USF Libraries

Keyhole garden a la tica: Organic and sustainable

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Keyhole garden a la tica: Organic and sustainable
Translated Title:
Huerta keyhole a la tica: Organica y sostenible ( )
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
Text in English
Creator:
Arias, Sara
Bissett, Emily
Carney, Constanza
Dao, Lillie
Garcia, Alejandro
Malik, Zuhra
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Gardens, Miniature
Jardines, Miniatura
Keyhole garden
Huerta keyhole
Community Health 2013
Salud comunitaria 2013
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde

Notes

Abstract:
This research explored agricultural and gardening practices in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica through anthropological methods and quantitative soil measurements to make adaptations to the keyhole garden technology.
Abstract:
Esta investigación exploró las prácticas agrícolas y de jardinería en la región de Monteverde en Costa Rica a través de métodos antropológicos y mediciones cuantitativas de suelo para hacer adaptaciones a la tecnología del jardín miniatura.
General Note:
Student affiliation: University of South Florida

Record Information

Source Institution:
Added automatically
Holding Location:
Added automatically
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - M38-00100
usfldc handle - m38.100
System ID:
SFS0044324:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

Keyhole Garden a la Tica : Organic and Sustainable Sara Aria s, Emily Bissett, Constanza Carney, Lillie Dao, Alejandro Garcia, Zuhra Malik Globalization and Community Health Field School N ational S cience F oundation REU Program University of South Florida Monteverde Institute M onteverde Costa Rica May 29 August 3, 2013

PAGE 2

! " TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 3 Introduction 4 Methods 8 Results 10 Discussion 19 Conclusion 22 Recommendations 23 Limitations of the Study 24 Acknowledgements 25 Research Team Biographies 25 Bibliography 26 Appendix I: Interview Questions, Focus Group Top ics, and Surveys 2 7 Appendix II: Tables 3 5 Appendix III: Figures 40 Appendix IV: Plant Layout 4 5 Keywords: Food Insecurity, Gardening, Agriculture, Monteverde Costa Rica

PAGE 3

# " ABSTRACT The economy of the Monteverde zone in Costa Rica has seen a sig nificant shift from an agricultural base to a focus on ecotourism. As a result, research shows that many family members in the region, especially those involved in tourism, experience varying levels of food insecurity (Himmelgreen, 2006). Researchers fro m the Community Health and Globalization Field School, a Research Experience for Undergraduates funded by the National Science Foundation and organized through the University of South Florida, explored agricultural and gardening practices in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica through anthropological methods that focused on community input and involvement (e.g. free listing and pile sorting, interviews, surveys, and focus groups). Through the combination of these findings and quantitative soil measurements adaptations were made to the keyhole garden technology. This low cost, highly productive gardening method was originally implemented in an arid region of sub Saharan Africa. Unlike this original location, Monteverde has an extremely wet climate, seeing an average of 118 inches of rainfall per year. As a result, the key variable in the two experimental demonstration gardens constructed on the Monteverde Institute grounds is the drainage layer. Researchers also altered the specific garden layers based o ff of recommendations made by community members regarding locally available materials. Additionally, through the guidance of local agriculture experts, a roof was implemented above each of the gardens Finally, researchers surveyed the public to determin e the most desired plants to grow in the region, adapted these results through the suggestions of community advisors, and planted a variety of vegetables in the two gardens. These plants were organized in a roots and shoots method in order to maximize gar den productivity. The keyhole gardens are in an experimental phase and will be monitored throughout the year by Monteverde Institute staff, so that the technology may be further adapted to the Monteverde climate and community needs. Although the keyhole garden technology was adapted to improve food security, it also provides many other benefits including educational and mental health purposes. The research team hopes to partner with other community organizations in the future, particularly schools and pr ograms for the disabled.

PAGE 4

$ " INTRODUCTION Data from a three year research program funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) suggest that food insecurity is a problem in the Monteverde zone of Costa Rica, an area undergoing a shift from an agricultural economy to ecotourism. Researchers from the Community Health and Globalization Field School have explored ways to minimize issues related to food insecurity in the Monteverde region through community involvement and empowerment. The NSF funded faculty fro m the Anthropology and Civil Engineering Departments at the University of South Florida investigated the relationship between gardening and the issues related to food insecurity. The agricultural and gardening practices of four communities in the Monteverd e region of Costa Rica (see Figure 1 for community map) were explored through anthropological methods that focused on community input and involvement (e.g. free listing and pile sorting, interviews, surveys, and focus groups). These findings led to the ada ptation of the keyhole garden technology, originally developed in sub Saharan Africa to the climate and community needs of the Monteverde zone. The primary goal for this project was to aid in the alleviation of issues surrounding fo od insecurity by apply i ng a community based method to provide a reliable and accessible source of fresh and organic produce. Figure 1. Map of Monteverde zone !""#$%%&'##()*+,-&%&'#.%/-0"(1()2( 3 4-5)6." 3 /'#+768

PAGE 5

% " Climate Monteverde topography offers an array of individual microc li mates which include: heavy rain, high winds, and a foggy atmosphere Resting roughly at 1,400 meter s (4,600 f ee t) above sea level, Monteverde is misty, humid, and windy, w ith a mean annual temperature of 18 ¡C (64 ¡F) (Nadkarni, 2000 ). Annual rainfall av erages approximately 118 inches (3,000 mm) Humidity oscillates betwee n 74% and 97% (Nadkarni, 2000 ). The climate in this region is cooler than in the lowlands and the area includes the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, one of the world's most threatened e co systems (Nadkarni 2000). Figure 2. Average seasonal Monteverde rainfall and temperature !""#$%%999+&-0"(1()2(608-+,-&%8',".+!"& Food Insecurity and T ourism Due to the development of protected rainforests such as the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, t he Children's Eternal Rainforest, and the Santa Elena Rainforest Preserve, t ourism has developed into an important part of the economy in the Monteverde region. Tourism provides a large variety of jobs to men and women of different ages, thus increasing th e sources of income during a great p art of the year (Himmelgreen 2006 ). As a result, tourism brings a mixture of both positive and negative effects to local residents of the Monteverde zone. Himmelgreen conducted a three year NSF funded project that inves tigated food insecurity. The findings revealed that that the majority of families

PAGE 6

& " living in the Monteverde zone that were involved in tourism exhibit some degree of food insecurity "F ood insecurity exists whenever the availability of nutritional adequate and safe foods or the ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways is limited or uncertain" (Anderson, 1990 ). Studies conducted on 200 local residents in the Monteverde zone of Costa Rica show that more than half of the households in the sample (50.76%) exhibit some form of food insecurity. In a sample of 193 households, 132 or 68.39% work in tourism ( Himmelgreen, 2006 ). Results show that there seems to be a correlation between those involved in the tourism industry and subsequent food in security. Agriculture and N utrition in the Z one Agriculture has long been the m ain source of income and sustenance for Costa Ricans in the Monteverde Zone. However, in recent years involvement in tourism related jobs has led to a decrease in food producti on in the community. Partic i pation in family gardens or small farms an activity that could buffer against food insecurity, ha s declined at the local level (Himmelgreen 2006 ). As tourism continues to thrive in the region the population seems to be moving away from self sustainable food production to an overreliance on the tourism industry. Moreover, food inadequacy has taken a toll on the population in terms of variety and quality. "As part of this change, the face of food insecurity in such settings has c hanged from food scarcity (i.e., limited amounts of food available to individuals and communities) to food inadequacy i n terms of variety and quality" (Himmelgreen 2006 ). Wilkins, a local resident of the Monteverde region, highlighted that m any residents who work in the ecotourism business often feel as though they lack the time required to prepare meals, thus affecting their nutritional choices ( Allen 2012 ) In other words, they might choose a bag of potato chips to eat rather than spend the time and ene rgy to coo k a typical and nutritious meal Thus, while populations may indeed have more access to food in quantity the variety and overall quality of those food items might be severely compromised. As a result of this shift, there is a trend towards overc onsumption of food high in fats and carbohydrates concurrent with the decreased consumption of more nutritionally rich foods such as fruits and vegetables. These patterns manifest themselves in rising rates of obesity and BMI disproportion

PAGE 7

' " factors that in crease the individual's risk for chronic health problems such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (Himmelgreen, 2006). What is a keyhole garden? The keyhole garden is a compact technology adapted from sub Saharan Africa to the climate of the Monteverde zone. Each keyhole garden contains a basket in the center for organic kitchen waste to feed plants and replenish the soil's n utrients (Keyhole Garden Manual, 2009) The combination of the center basket and the entrance way gives the garden a keyhole shape when viewed from above (Figure 3) The garden uses a number of layers to nourish the soil, making it more productive than a conventional garden. The garden is constructed from low cost, recycled, reusable and local materials. The garden is two meters in diameter and one meter tall to allow for greater accessibility and to limit pests. It is used to grow a variety of fruits and vegetables in the middle and is surrounded by medicinal/companion plants to repel pests. Figure 3. Overhead and side views of the basic keyhole garden model !""#$%%999+"(:'.,--##-9()+,-&%,-0"(0"%2("'6;<=(*!-;(<,-&#+>#7 Research Questions What current knowledge do community members have with regard to compost gardening? What motivations are needed to facilitate co mmunity involvement in compost gardening?

PAGE 8

( " What adaptations are necessary to implement the keyhole garden technology into the Monteverde region and community? METHODS The methods chosen for this study are interdisciplinary in nature and have merged togethe r techniques from the fields of anthropology, engineering, and public health. This exploratory study combined both qualitative and quantitative methods in order to attain a holistic understanding of the investigated variables and their relationship with ea ch other. The methods implemented in this investigation are based on the operationalization of the following variables: (1) generational knowledge on agriculture, (2) produce access and attainment, (3) current gardening practices, and (4) the level of inte rest in gardening. The methods employed to operationalize these variables include participant observation, free listing, pile sorting, focus groups, open ended interviews, structured interviews, grounded theory analyses, statistical analysis and a soil pH test. During the investigation in Monteverde, Costa Rica, all six researchers resided in six different homestays and attended daily classes and events at the Monteverde Institute (MVI). This allowed the researchers to conduct participant observation with the families of their homestays and the Monteverde Institute staff. Participant observation is a data collection technique that requires the researcher to be present at, involved in, and recording the routine daily activities with community members in the field setting. The homestays were all located in neighborhoods within the Santa Elena region of Monteverde. Participant observation activities included: (1) observing what individuals composted and (2) different forms of gardening within households and at the MVI. After obtaining informed consent, free lists and pile sorts (n=12) were administered with individuals that lived in the Monteverde region. Participants were asked to free list the reasons why they would want a personal garden (see Appendix II: Tab le 4 for categories of reasons for having a personal garden). They were then asked to rank the listed reasons on a scale of one to four on their level of importance (see Appendix II: Table 4 for the value labels of each rank). Following the free list and p ile sort activities, two focus groups were conducted: one was conducted in San Luis (n=6)

PAGE 9

) " and the second was conducted in Monteverde (n=8) (see A ppendix I:2 for major topics provided by the focus group moderators). Open ended interviews (n=3 ) were then adm inistered with individuals who work in farming and agriculture in the Monteverde region (see A ppendix 1: 1 for the interview questions ). The nature of open ended and unstructured interviews permits for an open exchange between the researcher and the partici pant in the study allowing for the researcher to build relations and rapport with community members. This form of interviewing allows for the researcher to explore areas, cultural domains, and topics of interest in great depth without presupposing any spec ific responses or conclusions (Benard, 2011). Additionally, oral questionnaires (n=53) were conducted at the 2013 San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair and supermarkets and farmer's markets located in Monteverde. Participants were asked to respond to as nearly identical a set of stimuli as possible (see Appendix I: 3 and Appendix I:4 for the full questionnaire s ). An interview schedule was employed to ensure reliability, validity and consistency by setting an explicit set of instructions to interviewers who administer questionnaires orally. Monteverde Institute staff and the six s primary researchers recruited participants for this study by contacting Monteverde and San Luis community members via phone, email, and in person conversations. Finally, a pH tes t was done to compare the acidity or alkalinity of compost soil that included acidic food products and compost soil that did not contain acidic products. Data Analysis Methods Grounded theory analyses were implemented to record and manage the qualitative textual data sets: interviews, focus group discussions, and open ended responses derived from the oral questionnaire. Grounded theory is a set of systematic techniques for discovering pattern in human experiences that utilizes close, inductive examination of unique cases combined with the application of deductive reasoning. The aim is to discover theories causal explanations involving the investigated variables grounded in empirical data (Benard, 2011). The grounded theory method relies on coding texts fo r themes then analyzing the themes for data. The texts were coded for different themes based on the operationalized variables of the exploratory research: (1) existing knowledge on agriculture, (2) produce access and attainment, (3) current gardening pract ices, and (4) the level of

PAGE 10

*+ " Produce Quality 24% Food Access 15% Selling 10% Therapeutic 9% Save Money 9% Medicinal 7% Educational 5% Aesthetic 5% Social 5% Convenience 5% Passion for Agriculture 3% Feed Animals 3% interest in gardening. Data were also analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis and software package. A Chi Square test was run with two variables: (1) The frequency that one gets produce from the farm and (2) age categories. R ESU LTS Community Interest in G ardening In order to adapt the keyhole gardening method to the Monteverde zone, researchers sought to understand community members' interests in gardening and potential challenges associated with gardening practices. Throughout these conversations, several key themes emerged from qualitative data analysis The initial investigation led to evident reasons for garden participation through the use of the free listing and pile sorting method The five most common answers consisted of t he following: produce quality (23.73%) food access (15.25%), selling (10.17%), therapeutic (8.47%), and saving money (8.47 %) ( s ee Figure 4 for the categories of reasons for having a personal garden ). Although "produce qual ity" and "food access" were r epeated most often by participants, in individual pile sorting, these responses received the lowest rankings of importance ( see Appendix III: Figure 2 for the value labels of each rank ). One participant listed both not having to purchase produce and not h aving to travel to the supermarket as reasons to garden, but ranked them on opposite ends of the spectrum. She explained that she "can go to the grocery store easily, but not having to buy produc e is very important." Figure 4. Free list/ pile sorting of Monteverde locals (n=12): reasons why a resident of the zone would have a personal garden

PAGE 11

** " Additionally, the oral questionnaires conducted at the 2013 San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair offered insight into individuals' levels of interest in the co n struction of a keyhole garden. When asked how interested one would be in assisting with the construction of a community keyhole garden, most participants (82.14%) indicated that they were either interested or very interested. Similarly, the majority of the respondents (89.29%) stated that they were interested or very interested in constructing a home keyhole garden. However, when asked how interested one might be in assisting with financing a community keyhole garden, fewer participants (65.52%) stated that they were interested or very interested. This variation highlights an interest in gardening, but a hesitation in financial aspects required of a keyhole garden. Both the MVI focus group and t he oral questionnaires (those administered to participant s in the Educational and Recreational Fair and consumers at the local farmer's market and supermarkets in Santa Elena ) provided community members with the opportunity to share perceived benefits, disadvantages and personal impediments to the construction o f a home keyhole garden. Qualitative coding revealed that the three greatest benefits concerned the environmentally friendly focus, functional structure, and self sufficiency inherent in growing one's own produce (see Figure 5 for keyhole garden benefit f requencies). Participants who highlighted environmental benefit s specifically focused on b oth the use of excess organic material in the form of compost and the production of organic crops One focus group participant stated that the compost basket in the c enter of the keyhole garden allows for the reuse of the nutrients such as the organic peels so nothing is wasted ." These benefits may imply motivations key to community participation in gardening as a form of improving food security.

PAGE 12

*! " Figure 5. Pe rceived benefits of a keyhole garden identified by Monteverde residents in supermarket, farmer's market, and San Luis Educational and Recreational fair surveys and focus group discussion (n=61) The majority of the perceived disadvantages were derive d fr om questions regarding the structural integrity of the keyhole garden against environmental fa ctors specific to Monteverde. Community input also indicated o ther key concerns related to the compost and the pests that it would attract, general maintenance and a lack of knowledge on how to build the specific garden (see Figure 6 for keyhole garden disadvantage frequencies) General maintenance apprehensions centered on questions of time and required upkeep needs such as weeding and watering the garden. Addi tionally, focus group participants discussed a perceived lack of productivit y. One member stated, "If I want to produce a large amount, [t he garden ] seems very small ." In adapting the keyhole garden for the Monteverde region, the changes were made based on these perceived disadvantages. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

PAGE 13

*# " Figure 6. Perceived disadvantages of keyhole gardens expressed by MV residents in supermarket, farmer's market, and San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair surveys and focus group discussion (n=61)* *Responses such as "None" removed to diminish skewed results but included in Appendix II: Table 6 The individual impediments to building a keyhole garden remained minimal, with most answers (32.26%) being "none." Upon removing "none" as an answer, the top three impediment s were: the physical effort required in building the garden (28.57%) a lack of specific keyhole garden knowledge (23.81%) and a lack of time (23.81%) (see Appendix III: Figure 8 for keyhole garden impediment frequencies). Once the experimental keyhole g ardens are tested against the environmental factors in the zone, its productivity tested, and a building manual made, this may assuage some doubts from the community on th e keyhole gardens effectiveness. Generational Knowledge of A griculture The passing down of agricultural knowledge from older generations to younger community members has been identified in past research as a changing variable and has become a relevant topic to our investigative study in Monteverde. This was noted in both quantitative an d qualitative data. During the San Luis focus group, one participant shared a personal experience in which he has viewed the slow disappearance of the art form of sugar cane processing due to the time consuming nature, a lack of education in the traditiona l manner and the apparent preference for the use of new technologies. Additionally, all five elder participants (ages 55 70) of the free listing and pile sorting 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

PAGE 14

*$ " activity designated a passion for agriculture or a method to educate youth as a very importan t reason to garden Focus group participants from younger age groups did not indicate education on and a passion for agriculture as reasons to garden. Two quantitative SPSS statistical analyses of the oral questionnaire data determined moderate correla tions between age and the frequency by which one obtains his or her produce from a farm. This correlation highlights the change in farm participation between different generations. The Pear son Correlation test revealed a two tailed correlation with a sig nificance value of 0.033 and an r 2 value of 0 .397 which indicates weak, but present correlation between the two variables. The Chi Square test also revealed that these variables are not independent of one another Questionnaire participants within the age ranges of 18 50 years were least likely to obtain their p roduce from farms while people greater than 50 years of age we re more likely to obtain their produce from farms ( see Appendix II: Table 9 for Pearson Correlation and Chi Square analyses ). Based off of these findings, keyhole garden education materials and intervention targets may need to be tailored to a zone that is experiencing a transition away from genera tional agricultural knowledge. Produce Access and Attainment Research was aimed at examining local interest in specific fruit and vegetable produce. Investigation methods implemented the use of oral questionnaires, focus groups, and open ended interviews. Employing these methods enabled researchers to work with community members to better unders tand which types of produce are consumed and those that are desirable to plant in a home garden, as well as local experience of plant cultivation in Monteverde and San Luis. Participant perception and concern for produce was significant in the determinatio n of plants that would be both feasible to cultivate and greatly utilized by the local community. Survey data generated the top ten plants that local participants would choose to grow in a home garden. Questionnaire responses, collected from the San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair, indicated that the following plants were most frequently desired for cultivation. In order of most to least frequent, participants chose: 1)

PAGE 15

*% " lettuce, 2) tomato, 3) cilantro, 4) sweet chili 5) cabbage, 6) beans, 7) corn, 8) orange, 9) yucca, and 10) ayote (see Figure 7 for the top ten plants most desired to grow). Figure 7. Top ten products desired to cultivate as determined by individuals at San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair (n=31) Additionally, oral questi onnaires were implemented to review the top 10 produce consumed by the sample population. Questionnaires were conducted at two supermarkets, the Farmer's market, and the San Luis Educational and Recreational fair. Responses from 53 participants, determined that our sample population consumed the following produce, from most to least frequent. 1) tomato, 2) lettuce, 3) carrots, 4) potato, 5) mango, 6) onion, 7) papaya, 8) chayote, 9) cilantro and 10)pineapple (see Appendix III: Figure 4 for the top ten plant s most consumed). Frequency comparison between produce consumption and participant's desire to cultivate certain plants were functional in the understanding of production capability and dietary interests. Tomato emerged as the most highly consumed vegeta ble overall and the second most highly desired to cultivate. Lettuce was a plant that more than half of participants would like to grow; our sample population also frequently consumed it A different trend was identified for produce such as papaya, mango, pineapple, and potato. Levels of consumption and desire for cultivation offered contrasting frequencies. 24% of respondents listed papaya, for instance, as one of the top 5 produce that they consumed, 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 Percentage Fruit, vegetable, or herb

PAGE 16

*& " but only 3.4% wished to grow papaya. Contrastingly, al though 17.2% of respondents at the San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair listed beans as a plant they would like to grow, only 3.4% indicated beans to be one of the top 5 produce they consume each week. During the investigation of local produce inter est and attainment qualitative data were acquired via through focus groups and interviews Reoccurring themes in our research study included feasibility and scale of specific vegetable and fruit cultivation. Although questionnaire data indicated a high de sire for tomato, interview data presented reoccurring concern for the cultivation of tomato and sweet chili When the topic of specific plant cultivation was addressed, three out of four interviewees discussed environment specific complications related to tomato cultivation. Concerns for tomato production primarily pertained to the high volume of water that the Monteverde zone experiences. These participants all discussed excess moisture, plant plagues, and resulting difficulty of plant cultivation. Celery, carrot s, beans, green beans, and ci lantro were stated in interviews and focus groups to be highly consumed and successfully grown with the Monteverde region. Based on these research results lettuce, celery, ci lantro, green beans, onion, carrots, round z ucchini, radish, oregano, rosemary and rue will be cultivated in the Monteverde Institute demonstration keyhole gardens. These plants were organized in the garden to highlight permaculture practices in companion planting as well as a method of alternating root and shoot vegetables to maximize productivity (see Appendix IV for the planting layout). Local Garden ing Knowledge and Practices I nterviews with agricultural experts in the area, as well as focus groups from Monteverde and San Luis revealed curre nt gardeni n g practices regarding pest control environmental factors (rain/wind), and composting processes common to the region (see Appendix II: Table 3 for the major themes highlighted in interviews and focus groups). With regard to different forms of pe st control both interviews and focus groups mentioned a chili and garlic spray mixture adequate for small gardens. The use of medicinal plants, such as rue, rosemary and oregano were also mentioned as a deterrent

PAGE 17

*' " against pests. These three plants (rue, r osemary and oregano ) will be implemented around the perimeter of the two keyhole gardens while the chili/ garlic recipe will be made available to the MVI staff for future maintenance of garden In the Monteverde focus group, specifically, concerns were ra ised over the pests that may be attracted to the compost basket within the keyhole garden such as birds and vermin One suggestion was to implement a cover and a fine mesh screen around the exposed compost baskets. Currently, the compost baskets are cover ed by recycled sacks, which will be replaced by fine mesh screens. Although previous research indicated significant env i ro n mental factors relevant to the Monteverde zone, specific issues such heavy rainfall, winds, and condensation from fog (especially dur i ng the rainy season of October December) were highlighted during our interviews and focus groups. S ome suggestions offered from interviews and San Luis focus group discussions was to implement a roof, either from lamina or s aran and the use of light bu lb s to increase t he amount of heat to plants. One participant from the Mont everde focus group suggested using a greenhouse white plastic to enclose the entire garden, in order to retain heat during the winter months and provide protection against condensat ion and winds. For the keyhole garden, both the s aran and the greenhouse clear plastic were implemented with s aran on the sides and plastic on the top to reduce the amount of rainwater in the garden and protect against wind and fog, while still allowing s ufficient U ltra V iolet light. The significant rainfall added an additional element to the adaptation of the keyhole garden. In the original design of the African keyhole garden water filtration and drainage was not an issue due to the arid climate of sub Saharan Africa However, Monteverde poses the opposite problem in that, during the rainy season especially; there is an abundance of rainfall. For this reason, the research team determined that the experimental variable between the two demonstration key hole gardens would be the drainage layer. The first drainage mechanism involves inverted glass bottles that were donated by the Monteverde Institute (Image 1). These bottles were surrounded by dirt and approximately one finger width was left between bottl es to allow for filtration. The dirt padding also acts as a pseudo sponge so that, in the event of an earthquake, the bottles

PAGE 18

*( " will not shatter. The second drainage system incorporated small rocks that were leftover from the exterior construction (Image 1 ) These rocks of varying shapes and sizes were placed with small distances between to allow for filtration. Over the coming year, plant growth and water filtration will aid in determining which drainage system functions best: the uniform bottles or the irregular rocks. Image 1. (left) Drainage mechanism using inverted glass bottles; (right) Drainage mechanism using irregular rocks of varying sizes Surveys and focus groups have revealed a wide variation of compost ingredients used based on hous ehold available material such as manure (chicken, cow, horse, goat, and rabbit), carbon material (leaves, dry trunks, "gransa de arroz "/ the outer covering of rice grains ), and differing material to maintain a neutral pH in the soil (limestone, ash or saw dust) With variations in compost material, the process varies as well from just a few weeks to months of decomposition of the organic material. Based on the available material within the Monteverde Institute, the kitchen composting material, made up of ki tchen waste (including citruses, fats, oils, and meats), was tested for acidity before being used. Despite the use of citruses and fats in this compost, the compost was left for at least 2 months to decompose which resulted in a neutral pH test The compos t materials that were used for the garden were isolated into chicken wire barrels to allow for aeration and then mixed with additional soil and dry leaves for two weeks. This mixture was then mixed with soil and applied to the final layer of the keyhole ga rdens.

PAGE 19

*) " D ISCUSSION Key questions emerged from this exploratory study that were central to both the Monteverde community and research topics of interest. Significant topics, that were relevant to our study, became evident during the investigation of our re search questions. While the results of each of the research topi cs are valuable individually, they also reveal cohesive trends and relationships between the subjects of nutrition, agriculture, and demographics. These research findings were utilized both in the conceptualization and implementation of the demonstration keyhole gardens. Food insecurity and delocalization have become a subject of research and concern within the Monteverde community. The investigation of commu nity member s recept iveness toward s having a garden, particularly a keyhole garden was meaningful to our study and resulted in the examination and identification of perceptions of food insecurity and delocalization. Food quality and access were both topics that were most frequently mentio ned as reasons for having a personal garden. Additionally, our survey data identified an overarching interest in having a keyhole garden. Thus, research seems to imply a strong community desire for home fruit and vegetable cultivation. This data, as well a s interview and focus group data, reveals receptiveness surrounding the topic of growing one's own vegetables and fruits It also highlights the perceptions of home grown produce as nutritious and more accessible. When asked about agriculture and the role of agriculture, one participant in the San Luis focus group emphasiz ed the importance of agricultural practices in the community and mentioned the need to appreciate the small piece of land that one has. Several other members mentioned those same themes w ith an additional emphasis on the importance of organic cultivation and the nutritional benefit of retaining agriculture within the community. Our findings seem to indicate that many characteristics that the community sample population have identified as n ecessary and beneficial, are found in the keyhole gardening method. This may explain our results which portrayed a large scale of interest in having a keyhole garden. Results indicated high levels of interest in the ownership a keyhole garden and high amo unts of keyhole garden benefits to local agriculture and personal nutrition.

PAGE 20

!+ " However, participants also expressed some disadvantages as pertains to certain keyhole garden features. Our investigative study was aimed at identifying perceived disadvantages in order to adapt the keyhole gardening method to the Monteverde community needs and environment. As previously mentioned in the research results, participants expressed concerns for the keyhole garden's capacity to withstand environmental factors. Monteverd e experiences a large amount of wind and rain, which varies according to the season. Due to the fact that participants expressed concern for and perceived the structure as a possible disadvantage, the keyhole demonstration gardens were adapted to the zone with specific features that aim to harness Monteverde's unique environment. Thus, the maintenance of sufficient drainage within the keyhole gardens became a variable of interest to our research. Two varying drainage systems in each garden were implemented into the demonstration keyhole gardens. As a result of community concern for environmental factors and the effects it would have on our keyhole garden, a roof was also constructed above our garden. The specific features of the roof were designed taking int o consideration community advice regarding materials and construction. Additionally, our results indicated great interest in having a keyhole garden, but lesser interest (65.52%) in financing a keyhole garden. Due to these findings and the desire to make t he keyhole garden largely accessible, the demonstration garden was constructed with materials that were recycled and accessible to our research team. Other disadvantages expressed by community members were taken into consideration when constructing the key hole demonstration gardens. Due to the fact that pests were an issue of concern several measures will be taken to avoid pest's attraction to the compost and produce. When interviewed, community members mentioned the use of herbs to deter pests, as a result we will be planting basil, rosemary, and rue around the perimeter of both keyhole gardens. Also as a result of local community advice, acquired through interviews and focus groups, a chili and garlic mixture spray was implemented along with a cover for th e central compost basket with a fine mesh. Food quality and production was s een as a topic of importance to many of our respondents. This can be seen in particular participant's expressions of doubt related to garden size and in respondent's emphasis on pr oduction as a benefit of having a garden.

PAGE 21

!* " In order to best suit the needs of the community, participant's desire to grow and consume certain produce became a main topic of investigation in our research study. Survey data indicated that participants did not always desire to plant the products that they regularly consumed. This may be due to the growing space that survey respondents have available as well as knowledge of environmental factors. When exam ining these results, we took into consideration consumpti on patterns, desire to cultivate, and qualitative data relating to certain plant cultiv ation Qualitative data from focus groups and interviews led us to abstain from planting tomato and sweet pepper even though tomato was the most consumed and second most highly desired plant to cultivate. Potato, ayote, yucca and chayote were also determined to not be suitable for the demonstration keyhole garden due to the se plants requiring a vast amount of space to grow, which conflicts with the keyhole garden's purpos e of maximizing a small amount of space through closely planted seeds for maximum production. Plants that community members identified to be consumed often as well as successfully grown will be cultivated in the demonstration garden. The specific location of our garden and the expressed needs of those that would maintain and benefit from the garden, played an important role in determining the plants that would be grown. Research regarding the presence of nutritional needs and desires as well as community agriculture and environment revealed efficient gardening methods and dietary interests. Investigation into these topics not only aided in the understanding of what characteristics were necessary to adapt the keyhole garden, but also revealed what agricult ural knowledge existed within the community and where the majority of it was present within its members. Past research has identified a progressive decline in agricultural production due to the rise in tourism economy and market competition with large comp anies. As a result, many members of younger generations have pursued careers outside of agriculture. This has led to a loss of knowledge on which crops to plant and how to process them (Himmelgreen, 2006) Qualitative data from a focus group in San Luis as well as an interview with an active community member emphasized a concern for the loss of knowledge in younger community members. These community members expressed concern and stated that the lack of agricultural knowledge would result in detriment to com munity health and economy. This trend, expressed by

PAGE 22

!! " community members, was identified in quantitative SPSS statistical analysis of survey data. Further research aimed at investigating the loss of agricultural knowledge among younger community members can a id in identifying various a spects surrounding this trend. CONCLUSION The initial goal behind the adaptation of the keyhole garden technology into the Monteverde community was to help to alleviate pressures of food insecurity and food delocalization that have been initiated in the onset of the significant tourism industry. Although this still remains to be the primary objective, through community discussions and interactions, it became evident that many other benefits to the keyhole garden exist. These p ositive features highlighted previously include: bridging the generational gap in agricultural knowledge, offering a more accessible gardening option to particularly vulnerable populations (the elderly, disabled, pregnant women), and providing a method for individual economic gains in the form of produce sales The adaptations made to the original keyhole garden model have been implemented in the Monteverde Institute in the form of experimental demonstration and education gardens. These gardens will be mon itored through the coming year in order to determine their functionality, community interest, and future steps. Preliminary recommendations regarding keyhole construction alternatives and future research activities have been made to the Monteverde Institu te and other key Monteverde and San Luis community members. Finally, a manual for the construction and maintenance of the keyhole garden a la Tica has been developed (see Appendix IV) and distributed to interested community members and potential future p artners. RECOMMENDATIONS Keyhole Construction Recommendations and Alternatives Although the exterior of both Monteverde Institute demonstration keyhole gardens were constructed using large stones, there are many other feasible alternatives. These mater ials were used due to greatest availability to the Institute. Other potential

PAGE 23

!# " exterior materials suggested by community advisors include recycled materials (glass bottles, tires), lamina roofing material, cinderblocks, or bamboo/sticks. The layers may also be varied depending upon what is most readily available to the household or organization constructing the garden. Many other kinds of manure, such as goat, rabbit, or cow, may be used instead of chicken manure and/or coffee shells. Limestone can be easily substituted for ash because both materials maintain the neutral balance of the soil and compost pH. Finally, as recommended by several focus group participants, dry leaves can be substituted for rice shells (gransa de arroz) depending upon what is accessible. Additionally, many other materials, specifically recycled resources, may be implemented to facilitate drainage. Focus group members and community advisors proposed several drainage items options that included halved tires, inverted plastic crates, inverted plastic bottles, and bamboo shoots. These materials, especially used tires and plastic bottles, may require further research to ensure that they are safe for food production use. Finally, much debate was raised with regard to the roof construction. Several focus group and interview participants stated that saran was the ideal material, while other members supported the use of clear greenhouse plastic. Either of these materials could be used to form the roof. Furthermore, the roof cou ld incorporate covered sides, though this is not required. Each of these alternative materials could be incorporated in a future experimental research garden. Local community members who decide to create their own keyhole garden could also integrate these alternative materials. Future Research Recommendations Further explore the variable of generational knowledge o Is gardening a practice that could facilitate the passing on of agricultural knowledge? Is this something that is already being done in the loca l region? Evaluate the experimental garden drainage variables o Interview or conduct a focus group with Monteverde Institute staff to elicit their observations about the two drainage systems

PAGE 24

!$ " Develop a partnership with Comires a committee under the umbrella of the municipality that collects all recyclable and reusable materials o Interview or conduct a focus group with Comires leaders to determine partnership feasibility Experiment with other keyhole construction variables o Roofing o Plants within the garden o Incor porate other recycled materials Develop a partnership with the Casem Cooperative or APAPNEM o Interview or conduct a focus group with interested members to determine partnership feasibility Develop a partnership with youth based organizations in the Montever de zone o Interview or conduct a focus group with potential partners to determine feasibility o Potential partners include: Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, local schools LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Several limitations to this study must be mentioned. First, the sampl e size was limited due to time and availability constraints. Survey, interview, and focus group participants were contacted from a convenience sample due to interests in agriculture/gardening or propinquity to grocery venues. Additionally, researchers we re limited to a short time of six to seven weeks in Monteverde during the summer, so results may not be representative of the full year. Finally, the researchers were restricted to building the keyhole gardens in a specific area of the Monteverde Institut e, so experimental outcomes may not be indicative of all planting areas. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thank you to the people of Monteverde, San Luis, and Santa Elena who have helped us with our research, especially those who attended our focus groups, interviews, and surveys To all the staff of the MVI. Thank you Jenny Pe–a Gaudy Picado Toni Salzar Mora Randy Picado Our community advisor, Milto Brenes Rigoberto Mendez Patricia Jimenez

PAGE 25

!% " Those who helped us with constructing the garden: Aaron Hockman Mario Corder o Badilla, Golberto Cordero Badilla & Giraldo Algedas To our professors: Dr. David Himmelgreen, Dr. Nancy Romero Daza, and Dr. Sarina Ergas. Our Graduate Assistants: Allison Cantor, Stephanie Paredes, and Adib Amini The National Science Foundation REU RE SEARCH TEAM BIOGRAPHY Sara Arias has a Master's of Science in Forensic Anthropology from the Boston School of Medicine. She is currently a second year doctoral student in the Applied Anthropology program at the University of South Florida Tampa. Her resear ch interests lie in childhood obesity and biomechanical stress markers in weight bearing bones. Her Spanish proficiency is fluent. saraarias@mail.usf.edu Emily Bissett is currently an undergraduate senior majorin g in Nutrition Science and minoring in Spanish and Nonprofit Studies at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina Her research interests involve maternal and young child nutrition and food security. Ultimately, Emily plans to complete h er doctoral degree in Maternal and Child Public Health. Her Spanish proficiency is fluent. eebisset@ncsu.edu Constanza Carney is currently an undergraduate senior majoring in Anthropology and minoring in Internation al development and humanitarian assistance at the University of Florida in Gainesville, FL. Her research interests include food security and HIV/AIDS as well as nutrition. Upon graduation, Constanza aims to obtain a Master's degree in Public Health and con tinue on to complete a doctoral degree. Her Spanish proficiency is fluent. ccarney@mail.usf.edu Lillie Dao has a Bachelor's of Arts degree in Anthropology from the University of Central Florida. She is currently a second year Masters student in American University's Public Anthropology program in Washington, D.C. Her research track is biological and cultural anthropology with a focus on the anthropology of health. Her Spanish proficiency is between basic and interm ediate. LD5123A@american.student.edu Alejandro Garcia is currently an undergraduate sophomore majoring in Biomedical Sciences at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. Alejandro has a variety o f interests including science, medical botany, anthropology and international health. After graduating from USF, Alejandro seeks to obtain a medical degree and specialize in general medicine. His Spanish proficiency is fluent. arg@mail.usf.edu Zuhra Malik is an undergraduate senior studying Civil Engineering at Virginia Tech. In the past she has conducted traffic engineering research to reduce greenhouse gases and fuel consumption during signal phases Her interests lie in environmental engineering, sustainability, and international development. Post graduation, she would like to pursue a

PAGE 26

!& " Masters in Public Health with a focus on Envir onmental Health. She speaks intermediate Spanish. zmalik@vt.edu BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, Bill. (2012) Monteverde study links ecotourism to reduced food security. Covering Nature and Society in Costa Rica . Anderson, S.A. (1990) "Core indicators of nutritional status for difficult to sample populations", Journal of Nutrition, 120:11, 1557 1600. Benard, Russell H. (2 011) Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches." Altamira Press. Himmelgreen, David A., Daza, Nancy Romero, Vega, Ma ribel, Cambronero, Humberto Brenes and Amador, Edgar (2006) '"The Touri st Season Goes Down But Not the Pr ices." Tourism and Food Insecurity in Rural C osta Rica', Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 45: 4, 295 321 "Keyhole Garden Manual." Center for Energy Studies Ric e University's Baker Institute, 2009. . Nadkarn i, N. M. and N. Wheelwright. (2000) Monteverde: Ecology and conservation of a tropical cloud forest New York: Oxford University Press.

PAGE 27

!' " APPENDIX I: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS, FOCUS GROUP TOPICS, AND SURVEYS 1. Interview Questions A. Interview c onducted on: 6/26/13 2:00pm 1. Describe your composting ingredients. 2. Explain your compost making process. 3. Describe what you have found grows best in the Monteverde zon e. 4. How does the climate of the zone affect agriculture ? 5. Would you recommend that we implement a roofing system in a home garden? B. Interview c onducted on: 6/26/13 3:00 pm 1. Describe your composting ingredients. 2. Explain your compost making p rocess. 3. Describe what you have found grows best in the Monteverde zone. 4. What does not grow well in the zone? 5. How does the climate of the zone affect agriculture? 6. What techniques have you used to combat these issues? C Interview c onducted o n: 6/28/13 4 :00 pm 1. Describe your composting ingredients. 2. Explain your compost making process. 3. What do you recommend for garden drainage? 4. What alterations do you recommend for the keyhole garden layers? 5. Would you recommend that we implem ent a roofing system? 6. What do you recommend that we plant in the keyhole garden? 7. Do you have any organic insecticide suggestions? 2. Focus Group Topics A. Focus group conducted on: 6/27/13 10:00 am 1. What role has agriculture played in your life? 2. In general, what do people in this zone cultivate in their gardens or homes? 3. What are your experiences with medicinal plants?

PAGE 28

!( " 4. What problems have you experienced in your gardens? 5. How have you resolved these problems? 6. Can you tell me about the organic compos t that you use? What is the process? B. Focus group conducted on: 1. What are your three favorite things to grow? 2. Do you use organic compost? Why or why not? 3. What benefits do you see with the keyhole garden? 4. What disadvantages do you see with the keyhole garden? 5. What recommendations do you have for the keyhole garden? 3. San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair Survey Code Number:____________ Sexo: Hombre o Mujer Cu‡l es su fecha de naci miento?: ______ En cu‡l parte de la zona vive us ted?: __________ Cual de las siguientes describe su situaci—n actual? En el momento Usted ____ Trabaja tiempo completo ____ Trabaja medio tiempo ____ Esta sin empleo ____ Se ocupa de las labores de la casa ____ Es estudiante ____ Otro (explique) Si traba ja pregunte QuŽ tipo de empleo tiene?________ Cu‡ntas horas trabaja en ?_________ Cu‡ntas personas viven en su casa?_________ 1. Con que frequencia obtiene usted frutas, verduras y hierbas en cada uno de los siguientes sitios? 1 nunca, 2 a veces, 3 casi siempre, y 4 siempre.

PAGE 29

!) " __ Supermercado __ Pulper’a __ Feria del agricultor __ Finca __ Huerta propia __ Vendedores independientes 2. Digame los cinco productos (frutas, verduras, hierbas) que usted utiliza m‡s cada semana: 1______________________ 4___________________ 2______________________ 5___________________ 3______________________ 3. Digame los cinco productos (frutas, verduras, hierbas) que usted le gusteria cultivar en su huerta: 1______________________ 4___________________ 2______ ________________ 5___________________ 3______________________ 4. QuŽ hace con los productos que no comen o los residuos org‡nicos de los productos que comen en su casa? (c‡scaras de fruta, c‡scaras de huevo, etc.)? a.) Los tira a la basura b.) Los us a para abono org‡nico c.) Los usa para alimentar a los animales d.) Otros (Especifique): ________________ 4b. Si usted hace abono org‡nico, por favor identifique todos los ingredientes que usted utiliza en su abono: 1.___ Residuos org‡nicos 2.___ Bo–iga de vaca 3.___ Gallinaza 4.___ Bo–iga de cabra 5.___ Bo–iga de caballo

PAGE 30

#+ " 6.___ Cal 7.___Carb—n 8.___ Hojas secas 9.___Ramas secas 10.___Tronco de pl‡tano 11.___Miel de Purga 12.___ Brosa de cafŽ 13.___Lombrices 14.___Aserr’n 15.___Residuos c’tricos 16.___Residu os de carne 17.___Abono qu’mico 18.___Otro (Especifique):________________ Huerta de "Keyhole" La huerta de "keyhole" (huerta de ojo de cerradura) es un mŽtodo compacto adaptado de frica para el clima de la zona. Contiene una canasta en el centro para l os desechos org‡nicos de la cocina para alimentar las plantas en un espacio limitado. El jard’n es dos metros de di‡metro y un metro de altura para permitir una mayor accesibilidad y limitar las plagas. Se cultiva una variedad de frutas y verduras en el me dio rodeado de plantas medicinales para repeler las plagas.

PAGE 31

#* " 5. Basado en lo que usted ha escuchado, quŽ beneficios ve usted en una huerta como esta? 6. QuŽ desventajas le veria? 7. QuŽ le impedir’a a usted tener una huerta como esta? 8. Que tan int eresado/a estar’a en la construcci—n de una huerta comunal? A) Muy interesado B) Interesado C) Neutral D) Poco interesado E) Nada interesado 9. QuŽ tan interesado/a estar’a en la construcci—n de una huerta propia? A) Muy interesado B) Interesado C) Ne utral D) Poco interesado E) Nada interesado 10. Que tan interesado/a estar’a en ayudar a financiar una huerta comunal? A) Muy interesado B) Interesado C) Neutral D) Poco interesado E) Nada interesado 4. Monteverde Supermarket/ Farmer's Market Survey Se xo: Hombre o Mujer Cu‡l es su fecha de nacimiento?: ______

PAGE 32

#! " En cu‡l parte de la zona vive usted?: __________ Cual de las siguientes describe su situaci—n actual? En el momento Usted ____ Trabaja tiempo completo ____ Trabaja medio tiempo ____ Esta sin em pleo ____ Se ocupa de las labores de la casa ____ Es estudiante ____ Otro (explique) Si trabaja pregunte QuŽ tipo de empleo tiene?________ Cu‡ntas horas de la semana trabaja?_________ Cu‡ntas personas viven en su casa?_________ 2. Digame los cinco p roductos (frutas, verduras, hierbas) que usted utiliza m‡s cada semana: 1______________________ 2______________________ 3______________________ 4______________________ 5______________________ 3. QuŽ hace con los productos que no comen o los residuos org‡n icos de los productos que come? (cascaras de fruta, cascaras de huevo, etc.)? a.) Los tiro a la basura b.) Lo uso para abono organico c.) Los uso para alimentar a los animales d.) Otros (Especifique): ________________ 3b. Si usted hace abono organico, por favor identifique todos los ingredientes que usted utiliza en su abono: ___ Residuos org‡nicos

PAGE 33

## " ___ Bo–iga de vaca ___ Gallinaza ___ Bo–iga de cabra ___ Bo–iga de caballo ___ Cal ___Carb—n ___ Hojas secas ___Ramas secas ___Tronco de pl‡tano ___Miel de Purga ___ Brosa de cafŽ ___Lombrices ___Aserr’n ___Residuos c’tricos ___Residuos de carne ___Abono qu’mico ___Otro (Especifique):________________ Por favor, explique el proceso que usted usa para hacer el abono, incluyendo el tiempo que se necesita para que est e listo para usar: 4a. Usted participa en alguna forma de cultivo de plantas comestibles? Circule SI o NO Huerta de "Keyhole" La huerta de "keyhole" (huerta de ojo de cerradura) es un mŽtodo compacto adaptado de frica para el clima de la zona. Contiene una canasta en el centro para los desechos org‡nicos de la cocina para alimentar las plantas en un espacio limitado. El jard’n es dos metros de di‡metro y un metro de altura para permitir una mayor accesibilidad y limitar las plagas. Se cultiva una varieda d de frutas y verduras en el medio rodeado de plantas medicinales para repeler las plagas.

PAGE 34

#$ " 5. Basado en lo que usted ha escuchado, quŽ beneficios ve usted en una huerta como esta? 6. QuŽ desventajas le veria? 7. QuŽ le impedir’a a usted tener una huerta como esta? 8. QuŽ tan interesado/a estar’a en la construcci—n de una huerta comunal? A) Muy interesado B) Interesado C) Neutral D) Poco interesado E) Nada interesado 9. QuŽ tan interesado/a estar’a en la construcci—n de una huerta propia? A) Muy interesado B) Interesado C) Neutral D) Poco interesado E) Nada interesado APPENDIX II: TABLES Table 1 Top five produce consumed weekly based on s upermarket, farmer's market and San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair surv ey questionnaire

PAGE 35

#% " Number of times mentioned: ! Fruits/Vegetables Farmer's Market Supermarkets Health fair Health fair (%) Total (%) Apple 1 1 6 20.7 15.1 Avocado NA NA 2 6.9 3.8 Ayote 1 NA 1 3.4 3.8 Banana 3 2 5 17.2 18.9 Beans 2 3 1 3.4 11.3 Beet s 1 NA 1 3.4 3.8 Broccoli NA 1 2 6.9 5.7 Berries 1 NA NA NA 1.9 Cabbage 2 NA 5 17.2 13.2 Carrots 2 4 11 37.9 32.1 Celery NA NA 2 6.9 3.8 Chamol NA NA 1 3.4 1.9 Chayote 2 2 7 24.1 20.8 Chile 1 1 6 20.7 15.1 Coffee NA 1 NA NA 1.9 Corn NA 1 1 3.4 3. 8 Culantro 3 2 6 20.7 20.8 Cucumber 2 1 2 6.9 9.4 Garlic 1 1 3 10.3 9.4 Grain NA 1 NA NA 1.9 Grapefruit 1 NA NA NA 1.9 Green beans NA NA 6 20.7 11.3 Lemon 1 1 3 10.3 9.4 Lettuce 6 7 10 34.5 43.4 Mango 6 4 6 20.7 30.2 Onion 5 2 5 17.2 22.6 Orange NA 1 8 27.6 17.0 Papaya 4 1 7 24.1 22.6 Parsley NA NA 1 3.4 1.9 Pears NA 1 NA NA 1.9 Pineapple 3 2 6 20.7 20.8 Plantains NA NA 8 27.6 15.1 Potato 2 5 10 34.5 32.1 Rice NA 1 NA NA 1.9 Spinach 1 NA NA NA 1.9 Tomato 6 9 11 37.9 49.1 Watermelon NA 1 1 3.4 3.8 Yucca 2 2 4 13.8 15.1 Zucchini 1 NA NA NA 1.9

PAGE 36

#& " Table 3 Major themes from interviews and focus group discussions in Monteverde and San Luis. Themes i dentified through qualitative coding analysis. Major Themes San Luis FG Monteverde FG Interview A Interview B Interview C Total % Total Compost Process 9 4 5 2 2 22 10.28% Compost Ingredients 9 11 7 3 9 39 18.22% Drainage 0 1 0 1 5 7 3.27% Construction Keyhole 1 10 2 3 3 19 8.88% Produce Grown/Desired 15 7 5 2 1 30 14.02% Produce Challenges 4 0 1 0 3 8 3.74% Medicinal Plants 12 2 0 1 5 20 9.35% Layers 0 0 0 0 7 7 3.27% Pests 10 9 1 2 1 23 10.75% Environmental Factors 5 5 5 1 2 18 8.41% Local Agri cul tural Knowledge 16 5 n/a n/a n/a 21 9.81% TOTAL 214 Plant Desired (%) Consumed (%) 1. Lettuce 51.7 34.5 2. Tomato 41.4 37.9 3. Culantro 37.9 20.7 4. Chile 24.1 20.7 5. Cabbage 20.7 17.2 Table 2 Based on Appendix III: Figure 4, top five plants locals in the Monteverde and San Luis regions desire to grow compared to what they consume weekly

PAGE 37

#' " Table 4 Ranked order of importance of reasons why people in the Monteverde region would own a personal garden (1=Least Important, 4= Most Important) Reasons Freq uency R a nk 1 Freq uency R a nk 2 Freq uency R a nk 3 Freq uency R a nk 4 Total Freq uency % Freq uency Passion for Agricul ture 0 0 1 1 2 3.39% Medicinal 1 0 0 3 4 6.78% Educational 0 0 0 3 3 5.08% Produce Quality 0 2 4 8 14 23.73% Therapeutic 0 0 4 1 5 8.47% Selling 2 3 0 1 6 10.17% Aesthetic 2 1 0 0 3 5.08% Social 0 1 1 1 3 5.08% Food Access 0 0 3 6 9 15.25% Feed Animals 1 1 0 0 2 3.39% Save Money 0 1 1 3 5 8.47% Convenience 1 1 1 0 3 5.08% Table 5. Keyhole garden perceived benefits tally from surveys and foc us group Code No. Keyword Total 1 Self sufficiency 10 2 Environmentally friendly 16 3 Healthy 6 4 Functional structure 10 5 Compost as beneficial rid of waste 4 6 Easy to maintain 3 7 Pest control 2 Total 51 "

PAGE 38

#( " Table 6. Keyhole garden perceive d disadvantages tally from surveys and focus group Code No. Keyword Total 1 Lack of access 1 2 Lack of knowledge 2 3 None 17 4 Pests 2 5 Compost 2 6 Structural integrity 5 7 Maintenance 2 8 Expense 1 Total 15 Table 7. Keyhole garden perceived impediments tally from surveys Code No. Keyword Total 1 Physical effort 6 2 Lack of knowledge 5 3 None 10 4 Lack of time 5 5 Lack of interest 1 6 Expense 3 7 Lack of space 1 Total 21

PAGE 39

#) " Table 8. Crosstabulation of age categories frequency of pr oduce from farm Table 9. Chi Square correlation between age ranges and how often San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair participants obtains produce from a farm

PAGE 40

$+ " APPENDIX III: FIGURES Figure 1 Free list/ pile sorting o f Monteverde l ocals (n=12): reasons why a resident of the zone would have a personal garden " Figure 2 Free list/ pile sorting of Monteverde locals (n=12): ranking frequency for reasons why a resident of the zone would have a pe rsonal garden " Produce Quality 24% Food Access 15% Selling 10% Therapeutic 9% Save Money 9% Medicinal 7% Educational 5% Aesthetic 5% Social 5% Convenience 5% Passion for Agriculture 3% Feed Animals 3%

PAGE 41

$* " Figure 3 Top ten products desired to cultivate as determined by individuals at San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair (n=31) Figure 4 Top ten products consumed weekly compared to p roducts desired to cultivate as determined by residents of Monteverde zone (n=53) ! 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 Percentage Fruit, vegetable, or herb 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 Percentage Fruit, vegetable, or herb Consumed Desire to grow

PAGE 42

$! " Figure 5 Frequency of major themes identified in i nterviews and focus groups (n=18) " Figure 6 Perceived benefit s of a keyhole garden identified by MV residents in supermarket, farmer's market, and San Luis Educational and Recreational fair surveys and focus group discussion (n=61) " 18.22% 14.02% 10.75% 10.28% 9.81% 9.35% 8.88% 8.41% 3.74% 3.27% 3.27% Compost Ingredients Produce Grown/Desired Pests Compost Process Local Agricultural Knowledge Medicinal Plants Construction of Keyhole Environmental Factors Produce Challenges Drainage Layers 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

PAGE 43

$# " ,-./01" 2"31041-516"6-786589:8.17";<"=1>?;@1".806197"1AB 017716"C>"DE"017-619:7"-9" 7/B10F80=1:G"<80F10H7"F80=1:G"896"I89"J/-7"K6/48:-;98@"896"L14018:-;98@",8-0" 7/051>7"896"<;4/7".0;/B"6-74/77-;9"M9N&*OP " *Responses such as "None" removed to diminish skewed results but included in Appendix II: Table 6 Figure 8 Perceived impediments to building a keyhole identified by residents in supermarket, farmer's market, and San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair surveys (n=61)* Responses such as "None" removed to diminish skewed results bu t included in Appendix II: Table 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Physical effort Lack of knowledge Lack of time Lack of interest Expense Lack of space

PAGE 44

$$ " Figure 9 Tally of total keyhole benefits, disadvantages, and impediments identified by residents in supermarket, farmer's market, and San Luis Educational and Recreational Fair surveys and foc us group discussions (n=61) " 51 15 21 KH Benefit KH Disadvantage KH Impediment

PAGE 45

$% " APPENDIX IV : PLANTING LAYOUT