The third blacksmith shop at Fort Mackinac, Michigan 1858 - circa 1875

Citation
The third blacksmith shop at Fort Mackinac, Michigan 1858 - circa 1875

Material Information

Title:
The third blacksmith shop at Fort Mackinac, Michigan 1858 - circa 1875
Creator:
Stewart, Sheila K.
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Florida
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiii, 331 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Antiquities -- Fort Mackinac (Mackinac Island, Mich.) ( lcsh )
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Michigan -- Mackinac Island ( lcsh )
Blacksmithing -- History -- Michigan -- Mackinac Island ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Applied Anthropology -- Masters -- USF ( FTS )

Notes

General Note:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 1998. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 233-244).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
Universtity of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
025520613 ( ALEPH )
40865423 ( OCLC )
F51-00142 ( USFLDC DOI )
f51.142 ( USFLDC Handle )

Postcard Information

Format:
Book

Downloads

This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

THE THIRD BLACKSMITH SHOP AT FORT MACKINAC, MICHIGAN 1858 CIRCA 1 875 by SHEILA K STEWART A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology University of South Florida August 1998 Major Professor : Roger T. Grange, Ph.D.

PAGE 2

Graduate School University of South Florida Tampa, Florida CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL Master's Thesis This is to certify that the Master's Thesis of SHEILA K. STEWART with a major in Anthropology has been approved by the Examining Committee on June 1 9, 1 998 as satisfactory for the thesis requirement for the Master of Arts degree Examining Committee: Major Professor/Roger T_l Grange, Ph.D. Member: Brent R. Weisman, Ph.D. Member: Lynn Morand Evans, Ph.D.

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful to many individuals who assisted with this project: Phil Porter, Chief Curator for MSHP, who prepared the historical review of the site and provided subsequent research; Lynn L. Evans, Curator of Archaeology for MSHP, who added historical and archaeological interpretation as a member of my committee ; MISPC staff, including Carl Nold, David Armour, Keith Widder, Don Francis Clark Bloswick and Glen St. Onge; the 1995 and 1996 U.S.F. field school students; many volunteers at Fort Mackinac, including friends of the excavation, interpreters Girl Scouts Boy Scouts and Scout leaders; U .S.F. students who spent many hours in the Anthropology Department laboratory, particularly Sheila Barbour Cohen and Cynthia Martin; Anna East U .S.F. graduate student who experimented with the coal recovered; Bill Cauchey, Lyle Klein and Fritz Wilder, who shared their knowledge of blacksmithing; Brian R. Marshall and his father Coit R Marshall, who lent his expertise in carpentry; Arlene Fradkin, who identified and analyzed the faunal remains; my professor, Brent R. Weisman, whose insights as a member of my committee helped to guide the d i rection of my thesis; the project director Roger T. Grange, Jr., whose keen mentorship has expanded my knowledge of public archaeology enormously ; and my husband John F Stewart, whose editing eye and loving presence have supported me through the entire graduate school process

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES vii LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS ix ABSTRACT xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Fort Mackinac 1 Site Location at Fort Mackinac 4 Research Design 7 CHAPTER 2 THE BLACKSMITH SHOPS AT FORT MACKINAC 13 The First Blacksmiths at Fort Mackinac c. 1 780-c. 1 805 1 3 The First Blacksmith Shop in Fort Mackinac c. 1 805-1828 14 The Second Blacksmith Shop in Fort Mackinac 1 828-1858 1 7 The Third Blacksmith Shop in Fort Mackinac 1 858-c. 1 873 21 Blacksmithing in the North Blockhouse of Fort Mackinac c.1873-c. 1 875 25 CHAPTER 3. FIELD METHODS 26 The Excavation 2 6 The Informant Interview 36 CHAPTER 4. REGIONAL HISTORICAL SUMMARY 48 The British at Fort Michilimackinac and at Fort Mackinac 48 Colonial Blacksmiths at Fort Michilimackinac 51 British Colonial Blacksmiths at Fort Michilimackinac 52 British Colonial Blacksmiths at Fort Mackinac 5 3 The Americans at Fort Mackinac 54 American Traditional Blacksmithing at Fort Mackinac 55

PAGE 5

The Influence of the American System of Manufactures on Blacksmithing at Fort Mackinac 58 Fort Mackinac's Change From a Two-company Frontier Post to a One-company Training Post 59 The Heavy Industrial Revolution in the Great Lakes Region 61 The Influence of the Heavy Industrial Revolution on Blacksmithing at Fort Mackinac 63 Blacksmithing Operations Move From Fort Enclosure to Soldiers' Garden 66 Fort Mackinac's Evolution From Training Post to Tourist Attraction 72 Summary and Historical Prediction 76 CHAPTER 5. STRATIGRAPHY 79 Recent State Park Deposits 81 Post Blacksmith Shop Military Deposits 83 Mixed Deposits From Post Shop Military and Park Periods 84 Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits 87 Storage Period Strata 92 Blacksmith Operations Period Strata 93 CHAPTER 6. ARTIFACTS IN THE POST SHOP MILITARY AND PARK DEPOSITS 1 00 Archaeological Dates of Recent Park Deposits 1 00 Artifacts in the Recent Park Deposits 1 02 Archaeological Dates of the Buried Timbers and Cleanup Interface at the Brown With Gravel Level 1 09 Archaeological Dates of the Undisturbed Post Blacksmith Shop Deposits at the Brown With Gravel Level 111 Artifacts at the Brown With Gravel Level 114 CHAPTER 7. ARTIFACTS IN THE THIRD BLACKSMITH SHOP BUILDING DEPOSITS 1 2 9 Archaeological Dates of the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits 131 Artifact Groups the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits 146 Architecture Group 149 ii

PAGE 6

Commerce and Industry Group 1 50 Transportation Group 1 53 Domestic and Personal Groups 1 53 Group Services Group 1 58 CHAPTER 8 NAIL STUDY 160 Nails From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Strata 160 Study of Nails From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Strata 162 Nails From the Final Building Stratum 164 Chi-square Tests of Nails From the Final Building Stratum 165 Nail Ratios From the Final Building Stratum 167 Nail Sizes Studied From the Final Building Stratum 170 Nails From the Storage Period Strata 171 Chi-square Tests of Nails From the Storage Period Strata 172 Nail Ratios From the Storage Period Strata 17 4 Nail Sizes Studied From the Storage Period Strata 1 80 Nails From the Blacksmith Operations Period Strata 1 83 Nails Studied From the Operations Period Strata 184 Chi-square Tests of Nails From the Operations Period Strata 1 84 Nail Ratios From the Operations Period Strata 1 86 Nails Sizes Studied From the Operations Period Strata 1 93 Nails From the lnterface/Subfloor Stratum 1 93 Chi-square Tests of Nails From the lnterface/Subfloor Stratum 1 94 CHAPTER 9. BONE STUDY 1 96 Faunal Remains From the Third Blacksmith Shop Deposits 196 Faunal Frequencies From the Third Blacksmith Shop Deposits 1 97 Bones Studied From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building 198 Faunal Identification and Analysis 199 Butchering Patterns 202 Burned Bones 205 Ill

PAGE 7

CHAPTER 1 0. SHOP LAYOUT 207 Magnetic Fractions From Soil Samples 208 Magnetic Fractions From Blacksmith Operations Strata 208 Magnetic Fractions From Storage and Post Shop Strata 209 Activity Areas During the Storage Shed Period 209 Activity Areas of the Third Blacksmith Shop 211 Work Areas of the Third Blacksmith Shop 212 Storage Areas of the Third Blacksmith Shop 21 8 Domestic Areas of the Third Blacksmith Shop 21 9 Doorway and Features Outside of the Third Blacksmith Shop 220 CHAPTER 11. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 224 REFERENCES CITED 233 APPENDICES 245 Appendix 1. Lots Excavated From Stratigraphic Layers Deposited From 1858-1996 246 Appendix 2. Artifact Assemblage From Stratigraphic Levels Deposited From 1858-1996 259 Appendix 3. Experimentation With Coal From MS3E1 F14 Coal Pit in the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits by Anna East, Graduate Field Assistant 1996 273 Appendix 4. Horizontal Distribution of the Magnetic Fractions in Grams 276 Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios 279 Appendix 6. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies 316 IV

PAGE 8

Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5 Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Table 9 Table 10. LIST OF TABLES Fort Mackinac Blacksmiths From Muster Rolls, National Archives 22 Historical Occupational Sequence of MS3E1 78 Correlation of Historical Periods and Stratigraphic Sequence for the Park, Post Shop Military and Third Shop Deposits 99 Coins From Recent Park Deposits 1 01 Chronologie Indi ces From Mixed Deposits of the Post Shop Military and Park Periods 11 0 Chronologie Indi ces From the Undisturbed Post Shop Deposits 1 1 2 Correlation of Historical Periods, Stratigraphy and Archaeological Dates for the Post Shop Military and Park Deposits 1 28 Historic References to the Third Blacksmith Shop 129 Chronologie Indices From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits 1 31 Correlation of Historical Periods, Stratigraphy and Archaeological Dates for the Third Shop Building Deposits ( 1 85 8-c. 1 87 5) 146 v

PAGE 9

Table 11. Table 12. Table 13. Table 14. Table 15. Table 16. Table 17. Table 18. Table 19. Table 20. Table 21. Table 22. Artifacts Recovered From Within the Third Blacksmith Shop Building 14 7 Storage Vessel Sherds Recovered From Within the Third Blacksmith Shop Building 1 56 Frequencies of Nail Manufacture Types Recovered From MS3E1 160 Ratios Between Nail Manufacture Types Recovered From MS3E1 162 Nails Studied From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits 163 Possible Uses of Sized Nails From Storage Period Strata 1 81 Food of the Army, March 1 875 1 98 Bone Counts Studied From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits 1 99 Taxonomic Classification and Quantification of Faunal Remains From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Strata 201 Frequencies of Identified Butchered Bones From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits Butchered Cow, Pig and Large Mammal Bones 202 Studied From Storage Period Deposits 204 Butchered Cattle Pig and Large Mammal Bones Studied From the Operations Period Deposits 205 VI

PAGE 10

Figure 1. Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8 Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. LIST OF FIGURES Map of the Straits of Mackinac with Fort Michilimackinac and Fort Mackinac Gratiot's 1817 Plan of Fort Mackinac 1842 Brenshutz Plan of Fort M ackinac Alfred Waud's 1854 Sketch Facing North of the North Sally Port of Fort M ackinac 1 863 Plan of Fort Mackinac 1895 Perspective Sketch of Fort M ack i nac Facing North Tracing of 1 863 Plan With Excavation Grid Superimposed Excavation Grid With Predicted Perimeter of the Third Blacksmith Shop Superimposed Excavation Grid With Subope rati ons Labeled Sketch of Benjamin Blacksmith Shop Work Area in 1995 Scale Drawing of the Work Area and Waste Distribut i on at the Benjamin Blac ksmith Shop in 1995 VII 2 8 9 18 23 24 27 32 35 41 46

PAGE 11

Figure 12. The Straits of Mackinac Showing Fort Mackinac, Fort Michilimackinac and Fort St. Joseph 49 Figure 13. 1871 Plan of Fort Mackinac 67 Figure 14. 187 4 Sketch of Fort Mackinac Facing West From East Wall of Fort Mackinac 68 Figure 1 5 1 87 5 Plan of Fort Mackinac 71 Figure 16. 1890 Plan of Fort Mackinac 74 Figure 17. 1905 Plan of Fort Mackinac 77 Figure 18. Stratigraphy of the Crosstrenches 80 Figure 19. Features in the Post Blacksmith Shop Deposits 82 Figure 20. Archaeological Remains of the Third Blacksmith Shop Building 90 Figure 21. Features in the Storage Deposits of the Third Blacksmith Shop Building 94 Figure 22. Features in the Operations Deposits of the Third Blacksmith Shop Building 96 Figure 23. Floor Plan of the Third Blacksmith Shop Showing the Layout of the Archaeological Grid 213 Figure 24. Possible Layout of the Third Blacksmith Shop Based on Forge/ Anvil Location and Artifact Distribution 223 Figure 25 Another Possible Layout of the Third Blacksmith Shop Based on Forge/ Anvil Location and Artifact Distribution 223 viii

PAGE 12

LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS Photograph 1. Excavation Site Facing South from the North Sally Port of Fort Mackinac 5 Photograph 2. Excavation Site Facing Northwest from the East Wall of Fort Mackinac 6 Photograph 3 Geohm Resistivity Survey Conducted by U.S.F. Field Crew in 1995 29 Photograph 4. Excavation Crosstrenches Facing South From the North Sally Port of Fort Mackinac 30 Photograph 5. Original Layout of Benjamin Blacksmith Shop Work Area in the Late 1960's 37 Photograph 6. Informant Interview at the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop Conducted by U.S.F. Field Crew in 1995 39 Photograph 7. Anvil With Waste Material at the Base in the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop in 1 995 44 Photograph 8. U.S.F. Field Crew and MSP Blacksmith at Storage Shed Outside the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop in 1995 47 Photograph 9. Third Blacksmith Shop and Soldiers at the North Sally Port of Fort Mackinac 70 ix

PAGE 13

Photograph 1 0. Parade Ground and Barracks Building of Fort Mackinac Showing Second Story Stairway and Storage Shed in the Right Background 7 5 X

PAGE 14

THE THIRD BLACKSMITH SHOP AT FORT MACKINAC, MICHIGAN 1858 CIRCA 1875 by SHEILA K. STEWART An Abstract Of a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology University of South Florida August 1998 Major Professor: Roger T. Grange, Ph.D. XI

PAGE 15

The 1 995 and 1 996 excavations at Fort Mackinac, Mackinac Island, Michigan were conducted by the Anthropology Department of the University of South Florida to obtain archaeological data about three blacksmith shops which operated in three successive buildings within the fort during the first three quarters of the nineteenth century. Research goals included locating the three shops, their architectural remains, artifacts and activity areas, and analyzing the blacksmith activities as they evolved with the changing functions of the fort. During the nineteenth century, the interplay among political, economic and technological changes, brought about by the American and Industrial Revolutions and by the end of the fur trade in the Great Lakes Region, transformed the function of Fort Mackinac from a frontier post to a tourist destination This thesis examines the culture history and its effect on the role of the military blacksmith at Fort Mackinac as the U .S. evolved into an industrial nation. The artifacts and their distribution are discussed and used to date the stratigraphic layers and features for the last three general periods in the occupational sequence at the excavation site, which include: the Recent State Park Period (1 895-1 996), the Post Blacksmith Shop Military Period (c. 1875-1 895) and the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Period (1 858-c. 1 875). The archaeological study focuses on the third shop which was the final blacksmith shop to operate within the fort enclosure until the forge was removed and operations were moved to the basement of xii

PAGE 16

the north blockhouse in 1873 The deteriorating building was used by fort personnel for storage and, finally, for refuse until its demolition after 1875. Incorporating a middle range approach, the archaeological study addresses: the construction of the third shop with an analysis of nails and architectural elements recovered; the blacksmithing activities with a functional analysis of artifacts and their distribution; the layout of the third shop using a blacksmith informant interview from the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop/Museum on Mackinac Island and ethnographic modeling; and the final storage function of the shop building with a bone study and a functional analysis of artifacts and their distribution Abstract Approved: --------"71'-........... ________ '' Roger T Grange, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Anthropology Date Approved : ---T---------xiii

PAGE 17

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Centennial of Fort Mackinac as an historic park in the state of Michigan was celebrated in 1995. With financial support from the Ford Motor Company, the Department of Anthropology at the University of South Florida (U.S.F.) conducted a field school under the supervision of Dr. Roger T. Grange, Jr., Professor Emeritus, to excavate the site of three successive blacksmith shops within the fort for the Mackinac State Historic Parks (MSHP) as part of the Centennial Celebration. During the summer of 1996, the U .S.F. field school returned for a second season to complete the excavation Research goals included analyzing the blacksmith activities as they evolved with the changing functions of the fort and locating the three shops their architectural remains artifacts and activity areas Fort Mackinac Situated on Mackinac Island at the Straits of Macki nac between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron, Fort Macki nac was built by the British at the close of the colonial period to strengthen their defensive works, which had been threatened on the mainland at Fort Michi limackinac. (See Figure 1.) Construction of the new fort began in 1 780 and was completed the following year (Grange 1 987: 1 3-1 5;

PAGE 18

..... ...... CIIOU E T ... Figure 1. r\. IIACIIIUC I ... &IID .. :leE POIIT -. AC STRAITS ttl IIIACI
PAGE 19

3 Heldman 1977: 12-13). In 1783 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, the American Revolution was ended, and Mackinac Island and the two-year old fort were awarded to the United States (Armour and Widder 1978: 193; Canadian Heritage Parks Canada 1994: 13). It wasn't until 1796 that U.S. troops took control and expanded the fort by removing the former north curtain wall and incorporating the British ravelin (Grange 1987: 1 3-1 5; 1996: 18). During this period Fort Mackinac served as one of several Great Lakes posts on the military frontier protecting the waterways and guarding the border with Canada (Porter 1997). For the next eighty years, the fort was under American control except when the British regained control for two years during the War of 1812 (Widder 1972; Havighurst 1 966). Military blacksmiths played an integral role during the construction of Fort Mackinac, forging the hardware for the new buildings, making the necessary tool repair and shoeing horses for the British soldiers (Porter 1995: 1-2). Like all blacksmiths in the American colonies, military blacksmiths practiced the same handicraft tradition as their European counterparts, producing their wares from start to finish with handmade tools. At the close of the colonial period, the American military blacksmiths continued to work at shops within the walls of Fort Mackinac in the colonial handicraft tradition like their British predecessors. However, the political and technological changes brought about by the American and Industrial Revolutions significantly shaped early American history and altered the activities of the military blacksmiths (Pursell 1995: 35).

PAGE 20

4 During the 19th century, the U.S. signed treaties which ended disputes with Native Americans and with British Canada (Creighton 1958: 262, 275; Petersen 1973: 11 ), and the economy of the Great Lakes region shifted from fur trading to fishing to tourism. The function of Fort Mackinac reflected the regional changes, gradually evolving from a frontier military post to a tourist attraction. When Mackinac Island was declared a national park in 1875, the soldiers garrisoned at the fort maintained the buildings, making repairs and alterations (Armour 1995 : 7; Quinn Evans 1994: 11 ) Blacksmithing operations were transferred to a shop outside the fort walls during the National Park period (Porter 1995 : 8). In 1895, Fort Mackinac lost its soldiers and Mackinac Island passed from federal to state control, becoming Michigan's first state park (Armour 1995 : 7-8). By the early 20th century, when the military had evacuated the post and the Mackinac Island State Park Commission had taken over the management of the park, the blacksmith shop was completely removed (Petersen 1973: 92; Armour 1995: 8). Site Location at Fort Mackinac The site of the U .S.F. excavation a flat grassy area framed on the east and south by modern wooden walkways, is located near the north sally port of Fort Mackinac. (See Photograph 1 .) Fort blacksmiths worked in three different buildings in approximately the same location during the first three quarters of the nineteenth

PAGE 21

Photograph 1 Excavation Site Facing South from the North Sally Port of Fort Mackinac 5

PAGE 22

Photograph 2. Excavation Site Facing Northwest from the East Wall of Fort Mackinac 6

PAGE 23

7 century. From at least 1842 when the second blacksmith shop is labeled on an isometric perspective of the fort (Figure 3), until the third and final shop was removed c.1876 (Porter 1995: 1 -6; Grange 1996: 1 8), the north sally port served as a conduit for other activities in addition to blacksmithing which affected the artifacts deposited on and around the site (See Photograph 2.) The north end of the site is bounded by a revetment wall which flanks the north sally port. The precise date of the construction of this wall or of the north sally port is uncertain However, by 1 817 American troops had removed the bastions, realigned the north curtain walls and incorporated the ravelin into the fort (Grange 1987: 13-1 5; 1 996: 18). (See Figure 2 ) An isometric perspective plan of Fort Mackinac drawn by Private Brenshutz in 1842, is the first illustration of the revetment and the north sally port (Porter 1995: 2-6). (See Figure 3.) Also depicted on the Brenshutz plan to the south of the second blacksmith shop is the soldiers' barracks with mess hall and kitchen. A later soldiers' barracks, which is still standing today was constructed to the south in approximately the same area c.1858-1859 (Quinn Evans 1994: 4). The domestic activities of the soldiers would certa i nly be represented in the deposits left behind as they passed from barracks or mess hall to their fort duties crisscrossing the small area of this site. Research Design Prior to the 1995 Centennial Celebration MSHP developed a plan

PAGE 24

u Shop I Figure 2 Gratiot's 1817 Plan of Fort Mackinac

PAGE 25

9 ''"'If . .. . ... : . .. ...... : : .... .=. t .r-6:::. . ........ f:1 .. . (':. '\. ; _.-Shop II r V:..;_t Figure 3 1 842 Brenshutz Plan of Fort Mackinac

PAGE 26

10 to reconstruct the final blacksmith shop building at the site to be used for either a shop exhibit or as an enclosure for other park activities The U.S. F excavation was designed to research archaeological data in advance for details about the original shop's construction and for details about blacksmithing activities in the shop to assist the park's historic interpretation program Recent archaeolog ical theory for activity area research has emphasized horizontal rather than vert ical exposure of sites i n order to interpret the ways people organize their space and to identify the factors responsible for variations (Kent 1987: 1 0-24). Research has demonstrated that people performing specific activities leave the by-products in a pattern with a regularity indicative of that behavior An archaeological law of behavioral by product regularity states (South 1977 : 122) that: the by-product of a specified activity has a consistent frequency rel ationship to that of all other activities in direct proportion to their organized integration The regularity in the frequency of artifact-group proportions can be tested and contrasted with the variation indicating specialized behavioral activities such as blacksmithing. By expos ing a wide horizontal area at the site of the Fort Mackinac blacksmith shops, the U.S.F. excavations recovered an appropriate sample for the analysis of activities performed by military blacksmiths. Evidence of the activities of other soldiers from the nearby soldiers' barracks and north sally port was also recovered using this sampling method. A middle range approach with the aid of historic documents and an informant interview was also part of the research design to

PAGE 27

1 1 model and test for blacksmith activities and work areas in and around the Fort Mackinac shops. Possible blacksmith shop layout and artifact distribution patterns from other excavated blacksmith shops such as the Fort Union Trading Post blacksmith shops in North Dakota and the frontier and fur trade blacksmith shop at Fort St. Joseph in Ontario, Canada were studied, along with the observation and interview of a blacksmith "on the job" at the Benjamin Blacksmith shop on Mackinac Island. As part of its interpretive programs, MSHP operates the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop, located down the hill from the fort in the City of Mackinac Island. In addition to information about the ways smiths traditionally organize their space, the U.S.F. field crew studied typical smith traffic patterns, material storage and waste disposal. The field crew interviewed Bill Cauchey, the MSHP blacksmith, and discussed working hypotheses throughout both the 1995 and 1996 field seasons. Archaeological theory for spatial analysis suggests that relevant projects may be selected to verify activity patterns and to test for unrelated processes, which may produce similar spatial association between distributions (Hodder and Orton 1976: 239). By using the Fort Union and Fort St. Joseph's blacksmith shop models based on archaeological evidence along with ethnographic interview and observation of an operating blacksmith shop, evidence of blacksmith activities could be tested, verified and separated from the other activities of the soldiers. In order to interpret the ways the military smiths at Fort

PAGE 28

12 Mackinac organized their space and to identify the factors responsible for variations in blacksmithing activities in the successive shops, the research design included the use of historical documents. Phil Porter, Chief Curator for MSHP, prepared an historical review of the site prior to the 1995 excavation season.

PAGE 29

13 CHAPTER 2. THE BLACKSMITH SHOPS AT FORT MACKINAC The First Blacksmiths at Fort Mackinac c.l 780-c. 1 805 According to Phil Porter's research, blacksmithing at Fort Mackinac began with the construction of the fort by British troops in the 1780s, though no blacksmith shop building is mentioned in the historical documents reviewed, nor is one illustrated in the earliest British plans (Porter 1995: 1-2; Burbeck 1799; Tracy 1800: 221 ). However, supplies from the Engineer's Stores at Michilimackinac used by blacksmiths at the new fort between 1779 and 1782 indicate the integral role of the military blacksmith in the fort's construction. Anvils, bellows, hammers, nail tools, hardies, vises, screw plates and several hundred pounds of iron and steel were drawn to complete the necessary tool repair, horse shoeing and manufacture of hardware (Porter 1995: 1-2; Engineer's Stores, Michilimackinac 1779: 363; 1780a: 383-384; 1780b: 386-387; 1781a: 460-461; 1781b: 520-521; 1782a: 557-558; 1782b: 560-561 ). The Americans first acquired Fort Mackinac by treaty after the American Revolution (Petersen 1973: 11 ). After the peace treaty between Great Britain and the United States was signed in 1783 (Armour and Widder 1 978: 191 ), the "King's Works" on the fort ceased when plans were made to turn over the fort to the U.S.

PAGE 30

14 (Porter 1995: 2). In 1796 American troops arrived and began construction at the fort: removing bastions, realigning the curtain walls, incorporating the ravelin into the fort, adding blockhouses and making other changes (Grange 1987: 16). According to a Quartermaster return of November 1 799, blacksmith supplies were used during the construction and repairs at the fort. Iron, steel and sheets of tin were listed along with common blacksmith tools such as hammers, anvils, bench vises, bellows and tongs (Porter 1 995 : 2; Quartermaster Return, Fort Mackinac 1799). The First Blacksmith Shop in Fort Mackinac c.1805-1828 The first blacksmith shop was built by American troops on the site of the excavation c 1 800-1 809, so that the fort commandant could meet the "considerable needs of the Indian Department, as well as those of his garrison" (Porter 1995 : 3). Most probably, the building was constructed to comply with the Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts and treaties, which, not only provided yearly goods animals money and tools for Native Americans but which also rendered the services of blacksmiths to repair their tools and arms (Porter 1995: 3; Records of the Office of the Secretary of War 1807). In 1 809, Captain Lewis Howard, the post commander, asked for horses in a letter to William Eustis, the Secretary of War, to meet the demands at the fort for wood, stone for burning lime and coal used by the blacksmiths, "which is very considerable (particularly in the Indian Department)" (Porter 1995: 3; Howard 1809). Since Fort

PAGE 31

15 Mackinac had neither a resident Indian agent nor a civilian blacksmith as was the case with the larger posts in Detroit Chicago and Fort Wayne, Captain Howard or a previous post commander probably built the first blacksmith shop to meet the need with military blacksmiths (Porter 1995: 3). An 1 806 list of supplies at Michilimackinac includes (Porter 1995: 1 0; Cross 1 806) : 132 pounds of iron 21 pounds of steel 1 pair of bellows 1 bench vise 1 hand vise 1 anvil 1 sledge hammer 2 hand hammers 1 rasp 1 brace 1 screw plate 1 dull stock 1 breast plate, and provides a sample of the tools and supplies which were used in the first shop by American military blacksmiths. During the period of the first blacksmith shop c. 1 805-1 828 (Porter 1995: 2), the first British victory of the War of 1 81 2 captured Fort Mackinac along with Mackinac Island in a night attack (Armour and Widder 1978: 197). At the conclusion of the war in 1 81 5, the Island was returned to U S control (Armour and Widder 1 978: 1 97; Petersen 1 973: 1 1 ). With the return of American soldiers new barracks were added to accommodate increasing

PAGE 32

numbers of troops (Petersen 1973: 11) and existing buildings were repaired (Porter 1995: 3). 16 According to Porter's research (1995: 3), Major Charles Gratiot's 1817 plan of Fort Mackinac is the first record of the location of the first blacksmith shop. (See Figure 2.) The plan shows a single building about 20 X 1 5 feet with a hipped roof situated directly south of the north revetment wall. The building was probably divided into two work areas according to "company function" (Porter 1995: 4 ), one for tasks related to artillery and one for infantry related tasks. A Detachment Order issued in August of 1 81 6 by Major John McNeil (McNeil Papers 1816b) states: Captain Pierce will have the controul [sic] of the Blacksmith's Shop next to the rere [sic] gate of the Fort [sic], with such hands as he may think proper to place there for the use of the Artillery; and Lieutenant Thomas Quarter Master will have the immediate Command of the one adjoining it with three Black Smiths who are to be detailed to report to him immediately. With his order McNeil makes it clear that military blacksmiths were to work for the infantry and that the "proper" hands assigned to work for the artillery were not necessarily trained in blacksmithing. The first blacksmith shop, therefore, was used for at least two purposes: one related to blacksmithing and one to artillery. Porter contends that the "company commanders were desperate for experienced blacksmiths to handle the construction demands of 1816" (1995: 4), so much so that they excused smiths from inspections "owing to the urgency of the work" (MacNeil Papers

PAGE 33

17 January 13 1 816a). Smith supplies on hand during the time of intensive construction included 3 865 pounds of iron 37 5 pounds of iron sheet 377 pounds of nai l rods 246 pounds of steel and 1 1/2 pounds of borax for welding Smith's tools recorded in the Quarter Masters stores included chisels, files, sledges, screws, screw plates augers, rasps braces with bits, axes, gimlets hammers tongs knives, shovels, saws, nail tools, 3 bellows 2 grind stones 3 anvils, 2 blacksm i th v ises and shoeing tools for s i x horses (Porter 1995 : 5 ; Quarterly Return of Quarter Masters Stores 1818). During the 1820s construct ion at the fort slowed but blacksm i ths continued to work repairing carts boats and sleds by shoe ing horses and by producing nails for boats and other projects (Porter 1995: 5; Records of the War Department 1821 ) During this decade of little construction the e xtant structures at Fort Mackinac began to deteriorate until c 1828 which marked the beginn ing of major renovations and construction The blacksmith shop was referred to at this time as "beyond repai r" (Records of the War Department 1828) and was dismantled. The Second Blacksmith Shop in Fort Mackinac 1 828-1 858 During the summer of 1828 a second blacksmith shop was built at the same location as illustrated on the Brenshutz isometric plan of 1842. The build ing i s dep i cted w i th a hipped r oo f l ike the blockhouses with a s i ngle unshuttered w i ndow on the south side of the shop and a chimney in the center of its north facade (Porter

PAGE 34

. ... ; : Figure 4 : ... .. 1,.,; :.... .""' ;_: .... : ,. . .... ...... . < ..... . .. : .. Clhe Hislo
PAGE 35

19 1 995: S-6). (See Figure 2.) Est i mated from the Brenshutz plan to have been originally about 1 4 X 19 feet, (Grange 1995 : 2) the shop was sketched again in 1 854 by Alfred Waud, revealing an additional structure nestled between the new shop and the revetment wall at the North Sally Port (Porter 1995 : 6) (See Figure 4.) The drawing also includes a chimney and a door cut between two windows in the east wall of the structure adjacent to the walkway leading from the North Sally Port During the period of the second blacksmith shop, a recommendation was made to move the operations of blacksmith shop carpenter shop and bake house to the buildings on the "outlook of the fort," so that "the carpenters [sic] shop might be converted into officers quarters, the bake house into a store room ... and the blacksmith shop in [sic] a good and convenient gun shed" (Porter 1995: 8; Records of the Office of the Inspector General 1 834: 56). This inspection report demonstrates the army's need to redefine the areas within the fort enclosure and to adapt e x isting buildings to the changing functions of Fort Mackinac. Perhaps i t also prov ides a clue to the utility of the second structu r e drawn by Alfred Waud. Its proximity to the soldiers' barracks and to the North Sally Port makes it a possible location for the storage of guns or other equipment which would be easily accessible to soldiers reporting for fort duties, though the area it encompasses is small. Waud's sketch shows the area of the addit ion to be about half the size of the blacksm i th shop. Ther efore storage would be a likely use for such a small space and would have left the blacksmith with

PAGE 36

20 more working area. This indeed was the use of the small wooden shed adjacent to the east side of the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop, observed by the U.S.F. field crew during the ethnographic interview in 1995. (See Photograph 8.) MSHP blacksmiths store various sizes of heavy iron stock outside of the shop in order to allow for more work area within Phil Porter suggests that the additional structure may have been used for coal storage or was perhaps a walled gateway to the passage between the blacksmith shop and the revetment wall (1995: 6). In either case, the partitioning of the blacksmith area of the fort into two activity areas continues the practice established during the time of the first shop, and indicates the use of the area for either blacksmithing or for another military activity entirely. The work performed specifically by blacksmiths in the second blacksmith shop included: producing hardware for the construction of the Hill Quarters in 1836 and the Post Headquarters in 1 853 patching cooking stove boilers and stovepipes with tin, repairing tools and constructing sleds and fire hooks (Porter 1 995: 6 ; Quartermaster's Stores 1 833). Tools listed by Lieutenant John W. Phelps in the Quarterly return of Quartermaster's Stores in 1 841 provide a sample from the period of the second blacksmith shop Anvils, bellows, chisels files, grind stones, a drill, smith's hammers a set of smith's tools, smith vises, smith tongs, sledges, a shoeing box, a screwplate: all were applied to complete the projects with assorted iron, iron scrap assorted cut nails, and nail rod (Porter 1 995 : 1 1 )

PAGE 37

21 The second blacksmith shop was damaged by fire on two occasions. However, neither fire or i ginated within the shop In January of 1 85 5 the structure was damaged by a fire which began in the chapel cellar in the nearby barracks to the south (Records of War Department 1855). It was destroyed by a fire in 1858 which began in the nearby bakehouse to the west (Porter 1 995 : 6). The Board of Survey ordered by Captain H. C. Pratt to look into the cause of the second fire (Records of War Department 1 858) found that: the arrangement of the bake-house, carpenter's shop and blacksmith's shop in close proximity to other wooden buildings was in the highest degree unsafeand is of opinion [sic] that at a garrison so contracted as this, these structures should not have been allowed inside the walls. Notably, in a move contrary to the concerns e x pressed by the Board of Survey, a third bla cksmith shop was built in approximately the same area as the previous two shop s The Third Blacksmith Shop in Fort Mackinac 1 858-c.1873 The detailed 1 863 plan of Fort Mackinac includes measurements of fort structures and shows the third blacksmith shop measuring 1 5'7" X 1 6'9" situated 6'7" south of the corner of the retaining wall flanking the North Sally Port. (See Figure 5.) Blacksmithing continued at this location until the Civi l War when the soldiers left the fort to join the Union Army in April 1 861. For the next six years the fort was occupied only by an Ordnanc e Officer and volunteer troops in August 1865 and August 1 866. Three prisoners of war

PAGE 38

22 from Tennessee were held for a four month period at the fort in 1 862 (Havighurst 1 966 : 185-1 86; Porter 1 997). In August 1 867, soldiers returned to Fort Mackinac and repaired the soldiers' barracks (Havighurst 1966: 185-186). Private Thomas Barry was assigned to duties at the forge the following year (Porter 1995: 7). Private William Bowman, who worked between 1871 and 1 87 4, may have been the last smith to work within the fort enclosure (Porter 1995: 12). (See Table 1.) His duties were significantly reduced during 1 873 to ten days at the forge alternating with ten days devoted to other assigned duties, because the demands of blacksmithing were not "sufficient to keep him constantly employed upon that duty" (Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1973a). Table 1. Fort Mackinac Blacksmiths From Muster Rolls, National Archives Name Company and Regiment Dates Corporal Richardson 1817 Private James Dolson Larabee's Company, 3rd Infantry 1818 Private John Neiman Company H 5th Infantry 1829-1830 Private Barnibus Hill Company G, 5th Infantry 1829 Private John Connor Company H 5th Infantry 1830 Private John Lansing Company H, 5th Infantry 1830-1832 Private Jesse Hudson Company A, 2nd Infantry 1832-1834 1836-1837 Private Richard Person Company G, 5th Infantry 1842 Private Harvey Fields Company I 5th Infantry 1 842-1 844 Private Ludwig F. Schmid Michigan Volunteers 1847-1848 "Brady Guards" Private Thomas Barry Company B, 43 Infantry 1 868-1869 Private William Bowman Company F, 1st Infantry 1871-1874

PAGE 39

C....) . ;. .. 4:. ..., . ::; .. .... 4:. -.... "-' !;;; -n 0 .i Shop Ill \ .. .,, . Figure 5. 1863 Plan of Fort Mackinac

PAGE 40

Figure 6. 1895 Perspective Sketch of Fort Mackinac Facing North 24

PAGE 41

Blacksmithing in the North Blockhouse of Fort Mackinac c.l 873-c.l 87 5 25 By 1 873, the building of the third blacksmith shop was being used to store beef for the nearby barracks kitchen, and blacksmith operations had been moved into the stone basement of the north blockhouse (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873b). In 1875, the army constructed a new blacksmith shop in front of the fort near the animal barn and granary, the final site of blacksmith operations at Fort Mackinac (Porter 1995: 8 ; Records of the War Department 1826). The th ird blacksmith shop building was dismantled sometime after 1875 and by 1879 was no longer listed with extant fort buildings (Porter 1 995 : 7). (See Figure 6.)

PAGE 42

26 CHAPTER 3. FIELD METHODS The Excavation To approximate the location of the final blacksmith shop on the site, the 1 863 plan of Fort Mackinac from the National Archives, Washington, D C was used in conjunction with extant structures to predict the approximate location of the shop walls (See Figure 7.) This plan was previously demonstrated to be the most accurate of the historical plans of the fort by comparing details on the map with the dimensions of actual buildings during other archaeological projects (Grange 1987: 56) An Inspection Report of Public Buildings at Fort Mackinac (Records of the War Department 1879) lists the shop and its dimensions, but does not mention foundations or describe the shop. Even with the aid of the archival plan and an 1860's photograph of the north sally port and blacksmith shop (Photograph 9), finding the perimeter of a structure with no foundations was still a tricky proposition. Measurements from the retaining wall flanking the north sally port and from the north wing of the nearest building labeled as the barracks on the 1863 plan were used to estimate a perimeter with the correct structural dimensions Although some slight alterations had been made to the barracks building, and the retaining wall was repaired sometime after the 1860's photograph, all measurements

PAGE 43

MS3E1 Figure 7 Tracing of 1 863 Plan With Excavation Grid Superimposed "J7 ._.

PAGE 44

28 taken in the field were within a .2' margin of difference and placed the predicted northwest corner of the shop only one foot from the revetment wall. A geohm resistivity survey also was conducted prior to excavation in order to test for the location of any subsurface structural features still remaining from any of the three shops. The survey tested a 25' X 26' area in 2' intervals with the parameters of modern walkways to the east and south, the retaining wall to the north and a line projecting north from the northeast corner of the north wing of the soldiers' barracks, now a modern bathroom facility. Some highs and lows were recorded and used for unit placement and excavation strategy. However, little of the resulting data pertained to the structure of the third and final blacksmith shop at the site. (See Photograph 3.) By the use of a transit, the site area was connected to the arbitrary archaeological site datum established by Dr. Grange at the fort in 1980. Large nails with a connecting string were placed to outline the predicted floor of the third shop. Then, crosstrenches measuring 2 1 /2' x 5' were laid out to sample the inner and outer space of the final blacksmith shop, and were expanded to a series of 5' x 5' excavation units which encompassed a twenty foot square area, wide enough to sample the predicted locations of all three shops measured from available historical maps. (See Photograph 4.) The balks from the crosstrenches were left standing when the units were widened in order to maintain a record of the stratigraphic sequence of the inner and outer space of the shop. (See Figure 8.)

PAGE 45

Photograph 3. Geohm Resistivity Survey Conducted by U.S.F. Field Crew in 1 995 29

PAGE 46

Photograph 4. Excavation Crosstrenches Facing South From the North Sally Port of Fort Mackinac 30

PAGE 47

31 Mackinac Island State Park Commission (MISPC) archaeological protocol was used for all measurements employing engineering measure in feet and tenths of feet. Elevations also were taken with the same measuring system for each stratigraphic layer excavated within each excavation unit. Throughout the field season, U .S.F. crew members made measured horizontal drawings of the excavation units and vertical profile drawings of all standing balks including the north-south and east-west crosstrenches A surface contour map of the entire site was produced with the Golden Surfer Computer Software (1991 ), and a final map of the site and some surrounding features was also drawn to scale using a plane table. U.S.F. crew members used hand trowels and occasionally shovels in the modern layers to excavate, and 1 I 4" hardware screens to remove the cultural materials. Water screening had been used on other projects at Fort Michilimackinac and at Mill Creek, and park archaeologists considered it to be standard operating procedure and an "important element making inter-site comparisons possible with superior controls" (Grange 1995: 3). Therefore, the first third of the 1995 excavation materials was water screened with 1 18" and 1 116" mesh until it was clear that the types of materials recovered from previous projects were not present in the deposits of the third blacksmith shop. Occasionally, throughout the remainder of the 1995 field season, water screening was used to test specific floor deposits. However, most materials were dry screened with 1 I 4" screens, which proved less time-consuming and more useful for the artifacts recovered. During the screening process, random

PAGE 48

...... . . . . .. : North Revetment . Figure 8 . . Wall : .. : 695N 380E J Excavation Grid With Predicted Perimeter of the Third Blacksmith Shop Superimposed .., ....

PAGE 49

unmeasured soil samples from each excavation unit also were collected for later analysis. 33 Notes from a 1' X 1' test unit located in approximately the center of the site and excavated in 1994 by Dr. Lynn Morand, Curator of Archaeology for MSHP, were used throughout the field season as a "quick index" to some of the stratigraphic layers encountered (Morand 1 994 ). A de facto test unit also was excavated in preparation for the installation of the excavation interpretive sign A rectangular posthole, placed outside the space of the predicted blacksmith shop, revealed a stratigraphic sequence entirely different from Morand's test unit. This contrast between soil patterns inside and outside the shop area was useful in delineating the inside space of the final blacksmith shop. The color descriptors for these two test units and for the modern occupational layers of the full scale excavation units were informal. When a complex strati graphy began to emerge across the excavation, soil color became a more important indicator of stratigraphic sequence and required a systematic identification. In order to gain a more precise stratigraphic control, color ratings of strata matrices were recorded using the Munsell color chart. Vertical control of excavat i on units was maintained by strata defined by soil color, matrix texture and inclusions. No arbitrary depth levels were employed. Objects such as coins and buttons were identified and processed, so that the best chronological control could be used for the emerging strata during the field season. The consistent correlation of

PAGE 50

34 chronology with the stratigraphic sequence of deposits indicates that the excavation "followed the stratification and its relative chronology effectively" (Grange 1995 : 2). In addition, some of the materials recovered were cleaned and counted in the archaeological laboratory within the Fort Mackinac Heritage Center, so that the distribution of possible blacksmith related artifacts could be plotted with the Golden Surfer computer program to test working hypotheses in the field as well. The same artifact recovery system, established by Dr. Grange during the 1980 excavation of the 18th century British well and used in the subsequent excavations of the Provision Storehouse and the Officers' Wooden Quarters, was used again in order to provide a consistent recording system for ongoing research and data processing (Wright 1985; Grange 1987; Clifford 1990). Each unit of the site grid was given a unique designation such as "MS3El A 1." Beginning with "MS3" the desi gnation refers to the established number of Fort Mackinac as an archaeological site in the Mackinac Straits. The next "E" refers specifically to the blacksmith shop project and site within the fort. The next "1" is an operation number, referring to the work done in 1995 and in 1996 A letter of the alphabet was then assigned for each horizontal sub-operation (i.e., each excavated grid unit) Artifact recovery strata in each grid unit were referred to as "lots" and completed the designation with a number. Thus, "MS3E1 A 1" refers to the excavation of a specific stratum (the top sod layer) in sub-operation A at the site of the blacksmith shop within Fort Mackinac, and "MS3El A2" refers to the

PAGE 51

{ . ... .. . ... t . . . : : . . North Revetinerif . : . Wall : : . : Figure 9 Excavation Grid with Suboperations Labeled

PAGE 52

36 underlying stratum in sub-operation A (Grange 1995: 2). (See Figure 9.) Top and bottom elevations of the strata in each excavation unit were taken with a level and related to the archaeological datum established in 1980. The Informant Interview Since 1970 MSHP has staffed and operated the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop as a working museum to demonstrate 19th century blacksmithing with original tools and authentic shop layout. The Benjamin Blacksmith Shop served the island for years before it was donated to the park commission after the death of owner Herbert Benjamin in the late 1960s. It was named after Herbert's father Robert H. Benjamin, who, along with Frank Cummins, purchased the shop on the western end of Market Street in the City of Mackinac Island in 1885. Herbert took over the business from his father in 1897 when he was fourteen years old (Armour 1995: 118; Piljac and Piljac 1989: 238-239; Cheboygan Democrat 1885). The transfer of the shop from the Benjamin family to the MSHP required that the shop be moved from its original location Staff Archaeologist Lyle M. Stone and Assistant Director David Armour began the preservation project by documenting and photographing the original layout of the shop and its many accumulated contents, and ended the project by using salvaged floorboards, windows and other materials to build a somewhat smaller vers ion on the eastern end of Market Street (Armour 1995: 118). (See Photograph 5 ) Because the

PAGE 53

Photograph 5 Original Layout of Benjamin Blacksmith Shop Work Area in the Late 1960's 37

PAGE 54

38 late 19th century tools were original and since the dimensions of the working area of the reconstructed shop were approximately the same as the late 1 9th century blacksmith shop at the fort, the 1 99 5 U S .F. field crew spent a morning early in the season at the shop with Park smith, Bill Cauchey who explained the tools and demonstrated their use by making nails and hooks. He pointed out the distinctive tapered profile of a horse shoe nail and gave the crew a comparative sample. Employed in the summer to reproduce authentic hardware for other reconstruction projects, Cauchey demonstrates his expertise as a smith to the public daily He participates in the annual blacksmith convention hosted by the Park each summer and gains new hands-on experience working on the cooperative projects with other the smiths in residence. During the rest of the year he is a history teacher in the Michigan public schools and is knowledgeable about the history and literature of blacksmithing as well. His continuing interest in the subject includes researching and collecting blacksmith daybooks from the late 19th century. The Benjamin Blacksmith shop was set up with a portable forge described by Cauchey as a "farm-type" made of cast iron with a hand cranked blow pipe or "tuyere." (See Photograph 6.) He said that the transition from the bellows to the hand crank occurred in blacksmithing during the 1860s. This type of forge was probably not part of the layout of the third blacksm ith shop at the fort, which had a chimney indicative of the presence of a brick forge. However, other equipment he explained and demonstrated to the crew, such as

PAGE 55

Photograph 6. Informant Interview at the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop Conducted by U.S.F. Field Crew in 1995 39

PAGE 56

40 the swage block and the anvil, were standard to smiths and changed little over time. Measurements were taken at the base of the swage block stand (about 1.3' square) and of the anvil stand waister (about 1' square), and a sketch map was drawn of the work area in order to test hypotheses at the excavation site. According to Cauchey, the work area of any smith should include: a swage block to change the diameter of the stock a water barrel close enough to cool heated metal quickly a tool table or station with a vise easily accessible and an anvil situated about "twisting distance" from the forge. (See Figure 1 0.) Using a middle range approach to study specific blacksmithing processes on Mackinac Island, and then to interpret site formation processes, were appropriate components of the field methodology However, to assume that the Park smith, working at a blacksmith shop in 1995, would behave in exactly the same manner as a 19th century smith, simply because he's working in a similar area with the same tools, would be inappropriate Likewise to assume that a 19th century village blacksmith such as Robert or Herbert Benjamin would demonstrate exactly the same behaviors as a 19th century military blacksmith at Fort Mackinac would also be inappropriate Clearly, this informant interview was more one of analogy than of ethnography But, analogy as a "point of departure for testing ideas of cultural material and behavior on a concrete level" (Kent 1987: 41) has been used successfully in archaeological investigation Indeed, developing a predictive model for possible activities

PAGE 57

swage block Figure 10. 3 1/2' anvil 3 1/2' forge vise tool table Sketch of Benjamin Blacksmith Shop Work Area in 1995 41

PAGE 58

42 specific to blacksmithing was immediately useful for spatial analysis and testing working hypotheses during the U .S.F. excavat ion. Assumptions underlying the blacksmith activity area modeling and recognition strategies used in 1995 are: Assumption 1: Some of the same types of tools and materials were available to village and fort smiths during the late 19th century on Mackinac Island. Assumption 2 : Assumption 3: Assumption 4: Assumption 5: Assumption 6: Assumption 7: The same tools and materials were used by village and fort smiths in identical blacksmithing tasks during the late 1 9th century on Mackinac Island. Blacksmithing technology and skills during the late 19th century, though showing some variability from region to region and from smith to smith, had some identical underlying elements. Village and fort blacksmiths in close proximity to each other had contact and exchanged ideas and information on Mackinac Island. 1 9th Century blacksmith shop layout had some underlying utilitarian arrangement and some essential components basic to all blacksmithing tasks. In-shop blacksmithing waste patterns and waste disposal at Mackinac Island blacksmith shops had similar underlying elements. Blacksmith tools, products and by-products can be recovered or detected in a restricted area. With these assumptions in mind, the U.S. F crew could view Cauchey at work at the Benjamin Blacksmith shop as a sort of living archaeology, providing "some of the behavioral dynamics that serve as guides to the statics" (Brumbach and Jarvenpa 1 990: 40) observed

PAGE 59

43 at the fort site. However, his work at the edge of the anvil was more in the realm of experimental archaeology and his insights more etic than ernie. As Cauchey shaped the metal in the work area, his traffic patterns were observed as well as the distribution of waste materials from the smithing process. (See Photograph 7.) Metal scale was observed flaking from the anvil, and cinders or "clinkers," falling from the forge. The metal waste was distributed in an oval pattern around the base of the anvil concentrated away from the side where the park smith stood, and spent fuel left a distinctive dark gray area on the wooden floor boards below. These distributions were later plotted and labeled on a more detailed map of the work area drawn to scale. (See Figure 11.) Cauchey commented that the general "tidiness" of the shop was a response to the public being in the shop daily, but that a working blacksmith shop would have much more metal scraps piled up over time in and around the work areas. (See Photograph 5.) The storage of materials and waste disposal also were studied to predict activity processes which might emerge during excavation. Scrap metal, tools and materials were stacked across the rafters and heavy iron stock rods were stored outside in a small but sturdy wooden shed abutting to the east wall of the shop. (See Photograph 8.) The third blacksmith shop had a gated area, which could have served the same purpose, especially in the small area of the site. While outside the shop walls U.S.F. students studied a large pile of cinders which Cauchey said were deposited during cleanup at the

PAGE 60

Photograph 7. Anvil With Waste Material at the Base in the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop in 1995 44

PAGE 61

45 end of each day, a practice he said was common to most smiths, though not on a daily basis. Cinder and coal fragments were then observed randomly distributed all around the area surround ing the shop as well as piled a few feet from the south doorway Examples of cinders or "clinkers" were examined for identification purposes in the lab. While examining the other scraps and broken artifacts thrown outside the shop, U S .F. students discovered a natural process shaped by the gabled roof Identical to that of third blacksmith shop at the fort, the gabled roof of the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop leaves two narrow bands of stones on the ground below as the dirt is washed away by dripp ing water during rain. The same distinctive stone pattern uncovered a few days earlier at the site of the excavation terminated abruptly on either end, tracing the approximate length of the building. The stone lines ran parallel to the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop about .4' or .5' away from the walls Based on this measurement and the 1860s photograph, it was possible to hypothesize the approximate location of the east wall of the third blacksmith shop The cultural and natural processes observed at the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop were used to test emerging structural features at the excavation site And the informant interview and demonstration proved valuable in the identification of the blacksmith working surface for the final shop period which was exposed in 1995. After the interview, Cauchey continued as an informant for the excavation throughout the field season, identifying materials and their uses

PAGE 62

DISPlAYS AND STORAGE AREA 46 t I li ll rrnr--t---,; I 1/::s:z::::!:\1 s::rz:p IZ:::I:;\11 !s:z::::!:! I .c:::s:::;:s, s;s;:rl --. 7 I I I I ----rr.l 1! J ... 1 I ,,. ,. I f ,!\ x Tool Table \ .. : With Vise 1 f BLACKSMITH 1 l WORK AREA. j l . .\.. . . . \. AtM. . . a.ocx \ t .' T _., . \ : : i.\--saw METAL I ;, <>;;> .4 : ANOSCAL -1 . . \ .. i 1 !;:ff?-1 : ... \ :..:. 0 .... "' f 'wml SOME . SNAG \...__ .. . . . 2' ,. TOOlS. BLACKSMITH AREA FOR REST, ST\JDY AND STORAGE 1 $c:ATTEREJ) aocx I 5 9 1-------------24. 3 t---------------15. 1 '---------------SCALf: 1:15 Figure 11. Scale Drawing of the Work Area and Waste Distribution at the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop in 1995

PAGE 63

Photograph 8 U.S. F. Field Crew and MSP Blacksmith at Storage Shed Outside the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop in 1995 47

PAGE 64

48 CHAPTER 4. REGIONAL HISTORICAL SUMMARY A summary of the regional history is useful to integrate the archaeological data from the blacksmith shop excavations at Fort Mackinac into the general cultural context of the fort. Focusing on the period when the three blacksmith shops operated within the fort, this summary will trace the functions of the fort dur ing its gradual transition from a frontier military post to a restored tourist attraction. The specific role of military blacksmithing within the evolving functions of the fort will be placed within the regional history, and military blacksmith activities will be analyzed in relation to pol i tical, economic and technological changes in American culture. The British at Fort Michilimackinac and at Fort Mackinac Fort Michilimackinac was settled in the early 18th century by the French at the location of modern Mackinaw City. It has played a significant role in European settlement and the fur trade in the Straits of Mackinac since its establishment (See Figure 1 2.) British trade in the region had been expanding west with the Hudson's Bay Company, founded in 1670 to procure finer beaver pelts than were available to earlier British expeditions in the south (Innis 1956: 47). After the French and Indian War, British troops occupied

PAGE 65

LAKE MICHIGAN 0 Figure 12 0 St. i
PAGE 66

so the fort and gained a foothold at the "cross roads" (Armour and Widder 1978: 3) between Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. During their occupation of Fort Michi limackinac, which began in 1761, the British were able to protect their regional interests in the fur trade with the Native Americans of the Great Lakes. Fur activities increased at the fort under the British due to their policy which removed previous trade monopolies and opened the trade to any licensed subject, while limiting trade to five licensed posts in the region (Whitaker 1 996: 14-19). British control of Fort Michilimackinac was interrupted by Pontiac's War, a Native American revolt in 1763. British troops, under the command of Captain William Howard, returned in 1 764. And, under Arent Schuyler De Peyster, strengthened the defenses at the fort after the outbreak of another revolt-the American Revolution in 1776. The renovations were judged inadequate by the succeed ing Brit ish fort commander, Lt. Governor Patrick S i nclair. As a result, the construction of Fort Mackinac was begun by the British in 1780 and completed the following year (Grange 1987: 913; Heldman 1977: 12-13). The new fort was built to improve Britain's defensive works by eliminating operations at Fort Michilimackinac on the mainland and building a more defensible structure across the Straits of Mackinac on the bluffs of Mackinac Island. Although there was some debate among the British as to whether the design of Fort Mackinac actually provided stronger defenses than those of Fort Michilimackinac the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1783, awarded the new fort to the

PAGE 67

51 Americans without a military test of its defenses (Armour and Widder 1978: 193; Canadian Heritage Parks Canada 1994: 13). U .S. troops didn't occupy Fort Mackinac until thirteen years later following Jay's Treaty (Grange 1987: 13-1 5). As the American forces took control of Fort Mackinac in 1 796, the British colonial period was coming to an end, withdrawing with it the remnants of the old political and economic structure. Colonial Blacksmiths at Fort Michilimackinac During the colonial period, blacksmith technology mirrored its European counterparts and was practiced as a handicraft tradition. In this tradition, artisans skilled in a particular craft such as gunsmithing or cabinet making produced their wares from start to finish utilizing hand-made tools. Any technological innovation in a particular craft came directly from the artisan (Clark 1929a: 1 0). The craft of blacksmithing used iron sparingly to forge simple general hardware such as kitchen utensils and door latches or to produce nails for horseshoes or houses. Typical blacksmith tools such as hammers, tongs, swages, punches and pincers were made by the blacksmiths as well as special tools invented for specific purposes (Watson 1968: 11-13; Dunshee 1957: 22 28). Fort Michilimackinac had blacksmiths who were skilled at gunsmithing as well, beginning with the French occupation One French blacksmith Jean Baptiste Amiot moved to the fort before 1724 to work for a Jesuit priest named Pierre Du Jaunay The

PAGE 68

52 Jesuits had been given a monopoly over blacksmithing throughout New France. Most missions had a smith to provide operating income (Morand 1 997) Du Jaunay had been given the monopoly on blacksmithing at Fort Michilimackinac by the King's Memorial (Hamilton 1 976: 25-26). Adjoining the priest's house, the fort blacksmith shop conta ined depos i ts filled with gun parts. Archaeologists have recovered numerous gun parts from the shop area, indicating the importance of a gunsmith to the economy at French Fort Michilimackinac. The artifacts studied revealed the working and reworking of old gun parts by the smith "until literally he had nothing left with which to work" (Hamilton 1976: 28) Amiot was eventually freed from h i s economic tie to the priest by Marquis de Beauharnois Governor-General of New France as a result of complaints by the Ottawa. During the 1 7 40s, he continued working as a blacksmith for command ing officers at the fort by repairing guns for local Native Americans and by making picks tomahawks and axes in the colonial handicraft tradition. British Colonial Blacksmiths at Fort Michilimackinac British colonial blacksmiths continued frontier gunsmithing as part of their craft at Fort Michilimackinac, when the British took over the fort. Archaeologists have recovered buttplates and triggerguards from English guns in British colonial deposits dated as early as the 1 770s (Hamilton 1 976 : 6-8) No complete flintlocks have been found at the fort, however with the exception of a back

PAGE 69

53 action Wender lock, produced between 1640 and 1 650 before the foundation of the fort. The absence can be explained by the reuse of lock parts by the post gunsmith and by the frontier custom of keeping gun parts for unexpected repairs, which needed to be made far from the post by the "untrained shade-tree gunsmith" (Hamilton 1 976: 20). Studies of the lockplates from French and English trade guns made in a handcrafting industry have identified alterations to guns by frontier gunsmiths who adapted old parts to new guns at the fort (Hamilton 1 976: 22). British Colonial Blacksmiths at Fort Mackinac While British colonial blacksmiths were forging the hardware for the construction of Fort Mackinac in 1 780, the Industrial Revolution had begun to take hold of production methods in Britain. Originating in the 1760s, the new evolving system of technology began to accelerate dramatically by 1 782, the same year Fort Mackinac was completed At that point, the evolutionary process of change in industrial technology intensified British innovations in the production of cotton, iron and machine tools, and in engineering and transport industries (Deane 1 996: 1 5-1 6). The changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution were to influence the Great Lakes economy as well as the blacksmiths working at Fort Mackinac, particularly after the American Revolution.

PAGE 70

54 The Americans at Fort Mackinac After the Americans took control of Fort Mackinac in 1 796, they continued to renovate the fortifications The fort served as one of several American frontier posts in the Great Lakes region, protecting the waterways and guarding the border with British North America (Canada) during the early American period (1796-1837). Soldiers were charged with the protection and regulation of the fur trade and maintaining alliances with the Native Americans in the Great Lakes region (Porter 1997). For the next eighty years, the fort was under American control except during the War of 1 812, when the British regained the fort for two years (Widder 1972; Havighurst 1 966). During the American period, the economy of Mackinac Island changed from the fur trade to fishing, and then to tourism (Armour 1995: 4 ). These economic transitions were greatly influenced by the technolog i cal changes of the Industrial Revolution in the United States as well as by the political changes in the Great Lakes region Early American history was significantly shaped by the fact that the American Revolution and the Industrial Revolution happened at the same time. During the years between 1763 and 1787, the French and Indian Wars ended; the U .S. Constitution was adopted; the steam engine was improved by James Watt; the first steamboats were built; the textile industry was mechanized; and the introduction of fossil coal, rolling mills, and the puddling process changed the iron industry (Pursell 1995: 35-37). After the U.S. won its political and economic independence from Great Britain, American leaders directed the economy to ensure future autonomy and growth

PAGE 71

55 While political leaders such as Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin argued for an agrarian-based economy, pro-industrialists like Alexander Hamilton and Tench Coxe insisted on manufacturing to insure American independence from European goods (Shackel 1996: 19, 87). They looked to the Industrial Revolution in Europe to find technolog i cal solutions to the developing nation's economic problems and found that machines were being used to replace hands in the manufacturing processes (Pursell 1995: 35-37). However American manufacturing practices with a greater reliance on labor saving machinery began to diverge very early from the British pattern of an increasing reliance on a specialized division of labor (Adams 1996: 142). American Traditional Blacksmithing at Fort Mackinac During the early years of American occupation at Fort Mackinac, military blacksmiths continued working in the colonial handicraft tradition in two successive blacksmith shops They produced hardware for construction projects, shoed horses, made nails for boats, repaired carts, boats and sleds for the fort, and most probably repaired tools and arms for Native Americans (Porter 1995 : 1-5). Many of the guns repaired by smiths at the fort were produced in federal armories established with funds appropriated by the U.S. Congress in 1798. In the early 1800s, at the Harper's Ferry Armory in Virginia, gunsmiths began their work in the colonial handicraft tradition where knowledge and skill in producing the entire gun

PAGE 72

56 were required. By 1807, armorers were still able to craft an entire gun, but were specializing in the production of particular gun parts. During the next several decades, this specialized division of labor had evolved into a piecework form of production, where armorers specialized in making one gun part or one stage of the production of a gun part (Shackel 1996: 30-35, 148-149). In 1 808, while American military smiths were working in the first blacksmith shop in Fort Mackinac and gunsmiths were beginning to specialize in particular gun parts at the Harper's Ferry Armory, John Jacob Astor had organized the American Fur Company and built Agency House, a fur warehouse, and offices on Market Street on Mackinac Island "under the guns of Fort Mackinac" (Havighurst 1 966: 134-135). By 1834, when military smiths were working in the second blacksmith shop in Fort Mackinac and pieceworkers were producing gun parts at Harper's Ferry, the lower peninsula of Michigan was depleted of all game and furs. In that year, the Native Americans, in debt to the fur traders, began negotiations with the U.S. government for the sale of their lands (Havighurst 1966: 168). When war between the United States and Great Britain broke out in 1812, British forces from Fort St. Joseph, located to the north on St. Joseph Island, Ontario captured Fort Mackinac from the Americans in a night attack (Armour and Widder 1986: 197). (See Figure 1 2 ) The British garrison and traders abandoned Fort St. Joseph and took control of Fort Mackinac (Canadian Heritage Parks Canada 1994: 14 ) An American force burned the empty Fort St. Joseph to the ground in 1 814. The charred remains of Fort St. Joseph

PAGE 73

included a blacksmith shop, which provides clues to the type of blacksmithing practiced by British smiths who moved into Fort Mackinac during this two year per iod (Canadian Heritage Parks Canada 1994: 14 ). 57 One blacksmith shop at Fort St. Joseph, Ontario was a fur trade shop rather than a military or Indian Department shop (Light and Unglik 1987: 4 ). Archaeological excavations in the summer of 1978 revealed traditional colonial blacksmith activities which included manufacturing nails and hinges, and repairing weapons tools, axes and traps (Light and Unglik 1987; Canadian Heritage Parks Canada 1994: 6). The Indian Department probably ran another shop at Fort St. Joseph, employing a blacksmith named Louis Dufresne according to historical documents (Light and Unglik 1987: 1 3; Canadian Heritage Parks Canada 1994: 14 ) British blacksmiths from Fort St. Joseph may have continued similar activities in the shop in Fort Mackinac, and may have introduced such activities as trap repair out of necessity since Fort St. Joseph traders resided with the British garrison during their occupation (Light and Unglik 1987: 38). When the Island was returned to the Americans in 181 5, new barracks were added to house for the growing numbers of soldiers, and buildings were constructed outside the stockade walls to accommodate the needs of the expanding U.S. military operation (Armour and Widder 1978: 197; Petersen 1973: 11 ) American military blacksmiths returned to constructing hardware and making repairs

PAGE 74

The Influence of the American System of Manufactures On Blacksmithing at Fort Mackinac 58 Before the War of 1812, many tools were manufactured in the U S by local smiths and showed a wide range of variation in shape, size and workmanship because of the differing abilities of the smiths and the varying taste of the purchasers (Clark 1929a : 522). Practicing in the same handicraft tradition, American gunsmiths with possibly the aid of an apprentice manufactured locks and muskets from start to finish (Pursell 1995: 87). Gunsmiths at the Springfield and Harper's Ferry national armories produced weapons reflecting the same tradition with their great variation and lack of standardization during this same period (Shackel 1996: 34 ). By 1812, machine made tools with precise dimensions and interchangeable parts were being used more than ever in the U.S. and were displacing American "bench artisans" (Clark 1929a: 522). A second technological innovation of the early 1 800s, the machine made cut nail, began to reduce the activities of blacksmiths who had previously made all nails by hand. The innovation of the machine cut nail occurred between 1 780 and 1790, but was inferior to the wrought nail until it was perfected in the 1 830s. The earlier hand wrought nail was slowly displaced by the machine-made cut nail (Frurip 1983: 45-46). The machine-made cut nail was displaced in turn by the machine-made wire nail by the 1890s (Loveday 1979: 2) Blacksmith supplies and tools ordered for the first two blacksmith shops in Fort Mackinac record the use of these technological innovations Most notably, in 1841, during the time of

PAGE 75

59 the second blacksmith shop machine made blacksmith tools and assorted cut nails were ordered along with "1 /2 bundle of nail rod" (Porter 1995: 11; Quartermaster Stores, Fort Mackinac 1841) for the Quartermaster's Stores. This record of nail rod for hand-wrought nails and machine-made cut nails used simultaneously at Fort Mackinac, marks not only the changepoint to the use of cut nails at the fort, but the decrease in military blacksmith activities which was to come. Fort Mackinac's Change From a Two-company Frontier Post to a One-company Training Post During the thirty years when blacksmiths were working in Fort Mackinac's second blacksmith shop ( 1 828-1 858), political changes in the United States were beginning to transform the Great Lakes region and the military function of Fort Mackinac. With the end of the fur trade in the Great Lakes, Native American regional tribal leaders signed a treaty in 1836 by which they surrendered claim to twenty million acres to pay off their debts to the traders. Nonetheless the garrison at Fort Mackinac prepared for a rumored Indian revolt. The rumors proved false, and tensions eased between the soldiers and Native Americans on Mackinac Island (Havighurst 1966: 1 68). During the 1830s, the military significance of the fort was reduced further with the relocation of many Indians to western reservations and the westward expansion of the military frontier. By 1837 Fort Mackinac had become a one-company post, temporarily

PAGE 76

60 abandoned when soldiers left the fort in June 1837-August 1839 and again in October 1839-June 1840 (Porter 1997). In 1842, the Ashburton Treaty settled the international boundary between British North America and the United States in the east, and the Treaty of Washington of 1846 determined the border in the west (Creighton 1958: 262). From 1846 to c.1858, the rule of the Hudson's Bay Company was approaching its end in the British American northwest (Creighton 1958 : 275). With the close of the fur trade in the region and with the signing of the treaties ending U.S. disputes with Native Americans and British Canada, Fort Mackinac had become a political anachronism. Soldiers again left the fort in June 1848-November 1848, October 1856-May 1857 and August 1857-May 1858. During this time of political and economic transition for the U.S., Fort Mackinac continued to fill a niche as part of the country's Great Lakes military defense system, providing housing for troops (Porter 1997). The function of Mackinac was .. limited to that of a training post .. (Petersen 1973:11 ). The economic shift in the Great Lakes from fur trading to the fishing industry also brought changes to the character of the village on Mackinac Island. Great Lakes trout and whitefish were processed on the island during the 1 840s, and buildings were constructed to house the burgeoning fish industry. New docks, warehouses for icing and salting fish, and coopers' shops to construct shipping barrels were built along main street (Petersen 1973: 11 ). In the ensuing years, the Native American presence dwindled on Mackinac Island, and the function of extant public buildings began to

PAGE 77

61 change. After 1 848, the Indian dormitory was used for other purposes and was converted to a public school in 1870 (Havighurst 1966: 173 ; Petersen 1973 : 24) The Presbyterian Mission House on the east end of the village, which was formerly used to house and train Indian children, was converted i nto a hotel in 1852. In fact, the guests registered at the Mission House on August 26, 1852 were brought to the Island by the Steamer Sultana which was running between Chicago and Buffalo During the same year the Island House was built near the docks of the village (Petersen 1973: 49-50), indicating the burgeoning of Mackinac Island's popularity as a tourist destination. The Heavy Industrial Revolution in the Great Lakes Region Before the third blacksmith shop in Fort Mackinac was built in 1858, iron production had been increasing in the American industrial sector and had been steadily shifting from wrought iron (the basic material for hand forging) to cast-iron. A series of technological changes were responsible for the shift : the use of machine tools the introduction of steam engines, the use of rolling and puddling, and the transfer in fuels from charcoal to coal to coke (Pursell 1 995: 63). The switch from charcoal to coal at Fort Mackinac probably occurred after the 1 840s. Prior to that time, Fort Mackinac soldiers manufactured their own charcoal especially on nearby Bois Blanc Island according to frequent military reports (See Figure 12.) Most

PAGE 78

62 probably, fort blacksmiths in the second blacksmith shop used the hardwood charcoal until soldiers stopped "burning coal" (Porter 1995: 8; Records of the War Department, Office of the Quartermaster General, Consolidated Correspondence File, Fort Mackinac 1827) and, either purchased burnt charcoal on contract or changed to a harder type of coal. By the time of the third blacksmith shop was operating, a second industrial revolution had begun in the United States Manufacturing grew rapidly, accelerated by the construction of heavy machinery the production of steel and the smelting of coke During the years between 1850 and 1880, this second industrial episode or "heavy" industrial revolution began in the area between Pittsburgh to Cleveland, and reached the region south of Lake Michigan around 1900 (Parker 1996 : 3 54). The construction of the first transcontinental railroad was another significant factor in the rapid growth which characterized the second regional episode of the American Industrial Revolution. The Union Pacific began building its railroad in Missouri, which was already rail-linked with Chicago and the eastern manufacturing centers by 1854. Central Pacific began building in California. The two lines worked their way to a common point and were conjoined in 1869 in Utah. The construction of a second transcontinental line followed and was completed by the Northern Pacific in 1883 A major manufacturing and engineering effort in itself the railroad helped integrate the American manufacturing in the east with the west (Pursell 1995: 176-177). The railroads reached Mackinaw City

PAGE 79

63 on the mainland in 1881, providing the growing numbers of tourists with a cheaper way to reach Mackinac Island than the lake boats traveling from Detroit and Chicago (Petersen 1973: 47). The two episodes in the U.S. Industrial Revolution contributed the technical and economic elements of the historical process (Parker 1996: 363). As a result of the complex linkages between technology and economy within the American political system, American culture was transformed into an industrial culture. Beginning in 1 870, American national culture was an elaborate "interwoven sum of ... two variants of capitalist culture--the rural agricultural and the urban-industrial," which would eventually evolve into an industrial culture beginning in the early 1890s (Parker 1 996: 365). This pattern continued until c.1940 (Adams 1996: 1 78). The Influence of the Heavy Industrial Revolution On Blacksmithing at Fort Mackinac In April 1 861, Fort Mackinac soldiers left the fort to join the Union Army and blacksmithing in the third blacksmith shop came to a halt. During the absence of the U.S. Army, the fort housed only volunteer troops in August 1865 and August 1866. Upon the army's return in August 1 867, smiths probably continued in their customary role at the fort assisting in the repair of the soldiers' barracks, but their duties within the fort began to diminish (Porter 1995: 7-8; 1997). Much about Fort Mackinac had changed since the army's departure. Lake boats had been bringing tourists to Mackinac Island during the Civil War to enjoy the "healthy air" or explore the island's

PAGE 80

64 "natural wonders" (Armour 1995: 4) By 1867 tourists were a common sight around the gun platforms and at the dress parades, and dignitaries were entertained in the officers' mess (Havighurst 1966: 186). Before the Civil War, the American System of Manufactures or armory practice had begun in both the public and private sector (Hoke 1990: 265). In the American System specialized machines produced a large quantity of s i milar parts with precise dimensions through the des ign and setting of a machine tool. The resulting mass production of interchangeable parts proved much more profitable to the manufacturers than those produced in the craft traditions from which they developed And, semiskilled workers could produce tools which only skilled artisans like the blacksmiths at Fort Mackinac could produce in the past (Hoke 1990: 265; Pursell 1995: 87; Par ker 1996 : 356) Interchangeable gun parts, which were first used in 1799 in the military arsenal at Springfield, Massachusetts, had moved into the private sector by the 1820s, when Colt revolvers were produced in the private factory in Connecticut (Pursell 1995: 89 90). Around the same time, blacksmiths working in Fort Mackinac's first blacksm ith shop (c.1805-1828) were probably repairing muskets and locks, a handicraft skill for smiths in the region providing services to Nat i ve Americans to comply with treaties and the Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts (Porter 1995: 3) Model 1795 Springfield flintlock muskets were used for about fifty years by the U.S. military and were probably also repaired by blacksmiths serving at Fort Mackinac

PAGE 81

65 They were manufactured and improved at the Springfield and Harper's Ferry federal armories until they were replaced by the percussion musket in the early 1840s during the time of Fort Mackinac's second blacksmith shop (Butler 1971: 29-34 ). It was during the early 1 840s that a distinctive American path in light industry, particularly at the federal armories, began to evolve in the American System of Manufactures with the introduction of turret lathes and milling machines (Adams 1996: 149). In 1858, the same year in which the third blacksmith shop was built, the U.S. government officially adopted the Morse system for a breechloader, while converting muzzle-loading rifles into breechloaders at the federal armory at Harper's Ferry. The Civil War provided further impetus for the manufacture of breechloading and repeating rifles and the improvement of their cartridges (Lewis 1972: 6-8; Petersen 1964: 244). Because of the destruction of the Harper's Ferry arsenal during the Civil War, the Frankford Arsenal in Philadelphia, which originally served the U.S. Army as a cap supplier and powder magazine, became involved in arms and cartridge design (Butler 1971: 88; Petersen 1964: 243-244). After 1850 and again after the Civil War, the private sector took the lead over the federal armories, and applied the use of interchangeable parts to the manufacture of guns and other products such as wooden movement clocks, watches, typewriters and axes (Hoke 1990: 265-266; Adams 1996: 14 7). And from the 1850s through the 1880s cast steel was used in production of high quality rifles in the U S (Butler 1971: 68). These improvements in the

PAGE 82

66 private sector further narrowed the activities of military blacksmiths, who, working in the second and third blacksmith shops at Fort Mackinac, repaired tools and the armaments produced by federal military arsenals prior to the Civil War. The historic records of the third blacksmith shop reflect the diminishing role of blacksmithing at Fort Mackinac after the Civil War On an otherwise well-labeled and detailed plan of the fort dated 1871, the third blacksmith shop appears as an unidentified building (Porter 1995: 7). By 1873, the building was being used as a storage shed for the nearby barracks kitchen (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873b). (See Figure 13). An 187 4 sketch depicts the third shop building without a chimney indicting the removal of the forge. (See Figure 14.) Finally, military records show that blacksmithing operations had been moved to the basement of the north blockhouse sometime after 1875, when the second wing of the soldiers' barracks was added and the shop building demolished (Porter 1995: 7-8) Blacksmithing Operations Move From Fort Enclosure to Soldiers' Garden During this major transition in American culture, the function of Fort Mackinac changed dramatically. In 1875, through the efforts of Senator Thomas Ferry, the government land on Mackinac Island including the fort was designated a national park (Armour 1995: 6-7; Havighurst 1966: 184-189). The soldiers garrisoned at Fort Mackinac were to maintain the fort, and another company of soldiers

PAGE 83

. i ::; .... Figure 13. 1871 Plan of Fort Mackinac

PAGE 84

Figure 14. 187 4 Sketch of Fort Mackinac Facing West From East Wall of Fort Mackinac uu

PAGE 85

69 was sent to provide additional help to the commanding officer, who was designated as the park superintendent by the War Department (Armour 1995: 7). (See Photograph 9 ) In the 1870s, the roles of military and village blacksmiths on Mackinac Island were changing as well. With improvements in the design and efficiency of American metal-working machinery and the advent of the mass production of machine-made tools, the ranking of the traditional roles of American smiths as iron workers first and farriers second was reversed (Clark 1929b: 358-361; Smith 1966: 44-45). As a result, the secondary horse-shoeing activities became a larger part of the work for both the military and village blacksmiths on Mackinac Island. Private William Bowman, who may have been the last smith to work within the fort enclosure, had significantly less work in 187 4 (Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1973a). An 1875 plan of Fort Mackinac identifies the north blockhouse as an "old" blacksmith shop, the 1858 blacksmith shop building as a wood and water house, and shows a "new" blacksmith shop in front of the fort between the granary and stable (Porter 1995: 8). (See Figure 1 5.) While blacksmithing operations were moving further from the soldiers' barracks and closer to the horses' stables, the role of the military blacksmith was changing at the fort. Census records for Mackinac Island indicate a dwindling of blacksmith activity in the village of Mackinac Island According to the 1860 Mackinac Island census, five blacksmiths practiced in the village. By the 1880 census, only one island blacksmith, Hugh

PAGE 86

. -.... ... ...... : .... :::: : ; : , ... J ... t, .. "'-j . : .. Clark e Historical Library Photograph 9. Third Blacksmith Shop and Soldiers at the North Sally Port of Fort Mackinac 70

PAGE 87

Shop Ill Building Figure 1 5. (]:J Blacksmith Shop 1 87 5 Plan of Fort Mackinac 71

PAGE 88

72 Mclaughlin, is recorded. Mclaughlin, also listed as a "jailor," may have been the owner of the Star Blacksmith Shop before William Jackson. According to a newspaper announcement, Jackson sold the Star Blacksmith Shop in 1885 to Frank Cummins and Robert H Benjamin, after whom it was renamed the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop (Piljac and Piljac 1989: 238; Porter 1997; Cheboygan Democrat 1885: 43) Before the construction of the Grand Hotel in 1 887, blacksmithing was not a full time enterprise in the village of Mackinac Island Robert Benjamin did not have enough blacksmith work to reside on the island year round, so he spent winters working in Cheboygan on the mainland After the opening of the Grand Hotel, however, he was a permanent resident. Although Benjamin left blacksmithing in 1897 to assume duties as the island postmaster, his blacksmith business was prosperous enough to support his son Herbert, who took over the forge at that time (Piljac and Piljac 1989 : 11 9, 238) Fort Mackinac's Evolution From Training Post to Tourist Attraction With the industrialization of America came a "well-to-do class" of people (Petersen 1973: 41 ), who traveled to Mackinac Island by steamboat or by train after the railroad reached Mackinaw City in 1881. During the 1 880s, the economy of Mackinac Island shifted from the fish industry to the tourist industry and prospered as a summer resort destination. After three transportation companies

PAGE 89

73 worked together to build the Grand Hotel in 1887, Mackinac Island became the "most fashionable resort in the upper Great Lakes" (Porter 1994: 2), and soon attracted prominent industrialists from Chicago and Detroit, who built their summer mansions on the island. Soldiers from Fort Wayne in Detroit joined the visitors to the island with their summer encampments west of Fort Mackinac in the government pasture During this period, blacksmithing operations continued in the soldiers' garden in a shop labeled on an 1890 plan of the fort. (See Figure 16.) Soldiers garrisoned at the fort at this time maintained the buildings, making repairs and alterations (Quinn Evans 1994: 11 ). (See Photograph 1 0.) In 1884, military lands on Bois Blanc Island, from which firewood had been cut and charcoal formerly produced, were sold and the income used to improve the carriage roads on the island (Havighurst 1966: 189, Porter 1995: 8). In 1889 funds generated from the summer homes built on leased land near the Grand Hotel were used to build a scenic drive connecting with other roads across the center of the island (Armour 1995 : 7). In 1891, the U.S. Army began to evacuate its posts to save funds. From 1 892 until 1895, the number of active army posts in the U.S. was reduced from ninety six to eighty, and by 1 889, a quarter of the total posts had been closed (Havighurst 1966: 189). Fort Mackinac lost its soldiers during the money crunch in 1894 and was transferred from Federal to State jurisdiction in 1895. The

PAGE 90

&_.._ ____________ .o ............. .............. _,.,._,..,.......,.._ ..... .... -- .-.. .. elf ......... ................. f---._-. tC.,_? ---....f_....,.,,.,. . . ....... __ ,__ ......... .. ,.. ,., ..... -. --,.,. .. .... ,_co,.,,,.,. ... ,__,... .. .... , .... ........................ ... 0 ... -...r,.,. .-.. ... ,. ..... -Aitl.,.. ..._ ... . ..... ., ... .,_., ........... .. ... . ..,_ ....... . ........ ..__. AI ............ , ......... ,........., ---...... _.. .... ...... 41C'4'4- ., .. .. _.... _.,..._ r..-.. 1 ... .. . .. ,.,. .-c--,1 _._._ Figure 16. APLAN / 0 .. FORT MACKINAC MICHIGAN actu. r ... Final Blacksmith Shop . ..... \ 1 890 Plan of Fort Mackinac 74

PAGE 91

Photograph 1 0 Fort Mackinac Parade Ground and Barracks With the Second Story Stairway and Shed Enlarged From the Right Background 75

PAGE 92

76 Michigan state legislature created the Mackinac Island State Park Commission (MISPC) to manage Michigan's first state park (Petersen 1973: 79; Armour 1995: 7-8). With the transformation of the soldiers' garden into an ornamental garden and recreational park, in the same area as present-day Marquette Park, the MISPC began its promot ion of the concept of a state park for short term summer visitors (Petersen 1973: 79). The buildings removed from the soldiers' garden included the final fort blacksmith shop, granary and stable. A 1905 plan of Fort Mackinac and Marquette Park shows the twisting pathways of the formal garden, which replaced the military's "potato patch" (Petersen 1973: 92) and straight-cut utilitarian roadway. (See Figure 17.) The area where the first three blacksmith shops operated within the fort is vacant on the plan. Summary and Historical Prediction As the function of Fort Mackinac changed during the 19th century from frontier post to training post to tourist attraction, the role of the military blacksmith reflected these transitions in the changing locations of the blacksmith shops on the landscape of the fort. The larger economic, political and technological trends in the Great Lakes region and in 19th century American culture changed life at Fort Mackinac and at the forges of the blacksmith shops. When the American soldiers were building the fortifications of a frontier post, blacksmiths operated within the walls of the fort. As

PAGE 93

SI:CTIOM OF MA.cJuNA.c lsL.UCD STATE P.AlUl Fori Maclu-c 6 Puk l')OS DEER. J>ARJC Figure 17. II ... tl 1905 Plan of Fort Mackinac

PAGE 94

78 tensions lessened on the frontier by the mid-19th century, tourists began to mingle with soldiers garrisoned at the post, and the military blacksmiths moved outside the fort next to the stable at the foot of the bluff. By the close of the 19th century, the economy shifted from fur to fish to tourism in the Great Lakes and changed the purpose of the military at the fort from protection to maintenance. The final economic shift to tourism ended the role of the military at Fort Mackinac altogether, and the final blacksmith shop was torn down. By the early 20th century, the military self sufficiency, vital to a frontier or training post was no longer necessary to a recreational park. And so, the soldiers' garden where the final blacksmith shop operated, which was a symbol of the self sufficient military role of Fort Mackinac, was replaced with an ornamental garden, a symbol of the new Mackinac Island State Park Commission and the new recreational role of the fort. Based on the historic documentation, Table 2 lists the predicted periods of the occupational sequence at the excavation site. Table 2. Historical Occupational Sequence of MS3E1 Recent Park Deposits Post Blacksmith Shop Military Blacksmith Shop Ill Storage Shed Period Blacksmith Shop Ill Blacksmith Shop II American Blacksmith Shop I (British Blacksmith Shop I Activities Pre Blacksmith Shop American Military Pre Blacksmith Shop British Military 1895-1996 c.1875-1895 c.1873-c.1875 1 858-c.1873 1828-1858 c.1 805-1828 1812-1815) 1 796-c.1805 1780-1796

PAGE 95

79 CHAPTER 5 STRATIGRAPHY This study focuses on the last four general periods in the occupational sequence at the excavation site. Based on the historic documentation summarized in Chapters 2 and 4 the predicted per i ods are: the Recent State Park Period (1 895-1 996), the Post Blacksmith Shop Military Period (c 1 875-1 895), the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Period (1858-c 1875), which includes the Storage Shed Period (c.l873-c.l875) and the Blacksmith Operations Period (1858-c.1873). The modern stratigraphic level consistent across the site contained artifacts and features associated with recent park activities in a layer of sod and an underlying loamy brown soil. (See Figure 18.) Beneath the modern park deposits and distributed across the entire site was a layer of gravel mixed into a brown matrix. This stratigraphic level contained artifacts deposited by military and park activities at the fort after the final blacksmith shop was removed The stratigraphic level beneath the post blacksmith shop deposits contained artifacts deposited while the final blacksmith shop building was still standing at the site. The complex layers of gravel and intrusive features at this level represent blacksmith activities and other activities associated with the shop building as well as military activities which took place around the blacksmith shop Appendix 1 lists all the lots

PAGE 96

--. OJ"'Tl <0' d c: (J) ., ::rCD 0_. CD CX> "0 0 (J) (/) rl rl ., c.n QJ QJ ct. ::J i MS3E1J MS3E1C MS3E1H MS3E1G ,MS3Ell N700 E375 N70"0.E370 N700 E365 N700 E360 Stratigraphic Levels in the North/South Profile SHOP Ill PERIMETER---., :::::...--I N700 E3SS (X) a

PAGE 97

81 excavated from these three stratigraphic levels in each suboperation (excavation unit) during the 1995 and 1996 field seasons. Recent State Park Deposits Two relatively consistent strata made up the modern stratigraphic level. A sod layer and an underlying loamy brown soil were deposited over most of the site and contained only a few intrusions and features. (See Photograph 1.) Most of the surface of the fort grounds, including the excavation site, are covered with a contemporary layer of grass. A builder's trench abutting the revetment wall and a builder's trench dipping underneath the wooden walkway to the east were part of the first stratigraphic level. (See Figure 19.) These features were probably produced by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) or the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), who camped in the state park between 1933 and 1938 The CCC made extensive repairs to fort buildings and installed the water and steam heat (Armour 1995: 61-62). The revetment wall trench in suboperations V and W (Figure 19) was intrusive to both the loamy brown layer and to the brown with gravel deposit beneath it and was, therefore, a later feature than either deposit, reflecting work to repair the north revetment A small amount of mortar was found in the wall trench in these suboperations. Other associated revetment wall debris in a dark brown matrix were distributed in suboperations L, U, V, and W Lots

PAGE 98

# : .. .. ., 0 .... . .. North Revetment" . : . -Wall .. : .-_ ... L. 82 PROJECTED PERIMETER OF DEMOUSHED THIRD BLACKSMITH SHOP PHONE CABLE TRENCH--.:::-CCC BUILDER'S TRENCH -HARD COMPACTED RIDGE F i gure 19. Features in the Post Blacksmith Shop Deposits

PAGE 99

MS3E1 WOS and MS3E1 V03 of the trench contained artifacts from a mixed context including a .50" caliber cast lead bullet. 83 Another .50" caliber cast lead bullet and a pocket knife were collected from a builder's trench for a phone cable (MS3E1 ROS) running parallel to the east walkway leading from the north sally port into the barracks building to the west Phone cables were most probably installed at the fort beginning around the early 1900s after the Mackinac Island Electric and Telephone Company received permission to extend its electric lighting through the park (Armour 1995: 1 0). A more recent coaxial T .V. cable was also uncovered running parallel to the west of the phone cable, although it was not buried in a builder's trench. (See Figure 19.) The edge of a third builder's trench was sampled in suboperations K and P. This light brown deposit with gravel was probably shoveled by the WPA or CCC workers for the installation of a water pipe before the wooden walkway leading to the north sally port was laid. Post Blacksmith Shop Military Deposits During the military period, the grounds of Fort Mackinac were not covered with a continuous layer of sod, but with a layer of gravel with a few small areas of grass interspersed. (See Photographs 9 and 1 0.) The third stratigraphic level beneath the recent state park layers was largely a layer of gravel with a brown soil matrix, which was deposited in all suboperations at the excavation site some time after the third blacksmith shop was removed. The mixing of chronological materials in suboperations B, G, L, S T, U V and W

PAGE 100

suggests that the brown with gravel level was exposed to fort activities and natural processes after the demolition of the third blacksmith shop building extending into the state park period. Mixed Deposits from Post Shop Military and Park Periods 84 The excavation of contiguous lots at the brown with gravel level in the west half of the site revealed the concentrated mixing of state park period materials with post blacksmith shop military materials. Artifacts from lots in suboperations B, G L, S, T, U, V and W were recovered in this area from an intrusive cleanup interface and from a buried wooden structure made of four conjoining timbers. (See Figure 19.) They are listed separately in Appendix 1. Lots G09, T04 and U03 in particular contained concentrations of ashes, wood chips, wooden board fragments and associated nails, modern black tape, a modern light bulb base and other architectural debris, probably the result of renovation and/or demolition of wooden fort structures. The ashes may be traces of cleanup and burning operations. Since electric lighting was installed after 1895, the light bulb base and other modern artifacts were deposited some time after the military withdrew from Fort Mackinac in 1 894 (Petersen 1973: 79; Armour 1995 : 7-8, 1 0). In David S. Brose's analysis of the Custer Road Dump Site excavation on Mackinac Island, he argues that the levels of sterile brown soil could represent tidying-up efforts, initiated during

PAGE 101

85 changes of command at Fort Mackinac (1967: 69-70). The essentially military dump located 80 feet south of the junction of Custer Road and Fort Road, contained materials dated from 1876-1 89 5 based on the ceramics recovered. Brose states : "The layer of unburned crushed coal fragments might represent the final clearing out of the Fort's coal-bunkers prior to the deposition of the last ash level which from its very volume indicates a more than ordinary, and clearly final removal of all rubbish from Fort Mackinac in 1895. The deposition of a surface layer of soil. .. was ordered by the City of Mackinac Island in 1905 to ... conceal the mess from visiting folks' ... The mixing of materials in G09, T04 and U03 in the cleanup interface may have occurred during either or both of these time periods when attention to neatness at the fort was a concern to state park officials. A stairway extending into this area of the site from the second story of the soldiers' barracks is shown in Photograph 1 0 The stairway was probably torn down somet ime between 1886 and 1914, when the positions of the second level window and exterior door from which the stairway descended are reversed in MSHP archival photographs {Quinn Evans 1994: 11, 13). Certainly, this would indicate the modification of the building altering the exit from the second floor. The materials from the cleanup burning operations in suboperation T in the area of the stairway were deposited sometime after its removal. The buried wooden structure (MS3E1 U22) of four conjoining boards was uncovered in suboperations B, L, U and V extending over the area of the interior of the third blacksmith shop building and,

PAGE 102

86 therefore, postdating it. (See Figure 19.) Stratigraphically below the cleanup interface deposited between c 1 886 and c 1 914, the structure was buried after the third shop building was removed and before the cleanup operations in the brown with gravel deposits began. The boards were roughly parallel to the north facade of the soldiers' barracks and contained nails driven from the "downside" of the buried structure. The buried timbers were most probably part of the wooden storage shed, shown in the background of Photograph 1 0 behind the soldiers' barracks stairway. The shed may have been used for park maintenance or storage A mop handle was recovered from the lot (MS3E1 U23) directly beneath. The timbers may be part of its side frame, which was toppled and buried in place for some undetermined reason with nails protruding upward. A fragment of siding standing on edge (MS3E1 U25) was excavated in situ to the south of the buried timbers. (See Figure 19.) The siding extended from suboperation U into the west baulk of suboperation W and may have been associated with coal deposits to the north and south. Also in close proximity to the buried timbers a 3' circular thin deposit of yellow pea gravel (MS3E1 G12) was excavated A barrel with similar dimensions is shown behind the stairway leading from the second floor of the barracks building in photograph 10, and may have been posi tioned on top of the MS3E1 G12 gravel basin, which served to level it.

PAGE 103

87 Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits The third stratigraphic level was composed of complex layers of gravel and intrusive features deposited in and around the third blacksmith shop building by the U.S. Army while the building was used for blacksmithing, and then for storage after the forge was removed and the blacksmith operations were moved to the north blockhouse (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873b; Grange 1 996: 3). The detailed 1863 plan of Fort Mackinac (Figure 5) shows the third blacksmith shop building with dimensions of 15'7" X 16'9" aligning 6'7" south of the corner of the retaining wall flanking the north sally port. However, little archaeological evidence remains of the building structure and foundations. Excavation established that the predicted southeast corner and part of the east side of the third blacksmith shop deposits were disturbed by the telephone and T V cables installed during the State Park period A few stones aligned with the roof dripline near the projected southeast corner of the shop also were exposed in 1996 and are only recorded in the south profile of suboperation P. They may be interpreted as a remnant of the foundation displaced at the time of the building's demolition (Grange 1996: 4-6; Porter 1995: 6). The northwest corner deposits were intruded by the buried timbers and by the CCC builder's trench for repair of the revetment wall north of the shop. The deposits in the southwest corner were removed during the Post Shop Military Period when a stairway from the nearby barracks building was built and a drainage ditch dug underneath. (See Figure 19.) Thus, most of the evidence of the

PAGE 104

perimeter of the shop deposits was removed by later military and park activities at the site. 88 However, a narrow band of "clean" white gravel was uncovered running parallel to the predicted eastern wall of the structure in suboperations K, M, N, P and R (Figure 20) and terminating abruptly near the predicted northeast corner of the shop. This distinctive rain dripline also was observed in the soil under the gabled roof of the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop during the 1995 informant interview described in Chapter 3. By projecting a line from the east overhang of the third blacksmith shop in Photograph 9, i t was possible to approximate the location of the eastern boundary of the third blacksmith shop deposits about .5' to the west. (See Figure 20.) A thin yellow gravel stratum was located adjacent to the remains of the dripline at the same elevation and distributed in all suboperations within the adjusted perimeter of the shop. This stratum was determined to be the final deposit of gravel and had evidence of natural processes associated with the gabled roof of the third shop building before it was demolished c 1875. (See Appendix 1 ) A possible dripline of smoothed stones beneath the shuttered window sketched in Figure 1 4 was excavated to the south of the adjusted perimeter of the building. Also along the predicted south facade, a deposit of river worn stones and pea gravel (MS3E1 EO?, MS3E1 E33, MS3E1 E34, MS3E1 E35, MS3E1 F04, MS3E1 F13 and MS3E1 F15) was identified as the possible remains of a gravel walkway outside the shop perimeter. (See Figure 20. ) In the area of the predicted northeast corner of the shop, a square

PAGE 105

89 stone roughly measuring .5' X .5' was uncovered in a dark yellowish brown stratum (MS3E1 MOB) beneath the dripline. During the 1 996 field season, the stone was shown to be stratigraphically above the layer identified as the 1 85 8 fire deposit, which destroyed the second blacksmith shop, verifying it as the northeast cornerstone upon which the third shop building rested. (See Figure 20 ) Another squared stone about the same size as the northeast cornerstone was uncovered in 1995 in suboperation W It may be the northwest cornerstone although the stratigraphic evidence is less conclusive. The 1996 excavation uncovered a substantial portion of a foundation stratigraphically below the third shop deposits (See Figure 20.) The location of the foundation correlates with the first blacksmith shop building depicted on Gratiot's 1 81 7 fort plan (Figure 2), and its eastern side coincides with the adjusted perimeter of the third blacksmith shop. This foundation may have been re-used in the construction of both the second blacksmith shop in 1828 and the third blacksmith shop in 1858 (Grange 1996: 5). A change in the function of the third blacksmith shop building can be traced in the historic records and plans of the fort. The otherwise detailed 1871 plan of Fort Mackinac (Figure 13) shows the third blacksmith shop building but does not label it, and an 187 4 sketch (Figure 14) does not include a chimney on the building although the artist depicts the chimneys on other buildings nearby Therefore, this documentation may be interpreted as evidence that the forge/chimney had been removed from the structure by 1874 After the blacksmith operations were recorded in the north

PAGE 106

t \POSSIBLE CORNERSTONE Figure 20. 90 CORNERSTONE DRAINAGE DITCH DRIPLINE/DITCH DISPLACED FOUNDATION? STONES Archaeological Remains of the Third Blacksmith Shop Building

PAGE 107

91 blockhouse in 1873, the third shop building was being used to store beef for the nearby kitchen in the soldiers' barracks (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873b) Then in 1875, it was used to store wood and water (Figure 15), and finally as a "receptacle for bones and refuse and probably for worse uses" (Porter 1 995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1 873a; 1 873b; 1 875a; 1875b). The functional change of the building from blacksmithing to storage in the historic record is demarcated in the archaeological record with evidence of the removal of the chimney and forge. Like many 18th and 19th century forges, the forge in the third shop building probably was constructed of brick, its interior filled with rubble upon which a fire bed of sand, firebrick, or other material was laid to hold the fire and keep the iron from contamination (Hole 1981; Light 1984: 56) A forge removal and brick salvaging operation was clearly recognizable in the northeast quadrant of the third shop building. Suboperations A, B, C and N contained a rubble pit filled with gravel and many red brick fragments between two large rocks, and a second intrusive pit adjacent to the it in the north (Figure 20). These intrusive features were identified as the forge removal operation, and the i r relationship to the shop's perimeter is shown at the north end of the north/south crosstrench profile in Figure 18. A line of rubble running east to west and including a complete yellow firebrick (MS3E1 U26) was uncovered in the northwest quadrant of the shop near the forge removal operation. These may be the remnants of

PAGE 108

bricks and structural debris temporarily piled there during the removal of the forge 92 A very dark grayish brown stratum with tiny coal and gravel lay directly above the intrusive pits It extended in all suboperations within the perimeter of the shop building and terminated in suboperation K at the predicted east wall of the structure. (See the east/west profile of Figure 18.) This was interpreted as the first floor layer deposited after the forge was removed Strata above this and below the final thin yellow gravel stratum would have been depos ited after blacksmithing within the building had ceased and when it was in use as a storage shed. It follows that the strata below the very dark grayish brown soil, shown in Figure 1 8 should contain artifacts deposited during the period when the shop building housed the fort blacksmith operations Storage Period Strata The complex layers of gravel between the first stratum deposited after the forge was removed and the final demolition stratum show the repeated deposition of thin layers of gravel. (See Appendix 1.) Three historical documents provide an explanation for their deposition The 187 5 estimate of repairs for the third blacksmith shop building l ists 350 feet of flooring needed to repair the rotting shop building floor (Records of the War Department, Office of the Quartermaster General 1875). In the same year the deteriorated condition of the building prompted Post Surgeon Dr. J V. DeHanne to

PAGE 109

93 ask that it be "cleaned out and nailed up" (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1875a) Perhaps, the thin deposits of gravel represent a concerted effort to keep the interior of the basically floorless shop neat because of the beef stored within. As the empty building became a "nuisance" in DeHanne's words and began serving as a "receptacle for bones and refuse and probably for worse uses," it may have been cleaned out and fresh layers of gravel spread across the interior (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1875a; 1875b). Features within the building during the storage shed period include : traces of a coal pile or storage bin in the northwest quadrant (MS3E1 G13 and MS3E1 G1 5), a cinder and coal deposit area with an associated post hole in the southwest quadrant (MS3E1 S09, MS3E1 S1 0 MAS3E1 S11, MS3El T11, MS3El T12 and MS3El T1 5), a stone/bone/coal concentration (MS3E1 819) in the dark yellowish brown with gravel deposit in the northeast quadrant, a post mold (MS3E1 T1 O/T13) and black .rectangular patch of soil (MS3E1 T14) in the southwest quadrant and an intrusive gray pit (MS3El Q08) in the southeast quadrant. (See Figure 21.) Blacksmith Operations Period Strata The anvil in the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop i n the City of Mackinac Island was located 3 1 /2' from the forge (Figure 1 0). This provided a predictive model from which to locate the anvil base feature the remains of which should be positioned near the forge

PAGE 110

North Revetment' _.. : : : . Wall :. .. : .. ) COAL PILE. STORAGE BIN? CINDER AND LARGE COAL STORAGE AREA VERY DARK BROWN SOIL MOTILED WITH COAL . CORNERSTONE Figure 21. Features i n the Storage Deposits of the Third Blacksmith Shop Building 94

PAGE 111

95 removal pits Estimating from the size of the intrusive forge removal pits, the forge in the third blacksmith shop measured approximately 4' X 7'. A square mottled clay feature (MS3E1 J22) surrounded by a gray deposit (MS3E1 J24) was uncovered about 4 feet south of the forge. (See Figure 22.) This is likely the mold of the wooden stump or squared waister stand upon which the anvil was mounted The stone and mortar deposits surrounding the waister mold (MS3E1 J25, MS3E1 J28 MS3E1 J29 and MS3E1 J30) may be the remains of a support of stones mortared in place to keep the anvil face horizontal. Such support features are often found to the side of anvil stumps in the archaeological remains of blacksmith shops and are interpreted as repair mechanisms used to align offset stumps (Light 1984: 57). A very dark gray deposit with wood fragments (MS3E1J31 and MS3E1C17) indicates a floor associated with the anvil mold probably removed with the anvil waister. Embedded in a dark soil with a high concentration of metal scale (MS3E1 C19), a circular feature of stones (MS3E1 C22) was located in the suboperations C and J approximately .42' below the waister mold (See Figure 22.) This is most likely the support for the anvil stump from the previous blacksmith shop, which burned down in 1858. This suggests that the blacksmith working at the forge in 1858 had some input into the layout of the work area in the third shop, which was built at the same location during the same year that the fire destroyed his work area in the second blacksmith shop. A .5' strip of dark soil (MS3E1 G19) parallel with the west wall of the third shop building was uncovered in a very dark grayish

PAGE 112

... North Revetment" : : : : . Wall : . : DARK BOARD MOLD FLOOR JOIST? VERY DARK GRAY W ITH WOOD FRAGMENTS Figure 22. WOOD CONCENTRA CIRCULAR STONE FEATURE FROM EARUER SHOP Features in the Operations Deposits of the Blacksmith Shop Building

PAGE 113

97 brown soil mottled with pale brown mortar, coal and ash (MS3E1 G17). (See Figure 22.) This may be the mold of an approximately 5' long floor board stratigraphically above the mortared floor of an earlier shop, which was disturbed and/or cut in suboperations S, T and G. (See suboperation G in the east/west profile of Figure 18.) The strata deposited during the operation of the blacksmith shop are mostly grayish brown and deposited upon the remains of a mortared floor in the western half of the shop and upon very dark gray deposits with charcoal/wood fragments in the eastern half Individual lots across the interior of the shop showed color variations depending on the mixture of differing amounts of ferrous materials or coal into the soil matrix of each area. The cleanup operation from the 1858 fire, which destroyed the second shop, left little trace of the superstructure or floor deposits in the archaeological record (Grange 1996: 6) During the 1996 excavation, a stratum of coarse sandy pea gravel in suboperations C D, J, N and Q was uncovered underlying a very dark gray soil with coal and a heavy deposit of charcoal. The floor of the third blacksmith shop may have interfaced with a common floor level shared between shops one and two with scanty traces of shop two remaining. The very dark gray soil of lot MS3E1 C12 contained a thin depos i t of rotted wood indicating the presence of the floor "mostly rotted away" mentioned in an 1875 estimate of repairs for the third blacksmith shop building (Records of the War Department, Office of the Quartermaster General 1875) Wood fragments recovered from

PAGE 114

98 blacksmith operations strata, particularly near the anvil area in suboperations C and J also indicate the presence of a wooden floor in the shop (See Figure 22 ) In summary, the stratigraphic evidence and the historic documentation demonstrate that the first stratigraphic level contained artifacts deposited during the State Park period and the second and third stratigraphic level below contained artifacts deposited as by-products of the final military activities within the walls of Fort Mackinac, during the fort's transition from a military post to an historic park (See Figure 18 ) The third level contained artifacts deposited while the third blacksmith shop building was extant during three episodes related to the changing function of the building: blacksmith operations, forge removal and storage shed activities.

PAGE 115

99 Table 3 Correlation of Historical Periods and Stratigraphic Sequence for the Park, Post Shop Military and Third Shop Deposits Historical Period Recent State Park 1895-1996 Post Shop Military c .1875-1895 Third Shop Building 1858-c.1875 Storage Shed c.l 873-c.l87 5 Blacksmith Operations 1858-c.l873 Stratigraphy Modern Deposits Sod Layer Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Loamy Brown Soil Brown with Gravel Layer Cleanup Interface Buried Timbers Undisturbed Post Shop Deposits Gravel Storage Layer Final Storage/Demolition Stratum Storage Deposits First Storage Stratum Forge Removal Pits Operations Dep osits Blacksmith Shop Floor Deposits Interface with Earlier Shops Subfloor

PAGE 116

CHAPTER 6. ARTIFACTS IN THE POST SHOP MILITARY AND PARK DEPOSITS 100 A total 162,255 artifacts was recovered from the first three stratigraphic levels at the site. A total of 12,372 artifacts (7.63% of the assemblage) was recovered from the recent State Park deposits, and 30,502 artifacts (18.80% of the assemblage) were recovered from the post-shop brown with gravel deposits. Dateable artifacts were used to estimate the time span when post shop layers were exposed to fort activities and to approximate the sequence in which features were deposited. Artifact frequencies, listed from each level in Appendix 2, were analyzed to separate the final military blacksmith activities from other activities performed at the site Archaeological Dates of Recent Park Deposits When the sod layer was removed to the root line and dry screened, coins with dates ranging from 1952 to 1984 were recovered The brown loamy soil beneath was deposited at the site by plant growth and decomposition and by erosion from the ramparts and surrounding areas. Coins recovered from the sift of the brown loamy soil dated between 1919 and 1946. Thin patches of mottled dark brown and tan sand containing bits

PAGE 117

101 of mortar, crudely mixed with grass and sand, were exposed between the sod and loamy brown strata in suboperations C, D, E, G, H, Q, R and T. (See Figure 9 ) They were initially removed as a stratigraphic element, and a 1 9 54 U S penny was found embedded in suboperation D. This provided a directly associated object for the deposit and a terminus post quem for the sod layer above Park employee, Don Francis, examined and identified the deposit as the remains of a recent experiment in making historic-looking plaster. Fort personnel mixed lime and sand in the open area and dumped it at the site when the experiment failed. Table 4 lists all the coins recovered from deposits at this level. Table 4. Coins From Recent Park Deposits LOT NUMBER MS3E1D05 MS3E1J01 MS3E1J01 MS3E1 L04 MS3E1T01 MS3E1Y01 MS3E1Y01 SOD lAYER DESCRIPTION PENNY U .S. 1979 PENNY U .S. 1968 PENNY U.S. 1984 PENNY U .S. 1952 PENNY U .S. 1979 PENNY CANADIAN 1964 PENNY U .S. 1983D MOTTLED DARK BROWN AND TAN SAND LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION MS3E1 D06 PENNY U.S. 1954 LOAMY BROWN SOIL LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION MS3E1 Ell PENNY U.S. 1919 MS3E1 G08 BUFFALO NICKEL U.S. 1936 MS3E1J03 NICKEL CANADIAN 1924 MS3E1J03 PENNY U.S. 1946 MS3E1Y02 PENNY U S 1920 MS3E1 Y02 PENNY U S 1944 In addition to coins, a ceramic maker's mark was used to estimate the time period during which the loamy brown layer was

PAGE 118

102 exposed to fort activities. A white ironstone sherd with a green transfer printed crown and "Mellor" maker's mark was recovered from the loamy brown layer (MS3E1 007). A more complete bluish green maker's mark from the brown with gravel level beneath (MS3E1 U03) included an identical crown with "Mellor Taylor" in the same semicircular arrangement around the bottom of the crown. Mellor, Taylor & Co. Burslem, Staffordshire, produced ironstone china for American markets with printed or impressed marks c.1880-1904 (Godden 1971 : 78; 1964: 495). Artifacts in the Recent Park Deposits The artifacts collected from the sod layer, loamy brown soil and mottled dark brown with tan sand deposits at the first stratigraphic level are catalogued in Appendix 2. The interfacial nature of the loamy brown layer and of the brown with gravel level beneath may account for the mixing of some of the materials, when the strata were exposed to fort activities and natural processes since the third blacksmith shop building was removed after 1 87 5 and extending into the State Park period. All coins recovered from the modern strata made up .11% of the assemblage and were minted during the State Park period of Fort Mackinac, which began in 1895, when it was transferred from Federal to State jurisdiction (Petersen 1973: 79; Armour 1995: 7-8). However, this layer is equated with that period based on materials from undisturbed contexts in the brown with gravel level beneath. Two civilian buttons were collected from suboperations N and U,

PAGE 119

103 one brown plastic button with two holes and one pearl shell button with four holes. Pearl shell buttons were manufactured beginning about 1855 and were commonly used by 1905 (Grange 1987: 203). The deposition of a shell button in the same layer as a modern plastic button confirms a recent date during the State Park period. Ammunition made up 25% of the assemblage and included lead buckshot or swanshot cast in the Prince Rupert method of 1665 and lead birdshot produced using the drop shot method invented in 1769 (Hamilton 1976: 35). Lead shot was recovered from suboperations B D, E, H, K, L, M and U Two 50" caliber discharged cast bullets and a .15" caliber rimfire cartridge casing were also among the assemblage The cartridge materials were recovered from builder's trenches of mixed contexts in suboperation R near the walkway leading to the north sally port and in suboperations U and W near the north revetment wall. These trenches were probably dug by the WPA or the CCC, who camped in the State Park between 1933 and 1938. The CCC made extensive repairs to fort buildings and installed the water and steam heat (Armour 1995: 61-62). (See Figure 19.) Faunal materials (2.30%), ceramics (0.49%) and curved glass (3 65%) were distributed in suboperations throughout the site and were probably deposited as part of the fort garbage stored on or near the site and then transported through the north sally port. Beginning in 1 933, the north wing of the barracks build ing served as rental apartments, which also may have been a source of trash temporarily stored at the site (Quinn Evans 1994: 15) Contemporary park management continues the practice storing trash bags in a closet in

PAGE 120

104 the adjacent soldiers' barracks building and then transporting them to the dump on a dray. Faunal materials (N=285) including many mammal bone fragments, three fish scales and two fish vertebra were collected from this layer. They were not analyzed further, but counted and catalogued Discarded ceramic sherds (N=60) were mostly ironstone (n=38) and whiteware (n=24 ), too tiny to identify the vessel from which they came. (See Appendix 2) Ironstone, also called "Mason's Ironstone China," was first produced in 1813 and remains a popular tableware today (Godden 1964; 1971; Kovel and Kovel 1953; Noel Hume 1970). White ironstone rim sherds from a plate (1) and cup ( 1 ), and a blue and white cup rim ( 1) sherd were identified in the recent park deposits along with an ironstone sherd with a green "Mellor" maker's mark. Plain whiteware cup rim sherds (3) and thick base and body sherds from a serving platter ( 4) were recovered along with black, blue and green transfer-printed tableware sherds (9). Creamware sherds, white European porcelain sherds, gray and white salt-glazed stoneware sherds, a brown lead-glazed rim of a storage vessel, and a blue tin-glazed earthenware flake, possibly from a medicine jar, were also part of the assemblage (Brose 1967; Godden 1964; 1971; Kovel and Kovel 1953; Noel Hume 1970; Price 1979). Bottle and jar glass sherds accounted for 3 01% of the artifact assemblage, and were mostly clear. However, green, amber, blue, blue/ green, olive, purple and milk glass also were recovered. Thin clear, green or opaque curved glass sherds (0.64%) were probably waste from broken lantern globes or from modern light bulbs. A

PAGE 121

1 OS light bulb base was part of the sample, and would have entered the archaeological record at the fort several years after the Mackinac Island Electric and Telephone Company asked MISPC for permission to extend its electric lighting through the park during the first meeting of the commission in 1895 (Armour 1995: 1 0). Half of the assemblage (50.71%) sampled from the first stratigraphic level was architectural remains, much of which may have been deposited when repairs and renovations were made to the nearby soldiers' barracks building to the west. During the State Park period, the barracks was painted in 1 905 and 1921, and its roof was reshingled in 1913 and 1921. Sometime between 1930 and 1957, the chimney and vent stack from the north wing of the building were removed, and it was reconfigured into ten rental apartments by the WPA, beginning in 1933 (Quinn Evans 1994: 13, 1 5). In 1958 as part of new revenue plans for historic restoration, reconstruction and interpretation, fort buildings were painted, and the empty barracks building was used to house displays, murals and dioramas to illustrate Mackinac Island history (Petersen 1983: 13). In the early 1 960s, the second floor of the building was remodeled into MISPC offices, and public bathrooms were installed in the north wing of the building to accommodate visitors to the fort (Quinn Evans 1 994: 1 3, 15, 17). The open area of the site probably served as a work area for some of the renovation projects during this time or may have been used as a convenient location to pile construction debris until it could be hauled from the fort. Among the artifacts probably related to these

PAGE 122

106 activities are : window glass; glazier's points; paint chips; red (n=494) and yellow (n=2) brick fragments; wood fragments ; wire cut and wrought nails ; bolts and screws (n=1 2) ; insulation and asbestos fragments (n=3) ; modern bathroom tile fragments; black faucet washers (one labeled "Chicago Faucet Company"); wire roofing nails (n=3) ; tin roofing d iscs (n=2) ; and asphalt roof shingle fragments (n=4) Nails, bolts and screws made up 3.45% of the artifacts collected from the modern strata i n all suboperations except F. The ident i fied sample included : wire nails roofing nails and tacks (n= 1 97); cut nails, brads and fragments (n=1 94 ) ; bolts and screws (n=24 ) ; and wrought nails (n=6). The innovat ion of the machine cut nai l occurred between 1 780 and 1 790, but was inferior to the wrought nail until it was perfected in the 1830s. The earlier hand-wrought nail was slowly displaced by the machine-made cut nail (Frurip 1 983 : 45-46). The machine made cut nail was displaced in turn by the machinemade wire nai l by the 1 890s (Loveday 1 979: 2) The percentage of each type of nail found in this layer reflects these trends in nail use with very few wrought nails in the sample which was div i ded largely between wire and machine-cut nails. Of the 397 nails identified hand-wrought nails made up 1.51 % the machine cut nails 48 87% and the wire nails 49.62% The site area was used for contemporary renovation projects at the fort. "Daub" and bits of plaster sampled from the mottled dark brown and tan sandy deposits were identif ied by informant Don Francis as part of a park exper i ment in making historic-looking

PAGE 123

107 plaster. The heaviest concentration of plaster was taken from lot MS3E1 Q03, which also contained foil camera film wrapper and Styrofoam. Adjacent suboperations to the north (J) and east (D) contained plaster bits as well. Materials associated with the plaster in lot MS3E1 J03 included a 1946 U.S. penny and a wire spring from a modern ink pen. Pieces of modern cement (n=804) and mortar (n=2,405) were most likely deposited during other modern projects such as the repair of the north sally port revetment wall. Decomposed mortar and rock scale fallen from the wall were excavated as MS3E1 V04 and MS3E1 W04. These lots were deposited on top of the modern brown loamy layer and the revetment builder's trench (Figure 19), which abuts to the revetment wall and cuts into the modern layers in suboperations V and W. In suboperation L, wall debris and modern associated artifacts were recovered in MS3E1 L 14. This indicates an erosion problem, which has continued since the revetment trench was dug, most likely as a Civilian Conservation Corps project in the 1 930s (Armour 1995: 61 -62) The wall, shown at roof level behind the third shop building in Photograph 9, was lowered to its current height around the time that the third blacksmith shop was removed and the second floor was added to the soldiers' barracks between 1 876 and 1877 (Porter 1996: 7). Wall debris from this earlier level was deposited in suboperation U Both suboperations L and U are likely areas for wall collapse to land, located near the part of the wall where it begins to descend from its full height slicing downward toward the north sally port. (See Photograph 2.) The

PAGE 124

108 heaviest concentrations of both cement (79.85%) and mortar (82%) were in suboperation D, and may have been piled there while repairs were made to the revetment wall. Fuel (N=4, 758) in the form of coal and cinders made up 38.46% of the artifact assemblage, and some may have been used by residents of the ten rental apartments in the nearby barracks building. This area would have been a convenient place to temporarily store coal delivered through the north sally port for the barracks apartments or other fort buildings The quantity of coal recovered from the recent park deposits (n=4,227) is not as great as that collected from the brown with gravel level beneath (n= 14,514 ), but may indicate storage activity at the interface between the two layers, beginning after the third blacksmith shop was torn down and continuing until c.1934 when the water and steam heating lines were put in at the fort (Armour 1995: 62). Iron (1.33%), other metal (0.48%) and miscellaneous (2.22%) artifacts from the modern layers were small or broken by-products of tourist activities or renovation projects to the soldiers' barracks. The modern debris, dropped at the site or stored there with the fort garbage, is listed in Appendix 2. Bits of Styrofoam and plastic, cigarette filters, plastic bandaids foil gum and camera film wrappers, camera flash bulbs, a soft drink can tab, soft drink bottle glass, milk glass and a sherd of clear glass painted with cartoon character Charlie Brown were deposited in the open grassy area by tourists or park personnel. Pieces of bracelets and earrings and metal hairpins may have been lost or discarded by women passing by

PAGE 125

109 the site on the adjacent wooden walkways leading to the public bathrooms located in the old soldiers' barracks building and to the north sally port exit from the park. The open grassy area is a likely place for children to wait for parents. Children's activities are represented in the assemblage with marbles, plastic beads, a red crayon, a 1 /2" white plastic horse and two red cap gun cartridges The only horseshoe nail recovered from this layer was bent into a small ring, the size of a child's finger, and was probably a souvenir ring of Mackinac Island. Archaeological Dates of the Buried Timbers and Cleanup Interface at the Brown With Gravel Level An 1882 lndianhead penny, m i nted in the last years of the National Park period at Fort Mackinac, was recovered in the northwest corner of suboperation B in a very dark grayish brown soil (MS3E1 823). The lot was beneath the deposits into which the wooden structure intruded and cont i guous to the stratum immediately below the buried wooden structure. (See Figure 1 9.) This indicates a terminus post quem of 1882 for the burial of the wooden timbers. A deposit containing ashes, wood chips and other traces of cleanup burning operations was deposited on top of the buried timbers and contained chronologie indices which range in production dates from 1836 and to 1921. Applying the composite formula dating method (Grange 1987: 194-200) to the artifacts with a date range from the cleanup interface, an average mid date of 1889 could 0

PAGE 126

110 be estimated for the production of dateable artifacts in these disturbed deposits Chronologie indices from the buried timbers and cleanup interface deposits are listed in Table 5 below, but are discussed in the following section as part of the assemblage recovered from the brown with gravel stratigraphic level. Table 5. Chronologie Indices From Mixed Deposits of the Post Shop Military and Park Periods CLEANUP INTERFACE LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION BUTTONS MS3E1 L07 GENERAL SERVICE 1870-1902 BACKMARK "MN**" MS3E 1 L08 NAVY MILITARY WITH ANCHOR 1836-1902 LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION CARTRIDGE MATERIALS MS3E1 G09 187 3 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE CARTRIDGE PRIMER CAP MS3E1 G09 CARTRIDGE CASING "UMC 32 S&W" MS3E1G09 MS3E1U03 MS3E1L08 MS3E1U08 MS3E1L23 MS3E1W06 CERAMICS EARLY 1 880s-1 888 WHITE IRONSTONE WITH BLUE MEAKIN, HANLEY MAKER'S MARK 1883-1889 WHITE SEMI-PORCELAIN WITH BLUE-GREEN MELLOR, TAYLOR & CO. MAKER'S MARK c.1881-1904 (2) CROSSMENDING AMBER BOTTOM R & CO MAKER'S MARK 1880-1900 CLEAR BODY WITH HERO FRUIT JAR CO. MAKER'S MARK 1884-1909 LIGHT GREEN BOTTLE BOTTOM WITH WILLIAM FRANZEN & SON BASAL MARK 1900-c. 1921 Continued on next page.

PAGE 127

LOT NUMBER MS3E1U06 MS3E1V06 MS3E1B23 MS3E1V06 1 1 1 Table 5. (Continued) BURIED TIMBERS CERAMICS. DESCRIPTION WHITE SEMI-GRANITE WITH BLACK TRANSFER PRINTED MAKER'S MARK C.C. THOMPSON POTTERY CO. MAKER'S MARK EST. 1888 CROSSMENDS WITH MS3E1 Q04 (POST SHOP MILITARY) WHITE IRONSTONE WITH BLACK TRANSFER PRINTED JOHNSON BROS. MAKER'S MARK c 1883 TO 1996 PENNY U S 1882 CLEAR FRONT FACE WITH DR. J R BAILEY & SON NATIONAL PARK DRUG STORE MACKINAC ISLAND, MICH NATIONAL PARK PERIOD: (1875-1895) Archaeological Dates of the Undisturbed Post Blacksmith Shop Deposits at the Brown With Gravel Level Chronologie indices derived from button backmarks, U.S. lndianhead pennies, ceramic and bottle maker's marks, and cartridge materials were used to date the approximate length of time the brown with gravel layer was exposed to fort activities. Table 6 lists the chronologie indices of artifacts recovered from undisturbed deposits at this level.

PAGE 128

Table 6. Chronologie Indices From the Undisturbed Post Shop Deposits LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION BUTTONS MS3E1 F03 RUBBER BLACK PATENTED GOODYEAR 1851 112 SUNKEN PANEL 4 HOLED 3 /4" DIAMETER MS3E 1 M04 GENERAL SERVICE 1854-1865 BACKMARK SCOVILL MFG CO WATERBURY CARTRIDGE AND MUSKET MATERIALS MS3E1 G12 CARTRIDGE CASING BASE "F 88 8" FRANKFORD ARSENAL AUGUST 1888 MS3E 1 G 1 2 MUSKET PERCUSSION CAP CERAMICS MS3E 1 A08 WHITE IRONSTONE WITH BLACK TRANSFER PRINTED JOHNSON BROS. MAKER' S MARK EST. c .1883-1996 MS3E1 Q04 WHITE SEMI-GRANITE WITH BLACK TRANSFER PRINTED MAKER'S MARK C .C. THOMPSON POTTERY CO. MAKER' S MARK EST. 1888 CROSSMENDS WITH MS3E 1 U06 COINS MS3E1M04 GLASS MS3E1Y04 (BURIED TIMBERS) PENNY U .S 1895 CLEAR FRONT FACE WITH BOGAN'S PHARMACY ISLAND OF MACKINAC (c. 1893-c.1895) A black rubber button with a Goodyear patent date of 1 851 was recovered from suboperation F Though the date provides a terminus post quem for the production of Goodyear rubber buttons, it does not provide a date for the production or use of this specific button. The first production dates of the other artifacts span a period of fortyone years from 1854 to 1895. The latest button date was derived from a general service button backmarked "Scovill Mfg Co Waterbury General Service buttons of this type with many variants

PAGE 129

113 were authorized from 1854 to 1902 and were supplied to the army by many different makers (Albert 1976: 40-41, 464 ) The Scovill backmark narrows the manufacturing range to an authorization period between 1854 and 1865. However, buttons have been excavated during other archaeological projects from secondary fill deposits, and certain buttons continued to be worn at Fort Mackinac on fatigue uniforms years after their issue (Grange 1987: 111; Dunnigan 1975: 7). This button was recovered with the 1 895 penny from an undisturbed lot in suboperation M, indicating an interface and establishing a terminus post quem for the brown loamy layer above The lot from which the 1895 penny and "Scovill" backmarked button were recovered (MS3E1 M04) was deposited outside the perimeter of the third blacksmith shop building, exposed to fort activities after the building was demolished. The lot was excavated in the northwest corner of suboperation M, and the excavator noted no intrusions. Subsequent excavation demonstrated that lot MS3E1 M04 was stratigraphically above a layer of yellowish gravel containing the line of "bright gravel" created by water dripping from the roof of the third blacksmith shop building. Therefore, the lot must have been a surface exposed to, but not disturbed by, fort activities since the removal of the third blacksmith shop building A cartridge base, produced at the Frankford Arsenal in August 1888 (Brose 1967: 45-4 7; Lewis 1 972: 4 7), was recovered from a thin circular deposit of yellow gravel (MS3E1 G12) in close proximity to the buried timbers. (See Figure 19.) The MS3El G12 gravel

PAGE 130

114 deposit also contained a musket percussion cap produced for the Model 1842 musket (Butler 1971: 29-34) The presence of both in the same deposit suggests an intrusion or backfill. The circular basin-like shape of the deposit may indicate the positioning of a 3' barrel or receptacle on top of backfill deposited to level it. Photograph 1 0 records a barrel with similar dimensions located behind the stairway leading from the second floor of the barracks building Dateable ceramics were recovered from suboperations A and Q in the brown with gravel strata, directly above the interior strata of the third blacksmith shop building. Their maker's marks had production dates from 1883 to the present (Godden 1964: 73; 1 971; Kovel and Kovel 1953: 1 52, 204 ). Artifacts at the Brown With Gravel Level A total of 30,502 artifacts were retrieved from the second stratigraphic level, the largest percentage (77 98%) totalling 23,784 from areas disturbed by the buried timbers and cleanup operations Artifacts from undisturbed open areas exposed after the removal of the third blacksmith shop building c.1875 totalled 6, 718 (22.03%). The interfacial nature of the brown with gravel level is evident in the dated materials from lots with no intrusions. The stratigraphic contexts of artifacts from the undisturbed brown with gravel lots (Table 6) indicate a date period of c 1875 to 1895. The mixing of chronological materials elsewhere in suboperations G, L, M, T, U, V

PAGE 131

11 5 and W suggests that the brown with gravel level was exposed since the third blacksmith shop building was removed extending into the State Park period which began in 1895 Thirty buttons were recovered during the excavation of the second level from suboperations A, B, F, H, L M, Q, S, T U and W. Fifteen plain metal buttons in varying conditions of decay, two black rubber buttons (one with the Goodyear patent date of 1 851 ), three fragments of bone buttons, two bone studs, one pearl shell button, two complete and two fragments of porcelain buttons were among the buttons collected. While pearl shell buttons were part of the assemblage from all three occupational layers of the study, plain metal, rubber, bone and porcelain buttons were only recovered from the two layers beneath the recent park layer. The use of porcelain buttons, invented in 1840, and pearl shell buttons, manufactured beginning about 1855 and common by 1905 (Grange 1987: 203), spans a period of fifty years or more. However, three other buttons in the assemblage provide indices by which the date of the layer could be more precisely estimated. A button with an anchor was excavated from the cleanup interface in suboperation L and was identified as a U.S. Navy petty officer's button of 1836-1902. MISPC historians located photos of a U .S. Navy unit on the parade grounds in Fort Mackinac c.1900. This suggests a late date for the deposition of this button. Two brass military uniform buttons with symmetrical spread eagles and lined shields ( 1 854-1902) were found in suboperations L and M. The three-piece button recovered in suboperation M and backmarked

PAGE 132

116 "Scovill Mfg Co Waterbury" was supplied for army uniforms during an authorization period between 1854 and 1865 (Albert 1976 : 40-41, 464 ) The button from suboperation L (Cleanup Interface in Mixed State Park and Post Shop Military Deposits) was backmarked "MN**" and was issued from 1 870 to 1902 (Johnson 1 942; Albert 1 976 ; Wycoff 1984 ). Suboperations G, M, T and U contained nine (0. 03%) artifacts related to metallic rim-fire cartridges, which were used by the U .S. military with the first good breechloaders around the time of the Civil War (Petersen 1964: 244 ) Center-fire cartridges were first patented in the U S by Smith & Wesson in 1854. By 1858, the U .S. government officially adopted both the Morse cartridge patented in 1856 and the Morse system for a breechloader, while converting its muzzle-loading rifles into breechloaders at the federal armory at Harper's Ferry. From 1855 to 1875 many new ideas in cartridge design were tested and produced at the Frankford and Springf i eld Arsenals (Lewis 1972: 6-8; Petersen 1 964 : 244 ) Fragments of cartridges recovered from post shop deposits and from those associated with the third blacksmith shop building demonstrate the evolution in metallic rim-fire cartridges during this period of innovation. A plain .50" caliber center-fire cartridge casing was recovered from an undisturbed lot in the brown with gravel layer in suboperation M (MS3E1 M04) with a "primer pocket in the head to receive a percussion cap, itself sealing the primer opening" (Lewis 1972: 7, 4 7). The base was identical to the base of a .50" caliber

PAGE 133

117 Morse patented center-fire cartridge casing made at the Frankford Arsenal in 1876 and recovered from MS3E1 M17 a secondary digging and/or filling deposit outside the shop walls MS3E1 M04 also contained a plain .22" caliber copper casing, the 1895 U.S. Penny and the "Scovill" backmarked button issued 1854-1865. Three discharged 50" caliber cast lead bullets from lots in the cleanup interface (MS3El G09, MS3El M04, MS3E1 T04, and MS3E1 U03) and a .22 cast lead bullet from MS3E1 U03 were collected Other cartridge casings include a .22" caliber copper casing with an engraved "P" on the head from MS3E1 U03 and a .32" caliber center-fire copper casing with "UMC 32 S&W" engraved on the head from MS3E1 G09 As indicated by the engraved letters, the .32" caliber cartridge casing from MS3El G09 was produced by the Union Metallic Cartridge Company. UMC merged with Remington in 1888 and continued producing ammunition for the American market with the mark "Remington-UMC" (Craige 1950: 44). The "32 S&W" indicates ammunition produced before the merger for a .32" caliber firearm produced by Smith and Wesson. First models of Smith and Wesson .32" caliber revolvers and long rifles were manufactured from 1878 to 1905, and thirty of their rare .320" first model revolving rifle, were manufactured from 1879 to 1887 (Smith 1968 112-113; Schwing and House 1994: 544-545). This suggests a manufacture date between 1878 and 1888 for this .32" caliber UMC cartridge It certainly was deposited originally at the site after the third blacksmith shop building had been removed. MS3El G09 also contained a primer cap with the grooved disc

PAGE 134

118 anvil intact (Petersen 1964: 245). Primer caps of this type were used in cartridges for the 1873 model of the Springfield rifle, and were produced at the Frankford Arsenal from 187 4 until 1882 (Lewis 1972: 32, 33, 41, 43). They were designed to be removed from the cartridge head with decapping tools Another cap could then be reloaded into the cartridge (Steindler 1970: 179). Many primer caps of this type were found in unmixed lots in underlying layers deposited while the third blacksmith shop was still standing. By 1 86 7 while blacksmiths were still at the forge of the third shop, tourists had become a common sight around the gun platforms and at the dress parades, and dignitaries were entertained in the officers' mess (Havighurst 1 966: 186). Soldiers were housed in the main building of the soldiers' barracks, and the north wing, adjacent to the excavation site, was used for the washroom, kitchen, mess room and pantry (Quinn Evans 1994: 8, 11-12). During the Post Blacksmith Shop Military Period, the fort became part of a newly designated national park, and a second company of soldiers were sent to provide help (Armour 1995: 6-7; Havighurst 1966: 184-189). Ceramics recovered in the brown with gravel level were sherds from dinnerware, servingware and food storage vessels, and are most likely associated with the soldiers' mess and kitchen in the nearby barracks. However, ceramics also could be the refuse from the entertaining of dignitaries or other visitors to the fort after the Civil War and during the National Park period Ceramic sherds (N=348) made up 1.14% of the artifacts deposited at the brown with gravel level and were found i n suboperations A, B,

PAGE 135

119 C, D, E, G, H, J, L, M, N, P, Q, T, U, V, W and Y. Creamware sherds (n=27) recovered were from plain tableware and included sherds from a bowl and from a blue transfer printed plate. Plain whiteware sherds (n=188) of cups, plates and serving dishes were recovered along with cup and plate sherds from blue, black, green and pink transfer printed whiteware (n=32). Ironstone sherds (n=43) from cups and plates included mostly plain sherds and a few blue and black transfer printed sherds Five maker's marks from ironstone sherds deposited in suboperations A, G Q, U and V were identified (Tables 5 and 6) with production dates beginning in 1881. White European porcelain sherds (n=35) were recovered from broken plates cups or bowls. A few sherds of salt-glazed stoneware and a single sherd of brown lead-glazed red stoneware were also part of the sample Ceramic sherds from utilitarian storage and servingware included brown lead-glazed sherds from the neck/spout of a pitcher a tan lead-glazed sherd from a ginger beer bottle, and tan and brown salt-glazed sherds from storage vessels. A sherd of a storage vessel lid was also part of the assemblage (Brose 1967; Godden 1964; 1971; Kovel and Kovel 1953; Noel Hume 1970; Price 1979). Two white ironstone sherds from MS3El Q04 (Undisturbed Post Shop Deposit) and MS3El U06 (Buried Timbers in Mixed State Park and Post Shop Military Deposits) with black transfer printed ... O ... SEMI GRAN . TE" and the hind legs and raised paw of a griffin were identified as elements of the maker's mark of C C Thompson Pottery Company of East Liverpool, Ohio, U.S.A., which was established in 1888 (Kovel and Kovel 1953: 1 52).

PAGE 136

120 From the mixed context of MS3E1 G09 (Cleanup Interface), a white ironstone sherd with a blue transfer printed maker's mark was recovered. The letters ... EAKIN ... HANLEY, ... ENGLAND" were clearly distinguishable and identified as a mark of the potter, Charles Meakin, Burslem & Hanley, Staffordshire, who made ironstone-type granite c .1876-1889. His wares were imported to North America with the "Hanley" added below his name after 1883 (Godden 1971 : 77). This places the production date of the dish between 1883 and 1889. From the mixed context of MS3E1 U03 (Cleanup Interface) a white ironstone sherd with a bluish-green lettering "ARGOSY . SEMI PORCELA ... MELLOR TAYL. .. in a semicircular arrangement around a crown Mellor, Taylor & Co. Burslem, Staffordsh ire, produced ironstone china for American markets with printed or impressed marks c.1880-1904 (Godden 1971: 78; 1964: 495). Two sherds from a white ironstone plate or bowl with a green transfer printed floral design also were recovered from MS3E1 U03 The coloring and cracked condition of the glaze match the white ironstone sherd with a green crown and "Mellor" maker's mark recovered from the loamy brown layer above (MS3E1 007). This further substantiates the mixing of recent State Park period materials w ith post blacksmith shop military materials in lot U03. A white ironstone sherd recovered from MS3E1 A08 (Undisturbed Deposit) with a black transfer printed maker's mark with partial letters ... L IRONSTONEWARE ... SO . encircling a shield contain ing "HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE" supported by a lion and unicorn and topped with a crown was produced by Johnson Bros. (Hanley) Ltd

PAGE 137

121 Hanley, Staffordshire A second black transfer printed Johnson Bros. mark was identified with the letters "JOH ... ENG ... on a thick white ironstone serving dish sherd from MS3E1 VOG (Buried Timbers). A British company, Johnson Bros began producing ironstone ware after its establishment in 1 883 and still remains one of the largest producers today (Godden 1971: 73; Kovel and Kovel 1953: 204 ). Curved glass sherds from bottles or jars (N= 1 ,004) made up 3.29% of the assemblage recovered from all suboperations but R and Y. Amber, clear, green, olive, pink and white sherds were probably from broken jars, liquor or medicine bottles. Bottlemaker's marks on sherds recovered from lots in the cleanup interface and among the buried timbers identify the contents of some of the glass containers as beer, medicine and fruit. Four clear glass rod fragments from mixed contexts and thin lantern or light bulb sherds (N=248) from disturbed and undisturbed lots were also part of the glass recovered. Twelve glass fragments were burned, perhaps along with other refuse from the fort. Two amber glass sherds from MS3E1 LOB and MS3E1 U08 (Cleanup Interface) crossmend to reveal an "R & CO" bottlemaker's mark possibly from a ROTH & CO., San Francisco, Cal., which produced whiskey bottle from 1879-1888. However, the amber color of the glass may indicate an export beer bottle, whose maker is unknown. Bottles with this mark were produced between 1880 and 1900 (Toulouse 1971: 438-439) and were recovered from deposits at the Custer Road Dump Site along with materials dating 1876-1895 (Brose 1 96 7: 90-91)

PAGE 138

Lot MS3E1 L23 (Cleanup Interface) contained a clear patina ted bottle body sherd with the part of a Hero Cross, "Co" within the flared bottom extension and the letter "E" below, the remnants of maker's of the HERO FRUIT JAR CO., Philadelphia, Pa., 1884-1909. The initials "H F J Co" were first placed within the Hero Cross in 1884 (Toulouse 1971: 249-250). 122 The bottom of a broken light green bottle from MS3E1 W06 (Cleanup Interface) displayed the letters "KEE" on the body and "W F & S MIL" on the base. WILLIAM FRANZEN & SON, Milwaukee, Wis placed this basal mark on bottles produced for the Milwaukee brewers beginning in 1 900 until prohibition lead to the corporation's dissolution in 1921 (Toulouse 1971: 536-537). Two clear glass bottle body sherds from the brown with gravel level (MS3E1 Y04) cross mended to reveal "MACY .. ./CKINAC." A clear panel bottle from the Custer Road Dump Site in a level dated from 1893-1895 included the same arrangement of letters: BOGAN'S PHARMACY ISLAND OF MACKINAC on the front (Brose 1967: 1 02, 11 9). Two clear glass fragments of a plano-convex patented medicine bottle were found in MS3E1 V06 (Buried Timbers). The letters ... R. J ... NATIO ... MACKIN ... on the front piece sherd fit the description of specimens recovered from the Custer Road Dump Site (Brose 1967: 1 OS): ... top line in script, next line enclosed by a raised line, front face : DR. J. R. BAILEY & SON NATIONAL PARK DRUG STORE MACKINAC ISLAND, MICH."

PAGE 139

123 The mould-made bottle neck also fits the Custer Road Dump description of a #5 neck, slightly curved along the shoulder with a slightly inward tapering neck and the rim of a pronounced rounded band (1967: 99). The "National Park Drug Store" inscription would most logically place the production of the bottle between 1875 and 1895 during the period when the government land on Mackinac Island including the fort was designated a national park (Armour 1 996: 6-8). Faunal materials (N=939) from fish, birds and mammals were collected and catalogued in Appendix 2. Some bone fragments were calcined or burned, and some had been cut or sawed. Most fragments were not identified, but a small sample was studied along with bones from the third blacksmith shop building strata below. Bones from yellow perch, salmon or whitefish, and chicken were identified from deposits in the cleanup interface Charcoal samples (n=261) were retrieved only from mixed lots in suboperations A, L, U and V near the north revetment wall. The switch from charcoal to coal fuel at Fort Mackinac occurred after the 1 840s. According to frequent military reports, Fort Mackinac soldiers manufactured their own charcoal prior to that time (Porter 1995: 8). Although the samples collected may be charcoal fuel burned for warmth or disposed of in the open area of the site, other materials collected suggest that they are remnants of fort refuse dumped and/or burned near the revetment wall. Suboperation L contained an ash pit, and other associated lots contained calcined bones and broken bits of refuse including

PAGE 140

124 fragments of a child's bisque doll. Traces of children in the archaeological record such as this broken doll correlate with the historic records of children who lived at or visited the fort from the time the third blacksmith shop was operating (Photograph 9) into the terminal military period (Petersen 1973: 34-35). A famous example, Dr. William Corbusier and his wife, Fanny, lived with their five children in the officers' quarters at the west end of the fort during the early 1880s according to family accounts They returned eight years later as part of an Infantry encampment from Detroit in 1892 (Porter 1994: 2). Fuel in the form of cinders (n=6,724), and coal (n=14,514) was the largest percentage of the assemblage (69.63%) found in all suboperations except R. After the demolition of the third shop building, the open area of the site near the north sally port would have been a convenient place for coal delivery and for cinders to be piled until they could be hauled away. Coal-burning stoves were used at Fort Mackinac during the terminal military period of the 1880s (Porter 1994: 2). They probably continued to be used to heat fort buildings into the 1930s until the CCC installed steam heat lines (Armour 199 5: 61-62). Architectural debris (N=4,502) scattered throughout all suboperations made up 14.76% of the assemblage which included revetment wall debris, angular rocks painted white, red brick fragments, bits of mortar and modern concrete, glazier's points, window glass, floor tile sherds, electrical insulation fragments,

PAGE 141

sewer pipe fragments, roofing disks and nails, slate fragments, screws and nuts, a modern pintle and fragments of wood. 125 Nails, bolts and screws (N=1 ,423) made up 4.67% of the assemblage from this stratigraphic level. From mixed and unmixed lots 757 cut nails, brads and fragments and 655 wire nails, brads and fragments were recovered. Seven wrought nails and one wrought fragment were recovered from mixed lots only. Historically, machine-made cut nails displaced the machine-made wire nails in the U.S. by the 1890s (Loveday 1979 : 2) However, 52.46% of the nails deposited in the brown with gravel level were cut and 46.12% were wire. The high percentage of cut nails and nail fragments in the deposits may be a direct result of the demolition or repair of other fort buildings during the post shop military and early park periods. The nearby soldiers' barracks was changed many times during the National Park period between 187 5 and 1894 to accommodate a second company of soldiers and to maintain the building. The second floor to the north wing and the north stairway were added c.18761 877. Changes related to health, ventilation and sanitation issues were made between 1875 and 1877, and again between 1884 and 1886. Tin gutters were added to the entire building and a new trough installed to drain water from the washroom of the north wing in 1882. Pine boards were used to replace interior walls and ceilings in 1884 (Quinn Evans 1994 : 11-12). And in 1885 a new privy and bath house were built to the east of the site across the path leading from the north sally port (Havighurst 1966: 187). (See

PAGE 142

126 Figures 1 5 and 16 ) Although the carpenter's shop was located outside the fort walls to the east during the post shop military period, the open area of the site also may have been used as a work salvaging or refuse area for some of the construction to these nearby buildings. Wire nails were in demand by builders in the 1890s and became expensive from 1895-1896, because the wire nail association of manufacturers formed a monopolistic trust tri pling the price before anti-trust laws were enacted (Fontana 1965: 89 ; Edgerton 1897). This may have had some bearing on the reuse and/ or purchase of nails for repairs and construction when Fort Mackinac was transferred from Federal to State jurisdiction in 1895. Other iron and metal artifacts (N= 425) made up 1.39% of the assemblage. Disturbed and undisturbed lots contained scrap brass, iron, lead and tin fragments Metal artifacts commonly associated with blacksmithing were found in the mixed lots of the west hal f of the site, indicating the possible intrusion into strata from the third blacksmith shop period Both the buried wooden structure and the drain beneath the stairway leading from the soldiers' barracks extended over the area of the shop. (See Figure 19.) Possible blacksmith materials recovered from this area included: barrel strap fragments, a blade fragment, a tool fragment, hinges, horseshoe fragments, pot fragments, a punch or chisel handle, a stake or chisel tang, a sphere of waste from the sprue a stock rod fragment, swarth (fibrous iron screw filings), an iron ring a rivet chain links and hooks, a latch hook and fragments of wire. The only

PAGE 143

127 possible blacksmith waste recovered from the undisturbed lots in the brown with gravel level were a window or door lock, three metal wire fragments and a single piece of swarth Metal and iron artifacts associated with maintenance activities at the fort included: bucket fragments, a mop handle, pipe fittings, a brass handle and a light bulb base. Mica flakes found in suboperation L were probably bits of isinglass used for lanterns or cooking stoves. Kitchen refuse most probably from the nearby kitchen in the soldiers' barracks included: an iron stove fragment, a brass flask top, a brass ring bottle top, a brass spoon head, a brass tube a shaker top with three holes, tin can fragments and tin can key openers. In addition to the uniform buttons, metal fly and suspender buttons, rubber buttons and pearl buttons, other metal pieces of U.S. Army issue clothing were part of the assemblage recovered from the brown with gravel level. A three-pronged buckle fragment a brass buckle, garment or collar hooks and suspender fragments are all part of the specified clothing materials issued by the U.S. Army Strap buckles also were specified for canteens, haversacks and cartridge boxes for the infantry. Rivets in the assemblage could have come from Army issued equipment such as tents, stoves or shovels (Quartermaster General of the Army 1986: 41-42, 54, 60, 95,109, 146, 195, 263-265, 268, 333; Ordnance Memoranda No. 19 : 59-70). Metal tobacco plugs, kaolin pipe fragments, straight and safety pins, comb fragments, paper and pencil fragments, film/gum wrappers and plastic food spears may be part of the refuse managed

PAGE 144

128 at the fort or may have been discarded in the brown with gravel level by employees or visitors to the fort. Miscellaneous non metallic refuse (N=62) made up .20% of the artifacts recovered mostly from disturbed lots The presence of plastic and foil wrappers excavated with lots in the brown with gravel level further supports the conclusion that sections of the site were exposed to intrusion during park activities into the modern park era. Table 7 summarizes the historical and archaeological stratigraphy and dates for the post blacksmith shop deposits. Table 7. Correlation of Historical Periods, Stratigraphy and Archaeological Dates for the Post Shop Military and Park Deposits Historical Dating Stratigraphy Archaeological Dating Recent State Park Modern Deposits 1895-1996 Sod Layer 1952-1996 Mottled Sand 1954 Loamy Brown Soil 1895-1952 Post Shop Military Brown with Gravel c.1875-1895 Cleanup Interface 1882-c.1900 Buried Timbers 1882-1895 Undisturbed Deposits c.1875-1895

PAGE 145

129 CHAPTER 7. ARTIFACTS IN THE THIRD BLACKSMITH SHOP BUILDING DEPOSITS A total of 119,381 artifacts were recovered from the third stratigraphic level, and composed 73. 58% of the assemblage from all three levels (N=162,255) Artifacts from the third level are listed in Appendix 2 and include: ammunition fragments (N=81 ), architectural debris (N=9,041 ), buttons (N=91 ), ceramic sherds (N=633), curved glass sherds (N=2,208), faunal materials (N=5, 176), fuel (N=94,880), iron and metal fragments (N=2,864), miscellaneous materials (N=192) and nails, bolts and screws (N=4,215). Based on the historic documentation, artifacts from the third stratigraphic level were deposited from 1858, the year in which the third blacksmith shop was built, until its demolition c.1875. For quick reference, the historic documentation reviewed for this study of the third blacksmith shop building is summarized in Table 8. Table 8. Historic References to the Third Blacksmith Shop 1858 1861-1867 1863 1867 Shop 3 building constructed after the destruction of Shop 2 by the June 9, 1858 fire. No soldiers at the fort, only volunteers in August of 1865 and August 1866. Shop 3 labeled on plan of the fort (Figure 5). Soldiers return to the fort. Continued on next page.

PAGE 146

1860s 1868-1869 1871 1871-1874 1873 1873 1874 1875 1875 1875 1876-1877 1875-1879 130 Table 8. (Continued) Photograph 9 of Shop 3 with uniforms dated after the Civil War. Private Thomas Barry of Company B, 43 Infantry assigned to blacksmith duties. Detailed plan of the fort doesn't label the Shop 3 building which appears without a chimney (Figure 13) Private William Bowman of Company F, 1st Infantry assigned to blacksmith duties. Private Bowman's blacksmith duties are significantly reduced. Shop 3 used for beef storage for barracks kitchen and blacksmith operations moved into the stone basement of the north blockhouse. Sketch of fort shows other buildings with chimneys, but no chimney on the Shop 3 building (Figure 14 ). Plan of fort labels the Shop 3 building as a wood and water house (Figure 1 5). Shop 3 building referred to as a deteriorating wood and water house and a new blacksmith shop was built in front of the fort near the animal barn and granary. Shop 3 building used as receptacle for bones/refuse and "probably worse uses." A second floor was constructed on the nearby barracks building with a stairway extending over the Shop 3 area. Shop 3 building was no longer listed with extant fort buildings. Based on historic documentation and on stratigraphic evidence summarized in Table 3, the strata deposited while the third blacksmith shop building was still standing must contain artifacts

PAGE 147

from three episodes : blacksmith operations forge removal and storage shed activities Archaeological Dates of the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits 131 Military issue buttons, musket and rim-fire cartridge materials and bottle maker's marks from the operations and storage strata from the subfloor and interface with an earlier shop, from the first storage stratum and from the final storage (demolition) stratum were identified to estimate the dates of the complex layers of gravel in the fourth stratigraphic level. Chronologie indices are listed i n Table 9. Table 9. Chronologie Indices From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits STORAGE STRATA BUlTONS CONTEXT LOT NUMBER FINAL STORAGE MS3E1 L09 OUTSIDE STORAGE OUTSIDE STORAGE OUTSIDE STORAGE INSIDE MS3E1 FO? MS3E1L15 MS3E1T11 DESCRIPTION GENERAL SERVICE 1859-1863 HORSTMAN BROS & Co PHILA BACKMARK 3 /4" DIAMETER (2) GENERAL SERVICE 1859-1863 HORSTMAN BROS & CO PHILA BACKMARK 1 /2" DIAMETER GENERAL SERVICE 1854-1902 EXTRA QUAUTY BACKMARK 3 /4" D IAMETER RUBBER BLACK PATENTED GOODYEAR 1 85 1 SUNKEN PANEL 4 HOLED 3/4" DIAMETER Continued on next page.

PAGE 148

132 Table 9. (Continued) CONTEXT LOT NUMBER FIRST STORAGE MS3E 1 A 1 0 OUTSIDE FIRST STORAGE MS3E1 G16 INSIDE FIRST STORAGE MS3E 1 M09 INSIDE DESCRIPTION GENERAL SERVICE 1854-1865 SCOVILL MFG CO WATERBURY BACKMARK 5/811 DIAMETER GENERAL SERVICE 1854-1902 3/411 DIAMETER 1 ST REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY 1802-1826 ARM IT AGE PHI La BACKMARK 1 /2 II DIAMETER CARTRIDGE AND MUSKET MATERIALS CONTEXT LOT NUMBER FINALSTORAGE MS3E1C06 INSIDE FINAL STORAGE MS3E1 Q05 INSIDE STORAGE MS3E1M17 OUTSIDE STORAGE INSIDE STORAGE OUTSIDE STORAGE INSIDE STORAGE INSIDE MS3E1B12 MS3E1P07 MS3E1E15 MS3E1810 MS3E1S10 FIRST STORAGE MS3E1 A 18 INSIDE MS3 E 1 COS FIRST STORAGE MS3E1 M09 INSIDE MS3E 1 J 14 FIRST STORAGE MS3E1 M09 INSIDE FIRST STORAGE MS3E1D19 INSIDE MS3E1 Q11 DESCRIPTION PRIMER CAP 1873 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE COPPER FIRED CAST LEAD BULLET .4511 CALIBER DISCHARGED, 1872-c. 1 912 CARTRIDGE CASING BASE "F 76 R 8" RIFLELOAD FRANKFORD ARSENAL AUGUST 1876 (2) CAST LEAD BULLET.4511CALIBER 1872-c.1912 DISCHARGED CAST LEAD BULLET .4511 CALIBER 1872-c.1912 DISCHARGED MUSKET PERCUSSION CAP 1842-1858 MUSKET BALL 5/8 11 DISCHARGED 1796-c. 1861 (2) PRIMER CAPS 1873 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE COPPER FIRED (2)PRIMER CAPS 1873 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE INTACT (2)PRIMER CAPS 1873 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE COPPER INTACT (2)PRIMER CAPS 1873 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE COPPER INTACT Continued on next page.

PAGE 149

Table 9. (Continued) CONTEXT LOT NUMBER FIRST STORAGE MS3E 1 M09 INSIDE FIRST STORAGE MS3E1 D19 INSIDE MS3E1 Q11 DESCRIPTION MUSKET PERCUSSION CAP 1842-1858 (2) MUSKET BALL 1 /2" 1796-c.1861 FORGE REMOVAL OPERATION CARTRIDGE AND MUSKET MATERIALS CONTEXT LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION FORGE REMOVAL MS3E 1 B33 (2) PRIMER CAP 1873 MS3E1 B37 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE INTACT FORGE REMOVAL MS3E1 N13 PRIMER CAP 1873 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE FIRED FORGE REMOVAL MS3E1 B28 PRIMER CAP 1873 133 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE COPPER INTACT FORGE REMOVAL MS3E1 A26 (2)PRIMER CAP 1873 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE COPPER INTACT FORGE REMOVAL MS3E1 N28 (2) PRIMER CAP 1873 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE COPPER INTACT FORGE REMOVAL MS3E1 N28 (2) MUSKET PERCUSSION CAPS MS3E1V28 1842-1858 OPERATIONS STRATA BUTTONS CONTEXT LOT NUMBER OPERATIONS MS3E1G17 INSIDE OPERATIONS MS3E1 G17 INSIDE OPERATIONS MS3E1 H16 INSIDE OPERATIONS MS3E1J16 INSIDE OPERATIONS MS3E1 K 19 INSIDE DESCRIPTION 1ST REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY 1802-1808 GENERAL SERVICE 1854-1902 3 / 4 DIAMETER GENERAL SERVICE WATERBURY BUTTON CO BACKMARK 1849-1902 5 /8" DIAMETER GENERAL SERVICE 1854-1865 SCOVILL MFG CO WATERBURY BACKMARK 5 /8" DIAMETER GENERAL SERVICE 1859-1863 HORSTMAN BROS & Co PHILA BACKMARK 3 /4" DIAMETER Continued on next page

PAGE 150

134 Table 9. (Continued) BUTIONS LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION OPERATIONS MS3E1L29 (2) EAGLE WITH "A" OUTSIDE MS3E1M16 IN SHIELD DEVICE SCOVILLS & CO BACKMARK 1840-1850 3 PIECE 1 / 2" DIAMETER OPERATIONS MS3E1C12 GENERAL SERVICE INSIDE 1859-1863 HORSTMAN BROS & Co PHILA BACKMARK 3/4" DIAMETER OPERATIONS MS3E1T18 GENERAL SERVICE BACKPIECE INSIDE 1854-1902 EXTRA QUAUTY BACKMARK 3/4" DIAMETER OPERATIONS MS3E1T19 GENERAL SERVICE INSIDE 1854-1865 SCOVILL MFG CO WATERBURY BACKMARK 3/4" DIAMETER OPERATIONS MS3E1T22 1ST REGIMENT OF INSIDE ARTILLERY 1802-1808 3 /4" DIAMETER INTERFACE MS3E1S16 GENERAL ISSUE INSIDE 1854-18 65 SCOVILL MFG CO WATERBURY BACKMARK 3 /4" DIAMETER SUBFLOOR MS3E1D28 1ST REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY INSIDE 1802-1 808 CARTRIDGE AND MUSKET MATERIALS CONTEXT LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION OPERATIONS MS3E1 M16 (2) PRIMER CAP 1873 OUTSIDE SPRINGFIELD RIFLE INTACT OPERATIONS MS3E1P12 (2) PRIMER CAP 1873 INSIDE MS3E1P13 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE INTACT OPERATIONS MS3E1N12 PRIMER CAP 1873 OUTSIDE SPRINGFIELD RIFLE COPPER INTACT OPERATIONS MS3E1H17 CAST LEAD BULLET .45" CALIBER INSIDE 1872-c.1912 OPERATIONS MS3E1H17 CARTRIDGE CASING .32" CALIBER INSIDE BRASS NO EXTERNAL PRIMER Continued on next page

PAGE 151

135 Table 9. (Continued) CARTRIDGE AND MUSKET MATERIALS CONTEXT LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION OPERATIONS MS3E1T18 BRASS CARTRIDGE 50" CALIBER INSIDE POTIET BASE INVENTED 1829 OPERATIONS MS3E1E33 (2) MUSKET PERCUSSION CAPS OUTSIDE MS3E1E29 1842-1 858 OPERATIONS MS3E1D20 ( 4) MUSKET PERCUSSION INSIDE MS3E1D29 CAPS DISCHARGED 1842-1858 MS3E1J30 MS3E1T23 OPERATIONS MS3E1 Q13 (2) MUSKET BALLS 1 /2" INSIDE MS3E1U23 1796-c. 1861 OPERATIONS MS3E1J29 (2) MUSKET BALLS 5 /8" INSIDE MS3E1J30 (2) 1796c 1861 MS3E1J31 ( 1 ) INTERFACE MS3E1D27 MUSKET BALL 1 /2" 1796-c.1861 INSIDE INTERFACE MS3E1D21 (2) MUSKET PERCUSSION CAPS INSIDE MS3E1S16 1842-1858 SUBFLOOR MS3E1 Q1 5 (2) MUSKET BALLS 5/8" INSIDE 1796-c. 1861 GLASS CONTEXT LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION OPERATIONS MS3E1G17 "RED JACKET I BITIERS" BOTILE INSIDE "BENNET PIETERS & CO" 1860-1902 MISCELLANEOUS CONTEXT LOT NUMBER DESCRIPTION OPERATIONS MS3E1Q19 MANUFACTURER'S ID PLATE INSIDE J. & E PARKER'S Pat. Nov. 20, 1855 & Feb. 7, 1860 INTERFACE MS3E1S16 COMB RUBBER BLACK FRAGMENT INSIDE GOODYEAR PATENT MAY 6 185_ Twenty military buttons which could be dated according to the authorization period of their issue, were among the 91 buttons recovered from the third blacksmith shop strata in all suboperations except R Military buttons have proved sensitive chronological

PAGE 152

136 indicators for other archaeological projects at Fort Mackinac, reflecting the arrival of military units at the fort and providing terminus post quem and terminus ante quem limits for undisturbed deposits However, buttons also have been excavated from contexts identified during other projects as secondary fill deposits, and certain buttons continued to be worn at Fort Mackinac on fatigue uniforms years after their issue (Grange 1987: 111; Dunnigan 1975: 7). Therefore, some buttons recovered from the third blacksmith shop building strata may have been deposited later than the authorization period of the buttons would indicate. General Service buttons with symmetrical spread eagles and lined shields with many variants were manufactured from 1854 to 1 902 and were supplied to the army by many different makers (Albert 1 976: 40-41, 464 ). Buttons of this type were recovered from undisturbed deposits inside and outside the third shop perimeter, and could have been issued during the time of either the second (1828-1858) or the third blacksmith shop (1858-c.187 5) (Johnson 1 942; 1948; Albert 1 976; Wycoff 1984 ). This obscures the dating value of these buttons, except for those with dateable backmarks. No dateable buttons were recovered from the forge removal operation, which demarcates the functional change of the building from blacksmithing to storage in the deposits. Seven military buttons were recovered from the storage strata and twelve were recovered from the operations strata below Two dateable buttons were found in storage period deposits within the perimeter of the shop: a black rubber button with a

PAGE 153

137 Goodyear patent of 1851 and a General Service button authorized from 1 854-1 902. The storage strata can not be dated on the basis of these two buttons, which could have been deposited during either the second or third shop periods. Most of the military issue buttons outside the third shop dated from 1854 to 1902, and so, could have been deposited while either the second or third shop was operating (Albert 1976: 40-41; 464-465). However, a 1st Regiment of Artillery button was recovered from MS3 E 1 M09 in the storage period layer. Its "ARMITAGE PHILa" backmark places the issue date between 1802-1826 (Albert 1976: 50, 464 ). The button was not recorded in situ, but was excavated along the northern edge of the shop where the stratigraphy between the outer and inner space was complex with many intrusions, possibly from secondary fill deposits. It, therefore, provides no conclusive chronological information to date the storage strata. Excavated from deposits outside the shop boundary during the blacksmith operations period, two buttons with an "A" in the shield device of an eagle were found in MS3E1 L29 and MS3E1 M16. Their "SCOVILLS & CO." backmark dated them between 1840 and 1850 during the time of the second blacksmith shop, although they may have been worn on uniforms into the time of the third blacksmith shop General Service buttons were collected from undisturbed blacksmith operations deposits within the interior of the shop. Issue dates of buttons from these deposits in units G, H, J and T ranged from 1849-1902, but do not narrow the date of the blacksmith operations in the third shop.

PAGE 154

138 However, two "HORSTMAN BROS & Co PHILA" backmarked buttons issued between 1859 and 1863 (Johnson 1948: 217) were found in blacksmith operations deposits within the shop (MS3E1 C12 and MS3E1 K 19). Lot MS3E1 C12 also contained a thin deposit of rotted wood A floor "mostly rotted away II is mentioned in an 1 87 5 estimate of repairs for the third blacksmith shop building (Records of the War Department, Office of the Quartermaster General 187 5). The association of an 1859-1863 issue button with rotted wood "appears to correlate the archaeological and historical evidence" (Grange 1996: 5) and indicates that lot C12 was at the floor level of the blacksmith operations deposits. Also within the shop perimeter, two 1st Regiment of Artillery buttons, issued between 1 802 and 1 808, were found in lots MS3E1 T22 and MS3E1 G17. Lot T22 was a dark grayish brown soil mottled with a pale brown decomposed mortar from the stratum beneath. Adjacent to the north, lot G17 was transected by the dark soil of a board or joist mold (Figure 22) and was mottled with the same mortar, coal and ash. Lot G1 7, however, yielded another General Service button dated between 1854 and 1902. The contexts of these artillery buttons indicate an irregular interface between some areas of the third shop floor and the stratum beneath, which was probably deposited c.1805-1828 during the time of the first blacksmith shop, when part of the shop was used by the Artillery (Porter 1995: 4 ). Although General Service buttons were authorized during the period of the second blacksmith shop (1854-1902), only a few

PAGE 155

139 buttons with authorization dates specifically from the period between 1828 and 1858 were found during the 1995 and 1996 field seasons. The cleanup operations from the 1858 fire, which destroyed the second shop, left little trace of the superstructure or floor deposits in the archaeological record (Grange 1 996: 6). From the stratigraphic and button evidence, it is, therefore, tenable to conclude that the floor of the third blacksmith shop interfaced with a common floor level shared between shops one and two, with only a trace of the second shop remaining. The cleanup of the wreckage of the 1858 fire resulted in the removal of most of the second shop deposits in some areas, so that there is an interface between the first and third blacksmith shops in those areas. During the 1 996 excavation, a "subfloor" stratum of coarse sandy pea gravel in suboperations C, D, J, N and Q was uncovered underlying a very dark gray soil with coal and a heavy deposit of charcoal. A 1st Regiment of Artillery button (1802-1808) was found in the pea gravel (MS3E1 028) dating to the time of the first blacksmith shop The "HORSTMAN BROS & Co PHILA" (1859-1863) backmarked button recovered from MS3E1 C12 was one of the artifacts in the very dark gray deposit above, and another General Issue button backmarked "SCOVILL MFG CO WATERBURY" authorized between 1854 and 1865 (Albert 1976: 464) was deposited in MS3E1 T19 in the blacksmith operations layer. An identical Scovill backmarked button also was found at the interface with an earlier shop in lot MS3E1 S16. In MS3E1 S16 at the interface with an earlier shop, a fragment of a black rubber comb was imprinted with a Goodyear patent of May 6

PAGE 156

140 185 .... providing a terminus post quem of 1850 for the production of the comb, which could have been discarded during blacksmith operations in the second or third shops The stratigraphic interface between blacksmith shops includes lots with slight color and content variations at the same elevation and are identified in Appendix 1 as an operations interface with earlier shops. From the dark gray deposit of MS3E1 Q19, an oval metal manufacturer's plate with J. & E. Parker's patent dates of Nov. 20, 1855 and Feb. 7, 1860 was collected. Lot Q19 was stratigraphically below dark brown deposits of the third blacksmith shop operations period and provides a date of 1860 for the operations strata. The plate with "UNION MILL" in the center was probably from a coffee grinder repaired in the shop (AntiqueWeek 1997: 48). Gunflints and flint chips were recovered from the operations storage and forge removal deposits in the third shop building. The Model 1 79 5 Springfield flintlock muskets were used for about fifty years by the U.S. military and were probably repaired by blacksmiths serving at Fort Mackinac. The Springfield and Harper's Ferry federal armories manufactured flintlocks until they were replaced by the Model 1842 musket, which utilized a percussion rather than a flinttype ignition system (Butler 1971: 29-34, 37) Ten musket round balls were found in blacksmith operations period strata and three in storage period strata. Musket round balls were used in cartridges until c.1861, when the use of Minie-type bullets of the Civil War Era was well established in the new cartridge designs (Butler 1 971: 5456). No Minie-type bullets were recovered from the third blacksmith

PAGE 157

141 shop building, most likely because Fort Mackinac was unoccupied from April 1861 until August 1867, except for volunteer troops in August 1865 and August 1866 (Porter 1995: 7-8; 1997). Twelve percussion caps, some intact and some discharged, were found in the third shop deposits as well: eight in blacksmith operations period strata, two in the forge removal deposits and two in storage period strata. One musket round ball and two musket percussion caps were recovered from the interface deposits, which were not completely removed by the 1858 cleanup operations. In 1858, the same year in which the second blacksmith shop burned and the third shop was built, the U.S. Army officially adopted the Morse system for a breechloader, while converting muzzle loading rifles into breechloaders at the federal armory at Harper's Ferry. The Civil War provided further impetus for the improvement of metallic rim-fire cartridges used with the first good breechloaders, and the first metallic center-fire cartridges were adopted in 1 86 5 by the U.S. Services During the third blacksmith operations and storage periods, many new ideas in cartridge design were tested and produced at the Frankford and Springfield Arsenals. Fragments of internally and externally primed cartridges musket balls, buckshot and cast lead bullets associated with Fort Mackinac's third blacksmith shop bui lding illustrate the variety in cartridges available to the military between 1855 and 1875 (Lewis 1972: 6-8; Logan 1959: 7; Petersen 1964: 244 ). A 50" caliber brass cartridge with a Pottet type base was recovered from MS3El T18 in an operations period deposit inside the

PAGE 158

142 shop perimeter. The Pottet cartridge was invented in 1829 and has been the guiding design for the construction of shot shells since its improvement in 1861 (Lewis 1972: 4, 46 ; Logan 1959: 3; Petersen 1964: 244). Also from an operations period deposit (MS3E1 H17), a .32" caliber brass cartridge with an internal primer was recovered in the same lot as a .45" caliber cast lead bullet In 1873, the U.S. Army selected the Springfield breechloading system in caliber .45". The Frankford Arsenal manufactured .45" caliber Service cartridges from 1874 until 1882, but the cartridges were used at least until 1912 (Craige 1950: 64; Lewis 1972: 41, 43; Logan 1959: 9, 141 ). One .45" caliber cast lead bullet was recovered from an operations stratum within the shop interior (MS3E1 H17); three were found in interior storage strata (MS3E1 812, MS3E1 PO?, and MS3E1 Q05); and one was found in an exterior storage stratum (MS3E1 E1 5). Primer caps with a grooved disc anvil, which could be replaced with a thin punch or a decapping tool, were used in cartridges for the 1873 Springfield rifle (Lewis 1972: 32, 33; Petersen 1964: 244; Steindler 1970: 179). Thirteen examples of the earliest trial copper primers (1 872-1 87 4) along with eight steel primers were part of the assemblage collected from interior and exterior deposits associated with the third blacksmith shop building. One copper and three steel primers were recovered from operations layers; five copper and three steel were recovered from with the intrusive forge removal pits ; and two copper and six steel were recovered from the very dark grayish brown layer, which lay on top of the forge removal

PAGE 159

143 deposits. The vertical distribution of .45" caliber bullets and cartridge primer caps supports the c.1873-187 4 date for the cessation of blacksmith activities and the removal of the forge A copper primer cap and a small ferrule ring from a prying tool were deposited in the final storage stratum in suboperations C and M. The third shop building was probably used to reload new primers onto cartridges after the new Springfields arrived at the fort until the final storage period. The Custer Road Dump Site yielded .45"-70 caliber cartridge casings from all layers between 1876-1895 dated on the basis of ceramic maker's marks. Model 1873 Springfields could have been loaded with the Van Choate, Morse or Phoenix cartridges recovered from the dump excavation (Brose 1967: 44-4 7; Logan 1 959: 141 ). The dump casings support the findings at the blacksmith shop excavation and indicate that the new Springfields reached Fort Mackinac soon after it was adopted. Company E of the 22nd Infantry arrived at Fort Mackinac in 187 4 and may have introduced the new weapon (Fort Mackinac Military Records Drawer No. 18; Grange 1996: 4). A .50" caliber Morse patented center-fire cartridge casing with a primer pocket in the head was recovered from MS3E1 M17 in a stratum outside the northern shop boundary. It was manufactured at the Frankford Arsenal in August of 1876 (Brose 1967: 45-47; Lewis 1972: 47) and was deposited stratigraphically below the storage .. period lot MS3E1 M09, which contained a 1st Regiment of Artillery button backmarked "ARMITAGE PHILa" (1802-1826) MS3E1 M16 was

PAGE 160

144 contiguous to MS3E1 M17 and contained the "SCOVILLS & CO." back marked button with an "A" in the shield device ( 1840-1850) The stratigraphy and mixing of chronologie materials in suboperation M at this level indicate a secondary digging and/or filling deposit, which disturbed the deposits outside the third shop and redeposited the 1876 Morse cartridge and other artifacts. Amber sherds from the squared body of a bitters bottle with beveled edges were found in MS3E1 G17. Patent medicines called "bitters" were made and sold from the late eighteenth century, throughout the nineteenth century and into the early twentieth century Basically flavored alcohol, bitters reached its peak of popularity in the U.S. when liquor was taxed as a result of the Revenue Act of 1862 (Watson 1965 : 13-16) The U.S. Army abolished its liquor ration in 1 832 during the time of Fort Mackinac's second blacksmith shop. After the onset of the Civil War, the manufacturers of patent medicines including Dr. Jacob Hostetter, urged the federal government to use their products for the military, arguing that bitters was better for the health of the troops than whiskey (Switzer 1974: 76-77). The bitters bottle sherds from MS3E1 G17 crossmended to reveal ... ACKET," "BIT ... ERS," "ENNET, Pl..., and ... ERS & Co. RED JACKET BITTERS bottles, measuring 9 1/2" x 2 3/4", are marked "RED JACKET /BITTERS" in two vertical lines on one side and "BENNETT, PIETERS & CO." on the other (Watson 1974 : 44, 183; Ring 1980: 393). The long tapered collar on the bottle neck matches the RED JACKET description as well. The 2 3/ 4" base with a large heavy "X" marking

PAGE 161

145 is pushed up like the base of the amber DB. J. HOSTETTER'S bitters bottle illustrated in the study of nineteenth century bottles from the Bertrand, a steamer sunk in the Missouri R i ver on April 1 1 86 5. The Bertrand contained commerc ial bottles common during the Civil War era (Switzer 1974: 34, 93) The Bertrand bottle base measures 2 7 /8" and is slightly larger than the RED JACKET base. BENNETT PIETERS & COS CELEBRATED RED JACKET STOMACH BITTERS was patented in 1864. Square amber bottles with 2 3/4" bases and long tapered necks are recorded by the Chicago Historical Society in 1860, by the Junction City Union (Kansas) in 1871 and by drug catalogues from 1871 until 1902 (Ring 1980: 393). The basal mark and historic evidence for the RED JACKET BITTERS bottle from the MS3E1 G17 provide a terminus post quem of 1860 for its manufacture. The stratigraphic context and historic evidence indicate that it was deposited dur ing the time of the third blacksmith shop operations period between 1858 and 1873. The strata deposited while the third blacksmith shop building was still standing contained art i facts from three dateable e p isodes : blacksmith operations ( 1858-c 1873) forge removal (c .1873-187 4) and storage shed activities (c 1873 c.1875). The strata from the interface and "subfloor" deposits within the per imeter of the shop contained chronologically mixed materials (1805-1865), which could have been deposited during the operations of any of the three blacksmith shops at the site. To summarize, Table 1 0 correlates the historical dating, strati g r aphy and archaeological dating

PAGE 162

Table 10. Correlation of Historical Periods, Stratigraphy and Archaeological Dates for the Third Shop Building Deposits (1858-c.1875) 146 Historical Dating Stratigraphy Archaeological Dating Storage Shed Gravel Storage Layer 1873-c.1875 Final Storage/ Demolition Stratum c.1873-c.187 5 Storage Deposits c.1873-c.1875 First Storage Stratum c.1873-1 874 Forge Removal Pits c.1873-1874 Blacksmith Operations Deposits Operations Blacksmith Shop 1858-1873 Floor Deposits 1858-c. 1 873 Interface with Earlier Shops 1805-1865 Subfloor c.1805-c 1 861 Artifact Groups in the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits Artifacts recovered from within the third blacksmith shop building can be categorized by functional categories with reference to the activities of the blacksmith. To facilitate intersite comparison with other blacksmith shop excavation sites, the functional categories developed by Roderick Sprague for 19th and 20th century historical sites were selected. The categories are: architectural, commerce and industry, transportation, domestic items, personal items and group services (Sprague 1980: 251-261 ). Fuel in the form of charcoal, coal and cinders pervades the assemblage from both the operations and storage period deposits.

PAGE 163

147 Although fuel reflects the functional use of the building for blacksmithing and for coal storage as discussed in Chapter 10, it was not included in the functional categories in Table 11. Based on historical, stratigraphic and chronological evidence, the artifacts from the interface deposits and from strata deposited during forge removal operations are recorded separately in Table 11 from those deposited in blacksmith operat ions and storage period strata. Table 11. Artifacts Recovered From Within the Third Blacksmith Shop Building FUNCTIONAL CATEGORY ARCHITECTURE Constructi on Material Construction Hardware COMMERCE & INDUSTRY Agriculture Hunting Fishing Trappin g Repair /Maintenance Construction Tools Blacksmithing Tools Miscellaneous Hardware Scrap Metal Slag Shipping /Storage Measurement Communications TRANSPORTATION Vehicles Husbandry INTERFACE OPERATIONS FORGE 1038 473 1 511 3 3 10 228 5 --249 .5_ 5 2459 1147 3606 2 9 19 8 1042 13 --1093 5: 4 Continued on next page. 1854 1917 100 26 1 --129 -0 STORAGE 1901 1815 3716 4 13 5 416 1 2 --442 1 1

PAGE 164

148 Table 11. (Continued) FUNCTIONAL CATEGORY INTERFACE OPERATIONS FORGE STORAGE DOMESTIC ITEMS Furnishings 2 Culinary 6 2 1 Gustatory 986 2612 807 2317 Portable Illumination 6 84 1 1 40 Home Information Sewing ---_2-----998 2698 818 236 2 PERSONAL ITEMS Clothing 14 30 3 28 Footwear 2 1 Adornment 1 Body Ritual/Grooming 2 Medical and Health 1 Indulgences 21 47 4 19 Pastimes and Recreation 1 1 Pocket Tools / Accessories -----38 81 8 49 GROUP SERVICES Military Defense 8 23 10 24 Penal 1_ ------9 23 10 24 TOTALS 2810 7507 2882 6595 The artifacts recovered from Fort Mackinac's third blacksmith shop include the items from the manufacture and repair of fort materials farriering and general domestic repair, but do not include trade related items. The artifact assemblage from the 1850s blacksmith shop at Fort Union, North Dakota and the blacksmith shop at Fort St Joseph, Ontario (1796-1812) include a diversity of artifacts from all the same categories but also include numerous trade and trapping items (Light 1984: 13-37 ; De Vore 1990: 9-12). A second blacksmith shop was excavated at Fort Union. Constructed in 1864 near the end of the fort's occupation, Fort Union's fourth blacksmith shop was located in the Indians' and Artisans' house. The

PAGE 165

149 primary use of the room for storage before the Army converted it to a smithy accounts for the high frequency of trade beads and other personal items in the assemblage Fort Union's fourth shop contained fewer items related to trapping and vehicle transportation than the 1850s shop (De Vore 1990: 1 5-20). The artifact categories are predictably similar to Fort Mackinac's third blacksmith shop, which was active for approximately 9 years, the majority of which were after the Civil War during the same period when Fort Union's fourth shop was built. Architecture Group Architectural debris included both construction materials and hardware, and is listed in the artifact catalogue in Appendix 2. The ratios of architectural materials to other artifacts without fuel frequencies were calculated and their horizontal distribution plotted on the excavation grid for suboperations from both the operations and storage period strata Recorded in Appendix 5, the ratios do not include the construction hardware. Construction materials recovered from the third blacksmith shop were predominantly fragments of brick, mortar, concrete, angular rock, wood, and window glass, and were probably used in the construction of the shop building. In addition, pieces of schist and granite were recovered from the interface, operations and forge removal strata; a few paint chips from the operations and forge

PAGE 166

150 removal strata; pieces of plaster from the forge removal strata; and a few fragments of slate from the interface strata. Architectural hardware from the third shop building may have been used in the construction of the shop, but also may represent blacksmith activities making the iron hardware for the repair of other fort buildings such as the nearby soldiers' barracks (Havighurst 1 966 : 185-186). The items include iron structural fragments of door and window hinges, door or window pulls, brackets, a thumb latch and pintles. The horizontal distribution of iron structural fragments is plotted in Appendix 6 for both the operations and storage period strata Sherds of a ceramic agateware doorknob and a variety of fasteners including nails (wire, cut and wrought), bolts, nuts, washers, wood screws and rivets were also among the architectural hardware recovered. A more detailed discussion of the nail assemblage is part of the nail study in Chapter 8. Commerce and Industry Group Items from the commerce and industry category were made or repaired by fort blacksmiths for the U.S. Army and soldiers garrisoned at the fort. No items indicative of trade with Native Americans (i.e., tinkling cones) or of trapping (i.e., trap springs) were recovered from the third shop building This is predictable since the fur trade in the Great Lakes came to an end in the mid1830s, and many Native Americans had been moved to western

PAGE 167

1 51 reservations during the period of the fort's previous blacksmith shop (Havighurst 1966: 168; Porter 1997). Small lead shot recovered from the operations and storage period strata are categorized as hunting artifacts (Grange 1 987 : 1 51). Scrap metal and slag as by products of the metalworking activities of the blacksmith were included in the commerce and industry category. "Smithy slag" recovered from the forge removal area (MS3E1 824 and MS3E1 828) is a waste material resulting from the use of a flux such as sand to remove scale from forged iron. The slag accretions are formed from iron oxides such as hammer scale with inclusions of ash, charcoal, cinder, earth, or melted pieces of the hearth lining (Light and Unglik 1987: 123). Scrap metal, identified as iron, brass or copper, was recovered from within the shop building. Predictably, the majority of metal fragments were deposited during the blacksmith operations period The scrap iron included pieces of wrought iron stock, the basic mater ial used by the blacksmith for hand forging The numerous thin brass or copper fragments were probably the excess material trimmed by the blacksmith during a process called brazing To join objects that were difficult to weld such as objects made of cast iron or high carbon steel, the blacksmith would heat the fractured surfaces, place the surfaces together adding a sand or borax flux and apply a copper alloy filler into the joint after melting The brazed object was allowed to cool in the dying fire, and the excess filler was trimmed (Light and Unglik 1987: 126-127) Before the third blacksmith shop was built in 1858, iron production had been steadily

PAGE 168

152 shifting from wrought iron to cast-iron (Pursell 1995: 63). This probably accounts for the many brass or copper fragments discarded within the shop. Pieces of pipe, chain link fencing and a metal fitting for a mop (MS3El U23) were the scrap metal fragments used for repair or maintenance. Miscellaneous hardware recovered included : wires, hook fragments, spikes and, from the operations period (MS3E1 H17), a complete bucket hook measuring 1 1 /2'. Pieces of metal barrel bands were recovered from the interface, operations, forge removal and storage strata They were categorized as shipping or storage but may have been part of the water barrel used for cooling heated metals during the blacksmith operations period. For this reason, the barrel band distribution from the operations period strata is plotted in Appendix 6. No pieces of carpenter's saws, axes, or wedges were identified from the third shop building. The 1871 and 1875 fort plans (Figures 13 and 1 5) label a carpenter's shop east of the fort, so carpenters tools may have been repaired by fort blacksmiths, but the tool fragments recovered from the third shop building were categorized as blacksmithing tools No complete tools were recovered, however, because blacksmithing operations were moved to the stone basement of the north blockhouse by 1873 (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873b). Any useful tools would have been removed. The blacksmithing tool assemblage included fragments of bellows tacks, a hardy, chisels, punches, awls, files and hot set chisels/creasers (Smith 1966: 1 1 2-120; Dunshee 1957: 26-27;

PAGE 169

153 Watson 1968). A ferrule ring from a prying tool was excavated from the final storage stratum, and several tangs from unidentifiable tools also were counted among the blacksmith tool fragments The majority of the iron tool fragments were recovered from the operations period strata, the horizontal distribution of which is plotted in Appendix 6. Transportation Group No vehicle parts or wheel hardware were identified for the transportation category, but 9 horseshoe nails and a harness buckle (MS3E1 S19) were categorized as husbandry and were recovered from the interface (5), operations (3) and storage (1) strata. The horizontal distribution of the horseshoe nails was plotted separately for the operations period and was plotted with the specialized nails for the storage period in Appendix 6. Domestic and Personal Groups Domestic and personal items from the operations and interface strata reflect personal activities and habits of fort blacksmiths as well as metalworking, repair and manufacturing activities within the shop. Culinary and gustatory items relate to food consumption and include metal items such as: pot fragments, knife handles (MS3E1 028 and MS3E1 J23), a knife blade (MS3E1 020), a spoon or fork handle fragment (MS3E1 T18), and a manufacturer's identification plate probably from a coffee mill (MS3E1 Q19). Clear,

PAGE 170

154 amber and olive glass sherds were distributed throughout the shop during the operations period (Appendix 6). Glass sherds were probably from bottles and jars filled with alcohol or cond i ments, but also could have been refilled by the blacksmith with acids or fluxes such as borax (De Vore 1990: 11; Light 1984: 59; Light and Unglik 1 987: 17). The glass assemblage from the operations period included : a hand-blown olive bottle neck with a spout (MS3E1 Q17) and a clear decanter stopper (MS3E1 020) as well as thin clear sherds from lanterns (portable illumination) Ceramic types recovered from operations strata inside the building include: plain and transfer-printed creamware; white, blue and yellow-glazed ironstone; plain and transfer-printed whiteware ; pearlware and porcelain. Ceram i c sherds from plates bowls, cups, thick serving dishes and brown and tan lead-glazed storage vessels were identified and are shown distributed throughout the shop in Appendix 6 (Brose 1967; Noel Hume 1970 ; Price 1979). Bones of cow, pig, fish, sheep, goat, turkey chicken, hare/rabbit, pigeon/dove, passenger pigeon and the common crow were identified from the operat i ons and interface strata and represent the diet of fort blacksmiths. Bone fragment frequencies are plotted in Appendix 6, and a study of sample bones is discussed in Chapter 9. Buttons were counted as personal items, although the origin of the buttons may have been from rags used in the blacksmith shop as well as from the clothing of blacksmiths and other fort personnel working within the building. Two fragments of iron boot heel cleats were the only remnants of footwear found (MS3E1 T22). Buttons of

PAGE 171

155 varying diameter and construction were made from bone, brass, glass, iron, pewter and porcelain. Unmarked and military issue buttons were part of the operations and interface assemblage as well as a 1 /2" gold metal button backmarked "plated." The personal indulgences category is composed entirely of tobacco pipe bowl and stem fragments, the horizontal distribution of which is plotted in Appendix 6 for the operations period. An amber Red Jacket Bitters Bottle (MS3E1 G17) is counted as personal medical and health, and a 1 /2" ceramic marble (MS3E1 N14) as personal pastimes and recreation. In addition to buttons, personal items from the forge strata included a black 1 I 4" facetted bead (adornment). From the interface strata personal items included: a silver jewelry fragment (adornment); a toothbrush head with staggered rows of holes (body ritual and grooming); and a fragment of a black rubber comb (body ritual and grooming). Domestic and personal items from the storage period reflect the activities from the soldiers' barracks and mess hall, which was constructed to the southwest of the third shop in c.1858-1859 (Quinn Evans 1994: 4 ) Culinary and gustatory items may represent food preparation or consumption, while the building was likely used to store beef for the mess kitchen and while it was used as a "receptacle for bones and refuse and probably for worse uses" (Porter 1995 : 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873b:1 31 4; 1 875a) A pot fragment (MS3E1 814) was recovered from the culinary category and a tin can key opener (MS3E1 G05) from the final storage stratum in the gustatory category Amber, clear, green,

PAGE 172

156 olive and white milk glass sherds were deposited during the storage shed period, and probably represent broken alcohol and condiment bottles and jars. The glass assemblage from the storage period include: two clear glass rod fragments (MS3E1 N09 and MS3E1 N11) and a clear bottle neck with molded seam (MS3E1G14) as well as thin clear sherds from lanterns (portable illumination). Ceramic types recovered from storage strata within the shop include: plain and transfer-printed creamware; white blue and transfer-printed ironstone; plain and transfer-printed whiteware; pearlware and porcelain. Ceramic sherds from dinner plates and cups, as well as brown and tan lead-glazed storage vessels were identified (Brose 1967; Noel Hume 1970; Price 1979). A porcelain cup handle with a fluted spur (MS3E 1 B 18) and the neck of a tan lead-glazed ginger beer bottle (MS3E1 T11) were part of the ceramic assemblage from the storage period. Table 12. Storage Vessel Sherds Recovered From Within the Third Blacksmith Shop Building LOT NUMBER CONTEXT COUNT MS3E1D20 OPERATIONS 2 MS3E1R11 OPERATIONS 1 3 MS3E1A26 FORGE REMOVAL 3 MS3E1B24 FORGE REMOVAL z_ 5 MS3E1811 STORAGE 1 MS3E1C07 STORAGE 1 MS3E1GOS STORAGE 1 MS3E1M09 STORAGE 2 MS3E1 P06 STORAGE 1 MS3E1S06 STORAGE 1 MS3E1TOS STORAGE 1 MS3E1T07 STORAGE 1 9

PAGE 173

Table 12 lists the storage vessel sherd count recovered from within the third shop building. The increase of storage vessel 157 sherds after the blacksmith operations had ceased and the forge was removed supports the hypothesis that the building was used as a storage shed for the nearby barracks kitchen However the increase and distribution of sherds throughout the building may be indicative of refuse deposition, not food storage. Bones of cow pig, fish, sheep and hare/rabbit were identified from the storage period strata and represent the diet of fort soldiers prepared in the barracks kitchen Bone fragment frequencies are plotted in Appendix 6 and a study of sample bones is discussed in Chapter 9. A safety pin (MS3E1 A 11) and a brass straight pin (MS3E1 TO?) were counted as domestic sewing items, and 2 metal trunk plates (MS3E1 G16) were the domestic furnishing items deposited during the storage period. Personal items recovered included one iron boot heel cleat (MS3E1 G1 6) and buttons of varying size and construction. Bone, brass, ceramic, glass, metal, porcelain, rubber and shell buttons included unmarked and military issue samples as well as a 3/4" black rubber button with a impressed Goodyear patent date of 1851 (MS3E1 T1 1 ). Three buckles also were identified as personal items, possibly from the straps on military issue clothing or equipment (Ordnance Memoranda No. 19 1875: 59-70) Bowl and stem pipe fragments and metal tobacco plugs were counted in the personal indulgences category, and a 5/8" ceramic marble (MS3E1 G1 6) was recovered from the personal pastimes and recreation category.

PAGE 174

158 Group Services Group Group services included artifacts categorized as penal and military defense items. One iron shackle fragment recovered from the interface (MS3E1 Q1 5) was counted as a penal item and was probably discarded from metalworking or repair within the shop. An escutcheon (MS3E1 028) also was recovered from the interface, along with a frizzen and two lock plates (MS3E1 T22) from the operations period strata. By the mid-1 840s when the previous blacksmith shop was operating at the site fully interchangeable muskets and rifles were in production at the national armories, and the craftsmanship and handwork required to complete a musket were no longer needed at the fort (Adams 1996: 148-149; Shackel 1996: 160). In 1858, the same year in which the third shop was built, the U.S. government began converting muzzle-loading rifles into breechloaders at the federal armory at Harper's Ferry (Petersen 1964: 244 ). These few gun parts probably represent the last vestiges of gunsmithing and musket repair by fort blacksmiths. Also counted under military defense, the ammunition assemblage included fragments of cartridges, musket balls, gunflints and cast lead bullets. As already discussed, the lead shot recovered was categorized under hunting. However, the horizontal distribution of ammunition and gun parts for the operations period and of ammunition for the storage period are plotted in Appendix 6 and include lead shot as well. The artifact assemblage recovered from within Fort Mackinac's third blacksmith shop includes personal and domestic items and by products from the manufacture and repair of fort mater ials,

PAGE 175

159 farriering and general domestic repair Functional categories can be used with ethnographic information to ascertain the shop layout as seen in Chapter 10.

PAGE 176

CHAPTER 8. NAIL STUDY Nails From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Strata The machine cut nail, invented between 1780 and 1790, was inferior to the wrought nail which was not perfected until the 160 1 830s. An 1841 order of both nail rod for handwrought nails and assorted machine-made cut nails for the Quartermaster's Stores marks the changepoint to the use of cut nails at Fort Mackinac during the time of the second blacksmith shop (Porter 1995: 11; Quartermaster Stores, Fort Mackinac 1841 ). Hand-wrought nails were slowly displaced by machine-made cut nails. Cut nails were displaced in turn by machine-made wire nails by the 1890s (Frurip 1983: 45-46; Loveday 1 979: 2). Nail frequencies in Table 13 include wire, cut and hand-wrought nails and nail fragments recovered from strata deposited when the third blacksmith shop building was still standing and from strata deposited after the building was razed Table 13. Frequencies of Nail Manufacture Types Recovered From MS3E1 STRATIGRAPHIC CONTEXT WIRE CUT WROUGHT TOTAL POST SHOP DEPOSITS MODERN PARK 197 194 6 397 BROWN WITH GRAVEL 655 757 8 1420 1817 SHOP 3 BUILDING DEPOSITS STORAGE 145 1769 79 1993 OPERATIONS 15 1866 332 2213 4206

PAGE 177

161 A decrease in nail frequencies at the site after the shop was dismantled is indicated by the approximate 0.43 ratio of the total post shop nails recovered to total shop 3 building nails. Predictably, hand-wrought nail frequencies are higher in the third shop building strata than in the post shop building strata. The approximate ratio of 0.03 between hand-wrought post shop building nails and hand wrought third shop building nails shows the rapid decrease of blacksmithing nail activity at the site. Ratios between the nail frequencies of different manufacture types show the transition in the use of hand-wrought to cut to wire nails at the fort. Ratios of wire to cut nails and of cut to wrought nails in Table 14 indicate the increasing use of wire and cut nails and the decreasing use of wrought nails. If the blacksmith's metalworking activity was divided equally between cut and wrought nails during the operation of the third blacksmith shop, then the ratio of cut to wrought nails would be approximately 1.00 (1 cut nail for every wrought nail). If cut nails were used more, then the ratio would be greater than 1.00; and if wrought nails were more important, the ratio would be less than 1.00. The nails and fragments left behind as by-products of blacksmith activities probably would reflect similar ratios. Clearly, the approximate ratio of cut to wrought nails (5.621) during the operation of the third blacksmith shop reflects a greater use of cut nails, which increases during the storage shed period and into the post shop period

PAGE 178

Table 14. Ratios Between Nail Manufacture Types Recovered From MS3E1 STRATIGRAPHIC CONTEXT MODERN PARK BROWN WITH GRAVEL SHOP 3 BUILDING DEPOSITS STORAGE OPERATIONS WIRE/CUT 1 .016 .875 .082 .008 CUT /WROUGHT 32.333 94.625 22 .392 5.621 Study of Nails From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Strata 162 A study of nails from strata identified as belonging to the period of the third blacksmith shop building was conducted after the 1995 field season, and then expanded after the 1996 field season, when stratigraphic interpretations were altered Approximately 38.91% (N= 1 ,640) were studied from a final total of 4,21 5 nails and nail fragments recovered from deposits identified as contemporary with the third shop building. The type of nail manufacture (wire, cut, wrought) was noted and specific attributes were studied which included the type of head on each nail (or absence of a head) and the condition of the nail (broken or complete). From the broken and unbroken nails, the condition of the shafts (unaltered, pulled or clinched) was examined The 1995 nail study also included the identification of nail sizes (Fontana 1965: 90-92). Based on historic, stratigraphic and chronologie evidence, the sample was d i vided into four groups for further analysis and interpretation. The frequency of nails from the final storage (demolition) stratum, the storage strata deposited after the removal of the forge, the

PAGE 179

163 operations strata deposited before the removal of the forge and the interface stratum with an earlier shop are listed in Table 15. Table 15. Nails Studied From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits CONTEXT INSIDE OUTSIDE TOTAL FINAL STORAGE ( 1 51) (7) 158 STORAGE 1045 75 1120 OPERATIONS STRATA 284 9 293 INTERFACE WITH EARLIER SHOP 51 18 1640 In her ethnoarchaeological study of nineteenth century nail deposits, Amy Young (1994) used the ratio of unaltered, pulled and clinched nails to distinguish between patterns of nail alteration left at a building demolition site and at a building material disposal site Through informant observation and interview Young noted that unaltered nails are dropped during the construction of a building, and pulled nails are dropped during the razing of a building. Dismantling a wooden building involves pulling individual nails, entire boards or building sections with a claw hammer or crowbar, leaving higher percentages of nails curved from the prying action. Few clinched nails (bent at approximately 90 degrees to increase their holding power) enter the archaeological record during the demolition of a building, because they must be straightened in order to pry them loose and, therefore, would be identified as pulled nails. Nails sticking out of detached boards may be clinched over for safety reasons before being transported to a disposal area, resulting in a higher percentage of clinched nails at building material disposal

PAGE 180

164 sites as the lumber deteriorates. However, as Young points out, other processes may account for high frequencies of nails in the archaeological record such as the dumping of usable lumber at a site to be salvaged for later repairs (Young 1994: 56-57). Headless and broken nails also would be part of a nail signature pattern of the dismantling of a building However, Young does not include the frequencies of broken nails in her study of building demolition. After statistical analysis, Young concluded that the critical factor in distinguishing between the physical forces which alter or damage nails in either of the two signature patterns is the frequency of unaltered nails in relation to those which were pulled from the wood and to those which are clinched. According to Amy Young's study, buildings torn down by hand show frequencies of three unaltered and three pulled nails to every one clinched nail in a 3 :3:1 ratio. Building material disposal sites exhibit a 1 :3:1 ratio ( 1994: 58). Although Young's nail signature pattern was derived from assemblages deposited around nineteenth century civilian houselots these "ephemeral" wood buildings built on pier stones provide a good predictive model for the nail signature of the final deposits associated with the wooden building (Photograph 9) which housed Fort Mackinac's third blacksmith shop, the only structural remains of which were its square cornerstones (Figure 20). Nails From the Final Building Stratum Since the third blacksmith shop building was demolished after

PAGE 181

165 the deposition of the final stratum, which encompassed the dripline from its gabled roof, nails from the dismantling operation would have been deposited both inside and outside the building perimeter Therefore, nails from interior and exterior space were initially analyzed together. Of the 158 nails studied from the final building stratum, 3 5 were wire, 11 0 were cut and 1 3 were wrought. Approximately 53.80% (n=85) were broken and 46 20% (n=73) were complete nails, which sorted into 22 unaltered, 43 pulled and 8 clinched. The complete nails in the final storage stratum exhibit approximately a 3:5:1 ratio (3 unaltered and 5 pulled to every 1 clinched nail), indicat ing the introduction of more pulled nails from a process other than demolition in or around the building The high frequency of broken nails in the final storage stratum indicates that the salvaging of lumber probably added to the higher frequency of pulled nails with a demolition ratio of 11:3:5:1 (11 broken, 3 unaltered and 5 pulled to every 1 clinched nail). Chi-Square Tests of Nails From the Final Building Stratum Using Young's nail signature patterns of 3:3 : 1 for dismantled buildings and 1 :3:1 for building material disposal sites, a chi-square test for goodness of fit was performed between these two signature patterns and the frequency distribution of complete nails studied from the final storage stratum, after which the building was torn down and removed. There is no historical or archaeological evidence of a subsequent building on the site after the shop's demolition, and

PAGE 182

166 the undisturbed even distribution of the final stratum within the building perimeter indicates that the lumber was removed from the building and the brown with gravel layer spread across the area soon after its demolition. Therefore, there should be no significant difference between the final storage stratum nails and Young's dismantled building signature pattern, but there should be a significant difference between the final stratum nails and Young's building disposal site signature pattern. Predictably, the results of the chi-square tests showed a significant difference between these nails and those from Young's building material disposal sites (chi square=6. 7 5, df=2, p<.025 ). However, there was a greater difference between these nails and those from Young's dismantled buildings (chi-square= 7. 71, df=2, p<.01 ). The high frequency of broken nails indicative of lumber salvaging operations, may account for the higher frequency of pulled nails in specific locations in or around the shop. Therefore, chi-square goodness of fit tests were performed separately on nails from outside the building perimeter and from inside the building perimeter. Sample nails deposited outside the building perimeter in the final storage stratum (n=30) included 6 wire, 24 cut and no wrought nails. Approximately 56.57% (n=17) were broken and 43 33% (n=13) were complete, which separated into 5 unaltered, 7 pulled and 1 clinched. When a chi-square test for goodness of fit was performed between Young's two signature patterns and the nails sampled from outside the shop building, the Yates Correction for Continuity was used,

PAGE 183

167 because some expected frequencies were less than 5. The tests showed that the outside nails were not significantly different from either of Young's signature patterns. The outside nail signature is close to the signature of building material disposal sites (chi square=l .94, df=2 p<. 1 ), and even closer to the signature from dismantled buildings (chi-square=.26, df=2, p<.1 ). This demonstrates that the process introducing a h i gher frequency of pulled nails into the demolition stratum of the building was not occurring in the area outside the building perimeter Nails sampled from inside the building perimeter in the final storage stratum (n=l 04) included 5 wire, 86 cut and 1 3 wrought. Approximately 42 31% (n=44) were broken and 57.69% (n=GO) were complete, dividing into 17 unaltered, 36 pulled and 7 clinched The chi-square test for goodness of fit was performed between Young's two signature patterns and the interior nails sampled from the shop building. The interior nail signature was significantly different from the material disposal sites signature (chi-square=5.04, df=2, p<.05) and even more different from the dismantled building signature (chi-square= 7. 75, df=2, p<.Ol ). However, the results of the chi-square tests clearly indicate that the process introducing a higher frequency of pulled nails into the demolition stratum of the building was occurring within the building. Nail Ratios From the Final Building Stratum For undisturbed lots in each suboperation, nail ratios can be used

PAGE 184

168 to test for the process which introduced more pulled nails into the final building stratum Nails from the final building stratum (N=261) made up approximately 4 5 7% of the total artifacts collected (N=5,703) An approximate ratio of 0.048 indicates the covariation of nails with the other artifacts (N=5,442). However, concentrations of fuel in the form of cinders coal and charcoal (N=4 ,620) pervade the total artifact assemblage in an approximate ratio of 4 : 1 The horizontal distribution of the ratios of fuel to total artifacts is plotted for each suboperation on the excavation grid in Appendix 5 To remove the masking effects of the fuel category and to present a more accurate picture of activities involving nails within the shop, the overall ratio of 0.31 75 of the nail frequency to other artifacts without fuel frequencies (n=822) is more illustrative. All artifact analysis will be based on the exclusion of fuel in the tabulations. Because the third blacksmith shop building was deteriorating, "little used" and a "nuisance" by 187 5, Post Surgeon Dr. J. V. DeHanne wanted it "cleaned out and nailed up" (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1875a). DeHanne complained three months later when it was serving as a "receptacle for bones and refuse and probably for worse uses" (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1875a; 1879b) An estimate of repairs during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1875 lists 350 feet of flooring 850 feet of siding and 2500 feet of lath needed to repair the wood and waterhouse keyed in as #19 to the 1875 fort plan (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the War Department 1875) It isn't likely that the shop

PAGE 185

169 building was completely repaired and then torn down soon afterwards. However, it is probable that some temporary repairs and/or alterations were made to the building as it was deteriorating. The number of pulled nails deposited inside the building may have increased as parts of the structure were pried loose and new boards were hammered into place before it was dismantled c.1875 Architectural materials recovered from the final building stratum include: brick, mortar, plaster and concrete fragments, angular rock, metal staples, slivers of wood and sherds of window glass. The ratio of the frequency of architectural materials (N=373) to other artifacts is 0 53. For each suboperation, the ratios of architectural material to other artifacts were calculated and their horizontal distribution plotted on the excavation grid in Appendix 5. Also for each suboperation, nail ratios to other artifacts and to architectural materials were calculated and plotted (Appendix 5). The ratios of nails to architectural materials inside the building are consistently high, ranging from 0 .59 to 4.00 and indicate the repair and/or demolition activity within the perimeter of building, predicted by the historic documentation. Outside ratios show a wider variation from 0 00 to 5.00 with nails concentrated in deposits associated with the east overhang and south window shutter dripline. No window is shown on the east side of the building in the post Civil War photograph (Photograph 9) or on the 1874 sketch (Figure 14 ). However, a shuttered window is on the south side of the 187 4

PAGE 186

170 sketch of the building. Window glass sherds to nail ratios recorded in Appendix 5 may be used to locate windows, which may have been pried out of place and salvaged for reuse. Window glass sherds to nail ratios verify the south window in suboperation E (0.80) and indicate a second window located near suboperation G (0.84) on the west side of the building. Little evidence of wood from the structure or from possible wood-working activity within the shop was recovered from the final shop demolition layer. The overall ratio of slivers of wood recovered (N=60) to the other artifacts is 0.06. The ratios of wood fragments to nails are plotted in Appendix 5 with the highest ratios in the northeast quadrant of the shop, and the lowest in the southeast quadrant, where no wood was recovered. Predictably, there was little evidence of scrap metal from possible metal working activity within the shop in the final shop demolition layer. The overall ratio of scrap metal and iron (N=53) to other artifacts is 0.05 The approximate scrap metal to nail frequency ratios within the shop are all low, ranging from 0 to 0.22 with a high exception in suboperation N (0.90). (See Appendix 5.) Therefore, no nail activities within the shop can be inferred from the wood/nail ratios or from scrap metal/nail ratios. Nail Sizes Studied From the Final Building Stratum Of the 66 sized nails examined from the interior of the shop in the demolition layer, 7 were clinched, 40 pulled and 1 9 unaltered

PAGE 187

171 Pulled nails included samples which measured: 3d (6), 4d (11 ), 6d (7), 7d (2), 8d (1 0), 1 Od (3) and 16d (1 ) According to Coit R Marshall, an experienced carpenter for 50 years (Personal Communication 1998), the size of nails selected is directly related to the width of the boards used in the construction of a building. 8d nails would have been the possible size used by fort carpenters to install the clapboard siding shown on the third shop building in Photograph 9. Small nails measuring 3d or 4d could be used for lathing, 6d or 7d for window or door trim, 8d for rough siding or flooring, and 1 Od or 16d for framing. The sized pulled nails from the interior of the building indicate the prying of boards from its walls and frame either during the demolition of the building or from a repair/alteration operation. When considered with the results of the chi-square tests, the historic documentation and the horizontal distribution of artifact ratios, the nail evidence shows that repair or alteration of the interior of the building and/or the salvaging of materials at the site are the most likely processes to introduce a higher frequency of pulled nails into the demolition stratum. Nails From the Storage Period Strata Sample nails recovered from deposits inside and outside the building perimeter while it was still in use as a storage shed were analyzed together to compare with Young's nail signature patterns and with the signature pattern of the building demolition stratum above. Of the 1,120 nails studied from interior/exterior storage

PAGE 188

172 period strata 62 were wire, 991 were cut and 67 were wrought. Approximately 57.59% (n=645) were broken and 42.41% (n=475) were complete, which included 170 unaltered, 266 pulled and 39 cli nched The storage strata exhibit appr o x imately a 4:7:1 ratio of complete nails ( 4 unaltered and 7 pulled to eve r y 1 clinched nail) and a 17:4:7: 1 ratio of total nails (17 broken, 4 unaltered and 7 pulled to every 1 clinched nail). Chi-square Tests of Nails From the Storage Period Strata Using Young's 3:3 : 1 nail signature for dismantled buildings, her 1:3:1 for building material d i sposal sites and the 3 : 5 : 1 ratio of the blacksmith shop demolition stratum chi-square tests for goodness of fit were performed on the frequency d i stribution of complete nails sampled from the storage period strata Since the building was still standing when the nails were deposited in the storage period strata there should be a s igni ficant difference between the storage period nails and all three signature patterns Indeed the high chi-square value between these nails and those from Young's dismantled buildings (ch i -square=42 .64) and the even greater value between them and those from Young' s building mater ial disposal sites (chi-square=114 .86) demonstrate that the nail signature pattern from the storage period deposits i s not ind i cative of dismantling or of building mater ial disposal processes There was also a s i gnif i cant difference between these nails and the blacksmith shop demolition layer (chi-square=5 69 df=2 p<.05). Therefore

PAGE 189

173 nails recovered from inside and outside the building perimeter while it was used as a storage shed were analyzed separately to uncover the process which may have introduced more unaltered and pulled nails to the sample. Of the 1 ,045 nails studied from interior storage strata, 61 were wire, 919 were cut and 65 were wrought. Approximately 57.23% (n=598) were broken and 42.78% (n=447) sorted into 155 unaltered, 256 pulled and 36 clinched. Nails from outside storage deposits also were studied. The 75 exterior nails included 1 wire, 72 cut and 2 wrought. Approximately 62 67% (n=47) were broken and 37 33% (n=28) were complete, which sorted into 15 unaltered, 1 0 pulled and 3 clinched. The ratio of complete nails collected from inside the building was 4:7:1 ( 4 unaltered and 7 pulled to every 1 clinched nail), and 5:3:1 ( 5 unaltered and 3 pulled to every 1 clinched nail) from outside. The high numbers of unaltered and pulled nails from interior and exterior space indicate a possible repair/alteration process. Therefore, chi-square test for goodness of fit was performed between nail frequencies from interior storage period strata and from the demolition interior stratum. A chi-square test for goodness of fit also was performed on frequencies between storage period exterior nails and demolition exterior nails, using the Yates Correction for continuity, because expected frequencies of exterior storage nails were less than five. The test indicates a significant difference in signature ratios between storage interior nails and demolition interior nails (chi-square=5.65, df=2, p<.05), but no

PAGE 190

174 significant difference between storage exterior nails and demolition exterior nails (chi-square=4.39, df=2, p<. l ). In fact, the exterior nails showed no significant difference in another chi-square goodness of fit test performed with the nail signature of Young's dismantled building (chi-square=. 73, df=2, p<.l ), while the interior nails showed a significant difference from the dismantled building signature (chi-square=46.41, df=2, p>.OOS). The high numbers of unaltered and pulled nails from the interior of the building during its use as a storage shed may indicate building repair/alteration process similar to the demolition stratum above. Pulled nails may have entered the strata when parts of the building were pried loose or torn out, and unaltered nails may have been dropped when new parts of the building were installed or constructed. Therefore, the chi-square test for independence was performed for the interior nails studied from the storage period strata and the interior nails from final storage/demolition stratum above to determine whether repair or alteration to the building accounts for the frequencies of unaltered, pulled and clinched nails in each layer. The test results showed a significant relationship between the process determining the nail frequencies of the two layers (chi square= 1. 51, df=4, p<.l ) Therefore nail to artifact ratios can be used to test for a repair I alteration process. Nail Ratios From the Storage Period Strata As in the final storage/demolition stratum above, the storage

PAGE 191

175 period strata were pervaded with fuel in the form of cinders, coal and charcoal (N=40,962), comprising approximately 81% of the artifact assemblage from the storage layer. In fact, like the demolition stratum, the approximate ratio of fuel to all other artifacts is 4:1. Therefore, to remove the masking effects of the fuel category, the ratios of artifact frequencies to total artifacts without fuel frequencies (n=9,497) were used to further test for nail activities within the building. All artifact analysis will be based on the exclusion of fuel in the tabulations It is tenable to conclude that the building had a forge around which Private William Bowman could perform his duties beginning in 1871. However, Bowman also may have used a portable forge like the one maintained after the Civil War by the U .S. Army at Fort Wilkins near Copper Harbor on Michigan's upper peninsula (Martin et al. 1 993: 1 38). Bowman's blacksmith duties were significantly reduced by 1 873, the same year in which blacksmith operations were moved to the blockhouse and the third shop building began functioning as a beef storage shed. In 187 4, the final year of Bowman's work as a blacksmith at the fort, the shop appears in a sketch, which clearly does not include the chimney. Evidence of the forge removal appears in the large intrusive pits in the northern part of the shop (Figures 18 and 20), in the ratios of brick fragments to other architectural fragments (Appendix 5) and in the frequency of yellow firebrick fragments (18) in the storage period strata, which is higher than in the building demolition stratum above ( 1 ). The chronologie materials deposited in the forge removal operations

PAGE 192

176 verify the brick forge until after 1873 (Table 1 0). Traces of Private Bowman's blacksmith activities may be found in both the operations period strata before the forge was removed and in the storage period strata after its removal. Architectural materials comprise approximately 1 8 04% of the total artifacts recovered from the storage period strata within the building and include : a staple angular rock, pieces of mortar and plaster red and yellow brick fragments, slivers of wood and sherds of window glass Nails comprise approximately 17. 13% and were recovered in an overall ratio to architectural materials of 0.95. With the exception of fuel and bone fragments from the storage activities inside the building, architectural materials and nails had the highest frequencies and probably are related to the alteration and repair of the building The ratios of nail and arch i tectural materials to other artifacts are plotted in Appendix 5 for the storage period strata inside the building Approximately 46% of the architectural materials (N=1 ,713) from the storage strata within the building are brick fragments (N= 794 ) The horizontal distribution of brick fragments to other architectural materials in Appendix 5 verifies the forge removal operation with higher ratios in suboperations A (2.71 ), B (1. 98) and C (0.84), where the forge was located (Figure 20) High brick to architectural ratios are also in suboperations J (1.33) K (1. 00) and P (1.00) in the southeast quadrant of the shop and in suboperation S (6 77) in the southwest corner which also had the highest ratio of brick fragments to other artifacts (0. 79) The ratios of architectural

PAGE 193

177 materials to other artifacts are also high in suboperations A (0.69) and S (1.03). To test for a repair/alteration process related to nails, the ratios of nails to architectural materials were plotted and compared. The ratios of nails to brick fragments are high over the forge removal area in suboperations A (2.38), B (1.86), C (1.91) and in suboperations J (0.91) and K (1 .SO) adjacent to suboperation C to the east. This indicates that the distribution of nails may have been related to brick removal, perhaps during the destruction of the forge and repair or alteration to the surrounding frame structure of the building when the forge and chimney were removed. However, they also may have been dropped as a by-product of blacksmith nail activities around the forge during the operations period and were mixed into the storage strata after the shop floor was removed. Suboperation S, in the southwest corner of the shop has the highest ratio of 3. 70. This may indicate an area of alteration to the shop or an area where refuse from the forge removal operation was piled while repairs were made to the building structure. The ratios of nails to architectural materials could support either conjecture about the southwest shop corner with the lowest ratios in suboperations A (0.31) and B (0. 3 6) over the forge area and in suboperation S (0.24). High ratios in suboperations T (0.92) and D (4.03) to the north of suboperation S, in suboperations G (2.94) and U (2.79) adjacent to the forge area to the west and in suboperations C (0.87), J (0.63) and R (1.0) to the south of the forge area, could support either conjecture as well. However, the highest ratios in

PAGE 194

178 the northwest and southeast corners of the shop indicate a nail activity most likely related to alteration and repair of the building introducing a higher frequency of unaltered and pulled nails into the storage strata. Window glass sherds to nail ratios were used to locate windows, which may have been pried out of place during the alteration of the building Window glass sherds to nail ratios recorded in Appendix 5 reveal the possible location of a window in the northeast quadrant of the building. The highest ratios in suboperations A (0. 50), B (0.54 ), M ( 1.49) and N (0.58) indicate that the window might have been located on the north or east sides of the building and was demolished and/or salvaged after the forge was removed. The most likely location of a window is in the north facade, since no window is shown on the east side in the post Civil War Photograph (Photograph 9) or on the 187 4 sketch of the building (Figure 14 ). The high ratio of window glass sherds to other architectural materials in suboperation Q (0.88) verifies the window in the 1874 sketch. The iron hinge recovered from MS3E1 A 18 and the cast hardware used to pull a door or window recovered from MS3E1 809 may be fragments deposited by the dismantling of a window near the north facade. (See Appendix 6.) The ratios of window glass sherds to other architectural materials (Appendix 5) also support this location with the highest ratios calculated for suboperations U (3.67) and M ( 1. 77) along the north facade. The high window glass to nail ratios in suboperations R (1.0) and K (1.50) involve very small glass and

PAGE 195

179 nail counts of 5 or less, compared to samples in suboperations B, M and N, which are greater than 32. The 1875 fort plan (Figure 1 5) labels a carpenter's shop east of the fort and refers to the third shop building as a wood and water house. The wood stored in the building may have been the logs for wood-burning stoves or may have been boards used for projects within the fort. The little-used building would have been a convenient place to store or salvage lumber during the repair of other nearby buildings within the fort. Both unaltered and pulled nails may have entered the archaeological record as a by-product of such woodworking and carpentry activities temporarily housed within the building. The overall ratio of wood fragments to other artifacts is 0.04 and to other architectural materials is 0.23. Although the sample is small, woodworking activity in the storage strata may be indicated by the high ratios of wood fragments to nails in suboperations C (0.56), N (0.63) and T (0.52) This supports the idea of alteration and repair to the building or of other woodworking activities performed in the northwest and southeast corners of the shop. Alteration and repair to the building also is indicated by the ratios of nails to architectural materials in these suboperations. The overall ratio of scrap metal to other artifacts is approximately 0.05. Traces of metalworking may represent the last vestiges of blacksmithing within the building, indicated by the small nails protruding from a metal strip recovered from MS3E1 H17. A nail activity related to metalworking was tested by the ratios of

PAGE 196

180 scrap metal to nails plotted in Appendix 5. Although the sample, like the sample of wood slivers, is small, high ratios were calculated in suboperations N (0.79), T (0.43) and U (0.90) and are probably residual from blacksmith operations deposits below. The high ratios in suboperations K (0.5) and R (0.8), however, were derived from scrap metal counts of less than 5, and when considered with the low ratio in the adjacent suboperation J (0.06), the small counts in K and R indicate that very little metalworking activity took place in that area of the building. Wrought nails and fragments, which might indicate traditional blacksmith nail activity only made up 3 85% of the nail assemblage from the storage strata (Table 13). Within the building 95 specialized nails which could possibly demonstrate nail working activity included : 67 wrought nails/fragments 1 horseshoe nail, 2 bellows tacks and 2 5 lead coated nails Their specific distributions are plotted in Appendix 6 and show a concentration in suboperations G and C in the middle of the building These areas do not match the areas with high scrap metal to nail ratios. This indicates that traditional blacksmith metalworking was not performed in the building when it was being used for storage. Scrap metal fragments probably entered the deposits through another process, perhaps from refuse disposal or from some mixing with the operations strata beneath. Nail Sizes Studied From the Storage Period Strata Of the 343 complete nails sized from interior storage period

PAGE 197

181 strata, 94 were unaltered; 228 were pulled; and 21 were clinched. According to Coit R. Marshall (Personal Communication 1998), depending on the sizes of the boards, the sized nails could have been used for lathing, door or window trim, rough siding, flooring, framing and rafters or joists. Table 16. Possible Uses of Sized Nails From Storage Period Strata NAIL SHAFT PULLED UNALTERED PULLED CLINCHED UNALTERED PULLED CLINCHED UNALTERED PULLED CLINCHED PULLED UNALTERED PULLED CLINCHED UNALTERED PULLED CLINCHED UNALTERED PULLED CLINCHED UNALTERED PULLED PULLED UNALTERED PULLED SIZE 2d 3d 3d 3d 4d 4d 4d 6d 6d 6d 7d 8d 8d 8d 10d 10d 10d 12d 12d 12d 16d 20d 30d 40d 40d QUANTITY 1 12 23 1 26 48 _5_ 11 6 1 34 .s_ 41 1 15 68 .s_ 89 19 37 3 1 5 8 z_ 84 5 2 3 1 z_ 13 POSSIBLE USE LATHING LATHING LATHING LATHING LATHING LATHING LATHING DOOR/WINDOW TRIM DOOR/WINDOW TRIM DOOR/WINDOW TRIM SIDING/FLOORING SIDING/FLOORING SIDING/FLOORING S IDING/FLOORING FRAMING FRAMING FRAMING FRAMING FRAMING FRAMING RAFTERS/ JOISTS RAFTERS/ JOISTS RAFTERS/ JOISTS RAFTERS/ JOISTS RAFTERS/ JOISTS A total of 309 unaltered and pulled nails studied may have entered the deposits as by-products of alterations to the building

PAGE 198

182 walls or flooring. Pulled nails, the likely by-products of the dismantling of sections of the building included: 1 07 lathing and door/window trim samples, 69 siding or flooring samples, 45 framing samples and 7 from possible rafters or joists. Unaltered nails, possibly by-products of the installation of new sections to the building, included 39 lathing and door/window trim samples, 39 siding or flooring samples, 24 framing samples and 6 samples from possible rafters or joists. Unaltered or pulled nails may have entered the archaeological record as the by-products of other activities within the building The little-used building may have been a convenient place to store cut nails used to repair other buildings within the fort. Cut nails were ordered for the Quartermaster's Stores since the time of the second blacksmith shop (Porter 1995: 11; Quartermaster Stores, Fort Mackinac 1 841) and were a large part of the nail assemblage from the third blacksmith shop operations and storage period deposits (Table 13). Pulled nails may have been the deposited as a result of salvaged lumber temporarily stored inside during the repair of other fort buildings in close proximity. When considered with the results of the chi-square tests, the historic evidence and the horizontal distribution of artifact ratios, the nail evidence shows that repair/alteration of the building is the most likely process to introduce the higher frequencies of unaltered and pulled nails into the storage strata. However, some nails could have been deposited along with scrap metal fragments and some may

PAGE 199

have been the by-products of lumber salvaging woodworking unrelated to the structure of the building. Nails From the Blacksmith Operations Period Strata 183 Some of the nails recovered from the blacksmith operations strata indicate the traditional nail activities of blacksmithing The manufacture of horseshoe nails has long been a part of the metalworking tradition of blacksmithing. Only 2 9 horseshoe nails were recovered from the third blacksmith shop deposits 26 from outside the building and 3 from inside the shop (See Appendix 6 ) Given the small size of the shop, horseshoe nails may have been made or altered within the shop and horses shoed outside in areas to the east and south, where the majority of the horseshoe nails were recovered. The east side of the shop is located near the north sally port, through which horses could be lead The area directly to the south of the building is open as depicted in the 187 4 sketch (Figure 14) and would have been a convenient area to restra i n and shoe horses. A total of 233 complete hand-wrought nails were recovered from blacksmith operations strata inside (n= 122) and outside (n= 111) the shop perimeter. The horizontal distribution of wrought nail frequencies for each suboperation is plotted in Appendix 6 The high frequency in suboperation C is adjacent to the west of the anvil area in suboperation J and correlates with the relatively high 0.42 ratio of wrought nails to scrap iron in suboperation C (See Appendix 5 )

PAGE 200

184 This distribution may be interpreted as an indicator that the blacksmith dropped or discarded nails as he worked at the anvil in this area of the shop. Although the ratio of cut to wrought nails (Table 14) indicates a greater use of cut nails during the operations period, the distribution of wrought nails shows that the manipulation of wrought nails was still a part of the blacksmith's activities in the third blacksmith shop Nails Studied From the Operations Period Strata Of the 329 nails studied from the inside operations strata, 3 were wire, 31 5 were cut and 11 were wrought. Approximately 66.69% (n=220) of the interior nails were broken and 33.13% (n= 1 09) were complete, sorting into 42 unaltered, 60 pulled and 7 clinched. From the outside strata deposited during blacksmith operations, 22 nails were studied, which included no wire nails, 20 cut nails and 2 wrought nails. Approximately 63 64% (n= 14) of the exterior nails were broken and 36 36% (n=8) were complete including 4 unaltered, 4 pulled and no clinched nails. The ratio of complete nails collected from inside the building was 6:9:1 (6 unaltered and 9 pulled to every 1 clinched nail), and 1:1 (1 unaltered to every 1 pulled, no clinched nails represented) from outside the building Chi-square Tests of Nails From the Operations Period Strata In addition to making wrought nails, blacksmiths or other fort

PAGE 201

185 personnel may have worked with nails in other activities inside the third shop. Therefore, chi-square tests for goodness of fit were performed between the operations' nail frequencies of all complete nails and Young's nail signatures for building dismantling and building disposal. The tests show a significant difference between operations nail frequencies and both Young's building dismantling ratios (chi-square=l3.96, df=2, p>.OOS) and Young's building materials disposal ratios (chi-square=41.5, df=2, p>.OOS). Chi square goodness of fit tests between the operations nail frequencies and the signature patterns of the demolition and storage layers above show no significant difference between layers The operations nail frequencies were similar to the ratios in the demolition stratum (chi-square=4.51, df=2, p<. 1 ), and even more similar to the ratios in the storage strata (chi-square=l.6, df=2, p<. 1 ). A chi-square test for independence was performed for complete interior nails studied from the operations strata and from the storage period strata above to show whether or not there was a relationship between the processes determining the frequencies of unaltered, pulled and clinched nails in each layer. The test showed a significant relationship between the processes determining the nail frequencies of the two layers (chi-square=0.93, df=4, p<. 1 ). Since the nail evidence demonstrates that repair/alteration of the building is the most likely process which introduced the higher frequencies of unaltered and pulled nails into the storage strata, historical

PAGE 202

186 evidence and nail ratios can be used to test for repairs or alteration to the building during the operations period as well. Nail Ratios From the Operations Period Strata In April of 1 861, three years after the third blacksmith shop was constructed, soldiers left Fort Mackinac. Upon the armys return after the Civil War in August 1867, the shop probably was used in the repair of the adjacent barracks to accommodate the returning soldiers. Private Thomas Barry was assigned to blacksmith duties from 1868 to 1869, and was succeeded two years later by Private William Bowman, whose duties had significantly dwindled by 1873 (Porter 1995: 7-8; 1997). Of the 15 years when the building included a forge, the fort was inhabited by U.S. troops for about 9 years (3 before the Civil War and 6 after) During the years following the Civil War, blacksmiths were officially assigned duties for a total of only four years, before the forge was removed and blacksmith operations moved into the North Blockhouse by 1873. (See Table 1.) The deposits within the shop building should contain the by-products of intermittent blacksmith activities. Other activities performed within the shop during the .,slow periods., for blacksmiths will be part of the deposits as well. Fuel in the form of charcoal, cinder and coal pervades the artifact count in an overall ratio of 3:1. Ratios of fuel to other artifacts are plotted in Appendix 5 for each suboperation and range from 1.05 to 8.02 within the shop. This is predictable since

PAGE 203

187 bituminous coal and charcoal were the preferred fuels used by U.S. blacksmiths (Dunshee 1957: 19). Therefore, to remove the masking effects of the fuel category, the ratios of artifact frequencies to other artifacts without fuel frequencies (n= 7,597) were used to further test for nail activities within the building. All artifact analysis will be based on the exclusion of fuel in the tabulations. Metalworking by blacksm i ths within the shop is evident in the operations period deposits, which contained a diversity of metal and iron artifact fragments (Appendix 2) and a large quantity of scrap metal and iron, the basic materials used for hand forging and brazing. The distribution of wrought nails and iron tool fragments (Appendix 6) within the shop are also indicative of metalworking. To determine the locations of shop metalworking areas, the ratios of scrap iron (n=1 ,036) to wrought nails (n=11 0) were calculated and plotted for suboperations inside the shop. High ratios throughout the shop interior ranged from 2.41 to 189.00 except over the forge area in suboperation B (0.05). The high ratio over the forge in suboperation A ( 1.31) was derived from frequencies of less than 4 and is not indicative of metalworking act i vity. This is predictable since metal is heated over the forge, but trimmed and shaped at the anvil or swage block. The lowest ratios of scrap iron/wrought nails are in suboperation J ( 4 50), where the anvil was located, and in suboperation C {2.41) adjacent to the anvil area. These ratios are indicative of nail-working due to the high concentrations of wrought nails around the anvil. (See Appendix 6). A high ratio of wrought nails to scrap iron within the shop was calculated for suboperation

PAGE 204

188 C (0.42) adjacent to the anvil area and for the frequencies of less than 5 in suboperation A (0 76) This indicates a work area or storage area for scrap metal in the northeast corner of the shop, where the highest concentrations of scrap metal were recovered. High ratios of scrap iron/wrought nails outside the blacksmith shop ranged from 1.46 to 9.67. Scrap materials were observed outside the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop during the 1995 informant interview, and outside the blacksmith shop excavated at Fort St. Joseph in Canada (Figure 12). The highest exterior ratio in suboperation L (9 67) may indicate an area where the smith dumped scrap iron outside the door of the shop. Suboperation L contained a high ratio of scrap iron/wrought nails as well as a high ratio of coal/cinder (29. 73). Plotted in Appendix 5, the highest exterior coal to cinder ratio is in suboperation W (90.4) This signals the location of a doorway on the west facade to the south of suboperation L where coal could be conveniently piled near the entrance to the shop Architectural materials comprise approximately 32.38 % of the total artifacts other than fuel recovered from the operations strata within the building. A staple, angular rock, a fragment of a ceramic doorknob, pieces of schist and granite, pieces of mortar and plaster, red and yellow brick fragments, slivers of wood and sherds of window glass are the architectural materials recovered. Nails comprise approximately 14.94 % and were recovered in an approximate overall ratio of 0.46 to architectural materials. With the exceptions of fuel, bone and scrap metal fragments, architectural materials and nails had the highest frequencies

PAGE 205

189 deposited from activities inside the building and may be related to the alteration and repair of the building or to the construction debris from the building of the third blacksmith shop after the second shop was burned. The ratios for both nail and architectural material frequencies to other artifacts are plotted in Appendix 5 for the operations strata. Approximately 21% of the architectural materials (N=2,460) from the operations strata within the building are brick fragments (n=51 5). Approximately 76% of the architectural materials from the forge area (n=1 ,854) are brick fragments (n=1 ,407). The horizontal distribution of the ratios of brick fragments to other architectural materials plotted in Appendix 5 verifies the forge removal operation (Figure 20) with higher ratios in suboperations A (1.20) and B (3 53) where the forge was located (Figure 22). Of the twelve yellow firebrick fragments recovered inside the building, only one was from the forge removal area. One complete firebrick and seven fragments were recovered from suboperation U adjacent to the forge to the west and the remaining three from suboperation C adjacent to the forge to the south. This indicates that bricks were piled nearby in suboperations G and possibly C after they were broken apart to salvage materials, perhaps for the future construction of a forge for the new blacksmith shop in the North Blockhouse or the final fort shop in the garden area below the bluff. The high ratios of architectural materials to other artifacts in suboperations C (0.59) and G (0. 94) would support this interpretation. High ratios of brick fragments to architectural materials also

PAGE 206

190 were recorded in the northwest corner of the shop in suboperation U (0.87) and in the southwest corner of the shop in suboperations S (1.29) and T (1 .09), though no yellow firebrick fragments were recovered from the southwest corner. This may indicate that brick fragments along with other architectural materials may have been piled in the southwest corner during the cleanup of the shop interior, after bricks had been salvaged and removed from the shop The ratios of nails to brick fragments are low over the forge removal area in suboperations A (0. 27) and B (0.03) and range from 0. 79 to 3.84 throughout the shop in suboperations with nail frequencies greater than 25. This indicates that the distribution of nails may have been related to brick removal and redeposition perhaps during the destruction of the forge and repair or alteration of the frame structure of the building However, they may been dropped as a by-product of blacksmith nail activities as well. The historic documentation does not show the location of windows during the period when the building was operating as a blacksmith shop. However, window glass sherds to nail ratios recorded in Appendix 5 can be used to locate windows in close proximity to the blacksmith's work areas and anvil, which may have been removed at a later time. Window glass to nail ratios reveal the possible location of a window on the east facade of the building with high ratios in suboperations J (0.66), N (0. 76), R (0. 56) and N (0.58) near the anvil area in suboperation J. High ratios in suboperations A (0.92) and B (2.00) over the forge area, Q (1.27) in the southeast corner of the shop and U (0.65) in the northwest corner

PAGE 207

191 indicate possible window locations on the south and west facades as well. High exterior ratios in A (2.20) and 8 (0.80) indicate a window in the northeast corner of the building, and a high exterior ratio in L (1.55) indicates a window in the northwest corner. The ratios of window glass to other architectural materials (Appendix 5) support the location of a window near suboperations R (0.93), K (2.25), P (1.07) and Q (0.69) in the southeast corner. Windows located to the east or west of the forge and to the east of the anvil would provide natural lighting for the work areas of the shop The blacksmiths who worked in the second shop, which burned in 1858 and was replaced during that same year, probably would have had some input as to the best location for windows to facilitate blacksmithing in the third shop. The most suitable locations of windows would be on the north facade to the east of the forge, on the east facade near the anvil and on the west facade near the forge in the northwest corner of the shop These window locations would allow a doorway on the west facade located in the middle or southwest corner of the shop The iron hinges recovered from MS3E1 G17, MS3E1 J30, MS3E1 S19 and MS3El T22, and the hardware used to pull a door, cabinet or window recovered from MS3E1 G17, MS3E1 S19 and MS3El T22 are plotted in Appendix 6, and support the conjectured locations of the windows on the east and west facades and of the door on the west facade in the middle or southwest corner of the shop. However, such items also may have been deposited as by-products of the blacksmith's metalworking Since no window is shown on the east

PAGE 208

192 side in the post Civil War Photograph (Photograph 9) or on the 1874 sketch of the building (Figure 14 ), a window near the anvil may have been removed from the east facade and repairs made to the surrounding structure, thereby introducing some unaltered and pulled nails to the shop floor deposits before the building was used for beef storage. Within the shop, the overall ratio of slivers of wood to other artifacts is 0.13 and to other architectural materials is 0.57. The interior and exterior ratios of wood fragments to nails are plotted for all suboperations in Appendix 5. High ratios were located in exterior lots only along the north facade in suboperation M (0. 71) and in suboperation A (1.60) adjacent to the forge. The high ratio calculated for lots within the shop in suboperation A ( 1. 71) indicates the deposition of wood slivers and nails during the forge removal operation. Other high interior ratios range from 0. 79 to 1.93 and are distributed across the middle of the shop and in the northeast corner. The ratios of wood fragments to cut and wire nails in the same areas inside and outside the shop support the idea of alteration and repair to the building, perhaps to the floor Lots MS3E1 C12 and MS3E1 J31 contained a thin deposit of rotted wood, indicating the presence of the floor "mostly rotted away" which is mentioned in the 1875 estimate of repairs for the third blacksmith shop building (Records of the War Department, Office of the Quartermaster General 1875).

PAGE 209

Nail Sizes Studied From the Operations Period Strata 193 Only twelve nails from the operations deposits were sized in the 1995 nail study. Cut nails were sized 4d (2), 6d (2), 8d (2), 12d (2) and 20d (1 ), and hand-wrought nails were 8d (3). As in the storage strata above, these nails could have been used in repairs/alteration to the building structure, but the sample is too small to provide supporting evidence as to which parts of the building structure may have been affected. However, of the 329 nails studied from the operat i ons strata, approximately 75.99% had heads (n=250) and 24. 01% were headless (n= 79) Only two nails were identified as finishing nails. The deposition of headless or finishing nails might be a result of the decaying floorboards within the shop. However the majority of the nails studied had heads which indicates the use of nails in the repair rather than the demolition of other parts or sections of the building structure. When considered with the results of the chi-square tests the historic evidence and the horizontal distribution of artifact ratios and frequencies, the nail evidence shows that both blacksmithing and the repair/alteration of the building introduced the higher frequencies of unaltered and pulled nails into the operations strata. Nails From the lnterface/Subfloor Stratum Of the 51 nails studied from the interface/subfloor stratum inside the building perimeter, none were wire, SO were cut and 1

PAGE 210

194 was wrought. Approximately 62 75% (n=32) were broken and 37.26% (n=l 9) were complete, sorting into seven unaltered, nine pulled and three clinched. Of the 1 8 nails studied from the interface/subfloor stratum outside the building perimeter all were cut. There were no wire or wrought nails from this stratum. Approximately 33.33% were broken and 66.67% were complete, which were sorted into three unaltered, nine pulled and no clinched. The ratio of complete nails collected from inside the building was 2:3:1 (2 unaltered and 3 pulled to every 1 clinched nail), and 1 :3 (1 unaltered to every 3 pulled nail) from outside. Chi-square Tests of Nails From the lnterface/Subfloor Stratum The interface/subfloor sample from outside the building was small and contained a "0" category, so no statistical test was performed. Chi-square goodness of fit tests, using the Yates Correction for Continuity when expected frequencies were less than 5, were performed on the nail frequencies from the interface/subfloor stratum within the building. The test results showed a significant difference from Young's building materials disposal signature (chi-square=l 0 66, df=2, p>.005), the shop building demolition signature (chi-square=5 56, df=Z, p<.OS), the shop building storage signature (chi-square=6.79, df=Z, p<.OZS) and the shop building operations signature (chi-square=6.94, df=Z, p<.OZS). This indicates that the process forming the nail patterns in the interface stratum was different from the strata deposited

PAGE 211

195 above However, the interior nails from the interface/subfloor had a pattern similar to Young's building dismantling nail signature (chi square=4 56, df=2, p<. 1 ). This supports the stratigraphic and chronological evidence that the interface and subfloor stratum contains nails and artifacts from the dismantling of the dilapidated first blacksmith shop in 1828. Since Young's tests included samples from burned disposal areas as well, it does not rule out the possibility that some of the nails studied were deposited during the 1858 burning of the second shop, which rema ined at the site after the cleanup.

PAGE 212

196 CHAPTER 9. BONE STUDY Faunal Remains from the Third Blacksmith Shop Deposits Faunal samples were recovered from the third blacksmith shop building deposits with 1 I 4" hardware screens and included mammal, bird and fish bone fragments and fish scales. It is likely that larger mammal remains are over represented in the assemblage relative to the smaller bird and fish remains. The faunal remains were sorted and catalogued, and approximately 64.29% were studied by Dr. Arlene Fradkin of the Florida Museum of Natural History. The sample studied was identified shortly after the 1 996 field season from lots deposited during the period of the third blacksmith shop building. The bone frequencies for each suboperation are plotted in Appendix 6 for the storage shed period and for the blacksmith operations period. Discarded bones in and around the shop may have been redistributed at the site by dogs such as the one in Photograph 9 Therefore, the horizontal distribution of bones may not represent activity areas within the shop. Areas of high and low concentrations, however, may show patterned activities by the blacksmith or other soldiers working within the building.

PAGE 213

Faunal Frequencies from the Third Blacksmith Shop Deposits Of the 3,089 faunal remains recovered from strata deposited during the operation of the third blacksmith shop, approximately 14.50% were from the forge removal operations, 67.00% from 197 interior deposits and 18.50% from outside the building. Higher concentrations of bone fragments were in suboperations J and C near the anvil (Figure 23). The absence of faunal materials from suboperation G is notable, signaling either a doorway (Light 1984: 61) or an area used to store coal as might be indicated by the coal to cinder ratios plotted in Appendix 5. Of the 2,087 faunal specimens recovered from strata deposited while the building was used as a storage shed, approximately 89.00% were from interior deposits and 11.00% from deposits outside the building. Higher concentrations of bone fragments were in the northeast and southwest quadrants of the building with fewer samples distributed outside the shop. The third shop building may be referred to in a description of Fort Mackinac by the post surgeon as "a small shed where the beef is kept" located "N.N.E. of the kitchen, near the rear sally port" (Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873b: 13-14 ). The high number of bone fragments in the southwest quadrant may account for one or both of the post holes in suboperation T (Figure 21 ). If beef was stored in the building after the blacksmith operations were moved, the posts may have been the support for a platform upon which meat was cut and prepared for meals in the nearby barracks kitchen.

PAGE 214

198 A Record of the Month dated March 1875 lists the meat for a week's menu in the soldiers' barracks (Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1875b). Table 17. Food of the Army, March 1875 March 27th Barrack mess 33 menu March 28th March 29th March 30th March 31st Breakfast Fresh Fish Dinner Roast Beef Breakfast Bacon Dinner Roast Beef Breakfast Fresh Fish Dinner Roast Beef Breakfast Bacon Dinner Roast Beef Breakfast Fresh Fish Dinner Roast Beef This illustrates the availability of beef to the soldiers at Fort Mackinac. The cattle bones recovered from the Custer Road Dump Site verify the large number of rib roasts, rib steaks and boiled beef, which continued to be served by the military mess into the late 1870s (Brose 1 967 : 78). Therefore, high quantities of beef should be observed in the bone frequencies from deposits of the 1 870s whether the third shop building was used to store beef at that time or whether it was used for bones and other refuse Pork and fish as part of the week's menu also should be part of the sample Bones Studied From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building After the 1996 field season, a bone study of fragments recovered

PAGE 215

199 from the third blacksmith shop building deposits was conducted. One objective of this study was to test for the beef storage function of the building during its final phase. Approximately 64 29% of the total bone fragment sample (n=4,545) from the third shop building deposits was identified at the time of the study. The faunal materials from the third shop building deposits (N=S, 176) also included fish scales, which were not a part of the study Taxa, skeletal element and modifications, such as burning and cut marks were recorded. Quantification of the faunal materials was limited to a count of the total number of identified specimens of each taxon Quantification of the bones studied from the blacksmith operations and storage shed strata, as well as from the forge removal and from the interface with an earlier shop are presented in Table 18. Table 18. Bone Counts Studied From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits STORAGE SHED PERIOD c. 187 3-c. 1 87 5 STORAGE LAYERS INSIDE OUTSIDE TOTAL STORAGE STRATA 1 065 166 1231 FORGE REMOVAL STRATA 225 0 225 BLACKSMITH OPERATIONS PERIOD 1858-c.1873 OPERATIONS LAYERS INSIDE OUTSIDE TOTAL OPERATIONS STRATA 1054 210 1264 INTERFACE WITH EARLIER SHOP 202 0 202 TOTAL BONES STUDIED 2 9 2 2 Faunal Identification and Analysis The bones identified in the study are listed in Table 19 and include fragments of cow, pig and fish bones as predicted by the

PAGE 216

200 March 1 87 5 record of the meals prepared in the soldiers' barracks during the storage shed period. Cow, pig and fish bones also were identified from the operations strata, the forge removal strata and the interface stratum with an earlier shop. Domestic sheep, goat, turkey and chicken bone fragments indicate that the meat from these animals was also a part of the diet at Fort Mackinac, particularly during the blacksmith operations period and from the interface with an earlier shop In addition, local yellow perch and salmon/whitefish/grayling bone fragments were identified from all four stratigraphic episodes. Fort blacksmiths and soldiers may have supplemented their diets with fish they hunted or traded for themselves, or they may have purchased them on Mackinac Island where Great Lakes trout and whitefish were processed beginning in the 1840s (Petersen 1 973: 11 ). Hare/rabbit bone fragments were identified from all layers, and other wild game was identified from blacksmith operations strata which included: pigeon/dove, passenger pigeon and common crow. Approximately 52.84% of the bone fragments studied were unidentifiable and an additional 41.00% could be ident i fied only as bone fragments of bird, fish, tetrapods and mammals. The overall small size of fragment samples as well as the large quantity of small unidentifiable fragments suggests refuse disposal during both the operations and storage shed periods, but does not discount the last use of the building for beef storage, which could produce bone fragments discarded during butchering.

PAGE 217

4:::01 Table 19. Taxonomic Classification and Quantification of Faunal Remains From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Strata SPECIES NAME INTERFACE QPERATlONS FQRGE STORAGE TQTAL IN .M It! JH.M Ostreidae oyster 1 1 Coregonus whitefish 2 1 1 5 Salmonidae salmon/whitefish/ graylings 2 18 1 3 7 1 32 Catostomus sp .p. longnose sucker 1 Perea flavescens yellow perch 2 4 6 Osteichttlyes fish 16 72 1 42 9 4 144 Bufo sp trBj 1 1 Anura frog/toad 1 1 Gallus gallus chicken 1 Meleagris gallopavo turkey 1 1 Ectopistes migratorius passenger pigeon 2 2 Columbidae sp. pigeon/ dove 1 2 Corvus brachyrhynchos common craw 1 2 3 Aves bird 3 3 6 Leporidae hare/rabbit 5 6 Rattus norvegicus Norway rat 1 1 1 4 7 Rattus sp p Old World rat 2 1 1 6 Sus scrofa pig 2 10 3 18 33 8os taurus caw 21 4 2 35 4 66 Capra h i rcus / sheep/ goat 3 3 Ovis aries Ovis aries sheep 1 1 Small mammalia 1 2 3 Large Mammalia 36 165 96 31 136 42 506 Mammalia 21 151 1 7 259 36 475 Tetrapoda 2 23 1 3 33 4 66 Vertebrata unidentified bone ill ill 2._ ill _5_SQ_ Ii_ 1544 202 1054 210 225 1065 166 2922

PAGE 218

202 Butchering Patterns The cut and saw marks on identified bones can be used to test for butchering activities, which may occur within a building used to store meat. Table 20 shows the frequencies of cut/sawed bones identified for each stratigraphic episode. Table 20. Frequencies of Identified Butchered Bones From the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits SPECIES COMMON NAME INTERFACE OPERATIONS FORGE STORAGE TOTAL IN IN OUT IN IN OUT Sus scrofa pig 0 0 0 2 0 3 Bos taurus CON 0 5 0 0 1 2 18 Large Mammalia 19 26 3 0 82 36 166 Mammalia 0 8 0 2 36 0 46 Vertebrata unidentified bone _Q Q Q 1 _Q 2 19 40 3 3 133 3 7 235 The overall ratio of butchered bones (n = 1 9 5) to faunal materials (n=2,546) studied from within the third blacksmith shop building deposits is approximately 0.08 The ratio of butchered bones (n=40) to faunal materials (n= 1 ,054) studied from the blacksmith operations strata within the building is 0.04. The ratio of butchered bones (n=133) to faunal materials (n=1 ,065) studied from the storage shed strata within the building is 0.14. The increase of butchered bones among the faunal remains after the forge was removed could indicate the butchering of meat within the building However, the ratios of bone fragments to other artifacts without fuel frequencies (Appendix 5) during the storage shed period are not high anywhere in the building, indicating little butchering was done.

PAGE 219

203 Many of the 14 7 unspecified large mammal bones probably are cow bones butchered during the blacksmith operations and storage shed periods. Cut fragments of large mammal and cow bones studied from within the building constitute approximately 85% of all butchered bones studied from within the building during the blacksmith operations period and approximately 70.68% during the storage shed period The ratio of butchered cow and large mammal bones (n=34) to faunal materials (n= 1 ,054) studied from the operations strata with i n the building is 0.03. The ratio of butchered cow and large mammal bones (n=94) to faunal materials (n=1 ,065) studied from the storage shed strata within the building is 0.1 0. This provides archaeological evidence as to the importance of beef in the diet of soldiers at the fort and supports the conjecture that the building was used to store beef after the blacksmith operations ceased. The horizontal distribution of all identified butchered bones from the storage and operations layers is plotted in Appendix 6 All of the cattle and pig bones studied from the storage shed period (Table 21) were butchered with straight cut marks dividing the carcass into discrete portions in preparation for consumption The few bone fragments identified as pig bones show cuts of hock or forefoot. The breakfast bacon of March 187 5 (Table 17) would have been sliced from the boneless flank and therefore, not represented in the sample Identified cow bones indicate cuts of round, rump, loin, neck, chuck and shoulder, used for roasts like those served in the nearby barracks kitchen for dinner during the same time period.

PAGE 220

204 The large mammal bones include bones cut like the cow bones with a large representation of rib shaft fragments. Table 21. LOT MS3E1 L 15 MS3E1 L28 MS3E1N08 LOT MS3E1J13 MS3E1N08 MS3E1B13 MS3E1J13 MS3E1B18 MS3E1J13 MS3E1B10 MS3E1H14 MS3E1L15 MS3E1L15 MS3E1B19 MS3E1T05 LOT MS3E1B10 MS3E1J12 MS3E1B18 LOT MS3E1T11 MS3E1B18 MS3E1G13 MS3E1H14 MS3E1G16 MS3E1 L 11 MS3E1T13 MS3E1810 MS3E1818 MS3E1T15 MS3E1G19 MS3E1N08 Butchered Cow, Pig and Large Mammal Bones Studied From Storage Period Deposits DESCRIPTION OF COW BONES cervical vertebra fragment articular process cervical vertebra right anterior and poste r ior articular process left humerus 1 / 4 distal epiphysis ante rior medial half trochlea anterior f used DESCRIPTION OF COW BONES left rib L1 1 /2 tubercle fused 1 / 2 shaft a nterior ( 3 pieces) left rib L 1 anterior tubercle fused neck unfused at head end 2 1 I 1 0 shaft anterior left r i b L4 neck IF tube r cle fused left scapula fragment blade w / spine fragment rib shaft fragment right rib 1 / 3 tubercle 2 / 3 shaft anterior right scapula blade fragment with 1 / 4 length spine mid section right scapula fra g ment 1/5 spine anterior with acromion sacrum fragment scapula fragme n t thoracic vertebra neural spine fragment thoracic vertebra neural spine fragment DESCRIPTION OF PIG BONES left radius 1 /2 diaphysis midshaft 1 F right metatarsus II prox epiphysis fu sed diaphysis unfused at distal end right ulna semilunar notch 3 / 4 diaphysis prox DESCRIPTION OF LARGE MAMMAL BONES rib shaft fragment rib shaft fragment rib shaft fragment rib shaft fragment rib shaft fragment rib shaft fragment rib shaft fragment rib shaft fragment (2) scapula fragment thoracic vertebra neural spine fragment thoracic vertebra neural spine fragment w/right and left posterior arti cular facets postzygapop h yses thoracic vertebra neural spine fragment w / r ight posterior articula r process lot from outside the shop bui lding

PAGE 221

205 Although a number of bone fragments comparable to the number from the storage shed period deposits was examined from the blacksmith operations deposits, fewer cow, pig and large mammal bones were identified The lack of discrete portions of identifiable bones and, therefore, cuts of meat suggests the discard of bones after the food was served and consumed as part of the blacksmith's meal. The few bones identified in Table 21 indicate beef cuts of round, chuck and neck, and a pig forefoot. Table 22. bQI MS3E1T19 MS3E1Q17 MS3E1 WlS MS3E1H17 MS3E1 W14 LOT MS3E1N12 LOT MS3E1W14 MS3E1U21 MS3E1U21 MS3E1N15 Butchered Cattle, Pig and Large Mammal Bones Studied From the Operations Period Deposits DESCRIPTION OF COW BONES cervical vertebra indet fusion left rib L4 or 5 or 6 tubercle and neck and 1 / 4 shaft prox right scapula glenoid fossa and neck right scapula glenoid foss and supraglenoid tuber scapula fragment DESCRIPTION OF PIG BONE left metatarsal IV 2/3 prox epiphysis 3/4 l e ngth diaphysis prox lateral 1/2 DESCRIPTION OF LARGE MAMMAL BONES rib shaft fragment rib shaft fragment shaft fragment (2) v e rtebra fragments lot from outside the shop building Burned Bones Of the 57 calcined bones studied from the third blacksmith shop building deposits, only two were recovered from suboperations T and U in the storage strata within the building. Suboperations Q and U from the blacksmith interior operations strata contained 23

PAGE 222

206 calcined bones, and suboperation W outside the building contained 32 This suggests that the blacksmith discarded the bones from his meals into refuse piles within the shop, which may have contained cinders from the forge Later, he may have tossed the bones outside the shop into a secondary deposit in suboperation L along with cinders and other refuse

PAGE 223

207 CHAPTER 10. SHOP LAYOUT When a blacksmith works metal, scale and small fragments fall to the ground Metal scraps pile up over time in and around the work areas adding to the metallic content of the soil. (See Photograph 5 ) When metal is worked while it is hot, it gives off scale. When it is filed or ground cold smaller filings are produced Therefore, the soil leading from the forge to the anvil, the soil away from the side of the anvil where the smith stood, the soil leading from the forge to the vise and the soil below the vise will have higher iron contents from the metal debris produced during the metalworking processe s (Light 1 984: 58 59). Work areas can be detected by plotting soil iron content on maps of the shop floor. As discussed in Chapter 5, the high concentration of wood fragments in suboperations C and J near the anvil stand waister mold indicates the presence of a floor during the operation of the third blacksmith shop. Metal scale and filings leaking through the cracks between the floor boards can still be used to detect use patterns in the soil beneath. When the floor was removed, metal fragments and scale probably were scattered in areas close to their original deposition because of the shop's rotting floorboards.

PAGE 224

208 Magnetic Fractions From Soil Samples Random unmeasured soil samples from each suboperation were collected during excavation to test for the iron content of different areas of the blacksmith shop. A rougher version of the magnetic fraction by weight method as described by Stewart Light and Lafleche was used to determine the iron content of the samples (Light and Unglik 1 987 : 40-42). A standardized one-cup container was filled with untreated soil from each samp l e bag. Then the iron was removed from each sample using a circular magnet enclosed in two plastic bags The baggie-enclosed magnet was removed from the soil matrix and then from the second plastic bag upon which the iron particles clung. The e x tracted iron was weighed on a Triple Beam Manual Dial-o-gram [OHAUS] Scale, and the weight in grams was recorded for each lot sample The magnetic weights for lots were added together to obtain a total iron weight for each suboperation in the post shop strata, the storage strata and the blacksmith operations strata Appendix 4 shows the horizontal d i stribution of the magnetic fractions for all three layers. Magnetic Fractions From Blacksmith Operations Strata High concentrations of iron within the building were detected in the area of the forge (60.75 g), near the anvil waister mold (128.75 g, 24.50 g 20.75 g, 20 25 g) and in the northeast (16 25 g) and southwest (21 25 g) corners of the shop. Low concentrations in the northwest (2.50 g) and the southeast (1.25 g 3 75 g) also were

PAGE 225

209 detected, and, along with other evidence, can be used to locate the domestic or general storage areas of the shop (Light 1 984: 60). Evidence of metal dumping or work areas outside the shop are indicated by the higher iron concentrations in suboperations P ( 40.50 g) and F (72.50 g) amidst other predictably lower concentrations distributed outside the shop. Magnetic Fractions From Storage and Post Shop Strata In the storage strata, the iron content of the soil decreases, but remains relatively higher over the area where the forge was removed in suboperation B (1 1.50 g) and in suboperations S (1 0.00 g) and T (9 .00 g) in the southwest corner of the building. In the post shop strata, the iron content of the soil decreases in all suboperations except for D (8.50 g) where it increases. The area where the forge was removed in suboperation B (7.00 g) is still relatively high. Activity Areas During the Storage Shed Period A coal-related activity is certainly indicated, though not an activity associated with the forge since the stratigraphy, chronological evidence and the horizontal distribution of brick fragments demonstrate the forge's removal. The highest ratios of fuel to all other artifacts (Appendix 5) are in the southwest quadrant in suboperations T (6.01 g) and D (7.28 g), and in

PAGE 226

210 suboperation A (39.04 g). The concentration of coke in suboperation Q and of charcoal in suboperation A may indicate the presence of heating devices near each deposit during the storage shed period (Light 1984: 60). Possible coal storage areas in suboperations C, G and J and in suboperations D and T are indicated by the high ratios of fuel to other artifacts (Appendix 5) in association with the post and board molds (Figure 21 ). Fuel may have been stored in bins located in these areas of the building. However, high cinder counts (Appendix 7) throughout the building indicate some refuse deposition as well. The high frequency of bone fragments in the southwest quadrant (Appendix 6) may account for one or both of the post holes in suboperation T (Figure 21 ). As discussed in chapter 9, the "small shed where the beef is kept" located "N.N.E. of the kitchen, near the rear sally port" may be the third blacksmith shop building (Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873b: 1 3-14 ). If beef was stored in the building after the blacksmith operations were moved, the posts may have been the support for a platform upon which meat was cut in preparation for meals in the barracks kitchen The ratios of bone fragments to other artifacts without fuel frequencies (Appendix S) are not high anywhere in the building, indicating that little butchering was done. The overall small size of fragment samples as well as the large quantity of small unidentifiable fragments indicates refuse disposal, but does not discount the last use of the building for beef storage which could produce bone fragments.

PAGE 227

211 As discussed in Chapter 7, the third shop building probably was used to reload new primer caps onto cartridges after the new Springfield rifles arrived at the fort until the final storage period c.1875. Primer caps and other fragments of ammunition were distributed in storage strata throughout the building (Appendix 6). A small ferrule ring from a prying tool, possibly for "decapping" the primers was deposited in the final storage stratum in suboperation M. The MS3E1 Tl 0 post mold contained tiny filings and may have supported a vise by which primer caps were removed from cartridges and/or metal was filed. The shuttered window on the south side of the 1 87 4 sketch of the building (Figure 14) would have provided natural lighting for work at a vise in suboperation T. Activity Areas of the Third Blacksmith Shop Of the approximately 1 5 years when the third and final blacksmith shop building had a forge, the fort was inhabited by U .S. Army troops for about 9 years (3 before the Civil War and 6 after) During the years following the Civil War, blacksmiths were officially assigned duties for 4 years before the forge was removed and blacksmith operations moved outside the walls of the fort around 1873. At least two blacksmiths, Private Thomas Barry and Private William Bowman (Table 1) worked in the fort's third blacksmith shop, bringing with them their own specialties preferences and work habits which may have altered the d i scernible patterns in the shop.

PAGE 228

212 The third blacksmith shop was self-contained and probably consisted of four types of space common to self-contained blacksmith shops: the work area, the storage area, the domestic or meal area and the refuse area (Light 1984: 55; Light and Unglik 1987: 11-1 2). The Benjamin Blacksmith Shop, run by the Mackinac State Historic Parks in the City of Mackinac Island, has a work area with approximately the same dimensions as the third blacksmith shop. The reconstructed work area was set up in accordance with the original Benjamin Blacksmith Shop (Photograph 5), and serves as a predictive model for the work area of the blacksmith shop at Fort Mackinac. However, the rest of the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop was modified with displays, storage and study areas to accommodate the living museum activities sponsored by MSHP (Figure 11 ). Work Areas of the Third Blacksmith Shop Like the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop, Fort Mackinac's third shop probably contained a work area with an anvil situated about twisting distance from the forge ; a table for metalworking tools; a bellows or hand-cranked blow pipe; a quenching tub close enough to cool heated metal quickly; a workbench with a vise easily accessible and a swage block to change the diameter of heated metal, all in close proximity. For the purposes of this discussion, Figure 23 illustrates the floor plan of the shop superimposed over the archaeological grid. Like many 18th and 19th century forges, the forge in the third shop building probably was constructed of brick, its interior filled

PAGE 229

N G :{H) I I R K Figure 23 Floor Plan of the Third Blacksmith Shop Showing the Layout of the Archaeological Grid

PAGE 230

214 with rubble upon which a fire bed of sand, firebrick, or other material was laid (Hole 1981; Light 1984: 56). A forge removal and brick salvaging operation was located in northeast quadrant of the building, which included fragments of yellow firebricks. Estimating from the size of the intrusive pits, the forge measured approximately 4' X 7' and was associated with the mottled clay remains of the base of an anvil waister uncovered about four feet south of the forge. High cinder to coal ratios (Appendix 5) were calculated between the anvil and the forge in suboperations C and J. A similar scatter of cinders sketched in Figure 1 1 was observed while the park smith worked at the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop. Metal scale also was observed flaking from the anvil at the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop during the informant interview. The metal waste was distributed in an oval pattern around the base of the anvil concentrated away from the side where the park smith stood The high magnetic fractions in the soil surrounding the squared feature (Appendix 4) verify metalworking between the anvil and the forge and ind i cate that the blacksmith often worked on the south side of the anvil distributing metal debris in higher concentrations to the north away from where he stood (Light 1 984 : 58-59) Plotted in Appendix 5, the distribution of hand-wrought nails also verifies the location of the forge and anvil with high frequencies in suboperations C and J. High magnetic fractions in the soil in suboperation J indicate the presence of a workbench with vise in the northeast quadrant of the shop. The soil below the vise and leading from the forge to the vise

PAGE 231

would have predictably higher iron content from the metal debris produced during the metalworking processes at the workbench 215 Small fragments of scrap iron, lead, brass and copper, rifle and musket ammunition fragments a washer and an iron pot fragment were part of the assemblage from the area. Blacksmiths at the excavated shop at Ft St Joseph, Ontario and elsewhere commonly reuse glass containers and bottles to hold acids or flu xes such as borax (Light 1 984: 59; Light and Unglik 1 987: 1 7). Therefore glass sherds from large and small bottles kept on the workbench would be part of the assemblage recovered from the work area The distribution of bottle and jar glass is plotted in Appendix 6 and shows a heavy concentration in the northeast corner of the shop One or two windows on the east facade of the shop are indicated by the ratios of window glass sherds to other ar c hitectural materials and to nails recovered from blacksmith operations strata (Appendix 5). Windows located to the east of the forge and anvil would provide natural lighting for a workbench in the same vicinity. The area adjacent to the forge to the west would be the likely location for a leather bellows, which had to be either mounted from the ceiling or, most commonly, between posts in the floor to allow space for air intake and to keep it from rotting (Light 1 984: 56). Unfortunately, this area was disturbed by the buried timbers and cleanup operations during the post shop period (Figure 1 9), so no post molds remained from which to take measurements However a standard bellows measuring appro x imately 6' X 4' was on display at

PAGE 232

the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop, and would have fit easily into the northwest corner of the Fort shop. 216 In suboperation S, the head of a bellows tack from the blacksmith operations strata (MS3E1 S18) and a complete bellows tack from the storage strata (MS3E1 S09) were recovered The first stratum deposited after the forge was removed contained two complete bellows tacks in lot MS3E1 G16 near the northwest corner of the shop. These indicate the use of a bellows which probably was dismantled along with the forge of the third shop. The low iron content of the soil in the northwest corner would confirm the location of a bellows, which the blacksmith would avoid when carrying hot metal from the forge to the anvil, vise or swage block. The iron fragments recovered from suboperations U, V and W including a 4" fragment of 1 /2" stock from MS3E1 U21 would indicate that the space underneath the bellows was used to store potentially reusable metal or as a refuse area. Both uses are common practice among blacksmiths (Light 1984: 57) A possible coal bin beneath the bellows in suboperations G and U is indicated by the large ratios of coal to cinder in Appendix 5. The dark gray board mold and coal concentration in the storage strata above (Figure 21) actually may be the remnants of a coal storage bin from the operations strata offset from the walls so the smith could work the bellows in the northwest corner. A quenching tub to cool heated metal quickly and possibly a swage block to change the diameter or configuration of heated metal would have been located close to the anvil like those in the Benjamin

PAGE 233

217 Blacksmith Shop (Figures 1 0 and 11 ). Southwest of the forge in suboperations C and D would be the likely location of the tub and swage block based on the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop layout, but southeast of the forge in suboperations J N or Q could be alternate locations. The high iron content of the soil and barrel band fragments (Appendix 6) found in both areas would support either location. A second work area in the southwest corner is indicated by the high iron content in suboperation S recorded in Appendix 4, and by the iron tool fragments deposited in suboperations G, S and T recorded in Appendix 6 A table for metalworking tools probably was located in suboperation G or T and a vise or grindstone in suboperation S, based on this evidence The high ratios of scrap iron to wrought nails in suboperations S and T (Appendix 5 ) indicate either intensive metal working or the storage of potentially reusable metal and/or refuse in the southwest corner of the shop. Small bits of scrap metal recovered from this area are diverse and include : nuts and bolts, fragments of building hardware, small squared iron blocks, rivets, a u-shaped harness buckle, chain link fragments, gun parts, rifle and musket ammunition fragments, round stock or nail rod, and a 5" fragment of 1 /2" stock. The ratios of window glass sherds to other architectural materials and to nails indicate possible locations for windows on the south facade and in the northwest corner near the bellows. A window in the center of the south facade would provide natural lighting for work at a second vise and/or grindstone.

PAGE 234

218 Storage Areas of the Third Blacksmith Shop The general storage area of a self-contained blacksmith shop can be detected in the archaeological record by soil with a relatively low iron content and by the lack of remaining evidence in an abandoned blacksmith shop (Light 1984: 59) Both the northeast corner and the southeast corner of the shop in suboperations M, P and Q have low magnetic fractions (Appendix 4 ). Suboperation M contained few remaining artifacts. This approximately 3' nook adjacent to the east of the forge would have been a logical area to store stock or other materials to be used by the blacksmith on special projects. The materials from the storage area probably were moved to the basement of the north blockhouse along with the anvil and tools, when the blacksmith operations were transferred there by 1873 (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873b). By contrast, suboperations P and Q contained many artifacts, but the high artifact frequency in the southeast corner of the shop does not rule out its use as a storage area Although the third shop building was abandoned, and most materials salvaged and moved to the north blockhouse, the small objects left behind in the southeast corner may not have been worth salvaging, or lost, or of no immediate use to the blacksmith, whose duties had significantly dwindled by the time the shop was moved The possible storage area in suboperations P and Q may have been located adjacent to a fuel bin in suboperation D, which has a high ratio of fuel to other artifacts (Appendix 5 ). A relatively high ratio of cinder to coal m

PAGE 235

219 suboperation Q compares with ratios surrounding the forge and indicates the presence of a stove in the southeast corner of the shop The relatively high frequency of coke and charcoal in suboperation Q also may be indicative of a stove or heating device, which is a necessity in colder climates (Light 1 984: 60). Domestic Areas of the Third Blacksmith Shop The domestic area in most self-contained blacksmith shops commonly is located outside of the work area and was where the blacksmith took his meals and breaks Artifacts associated with eating and relaxation would predictably be part of the assemblage in a domestic area (Light 1 984: 60). Bone fragments, glass bottle/jar and ceramic sherds were distributed throughout the fort's third blacksmith shop (Appendix 6) but were concentrated around the forge and work area. Tobacco pipe fragments also were distributed throughout the shop with high frequencies in suboperations G, Q and T in the southwest quadrant of the shop. Workbenches provided convenient flat surfaces upon which anything from "liquor bottles to lunch bowls" may have rested (Light 1 987: 60). A knife blade and clear glas s decanter stopper were recovered from MS3E1 020, the rounded end of a spoon or fork from MS3El T18 and an amber Red Jacket Bitters bottle from MS3E1 G17. These artifacts could be indicative of a domestic area but also could have been deposited as a result of the metal working in that area of the shop

PAGE 236

220 From this evidence, it would appear that blacksmiths in the third blacksmith shop ate on the job at the anvil or at the workbenches in the northeast and southwest corners of the shop. If a stove was located along the south wall of the shop, the southwest corner would have been a warm spot to eat a meal or have a drink A ceramic marble recovered from MS3E1 N14 in the northeast corner indicates that smiths may have entertained themselves or others near the warmth of the forge as well. Doorway and Features Outside of the Third Blacksmith Shop Scrap materials were observed outside the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop during the 1995 informant interview and at the smithy at Fort St. Joseph, Ontario (Light 1984: 61-62; Light and Unglik 1987). Suboperation L contained a high ratio of scrap iron/wrought nails as well as a high ratio of coal/cinder. Plotted in Appendix 5, the highest exterior coal to cinder ratio is in suboperat ion W. This indicates the location of a doorway on the west facade to the south of suboperation L through which the blacksmith could bring coal from an outside pile and discard undesirable scrap materials. Evidence of work areas outside the shop are indicated by the higher iron concentrations in suboperations P and F near which the majority of horseshoe nails from the blacksmith operations strata were recovered in suboperations P and E (Appendix 6) The farrier activities of fort blacksmiths may have been performed outside the shop possibly using a sling rigged to a windlass to restrain the

PAGE 237

221 horses, thereby increasing the iron content of the soil as a result in the open areas to the south of the shop and to the east leading from the north sally port. A coal pit was uncovered in the south half of suboperation F, which was intrusive to the stratum to the north. (See North/South Profile of Figure 18.) During the excavation of MS3E1 F14, only a representative sample of the coal was collected, because the matrix consisted almost entirely of coal. Anna East, a U.S. F Graduate Field Assistant during the 1996 field season, performed some experiments on chunks collected from the discard. (See Appendix 3 ) She concluded that two different grades of bituminous coal were represented in the MS3E1 F14 coal pit, possibly from different mine sources or from different mine depths. The bituminous coal most probably was stored for the blacksmith shop approximately 8' north of the pit, because blacksmith's coal must be kept moist and must not be exposed to the sun to make the best fire for forging metal (Dunshee 1957: 19). Coal stored in a submerged pit probably would retain moisture or the blacksmith could easily moisten the coal by pouring water over the pit The area outside the shop between the north facade and the revetment wall may have been used for additional storage because of the limited space within the shop. Like the sturdy wooden shed abutting to the east wall of the Benjamin Black s mith Shop (Photograph 8), the gated area shown in Photograph 9 could have been used to store the heavy iron stock rods However, little archaeological evidence was found to support this conjecture.

PAGE 238

222 To summarize, Figures 24 and 25 offer two arrangements for the fort's third blacksmith shop. In both arrangements, the north half of the shop is the work area with anvil, forge and bellows, coal and metal/stock storage near the bellows, general storage in the northeast and southeast corners and another work area in the southwest corner. Either layout or possibly both may have been used by Privates Barry and Bowman in accordance with their personal preferences. Additional work areas may have been set up for special projects or to accommodate assistants and/or apprentices

PAGE 239

Figure 24. Possible Layout of the Third Blacksmith Shop Based on Forge/ Anvil Location and Artifact Distribution Figure 25. Another Possible Layout of the Third Blacksmith Shop Based on Forge/ Anvil Location and Artifact Distribution 223

PAGE 240

224 CHAPTER 11 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The 1995 and 1996 excavations at Fort Mackinac, Michigan were conducted by the Anthropology Department of the University of South Florida to obtain archaeological data about the third blacksmith shop at Fort Mackinac, which Mackinac State Historic Parks (MSHP) plans to reconstruct. Details about the original shop's construction and about blacksmithing activities within the shop will assist the park's historic interpretation program. Research goals included locating the artifacts and architectural remains from the three successive shops which operated at the site and analyzing the changing role of the military blacksmith as it evolved with the changing functions of the fort. This thesis focused on the architectural remains and artifacts from the third and final shop within the fort enclosure (1858-c.1875). The study addressed the third shop's original construction with an analysis of the distribution of architectural elements recovered and a nail study (Chapters 5 and 8) The clapboarded building pictured in Photograph 9 with a cedar-shingle gabled roof was built on square cornerstones, left in situ after the building's demolition (Figure 20). Estimating from the size of pits filled with brick fragments from the removal and salvage of the forge from the third blacksmith shop the forge measured approximately 4' X 7' and was associated with the remains of an squared wooden beam waister

PAGE 241

225 upon which the anvil was mounted. A high concentration of wood fragments near the anvil waister mold indicates the presence of a floor during the operation of the third blacksmith shop. The forge was removed and blacksmithing tools and metal working materials were moved to the basement of the north blockhouse by 1 873 The deteriorating building was used by fort personnel for storage and, until its demolition after 1875, for refuse (Porter 1995: 7; Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873b). In addition to the shuttered window sketched in Figure 1 4, the most probable locations of windows based on glass fragment distributions were on the north facade to the east of the forge, on the east facade near the anvil and on the west facade in the northwest corner of the shop. The doorway was located in the middle of the west facade based on artifact d i stribution patterns inside and outside of the building. (See Appendix 5 ) The removal of blacksmith operations and materials from the third shop building in 1873 and the later demolition of the building substantially altered the archaeolog ical record, and made it more difficult to reconstruct the layout of the shop and the location of blacksmithing activities. However, activit ies with i n the shop were analyzed by categorizing the artifacts recovered into functional groups with reference to blacksmithing activities (Chapter 7). Roderick Sprague's categories for 19th and 20th century historical sites were used to identify artifacts relating to architecture commerce and industry, transportation, domestic and personal activities, and group services (Sprague 1 980: 2 51-2 61 ). The study

PAGE 242

226 incorporated a middle range approach with the aid of historic documents, an informant interview and distribution patterns from other blacksmith excavation sites to test for blacksmith activities and work areas in and around Fort Mackinac's third shop (Chapter 1 0). Activity area research has successfully used archaeologically oriented ethnography in the production of ethnographic material that can be used for analogs in descriptions of the archaeological record (Kent 1984; 1987: 35). This study used John D. Light's ethnographic model (1984) as an analog to identify blacksmith behavior patterns in the archaeological record, and to hypothesize two possible arrangements for the fort's third blacksmith shop. In both arrangements: the north half of the shop is the work area with anvil, forge and bellows; coal and metal/stock storage was near the bellows; general storage areas were in the northeast and southeast corners; and another work area was in the southwest corner (Figures 24 and 25). The archaeological record is formed from patterns in cultural material, in behavior and in culture (Kent 1 987: 44 ). When compared to two other 19th century military blacksmith shops excavated at Fort St. Joseph, Ontario and Fort Union, North Dakota, the behavior patterns in the third blacksmith shop at Fort Mackinac demonstrated the same essential components basic to blacksmithing practices in the types of tools used and waste produced, and in the underlying utilitarian arrangement for the shop layout. Changing patterns in American culture during the 19th century influenced blacksmithing at Fort Mackinac and were demonstrated in the movement of the

PAGE 243

location of blacksmith operations at the fort, in the artifact assemblage recovered from the third blacksmith shop, and in the reduction of blacksmithing duties documented in the fort records. 227 At the close of the colonial period, Amer ican military blacksmiths worked at shops within the walls of Fort Mackinac m the colonial handicraft tradition like their British predecessors The ensuing political and technological changes brought about by the American and Industrial Revolutions significantly shaped early American history (Pursell 1995: 35). During the 19th century, the U .S. signed treaties which ended disputes with Native Americans and with British Canada (Creighton 1958: 262, 275 ; Petersen 1973: 1 1 ), and the economy of the Great Lakes region shifted from fur trading to fishing to tourism The function of Fort Mackinac reflected the national and regional changes, gradually evolving from a frontier military post to a tourist attraction. When Mackinac Island was declared a national park in 187 5 the soldiers garrisoned at the fort maintained the buildings, making repai r s and alterations (Armour 1 995: 7; Quinn Evans 1 994: 11 ). As the function of Fort Mackinac changed with the political landscape during the 19th century, the role of the military blacksmith reflected these transitions in the changing locations of the blacksmith shops on the landscape of Fort Mackinac. When the American soldiers were building the fortifications of a frontier post, blacksmith shops operated within the fort enclosure. As tensions lessened on the frontier by the mid-19th century, tourists began to mingle with soldiers garrisoned at the post, blacksmith

PAGE 244

228 operations were temporarily moved to the basement of the north blockhouse, and a final blacksmith shop was built outside the fort next to the stable at the foot of the bluff. By the close of the 19th century, the role of the military at Fort Mackinac ended altogether, and the final blacksmith shop was torn down and replaced by an ornamental garden. The role of the military blacksmith also was altered by the new technological patterns set into motion with the divergence of the American pattern of manufacture from the British pattern Spearheaded by the national armories, which used specialized machines to mass produce interchangeable parts, the industrial and technological developments of the American System of Manufactures eventually displaced the colonial handicraft traditions of military blacksmiths Semiskilled workers could produce tools which only skilled artisans like the blacksmiths at Fort Mackinac could produce previously (Adams 1996: 1 50 ; Hoke 1990: 265 ; Pursell 1995 : 87; Parker 1996: 356). The activities of military blacksmiths working in the second and third blacksmith shops at Fort Mackinac, who repaired the tools and the armaments produced by federal military arsenals prior to the Civil War, were diminishing as a result of these technological innovations. The strata deposited while the third blacksmith shop building was still standing contained artifacts from three dateable episodes : blacksmith operations (1 858-c 1 873), forge removal (c. 1 873-1 87 4) and storage shed activities (c 1 873-c 1 875). The artifact assemblage recovered from within Fort Mackinac's third blacksmith

PAGE 245

229 shop includes personal and domestic items and by-products from the manufacture and repair of fort materials farriering and general domestic repair. The assemblage included no artifacts related to fur trapping or trading, and reflects the political and economic shift m the Great Lakes region A few gun parts recovered from strata deposited within the third shop probably represent the last vestiges of gunsmithing and musket repair, a part of military blacksmithing in the Great Lakes since the colonial period. Fully interchangeable muskets and rifles were produced at the national armories by the mid-1840s, and in 1858, the same year in which the third shop was built, the U .S. government began converting muzzle-loading rifles into breechloaders (Adams 1 996: 1 48-1 49; Petersen 1 964: 244 ). Operations in the third blacksmith shop were interrupted for six years when soldiers left the fort in 1 861 as part of the Union Army during the Civil War (Porter 1995: 7-8; 1997). The Civil War provided further impetus for the improvement of metallic rim-fire cartridges used with the first good breechloaders by the U S Military. Upon the army's return after the Civil War in August 1867, blacksmith operations in the third shop resumed and Private Thomas Barry was assigned to blacksmith duties from 1868 to 1 869 (Porter 1995: 7-8; 1997). Fragments of internally and externally primed cartridges, musket balls, buckshot and cast lead bullets associated with Fort Mackinac's third blacksmith shop building illustrate the new ideas in cartridges designed and tested at the Frankford and Springfield Arsenals between 1855 and 1875 (Lewis 1972: 6-8 ;

PAGE 246

230 Petersen 1964: 244 ). Contemporary with the removal of the forge the deposition of percussion primer caps for the 1 873 model Springfield rifle signals the end of blacksmithing in the third shop building. The army's pattern of using the third shop building for gun related activities persists with the reloading of externally primed cartridges within the building after the cessation of blacksmith operations The historic records of the third and final blacksmith shop within Fort Mackinac document the diminishing role of blacksmithing at the fort after the Civil War. Private William Bowman may have been the last blacksmith to work in the third shop build ing between 1 871 and 1874 (Porter 1995: 12). Bowman's blacksmith duties were significantly reduced in 1 873, the same year in which blacksmith operations were moved to the north blockhouse and the shop build ing began functioning as a storage shed (Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1873a) The role of blacksmiths, once integral to military operations in the Great Lakes region, also was diminishing at Fort Wilkins near Copper Harbor on M i chigan's Upper Peninsula after the Civil War. By the time of the second occupation of Fort Wilkins (1867-1870), the former smithy was serving as a Carpenter shop and the Army was contracting for blacksmith services in the community while maintaining a portable forge (Martin et al. 1993 : 138-1 39). The role of the village blacksmith across the U.S. continued to diminish during the 19th century as well. Precise machine made tools with interchangeable parts and machine produced nails were

PAGE 247

231 displacing American "bench artisans" beginning in the early 1800s (Clark 1929a: 522 ; Frurip 1983: 45-46; Loveday 1979: 2). Census records for Mackinac Island indicate a dwindling of blacksmith activity in the village of Mackinac Island. According to the 1 860 Mackinac Island census, five blacksmiths practiced in the village By the 1880 census, only one island blacksmith who also is listed as a "jailor" is recorded In the early 1 880s, the blacksmith shop in the City of Mackinac Island was only a seasonal operation until the construction of the Grand Hotel in 1887, which increased the farrier activities year round (Piljac and Piljac 1989: 119, 238; Porter 1997). By the turn of the 20th century, the remain ing village blacksmiths in the U.S. became factory workers, retired or died In the emerging American industrial culture, the role of the village blacksmith was transformed into a welder with a n acetylene torch, a farrier or a garage mechanic (Smith 1966: 45). The excavation of the th ird blacksmith shop at Fort Mackinac demonstrates the complexity of the interplay among economic, technological and political changes during the 19th century as the U.S. broke with its colonial progenitor, and the American pattern of manufacturing, lead by the national armories, began to diverge from the British pattern. The technological innovations which eliminated gunsmithing from the craft of military blacksmithing by the middle of the 19th century and narrowed the role of the American village blacksmith to a farrier by the beginning of the 20th century, are reflected in the archaeological record of Fort Mackinac's third shop The confluence of the economic political and technological changes

PAGE 248

232 flowed through American culture, displacing the colonial ethos with an industrial one, and through the Straits of Mackinac, transforming Fort Mackinac from a frontier post to a vacation spot and the blacksmith into a farrier.

PAGE 249

233 REFERENCES CITED Adams, Robert McC. 1996 Paths of Fire: An Anthropologist's Inquiry Into Western Technology. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Antique Week 1997 Coffee Mills. In AntiqueWeek. June 2, 1997. Knightstown, Indiana: Mayhill Publications. Armour, David A. 1995 7 00 Years at Mackinac: A Centennial History of the Mackinac Island State Park Commission 7895-7995. Mackinac State Historic Parks, Mackinac Island, Michi gan. Armour, David A and Keith R. Widder 1978 At the Crossroads: Michilimackinac During the American Revolution. Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mackinac Island, Michigan. Albert, Alphaeus H. 1976 Record of American Uniform and Historical Buttons. Bicentennial Edition. Hightstown, New Jersey: Alphaeus H. Albert. Brose, David S. 1967 The Custer Road Dump Site: An Exercise in Victorian Archaeology The Michigan Archaeologist 13(2): 37128. Brumbach, H. and R. Jarvenpa 1990 Archaeologist-Ethnographer-Informant Relations: The Dynamics of Ethnoarchaeology in the Field In Alternative Views in Archaeology Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association No. 2, Pp. 39-46. Burbeck, Henry 1799 Henry Burbeck to Alexander Hamilton, 18 June 1799. Papers of Alexander Hamilton Library of Congress.

PAGE 250

234 Butler, David F 1971 United States Firearms: The First Century 7 776-7 8 7 5. New York: Winchester Press. Canadian Heritage Parks Canada 1994 Fort St Joseph / Visitor Guide. Canada: Minister of Supply and Services Cheboygan Democrat 1885 Announcement. In Cheboygan Democrat. February 19, 1885. Cheboygan Michigan: Forsyth and Bunnell. Chesterman, Charles W. and Kurt E. Lowe 1979 The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and Minerals. New York : Alfred A. Knopf. Clark, Victor S. 1929a History of Manufactures in the United States Vol. I, 1607-1860. New York: Peter Smith. 1929b History of Manufactures in the United States. Vol. II, 1 860-1893. New York: Peter Smith. Clifford, Laura Dee 1990 Excavations at the Officers' Wooden Quarters at Fort Mackinac Michigan Master's Thesis. University of South Florida Department of Anthropology. Tampa, Florida. Craige, Captain John Houston 1950 The Practical Book of American Guns. New York : Bramhall House. Creighton, Donald 1958 A History of Canada: Dominion of the North. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Riverside Press Cross Joseph, Lieutenant, U.S. Artillery 1 806 Return of Ordnance, Ammunition Military Stores on hand received, delivered and worn out at Michilimackinac from the 30th day of June to the 31st day of December 1806. Chicago Historical Society Deane, Phyllis 1996 The British Industrial Revolut i on. In The Industrial Revolution in National Context: Europe and the USA. Mikulas Teich and Roy Porter, eds Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

PAGE 251

235 De Vore, Steven L. 1990 Fur Trade Era Blacksmith Shops at Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site, North Dakota. Historical Archaeology 24(3): 1-23. Dunnigan, Brian Leigh 1975 Milestones of the Past, Military Buttons and Insignia from Mackinac. In Mackinac History, Vol. 2, No. 3, Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mackinac Island, Michigan. Dunshee, Kenneth 1957 The Village Blacksmith. Watkins Glen, New York: Century House. Edgerton, Charles E. 1897 The Wire-Nail Association of 1895-96. Political Science Quarterly 1 2(2): 246-272. Engineer's Stores, Michilimackinac 1779 Order for Engineer's Stores, October 20,1 779, 363. MPHC, X. 1 780a Certificate of Expenditures, October 1 1 779-March 31, 1 780, 383-384. MPHC, X. 1780b Return of Engineer's Stores Taken at Michilimackinac, March 31, 1780, 386-387. MPHC, X. 1 781 a Return of Engineer's Stores Taken at Michilimackinac, March 31, 1781, 460-461. MPHC, X. 1 781 b Return of Engineer's Stores Taken at Michilimackinac, September 30, 1781, 520-521. MPHC, X. 1 782a Certificate of Expenditures, October 1, 1781-March 31, 1782, 557-558. MPHC, X. 1782b Return of Engineer's Stores Taken at Michilimackinac, March 31, 1782, 560-561. MPHC, X. Fontana, Bernard L. 1 96 5 The Tale of a Nail: On the Ethnological Interpretation of Historic Artifacts. The Florida Anthropologist 1 8(3 ): 85-102. Fort Mackinac Military Records Muster Rolls, Inspection Returns and Payrolls. Drawer No. 18.

PAGE 252

236 Frurip, David J et al. 1 983 Colonial Nails from Michilimackinac: Differentiation by Chemical and Statistical Analysis Archaeological Completion Report Series No. 7. Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mackinac Island, Michigan. Godden, Geoffrey A. 1 964 Encyclopaedia of British Potters and Porcelain Marks New York : Crown Publications 1971 The Illustrated Guide to Mason's Patent Ironstone China: And Related Wares--Stone China, New Stone, Granite China--and Their Manufacturers New York: Praeger Publishers Golden Surfer, Inc 1 991 Surfer Reference Manual. Gol den: Golden Surfer Inc. Grange Roger T. Jr. 1 987 Excavations at Fort Mackinac 1980-1982: The Provision Storehouse Archaeological Completion Report Series No. 7 2 Mackinac Island State Park Commission Mackinac Island, Michigan 1 995 "A receptacle for bones and refuse and probably for worse uses"/ A Preliminary Report of the Excavation of the Fort Mackinac Blac k smith Shops, 1 995. July 31, 1995. Copy on file Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mackinac Island, Michigan 1 996 Last Year It Was The Centennial Penny; Now We Have The Bicentennial Blacksm ith Shop / Field Report on the 1 996 Excavations at Fort Mackinac August 1 5 1 996. Copy on file, Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mackinac Island, Michigan. Ham i lton, T .M. 1 976 Firearms on the Frontier : Guns at Fort Michilimackinac 1 71 5-1781. Reports in Mackinac History and Archaeology Number 5. Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mack i nac Island Michigan Havighurst Walter 1 966 Three Flags at the Straits/ The Forts at Mackinac Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc

PAGE 253

Heldman, Donald P 1977 Excavations at Fort Michilimackinac, 1 976: The Southeast and South Southeast Row Houses. Archaeological Completion Report Series, No. 7 Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mackinac Island, Michigan. Hodder, lan and Clive Orton 1976 Spatial Analysis in Archaeology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Hoke, Donald R. 237 1 990 Ingenious Yankees : The Rise of the American System of Manufactures in the Private Sector. New York : Columbia University Press Hole, Donna C. 1 981 Forge construction in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library Research Reports Series RR-82. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Howard, Lewis 1809 Lewis Howard to Eustis June 15 1809. Michigan Historical Collections Vol. XL, Pp. 286-188. Innis, Harold A. 1956 The Fur Trade in Canada. Revised edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press Johnson, David F. 1942 The American Historical Buttons New Market, New Jersey 1948 Uniform Buttons / American Armed Forces 7 784-7 948. Watkins Glen, New York: Century House. Kent, Susan 1984 An Ethnoarchaeological Study of the Use of Space. Albuquerque : University of New Mex ico Press 1987 Understanding the Use of Space: An Ethnoarchaeological Approach. In Method and Theory For Activity Area Research Susan Kent ed. Pp. 1-62 New York: Columbia University Press. Kovel, Ralph M. and Terry H. 1971 Dictionary of Marks--Pottery and Porcelain. New York: Crown Publishers Inc

PAGE 254

238 Lewis, Berkeley R. 1972 Small Arms Ammunition at the International Exposition Philadelphia, 7 876. City of Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Light, John D. 1 984 The Archaeological Investigation of Blacksmith Shops. Industrial Archaeology 1 0(1 ): 658-665. Light, John D. and Henry Unglik 1987 A Frontier and Fur Trade Blacksmith Shop 7 796-7 8 7 2. Ottawa: National Historic Parks and Sites, Environment Canada-Parks. Logan, Herschel C. 1959 Cartridges--Pictorial Digest of Small Arms Ammunition Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Stackpole Company. Loveday, Amos John, Jr 1979 The Cut Nail Industry 7 776-1890: Technology, Cost Accounting and the Upper Ohio Valley. Ph.D. Dissertation The Ohio State University. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International. Marshall, Coit R. 1 998 Personal Communication re: Common uses for nail sizes in building construction. February 1 1998. Martin, Patrick E. et al. 1 993 Final Report Archaeological Research at Fort Wilkins and Fayette State Parks 1991 and 1993. Report of Investigation Number 15. Houghton Michigan: Archaeology Laboratory Department of Social Sciences, Michigan Technological Univ ersity McNeil PapersOrderly Books 1816a Detachment Orders, January 13 1816, George S. Wilkins, Adjutant. Vol. II, 1816-1818. New Hampshire Historical Society 1816b Detachment Orders, August 21, 1 81 6, Henry Conw ay Adjutant, 3 rd infantry Vol. II, 1 81 6-1 81 8 New Hampshire Historical Society

PAGE 255

239 Morand, Lynn L. (Evans) 1994 Mackinac Island (MS3) Excavations Summer 1 994. Field Test Report on file, Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mackinac Island, Michigan. 1 997 Correspondence re: The Jesuits and blacksmithing in New France. November 5, 1 997. Noel Hume, lvor 1970 A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America New York: Alfred A. Knopf Ordnance Memoranda No. 1 9 1 87 5 Proceedings of The Board of Officers Convened Under Special Orders No. 120, A. G. 0., 1 87 4 on lnfantry Equipments and Materials and Supplies Necessary for Efficient Outfit of InfantryTroops in Field and Garrison; with the Action of the War Department Thereon. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Parker, William N. 1996 Revolutions and Continuities in American Development. In The Industrial Revolution in national context: Europe and the USA. Mikulas Teich and Roy Porter, eds. Pp. 350-370. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press Petersen, Eugene T. 1973 Mackinac Island: Its History In Pictures. Mackinac State Historic Parks, Mackinac Island, Michigan 1 983 Mackinac In Restoration Reports in Mackinac History and Archaeology No. 9. Lansing, Michigan: Mackinac Island State Park Commission. Petersen, Harold L., editor 1 964 Encyclopedia of Firearms. New York : E .P. Dutton and Company, Inc. Piljac, Pamela A. and Thomas M 1989 Mackinac Island : Historic Frontier / Vacation Resort / Timeless Wonderland. Portage Ind iana : Bryce Waterton Publications.

PAGE 256

240 Porter, Phil 1 994 A Boy At Fort Mackinac: The Diary of Harold Dunbar Corbusier/883-7 884, 7 892. Phil Porter, ed. Mackinac Island, Michigan: The Corbusier Archives and Mackinac State Historic Parks. 1995 Fort Mackinac's Blacksmith Shop March 1 5, 1995. Copy on file, Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mackinac Island, Michigan 1997 Correspondence re: Historical functions of Fort Mackinac and the possible connection between Fort Mackinac soldiers and the Benjamin Blacksmith Shop. August 20, 1997 and November 1997. Price, Cynthia R 1 979 19th Century Ceramics in the Eastern Ozark Border Region. Monograph Series No. 7 Center for Archaeological Research, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. Pursell, Carroll 1995 The Machine in America: A Social History of Technology. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Quartermaster Stores, Fort Mackinac 1 799 Return List of Quartermaster Taken at Fort Mackinac, November 1799. MPHC. 1818 Quarterly Return of Quarter Masters Stores received and expended at the Post of Michilimackinac, October December 1818. Mackinac Papers, Vol. I, Military Papers 1783-1821. Wisconsin Historical Society. 1833 List of Quartermaster's stores expended and worn out in Public Service at Fort Mackinac ... in quarter ending 31st of March, 1 833 Office of the Quartermaster General, Consolidated Correspondence File, Fort Mackinac 18191890. National Archives. 1841 Quarterly return of Quartermaster's Stores received and issued at the post of Fort Mackinac in the Quarter ending on the 31st of June 1 841. Lieutenant John W. Phelps, 4th Artillery. Original in collection of Mackinac State Historic Parks, Mackinac Island Michigan

PAGE 257

241 Quartermaster General of the Army 1 986 U .S Army Uniforms and Equipment, 7 8891 Specifications for Clothing, Camp and Garrison Equipage, and Clothing and Equipage Materials. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. Quinn Evans, Architects 1 994 Historic Structure Report Final Submission/ Soldiers' Barracks Fort Mackinac. Mackinac Island: Mackinac Island State Park Commission. Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1 873a Captain Leslie Smith 2nd Lieutenant, 1st Infantry, July 26, 1873. General and Special Orders November 26, 1 870-May 18, 1874. Record Group No. 94, Volume 27. National Archives. 1873b Description of the Post Carlos Carvallo, Post Surgeon December 31, 1 873. Medical History, Fort Mackinac, Michigan, 1871-1878. Record Group No. 94, Volume 1 50. National Archives. 1875a Record of the Month of January 1875, J .V. DeHanne, Assistant Surgeon U S Army, Post Surgeon. Medical History, Fort Mackinac, Michigan, 1 871-1 878. Record Group No. 94, Volume 1 50. National Archives 1875b Record of the Month of March 25, J.V. DeHanne, Assistant Surgeon U .S. Army Post Surgeon. Medical History, Fort Mackinac, Michigan 1871-1878. Record Group No. 94, Volume 1 50. National Archives. Records of the Office of the Inspector General 1 834 Inspection of Fort Mackinac. Selecte d Inspection Reports, Fort Mackinac, Michigan 1 824-1 890. Record Group 1 59, p. 56. National Archives Records of the Office of the Secretary of War 1807 Henry Dearborn to W i lliam Clark, 1 7 August 1 807. Letters Sent, Indian Affairs, Vol. B National Archives.

PAGE 258

242 Records of the War Department, Office of the Quartermaster General, Consolidated Correspondence File, Fort Mackinac 1819-1890 1821 1826 Captain Thomas Legate to Quartermaster General, U.S. Army, 27 November 1821. National Archives. Alexander Thompson to Quartermaster General, 14 November 1 826. National Archives 182 7 Major Alexander Thompson to Quarter Master General, U.S. Army, 31 May 1827. National Archives 1828 Major Alexander Thompson to Quarter Master General, U.S. Army, 26 September 1828. National Archives. 1855 Proceedings of a Board of Survey convened at Fort Mackinac on 8 January 1855 by order of Major Thomas Williams, 4th Artillery National Archives 1858 Proceedings of a Board of Survey, constituted at Fort Mackinac on June 1Oth, 1 858 by order of Captain H. C. Pratt, 2nd Artillery. National Archives. 187 5 Estimate of Material and funds required for the repair of buildings at Fort Mackinac during the fiscal year ending June 30 187 5 Lieutenant W. W. Daugherty, 22nd Infantry. National Archives. 1 879 Inspection Report of Public Buildings at Fort Mackinac, Ring, Carlyn Michigan, during fiscal year ending June 30, 1879. 1st Lieutenant W T. Duggan 1Oth Infantry, Part 2, No. 2. Ann Arbor, Michigan : University Microfilms. 1980 For Bitters Only. Boston, Massachusetts: The Nimrod Press Inc. Shackel, Paul A 1996 Culture Change and the New Technology: An Archaeology of the Early American Industrial Era. New York: Plenum Press. Schwing Ned and Herbert House 1994 Standard Catalog of Firearms. lola, Wisconsin: Krau s e Publications, Inc. Smith, H. R Bradley 1966 Blacksmiths and Farriers Tools At Shelburne Museum; A History of Their Development From Forge to Factory. Shelburne, Vermont: Shelburne Museum.

PAGE 259

243 Smith, Joseph E. 1968 Book of Pistols and Revolvers. Harrisburg Pennsylvania: The Stackpole Company. South, Stanley 1977 Method and Theory in Historical Archaeology New York: Academic Press. Sprague, Roderick 1 980 A Functional classification for Artifacts from 19th and 20th Century Historical Sites. North American Archaeologist 2 (3 ): 2 51-2 61 Steindler, R A. 1970 The Firearms Dictionary. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania : The Stackpole Company Switzer, Ronald 1974 The Bertrand Bottles: A Study of 79th-century Glass and Ceramic Containers Washington: U.S. National Park Service Toulouse, Julian 1971 Bottlemakers and Their Marks. New York: T Nelson. Tracy, Uriah 1800 Uriah Tracy to Samuel Dexter 20 December 1 800. Engineers Book RG 77, Entry 221. National Archives Voynick, Steve 1 996 Coal As A Collectible: This Often Overlooked Mineral Has a Fascinating History. In Rock and Gem, October Ventura, California: Miller Magazines. Watson, Aldren Auld 1 968 The Village Blacksmith. New York: Crowell. Watson, Richard 1 965 Bitters Bottles. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons. Whitaker, John Martin Francis 1996 The Functions of Four Colonial Yards of the Southeast Row House, Fort Michilimackinac, Michigan. Master's Thesis. University of South Florida Department of Anthropology. Tampa, Florida. Widder, Keith R. 1972 Reveille Till Taps. Soldier Life at Fort Mackinac 7 7807 895. Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mackinac Island Michigan.

PAGE 260

244 Wright Robin R. 1985 The 7780 British Well Site Master's Thesis. University of South Florida Department of Anthropology. Tampa, Florida Wycoff, Martin A. 1984 United States Military Buttons of the Land Services 1787-79021 A Guide and Classificatory System. Bloomington Illinois : Mclean County Historical Society. Young, AmyL. 1 994 Spatial Patterning on a Nineteenth-Century Appalachian Houselot : Evidence From Nail Anal ysi s Southeastern Archaeology 13(1 ) : 56-63

PAGE 261

245 APPENDICES

PAGE 262

246 Appendix 1. Lots Excavated From Stratigraphic Layers Deposited From 1858-1996 LOT NUMBER MS3E1A01 MS3E1A06 MS3E1B01 MS3E1B05 MS3E1C01 MS3E1D01 MS3E1D05 MS3E1E01 MS3E1E09 MS3E1F01 MS3E1G01 MS3E1G06* MS3E1H01 MS3E1H06 MS3E1 J01 MS3E1K01 MS3E1L01 MS3E1L04 MS3E1L19 MS3E1 MOl MS3E1N01 MS3E1 POl MS3E1 Q01 MS3E1R01 MS3E1S01 MS3E1T01 MS3E1U01 MS3E1V01 MS3E1 W01 MS3E1Y01 MS3E1C03 MS3E1D02 MS3E1D06 MS3E1E03* MS3E1E10* MS3E1G02 MS3E1G07 MS3E1H02 MS3E1H07 MS3E1Q03 MS3E1 R02 MS3E1T02 No artifacts in the lot MODERN PARK LAYER 1895-1996 STRATUM NAME Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Sod Layer Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand Mottled Dark Brown and Tan Sand YEAR EXCAVATED 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995

PAGE 263

247 Appendix 1. (Continued) LQT NUMBER STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED MS3E1A02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1A07 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1B02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1B06 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1C02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1D02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1D07 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1E02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1E11 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1F02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1G03 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1G08 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1H03 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1H08* Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1J03 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1L02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1L05 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1L20 Loamy Brown Soil 1996 MS3E1M02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1N02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1 P02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1Q02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1S02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1T03 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1U02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1V02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1 W02 Loamy Brown Soil 1995 MS3E1Y02 Loamy Brown Soil 1996 MS3E1 J02 Loamy Brown Soil with Gravel 1995 MS3E1K02 Loamy Brown Soil with Gravel 1995 MS3E1P10 Loamy Brown Soil with Gravel 1996 MS3E1K17 CABLE TRENCH Brown Intrusion 1996 MS3E1K22 CABLE TRENCH Mottled Gray with Pebbles Under MS3E 1 K 17 Cable Trench 1996 MS3E1K24 CABLE TRENCH Light Yellowish Brown Pea Gravel Under MS3E 1 K 1 7 Cable Trench 1996 MS3E1M03 CABLE TRENCH Brown with Gravel 1995 MS3E1 M 14 CABLE TRENCH Intrusion 1996 MS3E1M15 CABLE TRENCH Loamy Brown Soil 1996 MS3E1R03 CABLE TRENCH Brown with Gravel 1995 MS3E1R05 CABLE TRENCH Gray Soil 1995 MS3E1R07 CABLE TRENCH Large Gravel Overlying 1996 MS3E1R15 CABLE TRENCH Brown Soil 1996 MS3E1Y08 CABLE TRENCH Light Gray Soil 1996 MS3E1K03 BUILDER'S TRENCH Fine Gray Brown 1995 MS3E1K06 BUILDER'S TRENCH Light Brown Gravel 1995

PAGE 264

248 Appendix 1. (Continued) LOT NUMBER STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED MS3E1V03 REVETMENT WALL BUILDER'S TRENCH 1995 MS3E1 W05 REVETMENT WALL BUILDER'S TRENCH 1995 MS3E1V04 REVETMENT EROSION DEPOSIT Wall Scale and Decomposed Plaster 1995 MS3E1 W04* REVETMENT EROSION DEPOSIT Wall Scale and Decomposed Plaster 1995 MS3E1L14 REVETMENT EROSION DEPOSIT Dark Brown with Revetment Wall Debris 1995 MIXED CONTEXT: STATE PARK DEPOSITS AND POST SHOP MILITARY DEPOSITS c .1875-c.1900 LOT NUMBER MS3E1B07 MS3E1G04 MS3E1G09 MS3E1 L03 MS3E1L06 MS3E1L07 MS3E1L08 MS3E1L21 MS3E1 L22 MS3E1L23 MS3E1L24 MS3E1L26 MS3E1S03 MS3E1T04 MS3E1T06 MS3E1U03 MS3E1U05 MS3E1V05 MS3E1 W03 MS3E1W06 MS3E1 W07 MS3E1 W08 MS3E1A24 MS3E1B15 MS3E1B17 MS3E1B20 MS3E1B21 MS3E1B23 STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer 1995 CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer 1 99 5 CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer 1995 CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer 1995 CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer 1995 CLEANUP INTERFACE Dark Gray Sand 1995 CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer 1995 CLEANUP INTERFACE Loamy Brown Soil with Sparse Gravel CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel CLEANUP INTERFACE Ash Pit CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel and Rubble CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Large Angular Rock CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel and Debris CLEANUP INTERFACE Yellow Brown with Gravel CLEANUP INTERFACE Possible Wall Debris CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer CLEANUP INTERFACE Dark Gray Sand CLEANUP INTERFACE Brown with Gravel Layer CLEANUP INTERFACE Possible Demolition Debris BURIED TIMBERS Dark Gray Ash and Decomposed Mortar BURIED TIMBERS Th i n Ashy Dark Gray BURIED TIMBERS Very Dark Grayish Brown with Mixed Gravel BURIED TIMBERS Thin Layer of Brown Gravel BURIED TIMBERS Very Dark Gray Soil with Medium Gravel BURIED TIMBERS Very Dark Grayish Brown Soil with Rubble/ Angular Gravel 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995

PAGE 265

LOT NUMBER MS3E1U04 MS3E1U06 MS3E1U08 MS3E1U11 MS3E1U12* MS3E1U13 MS3E1U14 MS3E1U15 MS3E1U16 MS3E1U22 MS3E1V06 MS3E1V07 MS3E1V08 MS3E1V09 MS3E1V10* MS3E1V11 MS3E1V12 MS3E1V15* MS3E1V16 MS3E1 W09* MS3E1W10 MS3E1 W11 MS3 E1S05 MS3E1S13 MS3E1F05 249 Appendix 1. (Continued) STRATUM NAME BURIED TIMBERS Thin Yellow Floor # 1 BURIED TIMBERS Dark Grayish Brown Soil Around Timbers YEAR EXCAVATED 1995 BURIED TIMBERS Thin Yellow Floor #2 BURIED TIMBERS Light Gray Ash with Gravel BURIED TIMBERS Brown Layer between Timbers BURIED TIMBERS Very Dark Grayish Brown with Angular Gravel BURIED TIMBERS Very Dark Grayish Brown with Small Gravel BURIED TIMBERS Yellow Gravel BURIED TIMBERS Dark Brown with Angular Gravel and Charred Wood BURIED TIMBERS Wooden Structure BURIED TIMBERS Black Soil with Sparse Gravel BURIED TIMBERS Light Gray Ash BURIED TIMBERS Very Dark Grayish Brown with Angular Gravel BURIED TIMBERS Dark Mottled Brown Soil BURIED TIMBERS Thin Yellow Floor #2 BURIED TIMBERS Dark Brown 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 with Angular Gravel and Charred Wood 1 99 5 BURIED TIMBERS Thin Layer of Brown Gravel 1995 BURIED TIMBERS Dark Gray Ash and Decomposed Mortar 1995 BURIED TIMBERS Black Soil with Sparse Gravel 1 99 5 BURIED TIMEBERS Thin Yellow Floor #2 1995 BURIED TIMBERS Light Grayish Ash with Gravel 1995 BURIED TIMBERS Yellow Gravel 1995 DRAIN AREA ASSOCIATED WITH BARRACKS STAIRS Dark Loose Filler Soil with Gravel DRAIN AREA Soil Underneath MS3El S0 5 DRAIN AREA ASSOCIATED WITH BARRACKS STAIRS 1995 1995 Brown w ith Large Gravel Aligned with MS3 E1S05 1995 UNDISTURBED POST SHOP DEPOSITS c.187 5 -1895 LOT NUMBER MS3E1M07* MS3E1A03 MS3E1A08 MS3E1A23 MS3E1B03 MS3E1C05 MS3E1D03 MS3E1D08 MS3E1E05 STRATUM NAME Ashy Dark Gray Decomposed Burned Plaster Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Lay e r Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Laye r Brown with Gravel Layer YEAR EXCAVATED 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995

PAGE 266

LOT NUMBER MS3E1E12 MS3E1 F03 MS3E1H04 MS3E1H09 MS3E1 J04 MS3E1K07 MS3E1M04 MS3E1N03 MS3E1P03 MS3E1Q04 MS3E1Y03 MS3E1E06 MS3E1W12 MS3E1 E04 MS3E1A25* MS3E1K04* MS3E1 A 16* MS3E1A21 MS3E1A17 MS3E1Y04 MS3E1G12 MS3E1U10 MS3E1U25 Appendix 1. (Continued) STRATUM NAME Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel Layer Brown with Gravel and CoaiLayer Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel Large Gravel Light yellowish Brown Mortar Tan Sand Thin Ashy Dark Gray Very Dark Gray with Medium Gravel Very Dark Grayish Brown with Mixed Gravel Yellow with Gravel FEATURE Circular Thin Yellow Basin 250 YEAR EXCAVATED 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1995 FEATURE Thin Yellow Gravel Around Large Stones Associated with MS3E1 G12 Basin 1995 1995 FEATURE Standing S i ding Projecting in MS3E1 W BLACKSMITH SHOP Ill BUILDING LAYER 1858-c.1875 STORAGE SHED PERIOD AFTER c.1873-c.1875 LOT NUMBER MS3E1A09* MS3E1B04 MS3E1B11 MS3E1C06 MS3E1D04 MS3E1D09 MS3E1G05 MS3E1H10 MS3E1 J09 MS3E1M05 MS3E1N04 MS3E1P05* MS3E1Q05 MS3E1R06* MS3E1S04 FINAL STRATUM BEFORE BUILDING DEMOLISHED STRATUM NAME Thin Yellow Floor Thin Yellow Floor Thin Yellow Floor #1 with Coal Thin Yellow Floor Thin Yellow Floor Thin Yellow Floor #1 Thin Yellow Floor # 1 Thin Yellow Floor #1 Thin Yellow Floor # 1 Thin Yellow Floor Thin Yellow Floor #1 Thin Yellow Floor #1 Thin Yellow Floor #1 Thin Yellow Floor Thin Yellow Floor #1 YEAR EXCAVATED 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995

PAGE 267

LOT NUMBER MS3E1T05 MS3E1B08 MS3E1A05 MS3E1 E08 MS3E1E13 MS3E1L09 MS3E1L25 MS3E1M11* MS3E1R18 MS3E1R19* MS3E1M13 MS3E1N10 MS3E1P31 MS3E1P34 MS3E1A04 MS3E1E07 MS3E1 F04 Appendix 1. (Continued) FINAL DEPOSITS OUTSIDE BUILDING STRATUM NAME Thin Yellow Floor #1 Yellow with Fine Gravel Thin Yellow Floor Thin Yellow Floor #1 Thin Yellow Floor #1 Thin Yellow Floor Thin Yellow Floor DRIPLINE GRAVEL OF EAST OVERHANG 251 YEAR EXCAVATED 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1995 DRIPUNE GRAVEL OF EAST OVERHANG Between Cables DRIPUNE GRAVEL OF EAST OVERHANG East of Cable 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 DITCH Associated with Dripline DITCH Associated with Dripl i ne DRIPLINE/DITCH GRAVEL OF EAST OVERHANG DRIPLINE/DITCH Very Dark GrayishBrown with Gravel NORTH WALKWAY /STEP? Large Gravel SOUTH WALKWAY Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel Coal SOUTH WALKWAY Large Gravel 1996 1995 1995 1995 FLOOR DEPOSITS BETWEEN FIRST AND FINAL LAYERS OF STORAGE SHED PERIOD LOT NUMBER MS3E1P06 MS3E1A14 MS3E1B12 MS3E1U07 MS3E1B31* MS3E1D10 MS3E1J10 MS3E1N05 MS3E1Q06 MS3E1Q09 MS3E1N09 MS3E1C09 MS3E1A11 MS3E1Bl0 MS3E1G13B MS3E1J13 MS3E1M08 MS3E1A15 MS3E1B13 MS3E1D13 STRATUM NAME Black Soil with Gravel Black Soil with Sparse Gravel Black Soil with Sparse Gravel Black Soil with Sparse Gravel Dark Gray with Charcoal Flecking Dark Grayish Brown Floor Dark Grayish Brown Floor Dark Grayish Brown Floor Dark Grayish Brown Floor Dark Grayish Brown Floor Dark Grayish Brown Soil Dark Yellowish Brown with Large Stones YEAR EXCAVATED 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996 Dark Yellowish Brown with Large Stones Pebbles Coal Dark Yellowish Brown with Large Sto n es Pebbles Coal and Gravel 1995 1995 Dark Yellowish Brown with Large Stones and Coal and Gravel Dark Yellowish Brown with Large Stones Pebbles Coal and Gravel Dark Yellowish B r own with Large Stones Pebbles Coal and Gravel Dark Yellowish Brown with Angular Gravel Dark Yellowish Brown with Angular Gravel Dark Yellowish Brown with Angular Gravel 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995

PAGE 268

LOT NUMBER MS3E1S08 MS3E1T09 MS3E1B16* MS3E1B18 MS3E1B19 MS3E1C07 MS3E1D15 MS3E1D17 MS3E1G13A MS3E1H13 MS3E1H14 MS3E1P08 MS3E1Q10 MS3E1S10 MS3E1S11 MS3E1T12 MS3E1T15 MS3E1U09* MS3E1M06 MS3E1A 12 MS3E1A13 MS3E1J12 MS3E1014* MS3E1K08 MS3E1G14 MS3E1B14 MS3E1D12 MS3E1H12 MS3E1J11 MS3E1N06 MS3E1P07 MS3E1Q0 7 MS3E1S07 MS3E1T08 MS3E1D16 MS3E1S09 MS3E1T11 MS3E1D11 MS3E1G11* MS3E1H11 MS3E1S06 MS3E1T0 7 Appendix 1 (Continued) STRATUM NAME Dark Yellowish Brown with A n gular Gravel Dark Yellowish Brown with Angular Gravel Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel Stone/Bone /Coal Concentration in MS3E 1 B 18 Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellow ish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal (Slightly Darker Than MS3E1 S1 0) Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal (Slightly Darker Than MS3E 1 T1 2) Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal Dark Yellowish Brown Gravel Fine Orange Gravel Fine Yellow Gravel with Coal Gray Floor (Very Thin) Grayish Brown with Gravel 252 YEAR EXCAVATED 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 Loamy Brown Mottl e d Yellow with Sparse Gravel Mottled Brown Intrusion 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 Thin Yellow Floor #2 Thin Yellow F loor #2 Thin Yellow F lo o r #2 Thin Yellow Floor #2 Thin Yellow Floor # 2 Thin Yellow Floor #2 Thin Yellow Floor #2 Thin Yellow Floor #2 Thin Yellow Floor #2 Very Dark Brown Soil Mottled with Coal Very Dark Brown Soil Mottled with Coal and Gravel Very Dark Brown Soil Mottled with C oal and Gravel Very Dark Gray Soil Very Dark Gray Soil ( T hin) Very Dark Gray Soil (Thin) Very Dark Gray Soi l (Thin) Very Dark Gray Soi l ( Thin)

PAGE 269

253 LOT NUMBER MS3E1B35* Appendix 1. (Continued) STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED MS3E1N08 MS3E1B09 MS3E1N07* MS3E1T10 MS3E1T13 MS3E1T14 MS3E1Q08 Very Dark Grayish Brown Soil with Charcoal, Gravel and Ash Very Dark Grayish Brown Soil with Stones Pebbles Coal and Gravel Yellow with Large Pebbles Yellow with Large Gravel POST REMAINS POST HOLE BLACK RECTANGULAR PATCH VERY DARK GRAY CIRCULAR INTRUSIVE PIT 1996 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 OUTSIDE DEPOSITS BETWEEN FIRST AND FINAL LAYERS OF STORAGE SHED PERIOD MS3E1 E22 Black Lens of Crushed Coal 1995 MS3 E 1 E 14 Dark Grayish Brown Floor 1995 MS3E 1 E 17* Dark Yellowish Brown with Angular Gravel 1995 MS3E1E19 Dark Yellowish Brown with Gravel and Coal 1995 MS3E1 E23 Dark Yellowish Brown Fine Gravel 1995 MS3E 1 F07 Dark Yellowish Brown w ith Fine and Small Gravel Mixed 1995 MS3E 1 F1 0 Dark Yellowish Brown Fine Gravel 199 5 MS3E1M12 Gray with Gravel 1996 MS3E 1 E21 Large Gravel Concentration 1995 MS3E1 R08 Light Grayish Brown M i xed with MS3E1E16 MS3E1E18 MS3E1E15 MS3E1F08 MS3E1L13* MS3 E1L12 MS3E1 FOG MS3E1F09 MS3E1L11 MS3E1L10 MS3E1L15 MS3E1L28 MS3E1L30 Light Brown Gravel Rocks Thin Yellow Floor #2 Very Dark Brown Soil Mottled with Coal Very Dark Gray Soil Very Dark Gray Soil with Gravel Very Dark Grayish Brown Soil (Thin Strip) Yellow Gravel {Thin Lens) COAL PILE COAL CONCENTRATION COAL CONCENTRATION Associated with MS3E 1 L 1 0 COAL CONCENTRATION Very Dark Brown / Black Associated with MS3E 1 L 11 COAL CONCENTRATION Very Dark Grayish Brown with Coal and Gravel Associated with MS3E 1 L 11 COAUBONE CONCENTRATION Associated with MS3E 1 L 1 0 COAL CONCENTRATION Associated with MS3E 1 L 1 0 1996 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996

PAGE 270

254 Appendix 1. (Continued) FIRST STORAGE SHED FLOOR AFTER FORGE REMOVED c .1873 LOT NUMBER MS3E1A18 MS3E1B22 MS3E1B27 MS3E1C08 MS3E1D18 MS3E1D19 MS3E1G16 MS3E1H15 MS3E1J14 MS3E1K09 MS3E1M09 MS3E1 N11 MS3E1P09 MS3E1 Q11 MS3E1R09 MS3E1S12 MS3E1T16 MS3E1T17 STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED Very Dark Grayish Brown w ith Gravel and Tiny Coal 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1995 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Coal Embedded 1995 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1995 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1995 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1995 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Grav e l 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Grav e l 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1995 Very Dark Gray ish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel and Tiny Coal 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1996 Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1 99 5 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1995 Very Dar k Grayish Brown with Clinkers and Larger Coal 1 99 5 FIRST DEPOSITS OUTSIDE AFTER FORGE REMOVED c. 1 873 LOT NUMBER MS3E1A10 MS3E1E24 MS3E1E25* MS3E1M17 LOT NUMBER MS3E1B 2 4 MS3E1B28 MS3E1B30 MS3E1B36 MS3E1B40* MS3E1B43 MS3E1B44 MS3E1C10 MS3E1J15 STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED Mottled Gray and Ash (Tan Sand and Dec omposed Plaster) 1995 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Gravel 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Coal and Grav e l 1995 Charcoal Mottled with Light Olive Brown 1996 FORGE BRICK SALVAGING OPERATION c 1873-187 4 STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED RUBBLE PIT Gravel Concentration with Very Dark Grayish Brown Matr i x with T win R o cks 1995 RUBBLE PIT Gravel Conc e ntration with Very Dark Grayish Brown M atrix 1996 RUBBLE PIT Gravel Conc entration with Very Dark Grayish Brown Matrix 1996 RUBBLE PIT Gravel Concentration with Very Dark Grayish Brown Matrix 1996 RUBBLE PIT Very Dark Grayish Brown C lay Between MS3E1 B24 Stone s 1996 RUBBLE PIT Rubble Under Large Stone 1996 RUBBLE PIT Brown with Tiny Gravel 1 99 6 RUBBLE PIT Gravel Concentration with Dark Grayish Brown Matrix 1996 RUBBLE PIT Gravel Conc e ntration with Very Dark Gray ish Brown Matrix 1996

PAGE 271

LOT NUMBER MS3E1N13 MS3E1N28 MS3E1N29 MS3E1A26 MS3E1A34 MS3E1A27* MS3E1A29 MS3E1A30 MS3E1A32 MS3E1A33 MS3E1A3S MS3E1B29 MS3E1B33 MS3E1B34 255 Appendix 1. (Continued) STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED RUBBLE PIT Gravel Concentration with Very Dark Grayish Brown Matrix 1996 RUBBLE PIT Very Dark Grayish Brown with Charcoal and Brick 1996 RUBBLE PIT Gray Ash Layer with Spots of Charcoal 1996 INTRUSIVE PIT Light Brown with Stones and Orange Clay 1 9 9 6 INTRUSIVE PIT Light Brown with Stones and Orange Clay 1 9 9 6 INTRUSIVE PIT White Gravel (Fine) 1995 INTRUSIVE PIT Dark Brown Loamy with Angular Gravel 1996 INTRUSIVE PIT Dark Brown with Large Angular Gravel 1996 INTRUSIVE PIT Light Brown with Orange Clay 1996 INTRUSIVE PIT Light Brown with Orange Clay 1996 INTRUSIVE PIT Yellowish Brown Sandy Clay with Gravel 1996 INTRUSIVE PIT Light Brown with Stones and Orange Clay 1 9 9 6 INTRUSIVE PIT Light Brown with Stones and Orange Clay 1 9 9 6 INTRUSIVE PIT Dark Brown with Loose Angular Gravel 1996 BLACKSMITH OPERATIONS PERIOD 1858-c.1873 BLACKSMITH SHOP Ill FLOOR DEPOSITS BETWEEN 1858 AND FORGE REMOVAL c .1873 LOT NUMBER MS3E1S17 MS3E1K16* MS3E1K19 MS3E1 C11 MS3E1J18 MS3E1R14 MS3E1H16 MS3E1C14 MS3E1D29 MS3E1J26 MS3E1 Q17 MS3E1C15 MS3E1N15 MS3E1 Q13 MS3E1S18 MS3E1K12 MS3E1R11 MS3E1 Q19 MS3E1D30* MS3E1P15 MS3E1D20 STRATUM NAME Black Soil with Fine Gravel Black Soil with Gravel (Disturbed) Black Soil with Gravel and Rock Brown with Heavy Clay Brown with Heavy Clay Brown with Stones and Charcoal Deposits Dark Brown Soil Mottled with Strong Brown Dark Brown Soil with Charcoal and Coal Dark Brown Soil with Charcoal and Coal Dark Brown Soil with Charcoal and Coal Dark Brown Soil with Charcoal and Coal Dark Brown Soil with Charcoal Mottled with Yellowish Brown Dark Brown Soil with Coal and Gravel Dark Brown Soil with Coal and Rocks Dark Brown Soil with Very Fine Gravel Dark Gray with Charcoal Flecking Dark Gray with Charcoal Flecking YEAR EXCAVATED 1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 Dark Gray with Dark Brown Clay Charcoal and Gravel Dark Gray with Dark Brown Clay, Charcoal and Gravel Dark Gray with Loose Small Gravel 1996 1996 1996 1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1995 Dark Grayish Brown Intermediate Floor Layer

PAGE 272

256 Appendix 1. (Continued) LOT NUMBER STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED MS3E1E20* Dark Grayish Brown Intermediate Floor Layer 1995 MS3E1H17 Dark Grayish Brown Intermediate Floor Layer 1995 MS3E1T22 Dark Grayish Brown Intermediate Floor Layer 1995 MS3E1P14 Dark Grayish Brown with Angular Gravel 1996 MS3E1U27 Dark Grayish Brown with Angular Gravel 1995 MS3E1 J20 Dark Grayish Brown with Charcoal and Light Brown Gravel 1996 MS3E1R13 Dark Grayish Brown with Charcoal and Light Olive Brown Gravel 1996 MS3E1J19 Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel, Pebbles and Clay 1996 MS3E1K14 Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel, Pebbles and Clay 1996 MS3E1M27* Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel and Mortar 1996 MS3E1D26 Dark Mottled Reddish Brown 1996 MS3E1D25 Dark Yellowish Brown with Big Stones 1996 MS3E1S15 Gravel Beneath Drain Area 1995 MS3E1P12 Gray with Coal and Gravel 1996 MS3E1Q12 Gray with Coal and Gravel 1996 MS3E1K18 Light Brown Pea Gravel 1996 MS3E1N50 Light Olive Gray with Very Fine Gravel 1996 MS3E1K20 Light Patchy Brown with Rocks 1996 MS3E1T20 Light Yellowish Fine Gravel Square 1995 MS3E1P11 Loamy Brown Mottled with Yellow with Sparse Gravel 1996 MS3E1K21 Mottled Charcoal with Stones 1996 MS3E1U26 Rubble From MSE31 U21 1995 MS3E1U19 Thin Layer of Brown Gravel 1995 MS3E1T18 Very Dark Gray Mottled with Reddish Yellow with Coal and Decomposed Mortar 1995 MS3E1C16 Very Dark Gray with Dense Fine Gravel, Charcoal and Coal 1996 MS3E1K15 Very Dark Gray with Pebbles and Gravel (Disturbed) 1996 MS3E1C17 Very Dark Gray with Wood Fragments 1996 MS3E1J31 Very Dark Gray with Wood Fragments 1996 MS3E1S14 Very Dark Grayish Brown Intermediate Floor Layer 1995 MS3E1T23 Very Dark Grayish Brown Intermediate Floor Layer 1995 MS3E1U28 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Coal and Ash 1995 MS3E1P13 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel 1996 MS3E1S19 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel and Charcoal 1995 MS3E1U21 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel Coal Concentration 1995 MS3E1T19 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel and Heavy Metal Concentration 1995 MS3E1U23 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel and Large Coal 1995 MS3E1J16 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Light Gravel 1996 MS3E1K11 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Light Gravel 1996

PAGE 273

LOT NUMBER MS3E1N14 MS3E1J17 MS3E1K13 MS3E1R12 MS3E1C12 MS3E1G17 MS3E1G19* MS3E1J22 MS3E1J24 MS3E1J25 MS3E1 J28 MS3E1J29 MS3E1J30 257 Appendix 1. (Continued) STRATUM NAME Very Dark Grayish Brown with Light Gravel Very Dark Grayish Brown with Less Gravel Very Dark Grayish Brown with Less Gravel Very Dark Grayish Brown with Less Gravel SHOP Ill FLOOR Very Dark Gray with Coal YEAR EXCAVATED 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 SHOP Ill Very Dark Grayish Brown Mottled with Pale Brown Mortar, Coal, Ash FLOOR JOIST? Narrow Strip of Dark Soil in MS3 E 1 G 1 7 ANVIL STAND WAISTER MOLD Mottled Clay ANVIL STAND SUPPORT Gray Deposit Around MSE1J22 ANVIL STAND SUPPORT Round Stones and Mortar ANVIL STAND SUPPORT Round Stones and Mortar Feature with Coal ANVIL STAND SUPPORT Round Stones and Mortar 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 Feature with Bones and Coal 1996 ANVIL STAND SUPPORT Gravel with Pieces of Mortar Feature Associated with MS3E1J22 1996 OUTSIDE DEPOSITS DURING OPERATIONS BETWEEN 1858 AND FORGE REMOVAL c .1873 LOT NUMBER STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED MS3E 1 A22* Ash and Clinker 1995 MS3E1 F11 Black Soil with Gravel and Coal 1996 MS3E 1 P29 Black with Pea Gravel 1996 MS3E 1 A 19 Charcoal and Coal {Thin Deposit) 1995 MS3E 1M 1 0 Charcoal and Coal (Thin Deposit) 1995 MS3E1P33 Chareoal Bum 1996 MS3E 1 V17* Charcoal Layer 1996 MS3E1 E27 Dark Grayish Brown Intermediate Floor Layer 1995 MS3E 1 P30 Gray with Gravel 1996 MS3E 1 A31 Light Olive Brown with Angular Stones 1996 MS3E1 M24 Light Olive Brown with Angular Stones 1996 MS3E1 E36 Mortar Around Stones 1996 MS3E1 E32 Mottled Gray/Brown/Orange/Red MS3E1E26 MS3E1A20 MS3E1P32 MS3E1M18 MS3E1L29 MS3E1W15 MS3E1M28 MS3E1W16 MS3E1 W14 MS3E1E29 MS3E1L27 MS3E1A36 with Small Coal and Gravel 1996 Rocks Embedded in Clay 1995 Thin Layer of Fine Gravel 199 5 Very Dark Brown Humic with Pea Gravel 1996 Very Dark Gray with Stones 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown Surrounding Foundation Wall 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Angular Gravel 1995 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Charcoal 1996 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Coal and Ash 1995 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Gravel and Coal 1995 Very Dark Grayish Brown with Tiny Gravel 1995 Very Dark Brown Grayish Clay with Mixed Gravel 1 99 6 Yellowish Brown Soil 1996

PAGE 274

258 Appendix 1. (Continued) LOT NUMBER STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED MS3E1E28 SHOP Ill FLOOR EXTENSION Very Dark Gray 1995 MS3E1L16 SHOP Ill FLOOR EXTENSION Very Dark Grayish Brown Clay 1995 MS3E1F14 COAL PIT 1996 MS3E1K10 DRAINAGE Light Yellowish Brown Clay Linear Stone 1996 MS3E1M16 DRAINAGE Light Yellowish Brown Clay Linear Stone 1996 MS3E1N12 DRAINAGE Light Yellowish Brown Clay Linear Stone 1996 MS3E1R10 DRAINAGE Light Yellowish Brown Clay Linear Stone 1996 MS3E1P35 DISPLACED FOUNDATION? Cluster of Stones 1996 MS3E1P36 DISPLACED FOUNDATION? Mottled Soil Area In and Under MS3E1 P35 1996 MS3E1E33 WALKWAY Yellowish Brown Soil with 1 /2" Gravel 1996 MS3E1E34 WALKWAY Light Brown Gray Pea Gravel 1996 MS3E1E35 WALKWAY Mottled Gray with Pea Gravel 1996 MS3E1F13 WALKWAY Dark Gray Clay Layer 1996 MS3E1F15 WALKWAY Very Mottled with Pea Gravel and Coal 1996 OPERATIONS INTERFACE DEPOSITS WITH EARLIER SHOPS LOT NUMBER STRATUM NAME YEAR EXCAVATED MS3E 1 C13 Coarse Sandy Pea Gravel 1996 MS3E1 D28 Coarse Sandy Pea Gravel 1996 MS3E1J23 CoarseSandyPeaGravel 1996 MS3E 1 N22 Coarse Sandy Pea Gravel 1996 MS3E1 QlS Coarse Sandy Pea Gravel 1996 MS3E1 N17 Combination of N21 N22 N23 1996 MS3E1J21 Dark Gray with Charcoal 1996 MS3E1 Q18 Heavy Charcoal Concentration 1996 MS3E1D21 VeryDarkGray 1995 MS3E1 D27 Very Dark Gray 1996 MS3E1 N21 Very Dark Gray with Coal 1996 MS3E1 P16 Very Dark Gray 1996 MS3E1Q14 VeryDarkGray 1996 MS3E1S16 Very Dark Gray 1995 MS3E1T24 Very Dark Gray 1995

PAGE 275

Appendix 2 Artifact Assemblage From Stratigraphic Levels Deposited From 1858-1996 (162,255 Total Arti facts Recovered) MODERN PARK LEVEL 1895-1996 12,372 TOTAL ARTIFACTS ARTIFACTS AMMUNITION CAST LEAD SLUGS CARTRIDGE CASING LEAD SHOT FLINT CHIPS ARCHITECTURAL DEBRIS ANGULAR ROCK BRICK FRAGMENTS MODERN CEMENT /CONCRETE "DAUB" FLOOR TILE SHERDS GLAZIER'S POINTS INSULATION FRAGMENTS MORTAR NAILS, BOLTS AND SCREWS PAINT CHIPS PLASTER ROOFING MATERIALS WALL DEBRIS WASHERS, FAUCET WINDOW GLASS FLAT WOOD FRAGMENTS BUTTONS CERAMIC SHERDS BLUE TIN GLAZED/CREAM PASTE CREAMWARE STORAGE VESSEL BROWN LEAD GLAZED IRONSTONE BLUE TRANSFER PRINT IRONSTONE BLUE/BLACK/WHITE GLAZED IRONSTONE WHITE GLAZED PORCELAIN STONEWARE BROWN/GRAY SALT GLAZED STONEWARE WHITE SALT GLAZED STONEWARE WHITE SALT GLAZED WITH BLACK TRANSFER PRINT WHITEWARE PLAIN WHITEWARE BLACK TRANSFER PRINT WHITEWARE BLUE TRANSFER PRINT WHITEWARE GREEN TRANSFER PRINT COUNT ll 2 1 26 2 6274 8 496 804 291 33 2 2 2405 427 46 842 6 614 2 209 87 z_ 60 1 2 1 3 1 19 4 1 2 1 15 1 3 6 259

PAGE 276

ARTIFACTS COINS Appendix 2. (Continued) CURVED GLASS SHERDS BOTTLE AND JAR THIN CLEAR FAUNAL MATERIALS BONE FRAGMENTS FISH SCALES FISH VERTEBRAE CINDER COAL COUNT H 451 372 79 285 280 3 2 4758 531 4227 IRON 164 BOOT HEEL FRAGMENT 1 POTFRAGMENT 1 SCRAP IRON 1 2 8 STOCK ROD FRAGMENTS 3 SWARTH 30 THREADED RING 1 59 BRASS WEIGHT 1 COAT HANGER FRAGMENT 1 CLOTHING BUCKLES 2 HAIR CLASP 1 HAIR PINS 8 INK PEN SPRING 1 UGHTBULBBASE 1 SAFETY PIN 1 SCRAP METAL FRAGMENTS (BRASS, COPPER AND TIN} 1 7 SOFT DRINK CAN TAB 1 STRAIGHT PIN 1 TACKS THUMB/UPHOLSTERY 6 TIN CAN FRAGMENTS 3 TOBACCO PLUG 1 WIRE FRAGMENTS 1 4 MISCELLANEOUS 2 7 4 BANDAID FRAGMENTS 4 CAMERA FLASH BULB FRAGMENTS 2 CAP GUN CARTRIDGES 2 CIGARETTE FILTERS 4 COTTON THREAD 1 CLOTHFRAGMENTS 4 CRAYON 1 260

PAGE 277

Appendix 2. (Continued) ARTIFACTS MISCELLANEOUS (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL TAPE FRAGMENTS FILM/GUM WRAPPERS GUM HORSESHOE NAIL RING JEWELRY LEATHER FRAGMENTS MARBLES MICA FLAKES NUTSHELLS PAINTBRUSH BRISTLE PAINTED ROCK PAPER FRAGMENTS PEACH PITS PENCIL TIP POCKETKNIFE PLASTIC CLEAR TAPE PLASTIC COMB FRAGMENT PLASTIC FOOD SPEARS PLASTIC JEWELRY FRAGMENTS PLASTIC TOY HORSE PLASTIC UNIDENTIFIED FRAGMENTS PLASTIC WIRE COATING RUBBER BANDS SEASHELL BIVALVE FRAGMENTS SEED SHELLS STYROFOAM FRAGMENTS TISSUE FRAGMENT TOBACCO PIPE STEM FRAGMENT UNIDENTIFIED ARTIFACTS WAX PAPER FRAGMENT COUNT 2 77 3 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 7 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 1 97 3 2 2 5 9 1 1 6 1 BROWN WITH GRAVEL LEVEL c. 187 5-c.1900 30, 502 TOTAL ARTIFACTS MIXED CONTEXT: STATE PARK DEPOSITS AND POST SHOP MILITARY DEPOSITS c 1875-c .1900 23,784 TOTAL ARTIFACTS ARTIFACTS AMMUNITION CAST LEAD SLUGS CARTRIDGE CASINGS CARTRIDGE PRIMER CAP FLINT CHIP COUNT ll 4 2 1 4 261

PAGE 278

Appendix 2. (Continued) ARTIFACTS COUNT 3909 59 ARCHITECTURAL DEBRIS ANGULAR ROCK PAINTED ROCK WHITE BRICK FRAGMENTS 2 1315 38 MODERN CEMENT /CONCRETE GLAZIER'S POINTS ELECTRICAL INSULATION FRAGMENTS MORTAR PINTLE FRAGMENT MODERN ROOFING MATERIALS SEWER PIPE FRAGMENTS SCREWS AND NUTS SLATE FRAGMENTS WALL DEBRI S WINDOW GLASS FLAT WOOD FRAGMENTS WOOD FRAGMENTS BURNED WOODEN STRUCTURE 3 1 794 1 48 2 6 4 220 1233 176 6 1 BUTTONS ll CERAMIC SHERDS 2 54 CREAMWARE 6 IRONSTONE PLAIN 1 4 IRONSTONE BLACK TRANSFER PRINT 2 IRONSTONE BLUE TRANSFER PRINT 4 IRONSTONE WITH BLUE/WHITE GLAZED 1 PITCHER SHERDS BROWN LEAD GLAZED 5 PORCELAIN EUROPEAN 2 3 RED STONEWARE BROWN/DARK BROWN LEAD GLAZED AGATEWARE? 1 STONEWARE BROWN SALT GLAZED 1 STONEWARE WHITE SALT GLAZED 2 STORAGE VESSELS TAN/BROWN GLAZED 8 TAN LEAD GLAZED GINGER BEER 1 WHITEWARE PLAIN 1 60 WHITEWARE BLACK TRANSFER PRINT 1 WHITEWARE BLUE TRANSFER PRINT 12 WHITEWARE GREE N TRANSFER PRINT 1 3 COINS FAUNAL MATERIALS BONE FRAGMENTS TEETH 1 695 692 2 FISH VERTEBRAE 1 262

PAGE 279

ARTIFACTS FUEL Appendix 2. (Continued) CHARCOAL CINDER OOAL COUNT 16275 261 4542 11472 GLASS SHERDS 1 0 7 2 BOTTLE AND JAR 830 ROD FRAGMENTS 4 THIN CLEAR CURVED 2 3 7 THIN GREEN CURVED 1 IRON 271 BARREL STRAP 2 BUCKET FRAGMENTS 2 0 BLADEFRAGMENT 1 FASTENER THREE PRONGED 1 HINGES 7 HORSESHOEFRAGMENTS 2 MOPHANDLE 1 MOULDED ROD 1 PIPE FITTING 1 PUNCH OR CHISEL HANDLE 1 1 SCRAP IRON 1 7 9 SPHERICAL BLACKSMITH WASTE 1 /2" DIAMETER 2 STAKE OR CHISEL POINT 2 STOCK ROD FRAGMENT 1 2 STOVEFRAGMENT 1 SWARTH 35 TOOLFRAGMENT 1 WIRE FRAGMENT 1 SCRAP METAL FRAGMENTS (BRASS AND COPPER) 7 BRASS OR COPPER BUCKLE 1 BRASS OR COPPER FITTING 1 BRASS FLASK TOP 1 BRASS GARMENT HOOK 1 BRASS HANDLE 1 BRASS RING BOTTLE TOP 1 BRASS RIVET 1 BRASS SPOON HEAD 1 BRASS TUBE 1 BRASS OR COPPER "CAP" 1 263

PAGE 280

Appendix 2. (Continued) ARTIFACTS METAL (CONTINUED) CHAIN 3 UNKS AND HOOK COLLAR EYE OF HOOK! EYE HOOK1" LATCH HOOK LEAD FRAGMENT /RED PAINT LIGHT BULB BASE PIN CURVED ENDS POT FRAGMENT RING THIN 1 /4" DIAMETER SAFETY P I N SHAKER TOP 3 HOLED SUSPENDER PARTS TIN CAN FRAGMENTS TIN CAN KEY OPENER TOBACCO PLUG WASHER FRAGMENT WIRE FRAGMENTS MISCELLANEOUS BISQUE DOLL FRAGMENTS BURNED NON-METALLIC FRAGMENT CERAMIC/PORCELAIN PEG COMB FRAGMENT BLACK COMB TOOTH TORTOISE SHELL FILM/GUM WRAPPERS GASTROPOD SHELL MICA FLAKE PAPER FRAGMENTS PENCIL FRAGMENT PLASTIC FOOD SPEARS TAPE BLACK TOBACCO PIPE FRAGMENTS NAIL. BOLTS AND SCREWS BOLT COATED NAILS CUT NAILS CUT BRADS CUT NAIL FRAGMENTS EYE SCREW WIRE NAILS WIRE BRADS WIRE NAIL FRAGMENTS WROUGHT NAILS WROUGHT NAIL FRAGMENTS COUNT 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 11 1 4 1 30 li. 8 4 1 1 1 1 1 17 10 2 2 1 8 1138 2 3 376 56 185 1 398 14 95 7 1 264

PAGE 281

Appendix 2. (Continued) UNDISTURBED POST SHOP DEPOSITS c.1875-1895 6 718 TOTAL ARTIFACTS ARTIFACTS COUNT AMMUNITION i CARTRIDGE CASINGS 3 MUSKET PERCUSSION CAP 1 ARCHITECTURAL DEBRIS 593 ANGULAR ROCK 1 BRICK FRAGMENTS 145 FLOOR TILE SHERDS 2 MORTAR 49 ROOFING MATERIALS 6 WINDOW GLASS FLAT 383 WOOD FRAGMENTS 5 WOOD FRAGMENTS BURNED 2 BUTTONS CERAMIC SHERDS 94 CREAMWARE 18 CREAMWARE WITH TRANSFER PRINT 3 IRONSTONE PLAIN 21 IRONSTONE BLACK TRANSFER PRINT 1 PORCELAIN EUROPEAN 12 STONEWARE WHITE SALT GLAZED 2 STORAGE VESSELS TAN/BROWN GLAZED 3 WHITEWARE PLAIN 28 WHITEWARE BLACK TRANSFER PRINT 1 WHITEWARE BLUE TRANSFER PRINT 3 WHITEWARE GREEN TRANSFER PRINT 1 WHITEWARE PINK TRANSFER PRINT 1 COINS 1 CURVED GLASS SHERD 185 BOTTLE AND JAR 174 THIN CLEAR 11 FAUNAL MATERIALS 244 BONE FRAGMENTS 243 FISH SCALES 1 FUEL 5224 CINDER 2182 COAL 3042 265

PAGE 282

Appendix 2. (Continued) ARTIFACTS IRON METAL LOCK DOOR/WINDOW SCRAP IRON SWARTH WIRE COLLAR EYE OF HOOK/ EYE PIN RIVET SCRAP METAL FRAGMENTS (LEAD AND TIN) TIN CAN FRAGMENTS TIN CAN KEY OPENER TOBACCO PLUG WIRE FRAGMENTS MISCELLANEOUS FILM/GUM WRAPPERS PORCELAIN DOLL FRAGMENT PLASTIC FRAGMENT BLACK THREAD BOBBIN GLASS NAIL. BOLTS AND SCREWS BOLT CUT NAILS CUT NAIL FRAGMENTS WIRE NAILS WIRE BRADS WIRE NAIL FRAGMENTS COUNT .5_5_ 1 so 1 3 li 1 3 1 5 3 1 3 2 .5. 2 1 1 1 285 2 1 1 2 23 99 24 25 266 THIRD BLACKSMITH SHOP BUILDING DEPOSITS 1 858-c 1 87 5 STORAGE DEPOSITS c.1873-c. 1875 AND OPERATIONS DEPOSITS 1858-c .1873 119 ,381 TOTALARTIFACTS ARTIFACTS STORAGE OPERATIONS TOTAL AMMUNITION ru_ CARTRIDGE CASINGS 0 3 3 CARTRIDGE PRIMER CAPS 9 11 20 CAST LEAD SLUGS 4 2 6 GUN FLINTS AND CHIPS 7 9 16 LEAD SHOT 4 6 10 MUSKET BALLS 3 11 14 MUSKET PERCUSSION CAPS 2 10 12

PAGE 283

267 Appendix 2. (Continued) ARTIFACTS STORAGE OPERATIONS TOTAL ARCHITECTURAL DEBRIS 9041 ANGULAR ROCK 74 113 187 ANGULAR ROCK BURNED 30 1 31 ANGULAR ROCK WITH RED PAINT 0 4 4 ANGULAR ROCK WITH WHITE PAINT 0 3 3 BRICK RED 1 0 1 BRICK RED FRAGMENTS 1167 2566 3733 BRICK YELLOW 0 1 1 BRICK YELLOW FRAGMENTS 23 21 44 CEMENT /CONCRETE 10 0 10 CERAMIC DOORKNOB FRAGMENTS 0 3 3 GLAZIER'S POINT 0 1 1 GRANITE 0 4 4 MORTAR 219 1191 1410 PAINT CHIP WHITE 0 1 1 PLASTER 301 4 305 ROCK WITH MORTAR 0 1 1 8 118 ROOFING DISKS 1 0 1 STAPLES 2 1 3 SCHIST 0 16 16 SLATE 0 1 1 1 1 SLATE PAINTED RED 0 2 2 SLATE PAINTED RED/WHITE 0 1 1 VIAL ASH/ WOOD/ MORTAR 0 1 1 VIAL WOOD FRAGMENTS TINY 1 2 3 WALL DEBRIS 0 21 21 WINDOW GLASS FLAT 506 1004 1510 WOOD FRAGMENTS 455 1048 1503 WOOD FRAGMENTS BURNED 0 109 109 WOOD FRAGMENTS WITH BLACK PAINT 0 1 1 WOOD FRAGMENTS WITH GREEN PAINT 0 2 2 WOODEN SIDING STRIP 0 1 1 BUTTONS ll BONE 3 10 13 CERAMIC/GLASS 5 3 8 METAL (BRASS, IRON, AND PEWTER) 13 17 30 MILITARY ISSUE 7 13 20 SHELL 2 6 8 PORCELAIN 3 7 10 RUBBER, BLACK 2 0 2

PAGE 284

268 Appendix 2 (Continued) ARTIFACTS STORAGE OPERATIONS TOTAL CERAMICS 633 CREAMWARE 6 64 70 CREAMWARE WITH TRANSFER PRINT 0 1 1 IRONSTONE PLAIN 32 31 63 IRONSTONE WITH BLACK TRANSFER PRINT 8 9 IRONSTONE W ITH BLUE AND WHITE GLAZE 6 7 13 IRONSTONE WITH BLUE AND BROWN GLAZES 0 IRONSTONE WITH YELLOW GLAZE 0 4 4 PASTE NO GLAZE 3 1 4 PEARL WARE 1 8 9 PEARLWARE WITH GREEN SHELLEDGE 0 PEARLWARE WITH BLUE SHELLEDGE 2 1 3 PORCELAIN EUROPEAN 19 7 26 RED STONEWARE/BROWN LEAD GLAZED AGATEWARE? 0 REFINED WHITE EARTHENWARE 0 10 10 STORAGE VESSELS TAN /BROWN GLAZED 9 10 19 TAN LEAD GLAZED GINGER BEER 6 0 6 WHITEWARE PLAIN 274 107 381 WHITEWARE HANDPAINTED 0 2 2 WHITEWARE WITH TRANSFER PRINT 2 8 10 CURVED GLASS SHERDS 2208 BOTTLE AND JAR SHERDS 768 1228 1996 BITTERS BOTTLE AMBER 0 1 1 BOTTLE NECK WITH SPOUT OLIVE 0 1 1 BOWL CLEAR BASE SHERDS 0 2 2 BURNED/MELTED SHERDS 11 14 25 DECANTER STOPPER CLEAR 0 1 1 HANDLE SHERD AMBER 0 1 1 HANDLE SHERD GREEN 0 1 1 LANTERN SHERDS CLEAR 42 129 1 71 MILK GLASS 7 0 7 ROD THIN CLEAR SHERDS 2 0 2

PAGE 285

269 Appendix 2. (Continued) ARTIFACTS STORAGE OPERATIONS TOTAL FAUNAL MATERIALS 5176 BONE FRAGMENTS 2071 2391 4462 BONE FRAGMENTS WORKED 2 5 7 FISH BONE FRAGMENTS 0 65 65 FISH SCALES 8 623 631 FISH VERTEBRAE 4 4 8 JAWBONE WITH TEETH 0 1 1 TEETH 2 0 2 FUEL 94880 COKE 107 108 215 CHARCOAL 356 6939 7295 CINDER 8077 6026 14103 COAL 45363 27904 73267 IRON .uli BARREL STRAP 0 24 24 BLADES/TOOL FRAGMENTS 0 1 1 BOLTS 0 1 1 BOLT AND NUT 0 1 1 NUTS 0 2 2 BOLTS WITH EYES 0 2 2 BOOT HEEL CLEAT FRAGMENTS 1 2 3 BOOT HEEL WITH NAILS 1 0 1 BRACKET FRAGMENT 2 0 2 BUCKLES 1 1 2 CHAIN LINKS 0 6 6 CHISELS 1 2 3 DOOR HINGES 1 2 3 DOOR HINGE FRAGMENTS 0 2 2 OOORLATCH 1 0 1 DOOR/DRAWER PULL 1 2 3 DRAWER KNOBS 0 2 2 ESCUTCHEON 0 1 1 HARDY 0 1 1 HANDLE FRAGMENTS 1 1 2 HOOKS 0 8 8 HOOK WITH EYE 5" 0 1 1 HOTSET CHISELS/CREASERS 1 1 2 KNIFE 0 3 3 KNIFE BLADE FRAGMENT 0 1 1 KNIFE HANDLE FRAGMENT 0 1 1 PINTLE 1 0 1 PINTLE HOOK FORGED 1 0 1 PIPE FITTINGS 0 3 3 POT FRAGMENTS 1 8 9

PAGE 286

270 Appendix 2. (Continued) ARTIFACTS STORAGE OPERATIONS TOTAL IRON (CONTINUED) PUNCHES OR AWLS 0 3 3 SCALE 0 4 4 SCREW WITH WOOD 0 1 1 SCRAP IRON 422 1800 2222 SHACKLE 0 1 1 SlAG /FlAKES BAG 1 0 1 SPIKES 1 1 2 STAPLES 0 2 2 STOCK ROD FRAGMENT ROUND 0 1 1 STOCK FRAGMENTS 3 6 9 SWARTH 1 1 2 TOOL FRAGMENTS 1 2 18 30 TRUNK LOCK PlATE 2 0 2 VIAL IRON FlAKES 3 7 10 WASHERS 0 2 2 WIRE FRAGMENTS 3 3 6 METAL 473 BANDS METAL 1 7 8 BOLT LEAD 0 1 1 BUCKET HOOK 1 1 / 2' 1 0 1 BUCKLES 1 1 2 CAP BRASS THREADED 0 1 1 FERRULE RING FOR PRYING TOOL 1 0 1 FIUNGS METAL T INY 16 0 16 GUN FRIZZEN 0 1 1 GUN LOCK PlATES 0 2 2 UD WITH D RING 1 0 1 UGHT BULB/lANTERN BASE 1 0 1 MACHINE MADE METAL FRAGMENTS 0 2 2 MANUFACTURER'S ID PLATE 0 1 1 METAL SCALE 0 50 50 METAL STRIP WITH 3 NAILS 1 0 1 MOP FITIING 0 1 1 PIPE FRAGMENT METAL 0 2 2 RING BRASS THREADED 1 0 1 RIVET 2 5 7 SAFETY PIN HEAD 1 0 1 SCRAP METAL FRAGMENTS (BRASS, COPPER, LEAD, PEWTER AND TIN) 72 250 322

PAGE 287

271 Appendix 2. (Continued) ARTIFACTS STORAGE OPERATIONS TOTAL METAL (CONTINUED) SLAG FRAGMENTS 1 26 27 SPOON HANDLE FRAGMENT 0 1 1 STRAIGHT PIN 1 0 1 TIN CAN FRAGMENTS 0 2 2 SHAKER TOP TIN WITH HOLES 1 0 1 WASHER 3 1 4 TOBACCO PLUG 5 1 6 WIRE FRAGMENTS 5 3 8 MISCELLANEOUS 192 ACCRETIONS WITH MET AU ROCKS/NAILS 2 34 36 BEAD FACETTED 0 1 1 COMB FRAGMENT BLACK 0 1 1 EGG SHELL 0 1 1 FIBER FRAYED 0 1 1 FILM WRAPPER 2 0 2 FROG DESICCATED 1 0 1 GASTROPOD SHELL 1 0 1 HORSE HAIR 0 1 1 JEWELRY FRAGMENT SILVER 0 1 1 LEAF 1 1 2 LEATHER FRAGMENT 1 1 2 MARBLES 1 2 3 M ICA FLAKES 1 11 12 ORGANIC MATERIAL VIAL 1 0 1 OYSTER SHELL FRAGMENT 0 1 1 PAINT CHIP WHITE 0 1 1 PAPER FRAGMENTS 2 0 2 PLASTIC FRAGMENTS 1 1 2 SEEDS 0 3 3 TOOTH BRUSH END WITH STAGGERED HOLES 0 1 1 TREE BARK 0 4 4 TOBACCO PIPE 30 81 1 1 1 UNIDENTIFIED ARTIFACT 0 1 1

PAGE 288

272 Appendix 2. (Continued) ARTIFACTS STORAGE OPERATIONS TOTAL NAIL, BOLTS AND SCREWS 4215 BELLOWS NAILS 2 0 2 BELLOWS NAIL HEADS 1 1 2 COATED LEAD NAILS 25 16 41 CUT NAILS 827 640 1467 CUT BRADS 26 8 34 CUT NAIL FRAGMENTS 916 1150 2066 HORSESHOE NAILS 3 35 38 SCREWS 4 0 4 TACKS 4 2 6 WIRE NAILS 115 10 125 WIRE BRADS 3 0 3 WIRE NAIL FRAGMENTS 27 5 32 WROUGHT 73 1 31 204 WROUGHT FRAGMENTS 6 185 191

PAGE 289

273 Appendix 3. Experimentation With Coal From MS3E1 F14 Coal Pit in the Third Blacksmith Shop Building Deposits on August 24, 1996 by Anna East, Graduate Field Assistant 1996 Background of the Problem During the excavation of MS3E1 F14, we chose to keep only a representative sample of the coal in this lot, because the matrix consisted almost entirely of coal. The excess coal was dumped on the backfill dirt pile near the water screens I collected ten pieces of coal and brought them back to Florida The coal samples should have come from at least two inches below the top datum depth of MS3E1 F14, because I collected it after we decided to discard the coal matrix. This occurred later in the day after at least two inches of the coal pit had already been excavated. Lyle Klein (a blacksmith informant from the Historic Benjamin Blacksmith Shop) identified the coal from this pit on July 15, 1996 as bituminous coal. I decided to experiment with my samples after reading an article about coal (Voynick 1996: 48-50, 80) in a popular lapidary journal. I initially thought we had both anthracite and bituminous coal in a 7:3 ratio based on the attributes given in the journal article and in The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and Minerals (1979). Attributes of anthracite coal listed include: conchoidal fractures, layers which are difficult to discern, hardness on MOH scale of 2-2_, difficult to ignite, and burns with a pale blue flame and little smell.

PAGE 290

Appendix 3. (Continued) Attributes of bituminous coal were listed as: square fractures, alternating dull and shiny layers, hardness on MOH scale of 2, easy to ignite, and burns with a yellow flame and "tarish" smell. 274 After burning the coal, I decided I had collected two different grades of bituminous coal. I will refer to them as Type A and Type B I did not have access to an MOH scale. However, I do know that both types are harder than 1.5, because they were not scratched by my fingernail. The attributes of Type A matched the attributes of the anthracite coal with conchoidal fractures and indistinguishable layers. The coal appeared harder than Type B. Type B had square fractures, definite alternating dull and shiny layers, and appeared softer than type A. Based on these differences, I concluded that both anthracite and bituminous were represented. However, after burning a few samples I changed my interpretation. Burning of Type A Coal The Type A coal burned very cleanly. A faint sulphurous odor was present, but that would occur with any coal. There was not a "tarish" odor. However the flame had a faint yellow color not a pale blue color. Therefore, Type A cannot be anthracite but must be a very high grade bituminous coal.

PAGE 291

275 Appendix 3. (Continued) Burning of Type B Coal The Type B coal tended to crumble more easily when burned. The sulphurous odor was present, but I still did not detect a "tarish" smell. The flame was a bright orange-yellow color. Type B is definitely bituminous coal, but is probably a lower grade than type A Conclusion There are two different grades of bituminous coal represented in the MS3E1 F1 4 coal pit. Type A is a higher quality coal than type B I cannot determine from my sample which type is more common in the coal pit, because I did not select specimens randomly Rather, I based my selection on which coal lumps were large and shiny. It is possible that the two types came from different sources/mines. It is also possible that, due to the way coal is mined, the two types are just from different mine depths. Higher quality coal is found deeper in the earth. References Chesterman, Charles W and Kurt E Lowe 1 979 The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and Minerals New York : Alfred A. Knopf. Voynick, Steve 1 996 Coal As A Collectible: This Often Overlooked Mineral Has a Fascinating History. In Rock and Gem, October. Pp. 48-50, 80. Ventura, California: Miller Magazines.

PAGE 292

5 .00 Appendix 4 Horizontal Distribution of the Magnetic Fractions in Grams ... 2.50 7.25 5.75 ANVIU I I L.J 1.25 72.50: Blacksmith Operations Strata 276

PAGE 293

2 .50 Appendix 4. Horizontal Distribution of the Magnetic Fractions in Grams (Continued) 1.0 0 0.00 O.OOl 7.0 0 0.00 0.5 Ol 0.50 O.SOl e. 5 0 1.50 O.SOl 2. 5 0 I 0 .00 Post Shop Strata 277 0.50 0 .00 0.00

PAGE 294

7.00 Appendix 4 Horizontal Distribution of the Magnetic Fractions in Grams (Continued) 0.00 11.50 5.00 \ 0.00 5.25 0.50 \ \ 9.00 o.oo 1.25 0.00 Storage Strata 0.00

PAGE 295

3.66 Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios Final Building Stratum 0.1 6 0.1 0.25 0.00 Ratios of Architectural Materials to Other Artifacts Without Fuel Frequencies 0.15

PAGE 296

1.65 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata 0.57 0. 31 o.sg o.s2 c...vv __ J ______ __ 0.26 Ratios of Architectural Materials to Other Artifacts Without Fuel Frequencies 0 13

PAGE 297

Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata 0.09 0.22 1 -4. 0.38 0.23 0.14 0.14 Ratios of Architectural Materials to Other Artifacts Without Fuel Frequencies L.OI

PAGE 298

0 .05 Appendix 5. Horizontal D i stribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Per i od Strata -0.50 A NVI 0.21 0.43 0.57 .. LJ .0. 0.42 0 .32 Ratios of Bone Fragments to Other Artifacts Without Fuel Frequencies

PAGE 299

0.16 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata 0 0.11 0 5 8 0.2 5 0.22 0.45 0.24 o 1 l 0 .36 Ratios of Bone Fragments to Other Artifacts Without Fuel Frequencies

PAGE 300

3.26 Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata 0 .$5 0.27 0.31 IANVIL 11 LJ. 0 .2$ 0.47 0 .39 Ratios of Brick Fragments to Nails 0.00 0.14

PAGE 301

1.38 Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata 1.33 0.50 o.os ,...., LJ 0.18 0.00 Ratios of Br i ck Fragments to Other Architectural Materials Z85

PAGE 302

Appendix 5 Horizontal Distr i bution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata . 0.2 7 1.98 0.35 1.33 0.23 Ratios of Brick Fragments to Other Architectural Materials 286

PAGE 303

0.56 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata 0.14 0.15 0.03 [l 0.04 0.14 Ratios of Brick Fragments to Other Artifacts Without Fuel Frequencies LOf 0.00

PAGE 304

Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata o.oz 0.1 0.03 0.02 0.02 Ratios of Brick Fragments to Other Artifacts Without Fuel Frequencies 288

PAGE 305

0 .03 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata .. 0.05 ANVI 0. 1 Sl 0.03 0.36 r..., l_l 0.35! Ratios of Cinder to Coal 289 0.00

PAGE 306

29.73 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata 3.31 26.90 2.1 5 2.81 ANVI \] 8 .62 5.3S 35.51 Ratios of Coal to Cinder 290 34.00

PAGE 307

0.76 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Final Building Stratum 9.12 5.70 10.47 2.3\Sl z.z 3.40. 2.86 2.75 7.84 Ratios of Fuel to Other Artifacts 291 0 .26

PAGE 308

1 .78 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operat ions Period Strata 2 .05 ANVI II L..J. 20.08 Ratios of Fuel to Other Artifacts 0.59

PAGE 309

Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata 3.61& 2.56 5.04 5.00 5.1 s Ratios of Fuel to Other Artifacts

PAGE 310

0.16 Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Final Building Stratum 1.44 4.00 0.8Z 2.33 0.00 Ratios of Nails to Architectural Materials 5.00

PAGE 311

0 18 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata o.zs ANVIL! [J 0.32 1.46 Ratios of Nails to Architectural Materials 0 .00 3 .65

PAGE 312

Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata 2.79 0.36 0.48 0.87 0.63 4.03 2.1 a Ratios of Nails to Architectural Materials

PAGE 313

0.31 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distr i bution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata L 53l 3.70 ANVI 2.56 0.99 3.27 ll LJ 2.1 4 Ratios of Nails to Brick Fragments 0.00 7.00

PAGE 314

Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata . 0.0[& 1.85 0.54 o.s 0.06 Ratios of Nails to Brick Fragments

PAGE 315

0.14 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios .(Continued) Final Building Stratum 0.25 0.24 4 0 0 0 .00 1.79 Ratios of Nails to Other Artifacts Without Fuel Frequencies

PAGE 316

0 .12 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata 0.44 0.00 0 .76 Ratios of Nails to Other Artifacts Without Fuel Frequencies

PAGE 317

Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata 0.31 0.07 0.06 0.38 o.z 1 0.36 Ratios of Nails to Other Artifacts Without Fuel Frequencies .lUI

PAGE 318

9 .67 Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata 2 1.00 55.5 0 A NVI 1.46 4.50 11 L.-l. Ratios of Scrap Iron to Wrought Nails

PAGE 319

0.00 Appendi x 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Final Building Stratum 0.30 0.17 0.25 0.00 0.00 Ratios of Scrap Metal to Nails 0 16

PAGE 320

Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata . 0.90 0.22 0.79 0.23 o .os Ratios of Scrap Metal to Nails

PAGE 321

0.10 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Final Building Stratum 0.2!5 0.40 0.25 0.00 Ratios of Window Glass Sherds to Nails 0 .08

PAGE 322

Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata o ss 1.55 0.29 ANVI 0.09 0.1 7 1.27 0.05 Ratios of Window Glass Sherds to Nails .;>VO 0 .00 0.06

PAGE 323

Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata 0 .28 0.54 0.58 0.05 0.29 0.22 Ratios of Window Glass Sherds to Nails ..TV I

PAGE 324

0.02 Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Final Building Stratum 0.90 o.so Z.38 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.67 Ratios of Window Glass Sherds to Other Architectural Materials

PAGE 325

0.38 Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata 0.22 0.21 ANVIL\ ll L.J. 0.26 o.ss 0.08 ,JVJ 0.27 Ratios of Window Glass Sherds to Other Architectural Materials

PAGE 326

Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Storage Period Strata . 0.38 0.5 0.05 0.22 JrU Ratios of Window Glass Sherds to Other Architectural Materials

PAGE 327

Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata 0.15 Z.H) 1.87 \ ANVI ll L.J 0.20 0.00 Ratios of Wood Fragments to Cut and Wire Nails ;Til 0.13

PAGE 328

Appendix 5 Hor i zontal Distr i bution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Final Building Stratum 2.50 0.50 0.40\ 0.0 0 0.00 0.00 Ratios of Wood Fragments to Nails JIC.. 0.04

PAGE 329

0.05 Appendix 5. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata 0.00 L63 LSS ANVI II LJ 0.00 Ratios of Wood Fragments to Nails 0.00 0.06

PAGE 330

Appendix 5 Horizontal D i stribution of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Cont i nued) Storage Period Strata 0.08 0.63 o .ss o .os Ratios of Wood Fragments to Nails

PAGE 331

0 10 Appendix 5 Horizontal Distribut i on of Artifact Frequency Ratios (Continued) Operations Period Strata ... 0.42 0.22 ANVIL! l l L_l. 0.10 0.00 0 .68 Ratios of Wrought Nails to Scrap Iron ..JI..J 0 .00

PAGE 332

Appendix 6. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies Operations Period Strata . 2 ILEAC SIHIOT 1 CARTRIDGE CASING 4LADS80f 1 PRIMER CAP 1 PRIMER CAP 18UlllET 1 fUIMT CHiP 1 5 IMIUSKIET B AllS FUNT 1 CHIIP 1 FUNT CHIP 1 MUSKIEr jib FRJI?fl' B AU. LOCGC PlATlE 2 M USKET CAP I P'IEIRCUSSiOINI CAP CAPS 2 FLINT CHIPS 2 MjJSKET PERCUSSION CAPS Ammunition and Gun Parts

PAGE 333

Appendix 6. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) Storage Period Strata CAl? 3 PS 3 CHIPS FUIMT 1 BULUT 2 SHOT 1 MUSKE'r CAP 2 PIRIMIER 1 LD\0 1 SHOT I I 2 PRIMIER CAPS 1 MUSKIET 1 LD\D SHOT BALL 1 MUSKIET I I BAU. 1 PRIMIER 1 CAP CAP Ammunition 1 BUllET

PAGE 334

Appendix 6. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) Operat ions Period Strata 1 \ \ FORGE \ 1 Barrel Bands

PAGE 335

Appendix 6. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) 18 Operations Period Strata \ 255 \ 245 \ 1415 7 7 \ \ \ FORGE \ 594 ANVI 87 23 Bone Frequencies 493 ll L...J HiS 4 5

PAGE 336

Appendix 6 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequenc ies (Continued) Storage Period Strata 3 6 0 263 159 9 102 171 1 1 4 233 6 1 76 2 21 Bone Frequencies 320

PAGE 337

Appendix 6 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) Operations Period Strata 287 \ 42 \ FORGE \ 7 14 51 88 A NVI ll 1 LJ 4 14 Bottle and Jar Glass Fragments

PAGE 338

Appendix 6 Horizontal Distr i bution of Artifact Frequenc i es (Continued) 2 CQff\1 1 large\ mammal I I Operations Peri od Strata I'MMrMI 5 lmrga I j \ i'Mmm11l FORGE \ 1 \ 1 cow I I 5 1111Uili111UIMISl 2 1111Uili111U11U'V!ll ANVI CJ 1 4 Butchered Bones Studied 322

PAGE 339

Appendix 6. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) Storage Period Strata lllll'gjfl mlllmll7111llll 5 Mlll1ll'ill7'il'\llll 1 9 m11mm!lll 23 m11mmll8 4 CfNI 12 6 2 1 cow s l11r;a 3 1 li"il'llllO'VIlli"il'lllll 3 aM 7 lllrge m11mmsl 3 cow 12 lmr;a m11mm111 Butchered Bones Studied 323

PAGE 340

Appendix 6. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) 4 Operations Period Strata 22 9 ANVI II L..J 9 7 5 Ceramic Sherds 25 3 9 324

PAGE 341

Appendix 6. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) Operations Period Strata \ \ FORG \ II ANVI L-.J 12 3 Horseshoe Nails 3 8

PAGE 342

Appendix 6 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) Operations Period Strata \ \ FORGE \ lroDIJ'\l@ dl
PAGE 343

Appendix 6 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) Storage Period Strata Iron Structural Fragments 3l.7

PAGE 344

Appendi x 6 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) Operations Period Strata 1 1 H1t 2 [l)llDII"bclh!as \ 1 lh!lilll'l& f r11g m ant I FORGE \ 1 fnlg ma m 1 _.,. L JANVI L Iron Tool Fragments 1 punch / chisel 328

PAGE 345

329 Appendix 6 Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequenc ies (Conti nued) Storage Period Strata ucc!)[ &].@ I 'J 2 1 ttifiT'IClnJ119]1hltt I I o 1 3 3 wrought Specialized Nails WIT'ICliiBI9)htt 5 wrought 2 horses

PAGE 346

Appendix 6. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequencies (Continued) 3 Operations Period Strata 4 ANVI c J Tobacco Pipe Fragments 330

PAGE 347

Appendix 6. Horizontal Distribution of Artifact Frequenc ies (Continued) Operations Period Strata 1 23 3 37 34 13 Wrought Nails ,J,JI


printinsert_linkshareget_appmore_horiz

Download Options

close
No images are available for this item.
Cite this item close

APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.