Sediments of a seagrass bed in Anclote Anchorage, Tarpon Springs, Florida

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Sediments of a seagrass bed in Anclote Anchorage, Tarpon Springs, Florida

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Title:
Sediments of a seagrass bed in Anclote Anchorage, Tarpon Springs, Florida
Creator:
Rogers, Scott W.
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Florida
Publisher:
University of South Florida
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Language:
English
Physical Description:
vi, 97 leaves : ill., maps ; 29 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Marine sediments -- Mexico, Gulf of ( lcsh )
Seagrasses -- Florida -- Anclote Anchorage ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Marine Science -- Masters -- USF ( FTS )

Notes

General Note:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 1977. Bibliography: leaves 59-62.

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University of South Florida
Holding Location:
Universtity of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
028063989 ( ALEPH )
05418726 ( OCLC )
F51-00014 ( USFLDC DOI )
f51.14 ( USFLDC Handle )

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SEDIMENTS OF A SEAGRASS BED IN ANCLOTE ANCHORAGE, TARPON SPRINGS, FLORIDA by Scott W. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the Department of Marine Science in The University of South Florida June, 1977 Thesis supervisor: Associate Professor Thomas E. Pyle

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Certificate of Approval -Master's Thesis Graduate Council University of South Florida Tampa, Florida CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL MASTER'S THESIS This is to certify that the Master's Thesis of Scott W. Rogers Name of Student with a major in Marine Science has been approved by the Examining Committee as satisfactory for the thesis requirement for the Master of Science degree at the convocation of June 1977 date Thesis committee: Thesis supervisor: Thomas E. Pyle Member: Norman J. Blake Member: Larry J. Doyle

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ACKNOWLEDGl-fENTS The author wishes to thank Dr. Thomas Pyle for guiding this thesis. His criticism and advice are appreciated. Thanks are also due to Drs. Norman Blake and Larry Doyle for their advice and critical reviews. Special gratitude is given to Mr. Roger Zimmerman for his guidance and labor in both the field and laboratory aspects of this study. His enthusiasm and perseverance served as an inspiration. Appreciation is due to Amoco Production Company for the use of equipment, material and personnel in the. preparation.of this manuscript. Ronald Hotstream, John Hutto, Buddy Schloegel and Pat Cipriano were invaluable. The financial support for this project by Florida Power Corporation was extremely well received. The author also sincerely wishes to thank his wife, Gail, and our unborn child for their patience and motivation. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. Area Description 1 B. Power Plant Specifications 3 c. Local Geology 3 D. Sediment Sources 4 E. Distribution of Seagrasses 7 F. Seagrass-Sediment Studies 7 II. METHODS 11 A. Sampling 11 B. Analyses 13 III. RESULTS 17 A. Transect 11 18 B. Transect 14 21 c. Transect 15 22 D. Transect 16 23 E. Transect 17 27 F. Transect 18 28 G. Transect 19 32 H. Transect 20 33 I. Transect 21 34 J. Other Stations 37 IV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 39 A. Trends Determined by Statistical Analyses 39 B. Other Apparent Phenomena 47 c. Historical Interpretation 53 v. SUMNARY 55 VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 59 VII. APPENDICES 63 A. Appendix A 64 1. Seagrass Data 65 B. Appendix B 68 1. Sediment Description 69 c. Appendix C 80 1. Sediment Grain-size Data 81 D. Appendix D 92 1. Sed iment Carbon Data 93 iii

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Correlation coefficients. 40 Table 2. Student's t values. 41 Table 3. Significance of correlations. 42 Table Al. Seagrass data. 65 Table Bl. Sediment descriptions. 69 Table Cl. Sediment texture parameters. 83 Table C2. Grain-size and sieve analysis data. 87 Table Dl. Sediment carbon data. 93 iv

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Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. LIST OF FIGURES Geographical location and major features of the Anclote Anchorage (depth contours in feet). Geologic x-section of the Anclote River area near Tarpon Springs, Florida (adapted from Mohler, 1962). Sediment x-section along discharge channel location (adapted from University of Florida, 1971). Seagrass zonation in Anclote Anchorage (from Zimmerman et al., 1972). Sampling transects. Analyzed sediment stations. Transects 11, 14 and 15 x-sections of seagrass and grain-size parameters (not to scale) Transects 11, 14 and 15 x-sections of seagrass and sediment carbon parameters (not to scale) Transects 16 and 17 x-sections of seagrass and grain-size parameters. Transects 16 and 17 x-sections of seagrass and sediment carbon parameters. Transects 18, 19 and 20 x-sections of seagrass and grain-size parameters. Transects 18, 19 and 20 x-sections of seagrass and sediment carbon parameters. Transect 21 and other stations' x-sections of seagrass and grain-size parameters. v 2 5 6 8 12 14 19 20 24 25 29 30 35

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Figure 14. Transect 21 and other stations' x-sections of seagrass and sediment carbon parameters. 36 Figure 15. Surface sediment CaC03 distribution. 48 Figure 16. Surface sediment gravel distribution. 49 Figure 17. Surface sediment "silt and clay" distribution. 50 Figure 18. Total seagrass density distribution. 51 Figure Cl. Grain-size and sorting classifications. 82 vi

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SEDll1ENTS OF A SEAGRASS BED IN ANCLOTE. ANCHORAGE, SPRINGS, FLORIDA by Scott W. Rogers An Abstract Of a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the Department of Science in The University of South Florida June, 1977 Thesis supervisor: Associate Professor Thomas E. Pyle

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During the summer of 1972 a study was to sample sediments and seagrasses within the Anclote Anchorage, an estuary near Tarpon Springs, Florida. Substrate grain-size and carbon characteristics were measured as was species dominance and density of the seagrasses at each location. Seagrasses were found to inhabit all areas sampled between 0.15 m. and 1.37 m. with biomass ranging from 0.0547.1 g/m2. Substrate types varied from muddy sand to gravelly sand with mean phi diameter varying from 1.6 to 3.3, median phi diameter 2.1 to 2.7, organic carbon 0.07% to 3.49%, inorganic carbon 0.04% to 4.75% and sorting from good to poor. Using correlation coefficients significant associations (at a 90% confidence level) were determined and interpreted. The trapping and binding of fine sediment by Syringodium and Thalassia seems to be evident from positive correlation of the density of these seagrasses to % "silt and clay". A positive association of Syringodium with % carbon may indicate that the "fines11 it traps have a high carbon content; Syringodium may also be promoting the generation of carbonaceous material by providing a suitable environment for existence of a high density of organisms. Diplanthera appears to be better adapted for life in coarse sand sediments than the other seagrass species, since its density showed a positive relationship with.grain-size. Beds of Diplanthera may present a less suitable environment for calcareous faunal communities as interpreted from the negative correlation of Diplanthera with inorganic carbon. With increasing water depth there is an increase in the proportions of both "silt and clay" and gravel. A correlation 1

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of % gravel with % CaC03 indicates shell fragments constitute a high percentage of the gravel fraction. Areas with CaC03-rich sediments are probably caused by storm and river associated deposition, and in situ benthic and epiphytic faunal activity. Wave action and lack of sediments cause the littoral non-vegetated areas to be uniform, moderately well to very well sorted, fine sand with little gravel, "silt and clay" and carbon. Mottling, probably due to accumulations of dark, decomposed, organic material, occurs in some sediments of less than 0.02 m below MLW level. In the outer seagrass area west of Rabbit Key, a decrease in grain-size and sorting with time probably indicates that periodic siltation from channel dredging has recently increased and river current influence has recently decreased. The area near the Anclote River distributary's eastern bank may be undergoing increased washing from the Anclote River as evidenced by the improvement of sorting with time. Seagrass beds off Bailey's Bluff are presently supporting larger populations of calcareous epiphytic and benthic fauna, and less seagrass than in the rec.ent past; this is reflected in a decrease of inorganic carbon and an increase of organic carbon with depth in the sediment. The Anclo _te Anchorage is a recently stable area of uniform fine quartz sand with geographically localized substrates containing large amounts of gravel and "silt and clay". These sediments have been associated with abundant seagrass and benthic fauna populations. 2

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3 Abstract approved: -----------------------' thesis supervisor title and department date

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INTRODUCTION Construction of a power plant on the shore of Anchorage, near Tarpon Springs, Florida, has led to initiation of several studies concerned with determining effects of plant operation on the local marine environment. One subject of interest is the effect on seagrass beds of channel dredging, cooling water discharge and sediment erosion associated with the flow of power plant effluent. To study this problem, parameters associated with the grasses must be defined. In this report one group of these parameters, substrate is and compared to seagraas distribution and density. These data will provide a baseline for determination of any future sedimentological/floral changes resulting plant operation. Area Description The study area is a lagoonal estuary located along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico between 28 091 N and 28 13' N latitude. It includes a 4:8 km wide, shallow (average depth 1.8 m) basin, Anclote Anchorage, between the mainland shore and a barrier island system. Entering the Anchorage from the southeast is the Anclote River, a narrow, shallow, estuarine stream (see Figure 1). U. S. Geological Survey data from Elfers, Florida (25.6 km upstream), combined with estimates for downstream areas, indicate an average discharge rate of 3.58 m3/sec near the river mouth for the period of 1

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G SEAGRASSES LiillTII] LA N 0 D WATER ') // __ Sa ., ... 40 42 0 I 0 I .5 OF Figure 1. Geographical location and major features of the Anclote Anchorage (depth contours in feet). 2

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record: 1946-1972 (Department of 1972; Coble, 1975). Values range from a maximum of 166.7 m3/sec in July, 1960 to 0.07 m3f sec in May, 1956. Power Plant Specifications Florida Power Corporation has commenced operation of a 515 megawatt, fossil-fueled, steam-electricity, generating plant having a nonce through with dilution" cooling system. Estuarine waters are diverted at the Anclote River mouth and employed as a steam cooling agent. The heated water is discharged into the Anclote Anchorage via a channel (1402 m long, 98 m wide and 1.8 m deep). After dilution, water at discharge is expected to be a maximum of 2.8C above ambient at a maximum flow rate of 126 m3/sec (Florida Power Corporation, 1973). Local Geology Some information from sediment and geohydrologic reconnaissance in the area is available. Wetterhall (1964) and Mohler (1962) in water supply studies of the Anclote River basin report that surface sediments are a thin veneer of fine to medium quartz sand, with scattered sandy clay beds (Q-15.2 m thick) of Pleistocene to Recent age. This surface deposit Tampa Formation, a lower sandy limestone with scattered beds of chert and clay. The Tampa is approximately 30.5 m thick and is the upper member of the Floridan aquifer. Below the Tampa Formation is the highly permeable Suwannee limestone of Oligocene age which is 70 m thick in this area. The contacts between the sand mantle and the 3

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Tampa and Suwannee limestones are unconformable, indicating periods of exposure and erosion. These contacts dip to the west at 1.06 m/km. A geologic cross-section of this area is shown in Figure 2. Investigations by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1969) and the University of Florida Department of Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering (1971) have shown the sand mantle in the Anclote River navigation channel and the discharge channel to range from.3-3.0 m in thickness. The characteristic littoral fine quartz sand grades into a more silty sand offshore. Along the discharge channel, a thin, sandy clay layer was found between the sand and limestone near the center of the transect (see Figure 3). A reconnaissance study of the area showed the surface sediments of the shoals north and south of Anclote Key and those along the Gulf side of the Key to be well sorted to very well sorted medium to fine sands (Pyle _ll al. in Bair.d ll_ al., 1972). These samples contained less than 1% gravel size material ( > 2.0 mm) and less than 10% silt & clay (<.063 mm). Sediments in the deeper natural tidal channels at either end of the Anclote Key were poorly sorted to very poorly sorted, "medium sandy shell" with up to 15% silt and clay. Sediment Sources As noted, surface sediments of the area are predominantely quartz sand. The ultimate source of this sand is unknown, but conditions producing this supply may be related to lower sea level stands of the Pleistocene al., 1955). Rivers may have transported these non-marine sediments to the shelf as the sea regressed. They would then have been reworked with rising sea 4

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I Quarts sand, fine to medi um, with scattered sondy clay Thi s zone yields very soft W'Citer to sand point or wells. 1,' I limestone, light groy to ton, hard sandy ; with scattered beck of chert and some cloy. This zone contains numerous solution channels which store large volume s of water. The water in this zone ranges in hardness f r om 150 to 250 ports per million except where it has been contaminated by salt water encroachment. Limestone, light gray to c ream colored. Soft to hard, frogmen tal. This zone h h ighly per meable and a good source of water where soh wat e r has n o t entered it. Water fro m thi s zone is relatively hard. --..., 0 A MILES TARPON A' SPRINGS .... 2 A' --25' MSL 25' 50' 75' 100' 125' 150' 175' zoo' 225' Figure 2. Geologic x-section of the Anclote River area near Tarpon Springs, Florida (adapted from Mohler, 1962). 5

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1-zj ..... (IQ c:: t1 (I) w -en Ill (I) 0..0.. rt (I) (I) ::s O..!"t t1 I 0 {I) e ro (') C:rt ::s ..... 1-'-0 < ::s (I) t1 Ill Ill I-' 1-'-0 rt ::s '
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level. At present, sand is moving in from the south and southwest in the form of large sand waves al., 1971). Shell and mud are probably derived locally from biological processes of estuarine and marine flora and fauna. The Anclote River seems to be introducing very little sediment to the area al.) Distribution of Seagrasses The seagrasses Thalassia testudinum, Diplanthera wrightii and Syringodium filiforme are found in the United States along the Gulf of Mexico coast from lower Texas to the Florida Keys and northward to approximately Cape Kennedy 1963; Hartog, 1970). In the Anclote Anchorage rich stands of Thalassia, Diplanthera and Syringodium are present. Beds of these grasses cover approximately 40% of .the bottom, along both the mainland and Anclote Keys shores, extending out to depths of about 1.5 m below mean-low-water al. in al., 1973). al. (in al., 1972) have shown four zones of species dominance along the mainland shore in the study area. From inshore to offshore they observed a littoral Diplanthera zone, a Thalassia dominant zone, a Syringodium dominant zone, and a second, outer Diplanthera zone. (see Figure 4). Seagrass-Sediment Studies Several parameters affect survival and species dominance of seagrasses in marine coastal waters. Sunlight, temperature, salinity, nutrients, substrate, currents, exposure, competition, grazing and disease have direct, indirect and collective effects on 7

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z ...... Figure 4. .J UJUJ a::Z -0 1-IJ) .::.. z
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seagrass (Conover, 1963; al., 1969; Gressner, 1971; Humm, 1956; McRoy al., 1972; Moore, 1963; Phillips, 1960; Schubel, 1973; Stauffer, 1973; Wood et al., 1969; Zieman, 1972 etc.). 9 Many general observations of relationships among these seagrasses and sediments have been reported. Thorne (1954) stated that Gulf and Caribbean seagrasses were limited in habitat to soft marl, mud and sand. Reid (1954) found Thalassia at Cedar Key, Florida, growing on hard-packed sand and on pure mud. Mud banks in Florida Bay were covered with Thalassia and Diplanthera (Ginsburg, 1956). In Bermudan waters, Thalassia forms continuous meadows on muddy bottoms, but on firmer (coarser) substrates it occurs patches (Bernatowicz, 1952). Textural qualities of substrates have been related to sedimenttrapping abilities of seagrasses. Jindrich (1969) thought the accumulation of a thick recent carbonate cover in the lower Florida Keys was due primarily to the sediment-trapping effects of Thalassia and the marine algae Halimeda opuntia. Ginsburg and Lowenstam (1958) postulated that "fines" settled into the "semi-motionless" water layer created by Thalassia's reduction of current intensity near the sea floor in Florida coastal waters. Seasonal changes of surface sediments in seagrass beds around Cedar Key were described by Strawn (1961). He believed that heavy grass growth during spring and summer reduced bottom current speeds, accounting for the deposition of mud. Lower seagrass densities in winter allowed some erosion of these "fines". Howard et al. (1970) proposed that the accumulation of mud upon Thalassia was by leaves inhibiting resuspension and rhizomes trapping the mud.

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Zieman (1972) found that seagrass growth could be related to sediment thickness. In some areas of Biscayne Bay he observed that Thalassia grows in peat-filled bedrock (limestone) depressions and that its density increases with increasing peat thickness. 10 Elemental chemistry of the sediment might also be related to seagrass distribution and growth. Basic nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil could be taken up directly by the root system of the grasses or could indirectly limit metabolism by control ling nutrient levels in the water (Patriquin, 1972). Results of Patriquin's experiments suggested that all of the nitrogen and "noticeable" amounts of phosphorus for Thalassia growth are obtained from the rhizomes, and ultimately from the sediments. He also indicated that availability of nitrogen in the sediments was the limiting growth factor in the majority of stands studied at Barbados. Sediments were not found to be a primary source of phosphate, but it was proposed that they may buffer the supply of phosphate for Thalassia by storing that which Thalassia secretes into the sediment. Carbon content in the soil may also be related to seagrass growth. J. H. Davis (cited in Phillips, 1960) believed Thalassia growth to be related to the presence of calcium carbonate. Patriquin (1972) thought organic carbon in the soil might be influential in providing the necessary energy for N2 fixation by anerobic bacteria; would increase the available nitrogen to Thalassia.

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METHODS Sampling During the summer of 1972 collections were made at one hundred and fifteen stations; most of which were positioned along ten eastwest transects within Anclote Anchorage (see Figure 5). All began on the mainland side, using a surveyor's transit and range markers to position transect lines. Stations were spaced along transects according to observable habitat changes. In each habitat zone at least one station was established. In broad zones, stations were set approximately 457 m apart. Stations along each transect included the following general benthic zones: intertidal sand, intertidal Diplanthera, subtidal Thalassia, subtidal Syringodium, subtidal Diplanthera and offshore sand. Channels were included as they occurred along transects. ll At each station four sediment plugs were taken with a Zimmerman benthic sampler (Zimmerman et al. in Baird et al., 1972, pp. 152-154) having a surface area of 20 x 20 em and a sample recovery depth of 15-20 em. In water depths greater than 2 m, a smaller (15 x 15 x 15-20 em) version of this sampler was used. Two cores 5.7 em in diameter and 18 em long were obtained from the initial plug at each station by insertion of PVC tubes. A screwing motion was employed to sever rhizomes and recover the sediment. Cores were then capped, oriented, labelled and frozen. The remainder of the plug sample was

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... Figure 5. TRANSECT 2 1 I .40 I \ \ I '" \ Sampling transects. LEGEND LINES REPRESENT TRANSECTS ALONG WHICH STATIONS WERE POSITII')NED 12

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washed through a 0.5 mm sieve; all retained seagrass parts and invertebrates were bagged and frozen for later analyses. Analyses Seagrass material from all stations and cores from sixty-three of the one hundred and fifteen stations were chosen for analyses (see Figure 6). After seagrass analyses were completed, sediment stations were selected to encompass areas of differing seagrass characters and contrasting geographical areas, with emphasis on those stations in proximity to power plant operations. Station designations are based on the transect scheme in Figure 5. The transect number followed by the position in sequence from the mainland shore is used for identification of each station (i.e. 16-2 indicates the 2nd station from shore along transect 16). Seagrass Seagrass material from each-sample was washed over a 0.5 mm sieve to remove microscopic debris and fauna. To remove epiphytes from the leaves, seagrasses were placed in 5% phosphoric acid for four followed by a rinse in tap water. Seagrass species were separated and subdivided into (1) leaves and erect determinate stems and (2) rhizomes and roots. Biomass of each component was determined by weigh i ng after ov en-drying at 80C to a constant weight (see Appendix A). Sediment Description 13 Frozen cores w ere extruded, allowe d to thaw at room temperature, and halved vertically. Visual descriptions of (1) color, (2) relative

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Figure 6. Q) Q) I I \ I \ I 1 d Sediment stations. Ana yze r ; I 0 LEGEND 0 A.NA.LYZED SEDIMENT STA.TIONS TRA.NSECTS 14

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amounts of shell, sand and mud, (3) relative amounts of roots, rhizomes and other organic debris and (4) other unique qualities were recorded, and cores were divided into vertical zones based on these descriptions (see Appendix B). Those cores which appeared macroscopically homogeneous were divided in half (top and bottom). Sediment Grain-size Each vertical sub-section (153 sub-sections) was analyzed separately. Samples were split down to approximately 30 g using Jones and Sepor mechanical splitting devices. Using a 0.063 mm sieve, samples were washed and both fractions retained and dried on a hot plate at 70C. The fine fraction was weighed and recorded. The coarse fraction was weighed, then sieved on a Ro-Tap shaker for ten minutes through the nest of screens: mm -3.0 8.000 -2.0 4.000 -1.0 2.000 o.o 1.000 1.0 0.500 2.0 0.250 2.5 0.177 3.0 0.125 3.5 0.088 4.0 0.063 > 4.0 collecting .pan 15

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Each fraction was weighed and the pan fraction was added to the "fines" from wet-sieving. Results are recorded in Appendix c. Sediment Carbon Samples were finely crushed using a mortar and pestle, mixed with a glass stirring rod and four 0.5 g sub-samples taken. Two splits were used in both total carbon and organic carbon analyses. If replicate values were not within 0.2%, a third sample was taken. In all cases the two nearest values were averaged to obtain percentages. Carbon values of blanks were determined to subtract from these averages to obtain final results. Total carbon was analyzed using an Angstrom 9000 induction furnace which burns off carbon in the form of C02, and an Angstrom Carbomatic detector unit which measures this C02 and displays it in %C of the given sample weight. Samples were burned in a crucible with 2 g of iron chips and 1.5 g of copper accelerator. 16 To determine organic carbon, another set of splits was acidified with 5% HCl to drive off the C03-c. When acidification was complete, the sample was washed onto a 0.02 mm glass filter; the liquid was drained with the aid of a vacuum pump. The sample and filter were dried at 50C for two hours and analyzed for organic carbon using the equipment and accelerators mentioned above. Percent carbonate was found by subtraction of "% organic-C" from "% total C" to obtain percent inorganic carbon, and multiplying this value by the appropriate conversion factor (8.33 x % inorganic C =% CaC03). Carbon results are listed in Appendix D.

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.RESULTS Seagrasses were found to inhabit all stations sampled between water depths of 0.15 m and 1.37 m. Total biomass figures ranged 17 from 0.0 to 547.1 g/m2; specifically Thalassia obtained a maximum density of 533.0 g/m2, Syringodium: 234.6 g/m2 and Diplanthera: 535.2 g/m2. Information on distribution of seagrasses is presented in Appendix A. Biomass values are given in grams dry weight of grass material per square meter of substrate. Substrate types {per Folk, 1968) varied from slightly gravelly, muddy sand to sand to slightly, gravelly sand to gravelly sand (see Appendix C, Figure 1). Sand (2.0-0.063 mm) percentages ranged from 76.1% to 99.4%, "silt and clay" (mud; < 0.063 mm) from 0.7% to 16.7% and gravel ( > 2. 0 mm) from 0. 0 to 20.4%. Practically all gravel was in the form of shell fragments (tile remainder being plant debris or large quartz grains). Median and mean phi diameter (grainsize parameters based on wejght) varied from 2.1 to 2.7 and from 1.6 3.3 respectively. These sediments displayed very good to poor sorting (see Figure Cl). All grain-size data are tabulated in Appendix C. Total carbon values (:in l of sample by weight) ranged from 0.16% to 6.76% (the organic component from 0.07% to 3.49% and the inorganic component from 0.04% to 4.75%). The inorganic fraction

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translated into% CaC03 varied from 0.32% "to 39.57%. Carbon values are recorded in Appendix D. These data are described along sampling transects from east to west (see Figure 6) in the following section. When not otherwise stated, given values are for the surface sub-sample and vary little with sediment depth. Where grain-size proportions are not specifically mentioned, values are less than 1%. Given seagrass values represent total seagrass biomass amounts at each station. Transect 11 (see Figures 7 & 8) Seagrass 18 The littoral substrate station is devoid of seagrass. Stations 2 and 3 are dominated by Diplanthera, ranging in density from 300 to 547 g/m2. Near the seagrass margin (station 4) Syringodium dominates with a combined specie density of 271 g/m2. Substrates in midAnchorage have no vegetation. Adjacent to marker 7X at station 6 a sparse (165 g/m2) Syringodium bed is present. A pure, but thin Diplanthera stand (125 g/m2) is growing near "the tip of Anclote Key. The littoral substrate at station 8 is devoid of seagrasses. Sediment From the littoral region through the Diplanthera zone at station 3, substrates range from moderately well sorted to moderately sorted fine sands. Showing slight increases offshore in this zone are percentages of "silt and clay" (to 1.7%), surface carbon (to 0.65%) and subsurface carbon (to 0.77%). The grass margin substrate (station 4) consists of a very distinctive poorly sorted slightly

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"%j ..... OQ c 11 (I) "-. OQ t-'l 11 11 Ill Ill ..... =' =' C/l I lb C/l n ..... N C/l (I) ...... "01-' Ill w 11 Ill ...... a .l:'ro (I) 11 ...... C/l V1 ->: lj I 0 C/l "(I) n "" 0 ..... 0 C/l =' n C/l Ill 1-'0 (I) H> ...._, C/l (I) Ill OQ 11 Ill C/l C/l A. MLW in 0.5 lr UJ 1-UJ J: :i: 1.5 UJ 0 2.0 UJ .... < MLW -en UJ 0.5 J: 1.0 1-D.. UJ 0 1.5 UJ 1-< 2.0 2 3 LEGEND Q SAMPLING STATIONS THE LINE BETWEEN STATIONS REPRESENTS SEDIMENT SURFACE (\..._ [ 500 G/M2 L.:::1. O SEAGRASS DENSITY 1 SEAGRASS DOMINANCE / (IN RELATIVE PROPORTIONS) 4 m DIPLANTHERA ><;X( SYRINGODIUM THALASSIA TRANSECT 11 8 70 SEDIMENT PARAMETERS: SILT 8 CLAY c/J GRAVEL: 000"'0.1-1 /o d:Jo 1-5/o, 8:8 > 5% SAND: % = 100%-(% S ILT 8 CLAY+% GRAVEL ) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2600 3000 350G DISTANCE FROM MAINLAND SHORE tMETERS> I D 2 m TRANSECT 14 4 D 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 I 2 8 3 TRANSECT 15 4 fiE) !S D 0 600 1000 1500 2000. 2500 DISTANCE FROM MAINLAND SHORE (METERS> ...... \0

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"%j ..... OCI (1) CXl Ul >-'3 (1) 11 O..lll (1) (1) ::s 0 rt rt Ul 0 Ill 1-' 11 1-' 0 ::s 1-' ""' '0 11 Ill 1-' s Vl (1) rt X !1> I 11 Ul Ul (1) 0 ........ rt ::s ..... 0 0 rt ::s Ul rt 0 0 t-tl Ul 0 Ul Ill (1) 1-'lll (1)0Q ........ 11 Ill O'l (II Ill g_ MLW en 0.5 a: UJ UJ 1.0 J: Cl. 1 UJ 0 a: 1/,.1 2 0 < 2.5 MLW -C/'1 cr UJ 0.5 UJ :::E J: 1 0 ll. UJ 0 1.5 cr UJ c( 2.0 2 3 LEGEND 0 SAMPLING STATIONS THE LINE BETWE.EN STATIONS REPRESENTS SEDIMENT SURFACE (\..._ [ 500 G/M2 O SEAGRASS DENSITY 4 m t\t1 ] SEAGRASS DOMINANCE (IN RELATIVE PROPORTIONS) DIPLANTHERA OQ SYRINGODIUM /// THALASSIA TRANSECT 11 B 70 SURFACE SEDIMENT PARAMETERS: ORGANIC CARBON INORGANIC CARBON 0 [4% 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 DISTANCE FROM MAINLAND SHORE (METERS) I D 2 2 G 3 E3 TRANSECT 15 TRANSECT 14 m 4 Sill] !5 D 0 500 1000 ., 500 2000 2500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 DISTANCE FROM MAINLAND SHORE !METERS) N 0

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gravelly, muddy sand. At this station there is also considerable depth variation. The "silt and clay" fraction decreases from 12.5% to 9.0% with depth as gravel and carbon increase midway (from 2.5 to 3.7% and from 3.86% to 5.79% respectively) then decrease (to 2.19% and 4.92%) to the base of the 13.0 em core. Moderately well sorted fine sand in mid-Anchorage (station 5) has a 4.4% "silt and clay" content at the surface and a similar value at the bottom; the center sub-section contains 2.0% A carbon value of 1.25% increases with depth. The seagrass bed at station 6 is underlain by a very well sorted fine sand. With depth in the core there is a decrease, then increase in abundance of "silt and clay" (from 4.4 to 2.8 to 7.3%) and carbon (from 1.33 to 0.76 to 1.71%). In the Diplanthera bed at station 7, is found a well sorted, slightly gravelly sand which has decreasing "silt and clay" (from 5.6 to 4.6%) and carbon values (from 2.55 to 1.73%) with depth. Littoral sand near Anclote Key is well sorted and shows depth trends of increasing organic carbon (1.57% to 1.64%) and decreasing inorganic carbon (1.16% to 0.62%). Gravel increases from 0.0% to 1.4% with depth. Transect 14 (see Figures 7 & 8) Seagrass Station 1 is devoid of seagrass. Immediately westw ard a Diplanthera bed (211 g/m2) is found and Syring odium assumes dominance (202 g /m2) at station 3. Station 4 is beyond the seagrass margin, on a non-vegetated substrate. 21

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Sediment The near shore stations (1 and 2) consist of well sorted fine sands with higher carbon (0.88%) and "silt and clay" (2.6%) values at station 2. Station 3 is characterized by a moderately well sorted, slightly gravelly sand with 4.2% silt and clay. Carbon content changes slightly with substrate depth; a high of 1.40% being present in the mid-unit of the core. Beyond the seagrass margin is a poorly sorted, slightly gravelly sand. The "silt and clay" fraction here increases from 4.6% at the surface to 10.9% at depth, as gravel drops from 2.3% to 1.2% A high surface carbon content of 3.23% increases to 6.79%, the highest in the Anchorage, with depth. Transect 15 (see Figures 7 & 8) Seagrass Near shore at station 1 a sparse Diplanthera bed (130 g/m2) is found. An adjacent, dense Thalassia stand (417 g/m2) is present at station 2. Seaward of a natural Anclote River distributary channel, there is an outlying seagrass flat with one of the densest seagrass beds sampled. Here (station 3) a pure Thalassia bed attains a density of 533 g/m2. Thalassia also densely dominates (446 g/m2) the outer seagrass margin. Adjacent in the seaward direction at station 5 is non-vegetated bottom. Sediment At station 1 a well sorted fine sand with 1.56% "silt and clay" and 0.5% carbon is present. The substrate at station 2 becomes slightly gravelly with 2.6% "silt and ciay", and increasing organic 22

PAGE 34

carbon (0.61% to 0.76%) and decreasing inorganic carbon (0.41% to 0.12%) with depth. The substrate at station 3 is a slightly gravelly, muddy sand. The surface "silt and clay" content here of 16.7% is the highest in the Anchorage and although it decreases with depth, it remains relatively high (9.8%). Gravel increases substantially from 0.4% at the surface to 5.1% at depth. The surface 0.5 em is not available for carbon analyses but the remainder of the core shows a very high carbon content (largely inorganic carbon) of 3.71% which increases to 6.43% with depth. A very poorly sorted, gravelly sand comprises the substrate at station 4. The gravel fraction.of 12.0% is one.of the highest in the Anchorage, but drops to 1.1% with depth as "silt and clay" increases from 2.4% to 6.5%. Carbon content remains relatively high with organic carbon ranging from 0.34% to 1.20% and inorganic carbon from 3.00% to 1.71% with depth. At station 5 is a moderately sorted, slightly gravelly sand with "silt and clay" increasing from 0.6% .to 4.9%, gravel from 2.5% to 6.4% and carbon from 2.26% to 3.58% with depth. Transect 16 (see Figures 9 & 10) Seagrass Adjacent to the non-vegetated bottom area at station 1 is a sparse Diplanthera (62 g/m2) bed (station 2). Immediately westward is a Thalassia-dominated seagrass bed of similar density. At station 4 Syringodium dominates (240 g/m2) and Thalassia regains dominance (159 g/m2) at station 5. A Diplanthera bed of 66 g/m2 is present at station 6 and a similarly thin Syringodium-dominate bed 23

PAGE 35

co .,... t-0 w C/) z < a: t-io .... Cll .... .... c UJ z a: w ::> w LL ...J UJ UJ Cl'l 3: II) 0 II) 0 0 ..J .... .... N II) N 0 0 0 .., Cl'l oa: OUJ 101-C'?UJ UJ a: 0 J: Cl'l 0 z o< o..J NcC 0 a: LL OUJ oo oz Nc( 1-Cl'l 0 3: ..J II) 0 ....... .,... t-0 w C/) z < a: t-0 II) 0 II) t'i ...: N H.l.d30 H.l.d30 Figure 9. Transects 16 & 17 x-sections of seagrass and grain-size parameters. 24 0 0 0 (') 0 0 II) N Cl'l a: UJ. 1-0 UJ 0 0 N UJ a: 0 J: Cl'l 0 z o< o..J .... c( 0 a: LL 0 UJ 0 0 0 z .... c( 1-Cl'l 0 0 0 II) 0

PAGE 36

co ..... .,_ 0 w en z < a: co w OQ:: Z::::> WCJ (!)ii: ww -'w en II) 0 0 ., 0 N N (6l::t3l3W) H.ld:IO l::t3.L V M I 0 0 0 "'t -en oa: ow 10 ... t?W w a: 0 :z:: en 0 z o-c: O..J IOZ 0 a: ou. ow oo Nz 0 -< ... Q'l 0 ..J I I U) 0 0 'P"' (Sl::t3.L3W) ,.._ ..... 0 w en z < a: I : :: .. U) 'P"' H.Ld30 (!) I U) N N l::t3.LVM 0 0 0 (') 0 0 II) N 0 0 0 N 0 0 ., 'P"' 0 0 0 'P"' 0 0 U) 0 25 -Q'l a: w ... w w a: 0 :z:: en 0 z -< ..J z c 0 a: IL w (.) z -< ... en 0 Figure 10. Transects 16 & 17 x-sections of seagrass and sediment carbon parameters.

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(47 g/m2) .exists near the seagrass margin on the eastern bank of the natural channel. No seagrass is present at stations 8, 9 and 10. A pure Thalassia bed of 390 g/m2 lies near Dutchman Key in the western section of the Anchorage at station 11. Sediment 26 Very well sorted, fine sand characterizes the bottom at station 1. Gravel and "silt and clay" fractions become greater with depth in the core (from 0.0% to 4.4% and from 1.4% to 2.0% respectively) as does carbon (from 0.38% to 0.61%). The substrate becomes more muddy (3.3% "silt and clay") and gravelly (0.2%) at station 2. Values of organic carbon increase (from 0.36% to 0.66%) and those of inorganic carbon decrease (0.44% to 0.30%) with depth. At station 3 the substrate no gravel, 3.2% "silt and clay" and 0.96% carbon. Surface sediment characteristics at station 4 are similar to those at station 3, but with depth "silt and clay" decreases to 2.2% and carbon to 0.82%. A moderately sorted, slightly gravelly, muddy sand which has a 10.4% "silt and clay" fraction is present at station 5. A surface gravel content of 0.7% increases to 1.1% and carbon from 4.44% to 5.66% (due to higher organic values) with depth. The sediment at station 6 is composed of very well sorted, slightly gravelly sand. Increasing with depth are gravel (0.7% to 3.2%), "silt and clay" (3.6% to 4.6%) and carbon (1.63% to 2.65%; due to higher inorganic values). A moderately sorted, slightly gravelly sand is present at station 7. Gravel (from 2.9% to 6.5%), "silt and clay" (from 3.3% to 6.1%) and carbon (from 2.39% to 3.80%) increase in lower core units. Material in the natural channel at station 8

PAGE 38

is very well sorted, fine sand with a low carbon content (0.78%) and an increasing "silt and clay" content (1.8% to 3.2%) with depth. The station (9) immediately seaward of the seagrass margin is composed of well sorted, slightly gravelly sand. The gravel size fraction diminishes (3.8% to 0.9%) as "silt and clay" (4.2% to 8.9%) and organic carbon increase (0.78% to 1.45%), and inorganic carbon decreases (1.71% to 1.46%) with depth. The mid-Anchorage sediment at station 10 is moderately well sorted, slightly gravelly sand of increasing "silt and clay" (4.3% to 7.3%) and carbon content (1.94% to 4.47%) with depth. A well sorted, slightly gravelly sand with 3.1% "silt and clay" and 1.8% carbon is found in the western part of the Anchorage at station 11. Transect 17 (see Figures 9 & 10) Seagrass Station 1 is devoid of seagrass. A near shore Diplanthera stand (251 g/m2) at station 2 grades into a bed of Thalassia domination (184 g/m2) at station 3. Syringodium is the most abundant seagrass in the area (175 g/m2) near station 4 and Diplanthera sparsely regains dominance (16 g/m2) the outer seagrass margin. Stations 6 and 7 have non-vegetated substrate. Sediment The littoral area at station 1 consists of well sorted sand with 1.0% "silt and clay" and 0.4% carbon. At .station 2 the substrate becomes moderately well sorted and slightly gravelly with 0.63% carbon falling to 0.36% with depth. The "silt and clay" 27

PAGE 39

28 fraction increases to 1.7% at station 3 as carbon has gradually risen to 0.81% from station 1. At station 4 "silt and clay" again is higher (3.3%) as is carbon (1.76%) which also rises with depth (to 2.19%, due to increasing organic carbon). Near the outer seagrass margin at station 5 the substrate is poorly sorted with decreasing gravel (4.9% to 0.7%) and increasing "silt and clay" values (3.8% to 6 :6%) with depth. Vertical trends of increasing organic carbon (0.54% to 1.95%) and decreasing inorganic carbon (2.43% to 1.84%) are also evident. Adjacent to seagrass termination at station 6 exists a moderately well sorted, slightly gravelly sand with 2.7% "silt and clay" rising to 5.6% with depth. Carbon here has similar trends to the previous station, but lower values. The area near the submerged mouth of the natural channel at station 7 has a high surface "silt and clay" content of 7.3% which diminishes to 3.8% then rises to 5.3% with depth as gravel ranges from 0.4% to 3.9% and carbon from 2.82% to 3.83%. Transect 18 (see Figures 11 & 12) Seagrass No seagrass is present at station 1. A near shore Diplanthera bed (102 g/m2) at station 2 becomes Thalassia-dominated (265 g/m2) at station 3. At station 4 Syringodium dominates (128 g /m2) and grades into an outer Thalassia stand (286 g/m2) at station 5. Near the seagrass margin at station 6 Diplanthera again dominates with 60 g/m2. Stations 7 and 8 are devoid o f seagrass.

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0 C\1 t-i 0 w (/) 0 z 0 c( 0 N t t-CX) ..... a: t-oW ol-0 .,w w .,..2 -(/) z w c( a: a: 0 t-:E: en 0 z .: 0 ..J, oz o.,...: 2 Q) ..... 0 ta: u.. 0 w w (/) 0 z z .c; < 01a: oen t-w 10-0 a: 0 z ::::. w ii: w ...J w w fll i: II) ., 0 i: 10 0 10 0 10 t\i . ..J, 0 .... .... ..J 0 .... .... N N H.l.d30 H.l.d30 Figure 11. Transects 18, 19 & 20 x-sections of seagrass and grain-size parameters. 0 0 0 (II) b 0 0 N 0 0 0 .... 0 0 0 II) N 0 29 -en a: w 1-w w a: 0 :E: Cfl 0 z .: ..J z .c; :I 0 a: 0 0 u.. Nw 0 z 0 .: 10 en II) .... 0 0 0 0 .... 0 0 II) 0

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0 C\1 t-0 IJJ (/) z 0 c( 0 a: 0 t-N Nm 0 -0 0 II) CX) ..... t-((I 0 a: w w (/) 1z w :::i! c( .. a: 0) . toW .,... :: oa:: : oo t. 0 ((I w 0 (/) z z < _, z < :::i! 0 :::i! 0 0 .... II) a: co LL. c w w a: z :::> 0 w z C!' < LL. 1w ((I ...J w w 0 ((I 0 I I I b II) 0 II) II) 0 II) 0 _, :::i! 0 N _, 0 ..: :::i! I'll H!d30 H!d30 Figure 12. Transects 18, 19 & 20 x-sections of seagrass and sediment carbon parameters. 30 0 0 0 M 0 0 0 N ((I a: ow 01ow w a: 0 J: ((I 0 0 z < _, oz o.,< N:f 0 oa:: OLL. ow N(J z < 1-0 ((I 0 0 II) 0 0 0 0 0 II) 0

PAGE 42

Sediment Well sorted fine sand in the littoral area has 1.4% "silt and clay" and a 0.32% carbon content. At station 2 the substrate becomes moderately sorted and slightly gravelly (1.5% gravel) with 3.0% "silt and clay" and 1.04% carbon. Station 3 shows some vertical variation in sediment parameters with 2.9% surface "silt and clay" rising to 3.8% and gravel diminishing from 1.5% to 0.4% with depth. Organic carbon ranges from 0.60% to 0.82% and inorganic carbon from 0.46% to 0.24%. Similar values and trends are generally evident at station 4 with "silt and clay" being slightly higher (ranging from 3.4% to 4.5%). The grass stand at station 5 is underlain by a moderately sorted, slightly gravelly sand which continues the mentioned parameter depth trends. "Silt and clay" increase from 3.6% to 6.0% and gravel decreases from 2.3% to 0.0% with depth as organic carbon rises (0.56% to 1.20%) and inorganic carbon falls (1.46% to 0.65%). Near the outer seagrass margin at station 6 the substrate is moderately well sorted with 1.8% surface "silt and clay" increasing to 3. 7% as carbon rises from l. 96% to 2.61% with depth. Adjacent to the seagrass edge the sediment again displays vertically increasing "silt and clay" content (from 3.3% at the surface to 5.2% with depth). The .inorganic carbon fraction again falls with sediment depth (1.18% to 0.32%) as organic carbon rises from 0.14% to 0.77%. At station 8 the mid-Anchorage substrate is poorly sorted, slightly gravelly sand with increasing "silt and clay" (2.5% to 7.3%) and decreasing gravel (4.2% to 0.5%) values 31

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with depth. Organic carbon ranges from 0.41% to 1.17% vertically as inorganic carbon drops from 2.83% to 1.66%. Transect 19 (see Figure 11 & 12) Seagrass The area near station 1 is dominated by Diplanthera (99 g/m2). A sparse Syringodium stand (53 g/m2) exists at station 2 and is present in greater abundance (249 g/m2) at station 3. Stations 4 and 5 are devoid of seagrass. Sediment The near shore seagrass is growing ina well sorted, slightly gravelly sand with 2.7% "silt and clay" increasing to 4.6% down the core. Surface carbon of 0.66% rises to 1.42%, due to a higher organic content, with depth. The substrate at station 2 is moderately sorted with downwardly increasing gravel content (0.1% to 2.9%) "Silt and clay" drop from a surface value of 7.4% to 4.8% midway down the core, then rise to 8.3% at the core base. Organic carbon decreases from 1.01% to 0.65% midway, then increases to 1.29% at the base. Inorganic carbon rises from 2.46% to 2.74%, then drops to 1.40% in the same intervals. At station 3 the sediment is poorly sorted with "silt and clay" (5.6% to 6.9%) and gravel (0.9% to 1.9%) increasing slightly with depth. Organic carbon increases (0.71% to 1.66%) and inorganic carbon falls (3.19% to 2.58%) with depth. Immediately past the outer seagrass boundary a 1.8% surface gravel value decreases with depth (to 1.5%) as "silt and clay" (2.9% to 5.1%) and carbon (3.17% to 3.47%; reflecting a higher organic 32

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content) rise. Mid-Anchorage substrate is moderately sorted slightly gravelly sand showing a continued increase of surface gravel (1.3%) from shore. Gravel (to 3.9%), "silt and clay" (4.5% to 6.4%) and carbon (2.86% to 5.92%) increase with depth. Transect 20 (see Figures 11 & 12) Seagrass Station 1 is devoid of seagrass. Thalassia (102 gfm2) dominates a near shore stand at station 2. A dense Syringodium bed (349 g/m2) is found at station 3 and is also present, yet sparse (33.7 g/m2), near the outer seagrass margin. No seagrasses are found at station 5. Sediment The littoral sand at station 1 is very well sorted with 1.3% "silt and clay" and 0.21% carbon. Westward the substrate becomes. moderately well sorted and slightly gravelly. The 11silt and clay" fraction rises slightly from 4.3% to 5.9% with depth. Organic carbon becomes higher midway down the core (0.61% to 1.09% ) then falls to 0.88% as inorganic carbon gradually decreases (0.57% to 0.20% ) downward. The sediment becomes poorly sorted at station 3 with a relatively high surface "silt and clay" content which increases with depth to 8.7% as gravel drops from 2.0% to 1.0% An inorganic carbon content of 4.38% (3.99% with depth) is mainly responsible for high carbon values here. Organic carbon rises from 0.96% to 1.72% down the core. At station 4 near the seagrass bed boundary the values of gravel (1.0% to 2.6%), "silt and clay" (2.3% 33

PAGE 45

to 5.7%) and carbon (3.32% to 4.81%) increase with depth. The midAnchorage station (5) south of marker 6 is one of the most unique. The top 1.5 em is a gravelly sand with gravel-size fragments constituting 20.4% (the highest in the Anchorage). This percentage markedly decreases to 1.9% with depth as "silt and clay" rise from 3.6% to 5.6%. Organic carbon increases (0.42% to 0.79%) and inorganic carbon diminishes (4.01% to 3.24%) with depth. Transect 21 (see Figures 13 & 14) Seagrass 34 No seagrass is present at station 1. The near shore grass bed is dominated by Diplanthera (21 g/m2). Immediately westward at station 3 Syringodium gains dominance (215 g/m2) and thins outward (171 g/m2), yet remains the most abundant seagrass species at station 4. Station 5 is in the ndd-Anchorage and is unvegetated. Off North Key at station 6 is a dense Thalassia flat (480 g/m2). Nearer to the Key Diplanthera becomes dominate (81 g/m2) and even nearer, at station 8, no seagrass is found. Sediment The station 1 non-vegetated littoral area is very well sorted, fine sand with 1.1% "silt and clay" and 0.22% carbon. The sediment character changes little until station 3 is reached where it becomes a slightly gravelly, muddy sand poor sorting. A very high 11silt and clay" content of ll.2% drops to 4.5% with depth as gravel rises from 0.3% to 1.9% at mid-core, then diminishes to 0.6% with depth. The surface carbon content here is one of the highest in the

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..... C\1 1-(..) w (./) z ct a: 1-..... 0 w za: w=> wu.. ..J w w Cl\ 10 0 10 0 ..J 0 ... ....; H.Ld30 10 1'1 0 0 0 ..... 0 0 0 co o ... OC/1 oa: lOW 1w w a: oO OJ: OC/1 ..,. 0 z < ..J z < 0 MO a: u.. w 0 z < 0 0 1-C/1 0 1'1 0 ..J 0 0 0 ... 0 (/) z 0 1-ct 1-(/) a: w J: 1-0 10 0 0 ... Figure 13. Transect 21 and other stations' and grain-size parameters. 35 0 0 0 Cl\ co a: f w 1-..... 0 I 0 w M -D 0 C\1 ..,. w 0 a: 0 0 0 J: 1'1 Cl\ 0 z 0 < ..J 0 z 0 0 < co ..... 0 I 0 0 C\1 0 a: C\1 ..,. u.. 0 w 0 0 0 z 1'1 < 1-C/1 0 0 10 0 10 ... 1'1 1'1 H.Ld30 x-sections of seagrass

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C\1 1-0 w en z < a: 1-0 0 0 ..... 0 0 0 CD ... orll oa:: ow 10._ w :::E w a: 0 l: 0 r/1 0 0 0 .., z < ..J z < :::E 0 :::E 0 0 0 a: (') LL w (.) z < ._ r/1 0 0 0 0 N ;: ..J 10 0 f1 ,.... .. I .. (f) -D : .. C\1 :: C/) z 0 1-< 1-C/) a: w l: 1-0 I C\1 C\1 -D 0 10 0 ... N :::E (Sl::l313V'il Hld30 co 0 0 w 0 za:: 0 -0 w:::> wLL -' w w r/1 0 ;: It) 0 It) 0 ..J 0 N :::E (6l::l3.l3V'4, Hld30 l::l3.l Figure 14. Transect 21 and other stations' x-sections of and sediment carbon parameters. 36 0 0 0 r/1 CD a: w 0 ._ 0 w 0 :::E .., w 0 0 a: 0 0 N l: r/1 0 z 0 < ..J 0 z oo< CD::lE 0 :::E 0 0 0 a: .., LL ow oO oZ N< ._ r/1 00 seagrass

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Anchorage at 6.27%. At station 4 surface gravel of 1.7% ranges to 2.5% with depth as the "silt and clay" content drops from 6.5% to 5.9%. Carbon content is fairly homogeneous at 4.49%. Station 5 at mid-Anchorage is in moderately well sorted slightly gravelly sand. "Silt and clay" content rises (5 .. 2% to 6. 5%) as gravel falls (1. 3% 0.7%) and carbon increases (2.75% to 2.90%) toward the core base. Near North Key the well sorted slightly gravelly sand is increasing i.n gravel (0.9% to 2.7%), "silt and clay" (2.3% to 5.2%) and carbon (0.87% to 2.46%; due to a higher inorganic content). At station 7 substrate becomes poorly sorted with 1.7% gravel and 7.9% "silt and clay" at the surface. The lower sections of the core are well sorted with "silt and clay" ranging from 3.0% to 5..4% with depth and gravel rising from 0.0% to 1.4%.. An extremely high surface carbon value of 6.76%, which drops to 1.77% with depth, is found here. Littoral sand at station 8 is very well sorted and has increasing ".silt and clay" (2 3% to 7 .. 3%) and carbon conrents (0. 77% to 2.45%) with sed.iment depth.. Other Stations (see Figures 13 & The bottom approximately 1000 m northeast of marker 6 (station 22-1) is non-vegetated, moderately sorted, slightly gravelly sand decreasing gravel (3 .. 5% to 0.4%) and increasing "silt and clay" fractions (2 .. % 4 .. 4%) with depth. Carbon ranges from 2.21% to 3. 33% do'Wllward, being primarily inorganic. Nearer marker 1 at s .tation 23-1 is a poorly sorted, slightly gravelly sand with similar grain-size trends: gravel drops from 37

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3.1% to 0.5% and "silt and clay" rise from 4.1% to 8.9% with depth. Organic carbon increases from 0.36% to 1.57% as inorganic carbon falls from 3.09% to 2.64% with depth. 38

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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Except When otherwise mentioned the discussion of sediment data refers to the surface unit of the sediment cores. Trends Determined by Statistical Analyses To test the presence of possible associations, correlation coefficients were computed for each possible pairing of the seventeen.parameters measured (see Table 1). Sediment parameters are those of the surface sediments. The significance of these correlations was determined using the statistical parameter "Student's t" (see Table 2; Freund, 1973). Levels of significance are listed in Table 3. An arbitrary confidence level value of 90% was used to determine significant correlations. 39 It must be remembered in working with these statistics that significant correlations do not necessarily mean direct relationships exist. Two parameters that vary predictably with each other may both be affected by another factor or factors. For this reason, only feasible estimates and inferences can be made concerning direct "cause and effect" relationships. Seagrass parameters vs. sediment texture Statistical analyses show Syringodium percentage and biomass have a positive correlation with percent "silt and clay". Thalassia density displays this same c;orrelation with "silt and clay" as does

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VS THAL. SYRG DIP. % % % BIOMASS BIOMAS BIOMASS THAL SYRG. DIP. THAL. BIOMASS --SYRG. BIOMASS -.04 --DIP. BIOMASS -.14 -.12 ---o/o THAL. .87 -.03 -.18 ---o/o -.11 .87 -.16 -.07 SYRG. ---o/o DIP. -.22 -.20 .72 -.26 -.22 --TOTAL .72 .34 43 .60 .21 .16 BIOMASS 0/o SILT .22 .42 -.19 .39 -.15 ll CLAY .15 0,4 SAND -.22 -.28 .23 -.12 -.23 .19 0/o .09 -.02 -.12 -.05 -.12 GRAVEL .03 MEDIAN PHI -.07 .13 -.43 .oo .17 -.11 MEAN PHI -.01 .07 -.05 .02 .09 .07 SORTING .11 .23 -.05 . 07 .19 -.11 % ORG. CARBON -.08 .35 .oo -.07 .31 .14 % INORG CARBI:>N .06 35 -.29 -.01 .34 -.24 TOTAL CARBON .02 .39 -.23 -.03 .37 -.14 DEPTH .1_! .._ .06 -.33 -.13 .09 -.34 TOTAl. 0,4SILT ll CLAY ---.26 ----.17 -.70 .oo 02 -.26 40 00 .35 .16 .31 .08 .59 .04 .61 06 .69 -.26 .22 % 0,4 MEDIAN MEAN SORT-0,4 ORQ %1NORG TOTAL DEPTH SAND GRAVEL PHI PH I lNG CARBON CARBON CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS ( rc) n (LXY) (LX) (LY) rc = Jn (LX2 ) -(Lx) 2 Jn (LY2)-(LY) 2 WHERE n = #SAMPLES rc USED TO DETERMINE 11 STUDENT' S t" VALUES IN TABL E 2 ----.73 --I -.01 -. 38 ---! .32 -.79 75 ----.81 .84 -.41 -.74 ----.39 -.02 .lC .15 .22 ----. 77 .49 .02 -.36 .75 .45 ----.75 38 .05 -.23 .67 .70 .95 ----.41 .36 -.3C .39 .00 .62 .49 --0"' ..... tD ..... (") 0 11 11 tD ..... Ill n .... 0 ::s n 0 tD Hl Hl .... n .... tD ::s n Ul 0

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vs THAL. SYRG DIP. o/o % % BIOMASS BIOMAS BIOMASS THAL SYRG DIP. THAL. --BIOMASS SYRG. -0.3 BIOMASS --DIP. -1.1 -0.9 BIOhiASS ---o/o 14.0 -0.2 -1.4 ---THAL. o/o SYRG. -0.8 13.9 -1.2 -0.5 ---o/o -1.8 -1.6 8.1 -2.1 1.8 -DIP. TOTAL 8.1 2.8 3.7 5.8 1.7 1.2 BIOMASS Ofo SILT 1.8 3.6 -1.6 1.1 3.3 -1.2 a CLAY o/o -1.8 -2.2 1.9 1.8 1.5 SAND o/o 0.7 -0.1 -1.0 0.3 0.4 -0.9 GRAVEL MEDIAN -0.5 1.0 -3.8 0.0 1.4 -0.9 PHI MEAN -0.1 0.6 -0.4 0.2 0.7 0.6 PHI SORTINO 0.8 1.8 -0.4 0.5 1.5 -0.9 .,.o ORO. -0.7 2.9 o.o 2.5 1.1 CARBON 041NORO. 0.5 2.9 -2.4 2.8 -2.0 CARBEIN TOTAL 0.2 3. 3 -1.9 r-0.3 3.1 -1.1 CARBON DEPTH -0.9 0.4 -2.7 0.7 -2.8 TOTAL. 04SILT a CLAY ---2.1 ----1.3 -7.6 0.0 0.1 -2.1 3.4 0.0 3.0 1.3 2.5 0.7 5.7 0.3 6.1 0.4 7.5 -2.1 1.7 % "'o MEDIAN MEAN SORT-0,4 ORG %1NORG. TOTAL SAND GRAVEL PHI PHI lNG CARBON CARBON CARBON STUDENT'S t VALUES J n-2 tr rc = J 1( rc) 2 WHERE n-2 : :tl: DEGREES OF FREEDOM ---8.2 --0.1 3.2 ---2.7 10.2 8.9 --10.8 12.3 -3.5 ---3.3 0.2 0.8 1.2 1.7 ---9.5 4.4 0.1 8.9 4.0 ---8.8 3.3 0.4 7.1 7.7 24.1 --3.5 3.0 0.3 3.3 0.0 6.1 4.4 DEPTH I I I -1-3 Ill 0" 1-' Ill N en M (:: p. Ill ::l M til M <: Ill 1-' (:: Ill til 1-'

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vs THAL. SYRG DIP. 0/o 0/o 0/o TOTAL. BIOMASS BIOMASS BIOMASS THAL SYRG. DIP. BIOMASS THAL. -BIOMASS SYRG. --BIOMASS DIP. --BIOMASS 0/o THAL. +1 --0/o +1 SYRG. ---o/o -4 +1 -3 -4 --DIP. TOTAL +1 +2 +1 +1 BIOIUSS --%SILT +4 +1 +2 +3 8 CLAY 0/o -4 -3 +4 -4 SAND 0/o GRAVEL MEDIAN -1 -3 PH I MEAN PHI SORTING +4 0/o ORG. +2 +3 CARBON % INORG. +2 3 +2 -4 CARBON TOTAL +2 -4 +2 CARBON DEPTH -2 -2 -3 -0kSILT % 0/o MEDIAN MEAN SORT-0k ORG. %I NOR G. TOTAL DEPTH 8 CLAY SAND GRAVEL PHI PHI lNG ARBON CARBON CARBON SIGNIFICANCE OF CORRELATIONS SIG LEVEL t-VALUE RANGE CODE 99.9% >+ 3.455 OR < -3.455 +1 99.0% 2.658 TO 3.455 95.0% 1 .999 TO 2 .658 90.0% 1.670 TO 1.999 4 ---+ OR INDICATE POSITIVE (+) -1 --OR INVERSE(-) -1 CORRELATIONS I ---+2 -2 ---+2 +2 -1 +1 ---+3 -1 +1 -1 -1 ---+1 -2 +4 ---+1 -1 +1 -2 +1 +1 ---+1 -1 +2 -4 +1 +1 +1 --+4 -1 +2 -3 +2 +1 +1 --1-3 I-' Ill w til ::l '"'" 1-tl '"'" n Ill ::l n Ill 0 1-tl n 0 11 11 Ill I-' Ill .... 0 ::l C/l N

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43 total seagrass biomass. This density-"silt and clay" relationship could have a variety of causes: (1) denser stands of these seagrasses _may more efficiently be "trapping" fine particles, (2) the "silt and clay" may be offering a more suitable substrate for seagrass (3) these seagrasses may be contributing some "silt and clay" due to their decomposing detritus and by providing a habitat for biologic communities (i.e. leading to the breakdown of existing and the formation of new sediments). The fact that Syringodium percentages also increase with increasing "silt and clay" is probably due to the percentage relationship with biomass. All the seagrasses have high percentage-biomass correlations. When biomass is high, percentages are high (a reasonable phenomenon). These same seagrass parameters show a negative correlation with percentage of sand. This is probably just a reflection of the "silt and clay" percentage increase, since % "silt and clay" and % sand generally have an inverse relationship. Diplanthera density exhibits a negative correlation with median phi diameter, thus larger amounts of Diplanthera are associated with coarser sediments. The grain-size coarseness appears not to be due to higher gravel values, but more likely to a coarser sand content. This "Diplanthera-coarse sand" trend may be caused by Diplanthera preferring growth in coarser sands or to it being more of this grain-size condition than the other seagrasses. Another possible explanation is the case of both parameters being affected by a third (i.e. wave action). Diplanthera tends to have its heaviest growth in or near the intertidal zone where it may be more tolerant than the other seagrasses to wave action and occassional exposure.

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Constant reworking of the sediment by this water motion would also tend to remove fine material, leaving the coarser sand fraction. Yet, the fact that better sorting does not seem to associate with denser Diplanthera lends no support to this concept. Total seagrass biomass also has a negative correlation with median phi diameter. Even though more "silt and clay" exists in denser seagrass stands, the grain-size is coarser. Since no "gravel-total seagrass biomass" relationship is evident, the median phi trend must be due to a coarser sand content as in the previous case. Seagrass communities in general, as Diplanthera specifically, may be better adapted to growth in coarser sands. The coarse sands underlying the denser seagrass beds may be providing these seagrasses with the optimum compaction available for root growth and plant stabilizaion. Seagrass parameters vs. other parameters SY!ingodium percentage and density have a positive correlation to percent organic, inorganic and total carbon in the sediment. This relationship is probably partially an indirect one, in that carbon has a significant correlation with "silt and clay" as does Syringodium. More carbon is probably contained in larger amounts of "silt and clay" and, thus, the "carbon-Syringodium" relationship. But, as mentioned .previously, Syring odium may be contributing "silt and clay" material which is high in carbon content (i.e. floral and faunal debris). Diplanthera shows a negative correlation with inorganic a nd total carbon. This probably reflects the diminishing calcareous 44

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faunal population with increasing Diplanthera density. This may indicate that areas of denser Diplanthera are not suitable for denser calcareous faunal communities. The total carbon trend is probably an effect of the inorganic fraction trend. Total seagrass biomass and the dominance and density of Diplanthera display negative correlations with water depth. The "total seagrass biomass-water trend is influenced by the Diplanthera trend and a combination of the Syringodium and Thalassia density distributions. Syringodium and Thalassia, in general, seem to rapidly increase in abundance outward from the intertidal zone and then gradually decrease with water depth as light penetration becomes a limiting factor. The effects of wave action and exposure are probably limiting their growth into the intertidal zone. Diplanthera shows this same general decrease in density with depth, but different circumstances have probably caused it. Diplanthera exhibits its greatest abundance in or near the intertidal zone. As previously mentioned, this near shore dominance may be due to substrate grain-size or to this species' ability to better withstand other factors of the intertidal environment. Seaward from this area Diplanthera becomes sparser as the other seagrasses flourish. In these central seagrass communities, Diplanthera may be unable to effectively compete with Syringodium and Thalassia. Near the outer edge of the seagrasses Diplanthera may be showing a tolerance to lower light levels by often growing in waters deeper than those limiting the growth of Syringodium and Thalassia. This resurgence of Diplanthera dominance at the outer seagrass margin is in very 45

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small quantities and apparently is consistent with the general trend of lower densities with depth. Other Correlations "Silt and clay" and gravel percentages have positive correlations with water depth while sand shows the opposite trend. The build up of "silt and clay" is probably due to the deposition of some previously (in shallower water) suspended sediments added to the sediments created in situ. The ultimate retention of these particles in deeper water is probably due to reduced effectiveness of erosion by wind generated wave stirring and by tidal currents. Support _for this reasoning is given by the existence of a poorer sorting trend with water depth, indicating a lower energy environment. Higher gravel proportions may be_ the result of denser populations of shell bearing fauna which remain untransported. The sand trend is the effect of the inherent influence of the "silt and clay" and gravel trends. A positive correlation with total and inorganic carbon is shown by % gravel. This is understandable since almost all gravel is composed of CaC03 shell fragments. Sorting values are postively correlative to carbon which can be explained by sorting's inherent relationship with the grain-size parameters. The mentioned "grain-size-carbon" relationships cause sorting to be affected indirectly. Inorganic and total carbon show a positive correlation with water depth, again, probably due to their relationships with grainsize. 46

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Other Apparent Phenomena CaC03 (Inorganic Carbon) Distribution There are several areas high in surface CaC03 ( > 20%), but factors causing these conditions may vary from station to station (see Figure 15). The extremely high value of 33.4% CaC03 near marker 6 (20-5) occurs in a gravelly sand (20.40% gravel; see Figure 16). The high gravel fraction is mainly responsible for a higher CaC03 content. These.shell fragments are the remains of benthic fauna which are usually found on the grass flats. This area may be a topographic low into which shell material is accumulating after being swept off the grasses, probably during periods of storm activity. The poorly sorted nature of this sediment supports the concept of a "low energy depression". Just out from the submerged mouth of the natural river channel (17-7) is another high CaC03 area, but this one is moderately well sorted, suggesting a higher energy environment. "Silt and clay" content is fairly high (7.32%; see Figure 17) while gravel is low (0.44%). This area may also be a type of sink for biologic debris, but under different circumstances. Any benthic fauna that becomes entrained in the channel may be carried along and deposited at the channel mouth as currents weaken (a deltaic-type process). Other areas of high CaC03 content, such as the grassy, west bank of the natural river channel (15-3 and 15-4), the Bailey's Bluff grass flat (see Figure 18), the Rabbit Key Syringodium area (11-4), the North Key Diplanthera area (21-7) and Thalassia off the Radar Station (16-5 and 17-5) have characteristic low gravel (< 2%) 47

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Figure 15. 40 4Z ,. 40 '" Surface sediment CaC03 distribution. 48 LEGEND 0 ANALYZED SEDIMENT STATIONS CONTOURS = VALUES REPRESENT 'I Co C03 IN THE SEDIMENT IBY WEIGHTJ

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Figure 16. N G Surface sediment gravel distribution. LEGEND QANALYZED SEDIMENT STATIONS CONTOURS 0.1 1.5 ,10,20,. VALUES REPRESENT ,. GRAVEL IN THE SEDIMENT IBY WEIGHT) 49

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Figure 17. N e LEGEND 0 ANALYZED SEDIMENT STATIONS CONTOURS: VALUES REPRESENT .. 91L T AND CLAY IN SEDIMENT IBY WEIOHTI Surface sediment "silt and clay" distribution. 50

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Figure 18. 0 .. ... Total seagrass density distribution. LEGEND 0 ANALYZED SEDIMENT STATIONS C.l. = 2000/M 2 VALUES REPRESENT SEAORASS AMOUNTS IN HUNDREDS OF O/M2 51

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and high "silt and clay" content (generally greater than 6%). This high amount of CaC03 is probably due to the in situ benthic and epiphytic population. Low gravel and relatively high "silt and clay" contents suggest that carbonate material is originally small or is being broken down, probably by the activity of the resident biological community. Littoral areas Littoral sand areas in the Anchorage can be grouped and characterized as moderately well to very well sorted, fine sand with less than 0.1% gravel, less than 2% "silt and clay" and less than 1% carbon. This suggests that the bottom areas here are high energy environments (compared to other Anchorage areas) with little biologic activity. It also shows that only a small proportion of the Anchorage's dense biologic community drifts into the littoral sand areas. Mottling Mottling in the samples investigated is more specifically described as the occurrence of anomalous dark patches within the lighter sand matrix. This phenomenon increases shoreward with affected areas being generally less than 0.20 m below level. It is probably a result of the deposition of scattered bits of dark, decomposed organic material within a relatively clean, light colored sand. 52

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Historical Interpretation Describing the sedimentation and seagrass history of the Anchorage for the time in which the surface (15 em in depth) sediments were deposited is very difficult. For the most part, individual cores show little discernible vertical variation of the physical parameters investigated. There are some notable deviations from this trend. One is the outer seagrass substrate approximately 1100 m west of Rabbit Key (station 11-4). The sediments here increase in median grain-size and sorting with depth. These data combined with the close proximity to the Anclote River navigation channel mouth may indicate a recent decrease in influence of the river currents (less washing) and increasing siltation caused by periodic channel dredging. Sorting near the Anclote River distributary's eastern bank on transect 16 has become better with time. This may indicate that the channel is spreading, shifting or increasing in current speeds producing more of a washing effect on these shoreward sediments. Much more vertical variation is evident in carbon content values. Seagrass beds off Bailey's Bluff and outer seagrass areas north of the Anclote River navigation channel show a decrease in inorganic carbon and an increase in organic carbon with sediment depth. The decreasing inorganic component could be due to increasing biologic abundance of calcareous benthic or epiphytic fauna in the area with time. Higher organic values with depth may be caused by past populations of denser seagrass. These trends may also be the result of post-depositional chemical alteration. 53

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54 The estuarine processes of seagrass growth and sedimentation have generally not undergone discernible changes during the time period represented by the cores. Therefore, from the data available, the Anclote Anchorage can best be described as a recently stable area of uniform fine quartz sand with geographically localized substrates containing large amounts of gravel and "silt and clay". These sediments have been associated with abundant seagrass and benthic fauna populations.

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SUMMARY 1. During the summer of 1972 the area within Anclote Anchorage Tarpon Springs, Florida was sampled to obtain seagrass and sediment data. 2. At every sampling station each species of seagrass was measured for biomass (g dry wt/m2). 3. The sediment was vertically subsectioned according to visual differences and each section was analyzed for grain-size distribution, % inorganic carbon and % total carbon. 4. Each seagrass species' percentage by weight and the total seagrass biomass at each station were computed. 5. Sediment characters (% "silt and clay", % sand, % gravel, median phi diameter, mean phi diameter, sorting, % organic carbon and % CaC03) were also calculated. 6. Seagrasses were found at all stations sampled between water depths of 0.15 m and 1.37 m. 55 7. Total biomass figures ranged from 0.0 to 547.1 g/m2, Thalassia obtained a maximum density of 533.0 g/m2, Syringodium: 234.6 g/m2 and Diplanthera: 535.2 g/m2. B. Substrate types varied from slightly gravelly, muddy sand to sand to slightly gravelly sand to gravelly sand. 9. The range of sand percentages was from 76.1% to 99.3%, "silt and clay" 0.7% to 16.7% and gravel 0.0% to 20.4%.

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10. Median phi diameter varied from 2.1 to 2.7 and mean phi diameter from 1. 6 to 3. 3. 11. The sediments displayed very good to poor sorting. 12. Total carbon values ranged from 0.16% to 6.76% (the organic component 0.07% to 3.49% and the inorganic fraction 0.04% to 4.75%). 13. Using correlation coefficients significant associations (at a 90% confidence level) of the analyzed parameters were determined. 14. Sediment trapping and binding effects of seagrasses may be causing a positive correlation between % "silt and clay" and the values of Syringodium, Thalassia and total seagrass biomass. 15. A negative association of Diplanthera and total seagrass biomass with median phi diameter may indicate that coarse sand sediments in the Anchorage provide an optimum base for the growth of Diplanthera and other seagrasses. 16. A positive correlation of Syringodium biomass with organic, inorganic and total carbon may be due to trapping, and in situ generation of "silt and clay" which has a high carbon content. 17. Diplanthera beds may not present a suitable environment for calcareous faunal communities as indicated by a negative correlation of Diplanthera density with inorganic and total carbon. 18. The high tolerance of Diplanthera to more extreme or variable physical conditions and the effect of light availability are probably indicated by the negative association of Diplanthera dominance and density (as well as total seagrass biomass) with water depth. 56

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19. A positive association of % "silt and clay" and % gravel with water depth is probably due to increased deposition and in situ generation of these components, and less erosion with depth in the Anchorage. 20. Inorganic and total carbon show a positive correlation with % gravel because almost all gravel is composed of CaC03 shell fragments. 21. Areas of high CaC03 in the Anchorage are a result of a variety of factors including storm and river associated deposition, and in situ benthic and epiphytic faunal activity. 22. Littoral sand areas in the Anchorage are moderately well to very well sorted, fine sand with less than 0.1% gravel, less than 2% "silt and clay" and less than 1% carbon. 23. Mottling occurs in some sediments found less than 0.20 m below MLW level. This is probably a result of accumulations of dark, decomposed, organic material. 24. The outer seagrass area west of Rabbit Key may be experiencing increased siltation from periodic channel dredging, but a decrease in influence of river currents. 25. The area near the Anclote River distributary's eastern bank may be undergoing increased effects from the Anclote River. 26. Seagrass beds off Bailey's Bluff may be supporting larger populations of calcareous epiphytic and benthic fauna, yet these beds may be sparser than those in the recent past. 57 27. Generally, the Anclote Anchorage is a recently stable area of uniform fine quartz sand with geographically localized substrates containing large amounts of gravel and "silt and clay".

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28. Abundant seagrass and benthic fauna populations have been associated with these sediments. 58

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59 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Baird, R. C., K. L. Carder, T. L. Hopkins, T. E. Pyle and H. J. Humm. 1972. Anclote Environmental Project Annual Report 1971. Contrib. No. 39, Mar. Sci. Inst., Univ. of So. Fla., St. Petersburg, Fla. 172 pp. Baird, R. C., K. L. Carder, T. L. Hopkins, T. E. Pyle and H. J. Humm. 1973. Anclote Environmental Project Annual Report 1972. Contrib. No. 41, Dept. Mar. Sci., Univ. of So. Fla., St. Petersburg, Fla. 220 pp. Bernatowicz, A. J. 1952. Marine monocotydenous plants of Bermuda. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib., 2(1): 338-345. Coble, R. W. 1973. Evaluation of the Anclote and Pithlachascotee Rivers as water-supply sources. Fla. Dept. Nat. Resour., Bureau of Geol., Map Ser. No. 61. Conover, J. T. 1963. The ecology, seasonal periodicity, and distribution of benthic plants in some Texas lagoons, Bot. Mar., vol. VII, fasc. 1-4 : 1-41. Florida Power Corporation. 1972. Anclote Units 1 and 2 mental Report, vol. 1, sec. II : 8-12. Environ-Freund, J. E. 1973. Modern Elementary Statistics. Prentice-Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 532 pp. Folk, R. L. 1968. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Hemphills. Austin, Texas. 170 pp. Fuss, C. M. and J. A. Kelley. 1969. Survival and growth of sea grasses transplanted under artificial conditions. Bull. Mar. Sci. 19(2) : 351-365. Gessner, F. testudinum. 1971. The water economy of the sea grass Thalassia Mar. Biol, 10(3) : 258-260. Ginsburg, R. N. 1956. Environmental relationships of grain size and constituent particles in some south Florida carbonate sediments. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 40; 2384-2427. and H. A. Lowenstam. 1958. The influence of marine ------------bottom communities on the depositional environment of sediments. Jour. Geol., 66(3) : 310-318. 60

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61 Gould, H. R. and R. H. Stewart. 1956. terrace sediments in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico; Finding Ancient Shorelines. Soc. Econ. Paleon. and Min. Pub., 3 : 2-18 Griffin, G. M., T. E. Pyle, J. McCarthy and R. Hoenstine. 1971. Comments Concerning the Geology and Environmental Conditions in the Vicinity of Anclote Anchorage, Anclote Key, and Anclote River, Florida. Rept. No. 7, Mar. Sci. Inst., Univ. of So. Fla., St. Petersburg, Fla. 27 pp. Hartog, C. D. 1970. The Sea-grasses of the World. North Holland Publ. Co. Amsterdam, London. 275 pp. Howard, J. F., D. L. Kissling and J. A. Lineback. 1970. Sedi mentary facies and distribution of biota in Coupon Bight, lower Florida Keys. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 81 : 1926-1946. Humm, H. J. 1956. Seagrasses of the northern Gulf coast. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib., 6(4) : 305-308. Jindrich, V. 1969. Recent carbonate sedimentation by tidal channels in the lower Florida Keys. Jour. Sed. Pet., 39(2) : 531-553. McRoy, C. P., R. J. Barsdate and M. Nebert. 1972. Phosphorus cycling in an eelgrass (Zostera marina l) ecosystem. Limnol. Oceanogr., 17(1) : 58-67. Mohler, F. C. 1962. Anclote River Basin Pilot-Study. Div. Water Res. and Conserv., St. Bd. Conserv., Tallahassee, Fla. 29 pp. Moore, D. R. 1960. Distribution of the seagrass, Thalassia, in the United States. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib., 3(2) : 329-343 . Moore, H. B., L. T. Davies, T. H. Fraser, R. H. Gore and N. R. Lopez. 1968. Some biomass figures from a tidal flat in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Bull. Mar. Sci. 18(2) : 261-279. Patriquin, D. G. 1972. The origin of nitrogen and phosphorus for growth of the marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum. Mar. Biol., 15 (1) : 35-46. and R. Knowles. 1972. Nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere of marine angiosperms. Mar. Biol., 16(1) : 49-58. Phillips, R. C. 1960. Observations on the ecology and distribution of the Florida seagrasses. Prof. Pap. Ser., Fla. St. Bd. Conserv., 2 : 1-72. Reid, G. K., Jr. 1954. An ecological study of the Gulf of Mexico fishes in the vicinity of Cedar Key, Florida. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib., 4(1) : 1-94.

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62 Stauffer, R. C. 1937. Changes in the invertebrate of a lagoon after disappearance of the eel grass. Ecology, 18(3) : 427-431. Strawn, K. 1961. Factors influencing the zonation of submerged monocotyledons at Cedar Key, Florida. Jour. Wildlife Mgmt., 25(2) .178-189. Thorne, R. F. 1954. the Gulf of Mexico. Flowering plants of the waters and shores of Fish. Bull., U. S., 89 : 193-202. United States Army Corps of Engineers. 1969. Survey-review report on Anclote River, Florida: District Engineer, South Atlantic Division, 510 Title Bldg., 30 Pryor St., Atlanta, Ga. 30303. University of Florida, College of Engineering, Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department. 1971. Anclote River Coring Project: Progress Report No. 2. Gainesville, Fla. 19 pp. Wetterhall, W. S. 1964. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Pasco and southern Hernando Counties, Florida. Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Invest., 34 : 1-28. Wood, E. J. F., W. E. Odum and J. C. Zieman. 1969. Influence of sea grasses on the productivity of coastal lagoons. Mem. Simp. Intern. Lagunas Costeras. UNAM-UNESCO. Mexico, D. F., pp. 495-502. and J. C. Zieman. 1969. The effects of temperature on ------estuarine plant communities. Ches. Sci., 10(3 & 4) : 172-174. Zieman, J. C. 1972. Origin of circular beds of Thalassia (Spermatophyta: Hydrocharitaceae) in South Biscayne Bay, Florida, and their relationship to mangrove hammocks. Bull. Mar. Sci., 22(3) :

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63 APPENDICES

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64 APPENDIX A

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65 APPENDIX A SEAGRASS DATA Table Al. Seagrass data. Di;Elanthera Thalassia Total STATION %*1 biomass % I biomass % I biomass**Biomass 11-1 N 0 s E A G R A S S 11-2 98.41295.3 1.61 4.8 300.1 11-3 97.81535.2 2.21 11.9 547.1. 11-4 *** 10.61 28.8 89.41242.4 271.2 11-5 N 0 s E A G R A S S 11-6 *** 31.81 52.5 68.21112.4 164.9 11-7 *** 100.01125.4 125.4 11-8 N 0 s EAGRAS s 14-1 N 0 s EAGRAS s 14-2 100. Ol 211. 2 211.2 14-3 16.71 33.6 55.71112.4 27.61 55.6 201.6 14-4 N 0 s EAGRAS s 15-1 100.01130.4 130.4 15-2 1. 71 7.3 98.31409.3 416.6 15-3 100.01533.0 533.0 15-4 *** 14_.81 66.1 9.51 42.4 75.71337.6 446.1 15-5 N 0 s E A G R A S s 16-1 N 0 s EAGRAS s % indicates per cent of Total Biomass ** biomass values are in g dry wtlm2 *** based on samples other than cored sample

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66 Table Al (cont'd). DiElanthera Thalassia Total STATION %*1 biomass % I biomass i. I biomass**Biomass 16-2 100.01 61.5 61.5 16-3 21.01 13.0 79.01 58.8 61.8 16-4 2.41 5.8 97.61234.6 240.4 16-5 0.51 0.8 40.81 64.9 58.71 93.4 159.1 16-6 97.91 64.9 2.11 1.4 66.3 16-7 19.4/ 9.0 80.6/ 37.6 46.6 16-8 N 0 S E A G R A S S 16-9 N 0 SEAGRASS 16-10 N 0 SEAGRAS s 16-11 100.0/389.6 389.6 17-1 N 0 SEAGRAS s 17-2 94.5/237.4 5.5/ 13.8 251.2 17-3 183.8 17-4 100.0/175.0 175.0 17-5 100.0/ 16.4 16.4 17-6 NO S E A G R A S S 17-7 N 0 S E A G R A S S 18-1 N 0 S E A G R A S S 18-2 100.0/101.9 101.9 18-3 100.0/264.5 264.5 18-4 66.0/ 84.4 34.0/ 43.5 127.9 18-5 0.8/ 2.3 36.3/103.6 62.9/179.8 285.7 18-6 100.0/ 59.9 59.9 18-7 N 0 S E A G R A S S 18-8 N 0 SEAGRASS

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67 Table Al (cont'd). DiElanthera Szringodium Thalassia Total STATION %*1 biomass % I biomass % I biomass**Biomass 19-1 56.61 55.6 20.11 19.8 23.31 22.9 98.9 19-2 100.01 53.4 53.4 19-3 5.51 13.6 72.21179.5 22.31 55.6 248.7 19-4 N 0 s E A G R A S s 19-5 N 0 s E A G R A S s 20-1 N 0 s E A G R A S s 20-2 0.31 0.3 l.ll 1.1 98.61100.8 102.2 20-3 1.51 5.4 64.91226.4 33.61117.2 349.0 20-4 *** 65.61 22.1 34.41 11.6 33.7 20-5 N 0 s E A G R A s s 21-1 N 0 s E A G R A S s 21-2 100. Ol 211. 5 211.5 21-3 100.01215.4 215.4 21-4 11.61 19.8 80.31137.2 8.11 13.8 170.8 21-5 N 0 s E A G R A S s 21-6 *** 100.01480.2 480.2 21-7 100.01 80.7 80.7 21-8 N 0 s E A G R A S s 22-1 N 0 s E A G R A S s 23-1 N 0 s E A G R A S s *** based on samples other than cored sample

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68 APPENDIX B

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69 APPENDIX B SEDIMENT DESCRIPTION Table Bl. Sediment descriptions. STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-2.5 em) B (2.5-11.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-5.0 em) B (5.Q-14.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-6.5 em) B ( 6. 5-15. 0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-1. 5 em) B (1. 5-6.5 em) C (6.5-13.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-1. 0 em) B (1. D-9. 5 em) C (9.5-15.5 em) 11-1 0.06 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand yellowish gray to light olive gray sand with medium gray mottling 11-2 0.24 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand and rhizomes yel:lowish gray to light olive gray sand with roots 11-3 0.46 m light olive gray sand with Thalassia leaves, roots and rhizomes medium olive gray sand with roots and rhizomes 11-4 0.98 m medium olive gray sand and shell dark olive gray sand, shell, roots and rhizomes dark olive gray sand and shell 11-5 2.38 m light olive gray sand with shell yellowish gray to light olive gray sand with shell light olive gray sand with shell

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Table Bl (cont'd). STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION A (o-7.5 em) B (7.5-12.0 em) C (12.0-14.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-8.0 em) B (8.0-11.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-13. 0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-6.5 em) B (6. 5-13.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION A (0.15.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION A (0-4.0 em) B (4.0-9.0 em) 11-6 0.94 m 70 light olive gray sand with shell Diplanthera leaves and rhizomes yellowish gray sand, roots and rhizomes light olive gray sand with shell and roots 11-7 0.37 m medium olive gray sand with shell, roots and rhizomes medium light gray sand with roots and shell 11-8 0.06 m brownish gray sand with shell and roots (decreasing toward bottom) 14-1 0.03 m medium brownish gray sand mottled with light gray sand with roots and rhizomes medium brownish gray sand mottled with light gray sand with roots 14-2 0.08 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand with brownish gray mottling 14-3 0.70 m light olive gray sand with shell and rhizomes medium olive gray sand with shell

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Table Bl (cont'd). STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-9. 5 em) B (9.5-14.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-6. 5 em) B (6. 5-12.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-10. 0 em) B (10.0-14.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-0.5 em) B (0.5-5.5 em) C (5.5-10.0 em) D (10.0-16.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-7.5 em) B (7. 5-l:S 0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-1. 5 em) B (1. 5-4.5 em) C (4.5-12.5 em) 14-4 1.55 m 71 light gray to light olive gray sand and shell mottled with olive sand and shell olive gray sand and shell 15-1 0.18 m medium olive gray sand mottled with brownish gray sand with roots and rhizomes medium olive gray sand mottled with brownish gray sand with roots 15-2 0.55 m medium olive gray sand with Thalassia rhizomes olive gray sand with roots 15-3 0.16 m olive gray sand light gray to light olive gray sand and shell medium olive gray sand with shell olive gray sand with shell and rhizomes 15-4 1.19 m light gray sand and shell with rhizomes medium gray sand with shell and rhizomes 15-5 1.68 m light olive gray sand and shell yellowish gray to light gray sand and shell with shell pocket at 4.0 em medium olive gray sand and shell

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Table Bl ( eont 'd) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-12.0 em) B (12.D-15.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-1.5 em) B (1. 5-14.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-4.0 em) B (4. D-11. 0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-7.0 em) B (7 0-10. 5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-7.0 em) B ( 7.0-14.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-5.0 em) B ( 5.0-14.5 em) 16-1 0.06 m light gray sand with roots and rhizomes light brownish gray sand with oyster shell fragment at 13.5 em 16-2 0.34 m light olive gray sand brownish gray sand with roots and worm borrows 16-3 0.49 m medium brownish gray sand medium brownish gray sand with Thalassia rhizomes 16-4 0.58 m medium brownish gray sand, roots and rhizomes medium brownish gray sand 16-5 0.76 m medium olive gray sand and shell with roots and rhizomes 72 dark olive gray sand and shell with roots and rhizomes 16-6 0.98 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand and rhizomes medium olive gray sand, shell and roots

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Table Bl (cont'd). STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-7. 5 em) B (7. 5-11.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-11.0 em) B (11.0-15.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-6. 0 em) B (6. D-14.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION A (D-5.0 em) B (5.D-18.0 em) .STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-4. 0 em) (4. D-14. 0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-7.5m) B (7.5-15.0 em) 16-7 1.22 m 73 (grading with depth) yellowish gray to medium olive gray sand, shell and roots olive gray sand, shell, roots and rhizomes 16-8 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand with shell olive gray sand with shell 16-9 1.58 m light olive gray sand and shell brownish gray sand 2.77 m olive gray sand with shell and thin surface layer of silt olive gray sand with shell 0. 73 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand and shell with Thalassia rhizomes medium brownish gray sand, shell and Thalassia rhizomes 0.06 m light olive gray sand with shell olive gray sand with shell and olive gray mottling

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Table Bl (cont'd). STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-2.5 em) B (2.5-15.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-5.0 em) B (5.D-11.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-5.0 em) B (5.0-13.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-5. 5 em) B (5.5-15.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-9.5 em) B (9.5-14.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-1. 5 em) B (1. 5-11.5 em) C (11. 5-14.5 em) 17-2 0.40 m light olive gray sand with shell, roots and olive gray mottling light olive gray sand and roots with shell and brownish gray mottling 17-3 0.64 m 74 medium olive gray sand with shell, roots and rhizomes medium brownish gray sand, roots and rhizomes with shell 17-4 0.85 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand with shell, roots and rhizomes medium light gray sand with shell roots and rhizomes 17-5 1.43 m light olive gray sand and shell with roots brownish gray sand with roots 17-6 1.49 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand and shell medium gray sand 17-7 2.65 m medium olive gray sand with shell light olive gray sand and shell with shell pocket at 11.5 em olive gray sand and shell

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Table Bl (eont'd). STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-9. 0 em) B (9.0-15.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-7.0 em) B (7.0-14.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION A (D-8.5 em) B (8.5-14.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-5.0 em) B (5.0-9.5 em) C (9.5-13.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (D-6.0 em) B (6.0-13.0 em) 18-1 0.06 m light gray sand with brownish gray mottling light brownish gray sand with brownish gray mottling 18-2 0.58 m brownish gray sand, roots and rhizomes mottled with light olive gray sand brownish gray sand and roots mottled with olive gray sand 18-3 0.79 m medium brownish gray sand with shell and roots medium brownish gray sand with roots and rhizomes mottled with brownish gray sand 18-4 0.94 m light olive gray sand with shell and Syringodium rhizomes mottled with olive gray sand olive gray sand with shell light olive gray sand with shell mottled \vith olive gray sand 18-5 1.04 m 75 yellowish gray to light olive gray sand, Syringodium and Thalassia roots and rhizomes \Vith shell brownish gray sand with roots and rhizomes

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Table Bl (cont'd). STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-4.5 em) B (4.5-12.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-3.5 em) B (3.5-8.5 em) C (8.5-13.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-7.0 em) B (7.0-12.0 em) C (12.0-15.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION A (Q-5.0 em) B (5.0-10.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-1. 5 em) B (1. 5-4.5 em) C (4. 5-9.0 em) D (9.0-14.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-4.0 em) B (4.0-12.0 em) 18-6 1.37 m 76 yellowish gray to light olive gray sand with roots light olive gray sand and shell with roots 18-7 1.52 m very light gray sand and shell light olive gray sand and shell brownish gray sand 18-8 1.89 m medium olive gray sand and shell olive gray sand and shell olive gray sand with shell 19-1 1.01 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand with rhizomes and patch of olive gray silt at surface olive gray sand and rhizomes 19-2 1.25 m medium olive gray sand with roots light olive gray sand with shell (shell pocket at 4.0 em) medium gray sand, shell and roots medium gray sand with shell and roots 19-3 1.25 m light olive gray sand with shell medium dark gray sand with shell

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Bl (eont'd). STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-7 .5 em) B (7. 5-15.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION A (Q-3. 0 em) B (3.0-6.0 em) C (6.0-14.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-2.5 em) B (2.5-14.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-4. 0 em) B (4.0-9.0 em) C (9.0-13.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION A (Q-5. 0 em) B (5.0-14.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION A (Q-3.0 em) B (3.0-15.0 em) 19-4 1.98 m 77 medium olive gray sand and shell (large shells and shell fragments) olive gray sand and shell 19-5 2.10 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand with shell light olive gray sand and shell medium olive gray sand and shell with rhizomes 20-1 0.03 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand light gray sand with brownish gray mottling 20-2 0.91 m light olive gray sand with shell, rhizomes and brownish gray mottling olive gray sand with shell, rhizomes and light gray mottling light olive gray sand with shell, rhizomes and brownish gray mottling 20-3 1.68 m medium olive gray sand and shell with Syringodium roots and rhizomes olive gray sand, shell and Thalassia rhizomes 20-4 1.89 m very light gray to light brownish gray sand and shell light olive gray sand and shell with roots

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Table Bl (eont'd). STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A {0-1.5 em) B (1. 5-12.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-6. 0 em) B (6. 0-11.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-6. 0 em) B (6. 0-14.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-1.5 em) B (1.5-8.0 em) C (8.0-15.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-5. 0 em) B (5.0-13.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-4.0 em) B (4.0-13.0 em) C (13.0-17.0 em) 20-5 2.16 m 78 yellowish gray to light olive gray sand and shell medium olive gray sand and shell 21-1 0.05 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand yellowish gray sand with olive gray mottling 21-2 0.15 m light olive gray sand, Diplanthera roots and rhizomes light olive gray sand with roots 21-3 1.37 m olive gray sand and silt with shell medium olive gray sand and shell with roots and rhizomes light olive gray sand sand shell 21-4 1.86 m olive gray sand and shell with Syringodium rhizomes olive gray sand and shell with roots 21-5 2.26 m dark gray sand and silt with shell dark gray sand, silt and shell dark gray sand and silt with shell

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Ta?le Bl ( cont 'd) STATION WATER DEPTH -DESCRIPTION -A (Q-5.0 em) B (5. 0-11.0 em) C (11.0-15.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-2.0 em) B (2. Q-11. 0 em) C (11. 0-16.0 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-4.0 em) B (4.0-10.0 em) C (10.0-15.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (0-2.5 em) B (2.5-12.5 em) STATION WATER DEPTH DESCRIPTION -A (Q-4.0 em) B (4.Q-7.5 em) C (7.5-14.0 em) 21-6 0.94 m yellowish gray sand with roots and shell 79 medium brownish gray sand with shell, Thalassia roots and rhizomes medium brownish gray sand and shell with roots 21-7 0.40 m dark brownish gray organic matter with sand light brownish gray sand with shell and rhizomes medium brownish gray sand with shell 21-8 0.12 m light olive gray sand brownish gray sand dark brownish gray sand 22-1 2.39 m yellowish gray to light olive gray sand and shell meditim olive gray sand and shell 23-1 2.41 m light olive gray sand and shell medium olive gray sand with shell and rhizomes olive gray sand with shell

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80 APPENDIX C

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81 APPENDIX C SEDIMENT GRAIN-SIZE DATA

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82 FOLK'SSEDIMENT CLASSIFICATION MUD ( < .063MM) 5 9 13 GRAVEL C >2 MM> 2 3 6 10 14 1:1 SAND:MUD RATIO SAND t063-2MM) 1.GRAVEL 2. MUDDY GRAVEL 3. MUDDY SANDY GRAVEL 4. SANDY GRAVEL 5. GRAVELLY MUD 6. GRAVELLY MUDDY SAND 7. GRAVELLY SAND 8. SLIGHTLY GRAVELLY MUD 9. SLIGHTLY GRAVELLY SANDY MUD 10. SLIGHTLY GRAVELLY MUDDY SAND 11. SLIGHTLY GRAVELLY SAND 12. MUD 13. SANDY MUD 14. MUDDY SAND 15. SAND SORTING CLASSIFICATION Or< 0.3 5 VERY WELL SORTED 0.35-0.50 WELL SORTED 0.50-0.71 MODE RA TEL Y WELL SORTED 0.71-1.00 MODERATELY SORTED 1.0-2.0 POORLY SORTED 2.0-4.0 VERY POORLY SORTED > 4.0 EXTREMELY POORLY SORTED Figure CL Grain-size and sorting classifications.

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83 Table Cl. Sediment texture parameters. STATION Z O NE %GRAVEL 0/o SAND % SILT8CLAY MEDIAN 0 IIEAN tJ SORTING FOLK'S CLASS 11 1 MB 0 99.26 0.74 2.149 2.391 0.63 15 11 2 A 0 98.34 1.66 2.141 2.417 0.66 15 B 0 98.65 1. 35 2.164 0.62 15 11-3 A 0 98.31 1.69 2.053 2.418 0.80 15 B 0 97.38 2.62 2.126 o. 77 15 11-4 A 2.46 84.91 12.63 2.587 2. 936 1 1.13 10 B 3.67 84.84 11.49 2. 572 1.03 10 c 2.19 88.83 8.98 2.422 2. 729 1 0.99 11 11-5 A 0 95.62 4.38 2.401 0.50 15 B 0.19 97.82 1. 99 2.356 0.43 11 c 0.15 95.79 4.06 2.317 0.47 11 11-6 A 0 95.63 4.37 2.587 3.011 0.33 15 B 0 97.19 2.81 2.559 0.31 15 c 0.42 92.27 7.31 2.582 0.41 11 11-7 A 0.11 94.32 5.56 2.562 2.990 0.39 11 B 0.41 95.03 4.55 2.556 0.35 11 11-8 A 0 95.76 4.24 2.390 2.690 0.43 15 A' 1.44 94.21 4.35 2.393 0.44 11 14-1 A 0 99.34 0.66 2.467 2.695 0.36 15 B 0 99.31 0.69 2.449 0.38 15 14-2 A 0 97.40 2.60 2.455 2.739 0.49 15 A' 0 97.20 2.80 2.473 0.45 15 14-3 A 0.10 95.67 4.23 2.474 2.801 0.55 11 B 0.44 96.05 3.52 2.444 0.53 11 c 0.07 96.55 3.38 2.452 0.51 11 14-4 A 2.38 92.99 4.63 2.368 2.417 1.02 11 B 1.22 87.84 10.94 2.425 1.12 10 15-1 A 0 98.44 1.56 2.484 2.747 0.41 15 B 0 97.99 2.01 2.487 0.38 15 15-2 A 0.91 96.53 2.56 2.481 2.695 0.48 11 B 0.19 96.84 2.98 2.493 0.45 11 15-3 A 0.44 82.82 16.74 2.603 3.260 1.13 10 B 1.92 88.32 9.76 2.544 1.27 11 c 4.62 83.91 11.47 2.464 1.62 10 D 5.14 78.37 16.49 2.543 1.50 6 15-4 A 12.03 85.61 2.36 2.106 1.569 2.14 7 B 1.13 92.35 6.52 2.498 0.84 11 I 15-5 A 0.63 96.84 2.53 2.386 2.449 0.78 11 B 2.12 96.07 1.81 2.428 0.87 11 c 4.92 88.65 6.43 2.499 1.45 11 16-1 A 0 98.65 1. 35 2.502 2. 776 0.34 15 B 4.35 93.62 2.02 2.4 77 0.66 11 16-2 A 0.23 96.47 3.30 2.487 2.795 0.44 11 B 0 96.56 3.44 2.522 0.44 15

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84 Table Cl (cont'd). STATION ZONE 0/o GRAVEL %SAND % SILT6CLAY MEDIAN II MEAN tJ SORTING FOLK'S CLASS 16-3 A 0 96.85 3.15 2.485 2.794 0.50 15 B 0 96.99 3.01 2.490 0.47 15 16-4 A 0 96.85 3.15 2.458 2.758 0.46 15 B 0 97.78 2.22 2.449 0.45 15 16-5 A 0.66 88.92 10.42 2.681 3.042 0.86 10 B 1.11 88.70 10.19 2.438 1.12 10 16-6 A 0.69 95.71 3.60 2.561 2.828 0.37 11 B 3. 21 92.19 4.60 2.552 0.60 11 16-7 A 2.90 93.85 3.25 2.403 2.425 0.75 11 B 6.47 87.47 6.06 2.382 1.35 7 16-8 A 0 98.19 1.81 2.505 2.769 0.29 15 B 0.22 96.54 3.24 2.554 0.37 11 16-9 A 3.80 91.99 4.21 2.432 2.529 0.48 11 B 0.94 90.13 8.93 2.514 0.57 11 16-10 A 0.60 95.14 4.26 2.385 2.660 0.51 11 B 0.41 92.30 7.29 2.348 o. 72 11 16-11 A 0.90 96.05 3.05 2.420 2.634 0.40 11 B 0.90 96.41 2.69 2.429 0.40 11 17-1 A 0 99.03 0.97 2.375 2.583 0.48 15 B 0 98.44 1. 56 2.451 0.43 15 17-2 A 0.07 99.13 0.80 2.311 2.494 0.65 11 B 0 99.21 0.79 2.355 0.63 15 17-3 A 0.16 98.11 1. 73 2.330 2.500 0.75 11 B 0 97.91 2.09 2.405 0.59 15 17-4 A 0.43 96.25 3.32 2.487 2.733 0.58 11 B 0.53 95.66 3.81 2.506 0.57 11 17-5 A 4.93 91.27 3.80 2.481 2.392 1.11 11 B o. 72 92.73 6.55 2.477 0.78 11 17-6 A 1.01 96.29 2.70 2.464 2.604 0.55 11 B 0.53 93.89 5.58 2.517 0.56 11 17-7 A 0.44 92.24 7.32 2.532 2.953 0.63 11 B 2.69 93.48 3.83 2.428 0.56 11 c 3.93 90.75 5.32 2.317 0.99 11 18-1 A 0 98.61 1. 39 2.447 2.706 0.41 15 B 0.03 98.09 1.88 2.487 0.41 11 18-2 A 0 97.02 2.98 2.405 2.655 0.65 15 B 0 96.50 3.50 2.418 0.64 15 18-3 A 1.52 95.62 2.86 2.434 2.625 0.59 11 B 0.39 95.79 3.82 2.467 0.59 11 18-4 A 1. 79 94.85 3.37 2.389 2.499 0.67 11 B 0 95.47 4.53 2.445 0.61 15 c 0.21 96.38 3.40 2.443 0.65 11 18-5 A 2.27 94.13 3.60 2.447 2.481 0.85 11 B 0 95.02 5.98 2.526 0.60 15

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85 Table Cl (cont'd). STATION ZONE %GRAVEL %SAND % SILTilCLAY MEDIAN 0 SORTING FOLK'S CLASS 18-6 A 0.66 96.02 3.32 2.495 2.663 o. 77 11 B 0.90 93.95 5.15 2.499 0.62 11 18-7 A 0.07 98.11 1.82 2.489 2.668 0.51 11 B 0.10 97.42 2.48 2.487 0.51 11 c 0 96.30 3.70 2.495 0.51 15 18-8 A 4.24 93.22 2.54 2.369 2.131 1.20 11 B 0.80 94.59 4.60 2.348 1.15 11 c 0.50 92.18 7.33 2.442 0.76 11 19-1 A 0.38 96.94 2.68 2.474 2.740 0.48 11 B 0.32 95.12 4.56 2.506 0.58 11 19-2 A 0.12 92.45 7.43 2.532 2.814 0.92 11 B 2.16 93.01 4.83 2.433 0.79 11 c 2.89 89.72 7.39 2.480 :!..14 11 D 2.18 89.51 8.31 2.549 o. 77 11 19-3 A 0.88 93.46 5.63 2.414 2.494 1.15 11 B 1.85 91.30 6.85 2.418 1.14 11 19-4 A 1.84 95.21 2.94 2.415 2.336 1.04 11 B 1.50 93.39 5.11 2.419 1.08 11 19-5 A 1.33 94.16 4.51 2.495 2.614 0.78 11 B 2.89 92.48 4.63 2.387 1. 27 11 c 3.85 89.72 6.43 2.326 1.56 11 20-1 A 0 98.66 1.34 2.442 2.711 o. 35 15 B 0 98.56 1.44 2.453 0.34 15 20-2 A 0.43 95.25 4.32 2.574 2.900 0.56 11 B 0 94.53 5.47 2.585 0.61 15 c 0.17 93.91 5.92 2.584 0.60 11 20-3 A 2.03 91.95 6.02 2.341 2.220 1.45 11 B 1.03 90.23 8.73 2.302 1.58 11 20-4 A 0.98 96.69 2.33 2.382 2.261 1.11 11 B 2.62 91.65 5.73 2.370 1.57 11 20-5 A 20.37 76.06 3.57 2.181 1. 270 3.08 7 B 1.86 92.56 5.58 2.369 0.98 11 21-1 A 0 98.88 1.12 2.529 2.825 0.31 15 B 0 98.40 1.60 2.529 0.31 15 21-2 A 0 98.47 1.53 2.430 2.682 0.47 15 B 0.33 97.69 1.98 2.521 0.47 11 21-3 A 0.25 88.52 11.23 2.483 2.887 1.12 10 B 1. 92 91.81 6.27 2.384 1. 74 11 c 0.62 94 0 92 4.46 2.414 1.26 11 21-4 A 1.68 91.83 6.50 2.410 2.427 1.31 11 B 2.53 91.57 5.91 2.374 1.49 11 21-5 A 1.31 93.48 5.21 2.520 2.703 0.62 11 B 0.91 92.64 6.45 2.47/ 0.53 11 c 0.67 92.87 6.46 2.476 0.53 11

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86 Table Cl (cont'd). STATION ZONE %GRAVEL %SAND %SILT&CLAY MEDIAN ill WEAN fl SORTING FOLK'S CLASS 21-6 A 0.89 96.78 2.33 2.274 2.489 0.42 11 B 2.45 92.70 4.85 2.370 0.45 11 c 2.65 92.18 5.17 2.422 0.45 11 21-7 A 1. 67 90.46 7.87 2.319 2.503 1.15 11 B 0 97.04 2.96 2.464 0.40 15 c 1.42 93.22 5.36 2.443 0.50 11 21-8 A 0 97.72 2.28 2.455 2.747 0.34 15 B 0.09 95.73 4.18 2.427 0.40 11 c 0.15 92.55 7.30 2.425 0.51 11 22-1 A 3.47 93.94 2.59 2.505 2.545 0.54 11 B 0.37 95.28 4.35 2.507 0.59 11 23-1 A 3.11 92.84 4.05 2.461 2.428 1.01 11 B 0.51 92.90 6.59 2.501 0.79 11 c 0.54 90.59 8.87 2.483 0.80 11

PAGE 98

STATION ZONE 3 0 Ill -2 0 -1.0 Ill 0 0 tl 1.0 tl 2 0 Ill 11-1 A&B 0.03 0.11 2.26 22.42 11-2 A 0.09 0.37 2.84 21.47 B 0.13 0.18 2.23 20.33 11-3 A 0.32 0.52 6.06 27.55 B 0.34 5.37 25.37 11-4 A I 2.46 3.89 2.26 2.19 8.99 B 1.88 1. 79 2.11 1.55 1. 79 9. 77 c 0.83 1. 36 2.88 2.24 2.83 12.44 11-5 A 0.90 0. 71 1.28 7.61 B 0.19 0.45 1.01 1.43 7.06 c 0.15 0.73 1.02 1. 91 9.75 11-6 A 0.19 0.23 0.49 2.07 B 0.08 0.14 0.50 1.44 c 0.42 1. 06 0.55 1.26 2.48 11-7 A 0.11 0.23 0.27 0.50 5.18 B 0.41 0.24 0.31 0.90 3.31 11-8 A 0.53 1.21 1. 39 7.75 A' 1.44 0.40 0. 37 1.47 7.73 14-1 A 0.06 0.08 0.58 6.61 B 0.09 0.13 0.85 7.52 14-2 A 0.07 0.26 1. 32 8.81 A' 0.03 0.20 0.81 7.52 14-3 A 0.10 o. 37 0.55 1.47 8.66 B 0.44 0.32 0.67 1.44 9.55 c 0.07 0.21 0.49 1.16 9.08 14-4 A 0.47 1.91 2.83 3.47 4.86 11.79 B 1.22 2.35 1.92 4.53 16.73 15-1 A 0.08 0. 34 0.99 5.41 B 0.25 0.31 1.24 4.76 15-2 A 0.57 0.35 0.79 0.76 1. 39 5.84 B 0.19 0.13 0.31 1.03 5.80 Values represent % of total sample retained on sieve. ----------2 5 Ill 3 0 tl 3 5 31.54 35.22 6.97 32.20 33.40 7.20 32.72 35.73 6.62 25.58 28.76 8.43 25.13 30.91 9.79 12.70 25.95 19.22 13.26 27.68 19.74 17.01 30.17 15.43 25.64 45.58 11.56 29.63 48.10 8.49 30.81 42.04 7.89 3.50 64.45 21.72 3.03 72.41 17.39 5.47 58.38 19.76 6.97 58.74 20.11 5.69 63.88 19.01 24.52 51.96 7.69 23.58 52.44 7.66 16.08 61.26 13.27 16.65 61.97 10.78 18.32 51.66 14.77 16.79 55.16 14.67 17.35 47.85 16.67 18.63 48.73 14.18 19.01 49.35 15.10 16.18 35.93 14.36 14.03 26.32 15.60 15.95 57.97 15.84 14 80 60.35 14.34 15.30 53.90 15.97 15.13 56.23 15.35 4 0 fl >4 0 tl o. 71 0.74 0.77 1. 66 0.70 1. 35 1.08 1. 69 0.48 2.62 9. 72 12.63 I 8.94 11.50 5.82 8.98 2.33 4.38 1.65 1. 99 1.65 4.06 2.98 4.37 2.20 2.81 3.32 7. 31 2.32 5.56 1.69 4.55 0. 71 4.24 0.57 4.35 1.40 0.66 1. 32 0.69 2.19 2.60 2.02 2.80 2.76 4.23 2.52 3.52 2.15 3.38 3.57 4.63 6.36 10.94 1. 87 1. 56 1.95 2.01 2.59 2.56 2.85 2.98 -------' Di o' ...... (1) (') N C':l t1 Ill ..... 7 Cll ..... N (1) Ill s. Cll ..... (1) < (1) Ill ...... '< Cll ..... Cll p.. Ill Ill CXl .......

PAGE 99

STATION ZONE 3 0 Ill -2.0 II -LO II o o II 15-3 A 0.44 1.09 1. 97 B 1. 92 3.21 4.49 c 0.57 4.04 4.66 4.26 D 0.86 4.28 3.45 2.93 15-4 A I 9.13 2.90 5. 72 4.98 B 0.37 0.76 1.40 1. 70 15-5 A 0.63 2.88 2.92 B 2.12 3.90 3.25 c 3.08 1.84 4.69 4.03 16-1 A 0.08 0.15 B 3.88 0.47 0.47 0.33 16-2 A 0.23 0.31 0.39 B 0.06 0.13 16-3 A 0.18 0.42 B 0.56 16-4 A 0.10 0.44 B 0.09 0.48 16-5 A 0.66 2.01 3.15 B 1.11 2.44 3.62 16-6 A 0.69 1. 47 1.08 B 2.84 0.37 2.08 2.45 16-7 A 0.41 2.49 2.87 2.39 B 3.36 3.11 4.26 3.24 16-8 A 0.45 0.81 B 0.22 0.25 0.63 16-9 A 2.43 1. 37 1. 60 1.09 B 0.94 0.82 0.82 16-10 A 0.60 0.82 1.10 B 0.41 0.30 0.47 16-11 A 0.90 1.20 0.90 B 0.87 1. 30 1.16 17-1 A 0.03 0.27 B 0.19 0.27 -1.0 II 2 o II 2 5 Ill 3 0 II 3.50 11.27 14.22 24.73 5.08 7.92 11.96 26.20 5.01 8.70 11.87 25.41 3.93 8.38 11.18 25.56 4.66 11.93 14.98 30.03 3.56 11.27 13.33 35.44 3.31 11.36 17.30 42.65 3.33 8.25 13.01 45.25 4.26 8.86 9.41 27.68 0.60 4.09 13.34 62.73 0.80 4.05 12.67 60.05 1.16 5.63 15.49 56.41 0.83 5.39 13.30 55.63 1.24 6.97 16.87 51.63 1.15 6.23 16.02 54.25 1.51 8.38 18.13 51.44 1. 35 7.51 18.98 54.16 3.29 6.27 9.14 29.53 4.84 13.71 13.56 28.38 1.44 3.52 6. 79 56.28 2.50 5.29 7.81 44.12 2.92 7.68 17.84 43.68 3.32 8.97 14.70 34.11 1. 04 3.14 10.84 65.97 1.16 3.15 7.86 60.40 1.11 5.09 18.34 51.84 1. 21 4.66 15.51 49.14 1. 87 9.89 23.51 45.13 2.54 16.36 22.50 37.73 0.83 4.89 21. 79 57.25 1. 30 4.76 19.16 59.87 1.11 13.18 23.41 47.65 1. 36 2.84 24.11 52.59 .!! II 4 0 Ill 16.52 9.52 19.38 0.08 15.78 8.22 15.25 7.69 11.00 2.31 20.28 5.39 14.35 2.07 16.34 2.75 22.83 6.89 16.08 1. 58 13.78 1.47 14.64 2.45 18.47 2.74 17.15 2.40 16.33 2.45 14.44 2.41 13.17 2.04 24.85 16.07 6.06 20.39 4.74 22.27 5.68 13.35 3.11 14.46 4.42 13.75 2.20 19.69 3.40 10.59 2.33 14.64 3.33 9.86 2.95 9.57 2.83 8.43 0.75 8.15 0.72 12.21 1.17 15.58 1. 48 >4 0 ., 16.74 9.76 11.4 7 16.49 2.36 6.52 2.53 1. 81 6.43 1. 35 2.02 3.30 3.44 3.15 3.01 3.15 2.22 10.42 10.19 3.60 4.60 3.24 6.06 1. 81 3.24 4.21 8.93 4.26 7.29 3.05 2.70 0.97 1.56 f;;3 0" t-' It) () N -"""' n 0 :::1 Q. (X) (X)

PAGE 100

STATION ZONE -3.0 Ill -2. 0 II 1.0 II o o II 17-2 A 0.07 0.03 0.38 B 0.07 0.28 17-3 A 0.16 0.87 0.67 B 0.07 0.20 17-4 A I 0.43 0.84 1.27 I B 0.53 0.41 0.73 17-5 A 4.93 3.84 2.52 B o. 72 1.18 1. 87 17-6 A 1.01 1. 88 1. 74 B 0.53 0.80 0.60 17-7 A 0.44 0.58 1.17 B 2.69 1.08 1.61 c 0.65 3.29 3.38 3.44 18-1 A 0.06 0.08 B 0.03 0.03 0.11 18-2 A 0.11 0.44 B 0.08 0.40 18-3 A 1.52 0.56 0.65 B 0.39 0.27 0.60 18-4 A 1.28 0.51 0.71 1.01 B 0.46 0.54 c 0.21 0.36 0.57 18-5 A 2.27 3.18 3.07 B 0.39 0.76 18-6 A 0.66 1.60 2.31 B 0.90 2. 77 3.56 18-7 A 0.07 1. 68 1.68 B 0.10 1.18 1.27 c 0.52 0 .69 18-8 A 1. 59 2.65 4.20 4.28 B 0.80 3.83 4.70 c 0.50 1.72 2.40 19-1 A 0.38 0.48 0.48 B 0.32 0.06 0.29 1.0 II 2 0 II 2 .!1 Ill 3 0 II 2.85 18.19 23.74 38.77 2.41 16.71 21.81 41.51 3.39 17.52 21.14 38.82 1.99 14.38 19.92 43.13 1. 99 8.19 14.94 47.03 1. 61 8.36 14.05 47.40 3.92 6.78 10.35 38.22 3.87 10.32 13.60 40.60 2.73 6.22 14.59 50.79 1.87 6.11 14.26 48.25 1.86 6.56 14.75 43.64 2.18 6.74 18.96 46.82 3.90 10.76 19.64 36.85 0.56 6.62 20.76 55.36 0.44 5.14 17.04 57.25 2.65 14.58 19.77 39.91 2.74 14.33 19 .20 39.33 1.94 11.01 18.12 43.90 1.71 10.68 17.23 44.00 2.69 12.56 19.33 42.74 2.42 12.26 16.90 44.45 2.36 12.07 17.01 44.99 3.29 7.61 13.42 43.43 1.87 8.11 13.79 45.30 3.40 6.99 12.84 45.18 2.74 8.09 12.47 39.09 1.65 5.59 14.48 51.92 1. 78 6.43 15.22 50.64 1.66 6.33 15.42 51.73 4.39 7. 77 15.68 39.47 6.12 10.35 16.75 37.64 4.66 9.95 16.37 37.45 1.10 7.58 15.72 54.08 1.18 9.09 15.18 46.60 3 .!1 Ill 4.0 Ill 13.54 1. 63 14.54 1.89 13.70 2.01 15.87 2.36 17.68 4.33 18.54 4.55 20.26 5.38 16.37 4.93 15.24 3.11 17.63 4.37 17.49 6.19 12.44 3.64 10.17 2.61 13.78 1.39 16.17 1.91 16.79 2.76 17.51 2.90 16.74 2.70 18.05 3.25 13.54 2.26 15.44 3.00 16.12 2.90 16.11 4.01 18.97 5.82 19.36 4.36 20.00 5.24 17.43 3.67 17.29 3.60 16.18 3. 77 13.94 3.48 12.02 3.18 15.74 3.89 13.94 3.55 17.61 5.10 >4. 0 II 0.80 0. 79 1. 73 2.09 3.32 3.81 3.80 6.55 2.70 5.58 7.32 3.83 5.32 1.39 1.89 2.98 3.50 2.87 3.82 3.37 4.53 3.40 3.60 4.98 3.32 5.15 1. 82 2.48 3. 70 2.54 4.60 7.33 2.69 4.56 I I j)l C" ..... lb (") N ...... 0 0 ::s rt jJ.. '-" 00 \0

PAGE 101

STATION ZONE -3.0 -2 0 1 .0.. 0 0 1.0. 19-2 A 0.12 1.67 3.50 5.37 B 2.16 3.41 5. 71 6.05 c 1.15 1. 74 3.78 3.58 4.07 D 1. 38 1.29 1. 75 2.06 19-3 A I 0.88 3.59 4.91 6.14 B 1.85 2.97 4.85 5.45 19-4 A 1.84 3.30 4.32 4. 79 B 1.50 3.73 4.50 5.36 19-5 A 1. 33 3.13 2.88 3.67 B 1. 34 1. 55 3.85 4.87 6.14 c 3.85 5.56 5.41 6.03 20-1 A 0.08 0.28 B 0.04 0.07 0.21 20-2 A 0.43 0.47 0.90 1.40 B 0.55 0.32 1. 32 c 0.17 0.15 0.17 1.07 20-3 A 2.03 4.85 6.50 8.31 B 1.03 5.81 6.11 10.46 20-4 A 0.98 6.44 4.69 4.40 B 2.62 7.20 5.34 5.16 20-5 A 18.52 1.85 4.68 4.25 4.11 B 1.86 3.10 3. 91 4.66 21-1 A 0.03 0.18 B 0.03 0.10 0.17 21-2 A 0.12 0.81 B 0.34 0.07 0.27 0.87 21-3 A 0.25 1.55 3.97 5.45 B 1.92 6.38 8.53 6.24 c 0.62 4. 77 6.59 5.22 21-4 A 1.68 2.00 7.07 6.85 B 1. 87 0.65 5.42 5.46 6.44 21-5 A 0.83 0.48 1. 79 2.23 2.43 B 0.91 2.25 2.38 2.52 c 0.67 3.05 2.70 2.86 --2 0 2 .!5 3 0 8.66 11.37 34.22 8.41 11.37 35.18 9.88 10.70 32.80 8.46 11.72 37.62 10.45 12.76 34.33 10.99 12.77 33.03 7.89 14.09 41.56 8.40 13.96 36.97 6.36 11.93 42.21 9.53 12.32 37.75 11.88 12.50 31.10 3.35 22.60 61.66 2.95 21.20 62.76 6.05 12.63 43.30 7.91 12.87 40.27 7.63 13.17 41.27 11.65 11.32 29.21 13.08 10.84 25.56 7.53 14.74 42.29 9.55 12.06 33.35 6.02 12.24 29.76 9.78 17.60 37.87 2.98 9.73 66.39 2.79 10.11 65.71 9.90 20.86 50.62 4.33 11.95 59.36 11.88 13.25 29.25 7.88 10.76 30.92 7.76 12.87 37.06 8.92 12.85 33.23 10.79 12.14 29.12 5.57 12.52 44.65 7.49 14.75 43.33 6.54 14.53 43.46 3 .!5. 4 0 19.95 7. 71 16.94 5.94 17.83 7.09 18.67 7.94 16.42 4.89 16.06 5.17 15.38 3.89 16.07 4.38 18.48 5.49 13.38 4.63 12.50 4. 72 9.51 1.18 9.72 1. 6 1 23.86 6.65 23.61 7.69 22.90 7.54 14.70 5.41 12.69 5.68 13.79 2.80 14.30 4.69 11.87 3.14 12.18 3.45 17.03 2.54 16.45 3.03 14.10 2.05 17.68 3.15 16.72 6.43 15.42 5.68 16.27 4.39 15.06 5.85 16.25 5.95 19.60. 4.69 16.09 3.83 16.01 3.72 >4. 0 7.43 4.83 7.39 8.31 5.63 6.86 2.94 I 5.11 4.51 4.63 6.43 1. 34 1.44 4.32 5.47 5.92 6.02 8.73 2.33 5. 72 3.57 5.58 i i 1.12 1.60 1. 53 1. 98 111.23 6.27 4.46 6.50 5.91 5.21 6.45 6.46 1-3 IU 0" (") N ,-.. n 0 ::l p.. ........ \0 0

PAGE 102

STATION ZONE 3 0 ., -2 0 ., 1 0 0 0 ., 1.0' 2 0 21-6 A 0.89 1.87 0.69 0.78 5.52 B 2.45 0.67 0.53 1. 20 6.3( c 0.73 1. 92 0.68 0.76 1. 33 5.14 21-7 A 1.67 1.25 5.06 7.91 13.35 0.32 0.70 1. 34 5.00 1.42 0.96 1.03 1.49 5.59 21-8 A 0.42 0.13 0.26 3.23 B 0.09 0.26 0.29 0.75 5.82 c 0.15 0.12 0.31 1.41 7.64 22-1 A 2.56 0.91 1.21 2.15 1. 96 3.94 B 0.37 0.77 1.14 2.11 8.17 23-1 A 0.69 2.42 4.00 3.97 3.28 6.01 B 0.51 2.61 2.10 2.52 10.05 c 0.54 0.91 1.15 2.91 12.32 2 5 Ill 3.0 3 5 38.16 42.61 5.95 27.55 47.05 7.55 21.83 51.06 9.46 16.01 34.07 10.30 17.84 57.71 12.24 20.07 50.13 11.68 20.16 62.69 9.65 23.40 54.57 9.06 23.46 48.24 9.35 10.97 51.49 18.25 13.32 46.89 18.61 12.23 41.08 17.69 13.43 37.38 19.38 14.53 37.69 15.89 4 0 1.21 1.87 1. 92 2.51 1. 90 2.26 1.17 1.58 2.02 3.97 4.28 4.57 5.43 5.18 >4 0 ., 2.33 4.85 5.17 7 0 87 2. 96 I 5.36 I 2.28 4.19 7.30 2.59 4.35 4.06 6.59 8.87 H Ill ot-' ro (") N ........ (") 0 ::l n 0.. '-' \() ,_.

PAGE 103

92 APPENDIX D

PAGE 104

93 APPENDIX D SEDIMENT CARBON DATA Table Dl. Sediment carbon data. % Total* % Organic % Inorganic STATION ZONE Carbon Carbon Carbon % Ca C03 11-1 A&B .209 .132 .077 .64 11-2 A .540 .386 .154 1.28 B .368 .218 .150 1.25 11-3 A .646 .. 445 .201 1.67 B .773 .675 .098 .82 11-4 A 3.857 1.279 2.578 21.48 B 5.789 2.090 3.699 30.81 c 4.922 2.066 2.856 23.79 ll-5 A 1.248 .380 .868 7.23 B 1.376 .358 1.018 8.48 c 1.895 .645 1.250 10.41 11-6 A 1.329 .484 .484 7.04 B .. 758 .271 .. 487 4.06 c 1.709 .509 10.00 11-7 A 2.550 1.307 1.243 10.35 B 1.731 .761 .970 8.08 11-8 A 2.733 1.569 1.164 9.70 A' 2.258 1.635 .623 5.19 14-1 A .159 .074 .085 .71 B .073 .. 104 .87 14-2 A .881 .678 .203 1.69 A' .683 .507 .176 1.47 14-3 A 1.012 .685 .327 2.72 B 1.402 .678 .724 6.03 c .974 .581 .. 393 3.27 14-4 A 3.230 1.038 2.192 18.24 B 6.790 2.974 3.816 31.79 Indicates per cent carbon by weight in sample.

PAGE 105

94 Table Dl (cont' d). % Total* % Organic % Inorganic STATION ZONE Carbon Carbon Carbon % Ca C03 15-1 A .471 .325 .146 1.22 B .510 .472 .038 32 15-2 A 1.019 .607 .412 3.43 B .875 .757 .118 .98 15-3 A -** B 3.708 .612 3.096 25.79 c 4.109 1.130 2.979 24.82 D 6.427 2.056 4.371 36.41 15-4 A 3.341 .340 3.001 25.00 B 2.911 1.200 1.711 14.25 15-5 A 2.255 .250 2.005 16.70 B 2.015 .173 1.842 15.34 c 3.576 .974 2.629 21.90 16-1 A .378 .225 .153 1.27 B .614 .258 .356 2.97 16-2 A .804 .364 .440 3.67 B .952 .657 .295 2.46 16-3 A .959 .544 .415 3.46 B .965 .547 .418 3.48 16-4 A 1.197 .834 .363 3.02 B .818 .630 .188 1.57 16-5 A 4.436 1.280 3.156 26.29 B 5.664 2.590 3.074 25.61 16-6 A 1.626 .480 1.146 9.55 B 2.651 .442 2.209 18.40 16-7 A 2.394 .390 2.004 16.69 B 3.800 1.040 2.760 22.99 16-8 A .784 .117 .667 5.56 B .830 .220 .610 5.08 16-9 A 2.489 .782 1. 707 14.22 16-10 A 1.940 .580 1.360 11.33 B 4.465 2.092 2.373 19.77 ** insufficient sample.

PAGE 106

95 Table Dl (cant' d). % Total* % Organic % Inorganic STATION ZONE Carbon Carbon Carbon % Ca C03 16-11 A 1. 789 280 1.509 12.57 B 1.826 .407 1.419 11. 82. 17-1 A .398 .222 .176 1.47 B .448 .232 .216 1.80 17-2 A .625 .377 .248 2.07 B .359 .258 .101 .84 17-3 A .807 .400 .407 3.39 B .686 .510 .176 1.47 17-4 A 1. 764 .770 .994 8.28 B 2.194 1.207 .987 8.22 17-5 A 2.973 .538 2.435 20.28 B 3.786 1.953 1.833 15.27 17-6 A 1. 760 .440 1.320 11.00 B 1.803 1.803 .770 6.00 17-7 A 2.822 .934 3. 756 31.29 B 2.963 .698 4.153 34.59 c 3.833 1.107 2. 726 22.71 18-1 A .317 .241 .076 .63 B .428 .349 .079 :66 18-2 A 1.043 .773 .270 2.25 B .965 .795 .170 1.42 18-3 A 1.063 .603 .460 3.83 B 1.123 .822 .241 2.01 18-4 A .999 .508 .491 4.09 B 1.331 .853 .478 3.98 c .955 .661 294 2.45 18-5 A 2.017 .560 1.457 12.14 B 1.851 1.200 .651 5.42 18-6 A 1.960 .439 1.521 12.67 B 2.608 .808 1.808 14.99 18-7 A 1.322 .138 1.184 9.86 B 1.231 .316 .915 7.62 c 1.085 .769 .316 2.63

PAGE 107

96 Table Dl (cont'd). % Total* % Organic % Inorganic STATION ZONE Carbon Carbon Carbon i. Ca C03 18-8 A 3.232 .407 2.825 23.53 B 3.206 .817 2.389 19.90 c 2.832 1.174 1.658 13.81 19-1 A .658 .283 .375 3.12 B 1.422 1.147 .275 2.29 19-2 A 3.472 1.010 2.462 20.51 B 3.382 .645 2.737 22.80 c 3.660 968 2.692 22.42 D 2.697 1.294 1.403 11.69 19-3 A 3.898 .713 3.185 26.53 B 4.247 1.664 2.583 21.52 19-4 A 3.165 .397 2.768 23.06 B 3.473 .702 2. 771 23.08 19-5 A 2.856 .480 2.376 19.79 B 3.365 .686 2.679 22.32 c 5.918 1.168 4.750 39.57 20-1 A .214 .145 .069 .58 B .212 .160 .052 .43 20-2 A 1.173 .606 .567 1. 72 B 1.436 1.088 .348 2.90 c 1.083 .883 .200 1.67 20-3 A 5.340 .960 4.380 36.49 B 5. 711 1. 723 3.988 33.22 20-4 A 3.319 .372 2.947 24.55 B 4.811 1.404 3.407 28.38 20-5 A 4.430 .420 4.010 33.40 B 4.035 .789 3.237 26.96 21-1 A .219 .132 .087 .73 B .254 .120 .134 1.12 21-2 A .368 .262 .106 .88 B .407 .232 .175 1.46 21-3 A 6.271 2.310 3.961 33.00 B 4.807 .964 3.843 32.01 c 3.572 .505 3.067 25.55

PAGE 108

97 Table Dl (cont'd). % Total* % Organic % Inorganic STATION ZONE Carbon Carbon Carbon % Ca C03 21-4 A 4.493 .913 3.580 29.82 B 4.695 1.173 3.522 29.34 21-5 A 2.745 .582 2.163 18.02 B 3.014 .802 2.212 18.43 c 2.904 .612 2.292 19.09 21-6 A .872 .218 .654 5.45 B 2.405 1.054 1.351 11.25 c 2.458 .891 1.567 13.05 21-7 A 6.759 3.490 3.269 27.24 B 1.538 .807 .731 6.09 c 1. 769 .750 1.019 8.49 21-8 A .773 .284 .489 4.07 B 1.738 .839 .899 7.49 c 2.451 1.261 1.190 9.91 22-1 A 2.205 .352 1.853 15.44 B 3.327 1.022 2.305 19.20 23-1 A 3.630 .358 3.092 25.76 B 3.806 1.229 2.577 21.47 c 4.210 1.573 2.637 21.97


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