Peace and Conflict Management Review

Peace and Conflict Management Review

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Peace and Conflict Management Review
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University of South Florida
National University of Rwanda Center for Conflict Management
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University of South Florida
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2 ADEPR AMI AMUR CCM CNJ u COMESA u CUA ..... t: cu DRC E cu 0'1 EAC t: 1::3 :E EAP ..... -FFPR a "-FSPA cu "-..... t: GLR QJ u GU IC/GLR ICT EDPRS IRDP JAPCS REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE: "IC/GLR: PROGRESS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES" ACRONYMS :Association des Eglises de Pentecote au Rwanda :Association Modeste et Innocent I Butare, Rwanda :Association des Musulmans au KIST : Kigali Institute of Science and Technology LOPRODHOR : Ligue pour Ia Promotion des Dro de I'Homme au Rwanda Rwanda MINALOC : Ministere de I' Administration Lo1 :Center for Conflict Management/N UR NIT : New Technologies of Information communication : Conseil National des Jeunes : Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa : Centr e Universitaire des Arts/UN R : Democratic Republic of Congo : East African Community : Economic Partnership Agreement : Forum des Femmes Parlementaires au Rwanda : Faculty of Political Science and Administration N UR : Great Lakes Region :Gothenburg University : International Conference on the Great Lakes Region : Information and communication Technology : Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy : Institut de Recherche et de Dialogue pour Ia Paix : Journal of African Peace and Conflict Studies N U R : National University of Rwanda NURC PAD RIG U PCM PDI PR PSD RDF RPA RTNB SIDA SNJG u Ll< : National Unity and Reconciliatio l Commission : Peace and Development Researcl Institute of Goteborg : Peace and Conflict Management Review : Parti Democrate Integre : Proportional Representation : Parti Social Democrate : Rwanda Defense Forces : Radio Publique Africaine/Burundi : Radio Television Nationale du Bun : Swedish International Developme Agency : Service National des Juridictions Gacaca : Universite Libre de Kigali Univer


FOREWORD Speech by Professor Anastase Shyal

4 It was in that perspective that the objectives 3rd International Conference on the Great Lakes Region were to evaluate the progress made after the Heads of States and Governments of this Region signed the Pact of Stability in Nairobi, in December 2006 and to assess the challenges faced by the ICGLR countries in the areas of Peace and Security; Democracy and Governance; Economic Development and Regional Integration; and Social and H umanitarian Affairs. Your Excellency; I would like to present the people who are going to be actively involved in true discussions during these 2 days. They reflect this complementarity of people from different background. There are 10 countries and, if you allow me, I start from those who came from very far. We have Professor Samuel Totten from Arkansas University

Speech by Honorable Dr. Vincent BIRUTA (Speal

6 Speech by Professor Silas LWAI

Speech by Ambassador Liberata MULAMULA CGLR Secretary General Your E x cellency Guest of Honor, President of the Senate, Rector of National University of Rwanda, General AGWAI, Head of Mis s ion, Swedish Embassy, ARNE STROME, Members of Diplomatic Corps, Distinguished Guests, Dear participants, my dea r brothers and sisters, I bring you the greet ings from Bujumbura, the site of the ICG LR Sec retariat. Allow me to begin by than k ing the Center for Conflict Management

8 THEME 1 : PEACE AND SECURITY Developing sl

African Union and United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID): challenges and opportunities for peace in Sudan General Martin Luther AGWAI, Force Commander, UNAMID The aim of the paper is to acquaint with UNA MID Operational Situation with a view to high lighting Challenges and Opportunities for attainment of Peace in Sudan's DARFUR. Darfur is a western Province of Sudan, with S03, 180 sq km inhabited by many ethnic groups. The Province, that is a size of France, has no roads and lacks communication infrastructures Since 2002, its inhabitants are exposed to a long conflict that caused displacements, casualties and other ma terial damages. On one side, the government troops fight to maintain sovereignty of central government They are supporting JANJAWEED militias that transformed the Province in a bounty of war and settled tribal scores within its inhabitants On the other side, the Sudanese Liberation Movement Army, SLA/M, is fighting to increased power and wealth sharing for Darfur. The SLA/M is fighting against the long-term marginalization of Darfur and for an autonomous state within a unified Sudan. From November 2006 to December 2007, the African Mission in Darfur, AMIS, is being trans formed into United Nations Mission, UNAMID The AMIS was not a sufficient force with only 7, 000 soldiers It was not self sustaining and depen ded to donor contracts for life and equipment support. It was for ex ample strongly depending on donor contracts for communications and aviation support. UNAMID is relatively a strong force with 19, SSS (currently 7, 497) from 26 countries (Both European, Ame rican, Africana and Asian countries); Self sustaining; with UN Integrated Support Services (ISS); with UN com munications and aviation support Its major contributors are Rwanda's and Nigerian contingents respectively with 2588 and 2906 soldiers and po licemen. UNAMID is also working in conjunction with other International and regional Organizations: Care In ternational, American refugee Com mittee International, International Committee of Red Cross World Vision, Tear Fund, Solidarites, Unicef, UNFAO, UNFPA: UNDP, UNWFP, Medecins sans Frontieres, etc. However, UNAMID is also facing strong challenges in Darfur. The Hybrid force faces a complex conflict where many factions defending various self interests are difficult to control : Government soldiers, POPULAR (PDF) DEFENCE FORCE, SUDAN LIBERATION ARMY (SLA), SLA/MINNI (SLA/M), SLA/WAHID (SLA/W), SLA/SHAFI (SLA/S), JUSTICE AND EQUALITY MOVEMENT (JEM), JEM-COLLECTIVE LEADERSHIP (JEM/CL), JEM-PEACE WING (JEM/PW), JEM/AZRAQ (JEM/A), NATIONAL MOVEMENT FOR REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT (NMRD). There are other challenges such as bad field with sands stones lack of water in different areas of Darfur, food for troops, too much rain, double dependence of the UN AMID to two Masters established on long distances: UN Secu rity Council and General Secretariat in New York and the Head Quarters of the African Union in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia. There is also lack of powerful helicopters to overcome bad fields. The hybrid force has to work on Incremental build up of Troop, Progress in certain political and legal agreements, Equipment & Infrastructure improvement, Fill key Mission and Force Head Quarters appointments as early as possible, Develop expeditio nary capability (self sustaining) and mindset (training) It also needs to harmonize interoperability (doctrine, equipment.. .. ) and donor equipment package must be complete as soon as possible. 9


10 Why do soldiers rape? Gender, Violence and Sexuality in the DRC Armed Forces Maria ERII

Primary Mental Health Care for Survivors of Collective Sexual Violence: Implications for Services in the Great Lal

12 In Uganda elections AMAN I helped President Musev eni and his challenger Begigye to overcome their mis understanding and to prevent an open conflict within Ugandans. AMANi have been observing the recent elections in l


14 The last armed conflict in Ituri fostered the birth of several other politi co-military movements, of tribal and ethnic tendency. One could mention PUSIC for the territories of Irumu and Djugus (Hemal, FNI for the territory of Djugu and Irumu (Lendu and Lendu-Bindi), FPDC for the territory of Mahagi (Aiur) and FAPC for the territory of Aru. Sponsored by Uganda, their mission consists mainly of destabilizing U PC, which is not under the thumb of Ugandan politics in Congo. The armed groups in the Southern Kivu and Ituri have always had, with the exception of U PC, relationships with the Government of Kinshasa The Ma'I-Ma'l and the Lendu fighters would be, according to the govern ment terminology, patriot resistants against the Republic enemies For this reason, they are supplied with arms and assisted by government military advisers. In some places, like Ituri, FAG elements take part in fighting side by side with the Lendu fighters Moreover, these Congolese armed groups have always collaborated ac tively with the armed rebels or groups of the neighboring countries that operate from the Congolese territory. One could mention for example, the cases of Interahamwe and FDLR of Rwanda that operate with some Ma'I-Ma'l groups in the Southern Kivu and NALU and ADF of Uganda which, in their turn, at a given time, formed a coalition with the Lendu fighters to fight against the Ituri-based Ugandan army. Even though some have been created or perceived at first with the aim of protecting their respective communities, obviously, in the Southern Kivu and in Ituri, the armed groups are inflicting terrible sufferings among the civil populations: slaughters, looting, rapes, setting on fire dwellings, destruction of socioeconomic infrastructures are causing con stant movements of the civil population who seek refuge in the neighboring countries. The worse situation of this infra human disaster can be observed notably in Ituri, where the genocide operation carried out by the Lendu and RCD-KM L fighters with their allies Onterahamwe, May May, NALU, ADF, Government...), have decimated several thousands of the Hema population In the meantime, FDLR fighters have granted themselves the right of life and death on the civil populations in Bushi and Urega where, in the Southern Kivu, the former kill, rape women, plunder as they see fit. Peace, security and reconciliation in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The case of the Southern Kivu (DRC) Philippe Kaganda MULUME-ODERHWA, Universite Officielle de Bul

Strengths, weal

16 Darfur: After the Genocide Comes to an End, Then What? Prof. Samuel TOTTEN, University of Arl by the GOS and J anjaweed. Upon analysis of the data coll ected by the Atrocitie s Documentation Team, U .S. Secretary of State Colin Powell de clared, on September 9, 2004, that the GOS had committed genocide and was possibly still doing so. In stead of organizing an intervention to halt the mass killing the United St ates referred the matter to the United Nations. Subsequently, the UN decided to conduct its own investigation, the UN Commission of Inquiry into D arfur. During December 2004 and January 2005, the UN, upon analysis of the data, declared that while it did not find that genocide had been committed in Darfur it did find that crimes against humanity had been perpetrated Instead of organizing an intervention to halt the mass killing, the UN re ferred the Darfur matter to the International Criminal Court (ICC). The ICC then decided to conduct its own investigation in D ar fur in order to ascertain whether it should bring charges against any GOS government and military officials, the Janj aweed, or any other actors. Over the rec ent four years (2004-2008), various entities (including the UN Security Council th e United St ates government, the European Union, the African Union NATO, among others) issued scores of warnings to Sudan to cease and desist from its attacks on the black African s of Darfur and its support of the Janjaweed Time and again, Sudan made and broke promises and did little to nothing to halt the ongoing mayhem. The crisis in D arfur is far from over. Attacks continue to be carried out to this day agai nst the black Africans by the GOS and Janjaweed Battles between the GOS/Janjaweed and the rebels groups also continue unabated And now, adding to the chaotic mix, the innocent are caught up in raging battles between and amongst the various rebel groups and even be tween and amongst groups of Janjaweed. Once the fighting and killing stop, the crisis in Darfur will still be far from over. Indeed, if a host of underlying issues (desertification, recurring droughts, conflict over land, and a general sense of disenfranchisement) are not addressed and addressed in a way that i s satis factory to both black African groups and Arabs (both sedenta ry and nomadic or landless), then the post-genocide period could prove to be as volatile as the first five years of the genocidal period (2003-2008). To put off figuring out how to address such issues in a timely and effective manner is asking for trouble. In light of that, the international community should, at this very moment, be engaged in working with the GOS, black African groups and Arabs in an attempt to make and show solid progress on all these fronts. Of course, that is easier said than done when war continues to rage on in the region. Indeed, some are bound to ask, how the very actors who are still engaged in violent confl ict can be expected to address such issues when they cannot even work out a peace among themselves It is a fair question, but it is also one that does not face the fact that th e issues yet to be solved could serve, in part, as the linchpins for bringing about the peace Darfur THEME 2: SOCIAL AND HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS Enhancing peace through promoting security and development: The ICGLR cross border zones concepts Singo Stephen MWACHOFI, ICGLR Secretariat, Bujumbura Burundi The Internation a l Conference on the Great Lakes Region ( ICGLR) i s a collaborative regional effort by 11 member states that seeks to transform their conflict and poverty ridden region into a space of peace, stability and development. The initiative is both historic and unique in the sense that it is an express ion of political commitment by l eade r s who have rec ognized that the problems confronting them are s imilar, they cut across national boundaries, and their effects have a regional magnitude. Their solutions therefore lie in a regional, systematic and harmonized approach, underpinned by concerted and systema tic efforts to enhance cooperation between and among them. The ICGLR pact has four pillars namely Peace and Security, Development and Good Governance Humanitarian and So cial Issues and Economic Deve lopment and regional Integration. Within them, these pillars contain 33 projects, ll protocols and a str uctured re gional follow-up mechanism. The ICG LR process recognizes that sustainable security cannot be achieved within a vacuum It must be accompanied by development. Peace and security thrive s more often in an atmosphere characterized by developed economies. Within the Great Lake s region, insecurity and under development are serious challenges that are most pronounced along the common international borders. For the successful of the desired goals of peace, security and development along th e border zones, a number of challenges need to be overcome: legal hurdles through h armonizing existing laws, mobilizing the neces sary resources to launch the projects, cultural differences and ensuring the sense of "ownership" of the cross border initiatives amongst the local populations overcoming political differences amongst the member s tates, har s h climatic and geographical conditions in some of the zones (e.g. Zone 3), J ack of technical capacity ( Human and material), poor infrastructure, illegal exploitation of natural resources a long border areas and security challenges such as cattle rustling and the proliferation of illegal small arms and I ight weapons. Despite these challenges, there i s a genuine sense of opti mism that the member states of the ICG LR have the desire and commitment to overcome these challenges and to fully operationalize these concepts. The political will exi s ts, and this is exemplified by the signing and ratification of the pact on peace, stability and development. It is also exhibited by the commitment of financial resources through contributions by member states to the Regional Fund for Recons truction and Developm ent and for the operations of the conference secretariat. There are a growing number of development partners who are willing to support the implementation of some of the projects to be developed out of these concepts This offers hope that the efforts and commitments of the member states wi ll be complimented by the goodwill of friends of the region. The people of the region also provide a source of hope for the success of these projects because of their cultural and lan guage homogeneity In a ll there is great hope for real peace and development through regional integration initiatives.


The Role of Ecological Sanitation in Promoting Development, Peace and Health in the Great Lal

18 Since the stopping of 1994 genocide against Tut s i, major achievements in s trengthening unity and reconciliation are creation of institutions that promote good governance (Na tional Unity and Reconcili a tion Commission, Nation a l Hu man Right s Commission, Electoral Commission, National Examination Board), creation of Gacaca courts to foster justice and reconciliation among Rwandans, release of about 70.000 confessed genocide perpetrators, fighting discrimina tion and promotion of gender equality policy, Ingando (soli darity camps) and other sensitisation activities that promote reconciliation; a participatory constitution that enshrines unity and reconciliation and fight against discrimination and genocide ideology, creation of the survivors fund and emergence of recon ciliation initiative s at per s onal and community levels such as Perp etrator Confession s gestures of forgiveness from individual survivors, establishment of Reconciliation clubs in s chools, reconciliation Associations, etc However, the national policy for Unity and Reconciliation is sti ll facing strong challenges: Combating discrimination and genocide ideology is a complex and longterm struggle, National security in Rwanda has been a critical factor in ensuring peace and stab ility, the political commitment to promote necessary policy and rule of law creates a conducive environment to unity and reconciliation process, Community ownership of reconciliation process is critical to sustainable peace and security THEME 3: GOVERNANCE AND DEMOCRACY The role of free, fair and transparent elections in the building process of peace and security: the Case of Rwanda Pierre Damien HABUMUREMYI, Executive Secretary, National Electoral Commission (Rwanda) Elections are a double-edged weapon. If properly conducted, they can yield good results. Otherwise they affect security. That is why the electoral dynamics should guarantee security. In Rwanda, elections have often been an oppor tunity for frustration, injustice and exclusion. For example, they were c haracterized by restrictions; during the first and the second republic, the e lection s were organized on eth nic and regional label s Under the Belgian trusteeship, there were the electoral consultations of 1953: the bodies of electors to elect the councils of the sub-chieftaincies, the chieftaincies, the territories and the higher council of the King are ident i fied on basis of ethnic belonging. For the councils of sub chieftaincies, out of 13,245 members of the body of elec tors, 58.38% are H utu, 41.40% are Tutsi and 0 .22% are Twa. When the councils of 1953 were to be renewed, only 400,000 valid men out of 1,500,000 inhabitants had to elect the body of electors. The body of electors as well as the councillors were ethnic -based elected, that is 53% of Tutsis, 47% of Hutu s and no Twa. Under the Second Republic (1973-1994), elections took place in an ideological logic and ethnic exclusion. The 1978 to 1988 presidential elections occurred in a closely monitored militancy (98% in 1978,99.8% in 1988 for the unique candidate HABYALIMANA Juv e nall. The l egislative elections were held n a regime of co-option from 1981 to 1988, to the monopoly of the Party-State. They resulted in the emergence of a non representative legislativ e assembly (2 Tutsi in the 1988 elections out of 70 deputies whereas the supposed quota s hould be 9%). All of these accumula tions of injustice s and exclusion resulted in potentially confl ict situations and frustrations on the part of the excluded To correct the mistakes of the past, practical foundations like the prepara tions of the 2008 legislativ e elections have been put into place today : good participatory planning of the 2008-2001 electoral process (to avoid rush ness) ; good preparation of the e lectoral card ; acquisition of the electoral mate rial guaranteeing transparency (transparent urns, indelible ink and rigid ink); participation of voters to the electoral process (approval>; contribution to the funding of the elections; volunteering for the construction of the voting booths and voluntary assessors ; decentralization of the electoral infrastructures ; civic and electoral education of the population during the electoral cycle ; implication of several stakeho lder s including the political parties, civil society, media, local and international electoral observation; transparency in the consolid at ion of the results : In the postgenocide Rwanda, the mechanisms aiming at the smooth running of the e l ections have been put in place. They are henceforth characterized by good preparation, inclusion of all and involvement of the population All things considered, a dialectic relation exists between free and transparent elections and peace and national secur ity All depends on the political will and the political actors committed to the higher interest of the nation Women's Parliament Representation in Africa Christopher I

Burundi: Media and good governance Athanase Ntiyanogeye, Journalist at the National Radio and Television of Burundi From the origins until the time of the liberalization of the media in the 90s, the Burundian press covered the totality of the Government's actions No personal ini tiative from the journalist could be accepted, that is to say, that media actions relating good political gover nance, economic or social governance started with the birth of political parties and civil society associations Since the television has been operational in Burundi (even in the 2000s) the highest authorities' speeches of the country have always been fully broadcasted, those delivered either inside or outside the country Government members often solicit the television jour nalists even when it is just about the opening and the closing of workshop seminars which are part of their daily activities. In other words, it could be asserted that the written and audiovisual public media were at that time the pure and simple extension of the party and the government. In spite of their poor financial means, the private ra dios brought a new breath to good governance. Topics which used to be taboos such acts of violence commit ted by the police are debated on some radios including Radio RPA, ISANGANIRO and BONESHA FM Government members that make themselves respon sible for mismanagement are denounced in broad daylight. On the other hand the private newspapers show some weaknesses, less than five newspapers are published on a regular basis. Some are created and disappear some time later It seems then that some raised problems are being solved progressively, but there is still a long way to go to master all the aspects of the issue. The violences that broke up in October 1993 constitute one of the most dramatic demonstrations of the cyclic socio-political crises that Burundi has been experienc ing knows since the first years of independence The setting up of the institutions resulting from the Arusha agreement has not smoothed out all misunderstandings between the different political actors We have even been witnessing the weakening of the state authority. Consequently, we are witnessing a crisis in governance that is characterized by very serious cases of embezzlement, loss of confidence in the political leadership, e xcess of unfulfilled social demands and the weakening of the institutions of control of the governmental action such as the National Assembly. Among the big challenges to be taken up, there is the restoration of the state authority, the imposition of ethics in the management of public affairs, and the stabilization of the political system through dialogue and compromise Public and private media have coped beautifully with their task relating to governance and they deserve to be more sustained The 2010 elections should be prepared carefully to avoid the tragedies that oc curred in the past, and the bad example of Kenya in December 2007 If the media synergy worked properly during the 2005 elections, those of 2010 deserve a particular attention because the Burundian people needs firm and fea sible promises They need to attend to their socioeconomic activities peacefully In the past of Burundi, the media used to give the floor to the state exclusively The press has therefore been taken as a tool of e x altation and to the service of the power since the colonial times until the beginning of 90s (on the eve of the multiparty system). Its role was to tell the population what it had to do, that is to say, to execute the decisions taken from the top During the period 1991-1999, the press gave the floor to the civil society, to the private sector and to the unions It participated thus in the improvement of the democratic debate It became more committed, denounced and advised Since 2000, the press has really entered into the debate process and denounced abuses such as corruption. Obviously, efforts have been made by the media in the conduct of their profession, but since abuses persist, there is a need for the capacities of the journalists to be reinforced in their profession. Domitilla Mul

20 Governance put to test on the field: the Case of Burundi in the post-electoral context Dr. Elias SENTAMBA, National University of Rwanda Good governance has been defined as a type of government resulting from the consensus of different stakeholders: the State, the civil society, the private sector and the media. This interaction between these actors aims to take the least bad decision. In this process, the deter mining role of the state is to consult other actors. The fact of working each on its side but in collaboration and complementarity is an indica tion of good governance The interaction between the state and the private sector is an ideal, the goal being that of taking the least bad decision. Since the year 2001, a ministry in charge of good governance has existed in Burundi. The question that arises is to know whether the choice has been mo tivated by the realities of the country or by the worry to have interna tional credibility. Within the framework of good governance, the huge challenge is still linked to the decisions or the policies that take into consideration the real situation or of the realities on the field. For example, exemption from payment for health care for under five children and maternity care are causing some difficulties at the hos pital level. Poor provision of human and material resources remains a major handicap. Other challenges are still prevailing, such as the one linked to the weakened state, the dependence on the financial donors, the shaky civil society, the weak private sector, the situation of insolvency. Moreover, foreign NGOs actions are not made the most out of them. More than ten years of civil war are still causing difficulties. Good governance requires a minimum of security. Corruption doesn't foster investment. A lot of initiatives that require the means that the state doesn't have. To succeed its mission better, good governance in Burundi should concentrate on strong institu tions, the rule of law, as strong state that takes into ac count the true reality on the field and the wishes from the population Post electoral violences in l

Our optimism is the DRC Government that is increasingly looking at FDLR and other groups as negative forces that are undermining its stability and security. We came on time when DRC Government was ambivalent and was not acting against the issue of the negative forces operating within its own territory. This Government is now real izing the threat represented by these forces on its own stability and the security of Congolese people. People of DRC are strongly expressing the opinion of seeing the negative forces leave their territory and it has been highlighted during the recent talks and debates. Furthermore the international community is showing much attention to the issue of ending actions of nega tive forces in the DRC. This is the reason why an idea of settling a credible military force to fight against mili tary groups This fight includes disarm and repatriate FDLR and the other groups voluntary or with force as it is stipulated in the recent Nairobi joint Communique between Rwanda and DRC Governments This Commu nique stipulates that by March 19th, 2008, if FDLR are not disarmed, next steps will be undertaken including a military threat against them. 21 Now we have seen some new signs of actions undertaken by DRC Government against FDLR The other optimism for Rwanda is that the MON UC is shifting FDLR attention and their foreign sources of arms towards ending of their threats. MON UC have started movement of more aggressive DDR Program

22 Rwanda: Programme of integrated development Honourable Protais MUSONI, Minister of Local administration, Good Governance and Social affairs (Rwanda) In its effort to reconstruct and develop the coun try, Rwanda opted for the program of integrated development as one of the key strategies for eco nomic development. Improvement of the quality of citizens' life requires involvement of the State which should define policies and take decisions aimed at improving the welfare of the population. Thus, a tie exists between economic development a n d good governance. The programme of integrated development lies within the general process of decentralization It maintain s a close link with the global programme global aimed at reducing poverty ODPRS) the 2020 Vision, the Green Revolu tion and the Vision 2020 Umurenge. In Rwanda, the integrated development program i nvolves several development actors. Thus, the local government s that implement it through various strategies such as ubudehe, the "Vision 2020 um urenge '\ etc. Monitoring and evaluation are car ried out in collaboration among local authorities, the civil society and the private sector through what is called the Joint Action Forum. The program aims at reinforcing the capacities of the poor producers. It is aimed at using land rationally, creating jobs and the capital. The program constitutes one of the pillars of EDPRS and the Vision 2020 Its strategies include the special ization of cultures, land consolidation, post harvest processing (storage, transformation factories, leadership (itorero), the collaboration with other stakeholders such as the Joint Action Forum (JAFL In order to fulfill its mission, the program faces some chal lenges such as the syndrome of dependence which is still pre vailing among the population, the financial capacities and the human resources which are very limited However, assets exist. A matter of fact, the allowance of the budget at the level of the local governments is based on a unique and transparent formula; other current programs such as ubudehe facilitate the fulfillment of the programme mission. The language factor in regional integration in the great lal

23 Trade Networl

24 4. RESOLUTIONS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ICGLR 1. ICG LR is a unique and critical initiative that needs support and commitment from national state actors, other stakeholders and international partners. Participants urge for ratification ofthe ICG LR Pact and Protocols and incorporate them into national laws. 2. To speed up the implementation of the ICGLR agenda, par ticipants encourage the ICG LR Secretariat to establish partnerships with national and regional non state actors, including universities and research institutions, CSOs and PSOs. 3. Participants also recommend that home grown mechanisms of conftict resolution and peace building be researched on and de veloped in order to promote their application in similar situations in ICG LR member states. 4. Participants also recommend the use of ICT in different do mains of social, political and economic activities, especially in governance and electoral processes for purposes of efficiency, effectiveness and transparency. 5. In order to promote good governance and democracy, par ticipants call upon the leaders of ICGLR member states to consult their people and constituencies and to work collectively when signing international agreements. 6. In order to promote political stability, collective security, prosperity and social welfare in member states, participants urge re gional statesmen to implement the protocol of Non Aggression and Mutual Defense 7. In order to achieve ICG LR goals, there is a need for regional and national leaders to work collectively in order to appropriately ad dress recurrent internal contradictions, root causes of the conflicts and external interferences. 8. With regard to the promotion of Kiswahili as a strategy for regional integration and communication link, participants recommend that this should go hand in hand with the promotion of national lan guages, particularly those with a transnational or crossborder na ture. 9. Elections and electoral systems are critical to political stabil ity, democracy, socioeconomic transformation and good governance. Participants recommend that electoral processes in the ICG LR mem ber states be clearly defined, free, fair and adequately managed. 10. Economic empowerment and promotion of women in policy making organs should not be seen as a favor, but as a prerequisite to sustainable peace and social equality. 11. Participants note with relief and satisfaction that Kenyan leaders have come to a consensual mechanism for settling the politi cal crisis. They further urge the government and the people of Kenya to ensure the sustainable and effective implementation of the power sharing agreement. 12. Participants also note that the Government of Burundi and FN LPalipehutu have signed a peace agreement and urge them to foster its effective implementation for the benefit of people of Bu rundi. 13. Participants call upon ICGLR and world leaders to urgently resolve the conflict in Darfur In this regard, they urge AU and UN leaders to pro vide necessary means and institutional support for effective operationalization of UNAMID forces and provide peace and security to the people of Darfur 14. Participants urge ICG LR and African leaders to effectively address issues for which the ICGLR process was initiated. They further call upon those leaders to make sure that new threats to stability in ICGLR member states, especially those with international and regional dimensions, be met with adequate responses in a spirit of collective responsi bility and shared sovereignty. 15. The question of armed groups was among the top priorities of the ICG LR process and contin ues to be on its agenda Participants recommend that the disarmament and reintegration of those groups be implemented and fast tracked In this re gard, they further urge the DR Congo government t o take its responsibility vis a vis neighboring coun trie s and D RC citizens. 16. Participants further urge all stakeholder s to involve and work with the media to streamline the ICGLR agenda and to anchor its ownership i n local communities 17. Participants also recommend that regional integration be preceded by large popular consulta tions and be based within the grass roots communi ties and the civil society. 18. Unity and reconciliation among citizen s and across boarders as well as civic and peace edu cation, are critical to post conflict stabi I izat ion. Par ticipants recommend the use of these tools in the ICG LR peace agenda 19. The ICG LR projects on Development Zones are very important to peace and development in the region. Participants recommend that they be imple mented soonest possible 20. Participants commend the Center for Con flict Management, National University of Rwan da and their Partners (PAD RIG U/G U and SID A SAREC) for organizing such an important confer ence and suggest that such an event be held on a regular basis.


APPENDIX 1: CONFERENCE PROGRAMME DAY ONE: 18 March 2008 SESSION 1: OPENING CEREMONY9 -10 AM 8 -9 AM: Arrival & registration of participants 9 AM: Arrival of the Guest of Honor 9 -lOAM: -Welcome remarks by Prof. Silas LWAKABAMBA, Rector, National University of Rwanda (NUR) -Introduction to the Conference by Prof. SHY AKA Anastase, Director of CCM-NUR Speech by ARNE STROM, Head of Mission-Kigali Embassy of Sweden -Key Note Address by Amb Liberata MULAMULA E x ecutive Secretary, International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (Burundi) -Official Opening by the Guest of Honor Group photo 10-10: 20 AM: Tea/Coffee break SESSION II: PLENARY SESSION: 10H20-12H30 1) Elections and stability in the Great Lakes Region-evaluating 2006 and 2007 electoral processes in the Region by Hon Juliana KANTENGWA, E x ecutive Secretary AMANI FORUM (Rwanda) 2) UN-AU Mission in Darfour : Challeges and opportinities by General Martin Luther AGWAI Force Commander, UNAMID (Sudan). 3 ) ICGLR a nd Gender issues by Dr Josephine ODERA, Regional Director, Central Africa, UNIFEM. 4 ) Developing skills and builiding capacities in conflict Mitigation and Peace Education in Africa by Dr. Jean Bosco BUTERA, Director, Africa Prog ramme, University for Peace (Ethiopia). 12 : 3 0-2 PM: Lun c h SESSION Ill: PRENTATIONS & DISCUSSIONS "TWO PARALEL SESSIONS" PANEL I : PEACE/SECURITY &SOCIAL/HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS 2 4 : 20 PM 25 Presentation 1 : Genocide in Darfur, by Prof Samuel TOTTEN, University of Arkansas, Fulbright Scholar at National University of Rwanda. Pres entation 2: ICGLR I Development zones by Stephen SINGO MWACHOFI, Peace and Security Officer ICGLR (Burundi). P r e s entation 3 : Physionomie des groupes armes de Ia ROC. Cas des Provinces du Sud Kivu et de l 'lturi, par Prof. PILO KAMARAGI, lnstitut Superieur Pedagogique de Bunia (ROC). Presentation 4 : Challenge of small arms in the Great Lakes Region and ways forward, by Dr. Francis WAIRAGU Research Officer at RECSA (Kenya) 3 :20-4 :20PM: Discussions PANEL 2 : GOVERNANCE &DEMOCRACY/ ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT & REGIONAL INTEGRATION 2-4: 20 PM Presentation 1 : Transitional Institutional Policy Challenge of ACP/EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EAP) for East African Community (EAC), by Dr Charles AYAI OKELLO, Gulu University (Uganda). Presentation 2: GACACA and Community Governance


26 Appendix 1: Conference Programme DAY ONE: 18 March 2008 SESSION 1: Opening Ceremony9-10 AM 8 9 AM: Arrival & registration of participants 9 AM: Arrival of the Guest of Honor 9-10 AM: -Welcome remarks by Prof Silas LWAKABAMBA Rector National Univers ity of Rwanda (NUR) -Introduction to the Conference by Prof SHYAKA Anastase Director of CCM-NUR Speech by ARNE STROM, Head of Mis s ion Kigali, Embassy of Sweden -Key Note Address by Am b. Liberata MULAMULA Executive Secretary, International Conference on the Great Lakes Regi on (Burundi) Offi c ial Opening by the Guest of Honor -Group photo 10 -10 : 20 AM : Tea/Coffee break SESSION II: PLENARY SESSION: 10h20-12h30 1) Elections and stability in the Great Lakes Region-evaluating 2006 and 2007 electoral processes in the Region by Han Juli ana KANTENGWA, Executive Secretary AMANI FORUM (Rwanda) 2) UN-AU Mis sion in Darfour : Chall eges and opportinities by General Martin Luther AGWAI, Force Commander, UNAMID (Sudan) 3) ICGLR and Gender issues by Dr Josephine ODERA, Regional Director Central Africa, UNIFEM 4) Developing skills and builiding capacities in conflict Mitigation and Peace Education in Africa by Dr. Jean Bosco BUTERA, Director Africa Programme, University for Peace (Ethiopia) 12 :30-2 PM : Lunch SESSION Ill: PRENTATIONS & DISCUSSIONS "TWO PARALEL SESSIONS" PANEL I: PEACE/SECURITY &SOCIAL/HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS 2-4: 20 PM Presentation 1: Presentation 2 : Presentation 3 : Prese ntation 4: 3 : 20 :20PM: Genocide in Darfur by Prof. Samuel TOTIEN, University of Arkansas Fulbright Scholar at National University of Rwanda. ICGLR I Development zone s by Stephen SINGO MWACHOFI Peace and Security Officer, ICGLR (Burundi) Physionomie d e s groupes armes de Ia RDC. Cas des Provinces du Sud Kivu et de l'lturi, par Prof. PILO KAMARAGI, ln stitut Sup e rieur P e dag ogiq ue de Buni a (RDC). Challenge of small arms in the Great Lakes Region and ways forward by Dr. Francis WAIRAGU Research Officer at RECSA (Kenya). Discussions PANEL 1: GOVERNANCE &DEMOCRACY/ ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT & REGIONAL INTEGRATION 2 :20PM Presentation 1: Prese ntation 2: Prese ntation 3 : Pres entation 4 : 3 : 20 4 : 20 PM: 4 : 20 4 : 40 PM: PANEL 2: Prese n t ation 1: Pre sentation 2 : Presentation 3 : 5:40-6:40 PM: Transitional Institutional Policy Challenge of ACP/EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EAP) for East African Community (EAC), by Dr. Charles AYAI OKELLO, Gulu University (Uganda). GACACA and Community Governance by Mrs. Domitilla MUKANTAGANZWA, Executive Secretary National Service of GACACA Courts (Rwanda) Les medias Burundais et Ia bonne gouvernan ce, par Athanase NTIYANOGEYE, Journaliste a Ia Radio T e levision Nationale du Burundi ( Burundi) The role of regional environment networks for Sustainable development in the Great Lake Victoria by Andrea s GODSATER, PhD Candidate, University of GothenburgPADRIGU (Sweden). Discussions Tea/Coffee break PEACE/SECURITY &SOCIAL/HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS 4:40-6:00 PM The role of Education in Demobilizing the Great Lakes Region by Peter O B MCOMALLA Executive Director Human rights education and peace international, Arusha (Tanzania). Gender, vi o lence and sexuality in DRC armed Forces By M a ria STERN, Professor at PADRIGU, School of Global Studies G6teborg University (Sweden) The role of Ecological sanitation i n promoting development peace and health in the Great Lakes Region by Dr Abraham G NDUNG'U, Keny a tta Univ e rsity (Kenya) Discussions


PANEL II: GOVERNANCE &DEMOCRACY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT & REGIONALINTEGRATION 4: 406: 00 PM Presentation 1: Presentation 2 : Presentation 3 : 5:40-6:40 PM : Women's Parliament Representation in Africa, by Christopher KAYUMBA, CCM/NUR, PhD Candidate at Schoo l of Global Studies, Gothenburg University (Sweden) Rwanda: Integrated Development program by Han. Protais MUSONI, Minister of Local admini s tration, Good Governance and Social affairs (Rwanda). L'ICT: Une opportunite d'integration regionale dans Ia Communaute est africaine. Cas du Rwanda et du Burundi, par Dr. William SAHINGUVU, Universite Nationale du Rwanda. Discussions DAY TWO : 19 March 2008 SESSION Ill : REGISTRATION, PRENTATIONS & DISCUSSIONS 8:00-8:30 AM: Registration of Participants TWO PARALEL SESSIONS PANEL 1: PEACE &SECURITY SOCIAL/HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS 8:30-10: AM Presentation 1 : Presentation 2: Presentation 3: 10 :00 -10:20 AM: Change in US policies and its implication for GLR by Karlsson SVANTE, Professor at Goterborg University (Sweden). Nexus between unity/reconciliation and security: The case of Rwanda, by Mrs. Fatuma NDAGIZA, Executive Secretary, National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (Rwanda). Paix, Securite et Reconciliation en RDC. Cas du Sud Kivu Par Philippe KAGANDA MulumeOderhwa, Universite Officielle de Bukavu (RDC). Tea/Coffee break PANEL II: GOVERNANCE &DEMOCRACY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT & REGIONALINTEGRATION-8:30-10: AM Presentation 1: The Language factor in regional integration in the Great Lakes Region, by M.M. MULOKOZI, Univer sity of DarEs Salaam (Tanzania) Presentation 2: Fear from Federation : Negritude-Ujamaa Deficiency s yndrome (NUDES), by Phil Francis KAKWEZI, Researcher (Tanzania). Presentation 3: Regional trade networks in the Great Lake Victoria and their contribution (or not) to sustainable development and poverty reduction by Malin NYSTRAND, PhD candidate at School of Global Studies, Goterborg University (Sweden). 10:00-10:20 AM: Tea/Coffee break PANEL 1: PEACE/SECURITY &SOCIAL/HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS 10 : 20-12 : 20 AM Prese ntati o n 1: Presentation 2 : Presentation 3: Presentation 4: 11:20-12: 20 AM: Primary Mental Health Care for survivors of collective sexual violence : Applying Finding s from a study from Rwanda to policy-making in Democratic Republic of Congo by Maggie ZRALY, Postdoc toral Scho lar of Global Health The Penn s ylvania State Univer sity (USA) Forces et faiblesses des institutions de croyance dans I a construction de Ia paix et de Ia securite dans Ia Region des Grand s Lacs par Dr. MASABO Profes seur de Sociologie et Chercheur associe au CCM, Universite Nationale du Rwanda The Challenge of Protecting IDPs through ICGLR, by Jacqueline KLOPP, Ass istant Professor at the School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University (USA) and Prisca KAMUNGI, PhD candidate University of the Witwatersrand (Kenya) Conference pour Ia paix Ia securite et le Developp emen dans les provinces du Nord-Kivu et du SudKivu par Aloys TEGERA, Manager de POLE Institute (RDC). Discussions PANEL II: GOVERNANCE &DEMOCRACY/ ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT & REGIONALINTEGRATION 10 : 20-12: 20 AM Presentation 1: Presentation 2: Presentation 3: Presentation 4: 11 :20-12: 20 AM: 12 :302 PM 2:05-2 :45 PM : 2:45-4:00 PM: 4:00-4:20 PM: 4:20-5:30 PM: 5:30-7:00PM : La Gouvernance a l 'e preuve du terrain :cas du Burundi post -e lectoral, by Dr. Elias SENTAMBA Senior le cturer, National Univer sity of Rwanda Post election violence and management in Kenya by Jonas EWALD, School of Global Studies, Goteborg Univer sity (Sweden) The Role of Fair & Free Elections in Building Peace and Security", by Pierre Damien HABUMUREMYI, Executive Secretary, National Electoral Commission (Rwanda) Vibrant citizenry and democratic governance le ssons from civil society in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, by Prof. Amos MHINA Univer sity of DarEs Salaam (Tanzania) Discussions :Lunch Peace and Security i n the Great Lakes Region: Rwanda's perspective within Int ernational Confe re nce on the Great Lakes Region by Amb Dr Richa r d SEZIBERA, Special envoy of the President of the Republic of Rwanda to the Great Lakes Regio n Restitution/ reports from group s & discussions Tea/Coffee break General recommendations & Closing ceremony Cocktail & cultural Dance 27


28 Appendix 2 : List of participants at the 2nd JC/GLR Conference N o NAME INSTITUTION 1 AL HOUSSEINOU MOCTAR RCNJ&D 2 ALEX K A KETTER AMBASSADOR 3 Alexis RUSINE AMI-COORDINATOR 4 Amb. MULAMULA Exec. Secretary JCGLR 5 Amb. MUSSIE HAILU URI 6 Andreas GODSITER Univ. of Gothenborg-SGS 7 Anthony NTALINDWA FSPAINUR

List of participants at the 2nd IC/G LR Conference 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 llO ll1 ll2 ll3 ll4 ll5 ll6 ll7 ll8 ll9 120 121 122 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 MUI

30 Appendix 3: List of Speakers No NAME ORGANISATION 1 ITZ. 19 Dr Charles AYAI OI

ABOUT CCM 1. VISION AND MISSION The Center for Conflict Management CCC M) was created at the National University of Rwanda ( N U R) in 1999 with the financial support from UN D P Its mandated and mission inspired by: particular challenges within the post genocide contexL CC M = the response to the research needs that inspire policies; opportunity to generate indigenous knowledge about roots of conflicts and conflict resolution strategies and durable peace construction 2. CCM'S STRUCTURE Direction: Director & Deputy-Director 3 Research Units (+ out reach unit): Unit 1: Genocide Studies and Prevention Unit 2: Internal Processes of Socio-Political Development; Unit 3 : Peace, Security and Governance Studies in the Great Lakes Region CCM outreach Program: Community Dialogue for Peace CCDP), supported by SIDA, started in 3 districts (Huye, Gisagara, Nyamagabe), expected to expand. 3. CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS: EDUCATION & CAPACITY BUILDING MA in Peace and Development Studies in collaboration with PADRIGU (Sweden), fully funded by SIDA-SAREC to start in 2009; Development of a MA on Genocide Studies and Prevention, with the support of Arkansas University & US. Fulbright Program advanced; Development of a course on Citizenship, Identity and Peace Education in collaboration with the National Commission for Human Rights. 4. PUBLICATION STANDARDS International Publication Standards in place since end 2007 (Approved by the N U R Sen ate). Two types of CCM publications: Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies (JAPCS) international scientific board members in place and ISSN 1996-3157; Biannual, 1st issue expected in 2 months time Peace and Conflict Management Review (PC M Review), quarterly issue. 5. Editing Committee for PCM Review Prof. Paul Rutaysire, Chief Editor Furaha Umutoni Alida, Associate Editor Justin Murwanashyal

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA CENTER FOR CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (CCM) Centre for Conflict Mangement (CCM) P.O. Box 264, Butare, Rwanda. Tel.: (+250) 55102712 Fax:(+250)55103160 Email: ..W Website: Graphi cs and pri nt by Con c ept Development (+250-0881350 3 )


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