Community based needs assessment : a study of health, education, social serivces, and community well-being programs in east Hillsborough County, Florida

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Community based needs assessment : a study of health, education, social serivces, and community well-being programs in east Hillsborough County, Florida

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Title:
Community based needs assessment : a study of health, education, social serivces, and community well-being programs in east Hillsborough County, Florida
Creator:
Maes, Kathleen I.
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Tampa, Florida
Publisher:
University of South Florida
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English
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x, 205 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Needs assessment -- Florida -- Hillsborough County ( lcsh )
Human Services -- Florida -- Hillsborough County ( lcsh )
Social service -- Florida -- Hillsborough County ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Applied Anthropology -- Masters -- USF ( FTS )

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General Note:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 1996. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 144-148).

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University of South Florida
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Universtity of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
023507122 ( ALEPH )
37243631 ( OCLC )
F51-00126 ( USFLDC DOI )
f51.126 ( USFLDC Handle )

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COMMUNITY BASED NEEDS ASSESSMENT: A STUDY OF HEALTH, EDUCATION SOCIAL SERVICES, AND COMMUNITY WELL-BEING PROGRAMS IN EAST HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, FLORIDA b y KATHLEEN I. MAES A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology University of South Florida December 1996 Major Professor : Alvin Wolfe Ph.D.

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Graduate School University of South Florida Tampa, Florida CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL Master's Thesis This is to certify that the Master's Thesis of KATHLEEN I. MAES with a major in Applied Anthropology has been approved by the Examining Committee on December 6, 1996 as satisfactory for the thesis requirement for the Master of Arts degree Examining Committee: Alvin W. Wolfe, Ph.D. Member: Susan D. Greenbaum, Ph.D.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ABSTRACT CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Statement ofthe Problem Research Questions Historical Perspectives Background of the Study Purpose of the Study Internship Description Importance of the Study Methodology Scope of the Study Limitations of the Study Summary CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Summary CHAPTER 3. METHODS Human Service Needs Analyses Social Indicator Analysis Synthetic Estimation Human Service Resources Analyses Resource Inventory Use of Services Analysis Discrepancy Model Analysis Reliability and Validity Issues Summary of Methods CHAPTER 4. RESEARCH FINDINGS Section 1 : Health Physical Health: Acute Illness Definition Vl Vlll 1 2 4 5 7 9 10 12 14 15 16 17 18 29 30 31 32 34 36 36 37 39 40 43 45 48 48 48

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Population Assessment Estimated Size of Co n s umer Group Resource Assessment Discu ssio n Physical Health : C hronic Illnes s Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Mental Health : Acute and Chro nic Mental Illness Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Mental Health: Substance Abuse Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Selected Health Issue s and Indicators Births Communicable Diseases Traffic Crashes and Fa talities Section 2: Education Pre-Kindergarten Education Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Co nsumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Elementary Education Definition Population Assessment Estimated Si ze of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Secondary Ed ucation Definition Population Assessment 11 48 49 50 50 52 52 52 53 54 55 55 55 56 58 60 60 62 62 62 63 65 65 66 66 69 70 72 72 72 72 73 73 74 75 75 75 75 76 76 78 78 78

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Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Adult and Continuing Education Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Special Needs Education Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Selected Education Issues and Indicators Section 3 : Social Well-Being Financial Hardship Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Unemployment Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Disabled Persons Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Elderly Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion lll 79 79 79 81 81 81 82 83 83 84 84 84 85 85 86 87 91 91 91 91 92 92 93 96 96 96 97 98 98 99 99 100 100 102 102 103 103 103 104 105 105

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Domestic Abuse Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Gro up Resource Assessment Discussion A bused and Neglected C hildren Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Child Care Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discu ssio n Pregnant Teens Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Re source Assessment Discu ssio n Selected Issues and Indicators of Social Well-Being Section 4 : Community Well-Being Public Offenders Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Troubled Youth Definition Population Assessment Estimated Size of Consumer Group Resource Assessment Discussion Selected Community Well-Being Issues and Indicators IV 107 107 108 108 109 110 111 111 111 112 113 113 114 114 115 115 116 117 118 118 118 119 119 120 120 123 123 123 123 124 124 124 126 126 126 128 128 128 130

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CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 132 Conclusions 132 Physical Health 135 Mental Health 135 Education 136 Social Well-Being 136 Recommendations 138 REFERENCES CITED 144 APPENDICES 149 APPENDIX 1. 1990 CENSUS TRACT MAP 150 APPENDIX 2. COPY OF EAST HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY SOCIAL INDICATOR REPORT 151 v

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Study Ar ea by Cens u s Tract, Neighborhood and ZIP Code 11 Table 2. Topics of Interest and Assoc iated Social Indicators 34 Table 3. Points of Access to Services for Ac ute Illnes s 50 Table 4. Points of Acces s to Services for Chronic Illness 54 Table 5. Points of Access to Mental Health Services 60 Table 6. Points of Access to Services for Substance Abuse 65 Table 7. Points of Access to Services for Preschool Educa t ion 73 Table 8. Points of Access to Services for Ele mentary Education 76 Table 9. Points of Access to Services for Secondary Education 79 Table 10. Points of Acces s to Services for Adult and Continuing Education 83 Table 11. Points of Access to Services for Special Needs Education 85 Table 1 2. Selected Education Indicators 88 Table 13. 1991 / 1992 School Year Expenditures 89 Table 14. Selected Higher Education Indicators 90 Table 15. Points of Access to Services for Financial Hardship 92 Table 16. Poverty Level s for Entitlements 93 Table 17. Points of Acces s to Services for Unemployment 98 Vl

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Table 18. Points of Access to Services for Disabled Persons 102 Table 19. Points of Access to Services for the Elderly 105 Table 20. Points of Access to Services for Victims of Domestic Abuse 109 Table 21. Points of Access to Services for Abused and Neglected Children 113 Table 22. Points of Access to Services for Child Care 116 Table 23 Points of Access to Services for Pregnant Teens 119 Table 24. Selected Crimes 123 Table 25. Points of Access to Services for Public Offenders 124 Table 26 1994 Total Crime Index b y Census Tract 125 Table 27. 1994 Youth Referrals 127 Table 28. Points of Access to Services for Troubled Youth 128 vii

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COMMUNITY BASED NEEDS ASSESSMENT: A STUDY OF HEALTH EDUCATION, SOCIAL SERVICES AND COMMUNITY WELL-BEING PROGRAMS IN EAST HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, FLORIDA by KATHLEEN I. MAES An Abstract Of a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology University of South Florida December 1996 Major Professor: Alvin Wolfe Ph.D. Vlll

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The Plant City / East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project was a comprehensiv e human services need s a s se s sment and planning project conducted in Plant City / East Hillsborough County Florida, during the summer of 1995. As an internship in the MA program in Applied Anthropology at the University of South Florida it s aim was to determine the types and amounts of needs of individuals and families within the communit y and to disco v er if the human services directly available to them are adequate so that service planners and providers can better address the clients needs There are several rea s ons to argue that county level data are poor indicators of need and a poor basis for human service planning Needs assessment projects conducted on a smaller scale can help to build an awareness of the unique characteristics and perspecti v es which define a unified communit y and can better reflect the needs of individuals and families in the area a s well as giving insight into the most effective methods of service planning and delivery to the community. The Project utilized both qualitative and quantitativ e methods of data collection and analysis. A discrepancy model w a s used to ascertain the difference s between the services offered and the service needs of the community. The study investigated the complete system of human services in East Hillsborough County in order to determine any duplication fragmentation or gaps iii services. The study found that the continuum of services for individuals and families living the East Hillsborough County is fragmented Many types of services not available in the consumer s local community must be accessed i n other geographic areas Even where services are available often waiting lists are maintained at the smaller service sites lX

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in the study area. Lack of available transportation is a serious barrier to accessibility for many services. This study provides information to individuals and families in eastern Hillsborough County, it documents the community's demographics and human services it serves as a model for further inquiry process and it makes a contribution to applied anthropology Abstract Approved: _____ I Major Professor: Alvin W Wolfe Ph.D. Professor, Department of Anthropology Date Approved: X

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Needs assessments have become a vital component in the planning and delivery of community and human services. This thesis investigates the processes of conducting a human service needs assessment in East Hillsborough County, Florida by focusing on the diverse needs of this defined community and investigating how well these needs are being met with the resources directly available within the community. This project was conducted as an internship in the MA program in Applied Anthropology at the University of South Florida during the summer of 1995. Since the early twentieth century the system of health, education community and social services in the United States has grown in both size and complexity. This growth, coupled with changing economic social and political climates requires current information on the needs of individuals and families as well as the resources available to them in order for service providers, decision makers and community leaders to make informed decisions about how needs will be met and how to accomplish this goal in the most efficient and effective way

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Statement of the Problem A review of the literature shows that the county has been the e f fecti v e unit of research planning and program delivery in the United States Numerous federal and state agencies such as the Census Bureau Vital Statistics Department Department of Agriculture Labor Department Department of Education and others regularl y collect and report information on the count y level. However there are several reasons to argue that county level data are poor indicat o r s of need and a poor basis for human service plannin g. First, Nation Data Con s ultants ( 1 99 1 ) report that Hillsborough County i s considered a metropolitan county one of 32 metropolitan counties in the state o f Florida. A metropolitan county i s one which has a large population nucleus consisting of an urbani z ed area of at least 50 000 inhabitants Data collected in these counties are skewed toward the area' s main population concentration and often do not accurately reflect trends in smaller outlying communities and rural areas. Secondly large urban centers are o ften less affected than are smaller urban areas by changes in the economy or population In smaller urban or rural areas the effects of even modest economic and demographic changes can have pronounced impacts Next natural" communities are selfdefined by the individuals and families who are a part of them and often do not have formal boundaries The feeling of community unity is not necessaril y present at the county level. Within a community there is an individual sense of belonging and affini ty based on mutual similarities or shared 2

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experience among the population including such things as lifestyle beliefs values or common interests and concerns Finally a problem with the deli ve ry of human services is that agencies often have limited capacity and a shortage of fund s which restricts their capability to adequately respond to needs. One of the repercussions of this, noted by the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (1989 ) is that service providers and planners tend to categorize clients to fit existing services. rather than individualizing services to meet client needs This can result in indiv i duals being placed in a type of service because it is the only s ervice available in the area. When a set of services are not focused on the specific needs of the client there is a risk that the client will be underserved or overserved. Another repercussion is that individuals and families may not have immediate access to services. If services are not directly available near the clients' home they may have to travel great distances to receive needed services. Or, if program capacit y is limited clients may be put on a waiting list not knowing when services will become available to them This thesis focuses on the human service needs of a defined community, and investigates how well these needs are being met. This study proposes that in the case of Hillsborough County, Florida human service needs assessments should be conducted on a smaller localized community level rather than on a level determined by formal g eographic boundaries, such as county district or regional divisions which have been determined by outside authorities or governing bodies. The thesis argues that one person in a relatively short period of time, can accomplish such a needs assessment. 3

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Needs asses s ment projects conducted on a smaller scale can help to build an awareness of the unique characteristics and perspectives which define a unified community and can better reflect the needs of individuals and families in the area as well as giving insight into the most effecti ve methods of service planning and delivery to the individual communities. Accumulated community data can then be used both by the community itself as well a s b y the effective unit of service planning and delivery, such as the county district or region as an accurate method of determining human service needs. Research Questions Research in this study was designed to address several questions and issues to help determine whether or not it is possible to obtain substantive results from a human service needs assessment study conducted b y one researcher when time is a limiting factor in this ca s e a four month period oftime from May through August 1995. First, it is important to discover whether there is a distinctive difference between the types and amounts of human service needs of individuals and families living in East Hillsborough County when compared to Hillsborough County as a whole or to HRS District 6 Another notable consideration is whether needed services are available locally in East Hillsborough County or if individuals and families have to travel to other areas to obtain assistance. In addition this research investigates accessibility of locally available services in terms of location operating hours handicapped accessibility, and interpreters 4

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and whether or not these services are adequate to meet the needs of individuals and families in East Hillsborou g h County Finally there is the quest ion of whe ther four months is adequate time for one person to gather, analyze and interpret data and to develop a report that is useful meaningful and comprehensive enough to adequately reflect the current status of human service needs and resources of the study area. Historical Perspectives The literature demonstrates the changing role of government and the private sector in the provision ofhuman services. Richie and Alperin (1992:3-29) note that in the United States prior to 1900 human service s were provided mainly by religious or charitable organizations and government involvement was kept to a minimum. In the early twentieth century pri o r to the Great Depression government i nvol v ement grew with the enactment of wo rkers compensation laws and the government's assumed responsibility for di sa bled World War I veterans. In addition the influx of millions of new immigrants during this time prompted increased volunteer efforts in the absence of substantial governmental programs (Richie and Alperin 1992). President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal and the Social Security Act of 1935 were landmark e v ents in government involvement in the provision of human services In 1946 the National Institute of Mental Health was established in the wake of World War II. Although the Eisenhower Era of the 1950's brought a decelerated level of government 5

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involvement overall the cabinet level Department of Health, Education and Welfare made government involvement in these areas more visible By the 1960's, gaps in human services to the disadvantaged were so great that President Lyndon Johnson declared a "War on Poverty" in his vision of a "Great Society". Although many of the programs instituted during this time were short-li ve d some continued such as the food stamp and Head Start programs (Richie and Alperin 1992). With a trend toward decreasing government involvement in the provision of human services during the 1970's, needs assessment procedures were developed to validate existing programs and expenditures primarily for funding purposes. Neuber (1980) discusses how the passage of Public Law 94-63 in 1975, focusing on the responsibility of community mental health centers to address community needs, brought the notion of needs assessment to the forefront At this time, there was a growing demand for community based human services programs to achieve accreditation, thus conforming to proposed standards, in order to receive government and third party funding. Richie and Alperin (1992) also not that the decade ofthe 1970's was also a time when the voluntary sector of service providers were compelled to new funding sources to augment the dwindling government funding. In addition, there was a proliferation of for profit hospitals with their alleged selective admission of patients creating a greater gap between the availability of services to the disadvantaged and the middle / upper classes, and putting a greater strain on voluntary agencies. The Reagan years (1980-88) saw drastic reductions or limitations of government involvement in the provision of human services This, in part, prompted employers to 6

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contract with for-profit providers to offer human services to their employees Currently there seems to be a continuing trend of reduced social spending by government (Richie and Alperin 1992). Background of the Study The East Hillsborough Network of Human Service Providers is comprised of representatives from various health and human service provider organizations within eastern Hillsborough County. The Network was formed by Mr. Peter Licata from the Plant City Neighborhood Service Center along with several representatives from various human service organizations in the area The East Hillsborough Network has been meeting voluntarily on a monthly basis for several years. One reason for the formation of the East Hillsborough Network was to improve communication between the human service providers in this part of the county Sharing information and ideas has led to cooperation and understanding among the service providers of the area and also added to the identification and comprehension of issues that had to be addressed to meet the needs of individuals and families in the community. However members of the East Hillsborough Network came to realize that dissemination of information is only part of the process of effectively providing health and human services. In order to discover whether needs are being adequately and effectively addressed a complete and comprehensive understanding of what individuals and families need and what help is available to them must be systematically determined 7

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through planning acti v ities including needs assessment evaluation of resources and strategic planning. Contemporary American society is becoming increasingly complex and today more than ever there is a greater need to effectively and efficiently address issues of health, education and well-being in a community that perhaps did not exist only a few years previously. The ta s k of discovering understanding and meeting these needs grows and becomes more profound as s ocial cultural, political and economic factors change on local state and national levels With the needs of the East Hillsborough community growing in both complexity and number there was a growing demand for services as well a s increasing costs of meeting these needs. Competition for available resources required community leaders to make informed decisions about how needs could be met and the most efficient and comprehensive way to accomplish this goal. Members of the East Hillsborough Network determined that in order to insure the greatest possible benefit to all people li v ing in their community service providers and decision makers must have as much information as possible available to them on which to base a strategic plan for addressing duplication fragmentation and gaps in services and for achieving a defined list of outcome objectives In addition they recognized that the goal of human service provider agencies was not just to help a certain segment of society such as families who are economically disadvantaged or individuals with certain physical impairments, but to contribute to the overall well-being of society as a whole. In other words human service agencies address the needs of their clients directly and indirectly the community as a whole 8

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It was therefore determined b y members of the Network that it was critically important for service providers community leaders and decision makers to have as much relevant information as possible available to them so that they could make informed decisions in the best interest of all citizens. Purpose of the Study The Plant City/East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project internship was a comprehens i ve human services needs assessment and planning project conducted in Plant City / East Hillsborough County. The purpose of this project was to discover the types and amounts of human services which are directly available and delivered within this area and to discover whether or not the human service needs of individuals and families are being adequately met. Human service delivery systems are susceptible to duplication and fragmentation of services. As a result meeting the needs of a growing population which is culturally and to some degree geographically diverse coupled with the problems imposed by the locational distribution of services has created the need for more systemized planning. Plant City and East Hillsborough County has had to rely on regional and county-wide needs assessment for planning. Although the HRS District 6 Strategic Plan and the Hillsborough County Needs Assessment are useful for planning on a district or county level it does not address specific issues unique or characteristic of East Hillsborough County. 9

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The Plant City/East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project was undertaken for the purpose of determining the types and amounts of needs of individuals and families within the community and discovering if the services directly available to them are adequate so that service planners and providers can better address the clients' needs. Internship Description The focus of the internship was an investigation of the human service needs in East Hillsborough County, Florida. The internship study was commissioned by the East Hillsborough Network of Human Service Providers and funded in part by the Children's Board of Hillsborough County The Plant City/East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project study area consisted of the incorporated and unincorporated areas of Plant City as well as the rural area townships immediately surrounding it. A map of the study area has been included as Appendix 1. The study area was generally bounded by the Pasco County line on the north the Polk County line on the east and the Manatee County line on the south. The western boundary included County Road 39, County Road 672 (Balm-Picnic Road), Balm Riverview Road Boyette Road the Alafia River Lithia Pinecrest Road, Durant Road, South Dover Road, Valrico Sidney Road, Gallagher Road Thonotosassa-Plant City Road Mcintosh Road and U.S. Highway 301. 10

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The study area encompassed the census tracts neighborhoods and associated zip codes shown in Table 1. Table 1. Study Area by Census Tract, Neighborhood, and ZIP Code CENSUS NEIGHBORHOOD ZIP TRACT CODE Plant Cit): Division101.02 Midwa y / Country Meado w s / Golden Lks / Mt Enon/Knights 33565 101.03 West Antioch/East Kni g hts 33565 101.04 Cork/ Antio ch 33565 Cit): of Plant Cit): 127 Plant C it y 33566 1 2 8 Pl a nt Cit y 33566 125 Plant Cit y / C o untr y Hills / W alden Lake 33567 126 Plant Cit y 33566 129 Plant City 33566 Plant Cit): Division -East 130 Bealsville / Springhead/C o ronet/Y oumans 33566 131 Key s ville / Hopewell / Alafia 33567 Wilmauma-Lithia Division 139.05 Balm/Boyette/Lithia 33547 139.03 F art Lonesome / Picnic / Welcome/Pinecrest 33547 Dover Area 124 Do v er / Turke y C reek/Trapnell / Sidne y 33527 1 3 2 02 Durant/Pinecrest/Dover / Brandon Divis ion 33527 This stud y was conducted during a four month period from May through August 1J95, and resulted in two documents which were submitted to the East Hillsborough Network of Human Service Providers The first document a demographic study of the area which result e d in a Social Indicator Report (Maes 1995a) (see Appendix 2), describes such things a s the si z e distribution ethnic composition education income and employment of the area s population The second document a Population and Resource 11

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analyzed and interpreted data collected during the intern ship and made conclusions and rec ommendations for service providers in the study area. This document will serve as the basis for this thesis. Research for this project was conducted with the understanding that the findings of the stud y would serve as the basis for a draft strategic plan for service providers in East Hillsborough County. Suggestions on how to proceed with the strategic planning process \Vere also submitted to the East Hillsborough Network as a supplementary document and are discussed in C h apter 5. Importance of the Study This study is imponant because it provides information to human service providers, planners and community leade rs about individuals and families in eastern Hillsborough County, it documents the communi ty's d emographics and human services it s erves as a model for further inquiry process, and it makes a contribution to applied anthropology. human service providers, planners and community leade rs in East Hillsborough County will benefit from this s tud y in that it can help to build an awareness of the demographic economic, social and geographic characteristics and perspectives which define Plant City/East Hillsborough County as a unified community. U nderstanding can help to build an awareness of the community' s strengths as w ell as shortcomings an important first step to improving the quality of life in the community. 12

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Second, documentation of the status of health education, human services and community well-being is important to human service planners, providers and policy makers on local county, regional and state levels. Documentation helps to clarify the community's strengths and shortcomings and frames them in the context of the community. The information provided can serve as a strategic planning tool, support for writing grants or fundraising, as the basis for community action, a stimulus for further investigation a guide for forming new programs or remodeling existing ones, and as a baseline measure for evaluation as well as the process of additional needs identification service delivery program planning and funding allocations. Next, one of the objectives of this thesis is to demonstrate the importance of studying a smaller area or self-defined community and to show how this can be accomplished in a short period of time. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the process of needs assessment in a small community in terms of time cost effectiveness and results Finally, the Plant City / East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project will make important contributions to the field of applied anthropology. The holistic perspective of anthropology lends itself particularly well to issues such as these. Anthropologists do not view a particular service agency in isolation from other agencies, or a particular segment of the population as being segregated from the rest of society. Rather, the users and providers of services are seen as part of a larger whole The sheer magnitude and complexity of contemporary social settings does not permit in-depth 13

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examination of all aspects of a particular culture and cultural setting but research problems can be framed in broad holi s tic terms and in its total or overall cultural context. In addition applied and practicing anthropologi s ts structure their research so that it will be utilized. It focuses on practical concerns using anthropological insights to frame and identify, in advance the impact on processes or situations Projects do not merely consist of conducting research and reporting findings. The research and results are meant to be used by policy decision makers Methodology This thesis focuses on the human service resources as well as the human service needs of a defined community and inve s tigates how well these needs are being met. The study attempts to demonstrate the importance of studying a smaller area or self-defined community, and tests whether a single researcher can conduct a needs assessment study and achieve substantive and useful results in a short period of time The Plant City / East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project utilized both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. Sources of data collection included archival research a census of human and community service providers within the area of study, semi-structured interviews with providers both by phone and in person and informal interviews with consumers or potential consumers of human services. Methods of analysis include social indicator analysis and synthetic estimation to 14

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determine human service needs and a resource inventory and use analysis to determine available human service resources. A discrepancy model was used to ascertain the difference between the services offered and the service needs of the community. The combination of the components and concepts of these analyses form the basis for the model for this research. Scope of the Study This study investigated the complete system of public and not-for-profit human services in Plant City / East Hillsborough County in order to determine any duplication, fragmentation or gaps in the human service delivery system. Research was intended to include a broad examination of the current trends in the delivery of hwnan services. This project was not meant to be an evaluation of individual agencies or programs. In addition, the amount of a particular service that i s available or the amount of money invested in any program does not reflect the value or potential benefit of that program. Inclusion of agencies and programs in the study does not indicate that these are the only services available to individuals and families from the Plant City / East Hillsborough area. There are dozens of human services in other parts of the county or state in which they may be eligible to participate. There are also many privately owned human services available in the study area This study, however, examined only the public and not-for-profit hwnan service resources directly available to consumers within the study area. 15

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Information reported in this study was designed to be used in conjunction with and as a supplement to asset mapping research conducted concurrently by The Children's Board of Hillsborough County which used semi-structured surveys and focus groups of citizens in the study area. In addition, this study is compatible with the Hillsborough County Needs Assessment ( 1994) in that it addresses the nineteen consumer groups or issues of concern which are included in topics addressed in recent Hillsborough County needs assessment studies. Limitations of the Study Geographically, this study was limited to Plant City / East Hillsborough County defined and delimited above. In some cases, county, state or national data are presented in conjunction with study area data. However analysis has not been undertaken which would allow drawing any conclusions about other geographic areas. The major limitation in this study was time including researcher's time length of time allotted for the study, and the time of year in which the study had to be conducted. Reliability and validity issues associated with these factors will be discussed in detail m Chapter 3. Population and demographic data are presented for the most recent year the data are available. Some information is updated annually, some is based on population projections or estimations, and other data, such as the number of individuals living in 16

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poverty are only available with each decennial census. All sources have been noted in conjunction with the data. All resource inventory information is self-reported by human service agencies or their representatives. Consistent with the technique of small area analysis as described by the US Department of Health and Human Services ( 1980), no attempt has been made to verify the reported information or data with a second source. Summary This chapter has given an overview of the research problem, questions and historical perspectives which the thesis addresses, as well as discussing the background and purpose of the study, and a description of the internship. the importance of the study and the research methodology were also summarized. The next chapter will review anthropological literature on needs assessment and needs assessment studies 17

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CHAPTER2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Warheit, Bell, and Schwab (1977:4) and McKillip (1987 : 32) define needs assessments as research and planning activities designed to determine a community's human service needs as well as service program utilization patterns Almost without exception, assessments are conducted under the assumption that the data will be used for planning purposes (Bell Tuan Warheit and Buhl 1978:254, Neuber 1980: 15), that the research will contribute to the solution to a problem (Hendrick Bickman and Rog 1993:3) and that discovered deficiencies are able to be addressed (van Willigen 1993: 162). In general, needs assessments are regarded as a type of evaluation (Neuber 1980:21, Nickens Adelbert and Penny 1980:1 McKillip 1987:7 van Willigen 1993: 162) which can serve as a foundation for program implementation review or revision provide a basis for decision making and furnish a communication link between consumers and service providers (Neuber 1980: 15) as well as to increase public awareness, satisfy a legislative mandate and serve as support for funding or grant preparation (McKillip 1987: 19) A review of the literature shows that there are several approaches to needs assessment research each varying according to the focus of the research and the questions they are designed to answer. Warheit Bell and Schwab (1977) provide an 18

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overview of the needs assessment proc ess including the plannin g r esearch reporting and findings utilization phases. The author s descr i be a variety of approaches data gathering techniques and ty pes of anal ys e s pre se ntin g not only the as s ociated method s and applications, but also providin g e x amples and case studies and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each. Similarl y, McKillip ( 1 9 87) mo v e s from definition conceptualization and operationalization o f the as ses s ment pl a n to data collection anal y si s, and final reporting Wh e reas Warheit et al. d e v o te m ore dis c u ss ion to the how-to" and the hi s torical aspects o f data collection technique s th a t all soc ial scienti s ts are very familiar with McKillip includes more discu s sion about theory and the underlying assumptions of the approaches described. According to Chambers ( 1989:154) and Hendrick Bickman and Rog (1993 : 7) needs assessment investigation i s distinguished from other types of applied social r es e arch b y the kinds of research questi o ns it addresses rather than the research methods it emplo y s The most widel y u sed need s asses s ment approaches include social indicator a nal y ses rates-under-treatment approach key informant interviews communit y or public forums focus groups, delphi panels and s urvey approaches One of the most widely accepted a pproaches is social indicator analysis. Social ind i cators are according to McKillip (1987 : 43) "aggregate statistical measures that depict important aspects of a social situation and of underlying historical trends and d e velopments." The social indicator approach to needs assessment is a technique that uses descriptive statistics to measure and compare various aspects of a social situation 19

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within a defined geographic area. Social indicator research conducted at the sub-county level is also called Small Area Anal ys i s ( US Department of Health and Human Services 1980) and is useful in a wide va riet y of conte xts including locating sub-populations within small areas with s pecial needs describin g the demographic structure of small areas, providing data for estimating population and sub-population characteristics and risk levels aiding in identification of ty pical / atypical residents, and providing data to explore area heterogeneity. Another analysis technique pre va lent in the literature is the service utilization or rates-under-treatment (RUT) approach ( Warheit. Bell and Schwab 1977 Nickens Purga and Noriega 1980 McKillip 1987). Data are collected from human service agencies concerning the number of individuals using their services as well as sociodemographic descriptions of these individuals and is based on the assumption that community's needs can be estimated from a sample of those who have received services Data for this type o f analysis, which i ncludes the type of se rvice provided the kinds of problems addressed s ervice capacity of the program sociodemographic characteristics of the clients, eligibility requirements and the frequency of care i s accessible relatively simple to obtain and provides an excellent overview of the services available in a community However in spite of the fact that this analysis can help to reveal duplication fragmentation and gaps in the service delivery system it does not necessarily indicate need when utilized by itself. McKillip (1987:41) cautions that just because services are not available does not mean there is a need for them In addition a RUT analysis only suggests solutions from already implemented programs 20

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Closely related to RUT anal ys i s is the use of services analysis ( McKillip 1987). This approach combines RUT data concern i ng actual clients served with the expected use of a service. In addition to investigatin g the discrepancy between expected and actual use of a particular service or program this analysis also examines barriers to service including availability, accessibility and acceptability factors Obtaining data for this type of analysis is relatively simple and inexpensive in addition to its emphasis on utilization of services. However use analysis does not reveal how patterns of use would change if barriers to service were remo v ed. Other common approaches i ncluding ke y informant interviews. community or public forums focus groups delphi panels and survey approaches, are applicable to most types of social and applied research and are discussed at length in social science literature. As mentioned previously it is not the methods but rather the questions asked that make these techniques useful in needs assessment research. The wide-ranging literature relevant to needs assessments can be focused down to three bas ic models These include the discrepancy model the marketing model and the decision-making model. McKillip (1987) and Kaufman and English (1979) describe the discrepancy or gap, model as the most straight-forward and widely used approach to the assessment of needs. Simply put it is the difference between "what is" and "what ought to be Need is demonstrated when actual outcomes are below desired levels This model has been criticized as being elitist because of its dependence on professionals for identification and 21

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assessment of need as well as for not providing solutions to the problems di s covered. However this model is very flexible and can be adapted to many need anal y sis situations Nickens Purga and N oriega ( 1980) and Neuber ( 1980) advocate a marketing model, also referred to as a community-oriented needs assessment model which is based on the notion of exchange which they have extended from the private to the public sector human service organizations satisfy the consumers' needs and in turn, the consumers help to insure continued funding of the organization by participating in the organization's programs. Although this model is designed to be relatively inexpensive widely applicable and highly receptive to the desires of the target population (for a discussion on "need" versus "want", see Warheit Bell and Schwab 1977 : 3, McKillip 1987:7-17 and Chambers 1989:154 ), its primary short-coming is that its focus is on perceived deficiencies in performance, types or amounts of services available which can vary widely from one person to the next. While the discrepancy and marketing models rely heavily on measurements of the target population, the decision-making model incorporates research findings on service utilization with problem modeling, quantification and synthesis which can include outcome expectations, actual performance measures, and possible solutions (McKillip 1987:26-29, Siegel, Attkisson and Carson 1978 : 220-224). This model differs from the two previously discussed in that it makes explicit the value judgments and their role in the need analysis The disadvantage of this model is its complexity. Although all of these approaches have merit Siegel Attkisson and Carson ( 1978 : 217) note that there is not a generally agreed upon set of techniques for conducting 22

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a needs assessment. Siegel et al. assert that "The reality is that planners and program must decide what information will generate the most comprehensive identification and assessment of needs in a specific geographic service area" (Siegel et al. 1978:217 -218). In fact, McKillip ( 1987) devotes two chapters to the process of how to choose and utilize multiple methods and methods of integration of information. W arheit Bell and Schwab ( 1977: 19) state that assessment approaches can be integrated or used independently, and the model utilized as well as the types and number of analyses and sources of data vary dramatically with the scope of the investigation. Needs assessments on a broad-based community level are almost non-existent in the anthropological and social scientific literature Documented studies reflect a much narrower focus either on a single problem such as substance abuse, on problems facing a specific group of individuals, such as the elderly or on a system of agencies providing the same or similar services such as mental health Needs assessment studies, however are much more common in the public sector, most likely due to Federal, State and local mandates and include both broad-based and more narrowly focused studies One such broad-based needs assessment study undertaken in the public sector in the mid-1980s was the I-COPE Coordinated Needs Assessment Project conducted in Pinellas County, Florida. This study is of particular interest because it discusses the difference between incremental planning and comprehensive planning strategies, and examines the specific methods and techniques employed in the I-COPE Coordinated Needs Assessment Project. As part of his doctoral dissertation anthropologist William Michaels ( 1990) 23

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examined the debate between proponents of incremental versus comprehensive planning strategies. He notes that advocates of comprehensive planning adopt a systems perspective recognizing the interrelatedness of various needs as well as existing resources within a community. He asserts that comprehensive planning strategies are more likely to be effective in areas where there is a sense of community and common interest, and where funding of human service programs is uncertain. This environment brings about goal orientation and collaborative efforts among human service agencies. On the other hand, he describes incremental planning as a react and adjust strategy" where needs or problems are addressed individually as they occur (Michaels 1990: 1 08), and meaningful change cannot take place. Michaels notes that this type of planning neglects to consider the causes of the problem and the availability of resources. The methods and techniques employed by Michaels and others involved in the I-COPE needs assessment project are also of interest. Michaels (1990:1) describes this project as "a comprehensive planning project that examined a wide rage of human needs aimed at developing a comprehensive plan for more effective delivery of social services in Pinellas County, Florida. This project, according to Michaels (1990: 1 ), was comprehensive in that it examined a wide range of human needs, (e.g teen pregnancy, dependent elderly, substance abuse), spanned the entire range of age groups from conception through senior age, employed "virtually every type of needs assessment technique known," and involved community informants, human service agencies, planning groups and funding organizations. It focused on needs at all levels individuals, families, the human service delivery system and community as a whole. 24

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The level of cooperation among planners and policy makers was especially impressive and included as much as any group the human service power structure ( Michaels 1990: 114 ). Special committees agencies organizations and businesses from throughout Pinellas County participated in data collection investigating problems to be addressed, determining available service interventions and resources, budgeting and prioritizing objectives and strategies. This sweeping cooperation and commitment to the I-COPE project undoubtedly led to the success of this undertaking, and in fact this project was commended by the White House in 1987 for outstanding involvement of c itizens participation in community planning (Michaels 1990: 154). Another community needs assessment project of profound interest and relevance to my research was conducted in 1991 by Alexander M. Ervin and three other applied anthropologists from the University of Saskatchewan. The Saskatoon Needs Assessment Project (Ervin, Kaye Marcotte Belon 1991) is strikingly similar to my needs assessment study in eastern Hillsborough County in terms of purpose focus methods scope, and limitations as well as some of the problems the research team encountered The purpose of the study was to determine the human service needs of the entire community of Saskatoon, a culturally diverse and somewhat economically depressed city of approximately 188 000 people in south-central Saskatchewan, Canada. The six month study was commissioned and funded b y the United Way of Saskatoon. The Saskatoon Needs Assessment focused on general and local met and unmet needs in two categories. The first category, Community Needs dealt mainly with needs of a material nature such as hunger, housing needs and services and shelter for people in 25

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crisis. Metaneeds the other general category addressed the needs of organizations such as the need for a social planning council impro v ing access to i nformation promoting public awareness increasing charitable donations expanding volunteer programs and self-help groups, and accessing more community-based information and research Several social scientific methods of data collection and analysis were employed by Ervin s research team and cons i sted of 135 key informant interviews, 6 focus groups 3 community forums where 30 briefs were presented a three staged delphi questionnaire the examination of previous reports on local i s sues and the collection of social indicator data. Ervin et al ( 1991) point out that although the quantitati v e techniques utilized in this research were somewhat meaningful, the qualitative methods they employed revealed much more useful detailed and informative data The scope of Ervin's study was very broad-based in that a total of 137 organizations participated in the study including both United Way member agencies and non-member agencies Seventeen sectors w ere e x amined including general health c hronic illness and disability mental health employment poverty (including hunger and housing) human justice services the family yo uth seniors women s issues Native issues immigration and refugee resettlement racism and discrimination rehabilitation continuing, remedial and adult education prevention and recreation and self-help groups (Ervin et a/1991 : 3) The research team worked closely with the United Way Board members and agency directors in identifying, prioritizing and discussing which needs would be addressed in the study. Ervin used a three stage delphi questionnaire during 26

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this process and was able to identify, prioritize and discuss 80 out of the 231 needs that were noted over the course of the research At several points throughout the Saskatoon Needs Assessment Ervin et a/ ( 1991) discuss concerns about limitations imposed by logistics, time and budget, concerns which closely parallel those which I expressed regarding the East Hillsborough County Needs Assessment. Also of interest was the authors brief discussion regarding the implications of these limitations and their affect on choice of methods the manner in which problems were addressed and their perceived affect on the outcome of the project. The two other recent studies of value to this research include the Hillsborough County Needs Assessment conducted as part of the District 6 Needs Assessment and Strategic Plan by the State of Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services ( 1994 ), and the Social Indicator Report by the Children's Board of Hillsborough County (1993). Raw data and preliminary anal y ses from surveys conducted by Phil Balducci and Associates as part of the Hillsborough County Needs Assessment (1994) provide insights into the opinions and concerns of residents on a county and local level. Although this study had not been completed at the time my research was being conducted, access to the raw survey data gave valuable insight into portions of East Hillsborough County as well as other areas being studied. The Children's Board of Hillsborough County (1993) produced a Social Indicator Report for Hillsborough County. Although very useful most authors agree that a social indicator report is only one step in the needs assessment process. Siegel, Attkisson and 27

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Carson ( 1978 :216) distinguish between needs identification and needs assessment b y noting that Need identification describes health and social service requirements in a geographic or social area whereas need assessment is aimed at estimating the relative importance of these needs The Children s Board s report ( 1993) does not address this issue of prioritizing need nor offering so lutions. In addition the focus is on the needs of children primarily age 12 and under. Comprehensive city or regional plans although ordinarily not directly related to s ocial needs assessment are informati v e in that they can provide information about the ph y sical setting of a study ar e a In add i tion the y can provide insights into the development of an area over the years. w hich may be useful in determining historical aspects of the growth or decline of such things as industry, commercial businesses and population. Comprehensive plans can also provide information of the geographic distribution of homes industry, commerce and public and semi-public facilities. Six major planning studies have been conducted for the Plant City area within the last 40 y ears which relate to future g rowth e x pectations These include The Comprehensive Development Plan, City of Plant City, Florida by George W. Simons Jr. (1956) the Preliminary Plan of Development Hillsborough County by the Hillsborough County Planning Commission (1962) a Plan of Development Plant City Study Area by the Hillsborough County Planning Commission ( 1966) the Preliminary Regional Plan by the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council ( 1967) a Plan of Development for Plant City, Florida by the City of Plant City (1985 ) and the Comprehensive Plan for the City of Plant City by the Hillsborough County Planning Commission ( 1989) Three of these 28

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studies deal primarily with the city of Plant City itself, proposing a detailed comprehensive plan of future development The other three studies relate to the future growth of Hillsborough County and the Tampa Bay region placing Plant City and East Hillsborough County in the broad context of the metropolitan and regional land areas Summary This chapter has presented a literature review discussing needs assessment methodology and studies of importance to this research The v arious models and approaches to needs assessment were examined and the merits and disadvantages of each were discussed It was determined that there is no agreed upon approach to needs assessment research but rather the method o logy is designed for each project in order to generate the most comprehensive identification and assessment of needs in a specific geographic service area. Finally it was noted that large-scale community-wide needs assessments are very rare in the social science literature but are relatively common in the public sector. 29

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CHAPTER3 METHODS This chapter will discuss the research design and methods employed in this project. Research methodology must be designed to effectively meet the goals and objectives of the project as well as to remain focused on how the analyses will be used As stated previously, the goa l ofthe Plant City/East Hillsborough Human Services Planning Project was to assist citizens, groups and organizations in improving the quality of life in their community. The objectives ofthe internship project we re to identify human service needs and resources within the community, and to provide documentation of the findings which can be used by human service agencies community planners and concerned citizens to help clarify social economic geographic, demographic and cultural settings and conditions in the area. In addition, the findings of this report are meant to serve as the basis for long-range strategic planning as requested b y the East Hillsborough Network of Human Service Providers. The Plant City/East Hillsborough Human Services Planning Project employed techniques of data analysis which addressed both the human service needs and the resources of the community Human service needs were based on those included in the 1994 Hillsborough County Needs Assessment and were investigated us i ng a social indicator analysis and synthetic estimation. These data were supported and corroborated 30

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by eight key informant interviews with individuals and families residing in the study area resources available to individuals and families in the community were discovered using a resource inventory and a use of service analysis Then the discrepancy model which compared the needs with the available resources was applied using these analyses to determine any duplication fragmentation or gaps in services The basis for the model for this research is a combination of the components and concepts of these analyses This chapter will discuss the techniques utilized in these analyses, including an examination of the methods of data collection and data analysis. The first section will discuss the techniques used to determine the human service needs of the community including the social indicator analysis and the process of synthetic estimation The second section will focus on the resources available in the study area and includes the resource inventory analysis and the use of service analysis The third section will discuss the process of integrating these analyses and the subsequent application of the discrepancy model to the resulting synthesis. The final section will address issues of reliability and validity. Human Service Needs Analyses The techniques of social indicator analysis and synthetic estimation were used to discover the types and amounts of human service needs in East Hillsborough County. 31

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Social Indicator Analysis Social indicators are. according to McKillip ( 1987:43) "aggregate statistical measures that depict important aspect s of a social situation and of underlying historical trends and developments." The social indicator approach to needs assessment is a technique that uses descriptive statistics to measure and compare various aspects of a social situation within a defined geographic area. Social indicator research conducted at the sub-county level is also called Small Area Analysis and is useful in a wide variety of contexts including locating subpopulations within small areas with special needs describing the demographic structure of small areas providing data for estimating population and sub-population characteristics and risk levels, aiding in identification of typical / atypical residents, and providing data to explore area heterogeneity. The purpose of this geographicall y specific descriptive small area social indicator procedure is to describe characteristics of groups or subgroups within a given population to form a basis for comparison with larger geographic areas and to help to reveal underlying historical trends and developments. In addition, the social indicator report for Plant City/East Hillsborough County served as the basis for the synthetic estimation process, which will be discussed l ater in this section. Data for the social indicator report were collected solely from archival and documented sources such as the United States' decentenial Census State of Florida Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS) documents, and population estimates and projections from the Hillsborough County Plan Commission as well as other public 32

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records and reports from both public and private agencies. Because the Plant City/East County Social Indicator Report ( Maes 1995a) relied heavily on Census data which are only collected every ten years 1990 was used as the base year for this study When available, this information was augmented by data from past and subsequent years, allowing for identification of trends as well as allowing the data to be utilized in this analysis in a consistent manner. Data collected describe the study area's population growth, age grades ethnic and racial composition population density housing, household composition mobility characteristics disabled population educational attainment income poverty status employment and labor force trends veterans and industry groups The topics addressed and the associated indicators are shown in Table 2. The indicators shown in Table 2 were compared with data from previous years when available, to discover past trends as well as to compare Plant City/East Hillsborough County with Hillsborough County as a whole in order to discover unique characteristics of the study area. Also a s illustrated in Table 2 below selected elements of Social Area Analysis as described b y Holzer & Robbins ( 1981) and Piasecki & Kamis-Gould (1981 ) were also incorporated in the social indicator analysis in order to more fully describe the unique characteristics of the Plant City/East Hillsborough County study area Social area analysis describes a population by using indicators of social rank (including occupational status and educational attainment), family status (including family composition type of residence and participation of women in the labor force), and ethnicity (the proportion of the population belonging to minority groups). 33

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Table 2. Topics of Interest and Associated Social Indicators TOPIC INDI CA TOR Study Area Population Study Area Population by Census Tract Racial/Ethnic Groups Age Groups Retired Workers Disabled Populat ion Civilia n Labor Force Per Capita Income Educational Attainment Housing Employment and Labor Force Trends Past increase, decrease or constant Future projection Compare to county-level data Pa s t increase decrease or constant Future projection Migration versus natural increa s e Compare to population density Past increase decrease or constant Future projection Compare to general population Consider barrier s such as lan g uage Pa st inc rease decreas e, or cons tant Future projection Compare to general population Past increase decrease or constant Future projection Compare to veterans Past increase decrease or constant Compare to mobility characteristics Past increa se decrease or constant Compare t o employment / labor force trends ; indu s tries Past increase d ec rease or constant Compare to co unty and s tate mean Past increase decreas e or constant Compare to general population minorities Past increase decrea se or constant Future projection Compare to age of dwellin g; adequate facilities ; low rent Past increase decrease or constant Future projection Compare to stu dent enrollment; military service ; vete ran s Synthetic Estimation In addition to providing descriptive s tatistics about the population of a given area, the social indicator report also served as the basis for synthetic estimation of various conditions present in the study area Synthetic estimation, as described by McKillip 34

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( 1987 :45-46) is process which uses demographic data for a larger region, such as state or information to estimate a characteristic found within the same group in a smaller geographic area. This method ass umes that the prevalence rates for demographic groups (the number of people who have a given condition ) in smaller areas are the same as in a larger region. Information on prevalence rate s was gathered solely from archival resources, such as the Florida Health Care Atlas (Agency for Health Care Administration 1993) State of Florida Health and Rehabilitative Services ( HRS) publication (1993) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) studies (1980 ), and the 1990 United States Census (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) The accumulated data were used to estimate frequencies of conditions or cha racter istics found in the Plant City / East Hill sbo rough C ounty study area by multiplying the prevalence rate for a given condition by the number of individuals in the a t-risk group identified in the Social Indicator Report (Maes 1995a) for Plant City/East Hillsborough County. The analyzed data were then reported by consumer groups or issues of well-being which com prise various aspects of health education, social well being and community well-being. The nineteen consumer groups and issues of well being that were addressed in this study as suggested by the Plant City / East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project sub-committee, are based on those included in the 1994 Hillsborough County Needs Assessment in order to facilitate comparison with the County's data and reports. 35

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Although social indicators for social indicator analysis and synthetic estimation are readily available inexpensive to obtain and simple to use this type of analysis has been criticized for not investigating possible solutions to the problems it reveals (McKillip 1987). In an attempt to disco ve r some possible solutions to the issues reported in the social indicator analysis, a resource inventory and use of service analysis were conducted. Human Service Resources Analyses The resource inventory technique and the use of service analysis were utilized in this study to discover the types and amounts of human service resources which are directly available in East Hillsborough County. Resource Inventory A resource inventory is a description of the human services available to a target population In this project, the resource inventory was geographically restricted to the East Hillsborough study area The first step of the resource inventory involved compiling a list of all possible types of service facilities which address human service needs For example, Public Health Clinic Financial Assistance Office or Detention Facility are a few of the types of facilities which were included in the resource inventory This list of facility types was 36

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based on those suggested by the Council of State Governments (1975) and are utilized in analyses throughout Chapter 4. The next step identified all of the human service agencies and programs, both public and private, directly available in the study area. Service agencies and programs were identified from a variety of sources including the East Hillsborough Network (1994) Directory of Services, the provider survey conducted in 1994 by the Children's Board of Hillsborough County (unpublished), and from a list furnished by the Citizens Action Center of Hillsborough County as well as by suggestions from members of the East Hillsborough Network of Human Service Providers. In the final step, the identified service agencies and programs available in the study area were listed in mutually exclusive categories according to the type of facility in which the services or programs are offered. The resource inventory for Plant City / East Hillsborough County provided a comprehensive list of human services which were directly available in the study area. This type of analysis is useful because it can help to reveal resources available in the community which can serve as possible solutions to problems. In addition, the resource inventory served as the basis for the use of services analysis. Use of Services Analysis Use of services analysis investigates the types and amounts of services provided by a human service agency or program and compares this with the number of individuals 37

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using or attempting to use that service. In addition use analysis in v estigates possible barriers that may hinder access to service s Information is gathered for a specific period oftime, in this case for calendar year 1994 A total of 120 agencies were contacted during July and August, 1995, and data were collected primarily from personal interviews with agency directors or program managers, either in person or by telephone When this was not possible information from the provider surve y conducted in 1994 by the Children's Board of Hillsborough County was used. Several agencies with p r ograms directly available in Plant City/East Hillsborough County are based in Tamp a and in these cases data concerning programs in the eastern part ofthe county were collected from the main offices in Tampa. Data collected from each agency or program included the type of service or services provided by the agency or program ; the number of unduplicated individuals served in calendar year 1994; the number of individuals currently being served by the agency or program (July or August 1995); the number of individuals the agency is capable of serving at one time; where and when the services were available ; eligibility criteria and requirements; the number of individuals on a waiting list for services ; and the annual budget of the agency or program These data were analyzed to discover both the availability and the accessibility of human services to individuals and families in the East Hillsborough County study area This analysis involved two steps First, the data were used to discover what services are available and which are not how much of a particular service is available, and how much of the service is being utilized. Analysis also included expected use rates of a number of 38

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services not available in the East Hillsborough study area in order to determine the m:nount of need if any, for these services. In the second step, the analysis examines the human service delivery sy s tem for barriers that may hinder the u s e of a particular service by investigating service capacit y, eligibilit y criteria and requirements location of the service delivery facility, when the service is available and whether or not there is a waiting list for the service Obtaining information about human service agencies for the resource inventory and use of services analysis is relativel y simple and inexpensive In addition this type of analysis is useful because it can help to re v eal resources available in the community which can serve as possible solutions to problems However, these types of analyses have some associated practical problems such as agencies not keeping similar or comparable records and an inability to reveal how patterns of use would change if barriers to service were removed. Therefore to discover the difference between expected and actual use rates as well as needs and resources analysis be y ond population descriptions and utilization rates is required. This was accomplished b y application of the discrepancy model. Discrepancy Model Analysis In this study the discrepancy model was used to discover the difference between locally available human and community services and the service needs of the individuals and families living in the study area. This model, as described by McKillip (1987:20-21), 39

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utilizes a process of comparing human s e rvice needs discovered in the social indicator analysis and s y nthetic estimation proce s s with a v ailable resources uncovered in the r e source inventory and u s e analysis to discover duplication fragmentation and gaps in the human service delivery system. The discrepancy model can help to clarify and put into perspective the relationship between problems confron ti ng a target population the services available to this population and the actions that could be taken to alleviate problems In this way, the discrepancy between needs and resource s focuses on the process of decision making as a s upplement to analysis of problems and so lut i ons The combination of the concepts a nd premises of these analyses form the basis for the model for this research. However, as with any research issues of reliability and v alidity of the data, as well as other problems can arise during the research process Reliability and Validity Issues This section will discuss the reliabilit y and validity issues of this study by describing the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology used in this research and problems encountered during the project. The analyses utilized in this s tud y can suffer the problems of ecological fallacy Generalizations from individual to aggre g ate level analyses (or from aggregate to individual) can be logically or empirically irrational. Therefore these analyses should 40

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not be used as predictors of human service needs although they may serve as useful estimates or measures for comparative purposes (McK illip 1987 : 48). With respect to data collection. several issues in this study were problematic. These include the length of time allotted for the research and the time of year the study was conducted. Under the terms of a contractual agreement with the East Hillsborough Network of Human Service Providers and The Children's Board of Hillsborough County, I had to conduct the research alone and could not sub-contract or collaborate with other researchers In addition all research analyses and reports were to be completed durin g the 18 week period oftime fro m May through August 1995. In retrospect 18 weeks was a very short period oftime for one researcher to conduct a project of this magnitude. In addition this study was contractually bound to be conducted during the summer, May through August 1995. In many respects the time of year was even more problematic than the time constraints placed on this project. First, many individuals with access to a human service agency s data system as well as some of the Hillsborough County Schools data bases were on vacatio n making access to data difficult and in some cases impossible to obtain, leaving certain resources uninvestigated and under represented in the analyses. The summer months were also problematic with respect to the population assessment of migrant farm workers a client group which has historically exhibited a large amount of need for human services The migrant farm workers, who live in the study area for approximately nine months out of the year, move north in the summer, precluding any opportunity to investigate the actual number of individuals or 41

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families in this population. To compound the problem of assessing this population, at the time this study was conducted no reliable sy stematic comprehensive research had been conducted on thi s population and migrant farm workers from this area may not have been counted in the 1990 US Census Beyond data collection there are also problems with data analysis First there is the issue of the amount of data as it affects the analysis and secondly the question of comparability of the sets of data from different sources Both problems can adversely impact the quality of the analyses. As mentioned prev iously duration of the research and time of year adversely affected the amount of data collected. Data are missing in many places in the analyses because telephone calls to human service agencies were not returned, information requested was not available return telephone calls with requested information were not received prior to the project deadline the agency contacted did not wish to participate or disclose some or all of the information requested, or the organization agency or program was no longer operating In addition so me agencies have traditionally lower enrollment during some season than others, and therefore time of-year (s ummer) again becomes a factor which must be considered in analysis Missing data were not reported. Comparability of some sets of data are also questionable Most problematic is the fact that the population assessment is based on 1990 figures (although population projections by the County Planning Commission for 1994 and 1995 were utilized) while the resource assessment is based on 1994 data. In light of a growing population over the years in the study area this would most likely skew the data toward under-estimation of 42

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need or over-estimation of a v ailable res ources In addition data u s ually refer to the number of individuals or f amilies served by the agenc y or program However, in some cases. reported information was compiled through different methods by various agencies. For e x ample le g al service s providers account for the number of cases handled annually rather than the number ofunduplicated individuals or families served In other instances individual s from the agencies that were contacted noted that e xact records on the information r e quested were not a v ailable or would be extremely difficult to obtain and therefore reported information is their be s t approximation F in a ll y some ofthe programs pro v i d ed b y the county are funded from a general fund and cost s of program s at different s ite s a re not broken out, resulting in an estimated program cost. Despite these problem s. analy s es and findings can be very valuable when viewed as a starting point for further investigation as a red flag for possible problem s, or as a bas i s for the process o f strate g ic planning in view of the exploratory character of the s tud y. Summary of Methods Chapter 3 has di s cussed the methods which were used to collect and analyze data for this study Data collection techniques included archival research resource census semi-structured interviews with human service providers and key-informant interviews with citizens of the stud y area Data anal y sis techniques included social indicator 43

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analysis, synthetic estimation, a resource inventory and the use of services analysis. The di screpancy model was subsequently applied in order to discover any duplication fragmentation or gaps in the human services delivery system in the East Hillsborough County study area. In spite of certain reliability and validity issues substantive results were obtained in that this study is, to date, the only one which exclusively addresses the population and human service needs of East Hillsborough County. The results and findings of this research will be presented in Chapter 4. 44

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CHAPTER4 RESEARCH FINDINGS This chapter will present the results of the Plant City/East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project. The results have been divided into four sectionsHealth Education Social Well-Being, and Community Well-Being-which address broad areas of interest or concern in contemporary American society. At the suggestion of selected members of the East Hillsborough Network and the Plant City/East Hillsborough Human Services Planning Project sub-committee a total of nineteen consumer groups or issues are studied under these four headings, based on topics addressed in the 1994 Hillsborough County Needs Assessment. This chapter is modeled after a report submitted to the East Hillsborough Network of Service Providers (Maes 1995b) and includes onl y public and not-for profit agencies It should be noted that there are also services available in the private sector although these are beyond the scope of this research The investigation begins with a Definition of the issue or consumer group, which delineates the parameters and contexts in which the issue or target group will be addressed. Next is a Population Assessment w hich discusses 'at-risk groups and population indicators as they relate to the Plant City / East Hillsborough County study area Based on 45

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this information, the Estimated Size of the Consumer Group is calculated for individuals mpst likely to be in need of services. Following this i s a Resource Assessment. Information has been compiled into a list of points of access to services. Agencies/programs offered in the Plant City / East Hillsborough County area are listed under the appropriate type of traditional service facility, if the service is directly available in the area. Facilities and services located outside ofthe study area, but which are available to individuals and families from the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area have not been included in this report The annual number served represents the number of unduplicated individuals who received services (unless noted) for either calendar year or fiscal year 1994 by each agency or program. Current enrollment is the number of individuals receiving services at the agency or program at the time the agency was contacted in July or August 1995. This does not necessarily imply however that the agency is providing services to these individuals exclusively for the service under which they are listed. The number of individuals that the agency or program is capable of serving simultaneously is called service capacity Waiting list refers to the number of documented individuals who anticipate services at a future date. However it must be noted that many agencies restrict their waiting lists to the number of persons that they believe can be served in a reasonable period of time, and therefore does not necessarily reflect the total need or demand for a service. Annual Budget is the cost directly associated with, or the funds appropriated for, provision of the program or service for 1994 Finally, target groups or issues with which related or coordinated services are often associated are listed. All agencies and programs 46

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listed in this section were contacted. If data are missing it is due to such circumstances as the figures were not available. the agenc y representative declined to disclo se the information or the contact person was not a v ailable to name a few reasons. This is explained in more detail in Chapter 3. A Discussion follows which includes an examination and evaluation of the population and resource assessments. At the end of each of the four sectionsHealth Education Social Well-Being and Community Well-Beingare Selected Is sues And Indicators which are often used to define 'at risk' groups, to reflect a current condition and to provide a basis from which to determine desired outcome measures of an explicitly stated goal or objective Section 1 will investigate health issues in the study area. Section 2 will examine education Section 3 explores social well-being in East Hillsborough County. Finally, Section 4 addresses questions related to community well-being. 47

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Section 1: Health This section will address the physical health research results first including acute illness and chronic illness. This will be followed by the re sults of the research on mental health, including acute and chronic mental illness and substance abuse. Physical Health: Acute Illness Definition Acute illness is defined here as an illness which requires immediate curative tr eatm ent. The condition can be caused by an external source such as a virus or bacteria, trauma, or the affliction of various organs. Acute illnesses are those which last less than three months during which time there is restricted activity and p e rhaps medical attention. Population Assessment. Manela and Laufer (1979) state that low income families the elderly mi g rants and individuals in geographically isolated areas are most likely to be at risk of inadequate medical care and ha ve historicall y been underserved Often these individuals do not have an ongoing relationship with a provider of primary health care due to lack of financial resources lack of transportation fear of an unknown outcome or language barrier When a problem arises. they may seek help from home remedies folk medicine, and as a last resort, the hospital out-patient clinic and emergency room All of the 'at risk' groups discussed by Manela and Laufer ( 1979) are well 48

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represented in Plant City/East Hillsborough County A review of the Social Indicator Report (Maes1995a ) and other sources reveal the following: In the study area there w ere 2 258 families below poverty level in 1990. There were 6,328 children under age 5 and 16, 085 individuals between ages 5 to 17 in the Plant City / East Hillsborough study area An on-going relationship with a primary health care provider is especially important during childhood years when prevention and early intervention can lead to more desirable outcomes In 1990 age cohort data show that Plant City/East Hillsborough County had 8,949 individuals ov er age 65. The Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (1993 ) notes that individuals aged 65 and over spend approximately twice a s much on health care than do younger people However the age di s tribution w ill change in the up-coming years as the baby boom generation (i ndividuals born between 1946 and 1964) ages and the elderly (ages 65 and over ) continue to gain a greater share of the population There are also between 15, 500 and 25, 000 low income migrant farmworkers in Hillsborough County according to Catholic Charities and Bread of Life Mission most of who reside in the eastern portion of the county, for a large part of the year Over one -half (56.2 percent) of the study area is classified as rural Estimated Size of Consumer Group The National Health Surve y (1971 ) estimates that individuals average 2.1 acute illnesses per year for which they seek medical treatment. This is cal culated as: 86, 500 ( 1995 estimated population) X 2.1. Therefore, individuals in the study area can be expected to make a total of 181, 650 visits to a doctor's office health care clinic emergency medical facility or hospital. 49

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Resource Assessment. Table 3. Points of Access to Services for Acute Illness SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. Enroll-Capacity List Budget Served ment PHYSICAL HEALTH SERVICES *SFBH: Hospital Admission s 3.619 n / r 147 0 $ 79,031 363 EMERGENCY MEDICAL FACIL. *SFBH: Emergency Room Visits 21,574 n / a n / r 0 n/r **NURSING HOME Community Convalescent Center 60 2 8 29 0 n/ r Forest Park Nursing Center 10 0 n / r Plant City Health Care Center 3 10 0 n / r PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER Crisis Pregnancy Center 660 55 55 0 n / r Suncoast Community Health Center: Dover Health Center 6 ,876 200 200 0 n/ r Plant City Famil y Care 3,000 200 200 0 n / r Hillsborough Co.: Primary Care Clinic n / r n / r n/r nlr nlr TRANSPORTATION SERVICES Coordinated Transport Intake n / r n / r n / r n / r n / r INFORMATION AND REFERRAL Citizen Action Center n / r n / r n / r n / r n / r n/a-not applicable ; n / r no response; e mpty cell facility or s ervice not available in study area *SFBH (South Florida Bapti s t Hospital) admissions and emergency room visits are not unduplicated counts **Nursing home s in this section report only s killed nursing beds Note: Reported numbers may not exclusively reflect cases of acute illnes s; for related or coordinated se rvices please refer to : Chronic Illness, Financial Hardship Disa bled Persons or Pregnant Teens Discussion. South Florida Baptist Hospital located in Plant City, serves all of East Hillsborough County. It is an acute care facility with 132 beds plus 15 skilled nursing beds and offers a full array of health services including emergency services, surgery, obstetrics pediatrics physical therapy, intensive care and outpatient services. From 1993 to 1994 admissions increased from 3 196 to 3 619 and emergency room visits increased from 19,523 to 21,574. Three health care clinics in the study area-Dover Health Center, Plant City 50

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Family Care and Hillsborough County Health Clinicprovide services for low income individuals and families. There are also several health care providers in private practice available to serve the health care needs of the community. In addition there are three nursing homes which serve the area each providing skilled nursing services. According to the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (1993), the desired ratio is one doctor for every 3 000 individuals within an area. Small area analysis shows that the eastern portion of Hillsborough County is lacking .5 physicians due to the high migrant population and large number of low income residents. However, this problem may have been alleviated b y the recent opening of the Plant City Family Care Clinic. Based on this information availability of health care in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area appears to be adequate. However, there are undoubtedly many individuals who are underserved for various reasons. For example Census data (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) show that there were 1 146 homes with no vehicle in the study area and many of these homes are in rural areas. This fact in addition to eligibility requirements and recent service cut-backs in the Coordinated Transportation Intake service pose barriers to accessibility of health care services for many individuals. 51

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Physical Health: Chronic Illness Definition. Chronic illness is a ph y sical condition. disease or disability requiring continuing care and is characterized b y permanent impairment (s) and/or a residual disability. Often a chronic illness requires special rehabilitative training and special care over an extended period of time. Population Assessment. Chronic illness can affect an y person at any age However c hronic illnesse s often take s many y ear s to de v elop and therefore are more prevalent among higher age groups. Chronic di sea ses are noncommunicable that is neither infectious nor contagious The symptoms or e f fects of chronic disease occur over an extended period of time and share many common risk factors including factors such as the en v ironment behavior heredity and accompany i ng related diseases. Environmentally, acute or prolonged exposure to carcinogenic substances such as as bestos radon radioactive s ubstances or cadmium can play a role in the development of c hronic diseases. An individual's beha v ior can also serve as an indicator of acquiring one or more chronic diseases Risks increase when an individual smokes, abuses alcohol, has poor nutrition or eating habits is h y pertensive, overweight or is under stress. Finally a person suffering from a particular chronic disease may be at an increased risk of contracting related diseases both chronic and acute. Individuals age 65 and over are most likely to suffer from a chronic condition 52

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Approximately 80 percent of persons 65 y ears and over have one or more chronic condition according to the National Health Survey (1971 ) The US Census (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) shows that were 8 949 persons age 65 and over in the Plant City / East Hillsborough County study area Investigation into environmental, behavioral, heredity and accompanying related diseases is beyond the scope of this report, but are worthy of further investigation. Estimated Size of Consumer Group. According to the N ational Health Surve y (1971), approximately 40 percent of the population of the United States suffer s from some form of chronic disease illness, or disability of varying severity. The degree of severity can vary from mild and intermittent, such as a mild pollen allergy to severe as in the case of a heart condition More accurately it is estimated that about 10 percent of the population under age 65, and 80 percent of the population age 65 and over suffer from a moderate to critical chronic condition. This is calculated as: 70,414 (1990 population < 65) x .10 + 8 949 (1990 population 65+ ) x .80 Therefore, the approximate number of individuals in the study area in 1990 who suffered from one or more moderate to critical chronic conditions is estimated at 14, 200 an estimated 7,041 under age 65 and 7 159 age 65 and over. Updated age grade data for the study area for 1994 is not available, so this number may be somewhat inaccurate. In Florida, as well as in Hillsborough County, the top four causes of death are 53

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chronic diseases. According to the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (1993) and National Data Consultants ( 1991) heart disease has been th e leading cause of death in recent years, followed b y cancer cerebrovascular di sease ( stroke) and chronic obstructive lung disease (COL D) res pecti v el y Resource Assessment. Table 4. Points of Access to Services for Chronic Illness SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. Enroll-Capacity List Budget Served ment PHYSICAL HEALTH SERVICES *SFBH : Hospita l Admissions 3 .619 n / r 147 0 $ 79.031.363 ADULT CARE LIVING FACILITY n / r 16 16 0 n / r Oak Res t Boarding Home n / r 19 20 0 nlr Pleasant Manor Boarding Home n / r 25 25 0 nlr Sharick' s Deck Retirement Ranch n/r 4 n / r 0 n / r Sikes Boarding House DOCTOR' S OFFICE/CLINIC Suncoast Community Health Cen t e r : Dover Health Center 6 876 200 n/r 0 nlr Plant City Family Care 3 000 2 00 n/r 0 nlr EMERGENCY MEDICAL FACIL. *SFBH: Emergency Room Visits 21.5 7 4 n / a nlr 0 n / r NURSING HOME Community Convalescent Center n l r n l r n/r n / r n / r forest Park Nursing Center n / r n l r n / r n / r n / r Plant City Health Care Center n l r n / r n / r nlr nlr PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER Hillsborough Co.: Primary Care Clinic n / r n / r n / r n/ r n / r REHABILITATION SERVICES .,South Florida Baptist Hospital: Home Health Service s 22.057 n / r nlr n / r n / r Rehab Therapy Visits 12, 570 n / r n / r n / r n / r TRANSPORTATION SERVICES Coordinated Transport In take n / r n / r n / r n / r n/r INFORMATION AND REFERRAL Citize n Action Center n / r n/ r nlr n/r nlr n/ a = not applicable; nlr = n o response; e mp ty cell facility or service not available in study area *SFBH (South Florida Baptist Hospital)-n ot unduplicated co unts Note: Reported numbers may not exclus ive l y r eflec t cases of chronic illness ; for r e lated or coordinated services please refer to: Acute lllne ss F inancial Hardship Unemployment Disabled Per so n s or Elderly 54

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Discussion. There are several facilitie s within the study area which can directly provide immediate health services to individuals who suffer from chronic illness There is one hospital South Florida Baptist Hospital and three health care clinics Dover Health Center, Plant City Family Care, and Hillsborough County Health Clinic. There are also several health care providers in private practice available to serve the health care needs of the community. In addition facilities are available for the long-range needs of chronically ill individualsthere are three nursing homes which serve the area and several adult congregate living facilities. As previously noted. the availabilit y o f immediate health care services in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area appears to be adequate but there are likel y to be many individuals who are underserved. (For more details, please refer to Discussion section of Acute Illness.) Some of the long-range needs of chronically ill persons are served by nursing homes and adult congregate living facilities (ACLF) in the area However the available amount of these types of services cannot be determined due to the fact that several agencies which may or may not have been ACLFs did not return telephone calls or declined to disclose any information Mental Health: Acute and Chronic Mental Illness Definition. Mental illness as with physical illness, can be acute or chronic Individuals with mental illness have continuous or periodic incidents of depression vario u s anxiety 55

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states personality disorders psychosis relationship di so rders or beha v ioral problems to name a few. Population Assessment. A review of the literature reveals that the groups most likely to be at risk of mental health problems include individuals at or below poverty level bilingual or non-English speaking migrant s children in foster care, females age 18 and under who have been pregnant one or more times, and the elderly. The Social Indicator Report (Maes 1995a) shows that in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County Study area: T here were 10,606 individuals at or below poverty status according to the 1990 US Census The estimated migrant population of the area is from 15,500 to 25 000 according to two agencies in the study area. Estimates on the number of bilingual or non-English speaking migrants is not available. However, 1990 US Census data show that of the 7,294 people age 5 and older in the study area who speak a language other than English, 3,060 (42%) stated that they "do not speak English well". Several agencies noted that the study area has the highest placement of children in foster care in Hillsborough County, although exact number s were not received pr ior to the deadline for this project. However, 1990 US Census data show that in the stu d y area there were a total of 719 children under age 18 who were living with non-relatives. Although figures on the number of pregnancies for females age 18 and under is not available, 1990 US Census data show that there were 217 live births to mothers under age 20 in the study are in 1990. 1990 US Census shows there were 8 ,949 individuals age 65 and over. According to HRS (1989), mental health problems vary in severity. Serious mental illnesses are characterized by severe emotional thinking and behavioral problems which often affect nearl y all aspects of an individual's life Most 56

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frequently serious mental illness is identified in late adolescence or early adulthood, although a some cases are i dentified in childhood or later adulthood. The Florida Department of HRS ( 1989) estimates that there were approximately 137 500 seriously mentally ill people in Florida, based on the National Institute of Mental Health's Epidemiological Catchment Area Study Approximately 20 percent were served through the public system about 5 percent were served in adult congregate living facilities (ACLFs), and the remaining 75 percent were in the criminal justice system, living on their own or receiving services in the private sector According to F l orida Department of HRS ( 1989) there are currently no known methods of prevention of serious mental illness. However there are many factors that can affect the severity and duration of the illness. Once identified, prompt comprehensive and continuing medical treatment support and lifestyle programs can help most individuals achieve a more independent and self -direc ted lifestyle Less seve re than serious mental illness persons affected b y behavioral and emotional disturbances may have only one or two episodes in their lives or the disturbances may be life-long. The effects are commonly manifest as attempted suicide domestic violence, runaway children depression juven i le delinquency sexual offenses criminal acts, random violence and low job productivity. Although this type of illness can occur in any age group effective and timely service delivery to children, adolescents, the elderly and indigent individuals of all ages can be particularly helpful in reducing future dependency on the system of human services. The Florida Department of HRS ( 1989) believes that many of the problems 57

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associated with behavioral and emotional di s turbances can be prevented by increasing individual and public awareness through education and by creating greater economic opportunities within the community Treatment approaches vary widely but essentially involve a lifestyle change and learning new behaviors and behavioral skills. Estimated Size of Consumer Group. Florida Department of HRS ( 1989) states that public service programs served approximately 100, 000 to 150, 000 individuals in the state of Florida in 1987. However because many individuals seek help from private practitioners the prevalence of these problems may be as high as one in ten persons. Using the prevalence estimates from HRS the following calculation can be made to determine the approximate number of individuals in need of mental health services in the study area : 86,540 ( 1995 estimated population) x 10 % = 8 654 According to HRS estimates there may be as many as 8 654 individuals in the study area in need of varying degrees of mental health services. Kiesler and Sibulkin ( 1987) state that the National Institute of Mental Health's (NIMH) Epidemiological Catchment Area Study estimates the national prevalence rate for mental disorders to be between 16% and 25% among adults under age 60 The exact number of individuals under age 60 cannot be determined because US Census data does not divide age groups in this manner. However, data is available on individuals under age 65, and this will be used to determine a very rough estimate ofthe percent of the population ages 0 -60. The US Census (Bureau of the Census, US 58

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Department of Commerce 1992) data indicate that in 1990 approximately 88.7 percent of the population of the study area was ages 0 to 64. Using this percentage to calculate the approximate 1995 figure reveals the following: 86,540 (estimated 1995 population) x 88.7% = 76 ,725 By estimating that 76 ,725 individuals are under age 60 in 1995 the following calculations can be made using National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) estimates of the prevalence of mental disorders described above : 76 ,725 (1995 estimated population under age 60) x 16% = 12,276 76 ,725 (1995 estimated population under age 60) x 25% = 19,181 Kiesler and Sibulkin ( 1987) also note that the National Institute of Mental Health's (NIMH) Epidemiological Catchment Area Study estimates an incidence rate of 800 individuals per 100,000 population as severely mentally ill, and 450 per 100,000 who are both severely and chronically mentally ill. Using estimates from NIMH (1980) the following calculations on the incidence severe and chronic mental illness can be made: (86,540 (1995 estimated population) I 1 00 000) x 800 = 692 (86,540 (1995 estimated population) I 100,000) x 450 = 389 These estimated calculations for the number of individuals in the study area in need of mental health services reveal the following: Between 8 640 and 19,181 individuals may be in need of varying degrees of mental health services. Approximately 692 individuals may be severely mentally ill. Approximately 389 individuals may be both severely and chronically mentally ill. 59

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Resource Assessment. Table 5. Points of Access to Mental Health Services SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. EnrollCapacity List Budget Served ment MENTAL HEALTH HOSPITAL COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTER Mental Health Care Inc.: Baylife Centers (all programs) 375 n/r nlr yes n/r The Pano s Center 279 n / r n/ r / yes n/r ADULT CARE LIVING F ACIL. Oak Rest Boarding Home n / r 16 16 0 nlr Pleasant Manor Boarding Home n / r 19 20 0 nlr Sharick's Deck Retirement Ranch n / r 25 25 0 n/r Sikes Boarding House n / r 4 n / r 0 n/r NURSING HOME Com munity Convalescent Cente r 240 119 29 0 n / r Forest Park Nur sing Cente r 133 97 95 0 n/r Plant City Health Care Center 130 112 120 0 nlr FOSTER HOMES n / r n / r n / r n / r n/r COUNSELING SERVICES Catholic Charities 80 fam. 80 fam. 55 fam. 0 $ 3 1 466 Hospice of Hillsborough Co. n/r n / r n / r n/r n/r T ampa Hillsborough Urban League n / r n / r nlr n/ r n/r Hillsborough County Public Schoo ls n / r n / r n / r n/ r EDUCATION Hillsborough Co. Public Schools n / r n / r n / r n / r n / r Plant City Exceptional Center 50 50 100 0 n/ r Steppin Stone Farm 21 22 24 75 $ 266 367 PREVENTIVE PROGRAMS Mental Health Association 's: I'm Thumbody Program 150 0 200 0 $ 8 333 INFORMATION AND REFERRAL Citizen Action Center n / r n/ r n / r nlr n / r TELEPHONE CRISIS CENTER n/a = not applicable; n / r = no re s ponse ; empty cell= facility or service not availa ble in study area Note: Reported numbers may not exclusively r eflect cases of mental illness; f or re lated or coordinated services please refer to : Chronic Illness, Financial Hardship Unemployment, Substa nce Abuse, Troubled Youth Public Offenders Domestic Abuse Abused and Neglected Children. Education. Discussion. There is not a mental health hospital in the study area, howe ve r, hospitalization needs can be serve d in Tampa. Traditionally in-patient mental health hospitals are intended to serve a lar ge r geographic area than East Hillsborough County. 60

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Alternate living arrangements for adults with mental health problems can be provided by three nursing homes and at least four Adult Congregate Living Facilities in the study area. Counseling and other out-patient mental health services are offered by several agencies in the study area as well as by private practitioners. There are also other agencies who offer counseling outreach programs in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area as well. Mental Health Care, Inc. is contracted by HRS District 6 to provide a full range of mental health care services to residents of Hillsborough County. Data from this agency for services provided in 1993 and 1994 is informative. In 1993, 700 individuals from the study area were served; 597 received treatment in Plant City; 103 received treatment outside of the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area. In 1994, 834 individuals from the study area were served; 654 received treatment in Plant City; 180 received treatment outside of the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area. As of January 1994 there were a total of224 individuals on a waiting list for services from this agency. Florida Department of HRS ( 1989) has stated that population increases and demand for services have out-paced the mental health services available to meet the needs of people with mental health problems. This concurs with telephone interviews with mental health service providers who expressed concern that, based on their waiting lists and requests for services, the mental health needs of the study area are not being met. The groups that the providers believe are particularly at risk of being underserved include 61

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children in foster care due to the large number of placements in the study area and the elderly because they are afraid of being institutionalized Mental Health: Substance Abuse Definition Substance abuse as defined here is a physical psychological and/or emotional dependence on alcohol or other legal or illegal drugs. The condition often interferes with an individual's health job family and/or daily life. Population Assessment. Florida Department ofHRS (1989) notes that over time drug use can exercise increasing control over an individual's life. The most publicized effects of substance abuse include child abuse criminal acts addicted babies debilitating disease and death. However there are also marked effects on human relationships, productivity depression suicide and number of accidents One area of great concern in recent years is alcohol and drug use by adolescents. Florida Department of HRS ( 1989) reports that a research project recently conducted in the Hillsborough County Juvenile Detention Center showed a strong relationship between substance abuse and criminal behavior. The study reported that: 90 % of the youths in the Center claimed they had consumed alcohol at least once. 41 % claimed to have used marijuana or hashish 100 or more times 24 % said they had used cocaine 62

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18 % stated that they had used sedatives 11 or more times for non-medical purposes. 49 % said that they had used 4 or more different drugs at least once in their lives. F lorida Department of HRS ( 1989) also notes tha t the school systems in Florida have identified student alcohol and drug use and their number-one problem. The US Department of Education has found that children are using drugs at a young er age and that alcoho l and drug u se has recently grown to be a major problem for children at the elementary level. In F l orida. the average age of the first drug or alcohol use is at 11.9 years of age. Estimated Size of Consumer Group. It is impossible to arrive at vali d estimates of the prevalence of substance abuse which apply to all segments of a population. However it is generally agreed th at the abuse of illegal drugs, as well as legal drugs (e.g. prescription medication alcoho l tobacco) had become a serious problem in this country. The Council of State Governments ( 1975) estimates that perhaps 4 to 5 percent of the total adult population of the United States may be in need of treatment for alcohol or drug use or abuse. US Census dat a (Bureau ofthe Census, US Departmen t of Commerce 1992) show that the adult population of the study area was 56,950 individuals. The estimated adult population i n need of services can be calculated as follo ws: 56,950 ( 1990 population ages 18 and over) x 4 % = 2,278 56,950 ( 1990 population ages 18 and over) x 5% = 2,848 63

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According to the Florida Department of HRS (1989) data from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) indicate that 475 000 persons in Florida (approximately 3 7 percent of the population) are in need alcohol or drug addiction services during a given month. The calculation is: 86, 540 (estimated 1995 population) x 3.7% = 3 202 In Florida the Florida Department of HRS ( 1989) estimates that 6 percent of the children under age 18 have alcohol or drug problems severe enough to require some type oftreatment. US Census data (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) from 1990 show that the number of children ages 5 -17 in the study area was 23,773. The estimated child/youth population in need of services can be calculated as : 23,773 (1990 population ages 5-17) x 6% = 1,426. A rough estimate on the total need of substance abuse services for children and adults is approximately 3,000 individuals. 64

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Resource Assessment. Table 6. Po i nts of Access to Services for Substance Ab u se SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No Enroll-Capacity List Budget Served ment DRUG/ALCOHOL TREATMENT CENTER DETENTION SERVICES COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTER M ent a l He a l t h Care Inc.: Bay l ife Centers (all programs ) 375 nl r nlr y e s nlr Th e Pano s Center 2 7 9 n / r nlr y e s nlr COUNSELING SERVICES M ental Health C are Inc .: Dru g & Alcohol Trea tment Pro g n / r n / r nir nlr nl r REHABILITATIVE SERVICES DACCO Inc .: Outpatient Pro g r a m 115 28 30 0 n / r PREVENTIVE PROGRAMS Hillsborou g h Co. Public School s n / r n / r nlr nl r nl r Hillsborough County Sherrifs D e pt. n / r nlr nir nl r n / r Plant C ity Police Dept. n / r n / r n / r n / r n / r INFORMATION AND REFERRAL C itizen Action Center n / r nl r nl r nl r nlr TELEPHONE CRISIS CENTER n / a = not applicable ; n / r = no re s pon s e ; e mp ty cell = faci lity or s ervice n o t avail a bl e in s tud y ar e a Not e: Reported numbers may n o t e x clu s iv e l y r e flect c as e s of s ubstanc e abus e ; for r e lat e d or c oordinated serv i ces please refer to: C hronic Illn ess, Ment a l Illne ss Fin a n cial Hardship U nemplo y ment T roubl e d Yo uth Public O f fender s, Dome s tic Abu se, Ab u se d and Neg l e ct e d C hildr e n E ducati o n Disc u ssio n Current treatment of substance addiction essentiall y involves the following five elements: eliminating the substanc e from the body self-acknowledgment of dependence learning to l i ve without alcohol or drugs both psychologically and e motionally, selfacknowledgment o f the substance's continuing influence and the provision of producti v e work and rea s on a bl e liv i ng conditions. One form of prevention of substance abuse is complete abstinence. In addition 6 5

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awareness about the effects of alcohol and drugs as well as information about the effects of prescription drugs can help individuals make informed decisions about ingesting potentially addictive substances. During this investigation only one agency DACCO, was discovered within the study area that specifically addresses alcohol and drug problems However it is likely that many individuals from the Plant City / East Hillsborough County area are receiving services in Tampa or other areas of the county Furthermore some individuals are perhaps being served for substance abuse and related problems by agencies providing mental health services In addition public schools and b y law enforcement agencies offer alcohol and drug prevention and intervention programs or services. In Florida the Florida Department of HRS ( 1989) estimates that onl y one-half of the children and adults who need alcohol or drug addiction services actually receive them If this holds true for the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area, there may be as man y as 1 500 individuals in need of services who are not receiving them. Selected Health Issues and Indicators Births. Birth rate is measured in terms of the number oflive births per one thousand women residing in a given area In 1990 US Census data (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) show that there were: 217 live births ( 17.0% of all area resident live births) to mothers under 20 in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area 66

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386 live births (30 2 percent of all area resident live births) to single mothers 132 live births ( 11.9 percent of all area resident live births ) to single mothers under 20 In Hillsborough County, there were 4 665 resident live births (32.4 percent of all resident live births) to single mothers ; 2397 (51.4%) were births to white mothers ; 2,262 (48.5%) were to non-white mothers. The Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (1993) notes that one ofthe most critical determinants of an infant's health is birth weight. Low birth weight (generally defined as les s than 25 00 grams ) is often the due to the poor health status of the mother, which can result from such factors a s inadequate nutrition substance abuse smoking or other behavioral risks. Other risk indicators of low birth weight include marital status race and age of the mother In the Plant City / East Hillsborough County area there were a total of 113 low birth weight babies born in 1992 Overall state statistics for Florida show that the percentage of low birth weight babies was the highest for teenage mothers declined into the middle childbearing y ears and then increased in mothers over age 35. Those at highest risk of delivering a low birth weight baby are unmarried non-white mothers under age 15, with a 1 : 6 2 risk of having a low weight infant while white married mothers ages 25 to 29 have the lowest risk about 1:21. Although biological factors are important in birth outcomes sociodemographic factors can also influence birth weight. Variables such as race income and education can help to identify mothers at risk of delivering a low birth baby. According to the 67

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Agency for Health Care Administration ( 1993 ) unmarried mothers may be at higher risk due to the tendenc y to have substantially lower incomes than married mothers which reduces their ability to purchase adequate prenatal care This also appears to be true for non white mothers who are often less affluent than white mothers This same relationship holds true for teenage mothers. Infant mortality rate refers to the number of deaths under the age of one year per 1 000 live births and is considered to be a prime indicator ofthe overall health and well being of a society US Census data (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) show that in 1990 in the state of Florida the infant mortality rate was 9 7 compared to 11. 7 for Hillsborough County for the same year. National Data Consultants (1991) note that in general high infant mortality rates occur in rural areas in which the population has a low educational attainment level and there is a high concentration of minorities In the Plant City / East Hillsborough County area in 1990 there were: 493 resident live births (approximately 39 percent of all resident live births) to mothers with no high school diploma 47 resident live births in the east county area to mothers who reported not receiving prenatal care until seven months or later in their pregnancy. Some explanations for high infant mortality is the lesser availability of prenatal care to disadvantaged segments of society a high proportion of low birth weight births births to unmarried mothers or to mothers who are very young. The Children's Board of Hillsborough County (1993) notes that the Surgeon General's Year 2000 infant mortality goal is 7 infant deaths per thousand. 68

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Communicable Diseases Communicable diseases according to the Agency for Health Care Administration ( 199 3) are caused by specific infectious age nts or their toxins, and are transmitted directly from person to person or ind irectly from contact with contaminate d water, air, soil, food or bodily fluids Communicable diseases are prevalent during early childhood when resistance to infectious agents is low and exposure to these agents is increasing through contacts outside the home In the past few decades mass vaccination programs have substantially decreased the incidence of many communicable d ise ases but epidemics can still recur if immunity levels within the population are not maintained (Agency for Health Care Administration 1993) The Hillsborough County Health Department does not collect data on the sub county level, and therefore immunization rates and incidence and prevalence of communicable disease s for the Plant Ci t y / Eas t Hillsborough County area are not available. However state and county level data on incidence and prevalence are informative. Flor ida law requires all chil dren entering public schoo l private school or licensed child care centers to be immuni ze d against diphtheria mumps pertus sis poliomyelitis rubella rubeola and tetanus In spite of this the AHCA (1993 ) estimates th at almost one-third of Florida's two year-olds are not fully immunized. However about 91 percent of children who receive child care and 96 percent of children in school are fully immunized state-wide (Agency for Health Care Administration 1993). Two rapidly i ncreasing communicable diseases of great concern in Florida are tuberculosis and AIDS. In part there are predisposing conditions for tuberculosis in 69

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Florida due to an older population and a high proportion of immigrants from countries where the infection is widespread In addition because tuberculosis is an opportunistic disease the current AIDS epidemic ha s brought a high prevalence of tuberculosis among AIDS patients and individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections In 1992 according to the Agency for Health Care Administration (1993), tuberculosis is the third most prevalent communicable disease with 124 reported cases in the state of Florida HIV was the seventh leading cause of death in Florida in 1992 totaling 3 098 individuals (Agency for Health Care Administration 1993) In 1991 there were 244 reported new cases of AIDS in Hillsborough County bringing the cumulative adult AIDS cas e s reported to 1 047 in Hillsborough County. The male to female ratio was 8.3:1 (Agency for Health Care Administration 1993) Traffic Crashes and Fatalities. The Agency for Health Care Administration (1993) states that motor vehicle crashes are the most frequent cause of injury and accidental death in Florida Statewide in 1992 ov er 205.000 people were injured and nearly 2 500 persons died as a result of motor vehicle accidents National Data Consultants ( 1991) report that there were 16, 509 reported traffic crashes in 1990 in Hillsborough County, in which 228 individuals died. In the Plant City/East Hillsborou g h County study area the Hillsborough County Sheriffs Department estimates that in 1994 there were approximately 6 000 motor vehicle accidents in the unincorporated portion of East Hillsborough County Approximately 80 of these accidents resulted in death Within the city limits of Plant 70

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City in 1994 there were 1.076 traffic crashes resulting 5 fatalities These statistics include drivers passengers. pedestrian s and bicyclists Nationwide alcohol is a major cause of traffic accidents and fatalities In 1990 43% of all traffic fatalities in Florida and 47.4% of traffic fatalities in Hillsborough Co unty were alcohol r elated. The Hillsborough County Sheriffs Department estimates that approximatel y 35% of the traffic fatalities in unincorporated East Hillsborough County in recent years were alcohol related This is consistent with the statewide trend toward fewer alcohol related crashes and fatalities each year since 1987 71

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Section 2: Education This section will address the result s of research on education. This section will include examination of Pre-Kindergarten Education, Elementary Education Secondary Education, Adult and Continuing Education, and Special Needs Education Pre-Kindergarten Education Definition Pre-Kindergarten education includes formalized educational instruction for children ages 0 to 4 years. Population Assessment. Traditionally regular pre-kindergarten programs serve children ages 3 and 4 and attendance is not considered mandatory by the state. Some parents chose not to enroll the ir children in pre-kindergarten programs Head Start is an early intervention program aimed at under-pri v ileged children ages 3 to 5 ye ars old who are often recruited for this program based on family income. The 1990 US Census (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) shows that there were 3,769 children ages 3-5 in the study area. The data for the Plant City/East Hillsborough County also show that there were 1 ,57 5 children under age 5 who were at or below federal poverty guidelines. In addition, 1990 Census data (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) show that 1 ,351 children were enrolled in pre-kindergarten education. 72

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Estimated Size of Consumer Group. The 1 990 US Census (Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce 1992) does not provide specific information on the number of chi l dren ages 3 and 4 To arrive at a very rough estimate it will be assumed that of the three age-gradesages 3-5 -that 3 and 4 year olds comprise two ofthese three age grades and of the five age g rade s ages 0-5 that 3 and 4 year o lds com pri se t wo of these five age grades. T h is is ca l c ulated as: 2 / 3 x 3,769 (chil dr en ages 3-5 in 1990) = 2 513 2/5 x 1 ,575 (children ages 0-5 in poverty in 1990) = 630 This re vea ls that there were approximately 2 513 c h i ldren ages 3 and 4 in the study area in 1990, 630 of whom were financially disadvantaged Resource Assessment. Table 7. Points of Access to Services for Preschool Education SERVICE FACILITY Annual 1994/95 Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. EnrollCapacity List Budge t Served ment PUBLIC SCHOOLS Dover Elementary n / a 134 as needed 0 n / r PRIVATE SCHOOLS Bealsville Head Start nl a 40 40 n / r n / r B & G D ay Care n/ a 35 35 0 nlr Dover Infant Migrant Head Start nla 20 45 n / r n / r Dover Mig rant Head Start nla 95 nl r n / r nlr Country Kids Pre-School nla 35 35 0 n / r Eastside Baptist Church nla 15 1 5 0 n / r First Presbyterian Learning n / a 59 60 0 n / r Fun Factory Pre-School n / a 30 30 0 n / r Lake Walden Pre-School nla 30 135 5 n / r Plant City Hea d Start nla 60 60 20 nl r Plant City Migrant Head Start nla 75 75 n / r n / r Preschool Academy Inc nla 25 95 0 n / r Tots Active Learning Center nl a n / r 60 n / r nlr Westside Village Head Start nl a 80 150 nlr nlr n/a = not applicable; nlr = no response; empty cell facility or service not available in study Note : For related or coordinated services, please refer to: Financial Hardship Specia l Needs Education C hild Care, Ab u sed a nd Neglected Children. 73

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Discussion Research has demonstrated that pre-kindergarten education can substantially increase a child's sc hool-readiness As of the 1 99411995 school year, the o nly public school in the s tudy area serving pre-kindergarten students was Do ve r Elementary A total of 134 children were served in the regular early childhood and Head Start pre-kindergarten programs in the 1994 / 1995 school year at this school. Eight licensed child care centers who were contacted in the study area indicated that the y had a formal educational pre-kindergarten program and could almost always acco mmodate those request ing services. These programs served at least 229 children during the 1994 11995 school year. Some of the children are from low income families and served under the Title XX program although exact numbers were not available. Recent cuts in Title XX funding may leave many financially disadvantaged children unserved. There are six Head Start Programs currently operating in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area which served 370 children during the 1994 / 1995 school ye ar Accessibility to these programs is good however the estimated number of migrant and financially disadvantaged children in the area indicate that the Head Start program could be expanded. Because pre-kindergarten education is not mandatory in the state of Florida without more accurate population estimates or the expressed need for pre-kindergarten education from parents of 3and 4-year-olds it is difficult to determine if the demand for pre-kindergarten education is being met. However it is likely that children in lower income groups or from families who lack access to transportation are being underserved. 74

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Elementary Education Definition Elementary education include s education for children ages 5 to 1 1 y ears and grades Kindergarten through 6. Population Assessment. The state of Florida requires an elementary education for all children. Hillsborough Count y provides free education services for all children residing in the Hillsborough County School District. C hildren of elementary school a g e in the stud y a rea attend Hillsborough Count y Public School s. pri v ate s ch o ol s o r und e r c e rtain provisions can be home-schooled Estimated Size of Consumer Group. U S Cen s u s p o pul atio n e s timate s an d projections for the years subsequent to 1990 do not detail a g e gra de s. Furthermore th e 1 9 90 U S Census (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerc e 1992 ) do e s not br e ak down a g e into the catego ry of ages 5 -11. To arri ve at a very rough estimate, it will be assumed that of the three age-gradesages 3 5 tha t 5-year-o ld s comprise o n e ofthe s e three age grades This is calculated as : 1/3 x 3 769 (children ag e s 3 5 in 1990) = 837. US Census data (Bureau of the Census US Departmen t o f C o mm e rce 1992 ) from 1990 do however show that there were 7 659 children in the stud y ar e a a g es 6-11. We can then estimate that in 1990 there were: 837 + 7,659 = 8 496 children ages 5-11. 7 5

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Resource Assessment. Table 8. Points of Access to Services for Elementary Education SERVICE FACILITY Annual 1994/95 Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No Enro llCa pacity List Budget Served ment PUBLIC SCHOOLS Bryan Elementary n / a 843 717 0 n / r Burne y / Simmons Elementary n / a n / r 302 0 n / r Cork Elementary n / a 972 672 0 n/r Dover Elementary n / a n / r nlr 0 n / r Jackson Elementary n / a 503 352 0 n/r Knights Ele mentary n / a 696 728 0 n/r Lincoln Elementary n / a n / r 551 0 n / r Pinecrest Elementary n / a 703 703 0 n / r J.S Robinson E lementary n / a 766 784 0 nlr Trapnell Elementary n / a 534 534 0 n/r Spr inghead n / a 601 542 0 n / r Walden Lake Elementary n / a 810 915 0 n / r Wilson Elementary n / a n / r n / r 0 nlr PRIVATE SCHOOLS First Presbyterian Learning n / a 16 16 0 n/r Hope Lutheran School n / a 65 100 0 n / r Lake Walden Pre-School n / a 26 135 0 n/r Palnez Academy n / a n / r n/ r n/r n / r n / a =not applicable ; n / r = no re sponse ; empty cell =facility or service not availa ble in s tudy a re a Note: For related or coordinated services p l ease refer to : Financial Hardship Child Care Abused and Neglected Children, Specia l Needs Ed uc ation Discussion As of the 199411995 school year, 13 public schools and 4 private schools se rved the educational need s of e lem entary stu dents from the Plant City / East Hillsborough County area. The public sc hools include: Burney /Si mmons Elementary Lincoln E l ementary Bryan Elementary Cork Elementary Dover E l ementary Jackson E l ementary Knights Elem entary Robinson Elementary Springhead Elementary Walden Lake Elementary Wilson Elementary Pinecrest Elementary Trapnell Elementary grades K and 6 grades K and 6 -g r ades K through 5 grades K through 5 grades K through 5 grades K through 5 grades K through 5 grades K through 5 grades K through 5 grades K through 5 grades K through 5 grades K throug h 6 grades K through 6 76

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The private schools serving the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area include: Hope Lutheran First Presbyterian Lake Walden Palnez Academy grades K through 6 -grade K g rade s K and 1 grades K through 6 The Plant City Plan of Development ( 1985) notes that the desirable maximum walking distance for elementary school students is from 112 to 3/4 of a mile miles. The report states that Bryan, Jackson, Burney / Simmons, Lincoln, and Wilson elementary schools, located within the city limits of Plant City, are all reasonably well located in terms of the residential area served and accessibility to primary or secondary arterial roads. Bus service is provided for chi ldren in rural areas by the sc hool district. The table on the previous page shows that many of the public sc hools were o perating over their capacity in the 1994/1995 school year. However the number of stu dents that a school in able to accommodate can change by adding (or subtracting) portable classrooms. The regular and special education elementary school students wi ll be affected by changes made in the Hillsborough Count y School District for the 1995 11996 schoo l year. Hillsborough County Public Schools offer many different programs for both regular and special education elementary school students. Elementary education is available and accessible to all children. To determine if the individual needs of these chi ldren are being effectively and adequately met would require a program evaluation which is beyond the scope of this report. 77

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Secondary Education Definition. Secondary Education includes both middle school or junior high school, and high school education Middle school education traditionally includes education for children ages 12 to 14 years, and includes grades 7, 8 and 9. High School education includes grades 10 through 12 for children ages 15 to 18. Population Assessment. One concern of secondary schools is the risk of students dropping out. Individuals with low educational attainment are at risk of unemployment and delinquent or criminal behavior. Individuals without a high school diploma can expect to make incomes below at or near the poverty level. Adolescents with mental or emotional problems and pregnant teens are at high ri sk of dropping out of school. The Children's Board (1993) notes that according to the Adult Education Center ofHRS, approximately 36% of those who have not finished high school countywide, read at below the eighth grade level ; the ninth month of the eighth grade is the cut-off point for basic literacy. US Census data (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) show that in 1990 there were 596 individuals between the ages of 16 and 19 in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area who were not in school and not employed Also as of 1990 US Census data (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) show that a total of 26,899 individuals in the study area, over age 25, had not graduated from high school. Nearly 25 percent of these individuals (6 586) have less than a 9th grade education. 78

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In 1990 US Census data (Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce 1992) s how that there we re a total of 493 live resident births to mothers with no high school diploma Estimated Size of Consumer Group. The US Census data (Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce 1992) show that there were 7 142 adolescents between the ages of 12-17 in the study are in 1990. Census popu l ation estimates and projections for the y ears subsequent to 1990 do not detail age grades. Resource Assessment. Table 9. Points of Access Services for Secondary Education SERVICE FACILITY Annual 1994/95 Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. Enroll-Capacity List Budget Served ment PUBLIC SCHOOLS Durant High School n / a open Fall '95 n / a 0 n/ r Marshall Jr. High School n / a 724 997 0 n/ r 2.067 Plant City High School n/a 1.483 2,273 0 n/r Turke y Creek Jr. High School n / a 1.303 1 ,249 0 n/r Tomlin Jr. Hi g h School n / a 1 110 0 n/r PRIVATE SCHOOLS Hope Lutheran School n / a open Fall '95 n/r 0 n/r n / a =not applicable ; n / r =no re spo n se; em pty cell =facility or service not available in study area Note: For related or coordinated se rvices please refer to: Financial Hardship Abu sed and Neglected C hildren Special Needs Education, Substance Abu s e. Troubled Youth, and Pregnant Teens. Discussion. As of the 199411995 school year, the following schools served secondary students: Marshall Jr. High (grade 7) Turkey Creek Jr. High (grades 7-9) Tomlin Jr. High (grades 8-9) Plant City High School (grades 1 0-12) 79

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There have been seve ral changes in the 1995 / 1996 school year in the Hill s borough County School System which affect Plant City / East Hillsborou gh County. One of the changes which relates directly to secondary sc hool students is the change from junior high schools to a middle sc hool system of education. In addition th e new public Durant High School opened, serving many students who li v e within the s tudy area and a private school, Hope Lutheran School now offer s grades 7 and 8 although there were no students enrolled at the time they were contacted The Plant City Plan of Development (1985) notes that t he expected walking distance for junior high school students is from 1 to 1-1/ 2 miles w hile the max im um desirable walking distance for high school stu dents is 2 miles. The report states that Marshall Tomlin and Plant City High School located within the city limits of Plant City, are all reasonably well located in terms of the residential area serv ed and accessibility to primary or s econdary arterial roads Bus service for children in outlying areas is provided by the school district. In terms of high school curriculum an interesting study was conducted by Susan Hanson ( 1990) which may be worthy of further investigation and pos sible future comparison with secondary schools in East Hillsborough County in light of concern that was expressed about the small percentage of students pursuing college educations. In her study conducted in one urban and one suburban high school within a single school district, Hanson (1990) noted that the curriculum was different in each school for students in college-prepatory classes; suburban students were presented with routinized lessons often associated with lower track placement sc hools while urban s tudents received a more 80

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liberal, discussion-based curric ulum. In spite of this, suburban curriculum provided success on Scholastic Achievement Tests. thereby facilitating entrance into college She co ncludes that curriculum may not necessarily be a predictor of whethe r or not students continue their education. and speculates that "the school order corresponds mechanically to social order that is clearly either open or irredeemably inadequate" (p.234). Hillsborough County Public Schools offer many different programs for both regular and special education secondary school students. Secondary education is availab le and accessible to all children. To determine ifthe needs of these children are being effectively met would require a program evaluation which is beyond the scope of this report. Adult and Continuing Education Definition Adult and continuing education includes instruction for individuals over age 16. Education can be for the purpose of attaining a degree or for cultural. social and recreational reasons. Population Assessment. According to the US Census (Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce 1992), there were 2 ,950 individuals from the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area enrolled in college in 1990. Also as of 1990 US Census data (B ureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) show that a total of26,899 individuals over age 25 had not graduated 81

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from high school. Nearly 25 percent of these individuals (6,586) have less than a 9th grade education. T he Children's Board Social Indicator Report No. 1 ( 1993:11 0) states that "Accordi ng to national statistics on income and educational attainment, median household income varies according to householder's level of education." Taking into account that the poverty threshold was $12.700 for a family of four in 1990 and $14 ,350 for a family of four in 1993 these figures sugges t that approximately two thirds of householders with an educational level of less than 9th grade, and a third of those with a high school educat ion could expect to make incomes below at or near the poverty level. Estimated Size of Consumer Group. Adults pursue education for a variety of reasons such as fulfilling e ducational goals pers onal enrichment, or to improve job-related skills Some adults attend classes periodically throughout their lives ; ot her s may just take one or two classes; and some adults never pur sue any type of postsecondary education. It is impossible to estimate the number of individuals in need of adult education becau se people pursue education for personal reasons. 82

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Resource Assessment. Table 10. Points of Access to Services for Adult and Continuing Education SERVICE FACILITY Annual 1994 /95 Service Waiting Agency/Program No. Enroll-Capacity List Hillsborough Community College Hillsborough Co. Adult Education Ne i g hborhood Service Center: Served nla n / a ment 6,043 2,477 nlr n / r 0 0 Annual Budget $2,900, 192 n / r GED Classes n / a 140 30 0 n / r SpeciaVPersona l Int erest n / a 73 32 0 n / r nlanot applicable ; nlr no response; empty cell = fac ility or serv ice not available in study area Note: For rel ated or coordinated serv ic es, plea se refer to : Secondary Education Financial Hardship, Unemployed, Disabled Per so n s. Discussion Hillsborough Communit y College, a two-year institution located in Plant C ity offered credit and non-credit cla ss es to 6 043 individuals during the 1 99411995 sc hool year. The Plant City Adult and Community School, operated b y the Hill sboro u gh County School Board, offers a variety of educational cultural socia l and recreational programs throughout the year. Classes are offered at Plant City High School and eleven ot her east county l ocations, demonstrating good acce ss ibility for all residents of the area. In the Plant City Ad ult and Community School there were 2 .4 77 s tud ents enrolled in the 1 994/1995 school year. Duplicated counts show a total of 2,6 16 stude nt s demonstrating that students were enrolled in more than one class during the sc hool year. A total of 38 adult students and 106 Plant City High School day stude nt s received their OED, and 18 adults received their regular hi g h sc hool diploma. This compares to the 1993/1994 schoo l year, w ith a total enrollment of 2266 students; 30 adult studen t s and 73 83

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Plant City High School day stude nts received their GED, and 8 adults received their regular high school diploma Last year, the Plan t City Neighborhood Service Center offered GED sew ing, and parenting classes, free of charge, to 213 individuals. Based on the fact that there are no waiting lists at any of the adult education centers in the area the amount of adult education appears to be adequate. This may be due to the numerous sites in the study area where adult education is provided as well as accessibility to numerous educational facilities located in nearb y Tampa However due to lack of available transportation or accessibility to child care. among other reasons many individuals may be left unserved Special Needs Education Definition Special needs education is instruction for individuals who require additional or specialized services due to physical. mental. or emotional disabilitie s Population Assessment. There are many risks associated with students enrolled in special education classes. Gartner and Lipsky (1993) report that in 1988 the US Department of Education estimated that dropout rates for students in special education classes was a fifth or more greater than those for students in general education In some areas of the country, the dropout rate was 4 7 percent of all those over age 16 in special education classes for the least impaired. In addition fewer than 50 percent of special 84

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education students in the United States who had been out of school for one year had found paid employment and less than 15 percent of special education students were enrolled in post secondary courses in their first year out of high school. Estimated Size of Consumer Group. Gartner and Lipsky (1993) note that the current number of children enrolled in special education classes in the United States represents nearly 12 percent of all students enrolled in public education, however there is significant variation among states The number of children enrolled in special education programs or classes for the study area was not available, although it should be noted that enrollment is not necessarily indicative of need. Resource Assessment. Table 11. Points of Access to Services for Special Needs Education SERVICE FACILITY Annual 1994 / 95 Service Waiting Agency/Program No. EnrollCapacity List PUBLIC SCHOOLS Hillsborough Co Public Schools Plant City Exceptional Center PRIVATE SCHOOLS Golden Hours Pre-School J Clifford MacDonald Center : Served ment n / r 100 20 n!r 50 13 nlr 100 43 nlr 0 5 Annual Budget nlr nlr $ 55 755 James Ranch Campus 55 55 55 0 nlr Stepp in Stone Farm 21 22 24 75 $ 266 367 n!a = not applicable ; n / r =no response ; empty cell-facility or service not available in Note : For related or coordinated services please refer to : Physical Health, Mental Health Fmanctal Hardship Unemployment Disabled Persons Troubled Youth 85

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Discussion. The Hillsborough County Public Schools offer several different types of programs for student s with specia l needs. These programs include Speech ; Language and Hearing; Emotionally Handicapped ; Specific Learning Disabili ty; Gifted; Educable Mentally Handicapped; Trainable Mentally Handicapped; Physicall y Handicapped; Occupational Therapy; and Physical Therapy. There are also three private schools in the study area for children or adults w ith sp ecial needs Golden Hours Schools serves pre-kindergarten mentally retarded children, James Ranch prov ides vocational training to adults from eastern Hillsborough County with dev e lopmental disabilities and Steppin Stone Farm serves girls ages 13-17 with emotional problems Another program for students with special needs offered by Plant City High School is for teenage mothers. AHCA ( 1993) reports that the drop-out rate for pregnant girls in schools with school health program s has decreased 53 percent since the program began in fiscal year 1990-91 A study conducted b y Nancy Lesko ( 1990) may be wort h y of further in vestigatio n and po ss ible comparison with Plant City High School's program for teen mothers. In her s tudy, Lesko (1990) examines a nationally acclaimed alternative high school for teenage mothers. Her study showed that 86 percent of the mothers enrolled in this special high school graduated. This is significantly higher than national statistics which show that only 60 percent of teenage mothers not enrolled in special programs com plete high sc hool. Lesko (1990) notes that the school curriculum in her study foc used on parenting skills, educational objectives and decision making themes. However Lesko (1990) 86

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criticizes the curriculum. claiming that the focus is on becoming competent parents, and fails to instruct students on potential problems they may encounter as single parents such as entering the work force or planning for their child's future, for example. Considering the risk factors associated with students in special needs education this may be an issue in which schools businesses community organizations, parents and student volunteer groups could effectively influence desirable outcomes. Selected Education Issues and Indicators Public school facilities located in both incorporated and unincorporated areas of East Hillsborough County are provided by the Hillsborough County School system. Facility design location and site criteria must comply with the standards of the Florida State Department of Education. The following education indicators are often used as a measure of an area's well being. Data are from the 1992 / 1993 school year (Maes 1995a) 87

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Table 12. Selected Education Indicators INDICATOR STUDY HILLSBOROUGH STATE OF AREA COUNTY FLORIDA Years of School Completed: Less than High School 14.5% 9% 1-3 Years of High Schoo l 20.3% 16% 4 Years of High School 33.4% 29% 1-3 Years of College 21.0% 21% 4+ Years of College 10.8% 25% Public School Enrollment Grades K-8 10,559 Grades 9-12 3 ,060 Average Class Size 14.5 16. 8 Dropout Rate 3.4 3.9 Average Test Scores: Verbal 414 423 Math 472 480 High School Grads Currently Enrolled in College : 2Year College 31.0% 6.0 % 4 Year College 17.0% 56.1% This information shows that in the study area : There is a higher percentage of individuals with low educational attainment than in Hillsborough County as a whole Enrollment in 4-year colleges is substantially lower than county and state averages, while enrollment in 2y ear colleges is s u bstantially higher. The average class size was smaller than on a county level. The drop out rate was higher than the county but lower than the state drop out rate. Average verbal test scores were lowe r than both county and state averages ; math test scores were lower than the county but higher than the state average. 88 2.7 416 468 4 6% 58.5%

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Information from the Florida Department of Education cited in Hillsborough County Schools records compares the e x penditure per full-time equivalent student for the 1991/ 1992 school year as follows : Table 13. 199111992 School Year Expenditures PROGRAM STUDY AREA HILLSBOROUGH Regular Program Exceptional Program At-Risk Program Vocational Program $ 4 170 9 026 3 ,928 5 199 COUNTY $ 3,883 9,914 4,259 4 901 STATE OF FLORIDA $ 3 927 8,462 4 ,728 4,363 In the Plant City / East Hillsborough County area expenditures per student for regular and vocational programs exceed spending on the district and state levels Exceptional program expenditures are lower in the study area than on the district level but higher than the state level. Expenditures on the at-risk program is lower in the study area than both the district and state levels The Plant City / East Hillsborough C o unty Social Indicator Report (Maes 1995a) states that educational attainment is one indicator of an area's general well being and is being closely tied to economic status If illiterac y or substandard educational levels are prevalent, there is often an increased need for human service assistance. Greater levels of educational achievement will be necessary to meet the needs of an increasingly complex economy and society. These needs will place an even greater burden on school authorities in their responsibility for pro v iding adequate school facilities to the growing population of Plant City and East Hillsborough County. 89

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The following based on 1990 US Census data (Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce 1992), shows individuals age 25 years and older in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area and for all of Hillsborough County who have been awarded higher education degrees. Table 14. Selected Higher Education Indicators INDICATOR STUDY Persons 25 Years and Older Associates Degree Bachelor's Degree Graduate or Professional Degree Median School Years Completed Percent High School Graduate or Higher Percent Bachelor's Degree or Higher AREA 49,517 2,601 3,937 1,691 11.96 65.6% 11.7% HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY 545,020 39,116 74,479 35,573 12.35 75.6% 20.2% This information shows that overall in 1990 there is a smaller percent of individuals from the study area who had been awarded higher education degrees than on a county level. 90

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Section 3: Social Well-Being This section will addre ss the social well -b eing research results. Included in this s ection are Financial Hardship Unemployment, Disabled Persons Elderly Domestic Abuse, Abused and Neglected Children Child Care and Pregnant Teens. This will be followed by a section on Selected Social Well-Being Issues and Indicators. Financial Hardship Definition. Individuals or families experiencing financial hardship find that their basic needs cannot be met by their available resources Population Assessment. The Social Indicator Report (Maes 1995a) shows the following information about families and individuals in the st ud y area : In 1990 there were a total of 10,782 indi vi duals (13.4 percent of the total area population) at or below federal poverty le vel. Over 4 000 were children ages 0-17 In 1990 there were a total of 2 ,25 8 family households at or below poverty level ; 802 of these were female headed households ; 7 06 of the female headed households that were at or below poverty level had children under age 18, and 342 had chi ldren under age 5. In 1990, there were 1 823 households (6.7 percent of all area household s) in Plant City / East Hillsborough County receiving public assistance. The average household income from public assistance in the s tud y area was $3,315. In the remaining portion of Hillsborough County, there were 17, 890 households (6.0 percent) recei ving public assistance. Public assistance includes State and Federal supplementary sec urity income payments for disabilities AF DC payments, and general assistance. 91

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Estimated Size of Cons umer Group. As of 1 990, US Census data (Bureau ofthe Census US Department of Commerce 1992) show that in the study area there were: 10 ,782 individuals at 100 % poverty level 24,950 individuals at 150 % poverty level 27 220 individuals at 185% poverty level Reso u r c e Assess m e nt. Tabl e 15. P o ints o f A c cess to Serv i ces for F inan cial H ardship SERVICE FACILITY An nu al Current Servi ce Waiting Ann u a l Agen cy/Program No. E nroll-Capacity List Budget Served me n t FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Co nsumer Credit Counseling 156 26 n/ r 0 n/r Farmer s Home Admin : Home L oa n s 45 n / r n/r n / r n/r Farm L oa ns 32 n / r n/ r n/ r n/r HRS-Economic Services: Medicaid 5 5 96 n / r n/ r n / r n / r AFDC 5 596 n / r n/ r n/r n/ r *SSI 7,182 n / r n/ r n/r n/r HOUSING Affordable Hous i ng Assistance 50 n / r n / r n/r n/ r Plant City Housing Authority 800 800 800 yes n/r S OCIAL SERVICES Community Health & Human Serv n / r n / r n/ r n/ r n/ r Neighborhd Serv Cntr: Case M g mnt 3 0 30 2 0 0 n/ r Travelers A i d Society 716 64 n/ r 0 n/r TRANSPORTATION SERVICES Coordinated Transportat i on I ntake n/ r n / r n/r n/ r n/ r INFORMATION AN D REFERRAL C itizen Action Center n / r n/ r n/ r n / r n / r Neig hborhood Service Center : Tech A ss i st. To Organizations 79 100 100 0 n/ r Recruitment 129 ISO ISO 0 n / r OTHER Bay Area Legal Services 7 00 125 125 n/r n/ r Bread of Life Missio n 500 500 n / r n / r n / r Hillsb. Co:Homemaker Services 252 250 n / r n / r n / r Mea l s on Wheels I S O 85 85 0 n / r **Native Amer i can O u treach n / a n / a n/a n/a n / r Neighbo rhood Service Center: Lock Installation II n / r n/r n/r n / r Emergency Hou s ehold Goods 145 145 whe n avai l. 0 n/ r Essential Appliance Repair 3 8 38 40 0 n/ r Emergency Food Pantry 1 024 1,024 as nee de d 0 n / r Tamp Hillsborough Urban League n/ r n/r n/r n/ r n/ r n/a = not applicable ; n/r = no re s pon s e; em pty cell = facility or servic e not available in study area Represents 1990 figures **program newl y implemented Note: Reported numbers may not exclusively reflect cases of financial hardship ; for related or coordinated s ervices please refer to: Abused and Neg l ected Child r en, Elder l y Child Care Unemployme nt Education 92

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Discussion. Low income individuals and families sometimes need financial assistance food and emergency shelter to meet their most basic needs. In additi o n they often need transportation to access a v ailable service s, a decent safe affordable house in which to live, and access to financial or legal advise. There are many types of public assistance available to individuals and familie s in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area including State and Federal supplementary security income payments for disabilities Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) payments and general assistance. Each type is determined l o call y on a y earl y basis based on income level and other guidelines e s tablished b y the Federal Go v ernment. Entitlements for individuals or families can also depend on factor s such as number of children home and vehicle ownership, presence of husband or partner in the household disability age and pregnancy status The Children's Board ( 1993) sho ws that current maximum poverty levels for each entitlement (as a percent of the poverty threshold ) are as follows: Table 16. Poverty Levels for Entitlements PROGRAM Medicaid (pregnant women) Medicaid (birth to 1) Medicaid (all others except single m e n) Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) ( single women with c hildren ) Medicaid and AFDC (single women with children ) Food Stamps (families according t o fam. size) Women Infants and Children (WI C) (sliding scale infants mu s t be s creened as "nutritionally needy ) H eadS tart Indigent Health Care PreK Program Free Lunch Reduced Lunch Child Care and Development Block Grant Program ( children under 1 3) Supplemental Social Securi ty In c ome ( SSI) 93 PERC E N T OF POVERTY LEVEL 185% 185 % 100 % 100% 100 % 1 30 % 150 % 100 % 100 % 185% 130 % !85 % < 7 5 % of median in co me Indiv i du als : in co me canno t ex ceed $44 6 / m o nth res ource s n o t > $ 2,0 0 0

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Many service provider agencies have noted that federal poverty guidelines are not necessarily a good gauge to use when measuring the need for services. For public assistance benefits to be adequate or programs effective certain other factors should be taken into consideration such as age urban/rural areas employment status health and other resources, to name a few Data in reference to these factors is detailed in the accompanying Social Indicator Report for East Hillsborough County (Maesl995a). The Plant City Neighborhood Service Center is a multi-purpose facility that houses several human service agencies allowing for provision of many human service programs at one location. It i s centrall y located i n Plant Cit y and serves individuals and families from the surrounding east county area In 1994 a total of 5 ,347 persons (unduplicated count) requested services at this facility; the total number of duplicated individuals served was 8 550. Among the services provided by the various agencies at this location are emergency food and household supplies, social services and case management counseling, emergency financial aid education and information and referral. Temporary shelter is a growing need in many communities (Florida Department of HRS 1989) A Hillsborough County Sheriffs Deputy who works in the eastern portion of the county estimates that there are about 50 known homeless individuals who are living in the approximate boundaries of the study area. However if transients passing through the area are included, this number may be as high as 100 homeless individuals within the study area at a given time. According to the Florida Department of HRS ( 1989), there are more than 14, 000 homeless persons in Florida, and recent studies have 94

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shown that there is a rapidly increasing number of homeless families, consisting primarily of single mothers. Mental Health Care Inc. reports that they served 2 homeless individuals in their Homeless Project program in 1994 from the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area. The Bread of Life Mission also reported that they occasionally offer food and assistance to homeless persons There is an overwhelming need for access to transportation in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County. The lack of available transportation options isolates people especially in rural areas. This limits access to employment education health care and other n ee ded services In the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area safe decent affordable housing is limited, as documented in the Social Indicator Report (Maes1995a). Housing shou l d be more than just shelter. It should provide a safe environment for children and families, as well as security and stability for the elderly. Public housing only accommoda tes 200 families. There are a large number of mobile homes 7,833 which represe nts 2 6. 6 percent of the total housing in the area that provide reasonably priced housing but are vulnerable to storms and fire Much of the lower priced housin g was built before 1980. potentially leaving young children exposed to lead-based paint as well as pre senting possible physical barriers for the elderly and disabled. In addition to the agencies and programs listed above there are also a limited number of organizations and churches in the stud y area which pro v id e food e mergenc y shelter and transportation for those in need. In spite of the fact that there are several different types of services and programs 95

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available in the Plant City /E ast Hillsborough County area to help families and individuals in need of assistance, many of these services are in limited supply or difficult to access due to lack of transportation services. Unemployment Definition The unemployed individual has the required skills or the capacity to acquire needed skills as well as the ability to work but is unable to find suitable employment. Individuals who are not employed, but are not looking for work, or do not want to work are not considered unemployed. Population Assessment. US Census data (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) show the 1990 unemployment rate in Hillsborough County was 5.4 percent. The unemployment for whites was 4.7 percent African-Americans was 9.5 percent and Hispanics 6.4 percent Unemployment statewide in 1990 was 5.8 percent with white, African-American and Hispanic at 4 9 11.3 and 7.7 percent respectively. Nationally in 1990, the 1990 unemployment rate was 5.6 percent. In August 1993 Bureau ofLabor Market (1993) information shows that the unemployment rate in the United States was 6 5 percent, Florida 8.1 percent and Hillsborough County 7.6 percent. Individuals with disabilities, no high school diploma or low educational attainment, and those who lack access to transportation are most at risk of unemployment. 96

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The 1990 US Census (Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce 1992) shows that, in the study area there were 4 775 individuals with a work disability of whom 2 514 were prevented from working. In 1990 there were 17,03 7 individuals age 25 and over in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County who did not have a high school diploma (34.4 percent of the population age 25 and over). Only 5 628 individuals (11.7 percent of the population age 25 and over) had a bachelor's degree or higher (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992). There were 1 892 individuals in Plant City/East Hillsborough County between the ages of 16 and 19 who were not in school and not high school graduates and were either not employed or not in the labor force (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) Estimated Size of Consumer Group. The level of unemployment varies widel y depending on the condition of the economy. It also varies widely in different localities and in different industries. One way to measure unemployment is by the number of people who apply for and receive unemployment compensation. Howe ver, this method does not include individuals who do not qualify for assistance under this program 97

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Resource Assessment. Table 17. Points of Access to Services for Unemployment SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. EnrollCapacity List Budget Served ment EMPLOYMENT AGENCY JPTA Green Thumb Inc.: Employment Placement 71 nlr nlr 10/ month $ 200,000 F lorid a Job and Benefit Office: Employment Placement n / r 141 nlr nlr nlr Employment Applications nlr 439 nlr nlr nlr Requests from Employers n / r 160 n/ r nlr nlr VOCATIONAL REHAB OFFICE Hillsborough County: Employment & Training n / r nlr nlr nlr nlr Project Independence 29 1 nlr 150 nlr nlr JPT A Green Thumb : Training Program 30 n / r n / r 10/ mo. s 614 453 Florida Vocational Rehabilitation 500 125 125 n/r n/r EDUCATION Hillsborough Community College n / r 6,043 n / r n/r $2 900,192 Hillsborough Co. Adult Education n/r 2,477 n / r n/r n/r Neighborhood Service Center: GED Classes n/r 140 30 0 n/r SpeciaVPersonal Interest n / r 73 32 0 n/r INFORMATION AND REFERRAL Citizen Action Center n/r n/r n/r n/r n!r Neighborhood Service Center n / r n / r n/r nf r nlr n/a = not applicable; n/r = no response; empty cell = facility or service not available in stud y area Note: Reported numbers may not exclusively reflect cases of unemployment ; for related or coordinat ed services please refer to: Substance Abuse, Education Financial Hardship Chronic Illness. Public Offenders, Disabled Persons Troubled Youth Discussion. According to the Jobs and Benefits Office 141 individuals were placed in jobs during August 1995. During the same time period, there were 439 new applications for employment, and 160 new job orders were received from employers Jobs and Benefits is just one of the agencies in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area which offer services to the unemployed. There are also several agencies that 98

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provide job training, placement and infonnation and referral services, as well as opportunities to up-grade or learn new job seeking and work skills Although there is traditionally some degree of unemployment in any given area the Trident United Way (1993) offers suggestions on ways in which the community can help lower unemployment rates. These proposals include: Businesses could cross-train workers provide literacy and on-the-job training programs and provide apprenticeship opportunities. Schools business and community organizations could work together develop skills and provide work experience for young people Business and community leaders could work together to attract major industries to the area High rates of unemplo yme nt and underemployment place a strain on the system of human services. As stated above, there most likely will always be some unemployment in any area. However a well diversified economic base and a healthy well-ed ucated population are two factors that can significantly help to reduce unemployment Disabled Persons Definition A disabled individual has a physical impainnent as the result of a birth defect, chronic d i sease or accident. The impainnent may be neurological such as blindness, mental retardation, or paralysis or musculoskeletal, such as disabilities caused by amputation of a limb. 99

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Population Assessment. There are many different types and severity of disabilities, and disabled individuals are a strong indicator of the need for many different types of social and human service programs. In Plant City/East Hillsborough County, US Census data show there are 49,163 individuals between the ages of 16-64. A total of2,079 (4.2 percent of persons ages 16-64) report a self-care and/or mobility limitation. There are also 4,775 individuals with a work disability, of which 2,514 (5.1 percent of persons ages 16-64) are prevented from working. Ofthe 8,348 individuals age 65 and over 1,955 (23.4 percent of all persons age 65 and over) report having a self-care and/or mobility limitation As the large 35 to 55 year old segment of the population ages, there will be a growing demand in the near future for increased services for older individuals. Estimated Size of Consumer Group According to Trident United Way (1993) approximately 33 million individuals on a national level, have physical of mental impairments that limit their activities and over 9 million have functional limitations which prevent them from working, attending school or maintaining a household. There are an additional 2 million Americans are in institutions with very severe functional limitations Figures based on the 1990 US Census (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) indicate that, in Plant City/East Hillsborough County, there are: 2,079 non-institutionalized individuals between the ages of 16 and 64 with a mobility and/or self-care limitation 100

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4,775 non-institutionalized individuals between the ages of 16 and 64 with a work disability of which 2 514 persons have a work disability which prevents them from working. 1 955 non-institutionalized individuals age 65 and over wit h a mobility and/or self care limitation. The Council of State Governments (1975) estimates that a possible 10 to 12 percent of the population ofthe United States suffer from a significan t disability of some type. This roughly concurs with findings in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County study area. The Council also estimates that mentally challenged individuals, of varying severity, comprise rou g hly 3 percent of the U.S population. Three percent of the 1995 estimated population of the study area (86,540 person s) would be approximately 2,600 individuals 101

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Resource Assessment. Table 18. Points of Access to Services for Disabled Persons SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. Enroll-Capacity List Budget Served ment REHABILITATIO N SERVICES United Cerebral Palsy 1,500 nlr nlr nlr nlr FL Dept. Of Vocational Rehabil. 500 125 125 0 nlr VOCATIONAL REHAB TRAINING Hillsborough County: Employment & Training n / r nlr nlr nlr nlr Project Independence 291 nlr !50 nlr nlr JPT A Green Thumb: Training Program 30 nlr nl r 10/ mo. $ 614,453 Florida Vocational Rehabilitation 500 125 125 nlr nlr FINANCIAL SERVICES ADULT CARE LIVING FACILITY Oak Rest Boarding Hom e n / r 16 16 n/ r nlr Plea sant Manor Boarding Home nlr 19 20 n / r nlr Sharick's Deck Retirement Ranch n / r 25 25 nlr nlr Sikes Boarding House nlr 4 nlr nlr nlr NURSING HOME Community Convalescent Center 240 119 29 0 n / r Forest Park Nursing Center 133 97 95 0 nlr Plant City Health Care Center 130 112 120 0 nlr E DUCATION Hillsborough County Schools n/r nlr nl r n/ r nlr TRANSPORTATION SERVICES Coordinated Transportation Intake nlr nlr nlr 0 n/r OTHER Meals on Wheels 150 85 85 n/r n/r Hillsborough County: Homemaker Services Program 252 250 n/r nlr nlr INFORMATION AND REFERRAL Citizen Action Center n/ r nlr nlr nlr n/ r n/a = not applicable; n/r = no response; e mpty cell = facility or service not available in study area Note: Reported numbe r s may not exc l usive l y reflect cases of disabled persons ; for related or coordinated services please refer to: Unemployment Chronic Illness Financial Ha r dship Elderly D isc u ssion In 1990, there were 6,548 persons over age 16 in the study area with a selfcare or mobility limitation, or a work disability that prevented them from working (Maes 195a) The number of children under age 16 with disabilities was not available prior to the project deadline. 102

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Individuals with disabilities need a wide variety of services including financial assistance vocational and rehabilitation serv ices transportation, personal care assistance and affordable barrier-free housing Financial assistance is available from HRS Economic Services for those who qualify. However, service providers have indicated that vocational and rehabilitation se rvices transportation personal care assistance and suitable housing are in short supply Waiting lists are not an accurate measure of need in this instance, where agencies and providers are operating beyond their capacity and will not put an individual on a waiting lis t unless they feel that the y can be served in a rea s onable period of time. Often services must be accessed in other areas of the county ; so metimes they are not recei ved at all. Individuals with disabilities are often in greater need of physical and mental health serv ices (d iscu sse d earlier in this document) than the ge neral population. As noted the availability of mental health services within the s tudy area is limited and lack of available transportation severely limits accessibility to both physical and mental health serv tces. Elderly Definition In this context elderly will include all per so ns age 65 and over. Population Assessment. In 1990 US Census data (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) show that in the study area there were: 103

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8,348 persons age 65 and over. 1 360 individuals age 65 and over who were at or below federal poverty guidelines. 2,077 individuals age 65 and over who were living alone. 1 955 individuals age 65 and over (24 percent of individuals age 65 and over) had a mobility or self-care limitation. 7,182 households receiving social securit y income although this does not exclusively represent elderly households; the average yearly income from social security benefits was $7 182 per household. 4,185 households receiving retirement income for an average of $8, 310 per year ; this compares with Hillsborough County as a whole where the average retirement income is $10 189 per year Estimated Size of Consumer Group. The 1990 US Census (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) shows that there were 8 949 persons age 65 and over in Plant City/East Hillsborough County. This represents about 11. 3 percent of the total population of this area. 104

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Resource Assessment. Table 19. Points of Access to Services for the Elderly SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. Enroll-Capacity List Budget Served ment FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Social Security Office nlr n l r 60 n / r nlr Veteran s Affair s 480 n / r n / r n/r n / r ADULT CARE LIVING FACILITY Oak Rest Boarding Home n / r 16 16 n / r n/r Plea sant Manor Boarding Home n / r 19 20 n/ r n / r Sharick's D eck Retirement Ranch n / r 25 25 n/ r n/ r Sikes Boarding House n / r 4 n/ r nl r n/ r NUTRITION CENTER Senior Citizens Nutrition Program : Plant City Senior Center 183 112 50 6 n / r Bealsville Recreation Center 68 54 40 n / r SOCIAL SERVICES County Health and Human Services n / r n / r n / r n/ r n/ r NURSING HOME Co mmunity Co nvalescent Cente r 240 119 29 0 n/r Forest Park Nursing Center 133 97 95 0 n/r Plant City Health Care Center 130 112 120 0 n/r TRANSPORTATION SERVICES Coordinated Transportation Intak e n / r n / r n / r 0 n / r OTHER Meals o n Wheels 150 85 85 n/ r n/r Hillsborough Cou nty : Homemaker Services Program 252 250 n / r n/r n/r *Sheriffs Dept. -CATE U nit Se nior Adult Day Care 38 22 16 n / r n/r JPT A Gree n Thumb: Training Program 3 0 n / r n / r 10/ mo $ 614 453 E mpl oyme nt 7 1 n / r n/r 2 0 / mo $ 200 000 *Tampa Electric Compan y INFORMATION AND REFERRAL Citizen Action Center n / r n / r n/r n / r n/r n/a = not applicable: n / r = no r es pon se; empty cell = facility or service not available in study area implemented pro gra m Note: Reported numbers may n o t exclusively reflect cases o f elderly; for rel a ted or coordinated services plea se refer to: Financial Hard s hip Ch ronic Illne ss. Disab led P e r so n s Mental Illn ess. Discussion Persons age 65 and over comprised 11.3 percent of the population within the study area in 1990 (Maes 1995a) It is important that services are available that can help older individuals to maintain their health and functional independence. Although 105

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Medicaid has helped to ensure the benefits of health care coverage lack of available transportation within the study area presents a significant barrier to accessibility of health care services. In 1990, nearly one-fourth of the elderly individuals within the study area had a mobility or self-care limitation which may include difficulties in bathing, feeding, dressing, using the toilet and getting in and out of bed (Maes 1995a) There are a few agencies within the study area that provide in-home and day care services to the elderly, but requests for services exceeds the supply, according information received from service providers. There are three nursing homes. and at least four Adult Congregate Living Facilities located within the study area. There is insufficient information available to determine whether or not these alternate living facilities are able to fulfill the need for this type of service within the study area. In 1990, there were 2,077 individuals age 65 and over in the study area who were living alone (Maes 1995a). Safe, affordable housing that is adapted to the physical needs of the aging becomes a critical issue In the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area, safe, adequate affordable housing is limited. as documented in the Social Indicator Report ( 1995) There are a large number of mobile homes 7 833 which represents 26.6 percent of the total housing in the area that provide reasonably priced housing but are vulnerable to storms and fire Much of the lower priced housing was built before 1980 and may present physical barriers for the elderly and disabled. Many elderly people lack financial security. Fifteen percent of persons age 65 and over in the study area in 1990 were living at or below poverty level. Many others are 106

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living on a fixed income from Social Securit y or retirement benefits. There are limited financial resources available from service agencies within the study area for additional support for basic needs such as rent utilities and medication for those above the poverty level but with little income (Maes 1995a). The three problems most often identified by service providers that pose barriers to access of services by the elderly are lack of available and suitable transportation not knowing where to find assistance during a time of crisis and not seeking assistance before a situation become s critical out of fear of being institutionalized Two new programs aimed at helping the elderly and disabled to access needed services have been instituted by the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Department and b y Tampa Electric Company who use personnel during the course of their work to help identify the homebound who may be in need of various services. As the large 35 to 55 year old segment of the population ages there will be an increasing demand in future y ears for s ervices which are aimed at meeting the needs of older individuals. Domestic Abuse Definition Domestic abuse includes battering the use of force by one person to achieve and maintain control over another person. A victim of domestic abuse is an individual who has suffered physical violence within the family including physical battery and sexual assault. 107

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Population Assessment. In the past it was generally believed that abuse was a problem associated with the lower socioeconomic classes. However extensive research definitively shows that no segment of the population is exempt every class race ethnic group, educational level and professional s tanding are represented Studies have shown however that violence most often occur s in families where the couple is under age 30 and have children. Although socioeconomic and class s tatus are not indic a tors of risk economic and social status do affect access to treatment and the type of treatment received In some studies physical battering has been found to be the most common cause of female injury brought to medical attention Over one million women seek medical assistance annually for injuries caused by battering. However some victims do not seek help according to Waites (1993) due to the use of coping mechanisms that allow them to maintain a slight degree of influence over an assailant or to sustain an illusion that they do have some control as well as for man y other reasons. Estimated Size of Consumer Group. Over 100,000 cases of spouse abuse were reported statewide in 1993 and statistics show that almost all of the victims were female. The Trident United Way (1993) states that studies have shown that between 21 and 30 percent of all women in the United States have been beaten at least once by a partner. However once physical violence has occurred studies agree that it tends to recur and become more severe over time To conservatively estimate the number of women who may possibly be victims of 108

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domestic abuse the number of women age 18 and over in 1990 will be calculated using the following formula: 56 950 (total population age 18+) / 2 (assuming 112 are fema l e) = 2 8.475 The following can then be calculated : 28, 475 (estimated 1990 adult female population) x 21% = 5 980 28 475 (estimated 1990 adult f e male population) x 30% = 8 542 The estimated number of victims of domestic abuse is between 5 980 and 8,542 women. Resource Assessment Table 20. Points of Access to Services for Victims of Domestic Abuse SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. En r oll-Capacity List Budget Served men t PHYSICAL HEALTH SERVICES South Florida Baptist Hos pital : Emergency Room Vi s its 21, 574 n / r n/r 0 n/r Suncoa s t Community Health Center : Dover Health Center 6 876 200 n / r 0 n/r Plant City Family Care 3 000 200 n/r 0 n/r Hillsborough Co. Health Clinic : Primary Care Clinic n / r n / r n / r n / r nlr MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES Mental Health Care Inc : n/r Baylife Centers (program s) 375 n/r n/ r y es n / r The Panos Center 2 79 n / r n / r yes n/r The Spring of Tampa Bay, Inc. 227 n/r n/r n/r $ 50 886 CRISIS SHELTER PROTECTIVE SERVICES Plant City Police n / r n / r n/ r n / r n / r Hillsborough Co. Sheriff's Dept. n/r n / r n/r n/r n/ r TELEPHONE CRISIS LINE n/a = not applicable ; n/r = no response ; e mpty cell = facility or service not availab l e in study area newly implemented program Note: Reported numbers may not exclusively reflect cases of domestic abuse ; for related or coordinated services please refer to : Acute Illness Mental Illne s s Substance Abuse, Abused and Neglected Children. 109

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Discussion. Ifthe state prevalence of reported domestic abuse ( 100,000 cases in 1993) is used to approximate incidence in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area there may be as many as 200 reported cases per y ear of domestic violence. This number agrees with the number of individuals served b y The Spring an agency which provides counseling services in Plant City/East Hillsborough County to domestic abuse victims and their partners However if many cases of abuse go unreported the number of victims each year will be much higher Potential needs of victims of domestic violence include physical and mental health care counseling and protective services. Agencies that are capable of providing these services within the study area are listed above. The recent growth in the number of shelters for victims of domestic violence may be considered as one measure of the essential service they prov i de. However a crisis shelter for victims of domestic abuse and their children is not available within the Plant City / East Hillsborough County area. Many communities throughout the country have recognized the importance and value of this t y pe of service and some have enlisted the aid of community organizations and law enforcement personnel to ensue a means of transportation for victims of domestic violence to these shelters (Trident United Way 1993). 110

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Abused and Neglected Children Definition. A neglected or abused child is any child whose health and development are impaired or endangered for reason of physical assault or failure to provide adequate physical or emotional care and protection by a caretaking adult. Population Assessment. Ammerman and Hersen (1990) state that identification of high risk groups as well as the causal factors of child abuse and neglect are impossible. Child a buse and neglect occur at all socioeconomic levels among all racial and ethnic groups, in any size family, and can be committed by mothers fathers, and non-parental caregivers. According to Waites (1993) previously abused parents cannot be predicted to abuse their children, but parents who do abuse their children often have a history being abused themselves However Ammerman and Hersen ( 1990) state that research has reveal ed that there appear to be several parental. societal. and child characteristics common to many cases of child abuse or neglect. Parents or caregivers who are most likel y to maltreat chi ldren u s ually exhibit one or more of the following characteristics: low-frustration tolerance: inappropriate expression of anger social isolation ; impaired parenting skills, unrealistic expectations of children ; and a sense of incompetence in parenting A disproportionate percentage of abused children are from lower socioeconomic status families although it is important to note that the majority of economically disadvantaged families do not maltreat their children. There appears to be a disproportionate percent of abused or neglected children with the following characteristics : premature birth ; low birth weight ; mental retardation ; and physical and/or sensory handicaps. 111

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Abused or neglected children often exhibit opposition or defiant behavior although some abused and neglected children according to Herman ( 1992), experience alternating cycles of controlling involvement with a parent and neglectful abandonment that requires them to learn to care for themselves and others. It is usually younger children, especially pre-school children who are more likely to suffer from abuse or neglect. Estimated Size of Consumer Group It is very difficult to estimate the number of abused or neglected children for several reasons. F i rst many cases of abuse or neglect go unreported. In addition variation in methodology and definition in the various research studies of what constitutes child abuse or neglect vary widely. There is also the factor of personal judgment of what constitutes maltreatment, and definition varies by reporting agency confirmed unfounded, unsubstantiated cases According to the Trident United Way ( 1993) nationally in 1990, 27 percent of reported cases of child abuse were due to physical abuse ; 46 percent were due to neglect ; 15 percent reported sexual abuse; and 13 percent were due to emotional maltreatment. 112

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Resource Assessment. Table 21. Points of Access to Services for Abused and Neglected Children SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. Enroll-Capacity List Budget Served ment PROTECTIVE SERVICES HRS-Child Protection Servi ces n / r n / r n / r n / r nlr Hillsboro ugh County Sheriffs Dept. n / r n / r n / r n / r n / r Plant City Police D e pt. n / r n / r n / r n / r n / r MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES Mental Health Care, Inc.: nlr Baylife Centers ( program s) 375 n / r nlr ye s nlr The Panos Center 279 nl r n / r yes n/ r The Spring of Tampa Bay Inc 227 nlr nlr n/r $ 50,886 FOSTER HOMES (unidentified) EDUCATION Neighborhood Service Center : Parenting Classes 43 25 20 0 nl r INFORMATION AND REFERRAL HRS-Child Protection Services n / r n/r n / r n / r n! r nla not applicable: n /r-no response; empty cell facility or service n ot available in s tudy area Note: Reported numbers may not excl usivel y r eflec t cases of abused and neglected children ; for related or coordinated serv ices please r efer to: Fina nci a l Hard s hip Menta l Illness, Dome s tic Abuse, Public Offenders Discussion HRS is the primary agency within the area which provides protection and intervention services for abused and ne glected children. Howe v er, information on the reported cases of child abuse or neglect was not available prior to the project deadline There are also phys ical and mental health services available wit hin the study area to vi ctims and families. Several agencies noted that the study area has the highest placement of children in foste r care in Hillsborough County although exact numbers we re not received prior to the deadline for this project. The 1990 US Census data ( Bureau of the Ce nsus US 113

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Department of Commerce 1992) show that in the study area there were a total of 719 children under age 18 who were liv in g w i th non-relatives The number of children in fos ter care within a specified area does not necessarily reflect the incidence of child abuse and neglect within that particular region It does however, demonstrate the growing prevalence and increased need for child protective services in contemporary American society Although the number of foster care placements within the study area was not available prior to the project deadline the Children's Board (1993 : 82) notes that there were 2 ,000 children in HRS foster care programs in Hillsborough County in 199 3, 1 132 of whom were in Foster Home Care Although there are different levels or degrees of intervention the primary fonn of intervention with maltreating families has been predominantly reactive and crisis oriented Treatment efforts involve both abusive caregivers as well as the maltreated child. However, prevention programs to ensure that child abuse and neglect never occur are virtually non-existent due to the difficulty in identifying at-risk individuals. Current programs are aimed at eliminating further abusive or neglective behavior and consist of counseling support and guidance in parenting Child Care Definition. Child care is fonnalized arrangements for services or programs provided for children on a regular basis and can be offered in an array of settings including homes 114

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centers schools churches and businesses. The purpose of child care is to ensure the safety and well-being of children in the absence of a parent or guardian Population Assessment. Not all parents with children need child care on a regular basis. However virtually all parents, at some time need someone to care for their children. The National Research Council (1991) notes that child care is no longer simply a protective or remedial service for children from low-income or troubled families: it is an everyday arrangement for the majority of children in the United States With the growing number of mothers in the work force children need to be well cared for in safe and healthy environments. In the Plant City / East Hillsborough County study area there are: 2,755 mothers ages 15 and over in the labor force who have children under age 6. 1,533 female headed households with children under age 18. 3,831 children under age 6 who live in households where both parents or the single parent is in the labor force 1,012 children under age 6 and 1.076 children ages 6-17 who live in households with both parents in poverty 122 children under age 6 and 194 children ages 6-17 who live in households with a single father in poverty 617 children under age 6, and 984 children ages 6-17 who live in households with a single mother in poverty. Estimated Size of Consumer Group. In Plant City/East Hillsborough County there were 15, 271 children under age 12 in 1990 according to the 1990 US Census (Bureau of 115

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the Cens us US Department of Commerce 1992) The re were 3 769 children ages 0-2; 3 843 children ages 3-5 ; 7 659 children ages 6-11. Resource Assessment Table 22. Points of Access to Services for Child Care SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. Enroll-Capacity List Budget Served ment Angels & Rascals 300 45 52 0 n/r B & G Day Care 90 50 75 0 n / r Big Brothers/Big Sisters 60 + 60+ 35 60 $ 10, 000 Boys / Girls Club: Dover 1 5 0 n/r n / r n/r nlr Plant City 300 120 n / r n / r nlr Community Chri s tian Academ y DC 191 168 149 0 n / r Country Kids Pre-School 100 5 0 65 0 n / r Eastside Baptist Church DC/Kind n / r 19 76 n / r n / r First Baptist Church of Lithia DC nlr n / r 57 nlr n/r First Baptist Church Weekday CCC n / r n / r 220 nlr nlr First Presbyterian Learning II* n / r 38 45 nlr nlr Fi rst Presbyterian Learning Cntr. 119 120 175 n / r n / Fun Factory Pre-school II 150 145 1 50 nlr n/r Golden Hours Pre-School 20 13 43 5 $ 55,755 Golden Rule Child Care 1 2 0 80 120 n/r nlr Golden Rule CCC # 2 75 54 90 n/r nlr Hope Lutheran School & DC* 65 65 100 n / r n/r Judy's Wheeler St. CCC 70 70 91 7 nlr Kindercare Learning 80 80 164 0 n / r Lake Walden Pre-School* 2 8 56 135 n/ r n/r La Petite Academy n / r n / r 140 n / r nlr Partners In Care.Childrens Serv Cntr : Information and Referral n/ r n/r n / r n/r n / r Plant City HS Little School n / r 75 n / r n / r nlr Preschool Academy Inc. 15 II 95 n/r n / r Single "R" CC Ranch n / r 115 n / r n / r n / r Springhead Baptist Church CCC 100 70 99 3 n / r Strawberry Patch Academy 40 40 75 0 n/r Traveler's Aid: Fresh Start Child Care 201 64 n / r 0 $ 80 000 Turkey Creek First Baptist Church n / r 160 n/r n / r n/r Walden Lake Early Learning n/ r 135 n / r n/r n/r Wee Ones World CCC 5 0 45 45 0 n / r Lithia/Pincrest Latchkey Program 50 n/r nlr n / r n/r n/a = not applicable ; n / r = no response; e mpty cell facility or service not available in study area Child care provided for enrolled students only Note : Needs Relat ed/Coordinated with: Financial Hardship Education Unemployment. 116

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Depending on a parent 's personal s ituation some require full-time, regular child care services for their children ; others may only be in need of after school care ; still others may need only occasional child care servic es Income and availability are factors which affect child care service use rates. Discussion. There are numerous licensed child care centers located within the study area Only three of the centers that were contacted indicated that they received more requests for child care services than they could provide in a reasonable period of time and therefore restricted their waiting lists to onl y a few children. Most of the child care providers indicated that they were able to accommodate almost all of the requests for services except in the case of infants where requests for services outnumbered available slots Almost all of the day care providers within the study area noted that once in child is in day care, they tend to remain enrolled for several years. The resources investigated only include licensed child care centers although child care services are often provided in family day care homes by churches, or by members of the child's family such as an older sibling or a grandparent. In spite of the apparent availability of child care within the study area there are indications that low income families and parents in need of infant care are currently underserved as evidenced by the following: Some of the child care providers noted several children at their centers are no longer receiving child care services due to recent cuts in Title XX entitlements. 117

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Child care providers noted that the largest number of request s which they could not accommodate were for infant care. According to the Children s Board Social Indicator Report No 1 (December 1993 :94) "Access to affordable child care ha s become an increasingly vital factor in raising children It is e ss ential for working parents particularl y for single working parents who are least likely to be able to afford nons ubsidized care." As discussed in the preceding Population Assessment section low income families, families in which both parents work and families in which the single parent is working are well represented in the study area The Children s Board Social Indicator Report No 1 (December 1993 : 98) also shows that on a county level all of the families served by subsidized child care in Hillsborough County had an income range of $15,000 to $25 000 except for families of one child-one parent ; approximatel y 3 900 children in Hillsborough County were being served in Title XX s ubsidized child care programs a s ofMay, 1993 while the list of those waiting to be s erved was 1 200 ; in September, 1992 Central Agency reported that the number o f children in Hillsborough County waiting for subsidized care was 2 000. Pregnant Teens Definition Pregnant teens are females under a g e 2 0 who are or have been pregnant. Population Assessment A c c ordin g to the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (1989 ) teena g e women are at high risk of developing pregnancy related complications such as toxemia anemia cervical trauma and premature delivery State estimates show that 1 in 7 infant s born to teenage mothers will be born at low birth weight, and national figures s how that the infant mortality rate for women under age 17 i s 18.0 compared to 10 3 for mothers in their 20s. This can be compared with 1990 birth statistics for the study area (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) : 118

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Of the 1 276 resident live births in East Hillsborough County in 1990 there were 217 resident live births (17 0% of all resident live births) to mothers under 20 There were 132 resident live births ( 11.9 percent of all resident live births) to single mothers under 20. Estimated Size of Consumer Group. Data from the US Census (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) shows that for 1990 there were a total of 5,419 individuals between the ages of 15-19 in the study area Ifwe assume that approximately half are female the consumer group can be estimated at approximately 2 700 females who may potentially be in need of pregnancy related services Resource Assessment. Table 23. Points of Access to Services for Pregnant Teens SERVICE FACILITY Agency/Program PHYSICAL HEALTH SERVICES South Florida Baptist Hospital : Hospital Admissions PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER Crisis Pregnancy Center Suncoast Community Health Center: Dover Health C enter Plant City Family Care Hillsborough Co.: Primary Care Clinic Healthy Start WIC EDUCATION SERVICES Plant City High School PREVENTIVE SERVICES INFORMATION AND REFERRAL Annual No Current EnrollServed ment n / r 660 6 876 3 ,000 n / r 650 n / r nl r n / r 55 200 200 n / r 500 n / r nlr Service Capacity nl r 55 200 200 n/r 500 n / r n / r Waiting List n / r 0 0 0 n/r 0 n/r n/r Annual Budget nlr n/r n / r n / r n/r n/r n / r nlr Citizen Action Center n / r n/r n / r nl r nlr nfa =not applicable; n / r =no response ; empty cell facility or service not available in study area Note: Reported numbers may not e x clusivel y reflect c ases of teen pregnancy ; for related or coordmated services please refer to : Financial Hardship Mental Illness, Education Abused and Neglected Children. 119

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Discussion. The needs of female teens include information and acce s s to the various methods of birth control as well a s m e dical a ss istance and other ty pes of support during pregnancy and after birth. In spite of the fact that there are several agencies which offer pre v entive s ervices there is still a high rate of teenage pregnanc y in the study area The Crisis Pregnancy Center notes that a majority of the people se rved b y the agency are single teens This agency believes that the need for pregnanc y testing counseling education and information and referral services for women of all ages is approximatel y twice as high as the numb e r her organi z ation s erves perh a p s as man y as 100 women per month. It was also noted that women often r e turn for s everal different pregnancies. There are also various programs within the study area aimed at helping to ensure healthy mothers and babies such as Health y Start Medicaid and WIC However information from the Quick Data system shows that in 1990 there were 4 7 pregnant women (ages unknown) from the stud y area who did not begin prenatal care until 7 months or later in their pregnancy In addition there were 113 low birth weight babies born to women (ages unknown) residents of the stud y area in 1992. Selected Issues and Indicators of Social Well-Being Consideration of the demographic and economic trends in an area can help clarify current human needs as well as aid in planning for future needs The following data are from the Plant City/East Hillsborough County Social Indicator Report (1995) and 120

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represent some of the indicators commonly used to measure social well-being within a particular area. There were 217 live births (17.0% of all births) to mothers under age 20. Also 386 live births (30 .2% o f all births) were to single mothers and 132live births (11.9% of all births) were to single mothers under 20 The median age of the census tracts in this report range from 29 1 years to 50 8 years of age This compares to a median age of 33. 0 years for all of Hillsborough County The East Hillsborough County area has a higher percentage of individuals under age 18, 28 2 percent compared to 24 3 percent for Hillsborough County as a whole East Hillsborough County has a lower percentage of individuals belonging to minority groups (13 2 percent) than the total County (17 2 percent). Over half( 56 2 percent) of East Hillsborough County area has been classified as 'r ural' I s olation become s a s ignificant issue in light of the fact that 2 703 homes in this area have no phone and 1 146 homes have no vehicle. In addition there is no mass public transportation available in the city limits of Plant Cit y Plant City / East Hillsborough Count y has a total of27, 278 households. Ofthese households 21, 935 (80.4%) are classified as family households and 5 353 (19 6%) are non family households. This is substantially different from the county households: family households 68 0% and non family households 32.0%. Of the 2 7 278 households in this area 3 538 (13 0%) are considered large households composed of five or more persons. Of the 21, 935 famil y households in this area 2, 258 (10.3 percent) have been determined to be at poverty level. In addition 945 of these families have children under age 5 and 1 667 families have children under age 18. There are a total of 10, 606 individuals ( 13.4 percent of the population) living in poverty; 4 ,005 of these individuals are children under age 18; 1 360 are persons age 65 and over There are 2 585 female-headed family households of which 802 are below poverty level ; 342 have children under age 5 ; 706 have children under age 18. Of the 2,435 female headed households with children 655 have children under age 5 and 1 780 have children under 18. There are 2,755 mothers in the labor force with children under age 6 in Plant City / East Hillsborough County 121

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There is a total of 2 514 individual s between the ages of 16 and 64 with a work disability that prevents them from workin g In addition there are 1 955 persons age 65 and over with a mobilit y or s el f -care limitation Although Plant City and East Hillsborou g h County have a slightly lower educational average than Hillsborough County, the percentage of individuals below poverty status does not appear to be significantly higher than County percentages (13.4 percent versus 12.9 percent for the County). In addition the unemployment rate for East Hillsborough is 5.6 percent only slightl y higher than the County rate of 5.4 percent. Nearly two-thirds (64 5 percent) of the population of East Hillsborough is employed in the service sector retail trade manufacturing, and agriculture The per capita income of the 14 census tracts in this study is $12 029. This compares to a per capita income of $14 ,431 for the balance of Hillsborough County and a per capita income of$14, 203 for Hillsb o rough County as a whole. 122

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Section 4: Community Well-Being This section will address the community well-being research results. Included in this section are Public Offender and Troubled Youth. Public Offenders Definition. Public offenders will be defined here as individuals who have a criminal record and are 18 years of age or older Population Assessment. The following is the number of selected crimes as reported by the Plant City Police Department (for the incorporated city of Plant Cit y ) and the Hillsborough County Sheriffs Department (for the unincorporated areas of the county included in this study) for 1994. Table 24. Selected Crimes CRIME Murder Sexual Battery Robbery Aggravated Assault Burglary Larceny Motor Vehicle Theft Narcotics Violations Total Crimes as reported by law enforcement agency 123 PLANT CITY (IN CORPORA TED) 2 31 89 316 524 1,522 2 94 133 24,031 UNINCORPORATED STUDY AREA 5 60 32 236 843 1 482 276 44 56 ,905

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Estimated Size of Consumer Group. Because of different techniques used for measuring crime throughout the United States by different law enforcement agencies it is impossible to arrive at an accurate measure of the trends of crime in general or a particular crime specifically. Furthermore statistics reported by study area law enforcement agencies do not reflect individuals who committed more than one crime nor one crime committed by several individuals. Resource Assessment. Table 25. Points of Access to Services for Public Offenders SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Waiting Annual Agency/Program No. Enroll-Capacity List Budget Served ment DETENTION FACILITY PROBATION/PAROLE OFFICE Florida Department of Corrections 800 n/r n / r n/r n/r VOCATIONAL REHAB. Hillsborough County: Employment and Training n/r n/r n/r nlr n / r Florida vocational Rehabilitation 500 125 125 n/ r n/r PREVENTIVE SERVICES Hillsborough Co. Sheriffs Dept. n / r n/ r n/r n / r n/r Plant City Police D e pt. n / r n/r n / r n / r n/r n/a = not applicable; n / r = no response; empty cell = facility or service not available in s tud y area Note: Reported numbers may not exclusively reflect cases of public offenders; for related or coordinated services please refer to: Substance Abuse, Mental Illness Financial Hardship Unemployment Troubled Youth. Discussion. The Florida Department of Corrections offered various types of parole services to approximately 800 individuals within the study area to individuals convicted 124

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of various crimes. Vocational rehabilitation services are also available from county and state agencies In addition to providing public protection. both the Plant City Police Department and the Hillsborough County Sheriffs Department offer various safety and prevention programs to citizens of the community as well. Some of these programs include safety and prevention classes in the schools, citizens' academy, various "Watch" programs, such as Neighborhood, Business and Church Watch, and Crime Stoppers to name a few Crime is a growing concern in many communities For unincorporated areas of the study area the Hillsborough County Sheriffs Department uses a rating system "high" to "low" -to describe the total crime index by census tract. Information relating to census tracts included in the unincorporated study area is reported for 1994 as follows: Table 26. 1994 Total Crime Index by Census Tract CENSUS TRACT OVERALL CRIME INDEX RATING 101.02 below ave. 101.03 below ave. 101.04 low 124 average 130 low 131 low 132.02 low 139.03 below ave. 139.05 below ave. Although the crime rate is relatively low in a large part of the study area, preliminary review of raw data collected for the Hillsborough County Needs Assessment reveal that individuals surveyed within the study area consider crime to be the number one problem facing the community as a whole 125

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Troubled Youth Definition. A trouble youth is an individual under age 18 who has become involved with the juvenile justice system. Population Assessment The National Center for Juvenile Justice ( 1987) notes that delinquent adolescents are likely to dislike schoo l have poor rates of attendance and below average academic competence In addition they often ha ve limited career objectives, dislike their parents drink smoke and use illegal drugs Communities with high rate s of juvenile crime tend to be in urban areas have high proportions of femaleheaded households, high male unemployment rates, a high proportion of marriages ended by divorce separation, or abandonment and a hi gh proportion of families with income from public assistance or welfare. Information pertaining to some of the risk factors associated with delinquent behavior as described above by the National Center for Juvenile Justice is available for the s tudy area According to the 1990 US Census (Bureau of the Census US Department of Commerce 1992) : There were 596 persons ages 16-19 who were not enrolled in school and not employed. There were a total of2, 258 family households at or below po verty le vel; 802 of these were female headed households ; 706 of the female headed households that we re at or below poverty level had children under age 18. There were 1 198 males ages 16 and over who were unemployed. There were 2,425 males over age 15 who were divorced ; 505 were separated. 126

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There were 3,058 females over age 15 who were divorced ; 752 were separated There were 1 ,8 23 households on public assistance. There were 1 ,3 73 referrals during the 1994 calendar year for youths listed as resident of the study area. Selected referrals are as follow: Table 27. 1994 Youth Referrals REASON FOR NUMBER OF REFERRAL REFERRALS Murder Sexual Battery Robbery Aggravated Assault Assault and Battery Burglary Larceny Motor Vehicle Theft Narcotics Violations 1 21 17 55 167 156 247 83 58 Norman Campbell, Department of Juvenile Justice (personal communication), notes that the referrals which occur with the highest frequency are misdemeanors (assault battery and minor theft charges). The felon referrals that occur with the highest frequency appear to be assorted burglary offenses. Florida Department ofHRS (1989) reports that a research project recently conducted in the Hillsborough County Juvenile Detention Center showed a strong relationship between substance abuse and criminal behavior. The study reported that: 90 % of the youths in the Center claimed they had consumed alcohol at least once 41 % claimed to have used marijuana or hashish 100 or more times. 24 % said they had used cocaine 22% claimed to have used stimulants. 49 % said that they had used 4 or more different drugs at least once in their lives. 127

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Estimated Size of Consumer Group. The prevalence and incidence of the various forms of adolescent antisocial behavior is astonishingly high on a national level. According to the Council of State Governments (1975), only about one half of the juveniles who commit crimes are apprehended and charged. Rough estimates indicate that one in every nine youths one in every six males will be referred to juvenile court before age 18 Resource Assessment. Table 28. Points of Access to Services for Troubled Youth SERVICE FACILITY Annual Current Service Agency/Program No. EnrollCapacity DETENTION FACILITY JUVENILE SERVICES OFFICER HRS-Intake for Delinquent Children REHABILITATION SERVICES Juvenile Just i ce PROBATION/PAROLE OFFICE PREVENTIVE SERVICES Served ment n / r n / r n/r 1 373 n / r n/r Waiting List n / r n / r Annual Budget n/r n / r Hillsborough Co. Sheriff's Dept. n/r n / r n/r n / r n/r Plant City Police Dept. n / r n/r n/r n / r n/r Hillsborough County Schools n / r n / r n/r n / r n/r n/a = not applicable; n/r = no response ; empty cell = facility or service not available in study area Note: Reported numbers may not exclusively reflect ca s es of troubled y outh : for related or coordinated services please refer to: Substance Abuse Mental Illness Financial Hardship, Unemployment, Abused and Neglected Children Discussion. In 1993, 51,109 juveniles were arrested in the state of Florida According to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement juveniles represented 13.4 percent of all arrests in Florida in 1993 Of those referred, 81.0 percent were male and 19.0 percent were female. White males ages 11 to 17 accounted for 42.4 percent of all juvenile arrests. 128

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The Florida Department of Juvenile Justice was created in 1994 transferring responsibilit y and oversight of juvenile justice services from HRS on October I 1994 The three places for intervention noted by the National Center for Juvenile Justice (1987) are the family, the justice system and schools contending that the school is the most promising point of intervention to reduce delinquent behavior. The relationship between dropping out of school and delinquency is complex An interesting study by Kratcoski and Kratcoski ( 1986 : 162) reports that research has revealed that juveniles who have dropped out of school had much higher rates of delinquent behavior and police contact w hile they were still in school than after they dropped out noting that delinquent behavior declined dramatically in the period immediately after they left school and continued to decline. In other words it appears that delinquent behavior increases the probability of dropping out of school but dropping out decreases the incidence of subsequent delinquent behavior However dropping out of school leads to other problems and other types of unacceptable behavior such as the use of alcohol and drugs underemployment and unemployment. Kratcoski and Kratcoski (1986 ) note that several conditions are closely related to dropping out of school and can serve as warning signs of potential delinquent behavior including, pregnancy desire to get a job or to have more money a feeling of failure resulting from poor grades lack of personal counseling or other supportive services not being able to relate the curriculum to future employment influence of out-of-school friends lack of adequate clothing and personal clashes with teachers and authority figures 129

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Selected Community Well-Being Issues and Indicators Crime is just one indicator of community well-being (Hillsborough County Florida 1994). Another closely related indicator is a citizen's perception of safety within the community. It is interesting that although most of the citizen's surveyed for the Hillsborough County Needs Assessment ( 1994) ranked crime as a serious or very serious problem in the county today, most of those surveyed reported that crime was not a problem in their neighborhood even though several had been victims of a crime. Contributions to United Way are also an indicator of well-being in a community In 1993, contributions to United Way ofEast Hillsborough, Inc totaled$ 349 126. In 1994, contributions totaled$ 339,000. In spite ofthe fact that contributions were lower long-range data is needed to determine if this is a trend. Community well-being also includes a community's "assets". These include parks recreation centers youth development groups athletic programs and business and cultural organizations. Within the Plant City / East Hillsborough County study area there are 12 city park in Plant City and 4 county parks in surrounding areas including Alderman's Ford Park (1,141 acres) Lithia Springs Park (160 acres), Edward Menard Park (625 acres), and Springhead Park in Plant City. Recreation centers include the M.L. King Recreation Center, the Otis M Andrews Sports Complex the Planteen Recreation Center the Winter Visitors Center and the Plant City High School Community Center There are Boys and Girls Clubs in Plant City and Dover, as well as many scouting 130

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troops. Athletic programs include the Plant City Little League and the Pinecrest Little League. Other community organizations include the Plant City Community Theater the Arts Council, the East Hillsborough Art Guild and the East Hillsborough Historical Society There is also a library many service organizations, and numerous churches of all denominations. 131

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CHAPTERS CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations of this study. The conclusions are a focused expansion on the analyses presented in the pre vious chapter. The recommendations are intended for members of the East Hillsborough Network and for planners working in analogous situations. Finally, a summary of the project is presented to put the whole enterprise in perspective. Conclusions This study assessed both needs and resources. The findings of the Social Indicator Report (Maes 1995a:2-3) which contains indicators of need can be summarized as follows: In the ten year period from 1980 to 1990 Plant City and East Hillsborough County experienced a 35 8 percent growth in population, increasing from 58, 423 to 792 363 persons. This trend is predicted to continue, and population projections by the US Census Bureau anticipate a 45.9 percent growth in the 25 year period from 1990 to 2015. This will result in the addition of 36 427 individuals in this area for a total population of 115 ,790 by the year 2015. This growth in population will be due i n part to natural increase (th e excess of births over deaths) and also to in-migration to th e area. East Hillsborough has a higher birth rate than the rest of the County and has experienced at least a 21.7 percent growth in population due to in-migration 132

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There were 217 live births ( 17.0% of all births) to mothers under age 20. Also 386 live births (30.2% of all births) were to single mothers, and 132 live births (11.9% of all births) were to single mothers under 20 The median age ofthe census tracts in this report range from 29.1 years to 50.8 years of age. This compares to a median age of 33.0 years for all of Hillsborough County. The East Hillsborough County area has a higher percentage of individuals under age 18, 28.2 percent compared to 24 3 percent for Hillsborough County as a whole East Hillsborough County has a lower percentage of individuals belonging to minority groups (13 2 percent) than the total County (17.2 percent). However the 1990 US Census conducted in August of that year does not account for the large migrant population that is present in the study area from September through March. Over half (56.2 percent) of East Hillsborough County area has been classified as 'rural' Isolation becomes a significant issue in light ofthe fact that 2 703 homes in this area have no phone and 1 146 homes have no vehicle In addition there is no mass public transportation available in the city limits of Plant City. Plant City / East Hillsborough County has a total of27,2 78 households. Of these households, 2 1 ,935 (80.4%) are classified as family households, and 5,353 (19 6%) are non family ho u seholds. This is substantia ll y different from the county househo l ds: fami l y households 68.0% and non family households, 32 0%. Of the 27,278 households in this area 3 538 (13.0%) are considered large households composed of five or more persons Ofthe 21,935 family households in this area. 2,258 (10.3 percent ) have been determined to be at poverty level. In addition 945 of these families have children under age 5 and 1 667 families have children under age 18. There are a total of 10,606 individuals (13.4 percent of the population) living in poverty ; 4 ,005 ofthese individuals are children under age 18; 1,360 are persons age 65 and over There are 2,585 female-headed family households, of which 802 are below poverty level ; 342 have children under age 5; 706 have children under age 18. Of the 2,435 female headed households with children, 655 have children under age 5 and 1 780 have children under 18. There are 2 755 mothers in the labor force with children under age 6 in Plant City/East Hillsborough County 133

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There is a total of 2 514 individuals between the ages of 16 and 64 with a work disability that prevents them from working. In addition there are 1,955 persons age 65 and over with a mobility or self-care limitation. Although Plant City and East Hillsborough County have a slightl y lower educational average than Hillsborough County, the percentage of individuals below poverty status does not appear to be substantially higher than County percentages (13.4 percent versus 12.9 percent for the County) In addition, the unemployment rate for East Hillsborough is 5.6 percent, only slightly higher than the County rate of 5.4 percent. Nearly two-thirds (64.5 percent) of the population of East Hillsborough is employed in the service sector retail trade manufacturing, and agriculture The per capita income of the 14 census tracts in this study is $12 029 This compares to a per capita income of $14 431 for the balance of Hillsborough County and a per capita income of $14,203 for Hillsborough County as a whole. Based on the findings of the needs and resources assessments this study found that the continuum or range, of services for individual s and families living in Plant City/East Hillsborough County is fragmented. Many types of services are not available in the consumer's local community and must be accessed in other geographic areas. Even where several types of services are available, often less of a particular service is available at the smaller service sites in the East Hillsborough County s tudy area. Furthermore lack of available transportation is a serious barrier to accessibility for many se rvices. Under appropriate headings below are brief summaries of each of the consumer groups or issues of well-being addressed in the study the same ones that were analyzed in Chapter 3, and earlier reported to the East Hillsborough Network of Service Providers in the form of a report entitled The Plant City/East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project : Population and Resource Assessment (Maes 1995b ). 134

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Physical Health the availability of health care services and the locations of health care facilities in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area appears to be adequate, there are indications that many individuals in lower income groups, persons living in rural areas, migrant families, and people who lack available transportation are most likely being underserved at this time. Mental Health There are many gaps in the continuum of services needed to meet the mental health needs of individuals in the study area. In addition, population increases and demand for services have out-paced the mental health services available within the study area. The groups within the study area that are at very high risk of being underserved include children in foster care, individuals from lower income groups, bilingual and non English speaking individuals, female adolescents who have been pregnant one or more times, persons who lack access to transportation, and the elderly. All of these groups are well represented in the study area 135

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Education Concern has been expressed about academic achievement which several social indicator measures show to be below county, state, or national averages, including drop out rate, average test scores, and number of individuals pursuing higher education degrees. The public school system does not provide pre-kindergarten programs in the study area east of Dover, leaving many 3and 4-year-old children unserved even though several privately operated centers offer pre-kindergarten programs There are indications that the Head Start and Migrant Head Start programs need to be expanded due to the large number of migrants in the study area and the high percents of children at or below federal poverty guidelines. Children from low income groups are most likely to be at risk of not being school-ready Social Well-Being There is a serious shortage of descent safe, affordable housing in the study area. This particularly impacts low income families. the elderly and disabled persons. Individuals with disabilities need a wide variety of services. Many agencies providing services for disabled persons in the study area are operating beyond capacity forcing some disabled individuals to seek services in other areas of the county or to do without needed services. 136

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There is a critical need for transporta tio n services within the study area. Coordinated Transportation Intake' s (CTI) recent reductions in service has made needed services inaccessible for low income persons in rural areas, the elderly, and disabled individuals. Lack of available transportation se riously limits access to physical and mental health care employment education and other needed services. The recent growth in the number of shelters for victims of domestic violence may be considered as one measure of the essential service they provide. However a crisis shelter for victims of domestic abuse and their children is not available within the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area. In spite of the apparent availability of child care within the study area there are indications that low income families and parents in need of infant care are currently underserved The capacity of the licensed child care centers in the study area is considerably less than the number of children ages 0-12 potentially in need of day care or after-school care There is a high rate of teenage pregnancy in the study area in spite of the fact that there are several agencies which offer preventive services. Unfortunately this study was unable to ascertain the amount and quality of sex education offered in public schools. Recent studies have shown that the migrant population of the area was underestimated during the 1990 US Census. Migrant families and individuals are at considerable risk of being underserved if the y are not identified Although the crime rate is relatively low in a large part of the study area preliminary review of raw data collected for the Hillsborough County Needs Assessment 137

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reveal that individuals surveyed within the study area consider crime to be the number one problem facing the community as a w hole This notion was substantiated at a Community Forum held at Plant City H i gh School in May 1995 The highly prestigious panel consisted of: Judge James S. Mood y Jr.; Harry Lee Coe State Attorney ; Cal Henderson Hillsborough County Sheriffs Department; Julianne Holt Public Defender ; Norman Campbell Operations Consultant for Juvenile Justice District IV; Larry Martin General Director for Hillsborough County School Board Area IV; and Troy Surrency Plant City Chief of Police. The Forum was well attended and concerns were freely expressed by community residents in attendance. The two reports presented to the East Hillsborough Network Population and Resource Assessment (Maes 1995b) and the accompanying Social Indicator Report (Maes 1995a) describe only part of the elements which characterize and define the community of Plant City / East Hillsborough County and are only the beginning steps in a comprehensive strategic planning process. Needs assessment and strategic planning is a continuous process The data collected and the amass performed in this study should be reviewed and updated as necessary in order to ensure that any extraordinary unforeseen developments will be take into consideration in the future Recommendations In addition to the identification and assessment of needs and resources, the process of needs assessment should include formulating and implementing a plan to 138

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address community needs Suggestions on how to proceed with the strategic planning process were discussed at some length with the East Hillsborough Network Subcommittee although not formall y part of this project. The following is a brief summary of what was discussed in the cour s e of a meeting, with the addition of some background information upon which this discu ss ion was based Identified needs assessment information is meant to be used However, as Nickens Purga, and Noriega ( 1980:61) note "In no case should identified needs and recommendations from such a study be imposed on an institution as a sole basis for a ction Rather the results of su c h a study must be considered in view of the role of the in stitution available resources and probable impact on e x istin g programs." In accord with this notion and in light of the fact that there i s a high level of cooperation and communication among service providers I noted that I believed that the strategic planning process in this community had the potential to be highl y successful. Over the course of this project it was suggested b y various members of the C hildren's Board that this study should be conducted using the outcome measure approach This technique, which identifies optimal states or results and defines them in terms of an explicit goal and objectives has gained popularit y in recent y ears and can be a very effective approach to needs assessments. However consistent with the approach advocated by Sol Tax (cited in Chambers 1989) I felt that m y role was not to direct the project but rather to work with the individuals and agencie s within the community to help them determine for themselves the appropriate or desired outcomes for the problems in their community and to help them develop their own course of action to meet these 139

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objectives. This was accomplished by defining and briefly describing the purpose and process of beginning a strategic plan for addressing the human service needs of the community. Bryson (1988:20) defines strategic planning as "a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization (or other entity) is, what it does and why it does it." He continues by noting that strategic planning helps public and nonprofit organizations and communities respond effectively to any undesirable circumstances that confront them A strategic plan must be responsive to users providers and the community as a whole consider available resources and anticipate future needs of the population With community needs growing in both complexity and number there is an increasing demand for services as well as, presumably, a greater cost of meeting these needs. Competition for available resources requires that community leaders make informed decisions about how needs will be met and the most efficient and comprehensive way to accomplish this goal. To insure the greatest possible benefit to all people living in a particular jurisdiction service providers and decision makers must have as much relevant information as possible available to them on which to base a strategic plan for addressing duplication, fragmentation and gaps in services and for developing a plan for achieving a defined list of outcome objectives. 140

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The following is a summary of some commonly used steps in the strategic planning process as suggested by Bryson (19 88) Trident United Way (1993) and Kretzmann and McKnight ( 1990): 1. An originating group of indi v iduals should be formed for the purpose of acting on a common vision. The group should: compile information regarding other individuals or organizations that may be interested in joining the Strategic Planning Committee c ollect information that relates to the needs and resources within the community. 2 The originating group should then determine: the size and composition of the Strategic Planning Committee how individuals and organizations will be approached (for example, by letter. phone or in person) determine a date time and place for the initial meeting of potential members 3 At the Initial meeting: describe the complete strategic planning process and the steps involved to those in attendance if participants agree to get involved se t a date time, and place for the Strategic Planning Committee meeting. 4. At the first Strategic Planning Committee meeting, individuals and organizations should : 141

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propose agree upon and draft a written statement of the purpose, goal, and mission of the Strategic Planning Committee agree on the required commitment of members of the Strategic Planning Committee (time work level etc.) agree on how decisions will be made by the group (for example consensus majority, etc.) determine membership criteria for the Committee determine leaders who will be responsible for overseeing Committee activities determine what financial personnel materials. and equipment resources the Committee may need and determine where these resources may be accessed set a date time and place for the next Committee meeting 5. At the next Strategic Planning Committee meeting, individuals / organizations should: identify needs, problems or issues in the community prioritize the identified needs problems or issues identify resources available in the community create task groups for each of the priority issues 6 Each task group should address their particular need problem or issue by developing a specific, detailed strategy that includes : measurable objectives or outcomes a time frame in which these objectives or outcomes will be accomplished 142

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the individuals or organizations who will be responsible for implementation of the plan and specific duties that will be required how the implementation process will be monitored and evaluated 7. The strategy of each group is presented to the Strategic Planning Committee for the following possible recommendations : do not adopt the plan refine the plan adopt and implement the plan. It is often difficult for those who are generally familiar with a situation to accurately assess conditions. Subjective opinions need to be verified by accurate complete and current information. As Michaels ( 1990 : 162) notes "the goal of comprehensive planning is to increase resources equitably across a spectrum of need rather than increasing resources in an ad hoc fashion within a limited sphere It was emphasized to the East Hill s borough Network subcommittee that this summary of the strategic planning process is just one way among many in which to proceed. Additionally, modifications and further expansion of the suggested steps would be necessary and probably more effective if initiated by members of the community Finally, it was stressed to the subcommittee that this summary was only a way to begin and not the total process involved in strategic planning 143

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REFERENCES CITED Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA) 1993 Florida Health Care Atlas. Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida. Ammerman, Robert T., and Michel Hersen 1990 Research in Child Abuse and Neglect: Curre nt Status and an Agenda for the Future. In Children at Risk: An Evaluation of Factors Contributing to Child Abuse and Neglect, Robert T Ammerman and Michel Hersen eds. New York: Plenum Press PP. 3-19 Bell, Roger A. Tuan D. Nguyen, George J. Warheit, and Joanne M. Buhl 1978 Service Utilizati on Social Indicator, and Citizen Survey Approaches to Human Service Need Assessment. In Evaluation of Human Service Programs. C. Clifford Attkisson, William A. Hargreaves, and Mardi J. Horowitz eds. Pp. 253-300 New York: Academic Press Bureau ofthe Census US Department of Commerce 1992 1990 Cens u s of Population and Housing, Summary File 3A: Florida, Alachua Lee. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of the Census. Bryson, John M. 1988 Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publications Chambers Erve 1989 Applied Anthropology: A Practial Guide. Prospect Heights IL: Waveland Press. Children's Board of Hillsborough County 1994 Provider Survey Unp ublish ed Children's Board of Hillsborough County 1993 Hillsborough's Chi ldren : Social Indicator Report No. 1 Tampa, FL : Children's Board of Hillsborough County Counci l of State Governments 1975 Human Services: A Framework for Decision-Making Lexington KY: Council of State Governments. 144

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East Hillsborough Network 1995 Directory of Services. First Edition. Plant City FL: East Hillsborough Network . Ervin Alexander M. Antonet T. Kaye Giselle M Marcotte and Randy D. Belon 1991 Community Needs, SaskatoonThe 1990 s : The Saskatoon Needs Assessment Project. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan : U nited Way of Saskatoon Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS) 1989 Comprehensive Services Plan for the Alcohol Drug Abuse & Mental Health Program, 1989-1993. Tallahassee FL: Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. Gartner, Alan, and Dorothy Kerzner Lipsky 1993 Children at Risk : Students in Special Education. In Children at Risk in America, Roberta Wellons, ed. Albany, NY: State University Press Hanson Susan 1990 The College-Prepatory Curriculum Across Schools: Access to Similar Learning Opportunities ? In Curriculum Differentiation : Interpretive Studies in U.S Secondary Schools, Reba Page and Linda Valli eds Albany, NY: State University ofNew York Press Hedrick, Terry E., Leonard Bickman and Debra J Rog 1993 Applied Research Design Newbury Park CA: Sage Publications. Herman, J. 1992 Trauma and Recovery : The Aftermath ofViolence-from Domestic Abuse to Political Terror. New York: Basic Books. Hillsborough County Florida 1962 Preliminary Plan ofDevelopment Hillsborough County Tampa, FL: Hillsborough County. 1966 Plan of Development Plant City Study Area. Tampa FL: Hillsborough County. 1989 Comprehensive Plan for the City of Plant City. Tampa FL: City-County Planning Commission. 1994 Hillsborough County Needs Assessment. Tampa, FL: Hillsborough County. 1995 2015 Comprhensive Plan Projections by Jurisdiction and Census Tract : Population Housing and Employment. Tampa FL: City-County Planning Commission. 145

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Holzer, C. E and Robbins, L. 1981 Measurement Issues in Mental Health Needs Assessment. In Factor analysis and Measurement in Sociological Research D.J. Jackson and E.F. Borgatta, eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Jacksonville Community Council Inc 1993 Life in Jacksonville: Quality Indicators for Progress. Jacksonville FL : Jacksonville Community Council Inc Kauffman R and F. W. English 1979 Needs Assessment Concepts and Application. Englewood Cliffs NJ : Educational Technology Publications. Kiesler Charles A., and Amy E. Sibulkin 1987 Mental Hospitalization : Myths and Facts about a National Crisis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Kratcoski Peter C ., and Lucille Dunn Kratcoski 1986 Juvenile Delinquency Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall. Kretzmann, John P., and John L. McKnight 1993 Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community's Assets. Lesko Nancy 1990 Curriculum Differentiation as Social Redemption: The Case of School-Aged Mothers. In Curriculum Differentiation: Interpretive Studies in U.S. Secondary Schools, Reba Page and Linda Valli, eds. Albany, NY : State University ofNew York Press. Maes Kathleen I. 1995a Social Indicator Report. Plant City, FL: Plant City/East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project. 1995b Population and Resource Assessment. Plant City, FL: Plant City/East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project. Manela, Roger and Armand Lauffer 1979 Health Needs of Children. Beverley Hills CA: Sage Publications McKillip, Jack 1987 Need Analysis: Tools for the Human Services and Education. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. 146

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Michaels William M 1990 Innovation Theory and Social Planning : An Examination of H.G Barnett s Theory oflnnov ation A s Applied to the I-COPE Social Plannin g Project. Ph D dissertation University of South Fl o rida National Center for Juvenile Justice 1987 Today's Delinquent. Volume 6. Pittsburgh : National Center for Juvenile Justice National Data Consultants 1991 Florida County Perspectives Athens GA : National Data Consultants National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH ) 1980 The Health Demographic Profile System s Inventory of Small Area Social Indicators Rockville MD : National Institute of Mental Health National Research Council 1 991 Caring for America 's C h i ldren Washington D C.: Nat i onal Academ y Press Neuber, Keith A. 1980 Needs Assessment: A Model For Community Planning. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. Nickens John M ., Adelbert J. Purga III and Penny P. Noriega 1980 Research Methods for Needs A s sessment. Washington D.C : University Press of America Piasecki J R. and Kamis-Gould E. 1981 Social Area Analysis in Program E v aluation and Planning E valuation and Program Planning, 4:3-14. Plant City Florida 1985 Plan of Development. Plant Cit y, FL : Martin Smith Associates Inc Poister Theodore H 1978 Public Program Analysis : Applied Research Methods Baltimore MD: University Park Press. Richie Nicholas D., and Diane E. Alperin 1992 Innovation and Change in the Human Services Springfield IL : Charles C Thomas Company. 147

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Siegel Larry M ., C Clifford Attkis s on and Linda G. Carson 1978 Need Identification and Program Plannin g in the Community Context. In Evaluation of Human Service Programs C Clifford Attkisson William A. Hargreaves and Mardi J. Horowitz eds. Pp 215-252 New York : Academic Press Simons George W 1956 Comprehensive Development Plan City of Plant City Florida. Plant City FL: City ofPlant City. State of Florida 1993 Progress in Public Health : A Five-Year Report on Florida's Public Health State Health Office, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Tallahassee FL: State of Florida 1994 District 6 Needs Assessment and Strategic Plan Tallahassee FL: Florida Department of Health and Human Services Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council 1967 Preliminary Regional Plan Tampa FL: Tampa Ba y Regional Planning Council. Trident U nited Way 1993 A Challenge to the Community: A Report on Human Needs in the Trident Area Charleston SC: United Way. U.S Department of Health and Human Services 1980 The Health Demographic Profile System ; s Inventory of Small Area Social Indicators Rockville MD : National Institute ofMental Health U S Department of Health Education and Welfare 1971 National Health Survey. US Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Office of Health Service Statistics and Technology Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics van Willigen John 1993 Applied Anthropology : An Introduction Westport CN: Bergin & Garvey Waites Elizabeth A. 1993 Trauma and Survival. New York : W W Norton & Company Inc Warheit George J ., Roger A. Bell and John J. Schwab 1977 Needs Assessment Approaches : Concepts and Methods Rockville MD : U S Department of Health Education, and Welfare 148

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APPENDICES 149

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APPENDIX 1. 1990 CENSUS TRACT MAP I I >-I <..>. 115.01 1 02.01 / .. -. 1990 CENSUS iRAC'T' MAP UNINCORPORATED HIU.SaOROUGH COUNTY AN C PLANT CITY CENSUS TRACT UNE 133 .01 CENSUS TRACT NUMBER CORPORATE CITY UMITS 150

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APPENDIX 2 COPY OF EAST IDLLSBOROUGH COUNTY SOCIAL INDICATOR REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS Section LIST OF TABLES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A Profile of Plant City/East Hillsborough County Summary SOCIAL INDICA TOR REPORT Purpose of the Social Indic ator Report Location Study Area Proposed Project Period SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC INDICA TORS Introduction Population Size Population Projections Age Groups Race and Ethnicity Household Composition Population Density Birth Rates, Death Rates and Natural Increase Housing Isolation Mobility Characteristics Disabled Population ECONOMIC INDICATORS Introduction Educational Attainment Income Poverty Status Cost of Raising a Child Employment and Labor Force Trends Veterans Industry Groups SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Summary Conclusion REFERENCES APPENDIXSocial Indicator Summary 151 ii 2 4 5 5 8 9 10 II 1 2 14 1 6 17 1 8 19 21 22 _.) 25 26 29 32 35 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) LIST OFT ABLES Table East Hill sborough County Population by Census Tract 10 Table 2 East Hillsborough Population Estimates and Projections II Table 3 1990 Population and Median Age 1 2 Table 4 1990 Population by Age Groups 1 3 Table 5 1990 Population by Race and Ethnicity 1 4 Table 6 1990 Population by Race / Ethnicity and Age 1 5 Table 7 1990 Popula tion Size and D ensity 1 7 Table 8 Number of Total Births Per 1.000 Women in 1990 18 Table 9 Hill s borough County Births and Deaths 18 Table 10 1990 Housing 18 Table 11 Selected Housing Characteristics 1 990 20 Table 12 Homes Without Vehicles in 1990 2 1 Table 13 Residence in 1985 22 Table 14 1990 Di sabl ed Population C hara c t e ri s ti cs Ages 16-64 23 Table 15 1990 Disabled Population Characteristics Ages 65 and Over 24 Table 16 Years of School Completed 1990 26 Table 17 Household Income Ranges in the US 27 Table 18 School Enrollment 1990 28 T ab le 19 Median Household Income and Per Capi ta Income 1990 29 Table 20 1990 Selected Hou se hold Incom e T y pe 30 Table 21 1990 Per Capita Income 3 1 Table 22 Poverty L ev el Incomes "'? .)_ Table 23 1990 Poverty Status of Individuals 32 Table 24 1990 Poverty Status ofHouseholds 33 Table 25 Income Relative to Poverty Level, 1990 34 Table 26 Estimated Annual Expenditures on a Child 35 Table 27 Future Costs of Raisin g A Child 36 Table28 1990 Civilian Labor Force Status 37 Table 29 1990 Employment by Industry Group 39 ii 152

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A PROFILE OF PLANT CITY/EAST HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY This report focuses on socio-demographic and economic profiles of the population of Plant City and East Hillsborough County, Florida The study area encompasses 14 census tracts in five zip codes, a re g ion cover ing approximately 375 s quare miles. (A list of the ce n sus tracts and zip codes can be found on page 2 of the Social Indicator Report.) This report includes information about population size and projected growth; a n examination of population density and di strib ution ; a description of the population b y race / ethnicity and by age; the number, size, and types of households within each census tract: a description of housing c haracteristics ; fmdings on disabilities isolation and mobility characteristics ; a nd data on economic well-being such as educational attainment, income poverty status employmen t and labor force trends and industry groups. The Social Indicator Report is part of the Human Services Planning Project, a comprehensive needs assessment currently being conducted by Kathy Maes as part of the requirement of a Master's Thesis in Applied Anthropology from the University of South Florida and in conjunction with the East Hillsborough Network, a n organization comprised of serv ice providers within Eastern Hill sbo rough County. This report will serve as the basis for an assessment of human services and social s upport addressing issues of health, education and community well-being in Plant City and East Hillsborough County. The goal of th e completed project is to provide a resource for determining p e rsonal and community n ee d s, as well as to aid in identifying duplication and fragmentation of services. Information in this report is based primarily on 1990 data compiled from a variety of so urce s such as the 1990 US Census, Hillsborou g h County Needs Assessment. and The Children s Board Social Indic a tor Report No. 1 This allows for comparison of a large amount of data When availab le. this information h as been augmented b y data from past and subsequent yea r s, allowing for identification of trends. The Social Indicator Report may b e useful to human ser vice providers, public officials citizen advocates and community leaders in their efforts to identify co mmunity and human service needs. The profil es in this r e port also allow demographic assessments, economic measures and need indicators to be compared am on g census tracts or zip codes, and between this area of the county and Hillsborou gh County as a whole. Additionally, the profile s in this report may provide a mea s ure by which the fmdin gs in t he Hillsborough Co un ty Needs Assessment ( 1994) may be compared 153

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) SUMMARY The fmdings of the Social Indicator Report can be summarized as follow: In the ten year period from 1980 to 1 990 Plant City and East Hillsborough County experienced a 35.8 percent growth in population, increasing from 58 423 to 792,363 persons. This trend is predicted to continue and population projections by the U .S. Census Bureau anticipate a 45.9 percent growth in the 25 year period from 1990 to 2015. This will result in the addition of 36 427 individuals in this area for a total population of 115 790 b y the year 2015 This growth in population will be due in part to natural increase (the excess of births over deaths) a nd also to inmigration to the area. East Hillsborough has a higher birth rate than th e rest of the County and has experienced at least a 21.7 percent growth in popu l ation due to in-migration There were 217 live births (17.0% of all births) to mothers under age 20. Also, 386 live births (30 .2% of all births) were to single mothers and 1 32 live births (I 1.9% of all births) we re to si n gle mothers under 20. The median age ofthe census tracts in this report range from 29.1 yea rs to 50.8 years of age. This compares to a median age of 33 .0 years for all of Hillsborough County. The East Hillsborough County area has a higher percentage of individuals under age 18, 28.2 percent compared to 24 3 percent for Hillsborough County as a whole. East Hillsborough County has a lower percentage of individuals be l onging to minority groups ( 1 3.2 percent) than the total County (17.2 percent). Over half (56.2 percent) of East Hillsborough County area has been classified as 'rural'. Isolation becomes a sig nific ant issue in light of the fact that 2 703 homes in this area have no phone and I 146 homes have no vehicle. In addition, there is no mass public t ransport ation ava ilabl e in the city limits of Plant City. Plant City/East Hillsborough County has a total of 27 278 hou seholds. Of these households, 21,935 (80.4%) are classified as family households and 5,353 (19.6%) are non-family households This is s ubstantiall y different from the county households : family households 68.0% and non-family households, 32 .0 %. Of the 27,278 households in this area, 3,538 (13 0%) a re considered larg e households composed of five or more persons 2 154

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A PPE NDIX 2. (Continued) Of the 21,935 famil y hou sehol d s in thi s area 2 258 (10.3 percent) have been determined to be at poverty le v el. In addition, 945 of these families have chil dren under age 5. and 1 667 families have c hildren under age 18. There are a total of I 0.606 individu a l s ( 13.4 percent of t he population) Jiving in poverty; 4 005 of these individual s are children under a ge 18; I 360 are person s age 65 and over. Ther e are 2.585 female headed family hou se holds of whic h 802 are be low p overty level; 342 have children under age 5; 706 have children under age 18. Of the 2,435 female headed hou s eholds with ch ildren 655 have children under age 5 an d 1 780 h ave children under 18. There are 2 755 mother s in the labor force w ith children under age 6 in P la nt C i ty / Ea st Hillsborough County. There is a total of2,514 individuals between the ages of 16 and 64 wit h a work disability that prevents them from working In addition there are I 955 persons age 65 and ove r with a mobility o r s e lf-care limitation Although Plant City and East Hillsborough County have a s l ightly lower educa tion al average than Hillsborough Coun ty, the percentage of individuals b elow po verty status does not appear t o be sig nificantl y higher than County percentage s (13.4 percent ver s u s 12. 9 percent for the County). In addit i on, the unemployment rate for East Hillsborou g h is 5.6 p e r cent only slightly higher than the Coun ty rate of 5.4 percent Nearly two-thirds (64 5 percent) of the popu l ation of Ea st Hill sbo rou gh is empl oyed in the service se c tor, retai l trade. manufacturing and agric ulture The p e r capita income of the 14 c ensus tracts in this study is $12.029. 1l1is compares to a per capita income of S 14 431 for the balance of Hillsborou gh County a nd a per capita income of $ 1 4.203 for Hillsborough County as a whole. 3 155

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) SOCIAL INDICATOR REPORT PURPOSE OF THE SOCIAL INDICATOR REPORT A tremendous amount of data i s routinely gathered on the county level by the Ce n s u s Bureau and other federal and state agencies. However in spite of the importance of the county's traditional role as the basic unit of research (and program delivery) severa l difficultie s exist in equat ing a county with a community. Because county information is aggregated it may not accurately represent information about communities on th e edge of the county, or about s maller communities and rural areas within the county when the county itself is classified as metropolitan. In addition an actual community does not have formal boundaries and is often selfdefmed by the residents of the community itself. This is the ca se with Hill s borough County, Florida where county data is often skewed toward the large metropolitan city of Tampa. Therefore in order to address th e differences in the rural areas and out-lying communities of Eastern Hillsborough County the scope of inquiry must be expanded from a county-level to one which includes these distinctive areas within the county Information about a community 's demographics economy and social well-being is a vital component of human service program plarming and development. This information provides the contextual framework for evaluating the relevance or adequacy of the available human se rvices within a community or a broader plarming area. Although secondary data so urce s are often seve ral years old before they b ec ome available they are useful when comparing a defmed area with the county as a whole, and in light of the fact that most areas do not experience dramatic changes in a sho rt period of time The Social Indicator Report is part of the Plant C i ty/East Hillsborough Human Services Planning Project and is intended to provide information which will serve as a basis for a needs assessme nt of human serv ices and social well-being addressing health education and community well-being i ss ue s in Plant City and Eas t Hillsborough County Florida. This data will also serve as the b asis for a lon grange stra t eg ic p l an for the area. In gene r al, the Socia l Indicator Report i s designed to serve th e following purpo ses: Provide a general g uid e for describing the Plant C i ty and East Hillsborough Co un ty population in order to evaluate the type and quantity of human services that are current l y needed and will be required in the future within the communi ty Provide a foundation for comparing the types a nd quantities of hum an services currently availab l e within the Plant City/East Hillsboroug h Cou nty area with the need s of th e community. Provide a basis for identifying key issues which must be consideredwhen evaluating commun i ty assets and deficits, formulating desirable outcomes for the community, and de ve l oping a strategic p lan for how these outcomes will be achieved. 4 156

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) LOCATION Plant City is located in Northeast Hillsborough Co un ty in West-Central Florida a nd is situa t ed approximately 24 mile s east of the city of Tampa a nd 10 mile s west of the city of Lakeland. Plant City and East Hillsborough County are served by Interstate Highway 4 State Hi g hway 39, State Highwa y 574 State Hig hway 92 and S tate Highway 60. In addition the area is serve d with railroad freight service by CSX Transportation Inc and the Plant City Airport has a light aircraft strip located just two miles from the downtown business di s trict STUDY AREA The Plant City/East Hillsborough County Human Services Planning Project study area consists of the incorporated and unincorporated areas of Plant City as well as the rural area to w n ships immediately surrounding it. The study area is generally bounded by the Pasco County line on the north the Polk Cou n ty line on the east and the Manatee County line on the sout h The western boundary includ es Cou n ty Road 39 Co unty Road 672 (Balm-Picnic Road ) Balm Riverview Road Boyette Road, the A lafia River, Lithia Pinecrest Road Durant Road South Dover Road Valrico Sidney Road, Gallagher Road, Thonotosassa-Plant City Road, Mcintosh Road, and U.S. Highwa y 301. The planning area includes the following census tracts, neighborhoods and associated zip codes: CENSUS NEIGHBORHOOD ZIP TRACT CODE Plant City Division Northeast 101.02 Midway / Country Meadows / Golden Lks/Mt Enon!Knights 33565 101.03 West Antioch/East Knights 33565 I 01.04 Cork/ Antioch 33565 City of Pl an t C itv 127 Plant City 33566 1 28 Plant City 33566 125 Plant City / Country Hills / Walden Lake 33567 126 Plant City 33566 129 Plant City 33566 Plan t City Division-Eas t 130 Bealsville / Springhead/Coronet/Youmans 33566 131 Keysville / Hopewe lU Alafia 33567 Wilmauma-Lithia Divi s i on 139.05 Ba 1 m/Boyette / Lithia 33547 1 39.03 Fort Lonesome / Picnic / Welcome / Pinecrest 33547 Dover Area 124 Dover/ Turkey Creek/T r apnell / Sidney 33527 132 .02 Durant/Pinecrest/Dover / Brandon Division 33527 5 157

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APPENDIX 2. ( Continued ) PASCO c ::UNTY : ::!9.03 : ::!9.02 i I : I I -----' ----i MANAIC:: C::U NTY 1990 CENSUS i"MAC"r MAP UNIN CORP O RATED HIU..S aOROUGH COUNTY AN D Pt..ANT C ITY CENSUS TRAC"r UNE 133.01 CENSUS TRACT NUMBER COR PORATE CITY UMITS 6 1 58

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) Od.e3sa. HIUSBOROUGH COUNTY 33541 159

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) PROPOSED PROJECT PERIOD The following i s the contracted tim e l ine for the Plant City / East Hillsborough Hum a n Serv i ces Plan n ino Proj ec t data collection analysis evaluation and interpretation. "' Phase I. May 22 Ju ne 22, 1995 Review the Data Collec tion to include the D e mo graph ic informat ion and d eter min e what additional informati o n i s needed as s t ate d on Page 6 of the East Hillsborough Network Pre limin ary Draft of Propo sed Project for Plant City / Eastern Hill s borou g h Cou n ty. Submi t w ritten r eport. Phase II June 22 Jul y 22, 1995 Resource Inventory Re sea rch Provider s Stu d y : Within the geographic b o undari es of Eastern Hillsborough Co un ty Zip codes 33566, 33565, 33567, 33547 a nd 33527 contact and personally interview all providers of serv ic es that rel ate t o th e problem s identified in the Hillsborough County Needs Assessment. The information in this stu d y will contain what types of serv i ces are currently being provided, how many individuals or families are being served a n d how much of a part icular service i s available Submit w r itte n report Phase III. July 22 September I 1 995 Analysis of Data using a Discrepanc y Model: the discrepancy model approach to needs assess m e nt eva lu a tes problems and their solut i ons by discove rin g the di fferenc e between 'What ou gh t to be' a nd 'What i s A l so present a model w hich wo uld provid e direction for a Comprehensive Plan Submit fm a l writt e n re port. Needs assessment and s trat egic planning is a co ntinuou s process. Therefore, t h e final results of the Pl ant City/East Hillsborou g h Human Services Planning Project stu d y should be re v iewed and updated as necessary in order to ensure that any extrao rdin ary unfores ee n developm e nt s will be taken into consid e ration in the future. 8 160

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS INTRODUCTION Consideration of the demographics of an area as well as the dynamic s of community arow th and chanae is "' "'' very important in understanding current human needs as well as planning for future needs. Questions regarding the size composition and di s tribution of the population mus t be addressed and satisfactori l y answered in order for a needs assessment to be formulated. If they are not answered the assessment will be based on intuition rather than fact, and planning will be purely spe cul a tive contributing to duplication and fragmentation of serv ices. The purpose of the preliminary demographic analys is is to provide planners. citizen advocates, public officials and human service agency providers with an adequate factual background upon which to base their decisions and recommendations regarding current needs and objectives and future long range goals. Analysis of population size indicates the number of people that must be considered and provides a means for computing the types and amounts of human needs. An inve s tigation of population compos ition includ es considerations such as age groups household and family sizes ethnic and racial composition and h o using needs. The geographic distribution of a population is closely related to accessibility to service provider agencies and is also considered in terms of the location of such community facilities as sc hools parks and playgrounds. This section of the Social Indicator Report will analyze the significant characteristics of Plant City's and Ea s t Hillsborough County's population including an estimate of the area's current population s ize a forecast of future population growth, the racial compo s ition and age distribution. These characteristics are all ba sic social indicators of present and future needs within the study area. Ana ly s i s of changes in these demographic indicators is essential to aid human serv ice planners in anticipating the need to shift re sources inc rease specific se rvices or develop new programs Detailed listings of data not appearing in the text a s well as additional data, are located in the "PLANT CITY /EAST HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY DATA" file 9 161

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) POPULATION SIZE Plant City and East Hillsborough County has been ex periencing a substantial population growth since 1980. The area's rate of increase between 1980 and 1990 was 35.8 percent as reported b y the US Census Bureau This high rate of increase in the individual Census Tract areas as well as in the overall study area h as b ee n largely attributable to the small size of the base population. For example the 893.2 percent incr ease in Census Tract 130 (P) in the 1980-90 decade amounted to a much smaller absolute number (393 persons) than did the 16.4 percent increase in population in Census Tract 130 (1,244 persons) durin g the same time period. These trends are presented in Table 1 TABLE I EAST HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY POPULATION BY CENSUS TRACT CENSUS 1980 1990 Number Percent TRACT Census Census 101.02 p 25 140 + 115 + 460.0% 101.02 H 2,414 4 255 + 1 ,841 + 76.3% 101.03 H 1,985 3 116 + 1,131 + 57 .0% 101.04 p 315 386 + 71 + 22.5% 101.04 H 5,662 7 298 + 1 ,636 + 28.9% 127 p 5,799 7 390 + 1 591 + 27.4% 127 H 220 226 + 6 + 2.7% 128 p 2,698 3 159 + 461 + 17. 1 % 125 p 676 3,474 + 2 798 + 413.9% 125 H 2, 084 2 629 + 545 + 26.2% 126 p 3,595 4, 547 + 952 + 25.5% 129 p 3 912 3 ,221 691 17.7% 130 p 44 437 + 393 + 893.2% 130 H 7,608 8,852 + 1,244 + 16.4 % 131 H 2,079 2,787 + 708 + 34.1% 139.05 H 5,507 8 342 + 2,835 + 51.5% 139.03 H 2,459 2 936 + 477 + 19.4% 124 H 8,582 10, 583 + 2 ,001 + 23.3% 132.02 H 2,759 5 585 + 2,826 + 102.4% TOTAL 58,423 79,363 + 20 940 + 35.8% P = Plant City H =balance of the Census Tract in unincorporated Hillsborough County (ex : the totall980 population for Census Tract 101.02 is 2439) Source: 1990 Census, U.S. Bureau of Census 10 162

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APPENDIX 2. (C ontinued) POPULATION PROJECTIONS Population projections b y the US Cens us Bureau pred ict a 45.9 percent incr ease in population in the Plant City/East Hillsborough County study a rea during a 25 yea r period from 1990 to 2015 This r eprese nt s an estimated increase of 36,427 individuals. These proj ectio n s are represented in Table 2. The large st increase in actual numbers is projected to occur in Census Tracts 1 39.05, 125 {P), 132.02 124. I 01.04 and 101. 02 ( P ) respectively. Preliminary observation s u ggests that there m ay be a corre l at ion between these actual number s and the percent of popu lation incr ease. Further analysis will be required t o determine significance TABLE2 EAST HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY POPULATION ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS BY CENSUS TRACT CENSUS 1 990 1995 2000 2015 Percent Chan ge TRACT Censu s Estimate Pro j ection Projecti on 1990-2015 101.02 p 140 110 24 0 390 + 176.8% 101.0 2 H 4 255 4 400 5 25 0 6,460 + 51.8% 1 01.03 H 3 116 3, 340 3 660 3 910 + 25.5 % 1 01.04 p 38 6 430 410 420 + 8 .8% 1 01.04 H 7,29 8 7 640 8 250 9 710 + 33.1% 1 27 p 7,390 7 600 7 910 8 ,230 + 11.4% 1 27 H 22 6 210 230 24 0 + 6.2% 1 28 p 3 159 3 160 3 ,570 4 28 0 + 35.5% 1 25 p 3 474 5 1 7 0 6 450 10, 730 + 208.9 % 125 H 2 629 2 ,550 2, 980 3 500 + 3 3 1 % 126 p 4 547 5,37 0 5, 310 5 580 + 22 7 % 129 p 3,22 1 3 160 2, 780 2,040 36 7 % 1 30 p 437 67 0 530 630 + 44.2 % 130 H 8,852 9 1 3 0 9 370 9 730 + 9.9% 131 H 2,787 2,86 0 3 0 20 3 200 + 14.8% +39.05 H 8 342 9 200 11,470 16, 630 + 99.4% 139 03 H 2,93 6 3 100 3, 110 3,24 0 + 10.4 % 1 24 H 1 0,583 10, 670 11, 960 14,080 + 33.0% 132.0 2 H 5 585 7 770 8 5 00 1 2 790 + 129.0% TOTAL 79,363 86,540 95,000 115,790 + 45.9% P = P l ant C ity H = balanc e of the Cen s u s Trac t in unincorporat ed Hillsborough Co unty (ex: the to t al199 0 popul a tion for Cens us Tr ac t 101.0 2 is 4395) S ource: 1990 Cen s us ; Hill s bor o u g h Co un ty Planning Co mmi ss ion 11 163

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APPENDIX 2 (Con tinued ) AGE GROUPS The median age of individuals in the Pl ant City / East Hillsborough County area range from 29.1 years in census tract 12 9 to 50 8 years in cen s us tract 101.02 The median age for all of Hill s bor ough County is 33.0 yea r s The median age by ce nsu s tract is s hown in Tabl e 3 below. In 1990 of the 79,363 per so n s in the Plant City / East Hillsborough County study area 50.8 % ( 40 312) we r e females and 49.2 % (39,051) we re mal es TABLE3 1990 POPULATION AND MEDIAN AGE CENSUS TRACT Male Female Median 101.02 2, 1 97 2,198 50.8 1 0 1.03 1 547 1,569 31.3 101.04 3,759 3,925 32.7 127 3,578 4, 0 38 32.2 128 1 478 1,68 1 33.9 125 3 07 1 3,032 33.9 126 2, 116 2 431 31.6 129 1,450 1 ,771 29. 1 130 4 572 4 7 1 7 30.7 131 1 410 1 377 31.1 139. 05 4, 1 77 4 ,165 31. 8 139. 03 1 487 1,449 31.2 124 5 445 5 ,138 30. 1 132.02 2,764 2,821 34.5 Totals 39 05 1 4 0 312 Co unty 406 217 427,837 33.0 Sources : Hill s borough County City County Planning Co mmi ssio n Nov. 1991 1990 US Census 12 164

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APPENDIX 2. (Co ntinued ) AGE GROUPS, CONTINUED Table 4 s how s t he distribution of t h e pop ulation by age groups and census tracts. T h e yo uth popul ation 1 7 and under, represents approximate l y 28% (22,413) of th e t otal population of the st ud y a r ea. Pe ople age 65 an d over represent app ro ximate ly I 1 % (8,949) of the total population TABLE4 1 990 POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS CENSUS Under 5-17 18-24 25-44 45 -64 65-74 Over TRACT _i_ 75 101.0 2 228 490 298 920 1 252 87 4 333 101. 03 2 49 655 308 1 064 587 1 67 86 101.04 553 1 522 728 2 510 1 671 39 0 310 127 641 1 4 1 9 7 8 7 2, 24 1 1 ,235 624 669 128 257 587 255 987 5 79 2 79 2 1 5 125 509 1 1 2 9 453 1 995 1 283 487 247 126 428 983 427 1 3 1 8 840 3 2 1 230 129 303 828 304 7 5 3 630 2 3 1 1 72 1 30 728 1 901 1 083 2,865 1,764 555 393 1 3 1 23 8 578 310 875 55 1 146 89 139 05 669 1 827 7 1 3 2,9 1 2 1 645 405 1 7 1 1 39 03 229 653 308 9 1 8 589 156 83 124 896 2,2 39 1 237 3,301 1 ,991 569 350 1 32.02 400 1 ,2 74 4 3 7 1 928 1 149 2 56 141 Tota l s 6 328 16, 085 7, 648 2 4 587 1 5 766 5,460 3, 489 Perc ent 8.0 20.2 9.6 31.0 1 9.9 6.9 4.4 Co unty 6 0 887 141, 387 89, 191 2 84 369 1 56 087 6 1 ,8 3 7 40, 296 (834,054) 7 5 4 8 Percent 7.3 1 7 0 10. 7 34.1 1 8 7 So urc es: Hillsborough County P l anni n g Comm i s sion Novembe r 1991 1990 U S Ce n s u s 1 3 1 65

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) RACE AND ETHNICITY There are 15 listed race categories which have been reduced to five summary race categories as defined by the US Census Bureau White, Black American Indian Asian and Other. Anyone who felt that they were n ot a member of the 15 listed race categories could w rit e-in their race under the gene r al category of "Other" The race choice of "Other" was misinterpreted in the 1990 Ce n sus by some ethnic groups who did not have a c lear und ersta ndin g of the definition ofrace. The Census Bureau estimates that in Hillsborough County there are six percent more Hispanics of African origin than are identified in the 1 990 Census. Hispanic is an ethnic category rather than a racial category and persons of Hispanic ancestry can be of any race The category of Hispanic has been included in Table 5 below however the tot a l s are not included in the census tract totals for the other five racial categories nor the total for the study area Ce n s us Tract 1 29 in Plant City has the highest percentage of African -American s at 81. 2 percent and Census Tract 124 in unincorporated Hillsborough County has the large s t percent of individuals of Hisp anic origin (22 8 percent) in the study area. TABLES 1990 POPULATION BY RACE AND ETHNICITY CENSUS W hite Black A meric a n Asian Other Hispanic TRACT India n I 01.02 4 209 1 34 8 1 2 32 1 53 101.03 3,019 39 20 8 30 179 1 01.04 7 437 38 7 27 175 519 127 6,938 270 27 32 349 1 207 128 2,967 106 6 5 75 169 125 5,823 71 9 56 144 525 126 2 658 1,766 9 30 84 236 129 583 2,614 I 6 17 66 130 7 661 I 131 21 38 438 1 004 131 2 484 178 8 116 229 139.05 7 806 126 3 8 101 27 1 640 139.03 2,895 8 13 6 14 50 124 9,083 45 39 34 1 382 2,410 132 .02 5,361 116 5 71 32 269 Totals 68,924 6 642 211 427 3,159 7 656 Percent 86 .8% 8.4% 0 .3% 0.5% 4 0% 9 6% County 690,352 110,283 2,454 11,379 19,586 106, 908 Percent 82.8% 13.2% 0.3% 1.4% 2.3% 12.8% Sources: Hillsborough County City-County Planning Commission November 1991 1990 Cens us, US Bureau of Censu s 1 4 166

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) RACE AND ETHNICITY, CONTINUED Table 6 shows the Population of the Plant City / East Hillsborough County study area by race / etlmicity and age. As noted above Hispanic is an ethnic category rather than a racial category, and persons of Hispanic ancestry can be of any race. Children under age 18 comprise 38.4 percent of the Hi s panic population and 38.1 percent of the Black population TABLE 6 POPULATION BY RACE/ETHNICITY AND AGE AGE American GROUP White Black Indian Asian Other Total Hispanic under 5 5 174 694 7 29 424 6 328 943 5-17 13, 149 1,839 39 120 938 16, 085 1,982 18-24 6 378 656 18 46 550 7 648 1,331 25-44 21,666 1,761 85 142 933 24 587 2,447 45-64 14,291 1,077 46 81 271 15, 766 759 65-74 5 070 346 8 8 28 5 460 134 75 over 3 196 269 8 15 3,489 60 Totals 68,924 6,642 211 427 3 159 79,363 7 614 Percent 86.8% 8.4% 0.3% 0.5% 4.0% 100% 9.6% County 690,352 110,283 2,454 11, 379 19,586 834 054 106,908 Percent 82.8% 13.2% 0.3% 1.4% 2.3% 100% 12.8% Source: 1990 US Census 15 167

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APPENDIX 2 (Continued) HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION The Social Indicator Summary in the Appendix of this report reveals the following information about households in Plant City/East Hillsborough County: Plant City/East Hillsborough County has a total of 27,278 households. Of these households 21, 935 (80.4%) are classified as family households and 5 353 (19 6%) are non-family households. This is substantially different from the county households: family households 68.0% and non-family households 32.0%. In Plant City/East Hillsborough County there are 2 1 37 s ingle-parent households w ith children under 18 Of the female headed households with children 655 have children under age 5, and I, 780 h ave children under 18. There are 2,755 mothers in the labor force with children under age 6 in Plant City / East Hillsborough County Of the 27,278 hou se holds in this area 3 538 (I 3.0%) are considered large households composed of five or more persons. 16 168

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) POPULATION DENSITY The size of the 14 Census Tracts in the study area is determined by the US Census Bureau and ranges in size from 1.42 square miles (Tract 129) to 89.61 square miles (Tract 139. 03). The population in the tracts rang e from 2,787 persons (Tract 1 3 I) to I 0,583 persons (Tract 124) The density rather than the total population is an indicator of the impact of the population variables in the study area. In the Plant City/East Hillsborough County area as shown in Tab l e 7, the population density of the census tracts ranges in land area from 2,305.8 persons per square mile i n Tract 126 to 32.8 persons per square mi l e in Tract 139.03. As may be expected the tracts with the greatest population density occur within the ci ty of Plant City TABLE 7 1990 POPULATION SIZE AND DENSITY CENSUS Land Total Peop l e Tota l Housing Percent Percent T RACT Sq.Mi Pop Sg.Mi. Hous i ng Sq.Mi. Urban Rural I 01.02 48 .2 8 4 395 91.0 2,303 47.7 1.2 98.8 101.03 35.54 3,116 87.7 1 075 30.2 0.0 100.0 I 01.04 22.85 7 684 336.2 2 824 123.6 5.5 94.5 127 3.55 7,616 2 146.0 3 326 937.2 97.7 2.3 128 1.68 3 159 1,877.0 1 259 748. 1 100.0 0.0 125 9.43 6 ,103 647.4 2,559 271.5 56 1 43.9 126 1.97 4, 547 2,305.8 1 775 900 1 100.0 0.0 129 1.42 3,22 1 2 266 7 1 216 855.7 100.0 0.0 130 30.73 9 286 302.2 3,2 97 107 3 3.4 96.6 131 27.33 2,787 102 0 899 32.9 0.0 100.0 139.05 65.00 8,342 128.3 2,917 44.9 57.5 42.5 139 03 89.61 2,9 39 32.8 1 093 12.2 0.0 100.0 124 21.26 10,583 497.9 3,671 172.7 24.3 75.7 132.02 15.33 5 585 364.3 1 ,198 130.3 67.6 32.4 Totals 373.98 79 363 212.2 29 412 316.2 43.8 56 2 Source: 1990 US Census 17 169

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) BIRTHRATE, DEATH RATE, AND NATURAL INCREASE Birth and death rates are measured in terms of the number oflive births or deaths per one thou sand residin o in the area. Natural increase is the excess of births over deaths and the narural increase rate is measured in terms of the net natural increase per thousand persons in the resident population. Table 8 compares the number of total births per I 000 women in Plant City and East Hillsborough County with all of Hillsborough County, showing the birth rate to be higher in the study area. TABLE 8 NUMBER OF TOTAL BIRTHS PER 1,000 WOMEN IN 1990 Plant City/ E. Hillsborou2h Co. Women 1 5 to 24 Years Women 24 to 34 Years Women 35 to 44 Years So urce : 1 990 US Census 467 1 665 2, 186 Total Hillsborou2h Co. 350 1 ,222 1,816 In 1990 there were 217 live births (17.0% of all births) to mothers under 20 in Plant City / East Hillsborough County. There were 386 live buths (30.2 percent of all buths) to single mothers and 1 32 live births ( 11.9 percent of all births) to single mothers under 20. In Hillsborough County, there were 4 665 live births (32.4 percent of all births) to single mothers ; 2397 (51 .4%) were births to white mothers ; 2,262 ( 48.5%) were to non-white mothers. Table 9 s hows the number of births and death s in Hillsborough County. In 1992 there were 6 ,443 more births than deaths and in 1993 there we r e 6 307 more births than deaths, r esulting in a narural increase of 1 2,750 persons. In 1 993 there were 1 3 more births and 149 more deaths than in 1992. Of the 13,827 births in H ill sborough County in 1993, I 0,333 were to white women and 3,485 were to women be longin g to othe r racial groups. Of the 7 ,52 0 deaths, 6 496 were White and 1 ,019 be l onged to other racial groups. TABLE 9 HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY BIRTHS AND DEATHS 1990 1992 1993 14, 394 1 3, 814 13, 827 7 157 7 37 1 7,520 Source : Florida Statistical Abstract 1994 18 1 70

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) HOUSING Total housing includes both occupied and vacant hou sing unit s. A housing unit is considered to be occupied if it is the usual place of residence of the person or g roup of persons liv ing in it at the time of the census. A housing unit is considered vacant if no one is living in it at the time of the Census unless its occupants are only temporarily absent. A housing unit is owner occupied if the owner or co-owner Jives in the unit Value of the housing unit i s the respondent 's estimate of how much the property (house and lot mobile home and lot or condo minium unit) would sell for if it were for sale. Rent value is the m o nthly rent agreed to or contracted for, with payment in cash, and does not include rent-free houses or apartments provided to compensate caretakers, ministers tenant fanners, sharecroppers and others. A summary of housing for the study area is shown in Table 10. TABLEIO 1990 HOUSING CENSUS Total Percent Percent TRACT Owner Renter 101.0 2 p 48 91.3 8.7 101.02 H 2,255 89.3 10.7 101.03 H 1 075 87.3 12.7 101.04 p 155 86.8 1 3.2 101.04 H 2 669 82.2 17.8 127 p 3 225 55. 0 45.0 127 H 101 52. 1 47.9 128 p 1 259 80.3 19.7 125 p 1 ,447 92 9 7.4 125 H 1 112 76.3 23.7 126 p 1 775 61.4 38.6 129 p 1 ,216 58.7 41.3 130 p 225 20.0 80.0 130 H 3,072 80.4 19.6 131 H 899 78.9 21.1 t:39.05 H 2,917 88.1 11.9 139 03 H 1 093 81.1 18.9 124 H 3,671 75.3 24.7 132 .02 H 1,198 90.0 10.0 Totals 29,412 7 5. 1 22.8 P = Plant City H = balance of the Census Tract in unincorporated Hillsborough County (ex: the total 1980 population for Censu s Tract I 01.02 i s 2439) Source: 1990 Census, U.S. Bureau of Census 19 171 Owner Renter Med.Val Med. Val $ 86 500 $ 35 0 89 700 306 91,100 303 5 4 100 350 82 200 317 49 ,100 329 5 1 ,700 300 56 ,400 373 117,000 475 61, 900 30 1 70 600 298 42,300 213 64,700 420 60 600 294 67,900 288 96,100 329 70,400 296 65 500 305 127 900 358

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) HOUSING, CONTINUED Table 11 describes selected charac t er i stics of housing units in Plant C i ty/East Hill s borough County. Accordin g to the Children's Board's Social Ind icator Report No. I (page 64) the followin g housing attri but es ma y indicate various poss ible social prob l ems : Housing bui lt before 1980 -Ri sk of lead-b ased paint quality Vacancy -Mobility transience, poor upkeep -Renter Occupancy -Mobility, tr ansience poor upkeep -Low Rents -Poor quality housing poverty -Inadequate Plumbing -Poverty health risks, poor quality housing -Inadequate Kitchen Facilities -Poverty, health risks poor quality housin g -No Vehicles Available -Lack of transportation and access to serv i ces i sola tion -No Telephone in House I so lation barrier to services/s upport TABLE 11 SELECTED HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS, 1 99 0 Total Housing Low Rent Vacant Built Inadequate Inadequate $300 %of CENSUS Housing Before P l umbing Kitchen Under to Rental TRACT Units 1980 Facilities Facilities $3 00 $499 Units 101.0 2 461 867 6 0 39 1 2 6 74.3 101.03 70 616 0 0 2 1 39 61.2 101.04 197 1 792 18 2 4 7 1 24 1 69.0 127 382 2,171 2 8 50 353 67 1 76. 1 1 2 8 74 990 8 0 26 106 56.7 1 25 4 1 7 972 21 0 43 84 49.2 1 26 137 981 0 0 1 54 286 69.6 1 29 101 1 0 3 9 32 35 226 2 09 92.2 130 2 69 2 ,106 6 6 87 37 0 72.5 1 3 1 56 578 0 0 3 5 75 62.5 139.0 5 208 I 515 32 38 34 151 58.4 139 .03 107 730 0 0 1 5 1 27 75. 1 124 32 0 2,698 12 12 184 39 1 72.2 132.02 164 855 5 0 8 77 47.8 Totals 2 ,9 63 1 7 910 168 165 1 295 2 953 70.8 Percent* 10.1 60.9 0.6 0.6 2 1.6 49.2 3 0.4 County 42,868 23 1 663 1 ,807 1 778 94,437 29. 1 Percent* 17.1 71.3 0.6 0 5 Source: 1990 US Cens u s percent of total housin g 20 172

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) ISOLATION Much of the. area of study is considered rur al. Over 56 percent of the population lives in these rural areas and as Table 12 an of_7.3 .pe:cent of the population of Plant City and East Hillsborough County n?t a vehicle. Even Wlthm City I units, lack of a vehicle can present problems in many aspects of dail y hfe mcludmg access to health care as well as to basic necessities. This is an even greater issue in Plant C i ty because there is no public transport a tion available. TABLE 12 HOMES WITHOUT VEHICLES OR TELEPHONES IN 1990 CENSUS Total Occupied Homes With Homes With TRACT Housing Units No Vehicles Percent No Phone Percent 101.02 1 170 56 4.8 72 6.2 101.03 1,051 41 3.9 69 6.6 I 01.04 2,640 142 5.4 187 7.1 127 2,949 359 12.2 546 18.5 128 1' 185 82 6.9 55 4.6 125 2,211 28 1.3 133 6.0 1 26 1 ,63 8 229 14.0 159 9.7 129 1 133 375 33.1 353 3. 1 130 3,010 116 3.9 330 11.0 1 3 1 844 20 2.4 89 10.5 1 39.05 2,709 89 .., .., .) .) 176 6 5 1 39.03 996 27 2.7 102 10.2 124 3,290 239 7.7 422 12.8 1 32.02 1,818 43 2.4 10 0.6 Totals 26,6 44 1 ,146 7.3 2 703 8.1 So urce : 1990 US Ce nsu s In addition to isolation due to lack of avai labl e transportation, people can also be i solated from others in the community due to lan g ua ge barriers. Of the 7,294 people age 5 and older in the study area who speak a language other than English, 3,060 ( 42%) stated that they "do not speak English well". This number accounts for almost four percent of the population in East Hillsborough County. In addition to linguistically isolated individuals, the U.S. Census also identifies linguistically isolated households in which all persons age 14 and o lder speak a langua ge ot h e r than E n glish and perceive themselves as not speaking English well. The com munity in general and service prov id e r s specifically must consider the issue of l anguage as a potential di sadva nta ge for these individuals. 2 1 1 73

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) MOBILITY CHARACTERISTICS Transience is determined by measuring the amount of'net migration' for a given area. 'Net mig r ation' is the numerical difference between tota l out migration and total in-migration Statistics on mobi l ity are reflected in Table 13 below. Comparing persons five years and older who lived in the same house or in the same county for the preceding five year period is a conservative way to estimate in migration to the area. Figures show a 21.7 percent in migration to the overall area. Almost one h alfofthe population age five years and older lived in the same house for the previous five y ears, and 28.8 percent previously lived in Hillsborough County. TABLE 13 RESIDENCE IN 1985 CENSUS Persons Live d I n Live d In Lived Percent TRACT 5 Y r s & Over Same House Same County Elsewhere E lsewhere 101.02 4 167 1 833 677 1,657 39.8 101.03 2 867 1 720 794 353 12. 3 I 01.04 7 ,131 3 407 2 616 1 108 15.5 127 6 975 2,542 2 726 1 707 24.5 128 2,9 02 I ,38 1 937 584 20. 1 125 5,594 1,813 1 815 1 966 35.1 126 4 119 2, 1 57 1 ,169 79 3 1 9 3 129 2,918 1 ,9 55 944 1 9 0.7 130 8 ,561 5,113 2, 033 1 415 16.6 131 2 549 1,489 530 530 20 8 139.05 7,673 4, 178 2,103 1 392 18.1 139.03 2,707 1,636 742 329 1 2.1 124 9,687 4,990 2,7 06 1 ,991 20 6 1 32 02 5 1 85 1,958 1 219 2,008 38.7 Totals 73,035 36 1 72 21,011 15,852 21.7 Percent of Population 49 .5% 28.8% 5 Years and Over Source: 1990 US Census 22 174

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) DISABLED POPULATION There are many different types, as well as severity, of disabilities, and d i sabled individuals are a strong indicator of many different types of socia l and human service needs. In Plant City/East Hillsborough County there are 49, 163 individuals between the ages of 16-64. A total of2, 079 (4.2 percent of persons ages 16-64) report a self-care and/or mobility limitation. There are also 4 775 individuals with a work disablilty of wh i ch 2,514 (5.1 percent of persons ages 16-64) are prevented from working. Tab l e 14 shows the d i stribution of individuals with mobility limitations self care limitations and work disab i lities. TABLE14 1990 DISABILITY CHARACTERISTICS CIVILIAN NONINSTITUTIONALIZED PERSONS 1 6 TO 64 Mobility o r Self-Car e Wor k No Wor k Lim i tation Disability Mobility Se l f-Care L im Lim. I n I n P r eve n ted In CENSUS Tot a l Labor La b o r f rom Labor TRACT Per so n s Total Total Force Total Total Force Total Force 101.02P 48 48 28 1 01.02 H 2 435 89 6 2 10 69 268 82 170 2 167 1 420 101.03 H 2 028 1 98 96 16 179 255 Ill 129 1 773 1 412 101.04 p 281 22 22 259 195 10l.04H 4 ,882 188 112 15 127 454 1 8 6 1 77 4 428 3 568 127 p 4 240 169 106 102 456 184 256 3 784 3 252 127 H 97 18 18 79 6 9 128 p 1 905 93 64 14 79 135 3 9 96 1 170 1 435 1 25 p 2 ,310 94 22 1 2 72 1 02 21 50 2 208 1 ,664 125 H 1 646 Ill 95 7 67 150 31 112 1 496 1 172 126 p 2,657 62 24 7 56 276 137 115 2 381 1 855 129 p 1 905 138 67 6 Ill 238 74 164 1 667 1 1 93 130 p 255 1 3 8 5 242 231 130 H 5,714 208 85 23 144 522 221 253 5 192 4 184 131 H 1 705 64 27 7 37 145 56 76 1 560 1 166 1 39.05 H 5,465 271 173 43 164 627 3 1 7 263 4 838 3 890 139.03 H 1 9 1 3 147 72 103 222 52 163 1 691 1 255 124 H 6 ,819 192 134 16 97 703 243 369 6, 116 4 960 132.02 H 2 ,858 55 27 41 169 79 76 2, 689 2 092 TOTAL 49, 1 63 2 079 1,166 176 1 448 4 775 1 84 1 2 514 43 788 35 ,041 Source: 1990 US Census 23 175

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APPENDIX 2 (Continued) DISABLED POPULATION, CONTINUED Table 15 illustrates disabilities for individuals age 65 and over. Of the 8 348 individuals age 65 a nd over 1,955 (23 .4 percent of all person s age 65 and ov e r ) report h aving a self-care and/o r mobility limitatio n As the large 35 to 55 year old segment of t h e population ages, there will be a growing d e mand in the n ear future for increa se d services for older individuals TABLE IS 1990 DISABILITY CHARACTERISTICS CIVILIAN NONINSTITUTIONALlZED PERSONS AGE 65 AND OVER Mobility or Self -Care Limit a tion CENSUS Total Mobility Self -Care TRACT Persons Total Lim. Lim. 101.02 p 4 101.02 H 1 166 130 74 56 101.03 H 22 9 6 1 54 30 101.04 p 58 7 7 101.04 H 591 130 124 73 127 p 1 033 258 194 86 127 H 20 128 p 494 100 84 51 1 25 p 351 25 16 1 5 125 H 419 59 42 46 1 26 p 543 Ill 75 6 1 1 29 p 437 147 103 107 130 p 130 H 669 196 168 76 131 H 241 56 56 30 139.05 H 559 125 105 65 1 39.03 H 288 50 34 44 124 H 897 314 232 195 132 .02 H 349 56 45 52 Totals 8,348 1 955 1 406 994 Source: 1990 US Census 24 176

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) ECONOMIC INDICATORS INTRODUCTION The economic study provides planners, citizens, service provider agencies and civic leaders with information regarding the overall economic status of the population. This is a necessary step in the planning process and every comprehensive plan should consider economic activity in the community. The economic study provides information about the economic trends in the overall economy Such data can serve as a basis for developing estima tes ofthe number, types and locations of facil i ties and serv i ces which will be needed for both residential and nonresidential uses and the prospective need for schools and ot her public facilities. More important the economic study identifies the character of economic problems for which public action may be necessary. Planners citizens se r vice providers and civic l eaders must keep uppermost in mind the fact that the plans they make affect both the private and the public sector of the economy, and that the preservation of a sound economic base should be the prime objective of all concerned. East Hillsborough County has a strong agricu ltur al base and produces citrus strawberries, beef catt l e, ornamental horticulture and poultry. The Plant City State Farmers Market is one of the largest farmers' market in Florida. In addition to fruit and vegetable growing and shipping East Hillsboroug h County is heavily involved in phosphate mining and processing P lant City's Industrial Center is situated on 445 acres just west of the city The area is served by the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, an excellen t sys t em of highways, and the nearby Plant City Airport In addi tion commercial and industrial development is a l so occurring in the southeas t sector of Plant City. The economic indicators of labor force, employment and persona l income have been used to show the ove rall economic condition of Plant City and East Hillsborough County. This area has a viable economy an adequate natural resource base, and abundan t geographic and climatic amenities. 25 177

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Educational attainment is one indicator of an area's ge neral well being, as well as being c l osely ti ed to economic status. If illiteracy of substandard educational levels are prevalent, there is often an increa sed need for human service assistance. Greater levels of educational achievement will be necessary to meet th e needs of an increasingly complex economy and society. These needs will place an even greater burden on school authorities in their respon s ibility for providing adequate scho ol facilitie s to the growing population of Plant City and East Hillsborough County Table 16 s hows the educationa l level of individuals 25 years and older in the Plant C ity / East Hillsborou g h County area and for all of Hillsborough County. TABLE16 YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED, 1990 Plant C it y/ East Hillsborou2h Persons 25 Years and Older Less than 9th Grade 9th to 12th Grade, No Diploma High Schoo l Graduat Some College No Degree Associates Degree Bachelor's Degree Graduate or Professional Degree Median School Years Completed Percent High School Graduate or Higher Percent Bachelor's Degree or Higher Source: 1990 US Census 49,517 6 586 10, 451 16, 448 7, 803 2 ,601 3 937 1 ,69 1 11.96 65.6% 11.7% 26 178 Total County 545 020 48 247 84,751 156 984 I 05,852 39 ,116 7 4 479 35 573 12.35 75.6% 2 0.2%

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, CONTINUED Table 17 below illustrates the following: The Children's Board Social Indicator Report No. 1 ( p. II 0) states that "According to national statistics on income and educational attainment, median household income varies according to householder 's level of education. Taking into account that the poverty threshold was $I 2, 700 for a family of four in I 990 and $I4,350 for a famil y of four in 1993, these figures suggest that: approximately two t hirds of householders with an educational level of less than 9th grade and a third of those with a high school education could e x pect to make incomes below, at or near the povert y level. only a fifth of those with a high school education and less and about a s i x th of those w ith some college, could expect to make from $15,000 to $24.000 a y ear -half of those with some college and over rwo thirds of those with post-gra d uate trainin g were likely to make $35,000 and o v er a year." TABLE17 HOUSEHOLDS IN SELECTED INCOME RANGES IN THE U.S. BY EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF HOUSEHOLDER Educational $15,000 $25,000 Median Attainment of to to Income In Householder <$15,000 $24.999 $34.999 >$35.000 Dollars < grade 9 56.5% 20 .8% I0.5% 12.2% $ I2,696 grades 9 to I 2 28.5% 20.3% 17. 7% 33.6% 25,608 college, 1 3 years 15.3% 16.8% 17.7% 50. I% 35,083 College, > 4 years 7.0% I0.4% 13.3% 69.3% 49, 180 Source: Children, p. 1 I 0, (from Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1991, I lith Edition. U.S. of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration.) 27 179

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APPENDIX 2. (Co ntinued ) EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, CONTINUED Table 18, School Enrollment in 1990, describes the educational status of children in Plant City / Eas t Hillsborough County. The dropout rate for thi s area is 3.4 percent, compared to a 2.7 dropout rat e for the state of Florida. In 1990 there were 596 youths ages 1 6 to 1 9 who were not in school. In addition, children from this area enrolled in Hillsborough County Pub lic Schools averaged lower sco re s on verbal and math t ests (414 and 472 respectively) than children county-wide who averaged 423 (verbal) and 480 (math). TABLE 18 CHILDREN IN SCHOOL SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, 1990 Persons 3 + %in CENSUS E nrolled in Preprimary Elementary/ Private TRACT School School High School School College 101.0 2 623 16 480 11.0 127 101.03 735 9 606 5 0 1 2 0 101.04 1 ,826 144 1 ,34 1 6.3 34 1 127 1,679 141 1 395 2.9 143 128 721 57 554 12.5 110 1 25 1 537 143 1 ,169 1 3.5 225 1 26 1 127 89 870 1.4 1 68 1 29 914 66 753 1.6 95 1 30 2 400 81 1 887 3.6 432 131 578 42 427 7.5 1 09 139.05 2,303 168 1 788 12.6 347 139.03 657 27 516 2.3 114 124 2,308 210 1,780 5.5 318 132.02 1 ,632 158 I 173 9.8 30 1 Total 19,040 I 35 1 14, 739 6 8 2 950 So urce : 1990 US Census 28 180

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) INCOME Households are classified by type and sex of householder and the presence of relatives. Two household types are shown in Table 19-family and non-famil y. A famil y household is defmed b y the U.S. Census Bureau as "a householder living with one of more persons related to him or her by birth marriage or adoption A non-family household is defmed as "a householder livi ng alone or with non-relative s only." Median income is based on total number of people in the household including those wi th no incom e, and is obtained by dividing a distribution exactly in half so that 50 percent of th e individual incomes fall above the midpoint and 50 percent fall below. A non-family household may or may not have children. A non-family househ o ld with children for example may consist of two unmarried adults who are not related b y birth or marriage residing in the same household. In many cases such an arrangement would include a mother with children living with a n unrelated adult who identified him/herself on the census form as a the hou se holder. Since the children are unrelated to the householder it is a non-family household. Conversely if the mother of the children i s r e ported on the census form as the householder the hou se hold is a female headed household despite th e presence of another unrelat e d adult. TABLE19 MEDIAN INCOME AND PER CAPITA INCOME, 1990 CENSUS Non-Family Family Household Per Capita TRACT Income Income Income Income I 01.02 $ 14,200 s 28,722 $ 26,696 $ 14, 034 I 01.03 19,063 33,833 3 1 860 10,769 101.04 13,650 35,581 32 049 12,06 2 127 11,156 22,385 19,313 9,503 128 11,495 33,200 28,384 12,051 125 16,395 42,854 39,087 17,354 126 14,286 31, 667 28,531 12,09 1 129 6,020 19,935 15, 042 6,954 130 15,229 32,831 31, 527 11,665 131 10,089 28,136 26 ,689 10,964 139.05 16 ,563 34,089 29,692 12, 616 139.03 10,234 28,8 00 25,792 10, 028 124 9,964 28 239 24,729 9 915 132.02 13, 625 52,399 48,323 17, 015 County 17 ,65 0 33,645 28,477 12, 029 Florida 16, 897 32 212 27, 483 14,2 03 Source: The Planning Commission, August 1992 29 181

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) INCOME, CONTINUED Table 20 illustrates types of income for all households other than wage, salary or farm employment income. The average income in each of these categories is higher for the county than for Plant C ity / East Hill s borou g h County. There a re many types of public assistance, including State and Federal supp lem entary security income payments for di sab ilities Aid to Famili es with Dependent Ch ildr e n (AFDC) payments, an d gene ral assistance. Each type is determined locally on a yearly basis, based on income l eve l and other g uid elines established by the Federal Government The Cens u s Tracts with the g reat est numb e r of households receiving public assistance are Tract 1 24 with 257 households Tract 129 with 245 hou seholds and Tract 127 with 217 households TABLE20 1990 HOUSEHOLD SELECTED INCOME TYPE CENSUS Public Mean Retirement Mean Social Mean TRACT Assistance _L Income _L Security _L l 01.0 2 30 1 505 68 1 10, 475 950 9 487 101.03 36 1 736 115 6 ,5 02 240 7 ,2 43 I 01.0 4 159 3, 465 333 6 1 70 621 6 794 12 7 2 1 7 2,5 1 9 302 6 164 855 6 881 1 28 56 2,734 179 7 892 39 1 8 652 125 138 4,165 430 13, 120 505 8 512 126 164 3 797 225 9 055 486 7,437 129 245 3,029 1 34 4 ,194 372 6 ,397 130 161 3 619 424 8,073 612 6 914 131 69 5,096 1 33 8,392 204 8 686 1 39.05 178 4 805 423 8,627 554 7 067 139 .03 49 3,439 94 5,546 334 7 963 124 257 3 441 423 7,648 736 6 686 132 02 64 3, 064 2 89 14, 478 322 7 880 Totals 1 823 $ 3 3 1 5 4 185 $ 8,310 7, 1 82 $7,614 County 19, 713 $3,516 49 587 $ 10, 189 81, 00 7 $ 7 672 So urc e: 1 990 US Cens us 30 182

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APPENDIX 2 (Co ntinu e d ) INCOME, CONTINUED Per capita income is the mean or average income for each individu a l in a defined population Table 21 shows the per capita income by cen s u s tra ct, for the Plant C ity / East Hill sboro u gh Co un ty study area for the year 1990 illu s trating the a vera ge incom e per p e r so n whether the y earn an i n come o r not. The census tract s with the l owest p er capita income are 131, 1 39.03 101. 03 1 28 and 129 r espec ti vely. Census tract s 131, 139.05 and 101.0 3 a r e l ocated in unincorporated a re as of the county whi l e cens u s tracts 1 2 8 and 129 are locat e d w it hin Plant C ity. The census tracts with t he highest per capi t a income are 1 25, which encompasses both incorporated and unincorporated a reas and tr ac t 132.02 which is located in an unincorpor a ted area. The mean per capita in come for the stu d y area i s $12 029 whic h compares to $14 203 for all of Hill sboroug h County, and $ 14 ,431 for the county not including the study area TABLE 21 1990 PER CAPITA INCOME Census Per Capita Total Tract Income Population Income 1 01.02 1 4 034 4 395 61,679 430 101.03 10, 769 3, 116 33,556 204 101.04 12,062 7 684 92,684 408 127 9 503 7,616 72,374 848 1 2 8 12,051 3 1 59 38 069 109 125 17,35 4 6 ,103 105,911, 462 126 1 2,091 4 547 54 977 777 129 6 954 3, 22 1 22,398,834 130 11, 605 9 289 107,798 845 131 10, 964 2 787 30,556 668 139.05 12, 6 1 6 8,3 4 2 I 05,242 672 139.03 10, 0 28 2,936 29,442,20 8 1 2 4 9 9 1 5 10,583 I 04,930 ,445 132.02 17, 015 5,585 95,028,775 Total 79 363 95 4,651, 685 Mean per capi ta inco m e 1 2,029 County 1 4 203 834,054 II 846 068 970 Ba lance of Co. 14,431 754,69 1 10, 891,417 280 So urce : 1 990 US Ce n sus 31 183

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APPENDIX 2. (Con tinued ) P ov erty level incomes for the yea r s 1990 to 1993 a r e s h ow n in Tab l e 22. TABL E 22 POVERTY LEVEL INCOME Family Size 1990 1991 1992 1993 $ 6 280 $ 6 620 6 810 6 970 2 8 420 8, 880 9,190 9, 4 30 3 10, 560 11,140 11, 570 1 1 890 4 12, 700 13,400 13, 950 1 4 350 5 14, 640 15,660 16, 330 1 6,810 6 16, 980 1 7,920 18,710 19,270 7 19, 1 2 0 20 ,180 2 1 ,090 21, 730 8 21,260 22,4 40 23,470 24 190 eac h additiona l 2, 140 2,260 2, 380 2,460 So urce : "Federal Poverty Inc ome Guide line s", Federal Register 1 993. Ofthe 7 9,363 people in the s tudy area 10,6 06 individ u als, o r 13.4 % ofthe p op ul at i o n h ave bee n de termined to be at poverty s tatus or below. The overall poverty status is slightly higher i n the Plant C i ty/East Hill s borou g h County area than for th e total Hillsborou gh County area. The poverty status of ind i v i duals in th e stu d y area of differen t age grades is depicted in Table 23 below. AGE GRADE Under 5 5-1 7 18-64 65 an d ove r T o tal s S ource: 1990 U S Cen s us TABLE 23 1 990 POVERTY STATUS OF INDIVIDUALS PLANT CITY/ E. HILLSBOROUGH Below Percent Poverty of Total Lev e l Population 1 ,575 2.0 2,430 3.1 5,241 6.6 1 360 1.7 10, 606 13.4 32 184 TOTAL HILLSBOROUGH CO. Bel ow Percent Pov erty o f Total Level Population 13,2 1 6 1.6 23,857 2.9 57,186 6.8 13, 420 1.6 107,679 1 2.9

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) POVERTY STATUS, CONTINUED Table 24 shows the poverty s tatus of households in the study area. Census tracts 1 24, 127 and 1 30, respectively, have the highe st number of household families below poverty level. The highe s t poverty l eve l in female headed household s occurs in census tracts 127, 129 and 126 respe ct ively. TABLE24 1990 POVERTY STATUS OF HOUSEHOLDS ALL HOUSEHOLD FAMILIES FEMALE HOUSEHOLD FAMILIES (21,935 Total Families) (2,585 Total Families) Below With With Below With W ith CENSUS Poverty Children Children Poverty Children Children TRACT Leve l under 5 u nder 18 Level under 5 under 18 101.02 104 8 57 32 0 2 6 101.03 51 16 5 1 21 0 2 1 101.04 120 25 59 9 9 9 127 325 154 221 158 98 134 1 28 105 54 74 50 18 38 125 85 44 60 5 0 5 1 26 197 112 183 143 78 138 129 236 124 180 147 68 121 130 255 70 188 73 15 59 131 66 11 37 0 0 0 139.05 226 88 158 52 16 43 139.03 69 16 39 15 0 1 5 124 388 206 336 84 3 4 84 132.02 31 17 24 13 6 13 Totals 2,258 945 1 667 802 3 42 706 Percent 10.3 4 3 7.6 3. 1 1 3.2 2 7.3 Source: 1990 US Census 33 185

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APPENDIX 2 (Continued) POVERTY STATUS, CONTINUED Poverty income guidelines for individuals and families are established under federal law and are used to determine elegibility for state and federal assistance programs. Although income is the prominent measure of eligibility, entitlements may also depend on factors such as marita l status, number of children, total assets, disability, or age. Table 25 shows the number of individuals at or near poverty level by Census Tract. Ce nsu s Tract 124 has the most individuals at poverty level (2 066) In Census Tract 129 one third of the individua l s are at 100 percent of poverty level. TABLE25 INCOME RELATIVE TO POVERTY LEVEL, 1990 CENSUS %OF %OF %OF %OF TRACT 100 TRACT 150 TRACT 185 TRACT 200 TRACT 101.02 347 8.2 767 18.2 1,027 24 1 1 150 27.3 101.03 277 9.0 571 18.6 837 27.3 1,006 32.8 101.04 542 7.5 1 ,251 16.5 1 939 25.3 2,282 2 9.8 127 1 494 20.6 2 ,431 33.5 3 157 43.5 3,387 46.6 128 396 12. 6 612 19.4 821 2 6.0 893 2 8.3 125 693 11.1 1 205 19.3 1,442 23.1 1 660 26. 6 126 842 18.5 1,419 31.2 1 640 36. 1 1,742 38.3 129 1 113 ... .., .).) .) 1 ,795 53.7 1 935 57.9 2,018 6 0.4 130 1 138 12.4 1 897 2 0.7 2,368 25 9 2 776 3 0.4 131 345 13.5 577 22. 6 817 32.0 902 35.3 139.05 1 ,057 12.7 2,006 24. 1 2 864 34.4 3 1 54 37.9 139.03 293 9.9 718 24.2 960 32.4 1 0 67 36. 0 124 2,066 1 6.2 3 157 30. 1 4,449 42.4 4 353 41.5 132 02 179 2.2 477 8.5 693 1 2.4 830 1 4.8 TOTAL 10,7 82 13. 6 18, 883 23. 8 24 950 31.4 27,220 3 4.3 Sources: Summary Tape Fil e 3A 1 990 Census Hillsborough's Children December 1993 p. 58 34 186

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APPENDIX 2 (Co ntinued) COST OF RAISING A CHILD A study is conducted annua ll y by the Famil y Eco nomic s Research Group of the U S. Department of Agricultur e which provides and e s timate of ch il d rearing expenses for a chi l d r aised in a husband and wife family. The estimates in Table 26 below reflect the expenditures on a child from birth through age 1 7 in 1991 d ollars. The study u ses three income groups to ana lyze the differen ces. The expenditures are divided into six categories and a tota l cost by age g roup. The expenditures in thi s stu d y r eflec t what the parents spend on th e child and do not include the cost of c hildbirth an d/or p r enatal health care. In 1989 the health a r e costs re lating to the birth of a chi l d av era ge d $4 33 4 for a u sual deliv ery and $7, I 86 for a cesarean delivery. (Delivery cos t s do not r eflect coverag e b y a health insurance p l an.) Source: Social Ind ic ato r Report, Juvenile Wel fare Board of Pinellas County January 1 993 Volume 14 Number I. TABLE 26 ESTIMATED ANNUAL EXPEN DITURES ON A CHIL D BY HUSBAND-WIFE FAMILIES, OVERALL Ov e r all United States 1991 Transpor Health Educatio n Age of Child Total Housing Food tation C lothin g Ca re C hild Ca r e & Other Income: Less than $31, 200 0 2 $ 4 52 0 $ 1 830 $ 690 $ 610 $ 330 $ 250 $ 810 3-5 4 820 1.770 770 660 360 230 1 030 6 8 4.810 1 770 990 7 1 0 390 250 7 00 9-11 4 660 1 640 1 1 20 640 400 2 6 0 600 1 2 -14 5 35 0 1 ,51!0 1 200 970 650 2 6 0 6 9 0 1 5-17 5,700 1 550 1 360 1 220 6 1 0 280 680 Tota l $ 89,580 $30, 420 $ 1 8 390 $ 1 4.430 $8,220 $ 4 590 $ 13,530 Per ce nt 100% 34% 20.5% 16.1 % 9.2% 5.1 % 15. 1 % I ncome: $3 1 200 to $50 .400 $ 1,37 0 0-2 $ 6 400 s 2 ,420 $ 850 s 1 020 $ 420 $ 320 3 -5 6 800 2 360 990 1.080 450 30 0 1 620 6 8 6 760 2 3 7 0 1 250 1 ,160 4 9 0 320 1.170 9-11 6 570 2 .230 1.410 1 080 500 330 1 020 12-14 7 3 20 2,170 1 ,490 1 410 820 3 3 0 1 100 1 5-17 7 ,780 2.150 1 660 1 670 780 3 50 1 ,170 Total $ 1 24 890 $41,100 $22, 950 s 22 260 $ 1 0 380 $ 5 850 $22,350 Per cent 100% 32 9% 18.4% 17.8% 8 3% 4 7 % 1 7.9 % f ncome: Mo r e than $50 400 $ 400 $ 2, 1 7 0 0 2 $ 9, 160 $ 3 630 $ 1 040 s 1 ,400 $ 520 3-5 9,640 3 570 1 ,250 1 450 560 370 2,440 6-8 9 500 3,570 1 500 1 570 590 400 1,870 9-11 9 310 3,440 1,690 1 500 610 4 1 0 1 6 6 0 12-14 1 0,160 3 380 1 850 1 820 970 410 1 730 1 5-17 1 0 690 3 ,350 1 ,950 2 080 930 430 1 ,9 50 Total $ 175, 380 $62, 820 $29,460 $29,460 $ 1 2,540 $ 7 ,260 $35, 460 1 0 0 % 3 5.8% 1 5.9% 16.9% 7.2% 4.1% 20.2 % Percent Note: e s timate s are fo r th e younge r chi ld in a two -child family S ource: Family Economics Research G roup U S. Department of Agnculture 35 1 87

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) COST OF RAISING A CHILD, CONTINUED 27 is a summary of Table 26 and include s e s timated future costs of rai s ing a child adjusted for mflatwn. TABLE 27 FUTURE COSTS OF RAISING A CHILD IN 1991 INCOME GROUPS Year A2e Lowest Middle Hi2hest 1991 < I $ 4,520 $ 6 400 $ 9, 1 60 1 992 I 4 790 6,780 9 710 1993 2 5 080 7,190 10,29 0 199 4 3 5,740 8,100 11,480 1995 4 6 090 8,580 12, 170 1996 5 6 450 9 100 12,9 00 1997 6 6 820 9 ,59 0 13, 480 1998 7 7 230 10,160 14, 280 1999 8 7,670 10, 770 1 5 1 40 2000 9 7,870 II, I 00 15, 730 2001 10 8 350 11,770 16, 670 2002 11 8 850 12,47 0 17,670 2003 12 10, 770 14,730 20,440 2004 13 11, 410 15,610 2 1 670 2005 14 12,100 1 6,550 22,97 0 2006 15 1 3,660 18, 650 25,620 2007 16 14,480 19, 760 27 160 2008 17 15,350 20,950 28 790 Total Future Cost $157 230 $218,260 $305,350 1991 Dollars 89,580 124,890 1 75,380 Source: Hillsborough's Children 1993 from Table 5, "Expend itures on a Child by Families Family Economics Research Group Agricultu r e Research Services. Department of Agriculture, January 1992 36 188

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APPENDIX 2 (Con tin ued) EMPL OYMENT AN D LABOR FORCE TRENDS Employment and employment growt h i s a major index of econom i c viab i lity. If the economy i s ex p a nd ing, employment will normally grow in concert with the overall expansion, and economic dec l ine generally brings about decreases in emp l oyment. In addition the rate of employment growth or dec l ine foll ows the rate of economic expansio n or contraction Anot her im p ortant aspect of emp loym ent ana l ysis i s its identification of industries and occupations con tr ibuting most significantly to th e l ocal economic base This i s pertinent to de t ermining those activities bri n ging money int o t he l oca l economy by 'exporting' goods and services, to pinpoin t ing the economic efforts providing most of t he jobs to local residents, and to determining t h e degree of economic special i zation prese n t in the local area. Employment figures do no t include persons in the armed forces. Unemployment rates are approximately the same, about 5.6% both within the c i ty limits of P l ant City and in the rural a r eas of East H ill sborough County. TAB L E 2 8 1990 CIVI LIAN LABOR FORCE STATUS Persons 16 a nd Over Males 1 6+ in Fem ales 1 6+ in Per so n s in Lab o r Force L a bo r Fo r ce Lab o r Force Ages 1 61 9 CENSUS Per cent In Sc h oo l TRACT U n e mpl. E mpl oyed!Une mp. E m p l oved/U n e mpl. E mpl o y ed/Id l e 1 01.02 2 8 898 36 654 8 147 14 101.03 6.1 817 30 623 64 158 19 I 01.04 5.8 2 ,173 157 1 656 79 431 6 1 127 4.8 1 862 81 1 ,594 92 331 43 128 5.9 734 42 697 47 1 38 42 1 25 3.9 I 68 1 61 1,1 84 54 270 70 126 6.0 1,069 63 878 6 1 206 40 129 7.6 690 51 552 5 1 228 4 1 130 4.5 2,57 1 99 1 ,944 113 583 87 1 3 1 7.0 658 60 495 27 127 1 4 139.05 5.9 2 1 94 143 1,80 1 109 504 53 139. 03 4.7 732 55 544 8 173 0 124 7.4 2,905 207 1 ,986 184 646 1 08 132.02 6.4 1,517 1 1 3 1,092 64 329 4 Total s 5.6 20,501 1 ,198 96 1 4,271 1 5,700 596 County 5.4 2 1 9 873 12, 726 192, 315 1 0 899 41,060 3 792 Source: 1 990 US Cens u s 37 1 89

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR FORCE TRENDS, CONTINUED In 1990, the rate of unemployment in Hillsborough County was 5.4 percent. The rate of unemployment for whites was 4.7 percent, African-Americans was 9.5 percent and Hispanics 6.4 percent. Statewide unemployment was at 5.8 percent with white African-American and Hi s panic at 4 9 11. 3 and 7.7 percent respectively Nationally, in 1990 the unemployment rate was 5.6 percent. In August 1993, Bureau of Labor Market Information shows that the unemployment rate in the United States was 6 .5 percent F lorida 8.1 percent and Hillsborough County 7.6 percent. VETERANS In 1 990, there was a total of9, 787 civilian veterans age 16 and over in Plant City/East Hillsborough County. Of these individuals, 2 323 were age 65 and over 38 1 90

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APPENDIX 2. (Contin u ed) INDUSTRY GROUPS As illustrated in Table 29 below agric ulture related industries includes those employed in agriculture forestry and fisheries. The service group category includes those employed in business and repair services persona l services, entertainment and recreational serv ices hea lth services, educational se rvi ces, and othe r professional and related serv ices Over 57 percent of the people employed in mining in Hill sboro ugh County live within the stu d y area. The mining and processing of phosphate has su b sta ntiall y en lar ged the economic b ase in the stu d y area in recent years. In addit ion agriculture continues to be very important to the area's economy a nd 25 p ercent of the total number of peopl e in Hill sbo ro u gh County employe d in ag ricultural r ela ted industries live in Plant City and East Hill sboro ugh Cou n ty. Industrial g rowth also continues at a rapid rate and new industries continue to locate in the P l a nt C i ty Indu strial Center. Ove rall Plant City / East Hillsborough County has a di ve rsified economy, whic h helps to contri bute to a low over-all unemployement r ate TABLE29 1990 EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY GROUP Studx Area Balance of Countx Number Number lndustrv Group E mploxed Percent Emploved Percent Agriculture related 3 162 8.7 9,608 2.6 Mining 75 1 2. 1 563 0.1 Con s truction 2,762 7 6 22,417 6 0 Manufacturing 4,938 13. 6 36,752 9.8 Transportation 1 884 5.3 1 8,523 4 9 Communication/Utili tie s 1 523 4.2 1 5,374 4. 1 Wholesale Trade 2,755 7.6 23,938 6.4 Retail Tra de 5,844 16. 1 69,885 18.6 Finance In s ur. Real Est. 1,937 5.4 35,235 9.4 Services 9,458 26. 1 128 282 34.0 Public Administration 1 187 3.3 15,410 4.1 Total 36,201 100.0 375 ,987 100 00 Source: 1990 US Cens u s 39 191

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION SUMMARY In the ten year period from 1980 to 1 990 Plant City a nd East Hillsborough County experienced a 35.8 percent growt h in population. This tr end is predicted to continue and population projections by the U.S. Census Bureau anticipate a 45.9 percent growth in the 25 year period from 1990 to 2015. This will result in the addition of 36 427 individuals to the population of this area. This growth in population w ill be due in part to n a tural increase (the excess of births over deaths) an d also to in-migration to the area. East Hill sboro ugh has a higher birth rate than the rest of th e County and has experienced at least a 21.7 percent growt h in population due to in-migration. Although Plant City and East Hillsborough County have a s lightl y higher median age, 33.2 years compared to 33.0 ye ars for all of Hillsborough County the East Hill sboro u g h County a r ea ha s a higher percentage of individuals under age 18, 28 2 percent compared to 24.3 percent for the County as a whole. East Hillsborough County has a lower percenta g e of indi v iduals belonging to minority groups ( 13.2 percent) than the total County ( 17.2 percent). Over half (56.2 percent) of East Hill sbo rough County area ha s been classified as 'rural' and transportation becomes a s ignificant issue in light of the fact that 1 1 46 homes in this area have no vehicle. In addition, there is no m ass public transportation available in the city limits of Plant City. Although Plant City a nd East Hillsborough County have a slightly l owe r educational average th a n Hillsborough County, the percentage of individuals below poverty status does not appear to be s ignificantly higher than County percentages (13.4 percent ve rsu s 12.9 percent for the County). In addition the unemplo y ment rate for East Hillsborough is 5 6 percent only slightly hi ghe r than the County rate of 5.4 percent. Nearly two-thirds (64.5 percent) of the population of East Hillsborough is employed in the service sector, retail trade, manufacturing, an d agriculture. 40 192

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) CONCLUSION This report has focused on socio-demographic and economic indicators, concentrating on population characteristics and economic well-being. This type of analysis profiles individuals families and households in Plant City and East Hillsborough County, how the population is distributed thr oughout the area, and how secure individuals and families are economically. In addition, this analysis provides an overview of the health of the local economy. This report supplies a broad investigation of possible circumstances that can affect the well-being of the East Hillsborough community. However, there are other factors that can impact on individuals and families, and research and analysis of other outcome measures such as health/morbidity indicators and social indicators will be necessary for a more detailed description the area Once the data has been gathe red from the service provider agencies, the asse ss ed needs of the citizens can be compared with the resources of the community and the human service agencies to reveal any duplication or fragmentation of services. These deficiencies can then be re stated, in more positive terms as prioritized goals and objectives to be met. Working in conjunction with the East Hillsborough Network a nd other community leaders, a plan for effective implementation of actions necessary to achieve these goals can then be developed and set in motion. The fmal component in the on-going needs assessment process is the periodic and systematic eva luation of the strategic plan in order to determine its efficiency and effectiveness in meeting the needs of the community. 41 193

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) REFERENCES Children's Board of Hillsborough County 1993 Hillsborough's Children: The Countywide Perspective. Soc ial Indicator Report No. 1 December 1993. Fede ral Poverty Guidelines 1992 Federal Register. Florida County Perspective s 1991 Athens, GA: National Data Consutants. Florida Statistical Abstract 1994 Bureau of Economic and Business Research Co llege of Business Administration, University of Florida. Gainsville: University of Florida Press Hillsborough County City County Planning Commission 1990 Census Summaries. The Planning Commission A ugust 1992. Hillsborough County Needs Assessment 1994 Hillsborough County, Florida. Phil Balducci and Associates. Polk's City Directory 1992 Plant City, Florida. U.S. Census (1990) 1990 Census Social Characteristics, Hillsborough Cou nty Florida. Washington D.C. U S. Census (1990) 1990 Census. Labor Force and Community, Hillsborou g h County, Florida. Washington, D.C. U.S. Census (1990) 1990 Census. Income and Poverty Hillsborough County, Florida. Washington, D.C. U.S. Census (1990) 1990 Census. Housing Characteristics, Hillsborough County, Florida. Washington, D.C. 42 194

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APPENDIX 2 (C ontinued ) SOCIAL INDICATOR SUMMARY P l ant City/East Hillsborough County INDICA TORS OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING The Social Indicator Summary is a list of selected health and social well being indicators. These indicators were selected as "high risk indicators" by the Health Demographic Profile System (HDPS) Therefore, not all of the indicators available in the HDPS have been included in this summary. The indicators are number I through 175 which correspond to the HDPS numbers. Data is reported b y census tracts unless noted. Census tracts reponed in this summary include: 101.02 127 126 131 124 101.03 128 129 139.05 132.02 101.04 125 130 139.03 Data reported by zip code rather than census tract are designated by(*). Zip codes reponed in this s ummary include: 33565 33566 33567 33547 33527 Data r eported by schoo l zone rather than census tract is for public schoo l s 19911 992 schoo l year, and are designated by(**). Sources: The Health Demographic Profile System's High Risk Indicators 1990 US Census Hillsborough County Schools 43 195

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APPENDIX 2 (Continued) SOCIAL INDICATOR SUMMARY -Plant City/East Hillsborough County-INDICATORS OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING Social Indicators Values East Hillsborough Entire County Total Percent Total Percent I. GENERAL POPULATION DATA A. General I Total population 7 9 363 100.0 834 054 100 0 2 Number of males in households 39 051 49 2 406 217 48 7 3 Number of females in households 40 312 50 8 427 837 5 1.3 B RuraVUrban 5 Individuals livin g in rural areas 44 602 56 2 89 845 10. 8 6 Individuals living in urban a reas 34 76 1 43.8 744,209 89 2 II. ETHNIC COMPOSITION 7 Total number of hou s eholds 2 7 278 32 5 238 a White 2 4 316 89 I 278 091 85. 5 b B l ack 2 142 7 9 36 714 11.3 c. Other 8 2 0 3. 0 1 0 433 3.2 8 Individual s b y Race a nd E thnicity (percent of total popul a tion ) a White 68 924 8 6 8 690 35 2 8 2 8 b Black 6,642 8.4 110 283 1 3 2 c American Indian 211 0.3 2, 454 0.3 d Asian 427 0 5 11,379 1.4 e Ot her 3 ,159 4 0 1 9 586 2. 3 f. Hispanic 7, 614 1 2. 8 106 908 1 2. 8 9 N um ber of Hispanic household s 10. Per s on s 5 and over who r e ported them se lve s as "not speaking Engli s h well 3 06 2 3. 9 3 8 907 4 7 (perce n t of total popu l ation) 11. School-age chi l dren who s peak a lan g ua g e 2, 233 1.6 othe r than English at 3 08 1.9 (percent of s choo l age children) 44 196

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) SOCIAL INDICATOR SUMMARY, page 2 East Hillsborough Entire County Total Percent Total Percent III. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS A. ECONOMIC STATUS Income 13. Median income of families: 50th percentile value of inco me for families 3 2 ,334 33,645 16. Median income of n on-fa mily hou seho lds: 50th percentile value of income 1 2,998 1 7,650 for non-family hou se hold s 22. Median income of h ouseholds: 50th percentile value of income for households 29, 1 22 28,477 2 4. Median income of fem ale headed households: 50th per cent ile incom e of families with femal e householder no spo u se present 26. Per capita income 11,930 14,203 Poverty or Welfare Populations 27. Famili es in poverty: fami lie s b e low poverty l eve l ( p e rc e nt of total family h o u seholds) 2,258 10.3 2 1 088 9.5 28. Indi v idual s in poverty: persons at 1 00 % poverty 10, 782 1 3.6 108,772 1 3.0 (percent of total popul a tion) 29. Individu a l s near po verty: persons at 1 50% poverty 1 8 883 23. 8 184 325 22. 1 ( p e rc e nt of total population) 3 0. Indiv id ual s n ear poverty: person s at 185 % poverty 24,95 0 3 1.4 234,707 28.7 (p erc e nt of t otal population) Individu a l s near poverty : persons at 200% of poverty l eve l 27,220 34.3 26 4 ,395 31.7 (percent of t o tal p o pul atio n ) 31. Families w ith related children under 1 8 female-headed and below poverty l eve l 706 27.3 11, 085 29.7 (percent of female he ade d households) 32. Ch ildr e n under 1 8 in poverty 4 005 5. 1 37, 073 4.5 (percent of total popul a tion ) 35. Person 65 and ov e r in poverty 1 360 1.7 1 3,420 1.6 (percent of total population) 36. Household s on public assistance 1 ,823 6.7 1 9 713 6. 1 ( percent of total h o u se hold s) 37. Individual s on publi c ass i stance 5,9 45 7.5 61, 1 90 7.5 (percent of to ta l popul a ti o n) 45 197

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) SOCIAL INDICATOR SUMMARY, page 3 III. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, continued House Value 39. Median house value of owner-occupied and vacant-for-sale only housing units Rent Value 48. Median value of monthly contract rent for renter-occupied housing unit s Employment 57. Male labor force participation : male s 16 and over in the civilian labor force (percent of all males 16 and over) 58. Female labor force participation: females 16 and over in the civilian labor force (percent of all females I 6 and over) 61. Unemployed persons: persons 16 and over in the civilian labor force who are unemplo y ed 62. Male unemployment: males 16 and over in the civilian labor force who are unemplo y ed (percent of all males in civilian work force) 63. Female unemployment: female s 1 6 and over in the civilian labor force who are unemplo y ed (percent of all females in civilian w o rk force ) B. SOCIAL STATUS 64 Total low occupational status: e mployed persons 16 and over who are operators fabricators laborers, service workers and workers in fishing and forestry occupations (percent of employed persons 16 and over) 65. Total high occupational status: employed persons 16 and over who are in executive administrative and managerial occupations (except farm s) or in profe s sional specialty occupations (percent of employed persons 16 and over ) 46 198 East Hillsborough Total Percent 73,984 nla 327 21, 699 7 5.4 16,661 54.3 2 159 5 6 1 ,198 5 5 961 5.8 2 9,183 80 6 7 018 19.4 Entire County Total Percent 446 232 599 74.4 203 214 59 7 23 625 5.4 1 2, 726 5.5 10, 899 5.4 3 04 662 73.9 107 526 26. 1

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APPENDIX 2 (Conti nu ed) SOCIAL INDICATOR SUMMARY page 4 III. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS co n tinued C. EDUCATIONALSTATUS 68. High school completion: persons 25 and over completing at least 4 years of high school (pe rc en t of persons 25 and ove r ) 7 1 Co ll ege completion: persons 25 and over completing 4 or more years of college (pe rcent of persons 24 and over) 73. Pe r sons not s t arting high sch ool: persons 25 and ove r w ith 8 years or less education (percent of persons 25 and ove r ) 74. T eenage r s not in schoo l : population 16-19 not enrolled in school ( p e rcent of popu l ation 161 9) 76. Persons 16-19 who are not in sc h ool and not high sc hool graduates and eithe r not employe d or n ot in the l abo r force (percent of population 1 6-19) ** Drop -out rate ** Average test scores -Verbal (sta t e 4 1 6 ; US 423) -Math (st ate. 468 ; US, 476) 47 199 East Hillsborou g h Total Percent 32,480 66. 1 5,628 11. 7 6 586 13.3 1 296 26.2 1 ,8 92 3 8 .7 3.4 414 472 Entire County Total P ercent 4 1 2 022 75.6 110 052 20.2 48 247 8.9 7 446 1 6.6 11, 238 25. 1 2.7 423 480

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) SOCIAL INDICATOR SUMMARY, page 5 East Hillsborough Total Percent IV. HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION AND FAMILY STRUCTURE A. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 78. One person households( % total households) 4 299 15.8 79. Large households: households with 5 or more persons (percen t of tot al households) 3,538 13.0 80. Adult sex ratio: males 18-64 in households per 100 females 18-64 in households 97 3 B. CHILDREN --* Children under 4 with special needs 47 0 7 (percent of children under 4) --* Children with established conditions / developmental delays 18 0 3 (percent of chi ldren under 4) --* Children und er 4 exposed to drugs at birth 7 0.1 (percent of children under 4) --* Children under 4 abused or neglected 22 0.3 (percent of children under 4) --* Births in 1990 1,277 9 6 (percent of total area/county births) -White 1 ,107 86 7 Non-white 169 13. 2 Unknown Race 0 1 --* Prenatal care beginning 7 mos or later 47 3.7 (percent of total area/counry births) --* Live births to single mothers 3 86 3 0 2 (percent of total area/county births) --* Live births to mothers under 20 217 17. 0 (percent of total area/county births) --* Live births to sing l e mothers under 20 132 11.9 (percent of total area/county births) --* Live births to mother s with no high school diploma 493 38 6 (percent of total area/county births) --* Juvenile delinquency referrals 1 280 6 5 (percent of t otal area/county referrals) -Felonies 533 41.6 Misdemeanors 555 43.4 -Other 192 15. 0 Total children Jiving with non-relative s group quarter s o r other settings 719 3.2 (percent of total children under 18) 48 200 Entire County Total Percent 81, 928 25.2 29 108 9.0 736 1.2 264 0.4 179 0.3 293 0 5 13,286 100 0 9 ,811 73.8 3 462 26.1 13 0.1 463 3.5 4 789 3 6 0 1 958 14. 7 1 507 11.3 3 743 28 2 19,583 100 0 7 ,221 36.9 7 523 38.4 4 839 2 4.7 5 547 2.7

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) SOCIAL INDICATOR SUMMARY, page 6 East Hillsborough Entire County Total Percent Total Percent IV. HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION AND FAMILY STRUCTURE, continued C. MARITAL STATUS 82. Separated males : male s 15 and o ve r who are se parated from their wives 505 6 208 (percent of males 15 and over) 83. Se parated fema l es: females 15 and over w ho are se parated from their husbands 752 9 965 ( percent of female s 1 5 and over) 84. Widowed males : males 15 and over who a r e widowed 610 7 093 (perce nt of males 1 5 a nd over) 85. Widowed females: females 15 and over who are widowed 3 3 1 6 3 8 562 (percent of fema l es 15 a nd over) 86. Divorced males: males 1 5 and over who are divorced 2,425 3 1 015 (perce nt of males 1 5 and over) 87. Divorced female s: females 15 and over who are d ivo r ced 3 058 42,039 (pe r ce nt of females 1 5 an d over) 92. Single fema l es : females 25 and ove r w ho ha ve n eve r been married I 188 28 52 0 (percen t of females 1 5 a nd over) 93. Si n g l e females: females 35 an d over who have never been married 455 9,983 ( percent of female s 1 5 a nd over) 49 201

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APPENDIX 2 (Continued) SOCIAL INDICATOR SUMMARY, page 7 East Hillsborough Total Percent IV. HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION AND FAMILY STRUCTURE, continued D. FAMILY LIFE CYCLE General Characteristics l 00 Youth dependency ratio: persons under 18 in hou se hold s per I 00 persons 1 8 -64 in households 46.7 l 0 l Age dependency ratio: persons 65 and ove r in households per 100 persons 18-64 in households 18. 6 Families with Children I 03. Families with own ch ildr en under 18 11, 786 53.7 (percent of total family households) l 04. Husband-wife families with own children under 1 8 8,609 39.2 (percent of total family hou seho ld s) -White 7,639 34.8 -Black 477 2.2 -Other 493 2 2 -Hispanic 813 3 7 10 5. Persons under 18 not living with own parents 719 3.2 (percent of total per so n s under 18) l 06. One parent families with own children under 1 8 2, 137 9.7 (percent of a ll family households) -White 1 ,645 0.5 -Black 376 1 8 1 -Other 116 1 3 1 -Hispanic 2 24 1.0 107. Female headed households 2,515 9.2 (percent of t ota l households) 108. Female householders with own children und e r 1 8 1,780 70 8 (percent of female h eade d household s) I 09. Mothers 16 and over with ow n children under 6 and in the labor force 2,755 5 6 5 (percent of women 1 6 +with children under 6) 110.* F e rtility ratio: c hildren under 5 in household per 1000 females 1 5-49 326 Ill. Families with you n g childre n : fami lie s wi th own c hildr en under 5 4,720 21.5 (pe rcent of total family households) 115. Female households with own c hil dre n under 5 655 26.0 (p e rcent of female hou se hold s) 50 202 Entire County Total Percent 38.2 19.3 110 219 49.8 75,969 34.3 65 ,185 29.5 6 909 3 1 3 875 1.7 10,681 4.8 5,547 2.7 17,796 8.0 7 ,801 3 5 8 792 4 0 1 2 0 3 0.5 3 164 1.4 37 378 11.5 25 1 22 67 2 3 1 742 64 0 46,777 21.1 9 55 1 25 6

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) SOCIAL INDICATOR SUMMARY, page 8 East Hillsborough Entire County Total Percent Total Percent IV. HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION AND FAMILY STRUCTURE, continued Older Households 118. Persons 65 and over living alone 2,077 23.2 27,018 26 .5 (percent of persons 65 and over) 121. Person 65 or over living alone or with non-relatives 2,150 24.0 28 148 27.6 (percent of persons 65 and over ) ---Persons 65-74 5,594 7 0 61, 837 7.4 (percent of total population) -White 5,070 6.4 56 088 6 7 -Black 3 46 0.4 4 ,7 82 0 6 American Indian 8 < 0.1 118 < 0.1 -Asian 8 < 0 1 25 1 < 0.1 -Other 28 < 0 1 59 8 0.1 -Hispanic 134 0 2 7,069 0 8 Persons 75 a nd over 3,549 4 5 40,296 4 8 (percent of total population) -White 3 196 4 0 36 578 4.4 -Black 269 0.3 3 219 0.4 American Indian 8 < 0 1 50 < 0 1 -Asian I < 0 1 118 < 0 1 Other 1 5 < 0.1 331 < 0 1 -Hispanic 60 0 1 5 043 0 6 --Persons receiving retirement income 4 185 5.3 4 9,58 7 5 9 (percent of total population) E. PERSONS NOT IN FAMILIES 123. Nonfami l y households : households in which the householder live s a lone or only with nonrelative s 5,3 45 2 1.8 104 0 2 7 3 2 0 (percent of all households) 1 24. Persons in group quarters 1 685 2 1 (percent of total population) 127. Persons in non-institutional group quarter s 1,031 1.3 8,055 1.0 (percent of total population) 51 203

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APPEND IX 2. (Continued) SOCIAL lNDICA TOR SUMMARY, page 9 V H OUSING CHARACTERISTICS A. TYPE OF H OUSING 136. Number of mobile homes and trailers (percent of total housing) !51. Housing units in large multi-unit housing s tructures: housing units in structures with 20 or more units (percent of total hou sing) 153 Older housing : housing built priorto 1 950 (percent of total occupied housing units ) ---Older housing: housing built prior to 1980 (percent of total occupied housing units ) !55. Rente r occupied housing (percent of total occupied rental units ) Very low rent housing: under $300 per month ---Low rent housing : $300 $499 per month B. CONDITION OF HOUSING !57. Vacant/boarded up housing units (percent of total housing) 160 Housing with inadequate plumbing facilities (percent of total housing) Housing with inadequate kitchen facilities (pe rcent of total housing) C. OVERCROWDING East Hillsborou gh Total Percen t 7 833 26.6 299 1.0 3 062 10.4 17, 910 60 9 1,295 21.6 2 953 49.2 2 963 10. 1 168 0.6 165 0 6 162 Overcrowded housing: occupied hou sing unit s with 1.0 I or more persons per room 1,620 6 1 (percent of total occupied housing units) 165. High l y overcrowded housing units Jacking plumbing: housing units with 1.51 or more person s per room and lack complete plumbin g for exclusive u se 56 < 1.0 (percent of total occupied hou s ing units) 52 204 Entire County Total Percent 33 950 9 2 25,205 6.7 36,658 10.1 23 1 ,663 63.0 17,984 1 5.1 56 ,968 47 8 42, 868 17.1 1.807 0 6 1 778 0.5 11, 271 3 5 212 < 1.0

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APPENDIX 2. (Continued) SOCIAL INDICATOR SUMMARY, page 10 VI. RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY 166. Mobile persons: percent of persons 5 and over East Hillsborough Total Percent who are in a different house that 1985 36,863 50 6 (percent of total population) 167. Migrants: percent of persons 5 and over residin g in a different county than in 1985 15,852 2 1.7 ( percent of total population) VII. DISABLED POPULATION Disab led population: persons 16-64 not in institutions with a work disability 4 775 9.7 (percent of total population 16-64) Disabled population: per s ons 16-64 not in institutions with a work disabil ity and unable to work 2 514 5.1 (percent of total population 16-64) Disabled population: persons 65 and over with a mobility or self-care limitation 1 955 21.8 (percent of total population 65 and over) 53 205 Entire County Total Percent 427,154 55.2 200 519 25.9 48,345 8.8 23,673 4 3 19, 692 20.1


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