Peace and Conflict Management Review

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Peace and Conflict Management Review

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Peace and Conflict Management Review
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National University of Rwanda Center for Conflict Management
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c & as c as u=a: =u 'Cu 0 :: 0 nu www.nur.ac.rw Peace and Conflict J Management Review Vol. 2 no 1 June 2010 An Assesment on the New Changes of the Student's Loan Scheme by the Students Financing Agency for Rwanda (SF AR) at the National University of Rwanda Principal Researcher : Prof. Anastase SHYAKA Researchers : Mr. Elly MUSAFIRI Mr. Ernest MUTWARASIBO CCM

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LIST Of ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AIDS CCM I IE I UV ICT ISA E KHI : Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome : Center for Conflict Management : Higher Education : Human Immune Virus : lnfonnation and Communication Technology : Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry : Kigali Health Institute KlE : Kigali Institute of Education KIST : Kigali In stitute of Science and Technology MINEDUC :Ministry ofEducation MINECOFlN : Ministry of finance and Economic Planning NUR : National University of Rwanda SEG : faculty of Economics and Management SFAR : Student Financing Agency for Rwanda SFB : School of Finance and Banking SPAS : Faculty of Social, Political and Administrative Sciences Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST Of ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS .......... ... ... .... ... ...... .... ...... ........ ... ............. ..... ....... 3 l. INTIZODUCTION .............................................................. .... ............................................................ 4 1 1 Background and rationale of the study .............. ... ............ ...... .... ................. ..................... ... .... .4 1.2 The establishment of the Stl1dents Financing Agency for Rwanda (SFAR) . .... ........ ...... ..... .... . 5 1.3 SFAR's vis ion and mission .............. ................ ... ........ ................. .... ............................. ................. 5 1.4 Research objectives ................ ........................................... : ......... ............. .... ........... ........ ...... ... ...... 6 1.4. 1 General objective ................. ........................................................................ ..................... ..... .... 6 1.4.2 Specific objectives .... ...... . ... ... ............ ................. ............. ..... .... ..... ............... ............................. 6 1.5 Case study ............. ............... ....... ... ...... ......... ............. .... ..... ............ ........ ....................... ................ 6 1.6 Methodology .... .................. ... ............................................................................. ...... ........ .............. 6 1 7 Students on government sponsorship ...................................................................................... ...... .. 6 2. RESULTS OF THE SURVEY .... ...... .................. ..... ...... ... ................. ............... ................................ 7 2.1 NUR students' identification ............ ... ........ ...... .............. ......... ...... ........................................ ........ 7 2.2 Student's demographic characteristics .......... ....... ............................... .... ................................ ..... 8 2.3. Eco nomic background of the student .................... ............ .............................. ........ .................. ... 16 2.4 Students' Family Economic Background .................................................... ..... ....... ............ . . .... 20 2.5 The Student Financing Agency for Rwanda ................................................................................ 26 3. LOAN RECOVERY AT NUR ...... ....... ........ ........ ... .... ..................... ................................ . ..... .... 33 4. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS .................................................. .... .... .............. ....... ......... .... ..... 34 5. RECOMMENDATIONS ... ......... ..... ......... .... .............. .......... ................ ........... .......... ... ...... ....... 35 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................... ...... ................ ...... ... .... ......... ....................... ....... ..... . 36 7. ANNEXES .......................... .... .... .... ..................... ... . .... ..... .......... .................. .............................. 37 CCM Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 03

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I. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background and rationale of the study In 1963 the National University of Rwanda (NUR) wa s established. For a long time the num ber of students admitted at this university was kept low The Government fully met the cost of study, including tuition, stipend research, etc. Over the years as the demand for higher education kept increasing the Government became increasingly unable to meet sorely the full cost of study.1 In early 1980's, a policy on sharing the cost of education between the student and the Government was introduced. Students who stu died at the National University of Rwanda signed loan agreements indicating various options ofhow these loans would be paid back to the Government. One option was working in the public sector for at least five years after gradua tion, and having one's monthly salary deducted until the loan was paid back However, in 1980's and early 1990's there was no fully-fledged effi cient mechanism put in place for the disbursement and especially the recovery of the loans.2 !\ fter 1994, a number of public and private institu tions of higher learning were established thus increasing the number of Rwandans admitted to higher education To-date, over 44,000 students arc enrolled in higher institutions of learning\ and slightly over 16, 000 students receive Government subsidies. !\ lot more prospective students are unable to access higher education because they cannot afford on their own to fund their studies .4 To make a Student Loan Scheme fully operational, the Government of Rwanda established Student Financing Agency for Rwanda (SFAR) in 2003 with the objective of giving loans to students and recovering loans given in the past. In late November 2007, a new mechanism for the Student Loan Scheme was fornmlated by the Ministry of 'http://www.st;u.gov.rw/p I cn.html -Consulted October 3, 2008 Idem Education and SFAR; it was aimed at proper delivery and efficient recovery of loans given to students currently and in the past. The new mecha nism came into existence at the time when the Ministry of Education and the National Council for Higher Education increased h1ition fees in public instit11tions of higher learning. According to this new mechanism, students admitted to the science domain would pay 1 500 000 Rwandan Francs (FRW), but, the government would contribute 75% of the amount and the rest would be paid back by the beneficiary Students in other disciplines would pay I 200 000 FRW, the government would contribute 50% of the amount and the rest would be paid by the beneficiary. According to the list that was released by SFAR on 2 2nd January 2008, there were students who would be supported 100%, others would pay 25% or 50% as a contribution to the tuition fees and upkeep provided by SFAR. Furthermore, there were others who were not given any support. Since then, the policy has created fear and stress among some university students and their fami lies. This is because some sh1dents, especially those from low income earning families face pro blems in their undergraduate studies. The most affected are those who are not supported at all and those who are partially supported by SFAR; they face difficulties in getting money necessary for their studies or raising adequate contributions to that end. The new policy is expected to have nega tive impact on the wellbeing of the students, aca demically, socially and economically. This study is aimed at assessing both positive and negative effects of the Ministry of Education's newly adopted mechanism on the development of higher education in Rwanda. In the past, the crite rion of joining institutions of higher learning was the high performance The M inistcrial Order No 00 / 08 of 03 / 09/2008 Determining the Criteria for Providing Loans for Higher Education, Repayment, and Cost Sharing bctwccn the Government and Loan beneficiary in its article 2, defines Institutions of Higher Learning as an educational level offering more advan ccd gcncral courses and technology courses than those offered in secondary schools through ordinary methods or distance learning and concluded at least by a first dcgrcc course, p. 3 Idem 04 CCM Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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of the prospective student, but, now the new policy requires students to contribute a certain percentage to their academic cost. Many people have expressed concern that this will have adverse impact on the students' performance in one way or another. 1.2. The establishment of the Students Financing Agency for Rwanda (SFAR). On 29th July 2003, the Government officially approved the establishment of the Student Financing Agency for Rwanda (SFAR). The law establishing and determining the responsibilities, organization and functioning of SFAR (law no 50/2006 dated 05/1 0/2006) was adopted by the Parliament and published in the official gazette on December 15, 2006. SFAR is mandated to introdu ce and implement a Student loan Scheme. The law, in its Articles 5 and 6 refers to the Presidential and Ministerial Orders that specify the mechanism of granting a bursary, granting and recovering of loans and sharing the cost between the student or parent on the one hand and the Government on the another. These Orders also called for the designing of a Procedural Manual detailing the loan mechanism and regulating the operations of SFAR. These were drafted, reviewed by relevant organs and approved.5 According to article 8 of the law establishing SFAR, its responsibilities are; 1. To provide loans to Rwandan students to enable them to pay for themselves studies m higher education; 2. To recover funds disbursed by SFAR as stu dent loans to Rwandans in higher education; 3. To recover funds which were disbursed by the Ministry in charge of higher education as student loans to Rwandan students who studied in institu tions of higher learning in consideration of the agreement that were existing at the time of acqui sition of the loans; 4. To manage the bursary meant for students in higher institutions of learning; 5. To coordinate the activities relating to gathe-' Idem ring aid from various public and private organs foreign countries and international organizations involved with increasing national capacity in awarding student loans and bursary in institutions of higher learning; 6. To give advice on matters related to policies of awarding student loans and bursaries to Rwandan students in institutions of higher learning; and 7. To establish relations and collaborate with other regional and international agencies of the same responsibilities. 6 1.3. SFAR's vision and mission 1.3.1. Vision SFAR'S vision is to contribute to the country's human resource development through financing students who have been selected by the Ministry of Education to pursue studies in institutions of higher learning within and outside Rwanda. The guiding principles of this service agency which caters for thousands of beneficiaries revolve around the following core values : a) Transparency and Openness: Develop the public's level of confidence towards the Agency by providing all the necessary information to the public and be open and clear in the operations of the organization ; b) Equity and Fairness : Provide services to all R wandese on equal basis; c) State of the Art Technology: Provide an enabling working environment for constructive networking with ali the partners of the Agency through the appropriate use of Information & Communication Technology (ICT); d) Innovation and Entrepreneurial spirit: Develop new ideas and better ways of providing the best services to the SFAR clients; and e) Client and result oriented: Develop a network and good relationships with the clients and partners within Rwanda and abroad7 ''Law No 050 / 2006 of 05/10/2006 establishing and detennining the attributions organization and functioning of the Student Financing Agency for Rwanda (SFAR). This order was passed by the relevant authorities and published in the Official Gazett e no 20 of 15th December of 2008 of the Republic of Rwanda, p 3 Idem CCM Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 05

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1.3.2. Mission Organize the financing of all Rwandan pursuing higher education in recognized institutions within and outside Rwanda 1.4. Research objectives 1.4.1. General objective To assess the impact of the new changes in the Student Loan Scheme on higher education deve lopment in Rwanda specifically at the National University of Rwanda. 1.4.2. Specific objectives To highlight the socio-demographic picture of NUR students' community; To assess the impact of changes on the socio-economic wellbeing of the students and their families; To analyze the academic impact of the changes at the beginning of the academic year 2008 at the NUR; To understand mechanisms set out by SFAR in support of students and their impact on student community and development of higher education in Rwanda; To find out the recovery mechanism set out by the Ministry of Education and SFAR for the repay ment of loans; To formulate recommendations for the esta blishment of an effective system of offering loans by SFAR; and To assess the impact of the Student Loan Scheme on the long term development. 1.5. Case study A case study on the Assessment of the Student's Loan Scheme by the Student Financing Agency for Rwanda (SFAR) on higher education develop ment in Rwanda was undertaken at the National University of Rwanda. 1.6. Methodology Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were applied in data analysis and interpreta.tion. Data 06 CCM gathering techniques were questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were distributed to NUR students and interviews were held with NUR management, lecturers, alumni, student leaders, MINEDUC and SFAR officials Simple random sampling was used to select dents and NUR lecturers. The rest of the respon dents were selected purposely. In total, 420 NUR students from different faculties were surveyed: 38 students from the Faculty of Agriculture; 13 students from Faculty of Arts and Humanities; 35 students from the Faculty of Law; 72 students from the Faculty of Medicine; 99 students from the Faculty of Sciences; 104 students from the Faculty of Economics and Management; and 59 students from the Faculty of Social, Political and Administrative Sciences (SPAS). 1.7. Students on government sponsorship The table below shows students who were sponso red by SFAR in public institutions of higher learning in 2008 and who received their monthly allowance in August 2008. Table 1: Students on government sponsorship in 2008. Number of students Institutions of Higher Learning Total Male Female NUR 3,930 958 4,888 KIST 1,555 444 1,999 KIE 1,587 488 2,075 SFB 792 301 1,093 KHI 368 319 687 ISAE 563 1,105 458 Tumba College 135 8 143 Eta Gitarama 43 3 46 Total 9,337 2,968 12,305 Source: CCM survey September 2008 NUR students who were fully sponsored, that is, Category I by SFAR were 103 (2.1 %); 39 (0.8%) were those in category II, i.e. those who were sponsored 75% or 50% by the government and the remaining 25% or 50% of the total academic cost was paid by them. The majority of them, 4746 or 97.1% were those in category III, that is, Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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students who were given 75% or 50% as govern ment sponsorship and 25% or 50% was given by the government as loan to be paid back by the stu dent when he/she starts working after graduating. KIST students on full government sponsorship (category I) were only 3 .2%; 1% were in category II and these were sponsored 75% by the govern ment and the remaining 25% was paid for by the student. Category III had 95.8% of the students, these were sponsored at the tune of 75% by the government and 25% was given as a loan to be paid after the student starts working KIE had no students who were on full government sponsorship; 99.1% of the students were given a sponsorship of 75% and 25% was given as a loan to be paid for when the recipient graduates and starts working .Only 0.9% of the students got 75% as government sponsorship and they paid 25% for their studies .. SFB had no students who were on full government sponsorship. Category III had 99% of the students and these were given 50% government sponsor ship and the remaining 50% was given as a loan to be paid for after completion of their studies and upon commencement of work .As for 1 %, they were in category II and were given 50% as government sponsorship and 50% was paid for by the students. KHI students with full government sponsorship (category I) were only 1%, 0.2% (category II) were given 75% government sponsorship and 25% was paid for by the students. The majority of students was in category III, 98.8%, and was given 75% government sponsorship and 25% was given by the government as a loan. ISAE students in category I were only 0.3%, in category II they were 0.7% and in category III they were 99% .All students in Eto Gitarama and Tumba College fell under category III. Most of the students on full government sponsorship as highlighted above were in first and second year in 2008 academic year. The Kigali Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) had the highest percentage of students on full government sponsorship followed by the National University of Rwanda. CCM 2. RESULTS OF THE SURVEY 2.1. NUR students' identification 2.1.1. Students' age groups Table 2: Students' age groups Age group Number Percentage Below 20 12 2 .9% 20-25 268 63.8% 25-30 120 28.6% 35-40 18 4.3% 40-45 2 0.5% TOTAL 420 100% Source: CCM survey, April June 2008 As shown on the table above, respondents below 20 years of age were only 2.9%, the majority were in the age group of 20-25 who were 63.8%, follo wed by those in the age group of 25-30 years who were 28.6%. Those in the age group of 35-40 years were 4.3% and the fewest were those in the age group of 40-45 who were 0.5%. 2.1.2. Students' gender Table 3: Students' gender Gender Number Percentage Female 134 31.9% Male 286 68.1% TOTAL 420 100% Source: CCM survey, April June 2008 As shown in the table above, male students outnumbered female students; they were 68.1% and 31.9% respectively. Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 07

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2.1.3 Students' marital status Table 4. Students'marital status Marital status Number Percentage Single 387 92.1% Married 24 5.7% Divorced 3 0 7 % Separated 4 1 0% Widowed 2 0.5% TOTAL 420 100% Source: CCM survey. April-June 2008 Most of the NUR respondents were single, 92.1 %, the married were 5 .7%, the divorced were 0.7%, the separated were 1.0 % and the widows constitu ted 0.5%. 2.1.4 Respondents by faculty Table 5: Respondents by faculty Faculty Number Percentage Agriculture 38 9 .0% Arts and Humanities 13 3.1% Law 35 8.3% Medicine 72 17 1% Sc i ences 99 24.6% Economics and 104 24.8% Management Social, Political and 59 14 .0% Administrative (SPAS) TOTAL 420 100% The table above indicates the number of respondents from NUR faculties. The majority of them were from the Faculty of Economics and Management with 24 8%,; followed by those in the Faculty or Sciences that constituted 24.6%; 1 7. I u ;;) represented the Faculty of Medicine; 14.CJlYt) represented the Faculty of Social, Political and Administrative Sciences (SPAS); 8.3% represented the Faculty of Law; 39.0% represented the Faculty of Agr icultur e; and 3.1% represented the Faculty of Arts and Humanities 08 CCM 2.2 Student's demographic characteristics a) Do have parents? Source: CCM survey, AprilJune 2008 As indicated by the chart above, 43% of the respondents had both parents; 41% had one parent; and 16% were orphans. Female respondents who had parents were 47%; 42% had one parent; and 11% were orphans. Male respondents who had parents were 42%; 40% had one parent; and 18% were orphans Female respondents had a higher percentage of having parents while male respondents had a higher percentage of being orphans. Male and female orphans were 18% and 11% respectively. The number of orphans varied significantly accor ding to age groups. Respondents who were below 20 years, 58.33% had parents; 25.00% had one parent; and 16.67% were orphans. For the age group of20-25 years 46.64% had parents; 37 .69% had one parent; and 15.67% were orphans. As for the age group of25-35 years, 36.67% had parents; 48.33% had one parent; and 15% were orphans. The age group of 35 40 years, 38.89% had parents; 44.44% had lo st one ofthem; and 16.67% had lost all of them. For the age group of 40-45 years none had both parents; 50% had one parent; and 50% were orphans This indicates two things; life span in Rwanda is very short and genocide claimed a lot of people Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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b) If your parents are alive, do you live with them? Source: CCM surv ey, April June 200 8 The majority of respondents live with one of their parents 46%, those who live with their parents were 41% and 13% did not live with them due to different reasons. Male respondents who lived with their parents were 42%; those who lived with one parent were also 42% and those who did not live with them were 16% Female respondents who lived with their parents were 39%; 53% lived with one parent and 8% did not live with them. Male respondents who lived with their parents outnumbered female respondents who lived with theirs. And it was the reverse in living with one parent. Also, male respondents who did not live with their parents outnumbered female respondents who didn't. The number of students who lived with their parents decreased as their age increased; 60% of those below 20 years lived with their parents; 30% lived with one parent and 10% did not live with them For students aged between 20 and 25, 44.69% of them lived with their parents; 46.46% lived with one parent; and 8.85% didn't live with them. Students aged between 25 and 35, 35.29% of them lived with parents; 46.08% lived with one parent; and 18.63% did not live with them. For the age group of between 35 and 40 only 20% lived with their parents; 33.33% lived with one parent and 46.67% did not live with them In the age group of 40 to 45 years, 100% of them lived with one of their parents. Single respondents who lived with their parents were 43. 56%; 45.4% lived with one parent and CCM 11.04% did not live with them Married respon dents who lived with their parents were 15% ; 30 % lived with one parent; and 55% did not live with them. Divorced respondents who lived with their parents were 33.33% and 66.66% lived with one parent. 100% of the separated and divorced respondents lived with one parent. c. Why don't you live with your parents/ parent? Source: CCM survey April June 2008 The chart above shows why respondents did not live with their parents Those who did not live with their parents due to various reasons were 42% 26% of their parents were separated; 17% of their parents were abroad; 8% had one of their parents in prison; 4% of them were abandoned by their parents; and 3% of their parents lived abroad None of the respondents had both parents in prison. Male respondents did not live with their parents or one of them due to the following reasons: 19% of their parents were separated; 19% of one of their parents were abroad ; 5% of their parents were abroad ; 5% .of one of their parents were in prison; 4% of their parents abandoned them ;and 48% had various reasons for not living with them or one of them. Female respondents did not live with their parents or one of them due to the following reasons : 40% of their parents were separated ; 13% had one of their parents abroad; i. 13% had one of their parents in prison; 5% had been abandoned by their parents and; Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 09

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29% did not live with their parents or one of them due to other reasons A s shown above, female respondents were the majority who did not live with their parents or one of them due to separation of their parents, or one of them being in prison or had been abandoned by them. Male respondents were the majority whose parents or one of them were abroad, and also, were the majority who did not live with their parents or one of them due to other reasons. The respondents did not live with their parents or one of them for reasons which differ according to their age groups as shown below Table 6: Why students did not live with their parents according to their age groups. Reason Age group Below 20-25 25-35 35-40 40-45 20 Separation 33.33% 25.00% 33.33% 0.00% 0 00% of parents One Parent 33 33% 18.33% 19.05% 0.00% 0.00% was abroad Parents 0.00% 5.00% 2 38% 0 00% 0.00% were abroad One parent 0 00% 10 00% 4.76% 10.00% 0 00% was in prison Parents were 0 00% 0.00% 0 00% 0.00% 0.00% in prison Abandoned 33.33% 1.67% 4.76% 10.00% 0 00% by parents Othe r reasons 0.00% 40.00% 35.71% 80 00% 0 00% Source: CCM survey. April June 2008 Single respondents who did not live with their parents / parent due to their separation were 28.80% ; those whose one parent was abroad were 20.62% ; 4.12% were those whose parents were abroad; and those whose parents were in prison were 7.22% Those who were abandoned by their parents were 4.12% and 37.11% did no live with the ir par e nts because of other reasons Married respondents who did not live with their parents due_ to various reasons were 100%. Divorc e d respondents who did not live with their parents becaus e of their parents' separation were 10 CCM also 100%. Respondents who had separated from their spouses and who did not live with their parents who had separated were 50%; 25% did not live with their parents because one of them was in prison; and 25% had been abandoned by them. Widows who did not live with their parents due to one of their parents being in prison were 1 00%. d. If your parents (parent) died, where did they die? 7or6tl . 601 50 1 40-------43 31 28 32 ------------------------I 16 19 20 t 10 11 I 10 i 4 0 0 I Ql "'' -.. ;c Ql : "'I I 1u I"' 'iii E "'c "'0 g (/) 'iii E aJ d ;;;: 0 g Iii l.r; 5.so .-o o ..c ..c o::l .<:: .a I < < ..c < < ..cl I i 1 MALE FEMALE i Source: CCM survey, AprilJilne 2008 The chart above indicates where the respondents' parents died. The majority of respondents' male parents, 66, died at home; 40 died in hospitals; 32 died at unknown locations; 31 died out of their home premises; 28 died abroad; and 4 died in prison The majority of respondents' female par ents, 43, died at home ; 19 died at unknown loca. tions ; 16 died out of their home premises; 11 died in hospital; and 10 died abroad. The fact that many respondents' parents died at home implies that many Rwandans have not yet realized the importance of going to hospital or health centre whenever they fall sick. However, another reason why they did not go there could be due to long distances to the nearest hospital or health centre. The male respondents whose mothers and fathers died at home were 45% and 38% respectively. Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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About 14% of female respondents' parents died away from home ; 12% of their parents died abroad; 12% died in hospital; !7% died at unspe cified places ; and none of female parents died in prison. As for male respondents' parents, 13% died at home; 14% died abroad ; 19% died in hos pital; and 10% died at unspecified locations A big number of male respondents' mothers died at home, away from home and many of them did not know where their mothers died On the other hand, female respondents whose fathers died at home were 36%; their mothers who died at home were 23%; none of their male parents died in prison but, 6% of their female parents died there. Male parents who died away from home were 23% and female parents were 21%. Male parents who died abroad were 5% and female parents were 13%. Male parents who died in hospital were 9% and 21% of female parents died there 27% of the respondents said that, they did not know where their male parents died and 16% said that they did not know where their female parents died. More of female respondents' male parents died at home and away from home and more of their female parents died abroad and in hospital. Places of respondents' parents' deaths differed according to their age groups as shown in the table below CCM Table 7: Where respondents' parents' deaths occurred Place Parents' place of death according to age of death Below 20 20-25 25-35 35-40 40-45 Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Home 0.00 25.00 43.33 33.33 46.67 30.00 50.00 50.00 0.00 50.00 % % % % % % % % % % Prison 0.00 0 00 0.00 2.44 0.00 1.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 % %; % % % % % % % % Away 50.00 25.00 16.67 16.26 13.33 15.15 16.67 0 00 0.00 0.00 from % % % % % % % % % % Home Abroad 0.00 0 00 6 67 13.82 13.33 13.6 16.67 33.33 100 0 0.00 % % % % % 4% % % 0% % Hospital 0.00 25.00 11.67 17.07 10.00 16.67 16.67 0.00 50 00 % % % % % % % % % % UnknoNn 50.00 25.00 21.67 17.07 16 67 15.15 0 00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Place % % % % % % % % % % Source: CCM Survey April-June 2009 c. If you arc an orphan, what caused it? 11% Genocide HIV/AIDS :! War I 1 L J Disease Accident L .. __ .. Source: CCM Survey, April-June 2008 The chart above indicates causes of respondents' parents' death. The majority 42% died clue to diseases, and 24% died during the 1994 Tutsi genocide. The war led to the death of 14%; 11% died clue to miscellaneous causes; accidents and HIV/AIDS each decimated 4%. The following chart compares male and female respondents' causes of orphanage: Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 11

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0 20 40 60 80 Source : CCM survey, AprilJune 2008 As shown on the chart above, 20% of male respondents were orphans of genocide; 3% of HIV/AIDS scourge; 17% of war; 46% of diseases; 4% of accidents and 16% of other causes like witchcraft, assassination, etc. As for female respondents, 32% were orphans of genocide; 6% ofHIV/AIDS; 10% of war; 36% of disease; 3% of accidents; and 13% were of other causes like poison and assassination. The majority of orphans were females due to genocide and HIV/AIDS. Among the male respondents, the major causes of orphanage were war, diseases, accidents and other reasons. Among single respondents, 23.94% were orphans of genocide; 3.76% of HIV/AIDS; 15.96% of war; 41.31% of diseases; 3.29% of accidents; and 11.74% of other reasons. Married respondents who were orphans of genocide were 13.33%; 6.67% were orphans ofHIV/AIDS; 6 67% were of war; 66.67% of various diseases; and 6.67% of accidents Among divorced respondents, none was an orphan of genocide, HIV/AIDS and war; 50% of their parents died of diseases and 50% others died of accidents. Respondents who had separated from their spouses and who were orphans of genocide were 50%; 50% others were orphans due to various diseases which killed their parents. Widows whose parents died of genocide were 50% and 50% others died of other causes. 1 2 CCM It appears that most of young orphans were genocide survivors; the most affected age group is the respondents who were below 20 years of age. 80% of them lost their parents during the Tutsi genocide. The second cause of orphanage was diseases; 40.56% of respondents aged between 20 25 years had lost their parents due to them. Categories of orphans and their age groups are shown below: Table 8: Categories of orphans and their age groups. Categories Age group of orphans Below 20-25 25 35 35-40 20 Orphans of 80 00% 25.87% 16.22% 20.00% Genocide Orphans of 0 00% 5.59% 1.35% 0.00% HIV/AIDS Orphans of 0.00% 12 59% 21.62% 10 00% War Orphans of other 0.00% 40.56% 47.30% 50.00% diseases Orphans of 20 00% 2 80% 4 05% 10.00% Accident Orphans of 0.00% 12 59% 9.46% 10.00% Other causes Source: CCM survey, April-June 2008 f. Do you have siblings? 5% 95% 40-45 0.00% 0 00% 0.00% 100.00 % 0.00% 0 00% The chart above indicates whether the respondents had siblings; 95% had them while 5% had not. According to male respondents, 95% had siblings, Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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and 5% had none. 96% of female respondents had siblings and 4% had none. Respondents who were single and had siblings were 95.87%, married respondents who had them were 95.83%, and divorced respondents who had them were 100%. Separated respondents and widows who had siblings were 75% and 50% respectively. The findings reveal that more than 90% of the respon dents from different age groups had siblings. g .Are your siblings in school? Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 Yes No oN/A As indicated on the chart above, 78% of the respondents' siblings were in school, 17% were not in school and 5% of the respondents did no respond. Male respondents who said that their siblings were in school were 76%; 19% said that their siblings were not in school and 5% did not respond. Female respondents who said that their siblings were in school were 83%; 13% said that they were not in school and 4% did not respond. This shows that female respondents' siblings were more in school than male respondents' siblings. Single respondents whose siblings were in school were 79.84%; 16.02% of them were not in school and 4.13% did not respond. Married respondents whose siblings were in school were 62.50%; 33.33% were not in school and 4.17% did not respond. Divorced respondents whose siblings were in school were 33.33%; and 66.67% were CCM not. Separated respondents whose sibfings were in school were 75%; and 25% did not respond. Widow respondents whose siblings were in school were 50%; and 50% did not respond. The following chart shows respondents' siblings level of education. h. At what level in school, are your siblings? Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 45% Nursery Primary oseconda ovocation I Jertiary The pie chart above shows that the majority of respondents' siblings, 45%, were in secondary schools; 27% were in primary school; 17% were in tertiary institutions; 7% were in vocational schools; and 4% were in nursery schools. Male respondentssiblings who were in school were 5% in nursery; 26% in primary; 44% in secondary school; 8% in vocational schools; and 17% in institutions of high.er learning. Female respon dents' siblings who were in nursery schools were 3%; 28% were in primary schools; 43% were in secondary schools; 7% were in vocational schools; and 19% were in institutions of higher learning. From the above analysis, male respondents had more siblings in nursery secondary and voca tional schools while female respondents had more siblings in primary and in institutions of higher learning. Most of the respondents had their Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 13

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siblings studying in primary schools, secondary schools and in tertiary institutions as the table below shows. Table 9: Respondents' siblings' enrollment in schools. L e v e l o f Age group education Bel o w 20 25 25 35 35 -40 2 0 Nursery 8 .70 % 4.69 % 2.60% 8.00 % Primary 26.09 % 28.64% 24 .03% 16.00% Seconda ry 30.43% 43.95% 46.10% 40.00% Vocational 8 70 % 6.91% 7 14% 16.00% --T ertiary 26 09 % 15.80% 20 13% 20.00% S ource: CCM survey, April-June 2008 i. Are your siblings dependent on you? 72% Source: CCM survey, AprilJune 2008 40 45 0.00% SO.OO% 50.00% 0.00% 0.00% rn Yes oN/A The chart above indicates whether the respondents' siblings depended on them. The respondents who had dependent siblings were 23%; 72% had no dependants and 5% did not respond. Male respondents who had dependent siblings were 27%; 68% had no dependents and 5% did not respond. Female respondents whose siblings depended on them were 15%; 81% had no dependents; and 4% did not respond. Male respondents had more siblings who depended on them than female respondents and the former had 1 4 C C M more people who were reluctant to reveal information about this issue than the latter. Single respondents whose siblings depended on them were 20.93%; 74.94% had no dependents and 4.13% did not reveal this information. Married respondents whose siblings depended on them were 45.83%; 50% had no dependents and 4.17% did not reveal this information. Divorced respondents whose siblings depended on them were 66.67%; and 33.33% had no dependent siblings. Separated respondents whose siblings depended on them were 50%; 25% of them had no dependent siblings and 25% did not reveal this information. It appears that NUR students with siblings depending on them increased in relation to their age. For example, 8.33% of surveyed students below 20 years said that they were responsible for their siblings while 83.33% were not. Among surveyed students aged 20 to 25 years, 19.40% were responsible for their siblings, whereas 76.12% of them were not. j. Do you have other dependents? . Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 o Yes 111 No The chart above indicates whether the respondents had dependents other than their siblings. 79% of them had none while 21% had them. Male respon dents had more other dependents than female Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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respondents; they were 32% and 16% respecti vely. In reference to age groups, it becomes obvious that, the older one becomes the more dependents one has. 1 6.67% of respondents below 20 years and those aged 20 tO 25 years had other dependents. A significant change is, however, noticed in the age group of 25-35 years, 29.17% had other dependents. 77.78% of students aged between 35-40 years and 50% of those aged between 40-45 years had them. Respondents with other dependents were as follows: single respondents were 1 6.54%; the married were 79.1 7%; the divorced were 66.67% and the separated and widows were 50% each. The following chart indicates respondents' relation ship with their dependents. k. What is your relationship with your dependents? Own Adopted Others children children Source : CCM survey, April -June 2008 1!!1 Series The chart above indicates that the majority of respondents had 56.8% dependents that were not closely related to them; 16.7% were their adopted children; and 9.9% were their children. For male respondents, 1 1% of their dependents were their own children; 18% were adopted children; and CCM 71% had other kin relationship with the respondents. As for female respondents, 14% of their dependents were their children; 24% were adopted children; and 62% had other kin relationship with them. Single respondents whose dependents were their own children were 7.21 %; 20.33% had adopted children and 72.46% had other kin relationship with them. 61 .90% of marr i ed respondents had children; 23.81% had adopted children; and 14.29% had other kin relationship with them. Divorcees/divorces that had dependents, 66.67% were their childrer.; and 33.33% had other kin relationship with them. For respondents who had separated from their spouses, 50% dependents were their children and 50% had kin relationship with them. As for widows, 50% had children and 50% had dependents that were related to them. Age group analysis regarding respondents' rela tionship with their dependants is shown below Table 10: Respondents' relationship with their other dependents. Age group Relationship B elow 20 20-25 25-35 35-40 40 45 r-heir children 33 33 % 7.58 % 9 28% j64.71% 100 00 % !Adopted 33 33 % 18 .01% 26 80% 0 00 % 0 00 % children Others 33 33 % 74.41% 63 92 % 3S. 29 % 0 00 % Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 As shown above, the age groups of 35-40 years and 40 -45 years had more dependents who were their children than other age groups. Respondents who were below 20 years and those from 2535 years had more dependents who were their adopted children. As for age groups of 20-25 years and 25-35 years, their dependents had other relationship with them. Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 15

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.1. Are your other dependents in school? N/A No Series Yes 0 100 200 300 400 S ourc e : CCM survey, AprilJune 2008 The chart indicates whether the respondents' dependents were enrolled in school. 79.% of the respondents did not reveal this information; 15.4% said that they were in school while 5 9% said they were not. 13% of female respondents said that their dependents were in school; 2% said they were not; and 85% did not reveal this information. Male respondents whose dependents were in school were 16%; 8% of them were not; and 76% did not reveal this information. The following chart indicates school levels of dependents' enrollment: m. At what level are they enrolled 7 41% Nursery Primary osecon o Universi Source : CCM survey, April -June 2008 As shown in the chart above, 41% of the dependents were enrolled in primary schools ; in secondary schools there were 30%; 26% were in 16 CCM nursery schools; and 3% were in institutions of higher learning. Male and female respondents had equal percentages of dependents that were enrolled in schools; 28% in nursery schools; 47% in primary schools; 23% in secondary schools; and 2% in institutions of higher learning. The table below shows age group analysis of the respondents' dependents that were enrolled in different levels of schools. Table 11: Respondents' other dependents' enrollment in schools. Level of Age group education Below 20-25 25-35 35-40 40-45 20 Nursery SO.OO% 20.69% 24 00% 35.29% 0.00% Primary 50.00% 31.03% 44. 00% 52.94% 100.00% Secondary 0.00% 44.83% 32.00% 5 88% 0.00% Tertiary 0.00% 3.45% 0.00% 5 88% 0 00% Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 The respondents below 20 years had 50% of their dependents in nursery schools and other 50% dependents were in primary schoo15rhe majority of dependents of the 20-25 years age group were enrolled in secondary schools while in the remaining age groups their majority dependents were enrolled in primary schools. The respondents aged 35-40 years had the second biggest percentage of dependents, 35.29%, in nursery schools. 2.3. Economic background of the student a. Do you have a job? 5% 95% Source: CCM survey. April June 2008 Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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The above chart shows the status of respondents' employment; 5 % were employed on contracts or on permanent basis. This means that unemployed respondents who had no other sources of income but had siblings and other dependents to take care of, found it very difficult to discharge their responsibilities. Male and female respondents who had jobs were 7 % and 1 % respectively. Single respondents who had jobs were 2 58 % ; the married and the divorced were 33.33% each; the sepa r ated wer e 50% and none of the widows had a job. The following chart shows monthly salaries for those who were employed. Abo v e 150 000Fr w 0 % 100 000 150 000F 4 7 % 50 .0001 OO.OOOFrw ____ 2 0 000 -SO.OOOFrw '' ,,. .,. I'.,. ----... -Less than 2 0 000Frw .. % 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Source : C C M surv ey, AprilJun e 200 8 The chart above indicates that 61. 9 % of employed respondents earned between 20.000 and 50.000 Rwandan Francs (FRW); 28.5 % earned between 50 000 and 100.000 FRW; 4.7% earned between 100.000 and 150 000 FRW; and 4.7 % earned below 20.000 FRW. The r e was none who earned above 150.000 FRW. Male respondents who earned less than 20.000 FRW wer e 5%; the majority, 58%, earned between 20.000 and 50.000 FRW; 32% earned between 50.000 and 100.000 FRW; and only 5% earned between 1 00 000 and 150.000 FRW. There was no one who earned above 150.000 FRW per month. 1% of employed female respondents earned between 20.000 and 50.000 FRW. CCM Employed single respondents who earne d less than 20.000 FRW were 1 0%; 60 % earned betwe en 20.000 and 50.000 FRW; 20 % earned betwee n 50.000 and 1 00 000 FRW; 10% earned be t wee n 100.000 and 150.000 FRW; and the r e was no on e who earned above 150.000 FRW. Most of the married respondents earned between 20.000 an d 50.000 FRW; 35% earned between 50.000 and 100 000 FRW. All divorced respondents earn ed between 50.000 and 100.000 FRW; and 100 % of those who had sepa r ated from their spous e s earned between 20.000 and 50.000 FRW .90% of the employed were teachers There was none among NUR student respondents aged below 20 who were employed. Statist ics o f those who were employed according to their age groups are as follow: 1.87 % o f those age d fro m 20-25 yea rs; 6.67 % of those aged from 25-35 years; 38.89 % of those aged from 35-40 years; and 50.00 % of those aged from 40-45 years. b Do you h ave a regular grant or allowance? No ......... . . "' ..... . ----=----... ,, .... 4 ... :.:'. Source : CCM survey, April -June 2008 Respondents were asked whether they had n regular grant or allowance in order to find out if students with dependents had a source of supple mentary. support. The chart above indicates respondents who received regular grant or allowance. The majority, 90.9 % did not have P e a ce and Conflict Manag e m e nt REVIEW 1 7

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regular grant or allowance; only 8.8% got it; and 0.3% did not respond on this issue. None of the NUR respondents aged below 20 had a regular grant; 7.49% of those aged from 20-25 years got it; 12.50% of those aged from 25-35 years did not have it; 11.11% of those aged between 35-40 years had it; and none of the students aged from 40-45 years had it. The following chart indicates their monthly grant or allowance Source: CCM s urvey, April -June 2008 As shown on the chart above, 32.4% of the respondents received a grant of less than 20.000 FRW; 62 1 % received an amount ranging from 20.000 to 50 000 FRW; 0.02% received from 50.001 to 100.000 FRW and none received an amount ranging from 1 00.001 to 150.000 FRW. Only 0.02% received a grant above 150.000 FRW. Male respondents who received a monthly grant of less than 20.000 FRW were 13%; 83% received a grant ranging from 20.000 to 50.000 FRW. Only 4 % received a grant of over 150.000 FRW. Female respondents who received a monthly grant of less than 20 000 FRW were 64%; 29% received a grant ranging from 20 000 to 50.000 FRW; and only 7% received a grant ranging from 50.000 to 1 00.000 FRW. Neither female nor male respondents received a monthly grant ranging from 100.000 to 1 8 CCM 150.000. Only 0.02% received a grant above 150.000 FRW. The following table indicates respondents' age groups and their monthly grant. Table 12: Respondents' monthly grant Amount of Age group monthly B e lo w grant 20 20-25 25 -3 5 35 -40 4045 Less tha n 0 00 % 20 .000 50. 00 % 13.33 % 0 00 % 0 00 % 20 .0000 00 % 50. 000 80. 00 % 100 00 % 0.00 % 50.001 100.000 0 00 % 5.00 % 0 .00% 0 00 % 0 00 % 100 .001-0.00 % 150.000 0.00 % 0 00 % 0 00 % 0.00 % Above 0 00 % 150.000 0 .00% 6 67 % 0 00 % 0 00 % Source : CCM survey, April-June 2008 As shown on the table above, in the age group of 2025 years, those who received a grant of 20.00050.000 FR W were 45%; in the age group of 25-35 they were 80%; and in the age group of 3540 years they were 100%. None received a regular grant ranging from 100.001 to 150.000 FRW. In the age group of 2025 years, 5% received a grant ranging from 50.001 to 100.000 FRW. Only 6.67% in the age group of 25-35 years received a monthly grant of over 150.000 FRW. c. Do you have land? 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Yes No 0% N/A Source : CCM survey, April-June 2008 Series P ea c e and Conflict Management REVIEW

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As shown above, 16.6% of the respondents owned land that was mainly acquired through customary inheritance; 83% did not own it; and 0.4% did not respond on this issue. Female respondents who had land were 10%, while male respondents who owned it were 20%. Very few students in every age group had land; only 25% of those below 2o years ; 11.99% of those aged between 20-25 years; 20.83% of those aged between 25-35 years ; 50.00% each for the two age groups of 35-40 years and 4045 years. For those who owned land, the following chart indicates the dimensions of it. d. What is the size of your land? Less than 1 hectare 1-3 hectares 45 % o 3-5 hectares o Above 5 hecta s Source: CCM survey, AprilJune 2008 As shown on the chart above, 45% of the respondents owned less than 1 hectare; 36% owned 1-3 hectares; 13% owned 3-5 hectares; and 6% owned above 5 hectares. 50% of male respondents who owned land had less than 1 hectare; 35% owned 1-3 hectares; 11% owned 3-5 hectares; and only 4% owned above 5 hectares. It is obvious that the majority of them owned less than 1 hectare. 46.30% of single respondents owned less than 1 hectare; 37.04% owned 1-3 hectares; 11.11% owned 3-5 hectares; and only 5.56% owned above 5 hectares. Also, the majority of married respondents, 46.15%, owned less than CCM 1 hectare; 23.08% owned 1-3 hectares; also 23.08% owned 3-5 hectares; only 7.69 % owned above 5 hectares. 100% of the divorced and separated respondents owned 1-3 hectares As for widows, 100% owned less than 1 hectare. The table below shows ownership of land by the respondents in thei r respective age groups. Mos t of the students who owned land had less than 1 hectare. The lack of adequate land underlines the fact that surveyed students had very limited source of income because land is among the majo r sources of income in Rwanda The following table shows land ownership by the respondents age groups. Table 13: Land ownership by age groups Land Age group dimensions B e lo w 2025 25-35 35 4 0 4045 20 Less than 1 66.67 % SO.OO% 4 0 00 % 44.44% 0.00 % h e ctare 1 3 hectares 0 .00% 31.2S % S2.00 % 11.11 % 100 00 % 3 5 hectares 0 00 % 15.63 % 4 00 % 33.33% 0 00 % Above 5 hec tares 33 .33% 3 .13% 4 .00% 11.11% 0 00 % Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 e. Do you have other assets? 20 % 80% Source : CCM sur ve)l AprilJune 2008 Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 19

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The chart above shows that only 20% of the respondents had assets apart from land. 23% of male and 13 % of female respondents had other assets. Married respondents who owned other assets were 54 17%; single respondents were 16.?% ; ,divorced respondents were 66.67%; separated respondents were 75.5%; and widows did not own any. Other assets included domestic animals (cows, sheep, goats, etc), houses and vehicles The following chart indicates other assets owned by the respondents. f. What other assets do you own? 50 40 30 20 10 0 Rental Cows Vehicles Others House/s Source : CCM survey, April-June 2008 Series As indicated above, the majority 58.6%, owned cows; 19.5% owned rental house(s); 2.1% owned vehicles; and 19.5% owned other assets. Female respondents who owned rental houses were 33%; 39 % owned cows; 6% owned vehicles; and 22% owned other assets. 16% of male respondents owned rental house(s); 35% owned cows; 11% owned vehicles; and 16% owned other assets. Single respondents who owned rental house(s) were 19.18%, those who owned cows were 57.53 % ; 2.74% owned vehicles; and 20.55% owned other assets like domestic animals and residential houses. Married respondents who owned rental house(s) were 14.29%; 64.29% 2 0 CC M owned cows; and 21.43% owned other assets. Divorced respondents who owned rental house(s) were 50% and those who owned cows were also 50%. There were no widows who owned rental house(s), cows, and vehicles. Most of the respondents owned cows; and rental house(s) was other asset owned by a relatively big group. Vehicles were owned by very few respondents as shown on the table below. Table 14: Respondents' other assets Age group Other assets B e lo w 20 2 5 25-35 3 5 40 4 0 -4 5 20 Rental house SO.OO% 16 28 % 24 24 % 15 38 % 0 .00% Cows 50 .00% 51. 16 % 63 .64% 69. 23 % 100.00 % Vehicles 0.00 % 4.65 % 0.00% 0.00 % 0 00 % Others 0.00 % 27.91% 12.12% 15.38 % 0 .00% Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 2.4 Students' Family Economic Backgr ound a. Are your parents/guardians employed? 10 % Ill Both have jobs Source : CCM survey, April-June 2008 111 One of them has a job o None of them has a job The chart above shows the employment status of the respondents' parents/ guardians. Only 1 0% of their parents had jobs; 27% of one of their parents Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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had jobs; and 63% had no jobs. Male respondents whose parents had jobs were 9%; 40% of one of their parents had jobs; and 51% of them had no jobs. As for female respondents, 10% of their parents had jobs; 40% of one of their parents had jobs; and 50% of their parents had no jobs. In the framework of age groups, 40% of respondents who were below 20 years of age had parents who were employed and 50% others had one of them employed. The age groups of 20-25 years and 25-35 years had better statistics of parents employed in relation to the age groups of 3540 years and 40-45 years. It appears in general that the rate of parents' employment was in correlation with respondents' age groups; the young respondents had more parents/guardians who were employed. However, by considering the fact that the majority of surveyed students were between 20-25 years, 66.7%, and given the fact that 64.49% of their parents were unemployed, it is obvious that they carried the burden of supporting their siblings and other dependents. This implies that these students lived and studied under difficult conditions. T he following table shows employment status of students' parents 1 guardians: Table 14: Employment of students' parents/ guardians Employment Age group of students' Parents / Below Guardian s 20 20-25 25-35 35 40 40 45 Both have 40 00 % jobs 8 98% 9 18 % 5 88% 0 00 % Both have 50. 00 % 26.53% jobs 2 9.59 % 11.76 % 0.00 % None of them 10 00 % 64.49 % has a job 61.22% 82 .35% 100 00 % Source: CCM survey, April -June CCM b. What is the gender of the employed parent? 13% 76% Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 111The male The female oN/A The pie chart above shows the gender of the parents who were employed. The employed respondents' male parents were 13%; female parents were 11 %; and 76% of the respondents did not respond to this issue. Male employees outnumbered female employees and this was due to various factors such as: females being less educated, cultural constraints imposed on females, etc. Male respondents said that 11% of their male and 7% of their female parents had jobs, and 82% of them did not give information on this issue. Female respondents said that 20% of their male and 20% of their female parents had jobs and 60 % did not reveal their parents' status of employment. Single respondents whose male and female parents were employed were 13.44% and 10.85% respectively; 75.71% of them did not give this information. Married respondents whose male parents had jobs were 4.17%, none of their female parents had jobs and 95.83% of them did not respond to this. 66 67% male and 33. 33% female parents of divorced respondents had jobs 50% of separated respondents said that their female parents had jobs; none of their male parents were employed and the remaining 50% did not respond Peace and Conflict Managem ent REVIEW 21

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to this question. 50% of the widow respondents said that their female parents had jobs and 50% did not answer this question. c. What is the occupation of your parent (s) /guardian (s)? a Male parents 2 % 0 % 15 % 65% Sourc e : CCM survey, April June 2008 Farmer/cultivator Salary earner o Private sector (Business) o Unemployed Others The chart above indicates occupations of respondents' male parents; 15% were farmers or cultivators; 65% were salary earners; 18% were in private sector; and 2% were engaged in other occupations. Male respondents whose male parents were farmers/cultivators were 16%; 64% were salary earners, 16% were in private sector; and 4 % were in other occupations. Female respondents whose male parents were farmers/ 1 cultivators were 26%; 48% were salary earners; 23% were in private sector; and 3% were in other occupations. 2 2 CCM b Female parents 3% 0% 52% Farmer/cultivator Salary earner o Private sector (Business) o Unemployed Others Source: CCM survey, April-June 2008 The chart above shows occupations of respondents' female parents; 24% were farmers or cultivators; 52% were salary earners; 21% were in private sector; and 3% were in other occupations. Female respondents whose male parents were farmers/cultivators were 15%; 64% were salary earners; and 21% were in private sector. Their female parents who were farmers/cultivators were 23%; 56% were salary earners; 18% were in private sector and 1% were in other occupations. The table below shows the parents/guardians' occupations according to respondents' age groups and gende.r Table 16: Parents/guardians' occupations according to respondents' age groups and gender Occupa-tions B elow 2 0 20 25 25 3 5 3540 40 45 par e nts/ Fm
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As shown on the table above, most of the respondents' parents were salary earners and farmers/cultivators. Apparently, students aged below 20 and those from 20 to 25 years were the majorities with parents who were salary earners. The reason behind this could be that the young students' parents might have benefited from better educational opportunities in the post-independence era. And this led to their employment in public and private sectors d. What is the employment status of your parent (s)/guardian(s)'? 58% On permanent basis On contract job o Without known status Source : CCM survey, April -June 2008 The pic chart above shows the status of those who were employed; 32% were employed on permanent basis; 58% were employed on contract; and employment status of 1 0% was not known. Male respondents whose parents were employed on permanent basis were 31 %; 52% worked on contract ; and employment status of 17% was not known. Female respondents whose parents worked on permanent basis were 34%; 64% worked on contract; and employment status of 3% was not known. The table below shows the employment status of the respondents' parents or guardians. CCM Table 17: Employment status of respondents' parents I guardians. Parents/GyarAge group dians' employ-Below ment status 20 20 25 25-35 35 -40 4045 On permanent 40 .00% 8.98 % 9 18 % 0 00 % 0.00 % basis On contract 50 .00% 26.53 % 29 59 % 100 00 % 0 00 % unknown status 10 .00% 64.49 % 61. 22 % 0 0035 % 0 00 % Source : CCM survey April -June 2008 Parents of respondents who were below 20 years with permanent jobs were 40%; those who worked on contract were 50% and those whose status was not known were 10% 8.98% of parents of respondents aged from 20 to 25 worked on permanent basis; 26.53% worked on contract and the working status of 64.49% was not known. Respondents whose age ranged from 25 to 35 years had 9 18% of parents working on permanent basis; 29.59% worked on contract; and 61.22% worked on unknown basis As for respondents aged from 35 to 40 years, 100% of their parents worked on contract and parents of respondents aged from 40 to 45 years were unemployed. e. What type of agriculture are your 6 % 94 % parent(s)/guardian (s) involved in? Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 C om mercial Subsist enc e The pie chart above shows the type of agriculture practiced by respondents'parents who were Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 23

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farmers or cultivators. 94% of them were subsistence farmers and 6 % practiced commercial farming. Parents of the male respondents who practiced commercial farming were only 2% and 98 % practiced subsistence farming. Female respondents' parents who practiced commercial farming were 16% and 84% practiced subsistence farming. Single respondents whose parents practiced commercial farming were 6.60% and 93.40 % were involved in subsistence farming. Pare nts of the married, divorced, separated and widows did not practice commercial farming. f What are your parents'/guardians, monthly income? Monthly earnings for male parents/guardians 9 % 3 2 % 50.000-100 000 Frw .001 150 000 Frw o 150 .001 200.000 Frw o 200 .001 2 50.000 Frw 2 50 000 Frw Monthly income of male parents/guardians Source: CCM survey, AprilJune 2008 The chart above indicates monthly income of the respondents' parents. Those who earned 50.000-1 00 000 FRW were 32%; also 32% earned 100 .001-150.000 FRW; 16% earned 150.00 200.000 FRW; 11% earned 200.001-250.000 FRW and only 9% earned above 250 000 FRW. Th e majority of the respondents' parents earned 50 000 1 00.000 and 100.001 150.000 FRW. Male respondents' male parents who were not farmers or cultivators and whose monthly income was 50.000-100.000 FRW were 33%; 30% earned 100.000 150.000 FRW; 15% earned 2 4 CCM 150 .000-200.000 FRW; 7% earned 200.000-250.000 FRW; and 15% earned above 250.000 FRW. The male respondents' female parents whose monthly income amounted to 50.000-100.000 FRW were 62%; 16% earned 100.000150.000 FRW; 11% earned 150.000-200. 000 FRW; the same percentage earned 150.000-250 000FRW and none earned 200.000-250.000 FRW. Female respondents' male parents who earned 50.000-1 00.000 FRW were 29%; 35% earned 1 00.000-150.000 FRW; 18% earned 150.000200.000 FRW; 18% earned 200 000-250 .000FRW and none earned above 250.000 FRW. Female respondents' female parents who earned 50.000 100.000 FRW were 75%; 10% earned 100.000-150.000 FRW; 15% earned 150.000-200.000 FRW and none earned 200.000-250.000 FRW and above. g Does your family have land? Yes Ill Series No 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 The chart above indicates that 34.1% of the respondents'families owned land and 65.9% did not own any Out of those who owned land, male respondents outnumbered female respondents whose families owned land The following chart indicates the sizes of land owned by the respondents'fam ilies. Peace and Conflict Manag e ment REVIEW

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h. What is the size of your family's land? Abo v e 6 hectare -6% 4 6 hectare 7% 11----28 1o 2 4 hectare 1-2 hectare __________ 59% 0 50 100 150 200 Source : CCM survey, April -June 2008 The above chart shows that those who owned 1-2 hectares were 59%; 28% owned 2-4 hectares; 7% owned 4-6 hectares; and 6% owned 6 hectares and above. It is obvious that the majority of the respondents' parents had less than two hectares. Female respondents whose parents owned 1-2 hectares were 57%; 29% owned 2-4 hectares; 8% owned 4-6 hectares; and only 6% owned above 6 hectares. Male respondents whose parents owned 1-2 hectares were 61 %; 27% owned 2-4 hectares; and 6% owned 4-6 hectares and above The statistics above confirms what MINICOFIN (2002b) stated that land scarcity is a major problem in Rwanda; about 60% of all households have plots of land that are less than 0 5 hectares. The national average of land ownership is about 0.75 hectares FAO (quoted in MINITERE 2004b) estimated that a 0.9 hectares plot are economi cally viable for an ordinary family. According to MINITERE (2004b), Rwandan population requires 0.75 hectares to meet basic needs of a family. 8lt also pointed out that the current land issue in Rwanda9 is characterized by the following: Rwanda's population is predominantly rural, ma i nly living off peasant agriculture, so, there is a great demand for land as a means of subsistence; -The population density is extremely high in rural areas; -Family land holdings, which are the main source of access to land through the custom of inheritance, have reached extremity of fragmentation; some plots are barely large enough to construct a house on (in some cases 0.1 hectares); a nd Landlessness is on the rise. i. Does your family have other assets? 52 % Source : CCM survey, April -June 200 8 The chart above shows that 48 % of the respon dents' parents had other assets Male respondents parents who had other assets were 49% and female's parents were 46%. Single, married, sepa rated and widowed res pondents whose families had other assets were 47 .55% ; 45.83 % ; 75% ; and 50% respectively. The following chart shows other assets owned by respondents' parents. j Does your family own other assets? Source: CCM sur AprilJune 2008 Cows Buildin ovehicle o Others 8 Charles Gasarasi & Herman Musahara, The Land Question i n Kibungo Province : A Research Report Editions de I'Unive r site Nationale du Rwanda, Pallotti-Presse 2004, p 91 91dem CCM P e ac e and Con flic t Manag e m ent REVIEW 25

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The chart above shows other assets owned by the respondents' families; 59% owned cows; 29% owned buildings; 5% owned vehicles; and 7% owned assets which were not specified. Male respondents whose families owned cows were 60 % ; 26% owned buildings; 5% owned vehicles; and 9% owned assets which were not identified. Female respondents whose parents owned cows were 53%; 38% owned buildings; 6% owned vehicles; and 3% owned other types of assets. The following table indicates students' families who owned assets according to their age groups. Table 18: Students' families who owned other assets Othe r Age group asse t s 13clow 20 20 25 25 35 35 40 Cows 37 .50 % 55. 70 % 66.67 % 66.67 % Buildings 62 .50 % 31.01% 23. 19 % 16 67 % V e hi c les 0 00 % 7.59 % 1.45% 0 .00% Oth e r s 0.00 % 5.70 % 8.70 % 16.67 % Sourc e : CCM s urvey, AprilJune 2008 2.5. The Student Financing Agency for Rwanda 40-45 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0 00% a. Are you sponsored by Government or are you self sponsored? Series 0 100 200 300 400 Source: CCM survey, April-June 2008 The chart above indicates that 93% of the r e spondents were sponsored by the government 26 CCM and 7% were self-sponsored. Male respondents who were sponsored by the government were 94% and those who were self-sponsored were 6%. Female respondents who were sponsored by the government were 89% and those who were self.,.sponsored were 11 %. b. Are you fully supported (100%) by the Student Financing Agency for Rwanda (SFAR)? Self s p o n so r e d s tud ent 7 % Source: CCM survey, April -June 2008 The chart above shows students who were fully supported those who were not fully supported and those who were self-sponsored.The majority, 51%, was those who were fully supported; 42% were not fully supported; and 7% were self-sponsored. Male respondents who were fully supported by the Student Financing Agency for Rwanda were 53%; 40% were partially supported; and 6% did not reveal how they were sponsored. Female respondents who were fully supported were 44%; 45% were partially supported and 1% did not reveal how they were sponsored. Single respondents who were fully supported by the government were 51.68%; 41.09% were self-sponsored; and 7.24% did not reveal who sponsored them. Married respondents who were fully supported by the government were 37.50%; 58.33% were partially supported; and 4.17% did Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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not reveal their sponsor. For the divorced respondents/ 33.33% were fully supported and 66.67% were partially supported. 50% of respondents who were separated from their spouses were fully supported and 50% did not provide information about how they were sponsored As for widows/ 50% of them were fully supported/ and 50% were partially supported c. If you are not fully supported/ how will you pay back the loan (25% for students studying sciences/ medicine and education/ and 50% for other disciplines)? 5 % 20 % o Look for a loan in a bank 1!1 Suspend the academic year o Drop out from the University 0 Ask for a help from friends and relatives 14 % Request funds from e x ternal donors Look for a job while studying Join private institutions of higher learning o Combine some of these options S ource : CCM survey, April -June 2008 The chart above shows how students who were partially supported intended to repay their loans; 20% intended to look for loans in banks; 14% expected to suspend the academic year 2008; 3% intended to drop from the university ; 20% intended to seek help from relatives and friends ; 5% intended to request funds from external donors; 26% intended to work while studying; 1% intended to join private institutions of higher learning where students pay less; and 11% expected to resort to more than one of the options shown above. CCM Female respondents without full support of the government said that to raise funds to meet their contributions (50% or 25%) they would use different ways; 20% would look for loans from banks ; 12% would suspend the academic year; 1% would drop from the university; 26% would seek help from relatives and friends 3% would request funds from external donors; 28% would look for jobs while studying; and 10% would combine some of these options mentioned. As for male respondents : 20% would look for loans from banks; 15% would suspend the academic year ; 4% would drop from the university; 17% would ask for help from relatives and friends; 6% would request funds from external donors; 25% would look for jobs while studying; 1% would seek admission in private academic institutions; and 12% would combine some of these options. For single respondents without full support of the government/ their options to pay for their contributions were as follows: 19.05 % would look for loans from banks; 13.76% would suspend the academic year; 3.17% would drop from the university; 21.16% would ask for help from relatives and friends; 5.29% would request funds from external donors; 24.34% would look for jobs while studying; 1.06% would seek admission in private institl::t tions for higher learning; and 12.17% would combine some of these options. For the married respondents who were not fully supported by the government/ the following were their strategies to pay for their contributions: 21.05% would look for loans from banks; Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 27

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1 5 79 % w ould s u s pend the academi c year; 5.26 % w o uld drop from the uni vers it y ; 10.53 % w ould ask fo r h e lp fro m relatives a nd friend s; 5.26/r) would request funds fro m exte rn a l donors ; 36.8 4 % w o uld l ook lor jobs w hil e s tud y in g; an d 5 26 % would combine so m e of these opt ion s No d. Do you know vulnerable students (geno cide s urvivors, orphans and students from poor families) who were not selected by SFAR to be fully supported? Y es 206 207 208 209 210 211 2 12 Source: CCI\11 .wrvev. April Jun e 2008 The c hart abo v e s h ows w h e th e r respondents knew v uln e r ab l e st ud e nt s w h o wer e not sel ecte d to b e rully sup p orted 49.52% r espo nd ed that they knew so m e an d 50.48% did not know any. 48% of mal e respondents s aid that they knew some v uln e rabl e s tudents vvho were n ot selected to b e fully s upp o rt e d and female re sponde nt s who said so we r e 53 % /\II soc i a l g r o up s of the respondents k new th e m :single r espo nd e nt s were 48.32%, th e married we r e 62 50%, the divorced were I 00%, the sepa rat ed were 50% a nd the widows were 5 01Yu. ; \ccordin g to these respondents th e se l ectio n pro cess s uflCr ed from the following weaknesses: the sele c tion c riteria were ambiguous, th e r e was lack of inf o rmation tim e allocated tor se lecti o n was ve r y s hort and th e se lecti o n co mn1itt ee s uffer e d from bia s, nepotism and co rrupti o n 2 8 CCM c. Do you think that SFAR ad hered to it s procedures? 5 1 % Source: CCM su r v ey, April Jun e 2008 Yes No oN/ A The chart above shows respondents' v i ews on ho w SFAR's impl emente d its procedures. Only 4% sa id that SFAR' s procedures were adhered to; 45% n o ted that they were not adhered to; and 51% did not respond to this qu es tion. Female r es pond e nt s who responded that SFAR 's proc e dur es were not a dh e red to wer e 48%, and mal e respondents with the sa m e views were 44%. F e mal e and mal e respondents who did n o t respond on thi s i ss u e were 5% a nd 4% resp ectivel y Single r es pond e nt s who responde d that SFAR's procedure s were well fo llowed were only 3.62%; 44.70 % re sponde d that they were not well followed and 51.68% did not respond on this aspect. 12.50 % of marri e d respondents said that th e procedures were followed 50% said th a t they were not followed a nd 37.50 did not reveal their views. 33.33% of th e divorced respondents sa id that the procedures were followed and 66.67% said they were not. 50% of widows and separated respondents said that the proc edures were not followed, and 50 % of both groups did not respond on thi s issue. P eace and Conflict M a nag e ment REVIEW

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f what are the causes of the inefficient imple mentation of the new students' scheme by SFAR? 6 % 10 % 17% A l o t o f work in a s h ort tim e Inco mp e tenc e o f SFAR s p e r so nnel o Co rrupti o n a nd n e potism a t SFAR o L ack o f pr ecise selectio n c rit eria Othe r S ourc e : CCM s urvey, April June 2008 Th e chart above indicates students\tiews on the causes of inefficient implementation of the new students'scheme by SFAR in 2008 37% equated the inefficiency with a lot of work done in a short time; 17% said it was due to incompetence; 10% said it was due to corruption and nepotism; 30% said that it was due to ambiguous criteria of selecting beneficiaries; and 6 % said that it was due to other causes Male respondents who equated SFAR's ineffi ciency with a lot of work in Ia short time were 38 .65% ; 17. 38% equated it with incompetence; 7.45 % said it was due to corruption and nepotism; the factor given by 29.08 % was that there was lack of precise criteria of selection and 7.45% gave other reasons like lack of qualified personnel. 35.42 % of female respondents were of the view that ineficient implementation of the new scheme was due to a lot of work in a short time; 17.36% responded that it was due to incompetence; 13.89 % said it was due to corruption and nepotism; 30 56% said that it was due to lack of precise criteria of selection; and 2.78 % gave other reasons. Below are causes of SFAR's ineffi ciency in the implementation of the new students' loan scheme according to single respondents : CCM 37.66 % responded that it was due to a lot of work in a short time; 17.71 % responded that it was due to incompetence; 9.48% responded that it was because of corruption and nepotism ; 29 .18% responded that it was due to lack o f precise criteria in the selection process and 5 .99% responded that it was due to other reasons. Married respondents equated SFAR' s ineffic i ency to the following causes: 31. 58% responded that it was due to a lot of work in a short time; 15.79 % responded that it was incompetence ; 5.26 % responded that it was due to corruption and nepotism; 42.11% responded that it was due to the lack of precise criteria in the selection process ; and 5.26% responded that it was due to other reasons The majority of the divorced respondents, 66.67 % equated the inefficiency to corruption and nepotism, 33.33 % said that it was due to a lot of work in a short time. 50 % of the separated respondents asserted that it was due to a lot of work in a short time and 50 % others said that it was due to lack of precise criteria in the selection process. g. What problems do you think are related to scholarships in Rwanda? -----------------, 26% Limited resources o f the c ountry La c k of clear policy in institutions of high e r learning o Poverty of man y Rwandan families o Other reasons '---------------Source: CCM survey April June 2008 P eace and C o nfli c t Man age m e nt REVIEW 29

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The chart above shows respondents perceptions about problems related to scholarships in Rwanda. 31% identifi e d them as limited resources of the country; 26% linked them with lack of clear policy in inst itution s of higher learning; 35 % said they were due to poverty of many Rwandan famili es and 8% ga v e other factors. 3 I .40 % of male respondents equated them with limited so urc es of the country; 27.52 % said they we r e due to lack of clear policy in institutions of hig her l ea rning; 33. 72 % asserted that they were due to pov e rty of many Rwandan families; and 7.36% n o ted that they were due to other reasons I ike corruption and nepotism. As for female re s pondents 28.82% said it was due to limited resources of the country; 21.40 % identified the major problem being lack of clear policy m ins titution s of higher learning ; poverty of Rwandan families was mentioned by 41.92%; and 7.86% gave other reasons like nepotism corruption and poor management of SFAR. Single res pondents identified the problems related to sc holar s hips in the country as shown below : 30.45% res ponded that they were due to limited reso urc es of the country; 24.82% res ponded that they were due to lack of clear policy in institutions of higher learning ; 36 .94 % responded that they were due to poverty of many Rwandan families; and 7. 79% r es ponded that they were due to other reasons. Below are manied respondents' answers on this ISSUe: 3 7.50% responded that they were due to limited re so urc es of the country; 30.00% responded that they were due to lack of clear policy in institutions of higher learning ; 2 7. 50 % r es ponded that they were due to poverty 30 CCM of many Rwandan families; and 5.00% responded that they were due to other reasons Divorced respondents identified the problems thus: 20 00% responded that they were due to limited resources of the country; 0 60.00% responded that they were due to lack of clear policy in institutions of higher learning ; and 20.00% responded that they were due to povetty of many Rwandan families. Below are separated respondents' perceptions of the problems: 20.00% responded that they were due to limited resources of the country; 40.00% responded that they were due to lack of clear policy in institutions of higher learning; and 40.00% responded that they were due to povetty of many Rwandan families. All widowed respondents said that the main cause of the problems was the lack of clear policy in the institutions of higher learning in Rwanda. h. Compare the former and the current students' loan schemes 11 The new scheme is : better Both are good o Both are equally bad i i o The new scheme is 53 % worse i : Source: CCM survey, April-June 2008 The chart above provides respondents 'perceptions about the old and the new students' loan schemes. 16% of the respondents had a view that, the new scheme was better than the old scheme 53% said Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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that the new scheme was worse. While 14% responded that both schemes were good, 14% others asserted that both schemes were equally bad. 3% of the respondents had other views unrelated to the above. 16.49% male respondents said that the new students' loan scheme was better; 13. 98% responded that both schemes were equally good; 14.7% responded that both were equally bad; 51. 25% had a view that the new scheme was worse and 3.58% had other views. Only 13.39% of female respondents were of the view that the new scheme was good; 14 17% responded that both were equally good; 13.39% said that both schemes were equally bad; 58.27% asserted that the new scheme was worse; and 0.79% had other views. Single respondents compared the two schemes as shown below: 15.51% responded that the new scheme was better; 13.90% responded that both were good; 13.10% responded that both were equally bad; 55.08% were of the view that the new scheme was worse; and 2.41% gave other views. Married respondents compared the schemes as shown below: 20.83% responded that the new scheme was better; 16.67% responded that both were. good; 25.00% responded that both were equally bad; 29 17% responded that the new scheme was worse; and 8 33% gave other views. Below are the perceptions of divorced respondents: CCM None said that the new scheme was good ; None said that both were good; 33.33% said that both were equally bad; and 66.67% said that the new scheme was worse. Separated respondents had the following views : 33.33% responded that both were good; 33.33% responded that both were equally bad ; and 33.33% were of the view that the new scheme was worse. As for widowed respondents, 50 00% responded that both were equally bad and 50.00% were of the view that the new scheme was worse i What impact will the new students' loan scheme have on female students who arc not fully supported? 2% 14% 3%1% 24% Academic performance would improve Academic performance would deteriorate o High risk of prostitution o Marriage of convenience 36% High rate of dropouts from the university None (no impact) Others Source: CCM survey, April-June 2008 The chart above shows respondents' views on how the new students' loan scheme would have an impact on female students who were partially supported. 2% were of the view that academic performance would improve; 24% said that academic performance would deteriorate ; 36 % asserted that there would be a high risk of indulging in prostitution; 20% responded that they would be exposed to marriages of convenience ; 14% that there would be a high rate of dropouts from the university; 3% said that there would be no impact; and 1% had other views. Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 31

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The vtews of female respondents are shown below: 3 54% responded that academic performance would improve; 23.24% responded that academic performance would be adversely affected; 32 28 % responded that there would be a high risk of indulging in prostitution; 24.41% responded that girls would be exposed to maiTiages of conveni ence; 12. 20% responded that there would be a high rate of dropout s from the university; and 4 .35% responded that there would be no impact. The impact on female students who were not fully s upported according to male respondents was the following : 1.62% said that academic performance would tmprove ; 23.94 % said that academic performance would deteriorate; 35. 9 % said that that there would be a high risk of prostitution ; and 18. 05 % said that girls would be exposed to mar riages of convenience As for single respondents the following responses were gtven: 2.46% responded that their academic performance would improve; 24.02% responded that their academic p e rformance would deteriorate; 34.59% responded that there would be a high risk of prostitution; 20.41% responded that they would be to marriages of convenience; 13. 8 9% responded that there would be a high rate of dropouts from the university; 32 CCM 3.33% responded that there would be no impact; and 1.30% gave other reasons. Married respondents had the following responses: 20.93% responded that their academic perfor mance would deteriorate; 32 56% responded that there would be a high risk of prostitution; 16.28% responded that they would be exposed to marriages of convenience; 23.26% responded that there would be a high rate of dropouts from the university; and only 6.98% responded that there would be no impact. Divorced respondents had the following responses: 40.00% responded that their academic perfor mance would deteriorate; 20.00% responded that there would be a high risk of prostitution; and 40.00% responded that they would be exposed to marriages of convenience. The answers of the separated respondents were: 66.67% responded that there would be a high risk of prostitution; 16.67% responded that they would be exposed to marriages of convenience; and 16. 67% responded that there would be a high rate of dropouts from the university. Widowed respondents had the following views; 50.00% responded that there would be a high risk of prostitution ; and 50.00% responded that they would be exposed to marriages of convenience. Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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j. What strategies should SFAR and MINEDUC undertake to make the loan scheme fair and effective? 12% Increase SFAR's capacity Increase SFAR's transparency DAdopt a new scheme o Look for more resources to support students Universities should find their own resources to support students Other Source: CC/vf s urvey, April-June 2008 The chart above shows strategies suggested by respondents in order to make the loan scheme fair and effective. 27% suggested that SFAR should increase its. capacity; 20% suggested that SFAR should improve its transparency; 12% suggested that SFAR and MINEDUC should create another scheme; 30% suggested that there was a necessity to look for more resources to supp011 students ; 7% suggested that universities should find their own resources to support best performing and vulnerable students ; and 4% were of the view that SFAR and MINEDUC should find other means to get adequate resources so as to assure loans to all deserving sh1dents in institutions of higher learning. Male respondents had various opm10ns on what strategies SFAR and MINEDUC should undertake in order to ensure fairness and effectiveness in dispensing loans to students. 28.54% suggested that SFAR should increase its capacity and I 0 l nt p :/i ww\\'. s t i l r.gov. n v lr cco vc r v html, consulted on 20th September 2009 rmprove its management; 18. 76% asserted that SFAR should increase its transparency ; I 0.9% were of the view that SF AR should create another scheme ; 30.34% suggested that SFAR should look for more resources to support students; and 6.3 9% suggested that universities should find their o w n resources to support students. As for female respondents, 24.1% said that SFAR should increase its capacity; 23.29% suggested that SFAR should increase its transparency; 13.25 % called for the creation of another scheme; 31.33 % said that more resources should be sought to support students; 30 .34% suggested that universities should find their own resources to support students; and 0.8% had other various opinions. 3. LOAN RECOVERY AT NUR According to SFAR, "the loan recovery mechanism labors to oblige whoever received a loan from Government in order to able to under1ake higher education studies to pay back the amount having a value of the same amount at the time he / she received it". This repayment mechanism is a system put in place by the Govemment to facilitate all those who benefited from the Govemment loans for higher education to pay back. Paying back has been simplified in order to give opportunity to all those that benefited from it to pay back with minimal difficulty. 1 0 At NUR, over 85% of its employees who got loans from SFAR have started to repay them The directorate of human resources and adminis1 1 1 2 tration is deducting 8% of the gross salary. II Ministeri a l Order N 00/ 08 of 03 /09/2008 determining the criteria for pro v ing l o an s for higher educ a tion rep ayment, a nd co s t s h a ring between .the government and loan beneficiary, its article 18 states that clccluctions by 8 % from the gro s s salary arc clone every month until the am o unt o f repa y ment by the employ ee to SFAR is complete. 12 Interview NUR personnel June 2009 CCM Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 33

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Those who got loans fill disbursement forms before money is deducted from their salaries, however, there are some who have not yet signed such forms due to negligence or avoidance of having their meagre salaries deducted by NUR.13 The Ministerial Order N 00/08 of 03/09/2008 determining the criteria for providing loans for higher education, repayment, and cost sharing between the government and loan beneficiary, states that "a student, who received a loan from SF AR to pay for his/her higher education, has to pay the annual amount with 5% interest rate." The loan granted to a beneficiary to enable him/her to pay for his / her higher studies is paid back in the following ways: I. Deducting the loan from his/her salary by the employer; and 2. Repaying back the loan by the beneficiary. ln the first option above, article 16 of the ministerial order states that "a loan a beneficiary obtained either from government employment or employment in related government institutions, International Agencies working in Rwanda, private institutions or any other private employer, is paid back immediately after getting employed by deducting the amount of money from his/her salary by the employer in respect to the law". In the second option as shown above, article 19 of the same ministerial order specifies the following; By his/her own decision, the loan beneficiary may pay back at once the full amount or by installmenst any time he/she wishes, either during his / her studies, when he/ she is still looking for employment when employed or when he/she is self-employment. 13 Interview NUR Administration personnel, June 2009 14 hrtp : /i\ n vw.s f a r.g o v r w / rccovcrv.html 34 CCM In case he/she chooses payment by installments, he/she cannot go below one per cent (11100) of the amount he/she owes SPAR; In case he/she works in another country other than Rwanda, this mode of repayment is the only one that is used. In case the loan beneficiary is employed, he can pay by using the option stipulated in this Article notwithstanding what is stipulated in Article 16 of this Order. According to SPAR, upon satisfactory completion of payment of the entire loan, it issues a loan completion certificate. This is presented to any employer to certify that the holder does not have any outstanding loan owed to SFAR. It also acts as a certificate of cooperation with SFAR in the struggle to establish a fund that can reliably support our nationals in pursuit of higher education. 14 4. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS According to socio-economic and demographic situation of NUR students, most of them come from poor families with low monthly income. The survey found out that, only 10% of the total respondents had working parents and those whose parents were involved in agriculture, 94.07%, of them practiced subsistence farming. The majority of respondents' parents, who were working, 64%, earned between 50.000 100.000 FRW and others 100.001-150.000 PRW. Most ofNUR students, 57%, were orphans or had one parent. 41% of surveyed students had one parent; 16% were orphans; and 43% had parents. 23% of the surveyed students had siblings who Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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were dependent on them and 21% had other dependents. These students by all means were facing a hard time to make both ends meet as far as studying, and assisting their dependents was concerned. To make matters worse, 43.7% of respondents' parents owned less than 1 hectare of land; 83.10% were landless and 80.2% did not own cows, rental house(s), vehicles, etc. This shows that most of the students' families lived in extreme poverty. The majority of the respondents, 93%, were sponsored by the government either partially or fully, and only 7% were selfsponsored. Those who were fully supported were 51% and those who were partially supported were 42%. Regarding whether SFAR's procedures were adhered to during the implementation of the new students' loan scheme in 2008, only 4% were of the view that SFAR's procedures were observed; 45% noted that they were flouted; and 51% did not respond on this issue. This indicates that a good number of students at NUR did not trust SFAR's transparency and accountability as far as the provision of scholarships was concerned. Those who responded that SF AR procedures were flouted gave various reasons : poor implementa tion due to a lot of work in a short time ; incompetence; corruption; nepotism; lack of precise criteria in the selection process, etc. The findings show that the new students' loan scheme is promoting science subjects at the expense of Arts and Bumanities. Some respondents expressed skepticism about this trend which they feared would lead to many secondary students abandoning Arts and Humanities at the time when they are very important in the process of mending the shattered Rwandan social fabric. CCM In co mpanng the old and the new students' schemes, 16% of the respondents that the new scheme was better; 53% said that the new scheme was worse; 14% were of the view that both schemes were good; 14% asserted that both schemes were equally bad; and 3% expressed other views. Respondents' had different views on how the new students' loan scheme would have impact on the female students who were partially supported Findings showed that only 2% were of the view that academic performance would improve; 24% said that academic performance would deteriorate; 36% responded that there would be a high risk of prostitution; 20% responded that they would be exposed to marriages of convenience; 14% noted that there would be a high rate of dropouts from the university; 3% asserted that there would be no imp act; and 1% had other views. 5. RECOMMENDATIONS NUR Management should create a social fund from its internally generated income to meet accommodation and subsistence costs of best performing students from poor families and other vulnerable students. NUR should mcrease its socio-academic infrastructures m order to Improve students' welfare and academic standards SFAR should use a participatory method that involves beneficiaries and other stakeholders in the selection of government sponsored students. This will eventually dissipate suspicion and negative perceptions that SFAR's procedures are flouted due to various reasons as a good number of the respondents asserted in this survey. Peace and Conflict Manaqement REVIEW 35

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Due to poverty of students and their families SFAR s hould increase the number of fully s upported students at the NUR from 2.1% to at l eas t 25%. In the selection process, students from poor and v ulnerable g roups should be considered f o r full support. Some NUR faculties with certain scope of a utonomy s hould take initiatives in establishing relations w ith intern a tional education partners so as to ge t financial aid or scholarships to support best p e rforming students. Finally, SFAR should look for other strategies to encourage students to study pure sciences like provision of prizes and provision of bursaries to purs ue po s tgraduate programs rather than s upporting students un e qually at the disadvantage of tho s e who study social sciences. All Rwandan citizens d ese rve equal rights, as the Rwandan Co nstitution states. 36 CCM 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY Gasarasi Charles & Mus ahara Herman (2004 ) The Land Question in Kibungo Province: A Research Report, Editions de I 'Universite Nationale du Rwanda, Kigali Pallotti-Presse Ministerial Order N 00/08 of 03/09/2008 determining the criteria for providing loans for higher education, repayment, and cost sharing between the government and loan beneficiary. Law N 050/ 2006 of 05110/2006 establishing and determining the attributions, organization and functioning of the Student Financing Agency for Rwanda (SFAR) This order was passed by the relevant authorities and published in the official gazette no 20 of 15th December, 2008 by the Republic of Rwanda Electronic references http: // www sfar.gov.rvd p 1 en. html http ://www.shu.gov.rw/ r ecove ry.html Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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?.ANNEXES RESEARCH ON THE "IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE STUDENT'S LOAN SCHEME BY THE STUDENT FINANCING AGENCY FOR RWANDA (SFAR) ON HIGHER EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA". INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR NUR MANAGEMENT, NUR PROFESSORS AND ALUMNI 10 Impacts of the new Students' Loan Scheme I especially in its implementation phase 20 NUR expectations from the new Students' Loan Scheme 3 0 Difficulties that have been identified m its implementation 4o. How many students have the problems of getting loans? 50 Do you think that the new system will enable the policy of increasing the number of students at the National University of Rwanda? 60 The relationship between the new scheme and conflict management or social cohesion in the Rwandan society 70 Strategies or mechanisms that were undertaken by NUR management to help students that were dropped out by SFAR's selection 80 What advice would you provide to SFAR and MINEDUC for effective and objective strategies that would facilitate the socio-economic welfare of the students m the higher institutions of learning? 90 Any other ideas you find relevant to add? CCM RESEARCH ON THE "IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE STUDENT'S LOAN SCHEME BY THE STUDENT FINANCING AGENCY FOR RWANDA (SFAR) ON HIGHER EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA". INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR SFAR AND MINEDUC OFFICIALS 10 SFAR's history, mission and objectives 20 What are the SFAR's or MINEDUC's expecta tions from the new Students' Loan Scheme? 30 Why is it that some students are unhappy with the new Students' Loan Scheme? 40 What impact will the new scheme have on the Higher Development of Education in Rwanda? 5 0 What constraints have already been identified in its implementation? 60 Is there any impact that the new Students' Loan Scheme will have on private students in public and private institutions? 7 0 What impact will the new loan scheme have on students in secondary schools most especially in choosing their sections of study? 8 0 The relationship between the new scheme and conflict management or social cohesion in the Rwandan society 9 0 Strategies that can help address problems in the implementation of the new scheme Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 37

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QUESTIONNAIRES FOR STUDENTS AND THE STUDENTS' UNION REPRESENTATIVES I. Student personal identification 1. Age Below 20 20-25 2530 35-40 40-45 45-50 50-55 I I 2. Sex: Male 3. Marital status: Single Married Divorc e d Separa t ed Widow Female b) I f you are married, separated or divorced, how many children do you have? None 4 Faculty : 5 Province of residence II. Student's demographic data 1. Do you have parents? Yes, both of them [:==J Number of children c=J Department District : One of them c=J 2 If your parents are still alive do you live with them? a) Yes, I live with both parents c=J b) I live with one of them c=J Year : Sector None of them [:==J 38 CCM Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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CCM c) No I live with none of them 3. If you do not live with both or one of your parents why is it so? a) My parents are separated r=J b) One of my parents is abroad r=J c) All my parents are abroad r=J d) One of my parents is in prison r=J e) All my parents are in prison r=J f) My parents abandoned me r=J g) Other reason r=J If other reason, explain r=J . . . ... ............ .... ... .. .... ...... .... ............ ...... ............... .. .... .... ... 4. If your parent(s) is/are not alive when did he/she (or they) die (year of death)? lear 5. Where did he / she (or they) died ? Female Male At home r=J r=J In prison r=J r=J Outside home r=J r=J Abroad r=J c:=J In hospital r=J r=J I don t know where they died r=J r=J 6. If you are an orphan of one or all parents, in which category of orphan you are referring to the following i Orphan of g e nocide ii. Orphan o f HIV I AIDS iii. Orphan of war Peac e and Conflict Management REVIEW 39

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iv. Orphan of disease v. Orphan of an accident vi. Orphan of other reasons Explain ..................................... ......... : .............. 7. a) Do you have brothers and sisters? Yes c=J b) If yes, how many are they? .............. c) If they are in schools, specify School Number Nursery c=J c=J Primary c=J c=J Secondary c=J c=J Vocational c=J c=J Tertiary c=J c=J d) Are your sisters and/or brothers depending on you? Yes c=J No c=J 8 a) Do you have other dependants? Yes c=J 40 CCM b) If yes how many are they? ... .... ..... c) If yes, what is the relation between you and them? Own children Adopted children Others d) Are your other dependants in school? Yes e) If they are in school, specify Nursery c=J Primary No Secondary No c=J No c=J University c=J Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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CCM Ill. Economic background of the student 1. a) Do you have a job? Yes b) If yes, what are your monthly earnings? Less than 20.000 Frw c=J 20 000 50.000 Frw c=J 50 001 100.000 Frw c=J 100.001 150.000 Frw c=J Above 150.000 Frw c=J 2. a) Do you have a regular grant or gift? Yes c=J No c=J b) If yes, what is its monthly value? Less than 20.000 Frw c=J 20.000 50.000 Frw c=J 50.001-100.000 Frw c=J 100.001 150.000 Frw c=J Above 150.000 Frw c=J No 3 Do you have land? Yes c=J No a) If yes, how big is the land? Less than 1 hectare c=J 1-3 hectares c=J 3-5 hectares c=J Above 5 hectares c=J b) What other assets do you have? Rental house(s) c=J Cows Vehicles Others c=J Specify .......................... ...... ........... .. .. . . Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 41

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c) If you have a rental house, specify the value of the house ....................... Frw d) If you have cows, how many are they (number)? ............................. III. Student's family economic background 1. Do your parents/guardians have jobs? a) Both have jobs b) One of them has a job c) None ofthem has a job 2 If only one has a job, what is his/her sex? The male The female 3; What is the category of your parent( s) I guardian( s )? For the question below, if your parents or guardians are classified in more than 2 categories, do not hesitate to tick them at once. Fanner/cultivator Salary earner Private sector (Business) Unemployed Others The male The Female 4. If they are salary earners, what is the status of his/her/their job? a) Under status job (Sous statut) c::::::::J b) Under contract job (Sous contrat) c::::::::J c) Without known status c::::::::J 5. If your guardian(s)/parent(s) is/are farmer(s)/cultivator(s), what kind of agriculture does he/ she do? Subsistence Commercial 42 CCM Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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6. If he/she is a farmer/cultivator estimate his/her (their ) monthly income? Earnings The male The Female (n Frw) 7. If not farmer / cultivator, what is / are his / her (their) monthly earnings? Earnings Frw The male The Female 50.000 100 000 Frw 100.001 150.000 Frw 150.001 200.000 Frw 200.001 250 000 Frw Above 250 000 Frw 8 Does your family have land? Yes No c:=J 9. If yes, how big is it? a. 1 -2 hectares b. 2-4 hectares c 4-6 hectares d. 6 above hectares 10. What other assets does your family own? a) Cows b) Buildings CCM Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW 43

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c) Vehicles e) Others c:::::::J c:::::::J Specify .. : ............................................ 1 V. About Students Financing Agency for Rwanda 1. Are you sponsored by Rwandan Government or self sponsored student? Sponsored by Rwandan Government c=J Self sponsored student c:::::::J 2 If you are sponsored by the Government, are you fully supported (100%) by the Students Financing Agency for Rwanda (SFAR)? Yes No 3. If No, what will you do to pay your contribution (50% for Sciences Education and Medicine or 25% for other Disciplines)? Tick not more than 2 most important to you a. Look for a loan in a bank b. Suspending the academic year c. Resign from University d Ask for a help from relatives and friends e. Request funds from external donors f. Look for a job while studying g Look for studies within private High Learning Institutions i. Combine some of these options 4. a) Do you know some vulnerable students (genocide survivors, orphans and students from very poor families) that were not selected by SFAR to be fully supported? Yes No 44 CCM Peace and Conflict Management REVIEW

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1\chcvc d imprimcr en Octobrc 2010 pa r Patlotti-Prcssc B .P. 863 Kigali

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ABOUTCCM 1. Vision and Mission The Center for Conflict Management (CCM) was created at the National University of Rwanda (NUR) in 1999 with the financial support from UNDP Its mandate d and mission inspired by: particular challenges within the post genocide context. CCM is supposed to be the response to the research needs that inspire policies; opportunity to generate indigenous knowledge about roots of conflicts and conflict resolution strategies and durable peace construction 2. CCM's Structure >Direction: Director & Deputy-Director 3 Research Units (+out reach unit): Unit 1 : Genocide Studies and Prevention Unit 2 : Internal Processes of Socio-Political Developments Unit 3 : Peace, Security and Governance Studies in the Great Lakes Region CCM outreach Program: Community Dialogue for Peace (CDP), supported by SIDA started in 3 districts (Huye, Gisagara, Nyamagabe), expected to expand. 3. Current Developments: Education & Capacity Building MAin Peace and Development Studies" in collaboration with PADRIGU (Sweden), full y funded by SIDA-SAREC to start in 2009; Master's Programme in Genocide Studies and Prevention with the support of Arkansas University & US. Fulbright Program launched on April 15 1 2009; Development of a course on Citizenship, Identity and Peace Education in collaboration with the National Commission for Human Rights. 4. Publication Standards International Publication Standards in place since end 2007 (Approved b y the NUR Senate). Two types of CCM publications: Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies (JACPS) -international scientific board members in place and ISSN 1996-3157; Biannual, Peace and Conflict Management Review (PCM Review), quarterly issue. CCM's publications in form of books 5. Editorial Committee for PCM Review Prof. Paul RUTAYISIRE, Chief Editor Miss Furaha UMUTONI Alida, Associate Editor Mr. Elly MUSAFIRI, Associate Editor Mr. Justin MURWANASHYAKA, Associate Editor

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www.nur.ac.rw NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA CENTER FOR CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (CCM) Center for Conflict Management P .O. BOX 264 Butare/Rwanda Phone: (250)0750350520 Fax: (250) 530121 E-mail: ccm _nut@nur. ac rw Web site: www.nur.ac rw


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