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- Child nutrition and physical activity in the Monteverde Zone: An exploratory study [powerpoint]
- Translated Title:
- Nutrición y actividad fisica en los niños de Monteverde: Un estudio exploratorio [powerpoint]
- Green, Simone
- Publication Date:
- Text in English
- Subjects / Keywords:
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde--Monteverde Zone
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde--Zona de Monteverde
Community Health 2011
Salud comunitaria 2011
- This study assesses objective levels of children's physical activity as well as children's subjective perceptions of nutritional knowledge and physical activity in the Monteverde zone. ( English,EspaÃ±ol,,,,,,, )
- Este estudio evalúa los niveles de los objetivos de la actividad física de los niños, así como las percepciones subjetivas de los niños de los conocimientos nutricionales y la actividad física en la zona de Monteverde.
- General Note:
- Student affiliation: University of South Florida
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- All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
- Resource Identifier:
- M38-00079 ( USFLDC DOI )
m38.79 ( USFLDC Handle )
Child Nutrition and Physical Activity in the Monteverde Zone : An Exploratory Study July 22, 2011
Research Objectives Children s perceptions about nutrition. Children s perceptions about physical activity Objective measurements of children s physical activity
Justification Physical activity and nutrition are important for children s growth and development Cameron 2002. The Monteverde clinic wants to focus on children for the prevention of chronic diseases. Children are an important population for health research because they are agents of change. Working with children is essential for population wide preventative health. Free living conditions are an especially important element of overall physical activity, as younger children's physical activity tends to be dominated by unstructured activities e.g. walking, running, play.
Target Population Monteverde Zone Children ages 7 12: 14 total 4 males, 9 females Cognative development Children in this age range are able to arrange objects according to their size, weight, classification, and relation Marlowe, & Canestrari 2006. Social development Juveniles are defined as, prepubertal individuals that are no longer dependent on their mothers parents for survival Pereira & Altmann 1985.
Methods: The San Luis Health Fair
Nutrition Game Pile Sort Categories not mutually exclusive Food I eat everyday My favorite foods Food I don t like Healthy foods 41 food items We chose food items that were a broad range of healthy and unhealthy as well as culturally salient foods.
What I eat every day
My favorite foods
What I don t like
Quotes from the children : Nutrition La comida saludable es como producida de la tierra, no como la coca cola que son qumicos. Healthy food is produced from the earth, not like Coca Cola which are chemicals. 12 year old female Todas las frutas son saludables. All fruits are healthy. 9 year old female
Results and interpretations: Nutrition Children identified fruits and vegetables as healthy Water was also commonly identified as healthy Healthy/Unhealthy Test USDA Dietary Guidelines were used to create categories: Healthy, Unhealthy, Neutral Children received a score on their ability to identify healthy foods. Healthy: Mean score 57% Unhealthy: Mean score 96% Average Mean score 72%
Results and interpretations: Nutrition Mann Whitney Test Significant difference in the median test score: Children who reported eating >6 healthy foods, received a mean score of 89% of identifying healthy foods. Children who reported eating <6 healthy foods, received a mean score of 43% of identifying healthy foods. Statistically significant: p = .021 The more diverse healthy foods children eat, the more they can correctly identify what foods are healthy. Lack of diversity in food is linked to food insecurity
Collage: Methods The collage distinguished between exercise, physical activity and play. We provided materials ex: magazines, glue, markers for the children who were instructed to cut and paste and write whatever they thought fit into the 3 categories. Observations and children s comments were recorded in fieldnotes.
Collage: Physical Activity Play Exercise
Results and interpretations: Collage There seems to be a trend in how the children interpreted the different categories : Physical Activity milking the cow sweeping the floor playing music Play soccer, hide and seek jump rope Exercise biking running walking
Quotes from the children : Collage Jugar es para divertirse. Play is for having fun. El ejercicio es bueno para bajar de peso. Exercise is good for losing weight. 9 year old female
Methods : Anthropometrics and Accelerometer
Anthropometrics ID Age Sex Height Weight BMI BMI Percentile 01G 10 Girl 137.5 36.5 19.3 78 02B 7 Boy 119.3 27.2 19.1 92 03G 7 Girl 117.5 23.1 16.7 72 05G 10 Girl 138.7 43.3 22.5 93 06G 12 Girl 127.0 63.3 28.6 97 07B 7 Boy 131.0 26.7 15.6 45 08G 10 Girl 151.0 43.3 19 78 09G 9 Girl 135.5 40.8 22.2 94 Weight Status Category Percentile Range Underweight Less than the 5th percentile Healthy weight 5th percentile to less than the 85th percentile Overweight 85th to less than the 95th percentile Obese Equal to or greater than the 95th percentile
Accelerometer: Actigraph GT3X Objective measurement techniques increasingly popular mode of gathering data on physical activity in order to avoid bias in self reporting. Colley et al. 2011, Troiano et al. 2007 Measure amount, frequency and duration of physical activity additionally capture "free living" conditions which have been shown to increase mortality rates. Murphy 2009:109
Accelerometer : Methods The accelerometers were worn on children s right hip for a total of 48 hours. A journal was given to the children in order for them to write about the physical activities they performed during those days For the younger children, the parents helped fill out the journal Used to calculate the waking activity time Afterwards, each child was given an All About Me book with educational games and their individualized accelerometer data.
Accelerometer : Results Light Moderate Vigorous
Accelerometer : Results Example of one child s waking activity over 48 hours Awake time over 48 hours Levels of Activity
Accelerometer : Results The children achieved the recommended amount of time of physical activity. 60 minutes per day Each childÂ€s waking activity over 48 hours Percentage of waking activity over 48 hours
Conclusion Children are aware of healthy and unhealthy foods, and seem to be better able to perceive what is unhealthy There seems to be an association between food diversity and nutritional knowledge Children perceive a distinct difference between physical activity, play, and exercise. Children are achieving the recommended amount of daily activity.
Limitations Convenient Sample Size School was on vacation during our research period Accelerometers Limited numbers and time Direct observations Require more time, training, and expense, but provide more accurate data
Recommendations : Research with children should take into account their cognitive level when developing methods ex. Interactive games Our community adviser, Kim, is a Child Life Specialist and provided many helpful suggestions for methods development It would be beneficial to keep the learning styles of each gender in mind while developing research tools and interventions. Play should be used in health promotion and disease prevention programs to promote physical activity.
Community Suggestions Play should by not only as a research tool, but also as a teaching tool It can be used to educate about nutrition as well as physical activity Health promotion and prevention programs should educate the whole family about food nutritional value For example, the ongoing nutritional research project is planning on providing cooking classes to promote healthy nutrition to give back to the community
David Himmelgreen, PhD. y Nancy Romero Daza, PhD. Heide CastaÂeda, PhD. Jenny PeÂa y Daniel Vargas Kimberly Acosta Cruz, M.S. Kate Brelsford, M.A. y Ernesto Ruiz, MPH Ashley Gallentine y Kerry Mclver, PhD. Gene Cowherd Especially the families and the children who participated in our research
Â€Listen to what the children are telling us!