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History of Hillsborough County, Florida


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History of Hillsborough County, Florida narrative and biographical
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424 p. : ill., port. ;
Robinson, Ernest Lauren, 1872-
The Record Company
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Saint Augustine, Fla
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History -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
letter   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by Ernest L. Robinson.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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usfldc doi - C54-00015
usfldc handle - c54.15
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Hstory of ... HiUshorough County, florida MANAGING EDITOR ARTHUR. H. c .. WSTON BOARD HoN. l'lmla 0. KNIOHT HoN. Pltnv G. WALL HoN. Dovl& E. CAlli.. TON MilS. Axos Nolll!ls HoN. D. B. McKAY ]UDG& C. E. WORTH DR. ]OBN s. Hr!LS ]UDG& w. RALCIOH P&TT!tWAV Mrss Hr!L&N VriiGINlA STIILU E. D. LABRIOHT WtU.JAM Sc&NJU'D'JUt W. W. TarCE Tomto Pla101 Cily G. B. WI!U.S


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"Legend of the Cherokee A Sfflti,.,lt warriDr wooed for Ills />riM, A C'-'>ktt moidm, Ills fo"""" tririM I" forgoll,. gratHs lu side by side; Yet owr them climbs and bloomt and grows The lwer' s flower, the Cheroke ros1. AuraOB UN1

CBAPTt!R. I. II. IIIt IV. v VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. xvm. XIX. x'x:. XXI. XXII; T abk of Contents PACit FOil WORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 SPANISH ExPLORI!Ils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 FORT BROOKE AND EARLY TAMpA. . . . . . . 16 Hn.LSliOROUGH CoUNTY IN TBII EARLY FoRTIJIS............... . sr ACTJVJTJBS OF 1846-1848....................... . . . . . .. . ll4 BI!GI NNJNGS OP THE GITY OF TAMPA ................ .. .. ....... 81 1855 TO 1861 .. .' .... ; ..................... ...... ,. .. ... .. 38 THE CiviL WA"P. PERIOD .... :................................ 43 . THB PER.IOD OP SLOW GROWTH ... :. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 49 CONNECTING TAMPA WITH THB WOJtU> IIY R.uL. . . . . . . . 56 TH SECOND CoM INC OP THE SPANISH... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. 60 TAJPMENT OF PLA""T CITY ....... 66 TowNs StmtOUNDJNG PLANT CITY............................ 'IJ PLANT CITY OF TODAY, CJ!NTBil OP &sr HILLSBOROUGH CoUNTY. 88 GROWTH oF TAMPA FROM Vn.uca TO TowN TO CITY. . . . 89 PuBuc UTILITIES .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... .. 97 THONOTOSASSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Taa DEVELOPMENT oP A PORT .. ...... .............. .. . 108 WEST TAMPA, A CITY MAJ>B TO FIT AN OPIIORTUNJTY ............ 117 MODI!RN HlCBWAYS .............................. : ......... 1.20 PuBuc EDuCATION .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. U6 FoRTY YEARS oP SCHOOL DIMtLoPMIINT.. . .. .. .. .. . . .. . 182 t . XXIII. MODERN Coli'ionotCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL DIM!LoPMBNT.. . . . 187 BIOCRAPHICAL StntTCHBB-PART II ........................... 167


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Histqry of Hillslrough County, FIDrida FOReWORD H AV!NC been for more than twenty years a resident of the COIIftly-seat of Hillsborough Q)unty, and during all of thooc year bulily eagagecl in the oervice of the public IChool 1)'$1em of the COUDty, I !;ave grOWD to feel a doop &Dd abiding mltfelt in all those CO..:clitioas &lid ealerpC'iJes that have lrdped to umre the growth of the cities, towm and villages in this favored sectioa of Floricla. During those sixteen years that I served as Principal of the Hillsborough County High School and the years sin<:e while supervising the hich school work in the c:otlnty I have been so fortunate as to become acquainted with many of the last survivors of the pionee r li fe of the middle years of the nineteenth century and have heard from their own lips many of the incidents so full of human interest that I have recorded in the following pages. It has also been my good f ortune to know rather intimately most of those men and women wbo ha>-e for the past two deeades been leaden in the commercial. ittdustrial, oocial. educational, and rdigious deftlotiment of Hillsborough Coorrcy to iU preseat comm&Dding pooitioa among the o f Florida I have endeavored to present a series of pictura of the Ufe of the di1Walt periods of the county's history as a=rratdy as is possible, depending on writtel1 recocds and informati on received from thoee who lived in and had a part in events of those earlier times. .Every attempt has bee n made to avoid mistakes and the perpttuatiag of .,.,.... neous traditions. For the is givea in the text, but I Wish hos-e to maloe acknowledgment of those from w hich information was obtained &lid of those men who have helped to make this bool< possible. Mayor D B. McKay, proprietor of the Tampa Dail y T', kindly gue my ass istant, Mr. James Sliaw, """"" to all the material which has been gathered and well preserved in the office of the Times This indude s &les of those earlier papers which were the lint pe riodicals publi>hed in Tampa. Honorabl e Stephen M Sparkman prepared a complete statement of the develot> ment of the deep water cbannela up the bay of Tampa. Hi s long years of se:nice as Chairman of the Rivers and Harbors Q)mmit:tee in Q)ngress made him the best a uthority on that subject.


10 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY CongrOS$man Herbert ] Drane, who as a young man participated in the build ing of the first railroad t o 'l'ampo., furnished authoritative infonnation about t hat importa.rJt tvent. Honorable Peter 0. Knight generously took time to prepare statements about the hist()cy of the urban railway of Tampa, and of the building of the Seaboard Alr Line Railroad to Tampa. Honorable Perry G. Wall fumitbed n.luable help in P"OI*rinc the account of the Spanitb War period Mn. Fazmie Haya wu moot helpful in supplyinc informa tion a1>out the establishing of the cigar industry in Tampa. The memoi,. of Mrs. Naney (CoUar) Jacl<$on, loaned by A. ]. Barclay, were an invaluable source of information about 'the early days in Fort Droolce. Mr. C. A Winchell, formerly an employee of the Tampa Dally Times, kindly plaoed at n1y disposal extensive notes by himself on 'the early days of Tampa. Mr. Wayne Thomas, Editor of the Plant City Courier, wu most helpful 'in furnishing much of the material for the history of Plant City Col. G. B. Wells, a Pioneer of the county gave the Wndit of his great store of i nformation about oounty alfairs. The raninisccnces of his early life, u given by Mr. D. B Gi v ens, have belped to add to the human interest of the narrative. The biographin in the biographical section of the book have been carefully prepared from information furnished by the sabjecu themselves, or in the cases of those who are deceased, by members of th.;r families. Grateful acknowledgment is To the members of the Advisory Board who have materi&lly assisted in the poeparation and publication of thiJ book; To tbose wbo have fumithed information for their own biOgraphies or for the biographin of membert of their families ; To the O...k of the Circuit Court, to the Superinteadent of Public Inatruction, to Dr. Sack, Swisticiau of the Board of Trade, and to eoun' tless others who bave in various ways rendered n1uable uaistance. Especial recognition is due Mr. James Shaw, my assistant, who has ptbered a lirge part ol the information given in the biatory, and who assisted in the preparation of several of the chapters covering the modern development of the county Credit is due Miss Harrl



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History of Hills/Jorough (ounty, Florida CHAP'l'ER I. SPANISH EXPLOREitS. W HIL the. history of Hillsborough Couoty, now the center of populatioa and industry of the West Coast of Florida, begins a little more than a century ago, yet there is one short but most interesting introductory chapter dealiag with a period three hundre!l years earlier. W e are all familiar with the romantic story of PO

HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY the island to Hanno. With one hundred and fifty of hls five hundred men de Solo marched overland to Hanna, a city which he describes as about the size of Santiago, each having seventy or elgbty dwellings. After establishing himself as Governor of Cuba de Soto on May 18th, 11>39. set sail with a fteet of nine vessela for Florida. For those days his following w .. unusually large and well equipped. One week later, on May 25th, de Solo, with his hundreds of followen with guns and hOrses, landed on tbe shores of a ba y wbieh they !Wiled Espiritu Santo It is generally believed that bay wu Tampa Bay and that the exact spot o f the disembarkation was either near the pment site of Safety Harbor or eve. Somal UD1UCOO$$ful attempl s wOI'e made to capture an Indian to serve as in terpreter and guide. Tbe harsh methods used by the Span iards, as happened with moot other explorers in America, resulted in an a ttitude of fear and hostility on the part of the Indians. No doubt many of the bloody deeds of J later years were the direct res ult s of this unwise treatment of the Indians by the European explorers. Although the Spaniards, encamped in and near the Indian village, could secure no native for a guide, they were one day greatly surprised : to find a white man among the Indians. This was Juan Ortiz, who had been left .. .; beliind by de Narvaez and captured by the Indians with whom he had ti"'d for': .. twelve years. Ortiz told de Solo that he had beard of ooureea of gold in the regioou to the JWrth. Inftuenced b y this report de Solo 10011 after led his compiD)' ., on that romantic and tragic journey from whence be w as never to returu. .; Thus, soon after the lint visit o f Columbus to America was the OS. r .. -''"


PART I-NARRATIVE 15 oddress to the King of Spaln, signed by Dr. Pedro de Santander, and dated July 1557, there is describe d a plan to establish seulemento in various places in Florida. It was proposed to exteiTillnate the idolatrous inhabitants and possess their W>ds. One of the placea mentioned as for oolonies was at Tampa Bay where the author of this address think& slaves c:an be had.,. One of the most inter .. ting bits of Florida history on record is a memoir of Hernando d'Esrnlante Footeoado, bonJ in 1638, on tbe-couutry and 111cieut Indian tribes of Florida. In this memoir the author spealcs of Tampa u one of the moot i mportant Indian villages on the peninsula in the latter part of the sixteenth eentury. When the first settlers from the United States came to the shores of Tampa Bay they ue reported to hGve found a small of three or four families called "Spanishtovn" located near the mouth of Spanlshtown Creek in what is now the Hy

CHAPTER II. Wa RA\11: ..., that for gentrarion s probably centuries, before the Spanish oonquistadon came to Florida in search of wealth, adventure and new worlds to conquer and new states to found, there had been inhabitants whole romautie history can ooly be guessed 11. Wbeu the white man fint came be found many small, but well .. tablisMcl if widely scattered Indian villages. 'l'be n u m bers and size of the shell mounds indicate that there h a d been inhabitants of the Oeean Gulf and lake s horea of Florida for many centuri es. T h ese inhabrt3nts were Indians of various t ribes-Musqans, Tomokans Caloosu, Creeks, Seminoles, and othero-who lived b)/ huntingand fishing In some plac:es were found evidences of the cultivation o f Indian eorn and the Green Com Dulce had been a annual ceremony long before the European s first landed on the peninsula of Flori da. The viUa ge which De Narvaez and De Soto found at the mouth of the Hill$ horongh Ri ver was but one of many situated along the shoru of Tampa Bay and of the nearby lakes. During the three centuria from the day wb..; De Soto and his men marched away into the wildcnXss to the oortb and west, to the' time when AmeriCIUl soldic:n under Olish military poots or forts in order to the

PART I-NARRATIVE 17 Colonel Brooke, acting under orders from the War Department, selected a site, sixleen mila square on the east side of the HUis borougb River at its juncti oo with the east arm of the bay, as a mililary retefYalloo. U p until 1830 DO one could settle Oft the reservation except as a teaant. The Garrison was the name given to the seetion in the e:nnrons of the fort extending from the present l ocation of Wbiting street to the bay. For years few Jived outside of the garrison, the exception s being one or two fam ilies oa the s ho r e s of the bay t o the out and the member o f a amall colony who comprised the Spanish settlement on Spanis htow n Creek, the ba}'!bore section o f what is now Hyde "-rlc. With unfrienclly Iadian.s all about, the in teresls of public safety demanded military pn>teetion, and this was best obtained at the Fort itself. Here also wu the origi nal burying ground of this section, the location of which was later changed to a spot just outside of the forti fications, near the place where the old Masoni c Lo in Florida In 18H Levi Collar married Nancy Dixoo and tettled near the Saint "Mary's River. At that time border warfare among llldiaru, Spanish, English and Amer ieans made Ibis a most dangeroos plai:e in w bich to live. T he Indian s, incited by desire to secure pay then offered for Americ... tealps, caused a veritab le ieig;; of terror. Many of the settlera fled southward and on Ibis flight, near the \Yithlaeoochee RJver, ina deserted house by the w ay, Nancy Coller '\'U born in' 1816 For some yeats, 1822, the Collar family were located in AW:hua County Mr. Collar 011 his farm raised food foe his family ..,d cotton for their clolhing. He ginned this himself, then mother and daughter spun and dyed it and had ii woven into doth for garments for the family Failing health caused Mr. Collar, in 1822, to oeelc a pla<:e for a home on Tampa Bay wher e he expected benefit from the salt water. He journeyed alone to the bay and picked out as a <e for his home a b

18 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY __ __:_.:;..:.::..;.;.:__:_ __ ..:_:.::__;__:__;_;_ _;_ _______ He made a temporary home near by and later a permanent location about six miles to the east on the shores of the bay. When the Collars came to Tampa there were only two other white families there besides the soldiers. For a dozen years all went well with the settlers. Mr. Collar became a pros perous farmer with a ready market for his produte either at the fort or on the war vessel$ that often anchored in the bay. In 1835 the Seminoles started on the warpath. The Collars and their neigh bors, warned by a friendly Indian, hastily prepared to go to tlul fort and at the last moment were forced to flee in boats sent from the fort and to leave all their cherished poosessions. Their boildings and all thelr crops were homed and they barely escaped with their Jives. They were received and protected at the garrison. Mr. Collar became a guide and his family lived at the Fort. This outbreak, known as the Fii$t Seminole War, lasted from 1835 to 1842 and was unbroken wilderness A few settlers or smaU groups of settlers were making a good living from the productive soil. On the report of the outbreak of hostilities most of these settlers bastened with their families and movable possessions to the military posts for protection A military road, known in Fort Brooke as the Fort King road, bad been laid out through the wilderness. However, this was little more than a trail. In December, after the murder of General Thompson at Fort King, there came an order to the commander at Fort Brooke to send one company of soldiers to Fort King. There were then stationed there two companies under Majors Belden and Dade. There are several conllicting accounts of the choice of Major Dade as the leader. The following seems most probably the trne one: It was realized by aD that the expedition would be a most hazardo11s one Major Belden's wife wu. about to become a mother, and Major Dade, who was a man of splendid physique and great personal courage, gallantly declared that he would not consent to Major Belden's commanding tbe expedition. He insisted on setting out with his oom' pony on the perilous march. And so, on December 23, a detachment of United States soldiers under command of Maior Franci s L. Dade, left Fort Brooke for Fort King, the site of Ocala. one hundred miles from Tampa Bay. The force of one huudred


PART I-NARRATIVE 19 and seven men, with one six-pounder, set out through the fully aware of the fac:t that the Seminoles had deelared that they would allow no armed force to pass through this country without attacking iL The details of the massacre of this brave band of meo, wl)icb was the first instance in the history of our country where a force of United States soldiers was annihilated by Indians, is perhap$ best told in the language of a synop$ is of the event contained in a document placed in the memorial erected in memory of the participants in at West Poin t Military Academy. The docntnenf reads as follows: "This monument is erected by the officers aDd men of the Second and Third regiments of artillery and the Fourth regiment of infantry, and by the medical staff, in memory of their comrades who fell in battk with the Seminole Indians of Florida on December 28, 1835. The detacltitlent kft Fort Brooke, Tampa Bay, for Fort King, Fla. distant one hundred miles, on the 23rd of December. The force was small-107 men-and one six-pounder, the road abounding in thickets, hammocks and places of concealment, and the Indians numbering above fourteen hundred warriors, war-like and well armed, had declared that they would allow no armed force to pas$ through their country without attempting to destroy it. Fully aware of the danger of the march and a severe conflict, though with a hope that a portion of the command would get through, this little band departed in obedience to orders by those who knew not so well the strength and dispositioo of the enemy. The writer of this the detachment to their first en. campment and received dineetions fiom two of the officers to settle up their affam in case they did not survive. Thus forewarned and on their guard they advanced into the country. "On the morning of theliftb day, December 28th, at about 8 o'clock, when the had marched some four miles from its last encampment, seven miles north of the Withlacoochee, and was about sixty-live miles north by east of Fort Brooke, the Seminoles opened a murderous. fire from the palmetto thickets and brushes Major Dade, the commander, with the advanced guard two hundred yards in front of the main body, Captain Frasier and the leading files 'of the main body, aD fell during the first fire. Part of the detachment then extended, the six-pounder lield piece was brought into action and after a conflict of more than two hours, the Iudians retired, leaving but thirty-odd of Dade's command still alive. "The sarvivors, many of them wounded, felkd some trees and were forming a small triangular breastworl! when the Indians, who bad been withdrawn by their cbief, Jumper, and were told by him they bad ldlled enough for one day, received a large accession to their force under Alligator, who assumed command, reuewed the oonflic:t (about 11 a.m.) and in a little while all our men: were killed or disabled. Two private sold iers escaped during the first engagement and reathed Tampa on the 29th and 30th (Thomas and Sprague, of B Co., Third artillery). Two others, Ransom Clark and Edward de Courcey, who were shockingly wounded and left on the ground as dead by the Indians, started to return the next momiug. They were discovered and pursued by a mounted Indian and separating for safety, De Courcey was overtaken and killed aud Clark escaped and on the afternoon of the. 31st . . .


HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY reached Tampa Bay. Clark recovered and gave a very connected =t of the conflict and its termination. "The ground was not visited by anyone until the 20th of February following, when the bodies were found as the y had fallen "This event, succeeding a Peace of thirty years, created a strong excitement throughout the land and large bodies of volunteers marched into Florida to punisll the Seminoles. Seven years of war, with a great e.xpenditure of life and followfod and as the Indians surrendered or were eaught, they were removed to the Arkansa.s. Peace was made in 1842 and about one hundred warriors, with their families, yet remain in Florida south of Peas Creek {Peace river), Tatahk Cbopko-hatcbee, at this day, May, Fred Cubberly, in the same senate document in which was printed the above copy of the record deposited in the memorial, states that the number of warriors was one hundred and eighty in number, however, they also had with them a "large number of negrO sl&ves and retainers." Green's history quotes Alligator as stating that their warriors numbered one hundred and eighty and al.o gives the number of negroes accompanying them as fifty. Within a few days of the date of the Dade Massacre several other n1ore or Jess successful attacks were made by the Seminoles ou bodies of soldiers or on unprotected settlements. The next years \\ as a period of anxiety, distress and tragedy throughout the whole t e rritory of Florida. It was no uncommon occnrrence at Fort Brooke for refugees destitute and often wounded and dying, to come there for protection. General Zachary Taylor, afterwards President of the United States, beeame commander of the fort in 1837. In October of the same year Osceola, the able l eader of the S e minoles, was captured, and while the war contiuued several yea::rs longer, there was somewhat of a cessation of active hostilities for a year or two. During this time !\ancy CoUar, whose fortunes we have been following, now married to Robert Jackson, took up her abode with her husband and child in a house near the mouth of Spanishtown Creek on the west side of the Hillsh

CHAPI'ER Ill. HtU..sac>ROUCH C'oUN1'V IN THJt\" FOllTTKS. AI'Tl!R the close of the Seminole Indian War in Tampa began to ei!N!rge seven years of retarded developrrlent to liegin a new period of growth which lasted until the breaking out of the second Seminole Indian War in 1856. Immigrants began to come in and many new families were added to the set tlement. Tampa was the natural center of distribution of supplies for the settlements in South Florida. "soon tlie village began t o reap material and steadily growing benefits from trade with these settlements. New and enterprising settlers <:arne to this outpost of civiiization in the sunny Southland. Some came by long and tedious journeys overland, p lodding slowly along beside their laden oxcarts which dragged heavily through the sand of the roads that were little more than trails. Others tame by ship through the placid waters of the 'vi dely extending Tampa Bay to the crude little village at the mouth of the Hnisborough River. It was during this period that there <:arne the sturdy forbea r s of most of those families whose name$' are written large in the story of enterprise, and faithfulnesS which narrates the progress of the l(l"Owth of that l ittle village into the queenly city of the West Coast of Florida. Among those names those of Henderson, Kennedy, McKay Mitchell Robles, Turman and Spencer. So far our tory has been that of the region around the military post called Fort Brooke and the village of Tampa, springing up beside the Fort. However, just biiore the opening Of the first Seminole War. t h e territorial legislature of Florida created a: county; embr.acing a large extent of territory aroond Tanipa as a center. Colonel G. B. Wells, now. I!Ving in Plant City. has contributed the following statement about ibe" creation of Hillsborough Coanty. His coniplete statement follows: "The following is a copy of the Territorial Legislature creating the eotmty of KillsborOugh i ''Hillsborough 18th cOunty established. "An AUr poses; approved 25th. day of January, 1834. "Section 1 . Be it enacted by the governor and Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida That the district pf country bounded as follows, to-wit, on the north by Alachua County, a line east and west from tile Indian village of Toachatka, 40 miles from Tampa, east by Mosquito County, south by Monroe County, and west by the Gull of Mexico, shall constitute a county to be called HiUsborough.". . "Alachua County this date came as far south as probably the p r esent soutt> boundary Iitle of Hernindo cOunty Mosquito County, later the chat!ged to Orange County, came as far west at that time as the present eastern 21


zz HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY line of Polk County. and Monroe County came as far north as the Cal00<1ahatehee River!' .,The territory embraced in the original Hillsborough County of Jan. 25, 1834, now constitutes, practically, the counties o Pasco, Polk, Manatee, Sara50ta, DeSoto, Charlotte, Highland, Hardee, Pinellas and Hillsborough. It is not known what business of a county nature may have been transacted in HiUsborough, from 1834 to 1845, the date of statehood, and while the territorial government was in existenoe, hut it appears in the minutes of the board of County Commi&sioners of HUlsborough County, dated Jan. 5, 1846, which appears to have been the first se&sion of ouch board under the state government, which was attended by William Hanoock, M. C. Brown, Benjamin Moody, and Simon Turman, judge of probate. u members of the Board of County Commissionen, that the following proceeding, among others, was transacted :f' "Manuel Alvilla, former Clerk of the County Court, was called on for all books and papers belonging to county. Whereupon Mr. Alvilla delivered to the board, one small book of records and sundry copies of new and many old Florida laws.'' "As Mr. Alvilla delivered to the new board one small book of it is clear that there wu county busines transacted in this county during territorial days. also during this time, the seven years war with the Seminoles, 1835-1842, was carried on and it may have been that some of the aetivities of this war which wa' fought on the government side by Union troops, took place on the soil of this county." "The act quoted above does not seem to fix the place of the county-seat of the county, but inasmuch as there was a fort established at Tampa as early as 1823, and what business there was transacted in this great territory seemed to have been ceotered around Tampa, at this early day, it would seem that the county-seat of the county during territorial days was at Tampa." The name Hillsborough was given this great county in honor of the Earl ol Hillsborough, a titled Englishman to whom the British had given a large tract of land during the time when Florida owed allegiance to Great Britain. For some years the history of Hillsborough County was in a very large measure the history of Tampa. Before the first Seminole war there had been a few venturesome pioneers who, with their families, were making homes in widely scattered locations on the rich lands of the new county. The rich soil returned 1 a&undant crops and the forests and lakes supplied unlimited quantities of game' and fish. During the seven years of war these families had been forced to seek safety under the protection of the fort. Now, with the coming of peace. and the intlux of more immigrants, again there were scattered all over the county the homes of prosperous farmers. This great county in area larger than some of the ;;mailer states of the United StaleS, was so sparsely set*

PART I-NARRATIVE 23 Tampa of early days is ,often referred to as a "fishing village." This is clearly incorrect. The village was first a military and commercial center for an extensi .. region on the Gulf Coast. FiShing was never an important industry until comparatively reoently when an important fishing business wM established by John Savarese and the McDvaine Brothers. In 1848 WiDiam G. Ferris established a general merchandising business in Fort Brooke. This seems to have been the lirst of several -rcantile firms that sprang into existence during the days of peace and growing prosperity. Washington street was the busmess cenur of the village and became the Mecca for settlers for many miles around. Indeed, so brisk was trade at times that busy, sandy Washington street was often crowde

CHAPTER IV. ACTIVlTia S OP ON JANUAR> 5, 1846, was held at Tampa the first meeting of the County Commissioners or the "Comnuss10ners' Coun" after Flonda became a : State: The &ard c<>nsisted <>f Wilfiam Hancock, M. C. Brown, Benjamin : Moody, Simon Turman, all of whom were present at this first meeting, and James A. Goff, who was not present. At this meeting a small record book of former prooeedings of county officials was turned over ro the &ard by Manuel AI villa, former Clerk of the County! Court : This book seems to be no longer in existence. It would certainly furnish 1 some interesting reading if it could be found. Simon Turman was Judge of Probate and President of the Board. Jndge Turman had first located in the Manatee country and soon alter moved to Fort ; Brooke. He built a home at the corner of LafayeHe and Ashley streets, on the; present site of the Warner block. j At this first meeting the pay of the members of the &ard was fixed at two: dollars per day while in session. The county .tax for the yea r 18 4 6 was fixed at lifty per oent of the amount asse s sed for the State. S L. Sparkman was the tax assessor and John Parker the tax collector. At the next meeting of the Board April 7, 1846 E. T. Mobley was granted penu.ission to build a toll bridge over the Hillsborough River at or near Fort Foster Thomas P. Kennedy, Treasurer of the County, reported the balanct in the .treasury to be &267.68. William Hancock, james A. Goff, l\1 C Brown, John M : Palmer and Simon Turman were appointeQ as commissioners, To superintend the building of a . Court House and other public buildings in the Village of Tainpa in a<:<:ordance with an act of the last Territorial Councill." The commissioners were instructed "To select the Spot of ground for the Said public buildings make a plan for s ...... and .,._ the buildings Commenced and finished as Soon as practicable taking < into consideration the funds on hand and the future Prospects of the Co. ;J. At a later meeting of the Board of County Commissioner$ William A.

PA.RT I-NARRATIVE and now Soerum. Abo frequently sums of money were expressed thus: 4$ instead of $4. From this excerpt from t .he reme meeting, on request of certain cititem of the county, a road was ordered to extend from "Tunnan's Landing on the Big Manatee River on the nearest and best ground to Bells ford on the Alifaya River thenoe on nearest and best ground to Tampa.'" In the notes of this same meeting reference is made to a place called Hitchpuca&aSsa, ofterward< known as P.lant City. This note is of great interest to us, as it indicates places in the region where there were tells u s the names already given to plaoes and proves that there was enough travel to and from the eountyseat to warrant the establishing o f roads. On the pages of the county re=ds are frequent reperts of roads ordered in varioas parts o f the eouoty Tbe county was d ivi ded" even in 1 846 into Road Districts and Road Supervisors were appointed, whose duty it was to keep the roads in passable condition ln the pages tb>t follow freq uent reference will be made to these roads. For then, as is the case now, the building of road$ was both an. evidence of progress and a help toward further progress. At th e best the early roads were but sand trails, with some attempts to keep them free fro m vegetation, to build bridges, to provide fords and to assist to some extent. the natural drainage. Often, however the establishing of a road consisted merely of blazing trees to indicate the shortest and best rowe between two settlements. On October 19, 1846, at a regular meeting, !hi Board of County CommiS' lioners, the Commissioners of Public Buildings to continue the with Michael Ledwith for building the' Coart H0<1se provided he enter into bonds f o hne bouse completed by the first Monday in April nat." Tbe of Public Buildings bad evidmtly reported that they bad made satisfactory a.rranganenta w ith said Michael Ledwith to build tbe Cotirt House and this minute iJ the record of the of!icial sanction of the tO

26 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY On December 30, 1846, the Board of County Cammissioners ordered the survey of John Jackson received and the plan to be recorded immediately section surveyed was called the Vi14ge of Tamps. One hun dred dollars was ps1d : for this survey. In this first survey only the outlines of the town were laid out and a of the blocks subdivided. Mr. Jackson bui lt a house on lower Tampa str eet m block 19, in 1847, and settled down here. At this time the government was comn:tanded by Colonel Whiting, who aided in the initial survey work, and the first street laid out named in his honor. J ackson named most of the other streets after presidents, also one for Franklin, oiie for Lafayette and one for W illiam Ashley who settled in Tamps in 1830, and whose residence was located on the west half of the bloek on the southwest corner of Lafayette and Tampa streets, now largely occupied by the store of Knight & Wall Compsny. The blocks were laid out in one-acre squares. Thooe between Franklin street and the river front were each divided into six l ots 70 feet by 106. The blocks east o f Franklin street were divided into four lot<. each 106 feet square. The streets were given a width of eighty feet. On January 11, 1847, at a meeting called for the purpose of recei\'ing proposals for the building of a C erected in 184" uu the block bounded by Lafayette. Franklin Madison and Florida. The entl'>n was on the south side and there was one large room for a court room and two rooms on the west side for offices and jury rooms. This building was soon outgrown and no longer adequate for the increasing business of the county. \Vhen a new building was ordered this building was s old to John H. Redbrook who moved it to Franklin street Later it was moved to the comer of Zack street and Florida avenue and used as a s tore house for the Peninsular Telephone Company The material for this building was brought to Tampa from Mobile by Captain McKay who had come to Tamps in 1845. Captain James had come to Ameri<:a from Scotlan d, first visiting the East Coast of Florida, then makin!( his way to StLouis, where he married and lived for some years. He later ran a bOat betwej!ll and Tampa, tinally settling in Tampa and immediately becom ing one of the spirits in the development of the village and county . At .. of the Board on January 11, 1847, .the 1'1\eetlng at which the oouit !iousi was 9rdered built, it was also ordered that a sale of lots in Tampa should be mad e on !he first Monday in April next and that public notice be given in the JaCksonville News and the Southern Journal published in Tallahassee The oourt house was aecepted fi'Om James McKay on January a, 1848. and hi!' bill paid; including ten dollars allowed for additional work.


I'ART I-NARRATIVE At the auction sale of lots ordered for ApriL 1847, the prices poid were evi dently small as while no record seems to have been lcopt of the s&le. referenoe is made to sueb priees as $25, $86, $46 and $83. The growth of the county is shown by the fact that the tot a l ta xe s had increased from $148.69 in 1848 to $588.97 in 18{7. At several of the there bad been dinctions given for establishing roads. These bad always been to ooanect communities to the ea t, southeast and 1IOrtheast with Tampa. In 1847 a road was ordered from the west end of the ferry at Tampa. to run in a gene rall y and nortbweOnsiderable growth and development of this county, then so great in area. A ferry was allowed across the Hillsborough River on the Fort King Road. Another indication of com mercia! growth was tl10 act of tlte County Commissione rs in appointing L. G. Cavacivich and Samuel Bi shop ns pilot for the bay and fixing prices for pilot ervioe. The pilots we re allowed to charge .. follows: For vessels under eight feet draught at the rate of $2 .60 per foot of draught for every night on board; for a draught of eight to ten feet $5.00; over let feet, $3.30; and for all United States vusels a flat rate of $5.00 per foot of draught. Public improvements .-lving much notioe in the m:ords of the Conty Ccnn missioner.-' meetings were a jail built by Simoa Sik store wu moved to the Cl01'1ler of Florida avenue and Washington street. where the building was for many yean aftt1' the Civil War an object of much interest because of a hole which bad lietn tom in its l!ide b y a large shell from the Federal gunboolts. The residenoe was converted by the j!Overnment into a hospital fo r troops and was


HISTORY OFHILLSllO.ROUGH COUNTY nsed for t11at purpose for many years. Included among the other buildings oi that time was J. B. Allen's bnarding house, about a hundred yards of the commissary, and the Kennedy store which stood on the Jot to the Palmer House. A few hundred feet oonh of Kennedy's WllS the place of L G Ca\-&civich. Still further north, along the river, was a large blockhouse. built for a refuge in case of attaclc by the Indians. Judge Simon Turman bad just completed a double log house on the ground Y?here the customs house was after-wards erected. hard by the present site of the Lafayette street bridge. The blockhouse, Judge Steele' residence and William Ashley's house were situated near the foot of Lafayette meet, or between there and Jackson street. Further eastward from the river stood the or iginal court house, on the site of the present court house. This building was a wooden affair h a ving two only, and it 5erved as a school house also. The "scrub", or undeveloped territory extended everywhere north of a line between Colonel Turman's place and the rourt bouse (Lafayette street), and east of what is now known as Morgan street. The streets, as yet, were merely trails winding through the scrub palmetto. Another building of those days was the residence of A. B. H enderson, father of W. B. Henderson, which stood at the corner of Whiting stree t and Florida avenue. on the lot where Col. T. C. Taliaferro built a home in after years. A llfn:. Stringer lived on a part of the present city hall block. it bein!r from her bein; that the land for the site of the southern portion of the present city hall was bought in 19H. On the northwest comer of Washington and Fmnklin streets, where t he Friebele store was built in later years, the Indians had a camp which they ocetlpied at intervals when they were on a peace footing with the villaget'$, and e,ame to Ft. Brooke to trade or hold a general pow-wow. The army post barracks and head quarters were substantial log houses, located in the se<:tion now bounded on the east by Franklin street and on the south by Platt. The turbulent weather preceding the great storm of 1848 commenced on Saturday, Septembe!' 23. During Sunday the wind came in gusts from the east. accompanied by occasional show ers. A n-umber of men went down the bay on Snnday to assist in bringing in W. G. Ferris' schooner, the John T. Sprag11e, due from N'ew Orleans with a cargo of snpplies. Great difficulty was experienced in towing the vessel against the strong wind, and it was necessary to "kedge" mort than ooee before r.acl)ing the landing. It was well for the troops and villager< that this cargo was saved, for it was some time afterward before more supplies The schooner also brought specie and etlrrency to be paid to the soldiers, _M:r . being paymaster at the time. On the morning of the 26th, the wind shifted to the south and finally to tht S01lthwest. Then thetrouble commenced. A h .igh tide c;l!lle in, and the velocity of the ;wind increased, driving the water deep into the garrison. Ferris carried hi family to the Palmer House, then waded in "oater up to his armpits baek to the store, be succeeded in getting out ihe currency and account books. Then. upon looking southWard, he 'sa)V the commissary rolling and tumbling straight his w arehouse. A there was a crash as the ware-


PART I-NARRATIVE 29 bouse was struck and away went the whole structure, reduced to a mass of wreckage tbat included worth of goods and a large amount of specie. The Palmer House now seemed doomed. Tables began to float around in the dining room of the old hostelry. Josiah Ferris, son of the sutler, distinguished himself by swimming out through the north door with a young girl in his arms. The refugees retreated to the Kennedy store, thence to still higher ground at the co"'er of Franklin ana Washingeon. But the Palmer House withstood the storm. The scene in the garrison was now appalling, though sublime in its grandeur, as the great waves came charging in, and the bay as far as the eye could reach was lashed to a fury. The islands in the bay were out of sight under the water, and the tidal wave rushed across the peninsula west of the river into Old Tampa Bay. The tremendous pressure of wind and water raised the river until only the treetops were visible, far north of the village. The Sprague, with the government specie stiU on board, had been anchored up at the uship yard," and during the worst part of the gale the hull of an old abandoned boat floated against her and broke her cables, allowing her to drift out into the pine woods ea.t of the river and somewhere west of what is now Franklin street. with captain and c:;rew on board. During Monday afternoon the wind died away and the waters receded some what, giving the villagers an opportunity of viewing the darmge. In the garrison they found that the little church on the beach, the soldiers' quarters near by, C. B. Allen's boarding house, the Indian agent's ofli

80 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY cround in order to get anywhere. During the $tOtm tho lighthouse at .Egmont was so badly damaged that a new one was built. No lives wore lost as a result of the gale, but there were many narrow escapes from dcatb. As to the caase of the inundation, various theories were advanced. Many were of the opinion that the east wind had blown grcsl volumes of water into the gulf, and that the south wind coming 011 with the tide, drove the waters of tbe ov.,..taxcd gulf into the ._,.. along oar eoast. Of autb was the memorable storm of '48.


. ._ U t; 11 tl' 1; lJ l:!t ftillJ II l II 11 II II l./,1LJ'-Su1Jifd Cu. t l lfntl' f.rut,, l i l i.<;. /AC;:rr-l'tnLt C .-rt 1/"tt Slfrr l!ll It :/ff''"rt 1n lfl'


CHAPTER V BMJHNJNCS OP 'tR& CITY OP TAW'PA. A FIRST the seulement at the mouth of the Hillsborough River had =terec! in the military post and the principol part of the businC$S of the was such u would naturally be attendant upon the furnishing of oupplies for the members of the military companies stationed there. However with the coming of peace in 1&12 and the inflwc of immigrants to settle in this productive regioo, there up a settlement outside of the fort and the village of Tampa rapidly became the commercial a:oter of the region, supported largely, it is true, by the needs of the ooldiers, but not entirely dependent oo them. Tampa, tberefore l>egan to show signs of a substantial growth. The fint great event to mark this growth was the survey of the land dedicated to a town, the sole of lots and the beginning of a spirit of pride in the village The next important otep wu a movement to inoorporate the city On February 12, 1849. the following report was presented in writing to the County "Tampa Hillsborough Cty. January'l8, 1849 "A meeting held in the Court HOU$O in Tampa oo the 18th inalant by the Citizens of the same to take vote to know whether they would have the Village of Tampa Incorporated or not A committee had been appointed to ascertain the no iJ!babitants reported the no the meeting proceeded to Appoint a president and -ry and they were qualified by Judge Turman u the law l!'d then proceecled to the election & it terminated as follows Yeas 14 Nays 00 being Unan imous in the aftirmative they then proceeded to advertise an election in terms of the law to be held on the .25th instant to eleet five Trustees, Mth in'tanf the citiUD$ met the President & Secretary held the eleclion & it Terminated in the of M G. Sikes T P Kennedy J Carter C. A. Ramsey & Wm m.d;ag then Adjourned. Recorded the 12th February 1849 M. G. su..S President Secretary While there is no de6nite record of &ny further ratification of this act of incorporation, it seems to have beetl accepted as a sort of working basis and for everal years an organization called the Corporation of the Town of Tampa remained in existence. There is no evidence that this corporation did anything or had any important on conditions ift Tampa . On October 10, 1852, the Corporation of the Town of Tampa wu dWolved by act of the County Commiosloners and Its assets ordered turned into casb with which to pay ito debts :


3! HISTORY OF HILLSBOROL:CH The assets were listed thus : S Reoord Books (omall) 1 market house }S es from the Indian expression 't2mpa'', meaning s plit wood for fires The report of H H. B. Meyer, chief bibliographer of the Library of Congress, includes the following references to the meaning of 'Ta1npa'', and to the ineidem i :surrounding the giving of the name: hT:ampa; from 'timpi'; i. 1., fctose to ii'. 'near it i the name of a bay on the west coast of the peninsula of Florida." Page 46. "Indian Local Names. With Interpretations,'' by Stephen C. B oyd : "Tampa; city in Hill s borou g h County and bay on wut COliS! of Florida fro m Indian word 'timpi', meaning 'close to it', or 'near it'." Page 296, "O rigin o i Names of Certain Places in the United States", by Henry Genlodl. T ampa, the little town by De Rei nso De Soto's lieutenant. was at lint a Seminole Indian camp Tampa is the Indian word to express "Split wood for quick fires. n Harrison Rhode& and Mary Wolfe Dumont in "A Guide to Florida," page 29S. Persons acqnainted with the lang\>>ge of the Semin oles say is still an express ion, "tampa", w i th this ttame meaning ; theref ore the "Spli t wood for quic k fires" would seem to be acceptable as a meaning. It is not unlikely that the Indian s had a camping pla

l'ART I-NARRATIVE 33 John ]a<:lrson bad surveyed the first forty a<:ru of the Village of Tampa in 1846. In the year 18/iO 1111otber survey covering greater territory was made by Mr. Jackson. The limit s of the village were extended to the north so that Franklin t treet, instead of tenninating in the vicinity of Madison street, was made to extend as far north as the present site of Harrison street. The map of Tampa was added to by Later surveys in 1852 and 18/iS. New people were coming into the county and settling there, thus bringmg more business and more people to the county-seat. Lots in Tampa were sold as low as $ll5 for comer Jots and $20 for interior lots. A road was establiahed from the ferry at Tampa to the eonunon landing at Clear Water Harbor Over thia mad much merchandise w01 hauled to and from sehoonus whicl! anchored in Clear Water Bay. The growth during this period n11y be indicated by a comparison of the taxes as .. swl in 1849 for Hillsborough County, with the amount a ssessed in 1855. In 1Mn the taxes amounted to $638.76, while in 1855 the amount had i ncreased to an increase of a little more than one hundred per cent. In the records of this decade the first mention is made of public funds appro p,riated toward the support of public schools. Before this what schools there bad been were supported by tuition or voluntary subscription. In 1848 mention iJ made of a village school COildutted in the court bouse by W. P. Wilson. In 18/iS at a ..-ing of the Boord of County CornmiJsioners of that y ear the record shows that the sum of $107.0. was received from the state school fund. To tbia was added by the Board of County Commissioners the sum of soo. The number of children of school age repoJted to be Jiving in the county was 560. This would indicate a population for the county of 2500 to 3000. This population was seat over tbe great expanse of Hillsborough County, which then included practically what now composes the counties of Pasco Polk, Man atee, S.roson., DeSoto, Charlotte, Highlands, Hardee, Pinellas and Hillsborough. In 1854 the following places were named as locations for schools: No.1, Old Tampa; No. 2. Edwards' school bouse; No. 3. Spanish Town : No. Tampa, 3 houses; No. 6, Sparkman (near Sydney, the original location of the Sparkman family settw-nt); No. 6, Itchepuckesassa City); No. 1, Soak Rum (Socrum); No. 8 Peu Creek (near Fort Meade); No.9, AWia; No. 10, MAnatee. The locations of these schools offer a fair indication ol where the people of the county then lived. In 1850 the oemetery now known as Oaklawn was provided for by the city counetl. This cemetery wu located some diJtance to the northeast of the village. It is now in the very center of the modern city of Tampa. Although the court hau&e had been built only few years, yet it bad already become too small for the busin.Ss of the county. Tl)e grounds bad been imp

34 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROI.iCH COUNTY In 1850 James McKay was appointed treasurer of the county and remained .in this office for several years. In this same year. by order of the County sioners, the road supervi59rs were excused for any neglect in caring for the county roods because of an Indian outbreak This was evidently a local outbreak and short-lived, as the serious Indian troubles did not begin until 1856. Reference was repeatedly made at the meetings of the County to the need of a larger court house, and finally in May, 1853, plans, prepared by the Reverend J. A. Breaker, were accepted, provided the building could be com pleted for $5.000 or less. The mau..r of the new court house dragged on for some time. but the building was finally completed by the Reverend Mr. Breaker and the last payment made on June 5, 1865. This, the second oourt bouse of Hillsborough County, wa.< a two story building with offices below and court and jury rooms on the secon d floor The position of this building was north and south, with four large columns at each end, and the entrances were at the Madison and Lafayette street sides. The entire block was enclosed by a picket fence with steps over the fence. When, in later years, a brick building replaced this wooden structure, the old house was movetl up Florida avenue and used for a rooming house. The material for this was fumished by .James McKay, who had built the first court house. This decade from 1830 to 1860 was certainly a time of development in all lines that i n dicate a period of prosperity and enterprise. Life during this decade was what might be expected in a pioneer town on a frontier still far distant from the centers of population. Mail came from Gainesville by horse and buggy once a week Dry goods were brought in by schooner from New York about once a year. Groceries came for the most part by schooner from New Orleans. a:' often as a cargo could be made up for this port. An idea of the wholesale price quoted Tampa storekeepers may be gained from the following, as listed by a New Orleans firm in 1859 : "Eggs, per barrel, $6 to 810. Flour, per barrel, $4.25 to $4.75. Lard oil, 87,Y.I cents per gallon. Baco n and Hams, 8 to 12 cents per pound. Cognac brandy, $3 to $10 per gallon, Holland gin, 75 oents per gallon. Whiskey, 28 cents per gallon." After the court bouse the first public building was the Masonic Lodge building. 1852 for Hillsborough Lodge No. 25 on the corner of Whiting and Franlilin streets. The first church building, the First Methodist Episcopal church, was bwlt in the same year at and Morgan streets by John T. Lesley and Captain :L' C. I,esle;r; two of Its trustees. The First Baptist church building "'"" erected m or 1868 on the southeast comer of Twiggs and Tampa streets. tt remamed until the brick structure was built at Plant avenue and Lafa.,ette street, opposite the site of the P.resent church building.


PART I-NARRATIVE 86 The Masonic building was al&o u.ed as the mting plac:e of the Odd Fellow s lodge. A dancing school is mentioned, and a debating society was very active and popular. At the meetings of this debating society questions of natioo-wide import were discu&Sed and settle d to the of the citizens. Among the l eading cit{zenS whose names were frequently prominent in public affai rs. in addition to the memben of those families already referred 10 in these pages. were H. L Crane. Macli5011 Po$1. Mn. W T. Haskins. Dr. T. B Cowart; and Dr. Branch. There was one hotel in Tamp.a. the Palmer House. situated on Water street near the present site of the Tampa Shipbuilding and Engineering Company's plantc There was a meat market abd three or four stores. There were five Spanish families living in Spanish Town, who supplied the city and solwers with fish'. MuUet sold for two

36 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY summer. Tbia was the same John Jaclcson who had previously engaged in surveying much of this section, IDd wbo laid out the first street lines in Tampa. "Huny Up the Cakes 1 Florida Bakery. Thus runs the lea d to the advertisemeat of Jolm F. who ccodutood on the northeast comer of Lafayette and Morgan streets. Mr. Fletcher had c:ome u a baker with the army forces stati oned in the garrison during the lndiMt troubles. and as an old man he kept thi s bakery shop. Fletcher's plaoe was a favorit e gath eriog place for kids of the village. for the genial proprietor hacJ a weakness for doling out cookies and other pastry tidbits to the youog folks. Ex-Mayor D. B. McKay remembe

PART I-NARRATIVE 37 such matteAml by John Jacksoo a few years preYious to this time Showed Morganto be th e .._, boundary of tbe _,_ I t was many years before Lafayette street wu extcncled beyond East street. Mr. Redbrook, by way of concluding hia adve11i...-ncnt, declares, "I will not be under sold by anybody t.outh of the Mason & Db:on line." "CLOTHING EMPORIUM," as a head to Michael Wnll'1 business announce ment, was in a way rather misleading, as Mr. Wall kept in stock practically every a11icle that his oompetiton oould boast of keeping. Wolf's Schnapps and Monongahela whiskey were included in his wet goods. At the store of C. L. Friebeic, corner of Washington and Franklin (an auto parking ground s now), the usual ceneral stock was aucmented by a supply of cotton gin bearings bedsteads, cane r ockers, bun:ans, as well u a "fashionably selected stock of millinery goods, which might be had in for eitber cash or such p roduce as <00taa, bides, tobacco, rnoso, potatoes ete. From this ad it may be dcduted that t he Tampa bad< oounuy grew considerable c:ottoo in those dsys. A Bell, who kept a provUioo store adjoining Bell' s new sawmill, gave notice that he was prepared to "exchange meal and hominy for com (bushel for bushel) every Saturday." A clever bid for the country t rade, probably. Henry Avis informed the public that he would do ship carpentering aodboat-building,also house carpeoterin(. He could be found at the old ship yard and cub would "be experog store, anaounced that be bad a oomplde line of sebool books ii.dnd ing Smith's, Olney's Mitchel's, McNally s and Monteelh's geographies He kept also such books as Pilgrim' s Progress, Clark's Commentary, Life and Beauti .. o f Fanny Fern, and Jay'a Morning aod Evening Ex..-.:ises. Doubtless Dr. Todd'a ..-nporium was a very interesting plact in which to s pend a leisure half hour or so on a rainy day. Kennedy & Darling ran a forwarding and commission house at the comer of Tampa and Whiting streets; opposite the U. S. garrison. Tltere being at that time no railroad tracks on Wbitin( street-nor on llllY other sttoet, for that matterthe oxen lllld horse-drawn vehicles had tbiocs pretty much their own way oa tlie then aandy lane. A Duling advel1ised that !My would receive provisions .. from New Orlea!>s by each steamer. They were prepared to purchaae; advance U]>OI1, or ship, cotton bides, etc.. 13p011 liberal terms."


CHAPTER VI. 1Sl>51 8Gl. D uRIN'C years of growth and progress, marked by the increasing ber of settlements and famlers' hon1es, there grew up a demand for a better county organization which coul d apply to all parts of this extensive county. It began to be evident to an that the area of the county was too great and the centers o( population too )'lidely scattered for their affairs to be effectively ad ministered at one couoty sear. Therefore there began a series of movements which in the of Hillsborough county into siruiller counties. In 1855 the Manatee section was separated from the mother county and itself organized into a county, named Manatee county. I n 1861 the east part of Hillsborough county was organized into Polk county, and this su)J9ividing and creating of smaller counties continued until in 1911 the last division :Was made and Pine11as countY. was created out of the west part of the county, leaving Hillsborough county as it is at present, in 1927. Thus the great area that bad been c reated Hillsborough county in 1834 ha4 in the course of '1 '1 years so iD.creased in population and industries. that it was neCessary to ten county governments where only one had been. The present cotwties, Pasco, PoJk, Manatee, Sarasota, DeSoto, Charlotte, Highland s, Hardee. Pinellas and Hillsborough have been all caM,ed from the Hillsborough county of 1834 and each one of these iar the original county in population, resources, improvements, and In the Book of the county commissioners are many minutes that in dicate on the one hand. tl\e simplicity 61 life of those days and on the other hand the decided growth and pfogress. On one page we read that of the increas ing populati:on Of. that region Manatee county was and on the same pag e the statemtnt that a biil for 156 cents for services rendered was presented to the board and ordered paid. Progress expansfon were seriously hindered although nOt entirely by the of the second Seminole war in 185 6. In February of tbaf year Captain Richard Turner organized a company of in fantry, intended to operate agains t the Indians wherever they might be found along the coast. The officers were Richard Turner, captain; Abel Maranda, first lieutenant and Eli 1. Hart, second lieutenant. Captain Turner was an old Indian fighter who.had been a captain in the old Florida war. and w a s well known as a gtnerous and brave man. .. The state faised troops which were later mustered into Federal service. At one time there were ten independent companies of mounted Florida infantry at Tampa !toerVing the There was one reg;ment of volunteers Under Colonel St. O.Orge.Rodgers and two boat companies, called quartermaster's men, did scouting in the lakes and rivers. using metallic boats. brought from New Orleans by steamer as often as needed. This l!trge number of soldier$ stationed in and around Fort . .


PART I-NARRATIVE 39 Brooke made rnore frequent trips necessary. This resulted in increased business and prosperi ty in the young city However, in the county the marauding bands of tile Indians interfered nJost seriously with the safety and prosperity of the fanners and stock g

HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY Wilful neglect upon the part of port insptor in enforcing quarantine regu latioos shall be punished U obove. Said ordinances ,.-ere ordered to be published in the Florida Peoinwlar, and weof hi tife. for it was while be wu stationed at Fort Brooke that be became a Christian in the old Methodist c:burch on ea!l Lafayette street In 1894. thirty .... ven years after the time of his service at Fort Brooke, he again visired Tampa, findin g the old church where he gave his life to Christ nothing but charred ruins. He also visited the garrison, and found the spot where his little office and s leeping room In the extreme northeast comer had stood in the days of the second Seminole war . :lu 18GB, under the administnlioo of Mayor Maditon Post, ordinances were pas$ed.fixing the price for a lioense for rd;ailing spirituous liquors at twenty-five dollars, and requiring all free negro men to pay a city tax of 6.fty dollars a year. and all free negro women and chil drco over twelve yean of age and under twenty one, a y"'r. Much interest 'was felt aliout this time in Hillsborough county over a charter that lttd been granted,

PART I-NARRATIVE the presideot of the Florida road wu blamed oovenly by citireos of Tam!* for the foilure of the oompany to buDd the road t o Tampa. It was noc until many years later in 1889 tl>at the road, now lmown as tl>e Seaboard Air Une, was extended to the county seat of Hillsborough county. Thus as early as l81i8 C.da r Keys on the Gulf of Mexi oo, about one hundred and fifty miles north of Tampa Bay, became ooonected with tl>e Atlantic Coast aod the ol2tes to the north of F!Och Tamlla for tl>e next quarte r century was by from Femandiu or Jack oooville to Cedar Keys and tl>eo by schooner or at times by steamer t o Clear Water Harbor and tl>eote overlancl to Tampa. Or ofteo by boat .U the way from Cedar Keys down the gulf coast :and up Tampa Bay to Tampa. Maoy of the citizens who became active and promineot in bWiding o f the region a round Tam!* Bay is time and for thirty yean afterward the only way of crossing the Hills borough River at Tampa w as by ferry. As Tampa had been started on the east side o f the river, this crude. and slow means of communication with the w est side tended to hinder settlement and growth in that direction. In 1859 an ordinance was passed b y the city oouncil to the effect that .U fer ries in town should be tea.ed for a period of fonr years at tweoty dollars per year to the person naming the lowest cbargos for oonveying Yehicles and pedestrians acros.s the river. Moreover, it wa.s provided t hat a ugood and su fficie-utflat." abl e of carrying over safely a loee h orses of John Messer and W H llanby from a po int on the Alalia River to Tampa, a distance of thirty-two miles The wager was one thou sand dolla rs. Messer won and the money was paid over witl>out protest. I n 1858 the secood Seminole Indian war came to a close and again tl>ere begao a period of peaoe and security with il$ attendant increaae in pro6perity and develop ment of the natural resouroes of the oouoty. New settlers came to establish homes, by clearing here and there, throughout tl>e great area of tbe oounl)', patches of the rich forest land and converting them into productive farms, from wbieb tl>ey eured a comfortable l inng and in many cases laid tle foundations lor geoerations of prOilperity lor their descendants. The old roads that had been neglected during the yean of I ndian troubles were repaired, bridges were rebuilt and ferries and ford s wore reestablished At nearly every meeting of the county commi.s.sioaers new roads were ordered connecting new settlement s wi t h the oounty seat and with each otlter. The schools w hich had been for the most part disoontinued during tl>e yean f857, 1858 and part of 1859 were reopened aod tbe school money that had allowed to I

42 HISTORY OF HILLSBO ROUGH COL"N'fY In 1861 the area. of ffiUsborough county was reduced by nearly ooe-balf when Polk eowlty was organiud from its southeastern part. AU of these activities indi nts.


CHAPTER VII. Tnt CWtL WAR P.:.tUoo. H ILLSliOROucJi county was so far removed from the commercial centers and the great agricultural regions of the Souihern States, both by distaoce and b y the s1ow and l i .mited means of communication with these centers of influence, that there was in this county no very degrte of interest in the growing differences between the north and south, and little realiz.ation of the aeriousness of the series of event s that was soon to culminate in the secession of the states of the south, to be f o U owed by four years of b l oody warfve. When. however the state of Florida l!'lssed an ordinance of se<:6Sion January 10, 1861, and becvne one of the otates of the "Confederate of America," the citizens of Hillsborough oounty did their part in furnishing men for the armies of the south and in supporting the brnili!IIy clerk durin g this Period Some of men who had been active as c;ivi leaders went to the war not to for several yean and some never returned. The couniy commi.s.sionefs, however, oontiimed in office, and their records furilish a most iriterestin' g conuritntary on the cOnditions and events in the county during that troublous period , $o fur as actual battles 'Yere concerned Hillsborough county saw little of the war. soim as secession wa.s accoinplished and the U S Navy began to cany out . . . .,


mSTORY OF HIU.SBORO UGH COUNTY the plan of bloc:bdillg the coast of the Confederate States, gunboots were con otantly 011 duty in the gulf olf the entranee to Tampa Bay, and some of these gunboats at different times came up the bay and on two or three occasio ns fired some hots at the town. In an issue of the Tampa Daily Times of December 18, 1923, there appeared an article prepared by Captain James McKay, the son of the Captain James McKay wbo came to Tampa in 1846, built the first court house and was le&der in aU worthwhile activities in the county for many years. Tbis article deals especially with Civil War mniniscences, &nd is of particnl&r interest as both the elde r and the youugtt Captain McKay were leading actors in the events of those stirring times. He writes, "I.rnmedia tely after secession, the militia d every able-bodied man were called out and put to work tbrowinR" u p breastwork s and batw"ies at the month of the river t o resit expected attacks of the United States navy which we then believed we could wipe off the face of the water.'" Captain McKay Sr., owned the steamship Salvor He offered this to the Con federate oavy but it was not accepted as it was not suitabl e for war service . The sbip was being used to carry beef cattle to Cuba. When war bad really be gnn. the attempt wu made to use the Salvor as a blockade runner. The ship was loaded in Havana harbor and prepared for thio service at a coot of about UOO,OOO, subscri bed by many southern business men. Soon after sbe left "" her first voyage she was capl11red by Federal gunboats and her officers were held for some time u The younger Captain MeKay served as a captain in Lbe Confe derate service, spending. most of his lime i n command of small bodies of soldiers protecting the city of Tampa and the surrounding region from forays of mar.uding bands of deserters and outlaws such u alWays exist wherever there is a war. At the outbreak of the war there were probably one thou=d or more reoideots in Tampa and vicini ty. With the demands of the war on the men and difficulty of importin g necessities the papulation rapidly decreosed. Seven! times, especiaUy in 1883 and 1864, gun.boab from the United States fteio> to R"rtal con>tenwion of the family. One larger shot bit the of the oourt bouse and went complete l y through the build ing This Was aboirt the exLeiJt of PfOperty danDge done in all these bombardments :. Nobody .,.. hurt. During the early part of die war the fort wu garrisooed hy oae or two OOIIlpalljes of Confederatuolclieu. Many of the of Tamp& removed


PART I-NARRATIVE 45 to the country. During the bombudments the wome> would take their children and some provisions and go away out into the country up onto high land where Seventh Avenue now is, beyond the reach of the shots from the gonhoots. In 1864, shortly after the battle of Olustee in northern Florida, when Genera l Finnegan's brigade was ordered to Virginia, the small garrison of Confederate &O!diers who had been stationed in Fort B rooke was withdrawn. Then a body of Federals, about two hundred men from the gunboats in the bay, under the command of General Woodberry, landed at Hooker's Point and took possession of Fort Brooke and Tampa. There was great concem among the r e sidents as to what would happen to themselves and their property. Mr. D. B. Givens tells how he, then a small boy, on seeing the Yankee soldiers marching along the street ran home and in grest ex citement totd.his father that the ul>evlls a r e coming." A record in the minute book of the county commission ers states that t he clerk of the circuit court was ordered to remove books and papers of his office to Cor k in this county f<>r safety. However, there was littl e to fear. The property belonging to the Confederate government w as seized and a few of the prominent men were imprisoned for a short time. Beyond this, except for a certain amount of thievlng, the residents and their property wer e not molested. Mr. Givens relates an interesting incident of the period of Yankee occupation. T be Masonic building, located on the northeast comer of Franklin and Whiting streets, was used as the meeting place of the Odd Fellows as well as of the H ills borough lodge of Masons Some of the soldier> broke into this building and stOle the paraphernalia and insignia of the orders. When tmy left Tampa for Key West they took their booty with tmm. WhU e in Key West these emblems wer e disoov ered by some of the offioers and about a year later were returned to the Tampa lodges. In the meantime the Masons could not conduct tMi r meetings without their "working tools!' So Mr John T. Givens, father of D. B. Give ns, who was a cai penter and buUdcr, made a set out of what material he had at hand. These implements were used for some time until the original ones were returned. Hi1lsborough ll>dge still has among its most cherished possessions the compaSses and trow el which were mad e more than sixty years ago to meet an During the years almost no exception, the minutes of the county eom.issioners are recorcls of the assi..stan. given to famiHes of soldiers then in the servioe, and of those who had been killed or wounded. At a meeting on April 8, 1862, a county tu, o ne-half a s great as the state lal<. was ordered. TM proc eed s of this tax wer e to be expended for supplies f<>r soldiers' families. Sevet'1LI items of expenditures for cotton and c::om for various families were recorded. : On January 6, 1863, the Reverend S, C. Craft was appo.inred as the agent of the commissioners to distribute cotton com and other to the needy families. : : .


46 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROL'GH COt:XTY On December 6 o{ the same )'ear Mr. Antoine WardhoH, one of the county commissioners, was inst.ructed to purchase six bales of cotton thread from the tieello factory to be used by the county in assisting the needy. The Confederate go'"enunent was at this time collecting ten per cent of the com raised in the south as a tax for the support of the army. This was called "tithe com." At the meetiog of December G 1863, it was ordered that, boat"d petition the commissary general of the! Confederate states to allow the county to purchase surplus tithe com in the counties of Heinando and Sun1pter to the atnoum of two thousand bushels for indigent soldiers' families in this county." Under date of December 17, 1863, appears the following: "It is ordered th a t James Crum be engaged to make twelve spinning wheels for the soldiers families. It is ordered that if Colonel 0. B. Hart will sell cotton at 25 cents per pound, tl1at cotton be purchased for them. It is decided that this county will pay for 780 poun d s c'l{ beef per month for two months for the soldiers' families in and around Tampa who h ave husband!> or sons in the Confederate service or ha \'e died or been wom1ded in the Confederate service." At this time the regular price for a two-year4old steer was tn entyfive doJlars I n February, 1864-, the commissioners levied a tax of one per centum Oil all taxable property for the support of so l diers' f a milies, instead of onetwelfth as: it had been. Frorn September 1;l 1863, 'to January 31, 1864, the county spent $3,948.20 for supplies for soldiers' families. There was an amount about equal to this received from the state for the same purpose As the war dragged out year after year and as the \'alue of the monty in cir culation continued to depreciate, the records show that less and l ess could be given to the needy and the prices increased stea

!'ART I-NARRATIVE 4? of $400 per year. It was ordered that no fees of taXable property was laid for the relief of indigent soldiers and the widows and orphan$ of soldiers who had died in the serv ice of their country in the late war. At the meeting of May U, 1866, a woman presented a bill for a small amount for services rendered to a needy man several years before. The board decided that this claim should not he paid as a former board had refuud to pay it, "and the said Mrs. went oft to the thereby the board wal of the op inion that she had forfeited all right to the benefit of the claim." At a meeting two mocuhs later the passage quoted was ordered ensed, and it now appears on the record book with lines drawn througb each word This passage has been quoted not to call attention to any unplea&ant feelings that must have existed u that time between the supporters of the North and the South, but rather to emphasize the fact tl>&t in aU the records of the poverty an d distress caused by the war this is the only record in the minute book that shows even a hint of bitternes s toward those who did not side with the supporters of the Confederacy On the other hand, tho evidence, shown in their records"' of the kindlineSs and s elf .. sacrificing generosity toward those in need during times of privation and hardship, convinces us of the fine character o those .sturdy pioneers who so weU laid the foundation s for that splendid growth which the people of Hillsborou g h county are now participating in and enjoying. This was indeed a time of trW and discouragement Many of the former Citiuns were gone. either killed in hattie or attracted to other plaees by better prospects of prosperity Fanna had gone to ued, were in of repair, mar kets were destroyed and the residents had little money and less credit. The following paragraph Iron> the article of Captain James McKay presents a clear picture of the conditions at the close of the war in 1866: "After the close of the war we all returned to our homes which we found in most instances in a dilapidated condition. Tampa was a bard looldng place Houses were in bad order. Streets and lots were grown. up mostly with weed$ and the outlook certainly was not very encouraging." Hillsborough county eteaped almost entirely the distrusing c.<>nditioni that the troublous recbmtruction period brought to most places in the Soutb. .For a. short time Fort Brooke wu gvrisooed by two companies of negyo soldiers< JheY;. ;


HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COONTY became overbearing and trouble was imminent, but they were and re placed by white soldiers who soon became friendly with the citizens of Tampa and were a in rebuilding the city When Florida, in 1868, came under a state constitution that was acceptable to the United States, conditions became stable in Tampa and soon there began again to appear sure signs of progress. Farmers began to increase their proclucts, immigrants again were attracted by the climate to settle on the rieh lands bordering Tampa Bay, new stores opened in trade became brisk although there was little real money in circulation and slowly but surely the foundations were laid for the great growth that began to be evident a dozen years later in the early eighties. A considerable trade with Cuba was begun whieh no doubt was a beginning of the oourse of events which has lead to a dose and profitable friendship betl\ een Florida and the Queen of the Antilles.


' ; --


CHAPTER VIII. A Pwoo OP Sr.ow Caowra: ON AucuST 17, 18GG, the rte<>rd olthe city of Tampa was ljpin taken up, with John Jackson a s mayor and William Austin as clerk, who held office lor one year. But from 1 867 until 187a the city of Tampa was under goin g a period of reorgani zatio n and during these &be: years no mayor o r staff of city officers were in control In city and county duriag this period ooaditiont were most disoauragiag. Property was valued at vuy low figures. a who le block ia the city being sold for one handr

50 mSTORY OF HILLSBOR OUGH COU NTY Crawford, C. Q .. wife and one child. Clarke, E. A., wife and one child. Collar, John. and wife, Mrs. L., and one c hild Cowart, Mrs., and four c hildren L;>uis, and wife. Canning, R. B ., wife and four chil dren. Craft, D Isaac. wife and two children. Campbell. W J ., wife and f i ve children. Darl ing, John, bachelor Del.aunay, John, wife and fow children. Drew, William, wife and one child Louisa (daughter of Mrs. H Weissbred ) Dagenheart, Ann (daughter of Mrs. H. Weissb

PART I NARRATIVE Leonardy, B. C., wife and four children. Leooardy, Vmcent, wife and five children. McKay, James, Sr., wife and three children. McKay, James, Jr., wife and two children. McKay, D S., and wife. McKay, John A wife and two children. Miller, Mrs. Nancy (widow). Mansell, A wife and two children. Masters, L. A ., wife and three children Magbee, J. T., and wife. Mitchell, H. L., and wife (later governor of Florida). Marsh, Mrs. Jane (widow), and two children. Miranda, Abel, wife and one child. Mobley, C. R., wife and two children. Nunez, R. F., wife and two children. Ponce, A., bachelor. Perkins, Christiana (widow) and three children. Proseus, Henry, and wife. Pratt, Wm. "ife and three ch i ldren. Porter. Mn. M L. (widow), and two children. Roberts, Mrs. Ann, widow. Redbrook, John S., wife and four children. Stringer, Mrs. Mary, widow. Spencer, Wm. S., and two children. Sweat. W. E., and four children. Turner, W. K ., wife and one child (pastor M. E. church South). Townsend, L. D., wife and one child. Turman, Mrs. M. H . and one chi l d. Vighil, Joseph, wife and one child. Wells, Dr R. .M., wife and two children. Weissbred, H., wife and one child. Persons living in the vicinity of TamP

52 HISTORY OF HILLSBO R OL'GH COUNT\' Persons living in the vicin.ity of Tampa nonh and east : Bourquardez, Constant, wife and seven children. Deshong, Louis, wile and lour chi ldren. Hanna, Josiah, wile and lour children. Jacl!>d, fuiJ ofi wampy over grown with a heavy growth of scrub palmato, eabbege palms an

PART I-NARRATIVE dollar&. Sand was ankle deep in all of the streeu and in many places the scrub palmetto and weeds encroached upon the highway right down. to the ruts made by the OK carts of the visiting farmers. On the southw .. t corner of Washington Street and Florida Avenue stood a frame building used as the post office in the early oeventi .. with the Reverend T. A. Carruth as postmaster. Later Mrs. E L. Mobley kept a sehool in this build ing. The half-acre traet at the northwe41 comer of Zaek and Franklin Streets, where the Citiu:ns Bank and Trust Company building now stands, could have been purchased for fifty dollars, according to a ........,em made in after-yeats by O liver Bubee, county commissioner in 1 8 91 and a j ustice of the peaee at Riverview. That city life was at a low ebb durin g these years is evideneed by the failure to elect a mayor and other city office r s and by the action of the county commis s ioners at a meeting on October 4, 1869, when .they "ordered that as the city of Tampa has forfeited its charter all property of the city be taken over by the county clerk." In 1870 the county commissioners gave permission that the city hall be as a school house. As the siate oonstitution of 1868 became established and it was seen that settled conditions were returning in spite of recon truction metboda, the residents of the village bejlOD t o take COQTage and mau and carry out plans for reorganization and growth. In 1873 J. E. Lipcomb was elected mayor and served for lour consecutive terms until 1876. During these four years considerable s trides were made in mu nicipallegislation. The old recorda tell of attempta made to regulate the morals of the youth of the community T.aKes were levied on drays. tippling houses, hotels, lotteries, peddlers and aucti011eer s. . Epidemics of yellow fever were quite common in those days, and Dr. John P. Wall, a recognized authority on the tatlseO, preventiOD and treatment of the dread malady, was appointed port physician, his remuneration being a fee of ten dollars on all vessels of one hundred and fifty tona or more. The older r

HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY the smaller lots lying to the town. Colonels Hooker, Sparkman, and Captain Jolm T. Lesley were the purchasers of some of the larger lots for selves and for other persons. Some of these lots sold for eleven dollars per acre. In those years Christmas celebrations were the chief merrymaking aff..U. of the people of Tampa. Fireworks and '4firewater" of which there seemed to be an abundance, played very prominent parts in these celebrations. The following article published in a newspaper of a few years ago gives an inttresting picture of the annual "Tournament" whic:h was an established part of the Chrisi!Ms festivities fifty yea!'$ ago: In those days the tournament and the ball following were the chief events in the social life of south Florida. The tournament track was in the garrison, in front of the old Federal barracks, which was located a little south of where the Gulf boiler works stood for so many years, at the southeast comer of Washington and Tampa street s. Poles were erected about ro yards apart on the right side of the o!raight track. At a convenient height an arm extended from each pole, and from the end of the arms depended a hinged slat. In a split in the lower end of the slat a small iron ring wrapped with red flannel was lightly inserted, the ring being about the height of the shoulders of a mounted man. The lmights riding in the tournament were armed with long, slender lances, and the object was to catch the rings on the tip of the lance as the horse was running at his best speed. The knight taking the largest number of rings won the right to crown the "queen of love and beauty," and those taking the next largest numbers crowned the various maids of honor. Wrrm.v ATTENDI!D. The toumarnent always presented beautiful spectacles. "The quality" assembled here from all part. s of south Florida to w itness them. The lmights were all in fancy costume and they rode beautiful hot'$e5. Real skill and fine horse manship were required to win, and the riders would practice each afternoon for many weeks in advance of the tournaments. Each !might was permitted to ride the oourse three times, and occasionally one would take all nine rings-three on e ach ride-though this was very rare. In 188{) the population of Tampa was given as 720, a decrease of 76 for the decade 1870-1880. An oldtimer relates how he came to Tampa in 1881 looking for land to develap into a farm. He was taken, what seemed to him, a long distance alon!l' a sandy road, bordered by scrub oak covered land, to a tract of forty acres on high ground, which was offered to him at eight dollars per acre. The land looked 8q poor and unpromising that he refused the offer and settled on some richir appearlrig land eighteen miles east of Tampa. This tract which was offered at eight acre was the part of the city now south of Michigan avenue and eastof Tampa street . But soon all was to change. The railroad, as will be related at length in another chapier, <:arne to the little city at the mouth of the Hills borough Ri7er and a period of and prosperity began whose end is !lot yet The followmg sketch wntten n May, 1885, pictures vividly the changed cooditions:


PART I NARRATIVE 55 The population is about 3,000, composed mainly of native white Americans, the proportion of negroes being about thirty per nt. The main pursuits are cantile JJld manufacturing and growing fruits and vegetables; the principal ship ments are lumber, ca ttle, sugar, vegetables, products and oranges, the a verage an nual shipments of oranges alone are about 100,000 crates, valued at $200,000. The transportation facilities are of a superio r character as compared to other with similar surroundings. The South Florida R. R. main line running from Sanford to Tampa a distance of lla mileS gives an all rail communication with points north. eas.t and west from Sanford, and \Vith the following steamship and steamboat lines at Tampa: The Tampa Steamship Company, owned by Messrs. Miller and Hender son of this city, runs a splendid line of freight anq passenger steamers from Tampa to Cedar Ke y s, a distance of 150 miles, leaving here on Sundays and 'Vednesdays, arriving at Cedar Keys Mondays ancl Thursdays, returning leaving Cedar Keys on :Mon<.lay s and 'fhursdays, arriving at Tampa on Tuesdays and Fridays. They have a semi-monthly 1ine to New Orleans from Tampa. Th-e Key West and Tampa Steamship Company, owned by James McKay of this city, runs a semiweekly U S. Mail service, leaving Tampa Tuesdays and Fridays. The Tampa and Manatee River Steamboat Line makes tri-weekly trips to the Manatee River, leaving Tampa Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, and arrive Mondays, Wed ne.lays and Fridays. The !\forgan Line touches this point regularly, making direct connections with the South Florida Railroad, giving a line to Havana and the West Indies, shorter than by any route The Southern Express Ci>mpany have an office here, also the South Florida Telegraph Company and Tampa and Fort Meade Telegraph Company, a Telephone Exchange has been opened and the line put in use. Mail arrives and departs daily by rail, and semi-weekly to and from Key West b y steamship.


CHAPTER IX. CON'NECTIN"C TAMPA \VlTil 1'U:K \V<>RI.H OY R.\11 . Tns citizens of Tampa had lived for nearly a dozen years hoping for the coming of a railroad. Senator David Yulee, whose railroad was supposed to ha,e joined jacksomille and Tampa, had constntcted a side road to Cedar Key 6rst ignoring the ,illage on Tampa Day. The Tampa weekly newspapers felt and rightly, that Tampa was being slighted. and proceeded to severely cri ticize Senator Yulee, nee Levy. It is reported that feeling ran so high truit the worthy Senator was burned in effigy in Tampa's streets A brief consideration of the situation will give ample excuse for this righteous wrsth. Until 188 3, the government occupied Fort Brooke. Navigation was difficult, for commercial craft bad to pass the common-sense docks, at the mouth of the river, and go up the river to inadequate wharves there. Tampa's water front was occupied by Uncle Sam.and use of the extensive shore-line was denied the burghers of Tampa. the nineteenth century were, of course, 'let)' poor. A sand trail was the route of the semi-weekly hack which brought the mail from Gainesville. Such things-considered, .it is not hard to understand why Senator Yulee was burned in effigy. Tampa's isolation was almost perfect-but what city wants to be perfectly isolated? Even .as Wellington praye d for night or Bluther, so did Tampa pray for removal of the government pos.t, or a railroad. The more impa tient souls, instead of praying, left town during thi s "Dismal Decade," as indicated by the decrease in population from 796 to 720. The night is a lways said to be darkeM just before dawn and i ndeed it wa$ so in this instance. A small standardguage railroad was in existence from Sanford to Kissimmee. known as the South Florida railroad This road was of course small and unim portant, because of the limited area it served. There were no adequate connections at either terminal e>O:ept a small boat line on the St. Johns river at Sanford. This, then, was. the setting of the South Florida transponation stage when Henry Bradley Plant commenced railroad operat ions in Florida Mr. Plant 'va' a prominent raUrnad operator in Georgia and the Carolinas, and he desired to bring' his into Florida and open up the only isolated portion of the South To his mind, and in the opinion of most northerners and easterners, Florida's boundary cons:titu(ed the last frontier in Dixie. : Just previous Mr. Plant's purehase of the South Florida railroad. a Mr. Alfred H Parslow bad obtained a 5 ,000" aere grant from the Federal land office, ntnning from Kissimmee to Tampa. He had conceived the idea of a rail-. road to traverS., the entire length of the state. The proposed name was the JackTaf!lP.a aild KeY: \Vest railroad. M:r. Parslow. however, was unable to . huiM this ran r oad becau se he lacked the necessary capital. 56


PART I NARRATIVE Mr. Plant, l'eali:ting that he needed a terminal of his rails on the made Parslow a spot cash offer for his holdings and for the charter of "paper" railroad. The deal was made. Floridians interested in tbe railroad were somewhat dubious of the success of Mr. Plant. A certain clause in the land grant and the oharter fathered their doubts The charter expired January 25, 1884-

HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COt..:.N'l'Y first under the name of the Plant Investment Company, Int., which later tnok the name, The Plant System of Railroods. The first town to be established in Hillsborough County outside of T"mpa was Plant City, named. of course, for Mr. Plant and his railroad. For considemble time it bore the highly-descriptive name of The End Of The Track. We will read more about the history of what is now a goodsized community, little resembling "the end of the track." Established at about the same time wa s a little uboom town'', Leona City, now known as Seffner. Tampa, at the time of tht arrival of the railroad, little resembled the p resent prosperous city. Not only were there no brick buildings in Tampa but there were none in the entire county, or for that matter, anywhere in the state south of Ocala. Real estate agents, as usual disposed to exaggerate, claimed a populatoin of 1,200 for the terminus. The first bank in Tampa was located in a small frame building about fifteen by twenty-five feet in dimensions Thi bank was a branch of the Jacksonville firm of Ambler, Markin & Stockton. The young clerk in charge was a likable chap by the name of E. C. Taliaferro, whose family since been connected with the First National Bank. This bank erected the first brick building in Hillsborough County at tbe southwest comer of Franklin ami W>'h ington Streets It now forms part of the newspaper plant of the Tampa Daily Times. Tampa boosted three drugstores, Sedor's and Leonardi s on Washington street. The other was at the comer of Franklin and Twiggs. This last was owned by Dr. Benjamin whose clerk, George N. Benjamin, was later instrun1ental in the development of West Tampa. The principal physician at this time. was Dr. J. N. Wall, uncle of Perry G Wall, for four years mayor of Tampa. Dr. Wall's residence was on the site of the preserit Tampa Terrace Hotel and his office on the lot where the Elk's Club building now stands. Travelers on the railroad found two hotels prepared to welcome them. One. the Commercial, catering to travelers and seafarers, located near the waterfront with Phil Collins as managor It was near the foot of Washington street whic h the main street of the 11oistreet town." A large frame building housed. the Orange Grove Hotel, not far from the present Union Station Prominent boord ers in this hotel wer e Mr. Taliaferro. of the oonk, Judge H L. Mitchell later governor of the state, and General Joseph P. W all. The proprietor was Sherif! Craft, lather of Isaac S Craft, prominent citizen of Tampa. The sheriff kept the prisoners in jail; his wife ran the hotel. Mr. Craft later sold the hotel to Judge H. L. Crane. P .retentious hotel in Tampa was a large frame building on Water street, know.n as the H. B. Plant, located on the site of Bryan & Keefe's grocer y ware house. '!,'be building was cold, drafty, disagreeable The entir e heating system cpnsisted .cjf a small wood stove at tbe intersection of the hallways on the second floor. To our century ears this sounds unpleasant but in the J80's it was luxury.


PART I-NARRATIVE 59 \Vhile there were a few of wood in Tampa at this time, there was not an iuch of street pavjng in the e ntire co11nty. The expanse of sand which is Franklin street appeared more like a seashore The transportation across the Hi11sborough River was by means of a flatboat ferry at the approximate location of the Lafayette Street bridge. A rope puUed by hand furnislled the motive power. From the business section but one house could be seen across the river Travelers using the ferry came from the Pinellas peninsula, including the towns of Largo and Clearwater, for there was llme part of the Plant system, now known as the Atlantk Coast Line Railroad.


CHAPTER x_ Tat; s aooNO Cot.t:INC OF t -u.e incident of the first coming of the Spa11ish is of historical interest to Tampa, but the second coming of the Spanish was of real benefit to the city The first real impetus Tampa had toward meLropolitan growth the coming of the cigar industry. Despite the arrival of the railroad in no indu!tries of any importance had located here and to the n1odem city indmtries a re necessary to developn,.,nt In November 1884, Gaevino Gutierrez, a New York broker and an importer of Spanish and American goods. hod come to Tampa prospecting for a site for a pva prodoas manufacturing plant. While preparing to return to New York, M r Gutierrez decided t o take a trip to Key West to visit friends. There he met IgnaciO Haya and V. Martinez Yhor, who were cigar manufacturers. When these gentlemen told Mr. Gutierrez of their intention to move their factories to Galveston because of labor troubles, the latter a&ked them to come to Tampa to inveltlgate the possibilities of locating h e re Although the two manufacturers found conditions very favorable lor the manufacture of ciga..,, they cou ld Mt reach an agreement with the Board of Trade, but just before they were obout to leave for Galveston they visited the store of MOler & Henderson the largest store south of ] aclaonviU. On this occa.sion Col. W. B Henderson offered them some val1>able property. The late W. C. Brown, at that tin.. Cleric of the Cin:Wt Court, wbo was with Colonel Henderson at the time, also offered to give aome land 1J the visitors would est1blish faCtories here. Although Messrs. Haya and Yhor did not accept these offers, they were undoubtedly in8uenced by them to reconsider their decision and I nvestigate further the advantagea of manufa cturing cigara in Tampa. T hey finally purc hased prop erty just outside the 'city limit s. Mr. Haya, whose home was in New York city, and Mr. Ybor, at that time a residen t of Key West, both moved here with their families. Mr. bor engaged Mr. Gutierrez, who waa a ciV11 engineer, to lay out a town on his October 8 1885 the 6rst tree was felled in the fomt wbith covered the site on which Yhor City now stands Tbe nucleu$ of the holdings of V. Martinez Ybor & Co. wu thirty acrea of land 011 whic h the factory and a number of houses for employees \vall erected. ) .At .ab!1,ut the same time that the Yhor finn made the decision to locate in Mr. Haya's company, Sanchez &: Haya. decided to join in the movement here ,also. They purchased twenty acres of land and started construe. .:ti.ori cif i. s.lory Mr. sanchez remained in charge of the New Yprlc Oftice pf the firm at 2 i.iberty street when Mr. Hay,. came to Tampa to live. Ybor and & dwel ltnga f.or. their . einployees,, The Yl!,or ia<:toty was focated on Seventh aVer>ue, now East Boto.dway between Twelfth and TbirtUnth streeu, and the & Haya factoly, on at. Fifteenth street. ... .. .. .. .


__.. . .. Ci,,.r p ,.,.,.,,. Tmt

PART 1-NARRATNE Gl The two firms comvletek in Tampa, but when Mr. Haya assured him that the initial pa yroll would be a t least ,000 .00, Mr. Taliaferro, without more ado, eommenced unpacking the bank's fi>

62 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY Fifty houses had been sold to employees on a plan whereby they might be paid for in small weekly payments. The contracts were non-forfeitable, and in case of siclcness or reverses the employee might sell his equity. This wa.< undoubtedly the beginning in Tampa of the now common practice of buying a home 4'on time." The first clear Havona cigar the only type manufactUred iri Tampa, was turned out April 13, 1886. At the end of a year of manufacturing the Yber factory -s turning out !MJO,OOO cigars a month, with gnod prospects of reaching their capacity of one and one-half million a month by the first of 1887. Associated with V. Martinez Ybor in the firm of V Martinez Ybor & Co., were Edward Manrara and Edward Martinez Ybor. The Sanchez & Haya factory, at the end of a year's time, was turning out 600,000 cigars a month. The superintendent of the factory was Laureano Sanchez. Though there was a slight difference of time between the opening of the two companies, they are so closely linked with the founding of the great Tampa indus try that no distinction is g

CHAPtER XI. 1'A..MlA 's Sr:.eoND RAILROAD . w E UA\'8 told of the coming of Tampa's first railroad. and how it changed Tampa from a sleepy village to a tation on a railroad. A station only, however, for the terminal of the Plant system o railroads was at Port Tampa-where, of oourse, the deep water was. . So there was still left the opportunity to make Tampa a terminal for land transportation. This opp'ortunity was seJ.ed by the ],"lorida Central and Peninsn lar Railroad Compan y who finally decided to end their rails at the shore of Tamp,a Bay . Having two railroads so early in its development has meant much to Tampa and Hillsbol'\) ugh County No corporation was able to hold the district at its mercy, rather, they were forced by expediency added to desire to aid the young metropolis with favOo."'tended its line to the government military reservation in Tampa, the busi-1\6& lt)en of Tampa guaranteeing the right of way fri>m Plant City to Tampa ... :The line of railway was built only to the military reservation (which is now all the property of the city of Tampa south of Whiting Street) because ithad.just. hefore that time been thrown open to homestead sett:l<;ment, and !here :were a humber of claimants for tlie property The Florida Central & Peninsular Comi"J>y also claimed a right of way through the miJ!.tary. reservation to t!te waters of Tampa Bay by virtue of congressional grant.:giyen many years 6S


HISTORY 0 1' HILLSCOJ W CCH COL":\1'Y before. No amicable adjustment with the homestead claimant $ oi the property could be made by the officials of the railroad company; and a notice was served upon the company by the claimants to the effect that on a subequent day applica tion would be 1nade to Honornble James W. Locke, then judge of the lJni ted States Court for the Southern district of Florida, for an injunction to restrain the railway from constNcting and maintaining its line across the military re;Senation. Under my advice the railroad company, before the hearing, commenced the construction o f ito line of railway at midnight of Saturday and completed it to the waters of 'l'ampa Bay before midnight of Sunday, so that wben tbe appl i cation came oo for a bearing before Judge Locke there wu ootbing to enjoin as the road h a d been oonstructed and ears had been operated over it. After some years an adjustment of the matter was made the claimants, and all claims as to the right of the railroad company to occupy the military reser vation adjusted. After the railway company came to Tampa there was a question as to whether or not it would termlmU:e in Tampa or jointly use the terminal s of the Atlantic Cout Line, then the Plant System, at Port Tampa. After the death of Mr. Plant. Mr. Erwin, the sucoeeding president of the Plant Syste whieh _we by the city authorizing the of numerous highways m the ciiY wh1ch was neoessary to enable the Seaboard to develop propet1y for terminal facilities u well as the conveyance by the city of its and rights in and to the submerJed land surrounding Hooker' P oint and Seddon


PAR'r I-NARRATIVE Go Island, were prooued by me from the city without one penny of compensation. J know of no instance in the history of any city where it has been more generous to a railroad company than the city of Tampa has been to the Seaboord Air Line Railway Company. However, the city of Tampa made a splendid investment, because had it uot been for this action upon the part of the city of Tan1pa the Sea board would probably have availed itself of the offer made by the Atlantic Coast Line and tenninated at Port Tampa; and had it done that, the city of Tampa today would not be a deep water port. It wo11ld have been impossible for its citizens and its abJe representati"e in Congress, to whom much credit is due for this city's having been made a port, to have ever induced the government of the United States to make Tampa a port without a railway tenninating: in Tampa. The railway was completed to the water's edge and rail way operations com menced in Apri1J 1890. For quite some time after that there were only four freight trains a week operated behveen Tampa and Jacksonville And it was not until November, 1912. that dining car service was even inaugurated on the passenger trains con1ing into Tampa. The Seaborn Air Line Railway, in consequence of the development of Florida, has grown to such an extent as that at the present time there are twenty-eight passenger trains coming into and out of Tampa daily; the average number of freight ears handled into Tampa and out d_.aily is seven hundred and twelve; and .while the gross revenue of the railway the first year of its opera tion into Tampa was less than seventy thousand dolla rs, today its gross revenue handled through the Tampa office amounts. to $4,070,685.


CHAPTER XII. EARLY DlM!LOPlllNT Qp PLAS'I' CtTY. H OSTLING merchants of today, who adYertise in big city dailiei> and are CQnfident of patronage from persons liv ing within a radius of their city, can hardly conceive of .the difficulties under which J. T. Evers, founder of Plant City. carried on business in his mercantile e!'t.ablishment. his cedar mill for the manufacture of lead pencils, and his c::ouon gin at Shiloh, in lB?S. There was no railroad connecting 'fampa with Shiloh, which Mr. Evers bsd established and which was lompetition to face in that section of the county. When the SanfordTampa section of the Coast Line railroad was graded iD 1883 by H. B. the line passed through this district, and Mr. Evers, realizing the possibilities and natural advantages of the vicinity, purchased a large portion of the surrounding territory. He apportioned the land into business blocks, dis posed of them to ready purc haser s and established the town site of what might have been "Eversville," had il$ found er not been insistent that the city be named Plant City after the man who had released tbe community from isolation. The first little train that puffed along the twenty-mile stretch of narrow-gauge track that linked Tampa and Plant City made its first trip on December 1883. Daily thereafter except Sundays the following schedule was adhered to: "Tampa, Fla., Doc. 10, 1883. "On and after this date that portion of the road between Tan1pa and Plant City will be operated daily (Sundays excepted) and until otherwise changed. under the following schedule: "Leav e Tampa 2 p. m ; arrive Plant City 3 :30 p. m. "4ave Plant City 8 :30 a. m.; arrive Tampa 10 a. m. t'The above hours are standard time. "HENRY M. DRANE, "Agent Plant Investment Co. "Flag stations: Bunch's, Coe's Mm, Baker's Old CamJ>. All freight must be prepaid.'' . A liitle more thari a month later, 23, 1884, the first through passengu tr01n from Sanford to .Tampa passed through Plant City. The line had been !"> City n ortl)ward and from Kissimmee southward, tbe two portons JOined at the trestle near Carter's :Mill, five ntile out from the present town of I.akeland. . 66


PART 1-NARRATNE 6'1 Jn the meantime the little COJrnnunity at Plant City wu fast growing. The western corporate line of the city was a large field of Sea Island (long s taple) cotton, grown for Mr. Evers' cotton gin at Shiloh, and owned by Jack Thomas and his brothers. This field wu later purchased by what was known as the Tampa Syndicate, composed of S M. Sparkman, John '1'. Leslie, W. B. Henderson, T. K. Spencer and H. L. Mitchell The syndicate platted the land into lots and sold them, mostly to home...;te seekers. The first building contracts let in Plaot City, however, were for a genua! m erchandise store, owned by 1\fr. Evers, aJ!d for another slof'C of the same kind. owned by CoUins and Franklin Both these oonrracts were given to G. T Chamben. The Evers store building, with a bTge "Warehouse in tht rear, was located on' Evers street, almost opposite the present sit< of the Plant City Courier. The Collins. and Franklin store, on South Drane street, occupied the now vacant lot ow ned by H. B. Wordehull. Among the other busines'J houses whieh quickly St> up in the new towu were one owned by J. T. Forbes, a market belonging to Wllliam Cone and a stnall .store in uwest End" Hilinc s street where roofing ;t.nd other building material was sold. Situated near the H. B. Wordehuff lot on Drane street was another owned by J. P. Hawkitls Not only were the usual peral merchandise stores, concaining everything from balcing powder to plowo, to be found in the thriving little towu, but evm a drug store, owned and operated by Dr. McCaJJ ; a furniture ond dry goods Slore, run by McLendon Bros & Pemberton; D. F. Robinson's grocery; Wilson's bakery; two hoals, the Robinson House, on South Drane street, and the McLendon Hotel, just a few doors away. Between the two hotel s was loented the Plant City Courier office, the meat market operated by William Cone and a store and residen ce combined, purchased by N. E. Moody from Mr. Evert. Other storery store combined. The better known of the two hotels is the "Old Robin.ton Honse, n bcik and conducted by Mr. aDd 1\fr s. Joe Robinson who moved to Plant City in l\farch, 1884. The building has since been remodeled. changed iolo an apartment house and is now in possession of other parti

PART I-NARRATIVE M .r. Spier, as city elerk, loept the record s of law enforoenlellt, and quite innoc:uouJ to present-day offenders would seem the fines nJeted out at that time. A man charged with drunkenness and cursing, thereby disturbing the peace. was fined ten cents pillS costs, making a grand total of seveoty-five ""ntl, which, however, wa s unpaid. Thi.s was on March 30, 1885. Two years later, however, the fine was raised to five dollari-Qnd if married couples desired to raise their voices in difluence, the sum exacted for such pleasure amounted to one dollar each, plus costs. It was at this time that It S. Tyner wu postmaster of Plant City, aod the fint school in the newly incorporated city was taught. In 1884 Miss Elsie Shannon had taught school in the community, but by the time the city was incorporated, school was conducted by 1\lr. B elton, brother of Mrs. J. G. Nelson The le ssons were taught in one small room in the Nelson borne. Mrs. Minnie Waver, daughter of J. T. Evers, in reminiscing, says: ''Mrs. Nelson "'OUld in greasing our papers (on the porch adjoining the lcitcbeo of the home) 10 as to be ready for oor 'drawing lessons.' Our maps were often so true to every line that we were praised for 'accuracy: However, this school was a private one, and it was not until a year later, in 1886, that the first public schoo l building wu erected with Professor and Mrs. E. G. Burney as teaehen. The building consisted of two rooms, Profusor Burney in c:.barge of one, &nd Mn. Burney teaching in t .he other. The house still stands, having been remodeled, and i s now occupied by Oocar BlotUr. It is situated at the northwest ool"!leS" of Thomas and Mahoney streets. Among the trustees of this school were 0. A. Strickland, Col. ]. L. Young and W. S. Knight. Mrs. Burney is still teaehingin Plant City, in the primary department In the same yesr, 1885, Professor L. W. Buchholz conducted the first teachers' institute a.t wbieh Professor and Mn. Burney, Charles Shannon, Thomas Beaty and Mrs. Y. M. Vening w.,.. present. In 1 887 Professc>T Buebbolt, who might he called founder of the p......,t school system in Hillsborough County was named Connty Superinteodent. Beginning in the fall of 1887 and continuing throttghout the greater portion of 1888 the yellow fever epidemic raged in Plant City. The part of the population was stricken down and, as doctors were then unable to cope with the dread disease, the city was u terror .. stricken as those unfortunate communities wbioh, in the Middl e Ages, were devastated by the Black Death But the physicians living in Plant City at that time, Drs. R M Wells, C. P. Spier, .Douglas and Wright, regardless of the handicaps under which they had to attempt to fight this yellow plague, were able to save many of their J)Qtieots. Those who were able, were quarantined in the E vers home in "West.End" and in the Robinson House on South Drane street When the epidemk had finally subsided, the growth and industry in 1'lant City which, naturally enough, bad beeo dormant during tbat period, bega.n anew. .


10 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY By the beginning of the next decade, in 1893, to be exact, the 6rst brick building in the town was ereoted at a cost of $10,000 by P. C. Drew, pastor of the Flrtt Baptist church at that time. This building, a school, soon proved 1nadequate and an ad.ei'ator took entire charge, but was relieved by a night operator. The first bank in P!arit City, the Hillsboro s-Bank, opened its doors on October -1, The t own, at this time, held about '00 inhabitants and although iicutedsevaf w .oodeii' iidewalk$', there was not one paved in 'the town. Oaty om street, CoUins, wu even clay surfaced. Five' years later the Bank of .PiaDt City.begi.;,. b.Wnas 19U the First National Bank,....., ad7 to be aboorbed a few years lofer bY' thc Bank of 'Plant City. The Farmers aDd: Merchants Bank began bmliness in Utt.... :. >


PART I-NARRATIVE In 1908 the entire south aide of Plant City was destroyed by fire. It WliS only with great labor that the volunteer fire dep a rtment was enabled to save the rest of the city b y prev enting the fire from crossing the Atlantic Coast Line track. The rued section was rebuilt with fine brick structures: The Atlaotic Coast Line depot was saved, only after heroic efforts on the part of the firemen, and SW1ds today in the city. To many it is a monument to the city's n.rly history-to IC$$ romantic pe.noos, it remains only an -eyesore." By 1914 a Board of Trade was organiaed with Claude B. Rcot as president and Fred Moyse as oeeretary ; and in the same year the Order of Eastern Star No. 81 started with 4.2 charter members. While the city was developing industrially, spiritual welfare was not negl.cted The First Baptist Church which bad been moved to Plant City in 1884 was an outgrowth _of the Baptist church organized at Cork (Dover), Hillsborough County, in 1 866. The present building was commenced during Dr. S. Hubbard's pastorate, shortly after 1916. The Plant City Methodist Church; which was moved to that plAce in 1885, was founded some time between 18 45-.50 and was later moved to Shiloh about tsn. Organization of a Presbyterian church was begun, July 26, 1885, bnt the services were not conducted in a Prubyteriall church until 189!; the Methodist$, prior to that time, aceorded the Presbyterims use of tbei church Other denominations are reprCS

CHAPTER XIII. TowNs SuRRO UNDit recent settlemenl, mining opentions not having ccmmenc:ed there until lDO'J. The original settlements of the other tow!U antedate the incorporation of Plant City, or even the platting of its first blocb, by many decades, but as the latter w u probably an Indian settlemeot at one time (judging by its original name of ltche puckesassa), the central town may be said to be, in aU fairness, the oldest. Eaclt of thest nine outlying communitie s has an interesting hi story of its own; eaclt of them bas its own pioneers iu own drama, tragedy and comedy. There fore, it is only right that, in this chapter, eaclt settlement be trac:td to its $0\lt, ancestors of Charles H. and Will Spencer, now of Tampa. The cut, leading northward from the small body of water known by name as the Harvey Pond, was dug by the Spencers with the labor of s laves South of the lake was owned by E. A. Clarke, whose son-in-law, A J. Knight, built a large fortnne based upon the Clarke holdings. The McKays, another well known Tampa family, held the greater portion of the land to the north and east of the lake. Further nonh of the place called the McKay. Plare lived the Wheeler family and south on the Hopewell road lived a family, Salim by name. . Prof. C B. Morrill now and resides upon a portion of the large McKaY esu,te. his A. M. Morrill, having purchastd this section of the property in the early nmeti es. : BY.l890 tne J. T IC W. {Atlantic Coast Line) and the F C. & P (Seaboafd .Airl..iDe) beea built. At that time, G. Tousey one of the mO!t prom inent. ,citi= of Valrico and be. wbo named the town, was professor of psr ,Boston, Massacltusetts. To Prof. Tousey is also gtven the credit of'

PART I -NARRATIVE Mitchell property Some of the original trees are still standing and the very bouse he built yet oe<:upies same site. Friends of the professor owned the rest of the western shore of the lake while north of these was the farm of Huen Harvey, now the Veltruere Fanns, a dairy and truck farm, at present in the possession of Judge J. J Lunsford. It is from Mr. Harvey that the pond north of Valrico receive

74 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROlJGH COUNTY In 1914 the Improvement Association was organized and for a nwnber of years had for its president W F. Miller, who acted most efficiently in this ca pacity. This organization held at one time the not inconsiderable number of members. And it is due to this association as well as to the help of other rtSl dents that the VanSant scliool was built. By the end of the first year the original ten pupils had been augmented to the toW of 36. In 1915 the government estab Jishtd the rural route, the mall being carried for some time via the then popular horse and buggy. Among the many residents who have helped to accomplish much for this town and its community life is the family of R. Ohme who have lived here for 46 years. Others whose tenn of residence is from 20 to 30 years inc lude such names as the lllan tons, Zebeudons, Windhorsts, Rev. I. B. Fisher J. r. Harris. and S. D. Man ning. The town, although never actually incorporated, has had its boundary lim i ts placed these being theW. T. Harris filling station, Edward Hunt's reside nce, I. W. Watt's residence and the first cross-roads northeast of the lake. In the center of the town is the park, presented to it by the late W. F. Miller whose tTagie death so shocked his friends and neighbors in the spring of 1927. The park stands as a memorial to him who helped to lay the foundation of the town. In 1926, the peopl e of Valrico, along the lak e front, collected funds and sunk a drainage well which lowered the lake several feet, making the shore line be tter and preventing the water in the rainy season from encroaching upon the surround& lng truck land. Although t he hocm of '25 and '26 did not affect the town to any great degree, it nevertheless maintained a steady growth. At the present time the Rosary Nur series are constructing buildings on land purchased from Thomas Zehendon. Mrs. Burford, of the Arctic Ice Company, of Tampa, is at the head of this development which will put one hundred acres under cultivation. The otrawherry industry, still very young in this section, is likewise well on the way to success, last year ship-ping the popular berry by the carload. The land used for this purpose is east of the lake. Of those who fmd it a prolific source of income are L. Brantley, 0. L. Morgan F. A. Holmes and G B. Miligan. In season the two large fruit growers' packing houses, run by the Fugam Brothers and the Valrico Crowers, are kept busy, the many groves and the large acreage sending in the fruit in sufficient quantities . One old tree, said to be ;dull one hundred years of age, and still bearing fruit is in the Phipps grove, having withstood the fr eezes" that other trees failed to cape. Forty-fiv e feet high, and 45 feet in spread, seven and one-half feet around the trlmk; it Stands as sturdy .and as fine as the town of Valrico itself . : . SPRINCBEAD. lo 1845, this p0n of Florida was not unlike the remainder of tbe State, practiCally an unknowri wilderness. From .the time of its first admittance tO the Union .in 1845 when it was readmitted following the Civil War, con . . .


PAR T 1-NARRATNE 76 ditions were still in a rather unsettled state. But during the y ears between 1865 aod 1870, settlers gradually began to come into the state and m ade homes in the best of the land Ainong the early settlers of this portion of the country were Henry SistrUnk, W. M. Clemens, George Hamilton, ]. 0. Howell W. M. EngUsh and S. R. Devane. Some of the descendants of these early pioneers are still living in this part of the s tate and these names are closely interwoven with the improvement and development of this community. The settlers, then cal!ed squatter s, were allowed to Iettie anywhere they so cbooe and althougli disputes and claims were rarely in mdeuoe, sueh as were, proved to be peaceably disposed eventua!ly These people paid f or their land later. For thesmte land the was one doUar per acre bu t f o r the Federal govern ment land they paid about .U5 00 for 160 acres. In later years other people joined the first of the settlero, among these being John Rogers, B. T. Harrell, Nathan Bryant, Bird Sparkman and Hiram Seers Mr. Rogers owned at that time, the land that is now called the F. E. Devane p!aoe. Hiram Seers came into the country riding a grey mare that so appealed to Mr. Rogers that the latter could not resist "talking trade" to the owner. Even though he offered his plaSistant that the faculty be enlarged and at the present writing there an eleven teachers.


76 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY Neither the community spirit nor the religious welfare of the people had been neglected during these years. Shortly_ after the had been established, !he Missionary Baptist church was organued and built on the present church >Jte. This church has been very evident in the community life, a s ha\'C: also the various other advantages offered the residents. During the early growth of this section of the country traveling was done in the usual pioneer fashion. However, the years brought changes, improvements and hard roa ds. This in tum had its effect upon the natura l revenues of the land. The early cotton lands in time gave way to orange groves and light trucking. The freeze of killed many of the trees and so the truck farms became of great importance to the community. In addition to the vegetables which are easily raised in this splendid soil, Springhead is noted for strawberries, and is in a fair way to be as well known for its poultry products. TRAPNELL. Trapnell, a peaceful, prosperous little community, lies with Plant City on the north, Hopewell on the south and is about equi-distant from Springhead and Tur key Creek. The names of its first settlers, Nathaniel SP"rkman (18M) and J. W. Haw Ieins (1868) are interwoven in the hi.rory and progress of many of the communi ties of South Florida. Mr. SP"fkmen's original home is now known as the Sis trunk Hammock with the Hawkins Hammock adjacent and Sparkman Hammock nearby. This is the early home of Ex-Congressman S. M. SP"rkman, and his sister, Sallie. Mr. Hawkins settled what is now called the Walter Sparkman place, and his sons, John, Tom and Joshua, settled nearby. While agriculture aud stock-raising were the chief industries of the early times, in later years truck fanning, citrus groves and strawberry culture were not At the present date, the names of W. K. Lett, C. W. Johnson, J. R. Davis, J. S. Howard, Larry Walden, B. 0. McDOnald, C. A. Trapnell and W. E. Blount are among those noted in the community for their interest and progress along these lines. Shortly after the settling of this territory the s\lrrounding communities com bined in establishing a school for the children and the building which was to house thein was erected near where Marvin SI'Qrkman now resides. John DeShong, the firsf instt:uctor, was followed by Mr. Jenkins. Among the then pupils are the now names of Hamilton Howell, and Clemens of Springhead, Burts and Cruni of City, Matchett of Hopewell and Waldon of Turkey Creek, with !Jawkins and Mrs . Blount. In 1902 another school was established, with. S A : -Mc:Ilonatd; Dave Clemons, and R. W. Trapnen instrumental in aiding this work.


PART I-NARRATIVE BRANDON. When John Brandon first came to Florida in he was accompanied by his wife and his seven sons. A short time later he built a large log house one-half mile south of the present town of Brandon, where he lived until the close of the Civil War. Of the seven sons but ooe is left, I. M. Brandon, who now resides upon the Tampa -Hopewell road. At the time of Mr. Brandon's settling in this neighborhood there was but one house between Brandon and Tampa. Tampa was then only a small vfllage and it was to Tampa that the residents of nearby communities went for their mail. This mail was delivered by boat. There was a fort near Dover that could be reached when word was received that Indians were on the warpath. Some time during the early Indian wars the old government trail led to Bartow, Fort Meade and other southern points, but at that time there were but two roads l eading into Tampa, one from the east and one from the north. The roads in this part of the county were of the most primitive sort and few if any bridges were in existence. It was quite some time later that the Seaboard Air Line rail road was built, marking the beginning of the present town of Brandon. One of the first stores in Brandon was owned and managed by D. J. Galvin, who moved from Bloomingdale and brought into this place its first sawmill. This proved to be a great boon to the people who hitherto had found it necessary to travel over the sand or muddy roads to Tampa for their supplies. About 25 years ago the county bonded for $400,000 for the building and im proving of roads, Mr. Galvin being county conunissioner at that time. Brandon is now surrounded with excellent roads, good fanns, citrus groves and truclcing farms. Two two-story brick school buildings offer the children educational ad vantages and jn the near future another building is to be completed a t a cost of $35,000. CoRONII1'. uThe Spotless Town.'' as Coronet is known, received jts name because of its extraordinary attractiveness and general cleanliness. Located about three miles southeast of Plant City, it is one of the more prominent phos.phate towns in the state. It is the residential colony of the phosphate company whose name it bears . The management of this organization, the Coronet Phosphate Company, realizing the fuU value of beauty and cleanliness, has done all that is in its power to make the place both sanitary and beautiful. In this it has succeeded. "Mining operations in Coronet did not begin until 1909, since which time many hundreds of acres have been mined. However all these excavations have 'been refilled, with the lone exceptions of those used for the system of settling pools by which means the water is conserved and any f>OS$ible overflow the surrounding land is minimi%ed or greatly lessened. Mr. C. G Mernminger, president of the company, is promine%1t aU through the phosphate world for his achievements in mining enginering And it is said that to him is given the name of having founded and built up to Stlccessful


78 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COliNTY operation more plants in the pebble phosphate region than any other man. Of his corps of efficient assistants are the well known names of H F. Greene, who is manager of mining operations; B. G. Dabney, who is assi.:otant n"'anager in charge of the Pembroke mine at Fort Meade, and W. H. Taylor, who is uperintendent of mining at Coronet. John Henderson, former master mechanic at this town until his death about two years ago, was the originator of a device used in phosphate mining that has beeo of great value to this industry. The method used in mining is the open pit. In the beginning, a number of excavators were tried, without success, and it was discovered that the hydraulic system proved to be the most practical. At first but one centrifugal pump was used, thus limiting the distance miners were able to rtach. During the time that Mr. Hen derson was mining under Colonel Beaty at Green Head mine, he hitched a second pump in tandem. This suggestion opened up the way and made it possible for the miners to reach almost any distant<. It was for this novel idea that the phosphate industry is indebted to Mr. Henderson. The Coronet community is considered by the State Board of Health a$ one of the most sanitary plants of its kind in the state, its water supply being especially goodt coming from a system of artesian wells, pwnping pure water from a depth of nearly 600 feet. This community has a church which was built and given to it by E. C. Stuort of Bartow, a director in the Coronet Company. SEPFNER. Eighty years ago, tbis section, known as Lenna City when later settled, was a wilderntsS Surveyed by Mr. Gordon of the South Florida railroad in 1884, the original 80 acres were owned by Frank Mathews and Col. W. B. Henderson of Tampa. In 1848 only the two families of S. McCarthy and Laban Burnett then Jived in this section, the fonner living upon the island bearing that name, about three miles northeast of the present site of the town. Mr. Burnett lived a mile north east. In later years came many other settlers. Among those were the homestead ers, Hookers, Weeks. Simmons, and Mitchells. About a mile and a half northwest of Seffner lie the remains of Thomas Mitchell, father of one of our governors, Henry L. Mitchell. In 1888 the construction of the South Florida railroad was completed and so offered an open roadway to other pioneers. Prior to this time, in 1862, the orlginal town was laid out and later put on record Oll the plat, in 1885. . !he year of 1884 marked the opening of the first store, owned by Graves & Lastanger, and was followed by stores run by John T. Hill, J. J. Eyans and C. H. Spenoer. The school was taught tl>at year by Miss Burts of Plant City. One year later a school house erected, with the following C. H. Spenoer, man; J. J. Evan s, secretary and J. J. Grantham, W. H Graves and M. C. Pembroke.


PART I -NARRATIVE 79 A de pot, built in 1884, had as its first agent C. H. Spencer, and later J. D. Spence r became the first express agent F'. P. Seffner officiated as t he first post master, succeeded by Mr. C. H Spencer. It was about this time that the Mathew ad

80 HISTORY OF HILLS BOROUGH COUl'\TY Morton M Lillibridge. for whom this thriving little community is named. came to this region from Texas in the early eightie s. He seuled on WO acres of land, Jiving in the most primitive of camps. From the Keysville sawmill, later. he bought boards and with them built his sixteen by sixteen feet, two-room house. An extraordinary feature of the dwe1ting was the ceilingless main room, only the ceiling timbers proteCting the inhabitants from the inclemencies oi the weather. In October, 1889, Mr. Lillibridge was joined by his brother and the latter"s wife who had to travel by stage from Plant City, where they s.tayed over night. At that time there was no bridge over the Alafia River and it was ne<:essary to traverse a difficult ford. Settlers in this region at that time were Parsen Hew itt;'-' Procter Allen, Jim Hunter, Ephraim HtU, uthe widow'' Shirley Jackson Bird, Elisiah Kersey John Browning, Mrs. C. Bartlett Lastinger Betsey Lewis, W. K. Jones and their relatives Mail, in those days. came from Plant City to Ke y s\ille the ueares;t post office for this sa:.tion the people having to call for the mail at that place. In the spring of 1890, when phosphate had been discovered in Florida. news of the find was brought to the community by newcomers. From this time 011! partkularly after it was found that phosphate deposits occurred in reg ion. Lilli bridge began to "boom." During the first years of this century, F. ).J. Carter and Company, who had secured turpentine rights on many hundreds of acres, built ca mps northeast and southeast of Lillibridge. Mrs. Cor ene E Lillibridge, in speaking of those days, relates bow the turpen tine hands, men, women, and children, sang going to and from work. She also says, "It was as good as a show to see the big mule wagons loaded with people, going by from one camp to another on their monthly pay days."' The Lillibridge of today is reached by a bridge, extending across the South Prong River and its branch, where Cabbage Ford was formerly located. Mail i< delivered by a rural route, its head at Lithia, the post office of \Velcome, Lilli bridge and Picnic having been discontinued in 1916. RtVLRVIEW. On the bank s of the Alalia River, about IS miles southeast of Tampa. is the small settlement of Riverview, formerly called Pent, a thriving community of about five inhabitants. In 1856. the first settlers arrived and shortly the r eafter was built the firSt Methodist church in this region, organized by Benjamin F. Moodv, assisted by 9eot"ge >This was a log cabin erected on the southside of.the river, one and a half mile$ froni the site ol the present church now on the north side of thi river. . In was I"J'tllOVed and named Leslie chapel and continued, muse unul R1Vet"Vlew s present church was builL The Rev A. A. Koestline is th e officiating pastor ch!i:h, now occupying the parsonage with his family..: .


PART I-NARRATIVE 81 The first pastor of the BapOSite the new Mays grove, and the Carlton grove which covers one hundred and sixty acres, joining ilre Mays grove on the north and the east. "The Bonfay grove is just south of the Alafia river and has also some ten or more acres of very young trees TUIIKBY CRux. About two or three miles southeast of the present town of Turkey Creek is the property owned by Mrs. J. E. Hooker, known as the Mott place and having th e distinction of being the first land settled in this section. A Mr. H ayman lived here and a few years later Mr. McLeod and family joined him, living on the prop erty called the Odom place. About the same time the Tidwell piace was settled by Mr. Levi Pearce. Turkey Creek is situate(! on the main line of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, some 18 miles east o f Tampa. It is supposed to have received its nante1 so populu legend relates, because of the great number of wild turkeys then abounding in the wilderness. It was the turkeys that caused. the arbor built by the Baptist people to be abandoned. This arbor, erected some seventy years ago as a p1act of worship, was "' constructed because the number of Baptists in the. region was small. n must


HISTORY OF HILLSBOR OUGH COUNTY have prueoted an extremely rustic, piduraque, eodcillg picture for the turkeys, aboundiD&' there, believed it to have been built {or their especial beneill. When tbe arbor fell into disuse, the congregation built a log house in whicb oervicet were held and the present church now stands on t he original site of the lint meeting place It is said that some time before the Civil War a man, Mr. William Weeks, t&k ing his teo.m "Buck and Brindy'' drifted south and as he approached what is now the present town of Turkey Creek, he was to halt frequ ently to clear tbt road of the turkeys and deer that flourished so prollfka lly in this region at tlJal time. He f...Uy settled and located a fortyacre piece of l and which beloqed to the state and years after, bought another forty acres next to the o riginal purchase. Of the other old settlers were RulMn Register who established a grist mill, evi denees of the mill still being in existence, the Waldens, whose origina l home is now owned by Dave Clemens, the Hoo kers whose property is now O)Yned by Mr. IJe. Vane and others, and Frank Brown whase old home is just north of the town. Duri11g the time this thrivin&' community has &'fOWR from a mere settlement to the siJie town it is at present many changes have beeo wrought Years ago a hotel, operated and owned by N. E. Moody, wu built and in time was burned Sec:tiCOI bouses, belonging to the F. C. & P. railroad, now the Seaboard Air Lioe, have been mnoved from their o riginal Many of the old farms and homes are still here. Turkey Creek has three agents and the railrood and express offites are the fore never closed. An excellent two churches, a fertilizer and crate material houMI, as well as the stores and org&nUations for the ben efit of the people are all to be found w i thin the environs of thi s splendid little town. T h e soil in and around here is best fitted for general f arming and truck grow illg with the str.awberry growing as a real factor in the steady &'fOWih of the re-.


Cf'lrr-.lf'm;'ltwt' r h.:(: t;j Nrmt C i t)' upS. .\li1l

CHAPTER XIV. PLANT Cx'l'V TODAY, OP EAST HtLLSBORoucu CouNTY. To newcomers to the name, Plant CityJ is supposed to have grown out of the tremendous amount of truck farming and strawberry raising that finds its market in that city Absurd as the fallacy may seem to "oldtimers" who realize the metropolis of eastern Hillsborough County is named for H. B. Plant, the error is not so far-fetched as it appears to be. By far the most important industry in Plant City is the marketing of truck, the greatest.amount of which cOnsists of strawberries. No other section of Florida, or of the entire country, has been found with soil as fitted to the raising of this deliCacy as in and around Plant City. So readily has Plant City been accepted to be the center of the strawberry market"in the soutlieast, that buyer$, during the season, number from sixty to one hundred; eai:h eager to outbid the other in order to obtain for his company the fll"st berries of seiuon. F\equently, so great has been the competition that wholesale prioes as high as U.90 a quart have been paid for the fruit. This instance occurred in 1923 and, although such a price is unusual, prices of two to three dollars are the rule. A unique featare of the Plant City market is that the firmers are paid by their buyers on .the s.tation platform as the berries are deliv..-ed for shipment . 'i'hi fact may account, in some measure, for the success of the industry. In any event, dOf?$ facilitate marketing, brings the farmer a better price for his product, and Iowen the retail price. The "season," which lasts approximately five and one-ball months in eastern Hillsborough County, from about Thanksgiving to about the first week in May, reaches its height in January. From then until the latter part of 1\fa.rch the berries are marketed in large quantities. During the 1926 season, berry shipmO.its from Greater Plant City neared the 4,000,000 quart mark and averaged "thirty-tWo cents a quart. Although, during a three-day depression at the time of the flooJi!es" during the early and later parts of the season when not enough berries are beiitg .to .yarrant the usage of. refrigerator cars. At this time th..-e are. thousand "pOnies" ixi use. Jt is estimated that a capital of $200,000 is the building and renting of these boxes. : ,,


HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY Sitoated strategically u Plant City is, at the hub of six railroada, the main lin .. of the Atlantic Cout Line and the Seaboard Air Line with their subsidiaries, the city i& well a dapted to supply an outlet for uearby agricultural products. In ad dition the city io connected with the rest of the state by seven! roads. The Dixie Highway, running through the heart of Plant City, lead to Tampa on the west and I.alting at Oals witli highways lading to Jacbonville and Tallahassee. To the northeast lies the Midway highway, which, although coostitutlng practitally a loop that hooks bod< to the Dixie Highway after extending some miles, may be called a main artery, because of the tbousaDds of people wbom it serves and the thousands of acres whOse prodUtem Hillsbroough County. Railway service through Plant City boasts forty four passenger trains daily. With the exception of Jacksonville, the city is the largest railroad di stributing point and junction in the entire state. Extending northward hom Plant City to Dade City, Ocala and thence to Jacksonville, the Seaboard Air Line a lso branches east at Plant City through Welcome to Nalacca; west through Tampa to St. Petersburg and south to V enioe. Of its subsidiaries the Charlotte Harbor and North ern extends southward, through the heart of the phos phate section, and terminates at Punta Gorda. The Atlantic Coast Line runs east and northeast through Lakeland and Orlando and thence to Jacksonville. This line also goes directly we stward to Tampa. Plant City, today, has an ac:<::redited high school, four new, modem, grammar schools, having an aggregate attendance of more than I ,GOO. Trustees are H. H. Huff, Dr. R. C. Black and W. A. Haymond. The entire school faculty numbers fifty with W H. Cassels u supervis ing principal Mn. Mary L. Tomlin is prin cipal of the high school over a atudent body of 620. In addition to schools of the usual type foun d in any community Plant City contains the Hillsborough County Agricultural high school, an outatanding school of it& kind. Begun seven years ago with only eighteen student& enrolled this school grown to such that about a hundred persons are enrolled in th: day classes ana several hundred m the night ... sions, or receiving part-time instruction. Courses in the school include plant production, animal husbandry, horticulture, farm management and rural engineering. The school offers a full four-year course to boy of 14. or over, who desires to take itJ with or without regular high school instruction. I n addition to the regular courses of study, three ether branches of agric:ul wr.llearnmg are ollered. In the!e unit day work, oluses are organize!! at .


PART I-NARRATIVE various points in the county for students not regulllrly enrolled in the main school. These have a recitation period one day weekly often as many eight such classes are maintained. The part time instruction is designed for boys who have dropped out of the regulllr school work, but wbo desire instruction in agricultural pursuits, These classes are taught at the school building and its adjacent grounds. The evening courses are designed primarily for adult farmen who seek lmJ>wlodge of modern farming methods. These courses consist of instruetioo on fertilizers, poultry, diseases and insects pertaining to citrus trees, soil improvment, dairying and other allied subjects. The school building is located on a tract of ten acres in tbe oonter of Pl2nt City. The building, completed in January, 1926 contain s two classrooms, an of fice, a library and storerooms. Nearby are a modern dairy bam, milk bouse, poultry houses, and slat-house whieh ferns and a variety of flowers are t:aised Appropriations from federal, a tate and county governments support the school. The federal government supplies about $3,000 annually for instruction salllries, under the provision s of the Smith-Hughes Act for voeatlonal education. The county provided for the erection of the school house and provides equipment and maintenance. Provision is also made b) the county for transportation of students living outside tbe local area. Five cents a mile is allowed; the greatest single sum being .00, the average When one realizes that more than half the studeots live outside of Pl2nt City, that some live more than forty miles f rom the school, one com prehends the scope of i nfluence the school exeru. How lasling such influence pro ves to be is shown by the fact that fifty per

HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY A1J school children were weighed, mtaSUred and given physical examinations by doctors and nurses; a special class in health work was conducted lor underwtight children; the Redpath Chautauqua was brought to the city lor the time. Altogether a high program for succeeding club officers to atta&n or surpa$$, but one which they have all attempted to better. Some of the things accomplished have been the laying out and planting of Sunrise Park; the awarding of prizes lor the best essay on citizenship written by a schoo l child, and for the best flower beds planted and tended by school children. These programs have been rounded out by social events and lectures. The Masonic orders are well represented in Plant City, there being both Scot tish Rite and York Rite lodg.:s. In fact, the oldest commandery and Scottish Ritt body in the county is located in the city. The Blue Lodg.: has a number of members on roll chartered in It w., organiz.ed as Ebenezer lodge on October 30, 1875, in Polk County near Kathleen. In 1381 dispensation was granted to move to Shiloh where meetings were held over. the Methodist church. Again the lodg e was moved, this time to Plant City in January, 1385, at which time its name was changed to P1am City Lodge No. 79. Until the building, wh ich. remodeled, is in use today, was bought, the meetings were he1d over the church. The Plant City sister Masonic lodge, Order of Eastern Star No. 81, was or ganized March 13, 1914. The lodge holds its meeting at the Blue Lodge. Masoaic meetings are held in the Masonic Hall, comer Evers and Mahoney Streets. This building was valued at $10,000 in 1914 and contains lodge room, five paraphernalia rooms, council rooms, banquet hall and others. The storesof Plant City, today, present a far different aspect than they did only a few years ago. Complete stock ;. handled by them, enabling inhabitants to do all their purchasing In the city instead of having to travel to a larger city on monthly shopping trips. Representative of Plant City's growth during twenty years, ending 1925, is the assessed valuation of property during those years. I n 1905, when the popula' non was estimattd at 2,000, property was valued at $133,000. At this time postal receipts in the city amounted to $3,993. Five years later, although the population had increased only slightly, to 2,481. propecty values had almost tripled. The assessment totalled $321,590. Business at the post office increased proportionately with receipts for 1910 aggregating 18,684. In 19i5, although official census was not taken, population was O$timated 10 be 2,800. Howeyer, the value of property had almost quadrupled and exceeded the millioo mark. Conservative estimates fixed the assessment at $1,150 600. Postal reoeipts at time . An increase of almost one tliousand was shown in the 1920 census. Population roulled. 3,729 hut property Wl!S only V&lued at $1,692,014. Postal autho(ities value'receijits for that year at f20,852.


PART I-NARRATIVE The year 1925 showed a greater increase in the number of inhabitants than any other. Figures for this year exceeded 6,000-to be exact, populat ion was 6,624. Property vatuation reached $5,020,165, an increase propertionate to that of the city"s residents. Continuing its steady increase, business at the post office amounted to $35,?42 In September, 1927, Plant City was estimated to contain 8,000 persons and of fers itself as trading center for a population of f rom 20,000 to 25,000 .. Also indicative of Plant City's growth is that fact that when the Peninsular T elephone Company opened its exchange there, only thirtyfour telephones were listed. At the present time there are more than a thousand telephones in Plant City and vitinity, and, prior to the establishment of the automatic sy&tem, ten operators were required to handle service. The first paving project in Plant City was put through during the period 1913 1 915. It was at this time also that the water works plant was improved erably and its old p umping machinery replaced. Later improvements in the water works, including the erection of the building which houses the plant at the present tinte. were made during the two years from 1916-1917. Tbe Plant City newspaper, the Courier, published first by Capt. F. W. Merrin and his sons, W F ,]. K. and P A. M e rrin, was e dited by P A. Merrin after his father's death in 1900. Several years later it was sold to a local stock company under the management of R. R. Tomlin. ] A. Barns then acquired al l the stock in the company, selling it on Apri110, 1910, to Wayne Thomas, who edited the paper until July, 1919. At that time Mr. Thomas appointed F M. Prewitt editor and manager but retained ownership of the paper with C. C. Woodward, of Tampa. This partnership continued until june l, 1925, when the Courier was sold to W. K. Zewadski, Jr. of Tampa, and Arthur G Ivey, of Plant City. Mr. Ivey managtd the paper for one year and was then sucoeeded by ]. R. Wheeler. The Courier is now being published by Mr. Thomas and his associates. Every issue of the Courier f rom the beginning with the exception of four numbers printed in Lakeland when the plant was destroyed by fire in 1910, hs.< been printed in Plant City. The pla!>t was rebuilt so well that, in 1921 when Tampa was flooded, the Courier printed one issue of the Tampa Tribune and two of the Tampa Times. Industries in Plant City include: The tnanufacture and rental of "pony' re frigerators; shipping of strawberrie>, citrus and truck; manufacture of fertilizer; planing and milling of lumber and distribution of phoophate.


88 HISTORY OF HJLLSBOROl:CH COlxn THE MJSj)lf ill 'l'llt LaW, l z. eesJHI a .. m.. .. ......... ..,, MV& -.v1 ............. -F .... IIIIC-c:o, .... -........ II


CHAI'TER XV. Pt:tUOD ott TttANtUTtON: FRoM V JLLAf.r: TO Tuw x 'l'U Cl'tlt. (Last Decade of Nineteenth Cen tury And First Part of Twentieth Century:) I N THS existence of every city there has been a period when a gawky village was casting aside the role of a rural eommunity and looking longingly at the garb of a metropolis. Often this village or town is ugly, with a rundown ap pearance, but just as Hans Christian Andersen's Ugly Duckling emerged a beau tiful swan. so does this villaj!e beeome a attraetive city, seemingly over night. Tampa, Hillsborough' largest city, was no exception to this rule. A village fpr years, Tampa was destined for a great growth, which bqan in earnest in the decade immediately preceding the Twentieth Century. The decade before this Tampa saw the coming of its fir.U raUroad, told in de tail in another chapter followed closely by its second rail ys tern. In addition, the industry which has lead all its industries from that time up to the present was founded in that decade Tampa's wellwishers, discouraged by the lack of trans portation cheered up-and have not lost their optimism $inc:e. A spur to more rapid progress. was the fi:r$t move toward de,elopment of port facilities, especi&lly the removal of Ft. Brooke, which blocked &II oommer cial growth in the seetion of Hillsborough County between Tampa and deepwater. This step is considered the most important of all the acxomplishments of Tampa during the period 1880 to 1$90, for its pres

HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COl:NT\' and in the courts, during which there were as maay as several hundrett squetters upon the land Connr.cted with these squatters ;. an interesting inci dent. Desiring to strengthen their hold upon the land which they were occupying these squatters went so far u to Incorporate a city, wh ich they named Moscow Among their officers wan Russian Nihilist doctor, F. N. Weightnovel, who served 11 mayor. He was probably tbe instigator of tbe nam e given the shortlived mu nlcipality. Tbe records all assert that he was a man of considerable inte lligence and slciU in his professlcln of He lived to ou his ci t y absorbed by tbe rapidly growing town of T ampa, for be lived unti l May 19, 190G. MF"mally these vexatious litigations weze tennin2ted by final decisions in fa vor of lhe widow of Doctor Carew, the latter having died in the meantime ; of the heirs of Lnuu Bell, E. B. Chamberlin and a few other s. These decisions cleared away tbe clouds from the titles and rendered possible the unobstructed devolopment of harbor facilities that have since been taking plaoe more or less steadily down to the present time." Evidently the evil genius of Tampa was still hovering near in the years to come, for as late as September 189G, the city seemed unable to control or open the ri.,... front of the three streets south of Lafayette. This information cocnes from an issue of The Tampa Daily Times o f that year, which adds that tbe foot of Jack son Street was leased from the city council June 23, 1888, for ten yea r s at a rental of $60 a year. H A. Fuller paid the rental money. Washington St reet a dilapidated old pier and a couple of old shacks. The f oot of Whiting Street was leased at the same time as Jackson to Ross Biglow & Company, and on the same terms. The lease at thi s t im e stood in the aame of Mrs. L. V. Graham, and the site was occupied by the condemned building recently vacated by Gunn & Seck inger. The detail of the opening of the port after the obstacle of governmental oc cupo tion of the Garrison bad been removed is covered in a subseq uent chapter. Despite the setbacks that port devolopment received Tampo'o greatest indu .. try of that tim.......,.d of today, for that matter-kept steadily i ncreasing in size and prestige An earlier chapter bas shown the inception of tbe cigar industry here; a later chapter tells of the increase in production each year. However, some a dditional details of the industry's gvowtb will not be out o f place. The first two cigar facto r ies u we have related, were those of V. M. Ybor and Company, later V M Ybor and Manrar&; and Sanebez and Haya. Tbe third that was established in 1888 waa Lozano Pendas and Compony. T his firm was composed of Faustino Lozano, Ysidro Pendas and Migud Pendu. Later a change w&$:made the of the operators, and the firm became Y. Pendas and Alnrez: . .. The !ocai .Bwd of Trade sooo aaw that the infant industry he of in Tampa:, and offered the next factory a ca s h bemus to locate here !hl' factory '!u the R. Moune establishment, founded in 18$9 . large influx of Cuban cigar m:aken, Tampa began t o take on a cos-. mopolitan afmospbere that it has not lo>t since, but has instead inc reased tluongh ill arge illtf:retts. .


PART I-NARRATIVE 91 During the period preceding the Spaniih-Americ:an Wu, these ciprmaloors were, of oourse, vitaDy interested in the sporadic revolutions in Cuba apinst Spall ish tyranny Not only was it their old home, but many of them bad relatives in the "Pearl of the Antilles.'' Though the United States maintained its neutnlity until the 19th of April 1808, Cuban sympathi zers in this country were numerous. and of these Tampa's Latin citizens were most enthusi astic. July 2S, 1896, a grand open air mass meeting was held in front of V M. Ybor ond Manrua's cigar factory, at which Secretary Quesada and Treasurer Guerra of the Cubon Junta in the United States were among the distioguisbed spealcers. The representatives of the Junta were here from Key West where they procund pledges for 6,000 rifles and they hoped by ten dollar levies here to raise enough money to buy 8,000 rifles for the insurgent&. Going backward, for we hav e mshed a year or two ahead in our story. we have an eveot tamped indelibly on the minds of Hillsborough County's old timers This is the di

HISTORY OF HILLS E OROl'CH COu N TY ture. Until the 11th ot the month did the blizza r d rage. "bile the temperature reached a recor d low mark of 11 degrees above zero. Northern parts o f the state were bodly of course In our own locality, snow fell in both Manatee and Ta:npa. It was a dismal week for friend of Florida. With the new growth just starting nearly all the citrus trees were .not only injure d, but most of them were killed. Where the state' s citrus crop for 1893-94 had been valued at f4,50(),000; the next )'tar's crop, consisting of less than 160, 000 boxes, was valued at two or three hundred thousand dollars. The total loss, direot and indirect, t o the state, ,..,_, variously estimated .at $60,000,000 to ?'0,000,000. It was recognized as one of the greatest calami ties in any state's history. To add to diflkulties, a storm, which eost the state $10,000,000 in damsge, followed in September of 1898 To citizens with a lesser d egree of courage, this disaster would have seemed ao discouraging that they probably would have given up. but not so with the citizens of Florida. With Indomitable f o rtitude they set to work. Some replanted their groves, some moved further .O uth in the state and started Citrus planting there, a little further from the icy blast s that sweep down from the north. Many dropped citru planting and went into other lines o f agriculture, making such a conspicuous success that never again would Florida be known as a one--crop state. This story of th e stat e's disaster has been to ld, because it cause d many people to move into the Hillsborough County agricultural district. While this county had been bit b y the f reeze. it had been spared the wont tanRts of Jaek Frost's es eapade, and consequently growers of les s favored parts of the state moved to this section to take advantage of its superior fortune. Tampa's recent experien oe during the boom was but a repetition on a larger of the expansion here during the .ttn or twelve yea .rs 1895. In 1886, the population of T>mpa was 1,200 per sons or so the optimistic real estate claimed Po.Sibly they had not learned the line art of exaggeration then ; oo vie will hope. at least and let those figures stand. Tampa in 1896 W1ls the third city in the s tate, aeeording to the otate census with 15,654 inhabitants, an increase of 1,200 per ceni. And we have marvelled It the recart growth of a lew hundred per cent iDcrea$e. The two ci ties larger tba n Tampa in 189.; were Jacksonville, 25,1SO; Key llt;!!t, 16,602 population And Tampa could easily have been seeond largest city q the state had the population of West Tampa, 2,815, and .Port 1 111, been. idded .to the total We may usnme tbat Tampa and its subw'bS they bavt dwajs been destioed to be pait of rndtopotitan Tampa, thoagh they were sep: ratelr}ncorporated time) bad.a;' total population -of 19,580, easily West !or second honors. : . Other' figures provided by the 18 96 state census sho"Ced that HDisborough .. ..ounty had the greateii"PffPPraliOn <1f white to Crtion was large,

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{ :/'pn._( ; mr.p 1111 /l, igldJ lu1in!f S/'1miJA ,..,, iff

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PART I-NARRATIVE 98 the colored population ha4 increased 4,399 over the colored popu lation of the last census. Aa we have seen Tampa had grown remarlcabl,-unbelievabl y from the oom ing of the railroads and the opening of her port. In 1895 Tampa wu ooe of the state's important c:e11ters. Despite tbe disaster of the Big Freeu, Tampa had her cigar industry and her rapidly growing shipping to keep her in the lime-light-at least as fAJ" as the state was concerned. At this tim e when Tampa needed advertising, but when modern community a dvertising was unlalown, two gov
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U4 HISTORY OF HILLSBORO U GH CO UNTY The Florida troops and :Marylanders w ere stationed in the Garrison on the site of the then recently abandoned Fort Brooke. Had the war with Spain taken place twenty years earlier, the United Sta!os would have been seriously embarrassed1 for then the Tampa harbor was wide, but not deep, and the railroad to the waters of Tampa Bay was a thing dreamed of talked about, but not actually existing So the only trouble was congestion on the rai l road and here in camp .. The.. was a want of m,aterial and s upplies for the eamp. But with all their hindrances, the Ameriean forces were practieally untouched by disease here in camp. The healthful Flo ri da climate, of which so much is said, did its part toward winning the Spanish-American War, and the American physicians' discovery of preventives for yellow and typhoid fever kept th05e dread diseases away from the camp. Dur ing the entire encampment in Tampa there were but 56 deaths among either of 6cers or soldiers. And of these, several, it is possible, were caused by overdo ing the carousing-acting like the chorus in the comic opera General Shafter took the largest detachment of men with him when he left lor San Juan Porto Rico. Sixteen thousand men embarked on 37 transports to take the major part in one of the most important engagements of the war. As the deep water did not come all the way up to Tampa, the soldiers were transported to Port Tampa by train and there embarked for the Caribbean. At the end of the war, Tampa's population wh ich had more than doubled when the troops were here fell again to normal, but the added impetus given the city by the "free advertising'' which it had received was felt for many years The fighting and the causes of the war had inconvenienced Tampans in certain way For inance, General Weykr, the Spanish commander known for his "reconceotration" order, declared an embargo on tobacco which seriously hindered the Tampa manufacturers. Some Tampa cigtr!tleD were able to get a large quan tity of leaf tobacco out of Cuba before the embargo went into effect, and the re mainder had to struggle along as best they could Some imported Mexican tobacco from Vera Cruz to tide them over the difficult period Two of the manu facturers doing so were Trujillo & Benemillis and Tcodore Per... One of the schooners loaded with tobacco just as the emba rgo went into effect cleared for Bremen, Germany, to avoid suspicion of the Spanish port authorities at Havana. and then, because of its papers was forced to proceed to B remen. From there it meandered port to another till it finally arrived in Tampa m any months after its departure from H avana harbor .. "Leaf tobacco 1" one Tampa man exclaimed, telling abont this. "It Joolaod . 1ll0l'e like snuft when it anived." But fortunately the war did not last so very long, and consequently the cigar abk to resume their uU production sched!Jle. Probably the sbort : penod of lime that America was without Tampa-made cigars made the men of the couDtry more anxiou. to get them than ever before, as the business has in-year ; as we show in our final chapt
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PART I-NARRATIVE 96 So, altogether, Tampa profited greatly hy its visitation of the appearance of war, if not by war itself The state as a whole is able to claim tlte distinction of having been the heOdquarters for an army during a war and the distribution base for supplies. and yet
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96 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COL"XTY Catholic Educational Association of St. Louis for an and during the war was leased to the government as a Supply base. It then become a private &ehool until the city of Port Tampa leased it for a junior high school. I t was not .,;ted for this purpose and was vacant lor nearly a score of years. It was razed to make a place for a modem &ehool in Port Tampa. Today, Port Tampa snll bas some of tbe importanoe of its olden dars. It ;. a large phosphate shipping port, sharing honors with Tampa as the largest ex porter of phosphate in this eountry. It has a pay roll of $50,000 a month. It is located eight miles from Tampa, and connected with the city by a street ear line and three 6ne paved houlewrds. When the century ended, and 1900, which is surely destined to see a stupendous growth in what is already "Florida's Greatest City, rolled around, Tampa no longer a village. Its population wa s 21!,000, it had one well-established indu;ay that made it s name known around the world, and its port was attracting attention. Tampa was attracting. not only state investors, but capitalists of the larger cities of the Eau. Combined wit h the progresshe spirit of the local citizens, and out-side capital, Tampa is hound to keep up the continuous progress it has evinced so far And, of course, Hillsborough County will keep up with its principal city.

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CHAPTER XVI. PuBLIC UTJLl'l'J.ES SERVANTS OP A CtTY. Too 01'Tl!N a rapidly growing city is impeded in its progress by retrogressive factions, and consequently may be compared to a human victim of malnu trition. And where these unprogressive factions occur, the fault is often ruore accurately placed with the public utilities CO
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98 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH CO UNTY for over 16,000 feet of eigh t -inch pipe, 16,040 f eet of six-inch, and feet of four-inch, a total of about eight miles of pipe. There was no '(dally capacityJJ in those days, the company's pumps working only long enough to fill a standpipe tank, the pumps then being shut down until the tanks were empty again. . The company was later known as the Tampa Waterworks Company, and as the city prospered, it also prospered. In 1909 the length of water maiJ?.S had increased to appro>:imately forty miles, and in 1916 it had over seventy miles in use. At the latter time it had a reservoir capacity of 21 000,000 gallons. In 1921 there was a daily supply of nearly 7,000,000 gallons of water, con trasted with the minute consumption of the 80's. In 1906, the citizens of Tampa used a total of 600,000,000 gal l ons of water during the entire year-
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PART 1 NARRJ\TIV!l Tus HISTORY of.I1'UI! EucrAlc LtCu'l' AND RAILWAY CoMPANY oP TAXPA. The first street railway company of Tampa was fom1ed by an Act Leg isla.ture i n I SSS, and the railway was constructed about the year 1887. It was a little narrow guage steam dummy line, commencing at the junction of Marion and Washington Streets, extending thence up Washington to Franldin Street; thence up Franklin to Gth Avenue ; thence up Gth Avenue to 14th Street in Ybor City, the train going to Ybor City and back once an hour. In 1892, the lint Electric Railway, was organir.ed by W. H. Kendrick, E. S. Douglass. and Peter 0 Knight. ft was called the Tampa Suburban Railway Company. When construction work commenced for T.mpa Suburban ;Roll way Company, the owners of the Street Dummy Line, procured from the Circuit Judge, an injunction restraining the construction and operation of another street railway, upon the ground that the Street Dummy Line had the exclwive franchise for every street in T ampa. Application w a s made before the judge to dissolve injunction and it was dissolved, the judge holding that no exclusive franchise coulrl be granted But an appeal was then taken to Supreme Court by the Street Dummy Line, a bond given and a $upersodeas obtained, and as the Supreme Court wu then five years behind in i .ts work, tbe effect of that appeal was to stop all work of the Tampa Suburban Ro.ilway Company for five years. Knowing that a similar mistake would not be made by the Circuit Judge, Peter 0 Knight organir.ed all
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100 HISTORY OF H J LLSBOROI.:L:H COUNTY and Mr. Chester W Chapin, who together with his wife, had furnis hed the money for the construction and development of the Consumers Electric Light & Street Railway Company, became so disgusted with the situation that in October, 1899, be sold the property to a syndicate beaded by Stone & Webster, and thereafter the Tampa Electric Company was organized, it ha\'ing acquired from this syndicate all of the Street Railway and Electric Light property in the city of Tampa and tenitory adjacent thereto. From th e organization of the Tampa Suburban Rallway Company in 1892 up until the organization of the Tampa Ele
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PART 1 -NARRATIVI:: 101 And this statement necessarily indude> the Tampa Gas Company, which has been in operalion here for .33 yean. It was in 1895 that the Tampa Gas Comfl'\ny w2s organiud nt Tampa. with Edouardo Manrara. who was connected with V. M. Ybor in the cigar industry. as president; and with Peter 0. Knight. A. J J!ardman ond .Frank Bnttn numbered among hi s associa tes. The cotnll'lny had on Zack Street. The original stor2ge tank used by the com1>any had a call'lcit y of cubic feet of gu. The present company took over the old company's hold ings in 1900. While an important part in Tampa's utilities eve r since that time, an amazing contrast i! shown between its size in 1903, and the present 1U28 In 190"J, the c:ompany had 363 consumefS-oland those seemed partially of cooking with ps1 for there were but 109 ftU stoves in the city. \Vood cheap then: colored cooks plentiful, and old-fashioned ideas The oompany, sinoe those early days hu shown a $tt:\dy and pcrsil'tent growth, wnh 1.160 consumer in 1909. annual sales of 35,000.000 cubic foet of gas and ?04 gao ranga i n tl>e city. The company moved its o ffices from its old location to the pre..,.t one in the Tampa Gas Company Building in 1912 It has also made notabl e additioN to its plant includin g one tank with a capacity of 3.000,000 cubic feet (100 times the original tanks capacity,) whicb is the largest in the state. This flU holder is in 2dditloa to the earlier one, built in 1912, which holds 600,000 cubic feet of gu. This, though seeming large, it not exceptionally so. for the daily ...,.umption of gao in Tampa i s about 1.700.000 feet of gas per day, including summer months when gas is used for coolcing purposes only, and not for beating 'rht latter figure is based 011 the total of 600,00t,200 cubic feet of RU which Tampa consumers used in 192'1'. The company has over 20,000 consumers now, or approximllliel y fifty-two times as many as when the compan y commenoed opcratiOM. While the telephooe iudustry in South Florida W2S still in its infancy, W G. Brorein and associates were, in March, 1901, granted a francbise by the city coan cil to opcrolie a telepbone business in Tampa. The Peninsulu Telephone Company was organi zed in April of the s ame year, with the following officers: W G BroTein, president; J. W. Barwick, vice president; Guy Huffman, secretary, and they with the following fom>ed the board of directon: S A. H .. kins, J A Hauss, and J. H. Goeke. These COIUiituted the original offi...-s and directon of the Peninsular Tel<\lbone Comp@y. A ctive opcrmons began in Tampa early in the following year with approxi mately ?00 s ubscribers. During that time, the Telephone Company, the largest organization of its kind In the country, operated in Tampa in oompetition with the independent oompany. So rapid was the development and expansion of the territory being served by the new company t112t the of6oen were taxed to their utmost capacity t o meet the demanda for oemce. Recosnizing that the two telejlbone companies in the city

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102 HISTORY OF HlLLSilOROGGH COUNTY were impra<:tical, in 1906 the independent comJl'llly purchased outright the entire holdings in the city of Tampa and of lkJJ Company ... These holdings included many short toll lines to surrounding titles and commuDI!Ies. After taking over the Bell property, there was a greatly accelerated telephone development, not only in local, but also in long distance service. New toll lines were constructed1 and new exchanges were established in several of the towns and communities surrounding Tampa. This long distance extens i on was the runner of many such developments of long d istance service by the Peninsular Tele phone Company. !n the beginning, there was practically no long distance service south of Jadcsonville, now the company handles several such calls a minute. Telephone history throughout the country has always been punctuated at one time or another with the crisis of tearing down the original plant and what has been added more or less haphazardly to it, and rebuilding with completely new and modern equipment. In the case of independent telephone history, this has been generally the financial rock against w hich many an independent concern has crashed. The Peninsular Company, however, was more fortunate. It bad begun, at the time of its organization with an authorized capital stock of $60,000, but before the end of its first year it had increased its capital to $500,000 in stock and an equal amount of bonds. This made it possible to install small exchanges, ranging from 50 to 500 telephones in several counties, but the total num ber of telephone subscribers was very small In 1914 the Peninsular Telephone ComJl'llly's crisis came. The common bat tery system, which had served Tanipa well for a dozen years, was becoming out grown. and the quarters on Zaclc Street, over a music store, were becoming more and more cramped. The war, just begun, brought restrictions to the manufactur. ing end of the telephone industry, and new equipment was hard to get. The management was faced with the alternative of enlarging the system as best they might, as a temporary SloP-gap, or casting it all aside and beginning anew with a new system a'new plant and a new building. Of onurse the latter was more costly, and to take that step reqqjred onurage and approximately $1,000,000. Both were available. In 1914 ground was broken for a large and commodious telephone building at the comer of Zack and Morgan Streets. It was four stories high, and in the opin ion of the heads of the company; would serve Tampa for several decades. Ha\'ing begun the new building, the next step was to procure and install the new apparatus and equipment. "What we want for Tampa," said President Brorein, "ia the best." And, as a result of thia, Tampa had the distinction of being the city in the South to use the Automatic telephone equipment. It was installed dunng 1914; and on March 4, was "put-over," replacing the battery system which had served the city so well. then, thegrowtli in telephones has been rapid, and today there are 6ve automatic exchanges operating in the city proper, serving suboaibers in the Hyde West Tampa, Sea,rinole Heights, City, and the down-town buaineU sectJ.ons.

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'1\RT I-NARRATIVE 103 Only a few years ago, thue were only 20 000 telephones in the entire system served by the Peninsular Telephone Company Now there are over 60 000 phones in the company's territory. Almost half of this number is in Tampa. In addition to this city, the company serves St. Petersburg, Lakeland, Bradenton, Plant City, Sarasota, Clearwater, Bartow, LakA! Wales Tarpon Springs, Winter haven New Port Riehey and Safety Harbor. In all of these town s the com pany is giving the best service known in the Soulh--<>r for that matter in the country. The best indicatioo of the company's faith in Tampa and its preparations for the future may be found in the reeent building progtam. Its principcol feature was a fiDe twelvHtory addition to the four-story structure on Morgan StTeet This is a strilcing example of the recent growth of Tamps as it was slightly more than a single decade between the completion of the buil ding that was to .,a at for decades" and the completion of the huge anneJC. The company has also built a new two story eJCchange building to talce care of Cl
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CHAPTER X VII. TROS'OTOS."-SS.\. OF TH>: many beautiful lakes seattered like gems anlid the forests and Jwn. mocks of HiUsborough County one of the larg<:&t and most picturesque is Lake ThonotosaSs& abou t fourteen miles northeML of the city of Tampa. The lake is oval in shape, several miles long, and nearly as wide, with unusaally high, sloping shores and a wide sandy beach Surrounde d by magnificent forest it was from time im.mmlorial a plaee especially loved by the Seminol e Indians who had been the occupants of this region for untold centuries bef or e the white man lint came make a home in the wUderne$$. Lake or as it was called by the Sentin ol e s. Tenot owsa, was attractive to the aborigines because o f the fish in its wo.ters an d the that in habited the surrounding forest& in great ahundanee. Then a lso there were near it deposits of flint rocks so useful for their weapons and tno ls. Hence comes the name which means "Lake of Flints." On the shores of thi s beautiful lake was .. the chosen scene of the annual "Gt= Com Danee" of the Semino les Each year when the crescent of the new ;,oon was in the western hea,en> during the of June there gathered the Indi..,. from aU Southwestern Florida, coming from great di#lnces to be praent at this mld-swnmer festival. At this time was hdd tbe annual meetilllt' of tbe chiefs and old men of the tribe wbo aete. ealled where tbe city of Oeala now is, about one hUDdred miles north of Fort Broob. A road, or in real ity, a tnll. wo.s opened between the two forts, which became. kno"" in Fort B rooke as the Fort KiJ>g road. This road lead in a uortheasltr! Y direction from the fort at tbe mouth of the Hillsborough River, foUowiog very nearly wl;lat is known o.s the Harney Road, on to near the south end of Lake Thooo-, tosassa, thepee along th e high land to the west of and witbin s ight of the lake, and then .. -9n aecross tl.>eHiUsbnrough River, where later a ferry wo.s established, and then <9Dt;iliue.
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C'J/'rrl! d rvdrrl' If# lrJ> lltrUfl iN tli;Q tlu u.,., f.Urt. /1. 1/. XUJ>/,j,, l .. Tru Jltrol ;, tSJ$ t.J' ,\l,u'ti ..U u;,,, ;, -:o:.lwJr /lfffllll tlu tru 1/lt..!t.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 105 After the close of the SetnioH>Ie War in 1842 Rilly !low-legs, a famou s chief of the Seminoles, ha d hi Indian vil lage established on the shores of tloe lake, where the beautiful .,tate of Be lvedere, now the h"'ne of Mr. H. H Stebbins. is located. White men had attempted to build homes for their famm .. in t his favored ...:tion but bad always been driven away by the d ange r of Indian attack. In 1846, however, William Miley, a hardy pioneer with his wife and five unal1 children bad establisbecl a hom e and, despite frequent from marauding Indians, and several flights with his family to Fort Brooke, he mointained that home u long as he lived and it is Sb1l in the family. In the month of December, 1MS, there came news o f hostile Indians at a time when William Miley could not take his family to the fort for proteetioa. So he hastil y gathered hi s children and sick wife into a fortified log cabin near his home. That night an Indian woman wandered into the neighborhood and was taken in by Mr. Miley. Before motni n g a son was born to Mrs. Miley and the Indian woman also gave birth to a son. The Indian woman le.ft in a few days but the kindl iness with which she had been treated by the white family was e vi dently appreciated by the Indians, who thereafter left the Miley family unmolested. The baby, nam e d Martin Ill. Miley, born under such trying cireumsUnoes grew into stalwart manhood, a :oplendid exampk of the sturdy pioneers who made HillsbotOQgll County. A s a young man he sene.y of the He was an able assistant of General Hazen in proving the value of o range growing as a comme rcial enterprise. At the advanced age of four score years, Martin M i ley is still vigorous and activ e in mind and body He still lives on the old Miley homestead. On this farm is an orange tree with a most interesting history. When Major Dade and his oompan y llarted on their faJIIOU& march toward Fort King in December, 1835 they rested and ate their lunch on the first day at a point about three miles southwest of Lake Thonotosusa. They had some 1woet oranges which lwl just been brought to Port Brooke from Cu ba, a rare treat io those days. They ate these oranges and dropped the peel and seeds on the ground. Tbe seeds sprouted. t ook root. and int o tnes. In 1850 they were rqularly bearixog fine, sweet orao>ges. WilUam Miley transplanted several of them to his farm. In the oourse of time exeept one died. but that one still stands a splendid specimen of the Florida seedling oraoge 11"00. It hu passed safely t hrough the great freezos of 1886 and 1895 It h u been twisted and broken by w ind llorms, but bas recovered from all these bardshipo and still bears large crops of delicious oranges. Tbis tree, undoubtedly the oldest orange troe in this part of Florida, hu borne u many u sixtyfive boxes of oranges in one seuon. Just before the freeze in the winter of 1894.-96 from this fifty-year-old me Martin Miley picked Onngea by actual ooant and sold them for oDe coat a pieoe in Tampa. This tree has furnished seed and buda for most of the old seed liDc lt'"O,.. in this port of Florida..

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106 HISTORY OF HILLSI!OROUGH COt.:NTY The rich, high lands to the east and west of Lake Thonoto;assa invited set tlus who slowly developed productive farms and became successful and prosperous The greatest influence in building up this community into a suburb de luxe of the growing city of Tampa was General W. P. Hazen, who came to Florida from Ohio about 1878. He immediately acquired large land holdings along the shores of the lake and began the de>elopment of an estate which he named Belvedere and which today rivals in s ubstantial beauty anything in Florida. It was a great undertaking in those pioneer days to attempt the building of a luxurious country mansion. But General Hazen, overcoming all difficulties, making use of timber from the surrounding forests, and importing costly woods and furnishing materials, built the magnifieent residence which is still one of the show piaces of southwestern Florida. This beautiful home is located on tl1e old Fort King Road, ori!Pnally laid out by :Major Francis L. Dade in 1835, over which he ted his forces on their march which in tbe famous massacre and which is now the main street of Thonotosassa. This road is now bordered on both sides by magnificent oaks, set out by General Hazen, and which fonn a beautiful arch for miles. The house set back at some distance from the road is surrounded by beautiful suJ>.tropical shrubs and palms and other trees. From the rear of the house a long gentle slope of lawn and orange grove extends down to the lake, of fering one of the most beautiful scenes imag;nable When General Hazen came to Hillsborough County there were practically no real orange groves Each farmer had a few orange trees or in a few cases, small groves with an oc:easional grapefruit tree. Hardly any one thought of raising oranges for sale except locally and the grapefruit had not come into favor as food. Geoeral Hazen saw that there were possibilities of profit in raising oranges and grapefruit as a commercial enterprise. Most of the trees in the county were tough ugly little shrubs raised from seed or in a few cases budded from the Dade orange tree on the Miley farm. It was therefore difficult for General Hazen to find s uitable trees for his projected grove. However, with Martin Miley as hU chief assistant, he bonght here and there from the farmers for many rniles arOund such orange and grapefruit trees as they were willing to sell, and had them care fully S
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PAR'f I-NARRATIVE 107 a circumference of ele;;en feet at the base and the first branches are ten feet from the grouud. The tr..,, a!U>ough more than three score years of age is still in a perfectly healthy condition. It btllrs an abundance of the finest seed ling grape fruit. In one year as many as forty boxes of fruit have been produced on this one trJ> wu built oo the east side of the lake. Later a large, wooden clturclt w.,. erected on the alt e of the old log cabin cltureh. Thonotosassa, as well as the ether parts of the county, felt the effects of the boom and the superior of its shores as beautiful sites for country homes were realized by many. Thus the future of thlo section is assured.

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CHAPTER XVIU. TBz DIMttoPKEMT o A Poar. 0., ALL Tampa's attractions to business men and invenor s the greatest is her port; of all Hillsbor011gh County's attractions, the greatest is her convenient available port on Tampa Bay. Neither county nor city would have experi enoed the growth and pr<>$perity which they now enjoy were Hillsbor"OIIg h an in land county. Tampa-Florida's greateot city; Hillsborough County-Florida's cO.mty in nearly respeo:t-Qre indebted to !'ature's coodness in iag the hage ann of the sea in s uch an adYantagtou position. So!ne city's mwt baild a port to fit the city-Tampa will not for decades grow to fit her superb port. In order that the account of port development may be readil y unde.-.tood, we are first giving the lieographical and topogJaplUcaJ description of Tampa's harbor (abridgod from Federal reports by Col. S. M Sparlcman) : E:ntnooe about e2o miles north of Key West; 880 miles south of Pensacola; 860 miles from Mobile and &12 miles from New Orleans. The form of the Bay resembles that of a Y, of which Tampa Bay proper constituuos the stem, Old Tampa Bay the upper left branch and HiUsborougb Bay into which flows the Hillsborough Ri...-, the upper right branch The Bay varies from 7to 10 miles in width, and bat two main eimanc:es from the Gulf of Mexico. Tbe main channel running n o rtli of E:gmont Key is lmown as Northwest channel, and the t ... atdy 260 square miles. Tbe City of Tampa lies at the head of Hillsborough Bay and Port Tampa at the southwest COJ""t>Or of Interbay Peninsular. PJ:iqr to any work being done a draft from 20 to U feet could be carried at low water from the Gulf of Mexico to deep water south of Inrerbay Peninlular, and 15 feet over the shoals to Tampa Bay to Port Tampa. Vessels drawillg enuor HUI&borough Bay at wauor. There was a channel from tlJe erttl'ance. of Hillsborough Bay to Tampa of 12 feet to a point about 3 miles .. !0'\lh the ,chiUIJ.lel from thence rwming west of wiW: was known as the now- part 6( Davi s Island:, was a tortuous channel throngh tbe Hillsborough River, with a cllanMI depth of not more than 6 feet up to a point about feet. soutb of Lafayette street Bridge. lot

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l.'f'prt-l'ort J 1 'tutlf' it: l ,;:rr-I'IIN vf T,llnf'" iN

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PART I-NARRATIVE 109 Hon. S. M Sparkman has also funrisbed this hiotory witl1 a compl
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110 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROuGH COUNTY basin at the mouth of the Hillsborough River for about 2,000 feet to a point near the S A L railroad ext
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PART I-NAHRA'l'IVE ill in accordance with plans for develot>mcnt of the Ybor Zone, approved by the Secretary of War, or such other plans as he n1ight approve, to build adequate warehouses and storage sheds on these and equip them with suitable rail facilities and freight handling appliances, and would construct an d put in operation a municipal railroad having physical cotmection with aU railroads entering the City of Tampa, and ava ilable channel frontage on buth sides of the Estuary in accord ance with the plan of developmen t of the Estuary zone appro,ed by the Secretary of \Var, wOtJld open, pave and make available for use a sufficient number of streets and highways to give proper access to all pam of the Estuary Channelfrontage, would open these term inals for business under a scbed\lle of reasonable wharfage charges and a set of regulations to be approved by the Secretary of War for the control and operation of the property fronting on the Estuary Channel designed to insure its use primarily in the interest of general commerce on equal tem 1 s to all. All these conditions have practically been complied with and the work has been completed within the last year to a depth. In addition to this the city has constructed a slip on the west side of the tuary channel 27 feet in depth, abont 900 feet long and 250 feet wide, with a welt equipped ware house and wharves adequate no doubt for the present, but hardly for the near future. It ntay be added further that the control by the city of Tampa over the inner harbor is somewhat unusual in harbor development and control in the United States as no other place in the country perhaps has such complete controJ over its tennioaJ charges and over the handling of its water cornmerce. The co
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llll HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COl::-JTY bered by every Tampan. When Tampa became a port of entr)', so that foreign vessels could enter the magnificent bay, a new opportunity was given to grow and expand. The extract follows: "The Spealrer laid before the House the bill ( 52992) to make Tampa. Fla., a port of entry; whieh was read twice by the title. "Mr. Davidson, of Florida: I ask unanimous consent of the House that I may be permitted to make a brief statement in reference to this bill, and to request that it be C<)llsidered now. This bill has passed the Senate. A similar bill has been considered by the Committee on Commerce of the House and reported favorably and the necessity for the passage of the bill is very argent. As will be seen from the report of the committee of the House last summer, the PostmasterGeneral made a maU oontract for the carriage of the United States mails from Tampa and K e y West to Havana and return. This mail is now run in connection with the fast mail on the Atlantic
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PART I-NARRATIVE 113 Henderson liD<, serving Tampa, Cedar Key Key West and Havana. Plant system, operating the Mucotte, Otivette, Martinique, Miami, City of Key West, Florida, Cocoa, Tarpon, and Margaret. These plied between Port Tampa and K.oy West, Havana and Jamaica, St. Petenburg, Manat ee River and Fort Myers. Tampa Steam ship Ccmpany, operating one steamer from Tampa to Mobile. This steamer, the Josephus, was thelugest steamer to tie up to the Tampa whanes during the years around 1900. Honduras line, dealing in fruits, especially bananas from Hocduras. Independent line, briugjng f nzit from the Manatee River groves. Tampa, Hmmn Point and Sarasota line, carrying fish and vegetables. This oompany operated the steamers Lewis and Anthea. In addition to the steamer s, many oailing vessels came into port when Tampa wu in the embryonic stage of port development. In faet, there were more schooner' visiting here than otearnero, though the total tonnage probably was about equal. Even in the early part of the present century, large ships were unable to ap proach the city or the mouth of the HiUsborough River, and were foreed to load at Gadsden's Point-nine miles f:rom the present terminals. In general the same size steamers came here as now But lOG-ton lighten were used to C3J'Ty the cargoe s out for transfer to the h o lds of the larger vessels. It was often impos .. 'ble to load shipa, however for in rough weather the men got sick. Sometimes, u one of Tampa's old-timer stevedore' reports, these men would be taken asbore, and new crews eogagtd. In addition to the steamen, barks, barkentines, and schOoners anchored in the waters of Tampa Bay. These was always a great preponderance of the lat ter. Full.-rigged ships, now a rarity, were o ften seen then. Piue and cypress lumber and crosstie$ for railroad us e in New York a.nd other eastern states comprised the load of the outgo ing cargoes. The l umber was shipped to coastwis e ports and to Cuba. Very little o f it was sent abroad. Pensacola and other gulf ports bad a monopoly of foreign lumber trade at that ti...,. Tampa shipped water...,lon s too, in those days, as all the colered dock-hands and longshoremen knew The melons were shipped to Key West and to Havar>a. An amu.sing interlude ohen occurred when a dusky laborer wou l d drop a melm which of course, was b
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114 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROI.!GH COUNTY ochooners and full-rigged ships, the only craft docking there at that time They arrived in ballast. The first steamer unloaded by the Swann Terminal Company, was the Garcia, wltich brought the first cargo of cedar lumber received here. The first freighter of the Mallory lin e, Tampa's principal water freight car rier to arrive in Tampa was the Rio Grande. That was about 18 years ago. She carried a $1t1211 number o f passengers from New York, and after they disembarked she went on her way to other gulf ports. She had no cargo for Tampa, as the Mallory l ine had no docks here, only a loading place. The schooner Josepblne was the first ship loaded at the Southern Steamship Company docks, which the Gulf and Southern Steamship Company has succeeded. She left here with a cargo of S\\itch ties R. A. Crowell had a little fleet of schooners in Tampa's early days. They brought bananas from Honduras, and returned with lumber and general cargo D. Collins Gt11ette was the largest lumber exporter from Tampa at that time, the Tampa-Havana Lumber Co., being the second largest shipper. The Zimme rman finn was the largest importer of cedar logs. It is a far step fTOtn the Tampa port of yesterday with its shipping of picayune proportions to the magnificent harbor today, teeming with marine activity. Thirty years ago, Tampa had a natural shallow harbor and no more. Optimists and farvi>ioned people might have seen a tremendous growth for the future-but they would have been laughed to scorn then had they predicted what is today an accomplished actuality. When the Rio Grande whistled for a pilot off Egmont Key, the lone pilot probably thought some mistake had been made on the part of the crew of the Rio This steamer, which drew 9 feet of water, loaded, and had a tonnage of 1 ,6 00, was probably the first large steamer to penetrate Hillsborough Bay. Leg end says that when the ship arrived near the foot of the Hillsborough River, the inhabitants of Tampa declared a holiday, and made of the occasion a gala festival. Today, a crowd cannot be gathered to exclaim over Tampa's shipping, unitS-' a full-rigged ship, or some other reminder of ancient shipping history, appears in port. This was shown especially by the two visits that have been made to this port by the Belgian ship L'Avenir, a full-rigged ship. Tampans gazed at that sbip open-mouthed but made no comment on the many huge freighters, tankers and passenger boats at their docks. Of course not, the latter sight was too com -inonr Figures are. good indications of growth, although not containing very many thrill$. The estimated value of all commerce in the port of Tampa for the year 1927 was $2114,,058. The total water vessel tonnage, which includes all inter $late and fl>reign shipping was 4,170,292 tons. I? .1900 about tliree or four hundred vessels passed the Egmoot Key bar to come mto T!""pa Bay. 'l:bese could be bound for either Tampa, Port Tampa, or St. Petersburg. In ll,874 ve...ts came into Tampa harbor alone-this is growth over 1926 of about 260 vessels.

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P ART I-NARRATIVE ll6 Tbis number of vessels is divided as follows : $aili .. g ""'"'' United States. .. .. .. . .. .. . Great Britain.. .. . .. . .. .. . 6& Honduras .. .......... .. .. .. 2 StetJm Vus.ll. U nittM,.,., The Mascotte would be lost in Tampa Bay. today.

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116 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY An interesting detail about Tampa is that probably more shlJ>S are named for this city than for any other city its size in the world. Five ships have been chris tened Tampa; four of them are still afloat. There is the U. S. S. Tampa, taking the plaoe of the old coast guard cutter Tampa, which was sunk in Bristol Channel, off Great Britain, during the World War, with all on board. Next oomes the Tampa, a 10,000 ton steamer bwlt here at the Oscar Daniels shipyard during the war for the government. The Gulf & Southern line is operating a steamer named the Tampa, as has been previously mentioned in this chapter. And then there is the Norwegian motorship of 6,200 tons, which visited this port on its maiden trip two summers ago. Everyooe of the shiJ>S mentioned is a credit to the port for which it is named. These ships, and the thou!ands of ships that enter this port, carry the name of Tampa to every country of the world. One thing is oertain, a person unacquainted with Tampa or Tampa's reputation as a port, is not, you may take it for granted, connected in anyway with the sea, or with those who "go down to the sea in shiJ>S." The latter need no introduction to "Florida's Greatest City."

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CHAPTER XIX. TAMPA: A Cl'tv MADE TO FIT AN OrroR'tUNITY. . C rrus often grow beawe they have a line harbor, ao exeellent clim&te, a raUrotd jun ction For these reasons the City of Tampa grew and became the l&rgesl Gulf port in the state of Florida But West Tampa, just across the Hillsborough River from Tampa, grew, not because of the geographical or clim&tic possibUitiu, but because one Tampao saw an opportunity, aod grasped it. West Tampa wu plAnned and thought out be forehand. There were no astounding developments, because such developments bad been anticipated. It wu, in brief, a city that was conceivedt flourished and grew, and passed out of exlstenoe in twenty-nine ye&rs. Parado:>tieally, while the city can still be found, it is no longer a city. With ouch preamble, we proceed to briefly tbe ru.tory of Tampa' sister city which passed from legnl existence January 1, 1925, by annexation to Tampa. When aonexation to Tampa was firot proposed, West Tampans spok e excitedl y abou t "the octopus", which would soon swallow the little cit.y on the west bank of the Hillsborough. Now, they are loyal Tampans, aod point proudly to the latest pop ulation figures for the oombined mUI>icipallty. In the early SO's, cigar manufacturers from variou& parts of the country and Cuba sought locationa for their factories here. The account of how Ybor and Sanchez & Haya came here bas already been told in a chapter. Tampa was then a very small village, with very little capital to induc:t factoq:ies to here. At that time several residents owned large tracts in the vicinity of TamPQ. They reali .. d the nlue of their land and the amount to which their would be enhanced by the establishment of other cigar factories. These residents, how eVer, were unwilling to offer anything in the way of induceme. nt, the story goes. Col. Hugh C. Madarlane, a prominent attorney of Tampa, at that tlme owned a tract of 200 ures of land, now West TamPQ He was the first to offer a fa<:tory site to manufacturers who would operate on his lands and employ a stipulated number of persons. The donation w;. s $Utc:tSSfut In five years' rune, ten leading Havana manu&cturers bad located, and are still Oj>eruing businesses in West Tampa From that time on, West Tampa pined in and population. Aooordlng to unc:trtaio records, the factory of O'Hara and Company was the first to accept Cnlonel Macfarlane's offer. The next was the farnou factory of Cuesto-Roy, wbith is still in operation. It furnishes the cigvs for King Alfonso of Spain, and many other notables The laaory of Theodore Perez came next, and closely after was the factory established by Arango, Rico and Guerra Tbe town of West Tampa was incorporated May 18, 189 6, and &tood as a mwricipal ity for twenty-nine yean. Her first m ayor was Fernando Figuredo, wh o for a number of ye&ra bU been the treasitrer of the island of Cuba. 117

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118 HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY West Tampa, being a creation of man, rather than a casually-growing munici pality, was well-laid out in modem fashion. For a number of years it maintained ooe of the most adequate municipally-owned parks in the state. This park was given to the town by Colonel Macfarlane, and represents about forty acres. It stiU bears its founder's name. On it is maintained a golf course, baseball diamond, and other amusement facilities. West Tampa progressed rapidly with the con1ing of the cigar manufacturer>. In 18115, when it was incorporated, the state census gave it a population of 2,816. The approximate beginning of its growth is placed about 1890, wh e n the first bridge across the Hillsborough River and the Tampa Bay hotel were put into service. In 1811?, Colonel Macfarlane, together with several assoeiates, including Matthew Hooper, W. W. Hooper, Philip H. Collins, George N. Benjamin, L B. Skinner, and A. C. Clewis, oompleted the bridge across the river which was known as the Fortune street bridge. This led into the heart of West Tampa, and was of great bentlit in persuading Tampans to live in the rapidly growing town. This bridge was replaced in 1906 with a steel and wood structure, through an agree ment between the city of .Tampa and the Tampa Electric Company. The new bridge was used to handle the electric company's West Tampa street car line. In January, 1925, after considerable agitation, West Tampa became a part of the city of Tampa, under an act of the Florida state legislature. At the time it was to be officially annex, Edgar W. Waybright, Jacksonville attorney, threat ened to take out an injunction to retain the municipality, in behalf of boodholders, whose names he refused to divulge. No legal action was taken, however, and January 1, 1925, West Tampa dropped its official name, and became a part of Tampa. At the time that West rampa disappeared from official existence. it had three beautiful parks, approximately ten thousand citizens, two and one-half square miles of developed territory, several fine public buildings, and over thirty brick
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l'AR' f I NARRATIVE 11 9 i a patronized eve.r y everting by scores of residents who work in the daytime, and wi5h to obtain knowledge. in the ir spare moments The main business Streett o f 1M w .. t Tampa distric t a re M a i n treet a nd H oward a,..,ue, on whi c h there are about thirty establishments. The Centro Espanol club bui l ding on H oward avenue and Cherry str eet is one of 1M m a i n centers of recreation ; ., \Vest Tampa. There are game rooms, a gymnasium, a moving picture t heatre1 a n d other f acilities for recreation in the building, which it a branch of the main organization in Ybor City. AnOther p-rogres-sive organ .. i ation is the Soc:iety Sicilia. whith ocxupiea commodiouJ quarters in a new club buHding at Howa r d and Spruce streets. On e o f t he w und institu ti ons of Weat T ampa i s th e Bank o f Wes t Tam1>a, which wa s o r gan ized in 19 06. I t is located in a subs t a ntia) buildi n g on the corner o{ Howard avenue and Main 'tr'eet. As is reloted in t he chapter on schools, West Tampa is adequatel y served by fin e p u b li c schoob. in a ddition t o r,everal missionary schools established by churthn; i n West A mong the s ettlement s an d ntissionnr ies are the Ros a Vald .. missi on for childre n on Oalc ttreet and Francis avenue, es tablished b y the Meth odist churches: the Itali a n Baptist M ission on Armenia avenu e an d Oak s treets : the Union Congrtional church mission on Armenia avenue and Green streot; and the A cademy o f H oly Names, on F rancis avenll e and W arner street There are four churc he s in West Tampa. Thrt>e street car l ines, the R os s 1M Gran d Cent ral and Wes t Tampa divioion s, plac:e the w .. t Tampa
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CHAPTER X..'<. HtcBWA'tS. U NTU. any .section of a country i s 50 provided with means of transportation that it is welded into a whole, that ection cannot be $aid to progressive Unde r no can Htllsborough County be SOld to be laclcing in this Forming a network of roads that renJive to b!Jild. Of this road there is a length rather more dtan 28 miles, laid at a cost to the county of $1,'135,231.28 County bas an approximate mileage of 70 mile s built witb the sheet asphalt surface with an accompanying cx1>enditure of $1,0.16, 0 13.17. In order of the length of road the brick surface tank next with a mileage of 37.34 miles. This brick road with no base was built at a CMt of $80o,69U7. Howeve r, tbe brick way with b.,e, of which there is some 1G miles in the county, is considerably more costly to construct, this mil eage being laid with an expenditure o f 187M51.M. One of the most e xpensive and' proportionatel y harder surfaced road types is the concrete. Of this type, Hillsborough County has a length of 2 miles, built at a cost of $171,7G 0 .7 0. There are also other types of roadways in the county these not so oostly an expencliture to the COtmty. or the latter I)'Jl" the county boasts mileage o f o ver 2! miles which is surfaced in the known as the sand asphal t, base and top, this being built with the expenditure of $7U,475.57 Nineteen or slightly more than 1 9 miles of Amiesite type roads have been eon tructed at a coot of $1,347,950.40. In addition 11> which a mileage of rathe r more tban miles of the Filberiioe surfaced road s have been added to the county at a cost of $1,183 ;424 32. The well known Kentucky roc k asphalt type roa d bas a mileage of four miles in Hillsborough County, built wilh an expenditure of $ 177,179 86. Floridalithic roadway has but a length of 2.73 miles, the cost of this t ype of s urface being a bout $181,818. Including the concrete bricJg.os, the concrete oeawa lls and creosote timber br(dges, ihis county has expended (using round numbers for greater convenW>ce i .. sum that is far from small, namely, $17,270,037. ? the se.eDteen run for a le!gth greater than ten miles, ele, ... formtng man arteries. which .carry the greater p art of the inter -county ttJit. . 120

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Pi\RT !-NARRA'\'IVE 121 Taking the former bigbways in tl"' or&or of tl"' time that dates their co.npletion it is but jus t that eaeh is given its simple history. That beoutiful &trip of roadway, known as the Riverview Road. btginning at Plant CityManatee Forks and extending for a short distance past Riverview, ha., a length 12.67 miles. The contractors The Edwards Cont
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122 H ISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COl: N'l'Y of the county traffic. The money for this road was rai"'d with the llaie of Hard Surfaced Bonds, an expend iture of $133,806 26 be ing needed for the ll.U miles of 9--foot wide road, it having a three-inch Surface of \ltrificd brick, J\0 base bat with a curb called th e wood header type of curb. The controct o r s 'KendrickWeJ!b-DavisMcNetl, completed this rood in a re111arkably $)k)n time. Jn 1926 a section of this road was rebuilt, a length of eight m i les. The $al11t contractors who built the Thonotosassa also constructed the road which begins at the Plant C i ty-Manatee Fork. and extends to the l i m its of Plant City. This thoroughfare is 14.61 mi l es in le ngth, fifte<>n feet wide wit h a three-inch su r face of vitrified brick. Completed in 1 91;; ot a cost of $265,212 .60, the fund s for which were r a i sed by tbe sale of H a r d Surfaced B ond s t h i roa d has a grani te curb and like the Thonotosassa road was built without a ba5e. Leading out from Sulphur Springs, one of the moction From Nebraska aven\le to the Pasco County line. a d istance of 1 0.50 tniles it carries upon its surface some of the heaviest of the 00<1nty's traffi c. Built at a cost of $241J,255.62, this road, though built with no base, has a concrete heat.ler curb and is of 1he asphalt block type. Davis and Webb. contractors for thi fifteen-foot-wide high way the funds for which were raised through the bonds s old and known under the name of Victory Bonds, completed this stretch of roadway in 1921. . Davis and Webb, also contractors for tbe 11.50 nu1es of fifteen-fOOt-wide road which extends from the end of the brick road near Ri,ervie\ to the Manatee County line, constructed this highway of 2J4-inch asphalt block sur face with COD balt blOck wi t h a concrete header. i s fifteen feet wide and covers a .length mi1es . The constru ction, don e by Cone Rrothers. cost a

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( 'ff!o-..\'ulflh:o S J!r i n!fl iN A'flftunf Sr"'' l flf.:r,-l"uJ t l
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PART I-NARRATIVE 123 total of Financed with Progress Bonds this work was finished during the period 19113-1924. ThU period, namely, 19113-1924, w .. oue of un111ual energy in the advancement of road construction and Tampa benefited to a great degree. At thu time the Citrus Park road, or John T. Gunn Highway, as it is better was started. Beginni(lg at the intersection of Waters and Atmenia avenue$, it exte nds to the county line at Odessa, a thriving town of not unworthy size These miles of fifteen-loot wide 2-inclt nsphaltic amcrete surfaecd road has a five-inch base _,posed of Florida lime rock. Progr ... Bonds to the extent of 1308,ll66.70 were sold to insure the completion of this thorough fore. The contracton, The Wm. P. McDonal d Construction Contpany, finished this project during the year 1924. In 1924 another road in Hillsborough County became a meana of transporting traffic toward t)tat section of the county that so needed this extra roadway, Plant City. This highway, called the Plant City -Thonotosassa road, haa its beginning at the Wier town and reache s to Plant City limits. Built of nine-foot wide, 2-incb beet asphalt with a five-inch time nx:k base, this roadway bas a length of rather a trifle more than ten miles. Financed through the aid of the Procrea Bonds it was completed in the same year with an expenditure of $158 ,3?4.l6. The James G. Yeats Company were constructing engineer s for this highway. The Plant City Picnic road, starting at the end of the brick Hopewell road and reachlng in length to Hurrah Creek, is rather more than 16 miles in extent. For a distance of miles this road has a width of fifteen feet, the remainder having a width of nine feet. However, the eotire di-. 16.36 miles, u surfaced with 2-indt sheet asphalt with a five-inch lime rock l>se, the expense of this highway amounting to about $294,867. Constrncted by the Wm. P. McDonald Construction Compo.ny this enterprise was completed during 1924. The Ruskin roadway extending from Bryan-Ligbtsey's Corner, Plant City road to the Manatee County line crosses three rivers. The bridges constructed acrocs these streams caused an expenditure of S$2,4tn.66 for that acrosS the A1afia RiYtr $27,224.89 for that exteoding over the Palm River, and $48,388.80 for the bridge over the Little Manatee River. The full length of the road inclusive of the bridges is 26.26 mile s and for the full distance io built fifteen feet wide Consuveted of three-inch a.sphalt block surface with no base aod having a concrete header curb, this highway was completed by the Warren Brothers and Carroll Engineera in the period 1928-1924. The total east of this beautiful thoroughfare, 1340,408.88, was financed with the sale of the Progress Bonds and with $220,000 time wamnta then issued. In 1923 the Wm. P McDonald Coostruction Company laid the road now c:alled the Lithia Road. Connecting Brandon with the Picnic road it is 11.16 rrulea long. made nine feet in width with 2-inch surface cit sheet asphalt and a five-inch base It was completed that same year at an expenditure pf $160,904. Two roo.ds o( an equal length and constructed by the sanie company, the Wm. P. McD9naJd Construction Company, were financed by Plant City Special Road and Bridge Bonds and were completed during the same period of time: In

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124 HJS1'0RY O F HILLSBOROt;GH COL":-iTY 1U7 these roads were read y for use. haing a specification of feet of \\idth, a slag $Urface treatment with a 6-inch lime rock base. The first of these t w o roads, called the Knights road, extends from Wilder road to Lake Thonotosassa a di$tance of 10.07 miles and was 6nhhed at a cost of $19G,002.ll; the second IUd,. known as the Durant road, is abo a trifle more than ten miles in length, reaching from through Pleasant Grove to the Ala6a River and from thone warrants were the meAns of financing this project. . . Memorial Hjgh'ny, the first tribute in the country of its lcind erected within: the sbortost possible time following the Armistice, is a fitting mo<>umefll to tht bravery of the World War heroes of t hi s county, who were lc\lled in

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PART I-NARRATIVE 1.26 Winding over a lt:ngth covering thin.eeu and one-half miles, this highway was completed on March 6, 1920. To]. J Hedrick, Jr., engineer of this undertaking, is given the credit for the s uccess of the original plan being carried to completion. The cost of this highway is estimated at $23,000 per mile. The aggregate amount needed fur this tribute to the heroes was raised t hrough a bond isoue, fittingly named the Victory Bond is5Ue, at total cost of $870,000. Fifteen feet wide, sur lilced with the popular asphalt block type treatment, this road Sttetches from Howard avenue in Tampa to the Pinellas County line. There had been planned a beautification program for this road that, due to unexpected circumstances, has been changed in a slight degree. Tbe original plan c:alled for the erection of tablets after tlie trees then planted at stated intervals had Teaehed a sufficient size to warrant these tablets being placed on the tnlnk of tbe tree. Due to soil conditions as much as to the inability to give these trees the aecessary care, this plan failed to materialize. The present scheme includes tbe far better idea of placing these tablets oommemorizing .the deeds of th e county dead along with their nam es upon the surface of the land adjoining tbe highway. The Oleander trees, placed at irltervals of one hundred feet and bearing the colors, pink, red and w hite in alternate flowering shrubs continue to bloom in season. Plans have also been msde which include the erection of monuments that shall stand in prominent positions and wiD bear fitting inscriptions holding the information t' is conned e d with the road as a tribute to the war veterans and its own individual history Although, due po
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CHAPTER XXI. Puauc T 111; education of the children is a ccept ed unqu e s tio nably a s the grgs &fUr his day's worlt was dooe. So she made our tuks a s short as possible that .., might haw time for learning our Jesson.. lll other was very anxious abou t oar education and we wen: diligent and did the best we could." As the population of the county slowly grew and s mall centeu of population came Into existence, $tnall private schools were established. A t first these were usually taught by men or women who happened to have s ome education and had leis ure time. They were supported by small fees paid for the pupil s Tbe territorial legislature of Florida in 1839 designated trustees to look after the sixteen th section of each township which by Act of Congr ess was dedicated lor school purpo5e1. However, this amounted to little as most of the townships were uninhabited and the sections were of so little value that the income from them was almOJt negligible. The territorial school law s m a de little provision for public schools. Public schools were looked upon as "pauper schools and received little ()ltrooage at lint. Tbe sheriff of the county was expected to look after the ed cation of the poor Wh
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PART I-NARRATIVE In the ret>Ort of the great stonn of 184$ mention is made of the early dosing of the school which was taught by W P. Wilson in the court bouse. This school was undoubtedly supported entirely by tuiti on fees but the use of the building was given witho\tt charge. In the records of the meetings of the county eomntissioner s the first mention of a public school of any sort is under date of November 20, 1849 when the fol lowing minute appears: "Ordered by the Board that W. P. Wilson be permitted to continue his school in the court house (when not occupied for public purposes}, until the first Monday in Aprill850 by which time the citi1.ens of T ampa must fur .. nish a school house or be deprived of a school.'' In the record of the proceedings of the Board of County Contmissiouers in 1852 there is a statement that the election in precinei number one, be held at the school house instead of at the home of Richard Booth. This man lived near Old Safety Harbor, or as it was called for awhile Old Tampa, and therefore it is evi dent that there was a school bouse in that settlement. The first mention of public schooJ funds occurs in the IJiinutes of the Uoard on October 29. 1853, where it is recorded that there was received f-rom the state school fund the sum of $107.04 for the education of 660 children in Hillsborough County. To this amount the Board added the sum of $200. Thus the total amount of public money appropriated for the $Upport of schools amounted to G5 cents per pupil per year. At that time the Board of County Commissioners was also the Board of Public Instruction, and the President of the Board was also Judge of Probate, coroner and superintendent of public instruction. There were schools in various parts of the county supported in part by public funds. On February + 1854 the Board designated the following places for approved schools. No. Tampa (SafetY Harbor) No. 2 Edward's Sehool House. No. 3-Spanish Town (Hyde Park). No. 4Tampa, three school houses. No. 5-Sparlanan (near Sydney). No. 6-Itchepuckesassa (Plant City). No. 7-Soak Rum (Socrum). No. S--Peas Creek (near Fort Meade). No. S--Alafia. No. 10--Manatee. That the county school organization was very L>Ooe and that there was no real supervision is indicated by an entry in the record book on November 2, 1854 showing that the Superintendent of Schools, Simon Turman, was paid for stationery and services in full for the year ending June 30, 1854, the sum of $33. It could hardly be expected that any real supervision could be given for that amount of remuneration. In 1866 there was appropriated for Hillsborough County school from the tate m9.7t and from the county t!60.ll9, making a total of $400. The Board apportioned this sum so that each school received m:

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1!8 HISTO RY OF HIL. LSBOROUCH COUNTY During tbe unrt>in and unsafe conditiocu which prevailed in the c:oauty daring tbe years 1856, 1857, and 1858, the pmod of the. s.:c=d Semioo!e Iadiao War, no appropriations were made by the county comm>Ssloners for and tbe school funds reoei>ed from the state were allowed to accumulate Wlttl m Au1859 there was in the school fund the sum of i1022.S_5. _This was divided among the nine districts (District No. 10 at Manatee now betng m Coua ty) ao t hat each received a little over one hundred dolla rs. There were at that time in tne county 867 "sehoolable children." Probab ly Ius than one-half of these atte nded schoo l. About thi s time there i s a record that the tea chers received $33 per year from public funds and the remainder of their salaries was secured from tuition. In the records of the Board f o r the years 1861-1866, the Civil War period, tht:re is no mention of schools whatever. There ia, however, evidence that there were ochools in session at times during this period of uncertain t y and bardsiUp. What ochools there were must have been entirely supported by money received from otber sOun:>es than the publ i c funds. The next mention of public schools in the record book is under date of December 3, 1866. It is there recorded that the number of "stboolable cln1<1=," that ;,, those the ages of fi"' and eigbleen was as follows: 251 white boys, 235 white girls, 63 colored boys and 61 colored girlo. Althoush the numbet of colored children of school age was then for the first time reported, there is no evi dence that schools for the colored children were established until some y ears later. The state constitution of 18G5 had psid little attention to publi c education, and in the county oommissioner's minute book it is rec:or4ed tha:t the state distributed no sch oo l money for the support of county schools In 1868 the state constitutional convention prepsred a co notitution which pro vided lor a systen t of public education Tha. constitution provided for county s chool systems in which all children of schoo l age could receive an education. It provided for a state super intendent an d for a county schoo l board and county ..,: perintendents o f public instruction and made provision for a state school fund. Although there are no records of the first meetings y et it is evident that, in a.c with the provisions of this ooostitution of !868, Hillsborough County immedlltely elected a County Board of Public Instruction and a sopmntendent, who bepo the organization of the first real public school sys t em of the county. In 1870 a school wu in operation in the city haU of Tampa. The earliest sehool records extant are still po-eserved in the county superin_: dent's office. The first proceed ings reeoroed are tbose of the meetin g of tht Board of Education held in the court house on December 10. 1871. The Board : oonsisted o( Joho T. Giveos, chairman ; T. K. Spencer and F. Branch, with W. F It is recorded that the late SuperintendeD! ; A had out of the county and did not turn over any books or rec-. ord': Itwas superintendent be given per. diem ps) while $Choola .

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PART I-NARRATIVE 129 From this ll;u e of December 10, lSi 1 there i s a record of the ActS of the County School Board up to the time, and \'et}' imert$-ting reading thls record is to us. That the Board recognized that a teacher ntust have some qnalifications other than a willingness to teach is evidenced by the appointment of a committee to examine and to uoertificate11 teachers. There is a record undtr date of January 6, 1872 that the certificate of a teacher was annulled for cause. In 1872 a tax of live mills for school purposes was asked by the Board of Edu cation. In March of that year a conunittee was appointed to solicit stock for build ing a school house and to determine whether it was advisable to build. At a later meeting it wos voted to see if help could he obtained from the Peabody fund. Evi dently there had been some difficulty in securing the funds for the school building. There is no funher record as to the method of raising money for the building or how muc-h it cost. But in 18'16 the first public school building in Tampa was erected by Mr. John T. Givens and his son, D. 13. Givens. This bui lding facing on Franklin Street occupied one-half of the block between Madison and Twiggs Streets about where the Shaw-Clayton book store now is in the "Sparlanan J31ock." In 1888 the property here was divided into lots and sold. The last three lots were bought by SP"rkmau and Sparlanan for $3,000. In 18?2 the school funds for the year, amounting to $52<3.31 were apportioned as follows: To school number one, with an attendance of 147 pupils, $331.74; to number two, attendance 89, $91.11; to school number four, attencbnc:e $28.00; to school number seven, attendance 31, $72.44. It was for some reason decided not to havt the superintendent visit tbe schools in the country. But the next year the salary of the superintendent was fixed at $3 per day while actually eng;iged in vioiting schools and ten cents mileage was al lowed him while visiting schools in the country. There were three teachers in the TamP" school: Mr. S. M. Sparkman, yearly salary was $166.66; Miss M. Prevatt whose salary was $80, and W. R. Hensley, whose salary was $135.80. At this time the schools were in session three or four months io the year. In other schools the salari"' were usually fou r dollars per pupil for a ttacher with a second class certificate and three doll.ars per pupil for a teacher a third c.lass certificate. The openjng of the Turkey Creek School was approved by the Board in 1873 and the same year a school was established in the Thonotosassa Church. A school was opened in Clear Water in 187!, at Springhead in 1876 and at Limona in 1880. During these years pupils from one district were forbidden to a ttend schools in other districts. Before 1877, the term was seldom more than three months, except in 1'am!l" School number one, where it was five or six months. In 1877 the minimwn school term was fixed at four months and the teachers' salaries at $30 per month for second class teachers and $25 per month for third class teachers. The county su'perin. ten
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130 HISTORY OF HlLLSBOROt:GH agement of school finances was established, and there was ctear evidence that the county schoOls wer e groWing into a real system. In 1882 it was estima ted that the cost of the fifty seven schools in Hillsborough County would be The length o f the ternt for these s chools w a s fixed a t live mon t hs and in the Tampa sehools a t six months The meagre salaries of the teachers were paid at the end of the year in one sum An eJrort was made to have monthly paymen t s for the teachers but the Board voted to continue yearly payments. It must ha,e been difficult for a teacher to work for six months with no pay and then at the end o the years work to receive as payment in full 150, or possibly $180 for the year's wor k This made it necessary for the teacher to have some o t her source of income or occupation for the remainder of the year. And it made i t almost impossible to secure weU-trai.Md teachers. And yet there were in those days men and w omn as public school teachersJ were a sp1endidly constructive influence in the traini ng of the boys and girls who, partly because of that training, were the leaders in the deve l opment of tbe sparsely settled e xpanse of Hillsborough County into the great ce nter of agri