Citation
Documentation of the Boot Hill Cemetery 8JA1860) at the former Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys

Material Information

Title:
Documentation of the Boot Hill Cemetery 8JA1860) at the former Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys Interim Report
Creator:
Kimmerle, Erin H.
Estabrook, Richard W.
Wells, E. Christian
Jackson, Antoinette T.
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Florida
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
118 p. : col. ill. ;

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Subjects / Keywords:
Juvenile justice, Administration of. ( lcsh )
Forensic anthropology. ( lcsh )

Notes

Abstract:
This interim report provides a summary of the archaeological and historical investigation into the creation and initial identification of graves at the Boot Hill Cemetery in Marianna, Florida to date. The Florida State Reform School, also known as the “Florida Industrial School for Boys” (FIS) and most recently as the “Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys”, first opened on January 1, 1900 on 1400 acres of land. Beginning as early as 1901, reports of children being chained to walls in irons, brutal whippings, and peonage surfaced. During the first 13 years of operation, there were more than six state led investigations. A recent investigation in 2008-09,2009 by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) into the deaths that occurred at the school, reported 81 school-related deaths from 1911-1973. As a result of this investigation, a record of 98 deaths was found in historical documents, including boys aged 6-18 years and two adult staff members. These deaths occurred between 1914-1973. However, state records regarding cause of death and school ledgers are only public record for the years prior to 1960. Therefore the scope of this investigation was 1900-1960.

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
D23-00001 ( USFLDC DOI )
d23.1 ( USFLDC Handle )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 1 T ABLE OF C ONTENTS E XECUTIVE S UMMARY ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 3 H ISTORICAL B ACKGROUND : T HE R OAD TO R EFORMATION ................................ ................. 5 E RA OF S EGREGATION IN THE N EW S OUTH UNDER J IM C ROW ................................ .............. 6 C REATING R EFORM S TARTING A R EFORM S CHOOL ................................ ........................... 8 R ESEARCH D ESIGN AND M ETHODS ................................ ................................ ..................... 18 S TRUCTURING A F RAMEWORK FOR I NTERPRETATION AND A NALYSIS ................................ 2 2 D EFINING THE C EMETERY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 2 3 S INGLE V M ULTIPLE B URIAL A REAS ................................ ................................ .................. 31 A RCHAEOLOGICAL F IELD R ESULTS : GPR AND T RENCHING ................................ ............... 34 S OIL A NALYSIS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 43 E STIMATING THE N UMBER OF D EATHS AND E XPECTED B URIALS ................................ ...... 47 B URIAL I NFORMATION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 57 D EMOGRAPHIC A NALYSIS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 62 T HE F ATAL F IRE OF 1914 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 77 The Structure ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 77 Fire Investigations ................................ ................................ ................................ 78 Possible Origin of Fire ................................ ................................ .......................... 83 Fire Fatalities ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 83 I NFLUENZA AND P NEUMONIA O UTBREAKS 1918 AND 1932 ................................ ................ 85 T RENDS IN M ORBIDITY & M ORTALITY ................................ ................................ .............. 91 C ONVICTED C ASES OF H OMICIDE ................................ ................................ ....................... 93 V ARIATION IN R EPORTING ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 98 R ECOMMENDATIONS FOR F UTURE W ORK ................................ ................................ ........... 99 B IBLIOGRAPHY ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 100 A PPENDIXES ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 10 7 A) H AIR L, C HROSTOWSKI L. O CTOBER 18, 2012. E XPERT O PINION ON M EDICAL R EVIEW OF D EATHS AT THE F ORMER A RTHUR D OZIER S CHOOL FOR B OYS B) S TONE CM A LCALA A. O CTOBER 15, 2012. F IRE O RIGIN AND C AUSE I NVESTIGATION C) F OX G, G LUVNA J. O CTOBER 10, 2012. A NALYSIS OF T REE R ING D ATING

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 2 L IST OF A BBREVIATIONS COD Cause and/or Circumstances of Death DC Death Certificate FDLE Florida Department of Law Enforcement FIS Florida Industrial School for Boys GPR Ground Penetrating Radar GPS Global Positioning System JJOC Jackson Juvenile Offender Center NFYDC North Florida Youth Development Center PRIDE Prison Rehabilitative Industries and Diversified Enterprises Inc.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 3 E XECUTIVE S UMMARY : This interim report provides a summary of the archaeological and historical investigation into the creation and initial identification of graves at the Boot Hill Cemetery in Marianna, Florida to date The Florida State Reform School most recently as first opened on January 1, 1900 on 1400 acres of land. Children were committed to the school for criminal offenses such as identify minor offenses including dependency, which propelled the school to become the largest training and reform school in the country at the time Originally, the s chool housed children as young as five years old, including both males and fema les who were segregated by race. Daily activities including dormitory assignments and work and school responsibilities were dictated in the context of a system that racially cl Beginning as early as 1901, reports of children being chained to walls in irons, brutal whippings, and peonage surfaced. During the first 13 years of operation, there were more than six state led investigations. A recent investigation in 2008 09 20 09 by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) into the deaths that occurred at the school reported 81 school related deaths from 1911 1973 It was reported that 31 of these boys were grounds, while others were shipped home to families or buried in unknown locations. An area designated as Boot Hill Cemetery was established on school property in the early days of the school Recorded burials in this location oc curred from 1914 1952. Located on the north side of the school, was positioned in a small, elevated clearing (GPS Jackson County, Township 4 North, Range 10W, Section 4). The cemetery today is marked by 31 white metal crosses, and is surrounded by a wire perimeter. Grave markers and delineation of the cemetery grounds were constructed in the early 1960s and again in the mid 1990s, long after the interments were made, in efforts to mark or commemorate the burials. However, the markers do not correspond to the actual interments as burials were not originally marked. Very little documentation about the history of t he cemetery or who is buried there exists, and the exact locations of individual burials were never documented. Even at the time that recorded deaths occurred (dating back to 1914), multiple investigations and reports summarized different accounts of who died and the surrounding circumstances. Therefo re, uncertainty speculation, and folklore regarding these deaths are prevalent today. Many family members and witnesses believe children died under suspicious or questionable circumstances. Given the lack of existing documentation (and the incomplete recording of information), many questions persist about who is buried at the school and the circumstances surrounding their deaths. Historic cemeteries are among the most valuable cultural resources for documen ting community heritage, and provide a n important means to understand past events. Florida Statutes (Chapters 267 and 704.08 ) provide protection for them and mandate the rights of families to have access. Therefore, the purpose of this research project was to conduct an initial field survey of the Boot Hill Cemetery, and research the history of the site and variables surrounding the deaths to determine th e number, location, and identity of graves to the largest extent possible. In 2012, a pedestrian survey and mapping of the Boot Hill Cemetery a long with associated archival resea rch on the history of the cemete ry was undertaken with the permission

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 4 of the D epartment of Environmental Protection to accomplish the following objectives (permit number 112.023, Division of Historical Resources) : 1) Register, document, and map the cemetery as currently demarcated; 2) Identify existing and any additional graves through multiple remote sensing and archaeological methods, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) and soil chemistry; 3) i nterviews; 4) Research primary and secondary sources to determine who is buried in the cemetery and the morbidity and mortality patterns of those who died; and 5) Establish if there w as one or more burial areas at the school To accomplish these objectives, m ultiple methods were employed, including those primarily used by forensic anthropology, archaeology, and cultural anthropology. Historical imaging and archival research was supplemented with ethnographic interviews of family members and former students and employees, remote sensing, soil chemistry, and archaeological excavation. Through the course of this investigation, a number of outside experts were also consulted in the areas of forensic pathology, fire investigation, and integrative biology. Historical imaging and archival research was supplemented with interviews of family members and former students and employees remote sensing, soil chemistry, and archaeological excavation. Through the course of this investigation, a number of outside experts were also consulted in the areas of forensic pathology, fire investigation, and integrative biology. As a result of thi s investigation, a record of 98 deaths w as found in historical documents, including boys aged 6 18 years and two adult staff members. These deaths occurred between 1914 1973. However, state records regarding cause of death and school le d gers are only pub lic record for the years prior to 1960. Therefore the scope of this investigation was 1900 1960. For this period records indicate that 45 individuals were buried on the school ground s between the years 1914 1952, 31 bodies were shipped to other locations for burial and 22 cases do not have recorded burial locations Throug h out, the historical records are incomplete and often provide conflicting in formation The cause and manner of d eath for the majority of cases are unknown. Infectious disease, fires, physical trauma and drowning are the most common recorded causes of death when a cause of death i s recorded. Other mortality patterns show trends among the boys that died including d eaths following attempted escapes from the school (n=7), a high number of boys who died within the first three months of being remanded to the school (n=20), and inconsistency among those who were issued death certificates. Archaeological fieldwork shows an estimated minimum of 50 grave shafts in the area of Boot Hill and the surrounding wooded area. It is possible that additional graves and /or burial areas are present given the practice of segregation and number of cases that are still unaccounted. Reco mmendations for further research and preservation of the site are also discussed for recognizing the historical significance of human and civil rights issues in Florida in the area of juvenile justice and the rights of families to have accountability and t ransparency as important aspects of restorative justice

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 5 H ISTORICAL B ACKGROUND : T HE R OAD TO R EFORMATION The State of Florida opened its first juvenile center as the Florida State Reform School on January 1, 1900 which remained in operation until it was closed on June 30, 2011. The institution wa s originally located on 12 00 acres of land south of the town of Marianna in Jackson County, Florida and grew to 1400 acres over time as additional land was purchased Fr om its inception, the institution was suppose d and the boys who were but in practice, difficult to maintain early history a multitude of narrativ tion. These contradictions resulted in many reform measures to the school itself from its practices of child labor and corp oral punishment to its very name In order to understand the nature and circumstances of those who died at the school, it is importa nt to understand why boys were committed to the school, the use of a convict lease and peonage system s of corrections rathe r than prisons during this time, and the early practices of the school itself. Originally, c hildren were committed to the school after criminal conviction, though this changed to include Additional ly, many children were committed to the school not having been charged with a crime but as wards of the state and orphans T he school housed children as young as five years old including both males and females. Over the course of time, the name changed as did the demographic structure of children committed there: Florida State Reform School (1900 1913); Florida Industrial School for Boys or FIS (1914 1957 ); Florida School for Boys (1957 1967); and the Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys (1968 201 1). In th e beginning, the school was manag ed by a superintendent who reported to Board of State Directors or Commissioners a five member group appointe d by the Governor. Chapters 4565 and 5398 of the Laws of Florida required that the Board submit reports on the condition and progress of the school. The Superintendent also wrote reports in the form of Biennial reports that were submitted to the Board. Only a limited number of these reports were found during this investigation, ranging in time from 1901 1935. De mographic and financial information does not consistently appear in any detail except in a few of the recovered documents dating 1908, 1911, 1913, 1926 1935 However the number s of deaths in these reports are typically not the same as listed in the schoo l discharge and record ledgers and tend to under report the total number. Due to over crowding a second campus was opened in Okeechobee in 1955. Staff from the Marianna campus went to work at the Ok eechobee campus where they inst ituted the same polic i es and practices. An additional facility also opened on the Marianna grounds, the Jackson Juvenile Offender Center (JJOC) which was a maximum risk facility for children convicted of felonies or violent crimes and together these facilitie s constituted the No rth Florida Youth Development Center (NF Y DC ) Nearly all of the documented deaths and the documented burials o n the grounds occurred during the FIS years (1914 1957), which may be a reflection of availability of the historical documents from that time for review combined with the lack of documents from earlier Throughout this report the institution is referred to as the Unti l 1968, the school was segregated into two completely sepa rate campuses or

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 6 records and the school docume nts consulted. Spatially, the s identified as non Attendance ledgers show that for many boys who may have had mix ed ancestry or Latino backgrounds (i.e., Spanish surnames such as Fernandez) administrators were less sure of where to place them, and would transfer boys between the two schools This is because race is a social construction with no biological association that uniquely identifies one race at the exclusion of all other races. A rbitrary markers used in an attempt to classify people by race often change depending on who is making the decision or attempting to draw lines defining features or characteristics that place a person in particular racial category at the exclusion of another. E RA OF S EGREGATION IN THE N EW S OUTH UNDER J IM C ROW To understand the creation and development of the school it is important to contextualize the laws and practices at the time with regard to a lack of prisons the convict lease system, and segregation. Following the death of Ossian Hart (1821 1874) who served as Governor of Florida from 1873 to 1874, gains for freedmen (freed blacks) secured after the Civil War in 1865 during the period known as Reconstruction began to be rapidly eroded. Hart was a reform minded Republican Governor who had openly opposed succession and championed rights for free dmen to the disdain of the opposing Democratic Party. The Democratic Party during th is period of was focused on ensuring white power and control and negating civil rights for blacks, especially freedmen. a decline of the Florida Republican Party and 1997). B y 1895 laws enacted by a Democratic controlled legislature in Florida as well as elsewhere throughout the South re sulted in complete oppression of blacks under restrictive laws known as Jim Crow that mandat ed segregation at every level (see: Litwack 1998; Wilkerson 2010; Williamson 1984; Woodward 1951). Kevin Boyle (2004) in his book, Arc of Justice wrote : Florida was one of the first southern states to require blacks to ride in separate railroad cars. And the legislature made it a crime to teach black children and white children in same classroom. As the Democrats made it more and more difficult to be blac k, whites became more and more determined to assert the power of their race. So they piled prohibition on prohibition. in the same cemeteries as whites. restaurants. t of streetcars. drink from the same drinking fountains. Whites also segregated their workplaces. Blacks could be servants and farm laborers, of course, and they could work in the turpentine and lumber camps, where most whites to go. But whites claimed the vast majority of jobs for themselves. They also demanded privileges that superiority conferred. They expected blacks to step off the sidewalk when a white person approached. They insisted that blacks keep their eyes downcas t when they spoke to whites. though they would not dream of reciprocating. They felt free to level any

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 7 insult, to inflict any injury, without fear of reprisal. Jim Crow taught the great mass of south ern whites to see ordinary places and everyday interactions as sacred and to protect the sacred with the profane (Boyle 2004:56). Segregation permeated every aspect of life in Florida and throughout the US South until the passing of the Civil Rights Act in 1964. No understanding of the Florida State Reform School over the course of its history can be understood without consideration of the impact and implications of segregation particularly those relating to criminal justice By the end of the 19 th century, Florida did not have prisons but relied on the convict lease system to house and maintain individuals convicted of crime s. This system placed men, wome n and children together into labor camps. Typically individuals arrested w ere taken to the co urthouse for tri al and imposed with fines. The number of people arrested rose significantly in the later part of the 19 th century. In his book, One dies, Get Another Mancini ( 1996) wrote: e South throughout the late nin etee nt h and early twentieth centuries one that frequently led to outright peonage, but in Florida it was most pervasi Many laws were created or used during this time, such as the vagrancy laws as a means to obtain labor. Mancini wrote (1996;1 88): part of the growth can be attributed to the assiduous enterprise of the labor agents whom Dutton men were African American (Mancini 1996;189). Local business owners from the timber, phosphate, citrus, cotton an d other industries would pay the fees or lease convicts from labor agents who had control of the individual s for a period of time (often one year or more ). The labor agent was responsible for the housing, food, and maintenance of the individual who would work to pay off the court fees, housing, and other expenses incurred for their care The business owners would often contract with labor agents to use this labor in their business or subcontract the labor to other industries. Despite the men who ran the convict lease programs not being sworn law enforcement, they could legally discipline convicts in their care and even legally shoot and kill convicts that tried to escape. The convict lease program labor camps became notorious for deplorable conditions, the spread of infectious disease, and deaths due to brutal treatment such as flogging. In 1899 a House investigative committee reported the foreman was reported to have (Mancini 1996;191) Typically, deaths that occurred were undocumented and un der reported. The dead were often buried in folk burial grounds at the edge of fields without markers In some cases, small wooden crosses were used According to Mancini (1996;193), a turning point came when a 16 year old whose died in 18 87 from a whipping received in a convict labor camp. Public attention over this death and other s at the camps grew as did demands for reform and that children be taken out of the convict lease system. Calls for reform grew louder with the publication of The American Siberia (1891) which described the brutal conditions of labor camps It was in this environment that the idea for a reform and training school in Florida developed.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 8 C REATING R EFORM S TARTING A R EFORM S CHOOL The Florida reform Erecting a State Reform Sc hool, and to Appropriate Money T herefore ( Laws of Florida Chapter 4565, sec. 1 signed into law June 4, 1897). The objective in creating the reform school was to provide a safe and productive alternative for juvenile offenders away from the convict lease system. According to the Laws of Florida (1897, Ch. 4565, sec. 4, 108) the purpose was to create: w, separated from vicious associates may receive physical, intellectual, and moral training, be reformed, and restored to the community with purpose and character fitting for a good citizen, an honorable and an honest man with a trade or skilled occupation fitting such person for self maintenance. The law called for the purchase of employment, instructions, and reformation of juvenile offenders Section 9 of the law mandated that only children between the ages 10 16 years who had been convict ed of a misdemeanor or felony be admitted Sentencing was not to be less than 6 months nor more than 4 years. The students included both males and females, w hit e and colored children. Boys and girls were housed together however two separate facilities were built for the segregation of the colored students from the white students Segregation at the school included all living, dining, educational, religious, and work related act ivities and continued until the late 1960s Gubernatorial candidate and State Senator William H. Milton was instrumental in getting the institution brought to his hometown of Mari a nna and collected more than 1200 acres and $1400 in donations as several towns competed to build the school in their community (Figure 1) The 1200 acres was substantially more than the 350 acres mandated by the State for the school. War. Combined, the Milton family gave more than $200 and 40 acres to bring the school to Marianna, more than any other donor or family and continued to play important roles at the school in various administrative positions for decades to come including positions of Superintendent and President of the Board The f irst Biennial report (Feb. 14, 1901) from Superintendent Walter Rawls to the Board of Directors stated that there had been thirty child inmates with an average of twenty children at a time (5 w hite boys and 25 n egro boys and girls), with sentences ranging from 6 months to 4 years, according to the law. In the earliest years, t he school was funded by state appropriations, a $50.00/per child fee paid by the county that sent the child to the schoo l, as well as money raised through the farm and business activities of the school State appropriated funding came from the Convict Lease Program, for example, $250/per inmate was provided in 1907 (Lundrigan 1975:70). Early on, the appropriations and res ources were inadequate to meet the demands of the school. This lack of resources helped fuel numerous crises and affected the educational, developmental, and disciplinary practices of the school School officials quickly began to clamor to the legislator s for changes to the length of sentencing, determination of parole, and reason for commitment For example, Superintendent Rawls wrote (1901). hose serving six and eight month terms have expired, and they were discharged without having derived any perceivable

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 9 Figure 1. Map of the Florida Industrial School property (1947). Map obtained from Florida State Archives (Florida School for Boys, Adm inistrative Records). This is the only map recovered among the instructional doc u ments that shows a cemetery. It is pictured here at the north school. benefit. Such short sentences do not give them much in reforming habits and building S ubsequently the Board of Directors, under leadership of Hon. W. H. Mil ton, issued a report requesting that the law be amended to allow longer sentences and that the length of the sentence be turned over to the discretion of the managers of the school, rather than the courts A nother request for a legislative change came again on April 7, 1903 when Milton asked Governor Jenkins incorrigible children be sent, without conviction, for an indefinite period, leaving the term to be fixed b y the management (House Journal 1903). began to increase drastically. The term of sentencing also changed from 6 months years old or as dete This change in law and policy seems to indicate that financial incentives were underlying motivating factors to create a reform school and draw juveniles into the system.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 10 Sup erintendent Rawls wrote to the Board of M anagers again in 1906 about low enrollment stating that the school only had twenty inmates and that makes the crop come in slow; I fear we will not finish gathering the corn by January (letter December 1, 1906 ) In the same year (1906), Governor N. wrote to the State Legislature that : spend a reasonable sum of it to reform the Juvenile offenders. The needs made really a reform school and not a Juvenile prison: and that such labor and work as is impose d upon its ather than a Despite this sentiment on the part of Gov. Broward, letters from Board President Milton continue d with requests for longer sentences and increasing the number of boys committed to the school along with suggestions on how the school could increase revenue (1907 letter to Hon. Broward): o purchase a sufficient number o f cattle, it could run a dairy farm Milton goes on to point out that there wa s already sufficient goods and farm products to meet the needs of school and that this exces s could be sold for profit. In order to continue to increase the number of students a t the school, the Board of Managers suggested eliminating th e $50.00 fee paid by the counties to send a child to the school Lundrigan writes ( 197 5 :79): requires to be paid for the maintenance of each child, committed by the county from which he is committed, works an injury to the school; and advises the repeal or amendment of this secti on. Our reason being that the counties have to pay $50.00 for each child sent to the school while if such child were sent to the state prison, instead of being an expense, the counties would receive the amount paid under the State Law for the hiring out o f the child as a convict, or would get the benefit of the work of the child in county during his term of commitment, thus in the desire for the elimination of county and court expenses of the child convicted is lost sight of In the 1907 Biennial Repor t, the Board argues that if a child were sent to the State Prison, the county would benefit $250.00, but under the current system the county was instead paying $50 to the reform school and therefore had no incentive to commit boys to FIS rather than prison (Lundrigan 1975:79) With the elimination of the county and court fees, the number of inmates did increase substantially. In 1907 there were 45 inmates (30 were colored) though 18 escaped (all c olored). By 1908 one year later there we re 102 inmates a more than 50% increase over the prior year (Letter from Superintendent Belch to Board of Managers, 1908). Belch f urther reports that at this time there were 200 acres under cultivation and that more than $2 000 .00 in prof its were made from the sale of bricks, timber, cotton and the

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 11 Lundrigan (1975:34) wrote about the original intention for creating the school vers u s the harsh reality of its must be presumed to have been entirely honorable. Records remaining in existence, however, Children sent to the reform school continued to be hired out for labor in addit ion to working the farm and industries of the institution itself. Financially, the Convict Lease Program, which provided a vehicle for the State to rent out inmate labor to private interests w as very profitable for the State of Florida. By 1913, revenues from the pr ogram were over $3,000,000 and c hildren as young as 10 years were hired for labor with adult prisoners to work in phosphate mines and turpentine and cotton farms (Lundrigan 1975 ) Between the years 1903 1913, six legislative investigative comm ittees were formed to investigate the school and found that children as young as five years were in irons and chains, children were hired out for labor, unjustly beaten, and without educat ion or proper food and clothing (Lundrigan 1975) Furthermore, thro ughout this time, financial and administrative records were not well maintained at the school, persistent problems from inadequate medical care, a lack of educational instruction, and unsafe living conditions were written about in the repeated State invest igative reports. Below are a few examples: 1903: saying under its present management it i s nothing more nor less than a prison where juveniles are confined (Letter to Hon, Frank Adams, President of the Senate from 1909 : The sc hool rooms were in very poor condition and without desks ; the inventory as listed in the Biennial Report was greatly falsified, the President of the Board of M anagers had accrued large debts and was detaining boys past the age 18 years ( up to 20 years) presumably for labor (Lundrigan 1975 ) 1911 : Report of S pecial Joint Committee on the State Reformatory (House Journal) The committee further said th e school was more like a convict camp, without care for the sick, poor ventilation, overcrowding, and inadequate food. The y School impressed your committee as being more in the nature of a convict camp, than anything else we can think o 1913 : T he health conditions were very bad and one member of the Board would not accept the Biennial report (Lundrigan 1975 ). Additionally, the Governor called for a medical report which subsequently came from Dr. N.A. Baltzell a local physician wh o In an appendix to the Biennial Report of the Board of Managers of the Florida State Reform School, (1913 House Journal p. 1010), Baltzell reported that that is, excellent. Some conditions have not changed, namely overcrowding particularly on the c owded and slept two to a bed, or four on bunk beds which only provided for 200 cubic inches of air space per boy, though the

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 12 national standard called for 600 cubic inches (Lundrigan 1975 ). stated there were 170 inmat es at the school (50 were white and all male except for two girls and the rest were colored children not be sent to the school in the future as they need ed special care. As a r esult of the 1913 investigation the superintendent resigned and the State Legislature passed Chapters 6446 and 6529 which appropriated more money to the school built a separate school for girls, and changed name Modifications were also made to the dormitory on the s outh or w hite school for safety in the event of a fire It was also stated that the Board inaugurate and maintain simple and practical industrial training and institute a system of merits/ demerits and that no one shall hire out any of the boys for any purpose (In Lundrigan 1975 ). Ethnographic interv iews, casual conversations, and participant observation conducted by Lundrigan in the 1970s and by thi s research team between January and August 2012 reveal ed that, despite the mandate from the Legislature, boys did continue to be hired out for labor well after this timeframe. Legislative reform initiated in 1913 did not end the challenges facing the boys and staff at FIS. Betwe en 1913 and 1919, there were seven superintendents and more than 28 deaths among boys. In 1914, Superintendent Bell, a convicted bank robber, was terminated following a fire that killed that 12 people. According to Lundrigan (1975) t wo year prio rs to the fire, Bell was convicted in Federal Court for stealing $50,000.00 from the First National Bank of Pens a cola. He was 19 years old at the time and sent to serve two years at a Training School in Washington, D.C. Upon release, he was hired as the Superintendent of the Florida School for Boys. the victims were boys that Several years later, i n 1921 Superintendent McClane and his assistant, Mr. Garrard purchased hogs and land adjacent to the school using state funds, then cleared the land and began cultivating it with child labor from the s chool The timber and products from the land were then sold back to the institution presumably to aid with the fuel needs by the brick making plant Ultimately after the State had paid them $9 ,320.33 for wood both were terminated. development and revenue of the institution most notably brick making and publishing In 1906, the school built a brick making machine that produce d more than 20,000 bricks a day, enough to sell throughout the community. Captain J.W. Keho e ran the brick making business and had been one of the original donor s who gave $50 to help bri ng the institution t o the area. Originally Kehoe made 60,000 soft red brick s successful Evidence of the brick industry is evident today on the landscape where visits to the site revealed evidence of where clay deposits were dug on the s outh side of the school (Figure s 2 4) Quickly, the s chool reported earnings from selling the bricks, as well as selling the timber, cotton, and the hiring out of child labor The school made bricks were also used to build many of the buildings that are stil l on t he grounds today and were recovered in some of the burial shafts excavated at the Boot Hill Cemetery Figure 2 School made bricks were found in several of the trenches dug in the Boot Hill Cemetery (USF 2012)

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 13 Figure 3 Overview of southern end of south school illustrating the brick making plant in the background (#9). Image originally published in The Light v. 3, no. 1. Figure 4 Bricks made by students were used to constr uct the buildings at the school. This building is the laundry/electoral building constructed in 1914.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 14 The second notable industry arose when the school boug ht a printing press and created it s first publication a school newspaper called The Light ( Figure 5) After the development of the printing department, nearly all paper materials for the State government in Tallahassee began to be printed at the school The printing industry at the school quickly generated more than $250,000.00 in revenue In a letter from Superintendent Vanl andingham (July 1, 1926) on the issue o f constructing a printing plant he wrote that it was: order that they may leave the school prepared to earn a living; second to do all of printing at a saving to t he tax payers The school paper later changed its name to the Yellow Jacket and on October 11, 1930 the first paper under the new name was published. The Yellow Jacket had a circulation of more than 1700 papers and was the primary paper for the region i n its earliest years. Several important articles about the grave yard and school deaths were reported in the Yellow Jacket though not all deaths were reported t here Over time, th e school became the subject of numerous theses and dissertations written by students from Florida State University who conducted research and ethnographic interviews with employees at the school ( i.e., Morris 1949, Edwards 1968, and Lundrigan 1975). Today, these resources have been very valuable in providing documented first hand accounts of events that occurred as early as the 1914 fire which resulted in twelve reported deaths These documents were created with the approval and participation of various FIS superintendents at the time (i.e., Superintendants Davidson, Dozier, and Williams). As such, the students were provided access to institutional materials and contacts well beyond what is available today The documents in some cases (i.e. Edwards 1968 ) were transformed into train ing materials for the institution. Edwards (1968) became the official narrative of the school and was used for many decades detailing some of the history of the institution although it only discusses four specific boys who died at the school The narratives and specific details about historical events printed in these sources are the same stories repeated today and overall have consistent themes. ed create the first ne wspaper, The Light as illustrated with some of the first editions in 1920.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 15 For example, one consistent theme through out these documents is early history was highly problematic but in contrast, by the 1940s and beyond major reformations occurred and the school was finally able to live up to its o riginal intent. Reformations included: racial desegregation and the hiring of black personnel, mental health treatment provisions, and plans/programs for helping youth integra te into the communit y. Lundrigan (1975 :iv) wrote about the changes to the institution during 1946 19 67 Black personnel were hired a s teachers and houseparents for the first time communities began; creation of the new Division of Child training School in 1957 also provided for the Okeechobee branch school which opened in 1 adopted; and by 1966 racial desegregation was accomplished In an interview with Superintendent A rthur Dozier conducted by a graduate student from Florida State University ( Morris 1949) Dozier described how the school had been transformed from a prison and labor camp into an industrial school (Figure 6 ) Dozier described the situation (as paraphrased in Morris 1949) as developing many of its policies and measures in reaction to runaways. He describes the lock windows and doors, and armed security guards who carrie d guns. There was also a school jail known as the where boys slept on plank s without sunlight (Morris 1949:3). Dozier told Morris that these practi c es were aba n system which was implement e d in 1931 (Morris 1949 : 4). for publicity materials about the achievements and reformations of the school in becoming a training center Both found in the Florida State Archives (Florida School for Boys, 1958; Florida School for Boys, Administrative Records).

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 16 Despite the overall refo rms and new educational and developmental programs that were created in the 1950 1960s and lead to significant improvements, the school was still subject to negative reviews from state investigative committees, congressional hearings, and public opinion. Reports of brutal beatings, maltreatment, and isolation continued to surface by employees of the school, psychologists, and politicians. In 1957 Miss Addie Summers was hired as media relations specialist to help combat the negative publicity. Her scrapbook (Figures 7 8 ), is full of articles published throughout Florida and nationally from this time (ca. 1957 19 58 ) and is now in the State Archiv es (Florida School for Boys, Newspaper Clippings) The publicity is overwhelmingly ne I n 2005 men who were former students of the school came together and began to publish their stories about the abuse they experienced at the school and call themselves the White House Boys The information and experiences they shared prompted Governor Charlie Crist to order a special investigation by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) in 2008 2009. Subsequently, s everal investigative reports by the FDLE and later the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice were issued : 1) Office of Executive Investigations ( FDLE 2009, Case No. EI 73 8455) This report is an investigation into the Boot Hill Cemetery to establish who o wned the property during the time the cemetery was in use, to identify individuals buried in the cemetery, and to establish whether any crimes were committed relating to the deaths of those individuals buried at this site. 2) (FDLE 2010, Case No. EI 04 0005). Office of Executive Investigations. 3) Investigation of the Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys and the Jackson Juvenile Offender Center, Marianna, Florida United States Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, December 1, 2011. The current study of Boot Hill Cemetery refers to the first report (FLDE 2009, EI 71 8455) which cites some of the same sources listed here. According to the FDLE report, a record of 81 dea ths occurred and 31 boys were buried at the school Through the course of the current study, the names of additional boys who died at the school were uncovered, as were details on many of the circumstances surrounding the deaths, the history of the institution in regard to its burial practices, and the lo cations of some of the deceased.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 17 Figure 7 Newspaper publicity scrapbook by Miss Addie Summers, 1956 1968, ca. from the State Archives ( Florida School for Boys, Newspaper Clippings ). Figure 8 Inside example of the newspaper articles about school 1956 1958, ca. from the State Archives (Florida School for Boys, Newspaper Clippings).

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 18 R ESEARCH D ESIGN AND M ETHODS The historical information and demographic data summarized here comes from a number of sources including student theses and dissertations (Morris 1949 and Lundrigan 1975) internal administrative documents such as training manuals (Edwards 1969) and personal letters, discharge and inmate record attendance ledgers, legislative notes, biennial institutional reports, newspaper art icles, court documents, coroner reports, newspaper articles, ethnographic interviews, and an investigative report by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE 2009, Case No. EI 73 8455). It is common that historical documents provide information tha t is inconsistent among varied sources or absent all together and that was the case in this study For example, it was common for the dates of death to differ by one or several days between the attendance ledgers and death certificates. Age and nex t of kin information also varied in some instances. In most cases, historical documents were missing or incomplete. Numerous original sources about a single event often varied, including the names and number of decedents. All efforts were made to cross validate data though the use of multiple sources. When differences were found but could not be reconciled through a third source, official sources (i.e. death certificates) were used rather than local sources (i.e. institutional documents). In case s of major discrepancies such as the 1914 fire and 1918 Influenza outbreak data from each source are explained in later sections of the report. Beyond the challenges of working with historical documents, numerous incidents that resulted in deaths lead t o multiple investigations by the school, coroner juries, and state officials. In many instances, each of the investigations lead to different conclusions, including the number of deaths. Moreover, the school records are often in conflict with reports to the state about the number of deaths. Consequently, the number of deaths and the circumstances surroun ding each incident were difficult to quantify. Florida Public Statute 267.12 regarding public lands and property relating to historical resources, allows the D ivision of Historical Resources to issue permits for excavation and surface reconnaissance on state lands to qualified institutions with archaeo logical expertise. We appli ed for a 1A 32 permit for archaeological research at the Historic Boot Hill Cemetery in Marianna, Florida. To comply with that application, we were given permission from the Department of Environmental Protection to access the state lands on which the cemetery is located. The location of the actual interments at the school are not known so they are treated as clandes tine burials. Background research, ethnographic interviews, soil analysis remote sensing, historic imaging, and archaeological methods we re used to locate, document, and map the graves and provide an analysis of who is expected to be buried at FIS and the circumstances of their deaths. G raduate students at the University of South Florida assisted in historical res earch, field methods, and post processing of data and other material s, including: John W. Powell, III, B.S.; Meredith L. Tise, M.A.; Brad I. Lanning, M.A.; Liotta Noche Dowdy, B.S.; Ashley L. Humphries, M.A.; Melissa A Pope, M.A.; Richard Weltz, M. F. S. ; As hley Maxwell, M.A.; Beth Blankenship, B.A., and Cristina Kelbaugh, B. S Fieldwork volunteers from the include Dan McGill, Ja son Brando, Brannon Douglas and Jake Becker S everal outside experts were also consulted T hree of the reports are attached in the appendi c es : a) Associate Medical Examiners for District 13 Dr. Laura Hair, M.D. and Dr. Leszek Chrostowski, M.D.; b) Tampa Fire Investigators Christopher Stone and Al Alcala ; and USF Integrative Biology Dr. Gordon Fox and Jamie Gluvna

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 19 The specific methods used in t his project include the following : 1. R esearch for possible clandestine graves or burial areas includes analys e s of historical images, maps, land assessments, and soil analysis. These materials come from the United Sates Department of Agricul ture, Soil Conservation Service; the US Geological Survey (USGS); the Map Library at the University of South Florida and the University of Florida; Florida State Archives ; and Google Earth 2. The a rchaeological m ethods include r emo te sensing include s ground penetrating radar (GPR) and metal detectors. The site is mapped through the use of a Trimble 5600 Series Reflectorless Laser Total Station (electronic distance measuring device). Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been shown to be an effective and non invasive remote sensing technique for mapping and documenting buried archaeological sites, including cemeteries (Conyers 2004). GPR was used to investigate the area in and around the Boot Hill Cemetery to try to bette r determine the extent of the burials. The surface geology of the area made this investigation somewhat problematic. Clays and loamy clays attenuate or absorb radar energy (Conners and Goodman 1994:53) making the use of GPR problematic in areas containin g extensive amounts of clay. However, in this case, the mixing of the subsurface clays with the sandy loams from the surface allowed radar energy penetration to depths that allowed the grave shafts to be clearly detected. A Geophysical Survey Systems, I nc. (GSSI) SIR 3000 GPR system was used to collect spatial data. The GPR configuration included a 400 MHz antenna mounted in a three wheel cart with distance calibration provided by an on board survey wheel. Eight grids of varying sizes were used to collect the GPR data. The southwest corner of each grid was th e starting point, or grid origin (0, 0). Radar data was collected at 50 cm (20 inch) intervals both diagonally and horizontally across the grid 3000 firmware. The perimeters of the grids were staked at 1 m (3.3 feet) intervals and fiberglass survey ropes were used to establish and maintain the transect rows. A zigzag data collection strategy was used to avoid returning to a single starting point. The GPR time window for all grids was determined to be 60 na noseconds (ns) and the GPR data was collected with the gain (electronic signal enhancement) added to the raw field data. Fieldwork for this project w as carried out over eight trips between 27 February and 16 November 2012. The crew consisted of Estabroo k Kimmerle and Wells (coauthors of this report) and the USF graduate students and volunteers from the Hillsborough County listed above Eight grids of various sizes were established throughout the area to investigate the extent of the s ubsurface anomalies encountered. Grid A was 26 by 30 meters; Grid B was 6 by 14 meters; Grid C was 6 by 9 meters; Grid D was 20 by 14 meters; Grid E was 14 by 12 meters; Grid s G and H were 21 by 15 meters; and Grid I was 4 by 20 meters. Area F was the designation given to the area north of Grid E; this area was not in the area north of Grid B to further investigate anomalies discovered in this area. Grid B radarg r ams were later re collected as Grid D.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 20 Grid location and size w as dependent on the areas that were cleared. Grid direction was dependent on t he locations of the anomalies encountered. The initial grid (Grid A) was off set from the grid created by the metal crosse s standing in the cemetery Prior to data collection, the metal crosses and metal fencing was tagged, removed, and their locations p reserved using 2 inch diameter PVC pipes cut to length. All crosses and fencing w ere returned to their original locations once the data collection was completed. Grids D, E, G H and I were cleared of small trees and understory vegetation by the trustee s at the Jackson County Correctional Facility under the direction of Chief Wayne Lipford Larger trees were allowed to remain standing. Only a very large oak tree in the south central portion of Grid D caused some difficulty during the data collection. All of the GPR data grids were post processed using GPR Slice software (Version 7). The GPR data were converted from their GSSI file format, regained, and processed through a low pass (3x3) filter. These data are presented as individual time slices or as an animated sequence of time slices showing how the anomalies vary by depth. In the color ramp scheme selected, red indicates areas of greater density and blue shows areas of lower reflectivity. Yellow and green represent intermediate density grades. Red regions on the time slices represent locations that reflected more wave energy, and are therefore the strongest indicators of a subsurface anomaly. A Trimble XH Pro GPS device was used to document the location of certain features within or near the grids, including metal crosses, fence posts, trees, and the four corners of each of the grids themselves. Combining the GPS locations of these surface features with the subsurface GPR data can be important when analyzing and attempting to interpret result s of this investigation. Digital photographs were also taken of fieldwork in progress. 3. Soil a nalyses were used to prospect for burial locations. By physically and chemically characterizing soils in the cemetery area, the locations of burial shafts can be determined when compared to adjacent soils. For this analysis, the following methods were used: color determination using Munsell Soil Color Cha rts, soil texture analysis using the gravitation method hydrogen potential (pH) using digital electrodes, acid extractable phosphate characterization using molybdate colorimetry, and soil organic matter using loss on ignition. 4. Demographic data were obtai ned from the attendance ledgers, death certificates, court documents located in the Jackson County Courthouse, and historical newspaper articles. Copies of the death certificates issued were obtained from FDLE and provide additional information on burial location and the cause and manner of death. The FIS attendance ledgers (both sets) are currently housed at the Florida State Archives (.S2256, Vol. 1 7, 18 22, and 31). The years present, as referenced in this report are based on commitment dates. Ledg ers are segregated for w hite and c olored boys. The earliest entry dates for boys is 1912, though they are not systematically and fully recorded until after March 1919 at which time a roll call was taken and an inventory was made of all of the boys who wer e present or were known to have been discharged, paroled, or died. For many of the entries, the ledger states whereabouts at that date were unknown. There were two sets of ledgers maintained, the

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 21 ledgers which documented the names and number of boys present daily and the that provide more information about the boys admitted such as the name, dates of admittance and discharge, dates of attempted escape s, charge or reason for admittance, parents names, sentencing judge, and county of origin. The latest records we were able to access were April 1960. Anything after this date was not public record. Statistical methods were run in SPSS 20.0. 5. Ethnographi c and ethnohistorical research including, ethnographic interview, oral history, casual conversations, participant observation (such as site visits to the school and surrounding town and community), mapping, creation of a database of photographs, and archiv al work were carried out between January 2012 and November 2012 by USF faculty and graduate student researchers including the coauthors of this report (Kimmerle, Estabrook, Wells, and Jackson) and Brad Lanning and John Powell. The ethnohistorical methodol and formulating analysis and the historic method for collecting, verifying, and organizing relevant material. The ethnographic methodology involves the direct collection of d ata from the field via observation or interactive participation with persons being interviewed Additionally, preparation of documentation that was submitted to the USF IRB Board for approval was initiated by Kimmerle and Jackson with the help of Meredith Main, a USF graduate student. IRB approval of the research protocol for conducting oral history was secured. This approval will facilitate ongoing efforts to collect oral history and conduct ethnographic interviews with persons associated with the Dozier School including persons who attended the school, worked at the school, or had other relationship s with the school such as through familial or business connections. Although the list of persons who have been formally interviewed in conjunction with th is st age of the project is underway, it is still in the early phases P reliminary findings have she d significant light on power dynamics within the school system, disparities in access to resources, job assignments, and education across race ; and the overall social cultural landscape of the Dozier school and surrounding community both historically and p resently. The day to day activities, simple routines that included sleep, school, work, leisure, family visits, and meal time all r a n by the clock. Interviews with former employees and residents of the school are starting to expand upon daily rituals, ro utines, and expectations. They also show how daily routine in the case of the Dozier School served to mask other routines and rituals such as a punishment and surveillance, which was a constant threat for all boys. Preliminary ethnographic research under scores the difficulty in recruiting and interviewing persons that have suffered severe abuse or witnessed such acts because emotions generated by the shame, guilt, fear, anger, and powerlessness of such an unsettling experience are often the primary focus of the interview.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 22 S TRUCTURING A F RAMEWORK FOR I NTERPRETATION AND A NALY SIS This is a mixed/multi method research study drawing upon forensic anthropology, archaeology, and cultural anthropology to document the Boot Hill Cemetery and the former Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys and associated communities. Theories and methods of a rchaeology of the contemporary present (Buchli and Lucas 2001), as well as theories and methods of cultural anthropology, including the ethnographic method aimed at interpreting the present are useful in this application. Developing interpretations at this intersection of approaches to knowing equips future generations with dynamic and expanded ways of talking about history. Jackson (2011) stresses the importance of retrieving subju gated knowledges as a critical aspect of any project focused on transcendin g the status quo and critiquing power in the construction of race, gender, class, and practices of criminalization and punishment for example. Although subjugated knowledges can be found within the historical record, they can also be embodied within indivi duals and communities that have typically been ignored or disproportionately represented as peripheral (Collins 1991; Foucault 1980). Interviewing former residents of the school and their families as well as former workers and others can expand informatio n about people, processes, and daily activities at the school and challenge long held characterizations and reveal untold stories that could help shed light on burial sites/practices and punishment methods that can bring closure to families and educate tho se in positions of authority over youth in state custody and care presently and in the future. Methodological questions posed by archaeologists, such as those focused on what is o uncover or make visible what has previously been left out or ignored Buchli and Lucas 2001; Wilke 2001). Just as it is critical to include oral history and ethnographic interview to reinterpret the cemetery at the fo rmer Dozier School, so too is the importance of incorporating archaeological tools and methods that make available knowledge that cannot be spoken graves, building remains, tools, bone fragments, and soil samples but invite discussion. Going forward, th e research on Boot Hill Cemetery could invite discussions aimed at extending the dialog on race and racialization to include segregation, punishment and reformation at the former Dozier School for Boys in Marianna, Florida For example, refer to the work of Orser ( 2007 ) who uses material culture findings/excavations such as the archeology of a crowded Irish tenement in New York, to look at the concept of racialization and to show how immigrants negotiated discrimination in their new home country

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 23 D EFINING THE C EMETERY One of the initial primary tasks was to determine how people used and accessed the cemetery prior to 1960. Among the boys for whom burial location was recorded in either the school ledgers or on death certificates the location s are listed as : Cemete However no cemetery name or specific location for the cemetery is provided among these sources The first reference The Yellow Jacket in a 1936 article titled This article was a story about the Boot Hill cemetery in Dodge City, Kansas, and does not reference any deaths or burials at FIS It appears that thi s article may have been the basis for the cemetery on the h ill of the n orth compound to begin to be by the boys who were committed to the school Th e Yellow Jacket again in December 1947 in an obitu ary written for the school peacock Sue. Edwards (1968) also writes in regards to the peacock and cites the obituary in his training manual for the school, Edwards 1968:36) Edwards further wrote (1968 :36): was the director of the c olored c ampus, he had the Boy Scouts clean up and maintain Boot Hill. He was also responsible for the making of 31 cement cro sses and having them placed on each grave. Former student Johnnie Walthour ( Interview May 9, 2012 ) who was at FIS from 1951 19 52 helped dig the grave of Billey Jackson a 1 3 year old African American boy who died in 1952. According to an interview with Mr. Walthour he and Jackson had become friends in the months prior to mainly as Walthour would defend Jackson from bullies He stated that from the dining hall on the n orth campu s, one could look up the hill and see the cemetery placed on the hill top which he said every one referred to as A ccess to the cemetery was on a field road to the eas t of the dining hall, which ran N orth West to the cemetery (Figure s 9 and 10 ) According to Walthour, access to the site was a tract or pulled cart (Figure 11 ). The boys would pile into the back to drive around the farm or up to Boot Hill. Walthour furthe r described the cemetery as large and situated in a wide open field. He said that none of the graves had markers but that there was a fence and gate leading into the area and depressions indicating older graves In addition to Jackson, Walthour stated that there were two more deaths during his time at the school that resulted in burials on Boot Hill. One funeral he witnessed when he saw people at the burial ground from the dining hall and the second funeral he pa r ticipated in by helping to dig the grave for a c olored boy whose name he did not remember Note that we did not find a written record of any deaths during this time other than Jackson. However, two additional deaths and burials at Boot Hill in 1951 52 were confirmed in a second interview with a former student, Woodrow Williams ( Interview November 8 2012) and may be evident in a photograph obtained from the State Archives

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 24 Williams (Interview November 8, 2012) stated that he was at the funeral of Bill ey Jackson and remembered him because he was small, always getting bullied and had been missing prior to his death. Both Walthour and Williams believe that Jackson was beaten prior to being hospitalized before his death which may have contributed to his d eath. Further discussion of A photograph ( Figure 12 ) Neither Walthour nor Williams recognize d anyone in the photograph nor did they remember a large crowd or photographer at If there were additional deaths and burials at FIS in the early 1950s as described, this photo may be from one of those funerals. What Walthour remembered most viv i d ly he said was the box a coffin in the back of the cart (Interview May 9, 2012 ) Walthour said that there was a minister present, but did not recall Jack with Jackson Figure 9 Picture of n orth department The road going north to Boot Hill Cemetery is positioned on the East side of the dining hall. Digital image found via the Florida Memory Project, Image Number LC397, original transparency damaged.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 25 Figure 10. Dining hall on north campus from construction through modern times, dating 1936, 1950, and 2012. Note that this is the eastern side looking towards the west. The east side of the building was later modified when an addition and door was added. The road going north to the Boot Hill cemetery was just east of this end of the building, but is currently grown over with kudzu and vegetati on. Images from the Florida Memory Project Image Number Pr24649 (top) ; Florida State Archives (Florida School for Boys, Photographs, Box 2 FF 23) (Middle) ; and USF (2012).

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 26 Figure 11. Boys riding in tractor and trailer to work in fields, ca. 1950s from the State Archives (Florida School for Boys, Photographs, Box 1 FF 7). Walthour described this type of tractor and trailer as the means of transport for

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 27 Figure 12 Image obtained from the Florida State Archives (Florida School for Boys, The two member any pictures being taken. Both men said that were two other burials at Boot Hill in 1951 52.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 28 Figure 13 Image of Boot Hill C emetery (USF 2012) In a witness interview with the FDLE (Investigative Report NV 16, EI 73 8453), f ormer superintendent Lenox Williams states the first marke rs erected in the cemetery were white cement crosses Williams had them constructed at the school in 1961 1962 to commemorat e the burials and delineat e the graveyard as a cemetery. Prior to that ti me, the cemetery had not been maintained and no markers existed. making and erecting the crosses as well as maintaining the cemetery. According to Williams, the location and number of crosses were Williams further stated, with regard to the number of crosses According to the FDLE report, in 1980 19 90s, PRIDE (Prison Rehabilitative Industries and Diversified Enterprises Inc.) farmed this area and destroyed a portion of the cemetery during land clearing. In 1996 Superintendent Danny Pate ordered replacement crosses and that the cemetery be cleaned and maintained. The 1960s cement markers were then piled in a wooded area near several large trees. Thirty one replacement metal crosses were erected in rows to again commemorate the graves. Note that these crosses were placed in rows where the 1960s crosses had been (F igure 13 ) The crosses implemented in 1996 by Superintendent Pate are still present

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 29 Figure 14 Image of discarded cement crosses found during an FDLE investigation. Twenty eight crosses were recovered piled in a wooded area adjacent to where the marke rs are located today. These images come from the FDLE report (2009). today (Figure 14 ). the number of children buried there (FDLE 2009). During the course of its in v estigation, the FDLE found two piles of discarded cement crosses (20 yards apart from each other) 30 yards north of the cemetery. These crosses were broken but could be reconstructed into a minimum of 28 crosses approximately 48 x 18 inches in size. In 20 08, FDLE had the crosses removed from the site. During the course of the current investigation, additional cement cross fragments were found throughout the eastern wooded area and buried just below the ground surface The earliest written documentation o f the specific location of a cemetery on the school property that we found was a topographic map (1947) and a survey map (1952). Both of these historic maps (Figures 15) outline a cemetery (not named) on emetery. A small structure is evident just north of the cemetery on the 1952 map, which was located through our field investigations and is today the remnants of a water pump (Figure 16). According to witnesses from the 1914 fire in which there were 12 re ported deaths, the bodies were burned beyond recognition and buried on the school grounds. In a 1972 interview of FIS employees, Lundrigan (197 5 ) reports that the v ictims of the fire were buried on top of a hill on the n orth side of the school, in an area In an interview with a former employee grown over by kudzu with crosses knocked over. He helped clear the area and erect new crosses. T oday, t he northern cemetery is surrounded by cedar trees. The dates of the trees are unknown. Efforts were made to date the trees by USF biologists however datin g was not possible, refer to the Appendix.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 30 It is not clear if B oot Hill and Cedar Hill are the same location. There have been many reports of a second burial ground, separating white and colored boys. These reports put the burials for white boys on the south side or white school and there is a hill behind industrial buildings with planted cedar trees on the south side. This location is the only known place on the south campus with planted cedar trees. In contrast, many aspects of the farm on the north side are marked by planted cedar trees, in addition to the Boot Hill location. Figure 15 Topographic map of Florida Industrial School for Boys (1952) which marks the Boot Hill cemetery. Also note, the marker of small structure or building just north of the cemetery.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 31 F igure 16 Cement slab, tiles, bricks, and plumbing confirm the presence of a water pump in an area that was once used for animals L ocation is same as marked building on topographic map (1952) just north of marked cemetery (USF 2012) S INGLE V M ULTIPLE B URIAL A REAS One of the research questions is whether or not there is more than one burial area at the school During the course of this investigation, information about possible additional burial areas outside of the Boot Hill area surfaced. Evidence for more than one burial area include s eyewitness statements, oral tradition, historic imaging, and the practices and laws of segregation. Among the additional areas reported to have burials, are locations on both the north and s outh schools Among reported areas on the n orth is the field north of the current Boot Hill cemetery a reported grave near the sawmill and slaughter house on the farm, an area within the agricultural fields surrounding the school, and a series of four graves behind the staff cottages. These locations are based on oral tradition shared by current Jackso n county employees, Marianna residents, and former students committed to the school. The o nly first hand account of a burial location is near the sawmill which is reported by a former student who states he helped dig the grave. The other locations are pr ovided by persons who have heard stories about the additional burial areas. Addit ionally, numerous areas on the s outh property were described as having an ac tual burial ground with multiple burials in rows Eyewitness reports vary in terms of the s pecific location and whether or not the burials were marked by crosses. The areas of interest include a wooded area along a prior road and fence line south of the d ining h all a wooded area along the s outhern property just north of the swamp (Figure 17 ), the hilltop marked by cedars and the

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 32 bachelor cottages behind the maint e n ance buildings, the open grass area behind a building called the White House, an area under the swimming pool near the gymnasium, and the southern swamp areas. This information comes from a variety of sources including eyewitness accounts by family members of boys buried at the school who were shown graves by employees, historic imaging published by a Marianna historian (Cox 2008 ), and former students who were committed to the school and either saw a graveyard or heard reports of boys disappearing into the swamps and fields by employees or local residents While conclusive evidence to definitively establish the existence and location of additional burial areas at the school other than the Boot Hill location has not yet been located, there wa s sufficient evidence establishing the likelihood of such areas, particularly on the s outhern property, to warrant searching for additional burial areas. Specifically, family members of boys buried at FIS and former inmates stated they saw burials in this location and that they were shown graves by employees dating back 1941 For example, Ovell Krell is the sister of George Owen Smith, a boy who died and was buried at FIS in January 1941. According to Ms. Krell, she along with her parents visited FIS in 1941, immediately following the discovery of She said that they exited the Administration building along with Superintenden burial ground near a wooded area to the south. Ms. Krell describes this lo cation on the s outh campus and states that there were two row s of graves in front of the woods rave appeared as a fresh mound of dirt at the end of the row. The burial ground had no markers or crosses. There was no evidence that the graves were originally marked burials, as no historic markers, plot maps or information about the specific b urial locations have been found for any location including Boot Hill. In an interview with a former student the school, Philip M archesani ( Interview June 2, 2012 ), he recounted having seen boxes of letters from parents inquiring about their children, letters to the children themse lves, and m aps of the school stored in the chapel He stated that the maps were marked with two separate burial areas. In the course of the FDLE investigation, they did obtain boxes of lette rs from families from the chapel however it is not known whether such maps were recovered. Subsequently these m aterials have been destroyed and are therefore not available for review. In addition, a erial photographs dating from 1940 48 indicate a unique anomaly in an area on the s outh campus (Cox 2008). The image and area of interest provided by Cox was superimposed with an historic image of the school, the red circle was made by Cox who stated it was evidence of a burial ground and headstones prior to 1940 (Figure 17) Furthermore, it would have been co mmon, prior to integration, for whites and coloreds to be buried in separate or segregated cemeteries. Since these sources of information about multiple burial areas, particularly with regard to the southern grounds of the school were all independent of one another and consistent with the practice of segregation in the South we believe it i s prudent to search the additional areas for other burials Explorati on on the south campus is ongoing and falls under archaeological permit number ( 1213.018 ) which w ill be summarized in a subsequent report.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 33 Figure 17 1948 aerial photograph of the Florida Industrial School for Boys image obtained from the UF Digital Archive Library). The light rectangular area and red circle is an overlaid image obtained from Cox (2008) which hi ghlights a marked bur ial area on the grounds of the south s chool, No. 1.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 34 A RCHAEOLOGICAL F IELD R ESULTS : GPR AND T RENCHING Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) proved to be a useful and accurate tool to locate burial shafts at this site, as was confirmed by soil chemistry and trenching. To display the processed radar data, a series of 30 horizontal or plan view timeslices were creat ed for each grid, which show depths from the ground surface to 2.7 m below ground surface. For all grids, each timeslice spans a depth of roughly 13 14 centimeters ( cm ) and the timeslices overlap each other by 4 to 5 cm. For example, the first timeslice displays the depth from 0 13 cm, and the second displays 9 23 cm. Therefore, both timeslices are approximately 13 cm thick and their overlap is 4 cm. All timeslices are displayed in the appendix to this report. The most informative timeslices generated for the Boot Hill Cemetery where those associated with depths of .92 to 1.24 m below ground surface. The timeslices above this level (0 to 0 .9 m below surface) contained tree roots and buried debris, especially in the formerly uncleared wooded areas. Gr ound disturbance from agricultural plowing discing for planting crops and clearing vegetation was also noted in the exploratory trenches. Levels below 1.25 m below surface, especially Grids G and H, show clear indications of signal attenuation resulting from high amount s of clay and moisture in the soil. An evaluation of the combined timeslices from the .92 to 1.24 m levels included the grids designated as IB 11, 12, and 13. These timeslices were used to identify subsurface anomalies that the ground tru thing in the exploratory trenches has shown to be probable grave shafts or possible grave shafts. As shown in Figure 18 these data indicate the presence of 35 probable grave shafts and 15 possible grave shafts within the proposed cemetery boundaries (Tab le 1) There are several large anomalies along the western proposed cemetery boundary. Although these anomalies have fairly large and reflective signatures, an exploratory trench (Trench C) excavated in this area failed to identify any evidence of grave shafts or possible grave shafts associated with these signatures. Rather, it is likely that those anomalies are associated with the historical road that provided access to the site, an observation supported by the current existence of fence posts and barbe d wire marking that linear area. The cemetery appears to be roughly 23 m (75 feet) east/west by 30 m (100 ft) north/south (Figure 19) The cemetery is oriented north south with the graves oriented west east. The cemetery appears to have established rows, with some evidence for lanes or separations between rows of graves. There is no indication of racial segregation or separation of the graves into different areas suggesting that the cemetery is not segregated by race/ethnicity. Figure 19 shows the area north of the crosses as it is beginning to be cleared and afterwards. The red flags represent the areas GPR imaging shows anomalies consistent with burial shafts as detected in the field. Table 1 Minimum Number of Burials Estimated through GPR Analysis and Trench Data Probable Grave Shafts n=3 5 Possible Grave Shafts n=15 Minimum Number of Grave Shafts n= 50

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 35 Figure 18 GPR plot of Boot Hill Cemetery.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 36 Figure 19 Top: Wooded area north of marked cemetery, area beginning to be cleared to search for burials. Bottom: Flags mark areas of anomalies noted with GPR, probable grave shafts (USF 2012)

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 37 The existing fencing and metal crosses do delineate the southwest corner of the proposed cemetery boundaries. This area contained some of the most well defined GPR reflections and the most pronounced disturbed exploratory trench soil profiles, especially those identified in Trench A. This suggests that the southern portion of the cemetery is the most recent, and likely the area most commonl y associated with burials when the original concrete crosses where installed in the 1960s. To evaluate the subsurface anom alies detected through GPR, six test trenches were excavated (Figure 20 ) Each trench was 0.5 m wide and 0.5 m deep. Trench F was only 0.25 m deep. The length of the trenches varied between 2 9 m in the N S direction. This method allowed for the visualization of soil stratigraphy and soil sampling for chemical analysis. Additional soil probing and metal detectors were also used. The trenches were placed in grids A, B, and G. The trenches were l ettered sequentially A F (Table 2 ). Trench F indicated the presence of one burial shaft, while trenches A B and D E indicated the presence of two or more burial shafts. Trenc h C did not show any burial shafts. The soil in Trench C was very dense and compact, and was placed 4 m from the western edge of the fence along the current cemetery. All of the burial shafts uncovered were orientated in the west east direction and were relatively evenly spaced apart. Several artifacts were found within the trenches including a fragmented glass cola bottle, fragmented cement crosses from the original 1960s crosses, iron nail fragments, and red bricks (Figures 22 2 6 ) The glass and cement cross fragments were found in Trench A approximately 0.5 m deep. date from ca. 1917 to the early 1940s (Ellis and Wiseman, per s comm). Along the northern edges of the burial shaf ts in Trenches B and D, fragmented red bricks were found stacked in rows. Trenches B and D also yielded nails approximately 0.5 m below the surface. A list of the recovered and collected artifacts is provided in Table 3. Fragments of the crosses were lef t in the field. Also the items picture d in Fig ures 25 and 26 were left buried in situ Table 2 List of I dentified B urial S hafts per T rench Trench Dimension Grid Number of Burial Shafts Observed in Soil Profiles A 0.5m x 2m A 3 B 0.5m x 5m B/D 3 C 0.5m x 4m A 0 D 0.5m x 9m B/D 4 E 0.5m x 2m G 2 F 0.5m x 2m F 1 G 0.5m x 2m Outside Grid A 1

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 38 Figure 20 Map of field area surrounding B oot H ill Cemetery, including points of reference, recovered artifacts, tree core samples (indicated by the red circles around trees) and current markers.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 39 Figure 21 Excavated Trench A differences in soil color and stratigraphy confirm GPR anomalies as burial shafts. Figure 22 Bricks stacked next to burial shaft in Trench D

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 40 Figure 23 Close up photograph of brick fragments in burial shaft Trench D Figure 24 Trench F illustrating soil profile of burial shaft and brick fragments just below plow zone, approximately 20 cm deep.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 41 Figure 25 ttle fragments found in Trench A Horizon B. Glass bottles date ca. 1917 early1940s (Ellis and Wiseman, per s comm) Figure 26 Cement cross fragment found in Trench A Horizon B.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 42 Table 3. List of A rtifacts R etained for F urther S tudy Item Number Type of Item Location 1 Ceramic rim sherd Trench B 2 Nail U shaped Trench B 3 Wood stick 30 cm long, possible fence Top 10 cm topsoil, Trench C 4 Glass clear, sharp edges, 3 x 3cm Top 15cm of topsoil, Trench C 5 Brick fragment Trench B 149cm from South wall, 15cm from West wall, 25cm below surface 6 White, glazed pot sherd Trench B 35cm from West wall, 139cm from South wall, 22cm depth from surface 7 White, glazed pot sherd iron stone Trench B 11cm from West wall, 173cm from South wall, 31cm from surface level 8 Charcoal Trench B 67cm from South wall, 10cm from West wall, 28cm down between clay and topsoil 9 Charcoal Trench D, 110cm (S N) East wall, 43cm deep 10 Charcoal Trench D, 160cm (S N) East wall, 39cm deep and on floor 11 Small brick fragment Trench D, 140cm (S N) on floor of East wall 12 Brick area/row Trench D, extending from West to East wall at 4m, 18cm deep below surface 13 Small brick fragment Trench D, on n orth wall 14 Glass Trench D, on the floor below n orth wall, 15cm (E W) 15 Brick fragments and nails, less than 7 brick fragments and 3 bent nails Trench D 16 Brick and cement Ground surface of north woods under large oak 17 Cement brick Pump house

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 43 S OIL A NALYSIS A variety of physical and chemical analyses were conducted on soil s amples from the cemetery to determine the extent to which observations made in the field regarding variations in the soil profile reflect actual compositional differences among soils. Specifically, the soil profile revealed a mollic epipedon with a defined A B horizon sequence be neath Cross 7 and Cross 8. However, between the crosses, the horizon ation is not evident, suggesting so me form of disturbance (Figure 27 ). This observation was evaluated through analysis of six soil samples collected from areas directly beneath metal crosses (n=4) as well as between them (n=2). Analyses included color determination soil texture analysis, hydrogen potential (pH), acid extract able phosphate characterization, and soil organic matter. If the disturbed soil from between the crosses is compositionally distinct from thos e directly beneath the crosses then there should be slight differences in color and pH between the disturbed and undisturbed contexts, higher clay percent in the disturbed soils, elevated phosphates in the disturbed soils and higher soil organic matter in the disturbed soils. These expectations are based on the premise that the disturbed soil between the crosses re flect s mixing of A and B horizons Approximately 100 g of soil were collected from defined A ( 15 m below ground surface) and B ( 40 m below ground surface) horizons under Cross 7 and Cross 8. In the area between the crosses (a mottled B horizon) where there was no definable horizon ation apart from a thin, poorly developed A horizon samples were collected at 25 m below ground surface from mottled soils. All samples were collected with a stainless steel trowel, cleaned with water between sample collect ions. Samples were placed directly into sterilized, phosphate free plastic bags (Whirlpak), and transported to the Laboratory for Archaeological Soils Research in the Department of Anthropology at the University of South Florida, Tampa. The bags were left open for 24 hours to air dry, and then sieved through a 0 02 m stainless steel mesh screen to remove rocks and organics. Soil color was determined with the use of Munse ll Soil Color Charts, observed in wet ( 1 g / 1 ml) conditions. Soil texture was determ ined using the gravitation method, where sediments were mixed with deionized water in specialized gravitation tubes and the separates (sand, silt, and clay) were allowed to settle at different rates. Hydrogen potential (pH) was determined on a 5.00 mg soi l / 10 ml DI H2O solution using a calibrated digital pH meter (with automatic buffer recognition and temperature compensation). Phosphates (PO 4 P, and P 2 O 5 ) were determined using molybdate colorimetry. For this analysis, a 2.0 g portion was selected from each sample and mixed with 20 ml of dilute Mehlich II acid. Samples were placed in test tubes and mixed on an orbital benchtop shaker at 200 rpm for five minutes. The sediment grains were then filtered out of solution and into a sterilized glass scintillation vial using quantitative grade ashless (0.007 percent) filter paper and an acetone rinsed glass funnel. The contents of a Phos Ver 3 powder pillow were added to the solution and agitated until it dissolved (approximat ely one minute), and then allowed to stand for two minutes. A DR/890 colorimeter was used to quantify the concentration of phosphates in solution. O il organic matter was determined using the loss on ignition method. For this analysis, 10.00 g of the samp le was placed into a porcelain crucible, dried in an oven at 100C for 2 hours to drive off extant moisture, and then ashed in a muffle furnace for 1 hour at 550C to incinerate the organic matter. Weights of the sample before and after the process were co mpared to determine the percentage of organic matter in the sample.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 44 Figure 27 Soil profile as exposed by the north to south trench, showing horizonation beneath Cross 7 and mottled soils adjacent to it (A = loam, B = silt loam, mottled soils = sandy loam). The results of these analyses appear in Table 4 and Figures 28 31 The results show slight color and pH differences between the disturbed and undisturbed soils although these are not statistically significant (Mann Whitney, p = .36 for pH). However, from Figure 18 it is clear that the undisturbed soils have a much greater range of variability in pH compared to the disturbed soils. This is understandable given that pH in this plot reflects both A and B horizons for undisturb ed soils. Soil texture does not appear to vary (Mann Whitney, p = .64[sand], 1.0[silt], .62[clay]), and phosphates are only slightly higher in the disturbed soils (Mann Whitney, p = 1.0[PO 4 ], .81[P], 1.0[P 2 O 5 ]). Again, these findings are expected, given the mixed nature of the disturbed soils, which retain the characteristics of both A and B horizons. Finally, soil organic matter is nearly significantly different between the disturbed and undisturbed contexts (Mann Whitney, p = 0.06). Based on the results of the se analyses, it is hypothesized that the disturbance between crosses 7 and 8 likely represents the burial shaft of a gravesite. If this hypothesis is supported for other areas of the cemetery through future investigation s then it would suggest that the crosses do not mark individual gravesites and that the gravesites are adjacent to the marked locations. Table 4. Soil Analysis Results

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 45 Figure 28 Boxplot comparing texture (soil separates) between cross and shaft soils. Figure 29 Boxplot comparing phosphates between cross and shaft soils

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 46 Figure 30 Boxplot comparing hydrogen potential (pH) between cross and shaft soils. Figure 31 Boxplot comparing soil organic matter between cross and shaft soils.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 47 E STIMATING THE N UMBER OF D EATHS AND E XPECTED B URIALS Considering all sources of information, it is estimated that there are a minimum of 98 documented deaths dating from 1911 1973 and reviewed here Compiling a list of boys who multiple reports about various events that resulted in different conclusions and records are incomplete. Informa tion on the burial location s were recorded for 65 of these individuals (34 burials at the school and 31 bodies shipped away) leaving the disposition of 2 2 cases unknown. Within the school ledgers, there is a record of only 49 deaths occurring at the scho ol including eight burials at the school; 17 cases where bodies were shipped home after death; and 24 boys without a listed burial location (Table 5 ) Additional sources of information on the names and circumstances of boys who died include death certific ates, biennial reports, newspaper articles, letters of correspondence and legislative notes. Discrepancies were further observed between what was written in the school ledgers and the official reports provided by the school to the State about the health a nd deaths of boys. Differences in the various sources of information occurs in the majority of the reports and records that were recovered, including those records related to the fire in 1914, the Influenza outbreak of 1918, and biennial reports reviewed from the 1920 50s There are at least 12 deaths that are discussed in reports to the State but the reports do legislative documents and biennial reports, list who died in November 1918 from Influenza and were buried at the school Since the reported death from 1911 is also a case where the nam e of the deceased is unknown but it is cited in the FDLE (2009) report, we included it as well as the 1918 influenza cases in this analysis for consistency, particularly because the burials are also described as located at the school. Th e de death, or burial location. Subsequent Biennial reports often listed fewer deaths than what is listed i n the school ledgers. For example, in the 1921 1923 report by Superintendent Knight, six deaths were reported in the summary tables. Only one of those deaths was discussed in the narrative of the report (as opposed to appearing only in the table within t he demographic tables in the appendix) and was attributed to the Flu/Pneumonia epidemic that struck the colored campus in November 1921 (Figure 32). However, according to the school ledgers, seven deaths occurred in 1921, two of which were attributed to p neumonia in March and April of that year, and both of those boys were white (Table 6). Note also the discrepancies among boys who were issued DC and those for whom deaths were certified by a physician. Table 5 Summary D ata for N umber of G raves at FIS b y A ncestry and D ate A ccording to H istoric R ecords (n=98) Ancestry Buried at School (n) Dates of Burials at School (years) Body Shipped (n) Unknown Burial Location (n) White 1 6 1914 1941 15 6 Colored 18 1915 1952 16 16 Colored 1918* 11 1918 Influenza 0 0 Total 45 1914 1952 31 22 *Records indicate the 11 colored boys who died during this outbreak were buried at the school.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 48 In a second example the report from Superintendent Vanlandingham to the Board of Commissioners dated July 1, 1926 records a total of four deaths: two colored boys who died in 1925 and two more colored boys who died in 1926. However, according to school attendance ledgers, six boys died during this time frame (Table 7 ) including four colored and two white boys. Note that the deaths of the two white boys were not included in the Biennial report. Thomas Curry was one of these boys whose death was not included in the report. Curry was a white boy who died in 1925 after having escaped fro m the school. He died of blunt t rauma. Curry was not listed in the report by Vanlandingham, nor does he appear in the FDLE report (2009). The ledgers with his name and death certificate app ear in Figures ( 33 34 ). Curry was issued a death certificate (DC) by the Coroner from Chattahoochee, L.H. Sanders which was jury: came to his death from a wo burial. Figure 3 2 Excerpt from the 1921 1922 Biennial Report by Superintendent Knight to the Board of Commissions (page 4) discussing the health and death of boys during this time.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 49 Table 6 List of D eaths in 1921 1922 as I ndicated in FIS ledgers Year Name Ancestry Age Circumstances Date of Death 1921 Arthur Williams Colored 12 Unknown 2/26/1921 1921 Wallace Ward White 16 Pneumonia 3/2/1921 1921 Guy Hudson White 16 Drowning 8/14/1921 1921 Sam Morgan White -Unknown 1921 1921 J ohn Williams Colored 15 7/9/1921 1922 Schley Hunter ** White 16 Pneumonia/Influenza 4/15/1922 1922 Calvin Williams Colored 15 Unknown 12/31/1922 *No dea th certificate issued. **D eath certified by Dr. Baltzell. Table 7. List of D eaths in 1925 1926 as I ndicated in FIS L edgers Year Name Ancestry Age Circumstances Date of Death 1925 Edward Fonders Colored 18 Drowning 05/16/1925 1925 Thomas E. Curry White 15 Blunt Trauma 12/11/1925 1925 Walter Askew Colored 12 Unknown 12/18/1925 1926 Nollie Davis White 15 Pneumonia 01/30/1926 1926 Willie Sherman Colored 15 Pneumonia 04/18/1926 1926 George Johnson Colored 10 Pneumonia 08/03/1926 Figure 3 3. Record ledger entries now in the State Archives, for Thomas Curry Note the date of from the institution (Florida School for Boys, Student Ledgers).

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 50 Figure 3 4 Image of death certificate for Thomas Curry.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 51 Summary of boys buried at school, shipped home or with unknown grave locations: White boys/staff buried at the school: twelve (12) burials documented in various sources as having died in the 1914 fire. The remaining four (4) white boys died later in 1922 ( A dministration of Superintendent Knight) and in 1934 1935, 1941 (Administration of Superintendent Davidson). Color ed boys buried at the school: eighteen (18) documented as buried at the school, dating 1919 1952 and an additional eleven (11) boys were buried at the school following the 1918 Influenza outbreak. Note that records of burial locations within the ledgers w ere documented beginning earlier in time (1915) for white boys than for colored boys even though there were more colored boys at the school. Bodies shipped away from school: records indicate 31 bodies were shipped home to families including fifteen (15) white and sixteen (16) colored boys, dating 1915 1973. Unknown burial locations: twenty two (22) unknown burial locations including six (6) white and sixteen (16) colored boys who died between the years 1911 1935. A number of these boys died during the recorded influenza outbreaks and may have been buried with the others who died at these times on school grounds. A mong the boys for whom burial location was recorded in either the school ledgers or on death cer t ificates the location s are or In one case the death ly was not in Marianna. No specific cemetery na me(s) or locations are provided nor i s there a record of whether the school used one or more burial areas during segregation Interestingly, the burial location was unspecified for nearly three tim es more co lored than white boys though all unspecified burial locations occurred prior to 1935. Furthermore, among the sample whose burial locations were unspecified only three (3) were issued death certificates in 1932. The three boys for whom there was a certificate issued all died of Influenza and these deaths were certified by Dr. N. Baltzell the school physician The causes of death for the remaining nineteen (19) boys are undocumented The specific names ages, and circumstances of death by burial location for the boys in our sample are summarized in the following tables (Tables 8 10).

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 52 Table 8 List of individuals doc umented as buried at school (n= 34 named n=45 total ) Date of Death Name Age Ancestry DC Circumstances 11/18/1914 Bennett Evans Adult White No Fire 11/18/1914 Charles Evans Adult White No Fire 11/18/1914 Louis Haffin White No Fire 11/18/1914 Joseph Wethersby 17 White No Fire 11/18/1914 Walter Fisher White No Fire 11/18/1914 Clarence Parrot White No Fire 11/18/1914 Lois Fernandez White No Fire 11/18/1914 Harry Wells White No Fire 11/18/1914 Earl E. Morris White No Fire 11/18/1914 Waldo Drew White No Fire 11/18/1914 Clifford Jeffords 15 White No Fire 11/18/1914 S. Barnett White No Fire 5/9/1919* Leonard Simmons 13 Colored No Unknown 12/12/1920 Nathaniel Sawyer 12 Colored No Unknown 2/26/1921 Arthur Williams 12 Colored No Unknown 4/15/1922 Schley Hunter 16 White Yes Pneumonia/Influenza 12/31/1922 Calvin Williams 15 Colored No Unknown 8/19/1924 Charlie Overstreet 15 Colored Yes Anesthesia Tonsillectomy 5/16/1925 Edward Fonders 18 Colored Yes Drowning 12/18/1925 Walter Askew 12 Colored No Unknown 1/30/1926 Nollie Davis 15 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia 4/8/1929 Robert Rhoden 15 Colored Yes Pneumonia 10/15/1929 Samuel Bethel 16 Colored Yes Pulmonary Tuberculosis 1/5/1932 Lee Smith 17 Colored Yes Traumatic Rupture of Lung 5/9/1932 Joe Stephens 15 Colored Yes Influenza 10/26/1934 Thomas Varnadoe 13 White Yes Lobar Pneumonia 2/23/1935 Richard Nelson 12 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia/Influenza 2/24/1935 Robert Cato 12 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia/Influenza 3/4/1935 Grady Huff 17 White Yes Acute Nephritis/Hernia 4/30/1936 James Hammond 14 Colored Yes Pulmonary Tuberculosis 7/15/1937 Robert Seinous 15 Colored Yes Knife Wounds 1/24/1941 George Owen Smith 14 White No Escaped/ Unknown 8/31/1944 Earl Wilson 12 Colored Yes Blunt Trauma to Head 10/7/1952 Billey Jackson 13 Colored Yes Pyelonephritis *1918 records indicate eleven (11) colored boys died of Influenza and were buried at the school

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 53 Table 9 List of individuals who have documented burials in locations other than the school (n=31) Date of Death Name Age Ancestry DC Circumstances 1915 Scott Martin Colored No Unknown 1915 Granville Rogers Colored No Unknown 1915 Willie Fisher Colored No Unknown 7/19/1915 William McKinley Colored No Unknown 11/25/1920 Alton Long 16 White Yes Pneumonia 7/2/1920 Henry Murphy 16 Colored No Sick/Died at Home 3/2/1921 Wallace Ward 16 White Yes Pneumonia 8/14/1921 Guy Hudson 16 White Yes Drowning 10/25/1923 George Chancey Jr. 6 White Yes Malaria 12/11/1925 Thomas E. Curry 18 White Yes Escaped/Blunt Trauma 8/3/1926 George Johnson 10 Colored Yes Pneumonia 4/18/1926 Willie Sherman 15 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia 5/23/1927 Ernest Mobley 15 Colored No Unknown 10/14/1928 Moses Roberts 15 Colored Yes Malaria 10/19/1929 James C. Ansley 15 White Yes Fire 11/7/1932 Oscar E. Murphy 15 White Yes Escaped/Run over by Automobile 2/11/1932 Lonnie Harrell 14 White Yes Anesthesia Hernia 4/13/1932 Willie Heading 15 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia/Influenza 4/14/1932 Sam Nipper 12 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia/Influenza 4/16/1932 Jesse D. Denson 10 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia/Influenza 5/16/1932 Dary Pender 13 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia/Influenza 5/4/1949 Eddie Albert Black 13 White Yes Blunt Trauma to Head 11/3/1954 Clarence Cunningham 12 Colored Yes Hemorrhaging Endothelioma 1/25/1957 George Fordom Jr. 15 Colored Yes Endothelioma Sarcoma 4/4/1960 Robert J. Hewett 16 White Yes Escaped/Gunshot Wounds to Chest 9/15/1961 Raymond Phillips 17 White Yes Escaped/Gunshot to the Head 7/10/1961 Edgar T. Elton 16 White Yes Dilatation Heart 1965 James Lee Fredere White Yes Escape d / Auto Accident 1966 Alphonse Glover White Yes Drowning 3/15/1966 Michael Smelley 17 White Yes Carcinoma/ Died at Home 1973 Martin Williams Colored Yes Drowning

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 54 Table 10 List of boys for whom burial location is unknown (n=22 total, 1 is unnamed ) Date of Death Name Age Ancestry DC Circumstances 1911 Unknown Name Colored No Unknown 2/28/1916 Sim Williams 18 Colored No Unknown 5/25/1916 Tillman Mohind 17 Colored No Unknown 1916 James Joshua Colored No Unknown 4/16/1918 Thomas Adkins 12 Colored No Unknown 10/6/1918 Lee Gaalsby 13 White No Escape/ Unknown 10/23/1918 George Grissam 6 Colored No Paroled/Unconscious 10/25/1918 Willie Adkins 13 Colored No Unknown 11/4/1918* Llyod Dutton 14 White No Unknown 11/6/1918* Ralph Whiddon 16 White No Unknown 11/6/1918* Hilton Finley 16 White No Unknown 11/8/1918* Puner Warner 16 White No Unknown ca. 1918* Wilber Smith 10 Colored No "Reported Died of Flu" 2/12/1919 Joe Anderson 17 Colored No Unknown 1921 Sam Morgan White No Unknown 7/9/1921 John H. Williams 15 Colored No 12/4/1924 Clifford Miller 15 Colored No Unknown 4/22/1932 Archie J. Shaw Jr. 12 Colored No Influenza 4/21/1932 Lee Underwood 16 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia/Influenza 4/22/1932 Fred Sams 15 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia/Influenza 4/10/1932 James Brinson 12 Colored Yes Lobar Pneumonia/Influenza 3/16/1935 Joshua Backey 14 Colored No Blood Poison *1918 records indicate eleven (11) colored boys died of Influenza in November and were buried at the school The other Flu related deaths at this time may be buried at the school as well.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 55 It is unknown why the burial locations for twenty two ( 22 ) boys are undocumented between 1911 1934 Since school records prior to 1919 we re incomplete as discussed elsewhere in this report, it is unknown whether there were more deaths that occurred prior to this time. However, based on the mortality structure o f the sample and the number of boys that died in the subsequent years it is highly unlikely that there were not additional deaths prior to 1919 By January 1919 there was a record of 28 deaths within the school records or 16 if the fire victims are ex cluded as that was a single mass fatality incident and not indicative of the average mortality rate During the subsequent nineteen year period, 1919 1936, there were 44 more deaths indicating the death rate rose 2.7 times. To account for differences in the size of the student population, given the increasing number of students at the institution, the mortality rate was calculated (enroll ment stat i stics are provided in Lundrigan 1975) On January 3, 1920 there were 102 w hite boys and 211 c olored boys at the school. Up to this date, there had been a total of n=427 w hite boys and n=705 c olored boys committed to the School (n=1,132). By 1960, these numbers rose significantly. By January 6, 1960 there was a total n=336 w hite boys and n=326 c olored boys a t the School, though many more had already passed through the institution: w hite boys (n=3,531), c olored boys (n=11,743), or a total of n=15,274 had been committed to date. Note the difference between the number of white and colored boys. In 1919, the percentage of deaths was 2.5% (28/1132) or slightly less if the fire victims we re excluded (1.4% 16 /1132). However, the total frequency of deaths among the student population by 1960 was 0.62% (77/15274), which suggests that even as the student body grew in size the rate of death did not and therefore, the rate of death increase observed between 1919 and 1936 may be an artifact of under reported deaths prior to 1919. I nterestingly, several administrations had a high er number of deaths occur and also had th e highest numbers of unknown burial locations which may be indicative of changing operational practices or administrative policies over time During the administrations of Superintendents McClane, Boone, and Davidson there was a combined total of 41 deaths, 19 or 46.3% of which did not have recorded burial locations. Superintendent M.S. Knight was elected to the position by the Board of Commissioners August 18, 1921 and served in that position until April 8, 1926. He had been employed at the Flo rida State Hospital (formall y the Florida State Hospital for the Insane which opened in 1876) in Chattahoochee. His daughter (Ola Robinson) and son in law (George Robinson) worked at FIS before and after Knight Robinson was a farmer and superv isor and is listed on Superintendent as well, following Knight. Note that there are several names which appear on the death certificates as informant or under taker. Those listed as informants tend ed to be administrators and the undertakers, when it is listed as FIS, tend to be other employees who worked the grounds or in farming such as Charles Mayo or George Robinson. tenure as Superintendent, nine (9) boys died. Six were buried at FIS (one white boy and five c olored boys), two were shipped hom e and one was not documented. In 1922, Schley Hunter, a 16 year old w hite boy died and was buried at FIS. This is the first recorded burial at FIS since the 1914 fire and occurred un chool As a point of comparison t he State Hospital which Knight worked at prior to FIS also had a large cemetery and its own mortuary The State Hospital has a 27 acre burial ground divided into five cemeteries which is further organized into divisions, rows and plot numbers. The divisions are segregated by sex and ancestry and are contemporaneous but segregated for

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 56 white women, colored women, white men, and colored men (Hunt 2012 ). The divisions were often delineated by roads and fences, although today many have been disturbed by development. In a St. Petersburg Times story (AUGUST 16, 1976) titled, Florida State Hospital cemetery: eff icient, anonymous, the burial practices of the State Hospital are outlined which is a useful comparison for the practices at FIS: CHATTAHOOCHEE Florida State Hospital has enough need for an undertaker to hire one fulltime. The hospital has its own mortuary, fulltime funeral director, mortician and grave yard. The coffins are made on the hospital grounds. So are the tombstones. The graves are dug by inmates from the nearby River Junction state work camp. There are about 6,000 graves at the cemetery 27 acres on a hilltop a couple of miles from the city. There is no sign, no official name and the gate is usually locked. The graves are of Chattahoochee patients who died over the past 45 years. Most of the tombstones carry no names, but a number that ha s meaning only to the few hospital officials with access to confidential patient files. The stigma associated with mental illness led to the confidentiality and numbers not names on the tombstones. The coffins are made from medium grade pine in the h ospital carpentry shop, lined with white muslin stapled to the inside walls and painted battleship gray. Hospital officials have become highly efficient in disposing of their dead. One or two graves are always ready even though there may be no body that particular day for them. When one grave is filled, another is dug a foot away. There are 6,000 graves at the cemetery 27 acres on a hilltop. There is no sign, no official name and the gate is usually locked. Several dozen tombstones are neatly stacked i n a work shed. Families of the patients can arrange burial or leave it to the state, says funeral director Leonard Herring. There is no charge to the family, although it can voluntarily pay about $170. Last year, 216 patients died at the hospital. So far t his year, 105 have died. About one third of them are buried in the hospital cemetery. There is a small chapel at the hospital morgue. Services can be arranged if the families want it. "We do it however they want," Herring said. "We just try to please the family. Most people seem real pleased. We get lots of letters." Funerals are held on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays because that works out best for the prison labor, he said. The chaplain calls shortly after 8 a.m. on each of the days to see if there ar e to be any funerals. Given the practice of segregation at the time and the standard operating practices of the State Mental Hospital from which Knight came, it seems unlikely that Knight would have buried Hunter (a w hite boy ) a mong rows of c olored boys In 1924, Clifford Miller, a 15 year old colored boy, died of an u nknown cause. Miller was also one out of nine boys that died during during this time that does not have a record of where he was buried, nor was a death cer tificate issued. Two other c olored boys (Williams and Askew) also d and were not issued death certificates. In a ll of the other six cases, either Dr. Baltzell or the coroner, L. H. Sanders, provided a cause of death and issued death certificates. This inc ludes Thomas Curry who died of blunt t rauma after escaping. The only other documented cases of w hite boys buried at FIS occur later during the administration of Superintendent Davidson in the years 1934 19 35 ( Thomas V arnadoe a nd Grady H uff ) and in 1941 ( George Owen S mith ). In t wo of the three cases, the family members of Smith and Varnadoe have provide d interviews through this resear ch project and both stated

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 57 they were shown burial areas outside of the Boot Hill C emetery. In 1941, Superintendent Davidson personally showed the Smith famil y a grave on the South side or w hite school (refer to discussion on possible multiple burial areas) thereby demonstrating that the burials were not integrated and that multiple burial locations existed. B URIAL I NFORMATION Information on the burial location of boys who died at the school comes from several sources: the two types of ledgers, d eath certificates, both school and national newspaper articles, Biennial reports, letters of correspondence and legislative minutes Within these sources data most often occurs in one loca tion or another, but rarely in multiple sources For example i n only two ( 2 ) cases we re burial locations known from both death certificates and ledgers (note these cases overlap in the summary tables). The school records should be the primary source of this type of data however entries or no tes that a death occurred is not present in all cases, just as not even the names of all the boys who died is known The St ate of Florida did not require that death certificates ( DC ) be issued until 1917 and in the years following 1917, certificates were still not always issued The first DC related to a boy at the school occurs in 1920 though in the years following 1920 it is varied as to when DC we re issued Discrepancies even occur in years where more than one death occurs In total, we found death certificates for 47 boys. Among these, burial location is provided for 38 individuals and indicates 15 were buried at FIS and 24 were shipped. It is not entirely clear from the data why only some death certificates were issued a fter 1920 though it varies as to when the DC informant was school personnel rather than family. The role of school administrators as informants also varies. Additionally, information about the undertaker, burial location, certification of the death by a school employed doctor (i.e., Dr. N.A. Baltzell or Dr. C. Whitaker), and the cause and manner of death are provided in most cases when death certificates are issued. However d eath certificate information i s not always complete. The first death certificat e that was issued in 1920 was certified by Dr. N.A. Baltzell, a local physician also employed by the school After 1920, DC were not issued in 12 cases including 2 white boys and 10 c olored boys ranging from the years 1920 1941. Among boys for whom DC were not issued after 1920, only 4 have a cause of death listed in the ledgers, including fire, flu, tr auma and blood poison (Table 7). Not a lot of information is known about the notification process to families or the participation of families in funeral s held at the school There are only a few entries in the ledger notes that comment on family notification. For example, the 1919 entry for Leonard Simmons He was bur ied May 9, the same da y he died which would imply that he was buried before the family would have been notified. The only reference we found for a delayed burial was when the flu epidemic struck and there were so many deaths in a short time, that the bodies had to be refrigera ted until the coffins were made (Lundrigan 197 5 ) Notations in the ledgers that indicate bodies were taken to a family by school officials or families came to transport remains are rare but t here are some references in the ledgers about bodies taken home for families, such as Alton Long in 1920, For example:

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 58 Wallace Ward was a 16 year old white boy who was admitted to the school on 1/24/1921 and died less than two month later 3/2/1921 due to Pne umonia The school ledger states, "Body taken by parents Mr. and Mrs. Brady Ward home for burial same day, March 2, 1920". Note the date error in the ledger, which should have been 1921. Among the burials a t the school, we found that most of the deceased were buried either the day of death or the following day. The Smith family had a similar experience in 1941 after the body of George Owen Smith was found under a house in Marianna, Florida (Figure 35) George Owen Smith 9/20/1940. According to his sister, Ms. Ovell Krell (Interview 2012) George escaped from the school and was caught and returned. In a letter he sent his family he said that as a result November 23, 1940 (Florida School for Boys, Student Ledgers: Vol. 4) he ran away again. On 1/24/1941 his remains were found under a house in Marianna. responded. The cause and manner of death are unknown. There was no autopsy nor a death certificate issued. According to school authorities at the time, Smith was not autopsied because his remains were too decomposed. Superintendent Davidson, school employee Arth ur Dozier, school physician Dr. visual recognition of his hair by Mr. Dozier who stat ed that the hair found on the corpse looked like Smith (Jackson Courier 1941). The family went to Marianna to obtain It had been their intention according to his sister Ovell Krell (Interview 2012). Instead, they were shown his grave. Shortly after their visit, the family received a letter (Figures 36 38) stating that a funeral h ad taken place at the school for Smith. Subsequently, in Jackson Courier (Vol. XIV, No. 3, 1941) death it stated that the costs of transp orting the icant and that due to the decomposition of remains, transport was nearly impossible by local undertakers Figure 35. George Owen Smith playing harmonic ca. 1940.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 59 Figure 36 Letter to Smith family about George O. Smith having gone missing from the school. The letter is signed by Superintendent Millar d Davidson.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 60 Figure 37 Letter to the Smith family from the regarding the burial of their son at the school. The letter was sent to the family after they attem pted to claim his remains.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 61 Figure 38 Excerpt from the letter sent by Ms. Krell to the FDLE in 2008 about her (George Owen Smith) death and what she was told occurred the night he ran away from the school

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 62 D EMOGRAPHIC A NALYSIS Table s 8 1 0 provide a list of all the boys who were committed to t he school or were in the custody o f the institution at the time of their deaths the two adults who perished in the fire of 1914 and were buried on the school grounds, and the names of boys who were at the school and transferred home or to a hospital due to illness and subsequently died. The majority of boy s who died w ere on the act ual grounds of the institution; however some died at home or in the hospital having been sick and furloughed or admitted for treatment I n s even (7) cases boys died after having escaped from the school, and in two cases boys were paroled locally and brought bac k to the institution very ill and died within a day of returning The sc The Yellow Jacket has numerous articles about staff that died at the school over the years due to illness ; however they were buried at other locations and are therefore not included in this analysis The two staff members who died in the 1914 fire are discussed because they are reported as having been buried on the school grounds ; however they are not include d in demographic analyses of the boys who were in custody (Figure 39) Among student deaths, ages were obtained for 68 individuals who ranged from 6 18 years old with a mean age of 14 years old (Figure 40 ). Among these 37 (42 .5 %) were whit e and 50 (57.5 %) were colored boys. Throughout its history, the majority of boys at the in stitution were African American. T he high percentage of white deaths is skewed by the fire of 1914 as during that single event, up to 10 w hite boys were killed If this event is removed from the pool, then the percentages of death among w hite boys (25 %) vs. c olored boys (75%) is more consistent with what is expected given the overall demographic structure of the school which was predominately African American throughout the Overall there were more African American boys who died and among those, they tended to be younger in age Figure 39 Y ear of death comparisons among white and c olored boys.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 63 Figure 40 Age at death distributions. The two yo ungest boys who died were both six years old: George Grissam (died 10/23/1918) and George W. Chancey, Jr. (died 10/25/1923). Interestingly, given their ages one was admitted for delinquency and one as a dependent. Chancey died 23 days after arriving at the school His death highlights a trend among those who died in that the mortality risk was high when boys first entered the school. Table 11 illustrates this pattern and summari zes that the twenty ( 20 ) cases w h ere boys died within three months of entering the school. Additionally, both Schley Hunter and George Griss a m had been paroled to local men when they became ill and were returned to the school for medical treatment, although it was too late in these cases and both boys died. George Grissam entered FIS on February 12, 1917 with his eight year old brother Ernst. They were African American boys and despite their ages, both were charged with Delinquency According to the Biennial Report ( January 1, 1921, through January 1, 1923, Biennial Report of the Florida Industrial School for Boys written to the Board of Commissioners of State Institut ions ) the boys were paroled locally and on October 23, 16 months after arriving at FIS, George was brought back to the school unconscious. His burial location is unknown. There is no record of what happened to his brother Ernst, other than the ledger ent

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 64 George W. Chancey, Jr. was a six year old w hite boy who entered FIS on 10/25/1923 for Dependency from Polk County. Twenty three days after arriving at FIS, he died of Malaria shipped home to his father, George, Sr. along with Abraham Hays a 15 year old w hite boy also from Polk County whose charge was also for Dependency. Hays was paroled about a year later on November 28, 1914 to his sister Inez James of Tampa, FL. Any further connection between the boys is unknown. Schley Hunter was admitted when 11 years old on 6/12/1916 and died over 5.5 years later on 04/15/1922. Hunter was charged with Delinquency and sentenced to FIS until He was paroled on 8/31/1921 and later "Returned 4/14/1922, very The death certificate was certified by Dr. N. A. Baltzell, the FIS physician who stated Pneumonia was the cause of death. Hunter was buried at the school cemetery. These examples further illustrate t hat boys who died were both convicted of crimes and dependents During this period of time, children were often paroled for labor or indentured servitude, which may be why they were paroled to local individuals who returned them to the school when they be came ill T he most common charges for which boys in this sample were (n=2). Additiona lly, there were charges of assault, auto theft, concealed weapon, dependency, For twenty one (21) boys, no data was present for the charge or sentence. The general trends appear the same fo r w hite and c olored boys, as delinquency, larceny, and breaking and entering were the highest categories. However, the cases of incorrigibility and running away (non criminal charges) were more frequently assigned to c olored boys. Like George Chancey, a h igh number of boys died a relatively short time after arriving at FIS (Table 11 ) Data on the date of admission was present for 6 4 cases, among whom, 20 or 31.2% died less than 90 days after arriving ( 20/ 6 4 ). Among these, 8 actually died within the first 30 days (nearly 40.0 % of this group). Within this group, all but five were issued death certificates and two were autopsied. According to the death certificates: 7 boys died of infectious disease (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or malaria); 4 boys died of the result of trauma including gunfire and blunt trauma; one boy died following surgery, two from drowning, and one from pylonephritis. Without death certificates, the causes of death for the remaining children are unknown. Note that originally the law stip ulated incarcerati on between 6 months and 4 years but, as discussed earlier, this was changed after school leaders lobbied for ways to increase the number of boys sent to the school. Three boys died after fo ur years of incarceration at the school (>1460 d ays) including Bethel (1929), Hunter (1922), and Morgan (1921). Bethel and Hunter died of infectious diseases ; the cause of Figures 41 42 illustrate the trends of mortality upon entering the school.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 65 Table11 Boys that Died Less than 90 Days after Arriving at FIS (n= 20 ). Name Age Number of Days Date of Death DC Issued Circumstances Thomas Aikins 12 44 4/16/1918 No Unknown Leonard Simmons 13 29 5/09/1919 No Unknown Wallace Ward 16 9 3/2/1921 Yes Pneumonia Guy Hudson 16 30 8/14/1921 Yes Drowning Calvin Williams 15 41 12/31/1922 Yes Unknown George Chancey 6 23 10/25/1923 Yes Malaria Thomas E. Curry 18 25 12/11/1925 Yes Escape/ Blunt trauma Walter Askew 12 23 12/18/1925 No Unknown Willie Sherman 15 20 4/18/1926 Yes Pneumonia Dary Pender 13 38 5/16/1932 Yes Lobar pneumonia/influenza Lonnie Harrell 14 24 2/11/1932 Yes Following anesthesia for a surgical operation Lee Smith 17 68 1/05/1932 Yes Traumatic rupture of long after falling of a mule Thomas Varnadoe 13 34 10/26/1934 Yes Lobar pneumonia/anemia Robert Cato 12 31 2/24/1935 Yes Lobar pneumonia/influenza James Hammond 14 43 4/30/1936 Yes Pulmonary tuberculosis George Owen Smith 14 64 1/24/1941 No Escape/ Unknown Earl Wilson 12 72 8/31/1944 Yes Head injury, blows to the head Billey Jackson 13 63 10/07/1952 Yes Pylonephritis Robert Jerald Hewett 16 13 4/4/1960 Yes Escape/ Gunshot wounds in chest inflicted by person or persons unknown Alphonse Glover -10 -Possible Drowning

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 66 Figure 41 Frequency of days in custody from date of admittance to death.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 67 Figure 42 Number of months in custody from the date of admittance to death by school group The dashed red line is the 48 month mark which was the original maximum term set by the legislature for sentencing that was later changed to 21 years old, or the discretion of the Board of Managers

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 68 Other examples of boys who died shortly after arriving at the school include: Guy H udson was a 16 year old white boy who was committed to the school on 7/15/1921 and subsequently ran away three times: July 18 th 19 th 21 st 22 nd and 27 th (caught the same day). Each time, he was caught and returned to the school. On the third attempt, Hudson appears to have run away with three other boys. One escaped and there is no record of him being caught or returning to FIS. The other two boys were paroled a year later. Hudson drowned 18 days after returning to the school, only 30 days after first arriving to FIS. His body was shipped home to his father for burial according to his death certificate. Alphonse Glover died 10 days after arriving at FIS. Very little is known about Glover as his death occurred in 1966 and the school and death records for him are not public record. In the school training manual, Edwa rds wrote (1968;4 It is unknown at this time if he was autopsied or presumed drowned. The cause and manner of his death are unknown. Thomas Varnadoe at age 13 years was admitted to FIS along with his older brother, Hubert from Brooksville, Florida (Figure 43) death was written about in the school newspaper, The Yellow Jack et The Yellow Jacket November 3, 1934, Vol. V, No. 3). The article states that he was in poor health for many years prior to his death and that the funeral was well attended by a large number of administrato rs and boys from the school. The family of Thomas Varnadoe, including their surviving brother (Joseph Richard Varnadoe ) and nephew (Glen Richard Varnadoe the course of this project (Interview September 4, 2012). The Varnadoe family disagrees with the account written in the Yellow Jacket They state that Thomas was a healthy child and that his death came as a devastating shock to the family who was notified a week after the funeral about his death. Hubert, who was still incarcerated at the time, later told his mother that a minister, a grave digger, and himself were the only people at the funer al. He further told his brother Richard that Thomas was buried near a large tree on the school grounds. Figure 4 3 Image of Hubert and Thomas Varnadoe (age 3 years).

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 69 According to the school newspaper, Dr. C.B. Toombs, Past o r of 1st Pre sbyterian Church of Marianna officiate d the funeral. Over the years, various members of the Varnadoe family and visited the institution on different occasions in order to visit grave though administrators could not actually show them his grave as the graves were not marked On one visit, a school employee showed Glen Varnadoe the Boot Hill cemetery along with a second location and told him that based on time when his uncle died he w as likely buried in a different location than the main burial grounds. Figure 4 4 shows the average yearly number of boys incarcerated plotted against the number of runaways. Data on the number of students and runaways comes from Lundrigan (1975) and begins in 1914 though school opened in 1900. Overall the trend for substantial inmate growth at the institution is evident. Many of the dips in the number of inmates follow events that also resulted in higher mortality rates. For example the population size d ecreases in 1915, 1921, 1927, early 1930s, and 1968 69. These dates are also notable because they follow the fire of 1914, several infectious disease outbreaks, and th e end of segregation and corpor al punishment (late 1960s). It is documented in legislat ive notes for periods that follow ed such events and at times when the institution was over capacity and had more boys than resources to care for them, measures were taken to drastically reduce the number of boys such as releasing mass numbers of boys home to their parents, paroling boys for labor at nearby farms and businesses or transferring them to other institutions. Legislative documents at different times from 1918 through the 1950s state boys wer e released in mass because the s chool lacked resource s to care for the sick or was too over crowded However, several examples are provided where the Board attempted to release a significant number of boys at various times upwards of 80 100 boys at once but families could not be located as the boys were dependents. Figure 4 4 Number of total students over time plotted against the frequency of escapees.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 70 Table 10 List of Boys that Died Following Escape (n=7 ). Name Age Date of Death DC Circumstances Superintendent Lee Gaalsby 13 10/6/1918 No Unknown Thomas E. Curry 15 12/11/1925 Yes Blunt Trauma Oscar Elvis Murphy 15 10/7/1932 Yes Hit by Car George Owen Smith 14 1/24/1941 No Unknown Robert Jerald Hewett 16 4/4/1960 Yes Gunshot Wounds Raymond A. Phillips 17 9/15/1961 Yes Gunshot Wound Fulford Knight Davidson Davidson Dozier Dozier James Lee Fredere -1966 -Auto Accident Williams Following the Influenza outbreak in 1918, there are numerous ledger entries that state home is not known. There is one ledger entry later in time (1920) that does indicate Henry Murphy died after bei ng furloughed home due to illness however his exact illness and the specific circumstances are not known, no death certificate was issued and the assumption is that he was buried at home by his family. Henry Murphy was a 16 year old colored boy who was admitted to the school on 10/23/1919. Murphy was sentenced for incorrigibility for a term of one year. Almost immediately after arriving at the school he ran away on 11/1/1919 and then returned twenty eight days lat er. The circumstances of his escape are not known. The ledger states "Died at home, furloughed to mother because sick". His home was Palm Beach and according to school records he died on 7/2/1920, less than a year after first being committed to FIS Th e discharge ledgers provide a detailed accounting of boys on a daily basis with a head The record ledgers also list dat es of escapes and returns to the school. Based on the record ledgers, data for runaways was surveyed but was so prevalent it was beyond the scope of this analysis to summarize. However, seven cases were found in which boys escaped and died (Table 1 2 ) Records in dicate that among our sample, 17 or 26.5 % had escaped at least once. Five of these boys had escaped more than once and were returned to the school. Within the se cases, ten (10) boys are white and six (6) boys are c olored. In addition to Smith who was discussed previously, these boys also died after running away: Lee Gaalsby was a 13 year old white boy who was committed to the school for delinquency on 4/26/1918 from Hillsborough County. Gaalsby ran away on 10/6/1918 and died that day from an unknown cause. The ledger only stated that he escaped and died. There is no record of the cause of death or location of burial. Thomas Curry was a 15 year old white boy who died on December 11, 1925. According the school ledger, Curry was admitted to FIS on 11/12/1925, twenty nine days prior to his death. He h ad been sentenced to FIS for D e l i n quency from Dade County, He ran away from the school on December 10. The ledger entry states, "Killed on RR Bridge Chattahoochee, Fla." His death certificate

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 71 Sanders, Coroner]: came to his death from a wound to the forehead, skull crushed from unknown cause". The time listed between inj ury and death, according to the death certificate is 30 minutes, and is certified by Dr. B F Barnes from Chattahoochee, FL. His location of dea th was River Junction, Gadsden C ounty. His body was shipped to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania for burial by an unde rtaker in Chattahoochee Oscar Elvis Murphy was a 15 year old white boy who died November 7, 1932 Murphy died after escaping from the school. This was Murphy the first time he return ed by his own accord. However, the t hird escape shows no return date. The ledger states, "deceased died 10/7/1932 as result of auto accident". Murphy had been committed to the school for incorrigibility on 6/10/1932 According to the death c ertificate Murphy is buried in Oak Grove cemetery outside Wauchula in Hardee C ounty He was accidently hit by a car which fractured his right hip, the duration of the illness as listed on the DC states 2 days. He died in the Wauchula Infirmary. Raymond Alex Ph illips was a 17 year old white boy who was committed to the school 9/15/1961 after his second attempt to run away. Phillips first ran away 8/14/61 and was returned on 9/9/61. Phillips again escaped on 9/14/61 and died the next day due to a apparently running away from him during his escape. It is reported that the deputy tried to fire Robert Jerald Hewett was a 16 year old white boy who entered FIS on 3/22/1960 (Figure 45 47 ). The FIS ledgers confirm that Hewett was admitted and then on March 25 was temporarily released to the Jackson Hospital. He returned to FIS the following day on March 26 and then on April 2, he ran away. The ledger and death certificate indicate he die d two days later on April 4. All of this information comes from the daily ledger, as hest next to his mother who had died two years prior. Witness accounts about the report that he was found shot with a 12 gauge s hotgun. According to witnesses at the time, authorities believed Hewitt committed suicide but did not perform an autopsy or investigate the death. However, his family believed that he was shot by someone who came looking for him following his escape. No could be located through this investigation.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 72 In a report obtained through this study from forensic pathologists (Hair and Chro stowski case, they stated the following (refer to appendix for full letter: d eath c person dies due to gunshot wound(s) inflicted by another person, his manner of death is classified as homicide, i.e. s do not ations, which are of interest to the judicial system rather than medical examiner. i s recommended because if there was skeletal trauma, it would be possible to learn about the projectile trajectory, shedding a light on possible circumstances of the incident. Figure 45 Discharge ledger now located in the State Archives, showing entries for Robert Hewett who ran away and died in April 1960 (Florida School for Boys, Student Ledgers: Vol. 22).

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 73 Figure 46 Figure 47. Hewett was buried next to his mother who preceded him in death. He was buried by his father who had a death certificate issued.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 74 Billey Jackson and Michael Smelley are not listed with the boys who died while running away from the school as no record of es cape was listed in the school ledger s however the circumsta nces surrounding their deaths were reported by witnesses People who knew these two boys have report ed that they had run away from the school and were caught and returned to the school. In both instances, witnesses state they believe the at tempts for escape contributed to the deaths. While there is a significant amount of data in the ledgers regarding escapes, it wa s not always recorded. For example, t he first attempt of Smith to es cape was not listed in the ledger s however correspondence between him and his parents as well as information given to local newspapers following his death by school administrators state d he had in fact escaped twice. Michael Smelley was a 17 year old white boy who died 3/15/1966 His d eath certificate indicates he died of carcinoma of the spine and lungs about a year after his second incarceration at the school Witnesses allege he was beaten severely following an attempted escape and that immediately afterwards he was unable to walk ( Montgomery 2009 ) Several days later he was admitted to the Raiford prison hospital and later transferred to the Health Center at the University of Florida. Smelley had a history of carcinoma and prior to entering FIS in 1965 had a tumor removed from his spine. In spite of this and the fact he was slightly mentally disabled, he was again sentenced to the school after allegedly stealing comic books and candy (Montgomery 2009) During commitm ent when he was 12 years old, there is no record of escape. The files for his second commitment at the school are not public record and therefore not available for this study. whether the alleged beating contributed to death 2009 investigation, tumor could aggravate the tumor or cause paralysis or even accelerate the spread of the cancer and lead to early death? ( Montgomery 2009) Based on the question s and search for answer s by the family and the fact we included other boys who died off the school grounds due to attempted escapes furloughs or transfer s, we included Smelley in this study and r eview Chrostowski ( 2012, refer to Appendix for the full review) : The acceleration of the spread of a neoplasm by beating in not likely and very speculative. The hospital record s available from the University of Florida does not ind icate trauma. Our conclusion is that Smelley died a natural death, due to malignant neoplasm. This of course does not exclude a possibility of being beaten; however, if a beating occurred, it can not be

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 75 Billey Jackson was a 13 year old c olored boy who was admitted to the school on 8/8/1952 for theft and running away from home. Billey was charged and sentenced to the school with 16 year old Oscar Dixon. The mother on 4/21/1952 fo r Dixon. Jackson died about two months after arriving at the school on 10/07/1952 at the Jackson Coun ty Hospital (Figure 48 ). His death certificate located during this study. According to forensic pathologists who reviewed this case (Hair and Chrostowski 2012, refer to attached report in Appendix): Pyelonephritis is a form of ascending urinary tract infection, which may affect one or bo th kidneys. It is usually associated wi th urine retention and can indeed be fatal. The obstruction of flow initiating the pathology may result from a congenital condition, e.g. inadequate valve mechanism at the junction of the ureters and the bladder, or obstruction of the ureter(s) due to u rolithiasis, i.e. kidney stones, or trauma. Two witnesses ( Johnnie Walthour Interview May 9, 2012 and Woodrow Williams Interview November 8, 2012 second time. According to Walthour, Jackson escaped from the school twice and both times was caught and punished Several days later, his stomach was distended and when Walthour asked passed but Walthour had not seen Jackson and so inquired as to his whereabouts. Walthour was told that Jackson was in the hospital. About two weeks later, he learned Jackson died and that he would help dig his grave. Walthour and several fellow students piled into the back of a tractor He stated that Jackson was buried in a coffin and that a minister and the few boys who helped dig the grave were present. Walthour did not remember family present at the funeral. In a second and entirely separate interview, Woodrow Williams also describ ed Jackson was located up on Boot Hill. He said that the burial ground was a large open field alongside a wooded area and that likely 30 40 depressions could b e seen in the ground from prior burials. Williams said that he knew Jackson had run away and believed that his beating caused his death. Williams stated that at the time people did not openly talk about the death or what happened but that they knew he ha d been missing before he died. Also consistent with Walthour, Williams stated that there were several funerals in the years 1951 52 but the reason Jackson stood out was that he was so small and always had been picked on combined with the fact he had been missing. Nei ther Williams nor Walthour recognized the photo obtained from the state archives of a funeral ca. 1950s. If there was more than one burial in the early 1950s it could be possible this

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 76 Figure 4 8 Image of death certificate for Billey Jackson.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 77 T HE F ATAL F IRE OF 1914 The most significant events that resulted in a high number of fatalities include the fire of 1914 and several outbreaks of infectious diseases in 1918 and 1934. The first record o f any burial at the Florida Industrial School are newspaper articles and a telegram regarding the 1914 fire in which the dormitory on the south c ampus burned down (Figure 4 9 ) D uring the early morning hours of November 18, 1914 a fatal fire broke out in the dormitory on the s outh c ampus. Three investigations followed, each of which shifted the cause of the fire and blame for the deaths. Even the number of children who perished differs among the reports. Through ethnographic research i n the 1970s, several interviews with people who had been present at the fire were compiled which recount the events in more detail. The summary findings of these reports are described here. Moreover an expert opinion as to the cause and circumstances of the fire as it may possibly relate to the fatalities was provided by Tampa Fire Investigators Christopher Stone and Al Alcala and their findings are attached in Appendi x The Structure The summary information historical background on the details of the structure come and e thnographic interviews conducted by Lundrigan (1975) describe the fire and events following it with regard to the deaths and burials of the fire victims and Edwards (1969 ) In 18 87 when the Florida legislature passed a law to create FIS it outlined the structure of the new institution. The following year, three companies submitted bids to construct two dormitories, which were to be identical in size and structure. The school was to be segregated and separate campuses were used to house the boys. A total of $10,000 was allocated for the construction of the two buildings. The accepted bid came from S.S. Leonard Company of Jacksonville for $13,000. The additional su m needed for construction was appropriated and state funds raised through the Convict Lease system were used. An additional $5,000 was allotted, though construction was delayed due to pr oblems with subcontractors who we r The buildings were identical when constructed and located on the hilltops of each campus, Each dorm was 150 f eet long and 50 f eet wide. The dormitory on th e s outh campus, faced n orth. Each building was three stories high, constructed of red brick and built to house sixty four boys and administrators. It is Inside the building, all the walls, flo ors, stairs and internal features were wood. Each floor had a hallway to the main staircase. The 1 st floor consisted of th e kitchen and dining room and t he e ast end includ ed an assembly room, washrooms, and offices. The 2 nd floor consisted of t hree dormitories for sleeping 64 boys. At the time of the fire, 93 boys were sleeping t here. The first dormitory (referred to No. 1) was smaller in size and housed the youngest children, typically 6 10 years old. Several small rooms were also present to house the men who worked at the school. According to Edwards (1969), the fatality count (n=7) was as follows: Dorm No.1 = youngest boys and 1 death; Dorm No. 2 = no deaths; and Dorm No. 3 = 6 deaths. Note that different accounts of the fire list differ ent number s of fatalities ranging from 6 12 boys and staff killed The 3 rd floor consisted of t which were used for discipline and solitary confinement. It was here on the third floor where boys were locked in rooms and unable to escape the fire according to the investigative reports at the time and interviews in the 1970s by Lundrigan.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 78 Figure 4 9 Dormitory identical to the one that burned in 1914, located on the N orth School (photograph comes from The Light 1921, Florida State Archives) Fire Investigations In 1913, the 6 th legislative investigative committee since 1901 reported on the state of the institution and treatment of the children detained there ( Lundrigan 1975 ) They reported that all of the windows were heavily barred and that one doorway led from the hallway to the stair rail. They further warned that if there was a fire, there would be no way for people to escape the second or third floors of the building or to survive. Their report called for the addition of fire escapes, additional doors and to end the pract ice of chaining children for restraint. These recommendations were signed into law June 5, 1913. Following this, two additions were con structed on the building, each two stories high and located on the south side of the building according to the Board of Managers who issued a report following the fire Note that these modifications wer e made to the dormitory on the s outh campus for the w hite boys, but no safety modifications were made to the housing for colored boys located on the n orth campus. The identical building to the one burned (prior to its 1913 modifications) is shown in Figure 4 9 obtained from the Florida State Archives ( The Light 1921, Florida State Archives ). T he two additional wings had fire escape doors though they were

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 79 always kep t locked. Following the fire, boys stated all the doors were locked and they had to break the locks to get out of the building. The fire was first discovered by an employee who was sleepi ng on the second floor and heard He discovered the fire near the main stairwell and sounded the alarm. The boys in all three dormitories were awaken and taken to the western stairwell where they were able to exit the building. According the report issued by the Board, the majority of pe ople were able to safely exit the building. Th ey stated that boys did not encounter smoke and that there were no injuries, except for the fatalities Details regarding why fatalities occurred and the circumstances surrounding the fire are less clear. D epending on the source, the number of casualties, the names of the victims and specific circumstances about how death occurred varies. The investigative reports are summarized in the following discussion. According to the Lundrigan ( 1975 ), the fire killed 8 boys and 2 employees. an internal FIS report (Edwards 1969 ), and ethnographic interviews. In his report, Lundrigan also details the FIS Board of Managers r eport The Board of Manager s issued a report the same day as the coroner public stating that per the legislati ve act in 1913, they had added two fire escape doors on the s outh campus dormitory first floor. The doors were kept locked but the keys were kept in the main office on the first floor, and all staff knew about the keys. A fter midnight, O.G. Marston heard a roaring noise and discovered the first floor ablaze. Boys were sleeping on the second floor and were taken to the second stairw ell on the west end of the building. No one went downstairs for keys. They realized some boys were on the third floor but by that time the fire spread throughout the interior and they were not able to retrieve the keys. To exit, several boys knocked th e lock off the fire escape to get out. The fire was believed to have started from a wood stove which had a broken leg and although un stable, was set on a wood floor and that fire combined with kerosene lamps hanging on the walls. The fire was made wors e according to the Board by strong winds blowing in a northerly direction into the front of the building. They state that 93 boys and 10 employees lived in the building at the time of the fire. The Board its President W.H. Milton provi ded an opinion about the men and boys that died and the circumstances surrounding the events including the following. Messer Evans and his son, both employees of FIS, died after returning to the building to look for each other and in their search, perishe d. Several boys are also described as heroes for assisting with the rescue: Severina Vinterrez (Tampa), ToTo Walter Tucker (Bowling Green), and Perry Jones (West Palm Beach). Among the child fatalities, 8 boys were noted as missing including Earl Morris, who the Board claimed witnesses saw him outside the building following the fire after which he ran away report officially states that six died including a and was taken to safety but allegedly re entered the school to get a blanket and did not make it out alive. Joe Weather s by was a 17 year old who also allegedly re entered the school to go to the third floor because he thought Superintendent Bell was inside sleeping and therefore wa s described as a hero who died in search of Mr. Bell The telegram to We a mother is one of the surviving documents from this incident. It is also worth noting that the ledgers do not list any of the boys who perished as the current books do not have systematic records prior to 1919. Edwards report (1969) describes the duties of administrators and the superintendent, including restraining boys when confinement was necessary. Edwards states that three of the four men who were responsible for th e boys were in town when the fire occurred. The

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 80 implication is that they had locked or chained the boys on the third floor and had the only keys with them off the school grounds when the fire broke out. The Florida Legislative Committee conducted an inves tigation and found that the fire escapes were all locked, there had been no fire drills or preventative measures for safety and no watchmen on duty. The administrators including the superintendent and several staff members were away from the school Boy s stated that all the doors had been locked, including the fire escapes. An additional witness, Mrs. McBride who lived near the school at the time of the fire told state investigators in 191 4 that Superintendent Bell had the only set of keys when he l eft the school and went to town (Lundrigan 1975) As a resu lt of their investigation, S uperintendent Bell was terminated The Jackson Cou nty Coroner also conducted a cor ury and issued a report the same day as the Board of Managers Notably, this report lists a different set of names among the casualties (Table 1 2) Further, it lists John Milton, Jr. as one of the Jurors. According to witness accounts and ethnographic interviews conducted by Lundrigan (1975); Mrs. Vivian Stubbs (age 7 2 years) was a child at the FIS as her father worked there and he was present during the fire. Stubbs told Lundrigan that the windows all had bars on them and that the children were trapped in the school. She said that t he wood floors inside collap sed and the doomed boys were hurtled to their deaths. She also noted that her father always said he would never forget screams as they fell to their deaths. W.S. Bowles was also present at the school in the early morning after the fire with his father, who worked there and spoke about the inci dent to Lundrigan (1975) Bowles said that in the early morning following the fire, only charred unidentified trunks of bodies con taining unburned hearts were recovered and that one of the workers killed w as identified by a blue patch of material from his clothing, a workers uniform. George Robinson, an employee at the time of fire (and son in law to Superintendent Knight) is alleged to have attempted to free boys by climbing on to the roof to cut a hole in it and drop a set of keys down to the boys who were locked inside This information came from Bowles in his interview. In 1929, George Robinson was working at the school as the farm manager and throughout the years is listed on DC as an undertaker Interestingly, one of the newspaper articles (the Miami Herald pictured in Figure 50 ) describes how boys had to climb through skylights to reach safety. The existence of skylights was not discussed in any of the other records and so it is unknown whether this occurred or may be a reference to holes cut into the roof in an attempt to rescue boys.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 81 Figure 50 Newspaper article listing casualties in 1914 fire, reprinted from the FDLE investigative report ( 2009 ).

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 82 Figure 51 Newspaper article listing casualties in 1914 fire, reprinted from the FDLE investigative report ( 2009 ).

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 83 Possible Origin of Fire Several possible explanation s were offered as to the cause of the fire in the numerous investigations that were carried out. At first, arson was suspected. According to the Pensacola Journal prior attempts to burn down the dormitory had been made several months earlier. Then, on the day of the fire, George Coldwell, of Laurel Hill Florida was named as the possible arsonist. His son was in custody at FIS and had run away from the school. Mr. Coldwell had tried to release his son several days prior to the fire and alle gedly threatened to blow up the building if h is son The Board of Managers tried to make a case for arson but a grand jury later exonerated Coldwell Following the fire, his son was released. Other possible causes of the fire include: 1. Paint, Oily Rags and Dynamite The interior of the building was constructed of wood and a portion of it had been freshly painted. Apparently the paint was not dry and may have contributed to the rapid acceleration of the fire. Greasy oil rags were also lef t behind as a result of the painting. In addition, dynamite was stored in a locker under the stairwell which may have ignited by spontaneous combustion. 2. Dilapidated Stove An old broken wood burning stove had been brought into the building. Reportedly, i t had three legs and in place of the fourth leg, the stove was held up with bricks Despite the condition of the stove, apparently it was used to help heat the dorm on a cold night. A fire had been burning in the stove when the staff went to bed. The stove was on top of a wood floor and may have started the floor on fire. In addition, kerosene oil lamps hung in the stairwell and halls for light. For a greater discussion of the possible origin of the fire and the more likely scenarios, refer to report provided by Stone and Alcala (2012) in the Appendix There was a continuous problem with fires and barns burning down in the years leading up to 191 4. The reason for these fires ranged from arson by disgruntled employees to natural fires. To combat this problem in 1906 a cypress water tank was built. In a 1972 interview, the Marianna Fire Department reported that in 1914 they had a horse drawn Mod el A Ford with a booster pump with which they responded to the fire, however they arrived too late ( Lundrigan 1975 ). At the time of the interview in 1975 Lundrigan reports the Marianna Fire Department did not have any records of the fire. Fire Fatalities According to witnesses, the structure of the building was demolished the morning after the fire ( Lundrigan 1975 ). In terms of human remains, the newspaper and the only surviving telegram to families states the bodies were burned beyond recognit ion and buried on the school grounds. In a 1972 interview of FIS employees, Lundrigan reports that the v ictims of the fire were buried on top of a hill in The surviving 84 w hite boys were dormitory was built (Lu n drigan 1975:106) Note that prior to th e fire, the 1913 L egislative report states 93 white boys were present at the school. According to Lundrigan (1975), there were 84 w hite b oys at the school following the fire which is a difference of nine (9) boys. Nine

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 84 boys are listed as victims of the fire in the Idaho Statesman (1914 pictured in Figure 51 ) and is in contrast to the six (n= 6 ) reported deaths by the Board of Managers th e seven (n= 7 ) reported deaths in the State L egislative report and the eight (n=8) deaths reported by the c oroner The c appear in the cited newspaper report. The names of fire victims differ among the various reports. T he c but in the Idaho Statesman as a casualty of the 1914 fire Likewise, FDLE does not list Haffin or Bar (Table 12 ) Table 12 List of P ossible 1914 F ire C asualties and S ource (n=12 ) Name Source and Comments Bennett Evans Charles Evans Coroner Report (1914) Idaho Statesman (1914) FDLE (2009) Clifford Jeffords Coroner Report (1914) Idaho Statesman (1914) FDLE (2009) Earl E. Morris ** Coroner Report (1914) Idaho Statesman (1914) FDLE (2009) Harry Wells Coroner Report (1914) FDLE (2009) Joseph Wethersby Coroner Report (1914) Idaho Statesman (1914) Telegram sent to Mrs. Fred Wethersby FDLE (2009) Louis Fernandez Coroner Report (1914) Idaho Statesman (1914) FDLE (2009) Waldo Drew Coroner Report (1914) Idaho Statesman (1914) FDLE (2009) Walter Fisher Coroner Report (1914) Idaho Statesman (1914) FDLE (2009) Louis Haffin Idaho Statesman (1914) Clarence Parrot Idaho Statesmen (1914) FDLE (2009) S. Barnett Coroner Report (1914) Both are adults (father & son employees of school) ** The Board of Manager report states Morris ran away.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 85 I NFLUENZA AND P NEUMONIA O UTBREAKS 1918 AND 1932 The Influenza outbreak throughout the region in 1918 was devastating and the school was especially affected The conditions of the school from this time were described in several accounts Dr. G.W. Klock a state physician who assisted with caring for the sick boys issued a report about the condition of the school which prompted a state investigation and a response physician Dr. N.A. Baltzell at the request of the Board According to Edward s (1969), in October of 1918 Dr. Brevis was an attending physician and stated that conditions bad, that all boys in the Negro quarters except 21 were sick, that they had no assistanc had been set up in the D It was noted that t he white students had escaped th e epidemic as they had been quarantined. The dire conditions, large number of boys who were ill, and th e lack of school administrator s and staff to care for them le d to the state investigation. In an interview with Rhyne (1968 In Lundrigan 1975:110), Lundrigan wrote: Dr. Baltzell influenza victims in town. At School No. 2 he found sick colored According to Lundrigan, the adult staff of the school abandoned School No 2 and the colored boys for fear of contracting the illness which left them without electricity or care for days at a time. The State Board of Health sent Dr. G.W. Klock to assist at the school. Klock reported the dire situation he found which was later recounted in the Tampa Tribune (No vember 2, 1918 i n Lundrigan 1975:111 ): conditions at the school are very bad; sewerage imperfect; no sanitary rules at all; screens broken; fleas by the thousands. There were thirty five cases of pneumonia and lack of medicine and lack of proper nourishment, no linen, boys lying under wool blankets, naked. With dirty husk fou r weeks according to attendants. The dinner of the well colored boys white boys was rice and bacon grease gravy. One boy said he was flogged for refu sing to cook peas full of worms and that meat sent to the boys was kept until spoiled and then fed them and they all were sick. Lundrigan (1975:112) cites the Report of Committee of Physicians on Conditions Growing Out of Influenza Epidemic (1918:422), which state s influenza among the boys, there were onl y 11 deaths These were Negro boys and although 68 On November 6, 1918, the Daily Democrat published a press release from Dr. Baltzell, This press release was sent to various newspapers in response poor conditions of the school. Through this letter, the timeline and list of fatalities of both white and colored students

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 86 are confirmed. Baltzell states that the outbreak began about three weeks prior to November 6, 1918. In total he says that there were 26 4 cases of inmates who were sick including both white and colored boys in addition to the staff. One female staff member died and the entire operations of the school were rendered incapacitated as a result of the outbreak. In response to the specific det poor condition and generally lackin g, the screen doors were in need of repair ( although he never noted any fleas ) and found that most boys came to the school in need of medical care. He too reported that the students were in great need of clothing, sanitation and bed li nen s. Both reports by Klock and Baltzell ledgers which indicate only four colored boys died of either non flu related causes or from unknown causes and four white boys died of unknown causes between November 4 8. Of the e ight documented deaths that occurred in 1918 according to the school ledgers (Table 13 ) one death was in April, not October November when the epidemic struck and one additional name appears to be among those who died in the 1918 outbreak, although the death was not recorded until a year later and no specific date of death is given Wilbur Smith appears i n the 1919 roll call of the record ledger which states, "Reported to have died with Flu", however no year or date is given. Smith likely came to school in 1915 based on the placement of his name in the ledger which is generally chronological, but no date for admission or death is recorded, nor is the location of his burial listed. Thomas Aikins was a c olored boy who died in April of 1918. The other deaths occurred in late October and early November. Willie Adkins another c olored boy died October 25 s everal weeks ahead of the four (4) w hite boys who all died within four days. The separation of dates among colored and white students affected may have been the result of segregation between the dormitories Based on the dates four deaths occur red within one week, November 4 8 which is consistent with a flu outbreak Additionally, three (3) deaths occurred after Baltzell reported a total of six (6) deaths for a minimum of nine (9) fatalities The Biennial report states t s was ill with subsequent problems with sanitation, although all of the deaths in November were w hite boys. It may be that the f lu spread from the c olored to w hite side of the campus during this time. However based on the description of the conditions on the colored campus, one would have expected a higher number of deaths among colored than white students It is also not known if the deaths were the result of the flu or other illnesses associated with the subsequent sanitation probl ems. In an interview with Donald Vickery of Marianna, Florida (July 12, 1972), Lundrigan According burial ground (Lundrigan 1975:113). Figure 52 1950s ( Florida School for Boys, Photographs, Box 2 FF 15). To cope with the situation, boys were immediately paroled home and no new boys were accepted. T he Board tried to parole 100 boys to relieve overcrowding but the children did not have known families and were dependents of the S tate and thus had nowhere to go. It is also occur ind icating some boys were paroled home ill, though the specific circumstances of these cases are not known.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 87 Figure 5 2 Carpentry shop at school No. 1, ca 1950s from the State Archives (Florida School for Boys, Photographs, Box 2 FF 15). Tables 13 Deaths L isted as O ccurring in S chool L edgers for 1918 Name Age Ancestry Date of Death Runaway Circumstances Thomas Aikins 12 Colored 4/16/1918 No Unknown Lee Gaalsby 13 White 10/6/1918 Runaway, Died Unknown George Grissam 6 Colored 10/23/1918 On Parole Chronic Gastritis Willie Adkins 13 Colored 10/25/1918 No Unknown /Likely Flu Llyod Dutton 14 White 11/4/1918 No Unknown /Likely Flu Hilton Finley 16 White 11/6/1918 No Unknown /Likely Flu Ralph Whiddon 16 White 11/6/1918 No Unknown /Likely Flu Puner Warner 16 White 11/8/1918 No Unknown /Likely Flu Wilbur Smith 10 Colored Unknown* No The s, but no actual cause of deaths are recorded.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 88 Of the eight documented deaths in 1918, according to school ledgers none have a listed cause of death other than Grissam who was a six year old boy Grissam along with his eight year old brother were paroled, but then returned to the school gravely ill T he information about the FIS Bienn ial r eport (January 1, 1921, through January 1, 1923, Biennial Report of the Florida Industrial School for Boys written to the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions) the earlier discussion The date and circumstances of his parole are unknown although he had been at the school sixteen months prior to his death. Based on the tim ing, general circumstances and descri p t i ons in the physi ci an s reports, it is presumed that A dkins, Dutton, Finley, Whiddon, Warner and Smith all died of the flu or infectious diseases associated with the outbreak and its consequences Puner Warner was sentenced and admitted to the school with two other boys, all three ran away together (Jas McKnight and Lenox Grayson) and were returned to the school McKnight later went into the Army and Grayson was paroled a year later. There is no information as to cause of death but based on the timing it is likely related to the Influenza outbreak A second catastrophic outbreak of Influenza occurred in 1932, during that year there were a total of 12 deaths (nine of which we re attributed to Influenza and subsequent Pneumonia ) T hr ee other boys also died in 1932 but for other causes (Table 14 ). Death certificates were issued for 11 of the 12 boys that died. No death certificate was issued for Archie Shaw. Death certificates for nine of the boys list Influenza, with a contributing cause of lobar pneumonia and t he duration of the illness ranged from 4 9 days. The circumstances surrounding the other deaths during this year include accidently killed by a mule (Figure 53 ), anesthesia during a hernia operation, and run over by an automobile aft er running away from the school. Archie J. Shaw Jr. was a 12 year old colored boy who was committed to the school for larceny on 8/2/31 along with three other boys from Hillsborough County Approximately eight months later he died on April 22, 1932 durin g th at week there were several other Flu related deaths. Shaw was not issued a death certificate and his death was not certified, but the entry in the school ledger states his death was related to the flu epidemic His burial location is unknown. The ot her three boys were paroled back to Tampa about a year later.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 89 Table 14 Deaths R elated to Influenza P neumonia, and O ther C auses in 1932 Name Age Ancestry Date of Death C ircumstances Lee Smith 17 Colored 01/05/1932 Death certificate states died of ruptured lung. Lonnie Harrell 14 White 2/11/1932 Hernia, died in surgery James Brinson 12 Colored 4/10/1932 Influenza, lobar pneumonia Willie Heading 15 Colored 4/13/1932 Influenza, lobar pneumonia Sam Nipper 12 Colored 4/14/1932 Influenza, lobar pneumonia Jesse D Denson 10 Colored 4/16/1932 Influenza, lobar pneumonia Lee Underwood 16 Colored 4/21/1932 Influenza, lobar pneumonia Archie J. Shaw Jr. 12 Colored 4/22/1932 Presumed Influenza Fred Sams 15 Colored 4/22/1932 Influenza, lobar pneumonia Joe Stephens 15 Colored 5/09/1932 Influenza, lobar pneumonia Dary Pender 13 Colored 5/16/1932 Influenza, lobar pneumonia Oscar Elvis Murphy 15 White 10/7/1932 Escape/ death certificate states he was run over by an automobile. *Cause of death is presumed based on timing of death, however Shaw was not issued DC nor was his death certified, as the other cases were at this time.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 90 Figure 5 3 The institutional newspaper, The Yellow Jacket (January 16, 1932, Vol. II, No. 8) contained this article about the work related death of Lee Smith.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 91 T RENDS IN M ORBIDITY & M ORTALITY The very general mortality patterns as discerned from the records are discussed. Among the student deaths only 44 were issued death certificates (26/60 colored boys and 18/35 white boys). wounds in mec Therefore, general categories d eath are used to describe the prevalence of diseases, trauma and other causes of death, which in some cases are more descriptive of the circumstances o f death, than the actual medico legal cause of death. In this discussion, COD refers to the cause and/or circumstances of death as described in the historical documents. Based on information from available death certificates, six (6) boys were autopsied. Four of the boys were autopsied by Dr. C. Whitaker, the school physician. Dr. Whitaker was also had been discovered According to local newspaper s, Dr. Whitaker believed the body was too Dr. Whitaker was employed at the school during the time Robert Hewett died (1960) although it unknown why no autopsy was performed. The two other boy s who were autopsied outside of Jackson C ounty died after running away and therefore were autopsied in the counties that the deaths occurred (Table 15). The cause and circumstance of deaths are completely unknown in about 34.5% (29/84) of cases. Approximately 20.0% of deaths among white boys are unknown, whereas nearly 44.8% of deaths among colored boys are unknown. Different trends for the categories of death are noted for w hite and c olored boys (Figure 54) The fire deaths, from 2 different incidents involved only white boys In addition to the fire of 1914, one boy died as a result of toxemia due to 35% of his body being burned during a work related accident (James Cecil Ansley died 1929). Several of the o ther deaths can also be attributed to working on the farm or industry related deaths as indicated on their death certificates or newspaper accounts printed by the school (Lee Smith died in 1932). There we re more traumatic deaths among w hite (n=7) than col ore d boys (n=4). In part, this is explained by the deaths that occurred following escape (n= 7 ), in which four ( 4 ) cases involved traumatic injuries. The number of infectious disease cases are much higher among colored boys (79.2% or n=19/24). Table 15 Autopsied C ases (n=6) Year Superintendent Decedent Name Autopsy Physician Ruling 1944 Davidson Earl Wilson C.D. Whitaker, M.D. Homicide 1949 Dozier Eddie Albert Black C.D. Whitaker, M.D. Homicide 1952 Dozier Billey Jackson C.D. Whitaker, M.D. Natural 1954 Dozier Clarence Cunningham W.J. Hutchinson, M.D. Accident 1957 Dozier George Fordom Jr. S.A. Shaffer M.D. Natural 1961 Dozier Edgar Thomas Elton C.D. Whitaker, M.D. Natural

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 92 There were two deaths related to medical treatment, both resulting from anesthesia during surgery for a hernia and tonsillectomy For example: Lonnie Harrell Davidson was a 14 year old c olored boy who was admitted to the school on 1/18/1932. Twenty four days later, he died during a hernia operation on 2/11/1932. A death certificate was issued and certified by Dr. N.A. Baltzell, M.D. who had performed the surgery and was the school physician. Charlie Overstreet was a 15 year old w hite boy who entered the school on 4/25/1923. He died several months later on August 19, from anest he sia for a tonsillectomy. A death certificate was issued and certified by Dr. N.A. Baltzell, M.D. who had performed the surgery and was the school physician. Figure 5 4 Frequency of different categories of death. For the majority of individuals, there is no known cause of death.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 93 C ONVICTED C ASES OF H OMICIDE Among cases with traumatic related deaths, three are documented homicides in which boys were killed by fellow school boys In all three cases, the offenders were prosecuted. Some of the original grand jury documents were obtained from the Jackson County Courthouse. Two cases were appealed and the subsequent court documents detail more about th e events autopsy findings and testimony of Dr. Whitaker, and other evidence presented at the trial s was a 14 year old white boy committed to the school on 9/3/1936 for breaking and entering. He was sentenced to two years or until legally discharged. Approximately ten months later, just after his 15 th birthday, Seinous was found dead on July 15, 1937. A death certificate was issued and certified by school physician Dr. Baltzell. It is unknown if an autopsy was performed as this information is left blank on the death certificate. According to the ledgers Seinous was admitted with 16 year old John Bry ant from Quincy and although Bryant was sentenced to a minimum of three years he was paroled to a guardian on years old when committed. The name Stephens also app ears on the court documents, however yardman and nurse) employed at the school cemetery, although this is not documented. The ledger further states that Robert was "Stab office in Jackson County, Leroy Taylor was indicted of First Degree Murd er but plead guilty to Eddie Black Eddie Black was a 13 year old white boy committed to the school 4/1/1948 for Larceny Approximately a year later Black was found dead on May 4, 1949. Black was autopsied by school physician Dr. C. Whitaker whose official cause of death his family for burial in Pensacola. Frank Murphy and Avelardo Quevedo were convicted of the second degree murder of Black. A ccording to a signed confession by Frank Murphy, he: down under there, under the culver t at the laundry across the highwa y f ro m the laundry and I grabbed him. I choked him down, and I stabbed choked him down and then hit his head on the concrete

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 94 Frank Murphy told me that Eddie Albert Black had caught him smoking and was going to tell on him and for that reason he was going to kill him. When Frank came back he showed me my knife and there was blood on the blade and he said he ha d killed Black a nd told me how he did it. He said he c hoked him with his hands and when he was almost dead he stabbed him twice back of the ear. Note that the s igned confession s and death certificate do not state the same cause of death. The d eath certificate states the following: trangulation severe contusions to fore head An autopsy was performed by school physician Dr. Whitaker but makes no mention of any knife wounds or sharp trauma. On March 20, 1965 Frank Murphy filed a motion to aside judgment of convi ctio n and sente nce in case No. 863 upon the groun d s they are void ab initio and in toto as is allowed and authori z ed under criminal procedure rule one. In stated that he and the victim had engaged in a fist fight which ended when both boys were exhausted. Later, Murphy returned to the area to look for something he lost. While awaiting trial, Murphy received a note from a fellow inmate that three witnesses saw him leave the area when Bl ack was still alive, both the prosecutor and defense attorney were informed of the letter before the trial began. However, during the recess of the trial, S heriff Ernst Barnes questioned Murphy alon e about how he obtained the letter in jail. According to court documents (Murphy v. Wainwright, 372 F. 2d. 942 5 th Cir. 1967) sheriff is said to have made certain threats regarding the horror of dying in the electric chair and advised appellant that it would be the part of wisdom to enter a plea to second degree murder in year old Murphy pled guilty for a life sentence, rather than face the death penalty. In his appeal, Murphy argued that the sheriff s actions, along with the fact his legal guard ian (his sister as both parents were deceased) was not informed about his murder trial created a coerced, involuntary confession. On January 20, 1973, Murphy was awarded an evidentiary hearing ( Murphy v. Wainwright 73 304 Civ J S ) The evidence consisted of the testimony of Murphy and John Roy Smith who testified to the comments th at were made by the sheriff T he court found that conviction

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 95 Earl Wilson Earl Wilson was a 12 year old colored boy committed to the school on 6/20/1944 for larceny from Polk County. Seventy two days later on September 1 he was killed while detained 17 year s. These boys had been held in the confinement cottage for varying lengths of time from several days to several weeks (Figures 55 56 ). Four boys were convicted of murder: William Foxworth, Charles Bevels, Robe rt Farmer, and Floyd Alexander. Ac cording to the death certificate, Wilson was autopsied by Dr. Whitaker, the school physician and buried at the school. The death certificate states the cause of death wa Note that the t estimony of Dr. Whitaker about the aut opsy findings conflicte d with witness statements See Foxworth v. Wainwright, 516 F. 2d 1072. 1074 1075 (5th Cir. 1975 ) : The cell contained one set of bunk beds, an open bucket for toilet needs (emptied once daily), a bucket for drinking water, and a continuously burning light bulb. Four of the boys in the cell, including Foxworth were charged with murdering Earl Wilson, and the other four became prosecution witnesses. Because Florida had no juvenile statute at that time, the four faced a sentence o f death in the electric chair if convicted. One attorney was appointed to represent Foxworth and two of the other boys, Charles Bevels and Robert Farmer. The fourth, Floyd Alexander, had privately retained counsel. At the trial, which lasted one day, the prosecution's theory was that the four defendants had choked Earl Wilson by holding him down and pressing a stick against his throat This theory was presented in the versions of the facts related by the four boys who testified for the prosecution. These witnesses also testified that earlier in the day one of the defendants, Charles Bevels, had struck Earl Wilson repeatedly with the stick. The medical evidence, given by a doctor summoned when Earl Wilson was found dead, was that death was caused by blows to the head with a blunt instrument. A dissection of the decedent's neck muscles revealed no bruises. The four defendants' theory, as presented in their testimony, was that the incident in which they held the stick to Earl Wilson's neck was just horseplay. They contended that the four prosecution witnesses killed decedent by beating him on the head with the stick. The jury returned a verdict of guilty against all four defendants, but recommended mercy. The court imposed life sentences on all four defendant s. The conviction was affirmed by the Supreme Court of Florida Bevels v. State, Fla., 1945, 156 Fla. 159, 23 So.2d 156

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 96 Figure 5 5 into a confinement cottage at the N orth S chool. The building had originally been constructed for storing farm goods. The interior measurements of the building are 7.0 by 10.0 feet in dimension and it is believed to be the location of the death of Earl Wilson in 1944.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 97 Figure 5 6 Door frame of confinement cottage showing modification to door when building was converted from stora ge to confinement cottage and later to the f arm m anager s o ffic e. The door was modified to swing outside, rather than inside. The s mall window in figure shows former outside latch for lock.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 98 V ARIATION IN R EPORTING The discrepancies that occur in the documentation for burial location, the cause of death, and certification of the death s by a physician or coroner are not limited to particular years or administrations and do not appear to be a matter of changing policies from one administration to another. The problem of under reporting was not the only type of inconsistency found between school and state records. Practices during the Flu epidemic of 1918, also shows significant variation in the reporting and number of deaths. Reports vary as to the number and ancestry of boys who died, as well as the dates of their deaths in that year. A number of deaths appearing in the ledgers or other historical documents were not included in the FDLE report, which is why the total number of deaths that occurred differs among more recent reports. For example, William discharge ledger but does not appear listed in the full record ledger from the school, which is a common finding for the time period (pre 1919); therefore no other information is known about him (Figu re 5 7 ). Several other differences were also found for boys whose names do not appear in prior reports: Louis Haffin, a white boy died 11/18/1914 in the f ire S. Barnett, a white boy died 11/18/1914 in the f ire William McKinley a colored boy died from unknown causes on 7/19/1915. Thomas E. Curry, a 15 year old white boy died of blunt trauma on 12/11/1925 after running away Robert Jerald Hew ett, a 16 year old white boy died of gunshot wounds on 4/4/1960 after running away Eleven ( 11 ) unidentified colored boys died of Influenza between November 6 December 31, 1918. Figure 5 7 Discharge ledger now located in the State Archives, showing name and record of death for William McKinley in July 1915 (Florida School for Boys, Student Ledgers: Vol. 18).

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 99 R ECOMMENDATIONS FOR F UTURE W ORK To date, historical and field based research has been completed at the Boot Hill Cemetery. Research began in 2011. Fieldwork consisted of eight weeks of survey, GPR, trenching, and soil analysis. This work has been focused on remote sensing and some excavation. In total, a minimum of 50 grave shafts have been identified, although it is not known if this represents all burials or some aspect of the cemetery. Therefore, b ased on our find ings we recommend the following actions in the next phase of investigation: 1. Additional GRP evaluation in the area s adjacent of Boot Hill Cemetery ; 2. Archaeological test excavations in the areas marked by GPR anomalies, especially on the east side of the cem etery, to define the boundaries of the burial area and its spatial relationship with adjacent landscape features (roads, historical buildings, etc.) ; 3. Horizontal clearing through mechanical excavation of the primary burial area to identify the exact number and location s of individual grave s ites ; 4. E xhumation and skeletal autopsy including forensic pathological, anthropological, and bioarchaeological analysis of individuals from the cemetery to determine cause of death and identification for re interment ; 5. Additional archival research of historical documents, maps, and photographs; 6. Additional interviews from families, employees, and other key stakeholders associated

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 100 B IBLIOGRAPHY Bowles WS. July 1972. Marianna, Florida. Interview 2. In: Lundrigan NG. 1975. Development of the Florida Schools for Male Youthful Offenders, 1998 1969 Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University. Boyle K. 2004. Arc of Justice A Saga of Race, Civil Rights, and Murder in the Jazz Age. N ew York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC. Brown C. 1997. Ossian Bingley Hart: Florida's Loyalist Reconstruction Governor. Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press. Buchli V, Lucas G. 2001. Archaeologies of the Contemporary Past. London: Routledge. Carper NG. 1964. The Convict Lease System in Florida, 1866 1923. Ph.D. d issertation, Florida State University. Citizens of Jackson County Dona t ing Lands and Money for Location of the New Reform School. 1898. Letters, W D. Bloxham Papers. P R. Yo n ge Library at the University of Florida, Gainesville Florida. In : Noel Gordon Carper, The Convict Lease System in Florida 1866 182 3. Ph.D. dissertation. Collins PH. 1991. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge, Chapman and Hall. Conyers LB, Goodman D. 1997. Ground Penetrating Radar: An Introduction for Archaeologists. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek. Edwards C. 1969. Training Manual, Florida School for Boys. Ellis G, Wiseman B. 2012. Cola bottle dating, personal communication. Fairfax J. 19 July 1966. NAACP attorney working on Florida Schools Civil Rights Cases, correspondence Leroy Clark, legal counsel for the Singleton case. Jacksonville, Florida: Johnson and Marshall, Legal Files. FDLE. May 14, 2009. Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Office of Executive Investigations. Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys Marianna, Florida Investigative Summ ary. Case No. EI 73 8455 FDLE. January 29 20 10 Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Office of Executive Investigations. Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys Abuse Investigation. Investigative Summary. Case No. EI 04 0005 Florida. 1905. Acts and Reso lutions Adopted by the Legislature of Florida.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 101 Florida. 1965. Annual Financial and Statistical Report, 1964 1965. By Arthur G. Dozier. Division of Child Training Schools, Marianna, Fla.: Florida. 1913. Appendix to the Biennial Report of the Board of Managers of the Florida State Reform School. By Dr. N.A. Baltzell, M.D. Legislature, House: House Journal. Florida. 1907. Appendix to the House Journal. Legislature, House. Florida. 1907. Belated Report of the Marianna Board of Managers. Legislature, House: House Journal. Florida. 1920. Biennial Report of the Florida Department of Education for the Two Years Ending 30 June 1920. Department of Education. Florida. 1923 1925. Biennial Report of the Florida Industrial School for Boys. By M.S. Knight. Industrial School for Boys, Marianna: Class in Printing, F.I.S. Florida. 1925 1927. Biennial Report of the Florida Industrial School. By W.L. Vananlandingham. Industrial School for B oys, Marianna: Class in Printing, F.I.S. Florida. 1928 1930. Biennial Report of the Florida Industrial School for Boys. By Millard Davidson. Industrial School for Boys, Marianna: Class in Printing, F.I.S. Florida. 1913. Biennial Report of the Flo rida State Reform School. Legislature, House: House Journal. Florida. 1865 1869. Biennial Report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. State Department of Education: vol. 3. Florida. 1900 1902. Biennial Report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. State Department of Education: Tallahassee. Florida. Board of Commissioners of State Institutions. Minutes. Book E: 27 November 1914; 5 January 1915; 18 December 1916; 18 October 1918; 4 Nov ember 1918; 14 November, 16 November and 28 November 1918; 16 January 1919; 6 February 1919; Book F: 8 November 1919; 30 September 1920; 16 August and 22 October 1921; Book G: 30 July 1923; Book I: 24 September 1926; Book J: 31 July 1928; Book K: 15 Janua ry 1931. Florida. 1907. Concurrent Resolution No. 5. Legislature, House: House Journal. Florida. Confidential Files at the Marianna and Okeechobee School for Boys. Form letter and letters gleaned from general correspondence. Florida. 1909 1910. Eleventh Biennial Report of the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture. Department of Agriculture.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 102 Florida. 31 August 1968. First Annual Report to the Legislature. By Oliver J. Keller, Jr., Director. Department of Health and Rehabilitation Services: Tal lahassee: Division of Youth Services. Florida. 1901. First Biennial Report of the Florida State Reform School. By Walter Raw ls, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Florida Documents Tallahassee: Tallahassee Book and Job Print. Florida 1905. House Journal Florida. 1907. House Journal Appendix. Florida. 1901. Florida. 1905. Joint Committee Report on Marianna Reform School. Joint Committee on Marianna: House Journal. Florida. 1918. Message from House of Representatives. Legislature: Extraordinary Session, House Journal. Florida. 1918. Message of Governor Sidney J. Catts on Conditions at the Marianna Industrial School. Extraordinary Session: House Journal. Florida. 1913. Message to Florida Legislature. By Park Trammell. House Journal. Florida. 1915. Minority Report. By John W. Davis, Chairman. Legislature, Joi nt Legislative Committee Report of the Joint Legislative Committee appointed t o visit the Florida Industrial School for Boys: Report on the Fire, House Journal. Florida. 1918. Report of Committee of Physicians and Conditions at Industrial School for B oys. Legislature: Extraordinary Session, Senate Journal. Florida. 1903. Report of First Special Investigating Committee of Marianna Reform School. House Journal: Legislature House. Florida. 1911. Report of Joint Investigating Committee. Legislature House: House Journal. Florida. 1915. Report of Joint Legislative Committee Appointed to visit the Florida Industrial School for Boys, 1915. Legislature: House Journal. Florida. 1919. Report of the Joint Legislative Committee Appointed to visit the Industrial School at Marianna, 1919. Legislature: House Journal. Florida. 1913. Report of Special Investigative Committee on the Marianna School, 1913. Legislature: Senate Journal.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 103 Florida. 1909. Report of Superintendent to the Reform School Board of Commissioners. By S. Belch, Legislature House: House Journal. Florida. 1911. Report on Joint Investigative Committee Under House Concurrent Resolution No. 5, Relative to the State Reformatory at Marianna, Florida 1911. Legislative, Joint Committee: Senate Journal. Florida. 1909. Report on Reform School. Legislature, Joint Leg islative Investigating Committee: Senate Journal. Florida. 1969. Second Annual Report to the Legislature. By Oliver J. Keller, Jr., Director. Department of Health and Rehabilitation Services, Tallahassee: Division of Youth Services. Florida. 1923. Special Committee Inspecting the School, Report. By J.H. Harvell, Chairman, 1923. Legislature: House Journal. Florida. 1901. By W.V. Knott, Legislature, Senate: House Journal. Florida. 1901. State Superintendent of Public Instruction Report. By W.N. Sheats, State Department of Public Instruction: Tallahassee. Florida. 1901. Superintendent Report of Florida State Reform School 1901. By Walter Rawls, Legislature, Senate: Senate Journal. Florid a. 1911 1912. Twelfth Biennial Report of the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture. Department of Agriculture. Florida Industrial School for Boys, Marianna. 1 March 1922. The Light, Marianna: Class in Printing. Florida School for Bo ys. Administrative Records, 1923 2010. Florida State Archives 000630/.S 2247. Florida School for Boys. 1958. Learning to live at the Florida School for Boys at Marianna Marianna: Division of Child Training Schools. Florida School for Boys. Newspaper Clippings, 1956 1958. Florida State Archives 000630/.S 2248. Florida School for Boys. Payroll Ledgers, 1923 1961. Florida State Archives 000630/.S 2246. Florida School for Boys. Photographs, ca. 1920s 2010. Florida State Archives 000630/.S 2241. Florida School for Boys. Student Ledgers, 1915 2011 (Vol. 1 8, 18 22, 31) Florida State Archives 000630/.S 2256.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 104 Florida Statutes. 1957. 380 965. Laws of Florida. 1897. Chapter 4565; 1905 Chapter 5388; 1907 Chapter 5721; 1913 Chap ter 6529; 1925 Chapter 10203; 1927 Chapter 11808; 1957 Chapter 57 317; 1963 Chapter 63 368; 1967 Chapter 67 295; 1968 Chapter 68 22; 1973 Chapter 39. Foucault M. 1980 Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972 1977 New York: Pantheon. Hatton RW. Interviews, 24 September 1971, 20 April 1973. Retired Director of the Florida Industrial School, Marianna, Florida. In: Lundrigan NG. 1975. Development of the Florida Schools for Male Youthful Offenders, 1998 1969 Ph.D. disserta tion, Florida State University. Holmes County Advertiser. 28 November 1914. A Thief as a Reformer. Bonifay, Florida. Hunt C. 2012. Florida State Hospital: A preliminary cemetery demographic study. USF Student paper. Jackson AT. 2011. Shattering Slave Life Portrayals: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge in U.S. Plantation Sites in South Carolina and Florida. Am Anthropol 113, 3:448 62. Keller, OJ. Interview, June 1971. Director of Florida Division of Youth Services, Tallahassee, Flori da. In: Lundrigan NG. 1975. Development of the Florida Schools for Male Youthful Offenders, 1998 1969. Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University. Litwack L. 1998. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. New York: Random House. Lundrigan NG. 1975. Development of the Florida Schools for Male Youthful Offenders, 1998 1969. Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University. Montgomery B. September 13, 2009. Mother agonizes over beating at Florida School for Boys that she sa ys killed her son. Tampa Bay Times. Orser CE. 1998. The Challenge of Race to American Historical Archaeology. Am Anthropol 3:661 668. Orser CE. 2004. Race and Practice in Archaeological Interpretation Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press. Orser CE. 2007. The Archaeology of Race and Racialization in Historic America. The American Ex perience in Archaeological Pers pective S eries. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Powell JC. 1891. The American Siberi a. Chicago: J.J. Smith and Co.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 105 Pratt KF. 1949. The Development of the Florida Prison System. thesis: Florida State University. Robin FE. 1950. Reform School: A Study in Institutional Sociology. Ph.D. dissertation: Columbia University Robinson E. Interview, 24 October 1973. Panama City, Florida. In: Lundrigan NG. 1975. Development of the Florida Schools for Male Youthful Offenders, 1998 1969. Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University. Rhyne JS. 1968. Marianna, Florida, Jackson County: Floridian Press. ST PETERSBURG TIMES. Monday, August 16, 1976. Florida State Hospital cemetery: efficient, anonymous United Press International. Stubbs VV. Interview, 16 July 1972. Marianna, Florida. In: Lundrigan NG. 1975. Development of the Florida Schools for Male Youthful Offenders, 1998 1969 Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University. U.S. v. Kent. 1966. 383 U.S. 541 and 555. U.S. v. William H. Bell. 1912. 5209 Rov. Statutes nal Final Records Book. Pensacola: U.S. District Court, Northern District of Florida. p 192 197. U.S. v. Willie Carl Singleton, a minor, by Neva Singleton, his mother, et al. v. Board of Commissioners of State Institutions, et al. 31 August 1966. Civi l Act No. 963. Tallahassee: U.S. District Court files for the Northern District of Florida. Walters DR. Interview, 23 August 1974. Former school superintendent and administrative assistant to Arthur Dozier. Marianna, Florida. In: Lundrigan NG. 1975. Development of the Florida Schools for Male Youthful Offenders, 1998 1969. Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University. Williams LE. Interview, 2 November 1973. Marianna, Florida. In: Lundrigan NG. 1975. Development of the Florida Schools for Male Youthful Offenders, 1998 1969 Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University. Williamson J. 1984. The Crucible of Race: Black and White Relations in the American South since Emancipation. New York: Oxford University Press. Wilkie LA. 2000. Creating Freedom: Material Culture and African American Identity at Oakley Plantation, Louisiana, 1840 1950. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. Wilkie LA. 2001. Black Sharecroppers and White Frat Boys. In: Archaeologies of the Contemporary Past. Buchili V, Lucas G editors. London: Routledge p 108 118.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 106 Wilkerson I. 2010. The Warmth of Other Suns New York: Rando m House. Woodward CV. 1951. Origins of the New South, 1877 1913. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 107 A PPENDIXES

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 108 To: Erin Kimmerle, Ph.D. University of South Florida From: Laura Hair, M.D. and Leszek Chrostowski, M.D.; Associated Medical Examiners, District 13 Medical Examiner Department, Tampa, Florida Date: October 18, 2012 Re: Expert Opinion on Medical Review of Deaths at the Former Arthur Dozier School for Boys Historical investigations that seek to understand past medical and pathological diagnoses are always a challenge due to the evolution of forensic and diagnostic medicine in recent years. The field of forensic pathology is relatively young, but combined with modern death investigations, we offer the justice system methods to try to answer questions that could not be found it the past. We were asked to provide an expert opinion on several child deaths that occurred between 1952 1966. The records that e xist were reviewed, and our opinions are summarized below: 1. Billey Jackson was a 13 year old African American boy, who died on 10 7 1952 in Jackson Hospital, 10 days after admission from FIS. According to his death certificate, his cause of death was pyel onephritis. Two witnesses (Walthour and Williams) stated that about two weeks prior to his death, Billey Jackson was severely beaten following an attempt to escape from the school; allegedly, the beating included his abdomen, which then swelled, and promp ted his hospital admission. After his death an autopsy examination was performed by the school physician, Dr. Whitaker; however, no written record of the examination can be found. Pyelonephritis is a form of ascending urinary tract infection, which may a ffect one or both kidneys. It is usually associated with urine retention and can indeed be fatal. The obstruction of flow initiating the pathology may result from a congenital condition, e.g. inadequate valve mechanism at the junction of the ureters and the bladder, or obstruction of the ureter(s) due to urolithiasis, i.e. kidney stones, or trauma. Nowadays the cause of Having no record of the autopsy, we are un able to conclude the primary cause (or The manner of his death is undetermined, since a natural death would be exclusively due to natural disease, and in his case it is uncertain whether there was a contributing traumatic factor. Review of the original autopsy report would be most helpful to clarify the above. 2. Robert Jerald Hewett was a 16 year old w hite boy who entered FIS on 3/22/1960. The FIS ledgers confirm that Hewett was admitted and then on March 25 was temporarily released to the Jackson Hospital. He returned to FIS the following day on March 26 and then on April 2, he ran away. The ledger and death certificate indicate he died two days

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 109 later on April 4. A ll of this information comes from the daily ledger, as the discharge ledger s person or including coroner or police incident reports could be located. d eath c gunshot wound(s) inflicted by another person, his manner of death is classified as classification s do ations, which are of interest to the judicial system ra ther than medical examiner. Examination of R.J. is recommended because if there was skeletal trauma, it would be possible to learn about the projectile trajectory, shedding a light on possible circumstances of the incident. 3. Michael Smelley was a 17 year old white boy who died 3/15/1966. His death certificate incarceration at the school. Witnesses allege he was beaten severely following an attempted escap e and that immediately afterwards he was unable to walk. Several days investigation, h tumor could aggravate the tumor or cause paralysis or even accelerate the spread of the Medical records and autopsy indicate that Michael had a sarc oma around his spinal cord with later metastases to the lung. Since no evidence of fractures is noted in his hospital inability to walk following the blows might be rel ated to the alleged beating but nothing is stated of his walking ability before the alleged beating. His inability to walk could be a res ult of the tumor. After his first surgery Michael did have the ability to walk with a cane. The a cceleration of the spread of a neoplasm by beating in not likely and very speculative. The hospital record s available from the University of Florida do not ind icate trauma. Our conclusion is that Smelley died a natural death, due to malignant neoplasm. This of course does not exclude a possibility of being beaten; however, if a beating occurred, it can

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 110 October 15, 2012 Attention: Erin H. Kimmerle, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Anthropology University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Ave., SOC 107 Tampa, Florida 33620 8100 USA Subject: Fire Origin and Cause Investigation The Florida Industrial School f or Boys 4111 County Road 167 Marianna, Florida 32448 Dear Professor Erin Kimmerle, City of Tampa Fire Investigator Christopher M. Stone and retired City of Tampa Supervisor of Fire Investigation Al Alcala are pleased to submit this summary regarding our fire scene findings at the above referenced location which was conducted on Monday, October 1, 2012. The purpose of the investigation was to render a professional opinion as to t he origin and cause of the fire that reportedly damaged the above referenced Florida Industrial School for Boys building on Wednesday, November 18, 1914 and to list any and/or all contributing factors. The site assessment included an examination of all pro vided historical documentation of relevant information and findings. Based on our investigation of all available resources obtained of the fire damage at the loss site, as presented within the remainder of this report, our conclusions are summarized as fo llows: No evidence of an exterior fire was discovered during the document reviews of the fire scene inspection conducted in 1914. Based on a known account from one of the residing staff members, O.G. Marston, the fire appeared to have originated near the main stairwell on the east side of the first floor of the building, because he had alerted and directed the boys on the second floor to the stairway located on the western end of the building. The area of origin was determined to be on the first floor l evel at/or near the eastern portion of the building, which consisted of the assembly room, washrooms, and offices. After analyzing the collected and available data using the principles of the scientific method, several hypotheses were developed. o Recogn ize the need. We could all come to a conclusion that a fire occurred on November 18, 1914.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 111 o Define the Problem. Having determined that a problem existed, a proper origin and cause investigation was not conducted in 1914. Through a combination of other data collection methods, such as the review of several previously conducted investigations of the incident, the interviews of witnesses the morning after the fire, and/or other knowledgeable persons involved, several competent ignition sources existed within the building. o Collect Data. Not all known facts about the incident were collected. The building materials, the dimensions of the building, configuration of the building, room by room, floor by floor, fuel loads such as all combustible materials (furniture rugs, clothing, chemicals, etc.) present within the building, ventilation and constructed openings such as windows, doors, ceiling heights, and stairwells were not properly documented. We were unable to identify any fuels in the area of origin, identify potential ignition sources in the area of origin, or identify the first fuel ignited. o Analyze the Data. Based on the limited data gathered during the investigation review process, several hypotheses were considered based on the limited information gather ed. o Develop a Hypothesis (Inductive Reasoning). The limited empirical data that was collected and considered during this investigation, revealed several lit kerosene lamps used for lighting placed throughout the staircases and walls of the building, oil based paints and rags used in the painting process, a wood burning stove used for heating, and arson were all possible competent ignition sources and contributing factors to the fire. o Test the Hypothesis (deductive Reasoning). Based on the limited inform ation gathered and reviewed, the following hypotheses were considered: The wood burning stove used for heating could not be eliminated as a possible source of ignition. According to the 1914 report, this wood burning stove was brought into the building to heat the building on a cold night. This wood burning stove must have proper ventilation routed to the exterior of the building, as to the safety concern of carbon monoxide poisoning caused from the burning wood within the stove. This wood burning stove was supported with three legs and two bricks and was functioning properly when staff members went to bed. The location of this wood burning stove still remains unknown; however, the possibility of the floor being ignited horizontally by the wood burning s tove is unlikely. The ventilation pipes from the wood burning stove if routed to the exterior of the building through a window opening or wall opening would be a likely competent source of ignition if the ventilation pipes had perforations which would allo w the flames and heated gasses to escape and make direct them vertically. A fire that burns vertically spreads rapidly and a fire that burns horizontally spreads slower.

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 112 If spontaneous combustion is believed to be the cause of this fire it is necessary to determine if this is possible. Firstly, it should be determined whether or not the materials involved in the fire are susceptible to spontaneous combustion. Th is requires investigation of the material itself and the conditions present at the time of the fire. The only information provided is that oily greasy rags had been used during the painting process and placed at/or near a locker stored with dynamite undern eath the stairwell. The configuration of the reacting mass is also important in determining whether sufficient heat could build up to the point of ignition. A loosely placed or thrown pile will undergo spontaneous ignition. If a spontaneous combustion fire would have occurred at/or near the stored dynamite locker located underneath the stairwell, this would have possibly resulted in an explosion causing severe damage to the stairwell and building. According to eyewitness accounts, no explosion was mentioned Kerosene oil lamps were used for lighting and placed throughout the staircases and walls of the building. The exact manufacture of the oil lamps, the total number of oil lamps, location, and/or mounting of the oil lamps is unknown. Kerosene oil lamps require constant cleaning, maintenance, and a watchful eye to insure proper operation. If the accumulation of residue and debris builds up on the lamp and glass surfaces, the lamp will not operate properly. Over filling the reservoir with kerosene oil coul d result in the oil igniting and causing the oil to drip onto other surfaces eventually igniting other combustible materials in the immediate area. The most common cause of kerosene oil lamp fires is that of an accidental nature, being knocked over causing the ignited liquid to spill resulting in rapid fire spread. The use of contaminated kerosene oils could have also pose d a potently serious fire hazard. The daily operation and use of the oil lamps is unknown, therefore the possibility of the kerosene oil lamp as being a potential fire cause cannot be ruled out. Arson was also believed to be a possible cause of the fire which was considered. The Pensacola Journal reported that prior attempts to burn down the dormatory building had been made several months earlier. Further a Mr. George Coldwell, of Laurel Hill, Florida, attempted to have his son released from the school several days prior to the fire with negative results. Mr. Coldwell allegedly made verbal threats to blow up the building if his son was no t released. Coldwell was allegedly seen on the school grounds earlier the day of the fire. Coldwell was later exonerated by a grand jury and his son who ran away from the school before the fire was released several days after the fire. Although Coldwell wa s exonerated arson cannot be ruled out as a possible cause of the fire. The evidence against Mr. Coldwell appears to have been circumstantial, which today can be used during prosecution in trial. The use of a handheld open flame device (lighter, matches, c andle) used to ignite common combustibles and

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 113 /or an accelerant (ignitable liquid) is a possible cause of the fire and therefore cannot be ruled out as a potential cause of the fire. Investigation Methods: The investigation method(s) and/or Pro cedures utilized during the course of this limited investigation were conducted in accordance with NFPA 921, Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations 2011, and NFPA 1033, Standard for Professional Qualifications for Fire Investigator 2009. The systemati c approach used in this limited investigation was that of the scientific method as prescribed in NFPA 921, Chapter 4 Basic Methodology, and NFPA 1033, A.4.1.2. The data collected was systematically examined, the collected data analyzed, possible hypotheses were considered based on the limited amount of data collected. Documents Reviewed: As part of our assessment of the reported damage at the Industrial School for Boys, we reviewed the following documents : The 6 th Legislative Committee since 1901 report of 1913 Board of Managers Report (W.H. Milton) Edwards Report of 1969 Florida Legislative Committee Conclusion: Based on the limited amount of information gathered regarding the fire at the Industrial School for Boys, a true definitive cause of the fire could not be reached. We were unable to state specifically which of these competent ignition sources ignited the u nknown first fuel. The determination of the cause of the fire requires identification of those circumstances and factors that were necessary for the fire to have occurred. Those circumstances and factors include, but are not limited to, the device or equip ment involved in the ignition, the presence of a competent ignition source, the type and form of the material first ignited, and the circumstances or human actions that allowed the factors to come together to allow the fire to occur. The cause of this fire cannot be proven to an acceptable level of certainty, therefore, should be classified as undetermined until new information becomes available. Limits of the Study

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Interim Report on Boot Hill Cemetery | 114 This report was prepared for the exclusive use of Professor Erin H. Kimmerle, Ph. D. and was not intended for any other purpose. This report represents the forensic observations and conclusions resulting from information that was provided to us as well as several reported fire scene findings. The opinions of this report are based upon fire sc ience and limited documented observations made during the course of this study and were developed to a reasonable degree of investigative certainty. Please note that we reserve the right to revise the documented findings, comments, and/or conclusions above as conditions change or additional information becomes available. This report was prepared for Erin H. Kimmerle Ph. D. and we disavow any liability for use by others. We appreciate this opportunity to have assisted you with this investigation. Please c ontact us if you have any questions or need additional information. Sincerely, Christopher M. Stone City of Tampa Fire Investigator

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AND Sciences University of S outh Florida 4202 East Fowler Avenue, SCA110 Tampa, FL 33620 5200 (813) 974 3250 Fax (813) 974 3263 October 10, 2012 Dr. Erin Kimmerle Department of Anthropology USF 4202 E. Fowler Ave. Tampa, FL 33620 Dear Erin: I have been at work processing the cedar cores as best as I can. I am able to tell you a Juniperus They are either Eastern Red Cedar ( Juniperus virginiana ) or Southern Red Cedar ( Juniperus silicicola ). species have very similar ring structures. In general, the eastern Juniperus are n otoriously difficult to date, and these trees share that quality. There are two problems with dating the tree cores. The first is heart rot within the trees. Because of the heart rot, the samples do not go back as far as we would like. Many of my cores are less than half as long as they would be in the absence of rot. Because ring widths vary throughout time (randomly from year to year, and systematically declining in f or by combining it with the measurements of the trees that I made while there The second major issue I failed to reconcile false rings. Cedars make a lot of them. this missing rings as well. I also noticed that the rings can vary much more than usual between the two samples taken per tree, which makes it difficult or impossible to cros s date the trees given such a small wood sample. the trees in the cemetery, along the fence (AWC2 and AWC3), MAY BE younger than AWC4, AWC5, and StumpD. AWC6 is lik ely closer in age to AWC2 and 3 than the other trees in the cemetery. This is based almost solely on tree diameter, and I cannot say this with very much certainty. It may be possible to get some rough ages of the cedars with a fair amount more work. At thi s point, my only suggestion would be to take thick cross sections of the trees using a

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chain saw. The sections would need to be a bit thicker than traditional cross sections se this recommend this, but it could work because it would make it easier to distinguish false from true rings and would be more likely to give us a more complete re cord unless the entire center of the tree is rotted. Most people who work with tree rings avoid working with cedars, for good reason. If you want to pursue this using cross sections, Gordon can recommend some people to you people who would probably be th e best possible bet for getting meaningful results. If you constricting. As far as the other cores, like the pecans and oak They are a different type of wood that I am presently unable to spend the time learning to understand and cross date, and those samples are also much shorter than they should be. In this case, these trees are hardwoods, and they usually require cross sections (and a ton of elbow grease) for sam pling as well. Please let me know if you have any questions or if I may be of help in the future. Thank you for bringing me on board. I really enjoyed meeting and working with you and your team, and I'm happy to have been a part of the project. Sincerely yours, Jamie Gluvna Ph.D. student Gordon A. Fox, Ph.D. Associate Professor