed him, and when he re tm-1\ed he found such preparations made for defence that he dared not risk an attack. Accordingly he sailed southward, rejoined the rest of his squadron, and founded St. Augustine (see p. 135). Here, then, were two "Christian" colonies on the. edge of an unknown continent, three thousand miles from home, each plotting for the other's destruction. Uibaut was the first to make a move. After a council of wa1, he sailed for St. Augustine with almost all llis ablebodied men on September lOth, 'l'i'as caught in a hurricane and wrecked near Cape Canaveral. Nearly all escaped with their lives, but wete brut11-lly massacied by the Spaniards at l\fatanzas (see p. 1 78). The paltry garrison under Laudon-

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JACKSONVILLE. 123 niere lef t in Fort Caroline numbered ne.arly two hundred, few of them fit to bear arms, and shel tered behind a half dismantled fort. Wh e n 1\fen endez, from the redoubt at St. Augu stine, sa w the F re.nch straining every nerve to work off shore in the teeth of an eas terly gale, he con ceived a.nd acted upon the bold idea of destroying Fort Cal'O line during their absence Con trary to the advice of his of ficers and priests, he marched on this hazardous el1'and with five hundred men. The storm continued, but at daybrea.k on September 20tlJ, after an arduous march of three days, during which only the i ron will and fanatical exaltation of M ene nde z prevented open revolt, they found themselves in sight of Fort Ca.1oline. Vigila nce was som ewhat relax ed by the guards as day drew on. M enendez, seeing his oppor tunity, gave the word, and his men rushed, shouting their wa1 cry "Santiago upon the nearly defenceless Flenchmen. Resistance was made only by a few. Lnudonniere, L e Moyne the artist, and the carpenter, aU of whom wrote ac counts of their experience s, escaped to the woods, whete they were joined by others, twenty-six. in all, and succeeded event ually in reachin g the small vessels anchored insi
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124: JACKSONVILLE. There was boundless indignation in France, but the king -Charles IX.-was afraid of his powerful neighbor, and would do nothing to avenge the insult. When l1j.s policy of inaction, became eviden t, a private gentleman of France, a tried soldier, Domenique de Gourgues by name, resolved to take the matter into his own hands. He purchased three vessels with his own means, equippe d them, manned them with one hundred and eighty soldiers and sailors, and. set forth on a crusade as romantic and more desperate than that for the Holy Sepulch1e. It was not until he reached Ameri can waters early in 1568 that he told his men the true pur pose of the expedition, and succeeded in an impassioned speech in arousing their enthusi. asm and gaining their con sent. Passing within sight of the Spanish forts on the St. John's, exchanging salutes with them, indeed, De Gourgues sailed to the St. Mary's River or thereabout, and landing found the Indians ripe for war against the Spaniards. The chief was Satouriona, formerlv the friend of Ribaut It took the Indians three days to muster for the onslaught and perform their usual incantations. '!'hen, leaving a small guard with the ships, de Gou r gues and his Indian allies moved to the attack by way of Amelia Sound, to what is now Foi"t George Island. The Spaniards had partly completed a fort near the pres ent site of Pilot To,yn, and to thfs de Gourgues fii-st directed his attention, keeping his men concealed till the tide ebbed, so that they could wade the inlet. Fortune favo1ed .his movements, and :).t noon he dashed upon the unfinished defences with such vigor that not one of sixty Spaniards within the works made his escape Olotoraca, a young chief, the son of Satouriona, who accompanied de Gourgues as guide, shed the first blood. Leaping the ditch with a French pike in his hand, he transfixed a Spanish cannoneer just as he was discharging his gun; The surprise and the victoq were complete, and, save a few reserved for a more terrible fate, in remembrance of the acts of Menendez, all were put to the sword. On the opposite shore, near where 1\fayport now stands, the Spaniards had another fort, which at once opened fire on

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JACKSONVILLE. 125 the victorious French. One of de Goui:gues' boats of carrying eighty men, was pushed across under fire, and, buming with hatred for the Spaniard, the Indian allies of the French, each holding his bow and arrows above his l1ead, dashed into the water and sw2.m to the south bank. 'fhe was too much for the Spaniards; they forsook the fort, and attempted to reach the forest, forgetting in thflii.' panic that the French had already landed. De Gourgues met them with his arquebusiers and pikemen, and, before they could rally for an organized onset, the Indians swarmed across the sands antl nttacll:.ed with such fury that the French could only tescue fifteen to be 1eserved for a more deliberate vengeance. The next day was Sunday-the Sunday after Easter-and the Lutherans lrept it by making scaling-ladders for the as sault on Fort San Mateo. The Indians held the woods l1ack of the fort so effectually that no Spaniard could venture out side the wo1ks. N evertheles!;, a spy in Indian disguise was sent forth by night, but was instantly detected by Olotoraca. 'This man reported that were 260 men in the garrison, and de Gourgues made preparations to attack ori Tuesday morning . The Indians were placed in ambush on both sides of the fort, while the F1ench men-at-arms advanced after daybreak along the side, taking to cove1 when the Spanish cnlverins opened upon them. With singular want of prudence the Spaniards sent out a strong reconnoitring party, which was cleverly entrapped by the French and killed to a man. Conscience must have had something to do with the action of the rest of the garrison, for many of them had participate(! in the butchery of the Lutherans on this very spot three years before. At all events, they gave way to panic and fled to the woods on the side away from the French. Here they were instantly surrounded by whoop ing savages, and the French coming upon them from the rear, their extermination was soon complete. Spanish au thorities claim, however, that some few made good theit es cape. It will be remembered how 1\Ienendez was saicl to have llanged his prisoners, and placed over their bodies the inscrip-

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126 JACKSONVILLE. tion: "Not as to Frenchmen, but as to Lutherans." It was the Frenchman's turn now. De Gourgues had with diffi culty saved the lives of a number of his late antagonists. H e caused them now to be brought before him. "Did you think," he said, according to his own account, ''that so vile a treachery, so detestal::lle a cruelty, against a king so potent and a nation so generous, would go unpunished? I, one of the humblest of gentlemen among my king's subjects, have charged myself with avenging it. Even if the Mcist Chris tian a .nd Most Catholic 1 Kings had been enemies at deadly war, such pexfidy and extreme cruelty would have been un pardonable. Now that they are f1iends and close allies, there is no name vile enough to brand your deeds, no pun ishment sharp enough to requite them. But since you cannot suffer such punishment as you deserve, you shall receive all that an enemy can honorably inflict, to the end that others may learn to preserve the peace and alliance that you so treacherously and maliciously violated. Having said this," the narrator writes, "they were hanged on the same trees where they had hanged the Frenchmen," and above them was na,iled this inscrip tion, burned with a hot iron on a pine -board : ''I do this, not as to Spaniards, nor as to 'Marannes,' but as to traitors, robbers, and murderers." (1\farannes was a semi-cohtemptuous term then applied, to Spaniards.) Thus was the ill-fated Huguenot colony avenged. De Gourgues and his Indian allies destroyed the forts, re turned in triumph to his ships and sailed for France, where he received a popular ovation, but, will it be believed, was coldly received by the King and Court, who were under the spell and terror of Spain. He was even obliged for a time to remain in concealment to escape Spanish vengeance, but finally his services were recognized as a defender of E'rench honor; he was restored to 1oyal fnvor, and when he died was eulogized as one of the bravest soldiers of his time. 1 For several centuries the Kings of France and Spain were known respectively by these titles.

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FERNANDINA. 127 20. Fern andina. Nassau Co. (C. H.). Pop., 4,000.-Lnt. so 40' N.-Long. 81 26' w-.-Mean rise an
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128 FERNANDINA. in 1861. It is a pentagonal structure of brick and concrete, with bastions and detached scarps, loopholed fo r musketry. 'l'he armament at that time included two large rifled guns, and twenty-seven 32-pounders. The permanent works were flanlred with water batteries, and strengthened with sand embankments under the super vision of competent military engineers. A battery of four guns was erected on Cumbe.dand I s l and. Approach by sea was impracticable in the face of these guns, and in view of the t .ortuous. channel. The harbor, however; was important to both parties, as it afforded a haven for blockade-runners considerably nearer than any other to the neutral ports at Bermuda and on tlle Bahamas. The Confederate garrison was about two thousand strong, under command of General J. H. Trapier. On the moruing of August 6, 1861, the inhabitants of the city were called to arms and tu witness a race between the United States Ship Vincennes and the Alvarado, a prize of the Confederate privateer Jllf Davis. The latte1 wa.s making for the bar under all sail, but was forced ashore, abandoned by her crew, and afterward fired 1'y boat crews from the Vincennes, it being obviously impossible to set her afloat again. In. February, 1862, an expedition was organized at Port Royal Ly Commodore Dupont, U S. N and sailed on the last .day of that month for the capture of Fernandina. The fleet consisted of nineteen vessels, mainly gunboats of light draught. On reaching the upper end of the sound Commodore Du pont ancho recl to wait for the tide, and there learned from an escaped negro slave that the garrison at Fernandina was already abandoning the town and fortifications. The light est and fleetest gunboats were immediately despatched down the Sound under Commander Percival Drayton to p revent destruction of property if possible, while the rest of the fleet took the outside passage. Cumberland Sound provecl too shallow, however, and only the Ottawa could get through . D rayton went aboard of her and pushed on. As he passed Fort Clinch, a boat's crew was sent to hoist the American flag as a signal to the fleet. A white .flag was displayed at

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FERNANDINA. 129 Femandina, but shots were fired at the Ott.awa, and a railway train drawn by two engines was discovered just.moving off. It was natmally supposed to contain troops, and an .ex ci ting chase ensued, as the track was for some four miles within range of the rive-r. The Ottawa endeavored to dis able the engines with her l arge rifl e d gun, but the train had the advantage of speed, and eventually left the gunboat be hind, escaping across the bridge. A steamer, the Darling ton, crowded wi t h 1efugees, was l ess f ortunate, being captured by the Ottawa's boats . It is significant of the then existing conditions of warfare that Commander Dray:ton was a native of South Carolina, while John Brock, captain of t.he captured steamboat, was a Vermonter. It subsequently appeared that the Confederate authorities had attempted to remove all the inhabitants under the mistaken idea that they in danger o f brutal treatn1en t from the captors. Of the United States forts seized by the Confed e rates, Fort Clinch was on e of the first to be regained by Government forces. The occupation of restored to F ederal control the whole of the sea-coast of G e orgia, and afforded a con venient base of operations against Jacksonville and St. Augustine. After the capture of th Darlington, the Ottaw a steamed up the St. Mary s River as far as King's F erry, fifty-two miles, to reconnoitre, and while returning was fired upon by. infantry, said to have been the Twenty-ninth Mi ssissippi Regiment, in ambush 9n shore. The fire was instantl y returned at short range with grape-shot, and with such deadly effect that no further opposition was experienced. Several men were wounded on board the Ottawa.

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130 l!'ERNANDINA. 21. Amelia Island, on which Fernandina stands, is thil teen miles long, and from oue to two and one-half miles wide. It is low nnd fiat, or ouly gently undulating, with marshes along the inland shore, but heavily wooded to seaward. Ontside of the woods is a belt of sand-hills and scrub, and beyond these a fine beach of l1ard white sand on which it is a luxury to walk, ride, o1 drive. A pleasant walk may be taken by following either the ocean beach or one of the roads leading north fl'Om the hotel. The village of Old Fernandina, where the first settlement was made, is about a mile and a half from the present city. A mile farthei: is Amelia Island. Lighthouse, with the keeper's dwelling pleasantly situated among trees on a bluff about fifty feet higher than the sea level. The light was originally established in 1836. The present tower was built in 1880. It is 58 feet high, and the lantern is 112 feet above the sea level. It shows a white flash-light at in tervals of 90 second!>; visible at sea 161 nautical miles. From the lighthouse to the extreme northern point of the island is two miles, an easy and pleasant walk along the ocean beach, save at high tide, when the hard belt of beach is under water. (See maps, pp. 24 and 26.) 22. Amelia River enters Cumberland Sound just inside the northern end of Amelia Island. It is an atm of the sea sepa1ating the island from Tiger Island and the mainland of Florida. This por tion of the strait is North Amelia. River. It connects with South Amelia River through Kingsley's Cteek, a narrow passage with only two feet of watei: at the "divide" where the ti
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FERNANDINA. 131 23. Nassau Sound is formed by Amelia and Little Talbot Islands, the inlet between them being one mile and a half wide. The sound itself is of a mile wide for about two miles, and then divide!l, forming South Amelia River on the north and Nassau River on the south. The entrance is obstructeu by shifting sands, which make out tp sea one mile and a qual"ter, and al"e marked by a can buoy in twenty-four feet of water. There is good anchorage under the south point of Amelia Island. (See maps, pp. 24 and 26.) 24.; Cumberland Sound. The entrance to this sound is almost exactly a mile wide between Cumberland Island on the north and Amelia Island on the south. The sound itself, with an average width of about a mile, is nine miles long, and affords an inside pas sage between the mainland of Georgia and Cumbedanu Island, to St. Andrew's Sound and the Cumberland River. Six feet draught can be carried through at low water, but the passage is variable, owing to shifting sand, and a pilot is necessary for all vessels of mo1e than. two feet draught. Viewed ftom the offing, Cumberland Island appears to be divided, but both parts are in reality joined by a stretch of low land, which becomes visible on nearer approach. Near the southern end of the island formerly stood Dun geness House, the hon1e of General Nathaniel Greene, of the Continental army. In recognition of his conspicuous services in the Revolutionary War, the State of Georgia gr.we him this fine estate, which was for many yeats occupied by him and afterward by his heirs. During the Civil War both sides respected this historic mansion. When Fernandina was oc cupied by Unite(! States Troops, a safeguard was placed on the property, and the following order posted at the entrance: This property, belonging originally to General Nathaniel Greene, a Revolu tionary hero and a native of Rhode Island, is now the property of his grandson llfr. Nightingale. It is hereby ordered and enjoined npon all who may visit th:s

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132 FERN AN DIN A . lllace to hol(l everything about the place sacred, and in no case disturb or take away any a rticle without a special order from Flag Officer Dupont or General Wright. Thus protected, the old mans ion survived the dangers of the t ime, only to be accidentally burned some years after'vtnd. Subsequently tlle p!.'operty was purchased by its pres ent owner, who removed the 1uin and erected a modern structure in its place. Cumberland Sound :is almost wholly sunounded by marshes through which numerous tributaries find their way. 'l'he most important of these is St. Mary's on which is the town of St. Mary's, Ga., about three and one-half miles from the mouth. A. work of improvement by means of jetties was begun in 1881 by United States A1my engineers, intended to est.ablish a depth of twenty-one feet at mean low water. The jetties are only partially completed, and a large portion of them are still submerged. The outer ends are about three thousand feet apart, and the outer portions of the jetties are parallel. The St. 1\fary's River has its source far back in the interior, and for a long distance. it forms the boundary between Florida and Georgia. It is easily navi gable for sea-going vessels for ninety-three miles, but high woods shut off the wind, so that it is difficult for sailing craft. Jolly River is a navigable arm some six miles long, and nearly parallel to the lower reach of the St. Mary's. R eed's Bluff is a conspicuous hill of wl1ite sand, seven miles above St. 1\!Iary's. Twenty-s even miles above St. Mary's is a cut-off, practicable for small boats at high water, which lessens the distance by several miles. The1e are no special points of interest on the river, but there are several lumber mills and logging stations, rarely visited by tourists. These, after leaving Reed's Bluff, are Port Henry Wild's Landing, yard, Germantown Woodstock, Ki!Jg's Ferry, Orange Bluff, Camp Pinckney Calico Hill, and Trader's Hill, which is at the .h ead of navigation. Pleasant excursions up the river may be made in launches from Fernandina, and fairly good shooting may be had for water-fowl in the season. At King's Feny are stores where ordinary supplies may be ob tained.

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SAlN'I' AUGUS'I'INE. 133 30. Saint Augustine. St. County . Population, 10,000.-Lat. 29 53' 7" N.-Long. 17' 12" W. 1\fean rise and fa \1 of tide, 4 feet Ho'l:ELS.-(Rates are g iven by the day unless otherwise stated .) Alc-a.ztw, rooms $2 upward; restltlirant a la carte.-Carleton House, $3.-Uonlo>Ja, $4 up ward.-Ji'lorida ll
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1 34 SAINT AUGUSTINE. History. As the earliest permanent settlement o f Europeans lVithi n the present territory of the United S tates, San Augustin, as the Span iards wrote the name, will always be of excep tiona l in terest t o Americans I n a deg1ee it has claims also upon S paniards, upon the E nglish, and upon the French, for all of them have, at one time or another, fought f or it or against i t. The early navigat6rs wer e lured to Florida by stories of w ealth and magic that met them b e fore even they l1ad sighted the shores of the continent. It is c u r ious that the fab led "Fountain of Youth" should h ave crossed the ocean in advance of the Spanish s hips, and yet we have the testimony of Peter M artyr, in a n address to the Pope, to the effect t l 1at the existence o f such a f ountain was 'well attested and b e lieved by the exp lorers themselves. There was, indeed, a better f oundation for this fable than for the tales of gold that always accompanied it. The1 e are a score of springs in Flori da, any one of which migh t easily impress an ignorant o r superstitions beholder with the idea of sup ernatura l vi r tues. P robably native descrip tions of those mat vellous sp1'ings had much to do with P once de Leon's undoubted belief the legend. He was growing old, and with the prospect of wealth and renewed youth before him, it was no wonder that he was eager to test the t r u t h of eveq story that reached his ea r s So it cam e to pass that he landed; and claimed P ascua Florida" for his 1\:[ost C ath olic M ajesty the K ing of Spain, a few miles north of St. Augustine. The exact locality can neve r be known, but it could not have been far from Seloy, a conside rable I ndian town on the site of the pres ent city. H ard l y had the Spaniards made a landin g, when they were set upon by such a formidable band of I ndians that were g lad to es cape to theit boats, canying with them fatally wound ed, their gallant o l d comman der. This w as on April 3, 1512, and, as it is not likely that so l arge a war par ty of Indians could have been hastily rallied at a distance fro m some lal"ge town, we may safely assume that P once de L eo n made his great. discovery and receive d his death-woun d al-

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. SAINT AUGUSTINE. 135 most within sight pf the spot where the French Huguenot, Hene de Laudonniere, landed fifty-two years afterward (June 22, 1564). Laudonnie;re translated the native name Seloy into French, inadvertently, perhaps, and named the estuary La Bivi e .re des Dauphines, because of the numerous por poises or dolphins" that then, as now, made it their feed ing-ground. French, however sailed away in search of a more promising location, and eventually built Fort line on the St. John's River (seep. 118). This French expedition was the immediate cause of the Spanish settlement at St. Augustine. It was essentially a Protestant colc:my, sent out under the patronage of Admiral Coligny, and with the assent of Charles IX., then king of France. When news of the building of Fort Caroline reached Maddd, great was the wrath of the Spanish king and his coUltiers. It was bad enough that the Spanish 1ights of discovery should be invaded, but that the invaders should be heretics was more than Catholic human nature could endure. Pedro Menendez de Aviles, a devo1.1t and bigoted religionist, a brave, cruel, and uncompromising soldier, was commissioned to exterminate the French Colony. His compact with the king bound hin1 to transport to Flori da 12 priests, 4 Jesuit fathers, 100 horses, 200 horned cattle, 400 sheep and goats, 400 swine, and 500 slaves. He agreed to establish two or three towns, each of 100 families, and was to have the title of Adelentado, or governor, and 1\fa1quis, .withvarious other privileges and emoluments. With 2,600 men in 11 vessels he sailed, and on September 7, 1565, anchored in the River of Dolphins with about half his fleet. "On Saturday, the eighth day of September," writes Fl'ay Francisco Lopez de Mendoza, Chaplain of the fleet, the day of. the Nativity of Our Lady, the General disembarked with numerous banners displayed, trumpets and other martial music xesouncling, and amid salvos of artillery. Carrying a cross, I proceeded at the head, chanting the hymn 1'e Deum Laudamus. The Generall;llarched straight up to the cross, to gether with all those who accompanied him, and, kneeling, they all kissed the cross. After this, possession was formally

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136 SAIN'l' AUGUST I NE. taken in the name of his Maj esty, and the offi<;lers all oath of allegiance." To the many Indians who wa tched these c eret110nies nil this must hav e been a wond erful sight. The chaplain says that they imitated whatever they saw done, kneeling, cross ing themselves and bowing as they saw the Emop eans do. The Indian village of Seloy, or Selooe, stood whe1e the city now i s, and it must have been a place o f con sidet-able i mportance. The chief was friendly, and assigned quarters to the soldiers in a large building situated near the shol'e. Fatigue parLies were instantly set to work and, almost before the ldndiy chie f knew what w as doing; a little Spanish fort stood in th e midst of his vill age, with guns in position, and sentries walking their b eats in 1egula.r European style Fl'Om that day t.o this St. Augustine has been the abode of E u iopeans. After the devout custom of the Spanish ex plore r s, the place was at once in honor of the Saint of tha t day, who providentially was a very distingui s hed Saint, namely, Aurelius Augustin us, easily the greatest of the four fath ers of the Christian Church (A. D. 354. to A. D. 430). H e was Bishop of Hippo Hegius, the ancient seat of the Nunridian kin gs, and his memory and teachings are still cherished ali ke by Ca thoiics and Protestan ts. Eighty cannon were fo1-t.hwit h landed, and the post was speedily put in a state for defenc e On September lOth the French ships came down from the St. John's in the night, and, accm :ding to the good chaplain b efo re quoted, were only prevented from capturing the ves sels and aU who were left on board, by the special intelpo sition of Our L ady of B on Secou 1 s d' Utlera, who, in answer to the prayers of the frigh tened mariners, descended in per son upon one of the vessels, bringing n. breeze that enablecl all. to escape. Further than this, the goocT lady, Ol' some o ther power, caused a terrific gale to arise which wrecked the French fleet before it could regain the St. John's Now was M enendez's opportunity. He promptly despatched five hundred men, knowing that the garrison at FDl't Crue line must be gteatly weakened, surprise d and captured the and put to the swor d of the garrison whom he

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SAIN'l' A UGUS'l'INE. 137 did not hang (seep. 123). 'l'his success was followed by the surrender and execution of most of the shipwrecked French men at Matanzas Inlet (see p. 178). On September 28, 1565, St. Augustine set t.he example that has since been followed by nearly every town in the State,.-it had a great tire. The quarters occupied by the garrison were consumed, with large q nantities of stores and prov1s1ons. Incendiarism was suspecteLl, but never proved. Work was begun immediately on a regular for tific ation, the Spaniards having before them a wholesome fear of French vengeance for the recently perpetrated massa.cres. More over, it was learned presently that about two hundred Frenchmen still survived, and had fortified themselves at Canaveral -probably n01th of the present Cape of that name. Against this fort Menendez piesently moved, and one hundred and fifty of the garrison surrendered, and for some inexplicable reason were courteously treated as prisoners of war. The winter that followed was o. most trying one to the increased as it was by the accession of the French prisoners. The Indians, friendly at first, had been estranged, as usual, by cruel treatment from the Spaniards No one could go outside the fort to hunt or fish without danger from an evei-vigilant and preternaturally crafty foe. It is credibly 'stated that more than one hundred and twent y of the gar rison were thus killed; including several officers. At this crisis, while provisions were growing scarce, Menendez went to Cuba for relief. Duiing his absence the garrison mutinied, arid not even his return sufficed wholly to restore discipline. Altogether some five hundred men re. turned to Cuba, Mexico, and Spain, and for the first time in history Florida was denounced to intending settlers as baHen, swampy, and unproductive. The fort was completed before spring, but by June pro visions again ran shor t, a .nd but for the timely from Spain of a fleet of seven teen vessels with 1,500 men and ample supplies the attempt to colonize Florida must have been abandoned. Juan de Avila was admiral of this fleet, and with him he brought to M en endez a welcome letter from his royal master, Philip I(, wherein the "retribution you

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138 SAINT AUGUSTINE. have visited upon the Lutheran pirates" was warmly com mended. In the meantime, operating from St. Augustine, as head-quarters, several colonies were planted, and, leaving affairs in a seemingly prosperous condition, Menendez cau .sed to be built a 20-ton 'frigate," of very light construction, in which he sailed for Spain, making the run to the Azores, more than three thousand miles, in the remarkably short time of seventeen days. He was received with high honors by Philip II., but in the meantime vengeance was brewing in France, and before Mene ndez could return to St. Augus tine, the soldier of fortune, Domenique de Gourgues, had captured the Spanish forts on the St. John's, and a,ve11ged the massacre of the Huguenot colony (see p. 120). Shortly after this Menendez returned from Spain to find the garrison at St. Augustine again on the point of starva tion and mutiny. It seems incredible that, in such a pro lific land as Flolida has since proved to b e, no serious efforts we1e made to cultivate the soil, but it is certain that starva tion more than once threatened the garrison at St. Augustine during the nine years that intervened before Menendez's death. In the Church of San Nicolas, at Aviles, is a handsome monument bearing the following inscription, which is here translated to show the distinguished titles and honors held by the founder of "San Augustin :" Here lies buried the. illustrious Cavalier Pedro Menen dez de Aviles, a native of this city, Adelantado of the Prov inces of Florida, Knight Commande1 of Santa Cruz of the order of Santiago, and Captain General of the O ce anic Seas, and of the Armada which his Royal Highness collected at Santander in the year 157 4, where he died in the 55th year of his age." After its founder's death the colony at St. Augustine was. left mainly to its own resources, and soon began to leam how to take care of itself. It passed through the usual t1ials of a frontier town during the twelve years that fol lowed, slowly growing, however, in strength and resources. On 1\:lay 28 (0. S. ), 1586, the English freebooter, Sir Franci.'3 Drake, was sailing up the coast and discovered a lookout on

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SAINT AUGUS'l'INE. 139 Anastasia Island. "None amongst us had any knowledge of it at all," says Drall:e in his narrative. So an armed party was sent ashore, who discove1ed the .fort and town, and re potted accordingly. Upon this Drake landed a cannon near the bead of the island and opened fire just as night fell. 'he first shot" s t rake through the Ensigne," and the second struck the wall of the fort. Darkness prevented further op erations, but during the night Christopher Carleil, the lieu tenant-general, made a reconnaissance in "a little rowing Skiffe," and was fired at from the fort. 1\:Iorning dawned, and, continues Drake in his narrative, "forthwith came a Frenchman, being a Phipher, in a little boat, playing on his Phiph the tune of the Prince of Orange his Song." The deserter proved to .be one Nicolas de Bur goyne, who had been spared by Menendez at the time of the Huguenot massacre. He reported the evacuation of the fort . The English immediately manned their boats without waiting for full daylight, and found the French :lifer's report true, the garrison of 150 men having fled in such l1aste that the treasure-chest, containing ,000, fell into Drake's hands. An advance was then made upon the town, which lay some threequarters of a mile to the southward, but, after a feeble show of resistance, both soldi e rs and inhabitants fled, and Drake pillaged and burned the place, which l1ad by this time attained quite a respectable size, with a "Hall of Justice," a parish church, a monastery, and twelve squares of dwellings and. other buildings, each wi t h its garden on the west side. The fort (St. John of the Pines) was a rude octagonal af fair of pine logs, set palisadewise, was without ditches, and is described as quite incapable of resisting such an attack as Drake could have delivered. The narrative says, in fact, So as to say the truth the y had no reason to keepe it, being subject both to fire, and easie of assault." The English soon departed, and t.he Spanish governor, a nephew and namesake of the original founder, led back his colony and began the work of reconstruction. In 1592 twelve Fxanciscan missionaries arrived and began systematically to work for the conversion of the Indians.

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140 SAINT AUGUSTINE. The governor had encouraged Indian settlement!', and two villages had bean established, known as Talomato and Tapoqui, the first being in 01 near the northwest part of the town, and the second a little to the northward of the fort, where was an I n dian church consecrated to "0Ul' Ladv of v the Milk.'' I n 1598 the native converts began to tire of ecclesiastical restraint, and undel' the leadership of 'a young chief broke into the chapel at 1'alomato, which stood near the present Roman Catholic Cemetery, and killed. Father Co1pa while at his evening devotion. Thence they went to Tapoqui and sel'Ved Father Roderiguez in like manner, permitting him, however, at his own request, to put on his vestments and say mass He was killed before the altar, which it is said was spattered with his blood. The fierce young chief then led his band against the seveml other missions that had .been established up and down the coast and in the in teriOl and very nearly exterminated the Franciscan brothel' hood in Florida. Of course, summary vengeance was by the Spaniards, who burned villages and granaries, when they could riot catch the marauders themselves. The fate of the martyred priests served only to stimulate the missiona.ry spirit among the Franciscans, and in a few years there were twenty prospe1ous missions in as manv of the pl'incipal v I ndian towns with their headquarters at St. Augustine. In 1638 the A palachian Indians rose against the Spaniards, and many prisoners were brought to St. Augustine and set to work on the fortifications. :By 1647 the1e were 300 h.ouse holders, resident in the city, and 50 Franciscans occupied the monastery. There was a parish church with a full staff of ecclesiastics, and the fort was rebuilt on a more secure plan. l\fenendez the Second had been killed by Indians, and his son-in-law, Hemando de Alas, succeeded him-the last of the Menendez line. Diego de Rebellado was Captain-General from 1655 till 1675 and during his term of
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SAINT 141 At allevent.c;1 the town was sacked, the garrison, two hundred in number, apparently remaining in the fort, not being strong enough to make resistanc e or affvrd protection. At this time the fort was square, with bastions, and capable of a good de fence. 'fhe English, at any rate, seem to have deem ed it pru dent to take themselves off with their plumier without at tacking the fort . Don Juan J\farquez de Cabrera was appointed Governor in 168 1 and took in hand energetically the work of completing the castle (see p. 158). At this time incipient hostilities began between the Spaniards in Florida and the English and Scotch in Georgia and the Carolinas, each side finding just cause for complaint. in the encroachments of the other. In 1675, and again in 1685, the Governor of St. sent armed expeditions against Port Royal. The second one was successful, the Spaniar ds breaking up Lord Cardross' colony and plundering p l antations along the Edisto Rive1. I n 1 687 Captain Juan de Aila brought from Spain the first negro slave imported to the colony, an event that was hailed with joy by the inhabitants. Menendez, it will be re membered was authorized to import .the hundred slaves, but he never did it, and though the Spaniards did not hesitate to enslave Indians whenever conv?nient, they did not prove so tractable as negroes. Under Don Diego de Quiroga. y Losada, in 1690 the con struction of a sea-wall was undertaken as a public work, and. in the following year substantial aid was received from the home. government.. This old wall appa1ent l y extended from the castle to the present Plaza. Portions of it were visible along the middle of Bay Street until about 1860, and exca vation, were it desirable, would no doubt reveal a consider. able portion of the o l d structure, which the progress of mod ern imp1ovement has covered up (seep. 1 56) . The year 1702 saw war formally declared between Great Britain and Spain, and James Moore, then Governor of South Carolina, a man of energetic and warlike instincts, organized an against St. Augustine. The castle was now in shape to stand a siege, and pre parations were made accord ingly. The inhabitants l'emoved theil' valuables within the

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142 SAINT AUGUS'riNE. walls. Moore's attack was planned by lanll and. sea, but tl1e land forces under Colonel Daniel arrived first, and occupied the town without opposition. Shortly afterward the fleet of transports appeared in the offing aud the castle was com pletely invested. The walls were found to be too strong for the light ord nance brought by Governor Moore and two different mes sengers were sent to Jamaica for heavier guns. The first messenger proved inefficient, but the second, Colonel Daniel, procured the guns and returned with great expedition. In the meantime, however, two Spanish frigates appeared in t1le offing and Moore, thinking that Colonel Daniel could not now accomplish his mission, raised the siege and matched home, abandoning or burning his ships and firing the town as he departed. When Colonel Daniel returned with his ord nance and stores l1e narrowly escaped capture, not knowing that his colleagues had withdrawn. The Carolinians carried home a considerable quantity of l"ich booty, including vestments and plate fmm the churches, and thus was St. A ugustine again forced to begin her career ov e r again. There is but small doubt that had Moore awaited Daniel's return, the castle would have f allen, for the Spanish frigates had but two hundred men, who not have afforded substan tial aid. 'l'he siege had lasted nearly three months, and the beleaguered garrison was glad to l1ave it end at any cost. This nanow escape had the effect of inducing a more lib eral policy on the part of the home government. Money and men were sent to complete and &trengthen the fortifications, but in 1712 there was nearly a famine, for the provision ships failed to arrive and the Spanish colonists for some reason had not leamed to make a living by peaceful means. The year 1725 found the city with an enemy again at he1 gates, this time Colonel Palmer, of South Ca1olina. H e was merely on a raid, however, and as the city was walled by this time, be could only destroy everything outside the gates. Seven years passed. Another martial governor had ap peared in the north, to wit, James Edward Oglethorpe, of Georgia .. War still Brit.ain Rnd Spain, and Oglethorpe, under instructions from the English Crown,

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SAINT AUGUSTINE 143 made a descent upon St. Augustine. The expedition was organized with a view to ending the partisan warfare that had so long subsisted between English and Spanish colo nists. Oglethorpe held tlle king's commission as a general officer; a regiment of the line was sent hom. England to join the exped ition, and several hundred volunteers were en rolled among the colonists. Four 20-gun ships and two sloops formed the naval force. The Governor of Florida at this time was Don Manuel de Monteano, an energetic and able commander, who made every eff()rt to strengthen his position. The population of St. Augustine was about two thousand. The garrison num bered about seven hundred and forty men, horse, foot, and artillery. There were fifty pieces of cannon in the castle-12-to 48 -pou nders. Don Antonio de Arredondo, an able of. fleer of engineers, strengthened the works, and threw up in-tre nchments aroun'd the town, the remains of some of which are still visible. Oglethorpe's forces rendezvoused at the mouth of the St. John's, 1\fay 24, 1739. Two Spa nish forts on the river, at Picolata, had already been captured. About two miles north of the Castle of St. was an outwork called "Negro Fort," or "Fort Moosa," having at that time water commun icat ion with the cast le through a tidal creek. It was originally intended as a shelter for plan tation hands against the Indians whence its name, but was subseque:utly gatTisoned hy the Spani ards The English found it deserted, and decided to destroy it. Probably this was the 1esult of some misunderstanding, for hardly was the work begun, whe n was countermanded, and Colonel Palmer was sent with 133 inen to hold the position. On June 6th, Colonel Vanderdt1sen arrived with the North Carolina Regiment, having marched down the beach from the St. John's, but it was not until June 20th that the fleet took position and St. Au gustine was fairly invested. On Island, directly opposite the castle was a battery of four 18-pounders, and one 9-pounder. Two more 18pounders were mounted on higher land. On San Matteo, or North River Point were seven mon1 pieces, and, according

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144 SAIN1' AUGUSTINE . to Spanish accounts, there were thhty-four.mortars .in position. The remains of the principal battery on Anastasia Island can still be traced. The town was at once rendered untenable by the English guns, and the inhabitants sought shelter in the fort. On the night of June 25th a sortie in force was made from the castle, and the insufficient garrison at Fort l\foosa was over powered after a sharp fight. Colonel Palmer, the nominal commandant, bad from the first protested against being left with so few men in an exposed })Osition out of reach of suc cor, and, moreover, Captain Mcintosh, commanding a High lander detachment that formed part of the garrison, was dis posed to be insubordinate-facts which, taken in connection with the partial destruction of the fort, sufficiently account for its capture. Nevertheless, a stubborn resistance was made, and two assaults were repulsed. A third was more successful, and the Spaniards gained the interior of the work, where theu superior numbers soon compelled submission. A few of the garrison cut their way out and escaped to the English line s, but Colonel Palmer was killeJ, fighting to the last. Captain Mcintosh, with about twenty of his men, was captured and taken to Spain. After this hostilities consisted mainly of an artillery duel be tween the castle and the batteries, resulting in small damage to either side. The walls of the old fort still bear marks of shot and shell, but the range was too great for the ordnance of that period ; the missiles merely imbedded themselves harmlessly in the coquina ramparts. Ogl etho rpe, indeed, counted upon starvation to compel sur rendei:, aild his hopes might p1:obably have been l'ealized, but for the unaccountable to guard Mosqui to and 1\:latanza s Inlets, thus leaving the authorities at Havana free to send supplies in response to 1\:Ionteano's appeals for aid. There is some doubt as to whether the siege was raised be fore or aft-er the wants of the. garrison were re!ieve .d. Be that as it may, Ogl e thorpe and his officers believed that sup plies had been received, and were satisfied earl y in July that it was useless to protract the siege with the means at hand. On the lOth of that month, therefore, the little army crossed

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SAINT AUGUSTINE. 145 the river, and paraded-drums beating and colors flyingwithin sight of the castle, in the vain hope that the Span iards would come out and fight in the open. Monteano very properly an
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146 SAIN'l' AUGUSTINE. more recent date and finer typography. Stork's map of the cit,y (1752) is very minute, showing every lot and alleyway in detail. Unde1 the English flag the Castle of St. Mark he came St. John's Fort. To the Spanish residents the change of flags was unendur able, and neal'ly all of them emigrated at short notice, not withstanding civil and religious liberty was guaranteed by the terms of the treaty. Such was their malicious temper that the commandant of the post, l\fajor Ogilvie, had much ado to keep them from destroying their houses. Even the outgoing Governor uprooted and destroyed the fine garden of the official residence. During the night of January 2, 1766, the mercury fell to 20 and, for the first time on record, lime, citron, and ba nana trees were killed in St. Augustine. In the manuscript of John Gerard Williams de B1ahm, in the collection of Harvard University, it appears that the number of inhabitants of St. Augustine and vicinity was 288 householders (144 of them married), and upward of 900 n e groes. The coquina lighthouse, constructed by the Span iards on Anastasia Island, was surmounted in 1769 by a wooden superstructure, sixty feet high, from which a system of signals was di s played for the benefit of mariner s The first English Governor was James Grant, of the Fortieth foot. He was appointed in 1760, and in augurated many wise measures for the improvement of the town and colony. One of his 10ost noteworthy undei:taldngs was the construction of public highways leading north and south from St. Augustine. In spite of the neglect of suc. ceeding generations these roads are still among the best in the country. During l1is governorship he led two consider able expeditions, the first against rebellious North Carolin ians, and the second against the Cherokee Indians. Subse quently he was promoted general for servic e s in the Royal Army during the war for American Independence. Governor Grant 1'eti1e d in 1771 and was succeeded by Governo1 Moultrie, a brother of him who was afterward a leader in the Re'iolutionarv War. His administration of . affah'S was somewhat stormy, and in 1774 he was succeeded

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SAINT AUGUSTINE. 147 by Govetnor Tonyn, who came out from England for the pur pose. In the meantime the northern colonies had revolted, and one of the first acts
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148 SAIN'.V AUGUSTINE. many ptominent family names that it contains. The number it will be be noticed falls four short of the alleged total: John J. Budd. Edward Blake. Joseph Bee. Richard Beresford. John Berwick. D. Bordeaux. Robert Cochrane. Benjamin Cudworth. H. V. Crouch. I. S. Cripps. Edward Darrell. Daniel Dessanssure. John Edwards. George Flagg. Thomas Ferguson. General A. C. Gadsden. William Hazel Gibbs. Thomas G1inbal.L William Hall. George A. Hall. Isaac Holmes. Heyward, jr. Richard Hutson. William Logan. Rev. John Lewis. William Massey. Alexander Moultrie. Arth ut Middleton. Edward McCready. John Mouatt. Edward North. John Neufville. Joseph Parker. Christopher Peters. Benjamin Postell. Samuel Prioleau. John Earnest. Poyas. General Rutherford. Edward J;tutledge. Hugh Rutledge. J olm Sansom. Thomas Savage. Josiah Smith. Thomas Singleton. James Hampden Thompson. John Todd. Colonel Isaacs. Peter Timothy. Noble Wimberly Jones. Anthony Toomer. William Johnstone. Edward Weyman. William Lee. James Wakefield. Richa1:d Lushington. Benjamin Waller. Morton Wilkinson The Governor, Patrick Tonyn, as shown by an official letter to Lord St. Germain, sought to have them treated with great contempt, and to have any friendly intercourse with them is considered a;; a mark of disrespect to his Maj esty and displeasing to me." Nevertheless, these pestilent rebels appear to have made friends, and increased the

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SAINT AUGUSTINE. 149 number of the disn.ffected even in St. Augustine itself. They were in custody for nearly a year, and .were then sent to Philadelphia. to be exchanged. About this time, 1780, the policy of evacuating East Fl01 ida altogether began to be agitated, and au ordet to this ef fect was actually issued by Sir Guy Carleton, but subse quently revoked. The province l1ad, in fact, grown wonder fully under British rule. The exports of East Florida (that is, of "St. Augustine) amounted in 1768 to ,078, in 1778 to ,236. In 1781, owing largely to the Revolutionary War, they fell to ,715. St. Augustine had been a considerable port of entry for coastwise and foreign traffic, and every thing pointed to a prosperous future, when, after the Independence of the Unjted States was 1ecognized, the Btitish Government, on Septembe1 3, 1783, re-ceded Flol"icla to Spain, with the very unsatisf.,.ctory stipulation that the English inhabitants. might have eighteen months of grace wherein to sell out theit property, or move their effects. Al most to a man the English settlers decided to emigrate, but they did so under great hardship and loss, having been in duced to settle in Florida hy liberal grn.nts of land. During the British occupation St. Augustine became the centre of a rather select society. Among the residents, of ficial and otherwise, were Sir Charles Burdett, Chief Justice Drayton, the Rev. John Forbes, General James Grant, Moultrie, William Stark, the Ilfstorian, the Rev. N. Frazer, Dr. Andrew Turnb:ull, Bernard Romans, Esq., civil engineer, James Moultrie, Esq. and William Bartram, Esq., the Quaker naturalist and author. Bar racks capable of containing five regiments were erected south of the present town, and the old city within its gray coquina walls must have been a very pleasant place of l'esi dence. . The wonderful productiveness of "Florida sand had been p1omptly discovered by English gardeners, and to this day evidences of their th1ift and energy are apparent, not only in the city but wherever the ]and was exception ally good within a 1:easonable distance from the coast. In June, 1784, the new Spanish governor, Zespedez by

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1()0 SAIN'f AUGUS'.riNE. name, took possession,. and again after twenty years' absence the banner of Spain floated over the castle walls. This transfel' inaugurated what was perhaps the most idyllic pe l"iod of the city's history. '!'he world went on fighting as usual, but St. Augustine bad ceased to be a bone of conten tion. 'fhe young republic to the northward was some what aggl'essive, it is true, but the new order of things did not for a generation intimately affect the old city. Under the wise and temperate government of Don Enrique White a somewhat unique Spanish community appears to have developed. Music, dancing, civil and ecclesiastical feasts, and all the light amusements dear to the Latin heart, were celebrated during the genial winter months and the city was a veritable bower of tropic .al vegetation, with narrow, paved streets lined with cool gray coquina-walled houses. Within the gates no hoof of horse ever sounded. Those who could afford to ride rode in palanquins. In 1792 the city _suffered an irreparable loss in the burn ing of the British barracks five large brick buildings that sto.od to the southward of the town. ln a most entertaining volume, entitled "A Voyage to the Spanish l\fain '' (London, 1819), "An English Gentleman," whose name has never come to light, gives a charming pic ture of the city and its manners and customs at the time of his visit (1817), albeit that was almost the beginning of the end. The second war between the United States and Great Britain (1812-1814) indicated uiunistakably the manifest destiny of FI9rida. The young republic had acquired by purchase from France all the surrounding territory. An American, or patriot party was gtowing in strength, even under Spanish rule, and marauders, too often aided and abetted by United States officials, rendered life and property msecure. Nego tiations followed between the governments at Wash ington and Madrid, and as the result of a treaty ratified in February, 1821, the Spanish flag was lowered on July lOth of that year and the stars and stripes rose in its place. European residents in St. Augustine had already spread

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SAIN'.r AUGUSTINE. 15 1 the fame of her climate, and no sooner was the State fairly in the Union than inval i ds b egan to flock thither during the win ter months 'fhe facilities for travel were, however, so inferior in those days that, until the establishment of coastwise steambon.t routes, about 1827, no one for e saw the coming importance of the modern winter resort. For fifteen years St. Augustine enjoyed peace and prospe rity, but iu 1835 the Seminole War broke out, and she was again an i m portant centre of mil itary preparations. During this period great prosperity prevailed, stimuln.ted, of course, by the ficti tious values induced by Government contracts War parties of Indians p1owlecl under the very walls, and many massacres occurred in the vicinitv. In February, 1835, the mercury fell to 7 F., a point that has never been touched since. Even the wild orange-trees were killed to the ground. Hostilities continued, with more or less danger to the in habitants of the city, until1842, when the I ndians were finally subjugat e d in this vicinity or driven far to the southward among the eve r glades. From this time may be dated St. Augustine's prosperity as a resort for invalids and tourists, a prosperity that was not seriously intetTupted until the winte r of 1860, when the indicat ions of coming civil war betwe e n the State s became so marked that Northem invalids dared no t risk thei r usual flight to the South. Secession found Fort Marion in_ charge of 01dnance Ser geant Douglas, U S. A and, like many another of his fel lows about this time, he was confronted on January 7, 1861, by a company o f volunteers under orders from the Gov ernor of the State, demanding a surrender of his charge. He had no choic e but to comply, althougli he required areceipt for all property from the Governor's aide. By this prompt action, prior by thre e days, indeed, to the passage of the Ordnance of Secession, the State, and subsequently the secured G field batteries of four guns each, 20 sea-coast and gar rison cannon, 3 1 for eign guns of various calibres, and a quantity of small arms and ammunition. The United States ens i gn was pulled down, not without

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152 SAINT A UGUSTlNE. some unspoken misgiving s on the part of the more thought ful s p ectllto1s, and for more than a year the stars and bars floated at the flagstaff. O n March 11, 1862, the United States gunboat Hmon, Commander C. P . R. Rogers, appeared in the offing, crossed the bar with some difficulty, and approached the city under a flag of t r uce, as had been directed !Jy Commo dore Dupont. A white flag was soo n hoisted on Fort Marion. Upon this Commander Rogers went ashor e with an unarmed crew and was received by the Mayor and City Council, who informed him that the small Confed erate garrison of tw o comp anies . had evacuated the fort during the night. The guns o f the fort were not spik. ed, nnd on recommendatio n of Commande1 Rogers the Mayor had the national ensign hoisted o n the fort. The whole affair wa s conducted w ith courtesy o n both sides, and an adequate garrison of United States troops wa s soon landed to take permanent possessio n. About one thousand five hundred of the inhabitants remained in the city, some five hundred having fle d when i t became evident that no defence w ould be made On the evening before the arrival of the gunboats a number of women cut down the flagstaff in front of t h e United States barracks, in order to delay the hoisting of the nationa l colors This appears to have been the only overt act of hostility that was permitted by the cooler beaded of t ll e inhabi tants, wllo well knew the f utility of resistance under the circumstances Shortl y after the F e deral garrison had taken posse ss i on, a Q.etail of the Tenth C onnecticut Regiment wa.s attacked by a squadron of Confederate cavalry, while acting as guards for a p arty of wood -cutte1 s The attacking party m ade a das h for the teams of the wood -cutters, hut were driven off after a sharp skirmish Three of the Connecticut m e n were ldlle d and their commanding officer, Lieutenant B rown, was fa tal l y wounded. During the remaining years o f the Ci vil War St. Augustine was merely a quiet gan-ison under martial law, with the avenues o f approach duly g uarded and gunboats often at a nchor inside the bar. The soldiets o f the garrison, like the Spaniards and the Englis h who preceded them in fo1mer

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SAINT AUGUS'riNE. 153 wars, enjoyed such excellent health that the sick list proved a telling advertisement for the .healthfulness of the climate. No sooner were hostilities over than inquiries began to arrive from the North as to hotel accommodations for the coming winter, and very soon the sound of preparation was heard. New hotels were built, la1gely with Northern capital, new and unfamiliar Paris fashions appeared with early winter along the sea-wall, and the old Spanish city en tered upon a career of prosperity which soon surpassed her wildest dreams. Description. The city of St. Augustine stands near the extrem ity of a peninsula formed by the Matanzas and San Se bastian Hivers. The land is in the main lev el, low in some places, and where not cultivated is covered with the beach scrub common to this vicinity. 'l'he land approaches to St. Augustine by no. means inviting, as all three of the railroad lines thread miles of flat woods and cross other miles of prairie before the to,vers and spires of the city can be seen. Carriages and hotel stages are alwa ys in waiting at the station, and the drive to the city, about three-quarters of a mile, is over a delightfully smooth asphalt pavement. A wide range of choice is offered in the matter of hotels and boarding-house;;. The Plaza de la Constittwion and its surroundings-form the nucleus of the city. This public square was established when the town was originally laid out. Its dimensions are very modest, though the narrowness of the adjacent streets lend it, by contrast, some apparent extent. Standing on the sea-wall and facing eastward, one looks across 1\fatanzas River, three-quartel's of a mile, to Anastasin Island with its spiral striped lighthouse, its wharf and miniature railroad train, sc111b-palmetto and bushes. To the left the land drops away to a beach, where Sir Francis Drake posted a gun one evening in 1586 and pounded away, as the sun went down; at the grim old fortress opposite. Beyond the is St. Augustine Inlet, La lliviere des Dauphines as the

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SAINT AUQUSTINE. 155 F1ench Huguenot L audonniere named it before the Span iards set foot on its shores. Beyond this again is North Beach and the Tolomato River. ro the right l\'Iatanzas River and the shores of Anastasia Island disappear in tho distance. rurniug westward toward the Plaza we face the pretty stretch of greensward with its shade t rees. Almost oppositt>, iu the foregt"Ound, is the "Old Slave Market," popularly so called, though in reality the original struct ure was a plovis ion market, built in 1840, and used as such until the city outgrew its accommodations. The roof and woodwork were burned in 1887, but the structure was subsequently rebuilt and serves mainly as a place. Odginally t.he squa re was probably designed as a parade-ground, and as such it was certainly used by the British and by the United States troops during the Civil War. The white coquina monument surmounted by a cannonball commemorates the adoption by the Spanish Cortez in 1812 of a new constitution, whence the Plaza takes its of ficial name. The monument was erected in 1813. The in scription translated J:eads as follows : Plaza of the Constitution promulgated in the city of St. Augustine, in East Florida, on the 17th day of October, in the ye;tr 1812; the Brigadier Do n Sebastian Kindalem, Knight of the Order of Santiago, being Governor. For eter nal remembranc e the Constitutional City Council erected this mouument, under the superintendence of Don Fernando de la Maza Anedondo, the young municipal officer, oldest member of the corporation, and Don Francisco Hobint, At tornev and Rec01der. I n the vear 1813 ." v In 1814 Ferdinand VII. was reco,Jled t.o the Spanish throne, and straightway repudiating his pledge to support the new "constitucion" ordered all the commemorative mon uments that had been erec t ed to be tom down. Alone, it is believed, the far-away province of Florida neglected to obey the royal behest. The tablets were removed as a salve to loyal consciences, but in 1818 they were replaced and so the monument fortunately survives as a curious memento of the past.

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156 SAINT AUG US'!' IN E. The othe1 monument under the trees on the nmth side of the Plaza commemorates the Confederate dead of St. Augus tine. One face bears this insCIiption: Our Dead. Etectecl by the Ladies' Memorial Association of St. Augustine, Fla., A.D. 1872." .The second: "In Memoriam. Our loved ones who gave their live s in the service of the Confede1ate States.'' 01 1 the third face : "They died far from the home that gave them birth." And the fourth : They have crossed the river and rest under the shade of the trees." The shaft is of co quina. The Plaza has a.lwa.ys been; and is still the scene of p11blic meetings. Here the men-at-a1ms gathered when the alarm gun was fired in the old days of the French, English, and American Wars. Here in 1776 the royalists burned Adams and Hancock in effigy, when the news, a fortnight or more old, came from distant Philadelphia that the Declaration of Independence had been signed. Here the Florida Vol unt-eers fell in on a J anuary morning of 1861 and marched to take possession of Fort Marion, and thence subsequently they marched away to four years of fratricidal war and final defeat. And here, finally, after peace was 1 estored, the Dec laration of Independence was read before a mass meeting of approving citizens. On the right, or north side of the Plaza is St. Joseph's Cathedm.I, built unde1 Spanish rule and finished in 1701. It was burned in 1887, and immediately 1ebuilt, enlarged, and most tastefully impl'Dved by Messrs. Carriere & Hastings architects. Thus the cathedral could not, even had it escaped the flames, have claimed a remote antiquity, even in the American acceptation of the term. Its predecessor, however, dated back to 1682 or thereabout, one of the old bells, still preserved, bearing that date and the legend SANCTE-JosEPH-0RA-PRo-NoBIS. On the left is the modest spire of Trinity Church, episco palian, and beyond are the post-office, and the towe1s of the great Ponce de L eon and Cordova hotels. To tbe north and south at either hand stretches the sea-wall, terminated at the south by the United States Barra.cks and at the north by Fort Marion. The SeaWall. Some protection against the inroads of the

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' n s. ery. [ arion ay. m. dist Church. )lia Hotel. House. ndez Hotel. a House. louse. House. Club. ral. Moore's Ponce d e Leon r. Cordova. ffice. arket asm. otel pal Church lock. orayda. erian Church. ks Basin. ks. y Cemetery. Park. M A T .1.8T.A.H. R. % ; .. 13 }.. N z .A. s 8C,.L E 0 l: 1

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SAIN' i' AUGUSTINE . 157 ocean became necessary as as. St. Augustine began to consider itself a permanent place of abode. Easterly storms with their accompanying high tides often drove the water up into the and even now the spray at times flies over the stone coping. The first wall was begun iu 1690, under the administration of Diego de Quiroza y Dosada, who was Governo1 at the time. It extended from the Fort to the Plaza and i t s remains are not far beneath the present sur face of the street. Its locat ion and extent are shown on a map of the town made during British occupancy. It is of record that the Spanish soldiers voluntarily contributed labor and money to aid in its constluction. The present wall was begun in 1835 by the United States Government, and was finished in 1842 It is three-quarters of a mile long, built of coquina, with a coping of granite three feet wide. The wall itself is ten feet above low-water mark. The cost was about $100,000. There are two breaks in the wan, af fording access to the water's edge, one opposite the Plaza, and the ot.her near the barracks. These breaks are protected by out-walls and the basins are used for loading and un loading fish, fruit, anu the other products of sea and shore. The Mincwcans. In the eatly part of the present century the population of the city was largely made up of natives of the Balearic Isles, Min orca and Majorca, lying in the western Mediterranean, off the coast of Spain. These people were brought over by Dr. Andrew Turnbull (see Route 63}, in 1790, with a view to establishing a colony at New Smyrna, but they revolted against the l'llle of his agents, and most of them came to St. Augustine, where, for a generation they formed a distinct class of the population. A few of their descend ants l' e main, distinguished by dark eyes, hair, ancl com plexion, but for the most part' they have intermanied with Americans, and race chamcteristics have been largely modified, or have disappeared altogether. Fort Marion. Any of the streets running north-parallel t.o the sea wall, that is-lead to this ancient fortress, the most important O nd interesting of the Spanish relics. On or near this site Menendez constructed a wooden fort

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158 SAINT AUGUSTINE. in 1565, and named it St. John of the Pines (San Juan de Pinos). It was, according to the most trustworthy accounts, octagonal in form, and mounted fourteen brass cannon. It was this fort that Sir Francis Drake de.<>troyed in 1586, the garrison having fled with but a faint show of resistance. By this time the Spaniards had discovered the valuable properties of coquina for building pu1poses, and their sub sequent works were of the more durable and less combustible material. Little is known of the st-ructure that was threatened by Davis, the English buccaneer, in 1665, but its walls were at that time well advanced, having been pushed forward by the labor of Indian captives and convicts from Spain and 1\fexico. We have the testimony of Jonathan Dickinson, a Philadelphia Quaker, who was here in 1695, that the walls were thirty feet high at that time. Seven years later (1702) they were certainly far enough completed to defy Governor Moore, of South Carolina, and in 1740 Governor Oglethorpe, of Ge01gfa, hammered away at them for more than a month with,out producing any perceptible impression. The Spaniards named the fort San Marco, the English changed the name to St. John, and on retrocession to Spain in 1783, San 1\brco was once more recognized. On the ac cession of the United States the saints were laid aside, and the name of the patriot soldier of South Caxolina u as adopted by the War Department. In .1884 and 1890 Congress appiop1iated $20,000 for re pairs. Capt. Black, U.S.A.", was detailed for the work, which he carried out with the purpose of restoring the fort M nearly as possible to the condition in which it was left by the Spaniards. Approaching from the of the town the visitor as cends a path leading up what was formerly the exterior slope of the glacis. The mass of masonry on the left, pierced for cannon and musketry, is the barbican, an outwork intended for the protection of the weakest point in the main work, namely, the entrance. An extension of the moat includes the barbican, and both moats are now crossed by 1ough plank platforms, where once were regular drawbridges. ()n the left, after passing the angle of the barbican, is a niche .

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NORTH MOAT OPEH COURT MOAT MOAT' PLAN OF FORT :\fAR JON. 1. Bridge from glacis to barbican. 2 S talnvay to barb i can parapet. 3. B ridge 4. Sally port 5. Arch(>d paeslll'"e 6. Bak e ry. 7, 8. 9, 10. Storeroom s 11. Bomb -proo f 1 2 Cbavel. 13. Store -r oom 14. Treas ure room. J5. Casem ate fr om which Coocooc h ee an d Osceo la escaped. 16, 17. Dark vault s. 18. Q nard-toom. 19. Incline to parapet. B, ll, B, B. Ba8t .. ions, each w i th ll llrotecte
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160 SAINT AUGUS'riNE. opening into a stairway, and containing, carved in stone, the roya l arms of. Spain, which, in a sadly dilapidated con dition, barely survive the l'Ough handling to which they have been subjected by the elements all the .time, and by witless vandals at jntervals, until protected by an iron grating. 'furning to the right, another rude structure of planks crosses the wide and leads to the entrance: Above this again are the arms of Spain with an almost obli terated in scl'iption which, restored and translated, reads as follows: REYNANDO EN ESPANA EL DON FERNANDO SEXTO Y SIENDO GOV011 Y CAP11 DE Es.a CD s.aN AUGN DE LA FLORIDA Y SUS PROV"' EL .MARESCAL DE CAMPO D ALONZO FERN00 HEREDI A AS! CONCLUIO ESTE CASTLLO ELAN. OD 1756 DIRIGIEND O LAS OBR. CAP INGNno.a DN PEDRO DE BROZAS Y GARAY "Don Ferdinand VI., being lring of Spain, and the Field l\farshal Don Alonzo Fernando Hereda, being Governor and Captain-General of this place, St. Augustine, of Florida, and its province. This fort wa8 finished in the year 1756. The works we1e directed by the Captain-Engineer Don Pedro cle Brazos of Garay." This door is provided wi t h n. heavy portcullis, which still 1emains in position, though hardly in working order. The door or sally-port is barely wide enough for four men to march abreast. Within is a wide arched passage leading to the open parade inside the walls. On either side of the passage are doors leading to the vau l t ed chambers or casemates that surround the parade on all sides, and served in their time as quarters for the garrison, as cells for prisoners, including American rebels during the revolution, and Indian captives in more recent times; The sergeant in charge of the fort conducts visitors through the casemates. As this is not part of his regular duty, a fee (25c. for each person, or one dollar for a party of several) is customary.

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SAINT AUGUSTINE. 161 On the left of the entrance passage is the guard-room and on the right is the bakery, th1 ough which access is had to two dark vaults, used, no doubt, for storage. The terreplein, or parade, is 103 by 109 feet, and a broad stairway, fonnerly an inclined plane for the easier handling of gun-cH.rriages and the like, leads to the parapet. Directly opposite the entrance is the chapel, without which no'Span ish fort of that period was complete ; in it are still visible tl1e stations of shrine and altar, and other evidences of the decora t ion customary in such places. It was used for re ligious services as late as 1860 or thereabout, and was turned into a sc hoolroom for the Western Indians who were con fined here in 1875 78. The portico of the chapel was orig inally quite an elaborate bit .of decorative architecture, but it has long since disappeared. In 1882 a party of French astronomers had. the use of the fmt as a stat ion to observe the transit of Venus, and a tablet near ,the chapel-door commemorates their visit. It bears this inscription: Plaque commemorative du passage de Venus, observe au Fort Marion le 9 Decembre 1882, par MM. le Colonel -Penier, _le Commandant Bassat, le Capitaine Deffoges de l'armee Francaise." The casemates are in the main alike, dark vaults, some of them lofty, others divided into two stories, some dimly lighted thl'Ough narrow slits highup near the ceiling, others tota.lly dark save for the entrance-doors. That captives, l'ed and white, pagan and Christian, have pined away their lives in more than one of these dungeons is extremely probable when it is remembered that not so very long ago the 1ack and the stake were instruments of nomi nally Christian offices, but no records r emain and the imagi nat.ion may have full play as regards most of the casemates. Two of them, however, l1ave authentic histories . In the one marked 15, near the southwest bastion, Coacoochee and Osceola, two of the most celebrated Seminole chiefs, were confined during the war that lasted from 1835 till 1842. After the final subjugation of the tribe Coacoochee gave the following account of their escape : "We had been growing sickly from day to day m1d so re-

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162 SAINT AVGUS'l'INE. solved to mak e our escape or die in the attempt. We were in a room eighteen or twenty fe e t square All the light ad mitted was through a hole about eighteen feet from the floor. Through this we must effect our escape, or remain and die with sickness. A sentinel was constantly posted at the door. As we looked at it f r om out b e ds, we thought it but believ e d that could we get our l1eads through we should have no further nor serious d i fficultv. To reach the hole was t h e fhst object In order to effect this we from time to time cut up the forage-bags allowed us to sleep on, and made t h e m into 1opes The hole I could not reach when upon the shoulder of my companion; but while stand ing upon his shoulder, I worked a lmife into a crevice of the stonework, as far up as I could reach, and upon this I myself to the opening, when I found that, with some reduction of pe1sou, I could get through. In ord e r to r e 'luce orirselves as much as possib l e we took medicine five days. Under tl1e pretext of being vety sick, we were per mitted to obtain the roots we required. For some weeks we watched the moon, in order that the night of our attempt it should be ns dar1c as possibl e At the proper time we com menced the medicine, calculating on the entire disappear ance of the moon. The keeper o f this prison, on the night determined upon to make t .he effort, annoyed us by fre quently coming into the room, and talking and singing. At first we thought of ty ing him and putting his h e ad in a bag, so that, should he coli for assistance, he could not be heard. first, however, tried tlle experiment of pretending to be asleep, and when he returned to pay no regard to him. This accomplished our object. He came in, and went immedi atelv Ollt; and we could hear him snore in the immediate vicinity of the door. I then took the rope, which we had sucreted uncler our bed, and mounting upon the shoulde r of my comrade, raised mys-elf by the knife worked into the crevices of the stone, and succeeded in reacl1ing the embras ure. Here I made fast the rope. that my friend might fol low me. I then passed through the hole a sufficient length of it to reach the grounll upon the outside (about twenty pve feet) in the ditch. I had calculated the distance when

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SAIN'.r AUGUSTINE. 163 going for roots. With much difficulty I succeeded in getting my head through ; for the sharp stones took the skh1 off my breast aud back. Putting my head through first I was obliged to go down head foremost, until my feet were through, fearing every moment the rope would break. At last, safely on the grouud, I awaited with anxiety the. arrival of my comrade. I had passed another rope through tho hole, which, in the even t of discovery, Talmus Hadjo (Osc.eola), was to pull, as a signal to me from the outside,. that he was discovered, and could not come. As soon as I struck the ground, I took hold of the signal for intelligence from my friend. The night was very dark. Two men passed near me, talking earnestly, and I could see them dis t inctly. Soon I heard the struggle of my companion far above me. He had succeeded in getting his head through, but his body would come no farther. In the lowest tone of voice, I urged him to throw out his breath, and then try ; soon after he came tumbling down the whole distance. For a few moments I thought him dead. I di:agged him to some water close by, which restored him, but his leg was so lame he was unable to walk. I t ook him upon my shoulder to a scrub, near the town. Daylight was just breaking, it was evident we must move rapidly. I caught a mule in the adjoining field, and making a bridle out of my sash, mounted my companion, and started for the St. John's. River. The mule was used one day, but fearing the whites would track us, we felt more secure on foot in the hammock, though moving very slow. Thus we continued journey five days, subsisting on roots and berries, when I joined my band, .then assembled on the headwaters of the 1'omoka River, near the Atlantic coast." Osceola was subsequently recaptured and sent to Fort Moultrie, Charleston, S. C., where he died. Du1-ing the y ears 1875-78 the fort was again used as a prison for Indians brought from the far West. Their cap tivity was nominal dm-ing good behavior, and some attempts were made to educate them. Within the northeastern bastion is a chamber lmown as the dungeon," though there is good reason for believing

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164 SAINT AUGUS'l'lNE. that it was originally intended as a magazine. In 183 9 the masonry in one of the adjacent vaults caved in, and, while repai1s were in progress, it was discovered that there was still another innermost chamber, whose existence had not befo1:e been suspected. The wall was broken through, and, among other refuse, some bones were found so far gone in decomposition that the post smgeon could not determine whether they were human or not. The I'umor spread, how ever, that an entire skeleton had been found chained to the wall, and that implements were scattered about suggestive of the "Holy Inquisition" and a chamber of horrors. The tale grew by repetition and for many years it was generally believed that the dungeon had once been the scene of a tragedy The author of the "Standard Guide to St. Augustine," how ever, cites the statement of an old resident of the city, who was employed at the fort when a boy, and remembers the old disused magazine in the northeast bastion. According to this account, during the later days of Spanish occupancy the mag'azine fell out of rep!, and became a rec eptacle for refuse of all sorts, until finally it was walled up, being regarded as a menace to health. There are still those who insist that the tragic accounts of the "dungeon" are .the true ones, but the weight of evidence seems to be in favor of the more pro-. sa1c vel'Slon. Ascending the parapet, the commanding position of the fort is apparent, and the outlook in all direction s is very interest ing. With the aid of the map on page 159 all the noteworthy points of interest can be traced, and many of the historic localities identified. In the salient angle of each ba&tion is a sentry-box oi stone, where a man-at-arms might be tolerably secure against Indian arrows, or even against the firearms of the last century; on the northeastern bastion, the most exposed of the four, the sentry-box has a. supplementary sto1y or watch tower, whence a still wider outlook may be obtained. To the non-military visitor, wh9 knows not the uses of bas tions, their purpose will at once become evident on looking over the parapet. Soldiers posted in these projecting angles can, is easily seen, deliver a direct fi1e sweeping the ent ire

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SAIN'f AUGUS'fiNE . 165 moat to and beyond the salient of the opposite bastion. Bastioned works reached their complete development under the system of Vanban, one of whose disciples, Captain Pedro de Brozas y Garay, was the engineer in charge of the construction of the fort. It is not likely that, even in case of a foreign war, guns will ever again be mounted en bmbette on Fort 1\'Iarion. Even if the coquina masonry could sustain the weight of modern ordnance, it could not long withstand the impact of modern projectiles. For this reason the water-battery along the sea face was built in 1842, but the gun-platforms were never finished, and the whole work is long out of date. 'l'he guns that lie rusting. along the glacis mostly antedate the Civil War, and are worthless save as old iron. The floor of the inoat was originally of cement, but it .is covered deep with sand and soil. When the old fort was in figllting tlini this moat could be flooded at high tide. A stairway near the barbican petmits easy into the for those who do not choose to jump or climb down from the crest of the couuterscarp. From this level a betfet idea of the height of the walls is ob tained, and one can readily understand how Osceola was effectually disabled by his fall from. the nal'low opening through which he and Coacoochee squeezed themselves in the westeni face of the fort. Along the eastern or sea front numerous scars and indentations may be seen in tl1e masonry, some of which were made by British guns during Oglethorpe's siege in 1740. These respectable old wounds will readily be distinguished from the ones that have been inflicted by modern 1iflemen, who have at times used the moat as a shooting-gallery. The use of all firearms within the fort is now very p1operly prohibited. The smallbrick building in the eastern moat is a furnace to heat shot for the water batten. It was built in 1844 St. Francis Bat?acks are named from the old Franciscan convent, whose site they occupy. They stand at the south em end of Bay Street. In front, facing the water, are the officers' quarte1s, with barracks for enlisted men in the rear.

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166 S AL.'iT .AUGUSTIN E . Usuallytwo comP.anies of regulars are i n garrison at this post. The parnd e in front of the is fia nlted on the south by the ad jutant's offices and ordnance sheds, and the open s pac e is us e d as a drill,groun d and for the u sual 1outine parades and inspections of the small garrison. The old c onvent was aban'doned for religious purposes when the British took possession in 17 63 and was used as barmck s when the Spaniards returned twenty years after. ward. Although the b uildi ngs. have been largely remodelled and rebuilt; some of .the old coquina convent wall s are still stan ding, and are b eliev ed to b e among the oldest structures i n the It is singular that the memory of St. F rancis should be perpetuated at one end of the city, while .that of St: Mark was obliterated at the other en d when the United States took possession, but such are the inc o nsistencies of history. The convent in its time was t h e headquarters of mi ss i onllry life in Florida. Theuce the devoted priests wen t out and built th eir little chapels from t h e e vergl ades to the Suwan n ee, and thither, if at all, they returne d often broken down with the labots and peri l s of their vo luntary exile. A few steps b eyond the officers' quarters i s the military cemetery, kept in beautifu l orde r b y the garrison, and worthy of a visit for its He1e, under three low pyln mi ds of ma sonry, lie many of the soldiers w h o perished in the Semi nole W ar Near by is a shaft to the mem ory oi Major Dade and his command, almost the first victi m s of the l on g and bloody war that foll owed. The insc1iption reads: S acred to the memory o f the Offleet'S and Soldiers kille d in battle and died on servic e during Florida W al'. This monument bes b een erected in token of res pectful and affecti onate remembrance by their comrades of all grades, and is committe d to the cru:e and preservation of th e garrison of St. A n gus tine. t> Museums. AI useum, neo,r Fort M arion, contains the most con si
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SAINT AUGUSTINE. 16'7. Vedde1's Museum, on Bny Street, a short dist-ance north of the Plaza, adds to a miscellaneous collection of curios manv living birds, animals, and reptiles. The snake-room is especially worthy of a visit, and the building in which the collection is kept is part of the old Spanish prison, and some of the timeworn interior fittings are still visible. 1'he St. Augustine Institute of Nattwal Science bas its collection in No. 33 Alcazar Court; hours 2 to 5 P.M.; admission free. The Villa Zorayda. This building faces the Alameda n ear the great hotels. It was the finst specimen of monolithic architecture in the city, and was in this sense the pioneer of modern St. Augustine. The credit is due to Mr. Franklin W. Smith, of Boston, who made the first experi ments, f01ming a concrete with fine slJells, cemenf, and sand. While in a semi-liquid condition, the mixture i s poured into moulds made of hoards, whel'e it quickly hru.dens. By setting up the moulds whete the wails of the intended building are to stand, the whole struct11re can be solidly built up bj pouring in successive layers of concl'ete. When finished in its natural tint, the wall presents a slightly rongh surface, cool gmy in color, and of a substance that has thus far perfectly endmed the test of exposure. While in the semi-liq:uid state the cement readily takes any desired colo1, and may tlms be auapted to nearly all the requirements of decorative arclJitecture. 'fhe Villa Zorayda was also the fu:st modern building to be erected after the Mooi ish order. Over the entrance is a.u Arabic inscription, signifying "'l'here is no Conqueror, God ''-the motto of l\:fohamme
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168 SAINT AUGUSTINE. itself is an open Plaza with asphalt drives, footways, foun tains, and partenes of tropical plants. On the no1th side is the Ponce de Leon, on the south the Alcazar, on the east the Cordova, and on the west the Villa Zorayda. 'rhe present appearance of this Plaza is due to the foresight of 1\fr. H enry 11'!. Flaglei and to his choice of arc hitects, 1\fessrs. Carrere & Hastings, of New York -neither could have achieved the present result without the other. The architecture of the Ponce de Leon is Spanish-not l\foorish, as is sometimes erroneously said. It represents the best school of Spanish art, and instead of being a copy of any existing exampl e s 'is the result of conscientious study of principles tl1at l1ave made famous the cathedrals, uniyersities, and palaces of classic Spain. The Ponce de L e on fac e s 380 feet on the Alameda, and 520 feet on Cordova and Seville The main building with its accessory portico surrounds a court 150 feet square, with a central fountain and carefully tended beds of flowers. On three sides of the court rise tl1e arched galleries, quaint windows, and red-tiled roofs of the main building, while across the fourth side, t hat toward the Alameda, stretches a roofed portico, which i s in fact a continuation of the ma i n lower galleries Above aU this rises the central dome, and above this a.gnin lofty square towers with pointed finial roofs, shaded balconies, and admirable decorative devices in iron and terra cotta. To describe the vast establishment in d e tail is impracticable, but a few words are called for rega1ding the rotunda and the dining-hall. Just within the front or main door way are the spacious vestibu l e an d ro t unda, opening a fine perspective' of colum n s, caryatides and rich decoration, lead ing by a short flight of steps int o the tlining-hall beyond. 'rhe of the rotunda and its adjacent corridors is a marble mosaic, small fragments set in cem ent and anangell in tasteful patterns. The wainscot is, of Numidinn marhle. The c entral dome or rotunda rises in four interior galler ies, with arcade s agreeably varied in the succ e ssive stories. The whole is supported by four piers and eight columns of. solid oak, carved in caryatid fig11J'es of remarkable grace and

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SAINT AUGUSTINE. 169 beauty.. These are arranged in groups of fours, standing back to back, and admirably posed to convey at once an idea of strength and lightness. The decorat.ive standing figures painted on the iuterspaces of the second stoly are typical.of Adventitre, Discovery, Con quest, and Civilization. The seated figures represent Earth, Air, Fire, and water. Adventure wears an eagle-crested helmet with a cuirass, and holds a drawn sword, while behind her a sheaf of arrows mdiate to form a background. Dis covery holds a globe in her right hand and rests her left upon a tiller, her sea-blue robe contmsting with sails
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176 S AIN T AUGUST INE . vault. At the sides this arch is supported by ro w s o f oak columns, and beyond the co l umns are spacious alcoves, fo rming n piut of the grand ball and yet sufficiently separated f rom it to p revent the sense of too gteat space, so often a characterist -ic o f large diningrooms. The ceilings of the alcoves are comparatively low, and each is bounded at the wings b y great bay windows through wh i c h the daylight streams in subdued mdiauce, and w h ic h at night reflect gleams of blu e a n d go l d ftom the e l ectric g lobes ove r head. '!'he deco1-atio ns o f the central arch w ill c ommand the at tention of ev e ry appreciative visitor. I n t h e spandrels of the side arches are the four seasons, duplicated though not 1epeate d Spring on one side is sowing grain, on t h e other she h o lds early flowei'S o.nd open ing buds Summer on the i-ight is in the shade of trees, on the left the grain and sickle suggest "industry. One Autumn personates the vintage, the other the harvest, and Winter appears in the double rol e o f a woodcutter and a master o f festivities. I n the s emi c irc ular s paces over the musici ans' galleries 1ne Spanish s hips in all t h e glory of gal a attire, and i n quaint letters on wall and cei ling are Spani s h p r overbs, suggestiv e mainly of good cheer (see below). On the ceilings of the alcoves the history of F lorida is most ingenio usly worked out in a series of what may perhaps be t ermed conventionaJized I ndian hieroglyphics. Hete may b e found the triumphant caravels of Ponce de Leon the wrecked vessels of Narvaez, the jleu1-de-lis of Huguenot France the lion of Spain, the rude fort of the eal'ly settlement, the cross of St. George, the naval bombar dments, the sieges, and finally the Am erican national embl ems closing the record w ith the year 1 82L A happier con c eption tban this picturewritte n history of Florida it were bard indeecl to find, and the s kill and in genuity with which it ho.s been realized are des ei ving of the highest praise. With the aid of the summaries given else where almost every event of considerable importance may .be found represented in the beautiful trac ery of these alcoves. Inscriptions, Mottoes, Etc .:..... The various. inscriptions in L atin and Spanish are interesting, and ofteo to

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SAIN'l' AUGUS'riNE. 171 visitors. Many of the shields bear simply the names of cities aud provinces of Spain, and need no translation. In the court-yard, near the 'vest entrance, is a tena .cotta shield with this inscription : CoN r.o QUE SAGNO s .\No Do lliNGO ADOLECF;W.hat is one man's meat is another man's poison (literally '' W.ha"t keeps Sagno well makes Domingo sic. k ''). At the eastern entrance; 0VEJ A QUE lJAl.tA BOCADO PIERDE'rhe sheep that bleats misses a bite. On the escutcheons at right and left of the entrance from court to rotunda: No SE HACEN TOR'rlLI,\S SIN .ROMPER HUEYOS-You can't make omelettes without brealdng eggs ; QurEN QUANDO PUEDE NO QUIERE, QUANDO QUIERE NO PUEDE-He that Will not when he may' may not when he will. BrEN VENIDo-Welcome, is the legend that greets the visitor who enters from the drive-way. On the first landing of the steps leading from rotunda to dining-room. is.the concluding verse of William Shenstone's ode" Written at an Inn at H enley," probably about 1740: WHoE'ER HAS TRAVELLED LIFE'S DULL ROUND, WHEim'ER HIS STAGES lliAY HAVE BEEN, }fAY SIGH ro THINK H.E STILL HAS FOUND TH E WARMEST WELCOME AT AN INN. Over the main entrance to the dining-room is a shield scribed: JusTICIA. HECii:ORES CONTRA ALA\;.\. 1\IAL,..-.Al:wa dooms those who strive against her. In the dining-room on the west side of the central arch are four Spanish proverbs: VIEJO Toc:u"o Y VINO ANEJo-An old friend is both meat and drink; QuiEN PRIMERO LLEGA ESELA CAJJZA-First come first served ; DE LA MANOA LA. BOCA SE PmRDE IJA SOP A-There's n1any a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip (literally, Between the hand and tbe mouth the soup is lost"); EL BUEN VINO NO HA MENESTER PREGONERO -Good wine needs no bush. On the east side of the arch are these: 0VEJA QUE BA:LA nocADO PIERDE-The sheep that bleats misses a bite ; RE 1110DA DE PASTURAGE HA.OE BlZZEROS COROOS-Qhange Of feed

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172 SAIN'l' AOGUS'riNE. m akes fat cattle; MUCRO ABRAZA POCO APBIETAH e w h o grasps much keeps but little ; QumN MAS SAnE, MAS CA.LLA-Who know s most says least. I n the west akove, ove1 and above the arches, near t h e bay windows, are shiel ds, inscribed for the most part with the arms, names, and motto es of Spanish cities. Here and there are legends as: CADIZ-HERCULES DOMNATOR F UNDATOR, in r ecognit ion of the Phoouician Hercules, as the fabled founder and ruler of the aucien t town. SoniA CABEZA DE ESSORIA PURA REMADURA, a punning mottoof the town and province of Soria. On the semici rcular ceiling of the west alcov e are four signs of the zodiac-Scorpio, Saggitarius, L eo, Virgo, and many of the famous names identi fie d with the early history o f F lorida. The corresponding spaces in the eastern bear the four signs, Pisce s, Aquar ius, Taurus, G emin i, with historica l names and dates ingeniously repeated in varied form, with names and arms of cities, including of Huelva, a time city in Spain, in Latin: HuELVA, ET TERRiE cusTODIA PORTUS M:Ams-Huelva, entrance of the sea :md guardian of the land. 'l'he frescoes and mura l d ecoratio ns are b y M essrs. Thomas H astings, George W. M aynard, and H. T. Schla dermundt. The who l e building i s in keeping with the magnificence of which a brief and inadequate descript ion has been at tempted regarding two of the principal divisions, bnt no de tailed general account c an here be given. T h e visitor should not fail to visit the tower and roof terraces, aud permits can be obtained at the office to inspect the kitchens, laundries aud other domestic d epartment s. Facing the Ponce de L eon, on the opposite side of the Ala meda, is the Al cazar, an adjunct of the main hotel, the work of the same a1chitects, and lilte it in the Spanish renaissance style. The mime is fro m the Al-Kasr ( H ouse of Cresar), but the design is original and wholly unlike that of the famous Palace o f Seville The general plan embraces an interior court with a garden and fountains, surrounded by open atcades, shops, and offices, a .nd a large l'e staurant. B eyond

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SAIN'l' AUGUSl'INE. 173 are magnificent swimming-baths of water drawn from an a1 tesian well, aerated to free it from the odor of sulphur, and turned at once into the bath, where it falls in a sheet of beautifully clear greenish water, exactly at the right tempemture for swimming. Beyond the bath are courts for tennis and croquet, where there are yearly matches and tournaments of interest to all lovers of these games. The lodging-rooms in the Alcazar are all provided with private baths, and are charged at a fixed rate, on what is termed in America the European plan." An excellent res taUlant is connected with the establishment, but guests are free to go where they please for meals. The Alcazar is open throughout the y ear. The H ote l Cordova (formerly lmown as the Casa Monica) was the first of the Alameda group; Like its neighbors, it is monolithic, but its style of architecture differs from theirs in that it is suggestive of the arts of war rathe1 than of peace. Its architect is Mr. F. W. Smith, of Boston, to whom is due the credit of having made the fiLst experiments in the composition of coquina concrete. The motives for the heavv battlemented walls and towers are found in the castles of Moorish Spain The northern entrance is an adaptation of the Puerto de l Sol of Toledo, and the balconies are after those said to have originated in Seville, and known as "kneeEng balconies." They are said to have designed by Michael Angelo, for the convenience of devotees, who desired to kneel during the passage of religious processions. The Oity Gates. All that remains of the ancient defences of St. Augustine stands at the head of St. George Street; two solid, square posts-for they ate not high enough to be termed towers-flanked by a few yards of coquina wall. The stone sentry-boxes still remain in the interior buttresses. According to tladition, a guaidhouse once stood just within, and a drawbridge crossed the moat. Only a few yards of wall now remain flanking the gates, and it is not known how far, in its best estate, it extended. The most formidable of the fortifications defended the land approach, and substantial earthworks once reached from river to river, the exterio1

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174 SAINT AUGUSTINE. slope of the parapet b eing covered with a dense growth o f Spanish bayonet, through which it is well-nigh i mpossible to force a p assage. Old engravings of the city show i t as a completely wa lle d town, and the visitor may find on some of the ancient tombstones in the cemete ry Latin inscription s containing the word oppidum, which was often used to dis tinguish a walled t own from one without such defenc es. 'rbe coquina dwellings of the presen t town are largely com posed o f material plundered from still older struc t ures, nnd there is no way of d etermining how many roods o f city wall were taken by builde1s who care d nothing for Spanish relics. The present gateway was the principal entrance, was strongly g'ua1ded, and repeatedly saved the to wn from the sudden onslaught of savage or c i vilized foes. The Coast. B etween the mouth of St. John's R ive r and St. Augustine Inlet, the coast is an unbroken sand beach nearly forty miles long, l.uwltcd by scrub-covered sand hills and s t rewn with the wreckage of centuries For walking, riding, driving, or wheeling no highway made by mortal hatis can approach this superb beach during the hours w hen the tide is not at its highest. The coast is monoton ous, t o be SUl.'e, but the sea is ever beautiful in color, and there are alwa ys ob jects of interest for the l over o f natme. O ff shore the wate r deepens quickly, and mariner s, when once they have c l eare d the shoals at either inlet, may c onfi dentl y run down the beach within half a mile of the breakers. Four teen miles south of St. John's Light are the sources of Guano Rive,, i n Die go Plains, a short distance inland fro m the beach This stream fl ows into Tolomato or North River, a tributary of St. Augus tine Inlet. It follows the b e ach all the w ay at a distance of on e-quarter of a mile until it j oins the Tolomato; when the d istance is one to two miles. Its headwaters may be approxima .tel y located from the b each or from a vessel by noting the greater distance of the woods fl' om the coMt.

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SAINT AUGUSTINE. 175 31. Saint Anastasia, fa1piliarly called Anastasia Island, is the natural breakwater of St. Augustine. It is nearly fourteen miles long, and at the widest part, not far from t.he inlet, is nearly two miles across. Four miles farther south it nanows to a mere strip of scrub-covered beach. For the most part the island is covered with a dense growth, into which few explorers will wish to penetrate after five or ten minutes of faithful effort. With the aid of good dogs or a good guide it is still possible to find deer O!l the island, but only in certain pla. ces known to the initiated. 'fhe Spaniards fonnd it necessary at an early date to maintain a lookout on the island. At that time nearly all navi gators-friends and foes-approached from the southward, and from the town such sails could not be seen until close at hand. The first structures were of tall tree-trunks, with a "crow'snest" or platform at top. Such an one the existence of the town to Sir Francis Drake, in 1586 (see p. 138). Subsequently a coquina tower was erected, bm still with the original idea of a lookout, or perhaps a combined watch-tower and blockhouse, for the wily Seminole was not long in dirscovering lonely vedettes in exposed positions. A gun was mounted there after a time, and flag sig nals were made l>y an established code, whereby the city was notified of friend or foe. It was not until the United States came into possession that a regular lighthouse was established. The old Spanish tower was i:ebnilt and utilized for the purpose, and the lantern was first lighted in 1823. This tower stood a short distance northeast of the present light, and was originally half a mile from the beach. The sen: gradually encroached, however, and in June, 1880, a violent goJe undermined the walls, and the ruins still cover the rocky point south of the milroad station. Here visitors usually make their first acquaintance with coquina in its natural forn::i. The present light tower, officially 1mown as St. Augustine Light, stands in latitude 29 53' 7" N., l ongitude 81 17' 12'' W. The nearest light to the northward is at the mouth

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176 SAINT AUGUSTINE. of St. John's River, 30 miles; the nearest to the southward is at lVIosquito Inlet, 60 miles. The light is of the first order, and shows a fixed white light, varied by a white flash every three minutes. It is visible at sea 19 nautical miles. The base of the tower is 15 feet above the sea-level, and the centre of the lantern is 150 feet above the base. The . tower is accessible io visitors at all times, except wh e n some unusual duty prevents the keepers from attending. The view from the gallery is the best that can be obtained of the inlet and the adjacent coasts. The peculiar painting of the tower in spiral bands is adopted so that it can be readily distinguished from any other landmark on the coast-an important in light house construction, since a momentary sight is oft-en all that can be obtained in thick weather. The seaward shore of the island is known as the South Beach. At the railroad station it is somewhat steeper than most Florida beaches, but beyond the site of the old lightbouse it becomes hard enough fm riding and driving. The coquina are one mile and a llalf south east f1om the lighthouse. They may be reached by a fairly good path (twenty-five minutes), either by following the beach to the rocky point and then striking inland, or by a path from the lighthouse, or by a path from QuaLTy Creek, which falls into J\:1atanzas River three-quarters of a mile below the Plaza in St. Augustine. The last-mentioned trip makes a pleasant excursion from the city by boat, including a walk of about two miles going and returning. The quarries at:e interesting as showing the stratific ations of the coquina (Spanish for shell-fish). The small shells are the accu mulations of ages. Acted upon by water the y become par tially dissolved, and then, drying, are firmly cemented to gether in a solid mass. The loose sllells are found in vast quantities on some of the neighboring beaches. The seaward <'Oast of Anastasia Island offers no obstacles to navigation after clearing the shoals at either end. The three fttthom curve is but half a mile from the beacll, shallow boats aie in safe depth just outside the breakers. About three miles north of lVIata.nzas J;nlet, and two miles

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SAINT AUG 177 off shore, the mariner is sometimes by the sight of breakers under hi::; bow where no danger is indicated on the chart. One who is familiar with t.he phenomenon, however, may ca l m l y steer directly over the apparent obstacle, for there are twenty-one fathoms of water in the of the breakers, and nine fathoms all around it. The disturbance is caused by lL boiling spring, such as occmfrequently on the main land of Florida. Wl1e n directly over or to leeward of the breakers the odor of sulplmretted hydrogen may be perceived, suggesting the same source as the artesian wells common on the main land. .The volume of water varies from time to time, and of course the disturbance at the smface of the sea is more apparent at low tide than at high tide. Sometimes it is not visible 'at all. The exact bearing of the spring from Inlet is N. by E. f E., distant 3t miles It may be readily found :ln calm weather with the aid of a pocket compass. St. Augustine Inlet is threeeighth:> of a mile wide On the north is North Point, on t he south is Blade Point, the north ern extremity of Anastasia Island. Outside the inl et, shifting slloals make out a n\ile and a half, and the bar is very variable. Genel'ally ten feet may be cauie and flow of tide. Inside, the inlet divides Tolomato and 1\Iatanzas Rivers, the former finding its source, as has been stated, fourteen miles np the beach. Sail-boats may ascend the Tolo mato about eight miles, and row-boats still farthe r. Bird Island. To the south of the inlet, half a. mile off shore, is Biid Island, a sand bar of .recent formation, which appears to bP-increasing in extent and height from year to year. It was fonne rly a great re:;;ort fOL' wild-fowl, but the free use of modern breech-loading fire-anns bas frightened most of them to less frequented shores. Bird Island is often visited in fait weather for the sale of the sea-shells that are -

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178 v SAINT AUGUSTlNE. thrown up in great variety by every easterly blow. With a fnir wind the run may be made in an hour from St. Augustine. Nmth Beach. Opposite Anastasia Island is North Beach. The point of land is two miles., (half au hour) from . the Plaza. Launches and sail -boats make frequent trips, fare 2?>c. The outer beach is rich in sea-shells, strewn with wreckage, and offers a tempting surface for walking or riding as far as the eye can re ach. The North Beach Railroad runs frequent trains from tbe Union Station, c1ossing rolomato River on a bridge, and landing passenge1s within a few steps of the beach. 33. Matanzas River and Inlet, separating Anastasia Island from the mainland, is thirteen miles to 1\fato.nzas Inlet, and has an average width of one-eighth to o ne-quarter of a mile. There is only th1ee feet of water at the divide" at low tide, and six feet is about the limit of drnnght that can be taken through at a v erage high water. The rest of the channel is deep, though narrow. A pleasant excursion is down this stream to 1\fatan zas Inlet and return. It is practically an ali-day trip, though, with a favoring wind or in a launch, the round ti'ip may be made in five hours with time for a short stop at the inlet. Qne mile south of the Plaza is the mouth of Q uarry Creek (see p. 154). The portion of Anastasia Island south of this is known as Fish's I sland, though 1eally not separated from Anastasia. This tract is the old Fish e!state. The original owner, Jesse Fish, came from Flatbnsh, N.Y., prior to 1763, during the first Spanish period, and his descendants still o wn the place. This estate includes the most valuable part of the island, and its omnge groves were once among the finest in the State. :M:r. Fish made many improvements, and his plantation was celebrated during the period of British supremacy. The old planter died and was buried on liis own acres, and his tomb is shown almost hidden by snr rounding orange-b-ees. Four miles farther south, on the mainland, is l'v!ouitrie, the site of Buena Vista, .another famous old plantation, the

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SAINT AUGUSTINE. 179 property, in B1itish times, of Lieutenant-Governor John 1\foultrie, who was an active loyalist, while his brother, Will iam 1\:Ioultl'ie, of Charleston, S. C., was so prominent a rebel that the British ln;ought him to St. A.ugustine as a pris oner. No doubt the brothers had memorable meetings dming the period of confinement. Buena Vista wa. s fortified in the early days, and later a regular fort was built, which was occupied as one of tlle outposts of St. Augustine. Here, in 1823, was executed the treaty of Fort l\ioult1ie, be tween the Government of the United States and the Semi nole Indians. Alleged infractions of this treaty were among the causes of the Seminole War (1835 -4:2). Near Matanzas Inlet, on an island, are the picturesque ruins of an old Spanish fort, of unknown date. Here the Spaniards tirst and the English afterward lrept a small gar rison to prevent the surp1ise of St. Augustine from this direction. On these shores, more than three centuries ago, was enacted oue of the darkest tragedies of Floridian history. In 1564 a colony of French Huguenots under Rene de Laudonniere fo rtified themsel ves on the St. John's Rive r In August of the following year Pedro Menendez d' Aviles with a strong Spanish force established himself at St. Augus tine (see p. 135), having orders from his king to make war against the French. Almost simultaneously reinforcements for Laudonniere had arrived i n a French fleet under Jean Ribaut (see p. 120), who at once assumed the offensive. On September lOth he appeared off St.. Augustine with a powerful armament, but a protrMted storm compelled him to put to sea and the whole squadron wn:s wrecked in the neighborhood o f Canaveral. Giving thanks to Heaven for this signal interposition, thongh he was at the time unaware of the completeness of the French disaster . l\fenenclez mnrched to Fort Caroline, where he surp1ised and slew most of the garrison (see page 123). Retuming at once to St. Augustine be soon heatd of the shipwrecked Frenchmen on the coast to the southward .Marching to Matanzas Inlet he bivonacked within sight of the French camp-fires and awaited the dawn. Tlle ship-

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.180 SAINT AUGUSTINE. wrecked Frenchmen, ignorant of the fate of Fort Caroline, were cautiously making their way thither. Menendez had but about sixty men with him, while the Fl'ench numbered from 140 to 200, authorities differ. A parley followed, _and a party of French officers crossed over in. a small boat and told Menendez their story of _recent shipwreck and present starvation, asking for treatment as prisoners of war. Are you Catholics ? asked Menendez. "We are Lutherans," was the r epl y, given doubtless with sinking hearts. "Gentlemen," said Menendez, "your fort is taken, and all in it are put to the sword." And no assurance of clemency would he give, save that, if the French surrendered, he . wou ld, to quote his own report, do with them as the Lord should order." After further consultation, the French de cided that sturender was their .only hope, and, having de livered up their arms, were brought over in small parties. As they landed, each detachment was marched out of sight behind the sand dunes, where their hands were securely tied. It was late in the afternoon before the whole band, disa-rmed and h"\lpless, stood before their relentless captor, ready for the ma.rch At this point Mendoza, the priest, put in a plea for the lives of Catholics, and twelve Breton sailors professing that faith were released, with four artisans of whom the Spaniards were in great need. These w e re sent to St. Augustine by boat, while the iest, with gloomy premonitions of their fate, and guarded by .the Span ish men-at-arms, followed l\ienendez, wl10, with a cane in his hand, walked 'in advance. As the sun sank be halted iu a se cluded spot among the sand dimes, and drew a line on the ground wit h his cane. Darkness was falling when the prisoners came up, and, again to cite the words of Menendez' Ca1ta, I had their hands tied behind their backs, and themselves put to the sword. It appeared to me that, by thus chastising them, God our Lord and your Majesty were served ; whereby in future this evjl sect will leave us more free to plant the gospel i n these parts." The precise locality of this savage deed has never been known, and only by accident can it be discov ered.

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SAINT AUGUS1'1NID 181 But :1\:lenendez had not yet finished his work. He sus pected that other ships had been wrecked farther down the coast, and while their crews were at large he could not fee l secure, since his own forces were scattered, some at sea, some at Fort Caroline, ttnd only about one hundred and fifty men at hand for service. The next day Indians brought news of ano ther detachment confession ? " I and all here are of the Reforme d Faith, answereu Ribaut, and then he iecitecl a Psalm. ''We are of earth, he continued, according to the Spanish narrator (SolfsL

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182 SAINT AUGU S'l'lNE. "and to earth we must return; t wenty y ears more or l ess Ca.n matter littl e." Then turuing to M enendez he said he was ready, and the scene of two days before was repeate d on a larger sca le. "I saved the lives, says M enende z i n his Ca1ta, "of two young gentlemen about e i g h teen years of age, as well as of thrAe others, the fifer (see p.139), the drummer, and the trum pete r, and I caused J ea n Ribaut with all the rest to b e put to t he swor d, judging this t o be expedient for the service of God our L01d and of your M a j esty The foregoing account of these massacres is from the Spanish authorities, as cited by Pal'lcman in his "Huguenots in Florida." The accounts of the few Frenc h survivo r s coincide in all e ssential particulars. For an account of the signal vengeance subsequently visited upon t h e Spania rds by D omenique de G ourgues, n French Huguenot, see p 120. Matanzas Inlet has only about six f ee t of water at high tide and in easterly weathe1 the sea often breaks entirely across the entrance. It i s how eve r, practicable for sail boats and sharpies. l\fat anzas River extends or t en miles south of the Inlet, finding its source in Graham's Swamp. F ellicer 's (heek j oins it uea1 the Inle t. Spo r tsmen some times find goo d shooting along these streams, which may be ascended in canoes o r v ecy light boats far up t.ow:nd their source. Care shou l d be taken not to be left by t h e tide, as a night s pent in the' swamps i s no t an agre e able experien('-e. 34. St. Augustine to Jacksonville (seep. 110). 35. St. Augustine to Palatka By J .. '!'-. & K. W. Ry T blrty miles (I !lour 40 minutes). The ge neral course of the route i s s outhwest. Crossing th e prairi es t o the wes t of M atanzas River the Toc o i bmnch di ver ges to the right and enters a long str etch of piney wood s, gmdua lly 1ising and inters p ersed with occasional hammocks. B etween H oly B ranch and M el'l'ifield we cross Deep Creelt and shortly afterward a.pp1oach the riche r lands bordering S t. J o h n s Riv er. A t East P alatka. J unction change cats if bound. for Halifax R iver, otherw ise the train crosses St.

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SAIN'l' AUGUS'l'lNE. l83 John's River to the principal station near the steamboat wharf in Palatka (p. 188). Consult local time table. About six hours can bespent in Palatka if it is desired to 1e turn the same day to St. Augustine. Visit orange grove, drive through the subUi'bs north and south of Pabtka.. 38. Jacksonville to Palatka. By J., T. & K. W. Ry. 56 miles (2 hours 5 minutes) for stations and dis tances, sec pages 17, 25, 82. By St. John's River steamboats 75 miles (about 6 hours), for landings and distances, see page 186. By Rail to Palatka. The general course of the l ine 1s nearly north and south, following to some extent the curves of the St. John's River, and never more than three or four from its western bank. The st1;eam, however, is rarely in sight, owing to the almost continuous belt of pine forest (see map of Duval County, page 24). Shortly after leaving the station at Jacksonville the line curves to the southward, passing through a level country, wit h occasional villages and orange groves. Three miles beyond Edgewood we c1oss McGi rt's Creek on a tre stle, and if the day be warm and the traveller in luck he m ay here catch his first glimpse of the Florida alligator. 'l'wo miles south of Reed's the train passes into Clay County (see page 1,1:). Just beyond Black Creek Station is the stream from which it takes its name, navigable to Middleburg, six miles west, where it divides into two main branches, and these agai n into nu merous small ones, draining nearly the whole of Clay County, and affording access by small boats to a wild and beautiful lake region in the sonthwestem part of the county. For Green Cove Springs see page 1 87. At Melrose Crossing, just south of Green Cove Springs, is the Western Railroad of Florida to Belmore, fifteen miles southwest. Shortly after leaving West Tocoi, line passes int o Putnam County (see page 80 for map, stations, ancl distances). The large stream crossed two miles beyond Teasdale is Rice's Creek, which 1ises among the lakes of the north western part of the county. 'l'his stream is navigable for

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. 184 SAINr AUGUSTINE. launches and small boats, and is one of the favorite excur sions for visitots at P alatka. 39. Jacksonville to Palatka by River. JThis part of the St. John's River-is in effect almost a con tinuous lake, often several miles wide, and again nanowing to less than a mile. As a rule, the banks are somewhat monotonous, tlwugh there is always more or less of interest in the changing vegetation along the shores and in the Yar ied forms of life almost alwavs to be seen in air or water Shooting is very prope1ly prohibited on all passenger steamers. Formerly it was carried to such excess that the river trip was often a continaous fusillade. Several pne of which resulted fatally, at last compelled a reform of the abuse. Just above the railroad diawbridge at Jacksonville the river bends abruptly to the southward, between Grassy Point on the east and Lancaster Point on the west. The clu'ster of three piles, painted red, marks the lower end of l\fiddle Ground Shoal. 'l'o the eastward are the wooded bluffs of Villa Alexandria, one of the finest p r ivate estates iu the neighborhood of Jac k sonville A triangular red beacon bearing a red light at night marks the upper end of. the l\1idc1le Ground Shoal. On the east bank, two miles above Grassy Point, is Phillip's Point, with a steamboat landing. Nearly opposite, on the west bank, i s the mouth of 1\IcGirt's Creek, and just a bove it Sadler's P oint. Three and a half farther south is Piney Point, marked by tall pines showing above the surrounding trees. Just abt>Ve Piney Point, on the same side of the river, is the settlement and landing of Black Point, and neal'ly opposite is mouth of Goodsby's .Creek. The next landing and s et tlement south of Black Point is 1\fulberry Grove, and across the river, nearly opposite, is Beauclerc Bluff, a conspicuous, heavily wooded promontory, off which stands a black beacon (No. 21). Two miles above this is Mandarin Point, and on the same side are the town and landing of Mandarin, formerly the

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SAIN'l' AUGUS'l'INE. 185 residence of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. A little above 1\:lnnd:l.tin a black and red buoy marks the wreck of the steamet Maple Leaf, and n early ovposite, just north of the entrance to Doctor'a Lake is Orange Park, with a long whar!' re11cliing out to the channC'l. 'rhe next reach in t h e river is from Mandarin on the east to Magnolia Point on the west bank (sL" ancl one-half miles) averaging one and one-half to two miles in width. Julington and Cunningham's CL"eeks enter on the ea,.'>t bank. Four mile s farther south on the same side is New Switzerland Point. . h e avily wooded and ide ntified by a single tree :;tanding ont beyond the rest. Opposite, on the west lJank,.is Hibemi a, abov e which, 011e mile and three-quarters, is the mouth of Black Creek (nadgable to 1\!Iiddlebure, s cme eight miles in the intel'ior) and Magnolia Point a l1igh bank with heavy woods. On the eu&t bank, nearly opposite, is Popo Point, wit h Remington Park and a steamboat landing. 'l'urning 1\'Iagnolia Point a reach of six miles opens south east to Six l\iile Point On the west bank, two and threequarter miles distant, are the hotels and many buildings of Green Cove Springs (see page 187). Above this landing, one mile and is red beacon No. 38, marking Old Field Point on tha west and San Patricio Point on the east bank. South of the last named point a deep bight makes in, called Hogarth's Bay, into which empties Six l\file Creek. Bevond this the river nanows to a mile as far v as Pi co lata Point, and the town of Picolata on the east bank. At this place, and at a point on the opposite side of the r.iver, forts wete maintained during the period of Spanish rule. They were successfully defended against the English under Oglethorpe in December, 1739, but were taken in .T:umal'y following as p1eliminary to tlle siege of St. Augus tine (!;ee page 142). The remains of the earthworks can still be traced, but they are not easily found by a stranger. From Picolata Point the river is nearly s traight for ten miles to Federal Point on the east bank. It varies in width from three-quarters of a mile to two and. one-half miles. Three miles sout.h of Pi co lata are Orange Point, Tocoi Creek, .and Tocoi, in the order named. The town is the terminus

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186 f':\AINT AUGUSTINE. of the St. Jolm's Railway, 18 miles to St. Augustine. Ra cey's Point is three miles above Tocoi, on the same side of the river, Nearly opposite, entering from the westward, is Cedar Creek, and above this on the west barijr is Nine l\:[i1e Point, off which stands l"ed beacon No. 44. One mile far ther south is Palmetto Bluff. Federal Point on the east bank may be identified by black buoy35, which is placed a little to the north of the landing. From Federal Dancy's Point, south by west three and one-half miles, the river is about a mile wide. Opposite the town of Orange 1\>lills is an extensive flat island, or marsh, with a channel on either side. On the west bank are Bo dine's Point and Whetstone Point, in tl1e order named. Off the latter is a cluste1 of three piles, with a l'ed light set at night. Another stretch of three and three-quarter miles west southwest brings us up with Forreste1's Point on the east bank and the mouth of Rice's Creek opposite, where, with a shal'P sweep to south by east. Palatka comes in sight with its railroad bridge three miles distant. (For Palatka and vicinity, see P 188.) This point is considered the head of navigation for sailing vessels, as the river becomes so narrow and crooked in its upper reaches that only steamboats can navigate it to advan tage. It is, however, the most interesting to tourists, owing to the nearness of the banks Q.nd the increasingly tropica l characte1 of the vegetation. lNve1 landings and distances between Jacksonville and P a l ntka. are as follows ; those on the east bank are marked E, those on the west W : 1\lJ.LES. 1\IILES. St. Nicholas E .......... : . . . . . 2 Orange Dale, E. . . . . .. .. .. . . 34 Riverside, W. . . . .. .. . . .. . . 3 Landing, E ........ ..... S8 Black Point, W .................... 10 Picolata E ......................... 44 :Mulberry Grove, W ............ : ... 12 Tocoi, E .......................... 46 E ... : .................. 15 Federal Point. E .................. 58 Orange Park. W ................... 15 Orange Mills E .......... ......... 63 Fruit Cove, E ...................... 19 Cook's Landing, E ................. 65 Hibernia, W ....................... 23 Dancy's Wharf, E .................. 66 New Switzer l and, E ............... 23 Russell's Point, E .................. 61 Remington Park, E ................ 25 Whetstone, W .. . . . .. .. . .... 68 lllagnolia, W .................. ... 28 Russell's Limdlng, E ............... 69 Green Cove Sp11ngs, W ............ 30 Palatka, W ........................ 16 For landings, ete., above Palatka. see Route 51.

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GREEN COVE SPRINGS. 187 4:0. Green Cove Springs, Clay County. :Populat:on, 1,2QO. Twenty-nine inilcs from Jacksonville, twent y-seven miles from Palatka. HoTELS.-Clare, $3 to $4 a day.-Clare-ndon, $4 a day.-Morga1!Za, $1.50 to $2 a dav.-St. Clair, $3 to $4.-The Pines, $3 a dav. Also severai smaller hotels and boarding-houses. RAILROADS AND 8 TJ.:A.MBOATS.-Several trains north and dt\il y by J., T. & K. W. Ry. All the St. Jobu's River steamboats touch at this landing. This town has ueen for many years a place of considerable resort, owing to its fine sulphur springs, and the natural ad vantages of its situation Even as seen from the windows of a passing train its attractions a1e evident, for conr>iderable labor has been expended in laying out streets, fen cing off parks with massive pine logs, and removing evidences of recent cleal'ings. A short walk or ride from the station bti ngs the. visitor to 1\fagnolia Avenue, the btJsiness stteet of the place. A short distance farther i s the great spring, which discharges three thousand gallons of water every minute n.t a temperature of 78< F., the year round. The wonderful purity of the water, its green, mysterious depths, reflections and colors are a source of never-ending pleasure. The water is slight ly impregnated with sulphur, but loses it by evaporation after a short ex posure to the air. Excellent bathing anangements have been provided, and comfortable 1 ustic seats are found at almost {:Wery turn. Borden Park, including about five acres, lies along the l"iver on high ground with i t .
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iss GREEN COVE SPRINGS-PALATKA. dences, some of them surrounded with carefully tended gar dens full of horticultural rarities, and most attractive to vis itors from a colder cliritate. The town itself contains churches of all the leading de nominations, schools, stores, l ivery stables, tramways. Excmsions may be made by boat up the river as far as Palatka, or down as far as Jacksonville, returning by boat Ol' ra"il the same day, and on both sides of the rive1 there are many points of interest. easily within reach. 50. Palatka, Putnam County (C.H .) Popu lation 6,000.-Lat 29 38' N.-tong. s1 38' w. HoTEtS;-Arlipgton, $2.-Canova $1.50.-IVintkrop, Building, Rooms 50c,-P.atnam Hw,se, $4.-Saratoga., $3.-lVest liJnd House, $2; $8 to $10 by week. . RAILROADS, STEAMBOATS, E'l'O.-The J., T. & K. W. S;!'Stem (to Jacksonville St . Augustlne, Daytona, Gainesvllle, Tampa, Punta Gorda etc.). Stations for points north and south, 1 mile west from river ; station for points on sea coast, etc near steam boat wharf and railroad bridge. 'l'hrough cars are run around the city, Jnaking connt.>etions without change (see l ocal t1me tables). Steamboats All the s;, John's River steamboats land at the wharf near the railroad bridge. O cklawaha steamboats land at the same wharf . Carriage fare from railways and steamboats, 25c. to aoy part of the citv ; luggage, 25c. per piece. Ltvtiry Saddle-borses $U50 a day if reasonably used. nouble teams, $2 an hour, U a day . .Rowboats, 25c an hour, $L50 to $2 a day. Sail-boats soc. an hour, $3 a dav Steam launc h es can be chartered for $15 t.o $25 a day, according to size of party and length of intended trip. GttidAls hunting or fishing m.ily be engaged at the hotels or boat landings at $2.50 to $3 a day. Tram-cars at 10 minute intervals run between the railroad stations, fare 5c. History. Palatka was settled. in 1821, by James Ma.rver and two companions named Hine and Woodruff. They secured a Spanish grant and a trading post for traffic with the Indians. 1\farver's store stood neat the foot of 1\Iain Street, and no doubt the large live oaks on the bluff closeat hand witnessed many a sharp bargain that brought gold into the white man's pocket. H e was, however; a gt;eat favorite with his savage patrons, .an d had no difficulties with them dudng his stay. At some date not precisely .Dr. N Brush, of New York, purchased Marver's lnnds and interests and continued

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PALA'rK.A.. 189 the lmsiuess, his two nephews, Thomas and Wmiam Brush, being his agents. The post was sacked and burned promptly on the outbreak of the Seminole War in 1835, and the young men barely escaped with their lives. A military post was soon established here, and in 1840 it was constituted a regular ordnance cleput, with the and shops necessary for a considerable garrison and for the repair of their atms and equipments. Eight large log block-houses were constructed along the line of Water Street, one of them with a watch-tower eighty feet high. The commanding olficer's head-quarters were where the late Colonel Devall's house now stands. Cavalry stables fo1 four hundred horses occupied the site of the Putnam House and a large hospital was erected on the Hart property. Among the officers quartered here were Scott, Taylor, \V' orth, and Gaines, who won distinction and l'ank in the sec ond war with Great Britain and in the early Irrdiau war. Still younger were lieutenants W. '1'. Sherman, and Silas Casey, who saw their first field set-vice in Florida and rose to the highest rank during the Civil War. After the subjugation of the Indians and the discontinuance of the military post, Palatka became the shipping point fot the produce of the neighboring country. Prior to the com pletion of the l'ailroacl in 1886 it was the most landing of any importance on the river, and soon became a fa vol'ite resort for invalids who sought a warmer climate and dreaded the cold easterly winds of the coast. By 1850 it was a delightful place of residence, with many handsome houses, some of which are still the finest in town. It was fairly embosomecl in orange. trees, and, being an outpost of civilization on the borders of an almost unbroken wilderness, offered great attractions to sportsmen. Its commercial pros perity did not begin until after t.he Civil War, when it be came the distributing centre for a wide tract of rich country, and with the advent of the railroad in 1886 became the busy ancl prosperous place that now ex ists. It suffered the fate of neal'ly aU Florida towns, and was nearly destroyed by fire. Lilte its sisters, however, it rallied pluckily from the disaster and was rebuilt on a more substantial basis. It may

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190 P ALA'f.KA. now be reached in thirty-six hours from New York and will, no doubt, long maintain its position as the most impor tant town on the rive1 abo v e Jacksonville The visitor will find pleasant walks in either direction, north or south, along the river bank. The roads in the vi cinity are rather sandy for driving, but equestrians may ride in almost any direction with the certainty of a pleasant ex perience. The rivers and the neighboring lakes afford a great variety of delightful trips. (See Routes 42 to 54.) Barfs Oran ge Grove one of the oldest and most famous groves in the State, is on the opposit e side of the r iver, about three miles from the wharves. It i s easily reached by boat from the foot of 1\fain Street. This grove was budded on wild stock about 1832, was badly damage d by the s9vere frost of 1835 and began bearing about 1 845. It covers some 70 acres of land, contains about 500 trees, and yie lds about 12,000 boxes of oranges annually. 51. Lake George. This fine lake, about sixteen miles l ong and eight miles wide, lies nt t h e junction of f our of the most f ertile and prosperous counties of Florida, namely, Putnam, L ake, Vo lnsia, and M arion. Its outlet is about thirty-eight miles south of Palatka, and it may b e reached either by boat or rail, the excursion affording a pleasant all day tl'ip. The regular St. J ohn's River steamb oats may be taken to any of the Lake George landings, or the trip may be extended to Volusia, where the St. John's & Lake Eusti s Railway touches the rive r and train may be taken for Eustis, L eesburg, and the L ake region. The time to Volu sia by boat is o.bont four ho. nrs. Steam launches may be hired at Palatka, with which the round of the lake may be comfortably made in a day at an expense of $ 1 5 to $25. The trip may be varied by stop ping at Seville Landing, about half way up the lak e. Con veyances may be secure d by telegra-phing to the hotel at Seville. The di s tance from the landing to the railroad is four miles.

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PALATKA. 191 52. The Fruitland Peninsula. This name is given to a trac. t of fine land lying between the St. John's River and L ake George on the west, and Crescent Lake and its outlet, Dunn's Creek, on the east. It is abou t twenty miles long and floom six to ten miles wide from lake to river. This tel'l'i.tory was a favorite with the Ind ian tribes of prehistoric times, whose agricu ltuml instincts led them to select the best lands for their field crops. One of the oldest settlements on the St. John's River was formed under English rule at Mount Royal, in the latter part of the last century. Considerable progress was made in Eu ropean methods of cultivation, but all lands were abandoned with the return of the Spaniards, and it was not until after the Seminole .War that permanent white settlements were resumed. Now the whole peninsula is thickl y dotted with farms and orange groves, and is one of the most thriving communities of Middl e F lorida. The peninsula consists of high pine land, interspersed with hammo ck, and admirab l y adapted for all kinds of agriculture. The large lakes to the eastward and westward, with the smaller bodies of water scattered through the i nterior, equalize the tempe rature t o an unusual degree. 'rhroughout the peninsula there are pleasant rides and drives, and conveyances or saddle-horses may be engaged at almost any of the pl'incipal river or lake landings 63. Crescent Lake. Dunn's Creek, the outlet of Crescent Lake, falls into the St . John's about six miles south of Palatka. It is a. deep, crooked, picturesque stream, eight miles long, and traversed daily by steamboats. 'rhe trip may be varied by passing through 1\furphy's Creek, a branch of the main qutlet. The lake is sixteen miles long and three miles wid e fed at its upper end by Haw Creek, which forms the boundary be tween St. John's and Volu sia Counties, and sends its vnrious

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192 PALAl'KA-SEVILLE. branches well over toward the sea-coast the head of Halifax River. Crescent City, the pl'incipal town on the lake, is hand somely laid out on the westeni shore, on high land, and with Lake St-ella immediately to the westward of the town. 'fhe level of this lake is said to be fo1ty feet higher than that of Crescent Lake. The1e is a road and regular conveyance from Crescent City to the railroad, bttt the lake steamers from Palatka afford the easier and pleasanter means of access 64. Sl!ville, Volusia County. Population, 400. HoTELs.-Tlul Selnll6, $3.50 a day; special rates by week or month.-1'/16 Grand View. Seville, with its tasteful and characteristic logbuilt sta tion, and its palm-and orange-lined main street, at once at tracts the eye of the Nsnthern traveller, if only by a casual glance from the car window. The town is, in fact, one of the most attractive in Florida, owing to judicious and liberal outlay of money in providing a complete system of sewerage, and a water-supply drawn from a neighboring lake. 'fhe sewage is received in tanks, where the solids are pxecipitated by chemical action, and the liquids are carried off through subsoil pipes to the neighboring fields. The works were planne
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PALATKA-SANFORD. 193 growth of the wild Ol' Seville orange, the theory being that nll the wild orange-trees of Florida are seedlings hom fmit imported by the Spaniards. The name Seville Grove was originally given to a considerable section of this region com prised in the old Stons grant, and pUlchased by William Kemble Lente, one of the earliest Northern settlers in this region. The wild trees were topped and budded, and came into bearing in a surprisingly short time. It has since been equalled and smpassed by many groves in the vicinity, but is still justly regarded as a type of what can be done wi t h wild orange-trees in this part of the State. Saddle-horses and caniages can be engaged at the hotel for drives about this very interesting, prosperous, and well cultivated region. 66. Palatka to Sanford by Rail. J., T. & K. W. Ry., sixty-nine miles (2 hours 50 minutes). For stations and distances see pp. 82, 9T. 'rhe general direction of the railway line is a little east of south. Leaving Palatka the train traverses the level sub urbs and, after a few minutes, crosses the St. John's River on a long trestle and drawbridge. Here occurs a good op portunity to obse1ve the tangled growth of the low ham mock bordering the river. A range of bluff's, remarkably bold and high for this region, will be noticed at this point, their sides often covered with orange groves. For twenty miles after crossing the river the railroad traverses the centrall'idge of the Fruitland Peninsula (see p. 191). At times the route seems lined with orange groves for miles on both sides, and in the season of fruit and blossoms the pano l'ama is one not to be forgotten. Many pretty lakes break the monotony of grove and forest, most of them deep and full of water at all seasons of the year. Between Denver and the boundary line of Putnam and Volusia Counties is crossed (see pp. 80, 94). At Seville notice the station, a genuine log-cabin adapted to the taste and requirements of civilization, the bark and

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. 194 PALATKA-SANFORD. knots smoothed the logs finished in oil, and all the rudeness of the frontier skilfully eliminated. ($ee, also, account of Seville, p. 192.) On both sides of the track areal most contjnuous orange groves, the t r ees thriving on soil that. to all appearance is nothing better than sand. 'l' hose who are interested in such matters will do well to stop in this neighborhood and inspect methods of 01ange culture, and, if it be the proper season, of harvesting, packing, and the like. At De Land Junction is the crossing of a branch road to the St. John's River on the west and to De Land, the . county seat, on the east (see Route 53). At Orange City Junction is the crossing of the Atlantic & Westel'D Railroad, extending to the St. John's River. on the west, and to New smyrna on the east (see .Route 63). At Enterprise Junction the train divides, part going eastward to Indian River (see 70), and part continuing to the southward and presently crossing the St. John's River jnst below the outlet of Lake Monroe. At this point is Momoe, the junction of the Orange Belt Railway (see p. 49). The line now curves to the east, and soon stops in the handsome station at Sanford. 56. Palatka to Sanford by River. One hundred and twenty miles (about 8 hours by daylight, 12 hours by night). Above the dmwbridge at Palatka lies the most interesting part of the St. John's River. Here the stream loses its lacustrfne character and becomes comparatively narrow and swift, and so crooked that the distance to Sanford is nearly double that by rail. Local time-tables should be consulted so as to secure a trip one way or the other by day light. The night trip, however, is by no means devoid' of interest, for the boats carry brilliant headlights which pro duce striking and novel effects along the densely wooded shores. A good view of Hart's Orange Grove is obtained in passing (see p. 190). The vicinity of Rolleston was ea1ly

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PALATKA-SANFORD. 195 settled by English pioneers, but was abandoned when the Spaniards resumed control in 1784. A little above Westonia is the mouth of Dunns Creek, the navigable outlet of Crescent Lake (seep. 191), and at Buffalo Bluff is the railroad drawbridge. Nearly opposite is the mouth of the Ockla waha River. B eyond Fort Gates, a military post during the Indian wa1s, is the outlet of Lake George. The small island to the westward is Hog Island ; the large1; one is Drayton Island, containing 1,870 acres of remarkably productive soil, under laid with beds of carbonate and phosphate marl. The island was settled by R. W. Towle, in 1875, and now has a well-to do population of about one hundred and fifty. Orange culture is very successful on the island, owing to the protection afforded by the sm'rounding waters, and the inhabitants say even the severe frost of 1886 passed over the island without doing any harm. On the west shore is the outlet of Lake Kerr, a beautiful, irregular body of W1\ter, with two towns on its shores. Lake George, eighteen miles hmg, affords au agreeable change from the nalTow, winding strEam, but in a short time the southern inlet is reached, and shortly afterward Volusia, the site of one of the early Spanish Missions. From De Land Landing is a short branch milroad to the county town (see p. 198). Spriug Landing takes its name from a fine spring that boils up from unlmown depths a few rods from the river bank. To visit the spring it is necessary to pass through private grounds, for which permission should be asked From this landing the Atlantic & Western Railroad (seep. 97J extends eastward to New Smyrna .. on the sea-coast. A considerable stream joins the St. John's on the west side about six miles above Blue Spring. It is the Kissimmee River, but has no connection with the large river of that name farther south. Passing through the last drawbridge on the St. John's, Lake Monroe opens to the eastwa1d with the distant buildings of Sanford and Enterprise visible among the tall palms on the opposite shores. (Fo1 Lake 1\fonroe, see p. 197.)

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196 SANFORD. Ri'IJer landings are as follows from Palatka to Sanford. Distances are given from J acksonville. E. signifies east bank, W. west bank. Hart's Grove, E. . . . . . 15 Yellow Bluff, W . .............. 121 Rolleston, E. . . . . . . .... : 18 Spring Garden, E ........ : ...... 1 2 2 San Mateo, E. . . . . . . . . . . 19 Spring Grove, E ................ .. 126 Edgewater, E ............. ...... SO LakeView, E ..................... l82 Buffalo Bluff, W ........... 87 Volusia. E ... .......... ....... 134 Hors e Landing, W. . . . . . . . 96 Astor; W ........................ 134 Nashua, E ... ..................... 95 Manhattan, W . .......... ........ 136 Smith's Lan.diug, E . . . . . . . 96 Fort Butler, W ................. 188 Welaka, E ........................ 100 Orange Bluff, E ................ 140 Beecher, E.... . . ........... . 101 Bluffton. E . . . . . . ..... 140 Norwalk, W. . .......... . . . 108 St. Francis, W .................... 1 65 Mount Royal, E .... .... .... : . lOIS Old Tow n W .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 156 Fruitlands, E .... ................. 105 1 Crow's Landing, W .. : ..... ....... 159 Fort Gates W .................... 106 1 Hawkinsville, W .................. 160 Pelham Park, E ................... 112 Bluff, E. .. .. .. . .. .. 162 Racemo, E ..................... 112 De Land Landing, E ............ 162 Georgetown, E ................... 118 1 Lake Beresford, E ............... 168 Point. E ......... : ....... 113 Blue Spring, E.: .. .. .. .. .. ...... 168 Lake George, E ........ .......... 1161 Wekiva, E : .................. ... 184 Dmyton Island. W ................ 116 Shell Bank, E ..................... 168 Salt &prings, W. .. .. ............ 119 i Sanford, W ....................... 196 Benella, W.. .. . .. .. ............ 120 Mellon ville, W.. .. .. .. .. . . . .196 Seville, E ....... ................. 120 I Enterprise, E .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. 200 60. Sanford, Orange County. Population, 3,500.-L at. 28 50' N.-Long. 81 171 W. HO'l.'ELS.-The So;nford HOU8e, $3 to $4 a day.-Sa?l. Leon Hotel, $2 to $2.51> a day. RAILRQADS, STEAMBOATS, ETC. JtMksonville, Tampa & Key West Railway, north to Jacksonville (ees pp. 69, 82, 97), and east to Indian River (seep. 97). South Florida Railroad, south to Tampa, Punta Gorda. and the Gulf steam sblp lines (see pp. 10, 7S, 79). Sanford & Lake l!hl8tf3 Railway, west t o Tavares. Leesburg, etc. (seep. 48). S(J;rijord & Indian River Railway, southeas t to Lake Cbann (see p. 71). The Orange Belt Railway, southwest to Tarpon Spri ngs and t he Pinellas Peninsula (see pp. 38, 49, 70, 74, 81). All these roads u se a station in common near the hotels and business streets. Restaurant In station. SteamboaU .7The steamboat wharf is ftve m inutes' walk east of the Sanford There are daily boats to and from Jacksonville and intermediate land mgs. Varriage rate from s tation or landing, 25c. ; luggage, 26c. piece hol'!leS, 15c. to $1 an hour, $2 to $3 a day. Double teams, $5 a day. Guides for hunting and fishing, $5 a day with dogs and outfit. Sanford is pleasantly situated on the south shore of Lake 1\lonroe, the land rising from the water level in a gentle slope sufficien t for effectua l drainage. The tovrn is named after General H. S. Sanford, late United States Minister to Belgium.

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SANl!'ORD. 197 The surrounding land wM an old Spanish grant, and belonged, in 1870, t o General Joseph Finegan, an ex-officer of the Confederacy. F1om him General Sanford purchased the entire estate (known as the old Levy grant) of twenty-three square miles. At that til}le there was on the lake shore an insignificant hamlet called 1\fellon ville, after Captain : Mellon, U.S.A., who was killed here i n an engagement with the Seminoles. General Sanford's early attempts to introduce organized labor, whether white or b lack, were resisted by force of arms, but he soon became strong enough to defy the prejudices of the s()attered population, and the result is apparent in the present prosperity of the place. A large number of Swedes were imported with their families, a .nd they now form a prosperous part of the community. Belair, three miles south of Sanford, and easily reached by rail or carriage road, is one of the largest and most famous plantations in the State. It is the property of General Sanford, who began operations on a large scale soon afte1 )1is purchase of the L evy grant. The grove contains 95 acres of oranges and 50 acres of lemons, with a large experimental farm, where all kinds of exotics are tested under the best possible conditions for ascertaining their adaptability to the Florida climate. Lake Monroe is nearly circular in shape, six miles long, a little more than five miles wide, and with an average depth of about twelve feet : Sanford and Enterprise are the only two towns on its shores. 'l'he fishing fo1 bass and the other fresh-water varieties of fish is good in all parts of the lake but of course the fish have their favorite feeding-grounds, and untii t hese are ascertained there is little use in fishing The shores of the lake are for tbe most part wild, and covered with a heavy growth of forest and saw palmetto. D eer and tmkies are found within a f ew miles of the lake, and e ven along its less frequented borders, but without a guide and trained dogs it is nearly impossible to slloot them. Above Lake 1\fonroe the river is not regularly navigated, though it is practicable for good sized launches. It winds for the most part among vast stretches of savannah and saw, oc casionally spreading into large lakes, as Harney, J essu p,

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19 8 SANFORD-DE LAND. Poinsett, Winder, and Washington . It .is often a very dif ficult matter to decide which the true river channel, but when found the stream is easily navigable and the uppe]: lakes are so near the Indian R iver a.t Rockledge and 'Eau Ga.llie that carries are easily mllde across the intervening hammock. The upper St. John's should not be attempted sav-e in a. boat that will serve as a sleeping-place at a pinch, for there are often long stretches of morass where it is im possible to camp comfortably on shore. 61. D e Land. Volu sia County. Population 2,000.-Lat. 29 N.-Long. 81 14' w HOTBLS.-CarroUton HOtut, $ 2.60 to $3.-Paruland Hotel, $2.50 to $8.-PutnMn $ 2 to $3. R n.BOADS.-Branch to De Land Junction and Landing on St. J ohn'e River, five milee weet, where connection is made with J., T. & K. W. Ry., and river steamboats. carr:tage rate from station, 25c. ; lnggage, 25c. per piece. De Land has good hotels, electric lig hts, numerous sto1es churches, schools, and a general air of business prosperity; As the sea.t of government of a latge county in the heart of the orange region it is the centre of a considerable amount of business connected with the growing interests of the c ommunity. The situation is healthful iu the high pine region, and forest still surrounds it, save where it has been cleared away to make room for orange groves and other im prov ements. The town is named its founder, Mr. H. A. D e Land .. I n the immediate neighborhood are seve r a l interesting places, notably the residence .and grounds of Mr. John B. S tetson, of Philadelphia, where horticultu1e in its various branches is cal'ried to a high degree of perfect ion. The 11ondequoit Dairy, within easy walking distanc e of the hotels, i s inte1esting as one of the most successful attempts to intloduce Jerseys, Holstein, and other high grade catt.le into this region. Lalce Helen, six miles southeast, may be reache d fro m De Land eithe r by road through the wood s or by rail, changing at D e Land Junction and Orange Cit y (See next page.) . De Lefm Sp1.'ing, six miles north, i s a pleasant resort f o r

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DE LAND-LAKE HELEN. 199. picnic parties. 'I' l1e Spring boils up in such volume that it was f ormerly used to d r ive a sugar-mill, the 1;uins of which are still to be seen near by. Spring Ga1den, three miles north of De Leon Spring, has entered .successfully upon silk culture. There are several pros perous silkfarms in the vicinity, where may be seen the cu1'ions processes connec ted, with this industry. Dexte1 Lake and the St. John's River are available for boating and fishing excmsions. The best hunting grounds -are to the eastward, in a wide belt of sparsely settled country, partly savanna, partly hammock, from five to fifteen miles from the railroad. Hunters and guides can ue engaged at $5 a day, or at a stated amount according to the success achieved; so much for a shot at a deer, so much foi. a turkey, or so much for a wildcat, the hunter, of comse, not being responsible for the marksmanship of the sportsman. De Land Univmsity stands on an elevation just outside the town, commanding a good v:iew of the vicinity It is designed to afford facilities for students of Loth who prefer a: southern climate during the winter months. There are ample buildings, separate dormitories, and a full staff of instructors for the different dei>a.rtments. The school year of thirty w eeks begins in October and ends in May. 62. Lake Helen. Volusia County. Lat. 28 58' N.-Long. 81 13' W. HOT:&Ls.-The Harlan Jlotel, $2 to $2.50 a day.-The Granville, $7 to $10 a week. RAlr.ROA.Ds.-The Atlantic & Western Railroad east to New Smyrna and coast wise s teamers, west to J., T. & K. W. Ry. and St. John's River steamers. Lake Helen is essentially a resort or sanitarium. Its in habitants are mainly Northerners, who come for the winter, prefening the air of the piney woods to that of the sea coast. For such persons the situation is very attractive. The land is high, the surface of lake being about sixty feet above the sea level, and the bluff where the hotel stands some thirty feet higher. The place is named after the daughter of its founder, Mr. H. A. De Land. The lake is one of a chain of similar lakes of

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LAKE HELENDAYTONA. small size, but filled with pure water and of great depth. Lake Helen, it is said on good authority, has been sounded to a depth of more than two hundred feet without finding bottom. The fishing is good and the hotel has a large fteet of rowboats at the disposal of i ts guests without extra. charge. Al ong the west shore of the lake arc a number.of handsome cottages, with luxuriant ftowel' -gardens containing all kinds of tropical an4 semi-tropi cal plants that grow and blossom in the o.pen air all the year rotmd. The facilities for house keeping are exceptionally good, as there is a large veg etable garden conneote4 with the hotel, a lo. cal meat market, and stores that furni s h the ordinary supplies required in this 70 Daytona, V olusia. County. Population. 1,700.-Lat. !19 lO'N.-Long. 81" W. HoTBLS.-Oce cm H&Ute, $2.50 to $B a day.-Pa,l mctto Horel, $2 to $2. 50 a day. RAILROADS AND 8TBA'IIIBOATS.-8t. John and Halifax River Ra.ll'liay, to Pa-latka. steamboats to Lagoon landings. TitWlvlll e. and Rockledge. From Palatka to Daytona is 57 miles (3 hours 25 minutes). The general clirec;:tion of the raihoad is southeast, passing from Putnam to St. John's County at Yelvington, crossing the latter and entering Volusia County a mile south of Bulow (see pp. 80, 82, 94). After crossing the bridge at Palatlta the famous Hart orange grove may be see n to the south of the track. Leaving the hammock s and rolling pine lands tlmt border the St. John's River, the country becom es low and the track runs for miles across the head of a g1eat cy press swamp that extends far down into Volusia County. B eyond this the country b ecomes fta t and at length opens out into prairies, which give way again to wonderfully l'ich hammock 1idges along the coast. The Tomoka River is crossed near a station of that name. The town of Daytona stretches for two milos along the west bank of Halifax River, a salt water lagoon about thl'eefomths of a mile wide. It bu.'s streets pleasantly shaded with live oaks and palmettos, includingunusually fine speci mens of both. The hammock ridge on which the towu stands av erages two miles wide and extends for 60 miles

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DAYTONA 201 Jown the coast. It is co v e red with a dense growth of hard wood, inc luding wild orange-trees, man y of which h ave been graf t e d an.d brought unde r cultivation. Among the notabl e groves. of the vicinity are the H igby, Blake, Wilder, an d Handy groves ; the last named being a young grove while the others largely grafted on wild s tock. To Holly Hill, three miles north of Daytona, is a gooll road bordered with palm s and, for the greate1 part of the distance, within sight of the water. Silvm B e ach. The peninsula that separate s Halifax River from the ocean rises to a conside1-a.ble height opposite Day tona and for some miles to the northward. On the landward side of ridge are so m e of th e most charming places in Florida. Sheltered from t he direct fotce o f the ocea n win ds, the gardens and plantations are remarkably luxuriant and p roduce the more delicat e variet-ies of tropica l fruits and flowers in abundance. Thete are severa l privat-e residences at Silve1 B e ach, where a system of subirrigation has b een i nttoduced with remarkabl e results, notably in the grounds of Mr. Clark Marsh. Drives. Many of the road s about Daytona are excepti on ally good, especially along Uie shore where shells have b ee n available for mixing with the so il. B y far the finest d1ive is along the ocean b each in either direction. At low tide a n ex p anse of sand s e veral hundred feet wide is laid bare. L eve l and hard as a B oor, n o finer dl ivewa y can be imagined Bridges cross Halifax R iver at Daytona and Or mond, so that the route can be conveniently varied. For beach drives the time of the tide should always be c on sideted, as the sand is ve1;y heavy above high water mark. Extended excursions up t he b eac h, t wenty-six miles to Mntauzas Inlet (see p. 178), or soi1thward to Mosquito Inlet, twelve miles (see p. 207) are quite practicable. At Mosquito Inlet there are good hotels, but thete is none within easy reac h at 1\fa.tanzas, so that a good store of provi s i ons and a supp l y of fresh water sho uld be taken i1 the longer excu1sion is attempted. O n the main land there are e xceptionally good roads southward to and b eyond New Smyrna.

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202 ORMOND . ?1. Ormond, Volusia County. Six miles north of Daytona (see above). Population, 300. HOTEL.The Ormo-nd, $4 a day. A fine bridge spans Halifax River at this point, and a tram. way crosses it extending to the ocean beach at one end and to the .St. J. & H. R. Rail way at the othe1. Cars ruu at half hour intervals, connecting with all passenger trains. The Ormond Hotel has a large and completely appointed annex on the ocean beach, so that guests can choose between the magnificent ocean view or the more sheltered eutlook across the lagoon. The distance bet ween the two houses is nearly . a mile, but inter-communication is easy by tram way or ca.triage 1oad . Tomoka Ri'IJer is a y of the Halifax, following a northerly course nearly parallel to it, and navigable for ca noes and small boats for about twelve miles. The Tomokas were a Indian tribe during the early yea1'S of Span ish occupation. A catechism in their language prepared by the Jesuit mi ssionaries and about 1613. For othe1 excursions in the vicinity of Ormond see Route 60. ?2. Halifax River. This lagoon, or tidal liver, has a total length of about twenty-five miles from its head to Mosquito Inlet. Its gen eral course is parallel to the ocean, from which it is separa.t.ed by a narrow strip of land, partly hammock and partly the ordinary beach growth of saw palmetto. For the first six miles north of the inlet the river is bordered by marshes, and is !'rom two hundred to four hun dred yards wide, with at least eight feet of 'water in the channel. Thence for fourteen miles it widens to about three, quarte1s of a mile, with a channel depth of three t o eight feet. Above this it narrows again, and for a distance of four miles is known as Halifax Cteek. The headwaters consist of two branches, Smith's Creek closely follo\ving the beach, and Bulow's Creek turning more to the westward and rising in Graham's Swamp. There are bridges at Daytona and

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ORMOND-NEW SMYRNA. 203 Ormond, respectively twelve and eighteen miles from the inlet. Just north of the inlet is. a wide stretch of marsh, intersected by naJ.Tow cree]cs that connect to the westward with shallow bodies of water known as Rose, Strickland, and Turnbull Bays. Steamboats of light draught run regularly through Halifax R i v e r, leaving Daytona in the morning on alternate days, touching at Blake, Port Omnge, Ponce Park, and other landings, atid continuing down Hillsbol'Ough and Indian Rivers as far as Rockledge. Railroad connections at Daytona, New Smyma, and Titusville. --80. New Smyrna. Volusia County. HoTEL.-Ocean Hotese, $3 a day. R.AlLROAD.-Tbe Atllmtic and Weetern (see p. 97). onllalifax and Hillsboro ugh Rivers New Smyrna is one of the oldest settlements in Florida. Shell-mounds and barbaric implements are found, proving its early occupation by Indians, and there are numerous ancient ruins, probably of Spanish construction, but concern ing which nothing definite is known. Autheiltic history begins in 1767, when a certain Dr. Andrew 'rurnbull, an English gentleman of entered upon the gigantic task of draining the low hammocks back of New Smyma, and making them fit for cultivation. He had satisfied himself of t.he wonderful richness of this t1act, and preliminary surveys had proved the possibilities of drain age. This was four years after the .cession of Florida to Great Britain, and the English were fast learning that they need not depend on provision ships for the necessaries of life. Turnbull procured a grant of sixty thousand acres from the Governor on condition that certain improvements should be made within a specified time, He then sail e d to the 1\'Iedibertanean, and secuied permission f1om the autho1ities to transpoit to Flo1ida a large number of Greek families . For this permit be paid .. Most of the Greeks were

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204 NEW SMYRNA. ftom the Peloponnesus. The number was further recruited from the Isles, and in the end some fifteen hundred persons, men, women, and children, emigrated under his leadership. On his part free transportation, with good pro visions and clothing were guaranteed. If any were dis satisfied at the end of six months theywere to be sent home but those who remained and worked for three years were to receive fifty of land for each family, and twenty-five acres for each child. The voyage proved long, and many died on the passage, but the survivors began work with good courage, built palmetto huts for the approaching winter, and planted crops that yielded full returns in early spt:ing. As soon as it was certain that the colony was secure against hunger, Turnbull planted indigo. In 1772, about three thousand acres were unde1 cultivation, and the net value of the crop was 17 4. Success seemed assured, but for some rooson the manage ment of affairs was left to agents, who inaugurated a svs tern of oppression that soon becam e absolute slavery with all its revolting features. By1776 only six hundred of the colonists were left. In the summer of that year a pat ty of Engiishmen f1om St. August ine visited New Smyma to see the improvements, and, while conversing among themselves, .their comments on the state of affairs were overh ear d by a bright Minorcan boy, who immediately told. his mother what .lte had heard. Secret meetings were held, and a plan was concocted whereby a party of three of the boldet spirits were granted leave of absence to catch turtle. Instead of going south, however, stmted up the coas t, swam Matanzas Inlet, a n d reaching St. Augustine appealed to Governor Tonyn fo r protection, which was promiseu. The envoys re turned to New Smyrna with. the tidings of release A leader was chosen, Pallicier by name, and under his direction the able-bodied men provided themselves with wood en spears, rations were packed for three days, and with the women and children in the centre the six hundred began their march. So secretly was all this managed that they had proceeded several miles b e fore their departure was' discovered. No at tempt at. forcible restraint was made, though it is said that

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NEW SMYRNA. 205 Turnbull l1imself waylaid them before they reached St. Au gustine, and endeavored to persuade them to 1eturn. They marched on, however, and l'eported to the Governor, who ordered provisions for them, and organized a court for the t rial of their cause, the Attorney -General of the Pl'ovince, Younge by name, appearing as their counsel. Turnbull fo.iled to establish any further claim upon their services, and they were assured of personal liberty. Lauds were assigned .. them, and they soon became an influential element of the population in St. Augustine. Some of their descendants a\e s till to be found in the neighborhood of N e w Smyrna, whither they returned after they became assuted that there was no danger of re-enslavement. The canals, half-overgrown trenches, and Cl'Umbling ruins of stone buildings are all that now remain of Turnbull's en terprise, but they are beginning to play their part in the new agricultural undertakings of the day. No doubt the whole elaborate system of drainage will sooner or later again be utilized. After the l\finorcanrevolt New Smyrna was abandoned for nearly a generation In 1803, however, a few pioneers came back, and by 1835 some degree of prosperity had retumed. Then came the Seminole War and the little settlement was nearly exterminated Ly successive raids. After peace was restore(! the smTivors found their way bac1t, rebuilt their houses, and for twenty years were undisturbed. With the outbreak of the Civil War Mosquito Inlet of fered a tempting haven for blockade-mnners, and it became necessary to break up the rendezvous. Two United States gunboats, the Penguin and the Henry Andrew, reached the inlet on March 20, 1862. The last named vessel, being of light draft, crossed the bar. On the 22d a boat expedition, with 43 men, was sent down to Mosquito Lagoon to recon noitre. '!'hey went down eighteen miles, passing New Smyrna unmolested, but on t.heir return the leading boat was fired into from an earthwork near the town, which from previous examination was supposed to be abandoned. Lieu tenant Budd of the Penguin and Master Mather of the An drew were killed, and in the engagement that followed thir

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206 NEW SMYRNA. teen others were killed or wounded. The survivors took to cover on shore and rejoined their ships after night had fallen. Of course summary vengeance was taken for this attack, and all buildings, whatves, and the like, that could be of service to blockade-runners w ere destroyed. New Smyrna is a favorite resort for spol'tsmen. The proprietor of the hotel, Captain Sams, i s familiar with tl1e whole region and is always ready either to accompany his guests himself. on hunting expeditions or to furnish compe tent guides, boats, and equipments. Large and small game of all kinds is to be found iu the woods and savannahs of the . mainland, and water-fowl frequent the marshy islands that border the lagoons. The best of salt-watet fish are caught from the or in the channel, especially in the vicinity of Mosquito Inlet, four miles distant (Ree. p. 207). few rods south of the hotel is one of the drainage canals cut b.J Turnbull's engineers. On the o ther side, north of the hotel, is. a fine shell-mound, on which Turnbull built his castle" which is said to have been a solid structure cap able of good defence. The house that now occupies the mound is built over the. old cellars. South of the railroad . are othe1 ruins, the remains of an old stone wharf, an old pm:ial-ground, and other evidences of long-forgotten habi tations. Farther back from the shoi e are l'llined sugar-mills, indigo-vats, and a network of admirably planned and con structed drainage works. In this direction an excellent road continues to Hawks Park (2 miles), a beautifully situ ated town with pretty houses, a fine reach of river and easy access to an ocean beach that has not a break for 130 miles. Four miles north of the town, on a fine shell-mound, are t-he walls of an old coquina house, still in excellent preser. vation. It is called "The Rock House," but nothing what ever is known of its origin. It is said to have antedated the Turnbull period. Two or three times it has been re paired and occupied, but as often bas been destroyed by war accident. It is a picturesque little min, commanding a. fine outlook to seaward. The toad lies through a magnifi cent forest. Beyond the "Rock House the road continues several miles to a point overlooking Turnbull Bay, where

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PONCE PARK AND MOSQUITO INLET: '207 luncheon can usually be procured at a house near by. It is not a public house, however, and such accommodation is by courtesy. 81. Ponce Park and Mosquito Inlet, Volusia County. Lat 29 4' 49'1 N.-Long. 80 55'33" W. Pacetti's Hotel, $2 a dt\y. Stea;mboats, on alternate days. north to Daytona and south to New Smyrna and Titusville, at all which points are railroad connec ti ons. The coast from Matanzas Inlet (see p. 1 78) to Mosquito Inlet, forty-eigh t miles, is a 1epetition of that to the northward. A continuous beach of hard, white sand, with deep water half a mile to seaward. The genera.! trend of the coast is south by east, .curving slightly inward, and the woods from inlet to inlet on the mainland are seemingly unbroken. About three miles north of 1\iosquito Inlet there is a conspicuous green hill forty feet high, and there numerous sand-hills in the vicinity twenty feet high. Conspicuous b l uffs lie also to the southward of the inlet. The break in the beach is half a mile wide with a channel two hundred yards wide and five to ten feet of water at l ow tide. The main 1ise and fall of the tide is abo1,1t two feet four inches. The sarid -bars shift mp idly according to wind and tide, and the entrance is dan gerous without, a local pilot. The light house is a red blick tower surmounted by a black lantern 160 feet above the sea. It shows a white fixed light of the first order, visible eigh teen miles at sea. This towe1 was fini shed in 1887 and will well repay a visit, for all its appointments are of the most app1oved type .. A flight of 218 steps leads to the lantern. The walls are twelve feet thick at the base. From the gal lery at the top a strange and impressive :view may be ob tained of the inlet and the surrounding wilderness of sea and shore. The lighthouse is open to visitors at alll10urs when the keepers are not on duty. The exact latitude and longitude of the tower are given at the bead of this article. Ponce Pa1k is the l awful name of the hamlet half a mile nol'th of the light towel". It is a noted resort for fishe1'men, as the neighboring waters abound with sheepshead, bass, Spanish mackerel, bluefish, and the other salt-water varie -

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208 PONCE PARK AND MOSQUITO INLET. ties. The hotel is adequate for the needs of sportsmen. The walks in the vicinity are limited to the beaches and to a few trails cut tluough the scrub to the ocean. From hotel south to the inlet (one mile) is an easywaik and the mag nificent ocean beach may be followed thence as far as de sired. Some o f the trails leading from the beach to the lighthouse and hotel are very difficult, and should not be at tempted except by good wa lke rs. The ocean beach is very fascinating with its rare and curious shells and its endless perspective of sand and surf. It is in pe1fect condition for driving during severa l hours between tides everyday. For extended excursions boats are the onlv available ve llicles, and of there is a good supply at the hotel. The lagoons north and south, the beach beyond thfl Inlet, and the inkicate channels leading into Turnbull Bay are all open to the boatman, and full of for gunnel'S, fishermen, and toui-ists. Hillsbo1ough Rive1 extends southward from l\fosquito Inlet thirty-six miles to the h ead of Indian River. 'rhe first few miles are bordered by bluffs on the south or sea ward side and marshes on the north. The channel is quite deep, vessels drawing ten feet. ascend to New Smyrna (see p. 203), but the shallows are intricate and shifting. Through this pa1t of the 1ive1 the tide 111ns swiftly. South of Smyrna the river is nearly parallel to the beach. The divid ing strip of land is often high and wooded, with occasional settlements. The mid section of the river is much cut :up and obstructed by mangrove islands, and tlle channels are intricate, but the main passage has been well marked by bea cons maintained by the ca.nn.l company. In some places t.he water is ten feet deep, but only four feet can be carried through. Tu1tle !J{ound, ten miles south of Mosquito Inlet, is the only conspicuous natural landmark on this part of the coast. It is so called from its fancied resemblance to a sea-turtle, the central mound representing the shell, and two flanldng mounds the flippers. Seen from the su mmi t of the mound, the 1esemblance is quite apparent, but it is probably acci dental. The mound is about forty ieet high. The north

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PONCE PARK AND ::\10SQU I l'O INLET. 209 s ide is quite precipi tous, showing the shell strata with occa sional evid ences of fires, and, ra1ely, some rude Indian relic. An excavation wns made by in the summit of the mound many years ago but nothing of especial interest wnR discovered. The lower or southern reach, Hillsborough River, is twenty miles long with an average width of about two miles. A narrow strip of sand often not moie than two hundred yards wide, separates it from the beach. The depth is fou 1 and one-half to fiv e feet. About twelve miles from its junct. ion with Halifax Hiver it overlaps the h ead of Indian River, being divided from it on the west by a tidge of limestone rock, generally about one thousand yards wide. A canal bas been cut through the ridge seven hundred and fifty yards long and fifty feet wide, and t hrough this tbe b oats of the Indian Rhrer Steamboat Company now pass r egularly to and from the Indian River B elow the H aulover Cn.nal the land separating Halifax and Indian Rivers broaden s into a large tract known as Merritt's I sland, though it is in reality two islands separate d by Banana River (see map of Brevard County, p. 9). Towns and l andings on Halifax River, Hillsborough River, and Mosquito Lagoon as follows : MlLES. l'IIILEs. New SIDJTila .................... 5 Hawks Park.. .. .. . .. .. . .. 3 Oak Rill, } Eldora (En8t bank) ...... .... 10M Sbllob ........................... 6 Tomoka . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Ormond ........................... 6 Holly Hill.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 Daytona ....... .................... 3 Blake ............................. 3 Port .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. !l Ponce ParK (Mosquito Iule t) ....... 5 Han lover . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. G Titmvllle .................... .... 12

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210 'l' H E I NDIA N R I VE R. 9 0. The Indi a n R iver. See map o f Brevar d Coun ty, p. 9. The d lrej:t route f rom J ack so nvi lle t o the h ead o f the riv e r Is b y .T. T. & K W. Ry., one hundr ed and fifty 1lin e miles, to Titnsvill e (5 h o m'S 50 min ute s ) T hie may be vu.rled b y g olng to Daytona a n d then ce by boat southward. B oats l e a v e D aytona on alternate days or by roi l to N e w Sm yrna, and thence by l: oa t us above (seep. 209) . India n R iver is in many respects the most remarlrable and i nt e rest in g watercourse in F lorida. Co nnected through i n lets with the A t lantic O cean, a n d more or less aff ected by its tides, it r etains many of the c haracterist ic s of a freshwate r s t rea m owin g t o the numero u s tdbutatie s that join it from the great natura l reservo il' s o f the mainland From its head twe h e miles n ol'th o f 'ritusv ill e, to its so u thern extrem i ty at Jupiter I nlet. I ndian River is one hun d 1ed and f o r t y-twa miles long, and so straight t hat water and sky seem to mee t, as at sea, whe n one north or south along the 1iver. The wi d t h varies from one hundred feet i n t h e Narrows, to t h ree mile s o r more at the w ides t part. fhe h ead o f t h e 1iver i s divid e d opposite Cape C a na vera l by a broad t ract called M erritt s I sland. The ea stern b 1anch i s Ban ana River, and thi s again has a brunc h called Bttmm a Creek, d ividing the I s land o p posite Titusvill e (see map o f Brev a r d County). Banana R iver has fi ve to six f ee t o f water ; B anana Creek two to three feet Indian R iver com m u nica t e s w ith the sea through two inlets, nam ely, Indian Rivex Inlet, sixty mi l e s Routh of Cape Can a v e ral, an d Jupiter I nle t at its southern end f h e first n a m e d has about f our and one-half feet a t h igh w a ter, and t h e o t h e r about five f eet. Cape Ca n averal (pron ou nce d Can av' -eral) i s a peculiar sharp outstanding angle o f the coast, p rojecting about eight miles b eyond the general trend of the beach T o the north and sout h the coast line i s sout h -so u theast A g lanc e at the map immedia tely suggest s the idea t hat M erritt's Island was once t h e cape, and t hat slow geo l og ical uphe av a l ra i se d i t to its presen t altitude, while the presen t cape w as t hrown up by t]?.e sea t o t ake i t s p l ace as a breakwat er. The genera l o u tlines are almost identica l. The cap e is a triangular t 1 act o f bar e sea sand, pa r tially covered with scrub, desolate be-

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THE INDIAN RIVER. 211 yond expression, but a fine ocean view and an outl()olt over the strange landward prospect may be obtained from the tower. The mainland is largely shut off by the compara tively high ridges of 1\:[erritt's Island, but the whole co urse of Banana River can be fo llowed. The lighthouse tower stands on the northeast pitch of the cape, in latitude 28" 27' 37" N., Long. 80 31' 31'' W. The tower is 139 feet high, and show s a white flash light of the first order every sixty seconds, visible 17! nautical The tower painted black and white in horizontal bands. A light first established here in 18<17, and the old tower still remains as a landmark. The present tower was built in 1868. An automatic whistling buoy is anchored 6t miles off the cape to warn vessels of dangerous outlying shoals when the light cannot be seen. I n 1887 the sea encroached 129 feet on the tower, and Congres s made an appropriation to construct a revetmentfor its protection. At the outbreak of the Civil War the lightkeeper, Captain Burnham, who had been long in the service of the Govern ment, learned that a p1oject was on foot to seize :md destroy the costly Fresnel lantern and it,s machinery. Bum ham was in sympathy with the cause of secessi on, but he was never theless faithful to his trust, and batHed all attempts of the Confederates to capture the ltmtern and its belongings. Six miles north of the cape are the remo.ins of an old re doubt, evidently the work of Europeans. It is not improb able that this may Juwe been the fort erected by the sur vivors of Ribaut's expedition who refused to surrender to the Spaniards at Matanza.s (seep. 178). The from Mosquito Inlet to False Cape is formed by the narrow strips of land that separate the inlan
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212 THE INDIAN RIVER. ings. The conditions of navigation are such and the length of the trip so great that it cannot be accomplished wholly hy daylight, but the boats are commodious and well equipped in al11espects, with comfort able state-rooms and an excellent table. The whole trip is interesting to the tourist for its novelty. On the one hand is a nal'l'OW strip of beach across which, at intervals, one may see the masts of southward bound steame1s, keeping close in shore to avoid the Gulf Stream ; on the other are occasional settlements with the unbrolten forest .between, and beyond them a wilderness. that has neYer yet been thoroughly explored. On the broad reaches of the river are countless flocks of ducks and. geese, and, overhead are hunj}reds of unfamiliar birds. The navigation of the narrows is a lways entertaining. The boats are built with special reference to short turns, and as they push their way through the crooked channels, the mangroves brush along the guards, and some new sUl'prise awaits the spectator at every turn. The water is usually highly phosphorescent at night, alld wondel'ful of natme's firewo1ks ruay be seen as the boat p asses through flocks of ducks or over schools of mullet and the other fish with which these waters abound. At times the surface, for a hundred feet or more on either side of the bow, is crossed and recrossed by an in-. tl'icate embroidery pattern traced in lines of soft yet bril liant light. The last part o f the trip to the southward is necessarily performed by night, but on the l'eturn trip this part of the journey is made by daylight, so t .ha.t, going or 1eturning, there is an opportunity to see the whole river .. The western shore is the home of the famous Indian River orange, and in the vicinity of the settlements cultivated groves l1ave replace(! the dense natural growth. In most cases a screen of palmettos o1 other forest trees has been left to pl'Otect the oranges from the easterly winds, which, coming direet from the ocean, are often iujurious. For this reason few groves are to be seen from passing steamers, but during the shipping season tl1e boats are heav ily freighte1 with cmtes of the finest fruit.

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THE INDIAN RIVER-TITUSVILLE. 213 Farther south _Rineapples become an important item of commerce, and the uluffs near Eden are with acres of this curious plant. On e of the most enjoyable features of the trip is the grrtdual change noted in the vegetation, which as sumes more and moi.e the subtropical characteristics until at Jupiter a fine specimen of the cocoa-palm is seen in full bearing. 91. Titusville, Brevard County. Population, 1,000.-Lat. 28 SO' N.-Long. so 40' W. Ho'l'ELS.-Jndian .Rirer Hotel, $1.50 to $2.50 a day, $6 to $10 a week.-Grand View same rates. RAILROAD.-lndill.ll River Division J., T. & K. W. system to Enterprise Junction. For stations and (listances pp. 11 and 97. S'l'EAMBOATS -The Indian River Steamboat Company. Daily bOats to Jupiter. Boats on alternate days to Daytona and intermediate landings. Saddlehwses, 25c. an hour, $2 a day. Rowl>oats, 25c an hour, $2 a day. Sailboats, $2 to $10 a day Guides, $1 to $5 a day. Titusville is the county town, with a bank, stores, and con siderable business interests. It affords a good head-quarters for tourists or sportsmen desiring to engage boats for long hunting and fishing expeditions. In the immediate vicinity are Cape Canave1 a l and the creeks, rivers, and ponds intersecting Merritt's Island, the beaches, the Haulover Canal, with the Dummitt orange grove, and the shores of Indian River in either dire ction. Titusville was formerly called S and Point. It was founded by one Colonel Titus, a leader in the Kansas Crusade of 1855 1856, and a pioneer in this region,, who was for many years the autocrat of the settlement.

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214 ROCKLEDGE 92. Rockledge, Brevard County. Population, soo.-Lat. 28 18' N.-Long. so 88' W HoTELS.-Indian River HotBl $4 a day.-New Rockledge, a day.-:Tl-or.i cat House, $8 a day. Good board at $12 a wook. Churches, Episcopal, Methodist and Presbyterian. Guill, C. E. Coo1t. Special terms must be made. ll1Y!ohoat8, $2.50 a day Sailboats, $4 a day. The appropriateness of the name Rockledge is evident ns soon as the steamer draws near the shore. For three or four miles an abrupt dyke of coralline rock rises along the water side to a height of from six to twelve feet. Along the crest of the ridge, sheltered from the ocean winds by a fine growth of palms and live oaks, is 'the town of Rockl e dge, with nu merous handsome hous. es, many of them designed for the winter residences of Northern visitors, several good hote ls, and a general air of comfort and prosperity that cannot fail to prove attractive. An excellent roa.dway, suitable for pleasure d1iving, extet:ids for severfl.l miles along the water side. The river is here about a mile and a half wide, the oppo site shore being the. sonthe:rn point of Merritt's Island. Be yond this is the wide Banana River, sepa1-ated from the ocean by a narrow strip.of sandy beach. The river in both directions offers numerous attractions for hunters, fishermen, and picnic parties. Three miles w es t of Rockledge is Lake Poinsett, to the shor es of which there is a p1acticable road. Boats are some times hauled across. The fishing in the lake is said to be exceptionally good, and game of all kinds is to be found along the borders of the savannahs.

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MELBOURNE. 215 93. Melbourne, Brevard County. Population, 200.Lat. 28 5' N.Long. 800 30' \V. HoTE.LS.-Oarlet<>n, Goode H()U$e, IdlMcild 0()ttage, River$(de, $1.50 to$2 aday, $7 and upward b)' the week. Rive1 Steamboat Co., daHv, north to Titusville, south to Churches:Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian. At this point. the River is two miles across and the penin-sula half a mile wide, with a tramway to the ocean beach, where are facilities for bathing. The trip across the river is made by steam feny or by small boats, aud is the favorite short excmsion for visitors. Not far distant is the Government H ouse of R efuge provided for the relief of shipwrecked manners. There are no roads suitable for driving in this neighbor hood. All locomotion must needs be effected on foot or by watel'. The mouth of Banana River is about six miles north of Melbourn e. The town of Tropic, with a hotel where meals or lodging may had, is on the point between the two rivers. It is an aU-day excmsion by steam launch to Canaveral near the head of Banana River. A difficult trail leads westward about seven miles through hammocks and swamps to Lake Washington, one of the sources of the St. John's River. All kinds of game are to be found i n the vicinity of Melbourne. There are n:o professional guides, but it is always possible to secure the services of a hunter familiar with the region. Special bargains are made acco1ding to services required.

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216 JUPITER INLET . 94:. Jupiter Inlet, Dade County. Lat. 26 56' 64'' N.-Long. so 4' 48" w. HOTEL.-'1'/}e Chattahooc/we (a large river steamboat moored to the wharf and adapted to this use), $3 a day. Steaml;oats.-Indian River Steamboat Company, daily to Titusville. llailroad.-Jupiter & Lake Worth Railroad, 8 miles south to Juno. Boats.-Naphtha launch and rowboats for hire at hotel at reasonable rates. Jupiter Inlet marks the southern extremity of the long series of rivers or lagoons that skirt the coast of Florida in an almost unbroken chain. The opening is about one-eighth of a mile wide with th1ee feet depth at mean low water. 'rhe tide runs at the ebb and flow, fresh or salt wate1 pre ponderating according to the stage of the water in the ever glades and the considerable streams that here make dow n froni the interior . The inlet widens just within the beach, and there is good and secute anchomge for small vessels in side the north point. The large steamboat that does excellent duty as a hotel is moored about a mile from the inlet, and nearly opposite the mouth of Jupiter Sound, as the lower reach of the river is called. From the upper deck there is a good view of the in-let and the neighboring waters. No one capable of mounting the st-airs should fail to cross over to the lighthouse and enjoy the impressive view of ocean, river, forest, and prairie that spreads map-like to the horizon in all directions. The tower stands on a high bluff west of the mouth of the sound, it is 9 feet high from base to centre of lantern. The total height above the sea-leve l is 146 feet. The light is of the :first order, showing a fixed white light varied by a white flash every ninety seconds. It is visible 20 miles. Cape Canaveral, 147 miles nearly north, and the lighthouse on Fowey Rocks, 94 miles nearly south, are the nearest neigh bors of this lonely tower, which was established here in 1860 and save during the four years of civil war has not failed. From the lantern gallery one may see, in clear weather, more than forty miles up and down the coast, and across the intervening forest nearly to the shores of Lake Okeecho bee. To the northward may be traced the courses of Ju piter Sound, North Fork, and Northwest Fork, while to the

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JUPI'rER. INLE'l'. 217 southward are Southwest Fork, and Lake Worth Creek. All these streams are easily navigable for many miles, are literally alive with fish, and receive numerous tributaries which ca n be ascended in canoes Ol' small boats into the heart of the wilderness. Lake Worth Creek is navigable with a short carry to the lake, but it is almost impossible to find the right channel without a guide. As a rule all the streams in this region become vel'y c rooke d near their sources, and the va1ious channels are so often involved that t h e explorer should not forget to ma1k the different openings wherever the current fails to indicate the true course. There is no better fishing on the coast than is found at Jupit-er Inlet. Bluefish, bass, pompano, ca\aille, runners, ladyfish, sheepshead, and other varieties are taken with the rod. Tarpon a1e found here, but will rarely talte bait before l\'Iay or June. Sharks abound at the inlet and may be caught with suitable tackle in the channel or from the steamboat wharf. Panthers and wild cats still prowl about the settlement at night, and bears frequent the hammock$ and islands along the water-courses. and turkeys are pretty well hnntecl off by the Indians, who range as far north as this from their haunts in the everglades, but with the aiel of guides good sport may be had by hunters who are not afraid of hard work. The lighthouse settlement includes a signal station, with a complete outfit of instruments. It is the duty of the ser geant in charge to transmit to Washington daily weather re p orts, and as this station is the most southerly on the Atlan tic coast his warnings of cyclonic storms are often of great importance. He also signals passing v essels and reports them for the benefit of merchants. A Government telegraph line runs from this point to Titusville, so that there is easy communication with the North Jupiter may be regarded as the northern limit of the cocoa. palm. A fine lal'ge tree in full bearing stands at the foot of the bluff below the lighthouse. A few miles farther north, on the east s ide of. Jupiter Sound, there is a thriving group of young trees, but north of this latitude their existence is somewhat precariou1>.

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'218. JUPITER I NLET. Whence .[upiter derived its name is not cel'tainly known. It was occupied as a military post during the Indian war, and two considerable engagements occurred, one on "J upite1 Creek," on January 15, 1838, and the other near the inlet, on January 24th of the same year. A large number of Ind ians were captured at that time by the United States forces. Aside from the lightkeepers' families, the life -saving crew, and t h e employees about the hotel and wharf, few inhabi tants are discoverable. There is, however, a sparse popula tion in the vicinity, and now arid then an Indian or a bunter finds his way to the landing with game or in of sup-plies. The manatee or sea-cow is still found in this vicinity, though he must be regarded as nearly extinct. Inasmuch as this curious amphibian is perfectly harmless, and since his .neithet nor ornamental, it is hoped that. With firearms will deny themselves the pleasure of his blood. Pelicans, too, are fat more interesting than dead. They readily become quite tame if not arid, since they cannot be regarded as game birds, all true sportsmen should oppose their indiscrimi nate slaughter. An expedition in a small boat after dark is very enjoyable, and often exciting, from the multitudes of fish that dash against the boat, and sometimes leap over ot into it in frantic efforts to escape from their pursuers. A lantern shown at a favorable moment will sometimes bring mullet flying into the boat by dozens. It is to stand on a lofty observatory after night fall and watch the revolving rays of the lig},lthouse as they touch different points of sea and shore, here penetrat ing a dark nook a.mong the mangroves and there lighting up a st1etch of beach, with breakers on the bar. With a powerful field-glass one may see strange sights as the rays search out bird, beast, or fish, under the fancied security of darkness. Except in very calm weathe1 small boats should not go outside the inlet. The tide sets outward furiously, and no one not perfectly familiar with the management of boats

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JUPITER INLET. 219 should venture near the narrow channel: 'rhe outer breakers are very deceptive. Often when they look quite harmless from the beach they will be found very formidable when near at hand. To be upset or swamped with the tide runiling ebb is a perilous mishap. One mile south of the inlet is the United States Life Sav ing Station. The walk to it is not difficult, either along the beach or across the point. In either case turn to the left after leaving the wharf and follow the road past the post office. Thence a foot-path leads aloug the shore of the in let, sometimes at the waterside, and sometim e s among the .trees, to the ocean b e ach, where the station will be seen about one mile to the right. If the old trail to Lake W01th be followed it will be found to leacl southward through a low growth of scrub aucl cedars. A walk of twenty minutes will bring the station in sight to the eastward. A trail has beel1 clea1:ed to the ro!J,cl nearly oppo .site the station. There is no danger of losing one's bearings anywhere tween the railroad and the ocean, for the sound of the surf is a sure guide, and both beach and railroad track lead directly to .the hotel. The Life Saving Station was estab lished in 1885. Seven men are continually on duty, and, though no wrecks have occurred sillce the house was built, coasting craft often come to grief at the inlet and require as sistance. There are weekly drills in all the operations of the . wrecking service, launching the boat through the surf, gunpractic e signalling, etc. It is always interesting to witness these exercises, often involving skilled handling of the life boat in heavy rollers. The beach on either side of the inlet is stlewn with sun cured sponges, sea-beans, cocoanuts, and a hundred strange forms of animal and vegetable life swept up from the coral reefs by the Gulf Stream, whose dark waters may often be seen a few miles off shore. 1\fangroves, aloes, gum alimbo, sea-grapes, and here and there a cocoa palm, are among the wild growths that are found along these beaches and wooded knolls. Here the mangrove assumes its subtropica l vigor, and it may afford amusement to athletes to penetrate a man grove swamp by walking ancl climbing from 1oot to 1oot for

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220 JUPITER INLET. a few hundred yards. Along shore of the bight that makes in to the south of the inlet sand has drifted among the mangroves, and there is good walking in all directions. It is worth a visit to study close at hand the pictu1esque and uncanny shapes assumed by this strange tree that is con encroaching on the sea, filling up 'inlets and making islands that eventually become a part of the continent. The outer ocean beach, or peninsula, from Cape Canaveral southward, varies in wi
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JUPITER INLET. 221 n lany of the places named. m ain l and. D istances going the left. W. indicates the west bank or south on the right, north on 154. . . . . . . . ... Titusville, W........ . . . . . . o 1 42 ......... ......... Hardeeville. W ............... ... 12 140 ............ ... Courtnel (Merritt's land)..... . ...... 14 189 ...................... W . . .. .. . . . .. . . 15 1 a 7 ....... ........ Sbarp' s (Merritt's I sland). . . .. . .. .. .. 17 136. : . .. .. .. .. . ... City Point, W .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 18 182 ............... Men1tt (Merritt's Island). . .. .. .. .. .. 22 18 0 ................. .... Coooa, W . .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. . 24 129 ..................... Hardee's, W . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21> 128 ..................... Rockleon of 1889-90 it was a tedi ous ride of three hours over a heavy road, where the horses could rarely move faster than a walk. The ocean beach i n t hi s vicinity is not availa ble for driving. A good walker may the distance between the inlets in .three h ours, but the sand is t oo heavy for enjoyable walking. The littl e railroa d, "ith its gnlaxy o f mytbologicaluames, pru dentl y takes shelter behind the beach ridge throughout its course. Here and t here tlll'ongh gaps i n the ridge glimpses aye caught of an emerald sea and snowy breakers. O n the landward side there is but litt l e t.o break the monotony

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222 JUPITER INLET-LAKE WORTH. of saw palmetto, and beach scrub. The. intermediate sta tions of Venus and l\fars passed, Little Lake Worth is pres ently seen on the. left, a small, shallow pond, connected \vith the larger lake by a narrow channe l The headwaters of Lake.Worth Creek are about one mile to the westward, navigable for canoes and opening here and there into small lakes, b11t largely filled with sawgrass and lily-pads, and with nothing to distinguish the main channel from countl ess branches. The outside trip is highly enjoyable in fine weather. It should however, be undertaken Sttve under favorable conditions of wind and tide, as the inlets are very treacher ous by reason of shifting sand and swift cunents. With a fair wind the round trip may easily be made in a day in a sailboat, but the chances of being becalmed must ahvays be considered. 100. Lake Worth, Dade County. . By boat and rail from Titusville, 162 miles. HOTBLs.-Cocoanut Hm.u.e, Palm Beach, $2.5() a day, $10 a week.-Gaklawn House, Oaklawn, $2 to $2.50 a day, $10 to $12 a week.-Hotcl Lake Wortlt, $3 a day. . - Like the more extensi ve lagoons to the n01 thward, Lake Worth is a lon g, nanow body of wate1, separated from the sea by a ridge of hammock, sand, and savannah, and with a shallow inlet through which the ocean tides ebb and flow. Beyond this lake to the southward there are no regnlo.r lines oftravel. The next post-office in that direct ion is on Biscayne Bay, fHty miles distant, and the mail is calTied once a week by. a messenger, who walks the beach with the pouch on his back, and navigates the intervening inlets and creeks in c anoes. Lake Worth, however, has proved very attractive to North. ern residents. The water side is _lined for three miles or more with tasteful cottages arid costly mansions, where Northerners who dread a severe winter may lead an almost ideal existence. The lake is twenty-two miles long, with an average width of about one mile, and a channel depth of from six to twelve

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LAKE WORT H 223 feet. The inlet has about five feet of water a t low tide. The temperature of _Lake Worth is largely influ e n ced by the Gulf Stream, which 1uns cl ose in shore at this point, the most easterl v of Florida, and here t ho influence of the tl' . winds makes i tself f elt in equalizin g the climatic co n ditions 'fhe normal winter temperature is about 75, falling to 50 or 60 under the infl uence of "northers.'' I n its m odern aspect Lake Wort h dates back only to 1 875, but the rich hammocks a l ong the s h ores were evidently un der civilized cultivation centuries ngo. No record is known to exist of a. European settlement, but the existenc e of canals and ruins p oints unmis takabl y t o a forgotten p eriod, pro b ably of Spanish occupancy. '.l'h e favored garden r egion of the lalte is along its enst.em !!hor e, with the lieavily wooded p eninsula to serve as protec t i o n from ocean gal es, and a productive soil to foster the growth of f1-uits, flow e rs, and vegetables. All kin ds o f sea-fis h abound in the lak e ; bluefish, sea trout, pompano, Spanish mackerel, ba.rrac uta, tarpon, and _the multitudinous mu.llet a:re cau ght, or "grained," accord ing to their size and habits. Government surveys have been pushed only about twelve miles to the westward. '!'he wi ldemess, speedily merging into too everglades, begins a l mos t with the lake sho1 e. Beyond the ridge that bounds the view to the westward is a chain of fresh-water some twe l>e feet highe1 than the sea level ; then c omes tW(Tpine fotest, and then the "glades." L arge game is to b e found throughout this region Guides are almost indispensable for successf ul hunting. In January, 187 9, misfortune of the Spanish bark P rovidencia p roved n. go d-send to Lake Worth. She was cast away on the coast, and her cargo o f 20,000 c ocoanuts distributed itself impartially for miles up and down the beach. Many thousands of the nuts were gathered nnd plan t e d (laid on the ground, that is) in row s i n circl es sin gly, and in groups with the I'esult that now the coco a pa-lm lifts its graceful fronds above e very I'oof, lines walks and avenue s, and lends a tropical aspect to the who l e settle ment.

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224 LAKE WORTH. A natural sea-wall is fotmed along the shore by the under lying coralline rock, and some of the mQre wealthy residents, not satisfied with this, have added an artificial wall. No fences interrupt the pedestrian along this charming water side. A smooth walk, shaded and, for the most part, wellkept, tempts to extended excursions, and leads at interva.Is through private grounds that nre marvels of beauty. Olean ders a,nd ponciarias here are trees twenty Ol' thi.J:ty feet high, gigantic cacti stand like sentinels on the lawns ; the hibis cus, red, white, and yellow, lavishes its blosson1s in evel'J garden, and mangoes, guavas, limes, lemons, oranges, figs, dates, bana nas, and pineapples grow they are per mitted to take root: l'he west shore is best adapted for i)ineapples, and already the shipments amount to a consid erable item in the annual returns. Jt'rom nearly every house a walk or trail leads across the peninsula to the ocean beach, where a magnificent smf comes rushing in warm from the Gulf Stream, and laden with shells and mal'ine curiosities that tempt collectors to wander for miles along the sands in seat'ch of sea-fans, fragments of coral, sponges, sea-beans, echimll, and countless other waifs that one may often be at a loss to name. South-bound steamers keep close along the beach to avoid that rushes northward at the rate of four or five mimln hom a little farther off shol'e. Rarely .a day passes that several of these fine vessels are not seen, out in the stream northward-bound cl'il.ft are speeding in the oppo site direction with wind and tide in their favor .. After an easterly gale the beach is sure to be particulal'ly interesting, the accumulation of curiosities and geneml wl'eckage is l argely increased. The l1ighest point on the peninsula is sixty-five feet above the sea l evel. The land 1ises somewhat near the lake, aml again into a wide ridge near the ocean; between these i!> a low and naturally marshy tract, which has been largely drained and utilized for the cultivation of vegetables. St.rangers should not shoot alligators near the cultivated tracts, as some of them are half i.ame, and are preserved by

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LAKE WORTH. 225 the owners of the land. Elsewhere shooting is allowable. D!ler are still found on the peninsula; rabbits and various game birds abound, and there is a' chance for a. wildcat in the denser cover There aLe five principal landings and nu niel'Ous private landings, where the small steamers that ply on the lake stop on signn.l. At the terminus of the railroad, passengers board one of the steamers whic4 p resently starts down the l ake. About one mile south, beyond a low point, is the liaulover or carry, wh ere canoes may be hauled across one-half mile to a small pond, the source of Lake Worth Creek, navigable for small boats to Jupiter. Pelican Island is passed on the right. Formedy this was the resort of countless birds; "a roost," as it was locally called. Now it is a most attractive place, with fine live oaks, a handsome house, and well-cared-for grounds. It is, iu fact, an exceptionally 1ich tract, guano deposits of former years adding greatly to its fertility. Oak Lawn {P.O.), six miles from Juno, with its hotel, is on the west side of the lake, a fine bluff crowned with trees rising from the waterside. It is nearly opposite the inlet, and the fishing here is probably as good as anywhere on the lake, while fine shooting is to be found within easy walking distance in any. direction along shore, or among the savan nahs and woods to the westward. Lake Wmth (P.O.), eight miles from Juno, is pleasantly situated about one mile south of the in.let. Here begins the continuous line of houses that stretches along the eastern shore. Ptominent among these are the l'esideuces of Charles I. Cragin, of Philadelphia, M1s. F. Lane, of New York, and R. R. l\fcCormiclr, of Denver, all of which are xemarkable for the beauty of their surroundings. In general the pro .prietors are glad to have visitors enjoy their g1:ounds, but permission should of COltrse be asked if it is desired to in spect the immediate vicinity of the houses. Palm Beach (P.O.), eight and one-half miles from Juno, is fairly embowered in cocoa palms. 'l'he hotel especia.lly has around it a large number of fine specimens, with a largo

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. 226 LAKE WOB.TH. royal pionceana, "whistling trees," hung full of curious pods, and numerous other curiosities in plant life. Thel'e is a good cou'ntry store a short dist ance north of the J:iotel, arid charming walks, eithe1' to the beach, where there is a bath house {key at the hotel), or along the lake shore in eithe1 direction. Figulus (P.O.), eleven miles from Juno, i s on the east slwre of the lake, an<1 (P.O.), sixteen miles from Juli o, occupies an isla1d, the south el'll end of which extends to within about one mile of the foot of the lake, where there is a ba:tilove1 to the ocean beach-, tl1e small creek 'that reaches a short distance to the southward being impractica ble even for canoes. 101. The Sea-coast South of Lake Worth. From Lake Worth Inlet south fo1 thirty miles to Hillsboro Inlet the beach is unbroken. About half-way, however, is the Orange Grove house of refuge, where shelter, food, and water may be obtained. Five iniles sontb of this the l1ead\vaters of Hillsboro River unite a few hundre d yards from the beach, forming a little lake about three fe e t deep. One-half mile farther south is Lake Wyman, four to five feet deep, and with a connecting channel navigable for small boats to Lake Boca Ratone and the Hillsboro River. At the inlet is a brunch stream from the southward that olosely follows the beach for three miles, ending in a shallow lake. Eight miles south of Hillsboro Inlet is the Fort Lauderdale house of r(>fuga, to the westward of which about one-half mile, the headwaters of New River and its tributaries offe1 inland passage for small boats. New River Inlet is :fifteen miles !iOuth of Hillsboro Inlet, the 1iver so-called being a narrow lagoon, about fiv e miles long, separated fl'Om the sea by a low ridge of sand and divid ing at the head into an infinite number of tributaries and lakes with a depth of water varying from three to ten feet in The uppe1 reaches of the river are very

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LAKE WORTH. 227 wild and beautiful. At this writing (1890) there a1e no per manent settlers, save Indians whose camps can hardly be considered permanent. Two miles south of the house of refuge is a conspicuous group of cocoa palms on the beach. Eight miles south ofNew .River Inlet is a "haulover," where a lake known as Dumfounding Bay approaches within one-quarter of a mile of the beach. Thence the bead waters of Biscayne Bay, about two miles, navigation is com paratively easy for small though the channel is very crooked. Biscayne Bay house of refuge is about sixteen miles south of New :River Inlet and eight miles north of Norris Cut the most nol'tberly to Biscayne Bay. From Lake Worth to Norris Cut the beach offers but unsatisfactory foothold for man or beast. For near fifty miles it is uninhabited, drinkable is very scarce, and there is little to attract tlie explorer except the perpetual beauty of the ocean and the navigable inland waters con nected with Hillsboro and New River Inlets. A company of speculators a few years since planted an en ormous number of cocoanuts along this beach with a view to the sale of building lots. The trees have been left to care for themselves, but many of them have grown, and it is quite possible that in a few years they will materially change the aspect of the coast. For Biscayne Bay, the Florida Reef, etc., see p. 310.

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The Gulf Coast. From Mark's on the north to Cape Sable, the southern extremity of the peninsula, is a stretch of more than four hundred miles. At Tampa Buy, Charlotte Harbor, and San Carlos Bay, the outlying reefs and shallows open in deep channels, affording entrance for large sea-going craft ; else where the undel'lying rock of the peninsula slopes so gradually gulfwarJ that the "tenfathom curve," ns laid down on the charts, is often out of of land. Although almost everywhere there are scat.teied lilies of lwys and reefs close along. shore, .there is nothing that resembles the great la goons of the east coast. Small vessels of shallow draft can pass inside keys and find a haven at the mouths of many of the rivers, but even these must give a wide berth to count less oyster bars and rocky reefs known on l y to the native pilots. Between Tarpon Springs and Punta Rassa, o. distance of. abou:t .one hundted and twenty-five miles, the coast is com paratively high, wooded bluffs rising from the water's edge. Elsewhere, with few exceptions, the bluffs and high bam mocks are several miles inland, and' the coast mainly con sists of mangrove islands. From St. l\fark's to Cedar Key there is hardly a settlement within tim miles of the sea, !',ncl from Cedar Key southward again there ate other long reaches of uninhabited coast To the cruiser who is provided with a suitable craft this region offers endless opportuuities for sport on land and water, both of which yield abundant supplies for his larder, while his fresh water tanks can be 1 eplenished at any time by a scend ing one of the numerous rivers that here find an outlet. Some ofthese streams afford access to hammocks where the . game has not yet been thinned out by Northern gunners. I n climate the Gulf coast is somewhat. more equable than that of the Atlantic. Raw easterly winds are unknown, an d westerly winds, blowing across the very fountain-head of the G ulf Stream, are necessarily tempered by its perennial warmth.

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THE GULF COAS'l'-CEDAR KEY. 229 Owin g to the character of the shore, long coastwise lines of railway are The great railway systems stop when they reach tide. water, the sole exception being the Oro.nge :Belt, which follows the coast for a few miles south of Tarpon Springs. Small steamers, generally well adapted for the work that is 1equired of them, ply between all points where there are comfortable accommodations for tourists. Observations of the United States Signal Service since November, 1879, give the following as the average mean at Cedar Key: Spring, 70.3 ; summer, 81.7; autumn, 72.24; winter, 60.1. The average number of fair days during the winter and early spring months is as follows: November, 24.2; D ecember, 25.1; January, 23.8; Febl'U ary, 23.2; 1\'Iarch, 27; April, 26. The mean relative humid ity for t h e same months averages for Novembei:, 77 .. 9 per cen t .; December, 81.2 per cent.: January, 81.4 per cent.; February, 75.1 per cent.; March, 70.7 per cent ; April, 69.4 per cent. 'fhe earliest "killing frosts" of which the Service has record were D ecembe1 22, 1880, December 17 1882, De cem bel' 16, 1883, Nov0mber 2 5, 1884 110. Fernandina to Cedar Key. By Florida Cen tral & Peninsula Railroad 151 miles (9 hours 50 mln.) The line crosses Nassau, Duval, Bradford Alachua, a.n
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230 CEDAR KEY. which was finished to this point in 1861, and then known as the Flo1-ida '1'1-tznsit Railway, it at once became a place of importance. During the civil war, owing to its ex posed situation, it was at the mercy of the Federal gunboats, and, since it bade fair to be a convenient harbor for blockade l'Unners, i t early paid the penalty for a short-lived prosperity. A descent was made upon it January 16, 1862, when, as the Federals doubtless knew, there were seven vessels iu the harbor loaded with cotton and turpentine waiting for f avor able weather to run the blockade. These were burned with their cargoes, as were also the wharves and rolling stock of the raihoad. At the time the place was guarded by a lieu tenant and 22 men of the Fourth FLorida R egiment, but some oftheresidenf citizens begged that no resistance be made, as it was. obviously hopeless. The guard therefore attempted to escape to the mainland, but most of them were by the man-of-war's boats. After this, occasional visits by U. S. cruisers sufficed to prevent the place f1om assuming_ any importance. Shortly after the close of hostilities, the terminal facilities of the railroad were reconstructed, and very soon a consid erable trade developed in fish, oysters, and turtle. The abundance of red cedar in the vicinitv led to the establish" ment of pencil factories by Northern firms, which now employ a large number of hands. The coast to the southward has occasional harbors, practicable for light-draft boats. (See maps, pp. 54:, 13, 34, also descriptions in context.) The Suwannee River enters the Gulf 15 miles north of Ce dat Key. It rises in Georgia, west of the great Okeefenokee Swamp, about 120 miles from the coast. Its total length is about 170 miles. After entering Florida it receives succes sively the Allapaha and Little River from the north, and the Sante Fe from the east. The main stream is navigable for large vessels as far as the mouth of the Saul t Fe, and for vessels drawing not more than six feet as far as Little River. Of minot tributaries, .the Suwann ee has a score or more, draining a water-shed a hundred miles w.ide, and all nav igable for canoes, at the ordinary height of. water. The bar at the mouth of the has naturally only five feet of

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CEDAR KEY. 231 water, but has been somewhat improved by dredging. The Suwannee has a rocky bed almost throughout its course, having cut a channel for itself tlnough the soft underlying limestone. At its mouth the stream divides, two main chan. nels inclosing Bradford's Island. 'rhroughout the most of its course the river passes through a wild and beautiful semi-tropical region, with excellent camping ground almost anywhere, fish and game in plenty, and fresh water always at hand. 1\fany fine springs are found along the banks ; some of them hardly surpassed by the more famous ones described els ewhere The popular song, commonly known by the name of this beautiful stream, but whose proper title is "The Folks at Home," was written by Stephen Col lins Foster, author of "0 Susanna" and many similar inelo dies that have gained world-wide po1mlarity. 1\fr. Foster was born in Pittsburg in 1826, and died in New York in 1864. A small Confederate steamer {p:ounded at the mo\tth of the Suwannee River and was captured by a boat from the U. S. blockading schooner l!'ox, on December 20, 1863. Foui days afterward the British schooner Edwin attempted to run the blockade with a cargo of lead and salt, and was also taken by the Fox afte1 some show of resistance, during which the captain was wound.ed. The Walcassassa River 1ises in Alachua County, and runs southeasterly through a fine grazing country, feeding and draining a succession of small and ponds. Near the mouth of the stream are of Indian settlement and cultivation. The stream is navigable for small steamers to about fifteen miles from the Gulf, but the bar is shallow and impassable save for light-draft boats. It enters the Gulf 12 miles west of Cedar Key. Its numerous branches flo\v tlll'ough, Gulf Hammock, a wild region full of game, and easily accessible either from Otter Creek station on the rail1oad, or by boat from Cedar Key. (Hotel at Gulf Hammock.) The Witlzlacoochee is the only river on the Gulf coast of Flor-. ida that, like the larger S t John's on the opposite side of the talres a northerly course. It rises nearly in the sam& latitude with the St. J ohus, and after running a little east of ib

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232 CEDAR KEY. for 60 miles, turns to the we stward and falls into the Gulf 20 miles S'.E. of Cedar Key. It is a swift stream w1th rocky bottom, high wooded, picturesque banlts and navigable to Pemberton Ferry, where the J. T. & K W. Ry. system crosses i t About 18 miles from the mouth it receives Blue Spring River, navigable for launches to its som-ce, and well worth a visit. Route 183. 120. Jacksonville to Uomosassa. By Silver Ocain & Gulf Rnllrond, 176 miles ; (9 hours) ; Jackson villa to Palntka. Route 40. . The main line of the Florida Southem Railway runs west ward from Palatka through a 1olling country, often diversi fied with lakes and frequently passing, as 'at Interlaken and McMeekin, within sight of beautiful residences and fine plan tations orange groves. There is choice between two 1outes to Ocala, namely at Hawtho rne and Rochelle. At the first-named junction a branch of the F. C. & P. railway runs south ward to Silver Spring ancl Ocala, crossing Omngc Lake on a long trestle, and passing at Citra through some of the most remarkable orange-groves in the State. (See Route 111.) The other course is to follow the main line tO Ro chelle, where a branch of the Florida Southern Railway diverges southward to Ocal a, .passing through a beautiful country devoid of the almost universal undergrowth of pal metto sc11.1b, and covered with a fine open forest of ha;rd woods through which Ol1fl may ride, walk, or drive at will in any direction. Changing to the Silver Springs, Ocala & Gulf Railroad at O cala, the direction is southwesterly through a region remarkable for its 1-:ich phosphate beds and beautiful springs to the Gulf terminus at Homosassa. At Palatka and Ocala, there are excellent hotels if the traveller wishes to make the trip by sh01t stages. The journey may be varied hy leaving the train at Palatka and ascending the Ocklawaha River (Route 181) to Silver Springs, which is but a few min utes ride from Ocala. The journey by rail crosses Duval, Clay, Putnam, Marion, and Citrus Counties, maps of which, with desci:iptive context, stations, distances, etc., may be found iu alphabetical order, pp. 1 to 102 of this handbook.

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HOMOSASSA. . 233 121. Homosassa, Citrus County. Lat. 28 48' N . Long. 82 40' W. HOTEL ..,... The Hornosassa Inn, $2.50 a day. Board, $1 to $1.50 a day. RAILROAD.-Silver Springs, Ocala & Gulf Railroad. STEAMilOATS to the Wittilacoochee ltiver and Gulf coast. RoWBOAT$, 50c. to 75c. a day; with oarsmen, $1 to $1.50 a day. Hunters aud $2 a day. "River of Fishes" is the modern translation of Homo sassa, though some of the early authorities on Florida say tllat it means ''Pepper Ridge." It was certainly a favorite resort of the native tribes in prehistoric times, as is abund antly proven by evidences of ancient cultivation, and by great shell mounds along the water-side. rr:he land is low and level along the coast, very rich and fer tile, and largely underlaid with disintegrated limestone-rock. It is covered with a remarkably dense hammock growth of palms, wild orange, live oak, magnolia, and the ordinary hard woods, in unusual profusion and luxuriance. The river, fed by numerous fine sp1ings, is an arm of the sea 1ather than a fresh-water stream, and is justly famed for its fine fishing, while the adjacent. islands and the mainland are among the best hunting grounds in Florida. Large tracts of land been acquired in this vicinity by a company of capitalists, surveys have been made, avenues cut through the hammock, and every effort made to attract permanent settlers as well as transient visitors. P1obably there is no better or richer soil in the State for 1nost of the semi-tropical crops. Beforf\ the civil war (1861 to 1865} large sugar plantations were under along the 1iver, notably the one on Tige1 Tail Island, the property at that time of United States Senator D. L. Yulee, who, with a wide knowledge of Fiorida, selected this region as the best suited for the resid ence of a Southern gentleman. He was in active sympathy with the secession movement in 18M-1861, and Homosassa as well as Bayport, fifteen miles south, became harbors of refuge for blockade runners of light draft after Cedar Key had fallen into the hands of the .Fedemls. The author is in debted to Captain C. T. Jenkins, of Homosassa, now (in 1890) nearly eighty years old, for the following account of the events of the time, which, unimportant as compared

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. HOMOSASSA. with the g1eat military operations elsewhere, are now of intelest. Crystal River, Homosassa, and Bayport were garrisoned by small detachments of Confederates under Captain John. Cbambe 1s. At Bayport there were 25 men with one piece of artillery. Only five families remained in the place, that of Captain Jenkins being among them. In April, 1863, an expedition consisting of seven boats with howitzers came . down from Cedar Key and shelled the place, the little garrison responding so manfully that. no permanent landing was effected. In June Captain Jenkins was captured and held p1-isoner, for political as well as for military reasons, untiJ. the conclusion of pea 9e. In July, 1863, Bayport was again shelled, and a large warehouse burned. Thence the e xpedi tion went to Homosassa but l\fr. Yulee and family had. gone to Ocala and only the house servants were left in charge. The plantations on Tiger Tail Island were pillaged, and a warehouse was bumed at Chafie Landing, the greate1 pal't of the damage being done by deserters and runaway negroes, after the United States troops had withdrawn. Bayport was again visited by a naval force in July, 1864, and again the de serters and runaway negroes followed, plundering after the regular forces had left, and burning all unoccupied houges. Cap t ain Jenkins is particular to say that the navy had n:o band in the wholesale destruction of property, though they doubtless committed excesses when not under the eye of their officers. The fine, large sugar-house at Homosassa, be longing to l\fr. Yulee, was burned through the carelessness of cattlemen in June, 1869-not, as has often been alleged by United States t r oops. 'rhe old slave quarters are still stand ing in a good state of preservation, and are always an object of cul-iosity to visitors. a f e w miles of the hote l, are many pleasant walks over good roads and foot-paths. Some of these lead through the hammock, us to Otte1 C1'eek, and the Natu1al B1idge. walk through the liammock is always interes t ing. The creek is a sluggish, shallow stream, practic able even for row-boats only at high water. There are some curious horizon t ally growing palms along the bank.

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-HOMOSASSA. 235 A1cadian Spting is easily reached by row-boat from the hotel, and like the other wonderful springs of this region, always presents some new an d surprising feature under chang'"ing aspects of sky or season. This spring is about sixty feet deep \vith a strong boiling action of the water that causes the boat to slide shoreward unless kept in the middle of the pool by constant row i ng. Other similar springs exist in the neighborhood, all of which should be visited by the lover of the beauti ful in nature, for each has some thing new for an appreciative observer. Crystal River with its springs is six miles north of Homo sassa; it may be reached by land, the railroad passing nea1 the spring head, or by water through Salt River, a shallow chann e l full of oyster bar s, conn ectin g with the Homosp.ssa three miles below the hotel. This excursion may well be extended down Crystal R iver, skirting the Gulf within St. Martin's Keys, into the Homosassa, and so back to the hotel. Tlie lower part of the.1i v e r is most interesting, with fine shell mounds ancl islands, picturesque rock formations, some o f them worn, by the actio n of the sea and river, into strange caverns and columns. Almost everywhere the rock forms a no.tural sea-wall where v e ssels may mak e fast to the t rees as safely as to artificial wharf-posts

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236 -' THE PINELLAS PENINSULA. 130. The Pinellas Peninsula, Hillsborough County. Between Lat. 27 !Wand 28 10' N., and on the meridian of 82 40' W. Jacksonville to Pinellas Peninsula. All Rai l Routes. (1) By J., T. &; K. W. Ry to Sanford (125 miles), thence by Orange Belt Ry. to Tarpon Springe, 120M miles (running time, 10 br11. 17 min.). There are two fast trains daily from Jacksonville to Sanford, but connections with the Orange Belt are not close In all cases. If it is desired to break the journey, good hotels v.ill be found ut Sanford. The Orange Belt Railway runs southwesterly from Sanford, crossing Orange, Sumter, Pasco, and Hillsborough Counties (For description of those counties, maps, stations, distances, etc., see pp. 1 to 102.) (Z} By Florida CeBtral & Peninsula RaHway: From JacksonviPe to Lacoo chee, thence by Orange Belt Railway as above, (1) 230 miles (running time about 19 hours 50 min.). Close connections cannot always be counted upon. If it is de.!!lred to stop over night or for a shorter time, good hotels will be found at Silver Springs and Ocala. The F. C. & P. crosses Duva l, Bradford, Alachua, and Sumter Counties
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THE PINELLAS. PENINSULA-TARPON SPRINGS. 237 Lake Butler, reaching southward from the Anclote River toward Old Tampa Bay. The peninsula includes about one hundred and eighty miles of land, fo 1 the most part l1igh and well covered with pines, interspersed with oalt and other hard woods. The Gulf of l\:lexico on the west, the broad waters of Tampa Bay on the east, are exceptionally favorab le to an even t e mperatme. It is in effect a lesser Florida adjoining the main peninsula, but with the pecul iar c limatic condi t ions somewhat intensified. No trust worthy thermometric or other averages are as yet available for the peninsula, as it isbut a very few y e ars since it was a wilderness with onlv a few scattered settlements. The near est station of the Weather Bureau is at Cedar Key (Route 111). The railroad was finished to St. Petersburg in 1889, and already there are several thriving win ter 1esorts mainly along the Gulf coast It is remarkable that a region almost sur rounded by water should have an atmosphere drier than that of l\:linnesota yet such appears to be the fact, not only in this particular locality, but along the whole Gulf coast of Florida. Fish and game hung in the open air dry up and hard e n without becoming offensive, and provisions for home consumption are largely preserved in this w ay, the product being similar to the '' jerked mea. t ''of Western Indian tribes. 1 3 1 'l'arpon Spr i ngs, Hillsborough County. Population 500. HoTELs.Tarpon Springs Hotel, $4 a day.-The Tropic, $2.50 a day.-Sev eral smaller hotel s and boarding houses. RAILRoAD.The Orang e Bel t Railway (south to Pinellas Peni nsula, Tampa, etc ; north to Sanford, Yalatka, Jacksonville etc.). express money order oflices.-Bank of Tarpon Springs.-Good general stores. Episcopal Baptist, and Pre sbyterian chu r ches. S D. Kendall, guide. Tarpon Springs is among the most attractive of the resorts on the Gulf coast. It lies near the mouth of A n clote River, which here opens in a series of bayous and land-locked harbors, hardly to he distinguished from the fresh-water lakes that are found farthe1 inland. The village has a pecul iarly attractive appearance from the neat board sidewalks

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238 TARPON SPRINGS. . that itre laid along all the streets, and the number of pretty cottages that have been erected by Northe1n visitors, It stands upon one of the gentle eminences characteristic of this region. The bayou containing the great spring that gives the place its name; lies to the westward. A land locked harbor, with a plank-walk and a white fence sur l'ounding it at the water's edge. The steep bluff is lined with cottage s, in the midst of luxuriant flower and fruit gardens. Flights of steps lead down to the plank-walk at intervals, and boats of all kinds are moored within r e ach 01: sto1ed under shelter, just inside the railing. The walk ex tends to the entrance of. the bayou on either hand, a total iength of about one mile. It affords the most charming of promenades, while the sheltered basin offers perfect facilities for boating. Near the head of the bayou is the spring above l'eferred to, where a considerable volume of wat e r boils up through openings in the bottom, and near by is a sulphuretted spring w}).ich the residents believe possesses valuable medicinal properties. Launches and boats drawing three feet of water can make their way in or out of the bayou into A n clote River, and thence into the Gulf. The town was founded in 1884 through the enterp1ise and foresight ofA. P. K. Safford, Esq., and has been develO})ed through the judicious management of a company formed by him and a number of gentlemen associated with him. ExcuRSIONS. Lake Butler, lt mile east of hotel. An easy walk cif thirty minutes. Follow the straight road to the eastward from the l10tel, or any of the pleasantel' wood -paths leading in that direction. The lake is six miles long and often nearly a mile wide, crescent-shaped and boi :dered w ith sombre woods. Brooke1 Creek, navigabl e for small boats, falls into the lake at its southern extremity afte r flowing for several miles through a dense picturesque hammock growth. The lake may also be 1:eached from 'l'arpon Springs, by boat, ascending Anclote River three miles, thence through Salt Lakes a.nd across a carry (t mile) to head of lake. Lake Butler has n o

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TARPON SPRINGS. 239 apparent natutal outlet, though it teceives a large volume of water from streams and springs; but like many other Florida lakes, it is subject to .sudden and unaccountable changes of level. At present there are no boats for hire. on the lake, but arrangements can be made at the hotel to have them hauled over if desired. On the west bank of the lake; near its northern end, is an estate often occupied by the English Duke of Sutherland and his family during the win ter. The dwelling stands on a commanding bluff ov.erlooking the lake. t is sunounded by private grounds of con siderable extent, from which trespassers are rigidly ex cluded. The regular entrance and roadway is from the side nearest Tarpon Springs, whete there is a conspicuous gate way with Sutherland 1\'Ianor" lettered on the transom. It is, ped1aps, permissible to say here that the Duke, after having personally tested the most noted climates o f the world; with a view to finding best, has chosen this location as affording, upon the whole, the most sat isfactory hygienic conditions. Anclote Rive1.-This considerable stream is navigable for boats drawing four feet to Tarpon Spririgs and a short dis tance beyond. On the north shore, half a mile from the Gulf, is a co n spicuous mound 235 feet long, 166 feet wide, and 10 feet high. A preliminary excavation showed it to be aimilar in structure to those on the Kootee River. The mound is covered with a growth of moderate -sized pines and scrub palmetto, and no thorough explora tion has been at tem pted. A toadway leads to the top ft;om the water-side; indicating that it once the site of a chief's residence. A mile higher up the stream, on the same bank about one-quarter mile inland, is the 1\fyer's 1\'Iound, so called from the nearest resident. This consists wholly of sand, the. pits whence it was procured being still discernible. The structure is 168 feet long, 88 feet wicle, and 5 feet high. The major axis is nearly east and west. 1\'Ir. Walker caused excavations to be made, and believes the mound to have been made for a building site. Half a mile northeast of 'l'arpon Springs is a circular sand, 95 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, which contains .

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240 TARPON SPRINGS . numerous human bones, with the peculiarity that, so far as examined, the bodies were incinerated before burial, and the skillls and bones were piled together in a shallow pit with some degree of orderly arrangement. As an entirely differ ent system of interment was observed in mounds only a few miles distant, a field for speculation is opened, in which the possibility of cannibalism unavoidably suggests itself. l\fr. Walker, however, holds to the theory of interment after partial inaineration. Large pine-trees have grown ove1 the bones, and the construction of the mound is believed to -. the. Spanish conquest. Ten c1ania in a tolerably perfect condition were secured, and &ent with other relics t-o the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. Adjacent to, and connected with, the lower part of An clote River are many beautiful lake-like bayous offering an endless variety of excu1;sions by water. The major part of the.main stream lies in Pasco County. (See map on page u:y .. 1t may be ascended about ten miles in a small boat. About eight miles above the bridge near Tarpon Springs is a sandy knoll well suited for camp or picnic parties. Lun cheon should be taken, as this excursion can hardly be ac complished in less than six hours. landing -places may be found, however, not so far away. The banks are for the most part covered with a dense semi tropical growth, unbroken for n1iles by any sign of human habita tion. Sail-boats are available only in the lower reaches of ilierivu. Anclote Key.-A pleasant two hours' sail from Tarpon Springs. The lighthouse is a skeleton iron tower painted black, standing on the southerly extremity of the keys, with the keepers' houses near at hand. The lantern 101! feet above the sea, showing a red flash every 30 seconds, visible 16 nautical miles at sea. Two miles north of the Anclote River is Trouble C1eek, along the shores of which is an outcrop of blue flint rock, and the banks of afford abundant evidences of having been occupied by Indian !Dakers of spear-heads and arrow-heads. It has been sup posed that the Florida Indian's drew their supplies of flintheaded projectile s from a distance, but this quarry certainly .

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TARPON SPRINGS. 241 proves that they had at least one considerable source of home-supply. "Kootee" Riv(w.-The Indian name in full is Ach-as-koo-tee, or Pith-lo-ches-koo-tee,. but custom has adopted '' Kootee" as sufficient l y distinctive. It falls into the Gulf of l\fexico about ten miles north of Tarpon Springs, whence it may be easily reached by sail-boat in about three homs with a fair wind; or in two hours through the woods and over sandy roads. Descending the Anclote River from Tarpon Springs involves some delay, owing to the crooked channels, but when the Gulf is reached the course is plain, keeping well out from shore to avoid oyster bars. 'fhe trip may be undertaken with safety even in a strong on-shore wind, for the coast is sheltered by outlying keys. The oyste11 bars increase in number off the mouth of the rive1, and entrance can only be made in a canoe or skiff. On the south bank, about t mile above the mouth, are two Indian mounds. The one nearest the Gulf is 168 feet long, 55 feet wide, 5 feet high. It lies with its major axis nearly north and south. To the eastward of this; about 300 feet, is another mound, with its major axis N.E. a n d S. W. It is 175 feet long, 50 feet wide at the southwest end, and 15 feet wide !tt the northeast end. Near the narrow end is a spur 20 feet long and 10 feet wide. Excavations made by S. T. Walker, of Clearwater, showed that the mounds were composed of alternate layers of sand and oyster shells, with abundant human bones and broken pottery. 'fhe skeletons were all at full length, reclining on the right side, and with the heads pointing to a common centre. They were laid in concentric circles. A shor. t distance south of the Kootee is Blue Sink, a curious natural well with rocky sides. The Gulf Beach.-A pleasant walk (45 min.) from the station. Follow road leading south from 'farpon Springs Hotel. After passing town limits the road i nclines to the westward, dividing into several trails after the manner of 1oads in Florida. Following at will those that lead to the westward through pleasant rolling pine lands, the shore, wooded nearly to the water's edge, is presently reached. The beach varies much in character, affording good walking 16

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TARPON SPRINGS: in some places; but being elsewhere well-nigh impassable. One cannot walk far along the however, without finding shady loungiilg places with a charming outlook across the pale-green sea to the distant barrier of reefs and islands. Seaside, Suthmland) Ozona, Dunedin, and Clearwater, are railroad stations on the Orange Belt Railway south of Tar pon Springs. (For distances, see p 38.) They are all on the Gulf coast, and may be reache d by land or water. The Gulf Coast opposite the mouth of An clote Rivex, across Bay .St. Joseph, are the Anclote Keys. (Seep. 37. r T o the southward for six miles the outlying keys arc lit.tle more than 1eefs, but thence almost to Point Pinellas S.helter and safe may be found almost anywhere. At distances varying f1om one mile to five miles from shore, is an almost line of keys, enclosing sounds and inlets of great beauty and sufficient depth for easy naviga tion in the craft adapted for general navigation along this coast. It is difficult to go amiss in seeking a camping-ground on shore, for the beaches are almost continuous, backed by wooded and with fresh-water to be had, either from natural springs Ol' at the cost of a little digging above high water mark. Wood roads, rather easier than the average of Florida roads, lead southward and across the peninsula to Old Tampa Bay. In general the walking through the woods is good, .though there are frequent sand-dunes and bays near the coast that are apt to perplex a stranger. The Gulf Coast N01th . --Harbors and anchorage for boats of light draft are found in the lee of Anclote Keys, 4 miles off shore; at Port Richleyt mouth of "Kootee" River, 9 miles; at Hudson, 15 miles; at .Bayport, 25 miles; mouth of woochee River; at mouth of Chassahowitzka River, 35 miles ; at the mot:tth of :ijo:mosassa River, 41 miles (see p. 13) ; and in the of. St. Martin's Keys, at the mouth of Withlacoochee in bay of the same name,: and in the lee of Chambers Island, 2 miles off shore . .Between w this and Cedar Key is Wacc?-sassie Bay, with Wacassa River affording access to Qulf Hammock, the Wekiwa Spri!lg, and

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TARPON SPRINGS-CLEARWATER HARBOR. 243 fine hnnt,ing grounds. At Cedar Key (80 miles), the terminus of the F. C. & P. Railway, shipping supplies may be obtaine.d. The other places named aJ.e small settlements where purchasing facilities are meagre. In the main this coast line is low and uninteresting, with very sl10al water extending often for several miles off shore. The waters are, however, all practicable for good-sized sharpies, and the attractions are manifold for fishermen and sportsmen along the inlets and among the coastwise hammocks. Shell mounds, suitable for camping, are of frequent occurrence, and watercasks can be replenished at any of the harbors named. A post-road fol. lows the coast fwm Tarpon Springs northward as far as Argo, whence it diverges east and north to Brooksville, 22 miles. From Bayport {see above) is a post-road eastward to Brooks ville, 16 miles. 132. St!-therland, Hillsboroug h County. HOTEL.-Stttherland $4 a day. At boarding-houeea special terms may be made at $4 to $5 per week. '.rhe land in the vicinity is mainly owned by Western capitalists, who built a large hotel in 1888, which was burned in February, 1889, and at once rebuilt on a still larger scale. There is a tramway to Lake Butler, 3 miles distant. {See p. 251.) Among the local curiosities are Blue Sink, Shell Island, and the fine Gulf Beach. Fo1 other excursions, see Routes 130 to 133. 133. Clearwater Harbor, "Hillsborough County. HoTEL.Orange Blttff Hotel, $2.50 a day.-Sea View Hot.el, Scranton Hotel, $1.00 to $2 a day, with sj)ooial rates by the week. Saddle horses, SOc. an hour, $2 a dny.-Single team, 50c. an hour, $3 a day.Double team, 75c. an bour, $5 a day. Rowboats, $1 a day.-sailboats, $2 a day. Guides: J. W. Wetmore, Robert Cullen, A. A. Whitehurst; rates according to service. This pleasant resort is reached by the Orange Belt Railway. {Seep. 38.) The town stands on a fine bluff, amidst noble lhe-oak trees. It commands a fine view across the harbor to the outer keys and the open Gulf. A fine natural

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' 244 CLEARWATER spring of sulphuneted wate1 boils up through. the sand near tli e shore. The water, as the name of the place implies, is, under ordinary conditions of weather; wonderfully clear and sparkling and it is an endless source of amusement to watch the submal'ine life along the sands and reefs. 'l'here are Episcopal, Methodis t and Baptist churches in the town, and a good school. The suiTounding count1y is high l'Olling land, for the most part heavily wooded, with many fresh water lakes, and excellent hunting apd fishing. At John's P ass, 18 miles soi1th of Clearwater, .is a curious burial mound on a low mangrove island,. scarcely habitable and without fresh water. The i s land is nearly covered with water at high tide, but two parallel ridges of dry land run east and wes t and at the eastem extremity of the southemmost ridge is the mound in question. It is oval in shape, 50 feet long, 25 wide, arid at present only 3 feet high. When disco vere d many skulls and bones lay on the surface, with numerous fragments of pottery, exposed through the action of the sea, in spite of a heavy growth of sea-grape and Spanish bayonet. lVIr. Walker found numerous skeletons stretched at full length generally on the right side. Neal'ly two-thirds of the remains were of children. On the mainland, nearly opposite John's Pass, on the south side of Boca Ciega, or Four 1\file Bayou, at the mouth of a small creek that falls int o the bayou, are two large mounds, one of shell and the other of sand. At last advices they had never been explored, owing to refusal of permis sion by the owners. Long .Key lies between Boca Ciega and Pas d' Aglille. It is a 1 1 arrow key some five miles long. About midway of the key, on the landward side, is a dense cabbage hammock, covering a turtle-shaped mound 108 feet long, 66 wide, 5 feet high. Excavations revealed incomplete reclining at full length; but no perfect crania were found. No pottery was found nor other relics, and from t}le structural methods it is believed that the builders were of a different race or tribe from those about the Anclote River. It is worthv of . u mention that a remarkab le turtle mound stauds on Halifax near Eidora, on the east coast of Fiorida (s ee p. 208).

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CLEAR,WA'rER 245 The one on Long Key has a testudinate outline with head and tail clearly defined. The flippers are represented by ditches wh. ence no doubt the mound-builders took their material. The Halifax River turtle," on the contrary, has regularly constructed flippers. Half a mile north of the village of Dunedin, a short dis tance back from the beach and near fresh-water ponds, is an Indian mound, 156 feet long, 80 feet wide, 9 feet high. A roa-dway, beginning 50 feet from the southwest face, ascends with a regular incline to the top. The pits whence, presum ably, the saud was taken, are still to be seen nearthe ends of the mound, whose major axis runs N.W. and S.E. Excavations failed to reveal any remains, and the mound is believed to have been made for a fortress or a residence. It stands in a low pine region, and the .growth on its top is similar in all respects to the surrounding f01est. Two miles south of Dunedin is Stevens' Creek, a small stream rising some five miles inland. Near the source is a mound of white sand, 46 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. Partly calcined skeletons were found. only way of finding this mound is to ascend the creek to the head of tide-water, which may readily be detected by a woodsman. Due east from this point are two fresh-water po nds, betw.een which is the mound, situat-e in a "1osemary scrub." Pine Key. About three miles south of Pas d'Agrille are two islands. They may easily b e taken for one island, as they are separated only by a narrow passage. On the south ernmost island is "Duck Pond," or lagoon, and neal' its southern end is a mound 135 feet in diameter and 15 feet higher than the general level of the ishmd.. The cabbage hammock and scrub is Ye1y dense, and it is not altogether easy to find the mound, though, when reached, it affords quite an e xtensive outlook Anow-heads and ornaments of bone, inlaid with copper, have been found, also human bones which crumble on exposul'e to the air. The abund ance of small shell mounds shows that the island was a favorite camping-place, if not a permanent residence.

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246 . ST. PETERSBURG. 134. St. Petersburg, Hillsborough County . HOTEL. -7' he Detroit, $3 a day. Terminus of the Orange Belt Railroad. Steamboat connections with Port. Tampa and the" Plant," and J. T. & K. W. Railway also coastwise of Tampa and Sarasota Bays. St. Petersburg is 6 miles from the extremity of Pinellas Point, and 9 miles southwest from Port Tampa across the mouth of Old Tainpa Bay. (See map, p. 37.) The situation is naturally very attractive, high wooded bluffs rising from the water-side, which is bordered witJ?. a nearly level sandy beach. A railroad wharfalmost a mile long extends to the deep water oHhe channel. The hotel commands a fine out look to the south and east. A post-road leads south 3 miles to Pinellas and thence west, across the peninsula., to New Cadiz and Bonifacio, small settlements on the Gulf coast. ExcURSIONs.-Old Tampa Bay, extending more than twenty miles to the northward. Very shoal water everywhere along shore ; good shooting and fishing, especially toward the north ern extremity pf the bay. Jtfaximo Point, about 2 miles west of Pinellas Point, has a large mound in alternate strata of sand and shells, cov ered with a.n almost impenetrable tangle of undergrowth and palms. No accttrate measurements have been made, and at last ad vices the mound was practically unexplored. It is provided with the usual inclined plane on the south side leading to the level top, several hundred feet long, and 15 feet high. Bethel Camp.-Two miles north of Point Pinel. las is a place ]mown by this name. There are springs of good water along the beach, back of which is a thick hammock, and back of this again, in a "rosemary scrub," a fine.symmetrical mound 20 feet high, 200 feet long on the top, and 30 feet wide, with a well-constructed gradient on the west side. The sharp angles and well-preserved slopes of this mound indicate that it is of more recent construction than some of its near neigh bors. Quite extensive excavations have .been made in this mound, but by whom and with what result is unknown. The date 1840 is found deeply cut in several trees on the mounds

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ST. PE'rERSBURG. 247 in this section, and it is supposed to indicat-e the date when some party of hunters caused the excavat-ions to be made. Point Pinellas-Many m ounds, large and small, exist in the immediate vicinity of the Point. One of. these is sur rounded with an irregular embanl{ment 10 or 12 feet high. The main work itself is 20 feet high of sarid and shell. At last advices it was practically unexplored. Some of the Pi nellas shell mounds are 25 feet high, while some of the saud, or presumably domiciliary mounds, are at present only 5 o1 6 feet high, but surrounded with quite deep ditches save where crossed by causeways. The largest of these sup posed domiciliary mounds is 250 feet in diameter. On this moimd stands the public school-house of Pinellas. Skele. tons have been found in some of these mounds. De Soto.-Six miles east of Clearwater by p01t route. Also accessible by steamer from Tampa tluee t.imes a week. There is no hot-el, but lodgings can be procured in private houses. Guides and hunte1s are always available at moderate rates Papy's Bayou is tributary to Ohl Tampa Eay, about 5 miles from St. Petersburg, and almost directly opposite Port Tampa. A perplexing network of bayou.s behind the point renders it difficult for a stranger to find his way. There is a fine Indiau mound on the north side in Pillan's Hammock. It is unique in sl1ape, oval, with a central trench on the major diameter, evidently not a modern exc avation, but part of the original design. At one end two wings or extensions are carried out, prolonging the mound to 150 feet in length. There are also marks of a road way leading to the mound through the hammock. 'fhe mountl is largely composed of human bones, partly incinerated and buried as in the mound at Tarpon Springs (see Route 131). Some three hundred yards west of this i s another mound of the usual oval type. Bayview.-A village near the head of Old Tttmpa Bay, 9t miles by port route from Clearwater Harbor. The steamboat from Tampa touches here three times a week. The land of the town site is good height above the water. There is a fine hard beach, with sulphux springs at frequent inter vals, excellent fishing, and plenty of fine oysters. A mile

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248 ST. P ETERSBURG. north of B ayview post-office, on the south side of Alligator Creek, Old Tampa B ay, is n. small mound which Mt. Walker fouud very rich in bones and relics. The mound was only 46 feet in diameter and but 3 f ee t high, and situated i n so dense a growth of scrub pine that it was very difficult t o find. The mode of buria l was similar to that at Tarpon Springs, and the whole mound was a mass of human b ones disposed in three l ayers. I n th e u pper layers were found Iatge numbers of glass beads, a pair of scissors, and a bit of looking glass. These trinkets fixed the date of interment at a compar atively recent period, evidently sub sequent to the Spanis h invasion. Philippi'.s Point.-Here is one of the largest m ounds on Tampa B ay, but o wing to c on flicting claims of local owners, permiss i o n to e x cavate coul d not be obtained at last advice s. To all appearan c e it is a domiciliary m o u n d though b ones have o ccasi o nally been washed out by the action of the sea. Here it i s supposed that i n 1539 Hernando de So to was receiv ed by Hirrihigues, a powerful :Indian cacique, whose dwelling s tood, accordin g to the Spanish accounts, upon a large artificia l mound. Here was found one J uan O rtiz, a s u rvivor of Narvaez's ill-fate d expedition, who had been held captive by the Indians since 1 528. The Spanial'ds presently inaugurate d their cruel policy of ac cepting the chief's hospitality while it suited their conven ience, and then seizing him as a hostage in order to extort a ransom from his p eo ple. From this point, aided by Ortiz as interpreter, b ega n that rema.rltable inarch which ended with the discovery of the Mississippi and the death o f Soto, after nearly all his f ollowe r s had pel'ished.

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TAMPA. 24!) 140. Tampa, Hillsboro ugh County (C. H .). Population, 7,000.-Lat. 27 57' N.-Long. 82 27' W. Mean rise and fall of tide, 2 feet 2 inch es f{eyrELs. -The T(l,?np(l, B(l,y Hotel.-Oity $Sa day.-7'he F!(l,nt, $8 a Hottse.-HitlsboroMgh How;e. RAILROADS.-'rhe South Florida Railroad : west to Port Tampa; east and north to Sanford, Palatka, Jacksonville, etc. Connects at Port Tampa with oeea.n steamers from l
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250 TAMPA. . military escort. From Fort Brooke Major Dade and his command marched into the f atal ambuscade in the Wahoo swamp. And here were organized most of the expeditions that wasted away in conflicts with a fierce and vigilant foe, who was rarely to be found except when h e could fight to good advantage. On November 3, 1862, Tampa was shelled by United States gun-boats to dislodge the small Confederate ganison that held possession. Not much show of resistance was made, and during the rest of the Civil War an occasional visit from . a gun-boat sufficed to p1event its being made a harbor for blockade runners. To the westward of the river, in the midst of a park 150 acres in extent, is :the Tampa lhy Hotel, one of the larg est and most maguificent in the country. It was erected at a cost of about one milliqn dollars, through the enterprise of Mr. H. B. Plaut, and opened to the public in 1890. The architecture is Moorish and the mate1ial brick and concrete, with terra cotta ornamentation and fire-proof construction throughout. The building is more tlul.n 500 feet long, with luxurious furnishing and decorations, rooms single and en suite, and everything that ingenuity can devise for the comfc;:>rt of visitol"s. Tampa has large commercial interests in trade with the West Indies and as a shipping point fo1 home products, ex tensive cigar fac t ories, excellent stores of all kinds, several newspapers, and large fishing packing industries. The streets are well lighted, with good sidewalks, and lines of tramways to the subUl'bs. Exc1msxoNs.-Port Tampa, 9 miles by rail, has good hotels and bathing facilities, excellent fishing, and is a favorite place of.resort at all seasons of the year (see Route 14:1). Tampa Bay and Hillsborough Bay, with a wide extent of admirable cruising, and fishing grounds, offer a great varie ty.of camping and hunting fields for palties making their headquarters at Tampa, where sail-boats and launches, and guides may be hired on reasonabl e terms. Alafla River falls into the bay about 10 miles southeast of Tampa, and a little south of it, at the mouth of Bullfrog .

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TAMPA-PORT TAMPA. 251 Creek, is a fine mound, 30 feet high and 200 feet in diam eter. Hillsborough tlibutary to the bay of the same name, is na":igab l e to "the falls, about twenty m i les from the mo uth. At ,Indian Hill, some twenty miles southeast of Tampa, are enormous shell heaps some 800 feet long and 20 or 30 feet high, the most conspicuous elevations being vi sible several miles at sea. Human remains are l'lnely found in hue shell heaps, but here, in a detached mound, they were found in abundance, and under such conditions as to afford strong support to the cannibalistic theo17. 1 41. Po r t Tampa, Hill sboro ugh County. HOTBL.-TM Inn, $4 a day. RAILROAI>s.-Tbe South Florida Railroad (to T ampa, Sanford, Palatka, Jacksonville, etc.). The Orange Belt Railway (Clearwate r Harbor, Tarpon Springs, etc.). Reached by steam ferry to St. Petersburg, 9 miles. Pott Tampa is
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252 PORT TAMPA-THE MANATEE RIVER. beach of fine white sand, s l o pin g gradually out to deep water. On the isiand are commodious lmildi ngs for the accommo dation of transient visitors. 142. The Manatee River. Dally mail steamer from Tampa. touching at all river ports. The Manatee Gountry (see map, p. 59), lying just with i n the main entrance to Tampa Bay, is a naturally rich and attractive region emb1-acing the llo1thwestern sections of Manatee County It is m ost easily accel?sible by steam b oat fi ; om Tampa. Manate e Riv er, or bay, is 1 5 miles l ong and has an average width of one mile or more. It is navigable for small steamers to Rye, about eighteen miles from the coast. Manatee River rises in De Soto County, 50 miles from the coast. Rich hammocks border the stream and the bay, and there are evidences that the whole r egion was well populated prior to the advent of Europea ns. Tmces of civilized occupation are found along the coa s t, but no records of their history are known to exist. Manatee Riv e r and the adjacent wat el's of Sarasota Bay, and Tampa Bay, are among the most attmctive to spart, smen. Navi ga tion is safe and easy southward to Charlotte Harbor, ?oDd nort hward to all poirits on f ampa and Hillsborough Bays, and to Tal:POD Springs, still farther north. Palma Sola, so called from a lone palm that stands on an outlying key, is the most considerable settlement near the coast. The Palma Sola Hotel ($3 a day) is pleasantly situ ated, with a fine outlook to seawa1d. The lutrbor affords safe anchorage for large vessels. There is a good store where ordinary supplies can be obtained, and boats suitable for hunters and fishermen can be hired at reasonable mtes. A post-road l eads to Gm tez, 6 miles southwest, at the head of Sarasota Bay The road continues eastward to Mana tee, 2 miles, whence i t diverges southward along the coas t to Sarasota, O sprey, and Veni ce, and southeastward, crossing the county diagonally to Pine Leve l. Indian Mounds.Very large shell heaps extend along the

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TH:E MANATEE RIVER. 253 shores of Shaw's Point, near the mouth of the river, for five hundred and. sixty-four feet, with a height of fifteen to feet at the highest point. The sea has so washed nway the mounds that an inspection of their structme has been possible, and it seems certain that they are the natural accumulation of waste material unavoidable in the vicinity of an Indian camp. The apparent process was as follows : A fire was built on the ground, and around this the savages sat cooking, eating, and throwing shells and bones over their shoulders. In the course of a few weeks a cilcu lar bank of shells would be formed around the fire, and at length the central space would be so narrowed that. the fire would be moved to the top of the bank, and the process re In point of fact, the successive fires in such mounds have been located, and found to correspond with this theory. Of course the resultant mound is often il'l'egular, but the theory is 1easonable, and anyone who luts camped for a few days near a oyster-bed must have noticed the phe nomenal rapidity with which the piles of oyster-shells grow. That the Indians, who lived mainly by fishing and hunting, should have constructed these huge mounds, is only in the natUlal order of things.

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' 254 CHARLOTTE HARBOR. 1 5 0. C harl otte H a rbor. (See general map of Florida, and maps of De Soto and Lee Counties. ) Jacksonville t o Punta Gorda and Charlotte Harbor. By J., T. & K. W., and Florida Southern Railway system via Palatka, San ford, KIBsimee, etc., 324 miles (lS}If hours running time). Sleeping cars on all t hrough trains. See lliaps of Duval, Clay, Osceola, I'olk and DeSoto Counties, with tables of stations and distances m contel!:t. Jackson vllle to Sanford, see Routes 40 and 50. T o Lakeland, eighty-three the course is the same as in Route 130. Thence the general direction is south, follow ing Peace River (Flumen Pacis o f the early map makers). Bartow, the county town (Polk County) is the most impor tant place on the route. Fort M eade was established as a. United States military post D ecember 19, 1 849, and main tained until September 20, 1857. It is now a. thriving town of 400 inhabitants: Near B owling Green is the line between Polk and De Soto Counties (see map, p. 22). A short dis tance south is the s ite of Fort Choconitka, esta blished Octo ber 26, 1849, and abandon .ed J uly 18, 1850. Zolfo 8p1ings is so called from the number of sulphur springs that exist in the vicinity, the prefix being preswn ably a local phonetic abbreviation o f the l onge r word. Charley Apopka always attracts attention from its extraor dinal'Y name, which is, in fact,'an unpardonable corruption from the Seminole Tsa l opopkohatchee, meaning "catfisheating creek." The terminal hate/tee ( river or creek) was first dropped, and Tsalo-p opka w as finally Americanized into its present form.l The name Apopka, properly Ahapopka, is elsewhere in the State, often in combination with o ther Seminol e tel'mS .A1cadia became the seat of government o f P olk County in 1889 It has a population of about two hundred, a new county court-house, a weekly newspaper, and a. phosphate company. For this explanation tbe editor is indebt.ed to Mr. E. A. Ri chards, of Or- lando.

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CHARLO'rTE HARBOR. 255 When and by whom this fine bay was discovered 'is a mat ter of some doubt. It is not unlikely that Hernandez de Cordova is entitled to.the honor. Certain it is that in 1517, .. when on a slave-hunting expeditio11, he landed on the Gulf coast at a p lace whose description answers very well to this, and was so warmly received by the natives that he and his men were glad to escape with their lives The earliest maps that definitely show the two great and curiously similar bays on the Gulf coast, known to us as Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, name the southernmost afte1 Ponce deLeon; but is some uncertainty whetheT this or a bay south of Cape Romano was intended. Its name, in the opinion of Dr. Brinton, the well-known archreologist, is a European corruption of Carloosa or Caloosa, the native tribe that inhabited this 1egion at the time of tlie Spanish discovery. The southern part is now lmown as San Carlos Bay. IIi seems probable that the two were originally considered as one and named n.ccordingly. The extreme length of Char lotte Harbo1 is about 30 miles, lying between 26 30' and the 27th parallel of north latitude. It is separated from the Gulf by a long line of partially wooded lteys, filled with in numerable islands, and offers unsurpassed attmctions to the lover of outdoor life. Two large streams, the and Peace Rivers, enter the head of tbe harbor from the nortl1, and near its southern passes it receives the Caloosahatchee, from Lalte Okechobee and the Everglades. The main entrance is practicable for vessels drawing 25 feet, and large vessels can find entrance through San Cal'los Pass from the southward. Lines of ocean steamers run regularly to Havana, Kev West, and Baltimore. v The discovety of exceedingly 1ich phosphates in the bed of Peace River l1as greatly stimulated commercial interests of all kinds in this v icinity. The deposit occurs in a semi-fluid state, so that it can be pumped from the river bottom and livered for transportation almost wholly without the em ployment of maD\lallabor. The crude product is dried and packed in ca1s for transportation to Charlotte Harbor, the nearest seaport, or by rail t o the north. The discoveries of tl1e phosphate deposits were made in the summer of 1889,

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'.256 CHARLOTTE HARBOR--PUNTA GORDA. nnd d uring the following wintet a l i n e of ocean steamers b e gan making regnhlr trips to Baltimore. At this writi n g scarcely any change has been made in the lev e l o f the river b ed, although powedul pumping machinery has been at work for sevem l mouths. The semi-liquid fertilizer seems to flow toward the pumps from all directions, andapparentlyin almost undiminished volume. 151. Punta Gorda, De Soto County. Lat. 86 55' N.-Long. 82 8' W. HOTEL.-P-unta Gordt/., $4 8 day .R.&u :noAD.-Nortb to B artow, Sanford, Leesburg, e te. Ocean steamers to Kev West H avana. and New Orleans. Coastwise ers to San Carlos B8,y, Calooeahatcbee er. Naples. and intermediate landings. Steam launches. $12 to $15 a day. Sail-boats, $1 an hour, $4 to $ 5 a day. Guides and hunters, $1.50 to $8 a day. Punta Gorda is the most southerly railroad terminus on the Gulf coast; a favorite stopping-place for sportsmen, tourists, and invalids, within easy reach of the most famou s tarpon fishing-grounds on the coast. The station near the hotel is Trabue, named after one of the pioneers of this re gion, and Punta Gorda is properly the railroad wharf and actual te1minus, a mile farthe1 south. Popularly, the latter name is applied to both places The hotel is of wood, more than 400 feet l ong, with a wide vemnda and 150 r ooms, all commanding an outlook across the bay. In front is a spac ious lawn of Bermuda grass, and from the edge n wharf extends 1, 000 feet to the edge of navigable water. From this wharf sea-trout, bluefish Spanish mackerel, and all the common fish of Florida waters may be taken wi t h rod and line From the hotel veranda one l oo ks across the north eastern a1m of the bay to Live Oak P oint and Oak Bluff s (11 mile). This arm of the bay is in l'ealjty the mouth of P eace River. Beyond tl{e point is the western arm of the bay, into which falls Myakka River (see p. 270). On the point itself is Charlotte Harbor town, with a number of stores and dwellings; including a hotel and several boarding houses. It is the shipping point for a large

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PUNTA GORDA. 257 country. to the northwa1d, and several wharves extend ftom the s hore to the edge of the channel. A goo d sandbeach, with occasional shellm ounds, offers attractions to campin g au d picnic parties. / i\:Iid way of the harbo1 i s a detached landing and store houses, over piles, for the accommodation of deep-draught v esse l s To the southward is the railroad whal'f, neady on e mile long, where the ocean steamers make their land ings, and beyond it Charlotte Harbor proper opens toward the Gulf. Almost everywhere the water is shallow for a l ong distance from shore, nQd frequent oyster-1eefs are troublesome to steersmen unfamiliat with the channels With b oats of shallow d.1aft, how ever, one may go alrilost anywhere by the exe r cise of discretion and seamanship. ExcURSIONs.-Alligntor River, a picturesque stream flowing for the upper part of its course th1ough hea.nly wood e d with occasion:1l clearings, f:1lls into the bay seven miles sout.h of the hotel. The distance by land is five miles. Boats can be hired at a house near the river, or the whole trip can b e made by launch or small boat, as the stream is navigable se v era l miles from its mouth. Numerous creeks and inlets along shore are favorit e retreats for ducks, and quajls a bound in the open woo ds and savannas a f ew hund1ed yards inland. The st1ca m rises in a wild 1egion, extending for many miles to the south and east, whe r e, with the aid o f hunters familiar with the c ountry, large game may be found. Rive1.-Five miles west of hotel . This i s a con siderable stream, rising near the eastern border of Manatee County, thirty miles north. It may be ascended to Lake Myakka and beyond in small boats, but the cunent is swift, at times breaking into rapids. ren miles from Charlotte Harbor it widens, and for tbe last eight miles is neal'ly one mile wide. It is navigable for launches to where the stream narrows; a pleasant excursion of five hours from the hotel Just b e low Lake Myakka i s a depression in the rive1 b ed, said to have connection with tide water. H. H . K oeler, o f L ouisville, sounded it in 1890 to a depth of 1 36 feet. Peace R iver .-By some authorities this is called "Peas" River, and others hold that i t takes its ro m

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258 PUNTA .GORDA. a treaty made with the lndians in comparatively times. It was chatted, however, as "Flumen Pacis by Le Moyne in 1560, and was doubtless so named by the $panish discoverers. The milroad follows the left bank of the stream -not often within sight, however-almost throughout its course. It receives three considel'able streau1s as tributaries, the Chilocobatchee from the west, and Joshua's Creek and Prairie Creek from the east. All these may be ascended in small boats to good hunting grounds. A favo1ite excursion by steam-launch is up Peace River to Lettuce Lake and Fort Ogden (12 miles). The lake is a small body of water, so called from the abundance of water-lettuce that grows in its shallows. Any point on the river may be easily reached by 1ai1, and the return trip made down stream by row-boat. In this case, o( course, alTangements should be made to have a boat on hand at the desired point, as a local supply cannot always be counted upon. In its lower reaches Peace River is bordered with marshes and mangl'Ove islands, intersected with o. labyrinth of creeks where there is goM wild-fowl shooting. Punta Gorda nearly marks the northern limit on the Gulf coast of the Koonti plant or Indian bread-fruit, a graceful, palm-like plant gl'Owing In the open woods, or among the palmetto scrub. Farther south it is found in great abundance, and is a staple article of food a mong the Indians of the Everglades. The root, wl1ich is large and thick, is grou11d and washed, the product being a fine white flour, used for the table much as corn-starch is used, and equally palatable. On Biscayne Bay this flour is largely manufac -tured by the white residents, both for home consumption and for shipment to Key West, where it is extensively used as an article of food. The soluble ingredients of the Koonti root which are washed out in the process of manufacture, are poisonous, as is the root itself in its raw state, but it is. an excellent fertilizer for all kinds of vegetables, and a flour ishing garden is the inevitable adjunct of a well-conducted Koonti mill. The plant, when it reaches maturity, pushes up a large cone of mange-red seeds among its palm-like fronds, and these are such. a favorite articie of food with

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PUNTA GOR D A-SAINT-JAMES-ON-THE-GULF. 259 crows and other birds, that they are scattered far and wide over the cou n try, insuring an abundan t c r op without troubl e to the planter. Attempts to cultivate the Koonti root arti ficially hav e not thus far proved success fuL 1\fore extended excursions may be made to Pine Island (Route 152 ) Punta Rassa (Route 153), and l\fyers, on the Caloosah n.tchee River (Rout e 154) 'rhe latter is a reg u lar stea mboat route with triw ee kly boats, and weekly boats to Naples, thirty mil e s farth e r down the coast. The southem part of the p e ninsula separatin g C h arlott e Ha1bor from the Gulf is a:n attractive re gion for spo rtsmen, with high bluffs nnd numerous smalllaltes in the interior. The Gulf coast for thirty miles to the northw ard is studded with mangrove islands an d ou tlying k eys, affor ding s heltered navigation for the whole distance. 152. S aiut-J ames on-t h e Gulf, Lee County. Lo.t. 26 S2' N.-Long. 820 54' W. HOTEL.-Tt.e. San Carlos Hotel, $3 o. day. fill.: ST!tAJKROATS three tim e s a week t o Pnnt.a Gorda andftrt : M yera; once a week to Naples, Sarasota Bay, and Tampn. Big Pine Island is the largest i n Charlotte Harbot, con t aining nearly 25,000 acres, mainly in woodland. It is 14: mil e & long, and from two to four miles wide B eaches o f white sand skirt its shot es, except where the m angroves h a ve gained a foo thol d or occasional inlets bordered with saw grass make their way inland. Mattlacha. Pass, to the eastward of the island, is very sh a llow, and practicable only f o r s mall boats To the westward is Pine I sland Sound, navigable for small steam boats and vessels of moderat e draught. Severa l thous;;tnd ac res at tl1e southern end of the i slan d are owne d by the San Car l os Hotel, and have b een partially c leared and laid out with a view to inducing t ouris t s and residents to purc h ase and build. There i s a good wharf accessible through San Carlos Pass for sea-going ves se l s, and the most famou s tarpon-fishing grounds on the Florida c oas t are within easy r each. The l ocality and i ts sunoundings are certainly most attrac tive. The great bay and its sounds a1e studded with islands

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'260 SAINT-JAMES-ON -' fHE-GULF. covered with semi-tropica l vegetation. B etween them winc1 intricate channel s through which the hunter may pad dle his canoe or 1ow his sl{iff for day s without seeing a human habitation, ar.d with a certainty of finding plenty of game, on foot and on th e wing. Along the outer beaches, the Gulf rollers breaJc c ease lessly arid ten e w the supply of curious and beau tiful shells, with here and there a marine nonde BC.l'ipt that ma y well puzzle even those w h o are w ise in such matters. It will be noticed that all important buildings, includ-ing the light-k eepe1's house on Sanibel Island, are mise d on piles. This is to guard against possible damage frnm hurricanes, which occur in this latitude duririg the sum mer mon ths, rarely earlier than May or later than Oct o ber. When one o f these occurs in conjunction w ith a high tide, the water ri ses f a r a bove usual le vel. The hotel stan d s w ell above. the highest point to which hurricanes have ever d riven tho wav es Sanibel Island lies dhectly in front of the hotel, two miles distant across San Carlos Bay, cmving crescent-wi se to the westward. It is 1 3 m iles long, and 3 miles in extrem e width. inland s h ore i s low, overgr own wi t h mangro ves, a.nd p enetrated b y shallow b ays and The seaward has a fine unbroken beach, strewn with exquisite she lls. The interior of the island rises often into bluffs, gene1a.Uy well wood ed, and offering endless attractions to the s ports man-naturalist. Point Ybe l is the 'easte rn extremity of 'the island. Near it i s the black iron l ight-tow er, with the neat keepel"s houses near at hand. The tower stands iulat. 26 27' 11 ' N., long. 82 53" W. It was established in 1884 The light is 98 feet high, and shows whi t e, vari e d b y a white fla s h ev e r y two minutes ; visible 15t na.utiC!ll miles a.t sea Between P oint Yb e l and Bowditch P oint is Sa.n Carlos P ass three miles wid e, with the ship channel into San Cal'lo s Bay. Near Bo\\ ;ditch Point M atanzas P ass opens into a series of shallow lagoon s On the north Blind Pass sepamtes Sanibel from Captiv a I sland. Capti'tla and La Costa Islands, with s und1-y sma.llreef s and keys, complete t h e barrier that divi des Pine Island Sound

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RASSA 261 the Gulf. 'rhe first is nine miles long, and ranges from almost nothing to three-quarters of a mile wide. La Costa is 71miles long and one mile wide : The two are separated by Captiva Pass, practicable for small boats. Rass a, 4 miles by water (see below) Myers, 18 mile s by water (see Route 155) 1 53 Punta Ra.ssa, L ee County. Lat. 2& 30' N.Long. 82> 60' W. Ronr . -The Tarpon Hotel, $2& day, $ 12 a w eek, $45 a month. S-r&: .. umoATS, same as St . Tames -on-the-Gulf, p. 122. Row-boats, $2a day ($4 to$5 with guide> Sail-boats, $12 a day, with skipper and two skiffs Punta Rassa. (Barren Point) f orms the eastem chop o f San Carlos pass; an expans e of scrub-grown white sand with bea\ltiful beaches and a deep channel, through which ocean currents set strongly close along shore. It is a great r esort for sportsmen and cattlemen, being the principal shipping point of live stock for the Cuban marltets. T he accommoda tions and fare not such as will prove attractive to the luxuriously inclined tourist and his family, but for the true fisherman it i..<> a recognized headquarters. The house is a large unpainted wooden structure, 1ough and picturesque, and with equally picturesque surrounilings,.including exten sive cattle-yard s Sharks of t he largest size are caught from the wharf th').t almost serves as a fl'ontporch for the hotel ; the best tarpon -fishing grounds are within easy rowing ois tance ; the huge and dangerous devil-fish may be harpooned just outside t h e pass, and the waters of the bay are at t imes literally alive with all the game fish of the Gulf. To the south and east is the wilderness merging into the Big Cy press swamp and the Everglades, almost as nature made it, s ave that hunte1s have well-nigh exterminate d 'birds of bl'illiant Game birds Clnd all kinds of four-f ooted game a1e s till abundant.

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262 PUNTA RASSA. . The Tarpon. It is only since 1885 that the tarpon (11fegalops thri86oide3 or atlanticus) has been recognized as a game-fish. He had been known to take bait prior to that time, but had been landed only by accident. Otherwise he had been harpooned and occasionally taken in a seine; but his great size, strength, and agility enabled him to defy most devices for his capture. In the winter of 1880--81, Mr. S. H. Jones, of Philadelphia, killed a 170-lb. tarpon with bass tackle at Indian River Inlet. Mr . W. H. Wood, of New York, was the first, 'however, to reduce the sport to a science by patiently studying the habits of the fish. The familiar home of the tarpon is the Gulf of 11:fexico, and he is essentially a tropical fish. Nevertheless strjl.y speci mens have been found, in summer, as far north as Cape Cod, and they are certainly abundant in Biscayne Bay and, prob ably, farther up the east coast of Florida. Tarpon may now be accepted as the common name of the fish, though hereto. fore it. has often been spelled '' tarpum," and is known along the remote coasts as "silver king," "silver fish," "grande ecaille" among French-speaking Creoles, and "sa vanilla" on the coast of Texas. Adult specimens often exceed six. feet in length, and weigh nearly or quite two hundred . pounds. The tarpon is herring" like in g.eneral shape and appearance, has an enormous mouth, with shear-like sides to his jaws, large, fierce eyes, and is withal gifted with an exceptional degree of muscular ene1gy. When alive, this great fish shades off from dark oxidized silver along the back to the most brilliant of metallic silver with gleams of gold along tho sides and head. Even in death the big scales retain much of their beauty. The tarpon is only fairly good t.s a table fish. The coast residents, however, d1:y the flesh in tlte open air, and keep it as an article of food. Tarpon fishing is not all fun, since he does not readily take the bait. Persevering, but unlucky, fishetmen have been known to sit in theh boats several hours daily for weeks, and

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PUNTA ll.ASSA. 263 finally give U:p in despair, without baving secm:.ed so nmch as a nibble.' Specia l tackle is now made for this sport, to wit, rods of split-bamboo, seven to nine feet long, large multiplying click reels that will hold two hundred ya1ds of (15 to 2 1 thread) linen line. Tho reel should be used with a thumbstall or equivalent device, and a favorite hook is the 10;0 Dublin-bend Limerick, forged and ringed. How best to 1ig the snell is still in doubt. It must be twenty-four to twentyeight inches long, because it will not hold unless gorged by the fish. 'o hook will hold in the armor-plated month. Wire and small chains are objectionable because sharks frequently .take. the bait, and it is desirable to have them bite the snell in two, and carry off the hook alone instead of more or less line. A solid snell is often cut by the shear-like action of the ta1pon's jaw-plates. Such a snell t)nssed through a small rubber tube has its advocates but many of the most successful fishermen have settled upon a snell made of rather loosely laid cotton cod-line, dyed some dark so as to be neady invisible when wet. It is difficult for the fish to cut this with their shears, nor is he so apt to feel it be fore. fully swallowing the bait. A good tarpon rod may coilt from $12 to $22; a reel from $5 to $35; two hundred yards braided linen line, say $3 ; snells, if shop-made, $3 to $5 a dozen; gaff, $4 to $10 Complete outfit say $25 upward. The usual bait is mullet. half the fish being put upou the hook, thrown to a dist.ance from the boat, and allowed to sink to the bottom. Then there is nothing to do but wait, and put on fresh hait every hour. The tarpon feeds in shoal water, and may often be seen prowling about and stirring up the muddy bottom. When he taker; the bait he must he allowed to carry off a dozen yards or so of line before shiking. This amount of line is often unreeled and coiled oa a thwart, so as to offer no resistance. When struck, tlHl fish begins a series of leaps, striving to shake himself clear, and it is often two hours before he is so far exhausted that he can be brought alongside and gaffed. Experienced fishermen say that the protracted excitement o f landing a tarpon fat exceedr:; that afforded by the sal mon, hitherto

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264 PUNT A RASS.t\. considered tl1e king of game fishes. Small tarpon, ranging not higher than 40 or 50 pounds, may be takeu with any gaudy fly on the large South Florida rivers a few miles from the coast. The official tarpon 1ecord for 1889, as kept at Punta Rassa, is appended. I ..; ... ,;, ;:: .d 18811. .., 1 889 .; "' "" 0 -;:: ., ., !::: I r:.
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PUNTA RASS.A:-THE CALOOSA RIVER. 265 all along the Gulf coast, and in a lesser degree on the At-lantic coast, as far up as the St. John's Rive1-. In February, 1889, the upper 1eaches of Biscayne Bay were alive with them, and the residents thereabout were spearing them at will. Four skilled fishermen, however, failed to induce them to bite, probably because it wa.s too early in the season. Etiquette among tarpon fishers prescl'ibes that whe1i a fish is hooke d, boats near at hand shall up anchor and keep out of the way. 154. The Caloosa Rhrer. . Caloosa was the name of the native tribe dominant in this region at the time of the Spanish discovery ; hatchee" meant "river" in their tongue, and still survives in the Sem inole dialect. The Caloosas wer e a powerful and warlike t ribe their province extending as far norLh as Tampa, and embracing some fifty villages. Fontauedo translates "Caloosa" as village cruel," which, with a liberal interpreta tion, is suggestive as regards the disposition of the popula tion. For about twenty-three miles from San Carlos Bay the river maintains a width of hom one mile to two miles, with a depth of seven feet. The shores are, for the most part, low, with occasional hammock islands and broad savannas. From Pnnta Rassa on the south to Sword Point on the north, the mouth of the Caloosa is a trifle over three miles wide. The largest and most southerly of the three islands lying off the entrance is Fisherman's Key. There are count7 less unnamed keys lying in every direction, some covered with mangroves and others with palms and hammock. The channel is very tortuous, with barely seven feet at low tide, but it becomes deeper three miles above Punt a Rassa, nfter first nal'l'owing to half a mile, the stream widens to li mile. Four miles farther it again narrows, with Redfish Point on the north and Palmetto Point on the south, and o. channel twenty-three feet deep. This is a fish ing-ground. East of Palmetto Point is a bay known as Big

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266 . Slough, o p ening into a broad savanna. Two miles b eyon d i s Niggerhead Point, and beyond this again the pretty town of Fort Mye r s (see Route 1155). Six mile s above the character of the river changes abruptly. The banks rise to o. height of fifteen to twenty feet, the stream narrows to sixty yards, with a deep, strong current, and the banks are cov e red with a dense hammock growth, an infallible sign o f rich land. lf.tlman h a bitations are few nnd far betwee n. The river receives constant accessions f1oro springs and streams, usually of cool pure wat e r. Twelv e miles above Myers the telegraph line crosses the 1iver at Parkinson's Ferry A mile further is Olga, near'the sites-now hardly to be discov e r e d without careful search-of Fort Simmons on the nortl1, and . Fort Demmd on the south, bank. The first named w as little more than a f ortified picket post. The second was a s tation of some impor tance, established in the w inter of 1837 -38 by Captain B. L. E. B onneville, of'the Seventh Infant r y, and named aHet the o wner of the land. The site of the fort was two miles from the landing that now b ears its name. The fort was strongly garrisoned during the closing years of the Semi nole war; and fl-om it Lieutenant J. T. McLaughlin, U.S.N., set out early in N ovem bei, 1841 with a force of 1 50 seamen and marines, t o explore the then unknown E verglades They c rosse d the peninsula, reaching the Atla.nt .ic coast by way o f B iscayne Bay. For t Denaud was abandoned shortly after this, reoccupied in 1849, again aba.ndoned, and once more occupied in 1855, ari d at length, in 18 57, finally evacuate d, the garl'ison moving to Fort Simmons on the north bank of the ri>er (sometim es called New Fort Demaud). Here a ganison wa s maintained till 1858 when i t was withdrawn to Fort l\:lye1-s. Holl ingsworth FelTy, 10 miles above l\:lye1-s, is the principal crossing place for cattle bound to Punta Rassa. Alva, 20 miles above 1\:ryers, is a post-offic e with quite a little settl e-ment in its n e i ghborhood. . About thirty-five miles abo ve l\f yers is Lake Flirt, named o.fter a government schoon e r that was on duty in Florida waters at the time o f M cLaughlin' s expedition. Swift water i_s encountered b efore t h e lake. This lake, so f11or ns

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THE CALOOSA RIV]l;R-FOR'I' MYERS. 267 k nown, was first visited by white men in July, 1 832, the ex plorets being W. R. H ackley ancl P. B P rior, 1epresen t atives of a. New York land company. Fort Thompson, at the outlet of Lake Flirt, was a temporaty post established to intimidate the Seminoles. From this point to Okeechobee Lalte the l'iver flows through the borders of the Everglades. Nat urally its upper reaches were not 11avigable, the opera tions of the Okeechobe!'l D1ainage Company have opened a canal through Lal{e Hic k pochee, practi cable fo r boats draw ing five feet 1 55 F ort Myer s, Lee County (C. H ). P opulation. 700. L at. 26 !t7' N.Long. 81 W. HOTEL.-The CalO
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268 FORT MYERS. royal palm, bet.el-nut, and giant bamboo. A street of gen erous width runs parallel to the river some two hundred yards from the waterside, with good sidewalks and bordered by overhanging orange-groves and gardens wherein grow all kinds of wondei-ful plants, among them, besides those already mentioned, are tamarinds, citrons, mangoes, guava.':!, all the cit rotts fruits, pineapples, pomegranates, cocoa palms, and all the more common tropical and semi-tropical growths that are found throughout the State. A short distance west of the Caloosa Hotel is the residence of Major James Evans, near whose house n,re a number of palm-trees of species not to be found elsewhere on the mainland; On the trunks of some of these may be seen the marks of the rare frosts that at long in visit this 1;egion. In the. same enclosure are clumps of bamboo, some of them sixty or seventy feet high. A peculiarity of their growth is that before they reach thei1 full development their roots reach the underlying limestone rock, and the whole plant is lifted bodily from the grouncl. A few steps farthe1 west is a peculiarly symmetrical and vigorous specimen of the datepalm, standing somewhat back from the street and surrounded by a walled mound of earth. This is within the old government reservation, and tradition has it that the. tree was planted by the late General Hancock, who was stationed here during 18 56 anc118 57 At the lower end of the street are houses and laboiatories erected by Thomas Edison, the famous electrician, with a view to pursuing his scientific researches where they cannot be interrupted by cold weather. Fort 1\fyers is still a frontier town, for, if we except Naples, there is not another settlement between this and Cape Sable on the south and the Atlantic coast on the east. A large part of this region is available for stock-raising, and cattle-ranc hes are scattered throughout the wilderness, where ati.ntervals the stock is "rounded up and branded by parties of cowboys Excursions in the neighborhood of Fort Myers are in the main limited to the river (see Route 154), but it is possible to ride or drive fo1 many miles in any direction Good shooting is to be found everywhere, and large game ranges up to the outskirts of the settlement.

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LAKE OKEECHOBEE 269 156. Lake Okeechobee, Dade, De Soto, and Lee Counties. Between Lat. 26 40' auti 27 11' N and Long. 80<> 29' and 81 W.-ElevQ. tion above sea-level 20.24 feet.Area about 1,250 square n:iiles. To the Spaniards the lake was vagu ely known by report of the natives as 1\:lyacco, or 1\fyaxo, and late1 by its present name, signifying "Big Water. When Jacob Le l\foyne made his map of Florida in 1560, or thereabout, he placed a large lake in the middle of the peninsula, and made this note beside it. "Adeo magnus est hie lacus ut ex 1ma 1ipa conspici alter a nonpossit." (So great is this lake that bank cannot be seen from the other.) And not so very much more is lmowq ab9ut it to this day. Le Moyna's informa tion seems to have been more than William Darby's, whose map, published in 1821, ignores the KissimmeeRiY4ilr altogether, and shows the lake as a grass-grown swamp. Joh. n Lee Williams, writing of this region in 1837, says: The great lakes that are believed to supply these 1-i.vers are wholly unknown.'' There is a tradition, not well authenticated, to the effect that one of the Spanish governors sent an expedition to Myacco, as the great lake was then called to search for pearls, but no proofs l1ave been discovered. The Seminole war led to a partial exploration by Lieu tenant John T. McLaughlin, U.S.N., who, in November, 1 841, led a force of seamen and ma1ines to the lake, skirt ing its southern shore, taking daily observations of lati tude and longitude, and making the first trustworthy report as to the topography of this region During that war it was frequently visited by scouting parties, and the second outbreak of the Seminoles, iil 1856-57, led t o further mili tary expeditions. A decisive engagement, lmown as the Battle of Okeechobee, took place near the northern end of the lake, December 25, 1 837. During the Civil War the lake afforded a safe 1etreat for fugitives from the Confederate service, and it has since been frequently visited by hunters am-q camping pinties, but it has never been accurately sur-

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270 LAKE OKEECHOBEE-THE . v eyed, and neither its exact dimensions nor the details of its coast line known with any degree of accuracy. In 1881 Mr. Kl.rk Munroe made a solitary voyage of exploration in a canoe, and nearly perished before he could make his way out again. He wro t e and published an interesting account of his adventures. The lake is for the most part surrounded by a wide belt of "big saw-grass," through which it is well-nigh impossible for human beings to penetrate. Camping-places are few along shore, very difficult .to find, and liable to be sub merged by a change of wind. The water is shallow, rarely more than 15 feet deep, but it is drinkable, and there are plenty of fish and water-fowl. Parties visiting the lake should either make the trip in a. launch capable of running into the lake and back to set tlements irrespective of weather, Ol' else in a boat provide4 with good cabin accommodations, ample supplies, and com-petent guides. The lake offers few attractions save its mysterions character. The shores are low and uninteresting, and except at a few points landing is practically impossible. Fort Myers, on the Caloosahatchee, is the most accessible settlement., about 50 miles from the lake shore, though Jupite1 and Lake Worth, on the Atla.ntic coast, are really .nearer in a straight line. Numerous streams flo w into tl1e lake from the nodh and west, and there are several small islands near tho southern end, where the open. water gives way to the grass-grown Everglades. 157. Tlte Everglades. This vast tract of shallow wate:r thickly overgrown with reeds and grass, iies in Dade, Lee, and 1\funroe Counties, to the southward and eastward of O keechobee Lak-e. It is not a swamp in the ordii1ary meaning of the term, but rather a shallow lake with a h:nd rock bottom, and grass growing to a height of four or five feet above the surface of the water 'fhis sea of grass is studded with numerous islands; many of them habitable, and some of them occupied and cultiYated by

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. 'l'HE EVERGLADES-NAPLES. ... 271 . the remnant of the Seminole tribes. 'rhrough this tract wind numerous channels navigable fm canoes, which are pushell tlnough the grass with setting poles. 'l'he Seminole of the Everglades hardly knows the use of paddles or oars. The Everglades have never been surveyed, though during the Seminole wars they were pretty well explOl'ed by scouting parties, whose business was to catch Indians, not make maps. In tho winter, the climate of the Everglades is not had, the water is drinkable, the channels are alive wi t h :fish, and gamo is abundant. But it is very easy to .get hopelessly lost, and the labor of following a compass course through the tall grass is very exhausting. The Indians are disposed to be friendly when not crazed with drink ; but they can l'lnely be persuade d to act as guides to their ret reats, and they discoul'age all parties of hunters and explorers from pene trating the "Glades." Injudicious intrusion upon their hunting grounds might ea.&ily provoke active resentment, for tllcy are well armed, and their tempers are not always an gelic. The Everglades are most easily reached from Okeechobee by following up some creek, or from Biscayne Bay by as cending Arch Creek, or the Miami River. By this latter route a day's excursion may take one well into the edge of the Glades." (See Route 200.) 158. Naples, Lee County. Lat. 26 10' N.-LQng. 81 54' W. Naples is the most southerly settlement on the mainland of the Gulf coast. It has a weekly mail service by steamboat frorn St. James and Punta Gorda, and is pleasantly situated on a sandy peninsula with good elevation above the sea. The region has been surveyed witll a view to its be coming a resort, and strict rules as regards the locatio n of stables, etc., on the streets have been adopted. Miss Roso Cleveland sister of President Cleveland, was one of the fil'st Northerners to acquire property there, with a view to making

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272. NAPLES. it her winter residenc_e. Naples is thirty-eight miles south of Punta Rassa. Mctlco, the most southerly settlement on the Gulf coast, is on an island thirtee1i miles south of Naple::;, and receives its mail by special service, which means at irregular inte1vals, or wh e n thete is any mail to be delivered. South of Punta Rassa the coast is, in the main, uninhabit able, low and swampy, overgrown with mangroves, and in short, in process of being turned into dry land by the slow methods of nature. The Big Cypress Swamp borders the coast and merges into the Everglades inland, and into man grove keys toward the Gulf. Here, as elsewhere, great vol-. . umes of water flow outward from the Everglades, and there are several goodly streams known to huut.ers, but whose precise location has never been determined. Shark River, for instance, wa.s visited by scou ting parties during the .Seminole war, but later attempts to find it proved unsnc. cessful, and its very existence is questioned by s.ome recent explorers, who claim to have made thorough search. Navi gation along this coast is very difficult, even for small boats. The Government is now engaged in making complete sur veys, where none have heretofore been attempted.

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Middle Florida. Between the 27th and 30th parallels of north latitude, lies the richest section of the Florida peninsula. Parallels of latitude, however, do not accurately define its limits. The Suwannee River on t h e north, and the Caloosahatchee on the south, more nearlymark the natural boundaries. Within this region lie the best agricultural lands, whether for the citrous fruits or for the early field and garden crops that are becoming now so important for the supply of Northem markets. In round numbers, this section embraces an area of about 20,000 square miles, a considerable fraction of which, including savannas and the like, is unfit for cultiva. tion; and still another fraction is cove, :ed by beautiful lakes and miter-courses which provide natural irrigation and add gteatly to the attractiyeness of the country. The native pine forest still covers the land from ocean to gulf, save where, as along the railways, it has given place to orange groves and clearings, or where hammocks vary the monot: ony of straight pine-trunks with the gnarled boughs of-live oak, or a tangle of bays, palms, and wild orange trees. The forest land is all of good quality, except where it degenerates into cypress swamps, pine flats, or hammock so low as to be incapable of drainag e To the stranger, much of the cleared land looks not unlike an ordinary sea-beach, but after he h as seen square miles of thriving orange-groves growing oat of this bare desert, he may 1ealize that Florida sand is not like that of other l ands. The fact is that this soil is very rich in limes and phosphates, is often underlaid, covered, or mingled with v e g etable mould resulting from ages of accumulation and decomposition. To the ordinary trav e!}er Florida seems a level forest-cov ered plain, varied by occasional mnges of bluffs, and intersperse d with countless lakes. If lte is observan t he will notiC
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274 MIDDLE FLORIDA.. dred feet above tide-water, reaching its greatest height, nearly 500 feet, near Table Mountain,'' in Lake County. In the office of the Plant Investment Co., Jacksonville, is a large relief map of Florid:\ that well merits inspection. The idea of the map originated with Mr. D. II. Elliott, gen eral agent of the Associated Rail way Land Office, and was intended to dispel' the popular notion that Florida is a mo notonous level. The map is 15 feet by-30, and is planned on a vertical scale of 50 feet to one inch, and a horizontal scale of 2 miles to one inch. To the careless observer the disproportion between the horizontal and vertical scales is misleading, for with identical scales on a map of this size a hill of 500 feet would be less than one-fourth of an inch high, and, of course, invisible. Making due allowance, however, for the exaggerated vertical scale, the map conveys. an excellent idea of the topography of the State. It constructed by T. C. Leutze for the S. F. & W. Railway Co., and was sent to the World's Fair at New Orleans in the winter of 1884-85. To the tourist or invalid this region offers an endless vari ety of attractions in climate, scenery, game, and out-of-door life in general. He may ride or walk through open forests of pine where there are plenty of quail and a chance for deet _and turkey ; he may shoot for squirrels in the hammocks, and in the wilder regions may secure the pelt of cougar, tige1-cat, or black bear. The water-courses are almost all navigable for canoes nearly or quite to their sources, and one cannot follow one of them fat without encountering some kind of wild creatul'e, interesting at all events for its own sake, and perhaps legitimate prey for rod or gun. The great railway systems of Florida cross the midland l'egion in all directions. See general map, and for stations and distances, consult county maps and context. The St. John's, the Ocklawaha Rivers, and the several lake regions of the in terior, afford steam-boat routes through many of the most picturesque regions of the S tate including the wonderful springs described elsewhere. Within this section, too, are the remarkable phosphates recently discovered, which promise to add vastly to the wealth and prosperity of the State.

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MIDDLE FLORIDA-SANFORD. ' 275 Within the general boundaries indicated 'lLbove are thl'ee regular stations of the U,'S. signal Service, namely; Jack sonville, Sanford, and Cedar Key, representing approximately the eastern, inland, and westem sections of Middle Florida. Observations for temperature have been kept at these stations for several years. Taking the average tempe1atures recorded at the three, we have the following result : Spring, 70.3 ; summer, 81.2; autumn, 71,8 ; winter, 57.16. This state ment for winter does not fairly represent the climate, for, in point of fact, the occasional "northers" unduly reduce the average temperature, which in fair winter weather is from 65 to 70. From the retur_!ls of the same stations, the following is approximately the monthly average of clear or fair days, when it is pleasant to be out of doors: January, 23; February, 23; March, 27 ; April, 26 ; 27 ; June, 25 ; July, 27; August, 27; September, 25; October, 26; November, 23; D ecember, 26. The Weathe1 Se1vice, however, separates its tables of clouds and rainfall, so that, of the 65 days not accounted for above, a considerable proportion are not of necessity what would be called rainy. The average rainfall is as follows: Spring, 9.24 inches; summer, 21.36 inches; autumn, 12.88 inches; winter, 8.55 inches. Thus it appeal'S that summer is distinctly the rainy season, while the winter months, December, January, and February have the lightest rainfall. (For comparative weather tables see p age 377.) 160. Sanford to 'l,a.mpa Bay and Port Tampa. By South Florida Railroad, 124 miles (5 hours 30 minutes). For stations and distances, see pp. 70, 73, 79, and maps of Orange, Polk, and Hillsborough Counties. For the :first forty miles, to Kissimmee, the line runs nearly south, bearing a little to the westward. Passing Win ter Park, one of the prettiest places in Florida, and Orlan do, the busy county town of one of the most prosperous coun ties in the State, the train presentiy leaves the high rolling pine lands and enters upon a comparatively level tract ex tending to the Kissimmee group of lakes. Thence curving

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276 to the westward, it crosses Davenport Creek, a tributary of the Kissimmee, and at Haines City enters the Polk County lake region, which drains into Charlotte Harbor. At Lake .Jand the train divides, part going to Punta Gorda (Route 151) and part w e stward to Tampa and Port 'Tampa, there connecting with the Ward Line Plant Steam r;hip Line to Key West, Havana, New Orleans, and Mobile; also with coastwise steamers to Manatee River, the Pinellas Peninsula, Orange Belt Railway, and the different Bay ports (Routes 130 to 142). The route passes through four counties, namely : Orange, Osceola, Polk, and Hillsborough. For stations and dis tances, see maps and descriptions in beginning of handbook, and consult Contents. 161. Winter Park, Orange Cou nty. Population, 600.-Lat. 28 33' N ....:.Long. 81 20' W.-Elevation, 92 feet above St. John's River. HoTBLS.-The Se.ninole, $4 a day.-lWgers Hotel, $2 to $2.50 a day. R.uLROAD.-Tile S outh Florida Railr<1ad, to Tampa and Ptint.a Gorda; the J. T. & K. W, north to Sanford, Jacksonvil le, etc. Three trains daily. The Or l ando & Winter Park Ry. to Orlando, 4 miles south. 'l'ramway from station to hotels. Oh; twches.-<::ongregational and Episcopal. On l eaving the train the traveller at once notes an air of neatnes_s and thrift in streets, houses, and stores. The busi ness blocks are mainly in the vicinity of the 1ailroad station. Elsewhere are charming cottages, often ovedooking one or another Qf the several lakes. well-laid board walks are a pleasant relief from the deep .sand often encountered, and conv e ni en t trtunways and excellent livery stables afford fa cilities for those who would rather ride than walk. From the observatory of the Seminole Hotel fourteen lake s are in sight; though some of them can hardly be detected by a stranger without the aid of a. local expert. The outlook, however, covers a most alluring lake region, set in a land of wooded hills often rising boldly from the waterside, here clothed with the native forest, and there showing the deep :green and gol
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WIN'.rER PARK. 277 rounding the town are Maitland to the north, Osceola anc1 Virginia west and south, and Killarney east. Mally of these, as well as the smaller intervening lakes, are connected 'Qy channels navigable often for launches, and always for small boats, of which there i s a good supply at the hotel landings. A steam-launch makes two round trips daily through Lakes Osceola and Virginil:\ (fare 25c. ), a very pleasant exciusion. The railway t o Orlando, after passing between Lakes Mizell and Virginia, skirts the north shore of the latter and turns southward, crossing a c ree k to Lake Sue. Then, in succession, a .re Lakes Estelle, Rowena, Formosa, Ivanhoe, Highland, and Concord, the last within the bordel'S of Or lando. . In the centre of the town is a .Public pal'k of .ten acl'es, surrounding the raill'oad station, and the general plan of stl'eets and boulevards is excellent. Within easy driving distance is Clay Sp1ing, across whicl1 strong swimmers strive in vain to pass, so powerful is the upward rush of wate thl'ough a da1k chasm in the rock. Lake .Apopka, one of the large lakes of F l orida, is twelve miles to tlle wes t ward, and to the eastward is a wide, un settled region, where hunters may find the large and small game of the Florid;t woods. Rollins College, situated on a high bluff overlooking Lake Virginia, is open from October to May, inclusive. It has handsome and well-appointed buildings, and is designed to afford facilities for collegiate training to residents and to Nm;therners whose health demands a mild winte1 climate. Winter Park was a wilderness in 1881. It was founded and developed by Messrs. Loring A. Chase, of Chicago, and 1\:lr. Oliver E. Chapman, of Canton, 1\:la.s. s.

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. 278 ORLAND O . 162. Orlando, Oran ge C ounty (C. H.). Population 10,000. .HO'l'ELS ( ra tee by the day). Char/elton House, $8.-J[agnolia Rouse, $.2 .50 ro $3.-Wilc<>z Hotue, $8. -ll"ildor Hottl, $8. fun.ROADs.-south Flori da, north to Sanford Indian Rivt>r, Jacksonvil le, e tc ; south to Tampa and Punta Gorda. And the Tavares, Orlando & Atlantic Railroad west to ravares. Leesb urg, etc. Cht4rchu. Roman Catholic. Baptist, Congregational, Episcopal, 111ethodist. Bank$.-Nat'ional Bank of Orlando Or:ando L.oan and Sll.vings Bank. In locat i o n and t opo graphical surroundings Orlando i s identical with its more rural neighbot, Winter PMk; but a.s a business centre, wit h the county court-hou.<>es, stores, manu factOlies and the industrial activities of a rich and product ive r egion, it has a d i stinctive and, co mmer Cially spea.king far more important life of its own. Ji'l'OID Orlando to Winter Park is a short and ple asan t ride ( 4 'l 25 minutes} Of' car:nago J"Oilcl To Tavares by l'all rot e s ka there is direct and easy c om L ees burg, and Apop tl' 0. n"'e Belt Bail w ay to Tar munica t ion by r at l by \ep All kinds of sup. d the Pmella.s enmsum.. po.n and fishing expedition can be procured to phes for un mg. 't and uide s ca n b e sec ured for good lD to!ar d the headwaters of the extended huntmg expe 1 lO St. John's River, thirty miles to the eas tward .

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KISSIMMEE. 279 163. Kissimm ee Osceol a County (C. H.) Population (1890), 1,082. Lnt. 28 15 N.-Long. 81 26' W . HOTELS.Th s Tropical, $3.50 a day.-2'/te Ki,immee Home, 01ceola Hotel, Sooth /!'lorida Hotel. Board, $6 to $16 a week. RAILROA.DS.-Tbe South Florida R. R. (J. T & K W. System). Sugar Bel t R y. STEAlllliOA.TS.-To Kissimmee R:ver landings. :Methodist and Presbyterian c hurches. The Rank.-Good ge n eml store s LxvEnY.-Saddle horse s, $2.50 u day, sin gle teams, $3.50 a day. 1loATs.-Launcbes, S10 to $ 16 a day sall.:J>oats, $8 to $6 n da y. GuiDES.--$1 a day o r more, according to servic es require d. The town is at the head of river navigat i on from the G ulf of M exico, by way of the Kissim mee River, Lake O kee chobee, and the Calo osahat chee River. (Se e Routes 1 5 6 and 154 and maps, pp. 23 an d 77.) It at the head of Lal re Tohopekaliga ("the lake of the co:w pens "), a fine body of water, twelve miles long, and o f an ir regular shape, n early six miles wide at certai n points and with numerous islan ds. Its greate s t depth is fift een !eet., and its nmmal height abo ve tide-wate1:, 64.59 feet. mil es northeast of Kissim mee i s East Tohope l taliga Lake; about five miles wide, irregularl y square in shape, and wit h its l evel s li ghtly highe r than that of its sister lake, with which it is connected by a canal. T hese two lakes are at the head of what may b e termed the Kissimme e syste m, including Lake Cypr ess (62 feet abbve tide-wnte1), Lake Hatchin e a (60.23 feet above tide-water), Lake Kissi mmee ( 58.07 feet at tide-water) All these lnltes were naturally connected by c h annels little better than marshes, but t h ese have been enlarged by the operations of the Okeechobee Drainage Co:, and it is now possibl e fot steaml aunches and sail-boats to go through to the head of the Kissim mee River, a fine stream flow ing southward fifty miles, "as the crow fli es," to Lake O keechobee. The actual distanc e following the tor t uous river is not accurate l y known. The drai nage works have lowered the l eve l of the upper lakes, rendering fit for cultivation wid e tracts of rich land previ ously una vailabl e. Sugar-ean e has been planted in large quantities along the lak e shores; and eaily vegetabl es, notably cauli flowe rs, h ave been success full y raised and shipped to the

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280 KISSIMMEE-LAKELAND. North e r n markets early in January. The other garden crops -cabbages beets, potatoes, tomatoes, and the like, are ready for market in February and March. Kissimm ee is a convenient headquarters for sportsmen R efere nce to the map of O sceola County p 72, will sho w that it is a frontier town with no settlements what ever to the south and southeast. There are, in fact, occasional cabins an d camps throughout the region that appears on the maps uninhabited; but in e ffect it is a wilderne ss, inter sected wit h lakes and wat er-courses navigable for small boa t s, and crossed by t rails prac ticable for teams. Guides, boats, ho1'::>es, and camp equipage may be hired in Kissimmee. : There is no fixed schedule of prices, but favor able arrangement s can usually b e made t h rough the proprie tor o f the Tropica l Hotel. The of the St. John's R iver, running north, a1e from t wenty to thirty miles to the eastward. L akes and branches are known to the .. guides which considerably reduce the length of the carry between the two str ea ms. It is possible to descend t o the outlet of Lali: e Kissimmee, and thence ca.ny over by way of L akes Jackson and Marian to the upper St. J ohn's, w hic h i s easily navigable to Lake M unroe. (Seep. 197. ) 164. P olk County. Popnlo.tion 800.-Lat. 28 N.-Long. 82 W. H oTt:L.-li'rcm.on t Home, $ll o. dlly. RMLWAYS.-8onth Florido.and Florida Southern. A railway junction of some importance The principal lines from the North cross here, bound for T ampa and Punta Gorda. Lakeland is ple asantly situated amidst a clustet of pretty l akes, and wit h an ele-vation at the railroad station of 214 feet above the sea ( see map, p. 77). Lake H ancock, the largest lake in the immediate neighborhood, is 8 miles sotith neai Haskell Station, S. F. Ry. N umerous smaller ponds are f oun d in. every direction, and good shootin g i s to be bad within easy dri ving distance. Lakeland was settled in Feb ruary, 1 884, under the management of a j oint-stock land company .

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BARTOW. 281 166. Barto w Polk County (0. H.). Populat i on ( 1 890\, 2 000.-Lat. 21 50'.-Long 81 63' W. HOTELs.-Oran.qe GrQve Houl. Willard Wright House, Carpenter House. $2' to $3 a clay. Flo rida Ry. (Chrulotte Harbor Divi s ion) to Pll.nta Gorda.. The South Florida Rd. ( B artow Branc ll ) to Bartow, etc. Bartow was settled in 1857, and wa s at first known as Fort Blou n t, flom R. R. Blount, of G eorgia, who, w i t h J oh n D av idson, an I rishman, were the first co m ers. U n til the c l ose of the Civil War, it w as little more than a frontier settlem e nt, but it is in. t he midst of a fine agricultu1al country, near the southern limit o f the great rollin g pine" region, with an extensive hammoc:k ou one side and a prairie on the other. Settlers soon began to locate claims in the ne:lghbo1hood; and when the railroad was finished to Punta G orda, in 1 88 2, i ts prospe rity b eca me assured. The bra.noh to Bartow etc. was built in 188 5, and farther in cre as e d i ts c'ommereia l facilities. There a1e Baptist, M e thodist and Presbyteria n churches and a prospe rous school, the Summerlin Ins titute, which at present has about 300 pupils, and. is con sidere d on e o f the best in the State. It was founded by Jacob Summerlin, who gave the funds require d and dedicated the institution to "the p oo r childre n of Polk County." B arto w i s n ear the h ea d-waters o f P eace River. To the south east i s a flat pine 1egion wi t h numerous lakes and savannas, and good shooting extending to the edge of the Kissim mee swamps. To the s outhwest, som e 12 or 15 miles, are the sources of the Manatee River, flo wing through wild ham mock lands tenanted by all kinds o f game. :Bartow is a good headquarters for sportsmen wishing to explore ili e regions indica ted.

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282 PLAN'!' CITY-JACKSONVILLE. 166. Plant City, Hillsborough County. Population. 300. The town stands at the junction of the Florida Central & Pen' insula and the South Florida railways (see map, p. 36). It is mainly built upon an "oal;: ridge," with an elevation of 128 feet above the sea. The underlaying strata are yellow an(l gray sandstone-:. The first permanent settlement was in January, 1884, on the completion of the railroad to thii$ point. The Pemberton Ferry Branch leads northward, crossing tb,e Orange Belt railway at Lacoochee, and the Florida Southern at St. Catherine. The S. F. and F. C. & P. railways run wes t ward to Tampa. For stations and distances, see p. 48. ;For Tampa and vicinity, see Routes 249 to 252. 170. Jacksonville to Ocala. By J. T. & K. W. Ry. to Palatka, 56 miles (same as Route 40) ; thence by Florida Southern Ry., 72 miles (running time 4 hotJrs). There is a choice of routes at Hawthorne (Waite's Crossi ng), where train may be taken down the east side of Orange Lali;e, crossing its o utlet, and passing through the great orange-groves of Citra to Silver Spring. The other route is to Rochelle and thence Routh through a beautiful country, west of Orange Lake, direct to Ocala. Tb.e route vta Rochelle is about 10 miles longer than the other. For stations and distances see maps, pages 2 and 62, and tables In context, pp. 4, 5, 63, 64. The trip by rail from Palatka we stwatd, by the Florida Southern Railroad, is pleasantly varied. After l eaving the high bluffs in the vicinity of Pala.tlm. the line runs nearly due west through a levE\1 pine-covered country, in cliningslightly to the south and w est, the hills reappear in the vicini t y of Mannville. Lakes are seen in the valleys, and oaks, magnolias, bay, and gum trees intermingle with the pines. In the clearings orange-groves have taken the of the native forest, especially at Interlachen (Route 171), where they are almost continuous .. Near McMeekin the hills rise to n. noticeable height, interspersed with Jakes and wet prairies. From the train many attractive homes may be seen on the hillsides, with every evidence of prosperous agricnl-

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JACKSONVILLE-IN'l'ERLACHEN. 283 tural indush-y. At intervals the line crosses five streams, some of them in deep 1avines. 1'wo miles beyond Mcis the line between Alachua and Putnam Counties. At Hawthorne (othenvise Waite's) is the crossing of the F. C. & P., running north to 01ange Hei ghts and Waldo, south to Silver Sp1ing, Ocala, etc. At Rochelle the line con tinues westward to Gainesville (Route 173). The Ocala train turns sharply to the southward. Near Rochelle, notice fine sym live oaks in the open country. The of Orange Lake are in sight to the eastward as the train nears Micanopy (Micanopy, 6 miles west, Route 175). T wo miles south of the junction is the Marion County line. The train skirts wide reaches of saw-grass bordering Orange Lake, r .uns for miles through heavy timber, cabbage-palms, and grass covered hills. The absence of the saw-palmetto in this region renders the ope n woods very attractive for walks an
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284 IN'rERLACHEN-CITRA. (8 miles), Etoniah (14 m iles), and McRae (19 miles), lying among a gl'Oup of lakes near the border between Clay and Putnam Counties. 172. Citm, 1\Iarion County. HOTEL .-$1.50 a day. RAIMlOAD.-The F. C. & P. R. R., and F. S. R. R. The orange groves of Citra are well worth a visit, lor they are among the largest and finest in the State. So extensive are they that one may as easily be lost among the inegular avenues as in the neighboring pine-forests. Cibais a station on the F. C. & P. Railroad, at its junction with a branch to Oak Lawn, a station on the Florida Southe1'n Railway, six miles west. A pproaching from Hawthorne on the north, the line crosses the shallows of Orange Lake after leaving Island G1ove station, and passes through the Bishop and Harris orange-groves before reaching the station at Citra. The branch railway to Oak Lawn, too, skirts the plantations for several miles. The groves lie along the southern shore of Orange Lake, within easy walking distance of the station. Large packing-houses are beside the railway track, with all facilities for ready shipment. Here may be seen all the most approved methods of sorting and packing. Tramways lead through the groves in all directions-almost a necessity, since the trees are often so near together that pas13age for an or dinary wagon is impossible. These groves are, for the most part, budded on wild stock, hence there is no in their alTangement. All .through the t1;act stand superb for est trees, some of them dead or dying, and no longer objects of beauty ; but they are allowed to stand as a protection against frosts and high winds. One may walk or ride for miles without once leaving the shade of 01ange-trees in full bearing. From Citra station alone ther e were shipped dur ing the season of 1889-90, nearly 250,000 boxes of oranges. Near Citra are several of the curious natmal wells peculiar to this region. They are within easy walking distance, and a guide can usually be found who, for a t.rifling fee, or, if a white man, for nothing at all, will show the way.

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GAINESVILLE. 285 173. Gainesville, Alachua County H.). Populati o n 1890,.2,766.Lat 29. 40' N Long. 82 25' W. HOTELS.(Ratea by the day .) Arlington Hotel, $2.50 to $3, Brown HO'IJ,I,e, $2 to $4.; St. Kichol(J.$, $1 to $8 ; Rochm.ont House, $2.50 to $3. fuiLROADs.-The G ainesville Branch of the Florida Southern Ry. (J. T. & R. W System} has ita terminus here, wit h trains to Jacksonville and the North; tbe Central & S.W. Cedar N.E. to Fernandina, the Slwa nnah Flonda, & Western Ratlroad. :N. W. to Way eros e etc. These railways have separate stati on s those of the I<'. S. Ry. and the 8., F. k W. being adjacent. Gainesville was named i n honor of Genera l Gaines, who, as much perhaps as any man, was instrumental in bringing to a successful termination the long war with the Seminoles. It occupies a "black-jack 1idge," t he soil being sandy, underlaid .with clay at a depth of 2 to 20 feet. The locality was settled about 1 825 by one "Bod Higgenbottom, but until after the I ndian War permanent inhabitants were few. The sunounding country is very 1ich, and well adapted to graz ing and agricultural purposes. The East Florida Seminary is a military school of excellent reputation_. The daily drills of the smart gray-clad cadets are well worth seeing and a visit to the seminary buildings and the adjoining bar racks may give the stranger some new ideas regarding the educationa l institutions of Florida. During the Civi l War Gai nesv ille had but one visit from United States troopers On February 14, 186 4, Captain George E. Marshal l of the Fortieth Massachusetts Infantry (mounted), raided Gainesville under orders from Genera l Truman Seymour, the same who was so disastrously beaten at Olustee one week later. Captain Marshall's raiq was a very bold one, leading him far from any possible support. He held the place for two days against several attack s, and after having distributed among the people of the town such C o nfe derat e provisions as he could find, h e made good his escape, r ejoining Seymour, who was encamped at Bald. wm . Gainesville is the best headquarters for visitors to the manj natural curiosities of Alachua Countv. In the imme diate vicinity are numerous lakes, the largest of which, Alachua, hv,s a somewhat remar]{able history It oc cv.pies

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286 GAINESVILLE. what was formerly Payne's Prairie, so named from the chief of the loca l Indian tribe: Through it flowed the surplus wate1s of Newnan's Lake to a point near the middle of the prairie, where the whole stream went down into an unfath omed abyss, known t-o the Indians as Alachua, >:aric;msly translated as "the bottomless pit," or "the place where the waters go down." The whites, with excellent taste, took Alachua for the county name, but called the chasm the Big Sink." The place became a favorite picnic resort, and par ties of visitors amused themselves by throwing in whatever they could lay hands upon, even felling large trees to see t .hem disappea1'. The natural result followed in due course, and in 1875 Alachua refused to swallow any more. Payne's P1airie, thousands of acres of rich grazing land, became a lake, and so it remained until 1891, when Nature reasserted herself, drained Alachua Lake and restored Payne's Prairie to the light of day, leaving my1 iads of fish and alligators to perish as the waters receded. Tuscawilla Lake. near the town of l\Iicauopy, on the contrary, was made permanent by the anxiety of the owner to p1event the sink, a smaller one than that of Alachua, from becoming choked. He attempted to curb it with logs, but the bulkhead gave way and the pas sage became permanently clogged. The Devil's Mill Hopper, another curiosity of similar char acter, is five miles north of Gainesville, a bowl-shaped depres. sion about three acres in extent, and 150 feet deep. The sides of the bowl are covered with luxuriant vegetation, and fifteen springs break from the rock, cascading down .into o. pool at the bottom of the hopper, whose level has not changed materially since the county was settled. Natural wells are found all over the country, especially in its western section They are sometimes full of water, but often dry and open to exploration. In diameter they measure two or three feet, and are often thirty or forty feet deep, with sides as smooth and l'egular as if cut :by the hand of man. King Payne, a Seminole chief, conspicuous in the vicinity of Gainesville in the first decade of the present century, col l ected a band of Indians and runa,vay negro slaves, and on

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. GAINESVILLE. 287 September 11, 1835, attacked a wagon train escorted by a party of twenty Americans under Captain Williams. The escort made brave fight till their ammuni tion was exhausted when the survivors retreated in good order. General Newnan, for whom Newnan's Lake and Newnansville are named, was soon on the march to avenge this attack, and met the enemy in somewhat superior force on September 26th. King Payne was killed early in the fight, and the Indians were re pulsed, but when they leamed of their lead et's fall they returned to the attack again and again, in thEl face of the deadly Georgian rifles, and although thrice repulsed sue ceBded at last in forcing the Americans back, and recaptur ing their chief's body. The Americans w ere so badly cut up that, after holding the position until October 4th, they withdrew, and for the time gave up the attempt to occupy the country. The Land Office. At Gainesville js. the United States Land Office for the State of Florida, ancl as the Government system of surveys is often perpl exing to strangers, a brief explan ation is here given: The present system of Govemment throughout. all the States and Territories, except the original thirteen States and. Kentucky, Tennessee, Maine, West Virginia, and Texas. It was inaugurated by a committee, of which Thomas J e fferson, of Virginia, was chairman, appointed by the Contin enta l Congress. On May 7, 1784, this committee reported an ordinance wh ich, after much altera tion and amendment., was finally adopted May 20, 1785. Many sup plementary acts have since been passed, until the system is now a model of accuracy, simplicity, and convenienc e. All the maps in this H a ndbook are divided by a series of parallel lines, running eas t and west, and othe1s in like manner north and sou t h, dividing the map into little squares. Each of these squar es is a tO'IJJnship of the p ublic survey, and a knowl edge of their at'l-angement, the method by which they are numbered and subdivided, is a matter of interest and impor tance.

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288 GAINESVILLE. As it is not practicable to b egin a rectangular system o f survey upon the irregular border of a State, a conven ient point i s chose n within its borders. A base line is establ i shed, running east and west, also a meridian line, running north and so uth, crossing the base lineati-ight angles. Town:>hips are surveyed from these lines. Shortly afte1 the acqui sition of Flmida by the United States (1821), the inters. ection of the base and meridian lin es of the survey was fixed at T allahassee, that being the centre of political in<.erest and influence; though obviously inconve nient for geographica l reasons, since a meridian line at that point could only be about thirty miles long within the State. It did very well, howevex, for a base line, an d the long offi cial meridians were laid off on the peninsula. On the f old ing map it will be seen that the sqtiaxes are marked with Roman numerals ea .st and west from Tallahassee, while the 1anges are marked with A1abic nume1als north and south from the base line, on meridians of about 82 32',-81 1 0', so 15', etc. On the County maps Ar a bic numera l s are used throughout as being; up. on the whole, more conveni ent. Townships were first surveyed, and l a ter, wer e subdivided into sections. A township is a tract of l and six miles square, containing thitty-six square miles, or 23,040 acres. A row, or t ier, of townships, running north and south, i s called a 1 ange of townships .A section is a tract of land one mile square, forming one thirty-sixth o f a township, and containing 640 acres. The map of L eon Courit y, page 52, shows the starting point of the Government survey, the base line, the line, and the county townships. It may be compmed with 1.1. complete. map of the. State. 'l'h e village of Ferrells is situated, you will find, in township 2, south of the bas e line, range 1, east of the meridian. Centreville is in township 2, north ; range .2, east. The entile peninsula, however, and a considerable part of Northern Flo1ida, is south o f the base line .and east of the me1'idian. Tur n in g to the various coun ty maps, it '11 be found that Jacksonville is in township 2, south ; range 26, east ; Sanfotd in township 1 9, south ;

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GAINESVILLE. 289 range 30, east; Eau Gallie in township 27, south ; .range 37, east ; Kissimmee City in township 25, south ; range 29, cast, etc. In like manner, west of the meridian of Tallahassee, we find Quincy in township 2, north ; range 3, west ; .and Pen; sacob in township 1, south; range 30, west. Subdivisions.-Each township is subdivided into 36 sec tions,each section being one mile square, and containing 64;0 acres. 'rhese sections are arranged as shown herewi t h in the diagram of a subdivided t ownship Each section is, in turn, subdivided into qumte1-sections of 160 acres, and quarter-section into quarter-quartersec tions, of 4:0 acres each. But wherever the lines of a section come out irregularly the margin of a large lnke, 01' navigable river, or the seashore, the broken section is cut up into fractional lots. Now, should the readel' see a description like this, for in stance: Southwest of the northeast quarter of section 7, in township 4:, south, i'ange 26, east, he will know that it is a forty-acre tract, and he will discover, with the aid of 8. map, that it lies JUSt west of Orange Park, in Clay County; on the line of the Jacksonville Tampa & Key West Railway. A land agent would write the same description in brief, like this: S. W. t, of N E. l;, 7-426, S. & E. R--- 6 5 4 3 2 1 -----7 I 8 9 10 11 12 li-: I I 17 16 15 14 13 ---' 1 ---1 ---1 19 20 21 22 23 24 1-1----------1 _ A S Ulll;>IVIDED TOWNSIUP. 19 Owing to the impossjbil ity of abso lute accuracy i n l'Unuing survey lines by the siluple process of chaining across uneven gl'Ound, the division s do not always conta-in the exact number of acres contemplated by the system ; a quarter-qumier section, for instance, some times contains a fraction m01e or less than forty acres, and so on, so that one must always inform himself, if

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290 GAINESVILLE-JACKSONVILLE. l1e wishes to be accurate in the matter of a particular bac.t. 'rhis information may always be readily obtained by send ing a letter of inquiry, con taining a description of the tract, to the United States Surveyo1-General, at Tallahassee, or the United States Register of Lands at Gainesville. 174. Jacksonville to Leesburg. By J. T. & K. W. Ry. to Palatka (eee Route 40) ; Palatka to Ocala (eee Route 170); Ocala to Leesbnrg by Florida Southern Railway, S4 miles (whole distance, 162 miles, running time, 7 home); or by Florida Central & Peninsula (Southern Division), 38 miles (whole distance from Jackllon ville, l68 miles; running time, 6 hours 39 minutes). The line of the Florida Southern follows a southeasterlv direction f1om Ocala, passing neat site of old Fort King, established in 1\farch, 1827, at the junction of six roads. It was attacked by the Seminoles in force April 27, 1840. The post was abandoned 1\farch 25, 1843. It was to this point that Major Dade's command was marching when massacred by the Indians in 1835. (See p. 307. ) After passing Lake Weir and its adjacent stations (Route 185), the line runs al most due south, crossing into Lake County two miles south of Foster Park. Chetwynd and Fruitland Park will be no ticed as among the most prosperous of the English colonies in Florida (see Route 190). The F. C. & P. follows a more southerly route, passing into Sumte1 County (p. 85) near Dallas, and into Lake County about one mile east of Bamboo. At Wildwood the Tampa Division continues southward (see Route 140) . This station was named in 1885 by a pioneer telegraph operator, who, finding himself at the end of his wire, reported to headquar ters, dating the despatch Wildwood," for at that. time there was potl1ing else to be seen. From this point the line runs a little south of east, through a country rising from level pine into rolling hills and hammocks till the lakes near Leesburg are in sight.

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MICANOPY. 291 175. Micanopy, Marion County. BoTRL.-7'mca:will4, $2 a da:l' Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist Churches. llficanopy H1gh School. Livery. -Saddle horses, 50 cent.s an hour; $1.50 a day.-Carrmges, etc., $1 to $2 au hour ; $5 to $10 a (lay. Boats can be Wred on the adjacent lakes. 1\:licanopy is named nfter a powerful Indian chief of the early days, whose village was on the borders of the lake, within the present limits of the town, They made gallant fight fo1 their hop1es. A military post was established here April 30, 1837, and maintained till ;February '16, 1843. ']'here were sharp fights with Indians on Decembe r 20, 1835, and on June 9, 1836, p1i.or to the erection of the f01t, and a formidable attack was made December 28, 1840. Bes.ides these engagements desulto1-y bush fighting continued during t ,he whole period. TI1e finJt setU
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292 MICANOPY. we1e not averse to instigating hostilities. At length, in the spring of 1818, Generals Jackson and Gaines were ordered to cany the war into Florida, which they did so effectually that it was speedily ended. Incidentally the American s were obliged to capture Pensacola and St. 1\:Iarks, bot h occupied by Spanish ga.nisons, which made only a s h ow of resist ance Two Englishmen, Arbuthnot and Ambrister, were hanged, having been tried by court-martial and found guilty of stirring up the Indians to war. The territory was occupied by United States troops until Spain evinced the intention and ability to 1estrain the Indians, when our troops were withdrawn. The part borne by the two Englishmen appear s to have been pretty clearly demonstrated, for Great Britain never called the United States to account for the II!atter. This ended the First Semin ole War. 'fh e s e cond war was the natut'al consequence of annexa the UnitedState s, and the rush of settlers southward. The later periods of Spanish rule were by a more pacific policy toward the lllllians than was the case at firs t. So, too, with the period of English dominion. The Iudians were practically undisturbed so l ong as they behaved themselves, which, it may be added, they generally did, even as the scant remnant of the tribe that still haunts the Ever glades is behaving jtself to this day, so long as it is left 11olone. With the opening of the country to American settlement there came an abrupt change. The aggressive, lawl ess ele ments of the then frontier States of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi could now do openly what they had been doing for a generation in au underhand way-namely go in and possess the land. Nominally certain boundaiieswere to be respected but in practice these were ignored, and in 1822 Colonel Gad Humphl e ys was appointed agent to negotiate a treaty. At this time the Seminoles numbered about 4,000 souls all told, including several hundred negro slaves. They had their plantations and villages, and thougJl annoyed by the encroachments of the Whites they looked for redress and protection to their "Great Father" at Washington. After some prelim inary negotiatioii, a meeting of chiefs

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MICANOPY. 293 and commissioners was arranged at Fort Moultrie, five miles south of St. Augustine, and a treaty was signed substant ially gu::u:anteeing certain districts to the Indians. This was in September, 1823, shortly after the acquisition of Florida. The twelve years that followed gradually led up to open hostilities through the usual encroachments on the part of the whites, and resistance and sometimes retaliation on the part of the Indians. In 1\fay, 1832, a treaty was executed at P ayne's Landing on the Ocklawaha, whereby a considerable body of the Seminoles agreed to rem ove west of the 1\lississippi if on inspection the country proved desirable. Before this plan could be carried out, however, the opposing faction under O sceola and Micanopy began open 1esistance by murdering the leader of the friendly chiefs and the unsuspecting officers at tile agency, and almost simultaneously waylaid and ma.<.>sacred 1\:tajor Dade's command. Then followed s9v e n years of fighting that seem e d at times almost hope less. No one who is unfamiliar with the peculiar topograph ical conditions of Florida can appreciate t he difficulty of outmanceuvring such a wily foe as the Seminole. Gradually, however, they were pushed southward, still fighting desperately. The last general engagement was fought on Christmas-day, 1837, on the northern shore of Okeechobee Lake, a hand-to-hand struggle in the depths of a honible swamp. The Indians were beaten and never afterward faced the Americans in force. The war was continued, however, by small parties; until 1842, when, their principal chiefs having been captured or killed, and their numbers largely reduced by surrender and removal, peace was finally se cured. A few hundred. determined to make the Everglades their home rather than l eave their native land altogether, and as they could not be caught they were finally allowed to 1emain unmolested. Some of the more important incidents. of this war are described in connection with the localities where they occurred. It cost the Unite. d States about 1,500 lives and $20 ,000,000 in money to subjugate this gallant and in the beginning peaceably disposed race.

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294. OCALA. 180. Ocala, Marion County (C. H.). Population, 1890, 3,400.-Lat. 29 10' N.-Long. 820 05' W. HorEi:..-The Ocala, $4 a. day. Florida Southern Railway (J., T. & K. W. System), north to J acksonville; south to Leesburg, etc. Florida Central & Peninsula Rail rdad, .north to Fernandina; south to Brooksville. Dade City, etc. Silver Spring, Ocala & Gulf Railway, east to Silver Spring and the Ocklawaha; Wllllt to Homo sassa (all separate stations. but within ren minutes drive, fare 25c.). Few. inland cities in Floritia are more favorably situated than Ocala for a prosperous commercial future. In the midst of an 1ich agricultural region, and at the junction of important railroads, it would seem that her present pros.perity may fairly be expected to inc1ease. Recent disc()veries of wonderfully rich phosphate beds in the im mediate vicinity l1ave made her a sort of exchange for trans actions. connected with the phosphate interest. The name Omlla means, in the Seminole tongae, green or After crossing the Oklawaha in his march northward, in 1539...:40, DeSoto came upon a large Indian village, containing, according to the Spanish account, some six hundred dwellings. This was Ocali; or Ocala, and DeSoto, after his usual custom, first made friends with and afterward nearly exterminated the peaceably disposed natives. It is satisfac toq to know that it cost him a sharp fight. The precise location of the village is believed to have been a short d.istance to the eastwa1d of the present city, perhaps near the site of old Fort King, a milital'y post established in 1827 and maintained until1843. The fort was the nucleus of the early settle ment. It was the scene of the first Seminole attack upon a United States post. The Indians bad been quarrelling among themselves, and had some outrages upon white settlers, but it \vas not ]mown that they were on the warpath. On D ecember 28, 1835, they suddenly appeared oJ Fort King, waylaying and killing General Thompson, the Indian commissioner, and severa l others who were outside the fort. l\Iodern Ocala owes its existence to the convergence, since 1880, of the 1ailroads, and to an incorporated association, .the Ocala Company, which has built the la1ge hotel and de veloped the t esources of the place. In November, 1883, the

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OCALA. 295 town was almost wholly bl)rned, but llliS been rebuilt on a more permanent plan. In the immediate neighborhood of the public square are handsome buildings, containing banks and of all kinds. In 1888-89 the opening of the Semi tropical Exhibition, in a building for the purpose, attracted to Ocala contt-ibntions from f.l.ll over the State, hut m01e especially ftom Marion and the adjacent counties. The result was an exhibition of products that fairly surpassed the of .its projectors. Citrus fmits of all kinds were shown that had been grown side by side with excell ent cereals, and the array of native grasses for fodder, of native woods of all kinds, and of textile fabrics made ftom palmetto fibre and pine needles, was most interesting al)d suggestive. It is understood that hereafter the exhibition will open every other year, alternately with the Subtropical Exhibition at Jacksonville. Within easy reach of Ocala arc numerous points of intetest, accessible in some cases by rail :111<1 in others by carriage OL' in the saddle. Among these are : Silver Sp1-ing (!lee Route 182), the most famous of all in Florida. It is within easy driving or walking distance (51 miles), the road winding mainly th1'ough open woods. By keeping nearly clue east one cannot go far astray, for the Ocklawaha cypress swamp presents an impassable barrier about 6! miles from Ocala, and the railroad is a safe landmark to the northward. Excursion tickets at low rates are sold, including a trip by steamboat down Silver Spring Run to the Ocklawal1a and return. Blue Sp1ing (see Route 183). miles we s t (1 hour), by S. S., 0. & G Ry. Descend Blue Spring Run (5 miles) to Dunnellon and retUln by mil. The morning train west reaches Blue Spring about 8.30 A.M., giving ample tim' e for a leisurely voyage down the run, with time to visit the phos. phate works, and return to Ocala J>y afternoon train (con sult local time-tables). There is a good hotel at the Spring. Tlte Ocklawaha (see Route 181) may be ascended to Lees burg or descended to Palatka by taking boat at Silver Spring.

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296 OCALA-'l'HE OCKLAWAHA. Lake Wei1 (see Route 157). By!<'. S. R ailway, 32 miles (1 hour 45 m.) . Boats are for hire on the lake, which is nearly circulat in shape and three miles across. (Hotel, 'l'he Chautauqua House.) Drives, etc.-In almost any .direction there are cllarmiug drives through open hammock or rolling pine woodland. With a suitable vehicle, or on horseback, one may often ignore the roads altogether. For explorations of this kind a pocket compass is indispensable, as it is impossible for a stranger to keep his bearings. Good shooting may be l eachcd within an hour of the hotel. There is no good fishing within easy reach, :Lake Weir being the nearest of large size. In Blue Spring and Silver Spring the water is so clear that. fish can be seen more easily than they can be taken. There are numerous small ponds scattered about the vicinity, in most of which there are bream, perch, etc. A good map of Marion county, on a scale of one-half inch to the mile, was published by the county commissioners in 1888. It will be found useful to all who wish to dispense with guides. 181. Tile Ocklawalta. By Steamboa.t.-Palatka to Silver Spring, 135 miles (20 hours). The name is Seminole, meaning, freely translated, "dark, crooked water." The stream is navigable from its junction with the St. John's, twenty-five miles above Palatka, to its tlource in LalJ:e Grilfin, about fifty miles as the crow flies, but probably two hundred miles as t'he 1iver runs. There are three points of departure for t1le Ocklawaha, namely, from Palatka, Ocala (near Silver Spl'ing), and Leesburg. The usual route is between 'Palatka and Silver Spring, either ascending or descending. The boats are necessarily small, but are comfortable, and the service good. The trip occu pies twenty hours, more or less, the Conditions of naviga tion rendering punctuality impossible. To and from Leesburg, on Lalte G1iffin, adds about seventy miles to tpe distance.

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THE OCKLAWAHA. 297 The Ocklawaha affords, under comfortable travelling con ditions, an. interior view of a great cypress swamp, such as cannot. o therwise be obtained in Flol'ida. Since the voyage cannot be accomplished by daylight, an opportunity i s affOIded to witness navigation by torchlight under exceptionally favorable circumstances. The 1.\se of firearms is very properly prohibited o:q all the boats, and as a result the wild creatures of the swamp have become quite fear less, alligators often lying still on their favorite logs while the boat passes, while herons, eagles, ow ls, and other denizens of the forest lla.rdly take the trouble to flap lazily from their perches. When promiscuous firing was allowed, animal 1if e along the river was almost exterminated, and human life on the boats was constantly imperiled. The wisdom of protecting the game must now be evident to all save the most inco nsiderate. The extreme crookedness of the s'\.ream, which may be likened to a series of capital S's, is such that a peculiar re cessed wheel and a doul>le steering geaL is necess1u-y. It is interesting 't o stand on the upper deck immediately above the stern-wheel and watch the operation of the peculiar me chanism when tuming a sharp curve. The skill of the negro pilots and the strength and endurance displayed by them in steering this complicated comse i s well worthy of notice. Some little caution is advisable for passengers on the upper declt, as the rail is often swept by the boughs of t rees, and serious accidents have occasionally befallen heedless It is only necessary, however, to keep a bright lookout There is always time enough to get out of tlle way, and, when practicable, the boat's officers give warning. Canoeists and others contemplating camping expeditions along the Ocklawaha should take into account tl1e infre quency of prac t icable camping places. More than nine tenths of the distance is through a dense growth of partly submerge<:! c ypress, and only at a few points does dry land approach the cl1anuel. The following list of landings, and distances from Palatka was made out by Captain J. E. Manucy, of the steamer Astatula, who began life on the Ocklawaha when

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298 THE OCKLA 'W AHA barges propelle d by }Joles were the on ly Cl'aft in u s e, and Semi n ole a.nows wer e always am ong thechances of the day's exp erienc es. The names are m ninly those in vogu e o.mong the bargemen i n the earl y days of pionee r navigation : lliJLE:S Bart's Grove.. .. . . . . .. .. 1 Hart's Secessio n Camp.... . .. 6S RoUeston .... : . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 2!( Payne's Landing.... .. .. .. .. .. .. 69 White's .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2M Douglas Landing.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 69)1 San M ateo.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 5 l oia.. .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10 Dunn' s Creek .. .. .. .. .......... 1 Well's Landing ................. 12 Landing ............... 7!<( F orty-foot Blnif ................. 74 l'd.nrpby I sla!ld ................... Rongb and Ready Cut ........... 7ll Buffalo Ruff............. .. . 9M Cbiet's Sign ..................... 77 Hamlin's Old Store ........ ....... 12 Log Lanofmg .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . lj l Ho: se Landing.' ... : .. .. ........ 1 6 Eureka C ut-o ff. .. . .. .. .. .. . 84 Sats uma . . . . . . . . ....... 18 En.r ek:.a ................ : ........ 85 Nashua ......................... Gate .................... Root's Wbarf ..................... 20 Pme Island : .................... 8'1' Three Sisters ..................... 22 SllOdar Bluff .................... 90 Welaka...... .. .. ............. 25 Twin 9)'press (east bank) ........ 9 1 Month of O cklawaha ............ 2SM BeA r Tree ................ ...... DS DonbleS.S .................... Starlsland ...................... 93M Boyd's Creek .................... 29 Sunday Run .................... 94 Bear leland ...................... Sl Fern Tree ....................... 94M Davenport ....................... 32 Hogan's Landing.... .. .. .. .. .. 95 Toney's Hole.. .. .. . .. .. . ... 33 P;n Hook.. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . 96 Poo: Man's Labor (Pinner's) ..... 37 Hell's Half Acre (Isl a nd) ......... tn' Narrows . ..................... ... 39 Park's ................. 98 F.eeborn's Cut .................... 39M Dodfier I slan d ................. 99 Rive rside ........................ 40 Gores ................. 100 Deep Cree'.t ..................... 43 Brush-heap ..................... 102 Jack G ates ....................... 44 Straits of" Dardin Kcnels" ..... 103 Turkey Creek ................... 45 Osceola'ij Old Field .............. 105 Blue or Salt, Spring ............. 48 Landing .............. 100 Cedar Landing .................. 50 R ogers' Cut ..................... 108 Jam Log ......................... 59 Creek ...... ............ Agnew's Landing ................ 53 Chitty's Avenne ......... ....... 110 Turkey Foot ..................... 54 Palmetto Grove ................. 111 Fort Brooke ..................... 56 Lona's Landing ................. 113 Jordan's Land ing_ .. . .. .. .. .. 67 ltfi ll'Vle w ....................... 114 Cree k (v. Spring LandGrabamvllle .. .. .. .. .. . .. .... 115 ing 1 ....... .. ................ 51M Howard's Land ing .............. 116 Oran!(e Spring Shoals .. ...... 58 Sb!meta.ylor ................... 120 Needle's Eye. . . . . ......... 6 9 ltlcKroski's O:d Field ......... 123 Enoch & CoUiru;' Landing ....... 60 Delk's Bln11' ..................... 12S ( Here note the bends.) Silver RllD .......... ..... 126 Gray's Cut .. ................... 6 1 Wblte Oak Landin!!: ............. 127 Mcnride's Landing....... .. ..... 1 Landing.... .. .... 129 Twin Palmettos (west bank) ..... 62 R ogers Grove ......... : ........ 130 J,oug Reach ...................... 63 M art
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SILVER SPRING. . 299 182. Silver Spring, Marion County. . HOTEL.-Sil1--er Springs Hotel, $9 a day. RAlLROAD.-Tbe Florida Central aDd Peninsula, north to Jacksonville (129 miles), west to Oca la (3 miles). Tickets good iii either direction are sold from St. Auguetine or Palatka. STI!:AMERs.To Palatka and Leesburg v:la tbe Ocklawaha. (See Route 153.) Silve r Spring Run. -The change from the dark brown water of the Ocidawaha to the crystal transparency of Sil ver Spring Run is almost startling. The run is 9 miles long, and clear as the water seems at the mouth it is still clearer at the source. There is some reason to believe that De Soto visited this wonderful spring on his march of dis covery and conquest in 1539, and if he did so it is hardly to be wondered at if he thought he had discovered the verita ble fountain of youth. It. is the most famous spring in Florida,. perhaps because it is the most accessible, for there are others that are not unworthy rivals, each having some charm peculiar to itself that leaves the visitor in doubt as to which is the more beautiful. At the ordinary height of water, according to careful measurements made by D1. D. G. Brinton, the spring dis charges daily over three hundred million gallons of water, more than three hundred times as mtich as is carlied by the Croton Aqueduct of New York, and 750 t imes as much as is deliv e1ed by the new Liverpoo l water-works at Vymwy, Wales. The sume observer found the uniform temperatme 72.2 F. The surface level of the spring va ries at different seasons sometimes as much as 3 f eet. It i$ apt to be highest after the summer rains. At all seasons, however, it discharges a stream of sufficient volume to float river steamers of moderate size. The water rushes upward through dark fissures in the limestone rock, keeping b eds of white sand in constant agitation. It is "hard" water, not good to drink, but of such marvellous transparency that the bottom is distinctly visible at depths of 60 to 100 feet. There a1e five principal openings through which the water rises neal" the spring head, and others OCC.Ul' at intervals ulong the run. At one of them, known as "The Bone yard," about two !'niles down the run, the dismembered

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300 SILVER SPRING. skeleton of a mastod,on has been found. Fully to appreci ate the wonders of this fascinating spot one should explore it at leisure in a small boat. Even when seen from the deck of a steamer the 1;un affords a strange series of pict ures, the like of which are hardly to be found elsewhete. Fish abound in all these springs, but owing to the clearness of the water they are not easily tal ren Every traveller will hear it asserted that the water of Sil ver Spring, as i_ndeed of all other springs of like transpar ency, has a magnifying power. This is obviously a delusion whete the surface is level, since a c nr,ed surface of tl1e denser medium, glass or watel', is necessa ry to pl'oduce ap parent enlargement. Occasionally, in a boiling spring dis. torted ft-agmentary glimpses of magnified objects may be caught where the surface momentarily rises to a convex form. Even when the water is quiet, however, the illusion is favored by its very high refractive power, which distorts objects not directly beneath tl1e spectator's eye. Thus an approximately level bottom seems, when viewed from a small boat, to be a hemispherical depression with only a foot or two of depth at the tim, but as the boat moves the depression seen1s to move also the greatest depth remain ing directly beneath the boat.

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BLUE SPRING. 301 183. Blue Spring, Marion County. (Post,otllce, Juliette.) HoTEL.-'l'he Cottage Hotel, $2 a da:y. Single teams, $2 to a day. D ouble teams. $4 to $5 a day. Boats down Blue River, $1, or $1.50 with oarsman. Ste(li(YI, Latmch to Dunnellon and re turn, $1 apiece for party, or $15 to $20 If chartered for the day. GUIDEs, $1 tO $2.50 a day. Blue Spring is a station on the Silver Springs, Ocala & Gulf Railroad, 20 miles west of Ocala. The spring, named Wekiva by the Seminoles and Las Aguas Azul by the Spaniards, is one of the most .beautiful in Florida, surrounded by an amphitheatre of bluffs covered with a fine gtowth of magno lia, hickory, live oak, bay, and the like, interspersed with pine. The spring is 350 feet wide, of a color that varies from blue to green, owing to unexplained conditions or to individual perception of color. So clear is the water and so high its refractive powers that, looking hom the bank, a stranger cannot be convinced that the basin is more than 0 0 three or four feet deep. It is a favorite pastime among the newly arrived t o lay wagers regarding the depth and then paddle out and take soundings with an oar. The actua:l depth is 25 feet or more. The spring de1ives much of its peculiar beauty from the wonderful vegetation that rises in endless variety of color and form along the rocky dykes and sand-bars of the bottom. To float upon the absolutely invisible water abov e these fairy-like bowers is an experi ence ueYer to be forgotten. The water boils up through a l)road, o.nd no doubt a vety deep-bed of pure white sand, in vol tlme sufficient to f orm a considerable stream-not nearly so large, however, as Silver Spring Run: All along the banks, too, are other lesser springs, overhung by ferns and vines that rival those beneath the suiface of the water. Soon the completion of the railroad a number of loaded p e rcussion artillery shells were found in shoal water in the spring. They were no doubt relics of the Civil War, but their presence here has never been accounted for, as no military force iS }mown to have Yisited the place. VisitOl's should not fail to go down the run to Dunnellon,

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302 BLUE SPRlNG-.DUNNELLON. either l:>y steam launch or in a 1ow-boat. The distance, allowing for the windings. of the stream, i s about 6 mi l es; and.the whole trip is a series .of surprises. Here and there are deep rocky.chasms through which fresh volumes of water boil upward, and at frequent inte1vals other springs burst from the banks, sometimes utilized to turn water-wheels and each possessed of some peculia:r: charm of its own. The lower l'eaches of the run are bordered with cypresses and frequented by garfish, turtles, and alligators. Dunnellon is at the junction of the Withlacoochee, and thence, if desired, the train may be taken back to Blue Spring. To row back against the s'vift current with such boats as are available calls for a good three hours of hard work. A word of warning in 1egard to bathing. The water is so ) ) Ure that its specific gravity is low. Hence it is harder to swim in. One may eo,sily dive to a great depth, but it is not so easy to 1each the. surface again, an<], inexperienced swimmers may readily find themselves in trouble. 184:. Dunnellon, Marion County. Bo'l'EL.-The Renfro House, $1.60 a day. RAILROADs.-Tbe Ocala, Silver Springs, and Gulf Railrcad northeast to Ocala (20 miles) southwest to Homosassa (28 miles). Near the confluence of the Withla()oochee and Blue Rivers the land 1ises into hammock-covered bluffs, n:ffording an excelient site for a town. A large ti'aet was acquired by a land company in 1887, and considerable money was laid out in a railway station, cutting avenues through the forest, and making the beginnings of a populous community. A pa1k was set apart near the junction of the 1ivers and a church and schoolhouse were built shortly after the completion of the milroad, which here crosses the With lacoochee. The locality is attractive, and the land of excel lent quality. It was not, however, until the sum mel' of 18 89 that the fabulous wealth underlying the soil was discol"ered. There had been some passing excitement in the vicinity concerning an alleged discovery of gypsum, and every one was

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. 303 on the lookout for specimens. Albert Vogt of Dunnellon, picked up a chalky substance in the hammock, and lutnded it to Mr. J. F. Dunn, who sent it to Ocala for examination hy Dr. Rene Snowden, a cheinist of that place. Analysis gave from sixty to eig hty-one and a half per cent. of phos phate!', and specimens subsequently found ranged as high as ninety per cent. The value of tl1e discovery was at once apparent, and the earth was drilled and quarried as if gold were sought, instead of a really useful article of commerce. The discovery in fact threw upon the market fertilize1s of such purity and strength that for some tiGle it was not known how they could be used. The area underlaid by this. extraordinarily rich deposit is not at this miting clearly de fined. It extends on both sides of the Withlacoochee River, in a belt some forty miles long and six to eight miles 'rhe bed is usually about thirty feet thick, occasionally ex posed, but oftener ten to fifteen feet below the surface. It is apparently an island of exceptionally rich quality f ormed by some unknown geological alchemy in the vast area of phosphatic rock tl1at underlies the whole peninsula of Florida. That other similar specimens may be found is probable, and .indeed the have broug4t to light many minerals, of great interest to the geologist if not of unsuspected commercial nlue. Aside from the interes t of the phosphate works, the visitor will find the vicinity of Dunnellon healthful and at. tractive. :Blue Spring and its outlet (see Route 153) are beautiful beyond The Withlacoochee affords good fishing, and along its banl{s is game in abundance. Oarsmen will do well to remember that the current is swift and strong, and that an hour's drift down stream means . three hours of hard work on the return. It is however a pleasant trip to the mouth of the river, 15 miles distant. A steain launch is best, considering the return up stream, but arrangements can often be made to row down in a small boat and return on a river steamer. The Withlacoochee is remarkable in that its general course is northerly, like that of the St. John's on tl1e Atlantic coast. These are the only two Florida streams of any con-

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304 DUNNELLONLAKE s iderable size with theil' tributaries, run northward, while between them is the Kissi. mmee, 1unning alm;>st due south. 185. Lake Weir, Marion County Lat. 280 58' N.-Long. 81 50' W ll
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LAKE WEIR-LEESBURG. 305 . waha, on a strip of land some four miles 'Yide and six miles long, are thirty Ol' more small lakes and ponds, .offering a pleasing variety to sportsmen who lo-\ e an ail-day tramp with i'od or gun. 1 9 0 Lake County (C. H.). Population, 1890, 1,200. Lat. zs 45' N.-Long. s1 53' w. Central, Lake City, Leesb'Ulrg, $2 a
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306 LEESBURG. burg .there is a consideraule extent of cleared land devoted to the garden crops as well as to oranges, lemons, limes, and the like. Five miles northwest of L eesburg, near the shore of Lake Griffin, is F1uitlnnd Park, where one of the most successful of the English colonies is established. It numuers now nearly 100 members, has a club; and is already an attractive place for young Englishmen who find no satisfactory opening at home. Full informati on may be obtained from Sta pylton & Co., Fruitland Park Colony, Polk County, Florida. Excursions by boat on the lakes are among the a.ttmctions o f L eesburg, and the railroad facilities are such that many intere s ting localities as, f or instance, Lake Apopka, Lake W e ir, Lake Eustis, Mount D o1a, and Fort Mason1 may be easily reached. By consulting the l ocal time-tables returning trains may be met at some other station. Thus one may take the en.rly train to Tava res, hiie a boat, spend the day in sailing and fishing, and catch the Leesburg train at Fort 1\fn.son. Fairly good roads follow the shores of all the lakes, as nearly as the conformation of the land permits. It is an ail-day ride or drive around any one of these lakes, and somewhat monotonous withal but the1e a1e fine forestspine and hardwood, occasional clearings or outlooks eyer the lake, and with proper provision for a midday picnic s uch a trip may be very enjoyable. All, or nearly all, the lak es in this vicinity are of clear pure water with sandy bottoms, and are well stocked with the usual fres h-water varieti es of fish. Alligators, while not so abundant as formerly, may be seen sunning themselves any warm day along the lake shores, and water-fowl are plenty in the season, though always wild. Lake Apopka, the second largest in the State, is 18 miles long and 11 miles wide. It may be 1eached from Leesburg by rail to Apopka station Ol' through a canal from Lake Har. 1'18.

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I.EESBURG. .307 Dade's Massacre. The first a<;ltive outbreak of the Seminole war was on No vember 26, 1835, when a friendly chief, Charley Emathla., was killed near Micanopy at the instance of Osceola, leader of the hostile party. Thereupon he began a series of attacks upon solitary settlements, culminating in the assassina tion of General Thompson and his companions near Fort King, and the annihilation of Majot Dade's command. in the Wahoo Swamp. Dade left Fort Brooke, on Tampa B!!-y, Decembe1 ; 24, 1835, with reinforcements for Fort King, near Ocala. The old military road ran a little north of east, crossing both branches of .the Withlacoochee, and skirting the edge of the extensive swamps surrounding the forks of the river, a favorite 1etreat of the Indians when hard pressed. The command consisted of Captain Gardner'H company of the Second Artillery, and Captain Frazer's, of the Third fantry, 110 strong aU told. It was not known to the officers that hostilities had actually begun at .the north, and no precautions were taken to guard against ambuscade beyond marching with loaded pieces. At ten o'clock on the morning of December 28th, the command was passing through the pines and scrub palmetto, with a savanna of tall grass on the right, close to the road. From a dense growth of pal mettos a fire was delivered by a large party of concealed Indians, at a distance of 50 or 60 yards. Major Dade was killed at the first fire, and although the column was temporarily thrown into confusion, the men at 6nce rallied and cleared the palmettos with their bayonets, routing the Indians for a time. Captain Gardner, now in com. maud, took advantage of the moment's respite to drag a few logs together, forming a low, triangular breastwork, and behind this every man lay down, loading and fi1ing as best he could till killed or disabled. 'l'here they all lay when a seaml1ing expedition reached the place, six weeks late r, every ma.n in his place, and most of them with their car tridge-boxes empty. One private soldier, Thomas by name, . who was wounded at the first fir a, concealed himself in the_ scrub and Fort Brooke the next day. Two others,

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.308 LEE,.c:;BURG. severely wounded, were overlooked in the final massacre and dragged themselves sixty-five miles through the woods, reaching the fo1t two or three days later. Their accounts agreed with those of a chief subsequently captured, to the effect that nearly half the detachment fell at the first fire. The dead numbered 8 officers, 97 non-commissioned officers r.nd privates, and 2 civilians, 107 in all ; 3 men barely escaping with their lives. So completely did the Indians overrun the country after this t hat, although their main body of waniors was badly punished by General Clinch, just below the of the Withlacoochee, on December 31st, the news of the massacre was not known at Fmt King till February. The garrison at Fort Brooke was not strong enough to venture out, and it \vas not till early in that month that General Clinch was sufficiently reinforced to resume the offensive. On the 20th he visited the scene of the massacre and buried the 1emains of the victims, most of whom lay where they had fallen. In 1842 these were disintened and removed to the military burial-ground at St . Augustine. Francis Langdon Dade was a Virginian, B1;evet Major of the Fourth Infantry. He was in command of the fated detachment because he had \'Olunteered to take the place of Captain Gardner, whose wife was dangerouely ill at Fort B rooke. Mrs. Gardner, however, was sent to Key West, and her husband hastened after his company in time to 1 esume his place at its head and die with the rest. The scene of this massacre is about 4: miles north of Dl'a gem Junction, at the cl'ossing of the F. C. & P. and the F. S. Railroads. (See crossed sabres on map, page 86.)

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Sub-tropical Florida. South of Latitude 21 N WHEREv"ER the cocoa-palm will grow and bear fruit perennially for a generation or two, the conditions may be said to be sub-tropical. In Florida the northern limit may be placed at Jupiter Inlet for the Atlantic Coa:<>t, and ao Charlotte Harbor for the Gulf . Iu o ther words, sub-tiopical Florida is that portion of the peninsula that lies south of the 27th parallel. This includes Lake Worth and the Char lotte Harbor region, which have been described respectively under Parts I. and II. of the Handbook. At present, Biscayne Bay and the Floi"ida Keys are prac tica1ly the only inhabited and accessible pcntion of sub tropical Florida. The rest is a wilderness, with h ere and there a hunter's cabin or an Indian camp By far the greater part of the mainland is uninhabitable, and many of the Keys are awash when there is a l1igh spring tide, or a strong w ind setting shoreward. Others of them, however, are 10 feet above high-water mark, and are capable of tion, making delightful sites for winter 1esidences, well south of the frost line, and readily accessible The land a bounds wi t h springs and streams of fresh watel", most of it more or less impregnated with lime. The water of Okeechobee and the Everglades is drinkable, as al"e also the streams that flow therefrom. Almost anywhere in this re gion fresh water may be obtain ed, by dl"illing into the soft calcareous rock to a depth of 15 or 20 fe et, sinking a pipe therein and fitting a pump on top. 'l'he water is at first impregnated .with lime, but this largely disappears with use On most. of the Keys, 1ain water or distilled water is preferred for drinking. Signal service observations at Key West, since 1870, give mean temperat:.tre as follows : Spring, 76.9 ; summer, 83 8" ; autumn, 78 .8; winter, 68.3. These were noted earl Y in the morning, in mid-afternoon, and at eleven o'clock at night. The average rainfall fo1 the same period was : Spring, 6.10

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310 SUB-TROPICAL FLORIDA-BISCAYNE BAY. inches; summer. 1 3.47 inches; autumn, 14.8P inches; wintet, .. 5.94 inches. The highest recorded temperature was 97" (June, 1 880), and the lowest was 44 o ( D ecember, 1878). At the recently est-ablished signal station at Jupiter, near the northern limit of the sub-t1opical region, the averages thus far stand as follows: Spring, 72.4; summer, 80 ; autumn, 75.7; winter, 69.4 Annual mean 73.9 200. Biscayne Bay Dade County. Lat. 25 to 25 56' N.-Long. so 10' W. HOT!lL.-Bay View, at Cocoanut Grove, $ 10 a week. BoATB.-Goodsized sloop or yawl with two meu, '50 a month. Sailb08t$ $2 a day. Few good rowlioatS. :M'JU.N S 011' ACOESS.-Sa.Uing vesse:a from Key West. . If natural advantages of climate, location, and surroundings are alone to be considered, Biscayne Bay may challenge comparison with any part o f Florida. At the only stated means of access is by way of Key West, whence mail boats. sail once a week. The trip (about one lnmd1;ed ana ftftl m iles) may be made in ll day, or it may tal'e a week. This i s the only nominally "regula_r" passenger traffic. A small steamer, the Iola, has been adve1tised to run f1om Key to Miami, but no details of its actual service a r e at hand. It is understood that the Key West and Havana steamers from New York will land freight and passengers at Cape Florida as soon as paying returns are assured. The present. inaccessibility of the bay excludes i t from the list o f popular resorts, and its beauties and attractions are known only to a few appreciative yachtsmen, hunters, fish ermen, and winter residents Lying along the southeastern curve of the great peninsula, it i s on the ve1-y edge of the G11lf Stream, and separated from it only Ly a slender line of coral reefs and islands. The trade wind blowing from the ocean keeps the day tem l>eratu re in fair weather at a.n average of about 73 F. 'rhe habitable part of the mainland is a ridge of coralline rook, often not more than four or five miles wide, that separates the bay from the evergl ades.

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BISCAYNE BAY 311 Through this ridge, at severnl diffe rent points, s tream s of wonderful beauty have cut channels through the rock, a n d all along shoro there are boiling springs of .greater or les s energy, yi e ldiu g p11re, soft water in uufaii ing abundance. The bay its elf i s about forty miles long by six miles wide. It is separated from the ocean by a lor:ig peninsula thrlt r eaches southward from the mainln.ud until the sea breaks through at Nonis Cut and Bear Cut, forming Virginia. Key and Key B iscayne. The southern extremity of t h e latter is known as Cape Florida, and is marked by a fine old lightllOuse tower, and the ruins of the keeper's house. The li ght was d i scontinu e d on the completion of the F owey Rocks light, six miles Routheast T h e premises, w ith their pict mesque ruins, are n ow leased f1om the Government by the Biscayne Bay. Yacht Club, whose headquarters are at Cocqa nut Grove, just across the bay. South of this i s the main opening between the b ay and the ocean, a broad pn.s sage five miles wide, full of shifting sandbars, but with several good channels, through whi c h vessels of ten feet draught may pass at low wate1. I n the bay itself are, alternate ly, sand-bars and wide reaches of navigable water, rendering navigation difficult for all save sh:upies and boats of very light draught. There i s, how ever, deep water and a good anchorage just inside the cape, and ten feet draugM may b e canie. d through the mid-channels o f the hav. Cocoanut G'l'ove (P.O.) is the most considerable on the bay. H e1e is the on l y h ote l 'south of Lake Worth and here the B iscny ne B ay Yacht Club has its headquar ters. Several Northern yachtsmen spen d the winter months in this delightful haven, where as good hunting and fi shing is to be found as anywhere i n F l o rida, and where the nolth ers are tempered by the everglade s on the one hand and the ocean on the othe r. ]}[iami (P. 0. ), lately the county seat, is a t the mouth o f Miam i R iver, the site of old Dallas, a. considerable military post during the Seminol e War. It was establi s h e d in Jru;mary, 183 8, and a b andoned June 10, i 858. The l'llins o f the old fort, with some of the barracks, still standing and

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312 BISCAYNE BAY. occupied as dwellings, are on the north side of the river. On the south side are several houses and a store, the latter being in effect an Indian trading station, where the Seminoles barter alligator hides from the Everglades, and dispose of such other trophies of their rifles as are not needed for home consumption. It is not uncommon to find two or three canoes moored at the wharf, with an inde finite number of squaws and papooses on board, and a supply of fresh meat in the shape of tnrt)es, and a live pig or two. In the woods between Miami and. Biscayne, specimens of the Royal Palm ( 01eoduxa Regia) are found growing wild, and the cnrious "gumbo limbo," or West Indian birch (Bur!lera gumm'{fma), is of frequent occurrence. The Miami Rive_1.-For about four miles from the bay the stream is from 150 to 200 feet wide, and may be ascended by sailboats. It divides into the north and south forks about three miles ftom the mouth, both of them swift, clear streams. The north fork has impassable rapids, but the south fork can be ascended in small boats to its outlet from the EvergladP.s, about six miles from the bay. 'l'he grasses and othe1 aquatic plants that cover the bottom of the stream are wondel'fully beautiful in their varied color and graceful movements as they are swayed to and fro by the clear rushing water. Sailing about the bay in any dilection with a suitable shallow-draft boat is the perfection of smooth water cruising. Among the points of especial interest are the following; llistances are given from Cocoanut Grove. Biscayne Bay House of Refuge (12 m:lles).-This station is situated on !donely beach about seven miles north of Norris Cut. 'l'here is good shooting in the hammock and along the ridges at Bay Biscayne. Three miles south of t11e station is the Crocodile Pond, a small, land-locked pool midway be tween the bay and the ocean, which, for somereason, is the fa Yorite 1esort of the crocodile ( G1ocodilus Acutus, :Ploridiensis), n.s distinguished from the common alligator of the fresh water swamps. The principal difference is in the sharper nose, more formidable teeth, and fiercer disposition of the crooodile, and in the different articulation of his jaws, both of them being hinged, whereas in the case of the alligator

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BISCAYNE BA:Y: .313 only the lower one is hinged. The alligator is rarely dangerous, but the crocodile, it is saicl, will attack a man if he thinks he has a reasonable chance of success. For tllis reason strangers a1e recommended t o exercise some caution in visiting this pond. A1'Ch Creek (15 miles).-Ncar the head of the bay. A wonderfully beautiful stream, flowing in a strong, deep cur rent through a wide tangle of mangroves near its mouth. Two miles up the stream divides. Follow north fork about one-half mile to cliffs. Here the stream has wom a passage through the coralline 1ock. Clift's rise at times twenty feet or more above the water, draped with a luxuriant growth of ;vines, air-plants, mosses, wild figs, and a perplexing wealth of tropical veget a tion. Three miles from its mouth the stream flows beneat h a wide, low arch of rock, under which a boat may pass at ordinary stages of the water. Arch Ci'ee],{ may be ascended to the Everglades, two miles above the arch. Bluff Rocks (3 miles).-This xangedf cliffs .has not its like in Florida. Rising abruptly from the water's edge, midway between Cocoanut Grove and Miami, it is the most conspic l.lous natural landmark on the bay. The precipitous part of the bluff is a little more than one mile long, and at its highest about thirty feet above the water. Of course, this height would be insignificant in a. hilly country, but in Florida it is sufficiently remarkable to be famous. The water is sha)low at the foot of the rocks, but a landing may b!=l effected in a. small boat,.and the cliffs can be climbed almost anywhere. Along the top of the cliff is a dense hammock growth, with wild groves of orange and lime trees, in full bearing. Here and there ruins, apparently of civilized abodes, and at the foot of the cliff near by is the Punch Bowl, to which stone:cut steps lead, and which evidently furnished the watersupply for these forgotten first settlers. No record exists of Spanish occupation, but it seems most reasonable to suppose that there was here either a missionary station or a piratical retreat, and in either case Spaniards were probably respons ible. Soldie1 Key, Elliott's Key, and Fowey Rocks Light are all within easy sailing distance of'Cocoanut Grove. On the first named are buildings originally erected by the workmen en-

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-BISCAYNE B AY. gaged in constructing Fowey R ocks lighthouse. They h.Jlve been transferr e d to the Fish Commission with a ''iew to ex perimenting in s ponge-culture. On Elliott's J{ey are fine plantations of and inside this and the neig)lbor ing keys men :ue at work gatherin g nnd curing the sponges that grow in abundance in the w aters of the bay .' In shel tered position s at the different inlets or cuts" wher e the tide 1uns s trong nr e often seen s quare pens or" kraals," where the sponges are left for a time to be washed by the ebb an.l fl.ow, and partially bleached by exposure to the sun. Fou-ey Rocks Liglit (Lat. 25 35' 25" N., Long. 80 5' 41" W.) is a pyramidal iron structure standin g in about five feet of on the northern extremity of the dangerous Fl01ida Reefs. The lantern is 111 feet abo ve the seal e v e l, and shows a fixed white light visible 16t nautical miles. Tl1e l ighthouse was comp leted in 1 878, and takes the pla.ce of the old tower on Florida, the l ocation being bette r for the purposes of navigation. these roclts were called the" Looe,'' probably a corruption of "Les L oups," the wolves, and tradition has it that a frigate was lost h erein the eady days. It even said that unde r f avomble conditions her submerged guns and some of her timbers can still be seen. Wa l ks, etc.-There are no r oads in the vicinity o f Bis cayne Ba.y, save a few very rough cart-paths in the immediate vicinity of the settlements. The walking on the ridge separa ting the sea and Everglades is indescribably difficult and even dangerou s, owing to the disintegrated rock that covers the sruface. The stoutest of boots are needed for pedestrian excursions, and not even these will last l ong. The across .the ridge !;<> the Everglades and back is a hard day's work, and should be undertaken only by the strong and sure footed. The bea.ches of Key Biscayne, Virginia K ey and of the peninsula to the northward afford good walking and are always interestiug. So, too, a1e occasional stretches of beach on the mainland to the southward. On one of these, about six miles south of Cocoanut GI'ove, and about one-half mile north of is a bed singing san d that emits a musica l note unde r foot.

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BISCAYNE BAY-THE FLORIDA REEFS. 315 Tarpon abound in B iscayne B ay, but have not at thi s wTiting been taken with the 1od. The kingfish is taken by trolling or even with the rod just outside the reefs. Spa.pish muc kerel, sea-trout, pompa l)O, and the more common kinds of saltwater fish abound in the bay, while bass, bream, and the usual fresh-wat e1 varieties are caught in the various streams. Water-fow l are fo1 the most part very shy, as they are shot at all the way down the coast on their long journey from Labradoi:. They are abundant, however, and may be shot with due exerci se of skill and patience. There are plenty of quail in the woods and prairies, but without dogs it is welln igh impo ssible to find birds that fall in the scrub. Deer in considerable numbers find pasturage alon g the bmder of the }>rairies and everglades, but they are very shy and are persistently hunted by the Indians Ya chtsmen intending t6 winter in these water s should not be misled by any preco nceived ideas in favor of keel-boats; s uch craft are worse than usele ss. The sharpie, with not more tlian three feet draught of water, is the only boa t suit able for pleasure-cruising about the Florida R eefs and adja cent inland waters. 201. The Florida Reefs, M onroe County. B etween Lnt. 24 S2' 58'' and 25 35' N., and Long. 00' 4! 48'' and s1 48' 04" W. See map of Monroe County. Weekly mail and passenger sch oon ers from Key West and B iscayne Bay will land passengers anywhere. I
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316 THE FLORIDA REEFS. been formed b y a powerfu l sweepin g southward through the straits. In r ea.lity, the current in t h e opposite direction at a mte varying from two to fi ve miles an hour, but it is none the l ess 1esponsible for the f ormat ion o f the ree fs. The warm wa.te1s of the M exican Gulf aud of its outflow, the Gulf Stream, are highly favorable to the life and work of the "coral insect" and his lime-making co-laborers. Accordingly, after laying the fou ndation of the Florida. P en insula, they have by succes sive s tages built the limeston e dams that now confine Okeec h obee and the Everglades, hav e gone far t o ward completing another similar concentric dam represented at present by the long line of wooded k eys, just off the coast, and have the groundwork of still a nother dyke well under way in the dangero u s reefs that n ow f ringe the edge o f the Gulf Stream. The current is now s o powerful that the present line of r eefs is probably destined to b e the last of the series. "Coral Insect," by the way, is a grievous misnome t ; for tllis tiny creature is a polyp, and the lime that he secretes forms part of his person-a kind of skeleton, as it were which he outgrows and l e aves b ehind him in the shape of solid carbonate of lime; His popular English name, h o w ever, is "col'al insect," and such it .will p_roba.bly l"emai n in spite o f science, which classifies him as radi ate, and divides the family into A strrean Fo1-ites, and Mreand1-inas ( differ ent kinds o f "brain corals"), and Macbepmes (branch comls). All these, with numerous subdivi sio ns, are found alive and busy along the reef. Irr former ages they were at wmk far to the north of their present habitat, but, perhaps l arge l y as the result of their own labors, the conditions changed, the sea-sands were swept in, and livin g Florida corals now found only a.t the edge of the Gulf Stream. The coral maker and the mangrove are close allies in the w01k of continent building. The fi1st, by some myste1ious p rocess, e xtracts lime from sea-wate1 and covel'S the bed o f the sea with a fores t of branches in which all sorts of sea J llants and creatures b ecome entangled an d die, course of time are entombe d in the solid lime. and in the The WOl"k-

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THE FLORIDA' REEFS. 317 er stops building only when he reaches the sea-level (low water mark), and then the ocean begins to pile up loo::;e ma terial, broken coral and the like, on the reef. Some day, when the "'ind is off shore, a little round, cigar-like ,s tick, floating vertically, for it is ballasted at one end, drifts upon the Shallows Its W&ighted end finds lodgement as the tide falls. Before next high-water, is fast anchorecl, the rootlets growing with surprising rapidity, and penetrating the crevices of the rich lime rock prepared by the qoral ms. Other brown cigar-like sticks follow this pioneer, and in a few years the bare reef has become a mangl'Ove key, collecting the flotsam and jetsam of the ocean to form hab itable land. When the mangrqve can no longer reach salt water, it dies, decays, adds its quota to the rich of the coral, and then the wind and the s ea l>ring cocoa nuts, pine-cones, acorns and the like, and in a generation or the bare coral key is covered with a thriving ham mock growth, and is ready for human habitation. The late P1ofessor Agassiz discredited the popular theory that the formation of Southern J:t'lorida is aided by slow geo logical upheavals. His strongest argument is that the high est levels of keys and main land are practically uniform, about twelve feet above the sea-level, closely corresponding to the height of hurricane waves ; whereas, if geological up. heaval had been at work, the inland reefs would be per ceptibly higher than those of more recent formation. Such an exceptionally high coral ridge as the Bluff Rocks, on Biscayne Bay, are merely local, and can be reasonably ac counted for as the result of an earthquake. The coral keys are alwa.ys highest toward the sea, sloping away gradually toward the mainland. Ca1eful observations and measurements on submerged masonry at Fort raylor (Key W est), and at Fort Jefferson (Tortugas), indicate that solid coral forms at the rate of about six inches in a century. This rate, however, may be safely doubled in the case of exposed reefs, to allow for accumula tions. .AJ!, the present outer reef averages seventy feet in height, it should have been about 7,000 years in building, and each of the iuterio1 1:eefs, seven of which have been

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.318 THE FLORIDA REEFS. traced between the shore bluffs antl Lake Okeechobee, was probably nearly finished not far from the time when its near est outer neighbor was begun. The rock of the oldest reefs that have been found is ident ical with the most recent, and on the above basis of calculation the ridge that encircles Okeechobee must have been begun at least 70,000 years ago, nnd the microscope p1oves that the builders and their meth ods were precisely the same then as now. The animal life of the keys and adjacent waters is wonder fully prolific and interesting. Fish of all kinds abound, from the great Jewfish, bonita, kingfish, and the like, down to the delicate and. beautiful angel-fish, and many-colored dwellers among the: mangrove roots. Crustaceans are found in great variety, including "crayfish" as large as lobsters, but without the formidable nippers." They are very abundant, and are excellent for the t able Sea-turtle are taki:m in large numbers; all kinds of water-fowl nest among the mangroves, and large game, bears, wild-cats, cougars, deer, and turkeys haunt the wooded k e ys. There is deep, navigable water between the outer reef and the keys, and e,
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THE FLORIDA REEFS. .3.19 service and are generally careful not to transgress their law-ful rights. Vi1ginia Key and Key Biscayne separate Biscayne Bay from the ocean They are covered with sea-sand, are over grown with vegetation, and have lost theil true character as coral keys. The southern end of Key Biscayne is Florida. The abandoned lighthouse tower and a fine clump of cocoa-palms serve as landmarks (see Route 160). Soldier Key, the northernmost of the true reef keys, is 4 miles due west from Fowey Rocks Light. On it are build ings erected for the workmen who built the light-tower, now turned over to the Fish Commission and in charge of com. modore Ralph Munro, of the Biscayne Bay Yacht Club, who is investigating the subject of sponge-culture with a view to increasing the production. Fowey Rocks Light was e stablished in 1878 to take the place of the discontinued light on Cape Florida. It stands in 5 feet of water on the northernmost knob of the Florida Reef. Lat. 25 35 25" N., Long. 80 05' 41" W. Ragged. Keys. -Here begins the almost continuous line of mme m less habitable islands that ends with Key West. The northernmost are at present insignificant clumps of young mangroves. Sands Key is 1-! mile long, and three-fourths of a mile at its widest, counting a belt of mangroves Elliott's Key is nearly 8 miles long and one-half mile wide. There are several houses and large plantation s of also fishing and sponging stations. The greater part of the island is covered with a dense hammock, and the surface is . rough and rocky, with a sand beach on the seaward side. Oa the bay side there is a wharf or landing stage with about 4 feet of water at low tide, and on the ocean side a similar landing with 6 feet of water. Old Rhodes Key is the largest of a group of islands be tween Elliott's Key and Key Largo. Among them Cresar's Creek makes through into Cards Sound-the southem ex tremity of Biscayne Bay-a shallow expanse with scattered keys, and not more than 3 or 4 feet of water at low tide. Key Lmgo, as its name implies, is the largest of the reef

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320 THE FLORIDA REEFS. keys, 25 miles long and of unde termined wid t h. The coast survey chart connect s it with the mainland, but canoes and small craft can work their way through from Biscayne Bay and Cards Sound into Barnes Sound and the Bay of Florida. The passages are likely at any time to be ov e rgrown by man groves, since inhabitants are few and it is to no one's suffi cient interest to keep a passage open. Turtle Ila1bo1 Two beacons mark the entrance to this seemingly exposed, but really safe anchorag e The sea. ward beacon on Turtle Reef bears 4! nautical miles N. t W. from Carysfort Reef LigM. From Turtle Reef the shore ward beacon beal"s W. N. distant one mile. The harbor it self is 5-k miles long, and more than a mile wide, with 4-k to 4 fathoms of water, and good holding ground almost any where. The only obstacle to entering is an island-like reef about of a mile within the beacons. The wider channe l is to the eastward of this reef, which is well buoyed and plainly visible in clear weather. The l1arbor is effectually sheltered by the outlying 1eefs from all save the most violent hurricanes, which are of ra1e occurrence under such condi tions as would render this anchorage unsafe. Cm-y8j01t Reef Light is a pyramidal iron structure, painted dark brown, with a white lantern 106 feet above the sea. It shows a whit e flash every 30 seconds, visible 16 nautical miles at sea. The light was established in 1852. It stands on a pile foundation close to the seaward edge of the reef, in Lat .. 25 13 18" N., Long.80 12' 34:" W. This tow e r was seized by thtl Sece ssionists in 1861, and the light for a time discontinu ed. The .J.lfatecombe Keys, Upper and Lower, a1e both inhabited, and there are abundant natural wells on the upper or east e r n key. These have been used by mariners time out of mind, and before that by the Indians. Both these islands were once, and are still to s ome exten t, cove1ed with a fine hammock growth, showing that they have been longer above water than their neighbors. Indian Key.-A small island just off the passage betwe e n Upper and Lower 1\'Iatecombe Keys. It is conspicuous o w ing to a number of large warehouses and other buildings that can

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THE FLORIDA REEFS. 821 be seen from a considerable distance. In the early days the crew of a French ship that was wrecked near by, landed on the key and were massa.c1ed by the Cal oosa Indians. Owing to its position, midway between Cap e Floridtt and Key W est it became important as a wrecking station. A Mr. Hous dlati established a store, built a hotel as early as 18 37, an d the place became quite. a l'e sol't fot invalids. The Gov emment, too, used it as a. depot dUling the Seminole w1ns, but never kept a guard thel'e, as the neighboring Indians were considered friendly DUIing the night of August 7, 1 840, howev er, a band of Spanish Indians made a descent upon the little settlement. Among the residents was Dr. Pe1 ine, a distinguished nahimlist of the time, stationed here for pUlposes of scientific observati on. Mrs. Perine and her three children took refuge in a tidal bath-room that had been ex cavated the house, but the doctm.: after thus concealing his fami l y was murdered by the savages, and the house was burned with the valuable library and the owne1's manuscripts. The mother and children made their escape by breaking out through t h e batTed sluiceway and succeed ed in reaching a sc hooner anchored off shore. The I ndi ans did not seem to be bent upon a general massacl'e, for they suffered others to escape, and the arrival of the U. S. schooner Flirt put a n en d to further depredations. Long Key, 3 miles S.W. from Lower Matecumbe, is the property of Mr. Thomas A Hine, of New York It is about 3 miles l ong, and is largely occupied by cocoa-palms in l,:>e ar ing. Evidence of oceupation by long-forgotten Europeans is found in stone walls and other relics of civilized handi w ork. Reef L ight bea1s E.S.E. from Indian Key, dis tant 4! miles. It stands in Lat. 24 51' N., L ong. 80 37' W. The light is visible 18 nautical miles at sea, showing red and white flashes ( every third flash 1ed), at intervals of 5 seconds, from a height of 143 feet above the sea ,!&vel. The mean rise and fall of the tide at this point is 1 foot 8 inches. The tower is a white skeleton fmme-work on a black pile founda tion in 5 feet of water, and Within 200 yards of deep soundings. Established in 1873.

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322 THE FLO Rt.DA REEFS. Sombr e ro Key is on the line of the outer reef, and ,l'tl.thE\r more advanced in.formation than mo s t o f' its fellow s The present iron light-tower was erected here in 18 5 7 ; was seized and forcil>ly discontinued by the Conf ederates in 1 861, a n d reestablished, wi t h an armed guard in c harge, in 1863. It stands in Lat 24 37 N., L ong 8 1 06 W. show ing a fixe d white light at a height o f 144 f e et, visil>l e 18 nau tical miles at sea. The Vaccas Keys b ear nearly due north f rom Sombrero, the nea rest distant fi ve miles. They a d ozen or m ore in numb e r of all shapes and sizes, man y of them well woo d e d with pine and hammock growths. The group is 1 5 mil e s long, with sha llow intersecting chann e l s B ahia Ro1ida Harbo1, between a k ey o f that name and the Summerl an d Keys, is 10 nautical mil es W. b y N. from Som brero Light There i s fairly go od holding and shel ter her. e fo1 vesseb d rawing under 1 8 feet. S maller vessels can run in through the pass, and find sa f e harbor b ehind the keys. Another similar anchorage i s N ewfound Harbor, 9 mile s w est of Bahia H onda . Pine Keys.-Ten miles wes t of Sombrero the beating of the keys changes. Instead o f lying parallel with the axis of the Gulf Stream they are almost at right angles tQ it. The larger me mbers of tho group are some 8 miles long . For the mo s t part they are uninhabited, densely wood ed and well stocked with gam e The group includes a number of :i!;;lands, large and small, t oo m any to be named here a.nd marks the western l imit. of the B ay of Fl01-ida, lying between Cap e S able and the K eys. The B ay of Florida i s s hallow, dotte d with uncharted reefs and k eys, and liable t o turn un expect ed ly into p,n ext ens ive mud-liat with a chang e of wind. A f e w thousan d year s, more or l ess, will, no d oubt, se e it con vertod .into e verglades. A merican Skoal L ight, established i n 1 880, is a.l>rown pyra midal iron tower, 115! feet high over all, showin g a white fltsb every 5 seconds, visible 16t nautic al miles at sea. Its positi o n i s Lat. 24:0 31 N., Long. 81 o 3 1 W. Sand Key Light shows white, vari e d by white flashes. It is 7 i miles nearly S W. f r om Key West light. The tower is

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THE FLORIDA REEFS-KEY WEST. 323 12 1 f e e t over a ll, a pyrami dal iron st111cture, painted brown. Lat. 24 o 27 10 N., L ong. 81 o 52' 4,0" W. 202. Key West, Monro e County (C. H.). Population, 1890, 1 7,720. Lat 24 32 68 N., Long. at 48' 4 more or lest<, according to wind. Mean rise and fall o( tide, 1 foot 3 inches, w. H OTELS.-RwseU House, $4 a day.-Duval Howe, Restanrant and rooms. Carriages, $1 an bonr. BTBAMEBs, ETc. Mallory line to New York, Plant Steamship Oo. to Havana and Tampa, Morgan line to Punta Gorda and N ew Orleans. Cayo Hueso (Bone Island) was the Spanish nam e, easily tJ.-an s lated into K ey West by Eng lish tongues. T radition has it that the nat ive tribes inhabiting the keys were gradu ally driven f r om one to another b y the m ore p owerful Caloo sas fro m the neighboring main l and, until at last the_y were neady extermin ated in a final battle on K ey We st, and the f ew survivors escape d to C uba The abun dance of human bones found whe n the island was fir s t discovered suggeste d its nam e and gave color to the story R e lics of E uropean occupation are i ound on this, as well as on some few of tho neighboring keys-stone walls remains of e1uthworks and the like, with i ndicatio ns that the islan d was well known to the pirates who frequented these waters during the eight eenth cen tury, and had not wholly disappeared when Flol ida passed into the p osses sion of the Unite d States The island was granted to one Jmm P. by the Span i s h crown in 1ecognitio n of milit ary servic es and, the gran t having b een confirme d by the U nited States, it finally be came the prope r t y of John Simonton, of M obile, on p ayment of $ 2 ,000. During the Seminole war ( 1 835-1842) there were occasional alarms, but the fre q uent presen ce of Gov ernment vessels and the use of the port as a supp ly statio n guarnn teed it agai nst attack. In 1846 the isla n d was swept by a te r rible hurrica ne, ac companied b y an e xtraordinarily high tide, the sea rising some ten feet abov e its u s ual lev e l. The war wit h Mexico ( 1846-1848} l)rought K ey West still more into prominence as an i mportant mili tary and nava.l station, an u .

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KEY WEST. . 324 permanent fortifications and other works were begnri which" largely increased the prosperity of the place. When Florida seceded frqm the Union in 1861, the local Secessionists attempted to seize the place on behalf of the Confederacy. l\:'Cajor, afterward General William H. French, of the First Artillery, was in command at Fort Taylor. The citizens were by no means unanimous in their sentiments, and Major French, who had a few regulars under him, organized the workmen employed on the fort, accepted the services of a company of citizen voluntee1s, and defied the Secessionists until reinforcements arrived. Throughout the Civil War Key West was an important military and na>al station. Ex tensive fortifications wel;e begun in addition to those al ready under way at Fort Taylor, but none of them were eve1 completed. Unti11869 the local population was insignificant, but the attempted revolution in Cuba caused a migration that soon made it a busy manufacturing place. In March, 1886, the cit y was nearly swep t away by a fhe that lasted two days and destroyed property to the value of near two millions. The chief commercial interests of Key West are in cigars, fisheries, turtles, and sponges. The cigar-making business dates back to 1831, but it made slow progress until 1872, whep the influx of Cuban iefugees stimulated the production to an enormous extent, and at present more than $3,000,000 are annually paid out to c i gar-makers. About 6,000 persons al'e employed in the manufacture, at wages l'anging from $3 a week for children to $60 a week for expe1ts: A visit to any of the large factories when running full time is well worth the trouble, though not precisely appetizing to cigar smokers of fastidious taste. Sponges of fine quality are taken all along the reefs, and far up the Gulf. coast, Key West being the central maiket and shipping point. A large fleet of spongers, mostly small schooners; is constantly coin ing and going. The sponges can be taken only in calm weather. They are detached from the rocky bottom with a f61k at a. depth of 5 feet to 20 feet, and semi-cured before packing for s hipment. The appearance of the fresh sponge, just from its native element, is a surprise to the Northam

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KEY WEST. 325 visitor. The sponge business of Key West amounts to nearly one mill i o n dol1a.1'S a. year. It is interesting to visit any of the s.everal sponge l o f ts in the city, as well as to be present in the market and witness the selling at auction of fish, turtle, sppnges, cocoanuts, and fruit. The market hours can be lemned at the hotel, failing the criers who are sonie::. times sen t out to announce a sale. The islan d of Key West ( see map of Monroe Oounty, page 64) is 4:! miles l ong and 1 mile wide. It consists wh olly of coral line rock, covered with soil resulting f1om the decay of vegetable o.nd ma1-ine grow th. The climat e approaches more closely that o f the tropics than any other part of the United States. Frost i s unknown, and w hil e the heat in s u mmer l'arely exceeds 90 the lowest rec orde d tempemture is 4:JO, obse1ved in 1 855, before the establish. ment of the U S. Signal Service. Fort T ay lor, with i ts half-ruined outworks, is among the ob j ects o f interest within walking distance from the hotel. A permit is necessary, "ihich can be obt ained from the sergeant in charge, whose quarters aie in a small house near the head of the foot-bridge that leads to the fort. From the parapet a fine view is obtained of the ne i ghborin g keys, and on a clear day the colors reflected f rom the submerg ed reefs and bars are very beautiful. Fort To.y lor, begun in 1 846, i s a ma ssive b astioned structure, built partly of coral qua.1ried on the r eef with walls of b1ick brought f1om the North. It was never actually finished, though fully garrisoned during the Civil War, and rendered capable o f efficient defence in case o f ne' ed. A fee, of not l ess than half a dollar, should be given to the sergeant-more in case of a large party. Mid way of the seaward sho1e of the island, and at its eastem end, are tw.o martello towers, erec ted in 184:6 for defensiv e purposes, but now fallen to 11lin, and sometimes Uled for stabling cattle and the like. The Custom House, the M asonic Temple, San Carlos Hall, the Convent, the Govemment stores and wharves, and the oltl be.J.'l-acks are among the p r incipal buildings Tramw ays run through the p1-incipal str eets, with cars generally at 10 minute intervs. Everywhere along the streets, and in the

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. 326 KEY WES'l'. . ........ ; . . gal dens are bananas, palms, pawpaws, and scores of other tropical growths. Notable among these is the banyan-tree at the old U. S. barracks, which may be reach&d by f ollowing the water-front to the eastward about t of a mile fr om the hotel. This is the only ttee of the growing out. of doors in the U States. Very like it., however, is the wild fig, or native rubber-tree, common on all the keys and in the southern pa1t of the peninsula. Three squares south o f Russell House are some cupious palms, well worth a visit In one case a date palm and a wild fig have taken root in the same crevice, the fig entwining the palm in a network of vine-like growth. Both trees when last seen were ngor ous, and neither showed signs o f yielding t.o the other. Near by is another simila r dist<>rted growth, the pal m bent far out of its natural shape by the contortions of the fig There are good roads the length of the island, but notll ing of especia l interest beyond the always changing aspects of sea and sky. South Beach, the bathing-place of Key W est, is easily 1eached by tramway or on foot, passing through the Cuban quarter of the town. It is not a very attractive bathing beach, nor are the bathing houses what they should be. A better plan is to .l,lile a boat and find some retired place beyond the city limits. There is excellent water-fowl shooting on the neighboring keys, and on some of them deer are still to be found, while a trip to the mainland, where all of game abounds, may be accomplished by any one who can devote a few to the expedition The countless mangrove islands in the vi cinity afford an endless field of explo ration, and very good sport may be had with a fish-spear, grains, or net among the mangrove roots, whe1'e all kinds of marine creatnr es seek a 1efuge. With a little practice the spearsman can walk upon the projecting roots, and watch for an oppo1tuuity to strike his game in the s hoal water below. Some o f the c1eatures that haunt these retteats s h oul d be handled cau tious l y if captured, as they bite very savagely and make troublesome wounds. No1thwest Passage Light.-Tbis marks the northem ex-

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KEY WEST. 327 tremity of the bi:oad shoal lying west of the channe1. It is a fixed white light throwing a red sector N.N.W. over the best water on the bar. The light is on a 1ed and white screw-pile structure, 50 feet high, the light visible tical miles. Through this channel pass nearly all vessels bound North and South to and from E urope, the West Indies, and the Gulf pol'ts. The .JJ{arquesas G1oup lies 17 nautical miles west from Key West. Northwest Channel and Boca Grande inter'l"ene, with extensive slwals between them, necessitating wide detour. The main key is horseshoe shaped with the con vex side toward the northeast. The open side is well-nigh closed with small islands and shoals. Within the curve is a shallow lagoon, practicable for boats d rawing 5 feet. The keys are low, almost awash at high tide, and largely covered with mangroves. There is nothing of interest aside from the teeming life of air and sea. No fresh water is found on the Marquesas. Rebecca Shoal is due west from 1\farquesas, about midway between that group and the Dry Tortugas. A light wa& es tablished there in 1886, showing a red and white flash from a lantern surmounting a square dwelling 67 feet high. It is visible 13! nautica l miles. The Dry T01tugas, so called because of the abundance of sea-turtles and the dearth of fresh water, are 54 11autical miles nearly due west from Key West. The light on Logger-Head Key, the most westerly of the group, is in Lat_ 24:0 38' N., Long. 82 55' 42" W.; a fixed white light, visible nautical miles at sea. It was established in 1858, while the neighboring fort was under construction. It is a conical brick tower, the upper half black, the lower hal.f white, 155 feet high to the lantern. A fixed white is showu on the S.E. bast, ion of the fort, at a height of 65 feet above the sea. It is visible 13t nautical miles. By far the most conspicuous object to the approaching voyager is Fort Jefferson, a massive fortification, built of brick, with the native coral rock for foundation. It was begun in 1846, and practically finished by the beginning of the Civil War, wh eri it was armed garrisoned, and largely used as a

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328 KEY WEST. prison. It is in shape a great pentagon, with lofty ca:;;emated walls, enclosing a palmshaded parade-ground. The broad moat is a veritable aquarium for its vai:iety of marine life, sometimes including sharks and domesticated pelicans. At present the whole structure is falling into de cay, because the Government has no use for i t The only inhabitants of the group are the army sergeant in charge, and the light-keepers on Logger-Head Key. The1e is a fine sheltered anchorage, with 6 and 7 fathoms of water under the guns of the fort, but it is visited only by spongers, fish ermen, and wreckers, and by occasional Govel'llment supply-ships. The conformation of the group of keys is almost identical with that of the Marquesas, though as it is not so far ad va.nced; the horseshoe conf01mation is not yet so apparent. A yisit to this remote coral reef, with its crumbling f ortress and romantic though lonely surroundings, is most interest ing. With a good sailing breeze, the voyage from Key West may be accomplished in six or .eight hours, and a week :may be passed very enjoyably in explc ; 11ing the neighboring reefs.

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West F l o r i da.The Suwannee River is the natural dividing line betw een the western and middle section of the State. It includes perhaps the most diversified and picturesque country in FJorida'-high rolling hills, w ell wooded, and rising, in the :vicinity of Tallahassee, to an elevation of nearly 300 feet. Throughout this bill country are good roads, suitable for riding, driving, or walkin g. Frequent lakes and water courses add to the beauty of the landscape and some of the most remarkable springs and wells in the world are .formed in the limestone and sandstone strata that underlie the whole country. A belt of low pine-land borders the Gulf of Mexico, with occasional s'vamps and savannas of great extent, through which many navigable streams find their way into the great sheltered bays and sounds that line the coast. Several fine hal'b ors exist, as at P ensacola, St. Andre ws' Bay, S t. J oseph's Bay, Appalachicola, and Dog I s land. In genera l the coast is very sparsely inhabited, the bulk of the population l ying along the line of th e railroad which traverses the )3tate from Fernandina and Jack sonville to Pensacola. (See State and County Al ong this line are the best agricultural lands, the products being tobacco, long staple cotto n, grapes, pears, and vege tables. Oranges, le)llons, and figs tluive under p roper care, but not so well as iu more southern latitudes. Millions o f feet of lumber a1e annually cut along the rivers, and fl oa t e d down to tidewater, whete the logs are made up into rafts towed to Pensacola for shipment abroad. Other millions are stopped at the railroad ctossi n gs and used at home. This section of Florida h as not been so much a resort fo1 Northern sportsmen as has the peninsula and its coasts, and the game has not been so me1cilessly hunted. From any of the railwa y stations it is easy to teach unfrequented hunting grounds, either by boat or by wagon road. Along the bays 1\Dd inlets the shooting and fisl1ing are of the best. As compared with that of So.uth Florida, the climate is

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330 WEST FLORIDA-JACKSONVILLE. somewhat cooler. The average temperatures, as reported by the Weather Bureau at Pensacola, are as follows: Spring, 67.9; summer, 80.3; autumn, 69.5; winter, 56.0. Tho average rainfall for the sam e p eriod was : Spring, 14.34 i nches ; summ er 22.53 inches; autumn, 15.52 inches; win ter, 14.92 inch es The earliest killin g frost reported at the same station was November 16 1880, and the ea.l'liest fr osts in 1 879, 1 883, and 1 884 were, 1espectively, on December 26th, 16th, and 19th. A compara tive table of clear and fair day s in monthly averages will b e found elsewhere. 210. Ja c ksonville to RiVer Junction . By Florida Central & Poninsnla Ry. (foot of H ogan St.) to River Junction, 208 miles. Running time, 8 h. 35 min. For stations, diatances, and connections in detail, eee mapa and context of the following n amed counties. which are alphabetically arranl!ed from page 1 to 102: Duval, Baker, Columb ia, Suwannee, Madison Jeffer son.l.eon. Ga!lsaen. If it is desired to break the journey, will be found at City Monticello, L.'oua. Tallahassee, or The line of the Florida Central & Peninsula is nearly east and west, Jacksonville, Tallaha ssee, and Pensaco la being so nearly in the same latitude that the difference is insignificant. The country is op e n and flat for 'Some distance after leavin g the outskirts of Jacksonv ille. At !tfarietta, in February, 1 864, a Confederate force under General Finnegan made a stand on its 1ctreat from Jackson ville, but was driven out l;>y the Federals. Baldwin.-Crossing of the F. C. & P. Southern Divi sion, north to Fernandina, south to Ocala, Tampa, Cedar Key, etc. This point was fortified by both sideR, according to the changing fortunes of the Civil WO:r. The remain s of earth w orks can still b e se en along the railroad near the station. Three miles west of Baldwin is the Duval-Baker county line, near D eer C1eek, a small stream, tributary to the St. Mary's River. Macclenny. (See Route 211.)-A short distance west of the station the train crosses the South Prong of St. Mary's River, a. fine rapid st1eam of coffee -colored water, flow ing north ward. On the east bank the Federal troops made a. stand after their defeat at Olustee.

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. JACKSONVILLE TO RIVER JUNCTION. 331 Olustee, the scene of a severe fight during the Civil War. (S ee Route 2 1 2.) Two mile s west of the statio n the line c r osses into Columbia County. (See map page 1 7.) Lake City, the county seat, almost hidden in fruit and shade t1ees lies just south of the station. (See Route 213.) H ere i s the crossing of the G eorgia Southern & Florida R:.>.ilr0ad, north to Macon, Ga., south, to Palatka. W elbm"?i is the first station in Suwannee County-the boun dary crossing the track a short distance east of the station. (See map, page 90. )' Live Oak, the county seat, is a busy, thriving place at the junct ion of the Savannah, Florida & W es tern R y. At Columbus the 1-ailroad crosses the Suwannee R iver flow ing south with a swift, strong current, between steep rocky bank s. (S e e R oute 111. ) Ellav ille on the west bank, i s in Madi son County. (See map, page 57.) The river is navigable to this point at high water, .but the usual steamboat landing is at Branford, 12 miles below. (See note, p. 338.) West of the river the country changes its chat'act er grndU: ally, rising to hills that show a roddisl): soil where the fres h earth is exposed. 'Dfttd-ison, the county seat, is pleasantly situnted among fine forest t1ees. (See Route 215.) Six miles west o f Greenville and three miles east of Aucilla, the line crosses the O cilla or .Aucillil River, a considerable str eam, rising in Georgia in two branches, or prongs, which unite four miles above the railroad oroRsing, and about thirty miles from the Gulf The stream is navigable for canoes, except where it breaks into rapid s and whe r e it b ecomes subterranean at Natwal. Bridge 12 miles from its mouth. Interesting geological strata are exposed in the precipitous banks near the Natural Bridge D7ifton.-Junction with bra.nch, 4 miles north to Monticello, the county seat (Rout e 216), connecting there with the S. F. & W. for Thomasville, Ga. At Lloyd all trains stop f or refreshments-dinner, 75c. at H ouse, near sta tio n. Lloyd is con s idered a very hea.Uhy lo cality. l'bere i s good hunting in the n e i g hb01hood. H otel, Echo Cottage, one-quarter mile from station ( $2 a day ; $10 a week ). Two miles west of Lloyd is the county line. (For Leon C ounty

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332 . -JACKSONVILLE TO RIVER. JUNCTION. map, distances, etc., see pp. 5_1-53.) The country becomes more and more hilly as the train nears Tallahassee, with fre quent l akes streams, and meadows, and now and then a glimpse of one of the remarkable sinks" that occur in this region. A large tract lying on both sides of the railroad in this vicinity was granted to the l\farquis of Lafayette in l"ecognition of his services to the United States during the war for Independence. Two miles west of 1'allahassee, the Murat homestead, an unpre. tentious dwelling, may be seen a few hundred ya1ds north of the track. Six miles farther west is the Ocklockony R iver (see p. 99), forming the Leon-Gadsde n county line (see p. 31). The hili country continues, with fine clear and evidences of agricultural prosperity on every hand. Quincy, the county town, is well worth a visit. (See Route 223.) Chattahoochee is at the edge of the hills bordering the Appalachicola bottom lands. (See Route 224.) If an all night stop"is necessary, the best available hotel will be found here. River Junction.-The terminus of three railroads, namely, the Florida Central & Peninsula, east to Jacl(sonville (208 miles), the Louisville & Nashville (Pensacola Division), west to Pensacola (162 miles), andthe Savannah, Florida & West ern, which crosses the Georgia line 2 miles north of the .station. Connections are made here withAppalachicola River steame1s down-stream on Sunday, Monday, and Friday, P.M. Up stream, Tuesday, F1iday, and Sunday. Hours of al'l'ival and departure are somewhat il'legular, but, the state of the river permitting, approximate the arrival of trains. Chattahoochee Rive1, forming the eastern boundary of the county, finds its source among the mountain s of Tennessee and South Carolina, and is navigable for vessels of 8 feet draught, 300 miles from the sea. Flint Rive1, its principal tributary, is navigable to Bainbridge, 40 miles. Some 30 mile$ from its mouth it receive s Chipola Rive r, also navigable as far as a natural bridge a short distance above Marianna.

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MACCLENNY OLUSTEE. 333 211. Maeclelllly, Bake r County (C. H .). HoT:tx..-The House; $2 a day RAILROAD.-Tb e F. c. & P. Ry.; east, 2 8 miles to Jacksonville; weet, lSS miles to Talla baeeec; 180 miles to River Junction. (See map pag e 6.) As the coun ty sea t, and the centre of a. fruitg rowin g ancl lumber r egion, this town is a place of considerable com merc ial activit y. It ]s named after H. C. Macclenny, the f ounde r of the p l ace, and a l arge land -holder i n the vicin ity. Peaches, pears, cotton and all kinds of veg etables are grown with great suc cess in this neighborhood. The population is about 1,000 n.nd there are goo d schools, including the St. James A cademy. The county i s here 212. Olustee, Baker County (See crosse d sahres map, page 6.) A village of about 400 in habitants, mainly en gaged in farming and i n the large lumber mills near the out l e t of Qcean Pond The plac e is notable as the scene o f the mos t considerable engagement j;hat occu ned in Florida during the Civil War. The whole field battle can b e seen fr o m t h e car windowa as the train approaches Olu stee Station, though the exact lo calities can be distinguished only by one who i s fa miliar with them. About twenty minutes after passing Sande1son, an enclosur e may be se en north o f the track, where the Con f e derates burie d the Federal dead after the fight A little farthe r and the blue waters of O cean Pond, with white bui ldings and lumber mill s on the sho1e, ma y be see n through the trees. A small creek, the o utlet o f the pond, nearly ma rks the line held by the Confederates, the i r l ef t extending to the pond, where ea rthwork defences were hast ily thrown up. Prottacted rain s h ad filled the lowl an ds with water, so that they were neal'ly impas sable, and ren clered the ordinary evolutions of f oot-soldie1'S extr eme l y diffi: cult.

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8.34 OLUSTEE. During the winter of 1863.:.64, the of the United States forces in theDepartment of the South were at Hilton Head, S. C., with General Quincy Adams Gilmore in command. In compliance with orders from Washington, a force of 10,000 men of the Tenth A1my Corps was detached, early in February, to operate in Florida . The plan was to make Jacksonville a base of operations, march westward along the railroad to Tallahassee, and open communication ths;lnce with St. Mark's, on the Gulf of Mex ico. This would practically secure complete control of the peninsula, with a seaport at either end of the line. Jack sonville was held at the time by a force of Confederate States troops .under General Joseph Finnegan. had no ade quate means, how'ever, of dealing with tl1e heavy ordnance carried by the Federal gunboats, and p111dently withdrew to a point near Marietta, seven from the river. He was Obliged to destroy !lo large amount Of stores to preYent cap ture by the Federal troops, and incidentally a number of buildings were burned at the same time. The Confederates had hardlv established themselves at Marietta when they were compelled again to retire in snch haste that eight pieces of artillery, one hundred prisoners, and a considerable amount of stores fell into the bands of the Federal troops, and a river steamer with two hundred and. seventy bales of cotton was only saved from capture by being bumed. General Finnegan retren.ted westward nearly as far as Lake City, closely followed by Federal horse unde1' Colonel Guy V. Henry, of the Fit'St Massachusetts Cavalry, who ap pef\rs to have conducted the scouting operations of the ca.m pa}gn with great vigo1 and good judgment. The Federals advanced as far as Baldwin, then as now an important railway junction, and there intrenched themselves. Some of the old earthworks may still be seen from the win dows of passing trains. Thus far, General Gilmore had ac companied the expedition to see it fairly under way; but he now turned it over to his second in command, Brigadier Tm man Seymour, with orders to hold Jacksonville, Baldwin, and the South Prong of the St. Mary's River, twelve miles

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OLUSTEE. 335 farther west. Leaving the command thus advantageously posted, Gilmore returned to Hilton Head. No sooner was he gone than Seymour, misled perhaps by the impunity with which Henry's light horse had scouted almost as far as Lake City, determined to advance on his own responsibility. He wrote Gilmore to this effect, and that officer promptly despatched orders countermanding the ad vance. The messenger, however, arrived just too late, Seymour, with about five thousand men, was ah'eady on the march. In the meantime the Confederate department commander, General P. T. Beauregard, had been hunying reinforcements to Finnegan, among them the veteran brigade of General Alfred H.olt Colquitt. Finnegan's scouts kept him advised of Seymour's movements, and as soon as preparations for an ad vance were apparent he selected Olustee as the most defen.sible position within reach of Lake City. Seymour's line of march necessarily followed the railroad, which hete crosses a swampy creek with a lake on one side and piney woods on the other. Finnegan was thus able to post his men so that, with the usual extemporized field defences, they were in quite a strong position. At noon, on February 20, 1864, Seymour's advance neared Olustee. What with mud and watet for miles along the flat woods beside the raihoad, and the almost impassable palmetto scrub, the important duties of advanced skirmishe1s and flankers were either omitted altogether, or performed so superficially as to be ineffectual. At all events the Fed erals marched into a trap, and the first notice they had of the presence of the enemy was a scathing fire from an invisible foe that told heavily on the advance battalions. Colonel, afterward General, Joseph R. Hawley, was at the front with his own regiment, the Seventh Connecticut Volunteer In fantry, and but for the of these and other veteran tl'Oops under Colonels Henry, Barton, and Scammon, the disorder consequent upon such an attack must have been in stantly overwhelming. A line was however formed with creditable expedition, and a spirited fire was: returned. The Confederates had every adva ntage of position,

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. 336 OLUS'l'EE. and fired practically from the shelter of an ambuscade. .The Federals nevertheless maintained the offensive, bringing up Hamilton's battery oflight a1tillery, and feeling out t.lie enemy's position. By mid-afternoon General Seymour succeeded in deploy ing his line, but on advancing t he men found themselves confronted b y an impassab l e mora ss Regiment aftet regi ment moved f orwa rd, exhausted its ammunition against the deadly screen of pine and palmetto, and fell back, a heavy percentage of dead and dying. Hamilton's battery of light a:rtille1y was pushed forward into an advanced position, and in twenty minutes all but ten of its fifty hor ses were killed m disabled, and of the eighty two men who went into action only thirty-seven were able to help drag some of the guns to the l'e al' Toward the latter part of the afternoon the Confederates assumed the offensive, and a regiment under Colonel Zachery broke the Federal centre. Just at this time the resel'Ve of colored troops, consisting of the Fifty-fourth 1\f.assachu setts and the First North Caroli ua, came up nnd made a stubborn stand. The North Carolina regiment lost its Col onel, Lieutenant-Co lonel, Major, and Adjutant, and the 9on federate advance was checked enough for Seymour to oollect the r emno.nts of his command, and organize an or derly retreat. As soon indeed as the Confederates became the aggressors the conditions were reversed, and tbe natural difficulties of the country told in favor of the retreating Federals. The pu1suit was kept up till dark, but it was me1ely a skirmish in tetreat,.and SeymoUl' was able, before permitting a halt, to gain the east bank of the St. M:ary's River, a position o f at least temporary security. The Confederates, besides gain ing the day, captured 500 prisoners, 5 guns, 2 stand of colors, and 2,000 small-arms. The Federal loss in killed, wound ed, and missing was 1,828 men, and that of the Conf ederates 934, figures which prove beyond dispute the coUl' age with which the fight wa s maintained on both sides. Considering the numbers engag e d, this action was one of the most important south of V irginia. It defeated a well -laid

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OLUSTEE-LAKE CI'.rY. 337 scheme for wresting fro m the Conf e derates, at one blow, al-. most the whole e of Florida, which, once secured, could hav e b een held with comparati vely little troub l e. G eneral Seymour's hasty change of p l ans involving o. l ong m arch through an unknown and exceedingl y difficult coun tty, bas never been satisfactorily accounted for. His per sonal gallantry how ever, has never been questioned. Dur ing the action he did all that 'reckl ess darin g could sugges t to retrieve the disaster that his own rashness had provoked, and his military r ecord, both bef ore and after the fatal day at O lustee, i s highly creditable. '213. Lake City, Bake r County ( C. B.). Population, 1,800. HOTELS.-Central HlYUS6, $2 a day ; Th6 lt111, $ 2 a day RAILROADS -Flodda Cent. & Peninsula R y. ; east to Jacksonville (GO mires) ; west to Tallaha.osee ( 106 mil es). Ga. Southern Rd. ; north to Macon ; Ga. (210 miles); south to Palatka (75 miles) LIVERY.-Slngll! team, 75c. au hour; $2.50 a day. Lake City takes its name from neal'ly a score of small lakes and ponds that surround it, fed by twice as many sp1'ings whi c h bubble up through the sand y soil. To a strange r the trees are t h e most c onspicuous featu re of Lake City They fairly embowe r the w hole place and e ff ec tually sc r ee n it from the publicity of passing trains. A s the site of the State Agricultural College and the United States Expel'im en t Sta:.. tion, it is evidently considere d by experts as fa1rly typical in soil and climate of this secti on of the State: The fir s t settle ment w as in 1 82 0. I n 1 837 it b ecame a mili tary post and until1859 was call ed" Alligator," afte1 a famous Seminole chief. It is t l 1 e shipping point for a regio n especially favor able to the cu1tivation of S ea Island or long staple cotton, and w areho u ses have been establi s h e d here by some of t},le great Northern cotton fa ctors The expedmental gard ens are well worth visit ing, and a d1'ive in the vicinity wil l affo1-d an intending settler an excelle n t idea of the capabilities of this sectio n of the State. -. Whit e Stdpltur Sp1i ngs, on Suwann ee River, twe lve miles N. W., may be 1eache d by rail or wag on road. I t is a beauti22

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338 .. LAKE CITY-LIVE . ful place, and was a fashionable resort before the Civil War. Thete is good fishing in the surrounding lakes. Lake City has Episcopal, Presbyterian, Catholic, Methodist, and Bap tist churches, and excellent public and private schools. 214. Live Oak, Suwannee County (C. H.). Population, 1,000. HOTELS.Ethel House, Uve Qa.k Hotel, $2 to $2 50 a day. &ILROAD.Florida Central & Peninsula; east, to Jacksonville (82 miles) ; west, to Tallahassee (84 miles), etc. A thriving place, with large lumber interests, ne. arly in the centre of a rich agricultural county, which grows a large amount of long staple-cotton, vegetables, and farm products. 215. Madison, Madison County (C. H.) . Population, 1 200. HOTEL. 1'he Central Park Hotel, $3 a day. RAu.noAD.-The F. t:. & P.; east, to JAcksonville(llO miles); west, to Tallahassee (56 miles), etc. Madison stands on a considerable el e vation, with streets pleasantly shaded by for est trees, and all conveniences in the way of shipping facilities, telegraph, expr ess, a..d banking offices-, and good general stores. The s urrounding country is very productive. Cotton, com; hay, vegetables, and fruits are grown in large quantities and Nor thern thread fac tories have llere their agents and warehouses for .the pur chase and storage of long staple cotton. Fail:ly good roads lead north into Georgia, a n d south into 'l'aylor Coun ty. The town was settled about 1830. It llas a handsome court house, several churches, and good public and private schools. (NoTE.-From Columbus there is conn e ction by rail with Branford, wh e nce a p assenger steamer is adverti sed to leave Tuesdays for Cedar Key and int ermediate landings. Timo fourteen hours. Returning, .leaves Cedar Key Thursdays at 6 A.M.)

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. MONTICELLO. 339 216. Monticello, Jefferson County (0. H.). Popnlation, 1,700. HOTELs.-St. Elmo, $4 a day ; JJ[adilen HoU86, $2 ; ].>a .rtrfdge House, $2. RAILROADs.-The S. F. & W.; north, to Thomasville. Ga. (24 miles) ; F. C. & P.; east, to Jacksonville (143 miles); west, to Tallahassee (23 miles), etc. Stations separat e but near each ot h er. The main business of Monticello, aside from that connect ed with the county offices, is the shipment of cotton, corn, oats, tobacco, Ieconte pears, pecan nut s, and general pro duce in the way of vegetables, etc.. There are 1\'Iethodist, Baptist, Episcopalian, and Presbyterian churches, with public an4 private schools. The town is laid oul in blocks 200 feet square, with streets 100 feet wide between tl1eni, shaded by superb trees, and often b01:dered by gardens where roses bloom the y ear round, and old-fashioned South ern mansions stand among oaks and magnolias. In some cases smart new houses and stores have pushed in among their seniOI"s, asserting the changed condition of life in the old county capital. The following weights and dimensions of vegetables grown in this vicinity are vouched for on good authority: a short beet 31 inches in girth ; a flat turnip 11 inches iii diameter ; a radish 27 inclJes long and 18 inches in circumf e rence, weighing 6t pounds ; a globe weighing withou t top or tap root 11 pou nds 6 ounces; and a water-melon, perfect to the centre, weighing 54 pounds. Miccosukie Lake, 3 miles north of Monticello, and 19 miles northeast of Tallahassee, is about 15 miles long, and in the widest part some 4 miles. across. 'rhe principal tributaries are Wa1d's Creek, rising in Tlwmas County, Ga., and D1y C1eek, flowing from the westward. Half a mile from the mouth of Dry Creek, which is lmown as the head o.f the lake, is a circubr basinnearly or quite 100 -feet deep toward the southern shoi"e, but shallow toward the n01th. A su perb g1owth of hard wood timbe r nea r ly sunounds this basin. Het e may be seen the different varieties of oak, hickory, bee ch, wild cherry, mock orange, red bay, and niagnolia, often loaded down with enormous grapevines, cle matis, yellow jasmine, ancl woodbine. Beneath and cover-

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. 340 MONTICELLO. ing the ground are countless shrubs, some of them flower ing, and others merely a tangle of luxuriant vegetation. It were hard to find a better place than this to study the flora peculiar to this part of Florida, and the locat ion is peculiarly attl-active from tho fact that tho land 1-ises boldly a con siderable height, commanding a view of several miles down the lake to where the shores curve to the eastward, and gradually converge until the lake becomes a creek, andafter the manner of streams in this region, plunges bodily into the earth and is lost to sight. Within a mile or two of this sink ate several others. Long Pond Sink, with a current from west'"southwest, Black Creek Sink, with a cu;rent from south southwest, Bailey's Mill Creek Sink, with a current from east southeast. (The bearings are on the authority of Dr. F. A. Byrd, o Miccosukie.) The conformation of the land induces the belief that these sinks unite to fo1m a sub-. . terranean river, flowing southwesterly until it breaks forth again in the St. Mark's River. Other smaller lakes are Erie, Olive, Bradford, Hall, and there are numberless and nameless ponds, all abounding with fish. The woods and valleys are well watered with clear streams, usually of ex.oollent water.

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TALLAHASSEE. 341 220. Tallahassee . Popnlation, 2,933.-Lat. 30'27' N., Loog. 84. 18' W. H oT .ELS.-T..e
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342 T ALLAHA SSEE. 6 miles distant, was a sor t of rural annex to the more e l abo -rate life of the State capital. An Ordinance of Secessi on was passed J an uary 10, 1861; and mos t of the e nlisted in the Confederate service. Enou g h were left, how e v er, to ref,e l an i ll-advi se d attempt on the part of the F ed e tals b y way of St. Mark's. (Route 212. ) Civil war .dealt l e ni ently wi t h Tallahassee, and i t was not occupied by United States troops, save as a precau tionary measure, after hostilities ended. During early spting Tallahassee b e comes a veritable bower of roses. The old mansions that line its streets, some of them good specimens o f what is termed colonial arc.bit ec ture, stand, as a rule, in the midst of l ovely gardms, often in a tangle of fl o w e r s and vines, shaded by stately oaks m ag n olias, and b ays. The State H ouse i s at the brow of the hill near the south end of Main Street. It is an i mposing old structure of brick and \Vith a stately port i co and a general air of dilapi dation. It stands in a noble grove of t rees, a n d from the roof a wide view opens over the surrounding co untry. The roof is 1ather difficult of access, but practically the same view can be o btained from the cupol a of the court-house at hand. Som e interesting war relics are to be seen within 'the building. The original O tdinanc e of Secession in the G overnor's room, a number of tattered Confederat e battleflags in the Adjutant-General's office, and interesting maps and records in their proper departme nts. In the Capito l g1ounds stand several monuments with commemorati ve inscriptions. The Episcopa l Cemetery, fi ve minutes' walk west of the L eon Hotel, i s crowded with the g taves of old Tallahasse e families. There are. no very ancient dates on the stonesnone, of course, prior to the settlement of the town (1827) 'rhere are, h owever a number of interesting monuments insc1 ipti ons, among them two modest shafts that mark the. gmves of Charle s L ouis Na po l eon Achille Murat, son o f the King of Naples and Prince o f the tw o Sicilies, and o f Cath erine hi& wife, d aughter of Colon e l Bird C. Willis, of Virgtma. ( For a sketcl1 of their sto1y .see opposite page.)

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TALLAHASSEE. 343 Another more modem cemetery is at the foot of the northwestem slope, where lie most of the Confederate dead whose remains could be brought home. On Memorial Day of each year these graves are decorated wit h flowers by surviving friends. The .Murat Estate.-On the Jackson Hill Road two miles west of the railway station, on a bluff north of t}le highway. The estate b ears the name of its original owner, eldest son o f the famous marsha l of France under the First Napo l eo n, who wa s made King of Naples in 1 805. On his deposition in 1815, the son, tllen a boy of 15, was sent to finish his edu cation in Au stria. Shortly after reaching his majo1ity l1e cut adrift from early associations and came to America. Carriage-1 oads and bridle-paths were then almost the only artificial line s of travel, but the Prince visited neal'ly aU the settled portions of the United Sta tes : At Tall ahassee he naturally b ecame enamoured of the climate and the cou n try. He bought a large estate, erected an unpretentious house, still known as the Murat Homestea d, though its founder name d it Lipona. He at once intere ste d himself actively in local affairs, b ec ame a naturalized citizen and served suc cessi vely as postmaster, alderman, and mayor. I n 1826 he manied Cathe1ine, a daughter of Colonel Bird C. Will is, o f Virginia, and grandniece of W ashington. Murat was n. man of brilliant intellectual gifts, but he was eccentric to the verge of lunacy, and his personal habits were so disgusting that for some time the beautiful, r efine d Virgini a gid would not listen to his suit. H owever, she yielded at last and became the Princess lVIurat, recognized as suc h by all who cherished the memory of the First Napo leon. The Murn.ts visit-ed B elgium to geth er and were ceived there with royal honors, and after her husband's death the Princess was recei ved and. treated with distin guished favor by the Third Napoleon. l\:[urat was the author of three works in French, all treat ing of political affairs in the U ni ted States. These were published in Paris (1830 to 18 38) and gained for their au thor wid e recognition as a writ e1 of ability His last And most consid er able work, The of R epub lic a n

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TALLAHASSEE . Government, as perfected in America," went through fifty editions, and 'vas translated into the continental la nguages The shiftless, eccentric habits of the Prince was te d his property, and when he died, in 1847 after years of disease, through which he tended by his wif e, she was left almost without an income. The 1estora tion of the Na poleonic dynasty in France, however, brought her recognition and a handsome competence .from the new Empero r, with whom she was a great favorite. With the overthrow o f the Southern Confederacy her property again disappeared, but on the restoration of peace Napol eon III. granted her an annuity of 30,000 fran cs, which continued till he1 death in 1 867, only a short time before the Empire was again demolished by Ge1man arms. ExouRSIONs.-The hill c ountry o.f West Florida is favored above the 1est of the Statein the matte r of road s. The soil is such a happy admixture of clay and sand that in addition to unsurpassed procluctiYeness in cert-ain fields o f agricult ure, it packs into capital 1oadways, which, without any care to speak of, remain hmd nnd smooth during fair weather. R oads diverge towa1d all the cardinal points from Tallahas see-north and east toward L akes J ackson, I amoni!i, and. Mi ccosukee, south to St. Mark's,"Newport; and the famous W akulla Spring, an d west to the Ocl ocko nee River and the Quince y tobacco lands. In all directions the visitor may be sure of a pic turesque, dive rsifie d country, weu w ooded, and abounding in lakes, streams, sinks, and springs. After heary rains the vall ey l"oa.ds are often submerge d, and it is no more than right to warn strangers against tl1e seemingly s hallow waters that often cover them. This who le region is under di-ained by subterranean 1ivers "Sinks" sometimes in the most unexpected places. I n 1889 a party from Chi cago narrowly escaped wit h their liYes through carel essly driving into what appeared to be a shallo w pond that had tempora1ily cov e red the r oad. The water, however, is usually clear, and there is no danger if a reasonably sharp lookout is kept. 'rhese sinks always occur in connection with some un d erground lake or water-course. They may be lar ge enough

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TALLAHASSEE. 345 to take in a; gopd-sized house, or only a few feet across Sometimes the water at botto m is shallow, sometimes deep, and still or swift, ncco rding to condition s They are caused b y the action of subterranea n streams wearing away the un derlying r oc k until a cavity is formed. After a time the roof becomes too thin to support the weight overhead, and accordingly falls .in It is either swept down stream, or else dams up the CUITent, and perhaps the next passer-by finds a lake or a full-grown river where none existed befo1e (See M i ccosukee and Jackson Lakes.) Lake Hall, 6 m i le s no r theas t, on Thomasville Road. A favorit e picni c-grou nd, with good fishing; fine f01'es t-trees and picturesque surroundjngs A t this lake the L eon Hotel keeps b oats for the u se of guests. Lake Jackson, 6 miles northwest, is inegularly shaped, about 6 miles long and 4 m iles wide. It is quite deep, and shortly afte r the Charl esto n e arthquake of 1886 it distin guished itself by disappearing entil'ely through an unsus p ected subterranean passage. Large numbers of fish per is h ed, and for a time pestilence was dreaded by the neigh borin g 1es idents. Afte1 a few days the lake began to fill up a gai n and sinc e that time has maintai ne d its usual leve l Lake Iamonia, 12 miles northeast, is somewhat larger than L ake Jackson, and has many islands. A small town of the same name i s near its eastern end, on t h e T homasvill e road. Lake M iccosukee 18 miles northeast. (See R oute 2 1 6.) Bellai1, 6 miles south, on St. Ma .r:!rs R oad. F o rmerly the summe r resort of the most select and exclusive circle of T allaha ssee society. It is in the edge of the flatwood s, and. why it should have b een selected by its frequenters is not ea sy of exp lan a tion. I n the days of its prosperity, however, a number of cottages were built here, an d man y of the most distinguished Sout hernEirs of the day entertained their friends with tl1e lavis h hospitality traditional with them. Nothing now marks the place but half -obliterate d fo u ndations; and groups of shadetrees that have grown to a l ordly height sinc.e the house s crumbled t o piece s Ol' were b ul'Ded, d1.11ing the lawless days of civil war

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346 TALLAHAS SEE. St. Ma1ks, 21 miles sout h by rail (2 hours), or car1iage (3 homs). (See Route 222.) Train ftom Tallahass ee at 8.30 A.M., returns at 11 P.M., affording no time for l ocal expe di tions. ( R oute 212.) The Wakulla Voloano.-To the southeast and south of Tal lahas see there extend s a vast belt of flat woods, merg ing into an almost impenetra b l e tan gle o f undergrowth and swamp. It is a fam ous hunting-gro und, and somewhere wi thin its shad es i s the alleged Wakulla volcano. The curio u s inqu ire r is sure to hear the mo s t contladictory s tatement-s rega1ding t his mystery. H e will be told by some that it can be seen f rom any high observatory in the vic inity, and by others that it cannot b e see n from any sa ve tho most southerly upla nds. H e will mee t peopl e who have seen the smoke almost every day of thei).' lives, others who de clale that there is no such and still o t hers who say that they never heard of it. It seems to be pretty well estab lished, howev er, that ever since the country wa s settled, and, according to I ndian tradition, long prior to that, a col umn o f smo ke or vapor has been visible in favorable weath e r, rising from a fixed point far wi thin the jungle, to which no man has yet b een a ble to penetrate. Se v eral ex p editions have b een o1ganize d -to solve the mystery, but none of them have p enetrated more than twelv e or fifteen mil es into the moras s. Once o1 twice New York newspap ers have sent l'epresentatives with ord ers to solYe the pro b l em, b ut, a cco rding to the l ocal v ers ion, they have always p roved 1eoreant to their duty as soon as the difficulties in the way became apparent. The "volcano," therefore, bids fai1: to rem ain a mystery until som e well-equ ipped expe dition und ertakes its disc overy .* A co!UIIln of smoke was poin ted out to tbc author as the alleged "volcano," and on several successive days bearings were taken with a pocket compass from the cupola of the Court-hou se at 'fhc smol'e in favorabl e weather was always visible in the Slime place, r olling up in strong volume, usually dense and dark like the smoke from a furnace chimney 'fhe author was as snred by a Nort h ern gentleman, long resid ent In Talla hassee that It was ofte n lighted with a fatnt glow at nJgbt. It is believed by many to be vapor from a b oilin g spring. possibly Intermingled with inflammable that occasio n ally I n llt:arch 1891, the autho r with J. B Staley, of Tallahassee, a s guide, -.

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THE WAKULLA S P RING. 347 221. The Wakulla Spring. Fifteen miles south of Tallabasi!OO. Fonr miles west o f Wakulla Station, St. l\l arks Rd. By carriage from Tallaha ssee, 2M bon rs. B y row-boat from St. Mark s, 2 hours. Wakulla-" Mys te17" in the language of the Semiu o les l'll.nk s f o r beauty and size with the other wonderful springs of Florida described elsewhere (see Routes 182 and i83) In so me re spects i t surpas ses them, its greater depth l end ing to the absolute l y transparent water sl}ades of color that are wanting in the others. The gyeatest recoi ded depth o f the s pt'ing is 106 feet, but it i s sai d that in certain places no b ottom bas been r eached wi t h the soundi n g line. Far down in the depths a ghostl y white ledge o f rock i s vi s ible, from beneath which the volume o f rushes upward, and where fi s hes, alligators, and tUItl es are quite safe f1om human snares as plainl y visible as if nothing but the air inJervene d. The surroundings of the spring a1e e x t reme ly beautiful; precipi tou11, hea vily-wooded banks ove1 hang the wat e r, and no mihoacl or s teamboat as y e t profan es the solit ude. It is not easy to sa y which is the bet tm l 'Onte to follow. T ile dt-ive fl'om T allaha sse e i s the p l easanter. That from W akulla Station i s the shorter and e a sier. I n this latter case conveyances must be ordered in adv ance, and are usually sent down from T a llah assee. The trip by water f rom St. Marks is more enjoya b l e f or those who p refer b oat expeditions. Othe r fine sp1'ings are found in the vicinity, notably at N ewpo rt, 3 mile s southeas t of Wakulla, where the water i s strongly impregn ated withsulphur, and the springs are b e lieve d to possess valuabl e m edicina l properties. t ried to reach the "volca no'' and nearly lost his lif e in tbe attempt. Later iii. the same seru;ou. Messrs. Castleman and Barbour, wit h Staley as guide, Spi!nt two weeks in tbe seareb, but with no bette r success C. L. N.

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348 S'l'. 222. St. Marks, Wakulla County. F. c. &: P. Rd. (St. Brauch), Tallahassee to St. Markl<. mllee hOUl'll). The St. Marks River is the natural seaport of Tallahassee. Once across the bar, which has 7 feet of water at low tide, t)1ere is a good depth to the railroad wharf. I n the early days of Tallahasse e's prosperity a plank 1oad was built t o faci litate the trllonsporbation of cotton and tobacco. A riva l c ompa ny built the raill'oad in 1 8 46, upon which a feu d arose between the two c ompanies wbich threatelle d to become se l'ious, but ended in a victory for the railroad. In 1861 the F. C. & P. was finished to the State capital and natul'ally took the bulk of the. carrying trade. A fort of considerable strength was built by the Spaniards, under Captain Don J ose Primo de Ribeira in 1718, at P01t L eon, two miles south .of the p1esent town of St. 1\farks. It was called San Marcos de .AJ>alache. Ruined l imestone ma sonry work s till marks the site. D Uling the civil war the river serve d to some ex tent as a tefuge for blockade runners, but United States gun-boats ctuised \lp and down the coast at suc h short intervals that blockade running was dangerous business. A redoubt was thrown up near the lighthouse in 1 862. On June 15, 186 3, the work was shelled by the United States gun-boat T a homa, Lieutenant H owell The gnnison-a company of artillery-were driven out, taking their battery with them. An armed party landed and destroyed eve-rything a.bont the works that would burn. Salt works of considerable extent were afterward established along the river, and the Confederate States l argely .drew their supply of salt fr o m this source. The daily product of the works was estimated at 2,400 busl;Je l s. Boat expeditions from the Tah(Y]71,a totally destroyed the works on February 17 and 27, 1 864. P roperty not conhabaud of war was distributed among the neighbol'ing inhabitants. On :March 6, 1865, a considerable f orce of Federals landed near the mouth of the river, and marched up as far as the Natural Bridge, where they were met by a. hastily gathered Confederate f01ce, and repulsed with considerable loss. The attacking party

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ST. MARKS-QUINCY. 349 was mainly from a negro regiment, the Second u. S. Col ored Iniantry, which went into action about 500 strong, and lost 70 men in killed, wounded, and missing. Next to_ the battle of Olustee, this was the most considerable engagement fought within the State, but as it occurred only a short time bef01e the fall of Richmond and the sunender of L ee, it was almost overlooked by all except local historians, who glory in it as amqng the last of the Confeder-ate arms. {Ja.pita l shooting may be found in the passes and creeks about the mouth of the river, and excellent fishing in the deep channels of the river itself. The St. :M:arks is supposed to find its sourc e in Lake Mic cosu kee ( R oute 216 ). Its whole course may be traced by a success io n of "sinks," and oc ca sional exposed reaches. It 1ises sedately from its subter ranean ways about 18 miles north of St. Marks, form ing a pool of considerable depth, but largely overgrown with 111Shes. There are r apids near the outlet, and again at twp places below, respectively 4 and 8 miles above St. Marks; e l sew here the stream is wide, plac id, and deep. The rapids can be easily 111n in a small boat, but are hard to ascep
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350 respects like Mon ticello and Tallahas see, with its wide streets and stately o l d Southern mansions. Within a f e w years Northern capital has large l y deve l oped the tobacco.: growing interests of the vicinity. There are several planta tions within easy riding distance, one o f them containing 1 2,000 acres, of which at this writing nearly one'quarter is under cultivation Some of t hem are worked by n eg roe s and other s by colonies of Alsatians imported for the pur pose. The whole busines s is canied on systemat i cally, su b stantia l fences surround the :fields, and each section bas its curing and storage hous es The best way to visit these great plant ations is in the saddle, as the distances are too great to be on f oot. V ehicles, however, can be driven anywher e along the plantation r oads The gene r al superintendent resides in Q uincy, and should be consulted as to the most interesting points to visit During the win ter months, of course, the fie l ds are bare, but work of some kind is always in progres s (see p. 31) 224. Chattahoochee, Gadsden County. T he earli es t overt a c t of the Secessionists in the State was committe d at this point, at 7 o'clock in the mornin g of January 6 1 86 1 The Ordinance of Secession was not p assed until four d ays afterward, but no doubt, anticipating that event with certainty under date of January 5th the gov ernor issued an order granting authority to Colone l Dunn to raise a company, seize the arsenal and its contents "now in the possess ion of the General Government, and retain the same, subject to my orders ." The arsena l was at the time under cha rge of Ordn ance Sergeant E. Powell, U. S. A., with a f ew me:q, and h e so stoutly refused to deliver up the keys that Colonel Dunn was fairi to teleg raph to the governor f o r furthe r in structi ons upon 1eceipt o f which the plucky ser geant was compelled to su rrender by superior force. The post was an atsenal of de posit, containing at the time 5,122 pounds o f powder, 17 3,476 cartrid ges for smallarms, one six pounder gun with a. supply of ammunition and su.ndJ:y mis-

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' CHATTAHOOCHEE-RIVER JUNCTION. 351 cellaneous equipments. This arsenal was established in 1833. It was used for various military purposes by the Confederates, and after the return of peace was given to the. State of Florida by the United States, and converted into a lunatic asylum. 230. River Junction to Pensacola. By Louisville & Nashville Rd. (Pensacola Division), 162 miles (7 h. 50 min.). Beet hotels at Marianna, De Funlak and Milton . Shortly after leaving River Junction the train enters upon the long trestle over the Appalachicola. This large river, whose turbid waters are in striking contrast with the clear streams of Leon and Gadsden Counties, is formed by the junction ofthe Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers; the second of which, in reality the main stream, has its sqjfroos in Northern G eorgia almost at. the Carolina line. Itis naviga ble 300 1niles from its mouth. Flint River is comparatively small, navigable only for about 40 miles. The confluence of these streams ia at the' Georgia line, 2 miles above the railroad crossing, and about 100 niiles flom the sea "as the 1iver runs," though only 80 miles in a straight line. The river carries do\\;n enormous deposits of alluv ium form ing wide stretches of marshy deUa in Appalachicola Bay. The bottom lands are very rich, but liable to frequent over' flow, as may be seen by the flood marks nearly at the level of the rails on the trees beside the trestle. In Jacltson County west of the Appalachicola the country is less conspicuously hilly than that to the eastward, though there are still considerable elevations. At Marianna o. pleasant stop may be made (Route 231). DeFuniak Sp1ings (Route 232) is a very attractive place, with a good hotel and a winter school on the Chalitauqaa plan. A short distance west of Longview the railway passes into Washington County (page 101), .closely following its northern bqundary to the Ohoctawhatchee Rive1, where it passes into Holme s County (page 39). Crossing numerous rapid streams, the Walton County line is reached at Argyle, whence are post roads south to the Scottish Colony that set;..

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352 RIVER JUNCTION-MARIANNA. tied in -this region early in the present century. DeFuniak Sp1-ings is the principal resort of t llis part of Florida. (See Route 232.) About one mile w est of. Orestvieu1 is the Wal ton-Santa Rosa Coun t y lin e. The stream crossed just be yond is Shoal River, a north fork of Yellow Wate1 Rive1. A t .1llilton (Route 233) the. line cros s e s the head of Black water Bay, the mouth of Black Rive1, a dee p, rapid str eam down which large quantities of lumber are flo ated to Pensa cola and a market. A run of about twenty minutes from Milton op e ns a refreshing view over Escambia Bay,, w hich the i:ailway presently crosses on a trestle 3 miles long. From t his poin t to Pensacola, about 20 mil es, the ride is most enjoyable for interest and beauty. Aft e r leaving the trestle the rails, as a rule, f o llow the wat e r side with the Escambia Bluffs inland, and occasional wooded points which momentarily cut oft' the bay view . 231. Marianna, Jackson County (C. H.). Population, 1,500. H
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lliARIANNA-DE FUNIAK SPRINGS. 353 and 8 feet deep, which joins Chipola River ten miles dii\ tant, not far above the milroad crossing. Long J}foss Spl'ing pours out a good-sized creek with such violence that fragments of .stone thrown into it will not sink. 'fhe who l e watershed of the Chipola in this vicinity is full of remarkable springs, crwes, n.nd sinks, which cannot be depended upon to remain the same fo1 any specified time. Early in the present century, the Apalachicola burst through into the Chipola, forming the Dead Lake of Calhoun County (page 12). 232. De Puniak Springs, Walton County (C. H.). Population, 2,000. HoTEL.-f:lotel Chautauqua, $2 a day. R AILROAD.-L & N. Rd.; east, to Peil!lacOla{SO miles); west, to River Junc tion (82 miles ) LivJ::RY.-Saddle horses, $2 a day. teams, $S Donbl o teams, $5. Guides, $1.50 a day. A nearly circular lake, which is, in fact, a spring, led to the establishment of the county seat, and of the prettiest modern village in West Florida. The lake is, according to local authorities, 64 feet deep and 300 feet above tide-water. On the bluffs surround ing the lake are the assembly buildi11gs and many cottages of residents. A plank walk, well shaded by the. forest trees, follows the line of houses overlooking the lake. Here, too, are branches of the State Normal School, a United States Experiment Station, and Presbyterian and Methodist Churches. C otton and sugar-cane ate succ e ssfully raised, and olive-tr ees grow in the open air. Tobacco culture and cigar making, and brick-yards are among the promising in dustries, but they will not be allowed to mar the beauty of the place. De Funiak stands in the healthful high pine re gion, but as the land slopes to the southward the pines give way to a hammock growth which extends to the belt of flat woods along the coast. The "Florida; Chautauqua Assembly," referred to above is intended to afford in a mild climate the adval\tages of fered by the famous Northern institution. Full infOl'fi)ation may be had by addrf)ssing the Secretary at DeFuniak Springs. 23

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354 MILTONPENSACOLA. 233. Milton, Santa Rosa County (C. H.). Populotion, 1,200. R.I.ILROAD.-L. & N. Rd. (Pcnsocola D:vision) ; southwest, to Pensacola (20 miles) ; east, to Rive r Junction (141 miles). One of the old towns of West Florida, retaining many of the traditional features of Southern society. The streets are well shaded by fine trees, and with its prett y white houses, schools, and churches it offers a most attractive appearance. Blackwater, just across the river, resemble s it in some re spects. Both plaees are largely interested in the lumber business. On Octob e r 25, 1864, Pensacola being held by the F ederals, and Milton by a small detachment of (Jonfed erates, an expedition was fitted out at Barancas to proceed up Black Water River and procure a supply of lumber, of which there were large quantities along shore. 'l'hrough a misapprehension of orders the original plan of landing at Pierce's Mill was abandoned, and the party, about 700 strong, proce_cded to 1\ii lton wllere they landed and had a brisk s1drmish with the Confederates who were s tationed there, dtiving them out of the town aml holding the place till the next day, when, after destroying some Confederate stores, the detachment returned to Barancas 24:0. Pensacola, Escambia County (C. H.). PopUlation (1890}, 11,751. Lat. go 23' N. Long. 87 12' W. HOTEL.-Tbe Continental, $3 to S4 a day R.I.ILROADS.-Louiaville '" Nashville (Pensocola Division) ; east, to River Junction, 16l: miles (7 h. 50 min.);. Pene!acola & Atlantic Rd. to Mobile, New Orleans, etc.; Pensacola, Fla., & Perdido Rd.; weat, to Mill view, 10 miles. History. PROBABLY the first European crew t o sail into the magnificent harbor of Pensacola was that of 1\iiruelo, a Spanish pilot, who found the natives fdendly, traded off his cargo of trinkets for silver and gold, and returned peacefully to Cuba (1516). Next some of Hernando de Soto's men re discovered the harbor about 1 536, but no use was made of

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P E NSA C O LA. 355 nnd i n September, 1558, Guido de Labazares, after a thorough examination of the coast with a view to permanent colonization, decided in favor of Pensacola Bay, which he named Filipina, and reported accordingly to his chief, the Governor of Cuba. A strong expedition wa.s sent out under Tristan de Luna in 1 559, with a view to permanent settlement at Pensacola but he went instead to I chuse (Santa Rosa Bay), where he lost everything in a hunicane. Miruelo numed the bay after himseli'; T1'istau called it Santa 1\Iar i a in 1558, and in 1693 Don Andre de Pes added "de Galva," in honor of the then Gove rnor of Mexico The eastern part of the bay is still charted as St. Maria de Galvez, but de Galvez is another man altogether, not born till neady a century later. 'l'he present name Pensacola is p1;obably that of the Indian tribe inh!tbiting the vicinity. It appears on D elisle's map ( 1 707), and was probrtbly applied to the surrounding country uy the Spaniards for many years before that time. I n 1696 Don And1e d' Arriola took possession, and built Fort San Carlos, whose ruins may still be seen near Fort Barancas He made the beginnings of a permanent settle men.t, but everything was destl'Oyed by the French in 1 719, and during the better part of that year the place was a bone of contention, the Spanish in the end coming off second best, and leaving the French in possession till 172 2 when dipl omac y stepped in and confirmed the Spanish claim. The town was soon rebuilt on Santa R osa I s l and, near where Fort P ickens now st.ands. A pl'int made ftom a sketch taken in 1743, and published it} Jeffries' naHative shows a stockade d fort, a government building; a church and thirty or more l esser structures. I n 1 754 a hurricane, in conjunction with a high tide, proved the insecurity of the l ocality, and the present site was selected. I n 1 763 Florida was ceded to the E nglish, and nearly all the Spanish 1 esident.s removed to Cuba. F1-ance and Spain, however, made friends in 1781 and under Don G alvez, of L ouisiana, and the Spanish Admiral Solano laid siege to the British garrison in P ensacola The place was strongly defended by two well manned forts, St. Mi-

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856 chael and St. Bernard, but the. accidental explosion of u. magazine compelled sunender after twelve davs of bom bar dment. A v e ry cieditable Spanish engraving of 1783 commemorates this triumph over the Engl ish, and with free, artistic license represents the instant of the exj:>Io sion. The ruins of Fort S t 1\fichael are still to be se e n near the head of Palafox Street. This surrender occurr e d May 9, 1781. Two years aftenvard Spanish possession was con firmed by re-cession on the part of England, a n d I'ensacola saw no more powder burned in earn est until 1814, when with Spanish consent the English under Col onel Nichols gar risoned the forts at Barancas and Santa Rosa and hoisted the British flag. England b eing then at war with the Uni t e d States, Nichol s issued a proclamation urging the inhabi tants of L ouisiana and Kent ucky to join his stanaarcl. In dian massacres were incited along the border, and summary measures were nec essary. This was in August On Novem ber 6th General Andrew Jackson, with 5,000 Tennesse e ans and a number of Indian alli e s, was before Pensacola. Re connoitring parties were fired upon from the forts, and Jackson prepared to storm the place. By clever manage ment he catTie d the outworks, and gained possession of the town with trifling loss on No vember 14th. The Spanish governor promised the unco11ditional surren der of the forts in return for a p1 omise of safety for the town, but during the succeeding night the British aban doned St. 1\ficha e l and St. Bernard, b l ew up Barancas, and escap e d to sea. Jackson withdrew after occupying the :place for two days, and marched eastw a r d where h e subdued the I ndians and l 'e mained iu the vicinity to p re serve the peace. In 1818 he was again obligecl to occupy Pensacola, to show the Spaniards that he was in eam est. This and other proceedings of an energetic c11aracter on the part of Jackson opened the eyes of Spain to the American idea of "manifest destiny," and in 1819 n e gotiations were begun which resulted in cession to the United States. Pensacola was too strong to suffer materially during the Semi nole wars, and thanks to h e r fine harbor, which was

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PENSACOLA. 357 made an important' naval station, in 1830 she became the most considerable seaport in Florida. Florida passed her Ordinance of Secession on January 10, 1861. By that time the movement at the South had developed great strength, while divided counsels and an uncertain policy at the North still prevented summary measures for the suppression of armed rebellion. The ganison of Fort Bnr ancas during the winter of 1860-61 consisted of a company of the First Artillery, forty-eight men, commanded by Lieutenant A.J. Slemmer. 1rhroughout the winter the attitude of the authorities of Florida and Alabama had become more and more threatening, until, on January 8, 1861, Lieutenant Slemmer notified General Scott, Commander-in-Chief at Washington, that the danger was imminent. That same night a company of about twenty men approached Fo1-t Barancas, hoping to take possession unopposed. A geant's guard had, however, been stationed in the fort and when this was discovered the intending assailants retired. The incident was enough to show the danger of delay and on January lOth, Lieute11ant Slemmer removed his command to Fort Pickens, where he could offer formidable resistance even with the small force at his disposal. Captain (after ward Commodore) James Armstrong, U.S.N., a Kentuckian by birth, was in command at the Navy Yard, having two vessels at ha, nd, the Supply, Captain Walker, and the Wyan dotte, Captain Berryman, with a few men available for de fence. From Lieutenant Slemmer's report of the transfer of troops and munitions it is apparent that he distrusted Cap tain Armstrong's loyalty. At all events l1e failed t o secure much-needed assistance from the Navy Yard, but eventually effected the transfer of his command and, at cost of arduous labor day and night, put the fort in passable condition for defence. On the morning of Januaq 12th the surrender of the Navy Yard was demanded by Colonel William H. Chase, eom manding some twelve hundred Confederate troops, and Captain Armstrong capitulated, effectual resistance being ob viously impossible. The few men stationed at the yard were mustered near the flag-staff when the Confederates marched

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358 PENSACOLA. in unopposed, and Lieutenant R e nshaw o1dered William Conway, a seaman grown old in the service, to haul down the flag in token of surrender. The habit of obedienc e is strong in a man-of-war's man, but Conway was equal to tl1e occasion. He is said to have used tolembly strong language his superior. officer i n refusing to obey this unprecedented command. Conway's faithfulness under exceptionally trying chcumstances wa.<> promptly recognized and rewarded by Congress But there were plenty of hands ready to do the ser vice, and presently the anxi ous little garrison at Fort Pi<:lrens sorrowfully watched the United States ensign lowered from the Navy Yard flag -s taff while the Con federate colors rose to its place. After the surrender of the Navy Yard, Lieutenant Slem mer was reinforced by the 31 faithful sea men who refused to desert their colors, and now had 82 men all told, including nominal non-combatants, to defend a fort designed for a gar rison of 1,200 men. The same evening, just after retreat, a deputation of Confederate officers, headed by Captain Ran dolph, pre sented themselves at the gate of Fort Pickens, asked for the commanding officer n .nd made a de mand for the surrender of the fort in the name of the States of Florida and Alabama. Slemmer replied that he was there under the orders of the President and that he recognized no right o f any governor to demand a surrender of United States property. On January 15th Co l onel Chase made a formal d emand for the surrender, presenting, in temperate and comteous but forcible terms, the futility of resistance. Slemmer !tll swered as before, saying that while h e deprecated bloodshed lw would defend his post until compelled to surrender. In the meantime the little garrison had been working all day strengthening the defences, lying by the guns at night on the rainswept parapet, often c alled to quarters by false alarms, and wellnigh exhausted. Not a wo1cl of complaint was ut tered, however, and under exceptio n ally trying circu m st. ances a vigilant watch was maintained until eventually re inforcements came from the Nol't h Much credit is due to Colonel Chase, whose prudent course nndonhtedly restrainecl

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PENSACOLA. 359 precipitate action on the part of the h a lf-disciplined troops then unde1 his command. H e was a native of M assachusetts and a graduate of West Point. Unti l he resigned from the army in 1856 he was an officer of the engineer corps, and the forts at Pensacola were largel y constructed under his super vision. Knowin g the strength of the works, he used all his influence to pl'event an attack which must have resulted in a. bloody repulse. Colonel Chase took no fmiher a-ctive pad in the rebellion, being probably somewhat distrusted by the Confederate authorities bec.'l.use of his Northern bil'th. He died in P ensacola in 1 870 'rhe U. S. steamship Brookly n with a company .of the First Artillery under Captain Vo dges, ha
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360 PENSACOLA. reinforced. Colonel Harvey Browi1 was assigned -to the command of all United States troops in Florida. During the night of April 12th, a strong force of soldiers, marines, and seamen was landed on Santa Rosa Island undel' cover of darkness last this imp(ntant post was secure to the United States. Subsequently a regiment of N e w York volun teers, "Billy Wilson's Zouaves," was sent from the North anil placed in camp on the island, east of li'ort Picke ns. On April 26th, according to a contemporary newspaper, Bragg's forces numbered 8, 000, ancl a semi-circle of fortifica tions had been thrown up on t.he main land, extending from the Navy Yard to Fort 1\'IacRae. The summer passed without open hostilities, but on October 9th, the Confederates took the initiative, landing a force of 1,200 men aud attacking the Zouave camp a mile east of Fort Pickens. The first shots were fired about 2 A.M. and the attack was successfu l at first, dire confn:sion resulting before t he regiment could be formed. Two companies of regulars were sent from the fort, and Wilson, having gotten his men in hand, the enemy was soon driven t o his boats. 'l'he Federal loss was 14: killed, 53 wounded and missing. That of the Confeclel'ates, 21 killed 60 wounded and missing. The camp of the Zouaves was fired and almost wholly dest royed. On November 22, 1861, fire was opened from Fort Pickens upon the Confederate works on the mainland, and the frigates Niagam ancl Richmond drew in as near as possible and devoted their attention mainly to Fort l\facRne and the adjoining batteries. 'fhe Confederat e b atteries responded, and an artillery dnel wns kept up for two days The pUl' pose of the Federal gunners was to dest .roy the stores and workshops at the Navy Yard, and do as much damage as possible to the Confederate bat.tcries. A nurnber of buildings were knocked to pieces by the shot and shell, and the town of 'Varrenton was greatly damaged, being in the direct line of fire. The loss of life on both sides was trifling, as is invariably the case in artillery duels where guns are prope1ly protected. At 11.30 P.M., 1\fay 8, 1862, the Confederates abandoned their posts in the neighborhood of Pensacola, as i s credibly

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PENSACOLA . 361 stated, to reinforce M obile. A n att.empt was made by them to destroy Fort MacRae, the lighthouse, and the buildings in the Navy Yar d, but as soon as their design was evident to the commandin g officer in .Fort Pickens, he opened fire in the hope of pre venting the total destruction of all combus tible public property In this he probabl y succeed ed, for when daylight came it was found that seveml buil dings at the Navy Yard remained standing, though preparatio ns had been made to fire them. Parts of Pensacola were likewise bmned, also the village of warrenton, near the N avy Yard United States troops took possession and the flames where possible, and hoisted the stars and stripes once more over the Navy Yard. As soon as it was light enough to cross the bar, some of the blockading squadron went up to the city and called upon the authorities to sunender. This was not accompli shed until the anival of another gun-boat made it imperative. The peop l e went to work to extinguish the flames, and in the course of o. few hours comparatiYe order was restored. No serious a.ttempt was subsequently made hy the Confederates to regain possessi on of thes e posts. ExcunsiONS. -1'he Ports and the Navy Yard. Steamer f1om Long Whal'f, foot of P alafox Street. 'rhe boat stops at the Navy Yard at night, leaves for P ensacola at 8 A.llf. and 3 P.M. L eaves for N avy Yard at 10 A.M. a.nd 5 P.M. (Fare for round trip, 50c.) The same boat carries passengers to Forts Pickens and lVIacRae, if desired. There is an o!d govemment road in fair condition from P ensacola to the Navy Yard. The trip down the bay is highly enJoy able. Off the is usually a busy scene, a larg e fleet o f ,-essels loading lumber from rafts alongside The shipping interests of Pensacola are of great commercial impol' tunce. The latest accessible returns show more than five hundred entrances and cleamnces of vessels annually, with a total register of about 350,000 tons. The main is in lumber, the exports amounting yearly to abon t 140,000,000 feet. Besides this there is growing up a large export trade in coo.l from the Alab ama mines, for which there is a large and increasing demand in the West Indies. The wooded point opposite the city, Santa R osa Park,

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362 PENSACOLA separates P ensacola Bay fro m Santa Ross. Sound. The opening, P ass l'Este, with the vessels at the quarantine stat.ion, comes in sight a few minutes after leaying the wh arf. To seaward are the irregular sand-dunes of Santa Rosa Island, with Fort Pickens at its western point, and the yel low walls and buildings of the N a vy Yard on the mai n l an d opposite. (See historical sketch of Pensacola.) The Navy Yard is an immense encl osure, n ow almost deserted. A few offi cers are stationed here, with eno ugh artificers and watch men to take care of the government property. Some of the quarters were burned when the Confederate ttoops n.bandoned the place, but, consid ering the artillery fir e to which they were exposed for two days, the damage was small. Very p icturesque and quiet is the old yard with its shaded esplanade, wharves of so li d masonry, and well-built shops, all crum l>ling through neglect; for, in the jnJgment of the authorities, the Pensacola station is no longer of p rac tical use to the Navy. Fort Barancas and the lighthouse, with the remain s of the old Spanish fort, are within walking distance to the we stward. A company of art ill ery is u sually stationed at the fort. No visitor should fail to walk Ol' ride through these b eautiful, though for tho most part uncnred f or, g1ounds. N o guide is required. The visitor may wander at will through the extensive works, and watch as long as he will the schools oi mullet playing abont the deserted wharves. At the commandan t s office at the Navy Yard, or at the adjutant's office in Fort Barancas, special direction::; o1 information can always be obtained. P ensaoola Bay (see map, p. 2 8) divides into thre e smaller arms about 1 0 miles from the Gulf, Santa .Jfm'ia ck Galvez Bay to the eastward, and Escambia Bay to the westward. The latter bay is 11 miles long, and 4 miles wide. Into it flows Escambia from the north, 1eceiving numerous tributaries. The bordering lands are in general low nnd fre quently overfl owed. Santa M aria de Galvez, al)Qttt the same s iz e as E scambia, subdivide s again into Bay, which r eceives a 1iver of the same name, and Cecfm Oreek.

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PENSACOLA. 363 This arm is about 7 miles by 2 mi l es, and is full of islands Yellow Water Rive1 falls into the main arm of the Bay. It is navigable for small. craft some 40 miles from its mouth. Shoal River, crossed by the railroad about 20 miles east of 1\Iilton, is its principal tributary. East Bay, the easterly subdh, ision of Bay, is a fine body of water deep, sheltered, and affording excellent anchorage. It is about 7 miles long, nanowing at the head into a small creek. On the southeast it is connected with Santa .Rosa Sound, Choctawhatchee Bay, and the Gulf thtough Pass l'Este. Big is an arm of Pensacola Bay, 1! mile above Tartar Point. Ba!JOU Chico is a pretty land-locked sheet of water for merly utilized as a harb0r for small craft. On its shores was Camp Clinch, during the state of quasi war with Spain (1814-1818). Bayou Texm falls into the Esc ambia Bay n mi l e above P ensacola. Pe'rdido Bay (map, p. 28), into which flows a river of the same name, separates Florida from Alabama on the west. It is a land-locked sheet of water with a narrow, crooked outlet, and a shifting bar with not more than 7 feet at l ow tide. The hay itself however, has a considerable dept .h, is 30 miles long, and from 2 miles to 6 miles wid e. 'fhc shores. are in many places quite high, composed of clay bluffs, and covered with an almost unbroken forest of pines The river is navigable for small s teame1s about 7 miles from its mouth. It rises i n Alabama, ancl is a good mill stream. Both ri\er and bay abound with fish. A western arm of the bay is called La Lance, an indication that we are nearing a region first settled by French. Spanish names are almost the invariable rule in Florida, but French names predomi nat e west 9f Perdido Bay, ancl the F'l:ench tongue is still largely spoken.

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364 THE GULF COAST OF WEST FLORIDA. 25 0. Th e Gulf' Coast of West Florida. F1om Perdido Bay to Cedar Key the coast sweeps in two gteat curves with capes San Blas and St. George between them. Ther e is no continuous outer line of islands, though there are very extensive and beautiful disconnected bays at short intervals as far east as Dog Island. Beyonu this the bays disappear, and from the St. Mark's River to Cedar Key there is no s helter except for boats of very light draft which can find their way into the many streams and inlets. Choc tawlwtchee Bay (see map, p. 100) lies eas t and west within its outlying islands, about 40 miles, with a width of 7 mil es to 15 miles, and from 6 feet to 1 2 feet of water. Navigation for vessels drawing more than 6 feet is very d oubtful, since the depth of water is much affected by storms, and many bars extend far .out into the bay . The always trustworthy sharpie will however slide safely over most of them. The s hoies along the eastern part of the bay are l ow, and l a rgely bordered with reeds and grass. Farther to the westward the land is higher, with freqnent shell-hammocks, pine barrens, and live-oak woods. 'rhe Choctawhatchee Rive1 is tho principal fresh-water tributary of this bay. It rises in Alahnmo. about 1 50 miles from tide-wate1 and i s nn.vignble about 80 miles. The main hibuto.ry is Pea Rive-r The last named is really the larger of the two streams. The cou.fluenco is near the Florida line. Euchee Cree k enters from the west ward 25 miles from the mouth, and Sandy Creek about 4 miles. From the westward come Hohns, Big Bmten, and .Pond the fhst named navigable at all times as far as B ig Spi ing and to Sh!l.ckl eford, 15 m i l es farther, duriug average high .Aliqua River rises nmong the" knobs" of Walton County, springing almost full-grown from the ground. Its total length is about 25 miles, and it is navigable 15 miles. It emp ties into Choctawhatchee Bay. St .And1ew's Bay (map, p. 102) l 1as 18 or 20 feet of wa t e r on the bar, goo d anchorage, and perfect shelter from all winds. The bay is very irregular in shape, stretcl1ing its

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THE GULF COAST OF WEST FLORIDA. 365 al'ms up into the country to theN. W. and S. E. for 30 miles. Hammock Island gual'ds the entrance from the Gulf. On the and 2d of December, 1863, a destructive raid was made by a detail of men from the gun-boat Restless along St. Andrew's Bay, the object being to put an end to the salt works, public and privat e, from which the Confederacy largely drew its supplies. Nearly two hundi'ed establishments, hrge !tnd small, were broken up, according to Rear Admiral Bailey's report .. The town of St. Andrew's was shelled and, taking fire, was pattly burned. A very large amount of Con. federate salt and stores was thus destroyed. On Ja.nuary 27th following, another similar expedition ascended the river above St. Andrew's, and completed the work of destruction by breaking up some ninety more salt-works lVetappo Rive1 has its source in Washington County, west of the Chipola. For twenty miles it twists and turns in every imaginable direction. For the last five mile:> before falling into St. Andl'ew's Bay it i s less tortuous, 1eceiving the S. E. Branch. 'rhe branch i s eas i ly navigable. St. Joseph's Bay (map, p. 12) has a wid(\ entrance from the northwest, with 17 feet of water on the bar. Between False Cape antl the mainland, however, there is a '' !_lliddle with 9 feet of water in some places. The main bay is 7 miles to 8 miles wide, a:nd 2 miles long, its major axis running nearly north and south. the southeast end of the bay is a fine island covered with a heavy grove of live oak, cedar, palms, and the usual hammock growth of the Gulf Coast. The crooked island that forms the bay reaches well out to sea, forming Cape San Blus. Elsewhere, the sand is blown up into fantastic dune. s behind which the pine forest has secured a foothold, and serves as a landmark to sailors long before the lowl ying shore can be seen. San Blas light stands on the south point of the cape in Lat. 29 4:0' N., Long. 85 21' W. The light was established in 1847 but abandoned in 1885, and the present hon .skeleton structure erected. The ruins of the old tower and oil room are still standing 300 yards from the end of the cape in 8 feet of water. The present tower is 98 feet high. The light flashes red and white altel'llately n.t intervals of 30 seconds .

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366 '.rHE GULF COAST OF WEST FLORIDA. It is visible 15t nautical miles. A dangerous shoal e:x.tends !5 or 6 miles southerly from the cape. Apalachicola Bay (see map, p. 30) is formed by the islands of St. Vincent and St. Gemge, is 30 miles long, o.nd o.verages 8 miles wide. There is generally 14 feet of water on the bar. St. Vincent's Island, defining the bay on the west, is roughly speaking, an isosceles triangle in shape, nearly 10 miles on its longer sides. It is covered with a dense growth of magnolias, live-oaks, and palms, and much of i ts surface is green with a natural growth of grass. Fine springs of fresl1-water are found on the island, and a considerable stream flows into the bay on the eastern shore. St. Ge&rge's island, forming the sound of that nam e stretches for 40 miles along the coast, generally in a northeast direction. The seaward side is blown into high parallel sand-ridges rising in some places 30 to 40 feet above the beach. Behind these are pines interspersed with occasional hammock and marshe s forming the inland shore Cape St. George light is a white tower 73 feet high showing a fixed white light visible 14 nautical miles at sea. The light was established in 1847. It st. ands in Lat. 29 35' 18' N., L ong. 85 02' 52'' 'vV. Sea-going vessels keep 8 miles off shore on account o f shoals making out southward from the cape. Dog Island, at the eastern extremity of the sound, forms an admirable harbor. Appalache Bay (se e map, p. 98) is properly only a bight or in the coast affording no safe shelter from south erly gales. It is full o f reefs and shoals, twenty from shore, and though navigation between tllese is safe and easy in calm weather, they are very dangerous to careles s navi gators. Vessels drawing 8 feet may enter Spanish Hole, where good shelter and anchorage is found. Appalache Bay is bordered to the eastward by prairies.

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?lfiSCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 367 Miscellaneous Information. Oranges The wild Florida orange, while not altogether ble to the taste, is not generally regarded as edible. It is largely cultivated for ornamental purposes. The sweet or China orange is a native of India Thence it was originally brought by the Arabs and found its way to Florida by way of Spain and the West I ndies. Orange-trees grow, thrive, and ripen excellent fl'Uit all over Florida,. but there are certain districts where tl1ey thrive better and produce finer fruit than elsewhere. The Orange Belt proper is within the limits of 1\:liddle Florida, but a very large proportion of the crop is grown on the banks of the St. John's River as far north as Jacksonville. The Indian River and Halifa..x River regions produce oranges that are unsurpassed in beauty, juiciness, and flavQI', and again in the vicinity of Ocala and along the Gulf Coas t the Homosassa orange, originating on Tiger Island, the old Yulee plantation, is among the choicest varieties. 'rhe question as to the best soil for oranges bids fair to remain unsettled for many a year. The traveller who is in terested in such matter, will hear the most contradictory asser tions from equally w ell-informed and trustworthy experts. In the high pine region he will be told that while fertilizers should there be used at first, the trees require less and. less as titne goes on, and after a few years require little, if any thing, more than is supplied by nature and ol'dinary care. In the low-lying hammocks along the Halifax and Indian Rivers he will hear that there no fertilizel's whatever are required, that in fact they injure the trees and cause the fruit to deteriorate. So, too, on the high hammocks, and even among ''flat woods," he will find orange-growers who are prepared to demonstrate that no other lands can pioduce equally fine oranges. The only fair inference is that these different condi tions are good, each in its own way. As to which soi l or which district produces the finest fruit, or which particular

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3Gci MISCELLANEOUS INFOR::VIA'ION. kind of fruit is finest, individual preferences or prejudices must govern. Among the most famous orange groves are the following: The Durnmit Grove on. Indian River, near Han lover, Brevard County; the Harris Grove, near Citra, J.\IIarion County; the Hart Grove, near Palatka, Putnam County ; the Belair G1 oves, near Sanford, Orange County; the Tiger Tail Island Grove, near Homosassa, Citrus Countv. v The Florida orange is probably the finest in the. world, as even European experts are beginning to. acknowledge. Its superiority lies in the thinness of its skin, rendering it easie1 to eat without tasting the acrid oil as with the thiclt-skinned varieties; and in its peculial'ly abundant juic{ness, and delidons flavor. These qualities are especially noted in semi tropical Florida, where occasional light frosts seem to bene fit rather than injure the trees when once they have matured. Iri Florida orange-trees begin to bear eatable fruit at 5 to 8 years from budding, on good stock. Fl'om the seecl they require from 10 to 20 years, and in any case are not certainly "true" to the seed H ow long trees will live and flourish is not yet certain, since the oldest known specimens in Flor ida are not more than 50 years old. In Spain there are orange trees with an authenticated record of 700 years, and Hampton Court, in England, there are specimens that l1ave been growiJ1g under glass nearly half as long. The brownish or rusty appearance of many Florida oranges is only objectionable because it detracts from the beauty, and therefore from the market value of the fruit. It is caused by a minute insect that the skin so that the essential oil exudes and oxidizes on exposure to the air. The flavor of "rusty" oianges is by many believed to be better than that of the pure golden specimens. Oranges generally ripen dming January and February, and will hang upon the trees in perfect condition until summer is well ad vanced. If l'ennitted to remain on the trees, however, they are subject to many dangers that may be prevented by gathering and storing. The Floiida orange crop of 1 889-90, according to the trustworthy returns of the tmnsportation companies, was, in

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MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 369 round numbers, z,ooo;ooo boxes. This, of course, represents only the amount shipped for a market, and does not include home consumption. L emons Lemon-trees are rather more sensitive to cold than oranges, hence they cannot be regarded as a saf e crop in the n01them parfof the State, though unde r exceptional conditions they will grow u p to the Georgia line. They require a dry soil, and will not grow on the hammock s. The Florida lemon does not yet command the market. It has the reputation of being too big, too thick-skinned, and not satisfactory in flavor. All these faults are probably due to lack of intelligent culti vation. It is believed by many planters that the l emon at no very distant day rival the orange as a. profitable crop. Fine lemon groves may be seen in B elair County, and sm aller ones are scattered tlll'oughout the Orange Belt. L imes. Limes will grow safely and well under ordinary conditions south of Palatka, and in favorable localities somewhat fal'ther n01th. The variety common i n Florida is a native o f Mexico. The fruit is availabl e for many of the uses that create a demand for lemons. It is more generally used abroad than in America, but is steadily gaining favor. Limes are generally raised from the seed, and require little. care. It will come into profitable beating, say 3;000 limes to a in about twelve years. C i trons. In Florida. two varieties of this f1'Uit are successfully cultivated, namely, the orange citron and the lemon citron. Its value ari ses from its thick, fragrant rind, which is preserved and candied for the use of cooks and confectioners. The curing proc ess bas only of late been perfected, but the Florida product is now making its way in the home mar-sets. 24

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370 MISCELLANEOU S INFORMATION. Grape Fruit. This is, by goo d n.nt:bority regarded as a variety of the Shaddock, but its habit of g t owt h is peculiar, hang in g in grape-like bunches, and its ilavo1 is a refreshing combina t ion ofacidity, bitterness, and grapes. The liking for it, like that for fresh figs, has often to be acqull-ed . Grape fruit is becomin g quite popular in the NortherB markets, which it reaches in D ecember o1 thereabout. Pineapples. The s u ccessful cultivation of pineapples on a. lal'g e sca l e and fo1 market is n. new industry in F lorida, and has not yet enacted for itself a reguhu code of laws. 'rhe pine is largely an air-plant. It thrives on third-class ph1e lancl on the bluffs of Indian River, and on the coralline keys of the far south. The finest existing planta.tions are at Eden, some 20 miles above Jupiter Inlet, on Indian R iver. The pineapple bear s fruit once and then dies, "suckers" springing U } ) from the base of the leaves near the ground. From these suckers the plant is propagated, as also f1om the crests" of the leaves, from cer tain tufts called crown from slips," and from" eyes." I n d eed, the whole } )lant fairly bristles with regenerative processes, the suckers being generally regarded as affording the best and surest growth Within a few ye a r s an enormous number of pine apples will be grown in Flol'i da. The demand i s not ou l y for table use, but fo1 various ext1acts and flavors used by confectioners.

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MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 371 The Native Races of Florida. A t the time of its discovery by the Spaniards, in 1513, pe ninsular Florida appears to l1ave been peopled by a race sim ilar in manners, language, and customs to the Lucayans of Bahama and the Caribs of the West Indian and Wind ward Islands. The word hammock, frequently used in this lmndbook, and meaning land whereon hard wood grows, is the sole survival in English of the original tongue. These people were largely agricultural, were bold navigators, and brave warriors. There were several confederacies within the peninsula, often at war with each other, but generally pre serving their independence. Such were the provinces of T egesta. and Caloosa where now are Dade, Munroe, and Lee The region of Tampa Bay was Tocobaga, and op posite, on the Atlantic coast nnd the St. John's River, was the dominion of Utina, who held court on a large domiciliary mound near the outlet of Lake George. Toward the north and west t hese Carib races became merged in the Red Indian type, notably the Apalaches, who were, even in Soto's time; the acknowledged superiors of all the ot.her tribes. Their territory was between the Suwannee and Ap palachicola Rivers. Soto found them almost half civilized, and left them with their chief towns in ashes and most of their warriors slain. All the early explorers speak admiringly of the native Floridian races. They were of large stature, light olive brown in color, and given to tat.tooing their skins. 'fhey were very intelligent, re!l.dy to learn, and often possessed of courteous, dignified manners . In the beginning they were dispo sed to be friendly to Europeans, but very naturally 1esented attempts at conquest, and proved their dauntless courage on many a hard-fought fieid. Early in the eighteenth century serious dissensions arose among the. Creeks and Cherokees of Alabama, and undeL the leadership of one S a coffee a strong party seceded, invaded the Alachua region, subjugated the surrounding tribes, whose strength had been broken hy the Spanis h scourge, and became known as "Seminoles," or outlaws. Other northern tribes, as the

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372 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. Y emassees and others of the Creek family, followed their example, and by the beginning of the nineteenth centmy the Seminoles had overrun the State and the native Floridian had disapp eared or intermarried to au extent that left few traces of his existence Seminole Word s, Phrases, Names, etc . For the following list of words and their meanings the au thor is indebted to memoranda furnished by Mr. Kirk 1\iunroe, in addition to that published in the "Florida An nual; to li sts and chance references in Sprague's "Florida \Var," and to Indians and hunters whose \'ersions, if some times c onfusing, h ave in general verified the accuracy of the vocabula ry So far as known, no syst-ematic attempt has ever been mad e to codify this language beyond imper fect voca.bularies compiled at random, as in the present in stance. It has no written signs save rude hie roglyphics, bas no word for a Sllpreme Being, and apparently no conjuga tions and infl exio ns. The accent falls almost invariably upon the final sy llables kah, pah, nah, and the like which one is tempted to regard as different p1onunciations of one and the same word an article, perhaps. It is very difficu l t to convey or obtain a. translatable idea from a Seminole. F ew of them are willing to impart any information concern ing themselves or their language. In conversation among themselves they use the l ong, clumsy names given in the vocabulary, even for the common es t articles of every-day nse. Alachua (name of county), Big place where waters go down. Alligator, At-la-pa.t-tah. Alive, A -lat-tchu m-pah. American, Fatsh4y -not-kah. Arm, 'l'ch-suk-pah. Astonishment, expression of, I-cela.h. Axe, Pot-sasnah. Bad (adj.), HtU-wah. Bad (no good, exclamation of con tempt), Ho-lee-walgus. Bad (That is a bad mao), sl.ha,y. B311,-I'o-ko. Ball Come and play ball, Po-kq..tchah-lut-tcluly. Basket, Tchan-,...pah. Bat, Stlk-bt'H-hah Bay-tree, Isto-mikko. Beads, 'l'chak-c-shah.. Beads, Kon-no-walt. B eads, Jra-koo-see (!ficcosukee). Bear, No-koo-see B ed, 'l'o-pah. Bed, Po-ta-kah. Bewildered, 1!:-soo-bah. Big swamp, Bird, Ft._., or, Fm-tod.h. Bitter, sour, At-malt.

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MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. Black, Lus-ta. Black man, Is-ulus-tee. Black water, Wee-lus-te
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374 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMAT ION. H andkerchief, E-1w-chee -aw. I Moon, Keth-lee-hlus -see. Hat, Kap-hah-to-kah. Mothe r 'J'chat-skee. Hatchet?. J>ut-l<:hm-u;ah. Mole, 'l'c-kah.leec H ead, ft-kM, I Mouth, 'l'chuk-wall.. Hero IYak-ko. Mosquit o, 0-kee ha.h. E-Uho-!o-ko. Muskmelon, Fo-ntfs tchah. . House-fly, 'l'chah-nah. Moustache or beard, Tchak-t&IIZY Houses (the red houses), Tchu-tchuMy own, E-'ree tcltat-tee Mystery, !Yah-kull -lah. Husband, Eltec (also au expl'C$sion of alfect\m) I:Ie (pronoun) l:'lard, lftm-cc-lah. Very bard, Hun-ee-lah-mas-tcltag. Heart, E.f-fah-galt High, U l-uay. Hill, E-k-at-mo.h. Orator, Yah-tee;-kah. Orator, Yall-tee-ka h kluk-ko. I Ali-lvJ..!&ah. Owl, Http-pee I do not understand, Gitrlb-stJUlh. O sceola (name of a Seminole chief), I ce, Hittlrtag. Rising Sun. Ibis1 Kat-ka,trah wah. Indtan (red man), Is-tce-tchat-tu. Palm J (name of a p!aee), 'I Pal:ne! to, or 'J'ah-lah. a place 11 bere deer feed, a deer pas. Saw palmetto, ture. Palmeuo, 'J.'ah-lah-io-!:o. Koehadjo (a famou s chief), Jfad partrfdge. Knife, lilaf-kah Know (I <{on't know), Lake, It-tee-ni-ah. Lake, Wet-ee-!;ah. Lake, IYee-pal-lo-kee-see. Leader, B-m.atllah Leggings, U-fee-W..h-kall.. Leggings (lowerl, Tak-jull-wah. Lie. It is a lie (literally, that fellow Ilea much), tch'kg. He-li es, Light ( not dark), Sa-path-atrkee. Litl!o (diminutive) 'l'chee. Little boyl Llltlo gir l s -tah-tchee. Magician, J.Hee-!dJ Z.wah. or To-lo. Palmetto (cabbage palm), knl-.\ee or klttk-ko. Paroquct, Po tchee-lah-r:ec. Partridge, Ko-ee. Pelloan, Sok-pah-kah. Pon ( ymd), 'J'c-:r-op e e -kee (see fort). Poncil, Swat-tch ah kall. Pepper range, Ho rno-sass-sah. Person, Js-te.e. Pigeon, Pitrtchee. Pine-t ree, Tehfl-olec. P ipe, Pitblocoocbee (name of a river), Canoe creek. Plaza, a public square, Tchuk-kokluk-ko. Potato, A 1.,.1ah. P retty (adj.), Prell y (you are pretty), Tchee-hink lass. :Rabbltb 'l'cll.o-fee. :a a In, os-kee. Rattlesnake, Tckitrta la-koo. Man, Han-nah-tcah. Mantle, Kap-pah -klut-ko. Maple, Ha.l&>-no. Rattlesnake poison, Antido t e for, PaTHah Match, E-sah-toots -kah. Medic ne bag, Hal-ist-cha1JY11Jay. Mile. distance, Ah-kas kah. Mirror, Slok-hitch kah. Moccassin (shoe ), Stal lah-pee-kah. Moccassin (snake). Wee-hat-kag. Mocking bird, F'us:.cay-hah -yah. Money, Moo:1, Hal&>-lesssee Racket stick, To R ed, 'J'cltat -tee. :Red-bay-tne, Itt
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.MISCELLANEO. US INFORMATION. 3 75 San:l fly, I T ree, / t,.to. Savanna, prairie, Wu.hab-kag. Tribe, .A.lkee. Scalp, ..... u1n-har. Trout-cr eek, Tchu-lah-pah-pah. Scalp lock, Is-&ay. Turkey, Pe'llwe-wah. Scis 'ors, Su-tu-kah. Turtle, IJ1tb-tcha Seminole,' Outlaw wildmru.1, runawa y Shingle, Ah-tchec-nah . Understand, I don' t unde rstand, Kit Ship, large ves so l P ithlo-hok-to laa:-tclw.h. Shirt, Shirt, Pok sah-kee. Wakulla (nam e of county), Myster y Shoe, vVar, to-lec-teth-:oah Short, Kahtl!huk-ka h -no-si/1 (add War-cry, 1'o-lu;ec-tdtee. tt'h:634!ee. NUMERALS One, Harn-kin Two, U'okolin. Three, Tut-sa-nan. Four, Oos-ten. Five, 'l.'chocta-pin. Six, E-par-kin. Seven, /{o-la-p a r-l. :in. :f:igh t Sen-na-par-kin. N i n e, 01>$-to-pll!l'-ki:>l. T eo, P c'Tlin.

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376 MISCELLANEOUS INFORl\IATIQN; Eleven, lfam-ko-Za.-lin. Twelve, NAMES OF PLACES. The following is a partial list of names of places in Florida, with their ll.'ugllsh meanings. Alachua, The big jug. A! aqua (sec page 1), -sweet gum. Annutilaga, The pl.ace. Apopka (see page 228). Ohase howiska, Pumpkin Key. Ohohuchatty, 'he red horu;C$, Oholon poleing a boat. Etonia, P rumetto scrnb. Fenhalloway Young turkey. H alpatioka, Many alligators. Hichepoksasa, Man y pipes. Homosassa, Pepper-range. Istachatta (name of a town), mansnake. Istopoga (i ste atepoga ). Someone drowned. L ocktshapo pka, Acorn to eat. M iccanopy ( a Seminole chief, and t h o name of a town ) Chief-of-chief s. M y akka, Fine country. Ocala (name of a town), Green or fortile land . Okeechobee, :ID,e: water. Okihurnkcet... Bad water. Oklawaha, 1Jilrk water. Oklockonee, Crooked. Deep va!ley. Pilaklalakha, Scattered hammocks. Tobopekaliga, Place of cow pens. Tathrapopkahatchee,} Cat .fisb eating Isalopopkahatchee, creek (eee Ap-opka). Wakahonta, Cowpasture. (name of town) cow pas-ture. Wakulla, 'Mystery. Wekewache, Water. W ckiva, B itt spring. Withlacoocnee, Swift river (or "long narrow water") Wewakiahakee,"Clear water.

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MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 377 Oomparative Temperature and Rainfall in Florida. Compiled from the U. S W catber Bureau Reports Mean temperature (in l:i'al1.1 enheit) and atrage rtlinfall (in incltes and lt1.mdredtlts) at stations of the Signal Se1vice, United States A rmy, for each season of the year. (Computed the commenc ement of oosen-aUons X>LE FLOR I ..; J IDA., INC LUX> ESTABLISHED. <:: ... 110 ., I E ,.; ,. a ,.; lNG ATLANTIC <:: e 2 a AN X> GULF -a 0:: 8 _, .!3 ... " COASTS. "-" =::: = !::: tf) rn < l:ll < ---Jackson ville ... Sept. 11, 1871. 6ll.t l 81.4 nfl.!l f -56.8! 10.47 17. 791R. <019.74 Sanfurd ........ Sept. 1, 1882. 71.6 SJ.5 n.:i 61.U I 8 4 l 4.7'J Cedar Key ..... Nov 7, 1!!79. 70.3 81.7 72 4 60.1 8.86 24 1011.7211.18 I SUBTROPICAL FLOBIX>A. Jupiter ...... Jan. 1, 1888. 72 .4 &0.0 75 ,. f.9 4 Key West ....... Nov. 1 1870. 76.9 88.8 78.8 70 8 6.10 18.47 14.80 5.94 WEST.FLORil>A. I ' Pensacola . . . Oct. 27, 1879. 67 9 80.3 6\1. 5 156.014.84 22.53 15.l)2i14: 92 I [The mean temperature Is deducccl from the three telegraphic observations, taken at the same moment of Wa$hfngto n time at all 1'he seasoM com prise the following months: SpringM n rch, April, and May; summerJune, July, a n d Augnst; autumn-September, October, and November ; and winter-December, January, ancl February. Observations prior to August 25, 1872, were taken at7.8l> 4.35 and 11.80 P.M. (Washington time); from A ugust 25, 1872, to November l, 1879, at 7.35 A.lll., 4.35 and 11.00 P.M. (Washington time); and from November 1, 1879, to December 31, 1884, at 7 00 A.M., 3.00 and 11.00 P.M. (Washington time).]

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378 .MISCELLANEOUS lNFORMA'fiON. Average N u mber of C lear o r F a i r Days, i n each M onth and Year. C ompiled from the U. S. Weather Bureau Reports. :MIDDLE f'LOR ,_; ,.: ..; IJ)A.1 .INCl.UD-!? .1.5 1-4 _8 : ING ATLAN-TIC :s .....; (1,) 8 gi t AND G U L F g d ;:::: I g .!:' tc> .8 j !; COA STS .;; ;:;; I .:; .; Jj i 8 I A !\"" --i-. l -i-1 l i l __ l_ JnckMnvillc . 21.9 2Q.3 25 5 2.3. 9 25.5 22 8 26.1 25 ,!!21.8 \!ll.l.l. 20.8 2'l.4 280.1 Sanford ....... 22 .(12!;. 0 27 .0 21i.!' 27 0 28.5 2!l.2 2il.5 25 5 22.5 '27.5 822. 0 Ced:t r Key ..... 27.(126.0 27.0 26 0 26.4 26 6 2$ 4 27 311.0 SUBTROI'IOA L l I I I I I I i I Key Wct ...... 21i.O 24.5 f<6.6 24.9 26.2 1 23 712 1.1 24.4 26.5 307.7 WEsrl< LoRIDA. [ Jl I II I \ l . Pen SMola ...... 20.2 120 .ly2.SI 22.2 j 24. 2124 .0125. \!l 25 .y.l4 2121. yo 2 274 4> N orE.-'rhe Signal Sen-ice rntcs as clear or fM, days that are in the maiot suitable for ont-of door life, far as concern s actual min. Cloudy days, which, of conrsc m:tkc 111> the remainder of each month, range from moderate l y showery to a p r otracted downpour.

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MISCELLANEOUS INFORMA 'f!ON. 379 The Game Laws of Florida.* Non-Residents.-1\fcLellan's Digest, 1881, Chapter 80.S Eo. 15. It shall be unlawful for any non-l'esid ent of thi s State to hunt for game of any kind or description, for the purpose of conveying the game killed or caught beyond the limits of the State, without first obtaining a license from the clerk of the county in which he proposes hunting, fol' which he shall pay t4e sum of twenty-five dollars; and. in case there be a company desiring to hunt together under the same license, they all may be included in one license by pay ing an additional five dollars each ; but not more than six persons shall be included in the same license. [Sec. 16. V iolation a misdemeanor ; penalty, a fine of $50 to $500, onehalf to informer. Sec. 17. The drying, salting, curing, packing, or caging of game shall be p1'ima facie evidence of intent to ship. ] Sea Birds and Birds of Plume. SEc. 19. It shall not be lawful for any person or persons to wanton l y dest roy the nest, eggs, or young of any sea bird or hircl of plume in this State, on the land or coast, or in any of the seas, bays, l'ivers; creeks, or harbors, 01 within a maritime league of the coast of said State. [Sec. 20. Violation a misdemeanor; penalty, fine of $10 to $20.] Birds of Plume. -SEC. 21. It shall not be lawful for any person not a citizen of the United States to kill any birds, for the purpose of obtaining plumes therefrom, on any part of the coast of Florida, or in any of the hays, rivers, creeks, or harbors, or inland waters or prairies of the same, or with in a marine league of the coast of said St. ate. [Sec. 22. V iolation is a misdemeanor; penalty, a fine of $5 to $100 .] Pish Traps, etc.-Act of June 3, 1887.-SEo. 2. That it shall be unlawful for any person or persons to put plan, or maintain any permanent trap or snare, or any othe r de vice that is permanent, for tbe purpose of catching fish in any of the lakes or streams in this State, or to use any seino . From the Gam e Law s of America. Forest a n d Stream Pnbllshi n g Compv..ny.

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380 l\1ISCELLANEOUS INFORMA'fiON. or drag net for the purpose of catching fish in such lakes or streams during the months of February, March, April4 May, June, July, August, and Septembe1 of each year. [Sec. 2. Violation is a misdemeanor; penalty, fine of $25 to $100, or imprisonment 10 to 40 days. Sec. 3. Officers are authorized to seize .illegal apparatus.] SEc. 4. That nothing in this act shall be so construed as to prohibit any per son from catching fish from waters owned wholly by him self or hel'self in any manner thought ,propel', and nothing in this act shall prevent pel'Sons from catching .fish with a hook and line, unless the same is done for the purpose of shipping out of this State. [But Sec. 1 of this act, fOlbid ding exportation of fresh-water fish, was repealed by act of June 4, 1889.] Food Fishes.-Act of January 28, 1885.-SEo. l. That it shall not be lawful for anyone to catch or capture any of :the following fish : 1\:Iullet, t1: out, red fish, sheep's-head, pom pano, mackerel, blue fish, red snapper, grouper, or juatell, within the waters under the jurisdiction of the St. a t e of Florida, for the purpose of making oil, fertilizer, and compost therefrom. [Sec. 2. Violation is misdemeanor ; penalty, fine of not more than $200, or imprisonment two months, or both, at discretion of the court.] Wanton Destruction of Fish.-McLellan's Digest, 1881, Chapter 107.-SEc. 8. It shall not be lawful for any person or persons, citizens or non-residents of this State, with or without a license, to engage in catching fish for the roes only, or turtle for the eggs only, or in any manner wantonly destroying the fish or turtle on the coast of this State.

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INDEX. [1!\0T.E.-Roman numernls refer to the opening pages i to xxxii. Arabic nu merals to the rest of the Handbook.) ABBOrr, Pasco Co., 75 Aberdeen, Jacl\hh\ Honda, harbor, 322 Amelia blaild, xxxi., 180 Ba lclwin. Duval Co., 6, 330 Alvarez de Pinada, xx. Banana Rl\'er nnd Creek, 210 Anastasia, St. Johns Co., 83 Banks, xvii. Anastasia Island, 175 I Bamboo, Sumter Co., ll5 Anclote lliver, Light House, etc., Bamboo Monroe Co., 64 Hillsborough 'Co., 86, 239 'I Bnn !\na Putnam Co., 80 Ankona, Brevard Co .. 9 Vol usia. Co., 94 Anona, Hillsbo r onl(h Co., 36 1 Barco, Levy Co ., 04 Anthony, MArion Co., 61 '1 Barker', Holmes Co. 39 Apalachicolll (C. H.), River, Buy, etc. Barnwell, Colonel, xxiv. Franklin Co., 12 8!), 40, !i5, 3.'51, (Jtifi Bartow (C. H.). Polk Co., 76, 281 Apalache I ndians, revolt o f, 1 4 0 Tht$Com, .Tackwn Co., 40 Apopka, Orange Co., 68 Bathing, xvlli. Arcadia, De Soto Co., 2:3 Batten Island, 24, 114 Arcadian Spring, 2>35 Bayard, Duvnl Co., 23 Arch Creek, 20,
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382 INDEX. Bcnuclcrc. Duval Co., 23 HE?lair, Orange 1H7 Ucl l ai r. Leo n Co., 345 Hcllcvillc, Hamilton Co 32 lS<..:Hnvicw, bfnrion co:, Ul B"lmont, Hnmjl ton Co .. 32 Be l rnore Clay Co., 14 Ben lfntlen Wakulla Co., 98 Beuedict Marion Co., lil Be nton County (unmc changed), 33 Benton, Co lnmhin C o., lli Bet.hc l C amp, 241; B cLhe l Wa lton Co. 100 Bien ville, x-xv. llig 3(i3 Big Pine I sh,ud. 259 Bilowry, $mta ftosn Co., 88 Bird I s land, 177 Biscayne Bay, 2 0 310 Illack Creek, C!a.y C o. 1(1, 183 Black Creek Sink, '340 Blnckrnnn, Snnta Hosa Co., 88 B lackwater, Sant :\ Rosa Co. 354 B lanton, Pasco Co. 74 Blitchton, Marion no., ( 1 1 Lak e Co., 45 B loomingdale, Hillsborough Co., Dionne's Perr y, Columb;,, Co ., 16 Calh.oun Co., 12 Bloxham, Leon Co., 51 llltw Spring. Co., 62 301 Blue Spring, Cv. 1.5, l!Ja Blntt 8 1 'l B luff Spring. Escam b i a Co., 2 7 l30n Park, 187 Bostwick Putnam Co .. S O NnsfXln Co .. 65 Bowling Green De So to Co., 2 1 :Bradford Connty, slwtch, dis tn etc., 7 Bradford ville, Leon Co., 51, Gcr.crn.l Bl'ttxto n 359 Brahm, J. G. W., letters etc., 141> 13rai., 65 Broward, Duval O o. Bnckhorn, Calhoun Co., 11 B u ffa l o Bluff, Putnam Co. 80 B nl'l ington, Snwnnnec Co., ti9 Burri n. Bmt Co. 81:! C h aires, Co., 51 Chandler. Marion Co., lil Charley ,\popka, 22, 25 Ohnrlott.e Harbor. DeSoto Co., 21, 254 Chase, Colone l w : H., 35 7 Chn.seville, Dnvnl Co .. 24 Ch111t:1hoochet>, Co. xxxi. 350 Cllattsthoochec River, 1):):.?, r.ntnam Co .. 80 Bl'istol (0. H.), Liberty Co. 55 L oyali s ts, xxvii. Jlrevnnl County, \1 Bronson (C H.), .Levy Co., 54 Ikooklyn, C lay Co., Brooksville (C. H.), H
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INDEX. 383 Cutler, Dnde Co . 19 Curtis Mill Wttkttll Co., 93 Cypress, Jackson Co., 40 Cincinnati, Polk Co., 76 Citra, Marion Co., 61 Citronelle, Citrus Co., Ill Citrons, 369 Cilrus County, sketch, map, distances, DADE CITY (d. H.), Pasco Co., 74 etc. 18 Dade County, sketch maps, etc., 19 City Gatos, St. Augutine. 173 D ade's Maeacre, x10ix 307 City Point, Brevard Co 9 Dab oma, Co 65 Olmconl>, Orange Co. 68 Dallas, Marion Co., 61 Clarksville, Marion Co 61 D aniel, Colone l 142 Clay County, sketch, map, Davenport, Pol k Co; 76 etc. i Davis, Captain _,John, xxlv., 140 Clay Sprmg, Orange Co., f.S, 277 I Daytona, Vohma Co., 94, 200 Olear Creek, Alachua Co., 1 Dead Lakes, 11 Clear Water Harbor nnd Key, Hillebor .1 De Funink Sgrings (0. H.), Walton Co, ough Co., 36, 24ll l 011, 354 Clermont, Lake Co .. 45 Dekle, Bradford Co 7 C leveland, DeSoto Co 21 De Land, Vol nsia Co., 94, 198 Clifton, Brevard Co ll De Land University, 199 Clinch, General, xxix. De Leon Springs, Volusia Co., 94 Clinch's, Clay Co., 14 Dellwood, Co., 40 Coast, the, from St. Johns River to St. Denanfarion Co., 61 Bay. ll63 1 Ealmu, Walton Co., 100 :Earnestville, Pasco Co., 74

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384 INDEX. Eastlake, Marion Co., 61 Ean Gallle, Brevard Co., 9 Econfina, W11shington Co., 101 Econflnee River, 113 Egleston, Duval Co .. 28 El\rly Bird, >lialiou Co., 61 Eden, Brevard Co., 9 Edwards, Gadsden Co., 31 Ehren. Pasco Co., 74 E l dora, Volusia Co., 94 Eldorado Lake Co .. 45 Elrson, xxxi., 327 Fort King, xxix., 294 Fort Lauderdale (House of Refuge), 226 Fort Mason, Lake Co. 45 Fort Marlon, xxxi., 157 Fort Meade, Polk Co., 76 P'ott McRae. 27, 860 Fort McCoy, Marion Co., 61 Fort Myers, Lee Co., 49, 21>7 Fort Ogden, De Soto Oo., 21 Fort Pierce,. Brevnrd Co., 9 Pickens, Escambia Co., 27, xxxl., 360 et seq. Fort St. Bernard, 856 Fort St. Michael, 355 Fort San Carlos, 855 Fort San Marcos, WakullaOo., xxv.,\18, 848 Fort Taylor, xxxi., 324, 325 Fort Thompson, Lee Co., 49 Fort White, Columbia Co. 16 Leon Oo., 51 Foste r Park, Marion Co., 61 Fountain of Youth, 134 Fowey Rocks, J,ight, 313 Frnncescnns 13!1 Francis, Putnam Co., 8Q Franklin County. sketch, map, etc., 29 F'ruit Cove, St. Johns Co., 82 Fruitland, Putnam Co .. SO, 191 Fruitlaud Park, Lake Co., 41\ the, xxiii., 139, 165 Freeport, Walton Co .. 100 l!'rnnkland, Alachun Co., 1 Fulton, Dn val Co., 28 GABRIELLA, Ornngc Co., 68 Gadden County, sketch, map, disetc., 31 I Gainsboro, Orange Co., 118 Gainesville (C. H.), Alachua Co., 1, 288 Game. Lnws, 879 Geneva, Ornnge Co., 68 Genou. Hamilton Co., 82 G-eorgetown, Putnam Co., 80 Georgina, Co., 9 Gilmore, Co., 21l Glencoe, Volnsia Co., 94

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INDEX. 385 Glendale, r ,ake Co., 45 Glen Ethel. Orange Co., 68 Glen St. Mary, Baker Co., 76 Glenwood, Volusia Co., 94 Godwin, Pasco Co . 74 Gomez, Dade Co., 19 Gordillo, F ., xxi. Goshen, Brevard Co., 9 Gotlding, Escambia Co., 27 Governor's Creek, 15 Goths., Orange Co. 68 Graceville, Jackson Co., 40 Gracy, Alachua Co., 1 Grahamsville, Marior1 Co., 61 Grandin, Putnam Co. SO Grant. Governor James, 1'46 7 Greenwood, Jack"on Co., 40 Grove City, l>e Soto Co., 21 Grove Pnrk, Alt\chmi Co .. 1 Grover, Snwannee Co., S!l Guilford, Bradford Co., 7 Gulf Crty, Hillslx>rongh Co., 86 Gulf The, 22& .. Gulf Hammock, Levy Co., 54 HAGUE. Alachua Co., 1 Haines City, Polk Co .. 76 Halifax, Co., 94 Halifnx River, 202 Hamburg, lllndiwn Co., 57 H11milton County, sketch, map, distances, etc., 32 Hnmilten, Hamilton Co., 82 Hammock, Alachua Co., 1 Bradford Co., 7 Hammock Ridge, Alachua Co., 5 Harbor View, DeSoto Co., 21 Hardeeville, Brevard Co., 9 Hare's Lake, 22 Harney, Colonel, xxx., Xxxi .' Harlem, Putnam. Co. 80 Harmonica, Citrus Co., 13 Harmony, Madi"On Co . 57 Harrison, Washington Co., 101 Hartland. Brevard Co., 9 Hart's Grove, 190 Harvard, lllarion Co., 61 Harwood, Volusia Co., 94 Haskell, Polk Co., 76 Hatche's Bend, Lafayette Co., 43 Haulover, Volusia Co., 94 Htwnna. Gadsden Co., 81 Haw Creek, 83, 1111 Hn wk's Park, Yolu,ia Co., 94 Hawkins, Sir John, xxii., 122 Hawthorn, Alachua Co 1 Haywood's Landing, Jackson Co., 40 heath, Brevnrd Co., 9 Hegman, Pasco Co., 74 Heidtvillc, Marion Co., 61 Henry, Alachua Co l Herlong, Colnmbia Co 16 Hermitage, Gndtlen Co., lll H crna.ndez d e C ordova, xx. Hernando, Citrus Co., 18 Hernando County, sketch, mnp, dis tnnces, etc., 34 Hcmando, De Soto, xxi. Herrara, Fernandez ty, sketch, map, dis t ances, etc., ll6 Hillsborouglt llirer, Hillsborough Co., 136, 251 Hillsboro River, Vohtia Co. 208 Hints to Tnwellers, xv. Hiwussie, Orange Co., 68 Hob() Sound, Dade Co., 19 Hollister, Putnam Co., .SO Holly Hill, Volusia Co., 91 Holland, Leon Co., 51 Holmes Comity, sketch, map, dista nces etc., 39 . Holmes, Hoi mOll Co., 39 Hotrd Co., 9 Indian L11ke Co. 4u Inglehame, Nas!lnu Co., 65 Interlachen, Putnam Co. SO Inverness, Citrus Co., Inwood, Jackson Co., 40 Ioln., Calhoun Co., 11 toni!\, Clay Co., 14 Island Grove, Alnchua Co., 1

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386 INDEX. Ilnnd Or:mge Co., t.S He1na.ndo Co .. <:4 Italia, Nnssa.u Co., 65 I van hoc Leo n Co., 51 l?.agorn, Holmes Co., 39 JACKSON, General Andrew, U.S.A, 28, 3.?6 JRCkson County, sketch, map, c\istances, etc., 40 Jnckson Lake, 845 Jnck!!Onville (C. H.), Dtt\'nl Co., xxxii., .103 Jaffrey, Volnsin Co ., 94 Jnsper {C. H.), Hamilton Co., 32 Jefferson County, sketch, map, dis-tares, etc., 42 Jennings, Hamilton Co., 82 Jewcn, Brevard Co. !l JcssRmine, Pasco Co 74 Jewel, Dade Co., 19 JohMon, Putnam Co., SO JohM, Hillborough Co., 36 Jonesville, Alachua Co 1 Judson, J,evy Co., 54 Juno, Dade Co., 19; Jnpiter Inlet, Dade Co., xxx., 216 Lake Butler, Hillsborough Co., 87, 238 Lake Childs, 22 I.nke Charm, Orange Co., 68 I.nke City {C. H ), Columbia Co., !\ Lake C lay Lake Como. i>utnam Co., 81 Lake Conway, Gt; Lake L'onn y, sketch, map, distances, etc., (15 Lake Cn>rC8, 2'1\1 Lake Dora, l!U5 J.ake Eustis, 46. eo5 Lake Francis, 20 Lake Georgn 46, 81, 190 Lake Hall, 34o Lake Harris, 46. 305 Lake Helen, C 0., 95, 199 Lake Howell, Ornngc Co., 68 Lake Irma, Orange Co., 68 Lake Istopogn, 32 Lake J ackon, 52, 345 Lake Jessup, Orange Co., 68 J ,ake Joe, Tylor Co., 9'2 Lake Kerr, Marlon Co. 61 Lake Lagonda Lnkf>llind, Polk Co., 711, 280 Lake Louise, 1!12 Lake llfnitland, Ornnge Co 68 KANAPABA, .Alachua Co., 1 Lake Mary, Ornnge Co. 68 Kathleen, Pol k Co 7fi I.ake Munroe, Orange Co., xxx. 68, !15, Keaton, Taylor Co., 92 197 Kendrick, Marion Co., 61 Lake Nellie, 20 KenkR . Putnam Co., SO Lake Ogden, Co!umbia Co 16 Keys, The Florida, m"Jl facing p. 64 Lake O k eechol>e Sto.te mat> an<\ Keene. Hillsborough Co., 36 maps of Dnde, Lee, and De Soto Key, Large, aHJ countie), 2119 Keystone Park, llillboroug h Co .. 36 Lake Region, the Contra!, 305 Keysville, Hillsborough Co., Bfl Lakelde; C lay Co. 14 Key West, Monroe Co .. li4, 323 Lake Tohopckaliga, Osceola Co., 71, Killarney, Orange Co 68 279 King's .J''erry, NasSRtt Co., t"? LakeYiew Clay Co., 14 King Payne, Seminole, 287 f,n keville, Oran!l'e Co 68 Kingley, Clay Co 14 I.ake Weir Marion Co .. 61, K ingsley Pond, 15 Luke Worth, Dnde Co 19, 222 Kinney, Putnam Co SO Lamont., Jefferson Co., 42 Kismet, Lake Oo 45 Lane l'ark, Lake Co., 45 Kissimmee (C. H.), Osceola Co., 71, 279 Lnnd Offioe, the. 287 Iesburg. Lake Co., 45, 805 Lady Lake, Lake Co .. 4\i I,eitner, Mnrion Co., 61 County, sketch, map, disLeland, llladison Co., 57 tnn ces, etc., 42 Lemon, 31i!l r.a Gr:tnge, Brevard Co., 9 Leno Co lumbia Co. 16 J,ake Apopka, Lake Co., 46. 805 Leon County, sketch, map, distances, Lake A$bby, Volusia Co !14 etc., 51 LBkc Butler (0. H.), Bradfol'd Co., 7 Leonnrd, Paco Co. 74 Lake Bird, Taylor Co., 92 Leroy, .Mnrion Co., 61 Lake Boca Rutone, 226 Lesley Hillsborough Co., 86

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. IND EX 88 7 Levy County, eketeh, map, distances, etc., 54 LevyviUe, Levy Co., 54 Liberty County, eketch, map, distances, etc. 55 Lignumvi Ue Key, 6 4 Linde n Sumter Co., 85 869 Limestone, Walton Co., 100 Limonn, Hilleborough Co., 8ll L isbon L:>ke Co., 40 Lite.ville, Bmdford Co., II" Little River, S u vnnnee Co., st Little R.iver, Hamilton Co .. 3S Live Oak, Suwannee Co.1 L iverpool, DeSoto Co., Livingston, Omnge. (ilo., 68 Lloyd, Jefferson Co., 42, 88 1 Alachua 0o., G Longbro.uob, Dnv& l Co., -!S Long Key E-v.erglt.<1ee, State map Long Ke y ; Hillsborough Co., 87 Long Key, Monroe Oo., 64 Long l!068 Spring, 868 ..diCA>d, Orange Co. ; 68 Mo.rlon Co .. 6 1 Loyce, :Pasoo Co., 7 4 Lulu, Columbia ('-o., 16 Luraville, Snwaonee Co., 89 Lynne, Marlon Co., 61 1JACCii&NNY (C. H.), Baker C o., 6, 333 M nco n Pasco Co., 74 MacKi n non, OrAnge Oo., 68 Madiso n County, aJ, Lake Co., 45 Sumter Co., 85 Ml\t&n7.a6, St. John's Co., xxlll., 82, 17! MarxvUie WMhington Co., 101 MRximo Point, 246 Mayo, 'Lafayette Oo .. 43 Mayfield, A lnchu a Co. 1 M Rypor t Duv a l Co. 23, 112 MaytQwn, BrevArd Co. 9 McAlpin, Snwnnnee Co., 89 MoCtob Lafnyettc Co., 43 McDavl., 61 M c Donald, Onnge Co., 68 McKinnon Orange Co., 68 McMeekin. Putnam Co., 80 KcRao, :lc, xxvi. Montclair, Lake 45 Monteverde, Lake Co. 45 M ont.evleta, Lake Co., 45 Moore, Go,ernor James, xxiv., 141 M oseley H,.ll, M adison Co. 57 Inlet. 20 7 Mo88 Dlu1'r, M"rion Co., 61 Mossy Head,, 100 Montic e llo (C H.), ,Jeliereon Co., 4.2, 889 MorganvUie, Marion Co .. 61 M oultrie, St. John's Co., Sl!

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388 INDEX. Moultrie, Governor, 146 Mount Dora, Lake Co., 44 :M:ountoocha, Alachua Co., 1 Mount Lee, H erna.ndo Co ., 34 Mount Plea.sant, Co., 81 :Mount Ta.ber, Columbia Co. 16 :Mt. (abbreviation). See Motmt Murat, Prince of the Sicilles, 342 :Museums, lli7 :Myers (C. R.), Lee Co., 49, 267 Oscoo!& Co. 71 Naples, Lee Co., 4 9, 27 1 Narrows, Brevard Co., 9, 221 Nashua, Putnnm Co., 90 Nassau County, sketch, map, etc., 65 Nassau River, 24, 66 N a&sau Sound, l 81 Native Races of 3'72 Natural Bridge, Aucllla River,' 42 Natural Bridge, St. Mark's Ril'er, 100, 848 Natural Bridge, HomOl&, 234 Nassau County, !!ketch, map, distances, eto., 65 Native Races of Florida, Neal's Landing, Jackson Co., 40 Negro Fort, Franklln Co., xxviii. Negro Fort, St. Augustine, 143 Nebitt, Duval Co., 28 New Augustine, St. John's Co., 82 New Cadiz, Hills borough Co., 8ti Now Berlin, Duval Co., 23 New B ritain, 95 Newnansville, Alachua Co., 1 5 N e\vport, W nkulln Co. 9S New Rive1, Bradford Co., 7, 2'26 New Smyrna. Volusla Co., 94, 208 New Troy (C. H.), Lafayette Co., 43 Nocatee, De Soto Co., 21 N ovella, Clay Co., 14 North Beach, 175 Norwalk, Putnam Co. SO Norway, Gadsden Oo., 8 1 OAXDALE, Citrus Co. 13 Oakgrove Santa Rosa Co., 88 Oak ffill, Vol usi a Co., 9 4 Oakland, Orange Co., 68 Oak Lawn, Dade Co., 19. 225 Oak Villa, Putnam Co., 80 Obrine Station, Suwannee Co,, 89 Ocala ( C. H.), Marion Co., 61, 294 Pond, 6 Routes. xiv. Ooheeeee, Calhoun Co., 11 Ocllla, or Aucilla, ll.\v!Jr 831 Ocklawaha, Marion Co.J.Gl Ock lawaha R iver, 62, l!uo Ocklawaha River, landlngo, distances, eto., 2ll S Oekloeknce, Leon Co., SO Oeoll, Orange Co., 68 Octabatchee, HamUton Co., 34 Oglethorpe, Govl'rnor, xxv., xxvl., 14 2 Okeechobee Lake (see State and County maps), 2ti9 Oklabumpka, Lake Co., 45 Old R h odes Key, 64. 319 Old Town, Lnfyette Co., 43 Olive, Escnmbia Co .. 27 Oliver Park, Alachua Co .. 1 Olustee. Baker Co 6. 338 Olustee, Battle o r 833 Olustee Creek, 8 Oneoo, Manatee Co., 59 Orange Belt. 367 Orange Bend, Lake Co. 41S Orange City, VoluRia Co., 94 O r a.nse County, sketch, map, distancee, coo., 68 Orange, Liberty Co G5 Orange Dale, St. John's Co., 82 Orange Gr<>ves, 190, 213, 285 Ol'Migo Height, Alachua Co., 1 Orange Hill Washington Co 101 Orange Home, Sumter Co., SO Orange Lake, Marion Co., 61 Orange Mills, Putnam Co., SO Orange Park, Cl a y Co., 14 Orange Springs, Marion Co., 61 Om nges, 867 Orchid, Brevard Co., 9 Orio l o, Jlermmdo Co., 34 Orlando (C. H.), Orange Co., 68 278 Orleans, Citrus Co., 18 Ormond, Volmria Co., 94, 202 O proy, ){anatee Co., 59 Osteen, Co .. 94 Osceola County, skl' t ch, map, dllltance-., etc. I '71 Osceo a, tho Seminole. l
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I NDEX 38.9 Pamgraph History of Florida, xx. Patterson, Putnam Co., 80 Paola, Orange Co., 6S Parish, Manatee Co., 59 Parlwr, Washington Co., 101 Parkersburg, lliarion Co., 68 Park Place, 14 Pasadena, Pnsco Co 7 4 PMco County. sketch, map, distances, etc .. 74 P nynes. Prairie. Alachua Co 1, 286 Peace River, 257 Pedrick, Pafinhook, Jefferson Co., 42 Pittman, Lake Co., 45 P lant City, Hillsboroug h Co., 86, 282 P lummers, P11val Co., 28 Point Pinella. s, 247 Point Was h i ngton, Washington Co .. 1Q1 Polk C ounty, sketch, mttp, etc. 76 PomonR, Putnam Co. 80 Ponce de Leon, xx., 184 de Leon, Holme!! Co 39 J_>once de Leon Hotel, 1 08 Ponce Park, Vohia. Co., 94, 207 Papya Bayou, 247 Port Jackson, Co 40 Portland, Walton Co., 100 P o r t O r a nge, Volusia Co .. 94 Port R i cblcy, Pasco C o 74 Port Tampa, Hillsborough Co 86 Potol o, Co 39 P reface, vii Pl'ieoncrs. List of Revo l utionary, 148 Powell, Ortlnance Sergeant, U. S. A ., 350 P r ovldencia, Wreck of, 223 Providence, Bradford Co., 9 President City, Putnam Co., 80 Privateer captures British ship, xxvii., 147 Punch Bow l the, 313 Punta Gorda, De Soto Co., 21 P unta RaRsa, Lee Co., 49 Putnam County, sketch, map, etc., 80 QUINCEY (C. H.), Gadsden Oo. 81, 350 Quiroga y L osado, 141 RACY PoiNT, St. John's Co., 82 Rngged Key, 64, 319 Rainfall, Average, In Florida, 878 R:wens\vood, Lak e Co., 45 Rawlerson, St. John's Co 82 Raymond, Polk Co . 76 Rebecca S h oal. 3 2 7 Rebcllado, Diego de, 140 Red Bay, Walton Co. 100 Reddick, Marion Co 61 Reeds, Duval Co., 21! Reefs, The 64, 315 Register, Taylor Co 92 Relief Map of Florida, 274 Remington Park, St. John'!! Co., 82 Rhodes Store, Jefferson Co., 42 Rib"ut, Jean, xxii. 181 Richland, Pawo .co. 74 Riding and Driving, x viii Ridgewood, Pntnam Co., 80 Riverhead, Hillsborough Co., 86 River .Junction, Gadsden Co. ll1, 3821 351 River Head, Hernando Co., 34 Riverside Putna m Co SO Rixforil, S u wanee Oo. 89 Roche lle, Alachua Co., 1 Rock House, the, 206 Robetts, Escambin Co. 27 Rock B luff Liberty Co 55 Rockledge Bre.vard 1!, 214 Rock Mines, Citrus Co., 18 Rock Marlon Co 6 1 Rockwell, Marion Co 61 Rollins College, 277 Romeo. Mnrion Co. 61 Rose Hill, Citru s Co., 13 Rosewood, Levy Co 54 Royal, Sumter Co , 85 Rural, Hernando Co., 34 Rutland, Sumter Co 86 Rutledge, A lnchua Co., 1 Rye, Manatee Co., 59 SAINT ANDREW' S BA-Y, Washington O o., 10 1 3(14

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390 L.'IDEX. Saint Augus tine (0. B.). St. John's Co., Shar on, Clay Co., 14 ::o:xxi., hist ory, description, etc ., 188 Sharpes, Brevard Co., 9 et $efJ. Shell Creek, DeSoto. Co., 21 Saint Augustine Inl et.t 88. 1M, 177 S hell see Moundl. SRiut C l oud, O sceola uo., 71 Shiloh, Vo l a Co., 94 Saint Geor-ge's Island nnd Sound, 30 Shingle, Osceola Co., 71 S&int James on the Gulf, Lee Co., 49 Shooting outfit, xvi. 269 Silk culture, 1!!!1 Saint Jobl\'s County, sketch. map, di8 Silver Be&eh, 201 tances, etc., 82 Silver Pond, Putnam Co., 00 Saint John's River, 117, 184, 194 Silver Spring, Marion C o ., 6 1 2 9 Saint John of the 189 Silver Spring Parle, Marion Co., 61 e7 South Beach, Weet, 326 Bradford Oo., 7 South JBCksonviUe, Duval Oo., 23 Antonio, l'llllCO Co., 74 South LakO W ei r, Marion Oo .. 61 Sanderson Baker Oo.., 6 South Pron!l", Pond a n d River, 6, 8 San Diego Creek, 83 Spnnlsh rul e, 149 Sandy, Ma natee Co., t;l). Spnrr, Morion Co., 61 Orange Co. 6S, 1 96 Spring GardS' n Volnla Co., 94 Sanibel, Island Co., 49, !160 Spring Gro,e, Lake Co., 45 San Matoo, Putnam Co., 80 Spring Lake, C lay Co., H San Pablo, D uval Oo., 23 Warrlor, Taylor Co., 92 San P edro Day, 58 St. ( abbreviation), see Sai11t, San, eto. S11nt."\ F e River and Lnke, 2. 8 Sta(Cc Pond, Citrus Co., 18 Santa Rosa County, map, etc., 88, 861 Stanton, Marion Co., 61 Santa Rosa Islan d, xx v ., 28, 86 1 Starke, Bradford Co., 7 Santos, lllarion Co., Ill State Bouse, Tallahassee, 342 SaraSO-ta, Man atee Co .. 59 Stein hatchee River, Lafayette Co., 43 Satsuma, Putnam O o .. 80 Stephenville, Taylor Co 92 Putnam Co., SO Sterling, Walton Co., 100 S>1unders' K ey. Pass and Bny, 59 Stockton \ Marion Co., 61 Scotland, Gadsden Co .. 81 Slewartv1llo, .A.laehna Co .. 1 Sea Side, HiUsborongb Co 86 Subtropical Exhibition; 104 Sea Wall, St. Augustine, 11\6 Subtropical Florida, 309 Sebastian, Brevard Co., 9 Summerfield, Marion Co. 6 1 Seasons, the, in .Fiorldo, xiii., 37? Summ e rlin, DeSoto Co., 21 Seffner, Hillsborough Co., 86, Marion Oo., 61 Selin's Lake, Hillsborough Co., 86 Sumner, Levy Co., 54 Selman, Calhoun Oo., 11 Sumter County sketch, mnp, distance s Sl!Loy, 136 etc 811 Seminole Hillsborough Oo., 36 Sumterville (C. B .), Sumter Oo., 8 5 Seminole War, xxix., xxx., xxxl., 291 Summer Hill Leon Co., 51 Seminole Worcls ancl Phnv;es, 3713 Sunnylc!e Taylor Co., Sernl tropical Exhibillon, 295 Survey, T h e State, Explanation of, 267 Senec.., Lako co . 45 Sutherla.nd, Hi. llsboro ugh Co., 86 Seven O ab, Hillsborolllth Co,, 86 Suwannee County, sketch, d4Seville Orange, the, 198 tanccs, etc. 90 SevUJe, Volusia Co., 94, 1 92 Suwnnnce Rh-e r 2, 90, 280 Sewall's Point, Dade Co., 19 Suwannco Shoa ls, Columbia Co., 16 Shark River, 272 Swift Creek l'ond, 1!.

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Switzerland, St. John' Co., 82 Sycamore, Gadodeli Co., 31 Hillsborough Co., 36 Sylvan J,akc, Orange Co., 68 Syracuse; Putnam Co.; SO INDEX. V.ictoria, Lake Co., 45 Villa City, Lake Co., 45 Villa Zoro.yda, St. Augustine, 167 Viola. Lake Co., 45 Key, 20, 819 391 Votusl11 County sketcb, map, listanceR, etc., 94 1' A RITE, Dade Co., 19 Talbot Island, 24 Leon Co., xxix., 51, 342 WACI6SA., town and river, Je!lerson Co., 'l'nluga River, 56 42, f>4 Tnrnpn(C.H.). Hillsborough Co., 36, Waknssnsa. 231 'l'ampa DAy, ar I Wahneta. Polk Co., 76 Tarpon finhing, 261 Wahoo Swamp, :xxx. Tarpon Springs, Hillsborough Co., t6, Wakulla County, sketch, map, etc., 00 237 Wakulla Spring, 847 Tavares (C. H.), Lake Co., 4.') 'Wnlto11 County, sketch, map, distanceA, Tnylor County, sketch, map, etc., 92 etc., 100 Temperature, Average, ll'i'7 Wakulla Volcano. 846 Temple, Bradford Co., 7 Waldo, Alachua Co., 1 T"rra Ce!a, Manatee Co., 59 WBrnelt, Sumter. Co., 85 'l'errace lland, 5!l Wnllcill, Clay Co. 14 'l'horc88R, Bradford Co., 7 Wnlnnt Hill, Escambia Co., 27 The Springs, Volnsia Co., 94 County eketch, mRp, disThirteen Mile Pond, 75 tanccs, etc., 101 Thompson, Lee Co., 49 Warrington, Escnrnbia Co., 27 Thonotosassa, Hil16borolgh Co., 86 W Co;, 16 Thurman, Gadsden Co., 81 Wauchula, De $oto Co., 21 Tiger Tail, Dade Co., 19 Waukeenah, Jffer.on Co., 42 Tiger Toil l..tand, 233 Dade Co .. 19 (changed to Titusville (C. H.), Brevard Co., 9 Sewall's Point P. 0.) Tobacco PlAntation, 850 Sumter Co., 85 Tocci, John's Qp., 82 ; Pn.,k Marion Co., 61 'l'omoka River, St. John'a Co., 82, 95, Wkivll; Orange Co., 68 202 Welab, Pntnam Co., SO Tonyn, Gov. Patrick, 148 Wellborn, Suw11nee Co., 89 Trabue, 266 Welhton, Marion Co., 61 '!'rapier, Gen. xxxii, West Apopka, Lake Co., 45 Travelling CJcpenses. xvlii. Farm, Mn7 Treaty of CBpitnlation, xxx. West Florida, !329 Treaty of Fort Moultrie, West Florirla elimnte, 330 Trenton, Alachua Co., I IV est Sharon, Clay Co., 14 Tristan do Lunn y Are llano, ::xi. I West 'l'ocol, Clny Co., 14 Tropic, Brevard Co., !I j Westville, Holms Co., 89 'l'ala Apopka Lnke, 13, 254 1 West Wynn ton, Cnihoun Co., 11 'l'urnbull, Andrew, and the Minorcane, 1 Wetnppo River, 1\'a.shington Co., 101, 365 Turnbull, Brevard Co., 9 Wetumpka, Gadsden Co 31 'l'nrtle Harbor, 820 Wewahitchka, Oalhonn Co., 11 Turtle Mound, 208 White Pine, Calhottn Co., 11 'l'wigWt, Colonel, xxx. White Sull'hur Springs, Hamilton Co . 'l'win L nkes. Pasco (Jo .. 74 32, . l'yner, Hamilton Co:, 32 Wbit.ney, Lake Co., 45 Wilby, Columbia Co., 16 WildemeRs, Clny Co., 14 Wildwood, Sumter Co., 85 Wilkinson, Columbia Co., 16 Willi s ton, Levy Co .. !;4 Will\1\v, Hillsborough Co., 86 Wilson, Suwanee Co., 89 Windermer(>, Ornnl!'e Co., 68 Winrlsor, Alachtul Co., 1 Winfield, Columbin Co., 16 Winnemlett, Volnsla Co., 94 Win,ted, Lake Cfl., 41; UMATELLA, Lake Co .. 45 Unclerhiil De Soto Co., 21 Union, Holme Co., 311 U Orange Co., 68 V .lCCAS KEY&, 32\l V nlkaria. Brevard Co., 9 Valrico. Hillsboro Co., 8G V" nderd uscn, Col., 143 Venice, :Manatre Co., 59 Vernon (C. H.), Washington Co., 101 Veronn, Duval Co., 28 Winter Haven, Polk Co., 76

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392 Winter Park, Oranl!e Co., 2'1(, Wiscou, Hennndo Co., 1M Withlacooohce,. Hernando Co., 34 Withlacoochee River, 2:31 Wood Walton Co 100 Woodvill e I.eon Co 51 Woodbridge. Onngo; Co 68 Worth, Gen., xxxi. Worthil:gton, Bradford Co., 7 Wyomn, Marion Co., 118 YAt.LAR.l, Lake Co. 45 Ybor City, Hillsborough Co 86 INDEX . l York, Marion Co 61 I Yellow Bluff, Hillborough Co., 86 Yellow River, 2S Yellow Creek, 15 .Y oumang, Hillsborough Co., 30 Yulnr Alachua Co. 1 Yulte, Hon. D. J, ., 233 ZELLWOOD. Orange Co., 68 Zepedez 149 Zif, Bradford Co., 7 Zion Dado Co. 16 Zolfo, De Soto Co., 21 MAPS AND PLANS. PAGB St. AngusMne, Map of .flarbor nnd Beaches .. ............................... 154 St: Augnstinc, ],'older-mop ...... ............ ........................ .. 156 St. Augustine. Plan of Fort Marion.... . .. .. ............................ 159 County map-' (45), see "Contents" ..... _. .............................. ... ix-x. Florida and United States Fol
PAGE 429

Hotel Punta Gorda, PUNTA GORDA, FLORIDA. Every Room is a Front Room: Facing the Bay. I TAKE pleasure in announcing to my friends and the public that Hotel Punta Gorda will be open about Januaryxst, with a full corps of New England service. This new and -beautifu l Hotel is located on Charlotte Harbor at the terminus of the Florida Southern Railway, and the Charlotte Harbor Division of this road having been broad guaged, through trains wi!h parlor cars will now be run from Jacksonville to Punta Gorda without change. All trains arrive at and depart from the Hotel steps. A Billiard Room, Ticket, Pullman Car, Express and Telegraph <..Jfnces in the Hotel. The Punta Gorda is elegantly furnished, has gas, electric bells, and open fire places ; is three stories high, xso front rooms with a superb outlook over the beautiful Bay, which is about one mile across to Hickory Bluffs The Hotel has a veranda over four hundred feet in length, so arranged that one can find sunshine or shade at any hour of the day. It has the finest lawn in Florida, containing over two al!res, with beautiful shel l walks, hedges, flower plats, shade and fruit trees. It is supplied with plenty of soft water and has perlect drainage. The climate at Punta Gorda is as nearly perfect as any in the world ; free fro1n cold waves, and tempered by the salt water breezes from the O'ulf of M exico1 which invigorate but do not chill. The fine p1er directly in front of the Hotel gives a beautiful promenade. No expense will be spared in the endeavor to. contribute in every way to the comfort and pleasure of the guests. The only Hotel in the State giving every guei}t a front room facing the Gulf Waters. It is also surrounded by the besl hunting grounds in Florida, abounding in game of every variety. The sportsman can find within one mile of the Hotel countless numbers of qu:ail, deer, 11'ild turkey, ducks, etc. Charlotte }iarbor. is acknowledged by all to be the finest fishing ground in the United States. Forty-seven tarpon were killed in front of the Hotel last winter. The Hotel is well supplied with tarpon boats, specially built for this sport, and the best guides have been engaged for the season. They have also a steam launch, naphtha launch, several sail boats, and row boats of every description. The Morgan Line of Steamers arrive and leave twice a week for Key West, Havana, Cedar Keys and New Orleans. For terms, etc., address, 131 Devonshire Street, Room 23, Boston, Mass., until De cember 20th. Opens .January xst, I8g:;a. HARRY B. WARDEN, Manager.

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THE TROPICAL TRUNK LINE JACKSONVILLE, TAMPA, AND KEY WEST SYSTEM. . A system of rail and steamer lines, equipped with all the modern improve d appliances for the comfort of tourists, insuring ::;afe, speedy, and reliable transportat i on without unpleasant trans fers; covers something more than one thousand miles of tropical terr i tory, and reaches direct ALL VVINTER PLEASURE RESORTS of southern Florida. All through passenger trains on tliis line carry Pullman Buffet, Sleeping, and Parlo r Cars. . ROUTE OF THE VVEST INDIA FAST MAIL Between NEW YORK HAVANA, The only line extending to the FAMOUS INDIAN RIVER. Direc t route to the Orange, Sugar, Tobacco, and Fruit producing of Florida. For maps, souvenirs, schedules, etc., apply to any ticket agen t or address the General Passenger Agent, Jacksonville. Save yourselves annoyance, and economize in the matter of expendit ures on your tours, hy securing tickets via the Jacksonville, Tampa, and Key West System. R. B. CABLE. General Manager C. D. ACKERLY, General Passenger Agent, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

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N. DREW & BRO., 59 & 61 West Bay and 24 Laura Sts., JACKSONVILLE, FLA. BOOKSELLERS, STATIONERS, PRINTERS and BINDERS. All the latest Florida Books, Guides, Maps, Views, etc. Catalogue on application. Novelties in Souvenirs and Florida Curiosities. State Agents for A. G Spalding & Bros' Games and Out Door Amusements . RAYMOND D. KNIGHT& Importers, Wholesa le and Retail Dealers in CROCKERY, CHINA, Glass and Earthenware, STERLING AND PLATED WARE, WOOD AND WILLOWWARE, TINWARE AND HOUSE FURNISHING GOODS. I 1 & I 3 WEs T BAY Sr., JACKSONVILL E FLA.

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ROBT. V-/. SIMMS, JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. Wholesale Liquor Dealer AND AGENT ANHEUSER BUSCH ST. LOUIS BEER. Hote ls, Clubs, and Private Yachts Supplied. SEND FOR PRICES. FLORIDA HARDWARE COMPANY 30 West Bay St., Jacksonville, Fla VVHOLESALE AND RETAIL. \Ve are headquarters for everything in the way of Hardware, Agricultural Implements, Cooking ana Heating Stoves, Tinware, Paints and Oils, Poultry Netting, Galvanized Barb Wire, Steam and Water Pipe and Fittings, Steel and Wire Nails, Buffalo Scales, Mill Supplies, Ammunition, Fishing Tackle. WRITE FOR PRICES.

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H. E. CLARK. R. T. CORBETT. THE LEADING CARPET HOUSE OF THE SOUTH 48 WEST BAY STREET, JACKSONVILLE, FLA . Where you will find at the Lowest Prices, the best selected stock of Carpets, Mattings, Rugs, SHADES, OIL CWTHS, AND CORNICE POLES. LJNOLEUMS A SPECIALTY. The only Exclusive Carpet House in Florida. CLARK & CORBETT, JACKSONVILLE, FLA. ------------------------------0 R M 0 ND Among the orange Groves of the Halifax Peninsular, 50 MILES SOUTH OF ST. AUGUSTINE. Hunting, Boating, Bathing, Driving, Fishing. Two Trains per day, and Parlor Cars from Jacksonville and St. Augustine, and DAILY STEAMBOAT for ROCKLEDGE and LAKE WORTH. HOTEL ORMOND, $4.50 to $5.00 per day. ANDERSON & PRICE, Managers. HOTEL COQUINA, $2.50 to $3.00 per day. SEISER & VINING, Manag ers.

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THE PAINT AND HARD ARE Bay and Laura Streets, Jacksonville, Fla. I. E. BAIRD & CO. NEW BOOKS OF TRAVEL. SIR EB.WIN ARNOL.D'S NEW .BOOK.. SEAS A N D LANDS. By SIR EDWI N ARN.OL.D.-M.A., K.C.I.E .. C.S.l., etc. Author of The Light of Asia," .etc., .etc. Demy Octav.o, f "Three in Norway" and B. C. 1 887." With 47 illustra ons and 2 Maps. Crown 8vo, $2.00. WITH SAC K AND STOC K IN ALASKA. By GEORGE BROKE, A C. F R .G:S. With 2 M a p s Crown 8vo, $I. 7 5 A readable and interesting narrative of a hunting and mountaineering ex" .. <>f Mount St. Elias. ."-ScoTSMAN. -WRITE FOR PRIC E S