Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 1 Folder 15 : Sanctuaries, General (pp. 713-830)

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Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 1 Folder 15 : Sanctuaries, General (pp. 713-830)

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Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 1 Folder 15 : Sanctuaries, General (pp. 713-830)
Audubon Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Florida
University of South Florida
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 folder
Physical Location:
Box 1 Folder 15


Subjects / Keywords:
Audubon societies -- Diaries ( lcsh )
Ecology -- Florida ( lcsh )
History -- Gulf Coast (Fla.) -- 20th century ( lcsh )


The daily journals of Audubon wardens and statewide reports on certain sites and projects cover activities from 1900 to 1970, with most of the materials concentrated between the 1930s and 1950s.

Record Information

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University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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This object is protected by copyright, and is made available here for research and educational purposes. Permission to reuse, publish, or reproduce the object beyond the bounds of Fair Use or other exemptions to copyright law must be obtained from the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
032958557 ( ALEPH )
890709008 ( OCLC )
A47-00015 ( USF DOI )
a47.15 ( USF Handle )

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Thurs. Uncle Ed:-Glad the Emperin Compoun d worked Sometimes it clears up pain for a long while, but it' s too much to expect it would really remove the primary cause. But it certainly does give relie f Remember now, Emper in Compound_, not more than four ever in 24 hours; take one at a time not closer than three hours apart; don' t take at bed-time or in night for they have some caffeine in them and it might make you wakeful. Don't ever take any of them unless you really need to. cable from Mother in Edenborough, "Fine trip. All well. Grand time. Love English sparrows have invaded my place from some Dago farms a mile away where they raise a lot of chickens. They come every year when the young ones get enterprising enough, and they turn up all at once. This morning my lawn, where I feed wild doves, and the table and the two stands where I put out feed for the others, looked like a wild Donneybrook Fair. I can tolerate black-birds and cow-birds in flocks and even raucous and quarrelsome blue-jays, but I can't stand for E nglish sparrows. Did you know that Alexander Jylie, my grandfather and his father, Peter, actually saw the first 16 pairs of English sparr ows r eleased in Union vquare, N Y in '40s I believe? The first starlings I ever saw lived in a belfry on the New Haven Green in the fall of 1905, and last winter I saw a little .flock in Miami I 'll bait a place for the sparrows and two loads of 12 gauge ,S will fix them.


, t J 1 2 The sanctuary I spoke of is a rookery at the top of Shark River in Jnorida. It a nd one inland from Cape Sable were so remot$ that only spasmodic efforts were ever made to protect them, the Audubon Society were interested but uneffectual, and until four years ago feather hunters, some whom I know personally, raided them. yearafter year. Four years ago when this Tropical National Park was first talked of in Washington, the government appointed two wardens, the Roberts brothers, to protect these two main rookeries and some smaller ones d,uring nesting season -Feb. 15th-June lst and thep to protect certain islands where they roost. An Audubon man and a boy h elps: Both t big rookeries, and a lot of 1 it tle ones particularly one of f1amingos and one of pink ibis, and a lot .of the islands where they roost, are in new National Park. The natives including the Seminoles, don t mind the Audubon men, that' s sort of a game, but they are scared stiff of government wardens, and that park will be pretty safe. The natives eat the white ibis, they call them curlew, and will salt them down iri barrels and live part of tbe year on them. v lhen Sandy and Estelle, Fred Frelinglhlws e n and I were fishing at Everglades last April, one of the old men I know, who lives at Everglades, told me he had just talked to one of the Roberts brothers who had come to town for supplies, and that Roberts had said, Shark River rookery was getting to be like it used to be, that the young were nearly all hatched but couldn' t fly yet, and t bat a man from the Smithsonian in "lashington had come down the week before with aU. S warden; and they estimated.l,500,000


3 birds in the rookery.n Hearing that, I worked up some excitement about the fishing at Shark River and in three days the four of us were off in t w o little guide boats. It's 50 miles east to the mouth of Shark River and Everglades is the nearest town ohly a scattered fish hut on an island being closer. No houses at all at Shark River. Sixteen miles up the river you come out of the mangrove swamps and the river disintigrates up in six or seven little creeks 30-40 ft. broad, that run back up into the prairies. These little streams are boardered thre1l hundred yards deep on each side by sort of dwarf low growth trees, co ,ca-plum, myrtle, buttonwood, etc., not. higher than 30 feet, the ground underneath them fairly hard and a triffle above the level of the prairie country outside the trees. Of course the water un there is absolutely fresh being just drainage from the hundred miles-of prairie and swamp which extends north to Lake ,Okeechobee, which lies due west of Palm Beach. See a map, find Cape Sable and Shark River and you'll understand. The rookery lies along 5 or 6 of these little streams where they branch out from the very top of the main river. We arrived about two hours before sundown and found Tom Roberts and a 18 year old boy living on a flat boat lighter at the top of the river, 200 from the rookery where the little streams feed off like the fingers on your hand. I gave Rooerts a big shot of liquor and he told me about chasing away a tribe of 40 indians who had started to build a camp about 12 miles away. I asked him why and would they harm the birds, and where would they go ? And he answered; "I dunno" to all three questions. I added "but 12 miles is too damn close for any


4 Indian to be to my birds or to me either." Then the four of us'and one of our guides piled into a big flat row boat and the 19 year old boy rowed us up into two of the rookery streams. I believe the rookery extends for about 400 yards on each of six streams that makes 2400 yards long, and in.width between 200-250 yards on each side of each stream. de only went about 150 yards up two of the streams. Well it was just beyond description. Each tree had as many nests as it would hold, if the young weren't on the nests they were on the trees or onthe ground, and they'd run away like waves and pile up in heaps. The old birds just .sitting calmly around or arriving and departing. The noise was unbelievable and the smell from offal and dead birds beyond comprehension. Tom had to yell to the man next you. Every once in a while the boy would drawl "I just don't know where the birds are today," and then he'd beat violently on the side of the boat with a big tin can and tens of thousands of birds would flap up and their crap would fall all over us (Estelle put up an umbrella) and the little ones would scramble around the branches and fall in the water, and pile up in heaps on the ridges. The boy was almost really offended when I took the can away from him. I bet our little 1! hour trip cost the lives of 150 birds. I believe all the eggs were hatche d but the little ones were all sizes. The birds were a little of everything of the heron & crane families, little egret{, big egretf (long silkies) gannet (wood ibi6 whitt" and pirik ibis, little big the V' same with blue, some of our big blue herons, and others like them but with grey patches on wings; water turkeys, hterons, etc,etc, etc. No cormorants or pelicans or man-of-war-birds; they nest at salt water; no Florida kites, they nest alone; no flamingoes, they have separate rookeries and only one


5 left at that. Lots of buzzards and crows picking up things but living elsewhere. A big Florida hawk, sort of grey barred, a red-shouldered-hawk, and a marsh-hawk, l e t us get right on them, they were each tearing up a baby bird. It's all hard to describe a perfectly b e wiJ dering sight. The water was full of gar of all sizes, and big mouth bass. A water moccasin every 50 feet on shore; I killed o n e with an oar much to the consternation of the boat. I go a 100 feet of fine movies, but we had no camera for still pictures. April 23rd I believe was the day w e went. That night we"slnne" allig a tor e y e s and shot them with a 22, the biggest Ll 4 feet long, and a 1 5 lb. tarpon got scared at the light a nd jumped into the boat h itting me s q u a r e o n the butt. Roberts says next y e a r that rookery w ill b e almost t wice as b i g for they had no heavy winds or bad rain storms when the e gg s were unhatched. Sandy and 3stelle aren't really interested in birds and hunting etc, etc, but I wish you c ould hear them talk about that sight. Write me soon. As ever, Ted.


I to. A n h1. ... e rt to t Aud. no ctfto t ...... !!


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I \ ORAND U M Mar c h 31, 1937 Subject: Pluming --$20 per scalp for "Long White" has been quoted in Florida 1inter resort s for some years. From 1912 1918 $ 75 per spray YJas quoted in the Ne I York retail trade. Forty sprRys to a bird, making a tota l of $30.00 per bird.


I I TREASURY DEPARTMENT Burea u of Customs New York, N.Y J anuary 27, 1939 Mr. Robert P. Allen. N ational Assoc t1on of Audubon Societies, 1006 Fifth Avenue, New York .. N.Y. Sir: Acknowledgment is m ude of the rece!pt of your letter of J a nu ary 18, 1939 advising of a "hint" from a reliable source tha t 1t might be ell to check c arefully the import tiona of fe

, J / Sept.2l -DATA STIGA'l'IO tro o clail!ling to be milliner. Sh as e if ra ise pl es, 1grettes, to. coul. ld legally. en an we red in ega t1 v e e st t that a numb r o m1111 ers in his i ty are 111ng oh pl ge, or or les openly. Shop here such illegal pl ge is sol center about d1 on Avenue according to th1 anony.mou She ng 1 o tions: d1 on Av be 't 55th stre bet 57th reet (a een 65th and 66th streets. 76th str et. n adison and F1ft Av nues. dlec.'! le Th anon ou that a n trom ontreal i e gaged in pl e into this city and is peddline 1t to .local lliners. Acting on in tructions Dr Pe calle the Burns Detective Ag ncy and re uested the 1cea of ss J Se ert in making investigations. s s er m t th Dr Pe roon and .cr. Allen at 2 : 00 p and s given hat informatio n had on hand Sh as instructed to ob 1n de iled evidence as to h al of illegal pl ge in s op in this c1 ty. Previou ly Dr Pearson d c un1cate th Hunt and Rob rt on t the Cuetoms office and they p pro ed of our hiring ss de s rvery tor the purpose o:r obtaining evidence to be turned over to the CUstom ervice.


t I t '.) A t 26 August DATA ON PL GE DrvESTIGATIOllS --B dley n tic d picture in N Y Ttmes sho ng hat trimm d th "P rad1se plumes s Donohu ct1ng on Hadley s infoma.tion, called the F shion Ed1 tor of Y Times and learned that firm displaying paradise plunes" as N1cole e Paris, 7 East 55th Street, e York City. s Donohue c un1 ted above information to u s Customs 8 J F HUn,, u s Customs Agency service, called t r por on licole e Paris. seven genuine paradise ere found and seized. O'tmer cl 1m d the's plumes re not offered for sal but ere merely displays. 0 er given 30 days to prove legal a session. Sept.l5 Anonymous 1 tter received at office stating th t tram ontreal is engaged in sou illeGn]. plumage into this city and peddling it at var1ou milliners here. This letter forwarded to Supervising Custom Agent 0 420 Customhouse Sept.l6 Badley noticed picture in Y Times sho ng hat trimmed With rabou pl e Sept.l7 -Audu on office called J F Hunt Customs Service, and ga htm information obtained from F shion Et\1 tor of l Y Tine .... : ra bou d1 splayed by Sally Victor, 18 East SMh st. This address a a mistake and correct address, 18 ast 53rd st., with holesale house at 15 est 39th t., given to Hunt later, conn ed in lett r of


INVESTIGATIO OF THE REPORTED SALE OF PARADISE PLUJ4ES July 31 An unkn.o called the office ot the ational As ociation of Audubon cieties to ask it 1 t s 111 gal to purchase b1rd-ot-paradi e plumes She s told t t it s illegal under the provisions of the Tariff Act re at1ng importation of pl g etc. e then stated that a millinery Shop looted at 501 d1eon Avenue opera ted by on Valle, had such plumes for sale. Asked if they ight not be artificial sh id th t they ere r presented to her as genuine. She ould not give her e e wrot the Customs Service ( ervising CUstoms Agent, Customs Agency service) staing bri tly the tacts of the case and offering our cooper tion in effecting an investigation. Aug. l J Btmt of th CUsto s Service, telephoned our orne and s sted that e might supply a ho could enter the shop and ask to ee fe thers or ts with feath r Hunt re uested that e call h1m again on th t'ollo ng Tue d y hen he uld be tree to conduct the investigation (Aug .7). A 7 C 11 d BUnt an arranged tor h1m to b ln theAudubon Association off1c at ll:OO a m next day (Aug .e). Call d the J Burns Detective Agency and asked th to s nd us a representative. r B La 'ar, ot the Burns Agency onsulted th us at 1:00 p and arranged that one of the en operatives uld be ln the Association s office next d y at i 1 : a m Aug. a J F t and Pheiter, both of the custa s Service and th latter a t ther expert, and ss J De severy, ot the Burns ency, et in the Association' s office and di cu s d plans. They also examined our supply of aradls pl es in natural d dyed fo t about ll:30 they left the office. At 4 :30 p Mr. Hunt returned and gave the follo ing report. The Valle hop sells imitation or artitici 1 paradise plumes. They bad on display too genuine paradise plumes now owned by s arion Apfel (Vall ) ho oper tes the shop She has had th 1n her posse sion about 25 years, and proved this to the of the Custoos men They h ve been ept in the Shop as isplays and for purposes of copttng. Apfel, on her o initiative, removed these pl es and they ll no longer be displa d The 1m1 t tion pl es ere reported by Pheiter to be very easily detected. r Hunt and iss D severy 11 subm1 t detailed reports w1 thin a t days. R P A 8/9/34


: C 0 P Y) UNI'!ED ST.A.TES DEPARTMENT OJ' .AGRICULTURE GP -I John Hackmeister FLORID.A. :Bureau of Biological Surve7 Chief, Division of Game Management, Biological Survey, U. S. Department of jgricul ture, Washington, D. c. Dear Mr. Yo'Ul1g: Dqtona Beach, Florida, April 7 1927. Reference is made to 7our letter of April 3, a cow of a letter received b;y you from Vr. John H. Baker, Secretar)", National jssociation of .A.udubon Societies, New York, N. Y. The information regarding Vr. Hackmeister is nothing new to this office, and all parties engaged in game law enforcement work have had an eye on this part;y for several )"ears and the total results are still nil as far as gathering information upon which to base a Hacbleister owns and 1"Wl8 !e! hotel at Naples, l'lorida, and is, so I am told, a man of independent means, and, while we have had every reason to believe that gathered at times, -for personal and not commercial reasons, a few plumes, we have never had reason to believe that he might be classed as a dealer in such. While it might possibl7 be true that some plumes are trans-ferred to Kansas points, as stated by Mr. Baker, everyone concerned can banish the that shipments are ao heavy that thq have to be carried b)" truck. In fact, I '11 wager that I ce tuck every plume that Haclaneister may c&rr)" to Kansas, or elsewhere, very eas1l7 in one corner of a suit-case. In other words, there is no such thing as an actual traffic in plumes either in, or out of, !'lorida. It not only is not being done but it could not be done without this office becoming aware of it. may sound egotistical but it is not intended to be so but is, on the contrary, stmpl7 a statement of fact. I know because I have the contacts that would pass the word to me at the first sign of a killing of plume birds, to sq nothing about B.D'T resultant movement of plumes. Last )"ear, as 70u will recall, we had our first big scare in several years as regards the killing of plume birds. '!he first story to come through was that 20,000 had been killed. This was almost immediatel7 discounted and the possible kill put at not to exceed


-2-200. Later, information reached me from a source that I really believe was in a position to tell me the of it, that the kill was 70 birds. All iuvestigations le4 toward the belief that the latter number was close to the kill, if not the actual DUmber. We also have reason to believe that these plumes were delivered to the hotel owned and conducted by the said Hackmeister. Still we were unable at that time, and are still unable, to directly tie up with the killing or directly with the plumes. Mr. cannot possibly be more keenly interested in the welfare of the plume birds of Florida than I am. Neither can he be more desirous of up any traffic that may exist in plumes. However, conducting such an iuvestigation beyond the point where such investigations were conducted months ago, only to run into a stone wall, so to speak, is something else again. No new information exists upon which to re-open this investigation, or I would gladly do so. hankly, no one is going to turn a plume hunter in, -not unless such party is reaey to leave the country or wants to take a big chance on being rubbed out at the first opportunity. Therefore, a case on information supplied by someone is practically out of all question. We might get sufficient dope to lead ua to a plume cache, -if one should exist, but not the dope upon which to prosecute either a killer of plume birds or the possessor of plumes. !he latter is simply not being done. .A.s long as there are plume birds in existence just so long will there be a few of them killed from time to time. !his cannot be pre vented any ilore than can respect be obtained for any law. Every officer in Florida, tqself included, will continue to do everything in our power to prevent such killing and,while we do not expect to be wholly successful, we do expect to keep down a7J'T so-termed traffic in plumes, and to keep the plume birds of this State showing a healtey increase in numbers with each passing year. !he N .A. .A..s. has five wardens employed in southern Florida. !heae men being constantly on the job, either in the area where most of the plume birds nest or adjacent thereto, are in a position to lmow what is going on. by information that they may give this office, at time, dealing with either the killing of plume birds or the hand ling o:f plumes, if based on aJl11;hing more than rumor, will receive immediate attention and every effort will be exerted to run anT suCh information into something tangible. In conclusion let me assure you that the writer is not onl7 al1ert to past and present conditione as regards the plume birds of but likewise alert to possibilities along this line at thia season of the year. Inasfar as this one-man game taw enforcement agency is concerned you expect, and will receive, the best service it has to offer. Very truly yours, /a/ J. V KELSEY, U. s. Game Management .Aent.


\ I emo of Information Obtained from Richard Gordon with Relation to Pluming Possibilities on the West Coast of Florida, Marcp 1937. John Hackmeister, then wintering in Naples, has given up hie place in Canada and bought a wheat farm in Kansas. The Kirklands are living in the woods back of Naples as always. They say they are hunting and trapping. There are Dan, Bud, Noah and their sons. Fred Williams and his son are out there aleo. Creighton, the hotel owner in Naples, hae favored Weekes in the Weekes-Roberts family fued. It is natural therefore tht Roy Roberte would have tried to give us information against Creighton. Tom Weekes owes his job as warden to Creighton. The feathers used to go in car cushions to Canada, but Canada doesn't permit any more. Gordon says he thinks $200 a month salary would buy Tom Weekes' services and that although his record may be bad he would be as good a warden as we could get if we paid him enough. In Gordon's presence while in the Naples hotel lobby, a woman talking to another said she had just bought aigrettes in Miami which were represented to be guaranteed Florida plumes. She said she had inquired where she could get any in Miami and had obtained the information at her hotel. Gordon did not ovenhear any specific information as to just wheteshe got them. The Whitten family at Eetero is a bad outfit. They live back in the swamp on the corkscrew road. Chisholm Rivers worked for Creighton for years at Naples. Now he is poat guiding. Gordon thought he could get the low-down on much that was going on from him but hadn't seen him. Lawrence Youngman is not a good actor. He is around Naples trapping all the time. A man named Stevens (he thinks Walter) in Caxambas is apt t o do some pluming. Old George Jones is a friend of Gordon's and lives back of Bonita Springs. He is now too old to know much, according to


. emorandum: .,.., arch 29 th 19 37 : At the suggestion of Paulsen, of the u. S. Coast Guard at Sprunt and I other places, at .,\ of a man named Johnson at Plnecrest, on the 1 r1e Tamiami Trai 1. It is on the north side of or less abandoned road, just west of the bend so miles or so west of Mac's place at the Y. W e got there at about 5 P. M. Johnson and a man friend and a colored man servant were there. Johnson welcomed us warmly, said he had heard of r. Sprunt before and knew who he was, and then proceeded to state hmv tremendously interested he is in conservation of wildlife, and what an awful lot of exploitation of it is going on all around him; as a consequence he had lost the friendship of all neighbors but one. About that time a car drew up with three women and a man; all of them came in. One woman was introduced as rs. Johnson. She had a tiny baby 'coon with her, which she proceeded to feed milk from an eye-dropper. She had a bunch of live snakes and said they had been out in the swamp. One of the other women, say five foot 9 inches, blond, slightly freckled and weighing perhaps 160 pounds, age about 40, was introduced as the wife of Captain Gothberg of the Yacht Dolphin, then said to be at Pal111 Beach. This ye.cht was said to be one of the Atwater Kent fleet of yachts. Guns were hanging all over the place. There was a rattler in the icebox. There were collections of shells including Ligs. There was every evidence, in other words,thatthese people knew their way about outdoors and knew the wildlife of the area. Johnson and his guests gave no appearance of being Florida crackers. He claims to be employed by the Chevalier Corporation, of Miami, which, I think, is some kindof subsidiary of the Florida East Coast Railway. He showed me a map on which their lands were indicated, lying south of the Trail extending some distance inland from the West Coast. He claimed to be a surveyor and cruiser. If dressed in other clothes, he 1ould have fitted perfectly well in the average business office. The woman sa$d to be Mrs. Lou Gothberg gave me a long song and dance about the affectionate King Snake she had been taking to bed with her. As we were about to leave, I said to her, "Why don't you write up that story about the snake you take to bed, and I will print it. 1 She said, 11I guess you do n't know w h o I am. Come over here and look at some pictures," and drew me to the side of


\ lllemora.ndum 2: the room. She then said, 11I am on to you. I know who you are. I am working on narcotics. I have been here six weeks. You are with the Department ofJustice, aren't you?" For the next hour and a half or so we were each trying to lea d the .other on. She was either damned snart, if not an undercover operator or informant of some kind, or damned stupid if she was. On looking at the photographs none of which had any eyidence of any illegal activity but seeme d to pictures of various friends, I noticed there was prominently among them the ture of a man which is prominent on the walls of Happy Jackls further east on the Trail, where it is labelled "Wildcat Charlie". His picture seems usually to be taken in a big hat holding a couple of alligators and rattlesnakes, etc. When I said to her,. looks like ildcat Charlie", she looked startled and said, 110h, that's all the bunk; he just works on the Daily New s in iami. 11 She then said, 11If you want to know where a big rookery is, I will show you, if you take me down the road." r said, 11All right, come on.11 en she saw that Sprunt was in the car, too, she didn't see to like it so much We went on east about halfway to Mac' s and stopped when she said, 11It's right in there about two miles'. That is, within the loop. I had flown over that the day before in a Blimp and seen no eigne of a rookery whatever. Later check wi t'h Von Pe.uleen indicated he was positive there was no rookery there. She said there were 250,000 birds in that, and that pluming h a d been taking place. Johnson had previously stated that there was a. big rookery that had formed a few days before they were there, but that it appeared to have been broken up We went on to Mac' s place. On the way the woman nudged me and said, so that Alex couldn 1 t hear it, 11 I ar.a Opera tor 100 11 She talked a lot about people that she had known eo much so that I finally said I supposeAshe knew the Duke of indsor well, and she shut up She said she had start-ed on t 1e floor of .1/lr Hol l ywood restaurant in New York City and that she had been secretary to and W E. Hutton and knew Ben Smith well. days she used to make a lot of money being paid about $ 100 a week and given options on stock, in addition. She spoke of a great many other people that are mentioned in the press, but when I asked her whether she


emorandum -3: knew so and so, whom I know to be well known to people that she mentioned, she evidently was stumped. For example, Jerry cCarthy, of W E Hutton & Company. I asked Alex to go in and get himself a. sandwich or something, as I wanted to speak to her alone. She then said, "It's a crime what is going on around here. There is plenty of it. You know how the plumes are going out of here, don't you?" I said, 11No." She said 11 Vest by truck. n I said, 11Vlest to aples?11 She said, 11 o, to Kansas." I said, 11Where?11 11 ichita and .ansae City (she didn't specify whether Kansas City, Kansas, or issouri, but I presume She said, II ostly to Wichita11 I said, 11Well, did you ever hear of thei-.,. being shipped out to the Bahamas and Cuba11'l She wouldn't comment whether because she thought I might be suspicious of the use of the Atwater Kent boats or not, I don't know. She said she was leaving for Palm Beach the next morning, having obtained all the evidence necessary. She said they were paying the Indians ten cents a plume and getting $1.00 a plume in Wichita. She then said, 11Won't you go in and get me a beer and a ham sandwich?11 We were parked a little out of the bright light in front of Mac's, and I didn't like to insult her by taking the key out of the sw'itch, but was afraid she might take the car. So I said, 11 e ight back up for some gas, 11 backed up into the bright light. She then said, 110h, we might a.s well go in. 11 e went in amhad some beer and ham sandwiches, during which time Alex went out a nd got gas and rs. ac said to him, 11\fuo is that with you?11 and he said, "That's my boss11, and she said, 11 ell, he certainly is in bad company. 11 He said, 11 What do you 111ean? What do you know about that house down at Pinecrest'?11 She said, ''Well, the neighbors here call it a 1 cOke' house.'' Another thing the woman said while outside .Mac's was, 11You know Mr. Hoover is here ns>w, don't you?11 I said, 11 at Mr. Hoover?11 She said, "Department of Justice". I said, 11No, where is he?11 114,t the. Roney Plaza". I didn't check this up later that evening for two reasons, first that I was confident that Mr. Hoover, if he were there, would be registered under an alias, and, secondly, t at I thought that if the woman was susl'icious of us and wanted to get a line on our actions, subsequent to conversations with her, she would have arranged to telephone Miami and have some spotter hang around the Roney Plaza to see if we checked up there. Moreover, I felt that there was little likelihood of his actually being there anyway.


... t emorandum -4: I tried to draw her out on Josie Billy, she evidently did not know him, or preferred not to seem to, but Alex made the mistake of saying, 11He means Josie Billy11 She then said, "He is the smartest Indian around here". She said that a man named Craig lives in the house near the Johnsons, on the other side of the road just east. She sounded as though she didn't think much of him. She mentioned McGill who has the filling station at the west junction of the loop road and the Trail as a man ready to kill without questioning. I di n't develop that any further. Alex says he is always a very pleasant person when he stops there for gas. The woman said that she had been a nurse during the war and was connected at that time with St. Luke's H6spital in New York City. She said she had bee n round the world twice and did a lot of talking about the great number of yachts in the Atwater Kent fleet, the number of automobiles at her disposal, the m any servants, etc. She may have had a load of coke in her at the time. I don't recall exactly the brand of cigarettes that she preferred, but I bought her some at Mac's and it was some such name as Town Brand or Town Branch. (,.Si --


,/ 7 I ./ Memqrandum -5: -. to ask for and saw his young wife and his new father-in-law, John Grant. The wife looks as though she had leprosy or syph.ilis or God knows what, and lives at Melbourne. She gave e an ( address in Miami to look him up as follows: I wen t there with Sprunt and roused a fellow named .urphy, a young fellow, who said that 'Gator was then out 20 miles north of the Trail from the Blue Shanty with some of hiA boys and an Indian. He said if I wanted particularly to go out there and see 'Gator, .urphy would arrange to take e out but would have to know the day before and make some arrangements with an Indian. Happy Jack's. A very tough looking crowd hanging around this eating joint some 20 miles west of Miami. A lot of photographs of Happy Jack and Wildcat Charlie adorn the walls holding alligators, snakes, etc. J. Kelsey, of the Biological Survey, thinks Happy Jack is all right but I wouldn't put anything past him. He said he would be glad to distribute some Audubon literature if we sent it to him, but I personally think it would be put in the ash can. The gang at Dad's Place, still nearer Miami, didn't check up on. Kelsey says it is the toughest bunch on the Trail, but it is too near I think, as far as plum-ing is concerned The land r it is all drained. ,.""' There are four or five Sem i'tql: ndian encampments on the Trail west of the Y. I t unlikely that any or all of theill are involved in illegal practices which may prevail in t e especially pluming. The only one that is co n _. ked about, however, is Josie Billy, and our man,R ... rts, has often dealt with Josie Billy, especi t'o buy venison from him, etc. tJ, When talking with rden, Hart, at Lake Washington (see other m emor he indicated that we .ought to check up on the sa f plumes at the Fourth of July celebrations in the prairie towns. He didn't just where, but he said they make a great do-do over that event an that he has an idea that many of the plwaes taken earlier in the season are held and Hlarketed at that time. He said he couldn't understand why 'Gator Red ding would go all the way down into the Everglades by the Tamiami Trail when there was good frogging up near elbourne.


\ 1 Aher placee on the Trail: Macs Place. Mr. and Mrs. a a fine reputation and look like good people. y seem to be genuinely interested in preservation the birds and I am putting them on the free list or Bird-Lore and believe they can be helpful in miniizing shooting by tourists on the Trail. They are in a position to get pretty good line on bad-acting neighbors. A man named Donker operates a place called the Blue Shanty, about 28 miles west of Miami. He self seemed a harmless Dutchman It is from his '\at 1 Gator Redding and his gang of froggers oper into the 'Glades. Donker showed us one of which they had been having some trouble. e had two each, which represented an f about $300 in the engine and $ 60 in the eems doubtful whether any such capital investme i't e be entered into if they were doing only fro he engines are two-cylinder, air-cooled, airpl e e with wood propellers. The boats have square o that the sawgrass is separated and doesn't swish t boat occupants. Donker said that these boats make between 15 and 20 miles an hour in one inch of water through the 1 Glades. \7 I stopped in elbourne


CoNF!ON TIAL I ( "' '!) ) 0 dens from the air with the assistance ofthe U.S. Before the wardens could establish their camp


1 -


arco lum unt :r. J Im okale Pl hunter. ..... It' It .... N pl te rd n 1th bad r cord. ot !)lwnes. Olt\ plume hunter. --lea. Son o t Tom. Reoo1 vo:r ot 1 .... tohee, P lum bunt r. ...... M a.roo Plu o hunter ... NaplA e P l e nnt r. Chisholm Rivera--tlaplee n otel, ple Employer ot p t r an puro a 1' ot pl e .. ::'i ... ,... ( pell1 of n e ?) N w York (?) Purohc'ls r o f pl e --Sumrn e1d nee N shir e ,. I Puroha e:z:t ot pl\lrl. a n v & O R 1 Vflrs ? ) Oaxatnb mplo;ver o t plwn hunt r ll'td p\U"' 1:'* o t plum Napl.. ; Ol.o :tri nd of & 0 \ "p r onnel" epo t) ....... ...,..;:.-.;Illo*-'OMiu ort ,11 yers. Looa.l politics.-( See tt onnel" r port l -Obokolo ko ( ce "pet-aonn e l11 r port) V rgl des, Sh ot Colli County Possibl 1m l1oat1on thro .;h olit1ca. Ev de ( a r n.. -A.., lade In oharge Ba.rron Co111 r 1ntP.r t 1n lorida. oll t .... 1oal bosa of Oounty .. s. ; -#\, Jj L 15 (,_


Abbeville.!. Louisiana February c:o, 1937 Mr. John H. Baker, Executive Director National Association of Audubon societies 1775 Broadway New York, N.Y. Dear Mr. Baker: Your letter regarding the proposed Florida trip is here, together with check for $100.00. As you suggest, I will keep an expense account and get receipted bills when possible. activities. I also have Bob's letter with report of pluming Will study this over and return to Bob later. I will get Cleo Landry to help Nick while I am gone and have him take over as of March 1st., and will '-leave at once for Florida. 'lhink I shall take my car as I will need it to get from place to place. It would be best for me to be designated as Dick Gordon as that is what they krow m e by at Naples. I will, of course, make sure that no Audubon envelOpes reach me from this end. In fact, no one but Nick here will know where I am. General delivery, Naples, Florida will reach me after about arch 3rd. Perhaps it would be well if you could arrange to me at Fort Meyers at your convenience, say after I have been there a week to ten aays in order that we may perfect further p:j.ans. If, through the delivery of the Widgeon, it is known to a few in Naples that I was at that time with the Audubon society, I will simply say that I broke with the Association last sumner and am now engaged in the leasing of trapping lands on the Louisiana Coast. This will make sense since the trapPing season is just now over, and I will be supposed to be on a vacation. Any mail or telegrams signed 11Smith 11 I will recognize as being from you. I notice that Bob in his report, mentions Ed. creighton of Naples as being connected with the pluming operations there. I know Ed Creighton very well having


Page 2 a dredge to him when I was with the M.aritn_steam Shovel Company and later operated the machine for Creighton for several winters. Will be abla3 to get the low down on this angle. please write me any further instructions before I leave here. / Richard /ardon.


National Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals 1775 Broadway, New York, N, Y KERMIT ROOSEVELT. Prw' clnt THEODORE S. PALMER. M D .. l1t Vice-Pm. FRANK R. OASTLER. M D., 2ncl Vice-Pru. WILLIAM P WHARTON, S ecrotary HORACE M. ALBRIGHT ROGER N BALDWIN FRANK M CHAPMAN, Sc. D. DRYDEN KUSER JAMES J MURRAY. D. D. MRS EDWARD M TOWNSEND MRS. CARLL TUCKER ALEXANDER WETMORE. Ph D ROBERT CUSHMAN MURPHY. D .Sc .. Troa1urer MISS HELOISE MEYE R T. GILBERT PEARSON. LL.D., Pr,.iclent Emeritu SAMUEL T CARTER, Jr., Attor>tey JOHN H. BAKER. Executiv Director ACTIVITIES LEGISLATIVE Active in federal and state legislation for wild bird and mamma l preservation. SANCTUARY Owns and maintains sanctu aries and guards important colonies of water birds. CHILDRE N' S EDUCATIONAL Organizes annually tens of thousands of childre n into bird-study clubs LECTURE Audubon lecturers address hundreds of thousands of people annually. PUBLICATION Bird pictures, leaflets, bul l etins and m a gazin e, Bird Lore. COOPERATION Cooperates with federal, state and conservation society officials. INTERNATIONAL Is affiliated with bird pro tective societitfs in twenty three foreign countries. Dear We are in receipt of your letter dated enclosing a remittance of in payment of the fees of children who wish material for bird study. We are forwarding the material via mail, under separate cover. In order to receive the magazine, BIRD-LORE, a Junior Audubon Club must consist of 25 or MORE members. Perhaps you are in a position to enroll at least additional children and thus form a complete.Junior Audubon Club. If so, and you will remit their fees (ten cents each) at once, we shall be glad to place your name on the free mailing-list of BIRD-LORE, the official organ of this Association, for the ensuing year. We cannot send this magazine to you free unless the club contains 25 or MORE members. Awaiting your further pleasure, Yours very truly, ALDEN H. HADLEY, Educational Director.


c 0 p y UNITED STATES DEPART OF AGRICULTURE Bureau of Biological Survey 'lashington, D.C. Mr Robert P Allen, I:iarch 10, 1937 Nation a l Assn. of Audubon Societies, 1775 Broad'Tay, Ne '' York, N Y. Dear r Allen: You will recall your recent letter abou the Rllegeo. illegal traffic in egret plumes dom in Florida and ourreply that our information was exceedingly vague in rPgarcl to it, and th9.t we would to 1r. Kelsey, our Game .e;ement Agent dovrn there 1 to ascertain ''hat f urther information he oay have. We are just in receipt of a letter from 1r. Kelsey in rrhich he SD.ys that there is nothing further to aciC. to vrhat I 7rote you except t a t the Datter e,rose about a year aco anc. tha t t tative nlc:ms are novT lui d 11t o crack this plume bir killing and resultant traffic in plumes". Very truly yours, (signed ) R 7 1.'/illiams R. '1. W i liams, I n ChRrge Importation& and Permits Division of Game 1anae;ement.


CLASS OF SERVICE DES I RED DOMESTIC CABLE T ELEGRAM FULL RATE DAY LETTER DEFERRED NIGHT NIGHT MESSAGE LETTER NIGHT SHIP LETTER RADIOGRAM Patrons should check class of service desired; otherwise message will be transmitted as a communieation. Jo u o/o T p @lf "!X'Oh 1. 1 1 7 Q, I T ob. c/o AUdubon Association.




Organizes annually tens of thousands of children into bird-study clubs. LECTURE Audubon l ecturers address hundreds of thousands of people annually. PUBLICATION Bird pictures, leaflets, bul letins and magazine, Bird-Lore. COOPERATION Cooperate s with federal, state and conservation society officials. INTERNATIONAL Is affiliated with bird pro tective societies in twenty three foreign countries. My dear It gives us much pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your remittance of in payment of the fees of additional members of your Junior Audubon Club. The leaflets and buttons for these new members go out to you by parcel post today. Can you not send to the Association the names of teachers of your acquaintance who may be interested in forming Junior Audubon Clubs? This would be doing both them and us a service. Yours very truly, ALDEN H. HADLEY, Director.


W C MOGER "FROM FACTORY TO CONSUMER" ROYAL PALM KINGS ROYAL PALM QUEENS ROYAL PALM STRAIGHTS (!l:ampbtll & ilngtr (!l:tgar 1J1artnry Mr. Robert P. Allen, P. o. Box 485, MANUFACTURERS OF lllnuatta OJigars FACTORY NO. 166 FORT MYERS. FLORIDA March 12, 1937. Amityville, Long Island, N. Y. Dear Bob; R J. MOGER ROYAL PALM PANETELAS SPECIAL MADE DICTATORS CIGARS MADE TO ORDER I reached Naples on the 3rd and have been there since, made a few trips to Marco, Caxambas and Everglades and talked with a lot of the old friends there. The condition at Naples has changed but little since I left there 13 years ago, about the same old crowd of natives spend most of their time in the woods, of course now they call it trapping and, I am sure, they do some trapping but kill plenty of game. I was invited out last Monday night to eat some illegal venison and found it excellent. About the birds-so far the moment anyone mentions plume birds the conversation dies a natural death-I have had to step very lightly because it had gotten about Naples last spring, when Nick brought the 11Widgeon11 there, that I was with the lissociation in Louisiana, of course I claim to have quit last swnmer and think that most of them believe me but they are cagey as hell, I hope to get something this week end as a couple of my old friends are coming out of the woods tomorrow. I learned something at the Naples Hotel that is of interest, heard a tourist lady tell another that she bought an egret plume in Miamiat a shop, as she was a stranger I could find no way to approach her so thought it best to let it go at that. To locate the shop should be simple enough as they seem to be sold openly, think one would only have to go to Miami and shop around a little, no doubt the better hotels wouldi### tell one where to find them. I have heard nothing from Baker but expect to any day, will talk things over with him when I get in touch. Frankly, if I cant make these birds open up within the next week or so will think they are afraid of me, there are ways and ways and I will be trying them out and await your advice. You s, cp Richard G rlon:Naples, Gen. Del.


Janet Gaynor Tells HOW I KEEP MY FIGURE icliigan Sumnter Res ort and Hunting Ground One Destined to } SWIMMING and beach-ball games are e x c e 11 en t kee ping one in good physical condi t ion, and 'Yhen one is in good health, naturally o ne's figure is normal. Swimming rela xes taut muscles and nerves, and there is n othing equal 1 to complete relaxation for keeping fit Beach ball provides a medium for exercise in the open air and puts on_!': in shape for the day. FSir cise at night, too, invaluable as an a1 to sleep especially if the nervo1.1s tension has Q.een exception ally high during the day Dancing is splen did for developing grace, beauty and strength, and right in keeping with the idea of relaxing for health. Warm baths are relaxing, alsp By STODDARD WHITE. LEGEND has it that a Britis 1 boundary commissioner mor than a century ago celebrate hi s b i r thday not w isely but too we 1 w ith the following results : Beautiful Drummond Island, o the e a s tern t i p o f the Upper Peni sula o f Michigan, became America territory, the only American,Islan o f the chain which e xtends west ward from G e orgian Bay; A handful of Bri t is h soldiers ar. c ivilians, who, just 1 2 0 years agQ tomorr o w landed on the island tQ establish a Gibraltar of the Great w ere forced to abandon the p ost and their homes and take up l ife anew in ano t h er p3.rt of the northern wilderness ; SUMMER RESORT NOW. The wives of Am.erlca n summer cot tagers today make black currant j a m from berries growing on the descendants of the bu shes brought from E ngland and p lanted in their little ga r dens by the wives of British soldiers; A cows graze under a row of tall Lombardy poplars, trees foreign to that northern climate, all that remains of an ambitious plan for a fine boulevard. 'Today the islal?d is a popular summer resort and, in the fall, a favorite hunting ground for Michigan sportsmen. But be fore Michigan was granted statehood 4 ago, it 1 d already wr itten a co l orful chapter the history o f North IBRALTAR OF .lAK 5 Birthday Party Rudely Upset Plans of JuSt 120 Y Ago R oyal Engineers neve r received official .sanction. However, t h e post n eve r wa;; the sce n e of fighti n g INDIAN GATHERINGS One of the b ig events on the island was the annual gathering of 4 ,000 Indians t o receive presents and annuities as a reward for their l oyalty to t h e Britishand to kee p them trading w ith t h e British. The C h i p p ewas and Ottawas q u i ckly traded their presents for cheap whisky and caroused for d ays. In 1826 Gen. C ass then governor of Michigan Territory, making a to u r of inspection, anchored off Drummond early in July and found the island ''filled with Indians, drunk, noisy and naked." Co l. Thomas L. McKenna wrote o f thi s : "It is not poss1ble give a description o f tl).e l ooks o f thos' staggering and besotte Indiar s w t h liahl


eart a th: e oerg/adi?s to VtStl f HE R AT HITE IRDS Sky Filled With Egrets and Ibis, Tree s White With Them, but Only One Man Knows How to Thread Way Through 1


bath before retiring I make it a point to get eight full hours' sleep every night. It is not only the privilege, but the duty of every woman to be as beautiful as possible, whether she is in the public eye or not. It is a duty she owes to he r self, to her family and her friends, I am s p e a k i n g of the beauty of the wom an, not the actress. If a woman is naturally beautiful, she should study to make the most of what good points she has. There is no woman whose appearance cannot be bettered if she makes up her mind to the task. Very simple exercises were given to me by a gymnasium instructor in high school, and I would like to pass them on to any girl interested in preserving her figure. They are not strenuo'us, but are very ef fective. First. Stand with feet apart, as in a good golf stance; swing the arms around vigorously 10 times, then reverse the direction. Second. Stand perfectly still with fept together, inhale and raise the arms to shoulder height. Exhale violently, empty-JANET GAYNOR. ing the lungs completely. The n without breathing, press out your hands as if you were pressing against the side of a wall. Bring the arms up slowly and as high as they will go. Then press upward with the palms, as if you were pushing up the ceiling. Four. Take five breaths, bringing your arms to shoulder height, and exhale vig orously. Repeat five to 10 times. Fifth. Stand erect with feet together. Press with your hand in fist form against the palm of the other hand, meanwhile resistii?g with the other hand, all the time, turning the body until you are up as far as you can go--but do not turn the feet. Repeat from first one side and then the other. H0ME 0F THE BIRDS (Concluded From Page 5.) awaiting our arrival, was a weatherbeaten little man of serious mein. Years in the open had taken their toll and Tom' s appearance :mggested a dried and shrunken russet apple that, left unpicked in the autumn, had bested many a wintry v.ind. Livm;; alone so far from civilization had not been condusive to any personal pride, as was indicated by his scanty attire of faded denim shirt and trousers. The presence of women awoke Tom's in nate gentlemanliness and he excused himself, reappearing presently from the boat's cabin clothed in his store clothes, even to a hat. Delighted at the idea of showing us the Ibis rookery, Tom wasted no time. He casually anc11ored his boat in a sheltered cove, gathered up a few blankets, climbed aboard our boat, and to take charge of things. INTO THE 'GLADES. back into the 'Glades he headed, our guide meanwhile frantically trying to map the course we took. Hour after hour we turned and twisted up rivers, around islands, and across bays, until late in the afternoon we slipped into a stream so narrow that the mangroves brushed the sides of the boat. probably the most remote, unfindable spot in the whole United States. Three things govern life in the Ever glades: Sunup, sunset, and the quantity of fresh water in the tanks. Food may be had for the effort of fishing; distances may be traversed by rowing or poling if the fuel grows low; but the daylight hours and fresh water are carefully con ::erved. START AT DAWN. It was scarcely dawn when the motor awoke us and as the sky grew pink we sought and found the one river that, out of the \00 .rivers emptying into White Water Bay, was to lead us to the new rookery. This river grew steadily shallower and the channel more difficult to find. Soon weeds appeared in such numbers that we were forced to abandon the large boat and tinish the rest of our journey in the dinghy. Four people fairly overflowed it, but with extreme care we managed to pole the remaining distance without capsi?.: ing, although disaster nearly overtook us when I inadvertently leaned over to watch a school of large fish that were disturbed by the boat. A queer buzzing sound, similar to a number of airplanes in flight, had been A PROVISION of the Treaty of Ghe which ended the War of 1812 on 28 1814 was that ail territory ''' al:ring nations before the Fhould revert to them and that national boundary between the Stales and Canada should be the of the customary sailing route from lowt':r lakes to Lake Superior. As sailed then, and now, to the west Drummonrt Island, up the St. Mary' River to the falls at what is now Sau Ste. Marie, the natural eoundary waul have placed the island in Canadian hand A COSTLY BIRTHDAY, But, as one version of the legend h it, the Americans wno accompanied th British commissioner, Bartlett, had the eyes on the island. By agreement the commissioners, so the story goes, the! \'essel was to su::vey the route on the wa up the lakes and its course on the dow voyage would determine the boundary. When the down voyage was begun th Americans discovered that Bartlett's birth day would occur about as the ship passe to the west of Drummond Island. So the staged a gala birthday party, large! liquid, and when the British commissione lost interest in the scenery, changed th course of the ship to pass to the eas of the island, down what is now know as the False Detour Channel. When woke up Drummond Island was Americe and, argue as he might he could not de that he had not prevented the boat passage down the wrong channel! That story was never written in t military records, but It has been retol so often that it has come to be as true. FORCED TO MOVE. Although the Treaty signed in December, 1814, it was May before Lt.-Col. Robert McDouall, co. mandant of the British fort on Mackin Island, learned that the island had bet turned back to the United States. He moved temporarily to St. J06ep Island, and after much searching, dec! upon an unnamed !slana at the mouth St. Mary's River as the site of the n fort. It would command the entrance the river from the lower lakes and rna a satisfactory gathering place for t Indians, a factor fuiJy as important fr a military standpoint. Not only trade with the Indians important, their continued loyalty was vital to British cause. NAMED FOR GENERAL. The island was given the name Gordon Drummond, in command of British troops from Niagara to the trait River and north as far as the upJ lakes. To him McDouaiJ wrote: "The Harbour is excellent and the of the proposed town, from its contig to the Harbour, admirably well calcul for commercial purposes. And its sl


;fte tty :8!1 I& J ... i!JI.. The torch is ma of birch bark and emits a large fla and much smoke The glare from one is vivid, but a hundred, all lighted at once and ftaring about 1n all directions, and refieet!ng upon naked and painted savages with bells rattling from their long and painted locks, and who every now and ihen fall into a t hicket, and letting go their grasp of a torch, send it flaming and smoking along t he ground, produce an effect which it i s ea s y to de s cribe; whilst its fitte s t I s that hell of which we read, where the wicked are s aid to gnat thc r teeth, and from whenc e t he smoke of their torment ascends; while the Indians yell and malr.e cries of the moat I slan d is Heavily Wooded. inc orporated into his house. The Rev. George W. Luther, e ti red minister, has tried to restore part of the old cemetery. Onl y two of the grave headboards are legible and one marks the of "Wil liam Solomon Jun. Departed this life on the 21st day of December 1823, aged 23 _., years. These and some of the poplars imported to line the boulevard, stone foundations of a few houses, half-fallen garden walls some earthen gun emplace ments the natural rock parade ground-are all that is left to tell the story at the British occupation. HARDSHIPS OF MOVING. Moving from Drummond was a per sonal hardship on the soldiers and settlers. It was Nov. 14 when Lieut. T. Pierce Simonton came to take posse.ssion for the United S t ates and there were 91 persons and their belongings to go to Pene tanguishene on two small boats, .the brig Wellington and schooner Cincinata. James Wickens d e puty acting commis sary general, made this report: "The Wellington Brig measures about 120 tons-She was rather more than 2-1 filled with provisions and other Govern men t Stores. The remainder was occu pied by the troops and Baggage-every corner was live Cattle (18 Head) and my horse could not be brought away. I therefore sent them to the Island of St. Josephs w ith the whole of the forage for the winter & hope to get them down at the opening of the navigation it was conceived by all pa.rtiea A Barrack's Chimney That Still Stands. that the American Schooner Cincinata of appalling sort. All the evU comes from whisky. 11 EMPTY BARRELS. "We saw a log house on the island, where a settler had fixed himself and I pacific views of both Governments by holding forth Language so preposterously absurd?" When the British troops had to abandon the island, one of their prime con cerns was not tJ>_ leLt.b& .llt{nt'Hcr""0tn 53 tons burthen could have brought away all the Barrack stores-the Fort Adjute.nt & Baggage and the Barrack Sergeant :111t the result proves o t herwise and we were obliged to put about 10 tons of Dog Irons, Shovels &c into the powder magazine at 3t. Josephs and leave them in charge of ---------James Frazer who has charge of the oxen ll.lso." Wickens tpok 10 sheep worth about 11 pounds ($55) with him on the vessel, but "the Vessel Wa$ so crowded that it could not be accomplished, they were 1n conq-qence slaughtered and hung to the ide of the Vessel who was six dan on he r voy age down and the weather 10 wet and foggy that they were all spoiled a.nd became a total loss W'hich !felt in consequence ot a scarcity of fre meat at this port. The history of the British garrison or' rummond Island ends with tlle dismal letter of T. G. Anderson, former chief clerk of the Indian department who wrote from Penetanguishene Nov. 29 that "we are now lodging in miserable hQts l'ithout a stick of fuel to make a tire except that we carry on our backs the soldiers are not i nclined to work & there are no labourers about the place, and no r reparations for making better quarters." 'S1RATEGIC POINT. Drummond now a Pl\rt of Chip pewa County Michigan, 1a a hea1Uy wood e d island about 25 miles in circum f e rence separated from lhainla.nd of the Upper Peninsula by the Dlllllpur I'IUI-11a.e. I t is reached from DeTour-the "T" has been capitalized by citizens who piqued by the sarcastic comments of motorists faced with road signs marked "Detour It was an ancient settlement well known to the first French missionaries and was the battleground between the Hurons and Iroquois of earl times Between the town and the island to<1 there passes all summer a steady str( of boats ; it is one of the busiest w{ ways of the world McDouall had r1 foreseen the importance to Juture ations of this natural cha.nneL


@PPING .-.. ,l>JU:. j3UREAU f UWYORK._N..Y. CUFt'ING FROM 9 ; TPI01 7 .IUNE 23, 1935 mein, Years toll and a dried and shrunken that, left unpicked In the autumn, had bested many a wintry wind. Livin g alone so far from civilization had no t been condusive to any Jrersonal pride as was indicated by his scanty attire of faded denim shirt and trousers. The presence of women awoke Tom s inn ate ge ntlemanliness and he excused hims elf, reappearing presently from the boat's cab i n clothed in his store clothes, even to a hat. Deli g hted at the idea of showing us the Ibi s rookery Tom wasted no time. He ca s ually anchored his boat in a sheltered cove, gathered up a few blankets, climbed aboard our boat and proceeded to take charg e of things. probably the most remote unfindable spot in the whole United States. Three things govern life in the Ever glades: Sunup, sunset, and the quantity of fresh water In the tanks. Food may be had for the effort of fishing; distance s may be traversed by rowing or poling if the fuel grows low; but the daylight hours and fresh water are carefully con s erved. START AT DAWN. It was scarcely dawn when the motor awoke us and as the sky grew pink we sought and found the one river that, out of the 400 rivers emptying into White Water Bay, was to lead us to the new rookery, This river grew steadily shallower and the channel more difficult to find. Soon weeds appeared in such numbers that we were forced to abandon the large boat and ftnlsh the rest of our journey in the dinghy, INTO THE 'GLApES, Four people fairly overflowed it, but S Lraight Into the 'Glades he head-with extreme care we managed to pole ed our guide meanwhile frantically trying the remaining distance witheut capslz to map the course we took. Hour after ing, although disaster nearly overtook us hour we turned and twisted up rivers, when I inadvertently leaned over to around i s lands, and across bays until late watch a school of large fish that were in the afternoon we slipped Into a stream disturbed by the boat. s o narrow that the mangroves brushed A queer buzzing sound, similar to a the sides of the boat. number of airplanes in flight, had been on the trees all about us in full bloom audible for the last half hour. As we g rew unusual orchids and air plants. AJ; advanced we could distinguish the Call we penetrated farther Inland and left the of the baby birds from the alarmed salt water, reeds began to hide the roots squawking of the mothers. One more of the trees and small spots of high turn around a sizeable island, then across ground were visible. a bayou dotted with dozens of smaller We ap.t enchanted on the roof of the ones and we were in the rookery, feastiug .. .t.ebifta the vilta UDfOld before us. OW eres on the scene I desqrlbed in .. en a f.l'J parqrapba. river ba.nka for <ptors. shallow bay we ran into a schotl Of eilbt Manltee. This was a rare piece of luck as these curious sea cow mammals are now nearly extinct in Florida waters. THE number of birds perceptibly increased as the sun sank lower. Their seemingl y aimless flying had changed Into a steady stream in one direction; they were homing for the night. We were still some miles from the rookery and, remembering the swarms of mosquitoes that descend with the dusk, w e urged Tom to choose an open spot before dark. Somewhere Inland is a lake of shallow, brackish water approxima t ely eight miles wide and 20 miles long. It is known as White Water Bay and is not to be cop.fused with White water Lake which lies near the Gulf, inland f rom Cape Sable. This bay Is so named because of the persistent deposit of foam that streaks its surface, re sembling large sections of thin ice. A BUGLESS ANCHORAGE. In the light of the full moon we twisted our way through the last of the islands and slipped to a safe bugless anchorage on White Water Bay, The wind had dropped with the sun; no ,sound was heard not even the ripple of water. An ethereal beauty bathed the entire scene and the glorious enchantment of a moonlit s umm e r night lay over the bay as sweetly as we slept, where no white woman h ad ever slept before, in what wu "l'be IOI'IeOlW ftamtngo has g one from the 'Glades, but the Roseat Spoon Bill, Scarlet Ibis and Bronze Ibis have survived. They are rare indeed, but fine specimens are still to be found in the closely-guarded bird sanctuaries. In coot Bay, which adjoins the rookery, we came upon a sight that would gladden the heart of a duck hunter. In crossing this bay we "put up," at least so the warden said, 10,000 Coots, Blue Winged Teal, Blue Bills Spriggs, Florida Mallards and Pin Tails. \ Of this group only the Florida Mallard Is .native remaining south when the others fly north in the spring. All the native birds, when grown, leave the nesting ground and spend the summer months on a rocky island Duck Rock in the Gulf of Mexico oft Pavilion Key, COMPANY MISSED. As the sun rose higher, the birds started their daily search for food and we reluctantly poled froltl. the rookery to retrace our windlhg way back to the Gulf A curious sight awaited us there. Boats of all sizes and kinds, ranging from a small kaya.k to a large 'Steam yacht, were anchored oft shore. Only the good fortune of meeting Tom a day earlier than planned had saved us from heading a proc ession to the rookery. They, too, had heard the broadcast and had hur,ied from all directions to join us at the meeting place.


INFOruLATION RECEIVED FROM RICHARD GORDOJ OF THE RAINEY SANCTUARY, I N JANUARY, 1 9 37, WITH RELATION TO PLU ING I FLORIDA I N THE YEARS AROUND 1 9 22 WHEN HE WAS DOWN THERE IN THE CONTRACTIN G BUSINESS DIGGING CANALS AND BUiLDiliG ROADS. Gordon stated that a man named Hackmaster was buying the plumes in 1922; that he is a Canadian winter visitor; that Creyton, the hotel rnan in Naples,had nothing to do with it at that time; that the principal were the Weeks Brothers, the Kirkland Brothers and the Hamilton boys down below Pavillion Key, which is below Caxambas. The Weeks and Kirkland Brothers ooerated largely at Weeks Lake, in the northern edge of the Big Cypress, and in the Thickahatchee Swamp native name), otherwise kno w n by the Indian6 as16ackahatchee Swamp. was also going on straight back in from Alligator Be. y as late as 1922.


NEWYORK C LIPPING FROM HARTFORD (CONN.) COURANT MARCH 26, 1936 'E g r e t Guard of t he D epartment. t.f ure has jus t been ordered lo take up Its spring duties in the E v erglade s of Florida. TI1e necessity for the maintenance of a s pecial guard to protect the breeding places of the egret dur ing its nesting season is a reflection on human nature. The Audubon Societies which first caned attention need for a guard, and the Department of Agrl

'l .. 'I \ I .. National Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals 1775 Broadway, New York, N.Y -qainey <:Ja.notuary, February 23, 1937. Mr. HObert P, Allen, Director, :rational ASSOCiation of Audubon Sooietiea, ::a:e 01 ty, I -:::-.. I NO doubt Irving ia back on the job again, I enjoyed having him here and hope the trip did him good, took on a few gin buo S in Abbeville rn1t not too many. Guess he told you he met IAr, _:red. 'Pirie is here i th Pirie, they are very nice and se m to enjoy the ducks and gees altho :re do not have many left, think they vlill leave tomorro C"leo will come to camp qaturday and I may go as far as N evr 0 rl on that day. As I have told r. -q;:llrer ,.rio i,s ... the only one here who will know what its all abott't, my is in Wlorida, near rampa, and 1 am going to pay her visit to everyone except Nick. 1 lave told 11m not to try and contact me but to take anyt _ing up with you direct. 'l'o anyone who n1ay kno\V that 1 have with the Audubon dovm there 1 will say that I quit my job last summer, might use as an excuse that my salary had been out, or something. Tt will be okeh to write me in plain envelope at raples, !. oan write you at your home address if T have to, suggested to Hr. ,.,a.Yer that we have a meeting in Fort eyers or somewhere a lit le later. Hope I can do some good down there and feel that can. wai thfully Vour


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' .. ..JOHN EDGAR HOOVER I / j i DIRECTOR IJi.eb.eral f&ur.eau of lfnu.estigation 1llnit.eb ilepartm.ent of Yustir.e Dlfasf1ington., il.. Qt. Mr. John H Baker Executive Director, January 8 1937 National Association of Audubon Societies, 1775 Broadway New York New York Dear Mr. Baker : ., Referenee is made to your ietter of lVIay :21 l936, in which you furnish certain informati0n regarding possible violations of the Migratory Bird Act off' the coast of Florida. Piease be advised that this'matter was referred to the Jacksonville Field Di vi'sion of this and extensive been conducted relative thereto. No information or evidence has been obtained which indicate a violation of the igratory Bird A c t Therefore, no further, investigation is conducted in this regard. Assuring you of my desire to be of service ip matters coming within the jurisdiction of this Bureau I am truly yours, I Jo Hoover Director. I


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ThrU Possible Sources o1 Aeti!!$1 I -There appear to 'be tue e pua;te t qag 111 pl l:nm.tlag act1"fit1ee in aouth 11.-orida Of our lt ls possible that th re 1 a connectl. on betwen U th!'ee a.J1d it ta may that there ue oalr 'wo 418po 1 et-upa. fh tb.J:ee ua1 t.a {f l.S. ted. t :ta.t wly as follo t 1). pr 1s;htpa-IH!!as't!l ( t) Jlr Or 1gbton o oz maaag s th laple Hotel la plea. lt ls belined 'hat h cur 1m of 100 pl, es each 7 r for Kr. Hac st r ( spel 11ng ? ) Who lB thought to be ew York bllt re t.nfo,r tio:a 1 nee e4 ahout this n I:tao t r and, to a e exte11t creighton ue sa14 to e use of the e p1 es to ecve :favors from _wo en. It 1 believed. that actual sboo.ting oi' the bird and taking of th pl es 1 dQa 1n a. 1 r keq north of Royal Pa mock bJ Daa 111'1tle.Dd of lla:rco Dd hi on, J1 It 1 said that the7 have known "o tlD'Jl ov :, the plume to Ba than. leeks (eon of State TODl eue} aDd To eelte ,hen d.el1Yers them to Oreigh-. ton in lapl It ould b polnt.ed out that creighton is rat d as o 2 political bo s of Ooll1 Ooa&tJ unde% D G Cop 1 of ET rglacie. ,. and that Tom e k lost b1s job as a state WaJ:'4 n becau& of shady practices,_ bu' was :r iastated a.t th 1nst ue ef o s Copel 4 !hie 1 t s been d by o is a). ppknq '1'h Sadie :CJPre s a:b.ooting b n la1d at the door of three res1deat of 1 kalee; Charles Ba.dl y,. Louis Bron and a n 4 Henry.. It is. bel1eve4 tha't these hHe men h&Ye been hUed bf aa ed 1nd1v14ual t:ro sarasota. Yic1Jli ty. Th1 unknown tartr ta to aecve plumes for rket and it is thought that h1 agents as plumes as tD.ey are ble to get. Local goset.p bas 1t that they take pl nty Warden Rob r's belieY.e that he 4aa learn taa maa fro suaeot 3) Mrs J Barfield of Caxamba ( reo 1 land.) 1 n who ha.e eone1du b-le political tnflunc 1 hell eountr (Collier) d large contac's throughout tile tate 1 :u.nd.trsU.nd. it, she 1 e. wldow who hae had. some we lth and who now owns a clu t'aoto17 on


Jlra J D G c k it hns. D I (a) field (?) \mteze & c Yen R ertff of County Poeough politics. In c rron Collier interests Pollt1cal bos of Collier COunty


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ADDRESS R EPLY T O UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY WASHINGTON. D C CHIEF, BUREAU O F BIOLOGICAL SURVE Y AND REFER TO April 30, 193 7 Mr. John H Baker, Executive Director, National Association of Audu bon Societies, 1 7 7 5 Broadway New Yor k N Y. Dear Yr Baker: Reference is made to my letter of April 1 We have just heard from one of our agents in Kansas with respect to the Hackmeister matter and from all accounts there does not seem to be reason for suspecting that Hackmeister is connected with the plumes racket as outlined in your letter of March 29 Very sincerely yours, 7 Stanley P Young, Chief, Division of Game Management


' UNITED STATE ) ADDRESS REPLY TO CHIEF, BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY PARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY WASHINGTON. D. C. AND REFER TO April 12, 1937. GP-I John !'LORIDA Mr. John H. Executive Secretary, Nat'l Assn. of Audubon Societies, 1775 New York 01 t7. Dear Mr. After receipt of the information with which you supplied us in regard to Mr. Haclaneister, we took the matter up not only with our Agent in Iansas but as well with Mr. ICelsey. Vr. Kelsey has come back with such a clear cut letter I am taking the libert;r of sending a copy on to you for your information. Sincerely yours, 1 Stanley P. Young, Chief, Division of Game Management. Enclosure 3765.


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t ADDRESS REPLY TO UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY WASHINGTON, D C CHIEF, BUREAU O F BIOLOGICAL SURVEY AND REFER TO pril 1 19 37 John H Baker, Executive Director, National ssociation of udubon Societies, 1775 Broadway New York New York Dear M r Baker : Thank you kindly for yo\IT letter of March 29. W e are relaying this infonnation on with in-structions to see what we can unearth. Sincerely yours, Stanley P Young Chief, Division of Game :Manag ement 7


March 7 FLORIDA SITUATION Warden Roberts reports flight with U.S.C.G. Eight rookeries located. Five near Immokalee (2 of these Spoonbills). No action t ak.en. March 17 Roberts reports no nesting on southwest coast and urges protection Immokalee region. Suggests hiring truck for this job. March 18 Roberts instructed to take Kirk and camp largest Snoonbill rookery. Not authorized to hire truck. except for taking equipment into cypress. Phillips instructed to meet Durden in and cover co ast patrol with Durden 1 s boat an d "Guy Bradley"" Durden offered job with Phillips. Arrangements made for Manhattan Mercantile to r-eceive store until needed W'ire from Dick delayed Panama Ci ty, Fla., with broken manifold. March 19 Roberts advisee he vdll leave for cypress as soon as possible". Turned over liGuy Bradley" to Phillips. Letter from Durden reports killing of Great Whites on Center and Barnes Keys and killing of Spoonbills at Dove and Dorrie Creeks. both near Tavernier. March 20 Wire from Durden advising "will try to be in Everg:lades the 23rd. W e can live on my boat. 11 March 20-21 We instruded Phillips to join Durden in Everglades on 23rd and proceed to Whitewater Bay region, and Florida Bay, if feasible.


I .. 'Florida situation -2I March 21 Saturday Durden wires: "Cannot take job at Everglades will write in detail". Roberts wires: 1After receiving your wire I got plane flew over Immokalee section Thursday birds killed and run off flew over southern section Friday lots of feed ing but none nesting the only thing to do now is take care of Shark River section. Answer". March 23 Monday Instructed Roberts patrol Marco region from Naples and wait there for Widgeon, without which he and other wardens cannot go down coast. Requested full report on Immokalee situation. Wired Dick Gordon for word of Widgeon two weeks out from Vermilion Bay!) Instructed Chandler to make full investigation at once of Immokalee situation and @n the quiet. R.P.A.


e.r-oh 23 1936 onANDID TO:, .. ,_ nPRUNT mo Al.U: 1ng "chnnged thi morn1 1n at fl.orl

/ \ D r Hoovel't I>1 tot r 1 b S.el. irectos-1 t1 ion, y truly yo -. f o 1 John H x outlv Dtr ct r


NEWYORK CLIPPING FROM "'l"'r;VIOENCE (R.I.) JOURNAl.. MARCH 31, 1 932 )V) Tragedy /I (Hartford Courant) 'Egret Guard" of the Depart ment of Agriculture has just been ordered to take up its duties in the Everglades of Florida. The necessity for the maintenance o:t a special guard to protect the breeding places of the egret during its nesting season is a reflection on human na ture. The Audubon Societies which first called n to the need for a guard, and the Department of Agri culture, which has warred valiantly on the egret poachers, have done a great service but despite laws, reg ulations and guards, the poaching continues, though happily, to a re duced extent. The egret, one of the loveliest of native American birds, produces its coveted plumes only during the breeding season. In conuence, the death of an adult bird frequently means the destruction of the brood. In years past, before the present laws protecting the egret were passed, the breeding grounds of the birds at the end of the season were filled with nests full of dead nestings and rotted eggs. For a time, it appcarnd that the egret would be come as extinct as is the passenger pigeon and had the Federal Govern ment delayed even for a short time the protection it finally extended, it might have been too late. Fortun ately, in the nick of time, the requi site laws were passed. and now the egret seems to be coming back, though the process of recovery is slow and as yet, apparently, not alto gether certain. That, in the face of the undeniable fact that the egret is having diffi culty in recovering, poaching should continue, is a tribute to the cruelty of fashion as well as to the brutal ity of some The use of the feath ers is illegal in the United States, but the foreign demand continues, and the poachers find it worth their while to continue their activities. Many are caught each year and heavily punJshed, but the annual tragedy on I' me crounds contlnues :.v


WASHINGTON -------1 San Juan Tslands, between northwestern ______ tip of the State of Washington and Van---_g_ouver Is land a Ski jack Island GUils Puffins -_ _______ b Flatto Island G-w. Gulls -Baird 1 s Cormorant-s Cormorants c Bare Rock -G- Gulls Baird 1 s Cormorants (over)


BranatsCormorants T. Puffins d. Waldron Island (southern cliffs) G-w. Gulls Baird's Cormorants Brandt's Cormorants e. Patos Island (?) f. Sentinel Island_(?) g. Castle Isl. "many birds nesting" (sp.?) 2. Source: by Ellsworth D. Lumley Letter to R.P.A. 8/7/35 (Washington)


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. _; trr. Ch.1.r ... eo s 2?1 Or nee, Texas .1r. D vts: Ir by "oolony" yott nean Q.n o.otun-nosting c;roup ot ttp ts", t mt, of' course 1 !.e qt.l1tc an.ot .... matto;.;, Onn you loo.nte t .o 1slnnd .1cre t e bir s o obA rvod? You SQY t !s at Duyou 1 1oh1 o.ooorcU.nG to our atlas, is in t 10 part of the ata.ta 1n OunohJ.ta PQ.rish Pe haps you ::"':rer to local place. X w_ah you ould 11r1te e mol'e apocifioally as to t la locution. PA:OI Robert P A len Sanotun y Di eoto


f SSOCI A TION Name of Are nd Loc ution 1. Little Green I 1 nd (off t Desert. e ) 2 Todd 1ldl1fe S nctuary. ( u congus Bay M e.) 3 Roo evelt Bird Sanctu ry (nea r yster Bay N Y ) 4 Buzzard Island. (nr. J m Is. s c ) 5 Or ange Lake (Alachua Co. 1a.) 6 Peul J Rainey ildl1fe Sanctuary. (Vermilion P rl h La. ) ? Landing a t Interco a tal City, Louisiana. UDUBON SANCTU IES ( a o f Sept. 20,1939) Approx .. 50 30 12 5 113 26 161 Metro d o t 2pe;o ation Full time caretaker living on Grea t Duck Island ne arby. Full time arden re 1dent on isla nd Full time resid nt warden P a time sea onal w rden living on J s leland. Posted only. '1' 0 t 11 time w r d en resid e n t on re ull time retaker living nearby. 26,3?1-5/8 acres AREAS L EASED 8 t. John on Island (Sue o l ehann. River Ne8 r Drumor P ) 9 itmer Stone life Sanctt r y ( C pe sy Point, J.) 21 22 Full t 1m a lla rden living in Drumore Caret ker for nine m o ; resident warden for three mo s Bui l dings None 3 Dorm1 toriee 1 a1n bld g 1 Infirmar y l Director' s cottage 1 Bath Bldg. 1 Serv1 ce Bldg ... 1 1louce for i rden. 1 M useum Bldg 1 orkshed 1 Gar!'ge one None l Superintendent dwelljng 1 Assistant' s dwe lin 1 Feed l.ou" e 1 Boat House 1 Obser. To er. Garrge and Dock. None Non


S t ttus of Audubon I Areas pprox. etbod o f Deadman's Ielend, (Vermilion B ay, La. ) Qper &tlon --a-Superv1s1on by r 11 s t B y Bird Island Galve ton Is. Tex. 12 Hynes Bay Island (No. ot s n nton1o Bay) 13 Shell I land (San Antonio Bay Tex. ) 14. First-Chain-of-Islands (bet. Eso1r1tu Santo Bay and S n nton1o Bay Tex.) 80 8 4 40 16. Second Cha&nof-Islands 1 7 {bet. San Antonio Bay and Ayres Bay, Tex.) 16. Ayres Isl nd 200 (b t Ayre 8 y nd Mullet Bay, Tex ) 17. Third land 22 ( be t esqu1t Bay and ud Ba. y Tex.) l B Cr ne Islands 1 0 (Laguna ad r e ne r Corpus Ohr1eti Bay. Tex. ) 1 9 North & South Bird Islands 7 0 {L aguna adre, Tex. ) 20 Green Island Sanc t u ary 3 871 (L gu n a Madr e T x ) Gordon ot Rainey Sanot; Posted only Po ted only Posted only Po t ed only Part time seaso na l ward n Part time season 1 -arden. Part time seasonal arden. Part time sea onal wa.rden. Part. time seasonal warden Part time seasons l warden 4 370 acres AREAS OCCUPI$D ITH CONSENT OF OWNER ............... ......,_ -21. Little G r e en Island 5 Posted only (nr. et1n1cu Is. a1ne. ) Pag e 2 1;)Bu1ld1ngs N one None None None None None None None None None Shack & Tower Abandoned shacks 22. Gllgo Island 30 (Gre t Sou t h Bay, L I NY) Posted only None 23. Cobb' Island Sanctuary 5,000 ( 1n p c rt) (Eat of oyster, Va. ) 24. L k e 100 ( e t of Melb ourne, Fl ) 25 Kissimmee P r airie 75 000 (c ntr91 F l a N o r t h of Lake 0 eechob e.) Part time seasonal None warden. Part time seasonal w Warden's house, ward n. 11v1n on are owned by him Part t1me seasonal warden N o bldgs. u ed by As oc1at


.w;1erah i p S tatus o f Audubon Sanctuaries Consen t of Owner ,(oontlnued) Name of rea and Loc tion 26. South West Coa t ( W ter1key nd land rea from U epp I to Cape Sable. ) 27 Florida Bay (Bay west of uppe r Florid Key ) 28. B r o neville Region (Cameron Co. Tex ae ) Appr ox Acre se 80,000 30,000 14 400 e od of OJ>! ration Full time w rden patl'Q 1 P r t t ime sea eonal warden patrol. Part t1me seasonal w rden patrol. 204, 535 acres -ST TE SANCTUARY AREAS U RDED BY SSOCIATION ....-...;---.;......, ,;;., _.... ......................... --. 29. Okeechobee Sanctuary 20 500 ( w sh ore of Lak Okeechobee. Fl ) 30 Ob ervation Sho 1 Sanot. a ,ooo (Lake Okeechobee Flo ) 3 1 Buzzard Key Sanctuary 2 000 ( ater and lay area off sw eoa t of Fla.) 32 Duck Rock Sanctuary 500 (water and Key rea orr w co t o r Fls ) 33. Bottl point Sanctuary 2 500 ( ter and Key ar a i n Fla. B y nr. Tav rn1er. ) 34. Vingt' un I 1 nds ry 17 (Gal v ton Bay) 33 517 NO FO AL ARRANGE NT 35 Key t Are (Florid ) no acreage Part time seasonal w rd n. Part time seasonal warden P rt time se sonal patrol. Part time seasonal Pe.tro 1 P art time seasonal w rden. Part time se a onal pat:ro 1 ore Full time rden doing edu cat 1onal ork. 36. P s a Loutre tud Lumps ( outh of iee1 sipp i River, La. ) 25 Part time sea on 1 patro 1 25 ore Pag e 3 'If Buildings No bldgs. used by Aesoc i et i on bldgs. u ed by Aseociat ion. No bldgs. used by A oci tion. 1 small shack one None J: one None No bldga. u e by Assoeiet1on. None.


' o.erahlp Status of ,t\JJdulilen sanctue r1 ea Tota l acreage p trolled 1e pprox1mately 268,800 ores. Tot 1 o ed or lea ed 1 30,741 acre ENTS The or a g g1v n for it m 2. (Tod Sanotu ry7 a1n) 1e tha t portion otua l y o wned by t h e Ae oo1 ion. In addition we are utroriz.ed to the remeind r of Hog I land. or an ditiona l 300 acre The acreages given t h ro ughout re for t h e mos t part roug h e t1ma t e, and hould not be consider d aooura t 'uch of Uhe l and involved h n o t been adeq u tely urveyed, and some of 1 t h a not been y e d t &11. In som e 1n t nee notu9ry rea 1 n t h e list h a s been include under t h e h e ding th t pplie to a m jority of the property in the sanctuary. For exam ple, not all of the 1 nd and ter on the outh e t co ast of F 'lor1da. 1 p atroled with con en t of o ner but 1nc e large port ions of 1 t are o coYere d. 1 t is o included., 1n order to avoid breaking it u p into evenl c a t go r All d t e 1n t h 1 list is ubjeot to cha n g e a t any tim e R P A


It March 31. 1939 E. ORANDUM TO: MR. BEN J A IN FROM : MR. ALLEN SUBJF.CT: The fo1lo 'lin g Sanctuary a reas are o'iined outright: \/'1 -Little Duck Island. a1ne ( 'i :;'f ) Approximately 50 acres. H o g Island, l aine ( part) ('13') rJj) J 3 -Roosevelt Bir Sanctuary. N .Y. (tfl..'l) 12 aor s 4 -Buzzard Island. S C ( I 1 ) 5 acres _/S Orange Lake. F l a ( '' r 6) 113 a c r s -Rainey ildlife Sa.nctua ry. La. ( 1&/ 2( ) 26,000 acres The. follo 1ng areas are 1 ase d : 1 Mt. Johnson Island Leased from Ph1ladel)lia Electr c Comp any. Apnrox 1me t ely 21 acres 2 litmer Stone 1ldl1fe Sanctuary. N .J. A nroximat ely 22 acres Leased from Cape May Sand com. an r 3 Deadman s Island. L a Leased from 5 acres ./ 4 .Vest Bay Bird Isl a n d Approxima tely 80 acre s v 5 -Hynes Bay Island. Texas. Approx1mutely 8 acres Leased from State of Texas. v 6 F1 r t Chain of Isl nds. Texas. Approximately 40 acres Leased from S t ate of Texas. v 7 Shell Island. Approximately 4 acres. Leased from S tate o f Texss.


. i ......... 3( 2 ... .. \ j ; : I l ) 0 :,a Se cond Cba 1 n of Islands. Texas .: Approx1ma t ely 17 a cres .. .: .. ,.-:. Leased f rom State o f Texas. v 9 -Ayres I s l and Texas. Apo a t ely ..lOOac-res. Leased f rom State of Texas. v 10 Third Chal n of Isla n ds Texas. Appro xi mat el 22 acres. Leased from State of Texas ./ 11 Cran e Island, Texa s ely 1 0 acres. Leased from the S tate of Texas .........12 -North and South Bird Islands. Texas. Approxima t ely 70 acres. Leased from State of Teas. 13 -Green Island Bird Sanctuary. Texas. 3t781 acres. Leased from State of Texa s / }f ts-""""' I 17 )..-/ 00 1 r ) ( 't _,_,. R P A


Prairi Fl ... ... (. R J. -L. c9-/c:..L-L< ..) 15. L ce Okeechobee, la

0 SANOTIIA.t.tiES Of 'l'HE NATIONAL ASSOCIAfiON OF Al:JDUOON ( 1938 l UR-!7 s-0 -1. Duclt I sl"\nd Uaine .... "--1 t-1 :.5 2. t1 ttle Green Island. Maine 32> a -3. '.t'9dd W1ld-L1fa Ss.nottm.ry :L o -4., OOnneoti eu.t Tern Colonies; VI Conn .. -6. Bird aanOtQnr,y,N.Y. <>-( :; ,. :2. l 7 Ht. Johnson Island. Sa.nol\1ney, >"14> ,g; ..,..."' rf.Jc.. __.., 8. Pflul aboro Rooker'Y, N. J. .,../ e. ... ----s '""' __, 9. 1 trnor Stone Sane-....,,.-,.... \ 7 tuary. N. J. 10. Oobb'o Iela.nd sanotln.ry, Va .. -:"'\ 1 .!). t/6-3 --LL. Beaufort Rookery'; N a c.,..... .,.,..... "")"] c ""711 c.'>'\...e t \, 13 Lako aah1ngton. a. <::l-Leaoh 1 a fterr1n Gulls and a.reat n ll. Leaah s Petrel, Aroti ov1'orn and CommonJtern SOnb b1xtd.s. Roseate VJ:el"n1 Common ""'Pern and itat

' t ",., r1 'I r I it J : 14afl944 .. # SUtiW.RI OF SANCTUARIES lwaber ot Number ot Iuber ot Stat! !notuatie! Wardena !eB1'1-UDd Ward!ne Oal1torn1a l 1 1 Oozm.eoticut l 1 1 Florida a 6 s Louie ian& l 2 2 Maine 2 2 1 New Jerae7 1 1 0 New York 1 1 1 Penns;ylvania l 1 0 South Carolina l l 0 Texas 20 -1 -1 37 19 12


StJWU.RI OF CURRENT SJ.NOTUARIES AND PATROLS MAINTAINED BI THHl NATIONAL AUDUBON SOOIETI CALIFORNIA 1. Looationa &an Oabrtel River Bird Sanctuazz:: near W!Sttier, Calltornia. Present Owners, Cata Ditch Oompan, and Frank F. Pell1se1er & Sons, Inc., ana it leued to the NA8 by aforesaid coapaniea, is subJect to other uaes, princ1paJ.l1 the right to use water suppliea tor agricultural and dairying purposes, also posted by California attiliated eocietiee. RaJH ot Warden& George O. Dowker Tlarden1s Addreeat 148 No. Poplar Avenue, Monte Oalttornia Equipaentt lone Principal Species Protected Demonstration aanctU8J'7f vieited by groupe troJR the Loa Angelea and other local attUiated Audubon societies. Beating White-talled Kites, Red-bellied Hawke, Eastern Cardinals. Are Viaitors Welcomet Yea. CONNEO'l'Ietn' 1. Location& 280 acres ot lend with buUd.lngs, situated on northeast corner ot John Street and Qa.aker Ridge Road in the Tom ot Oreenwioha title to the propertr held b7 National Audubon Societr of Greenwich, Inc. Purpose Deaonetration eanctua17, nature educational and reaearch center, known aa Audubon Nature Center." Name ot Educational Direotort Dr. Richard L. Weaver Hue or Superintendent Leon Van MoUe P. O. Acldresea Auclubon Nature Center, R. r. D. Port Oheater, N.Y .. Equipsenta Three bouse11 tor Educational Dtrctor, tor Superintendent, tor stattJ natu:re llUeewa, nature trail, etation wagont also truck, power mor and garden Principal Spec1ea Protectedt Birde, la, insecta and other wildlite and plant clulraoterietic ot habitat ill eouthllest Connecticut. Are Viaitora Weloout Iee, it ther will kindl7 atop firet at quarters :l.n the nature JIUieua.


1. Location J'LORID.l Lake 11!me P!1r1e. B7 resolution or tbe Trustees or the ntemal Improvement Fund ot the State ot Florida, the NAS is charged with reaponaibUitr tor mabtenance or sanct'U.8l'7 1n a la.rge area on ,the northwestern shore ot the lake between the south or the KiesiiUiae River and that of the Barner Pond Canal and at a groUp ot graae:y islands in the lake knOWD. as 110beervat1on Shoai and "RecD.ight Reet." Also patrole King's Ber and Horae Island. Also patrols XissiiiUiee Prairie trom Lakeport on the south to the Lake Wales-Vero Beach Road on tbe north, and t.roa Lake letokpoga on the west to eastern limite or the Prairie on the "'' Special attention given to that part ot the southwest ot the Xiaeimmae River. lame ot Wardens Jhell R. Wright Yla.rden's Address Okeechobee Oity, Florida Equipmentt Society's 18 tt. with 5 hp. Briggs & Stratton inboard aotor and wheel. Society' e 19.3'7 Ford sedan. Principal Species Protected& Florida Crane, Florida BUl"l'' Owl, Audubon il Oaracara, Ltmpldn! Olossr Ibis, Everglade Kite, Oul.l-bllled Tern, White Ibis,. Wood Ibis, Snowy and American J!lgrets, Ward's, Little Blue, LoUisiana, Blac1G-9%"owned and Yellow-Crowned Night He;ronaJ Anhingas, White Pelican, Bald Eagle, Fl.orida Red-shouldered Hawk, and miscellaneous ducks. Are Authorized Viaitora Welcome Ies, except during the period ot organized Audubon WUcD.ite Tours (normal.l.y Februar:y 1 to mid-AprU) 2. Location Shark fi1ver to Out SaRJ.e, Florid.. Ingraham Highway rnm Florida Oity to FlflJDingo, West, East, Cuthbert and nearby lakeeJ that part ot Florida Bq l.1ing ott Flamingo, including ICer (leased to the Society as a sanctuary b7 Herman Armour tlichole) DUdoj llan Otwar,and Cluett Kers. lncludea patrol ot the. North, Robert' a, Lane, 1l'ait and Joe' i RivereJ Whitewater, O;yeter and BaysJ Bear, lAud, Fox and Cat TaU Lakes. Warden' a AdcSreaal Box 726, Hoaeatead, Florida. EqQpmenta 36 tt. oabin cruiser "Audubon," with aoreened.-in deck and Obriearatt .Otor capable ot carrying tour persona, bclu.dirlg the warcSen. Th1a involves putting up two cote on deck attv cU.nner table. 'l'here are two bunks in tbe cabin. U1ed priaaril.7 ae base tor opera tiona. Owned bf the Society. Aleo the "White lbia," open boat With eprq hood, with Oray Phantoa aotor, io.-445, Engine lo. (J.;.l,302, tor active patzool. Capacity' two persona. Owned br s ociev. .U.O pq-wood owned by Society, sult able tor oTer JIUd tlata and tor use in oana1e and ahall.ow waters, with Johnson outboard. motor,owned by the Societr. -a..


0 Also 1939 Ohe'Vl"'let two-door sedan, owned br Bocietrr oapaoit7 five persons. Also that oan be carried on top ot cazo. Principal Species Protected White, CU.osq and Wood Ibis, American and Snowy Egrets, Roseate Spoonbill; White Pelican1 Wed's, Great White, Wurdemarms, Little Blue, Louisiana, Blaoki-Crcrimed and Iello ... Orowned Night Herone, Man-0'War Bird, Anhi:ngas, SwallowtaUed Kite, Brown Pelican, Royal Tern, Florida Cormorant, Short-taUed Hawk, and milcelleneoua ducka and shore birds. Are Authorized Vieitori Welcome OnJ.r 1n special cases. Bo organized arrangement. ;. Location Florida Bg, including specified sanctuary areas including Bottlepoiiit, Low end Stake Keys, where NAB with maintenance responsibility b7 resolution ot the Trustees or the Internal Improvement fund ot the State of J"lorlda. Ha ot Wardena Arthur o. Eifler Warden' e AddJ"(tesa 'l', Florida Equipment 24 tt. cabin cruiser "Spoonbill," with Obrreler 103 bp. 110tw, owned b7 SooietT. Cabin capacity smell, for two persona. Also 10 tt .. sldtr owned b1 Soo1e1;f. Also Bociet7's with inboard Briggs & Stratton J.i hp. motor in bad shape, known as the "Oroo.n Principal Species Protecteda Roseate SpoonbUJ., Oreat White, Ward' a, Wurdemann'.e, Little Blue, Louisiana and Iellow-Orowned Night Herons, American, Snbwy and Reddish Egrets, White Ibis, White-Crowned Pigeon, Bald Eagle, Brown, Pelican, J4an-0'War Bird, Pl.orida Oormorant, and miscellaneous ducks and shore birds J also orocodUee. Are Authorized Visitors Welcome Iea, each visitor. to contribute :13 to the sanct\18%7 tund. '1'b1a patrol ueual.q 1n operation Ootobe!'AprU inclusive. 4. Locationa 4l.atia !J?oil Banks 1n 'l'ampa Baz, leased b7 the Society t:rom the u. s. Phoap&iric Products CJOii)Oration lue ot Yiardena In Fred W. Schultz In winter w, E. Allen Warden's Address 1, Limona, Florida Equipment Boat or .boata aupplied b)' Dr. R. Mills ot Taapa. Principal Species Proteotedl auns, Blaok 8ldiiUilers, Leut Terns. Are Authorized Viaitora Wel.ooua Bo. _,_


0 Locationa Green ltez 1n Tampa Baz, leased b:f the Society from the Potter P8lmer Eitate. Bame ot Wardena Fred w. Schultz lfarden' a Address a Route 1, Ltmona, Florida Equipment Boat or boats supplied b)' Dr. Herbert R. lW.J.s ot Tampa Principal Species Protected White Ibis, Bzoom Pelican, F.l.ozoida Cormorant, American Egret, Louieiana Heron Authorized Viaitore Weloout Ies. 6. Locationa Big Bird Kex in Tama Bj;n leased trom Mre. Nina 0. Vluhbu:rn Name ot Vlardent w. E .lllen Warden' a Addreeaa Box 73, Terra Ceia, F.lorida Equipment Boat supplied bJ Dr. Hezobert. R. MUle Tampa Principal Species Protected White Ibis, Louisiana, SnOWJ, Ward's, Little Blue, Blacki-orOWiled Night Herons, Brown Pelicans, Anh1ngaa, American Egrets, Florida Cormoranta. Are Authorized Visitors Vleloomet Iea. 7. Location a ltp Xal;gc)p ezea 2!! scmthw!st P'lorwa qgast trom Everglades to the Harne7 River. Involve patrOl ot the headwaters, b8.f8 and covaea or a eeriea ot rivera, including the Lopez; .. HU atoa, Chatham, Loatman1 s, Broad and Hame7 Rivera. Speoitic aanotWU7 areas at Duck Rock and Buzzard lte;y, where the Societ)r ia charged ri th maintenance of sanot'11817' responaibillt;y b7 resolution ot the Trueteea ot the Internal Improvement Fund ot the State ot Pl.orida. Name ot Warden Arthur o. Eif'lezo WarCS.n' a Address 1 Everglades, Florida Equipment Same ae described under Item 3. Principal Species Proteotedl Vlbite and Wood Ibis, American and Snow, Egrets, Roseate Spoonbill, Brom Ward' a, Little Blue, Louisiana, end Yellow-crowned Night Herona, Man-O'Yie Bird, AiUlingae, Royal Tem, Swallow-taUed Klte, Florida Oo:naorant, and miaoell.ane oua ducks end shore birde.


Are Authorized Visitors Welcome Ies, each visitor to oontribu.te :J5 to the Sanct\1817 Fund, with m1n1mum ot :AO tor, a lone v1eito1'. Overnight oapaoit7 on boattwo persons. This patrol u.auall7 onl7 in operation May to September inclusive. s. Looationa N:wuroua kpe in Lake Fl.orlda, including Bunter' e Island near Palm BeaCh. teased m tFie town ot Palm Beach and troa the Blossom-Bolton-Bingham tamily Name o t V/ardena Hugh Bruce Warden's Address a Box 2251, Palm Beach, Florida Equipment a Warden's own boat. Principal Species Protected White Ibis, American end Snow, Egrets Authorized Vid.tora Welcome Onl.y in special cues. No organized ar:rangement. These keys and the bird concentrations on thea can easily ba seen from the adjoining aainland shores. LOUISIANA 1. Location a YIUdlite Ref3e on the ehore or the Gulf' ot Mexico 1n Veion ParlSh, acreage approx1mati..tJ.7 26, 000, owned by the Society aa result or gitt Name ot Wardens 11c;Jk Sohemqder in charg,, Joseph I. Hebert assistant. Wardens' Addresaa c/o Raine7 Wildlife Retuge, AbbeYille, Louisiana. Equipment Headquarter' a buildings include two residences, boat house and store-bouse. Society also owns small acreage with docking tac111 ties at Intracoastal 0 1 ty at the car and truck terminus trom Abbev1ll.e. Society owns three boats, the "Blue Goose," a 23ttt. oi-u1ae:r with lJ5hp. Obr7aler motor and spray and sun-shield, and two patrol boats, the "Whistler" and the "0h1ok.11 Principal Speciea Protected I Blue end Snow Geese, all the kinde of du.oke tht.t ooour in tall and winter in that part1oula:rl1 Canvasback, I'oiAtaU, Widgeon, Blue and O:reen-winged Teal, Shoveller, Ring-neck, Mallard, Blu.e-bi;l.l and Gadwall. On Deadman' e, a part or the there is a nesting oolo117 ot 8JtOW1 Egrets and Louisiana Hf!rone, JDOBtlf the Are Authorized Welcome' Ies, provided tpey bring their own food. We provide qede, bed linen, a roof and opportuni t1 to go out 1n the boats with the wardens on regular patrol. Present bed capaoi ty tor 'Viei tors, tour. 'nlere a charge ot per person each way tor transportation b,y boat betweP.n Intracoastal Oity an.d our headquarters, Boat capacity tor vieitorel seven." -s-


1. Locatlona Great Duok and Little Duck Islande. the open ocean south or it. Desert. Society owns Little DuokJ .. received as a gttt. Has no legal rights with regard to Oreat Duck. Name or Wardent Darre .ll Mann, llghthouee keeper on Oreat Duck. (At present service.) Werden' a Address a Great J>uck Island, South\'l'est Harbor, Maine Equipment Warden' boat. Principal Species Proteoteda Leach' 1 Petrel, Herring Gull, Great Black backed Ot.Ul, Black Ou.W.emot, American Eider, Oeprq. Are Authorized Visitores Welcome Iea, thoueh dittiaulties of transportation to the ialanda w1ll tend to minimize number, and visi tore would have to make own arrangements at Southwest Harbor or el,ewhere. 2. Looa.tiona todd swtuen on Hgg Islm!J 1n Mufconr:se Bar. The Audu'\)()i(Nature Camp is located at the' northern end of this esanctur:<.ry. The peninsula on v :hich the oamp is situated its owned \.If the Society as the result or a girt. The balance ot the isJ.Uld is leased at ;i'J. a year and is under contract to be bequeat hed ta the Society on the decease or the present 0\'lller. Name ot \Vardana J.Crank LaUer keepe eye on it while Warden t s Address t Medouk, Meine Equipment Warden has his own boat, but ot course the oamp equipment ia available during the caap seaeon. Principal Species Protected Oonatitutea in general a song-bird sanctuarr on an island spruce forest. Nesting Ospreys. The deer have become very tame and walk into tor apples. Are Authorized Visitors Welcome Iea, during the OUlp season, but not at other timea. 1. Looationa The Witmer StQne WUdlUe St\llCtuary at Cape 14q Point. Area south of Hew $ngiihd creek, bOUiided 67 Uiiiware Bar on tbe west and b7 Tom. or Cepe Mar Point o.n the south, and including the entire wooded area through agreements with propert7 owners granting the Society the right to post and patrol. ot Wardeiu Seaeonal in autwm. Warden' Addressa Oape Mq Point, N. J., -6-


Equipment None, nor is anr necee88xy unless the incidental uee of warden' 1 own automobile, Principal Species Protected COncentration point tor many misrating birds, especially hawks, Are authorized Visitors Welcome Yea. fiE'! YORK l.Looationl aoosevelt Sanot!!U at Olster Be.y, L,I,, owned b7 the SocieW" as the reault of gifts, Maintained u a demonstration aongbird sanotuarr w1 th features muetrating educational usee of such area, Baae ot Wardena lBJilee Oallaghan \Varden t e Address 1 Oyster Bay, L. I Equipment One second-hand tnck and euden tools. Buil.dinee include a residence for the warden and his family, a nature museum and a tool bouse, There 1a alao a beautitul bronze statue at the Fountdn. Principal Species Protectedt Miscellaneous song-birds Are Authorized Visitors Welcomea No authorization necessary. Sanctu817 is open to the public on Wedneadan, and Sunds.ys and holidays Rttween 2 and from Mq let tober 3lat. At other times appointments mar be made by communicating with the warden. 111emor1al Fountain is open evecy from lllid-AprU untU late November. lENNS!LVANIA l,Looationa J4t. Johpson Ipland., in th! SyQMhtpM River 'btlQw Lwutcr, Pennvania, Right to patrol granted 'b7 the Power Oompa.ny which owns it. Name of Warden a Mrs, J. Ro;y Sa!. th Warden's Addre1s1 Drumore, Pennsylvania. Equipment Warden baa boat Prhtcipal Species Protected Bal4 EagleJ a good pl-.ce to observe Xentuclq and Oerulean \'larblers, Red-bellied Woodpecker. Are Authorized Visitors Welcome Xes, tbq have to make their own traneportation arrangement& with Mre. Smith or others. -7-


l SOtJ'l'H OAROLINA. 1. Locatiotu Buzzard Is!nd near Charleston. In the Stono River Mar its mouth. Island owned by the 'society Name of Warden R. F. Qrimbal.':L Warden's Addreast R. F. D. No. 1, Oharlaeton, s .. 0. Equipment Warden has own boat Pl'inoipal Species Protectedt Snowy end American Egrets, Little Blue and Louisiana Herons Are Authorized Visitors Welcome Yes, they have to make their own tranaportation arrangements \'11th Wazoden Orimball or others 1. Location Vingj;:un ls1andf 3.D Galveston Bay near Smith By Aot ot the Texas legislature, these ialancla constitute a state wildlife eanotU8l"f subJect to the ad!drdstration of the Texas Fish, Game and Oyster Oommias1on.. However, the NAS continues to provide the warden service. Name of Werden w. T. Jriddell. Employment seasonal during nesting season. \'luden' s Address a Star Route, Anahuac, Texaa Warden's boat. He maintains tourists' cabins at Smith Point. Can carry 25 or 30 people on his boat Principal Species Proteotedt Roseate SpoonbUJ., American and Snowy Egrets, L1ttle Blue, Ward' e and BlaclG-orovtned Night Herons, together with a few White and \ihite-taoed Glossy Ibises. Al'e Authorized Visitors Welcome Iea 2. Locattona .. West B, Bird Island. This 11ea in Lute Pass west ot Galveston eland. Under grazing lease #4ol:J3 ot November 3,1943 hom the State of Texu through the Land ()ttice. Lease e:xpires 1948 and does not prevent eimul.taneou Name ot Wardent None. Depend Qn signs tor prote9tion Principal Species Protecteda Brown Pelican, Koral Tern1 Laughing Oull, Reddish and Snowy Egrets, Little Blue and Louisiana Oullb:tlled Tern, Forster's Western Willet, Black Skimmer. -s-


3. Are Authorized Visitors Welcomea No. Name or Wardena None. Depends on signa tor protection. Principal Species Proteoteda Not at present ot coMequence Are Authorized Visitors Welcome 1 No. 4. Looat1ont Shll IalM4 in Sy Antonio B;(. Under grazing lease 140132 ot November J, 1943 trom the State expiring in 1948 subJect to simultaneous mineral lease. 6. Name or Wardena None. Depend on signs tor protection. Principal Species Protecteda Formel"l,y Caspian Terns and Black Sldmmer&J now larsely abandoned ot recent oil operations. Are Authorized Visitors Welcome No. R811e or Wardene Unotticial. warden 1n the person ot Judge O. r. Hartmann, whose residence on the blutt at Tivoli overlooks this bland and \'tho, toeether with hie wite, is greatlt interested 1n the protection or birds there. Principal Species Protected Roseate Spoonbill, Mvoua Tree-Duck, Sno1r1 and American Egrets, Louieiana and Ward' 1 Barone, and at times large colonies or both White and White-raced Glossy Ibises. Are Authorized Visitor" Vleloomee No, Name or Wardenl Patrolled by personnel or A.raneae Refuge under special -9 1!/


8 agreement tor duration ot war. Equipmenta None Principal Species Protected Ro1eate Spoonbill, Reddish Egret (second largest colorq in Texas), Snoq and American Egrets, Wardt s, Louisiana, Little Blue and Blao).c...Orowned Night Herons Oaap:lan, Royal, .Forster's and GUll.-billed Terns, Laughing Oull, Black Skimmer, Brom. Pelican, Mexican Cormorant, Largest SpoonbUl nesting oolo111 in the United States. Are Authorized Visitors Welcomea Ies, after the war. Name of Wardent Same warden as tor the Second Ohain. Principal Species Protected Same ai at Second Chain but probably not including the Pelican, Terns, L8llghing Gull or Skimmer. Are Authorized Visitors Welcoaea Condition same as at Second Ohain Name or liar dena None. Depend on sie,ns tor J)roteotion. Principal Species Protecteda or less current importance than a few years ago when it was site or sizable Brown Pelican colony with miscellaneous Terns, Skiuers end LauP.)dng Are Authorized Visitors Welcome a No 9 Locationa .am Island, tYing ott southern end ot the Blpldag n r graziiit; I,ase i'I-40Di or November j, 1943 rom e te or Texas expiring 1948 SJ'ld subject to eimultta.neous mineral lease Name of W erden None. DepP.nd on signs tor proteot:t on. Protected& Not an important nesting site in recent yeara. Some Redd.ish lllr,.rets and other Herons Are Authorized Visitors 1 ielcome No -1().,.


lOc Location dla Ann Island 1 inside of St. Jose h Island and noz:tb of Port Under grazing lease f'rom t tate o ems in 195 and subject to simultaneoue id.nerel lease. Name ot Wardeni None J depend on signs tor protection. Principal Specief! Protectedt Louisiana Heron, Reddish Egret, Snowy Egret, Laughing Oul.l, some 4, 000 Caspian Terne near shore of St. Joeeph Island opposite. Are Authorized Visitors Weloomel No. ll. Location OUVantine Shore and Harbour bland. Society has no specific rights but wardens in oertein years have patrolled the area. l2. Numerous Gulls, Terns and Skimmers nest 1n various parts, especially on Quarantine Shore and near the causeway acrose the island from Aransas Pass to Port Aransas. Location .PMet lelM..4a ott the main shore near Ineletsidet south of AranfiAS Pass. Posted and patrolled letter of aunority or private owner, Ingleside Land Company, Houston, Texas (Mr. David M. Picton, Jr., President). Name of War

Name or Wardent None. Depend on eigne for protection. l'r1nc:lpal Species Protected& Not an important nesting site in the past several years. Ut!!ed by miscellaneous Herons-including Reddish Egrets, and apparently at intervals by Roseate Spoonbills Are Authorized Visitors Weloomea No. J.S. Location Ore Iel&Qda. ,.t southeastern end ot Comus Ohriat1 Bay inside the southern ooint or Mustg Island end near Corpus Ohr1et1 Pass, Under eraz1ng lease 7140l37tot November 3, 194.) trom the State ot. Texas expirine in 1948 and eubJeot to simultaneous mineral lease. Name or None. Depend on signs tor protection Principal Speoiea Proteoteda Not an important nesting site. Used by mieoellaneoue Herons, including Reddish Egrets, and apparently at intervals by Roseate Spoonbills Are Authorized Visitors Welcome No. 16. Location North and S9uth Islaqqs 2=D the Lamme. Madro east ot King Rench and about 20 milee south ot Flour Blutr. Under lease trom the $tate or Texae untU February 25, 1973, by virtue ot Ohapter 20 ot the lt"irst Called Seeeipn of the Thirty-Seventh Legislature or the State or effective November l5th,l92l. The lease was executed on July 22, 1941 under the ot that Act Name of Wardenl None. Depend on signs tor protection. Principal Species Protected& Has on occasion a large nesting oololl7 ot White Pelicans, the only euch colonr in the south, or southeast ot the Dakotas and Montana. Estimated 1, SOO nests 1n 1941. the onl.7 sizable nesting colony in the United States ot Oabot1e Tern. Also large colony of Royal Tems and Laughing Qulla smaller numbel'e ot Gull-billed Terns, Black SJduere and Reddish Are Authorized Visitors Welcome No, until after war, These islands have been visited for years b,y parties in boats from Corpus Obrieti, tar the purpose or seeing the birds. Name or Warden& John o. Larson, seasonal from March lst to end of nesting aea .. on about September let. Assisted by Ohu. M. Pierce.


Warden's Add:resea Box :37.3, Harlingen, Texae. Equipment U$et Society' 1 shell.ow draft 19 t. boat, second-hand Buick aotor. Societys 1939 Ford sedan. Horsehead Island lies opposite Green 0 Island on the mainland and haa a smell dock for the boat. Shack on isiand tor living quarters. Tbwer tor observing birds. Principal Species Protectedt The outstanding aenctuer1 and nesttne site tor the Reddish Egret. Usually some 5,000 neftte of this species. large numbers ot Ward' a, Little Blue and. Louisiana with small colonies of Black--Crowned Night Herons and American Egrets .. Black Bkimmer. s and Least Terns nest on the beaches. Some .300 ltoseate Spoonbills stay there the aUIDlller but do not breed.. Are Authorized Visitors Yes. Lende itself to WUdl.ife Tours but condition of roads approachinr, island renders use impossible when mat end involves risk or stranding tourists. Approach by boat from Port Isabel too long. 18. Location Three Islands. These lie 10 or 12 11Ues south of Green in the L&euna Madre. They are included in the lease by the Society of Green Island. Name ot Warden John o. Larson, assisted bf Ohas. M. Pierce Warden's Address a Box Y7J, llarl1ngen, Texas Equipment Ae above Principal Species Protectedt Not an important nesting site now Miscellaneous Herons, Skimmers, Terns and Oulls, including the Reddish 'Egret. Are Authorized Visitors Welcome Not under present conditions. 19. Location Cameron Hi ....... The Society does not have any legal rights to poet and patrol other than by letter ot authority trom a few private land owners, but its warden patrols all three counties from mid-September to the end of February, at which time he is not needed at Green Island. Name ot Wardens John o. J.arson Warden's Ad.dress Box 37.3, Harlingen, Texas Equipment Same oar as apove Ford sedan) Prtncipal Species Protectedl This job is essentially an educational one, buildinr, and maintaining contacts. Special ettort ie 0 aade to enlist interest in thP. protection, or the r.arer birds, especially Hallrka, euch as the \fid.te-tailed Kite, and in reasonable -13-


eetr1ction on the hunting or such game birdJ as the Whitewinged Dove and Redhead Duck. Also to further the setting up ot federal, state and local vrUdlife retugeso There ere an unusual number ot Mexiosn types ot birds that only come into the United States in portions ot these counties. Are Authorized Visitors Vielcomea Ies. Fine post-"ar prospects tor Audubon WUdlite Tours. 20, Location Name ot Warden watch Mrs. J aok Haear or Rockport, Texas Principal Species Protected White-faced Glossy Ibis, Louisiana Herons, ror111ter' s Terns, Roseate Spoonbills, eeveral pairs ot Willets and Ful voue 'l'.ree Du.oke. Are Authorized Visit.tors Welcome Persons desirin{t, to visit this area are referred to Hagar at Rockport Cottages, Rockport, Texat.


' \ SUMMARY OF SANCTUARIES State Number of Sanctuaries California 1 Connecticut 1 Florida _.!;Louisiana 1 Maine 2 New Jersey 1 New York 1 --.. Pennsylvania 1 South Carolina l: Texas Vhginia Nemes of Year-round Wardens a California a Connecticut a Florida& Louisiana a New York & Names of Seasonal Wardens !4P hte 1 r!J-r;zrNew Jersey& Pennsylvaniaa South Carolinas t"i) Texas a FriddeU + r \AA.t...t._ :!:ftis Number of Wardens 1 2 t 1 l t"" I : June, 1942 Number of Year-round Wardens 1 0 1 0 0


1. 1. NEW SANCTUARIES CALIFORNU Locations San Gabriel River Bird Sanctuary. Near Whittier, Californi Present Ovmers, Cate Ditch Company and Frank F. Pellissier & Sons, Inc.; area is leased to the NASby aforesaid companies; is subject to other uses, principally the right to use water supplies for agricultural and dairying purposes; also posted by California affiliated societies. Name of Wardena George 0. Dowker 7 L Warden's Address a 148 No. Poplar Avenue, Monte Bello, California. Equipment! N '(1M-/ _..---Principal Species Protected a Demonstration weng Zh Cl sanctuary; oalf :-a..Q....;__ A W Y Are usblznlzed Visitors elcome 1 es CONl1ECTICUT Location a 280 acres of land with buildings, situated on northeast corner of John Street Ridge Ro the Town of to the ope t l. [ii,Uu{A Leon Van Molle f yet to-be kden's Addressa .R.F.D.l, N.Y. 0-f c.-{, IJ. Equipment& y;e-e, anup>t truck and garden._tools regeineg tse .,,


' /I \ 1----1 -. st00>1ARY OF CURRJ-:NT JJID P Ni'ROLS BY 'fiiDJ NATIONAL AUDUBOn AUGUST lH41 FLORIDA. 1. Location: Pre.irie. By resolution .of the Trusteee Improvement Fund of the State of Floridn, the Audubon Society is chareed with responsibility for mainf sanctuary in n large ares. on the northl>testern shore of ._\. the lake r : nd e t a group of hlnnde in the lake known ae J 110bserv tion Shonl11 a .nd 11Redlight Reef11 Also pa.trols King' a Bar F .nd lloree lsl;md. Also patrol Kit:dmmee Prairie from LAkeport on the south to the J.Jake WalesVero Beach Road on the north, from Lake Istokpoea on the west to eastern limits of the Prairie on the Special attention to thrt.t part of the Prairie KU'i!irnmee River. Nrune of 'tlnrnen: Mnl''lil'l to expel Vision ef i.e.. lffir t1ard.en1 s Okeechobee City, Floride. Eouinment: s_A:skiff "!i Stratton inboBrd Oko9elto'bt:e r;shur nece oan Princhnu Are Warden'"' E(')uipmen t : J)J'Cl'i rhft far hozoee. Snecie!" Protected: Floridl'l Crane, Floride-Burro\'rinr; 0111,: Audubon's C Prnct-ra, Limpkin, Glol"sy :hiverp,lede Kite, Gull-billed Tern, White Ibh, Ibit:, Snowy find AmericP.n We.rd1 e, Little Blue, l3bck-Cro,rned E\nd Yellow-Cro\-med Night Anhinr,o .s, White Pelican, BEild 'Ee.r,le, l!'loridn Rfld-Fhouldered Ha"rk, Pnd mis c ellP.neous ducks. ner -


( Enst and West LAkes, me Name of Vlardenl Leeter-L-Karcher, who Warden's Address Eouipmentl 1939 Chevrolet two-door sedan, owned by SocietyJ capacity five Skiff 'ft44ft =::::otor, ovmed h warden aasi carried on top of ...W. ./ oaro k-/ 4. Location i nnar Florida. Bay, specified sanctuary area including Low and Stake Keys, where National Audubon So'oiety charged with maintenance responsibility by resolution ot the Trustees ot the Internal Improvement Fund of the State of Florida. Name of We.rdent Arthur 0 Eine:_,_ \Wi'H: mq;eFYi tiidri=6P ifa?lh!ii !iestez We.rde1.1.' s Address a 'l zxd:e2: fterida Se:r,.t!e!!Wer ZltA) E vez glaelee Aat-i:aa. i1 *elllf>ei rullJ pab:t oH:t14g hek Ileele a,


) Crovmed Pigeon, Bald Eagle, Brown Pelican, Man-of-VIar Bird'f. and miscellaneous ducks end ehorebirokery there iJ e uthortzed Visi ora \ omea Not to go out th our warden. Oist an If .JY both run cruises for tour1ets9 birds on he nesting 1slen.ts supplied by Dr. Herbert R. MiJJ.s of Tantpa. ?..;'incipal Species Gulls, Black Skimmers, Least Terns. Are Authorized Visitors Welcome No. ( 8. 1,2gatigpa Green Key in Tampa Bay, leased by the Society from the Potter Palmer Estate. of \/arden a Fred \/. Schultz. --VArden's Addresal 706 Eran:alciU:r. Sttee'b, Fle:riaft .&_uinnent_: Boat or boats suprliet Dr. Herbert R. lhllls of Tampa. -.:>-


,1,'1 '', FLORIDA 9. Locationa Big Bird Key in Tampa Bay; leased from tks. Nina G. Washburn. Name of Wardena E. Everett Amleng lj.J. t. 'arden's A ddresst Fioiida. 1t1-w \ I 1 Eouipment t Boat..-bo1 !i$lioP to WendOP 0-*e .-Dr.I!.ills of Tampa. Principal Species Protectedl White Ibis, Louisiana, Snowy, ard's, Little Blue, Black-crowned Night Herons, Brom Pelicans, Anhin gas, American Egrets, Florida Cormorants ano Jill:liftY Qtbera. Are Authorized Visitors Welcomet Yes lF '' I' I .. I ..... !,,I .. ol .I i l


,.. PrlnciDal 3 ecies Proteotedl .White 1tJ-.;. "-.u. 1 Are Authorized Visiyo,ra yw LOUISIANA l U Locationa Rainey Wildlife Refuge on the shore of the Gul.f of Mexico .in VermUion -------Parish, acreage 26,000, owned by Society as re$ult I of gitto !lame of Wardensa Nick Schexnayder in charge, aasistanto c1f9 _"f'ardens' Address Rainey Wildlife Refuge, Abbavllle, Equipment'"t,el.'' s bu:Udinge include two residences, boat house and storev 5gc!ety 0m1: e.o:ri.age dut:k.Lzg facilities s:t Intracoastal City at the car and truck from Abbevilleo Society owns boats, the "Blue Goose," a wltb rhrysler motor and spray and sun-shield, A.lld two boats, the '1Whistler" and _the "Chicko n 7 ? \+.<'( fi:Ylq_ipa.l_ Snttcies Blu and Snow Geese, all the kinds of duckl! that occur in fall and winter in that country, partic-ul.arly Canvasback, Pintail, Widgeon, "3lue and Green-winged Teal, Shoveller, Ring-neck, Mallard) Blue-bill ru1d Gadwel.l. On Deadman's Ialand, a part of the sanctuary, there i3 a nesting of bout 6 Snowy Egreta and Louisiana Herons, the formero ? Principal Proteot!S Lest h.'s Petrel, Herring Oull, Great Black-backed 01.1ll, Black Ouillemot, Eider, Oapref .. A&thorized 1Tisitors Yes, though difficulties of transportation to the will tend '\.o minimize number, and visitors would have to malts own t ansporcation South eat Harbor or else he "e


' r <'I 2. Location a Todd VlUdlit'e Sanctuary on Hog Island tn Muacongus Bq. The Audubon Nature Camp is located at the end or this sanctuar.y. The peninsula on which the camp is si tuat.ed is owned by the Society as the result of a gift. The balance of the island is leased at OJ. a year and is under contract to be to the Society on the decease of tpe present 0\mer. p 1 (\ Name of Werden l!J''ea:bi Btmez 8oia Ji'N="n&r tbp off'8A'QD for tJ> t Eouipmenta Warden has his own boat, but of course the camp equipmer.t is available durine the camp season. Principal Species Protecteda Constitutes in gfmeral a song-bird sanctuary on an t island with p'r ( (1 spruce forast. Nesting Ospreys. The deer have become very tame and walk into camp for apples. Are Authorized Visitors Welcome Yes, during the camp season, but not at other times. NEW JERSEY I 1. Location a The Witmer Stone Wildlife Sanctuary at Cape ti:ay Point. ee:eea 'b,the 1 # iea;t.ety fPQm 1 Name of Wardena i\lr,nsres aeta es ea:r etc:dcez ttn oaglroat tile yeru exeept .wldle seasonal oca den is on the j eb fl om about mid-Attt;U:St to eM'l;y Ne-veurber. Such see:eeae:l wm deu to be fep 1-941. f.L

RIDER #1 Area south of New England Creek, bounded by Delaware Bay on the west and by the Town of Cape May Point on the south, and including the entire wood ed area y throug h agreements with-property owners jn,a2 the Society to post and patrol. #2 19 ich H Po pu at:il tl:l.'-"l!I'II!"J::L t November.


( ( t ; { Warden's Addressa Oyster Bay, Lo Io Eguipmenta One secontl-h:md truck end garden tools. D1illdings inc-lude a reai dence for the warden and hie family, n nature museum and a tool house. There is also a beautiful bronze at the Fountaine ?rincipal SRecies Frotecteda Miscellaneous sone-birds. Are Authorized Viaitors \'lelcom e a No authorization necessary. Sanctuary is open to the publi c on .Eednesdaya, Saturdays and Sund.ars and holidays between 2 and 5 from May 1st until October 31st. At other times appointments may made by communicatinG with the warden. Memorial Fountain is open e very dry from t:Re 'h'9 e Wt\!elu ltl April until..._. s' iA November. PB'Nr!Q!b. VANIA 1. Locat1,Qna Mt. Johnson Island in the S River belOi'l Lanca ster, Pennsylvania. Rieht td patrol granted b y the Power Company which owns it. Mf..ll Name ot Wardena J. Roy Smith. tv l!'!!:.den' s Ac.dress a Drumore, Pennsylvania.. Eouipmenta Warden has own boat. Principal Soeciee Protecteda Bald Eagle; a. good place Ow C aroi'rtan m'oA u.. Kentucky and Cerulean Warblers, Red-belliec. Woodpeckero Authorized Visitors Yea; they have to make their own transporta tion arrangements with Warden Smith or others. SOUTH CAROLINA 1. Loca.tionl Buzzard Island near Charleston. In the Island by the Society. Name of Vlardena R. F. GrimbtUl o Werden' B Ao. dressa R. F. D. No. 1, Charleston, S. C $ Eguipmenta Warden has own boat. l,rincipnl Species Protected& Snowy and American Eg Louisiana Herons. -6-Little Blue .p.nd ('\


7 / 1. Location& Vingt-un Island s in Galveston Bay near Smith Point. B y Act or the Texas legislature, n ..:MiiiiWIIiililz:zW.WiiiWIJ thes e islands constitutP. a state wlldlife sanctUfU'Y s u bject to the administration or the Fish, Game and Oyster Commission. Howev e r the National Audubon Society continue s to provide the VTB.rd en s ervi c e Name or Warden a W. T Employment seasonal during nestfne season. YTarden' s Adc 1resst Point, T e xas u.c. Eguipmenta -Ovm. boa t ,JKeintains t ourists' cabins at Smith Point. Oan Ce.rl7 25 (\o r 30 peop l e on his boa t 2. Locationa Principal S'Oeciee Protected& BrOwn Pelican, Royal Tern, Gull, Reddieh end snowy Egrets, Little Blue and Lo'ilieiana Herons, OUll-bUled Tern, Forster' a Tern,, Black Skimmer. Are Authorized Visitors Welcomaa No. 3. Locationa Firat-Ohain-ot-Islanda Espiritu Santo Under grazing ot Noveaber 3, trom the State ot TeDB expifing subject to. siaulteneous mineral OurrenU,. m ral lease. \tt'lf' Name of \7ardena None. Depend on signA for protection. Principal Snecies at Qf .. Are Authorize<' Visito.-a I -\ r 4. Location I Shell Islond Antonio Bq. Tinder graz!ne le } e i/39fq;) ot November 3 ,A-9?8 trom tht! Ste.te expiring =t subj eot to simul tnneous miner)ll lease. .L'"l' d 011 zGpn;pnx c urell.e, -7-.


Name of WArdent None. DepP-nd on signs for protection. PrincipEtl UneoieA Protectedt Formerly Caspian Terns a nd Black Sld.t.'lmers; now largely abandoned because Are Authorized Vi@i tors '.lelcome: No. 5. Loc11tionr Hynes BAY Ielanr.:> at mouth of Ouadelupe River 2fld at norther end of Stm Antonio Bay. Under f,Tazing leaM t/'J9690 of Novemb r 3, l9.3R from the State of Texas e:xpiring in and subJect to simultaneous lease. lt.t,\f( Neme of Warden& Unofficial warden in the person of Judge 0. F. Hartmann, whose residence on the bluff at Tivoli overlooks thia island and who, together with his is interested in the protection or birds there. Princinal Species Protected& Roseate Gpoonbill, Fulvous Tree-Duck, Snowy and American Egrets, Louisiana and Ward's and at times large colonies of both White and Villite-face

at other times than during the ..-...--. 7. Location a Ayres Island a short dbtance west of the Second-Chain and close to the intracoastal canal Under gra1.inr, lease #39699 from the State of Texas expiring on Daoemb :3 and subject to simultaneous miner8.1 lease. C:f 1.rregular i ortenoe as a bird nesting site. In some years thfl ( J .'llony there ia P re;er than on the Second-Chain, but not usually. Name of Wardena Same warden n s for the Second Chain. Principal Snecies Protected& Same as at Second Chain but probably not including the Pelican, Laughing Gull or Skin1mer. Are Authorized Visitors Condition same as at Second Chain. Principal Spec.,kJI Protectn,1t Of leas curren t importance than a few years ago when j t was of sizable Brown Pelica. n colony '71th miscellaneous 'l'erns, e.nd Laur,hing Gulls. 9. Loc8 .tiont Dunham Island, lying ot r southern end of th Under' : leasE'! Ti-:796'69 of November .3, from the State of Texas expirinp; subject to ,::;i nmltaneoue mineral lease. N>.me of t.o; frincipal Species Protected& Not an important nesting site in recent years. Some Redd18h Egrets and other Herons. Are Authori?.ed Visitors Welcomac No. 10. LocBtiona Lydia Ann Island, lying just inside or St. Joseph Island and north of Port Aransas. Under gre.zinr, lease from the StBte of Texas expiring in 1945 and subject to simultaneou ral lease. N\{Y..L Name of Wl'rdena r-: y e l i);lc! Principal Ol ....... .-..-r; opecies Protected& Louisiana Heron, Reddish Egret, Snowy Egret, Laughing Gull, some 4,000 Caspi"/0 Bt. Joseph Island opposite.


Are Authorized Visitors V/elcomea Not uric: pi QUH aead&SI&i&. ll. Loca.tiona Quarantine Shore and Harbour Island. Society has no specific rights but v.rardens in ment hAve pAtrolled the aree.. Numerous Gulls. Terna and Skimmers nest in various p.erts, es pecially on Quarantine Shore nnd near the ceusevrey across the island from Aransae to Aranaas. 12. Locationa Nrune Principal Protected& Not an important neatine site, Herons including Reddish Are Authori?.ed Visitors Welcomel Not ur@'.ez pxeoeztk umUh:baeo 1). Locationl Corpus Christi Spoil Banks. Fosted and patrolled under letter of authority from present grazing lessee, Fred Felty of San Antonio, !I'a2'?e c hest deJa'iP uzp!s:e en hpltaoe AID; These banks 7 I vtere thrown up in creating the chanriel for ocean-going steamers from Port Aransas to Corpus Christi. The sanctuary area only a portion of these banks, and runs from Beacon 15 to onehalf mile east of J k aoon 7. N 1\) 1 wAA-1.. ""'-1) \ Name of To be th rp i Bey foz the 1942 nest Patr ed t--"ear b en Bla Princinal Species Protected Bro'qn Pelican. This isA! he single of these Pelicans on the Texas Coast and hae been most subJect to depredation by fishermen. Are Authorized Visitors NOJ1D2een n:seriaed wili1ifa t01W7 a, bgjt /1 be ;pleppe d + g #aka u1 s'tors mUld rieli* at 4rlisse ganke..-\J { 14. Location& Shamrock Point, at southern end of Corpus Christi Bay inside Mustang Island. Posted and patrolled under letter of authority _:/ from private ovn1er Ur. Coy Burnet of Los An eles. Name () of Ylud ena 1o appo t d for at ed llrincipal Soecieo Protectedl an important nestine site in the past several yearA. Ueed by miscellaneous Herons, including Reddish Egrets and apparently a t by Roseate Spoonbills. -10-


Are A\lthorized Visitors '.'/elcom: Noi pwhz pi @S@ilt!l.ons. 16. Location Name Crane Isle.nds, at !"outheasternr end of Corpus Christi Bay inside the point of kustang Island near Christi Pass. Under grazing lease /fJ9692 of Nov from the State of expi1i .ne in 191'&' and subject to e mult8Ileoue mineral f h Princinal Hac on a larr.e colony of Ylhite l1el:.cana, the cr lly such colony in the south, or southeast of the and J,;ontana. l!letima ted 1,500 nests in 1941. Also the on) y si?.able neatine colony in the United Gtatea of Cabot's Tern. large colony of Royal Terns and Laughing Gulls ith smaller nvmbars of Gull-billed Terns, Black Ukimmers nnd Reddish Egrets. Are Authoriznd V Leitors Vlalco:te& \ ) warden h PJifiOWt'ti .. 1 next These 1sle.nd8 h."!.Ve been visitP.d r', v for years by parties in boats from Corpus Christi, for the pur-\ pose of seeing the Green Islt> .ad, in the Lnr,una Madre off the mouth of the Arroya Colorado. UndPr lease t/JS406 from the State of Texas until February 25,197.3, by virtue of 20 of tne First Session of the T :1irty-Seventh Ler;islature of the State of Texe.s, effective 15, 1921. The lease ,..,as executed on FebrUP..ry 26, 192.3. Nnme of Werdm John o. Laroon, St>ason&l. from JJ.a.rch let to end of nesting Aeason about September let. ? :/arden' f! Address& Bo:r. .373, Harlinp,en, Texas. \ "7. ( II)? Uses Society' A draft bo:.>.t ,.,ith I '"\ ->) second-hand motor. Ueea omn Islend lies opposite Oree on the mP.inland and hae a small dock for the boat. Sh:-1 C on island for living (1uarters. To\'Ter for obse:rvine birds. : .-lr-
PAGE 39 Species Protected& The outstanding snnctuary and nestinr, si.te for the Reddish some ;,ooo nests of this species. Also ltt..rge numbers of II1U'd' s, Little Blue and Louisisna Herons vrith small colonies of Black-Crowned Night Herons and American Egrete. Black Skimmers and Least Terns neat on the beaches. Some ,300 Roseate Spoonbills ste.y there throug h the sUlllcer but do not breed Yl/l. Are Authori?:ed Visitor8 Welcornea A:Oii tt1de::ss a ..fl iA ona h l.i8fi:e f.wr Lends itvelf to \'/ildlife Tour s but contlition of roads approachine is. e.nd ren<3 .ers use impossible ,.ret P..nd : nvolvee risk o.f atrand:." tourista. Approac h by boat from Pol'"t Isabel too lone. 18. Location a Three Islands. Th lie 10 or 12 miles south of Oreen Island in the Laguna lieli.m. They are included in the lease by the Elociety of Green Island. Name of Wardenl John O. Larao 1 j 7 \). 7 Vlarden' s Addressl Box .37.3, Harlingen, Texas. ., \ As ebove. Principal Species Protectedt Uot an important nesting site ncr.. KisceJJ .P.neous Herons, Skimne a Terns and Gulls, includ1ne the He<:.diflh Eeret. Are Authorir.ed VieitorR Not under present conditions. 19. ,!&cationa Cameron, Hidalgo and WUlacy Counties TexaA. These are the three counties in the southeastern tip of The Society does not have any leeal riehta to poat and patrol other than by letter of authority from a individual private land owners, but its warden patrols all three counties from mid-September to the end of February, at time he is not needed at Green Island. Name of Wardena John O. Lars on Warden's Addreaf'!l Box 373, Harlingen, Texas. Eguipmentl 19.39 Ford Sedan purchaeed second-hand in Brownsville in the spring of 1941 &a ueo4 '' Uerden Bl aneaua 1 n the 1p"'t et Principal $pecies Protecteda This Job is essentially an educational one, building goodwill and maintaining contacts. Special effort is made to enlist interest in the protection or the.rarer birds, especially such as the \Y.hite-tailed Kite, restriction on the hunting of su c h grune birds as the \"/hi te-wirlced Dove and Redhead Duck. Also to further the setting-u p or federal, state and local wildlife refuges. Thera are an unusual number of l:f.exican types of birds that only come into the United States in portions of these counties. Are Authorized Visitors Welcomea


20. Locationl Five small islands located in or near Swan Lake at the southern edge of Copano Bay in Aransas County, Texas. Under #39902 from the State of Texas until August 30, 1946 fnr rrntrs PHI s s sn&, Name \ frincipal Species Protected& White-faced Glossy Ibis, Louisiana Herons, Forster's Terns, Roseate Spoonbills, several pairs of Willets and Fulvous Tree Ducks. r;) Are Authorized Visitors Welcomel :M!$l:Js


,. I \ ; I l p ; I .i 1. Locationt Cobb lsl!nd, Oyat.(3r, riel:ts, -13-0 Atltmtic due east of e Society haa no legal \ I


1 It, I i I ,'' ; ,'. .-1 : : ( ; .. ,1, \ .. ;' 1. CALIFORNIA Locationt "' San Gabriel River Bird Sanctuary. Near Whittier, California.' Abo'\lt .)26 acres. Present Cate Ditch Company and Frank r. Pellissier & Sons; Inc.J area is leased by aforesaid companies to N.A.S; is subject to other uses, principally the right to use water supplies for agricultural and dairying purposesJ also posted by Oalitornia affiliated eociettes, Name of Warden & George O. Dowker Warden's Addreast 148 No. Poplar Avenue, Monte Bellow, California \ .Principal Protectega Demonstration eogn bird sanctusryJ tr. quented by only resident Eastern Cardinals to be found in Oal.itornla. Are Authorized Visitor WelcomeJ Yes. OONNEOTICtrr \ \ ,, 1. lecationa 280 acres of land with buildings, situated on northeast corner of John Street and Quaker Ridge Road in the Town ot OreenwichJ Society has title to the property. Name of ardena Dr. Richard L. Weaver, Educational Director Leon Van Molle, Superintendent Warden's Agdrees .A..udubon Nature Center, R.r.-D.l, Port Chester, N.Y. I Eguipmenta None as yet, except truck and gardening tool8 received with the property. fr\Mipsl. %to1es Protected a To be developed as a bird sanctuary, w1 th nature, educational and research programs. ire Authorized Visitors Weloomel Yes.


1941 OF YOUNG BIRDS I: NATIONAL ADD ON SANCTUARIES This was a great year in production of young wild birds successfully raised to flying maturity at National Au ubon ay I take you ;in your mind's eye on a trip through the coastal lAgoons of Texas ? The landscape is flat; a symphony of blue and bro\m, of greenh:ere e;;l'}a tk;.-.a; the thun er of surf not far a\.,ay 1 beyond the barrier islen s ; their beaches strewn with the flotsam and jetsam of the Gulf, \orith the purple b:t-illa:n:se of the Portugese Men-of-''Tar Dotted here and there between those barrier islan s and the adjacent mainland..-furro ed by fast flowing rivers and in e ,nted with great bays, shimmering in the hot noon sun whole strings of little islands; islan s advantageously situated to protect vast congregations of nesting birds. from disturbanc e i m close to feeding grounds abun k the itamins for their babies. \ W\.1!.._ :A (... "V icture, if you \rill, an is et of t o a cres having a nesting popul tion of some 5000 adult birds. Can you hear the eurg eSof the S nowies, the of the Great Blues, the the Laughing Gulls and the staccato of the Skimmers? Can you see those Roseate Spoonbills carrying sticks, stan ing on their big nests or in files on the beach, delicate pi with and brillant orange tails seeming throwbecks to an antediluvian age? Can you see patches of the l-1exican ormorants thro ha sca:ped from man! Y ou are in the element of birds! I )oc )'C. """ )<.. :>'--Off the wil southwest coast of Flori a is a Duck Rock, "'here are co mbined the :primary essent 1n p otective cover and food supplies, attracting vast thron erons, Egrets and Ibis, with a sprinkling of Spoonbills. s ellar sho\

.... 0 1 an inaccessible coast there is a ser es of rivers run ing back fifteen to thirty miles into the Glades --t e Shark, the Harn y, the Broad, + East, Lane1s Huston, orth) C hatham an L pez, inter-connected by ; ole chains of bays --such as Alligator, Tarpon, Whitewater.--hrough tortuous ch nnels, by day and by ight, the Audubon \V"ardens "'eave the:,.. way/ skillfully avoi ing treacherous llo\V'S and bars. That their efforts pay divi ends in more \>lho \'rill take the trouble to visit the area. Okeechobee is the sec nd iargest lake in the United States, but in recent years man has subj te this vast, flat body of shallo 1 water to le taming by the ion of a great dike around more than half of its circumference; this teet nearby communities from disastrous floods during hurricanes. .J T o the west rar and north\'lestwar of stretch 1 1:ri th graceful groves of 11 cab age s11 an here an ther e a gum slough or prairie pon4 his i s the cattle and co-1boy country of sou hern lorida, the issimmee Prairie. Here are to be found far isolated from their nearest of kin, the Flori a Crnnes, the orida :Burro\:ing -.rls and the :u u ort Caracar Two of the most impressive an characteristic soun s of that Prairie are the &!;Uttural calls of the Cranes reverberating and J!'iRr hz6 over the palm -stu de an the long high-pitched wails of the L mpkins Due to some co m ination of circumstances Okeecho ee and its islan s furnish the on y remaining havenon this the mal remnant of Ever lade ites still alive in orth erica, as 1 as an eeding groun s for the only sizeable orth colony of G ossy Ibis. The :u ubon Sanct ery are on the dikeless northwestern s ore of 0 eechobee is some forty miles dn c an stretches out from the motor higilway f to a point in t e Lake. Au u on war ens also patrol n a consi ere le portion of the is. mmee Prairie. It is in that co'\l!ltry u ...,..,....;' \ t at our Society is now for the t :r season about to con uct or Au u on Til life ours, bot for the leasure an of members nn frien s an beca e of the beneficial educational upon the people res ing in near y communities. T ese c m..rnents Will, I hope, ave served to c,ive you a vivid impre!"sion of some f outsten ing \ life coneentr tion areas patro ed by :u u on ens in these times. Rather accurete counts an of the bird .... o-pulation!' and the crops.of younc; are faithully m e an ke t by qur ;,a.r ns P...n I am confi ent that you will rejoice with oe an be fp.vora ly with the fo lO'.V"ing summary of the product on of ybun6 bir .s at our lational u u on Sanctuaries in the nite States!


CROP PRODUCTION AT UDUBON SANCTUARIES IN 1941 J-/0 This was a r a ear in production or young wild birds raised to maturity uocessfully. you in your mind's ye on a trip through the coastal lagoons of Texas Landscape is flat; a symphony of blue and brown the thunder of surf not far away beyond the barrier islands; their beaches strewn with the flotsam and jetsom of the Gulf, with >l the purple of the Portugese_ men.-of-war ...... Dotted here and there barrier islanda and the adjacent mainland furrowed by fast flowing rivers and indented with great bays, lie shimmering in the hot June sun whole ttle isla Islands advantageously situated t protect vast congre gations of nesting birds from disturbance and close to feeding grounds with an abundant supply or just the right vitamins for their babies. Picture, if you will, an islet of two aores carrying a nesting population of some 5000 adult birda. Can you hear the gurgle of the Snowies, the groans of the Great Bluea, the oaokle of the laughing Gulls and the staccato barks of the Skimmers. Blue, white, brown an ink birds the island ed lanke m t ar ing sen eding ground g on as birds will. The vegetation is thiBk, largely cactus, Spa ish bayonet, huisache, salt cedar an tatues que CtJ,.Cl silhouetted agai"nst the stand ddi"'sh .greta on a ost every bayonet, their heads facing into the wind. On the shallow reefs and bars, stately Pelicans and snoozing groups of skimme s and


Thr8ugh the cooperation of the trustees of the Internal Improvement fund of the State of Florida, o r Society maintains as sanctuaries certain keys on the coast the 101000 islan and in Florida Bay, where great roosts and rookeries occur from year to year. One of these is a tiny key known as !Duck Rook. It seems t combine the primary essentials in protective cover 'nd foods lies to attract vast throngs ot herons, egrets The t show is put on by the white ibis. I' comfortably aboard the Audubon, 36 toot patrol boat) glaeey i&-# anchored peaceably orr 11> Duck Rook. Great thunderheads r+se out of the Gulf in all directions, tinted lavender and pink by the setting sun re flected on a mirror-like sea: looal showers dark and threatening t the north and south. he sun setting in a burst of golden glow. Again t this background, the white ibis came thronging from their da feeding grounds. ld the to the eastward, as tar s the eye ee o reach, coming on in great waves and Vees1 their formations shifting hundreds and hundreds at a time, .f.S .they apt across the face of the sun, t J.-C..Dks l si.houetted as set their wings to scale and dive into the mangrovws on Seldom there a sound from their throats, but the mass whirr of their wings in Some 100-1251000 birds little one aore key tor the night, including marvelously pink ..a4uJ,t spoon bills. Bow, visualize, if you will, para .t half a dozen such chosen roosts and rooker 1 s in southwest FloDida, all carefully guarded by Audubon wardens -not only nesting season,but throughout the year. On that rather wild and remote coast there is a series ot rivers running back 15 to 30 miles i ntothe ades eob 68 the lhark, the Barney, the Broad, Lostmana, East, Lanes, Huston, North, Chatham and Lopez, Ld these are interoonnected by whole chains ot bays -such as Alligator, !arpon and White ater. Through tortous channels by day and by night, the Audubon wardens weave their avoiding treacherous shallows and oyster efforts pay dividends in more bir4s is apparent to anyone who will take the trouble to visit the area.


' Did you know that one of the in North America is Okeechobee in Florida. In recent years man has subjected this vast flat body of shallow water to considerable by the erection of a great dike around more than half ot its circumferance. This to protect nea* communities from di8astlrous floods ring ricanes. of this lak stretch sandy prairies, Ptill here and there harac-gum slough is the cattle and cowboy country of south central Florida:Mfiaaimmee prairie. Here are to be found/ far isolated from their nearest of kin, the Florida cranes, the Florida burrowing and the Audubon's Caracar Two of the t sounds ot that prairie are the gutteral g callsro? the the long highpitched wails of the Due to some fortuitous combination of circumstances, Lake Okeechobee and grassy islands furnish satisfactory haven to the small remaant of Everglades still in North Amerioa,a d for the only sizeable colony of glossy ibis. The santuary area on shore of the lake is some forty miles in circumferanoe, and stretches out from motor highway to a point in the lake. Our wardens also patrol in the intirest of wild life protection and especially preserva-tiOn of the rarer species, a of t e Xissimaee prairie. It is in this count r y that our Society now year organized Audubon wild life tours, both for the pleasure and interest of members and friends and beuse of the beneficial educational effect u n tbe people residing in the community. S h to P ain b d d in Februa y, and March and f f o April, 1942, an be led by Al&Xanier Sprunt, Richard Pough.


1fy I of Youn Birds in Nationa l Audubon Sanctuaries Principal Species 1. White Ibis 2. Snowy Egret 3. Louisiana Heron 4. American Egret 5. Little Blue Heron 6. Laughing Gull Young Produced 405,964 84,088 36,524 34,542 31,66 1?,216 Location Duck East 000 Green Key, Fla.---60,000 Buzzard Orang e East Duc k W Bay Bird Is.------800 Hyne s Second Lydia Gre e n Kissimmee Prai r ie--8,000 Buzzard Orange Lake-----------2 4 Lake Washington-----none East River--------12,000 Duc k Rock----------2,000 Florida Bay--------1,200 W Bay Bird Is.------800 Hynes Second Lydia So. Bird Green Island--'#--3,000 Kissimmee------------900 Orang e Lake----------300 Lake Washington------none Kissimmee---------32,000 Vingt'un-------------630 Second Chain-------1,200 Green Island---------400 Three Islands---------12 Orange Lake-----------60 East River--------20,000 Kissimmee----------1,600 Buzzard Island----10,000 Low Key--------------450 W Bay-------------3,000


' Production of Young--Page 2 I Principal Species Young Produced 7. Reddish Egret 10,721 8. Herring Gull 9,900 9. White Pelican 5,000 10. Clapper Rail 5,000 11. Eastern Glossy Ibis 5,000 12. Double-crested 13. Wood Ibis 14. Florida Duck .>}' Cormorant 15. Florida Cormorant 16. Caspian Tern 4,749 4,734 4,000 3,S:?I 3,400 3,386 Location Second Chain--------300 Third Chain----------75 Dunham---------------36 Dagger--------------900 Lydia Harbor Island-------600 Florida Bay----------15 W. Bay Bird Is.-----200 Second Chain------1,200 Lydia Ann---------1,200 Dagger--------------120 So. Bird Is.--------450 Green Island------7,500 Harbor Island--------36 Old Hump------------450 W. Egg Rk.--------1,950 E. E g g Rk.-------2,250 Shark Rock--------1,500 Little Egg. Rk.-----750 Little Green Is.----300 Duck Islands------2,700 So. Bird Is.------5,000 Okeechobee--------5,000 Muscongus Bay-----4,749 Alligator Lake------225 Kissimmee Prairie-4,500 Vingt'un--------------9 Kissimmee---------4,000 Buzzard Key---------600 Kiss immee P.------1,200 Fla. W est Coast-----800 Florida Bay---------300 Pelica n Key---------500 Second Chain--------100 Shell Island---------40 Third Chain----------24 Dunham---------------12 Harbor---------------60 Dagger--------------150 Lydia Ann---------3,000


Principal Species 1?. Black Skimmer 18. Least Tern 19. Ward's Heron 20. Roseate Spoonbill 21. Mottled Duck 22. Limpkin Production of Young--Pag e 3 Young Produced 2,992 2,?90 2,524 23. Black-crowned Night Heron 2,000 2,000 1,950 24. Water-Turkey 1,860 25. Brown Pelican 1,800 26. Forster's Tern 1,644 Location Cobbs Island------800 W. Bay Is.-------200 Second Chain------300 Shell Island-------60 Third Chain-------320 Dunham-------------24 Corpus Christi B.-360 Dagger------------200 Crane-------------160 S. Bir d Is.-------200 Harbor-------------48 Quarintine--------320 Florida Bay-------600 Cobbs Island------150 Texas Coast-----1,000 Green Island-------40 Kissimmee-------2,400 Vingt'un-----------15 Second Chain------150 Ayres--------------36 Shamrock------------6 Bird Islands-------12 Green Island------800 Three Islands------12 Bottlepoint---------4 Vingt'un----------?02 Hynes--------------18 Second Chain----1,800 Okeechobee------2,000 Vingt'un----------100 Second Chain------150 Quarintine--------200 Green Island------300 Orange Lake--------60 Kissimmee-------1,800 Corpus Christi B.-300 Second Chain------200 Florida Bay-------200 w. Bay Bird Is.---200 Fla. West Coast---900 w. Bay Bird Is.----66 Dunham-------------18 Thtrd Chain--------60 So. Bird Is.-----none Cobb------------1,500


. Froduction of Young--PaEr4 Principal Species 27. Mexican Cormorant 28. Royal Tern 29. Green Heron 30. Leach's Petrel 31. Least Bittern 32. Great Blue Heron Young Produced 1, 500 1,260 1,220 850 800 750 33. Yellow-crowned Night Heron 600 34. Florida Burrowing Owl 35. Gull-billed Tern 36. Caracara 37. Black Guillemot 38. Florida Crane 39. Great Black-backed Gull 40. White-faced Glossy Ibis 41. Great White Heron 600 494 450 372 350 304 225 150 [,ocation Second Chain-----1,500 West Bay-----------260 So. Bird Is.-----1,000 Florida Bay--------120 Rainey-------------800 Kissimmee----------200 Cobb Island--------100 Little Green-------100 Duck Islands-------750 Rainey-------------400 Kissimmee----------400 Ohe r Island--------750 Kissimmee----------600 Kissimmee----------600 Cobbs---------------50 Okeechobee----------50 W. Bay---------------9 Second Chain-------120 Third Chain---------75 Dunham--------------15 Crane---------------75 So. Bird Is.-------100 Kissimmee----------450 W. Eg g Rk-----------12 E. Egg Rk.---------200 Shark Rock ----------10 Litte Egg-----------20 Little Green--------30 Duck Islands-------100 Kissimmee----------350 Old Hump-------------5 W Eg g Rock---------60 E. Eg g Rock--------150 Shark Rock----------30 Little Egg Rk.------40 Little Green Is.-----2 Duck Islands--------12 Vingt'un-----------225 Florida Bay--------150


Principal Species 42. Oyster-catcher 43. Swallow-tailed Kite 44. White-crowned Pigeon 45. Fulvous Tree 46. Everglade Kite 47. Southern Bald Eagle 48. Arctic Tern 49. Common Tern ,., 100 60 60 45 38 6 3 Cobb Island------100 Second Chain-------4 Quarintine---------2 Harbor Island------4 Crane Island------10 s.w. Florida Bay-------60 Hynes Bay---------60 Okeechobee--------45 Kissimmee---------30 Florida Bay--------8 Little Green-------6 Little Eg g Rk.----3 Total 699,382


National Associat" October 9, 1941 To Mr. John H. From Mr. Robert P. Allen Subject: 1941 Production of Young Birds in National Audubon Sanctuaries I have worked out as closely as possible estimates on the production of young birds in our sanctuaries during 1941. You will find work sheets attached from which you can see how the total for each species was obtained and a list of the sanctuar=i in which each species was protected. My total of 694,39 oung may be slightly under the rough total l)b ta:liied by you, in spite of the fact that I may h ave worked out figures on more species than you did. This is accounted for by the fact that I cut your estimate of young White Ibises produced at the East River rookery exactly in half. After studying the reports and discussing the matter with Roger, it seemed to me that a total of 150,000 White Ibises (75,000 nests} is pretty close to the mark. Allowing 4 young to each nest, w e get 300,000 young, which is a lot of Ibises. Accepting my total as is interesting to note that o i s a fraction more than 4 cents penditures in 1941: 27,853). the correct one, it ost er younf ird each sanctuart Of course a grea t many more young birds were actually produced on our sanctuaries, but this figure represents young only of the principal species protected. RPA BC


. [co.J ./) -l'l'fl : ---....:>> 30 {, q f, 3'f 't + ll'l:Lf" C:,'fC,,3.1.l -h-1--a.) I 2-


;J ./,r-t--:::. JJI, 8 ....... H ON; 'VJ, n {./q. -I Goneeften "' Spec1 e s V '""''"' 6 VU. '\t SRROttl@:Jl!ea OGJ etd;;le -&'f-.,.,_ 1':> ..... /OO(a>f) 1. A I 1(10 I fe.tJ: 1 ::. 7 JIJ -z...c-t> -...... I ( Ps-_!/ -2 Whl I J (!.. -:5\) ( 6) 0 () 0) Eel..\ can I I I a-d) I I .. 3 Eastern :.... 5"aa Brown PelJ.gau 100 -2..[0-f.-:J.o ;co 0 0 u'c. r 1 r ()!J I 4 t. -;? > ..:/ T Cormorant -6t.OO ...._.,...-1/.oc:l :2.00 ----..,If (). 0 ::>oo -P&u..o...u. -t-( I M : I sfj .J '? f!-!t! V --;:; -w;}Jt. I '="" &; t y .... I :< v/.riDo) t,q s-M I I


Sp cies 5 \Vater-Turkey ? Great te Heron 8 Great Blue Heron (}A/. '>!A' Sanctu ies Coloni. e .. /Y Q X @flv--).$1


Spec ies 9 10 American Egret Sanctuaries 1 f'.soJ 3 I I ::: roo o o 'VWo1t '/.c.11\.... s-f, 'C: a o 0 0 ( ..._ =-z to .3 o) .2._ I ("' C.. \.; I ,....,....1 1-o. i:IJ .. ,..,. y c .::1


' -' Otjfteeftette Current Spee1 s 8 etue.r1 Colon1 ,.Qt... st1 te-n ... .... ,.. .... RJo.:t 'lO IS Re"d.Cliah ,_._o_ l V/.P..-4 ---2_ .. "'-() c::) "i:) I --r 6,o 14. Little Blu e I Heron :: __ I ::Z.,d)/000 tr 0 .o,__ I tbo 1-3 -::: f '(J Cl ( c1-..u.t )...(I 0'--e') I -t/(!) I () f!) 0 I ( "3) y I


S c1es Sanctu 1 a Coloni a lR .. Eastern Green 4 16 1?. t 13,_, ... .3 0 c: -ll.Mr) /(}-() ....... ) 4 ned .., "'1 tJ'"t) 4 I /e>O ; s-o 4/)D co ol'. 4 18. Eastern LeMt /!7-. V. ::. (cVI 100) t-----+--'--'------+---/r o & Bittern 1 /o<:!) o I


S eel s is 21. 1h1te ra.ced Glossy Ibis 22. lhlte Ibis 7 anet ari s -;_roo "th\ -._(;! 4 ( v""-1 ,_ 7s-J -----t---------1-t:----:b 'T-J:---1--------f-.-----J II':./':::: 3 y ""'-1 I"-"' '2. J<.l (> "'"' t 14-


GefteeBalis Specle s Sanctuar1ea c lon1es Est1.mate ...... n'l T:" .,._ (Feb.l937 r "' 24. -25-. Les s e r Snow y Goose 26. Blue Goose >\ \ I ----!7. Fulvou s Tree I /" t.o ) ( Duck \, t ll ... "!. 7.-. .. '. '' 28. Common llalla rdl 7 ... I ., > 29. Florida Duck 3 0


Sp ci B Sanctuaries 31 .. Gad all 1nged ,t Consensus Colon1es of X X c :uwent Eetittate F


Con e11su Curren t Spee1es Sanc tuaries Colonies of Eeti. nte .e_rev 1ous Eat. { i'eb 193:7 1 37 38. R1ngneelted X Dualt. I 39. QanJ:aa. )( I I '? 40 GrEtat er Scau"P "< Duck I 41 American Eider 0 I 2 Hooded X 43. Tul"'kP.V Vulf:n"PA ? I -


Sane uar1es ol n 44. Bl clt Vultu!'e 46. ro ) )< 50


;,_,._ Cons nsu Curr nt ee1es anetuar1es -Colonies ot t1 at :7'-Pre-vious l 51. Northern Red>( shoJ.tldered Hawk 52. Flo .... 1dn RedShouldered Hawk 53. Insular Red)( Jlh.QP.ldered Hawk 54. Broad-winged '>( HAwk 55. Short-tailed '>\ :.!Y!wk 56. BnrthemBald I E&!le 5?. SnuthP.rn. BAld Eag_l e If ( S.V(. -: _,. f)


& ( S p c1 a Sanetus.r les 9 Sl. Duck Ha 64


a oi s 66. Florid Crane 67. L1 pk1n Sanctuar1 s *o I t. '( -= ( '"(?) II /0 7


Oettaensus Current S pecies s ct r1 Colonies Esti t e ... .... fFeb.l937) -? l.Florida Gallinule / 0 ? rJJ ..;,.t. {J_., .. ..,?72 .Amer1c an Coot r ? -I ? 3 .Uexlcan J a cana X -.. 74. AmericM O uter,::-': :;_ /Co ...... c atcher tU. z 9\ T. 2. (tf31} 'I 'to._) j() I;_ o ) .. 75 r 1 p 1ng Ployer 4 ? ?) 7 6 .Amer1ca.n W ood -X cock o-:. I 0 .,_ 77 .Grea t Blaek-" ll.U (J backed Gu:ff It" c ... 75" -/(,: If'-3() --1 -'!-tl 9P I 2. ;:; ;._t J.o .: {, (i4:1) 4' t! 4l


Sp c1. I CefteeReQs Current Sanctuaries Colonies Estim te 'n. "'.,._.,. t.Feb.l93? 78.Herr1ng Gull Sl.Forater' s \ $"o,I'A ..It ?. / \ 82. Common Tern ----------,1-----l--\. i I t. ::. I 3 $ ) 0 .PJ:;! 0 f .. 83.Arot1c Tern L


Spee1 s 84. Rose ate T-ern Tern 86 .RQX_al Tern 87. Cabot a 'fern 88. C .aspia.n T-ern S9 .Blaek Skimmer l. : Sanctuaries 0 -A--1'1'/-1) OeReeaeliis Colonies r:rr-Pl:elt'. ---Current Eatim te .tFeb .. l937) 0 ? JOC::::. itt O 1 J .c;-o 90.Blnck \ Ll--y:__ I ._ .---li r< -ro L -Guillemot rv 1. A ? -!7,..__----+------1---'Ln ,1 ? ... 1\ w .:1:' I -:L =//Itt 12-:: !:" -2.00 l =I()------+-----+---==-=== ;() .....:.-:z.,o t-;: I !i ---+---,-------o () .. .,.


eel s (J 9l.Atlant1c Put :tin 92 White-crowned Pigeon 93.Barn Owl 4 Grea.t Horned Burrow1ng 96.Flor1da Barred Owl I 1 ... Sanet.uar1e s ... C) !o D.J O 1 CGRee&eY:e I "Cur-r nt E.st1 te ........ t tFeb., 19371 1 0 I I ;;.._ ( r-< ><( o97' _,..... fX'J.IO X


. \ f ,. ID ... ( ; 1,; ''":. t ..,__ J C ns au Cur e t s ee1ea S.snct\lar1es of f;tim te .. j P"rAvinnA .Est .. Ll'eb .l9'37) outhe?n [\\ X f1Attf:-AA \ o:o,dne-cker r < of .. ... -'


THE LDLIFE SANCTUARY I THE UNITED STATES By Robert P Allen PART II: TYPES OF SANCTUARIES Your mental reaction to the ter.m sanctuary is doubtless some hat different from that of your neighbor. The term is recent enough and of su ch wide application that self interest is the only mould for a casual interpretation. If you hunt birds ith a camera and field glass you ill have a certain picture in min hen the e ords are nt1oned but the man next door hose outdoor interests are confined to hunting af1 ld with dog and gun will probably bav a different vie The individual ho is unthrilled by thesi ts and sounds of ture may entertain even another me ani for the term The word sanctuary is deriTed from the Latin sanctus, meaning holy or sacred, and this implication has been fairly ell retained throughout the legal and ecclesiastical history of the V riation in meaning has be n a matt r of time and of geography In the temple t Jerusalem the sanctuary s the holy of holies herein th ark of the covenant s kept. eryon but the high priest was forbidden ntry and h could enter only once each year. Even more r mote n point of time as the definition ap plied by those


, I i I ) nebulous men and women who roam through the pages of classical anti uity. To them a sanctuary was a consecrated spot or locality containing a temple or stmply a shrine, and at times, even amph1 theater where gymnastic contests 'ere heldf. In the modern church the word sanctuary has had both architectural and legal In Dildiaeval days 1 t 'Was the churchyard l ater that part of the choir or chancel where the altar stands. From the time of Constantine down to James I i n England certain Catholic churches were set aP,"as sanctuaries for fUgitives fi'om justice. Debtors retained this pr1vtlege in manychurches to a much ttft /'I ...... t .. the more inclusive # "wild-lif sanctuaryrt and, in common use at present the some-times ambieuous term "inviolate sanctuarytt w e also hear the words refuge, reservation, reserve, etc. t is to be our meaning j'\ the term W1ldlife sanctuary? the main types of sanctuaries, setting up of classification. e-


, 3 Since the purposes of each general class differ ai1MIIiillii11 .. we m,ay base our ol.assiti.cat1on on administrating or supervising aaencies, and 11stt<.1n purely arbitrary order, as follows: l 4 Private 5 Audubon Sanctuaries. Federal Sanotue.r1es There are at present more than 13; 1ltla o:t -''(' ';'Ao I I sanctuary or refuge .lands adm1n1 stered by :!'1 ve federal agencies. This total is d1v1deti amon g the tollo.\Vine departments Department of Interiot-----9,998,214 acres. Department of Agrtoulture-3, 134 992 acres. Department ot Oomm.ero.e-.... -566, 760 a ores. War Department --------... --122 470 acres. avy Pepartment -----------,412 aeres. The vast areas in charge of the Park service and the Fores t Service, of the Department of the Interior, and comprising our great .ational Parks and National Monume:qts, are what might be terme d "incidental wildltte sanctuaries". Their primary purpose is to preserve scenic beauty or historic landm.&rks and birds and ;mannne.le are only protected incidentally. Nevertheless these areas const1 tute some ot our most important sanotuar1e 7'', .,,


4 .areas Department of Agriculture are of several types, and all are primarily wild-life The original reservation, Pelican Island, in the Indian River in Florida, is representative of hat we may call the "coastal .s -.....,-t--7 -4, breedine; refuge" type of sanctuary. he "inland A breedine refuge", on a lake in the interior, and typified by the Anaho Island in_ Nevada other type 1s the "big e refuae" such s the National B1 oon Range in a.-JL v """' ""n._ Montana Ot more recent development is the_retuge offer1ns rare recreational features as ell as affording protection to many species or Wild -lite Such an area is th Upper M1ss1ssi:pp1 River ildLife and Fish Refuge, where excellent fishing ts enjoyed by I'.. I f..., many thousands annually. e 1s' 'the tact that mollusks are included in the list of specie protected. The most recent acqull.s1 tion ,bl the :Departme11t of Agriculture typifies the kind or sanctuary areaa greatly needed at this time: feeding; resting and breeding ground for waterfowl. This last aoquisition, Killcohook Bird R tuge in New Jersey and Delaware Executive Order on February 3 as eatablisbed by On these several types of reservations the Department of Agriculture, through 1 ts eaunof Biologi al survey, gives j it\ I tt_,'\(. protection to vast numbers ofA rn a one of these reserves are inviolate. Under permit it is possible to make entry upon any of them for or other appropri.ate purposes. is likeWise prov1 ion for utilizing natural resources on National Reservations; grazing harvesting


5 -hay, removins ttmber and by othe r means and legal hunt1 and trapping is sometimes perndtted: However the pro 1s e.l ys made that use or ccupancy shall not inte:fteee W1 th the purposes for Which the reservation ls established. Regulations to these ends made from t1$e to time by the secretary of Asr1culture. Under the Bureau of F1sherf,es and the Bureau of Lighthouses, of the Department of Commerce, important reservations or the "incidental" type function. Lau ghing Gulls, Terns, Sk1nmers ., and P-el1 are thus afforded sanctuary in the. Gulf of Menoo and oft Cal1torn1a and Alaska sea lions, fUr seals, sea otters and sea birds or various Other incidental sanctuaries come under the jurisdiction -of the avy and ar partment These constst of val bases and yards, m .111tart p rks, reservations and cemeteries. Birds protected rB.Il6e trom Albatrosses to aong b1rda and mammals from antelope to sqtarrels. State Sanotuar1es by Da a on State e Commissions or De "-'0 otuaries, or those areas rtments 1n the various states, orrer the compiler some d1tf1oulty and not a little bewilderment. lt has been obtain 1ntormat1on o f such sanctuaries from 34e states, and the total ot all ateas .set aside in these states is approximately 28; acres. This fte;ure may Ye.ry considerably due to the incompleteness of records, short-te.rm leases, and from other oaus. At first glance this 1s, to the. oonser\'tltionls, t a most total, being equal in area to almost the entire State of Pennsylvania.


6 -1 th our original def1nit10lt'QQ.f a Wild U:f.'e sanctuary ill mind e may analyze the d ta :trom each state and attempt to torm "f;.t a o f the type sen ted. W e see at once, that there is e. complexity ot types among these state sanctuaries. In the first instance nearly all such areas &re refuges tor ggme species. w e find some that are breed1ng1 resting and feeding areas, or simply l"est1ng areas 1 m.u:rounde

-'1 There are other areas listed as refuges wherein game species are released and hunting permitted throughout the open season. In some states huntine is not permitted or is restricted on State Forest lands, though such lands are 1dely used for recreational purposes, are not in any sense administered as wild-life sanctuaries and must be considered as of incidental value in this connection.!/ Where 11 ... amons the citizens ot any interest 1n such desirable sanctuary areas for non -game birds are sometimes purchased and turned over to the state for administration. The Federation of the Bird Clubs of ew England has done notable ork of this type in Massachusetts. For the most part it would seem that the underlying purpose of all refuge and sanctuary areas administered by S t ate Gam Departments would be better served if it ere possible for each department to have a definite working policy for the acquisition and administration of such areas. One mid-western state has included the folloWing cond1 tion in :1. ts "Re:t\lge Policyn: The state Will establish refuges only when they are o located or administeredas to perform a definite useful function. Under this plan two types of areas are being established: "Proteetivo Re:f'Uees" and "Produotiv R i,tuges". The chief use of the first type is to sattrgua.rd the future existence of rare species like prairie chicken. ruffed grouse, wild turkey. etc. ; of the second type, to produce an overflo of game species. There appears to be some misuse of the term "inviolate sanctuary". Of the many of acres set aside under suuh a heading it seems doubtful if a very large percentage or these inviolate sanctuaries are all that the term implies. Shooting


8 -may be prohibited, at leaat by intent, but trespassers allowed to oome and go at Will. In refUges where desirable spe eies bree d in numbers it is 1m ttant in most instances to avoid unnecessary encroachment upon breeding reas. HOwever, certain types o; sanctuaries may be eminently usetul and ret only inviolate in the sen e that no hunting 1s It 1t is used at all the term i nviolate should be understood as indicating an area ,. absolutely closed to the public. '!'he publto, unfortunately, not always education in the need for and the use. s of sanctuary areas is at once indicated. So far as State sanctuaries tn general are conc erned 1 t m1g h t prove helpful 1 f a "standard" o t quali f1 oa t1ons a established, _uch as has been don in the c se of the National Parks. Cond1 tion and tunds may vary greatly in the different states, but it does not follow that the definition of "wild-lite sanc tuarY'" must vary in the same manner. Pu.b11e interest in the \7elfare of Wild -lite, especiallY' as represented by ong birds and the smaller mammals 1 often expressed by municipalities in voting to dea1Bttate their town or city a bird and game refuge, Oregon has a t te la providing that all incorporated towns and citie and all public parka, and school grounds in the state shall be, utthout additional local or general lee1elat1on, bird and game sanctuaries. New York State hao a special law to racil:l. tate this desire tor municipal


9 self-expression. On eome occasions a nctuary :Ls established by a g reement with the o1ty Park OC)ln'Ul1as1on and a su:1:table portion of park land set aside as a sanctuary tor administration by the loo 1 udubon society or bird club. The u s. Department of Ae.rtculture publishes a bulletin (Farmers Bulletin o 1644 '"Local Bird Refuges'') containing 1n:f'orme. tion on estab11 shing bird and game refues on farms, right. of way COIJm'luni t y parkings1 municipal parks,#f/.1. picnic and fair grounds school and colleg e grounds eemetar1ea reservoirs an4 golf courses. The A udubon A asoo1at1on has issued circulars and bulletins and conducted sp o1al campaigns in connection th establishing.bir on golf clubs and several of ho ever, may b in cemetariea. t\ more properly dealt with under the next heading Private Sanctunr1es Difteient kinds ot sanctuaries re to be found under privat ownership or administration, although most areas 1n this class 111 be the and ell-known "sanctuaries birds". One type of the latter is the :fruit-bearing plants attractive to birds are set out, a bird b th maintained, ond suet and suitable grain foods placed on a feeding shelf 1n the winter months Others cover a considerable acreage and have a resident rden or superintendent. SUch larger song bird sanctuaries are usually administered by local Societies or bird clubs. A desirable feature of this sort ot refuge, aside from the interest .it arouses 1n the study and


'10 -protection of our native bird 1s that it usually preserves wilderness areas in a natural state, a po _int not to be ov-erlooked in the evaluation ot any sane rr area. A totally different type of private refUge 1s th shooting here v ry ttle s\mning 1 s 1nd lged i.n and -w:.t.-f\-1 ,.,t c-. here. by means O>t' and lim1 ted control or 1'\ natural enemie and other special eans w1ld-11te oecurs in abundance. There are obvious abuses connected with this type 0 f. ;: of re:t'Ug-e" but when 1nt ll1gently 111Wlaged it 1s possible for such preserves to be of eom value Still andither type 1 s the breedill(S oolony or roo kerr on a private estate, usually 1n the outh Important and :t-et rookeries are set aside as sanctuaries 'N#ftl t '/J.#Ifl and on such px-tvate land obe of the best T kno of this type in the southern tat;e ts on the property ot an active gun club A common mistake made by. many well-meaning people who wish to do something for the birds by establi hing a private sanctuary, is the o.ssumpti on that such haven can be created by the tmple expedient of indicating a certain area and announcing t the more or less disinterested that, "Henceforth this ground shall l>e as a \71ld-llfe se.nctuaryl The A udubon Association has had to refUse aoores of otters good people ho wanted to present us with so-many acres of land to be constituted a "bird eanctuar:J simply because no provision was made for properly maintaining the area. It costs money trom one year to another, to manage even a small sanctuary area so that it Will function 1n a useful manner In this connection


u 1 t S.s essential to bear ln mind that a Wild -life sanctuary shQuld prov:lde ;protection against .all enemies should contain suitable bree ding eondttions, an have a watee sup ply and an 1ncreas1!lg amount or natural food .;;/''' (12, !!. !!! nellf:t 1 a sue ) '$ v ...... ,_ DP


... (34' '2, 6' 4 0 I 3 31 ? ...... _____ 32..


shtt;. .,;_ vsr 12, /{/ 3. "f /?-r.J. l I / :2


ear It gives me much pleasure to acknowledge the pt of your remittance of in payment of the additional members of your Junior 1n Club. The leaflets and buttons for these new rs go out to you by today. Can you not send to the Association the names of your acquaintance who may be interested orming Junior Audubon Clubs? This would be doing them and us a service. Yours very truly, President.


7-r;f.4,Yt t f<;-1/"" -. r-O--vvo ..... """h... "' .... -il ,.,..t,_ t """' r( 0vo t ,f #, u.Jfi v-'


National Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals Founded 1901 1905 T GILBERT PEARSON, LL.D., Presid en t THEODORE S PALMER M.D .. 1st Vice-Pr e s FRANK R. OASTLER. 2n d Vice-Pres WILLIAM P. WHARTON, S4cretary ROBERT CUSHMAN MURPHY. D .Sc Treasurer SAMUEL T. CARTER. Jr .. Attorney ACTIVITIES LEGISLATIVE Active in State and Feder al legislation for Wild Bird and Animal Protection. SANCTUARY Owns and maintains various bird sanctuaries and game refuges. Home Office 1974 BROADWAY New York City U.S. A ...-wHEN WRITING TO US PLEASE ALWAYS REFER TO YOUR CLUB-NUMBER Your Club-Number is My dear It gives me much pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your remittance of $ in payment of the fees of members of the Junior Audubon Club


@ "/l _!_. h dl-IL-;..t, l rr -.u ,./ #..._ w-. r-'"Jt...n-,.,..,;;u If .J'fo:t, r-. Q._4-... .:t a,.;f of-1'7' t..1o1 /?1.#0 Ani .r (t_ I ().,..,.,. I 1:. rr-f't-t--1./( '"-. i 1-"" t ( "c.,tf/1 rw.o, ?1t-0, CU)


National Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals Founded 1901Incorporated 1905 T GILBERT PEARSON LL. D Presidmt THEODORE S PALMER. M D ., 1s t Vice-Pres. FRANK R OASTLER 2nd Vice-Pr e s WILLIAM P WHARTON. Socr e tary ROBERT CUSHMAN MURPHY D.Sc .. T re asurer SAMUEL T CARTER. Jr. Attorney ACTIVITIES LEGISLATIVE Active in State and Feder al legislation for Wild Bird and Animal Protection. SANCTUARY Owns and maintains various bird sanctuaries and game refuges Home Office 1974 BROADWAY New York City U .S. A ..-wHEN WRITING TO US PLEASE ALWAYS REFER TO YOUR CLUB-NUMBER Your Club-Number is My dear It gives me much pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your remittance of $ in payment of the fees of members of the Junior Audubon Club


National Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals Founded 1901Incorporated 1905 T. GILB ERT PEARSON. LL. D Pres:dmt THEODORE S PALM E R M D .. 1st Vice-Pres FRANK R OASTLER. 2nd Vice-Pr e s WILLIAM P WHARTON, Scret ary ROBERT CUSHMAN MURPHY. D .Se., T reasurer SAMUEL T CARTER. ]r., Attorney ACTIVITIES LEGISLATIVE A c t iv e i n State and Feder a l legislation for Wild Bird and Animal Protection. SANCTUARY Owns and maintains various bird sanctuaries and game refuges. Home Office 1974 BROADWAY N e w Yo r k City U S A ..-wHEN WRITING TO US PLEASE ALWAYS REFER TO YOUR CLUB-NUMBER Your Club-Number is My dear It gives me much pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your remittance of $ in payment of the fees of members of the Junior Audubon Club


h/..__J t J(. :.O..u..J< n, .. !\-,.< .,-,_ ,;;.., "" 7L. 1-'kf "1 zt-


BUY U. 5. S BON ASK YOUR p (THIS SIDE OF CARD IS FOR ADDRESS) Mr. Robert P. Allen National Association of Audubon Societies 1775 Broadway New York, N. Y.


MEMO ON SURVEY OF SANCTUARIES PREPARED BY 'WM. VOGT This is not definitive. Many states do no t lmow h o w many sanctuaries they have, nor their exaat areas. In figures they give in different they contradict themselves. ( If they did know a cearages, it would still be impossible to give an adeca.uate picture from their data since there seem to be as many ideas of sanctuaries as there are Game Commissions. Even such a phrase as "inviolate sanctuary" seems fraught with many meanings. Since many of these sanctuaries are on land held on shortterm leases, their value and their permanence are dubious. It is apparent that, except in the cases of states like Wisconsin and. Iowa there is no valid concept of admin !J;trat;on, and no working policy. Thus hundreds of thousands of so-called sanctuary acres are probably worthless--or nearly so


( G.AME PRESERVES AND JILD LIFE SANCTUARIES 1 9 3 3 Domimi:o n o f Canada : Dominion Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Nova Scotia Ontario (Total) United States: Federal Alabama 62 areas 6 areas 30 rr 26 6 3 tf 58 tf 'I9I n 1 358 2?6 6 1 2 2 acres 1'72 ,126. 4 acres ? 4 430 202 fl 423 ,?40. 2'71,000. 1 ,146, 688 tf 364 720 368 6 acres 16, 000


C c4. '(l;? cUA r lob lM-v.l tJ L l(l b1t Q.. s (. o+c 0(\A.lMLO Pn \ l (ll.t. (h C? L 3 ()Au. LA.. Oa l 0\ GLClo C?

/ltA a.-MO.. eL.w \irs 111.<-clL.l '(Yl 1./.Y-) CJtN l l. 111 -t-a.-u 0... "111JUqVvl1 /ll?w -t11vrl 11 'i-W \ f ell'\. 11101 '14 q_ 11 crf-tA -:\\ k oi-o.._ ? o... v 'Uvw.-CS'lA. -t v lofOO 000 I I ? 4]s-;71 'I, .... s-e i 'l. 8'1 -1-CJ.<:A t.a


! I ...

PAGE 100

r : DR. l !. BOONE. CHAIRMAN Ol"I"UMWA ARTHUR E RAPP. BEC" Y COUNCIL BLUI"P'8 of Jlfisfr anh (E)mn Qlommission DR. J. F. WALTER McGREGOR DENNIS H. GOEOERS ALGONA J N. DARLING I T BODE STATE FISH AND GAME WARDEN November 23, 1932 Mr.Ernest G .Holt Director of Sanctuaries National Association of Audubon Societies 1775 Broadway New York City Dear M r Holt: We have your letter of November 17th, and it will not be possible for us to furnish you with all of the information you request. DES MOINKS We do not have a list of the various sportsmen' s groups in the state. We have Will Dilg chapters and Izaak Walton League .chapters, and also various Rod and Gun Clubs, but we do not have the lists of these. We are enclosing bulletins giving the Demonstration and Cooperative Game Manage ment Areas in the state, and also a list showing the state game refuges. In addition to this, we might say that all state park areas in the state are game refuges. We are sending you our Game Refuge Policy, whi c h may be o f interest to you. ITB:VA Encl. 4 Vecy JlJ/lJ';L_ State Fish and Game Warden

PAGE 101

-. Round Lake, Clay County, Virgin Lake, Palo Alto County, Lower Gar Lake, Dickinson County Swan Lake, Dickinson County, Hottis Lake, Dickinson County, STATE GAME REFUGES East Okoboji Lake, Dickinson County High Lake, Emmet County, Iowa State College, Story County East Okoboji Lake, Dickinson County, West Okoboji, Dickinson County, Lost Island Lake, Clay County, South Twin Lake, Calhoun County, State Farm, Polk County, Glenwood Institution, Mills County, Palisades State Park, Linn County, North Twin Lake, Calhoun County, Amana Lily Lake, Iowa County, Thompson Farm. Shelby County, Y.M.C.A.--Iowa State College, Story County Ames Golf and Country Club, Des Moines Water Works, Polk County Backbone Park, Delaware County, A. A. Call, Park, Kossuth County Bellevue Park, Jackson County Dolliver Memorial Park, Webster Co. Lacey-Keosauqua, Van Buren County, Pammel Park, Madison Pilot Knob, Hancock-Winnebago County Wild Cat Den, Muscatine County Ryan Lake, Emmet Couni:qr Elbert Hubbard State Park, Polk County Approximately 450 acres II 200 n II 575 II n 571 n II 512 n II 575 n n 467 IJ n 1994 n Acreage unknown. n n n n Approximately 596 acres 11 1000 11 11 1146 11 11 140 11 II 509 If 11 200 11 11 520 11 n 15 n Acreage unknown. n n Approximately 1280 acres n 154 II II 66 ll II 544 II n 1222 n 225 n n 288 n n 220 n Acreage unknovrn. The above refuges been established by the Fish and Game Department on State oyrned lands. Storm Lake, Buena Vista County, Wall Lake, Sac County, Approximately 280 acres Lansing Bass Ponds and Game Farm, Allamakee County Taylor Tract, Allamakee County, Cedar County, Cedar County, The above Refuges are owned by the Fish and Game Department. 11 142 11 160 n n 198 11 n 17 n

PAGE 102

\' Iowa Conservation Plan Refuge Policy (Approved by Conservation Board and State Game Commission) December, 1931. D efinition. The word refuge, as herein used, means an inviolate sanctuary closed to shooting at all seasons. Authority. The state (or in the case of migratory birds, the federal government) may establish refuges either by reason of its control of wild life, or by reason of its control of land. Other parties can establish refuges, but only by reason of control of Policy. History shows that some r efuges have proven to b e of outstanding value to conservation, whereas others have been 11scraps of paper.11 The latter condition usually obtains w here the refug e or its administration is not in a position to perform any definite function over a n d abov e that p erformed elsewhere. The state will establish refu ges only when they aTe so locate d or administe red as to p e r form a d efinite useful function. Functions. The functions justifying a r efug e may include : (1) R estoration of food, cover, or othe r of environment; (2) A dditional patrol for law enforce m ent; l3) Pre s ence of some threatened s pecies endanger e d by legal hunting of othe r specie s on its range; (4) Strategic location or outstanding quality as a breeding pla c e or r esting place for wild life which inhabits the surrounding range, but ther e lacks such places. Priority. All the s e function s arc most useful for mobile specie s like wat e r f o wl, and l east useful for soduntary species, lik0 quail, because nobility d e t e r mines tho size; of tho surrounding are a bcnefi t e d by tho r efuge. Tho mor e habitab l e of the surrounding area, tho g reat e r will be t ho outflow of bre e ding stock from tho r efuge. I n the expenditure of state funds for refuges, priority wi l l (except i n tho case of rare specie s in d ange r of extermination ) b e given to projects for m o bile species and projects surroun ded by habi t ab l o range. Prog ram. I nsofar as can be n o w foreseen, tho forgoing policy calls for t w o clas s e s o f r efuges i n Iowa! 1. Protective R efuges to safeguard t ho future cxistcnc 0 of r are s pecie s prairie chicken, ruffed grouse wild turkey, etc. Function ( 3 ) is often sufficient to justify a protective refuge. The sta t e par k s will to some extent autoraatically s ervo a s s uch, and w i l l be administe red with this i n ;;.1ind. Additional areas, ho w e v er, must be purchased, leas ed, or i mproved as 11protcctivc r cfugcs.11 2. Productive R efuges to produce a n outflow of other species. The m ost pro mising opportun1 tics for Iow a scCEl to b e in:

PAGE 103

(a) -2-Acquisition and restoration of watcrfowl breeding grounds. Establishment of waterfowl rest grounds. Winter coverts and food patches for pheasants and other mobile upland game. Wintering grounds for upland game can often be developed on the margins of waterfowl refuges. State refuges for sedentary upland species, like quail, do not promise to serve sufficient territory to warrant state expenditures. The "Conservation Plan11, now in preparation, will specify the location, purpose, and probable cost of a system of protective and productive refuges for Iowa._ Management. The state will buy or lease land for refuges only where it can develop them through management. Management means adequate patrol, and restoration of a environment for wild life by the control of water, food, cover, and (where necessary) predatory enemies. Cooperation. The state invites the federal government to establish migratory bird refuges interstate in location or significance. It invites counties, municipalities, and private groups to establish local refuges of any character which will supplement the state system_.

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PROGP.ESS REPORT OF COOPERA:I'IVE G.Al\!E M.ANAGENi'ENT AREAS :By Wm. Schuen'ke of Game & Deputies. types of areas are supervised by the local people Ullder the of the Superintendent o:f Game and Deputy Wardens of the Iowa Fish and Game Depart m e nt. They are not so rm1ch for experimental work as they are for getting sportsmen's groups interested enough to take on an area of their own and for getting farmers and sportsmen to cooperate They will also teach farmers and sportsmen that game is a crop and like every other crop must be managed. Restoration of the cover and t h o plantings of feed will provide an increased game supply. hunting and a r egu l ated kill will insure the of the supply of game. started Cooperative Game manag ement areas have boon/as follows: 4ooo acres. SCOTT COUNTY COOPE.."i.Al'IVE GAH E MANAGEMENT .ARF..A Ph easant game management area. Set up with tho cooper a t ion o f the Scott County S portsmen1s Association of Davenport, and sup ervised by Mr. Walter Moibur g of Davenport. For this area r ecommendations wer e m a de by the Superintendent of Game to induce farm ers to lea ve cov er, stop erosion, leave winter cover, leave n esting cover and also to the loca l organization stock this area with phe a s ants. Thi s g roup h a s purchased, to date, $500 worth of pheasants to bo placed in t his area. Also t his g roup is compe nsating the f a rmer for carry i ng out the necessary made b y the Fish a nd Department. The group h a s p oste d t his area with signs furnished by the Scott Count y S ports men's Associa t i on whic h read as follows: 11 SCOTT COUNTY GA.llf:E PRESERVE" Tho grou p als o k e eps very close records on this area for the Fish and Garno D e prutm e n t 92,000 acres SCOTT & MUSCATINE CotJNTY :BY WALCOTT S GROUP This pheasan t mrmagerre nt a rea ts posted. with signs furnished by their own orggnization. C ornrnitteos h ave boon a pp ointe d to m ak e contact with farmers on this area, teaching them to lea ve cover, n esting ground, and how to put in different kinds of food p atches w here n ecessary. This g roup is following plans that l tave been laid out by tho Fish and Game Commissio n and also have furnished their ovm pheasant stock for this a r oa, So the group has stock ed the area with several hundred phop.sants, bought paid for by their own organization, 22,000 aCJres. JASPER COUNTY SPORTSMElT 1 S PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATio:i:J NEWTON Pheasant gM!e ma. nagene nt area, Thi a grou,.p has nine directors picked from different towns over the coup.ty. Each director has his committee make contact with f3rmers and makD plans for winter cover, nesting cover, putting in tho necessary foo d patches, etc,

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<." This group is carrying out their own plans, and nlso furnishing their signo. Tho group started sixty dnjrs ago and at tho present time has close to n thou sa:l d members over tho county. Farmers turning in a viol:1t0r will be given a :free membership tn the association. This association has purchased some phonsa..1t seed stoc};: for their nrca. JASPER COUNTY GA\P. YJJUTAGEMENT AREA :BAXTER The :Baxter Sportsmen 1 s group has talcon on o.n area of 12,000 acres a."'l.d is working along the same lines as the Newton Sportsmen's These areas have bee:l by the wri tor. 4, 200 acres. WOODBURY COUNTY PHEAS.A1TT G AREA This aron is bc:tng worked out with the cooperation of tho Sioux City Izaak Walton League and tho Rod and Rool Club, is for the purpose of having the sportsmen's groups carry out a scrip plan on their own area. Farmers hnvc signed an for this purpose. A charge of per bird is made. 1nunber of birds t0 be shot off of each farm uill be by superin of end deputies. The group is also working on erosion control, planting nesting ground, winter cover and food patches. Ga.'!le IDr'Jllagerro nt area signs hnve been bought and for by tho Sioux City Rod & Reel Club and the I zaak Walton League. This area is posted and completed nnd has been checked ti'lice by the "i'll'iter. Recom.11ondations are being carried out This area is also being supervised by deputy game wnrden, Yx. Fred Schwab, ru1d !!.r. Erwin Miller of Sioux City. 24o acres. IDA COUNTY V t\J:i.AGEMErn' A.'m.A This area is poing cnrried out in cooperat:tonwith tr.e Ida Walton League and Dr. E. S. Parker and G. C. Moore. It has been inspoc ted by the superin tendent of game has been posted by the sportsmen's group with game management signs. The purpose of this area is t ) i:::J.crease tho present quail yield. are very scarce in Ida County but tnls is one farm that has a good supply of seed stock. Also, the Ida CotU"'l.ty Izn&k Walton has over all county sand pits in Ida County, which are being posted by the group, as follows: IDA COUNTY .AND WILD LIFE NO Ht.JNTING OR TRAPPING :By Order :Board of Supervisors of Ida County, 25, 1932. Auditor Posted by Sheriff

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DAVIS COUNTY Q.UAIL GAME AREA 220 acres, set up by Dr. W. C. :Boone of Ottumwa. The of this area ie to increase the number of coveys on this farm at the present time and to have the farmer leave nesting cover and wlnter cover and to put in some necessary plants, etc. Records will be kept of this area in the Fish and Commission office. This area is being supervised and plans carr5.ed out by Dr. Boone, and it has been posted with game managerro nt signs. POLK COUNTY PHEASJJTT & Q.UAIL G.AME A.RFu\ 8,500 acres, by the Field Trial Association of Des Moines. This area includes Fort Des : .1oinos, the Army Post, and has bE:lon chcclwd and gone over by tho warden and superintendant of game and recommendations have been made. Tho purpose of this area is to allow no hunting or trapping, but to increase the quail stock. Field trialo will be made, and invitations will be sent out to dog men all over tho u.s. for the purpose of training dogs, also for the purpose of mrucing counts of game birds for tho department. The association will pay for having various of quail food patches Leases to farmers, who have had acreage for growing grain, have been cancelled ,for the ranson that the is going to put in food patches on these On account of the Sl.:unmer growth being so far advanced, it is impractical to do any further work on this area now. Tho association will make all arrangements with farmers, as far as possible for this coming fall, ro1d the rest of tho work is to be carried out l ate in tho fall. The association has agreed to buy game signs and post this area, as soon as it is approved by the superintendent of game. 1,885 acres. JEFFJTIRSON COUNTY Q.UAIL AREA B;)r C. D. Vernon This area is being dev eloped with tho cooperation of the ?airfield Sportsmen's group and C. D. Vernon, g ame warden in that district. The purpose is to improv e food patches, cover, nesting cover, and to teach farmers game management and t o increase the presen t in this area. The are a is entirely the supervision of liT. Vernon has boon mapped by him. Recomn:enda.tions also have been made by him and. vrill be chec k ed by the superintendent of game at a later date, t o ascortain whether the pln..""ls are being carried out so that game management c m 1 be sent out for this area later in the f oll. 1;120 acres. LEE COUNTY Q.UAIL ARE.\ :By J. :B. Watkins This area is being developed with the cooperation of tho Mr. Watkins, game Wardb n in that district. The purpose is to improve food patches, winter cover, nesting cover, ru1d to teach farmers game nun1agement to increase thp present quail stoCk in this area. The area :l. s entirely under tho su:pervision of Mr. Watkins, and has been mapped by him. Recommendations also have been made by him a.r1d will be checked by tho superintendent of game at a later da.te, to ascertain whether the plans are being carried Qut so that game management signs cru1 be sent out for this oren later in the fall. CERRO GORDO COUNTY 23 040 a cres. Pheasant Gam e Management area.

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July 5, 1932. Set up by PROGRESS REPORT OF DEHONSTR.A.'!'ION G.AEE M.ANAGEME1TT ARE.A.S John Ball and William Schuenke These types of areas are supervised by the Fish and Gazne Department and are under their guidance. They are being checked for experimental data and are being used to try out various types of management plans that will best meet the problems in different parts of the state. Game i ianagement Pemonstration .Area s have been set up as follows: 800 acres. DAVIS COU11TY Q,U.AIL DEMONSTRATION .AREA This demonstration is being carried out in cooperation with the Ottumwa Sportsmzn's .Association and was set up with the help of Mr. John Ball, for the purpose of improv:lng cover, in the necessary feed improvements, trying out the use of the btu-, studying predator co11trol and keeping census records very accvxate cost r ecords, also for the purpose of increasing tho present q:uai1 crop. The farmers in this are a are Mr. H. L. Clark 27 8 acres; Mr. J. Rater, 232 acres; Mr. G. A. Wieneke, 165 acres; C. D. Rime, 120 acres. This area has been posted with g&-ne managermnt area signs, furnished by tho Fish and Game Commission. R ecomr oondo.tions as to food patches, nesting cover, nec essary fencing etc., have b een carrie d o u t to date by on this area. Mr. :Ben Enyart, our w nrden in tha t district, is taldng charg e of suporvlsing this aren nnd sooing thn.t the wor k is being carried out, also checking this area from time to time. This area will be used a s a school for W < .ll'dons at a J.ator date. 13,000 acres. :BENTO!IT COillTTY PHEASMJ T G.M:E DIDWNSTRATION AREA Tho purpose of this exea is to teach farmers the practice of planting along fence rows, of leaving cover in H o l c l corners, of not plowing up too close to fence of improving nesting cover and winter cover, and of increasing thcprescnt pheasant yield on their fari r.s, of taking accurate census records of the bird population. It is also for the purpose of getting an idea of the cost of improving l and :or phoas onts and to trike accurate chock of tho number of birds h &tchcd a n d fr0m &ggs s hipp 0 d to i n t his area. Work on t hts area is being carried out with the cooperation of the Vinton Fir.h and .Association. T h i B area is posted vrith state game area signs, and is no w in oper ation under tho loca l direction of Mr. John Tobin, president of the Vinton a nd Game .Association.

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25,000 acres. GRUUDY COUNTY PHEAS.AUT G.A.'!.]l N.ANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATION AREA This orca is being carried out with the cooperati.on of tho Palermo tow.:!.shJ.p farm bureau and tho county agent. Tho purpose of this as a game demonstration orca is to control hunting and to get contro l of i:.1g by farmers on t' area and to try and the farmer take an i!ltercst in game Cords giving permission to will be supplied to each former desiring to place his fo.rm under this o.dd.itiona.l protection plan. Sportsmen desiring to hunt in this to>7nship on farms posted with game manngement signs, furnished by tho State Fish and Gomc Comrniss:i.on, must apply to tho farmer f0r a card giving him permission to hunt on that farm. Tho farmer keeps the name and address of the hunter on the stub of the permit a..."ld the nome will be chocked with the license. The hunter must return to tho house, whore the number of birds vrill be checked by tho farmer and a fair price of .50 a bird off will be charged. This Tiill tho farmer for his efforts. F a :rmors will be a.ske d t n le<1vo seed stock for tho f llowing year. Flush:tng have been supplied for this area b y the Fish and Garno Commission. This nrea is boing cho c1>::ed MO. supervised by our warden, Mr. John Jngo, of Waterloo. P .ALO /JLTO COUNTY PHEASANT lfu\lr.AG!l:MENT DE!f.ONSTRATION AREA 12,500 acres. This area is being 'i'lorlc,:ld out in cooperation with the En1111etsburg Iza.ak Walton League chapter for the purpose of controlling trespassing nuisance, through hunting permits, and for tho purpose of leaving winter cover, and tho flushing bar. Hunting permit cnrds o:1 tho baSis of 12 cards for every 160 acres will be distributed. No charge for gmne birds will be made. This area is not yet completed o.::.1d has not been posted >7lth garnEJ management area signs, but committees been appointed and. arc being supervised by our warden, Ross Moses, to see that wor k \7ill be carried out withi n tho next ton days. 16,000 acres. 0 1::SRHm COID'!TY 'H'InTG_I\RI.AN P}lRTRIDGE DE'-'.O!JSTR.l\.T I OlJ .AREA This area is carried out with tho cooperation of the Will Dilg League of Sutherll3lld for the purpose of don:.onstrating possibilitiEJs of increasing tho present Hungaria.."l partridge st0cJ.: on farms in this area and of putting in various :it1hcis o f ft>O d !)atehtls, & U. al o tho loa.VirlE of w:i.lrtor cover, nesting cover-, and. the use of tho flushing bar. If surplus stoCk results, surplus birds will be trapped to stock other areas. This area will be used for a wardens' school at a later date, also to teach :fa rmers game management. Five hu.'!'J.dred gomo ma..J.agcment signs have been shipped and will be posted on t his area within the next This area has boon chocked twice. Committcas have been to check sections on this area and get an absolute count of how Hungarians, pheasants and quail are on every farm in t his aroo.. This area has also been mapped and is on file in tho Fish and Game Commission office.

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Bi-1226 Sept.' 32 United States Department of hgriculture Bureau of Biological survey Washington, D. c. NATIONAL WILD LIFE RESERVATIONS Miscellaneous Publication No. 51 Since the issuance of the revised edition of Hiscellaneous Publication No. 51, in March, 1930, the areas listed below have been added to the wild-life refuge system of the Bureau of Biological Survey. These areas, with feu exceptions, have been selected primarily as feeding, resting, and breeding grounds for migratory waterfowl under the rofuge program authorized by the migratory bird act of F ebruary 18, 1929, although all fonas of wild life find sanctuary on them. The Bureau now 100 refuges. : Year State and designation : estab-: Acres : lished: Chief species protected ---Alaska: Semidi Islands : 1932 California: Salton Sea : 1930 Florida.: Chinsogut Hill .. : 1932 St. Marks ... : 1931 Georgia: Wolf Island .. : 1930 Maryland: Blacb?ator : 1932 Nebraska: Crescent Lake : 1931 Nevada: Charles Sheldon : 1931 Follon .. : 1931 North Carolina.: Svmnq_uart G r Bay 1932 North Dakota: Long Lolce .. : 1931 Oklahornn: SQlt ?loins .. : 1 930 South G::1rolino.: Capo Romain : 1931 Utah: LOCOiUOt i V e Springs: 19 3 1 Wyoming: Bo.mforth L uke .. : 1932 Hutton L dc e .. : 1932 22,125: Puffins, nuklots, petrels. 15,732: DUcks, geese, shoTobirds, coots, pelicans. 2,083: DUcks, goose, shorebirds, upland gamo birds. 35,611: Ducks, goose, sandpipers and othor shorebirds, gulls. / 1,050: no. 7,652: DUcks, and other shorebirds, muskrats. 38,781: Ducks, go os o sandpipers and othor shorobirds, coots, terns. 30,700: sago grouse. 23,708 : Ducks, gulls, toms, pelicans, 8 830 : Ducls, gooso, brant, swu.ns, sc:ndpipors a nd ctho r shorobirus. 4, 712: Ducks, v;illots, so.ndpipors a nd othu r 3hore birds, coots, gulls, torns. 1 8,684: Ducks, s undpip0rs, 55,155: Ducks, curloHs, s<...ndorling dowitchurs, oy i;ster s<..:.ndpipors ... : nd othur shorebirds, ogrots, hurons, polict..ns, ibis. 1,034: curlmm, c.voc ots, s<..:.ndpipors nd othor shorobi rds, coots. 1,166: Ducks, goose, r .:nd othor sho rcbiius. 1,499: no.

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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREST SERVICE Revised October 1 1930 VACATION IN THE NATIONAL FORESTS THE national forests are rich in scenic beauty. They have the double attractiveness of a country that is largely wilderness yet is easily accessible because of thousands of miles of good roads and trails. They are the home of game and fish; the refuge and breeding grounds of much of the wild life that remains. Their wide distribution and extent and their prctx:imity to thousands of communities make them natural centers of summer recreation. Within their boundaries travelers by motor, by wagon, on horseback or on foot, campers, hunters and fiShermen, amateur photographers, hikers, naturaliSts in fact all who wish to come-have equal opportunity. Care with fir e and cleanlio ess in camp are all that are necessary to make the visitor and the vacationist welcome. The Forest Service looks upon the recreational possibili ties of the forests as public resources, to be wisely used and carefully safeguarded, a lon g with tho timber, wa,ter, and other resources for the conservation and management ol whi c h the forests were established. Everything possible is done, within the limits imposed by available time and funds and by the necessity of giving first attention to the primary purposes of the fores ts, to develop the recreational resources and to make them available for public use. For the erection of summer homes, hotels, resorts, and other structures for recreational purposes, individuals asso ciations, or commercial companies may secure special-use M-5125 'J. s. oon:IL."fllDT PamTmo ontca: nu 8-6600 REGION 3 SOUTHWESTERN REGION Regional Forester, Gas and Electric BuUdint, Albuquerque, N.Mex. State in which f o r est is l ocated Forest Headquarters or supervisor Arizona _________ _! Apache .......... Spring e rville. Coconino __________ FlagstaJf. Coronado __________ Tucson. C rook. _____________ Safford. Prescott_ ___________ Prescott. S i tgreaves .. ________ Holbrook Tonto ______________ Phoenix. Tusayan _______ ____ Williams. New Me:J:Ico .... .l Apache----------Springerville, Ariz. (r& Carson.____________ Taos. Coronado__________ Tucson, Ariz. DatiL ______________ Magdalena. Gila--------------Silver City. Lincoln----------Alamogordo. Manzano---------Albuquerque. Santa Fe__________ Santa Fe. 8-5600 .. (3) permits. These are usually granted for an indefinite period, but where the proposed development involves a con siderable investment by the permittee the permit may be granted for a term of not f'ore than 30 years. In most cases it bas been found that the indefinite period permit is entirely satisfactory to the permittee. Not more than 5 acres may be allowed to any single person or association. In order that as many people as practicable may be accommodated, tracts for summer-hom&-site purposes, ex cept in unusual ins t.ances, are limited to 1 acre or less in area, and term permits run for periods of from 5 to 15 years, with privil ege of r enewal. Undue crowding between permittees is avoided, and provision is made for those who seek isolation and privacy. The annual rental charge for lands occupied for summer homes varies from $5 to $25, d epe nding upon the location. Where permits are issued Cor as low a rate as $5 per year, the privilege is given for an indefinite period. A personal examination of the land to be occupied should be made before an application is filed. The applicatio n must be in writing and "9'-"'t specif y the location of the area desired and the use to't>e made of it-that is, whether for private summer home, hotel, or resort-and the esti mated cost of the intended improvements. This appli cation should je filed with the nearest forest officer. With the avowed purpose of achieving the greatest good to the greatest number, the Forest Service necessarily limits somewhat the rental of private summer-home sites in the National Forests of the East and South (Region 7). Studies on all the Forests of this section indicate that over the portions of these areas well established and well managed public camping grounds, resorts, and hotels for the accommodation of vacationists will be primary requisites and that such forms of use will require some areas which might otherwise serve aa summer-home sites. No summer-home permits are granted in the White Mountain Forest in New Hampshire and Maine, or the Wichita in Oklahoma, all sites adaptable to recreational d evelopment being h eld open for public or semipublic use REGION 4 INTERMOUNTAIN REGION Realonal Forester, Forest Service Building, Ogden, Utab State in which forest is located Forest Headquarte rs of supervisor Arizon a __________ K ai bab ____________ Kanab, Utah. Colorado _________ L a Sal _____________ Moab, Utah. Idaho ____________ Boise ______________ Boise. Cache ______________ Logan, Utah. Caribou ____________ Montpelier. Challis -------Challis Idaho ______________ McCall. Lemhi_ ____________ Mackay. Minidoka __________ Burley. Payette ........... E=ett. Salmon ________ Salmon. Sawtooth __________ Hailey. Targbee .... -------St. Anthony. Weiser------Weiser. Nevada _________ J Dille ______________ Ced a r City, Utah. Humboldt. ....... Elko. Nevada ____________ Ely. Toiyabe ____________ Austin. Utah.. ___________ J Ashley _____________ Vernal. Wyoming _______ Cache ______________ Logan. Dixie .. -----------Cedar City. Fishlake ___________ Richfield. La SaL ____________ Moab. MantL ............ Ephraim. Minidoka __________ Burley, Idaho. PowelL ____________ Panguitch. Uinta.------------Provo. Wasatch __________ Ashley------------Caribou.. __________ Sa l t Lake City. Vernal, Utah Montpeli er, Idaho. Targbee .......... Teton. ________ ----Wyoming _________ (4) St. Anthony, I(tlbii.-. Jackson. t Kemmerer. { ,,. Nevertheless on the othe r Forests of the East there are many choice summer-home s ites available and such appli cations are granted in sections where the land will serve it.s high es t possible purpose under this form of use and where such use can be correlated snccesafully with the local practice of forestry. These comparatively small National Forests are so located throughout the entire length of the Appalachian mountain system that t h e y constitute the nat ural mountain vacation land for the massed popnlations of the East and Soath. Under s uch conditions and with recreational use growing r a pidly, development plans must continue to favor public and semipublic projects. In the great Forests o f the West, opportunities abound for sum mer-hom e deve lopments without interference to or from the transient public use. Detailed informati on r especting any particular locality or Forest may be obtained by addressing the forest super visors or the r egional foresters. The addresses or regional forest ers and headquarters of supervisors are given on pages 1 to 7 BE CAREFUL WITH FIRE: See that IJOUr camp fire does not set fire to the woods. Make sure it is all out. evervspark. before leaving it. Drown it with water. Keep uour-camp site clean and sanitarY. -Be sure uour pipe a$hes or clg'l.rette stubs are out before IJOU throw them awav. Break uour match in two. REGION 5 CALIFORNIA REGION Realonal Forester, Ferry Building, San Francisco, Calif. State in which forest is located Forest Headquarters or supervisor California ........ l Angeles ____________ Los Angeles. California. _________ Willows. C leveland _________ San Diego. Eldorado __________ Placerville. Inyo _______________ Bishop. Klamath ___________ Yreka. Lassen-----------Susanville. Modoc_. ___________ Alturas. Mono-----------Minden, Nev. Plumas _______ ____ Quincy. San Bernardino .... San Bernardino. Santa Barbara.___ Santa Barbara. Sequoia ...... ----Porterville. Shasta. ____________ Mount Shasta. Sierra ...... -----North Fork. Stanis l aus _________ Sonora. Taboo ............ Nevada City. Trinity ____________ Weaverville. Nevada---------1 Eldorado __________ Placerville, Calif. Inyo _______________ Bishop, Calif. Mono .. ___________ Minden. Tahoe ...... ----Nevada City, Calif. lO. ..,J ..,. (6) i l NATIONAL FORESTS BY REGIONS REGION 1 NORTHERN REGION Regional Forester, Federal Building, Missoula, Mont. State in which forest is l ocated Forest Headquarters of superviso r Idaho ___________ _! Clearwater _________ Orofino. Coour d'Alene _____ Coour d'Alene. Kaniksu ___________ Newport, Wash. Nezperce ___________ Grangeville. Pend Oreille ...... Sandpoint. St. Joe .. --------St. Maries Selway _____________ Kooskia. Montana ________ J Absaroka __________ Livingston. Beartooth __________ Billings. Beaverhead _____ ___ Dillon. Bitterroot_ _______ Hamilton. Blackfeet. _________ Kalispell. Cabine t ____________ Thompson Falls. Custer. ____________ Miles City. Deerlodge __________ Butte. Flathead.. __________ Kalispell. Gallatin ... -----Bozeman. Helena ____ ________ Helena. Jefferson ........... G reat Falls. Kootenai ...... .... Libby. Lewis and Clark_ Choteau. Lolo ______________ Missoula. Madison ___________ Sheridan. Missoula.. __________ Missoula. South Dakota ... Custer. ____________ Miles City, Mont. Washington ______ Kaniksu ......... .. Newport. -.r (1) REGION 6 NORTH PACIFIC REGION Regional Forester, Post Office Bnilding, Portland, Oreg. State in which for est is located Forest Headquarters of supervisor Oregon __________ l Cascade ___________ Eugene. Crater. ____________ Medford. Deschutes _________ Bend. Fremont--------Lakeview. Malbeur ----John Day. Mount Hood ______ Portland. Ochoco ____________ Prineville Santiam ___________ Albany. Siskiyou ___________ Grants Pass, Siuslaw --------Eugene. Umatilla. __________ P e ndleton. Umpqua ___________ Roseburg. Wallowa ___________ Wallowa. Whitman.-----Baker. Washington. ... .! Chelan. ___________ Okanogan. Columbia .......... Vancouver. Colville ............ Republic. Mount Bake r ...... B e llingham. Olympic ___________ Olympia. Rainier--------Tacoma. Snoqualmie ....... Seattle. Wenatchee ....... Wenatchee. REGION 7 EASTERN REGION Regional Forester, Atlantic Building, Washington, D. C. Alabama _________ Alabama ___________ Athens, Tenn. Arkansas -------Ouachita --------Hot Springs Nat'l P'k. Ozark______________ Russellville. Florida---------Cboctawhatchee ___ Pensacola. Ocala-------------Lake City. (6) ,o II REGION 2 ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION Regional Forester, Federal Building, Denver, Colo. State in which forest is l ocated Colorado ________ Forest Arapaho.--------Cocbetopa --------Colorado __________ Orand Mesa ______ Headquarters of supervisor Hot Sulphur Springs. Salida. Fort Collins. Grand Junction. Gunnison__________ Gunnison. Holy Cross_________ Glenwood Springs. Montezuma________ Mancos. Pike---------------Co lorado Springs. Rio Grande________ Monte Vista. Routt______________ Steamboat Springs. San IsabeL________ Pueblo. San Juan---------Durango. Uncompahgre______ Delta. White River_ ______ Glenwood Springs. Nebraska--------Nebraska--------Halsey. Oklahoma------Wichita ____________ Cache. South Dakota___ Black Hills ______ Deadwood. Harney----------Custer. Wyoming ________ Bighorn ____________ Sheridan. Black Hills_______ Deadwood, 8. Dak. Medicine Bow _____ Laramie. Shoshone__________ Cody. Washakie __________ Lander. (2) REGION 7-Continued State in w hicb forest is l ocated Forest Headquarters of supervisor Georgia __________ Cherokee---------Athens, Tenn. Nantahal a _________ Franklin, N.C. Louisiana________ Kisatchie --------Alexandria, La. Maine ___________ White Mountain __ Laconia, N.H. New Hampshire. Do. Do. North Carolina Cherokee __________ Athens, Tenn. Nantabala --------Franklin. Pisgah __________ Asheville. Unaka _____________ Bristol, Tenn. Pennsylvania ____ Allegheny--------Warren. Porto Ric o _______ Luquillo. __________ Rio Piedras. South Carolina __ Nantabala _________ Franklin, N. o, T ennessee ________ Cherokee---------Athens. Pisgah-----------Asheville, N. C Unaka_____________ Bristo l. Virginia ---------1 Monongahela------Elkins, W. Va. Natural Bridge ____ Lynchburg. Shenandoah------Harrisonburg. Unaka _____________ Bristol, Tenn. West Virginia .... Monongahela----Elkins. Shenandoah ________ Harrisonburg, Va., REGION 8 ALASKA REGION Regional Forester, Goldstein Building, Jnnean, Alaska Alaska-----------1 Chugach. __________ Cordova. Tongass ______ ----Ketchikan. REGION 9 LAKE STATES REGION Regional Forester, Customs Service Building, Milwaukee, Wis. Illinois ___________ Bell evue-Savanna1 Winona, Minn. Michigan--------Huron------------East Tawas. Michigan--------Munising. Minnesota.______ Chippewa---------Cass Lake. Superior----------Ely. lAdmiuiatcred by U.S, Bureau of Biolocical Survey (7)

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J MILES 0 200 -'00 8-0600 I ., -. SAVE THE DON'T SPOIL YOUR OWN VIEW --------------r--------.. --______ f \ l s: '"\..._....._ tv/ I I i NORTH I I I I 0Jt:;I'ERsoN MONTANA u 0AKOTA su -z_ -z_. r )'. \ DAKOTA IS'c 01---<7 I :-------1 I 1>-f t'O'I 0' -... .-.. -pt.NN5'<'-'J,t>-N \ .... aow/ N E A S f'< A --'--l 'll5.) L _________ ""DE:NVE:R I i 0RADOj K A N S A S I I ---0 w A --;:-" ---u T E X A s .......,.,,1_ I ( 0 .::.------TE.NNESSE ____ :--------r--(j) (j) \ o souTH ( \ (' 1 '-,y IAJ\ 0 UN P.. -y \ 0 ,\._ \ 1> \ U S .OEPARTMENTOF fOREST Sf:.RVICf. R.Y.STU A.RT, FORESTER ..-\)) \)) -<7 '\ 1 G' / -<1 1 -<[ /0-NATIONAL FORESTS A N D RELATED DATA PRt:i'MED IN THt BRANCH OF E.NGIN[EJ\ING SCALE 0 Z!l SO 75 100 125 ISO l'l.5 MILZS-L,.EGEN O FORESTS REGIONAL BOUNOAAitS AND NUM6Ef\.S @ RfGIONAL HEADQUARTERS e SUPERVISORS' HU.OQUA.RTCRS 4 f(.RMAHENT EXP(.RIM,ENT STATIONS LABORAT ORY: {M.(CISON, WIS ) EVERYBODY LOSES WHEN THE FOREST BURNS

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National Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals Founded 1901 1905 T GILBERT PEARSON LL.D., Pre sid m t THEODORE S. PALMER M.D .. 1 st Vice-Pres. FRANK R OASTLER 2ud Via-Pres. WILLIAM P. WHARTON. S4cretary ROBERT CUSHMAN MURPHY. D .Sc T re asurer SAMUEL T. CARTER. Jr., Attorney ACTIVITIES LE G ISLATIVE Active in State and Feder a l legislation for Wild Bird and Animal Protection. SANCTUARY Owns and maintains various bird sanctuaries and game refuges. Home Office 1974 BROADWAY N e w York C ity U.S. A ..-wHEN WRITING TO US PLEASE ALWAYS REFER TO YOUR CLUB-NUMBER Your Club-Number is My dear It gives me much pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your remittance of $ in payment of .f'ooo "'..(:" ft'\.O.ft'l'h..o.-r"to n.P +.'ho. _T,,T'\; 1"'\.,.. f'!l ,.,n,

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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION NO. 51 WASHINGTON, D. C. ISSUED SEPTEMBER, 1929 REVISED MARCH, 1930 NATIONAL WILD-LIFE RESERVATIONS Compiled by Division of Game and Bird Conservation, Bureau of Biological Survey CONTENTS Page Page Introduction .. -----------------------1 Reservations administered by Department of Reservations administered by Department tbe Interior.----------------------5 of Agriculture.----------------------------2 National Park Service___________________ 5 Bureau or BiologiCIII urvey_____________ 2 Reservations administered by Navy DepartForest Service ______________ ----------___ 4 ment ______________ -----------------------Reservations udministered by Department or Reservations administered by War DepartCommerce _________ ---------------------5 ment----------------------------------7 Bureau of Fisheries________ _____________ 5 Addenda ____ ----------------------9 Burea u of Lighthouse s________ __________ 5 INTRODUCTION With the increase in population and more intensive use o land, the need for the protection of wild life becomes each year of greater importance. This need has led to the establishment of reservations throughout the United States and its possessions where birds and mammals are afforded special protection. The 84 areas administered by the Bureau of Biological Surv( y have been chosen primarily for their suitability for forms of wild life that have become greatly reduced in numbers or threatened with extinction-areas affording nesting, feeding, or resting grounds for water birds, or on which there are notable colonies of birds or mammals protection. Some of these, such as the National Bison Range, m Montana, and the Wind Cave Game Preserve, in South Dakota, are fenced for such large game animals as buffalo, antelope, mountain sheep, and elk to assure perpetuation of these species for the benefit of the American public. Surplus animals produced on such preserves available for restocking purposes elsewhere. Some of the reservations, such as the Ufper Mississippi River Wild Life and Fish Refuge, afford exceptiona opportunities for recreation and the study of wild life. Most of the wild-life refuges heretofore established were on small islands still belonging to the Federal Government and primarily frequented by sea birds. Others were established on public lands in the interior, and some of these are suitable for ducks, geese, and shore birds. The great need now is for additional marshland areas for waterfowl, and the units will probably be very materially increased in the not distant future by the establishment of refuges for migra-969440-30

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2 MISC. PUBLICATION 51, U. S. DEPT. OJ!' AGRICULTURE tory birds at the principal concentration areas of the various species in the United States. This has been made possible by the enactment of the migratory-bird conservation act of February 18, 1929, or, as it is frequently termed, the bird refuge law. This legislation supplements the migratory-bird treaty act of 1918, which was passed to give effect to certain provisions of the treaty between the United States and Great Britain for the protection of the birds that spend part of each year in the United States and J?art in Canada. The earlier law under the treaty provides for restnctions on seasons and the talcing of the birds; the new law makes it possible to acquire and maintain areas in which the species may nest, rest, and feed, and without which hunting restrictions would in the long run be of little effect. Besides the birds and mammals for which the reservations were particularly established, numerous other forms enjoy sanctuary there, for on all of them wild-life forms are protected, except certain species that become a menace to others for which the reservations were pri marily established. In addition to the areas maintained by the Bio logical Survey, which have been set aside primarily as wild-life reeervations, some areas within national forests administered by the Forest Service have been set aside to afford protection particularly to big-game animals. On other areas, such as national parks, national monuments, and lighthouse reservations, administered by other branches of the Government for scenic, historic, or other special purposes, wild life is incidentally given protection. All such national wild-life reservations are listed m the following pages, with references by number to their location on maps, Figures 1 and 2. Any complete check list of the species protected at the various reservations would be too voluminous to print. The species here listed are the principal ones found on the various areas, or the ones for which the refuges are primarily maintained. RESERVATIONS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Num State and designation beron Acres map Chief species protected Bureau of Biological Suroev ALABAMA: Petit Bois Island......... 63 ALASKA: Alaska Railway Muskrat 80 and Beaver Refuge. Aleutian Islands.......... 61 Bering Sea (St. Matthew 44 and Hall Islands) BogosloL ................. 51 Chamisso Island.......... 57 Curry Bird, Game, and 81 Fish Refuge. Forrester Island.......... 53 St. Lazaria ... .... ........ 46 'l'uxedni.................. 45 635 Laughing gulls, least terns, black skimmers, Louisiana herons, brown pelicans 4, 160 8,960 Muskrats, beavers. Puffins, anklets, murres, gulls, ducks, geese, ptarmigan, sea otters, red and blue foxes, and on Unimak Island caribou and big brown bears. Puffins, anklets, kittiwakes, glaucous gulls, sand pipers, snow buntings. Sea lions, puffins, anklets, murres, gulls. Horned puffins, Pallas's murres, Pacific kittiwakes, glaucous gulls. Grouse, ptarmigan, b l ack bears, foxes, lynxes, minks ermines, fishes Puffins! anklets, murrelets, murres, guillemots, gulls, petre s, cormorants. Puffins, auk lets, murres, guillemots, gulls, cormorants. Reindeer, caribou, foxes, minks, ptarmigan, waterfowl. Puffins, anklets, murres, guillemots, gulls, petrels, cormorants. Pacific kittiwake:;, glaucous-winged gulls, eider ducks. Created wh!Je this publlcation was in press and not included on map, p. 9.

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NATIONAL WILD-LIFE RESERVATIONS 3 Res ervations administered by the Department of Agriculture--Co.ntinued State and designation B u reau of Biological Surv ev Continued ARIZONA: Salt River'------------ARKANSAS: Big Lake ________________ CALIFORNIA: Clear Lake'--------------Farallon ____ ------_______ Kla m ath Lake (see 0 regon). Tule :Lake'--------------FLORIDA: Breva rd __ ------______ --Indian Key ______________ Island Bay_--------------Key West_ ______________ Matanzas _________ ______ : Matlacha Pass ___________ Palma Sola ______________ Passage Key _____________ Pelican Island ___________ Pine Island ______________ Tortugas Keys ___________ 0EORG1A: Blackbeard Island _______ BAWAD: Num-beron Acres map Z7 70 0 2 49 1 8 86 77 73 7 24 17 84 23 22 6 1 21 1G 66 21, 120 9,000 33,840 10,300 12 -------00-141 GOO Chie f species protected Co rmorants, white pelicans, ducks, geese. Ducks or many species. Gulls, cormorants, white pelicans, ducks1 geese, herons. Pullins, auklets, guillemots, murres, gullS, cormorants. Ducks, geese, sho re birds. Brown pelicans. Herons. Brown pelicans, white ibises, egrets, Loui s iana and little blue herons. Brown pelicans, beron s Cormorants, brown pelicans, man.o'war birds, white ibi ses, herons C l apper rails, black skimmers. Cormorants, brown pelicans, herons. Herons. Laughing gulls, tern s skimmers, cormor an t s heron s sandp ipers. Brown pelicans. Brown pelicans, herons Sooty and noday terns. White-tailed deer, r accoons, opossums, herons, clapper r ails, quail, chachalacas. Hawaiian Islands _________ -----------------Terns albatrosses, s hearwater s pet rel s, boobies, tnan-o wa r bird s Laysan teal, rails, and finches. Johnston Island ___ ---------------------S ooty and noddy terns, wedge-tailed s hearwaters, petrels, boobies, man-o'-war birds. IDADO: Deer Flat --------------Minidoka '-----------iLLINOIS: Refuge (see Minneso ta). IowA: Refuge (see Minneso ta). LoUISlANA: Breton Island ___________ East Timba!ier_ _________ She ll Keys _______________ Tern Islands _____________ MICIDGAN: Huron Islands _________ __ Sisk iwit Islands ____ -----MINNESOTA: Mille Lacs _______________ Refuge (in the States of Illinoi s Iowa, Minne sota, and Wisconsin). MONTANA: Fort Keogh ______________ National Bison Range ___ 29 43 87 87 2 14 9 8 4 5 69 87 12,300 13,240 (') (') (') G3 83 9 Ducks geese, pheasants. Grebes, Forster's terns, cormorants, white pelicans, duck s coots, avocets, herons, sage grouse. J,aughing gull s, royal and Cabot's terns, skimme rs, herons, willets. Gulls, royal terns, skimmers, brown pelicans, 1herons, clapper rails. Royal terns, brown pelican s Laug):ting gulls, royal, Cabot's, and Forster's terns, brown pelicans. Herring gulls, duck s Do Gulls, ducks, geese. Muskrats, minks, raccoons, beavers, foxes, ducks geese, fis hes, mollusks. ( 0 ) 57,000 Waterfowl\ sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasants. 18, 522 Buffalo, e k, deer, mountain sheep, ducks, grouse, pheasants. Nine Pipe 74 Ducks, coots. Pablo -------------------75 Do. Pishkun '-----------------58 3,160 Gulls, ducks, geese, swans. Willow Creek'----------30 3, 200 Ducks, geese. On reclamation project. 'In process of establishment. On Flathead Irrigation project. Created while this publicat!oQ was in press and not Included on map, p. 8.

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4 MISC. PUBLICATION 51, U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE administered by the Department of Agriculture-Continued Numand designation heron Acres map Bureau of Biological SurvevContinued NEBRASKA: Niobrara ____ -------------55 16, 125 North Platte'------------72 5,107 NEVADA: Anabo Island _____________ 64 248 NEW MEXICO: Carlsbad'----------------31 18,680 Rio Grande'------------N'ORTH DAKOTA: 32 55,680 Chase Lake _____________ 20 2,839 Stump Lake ______________ 3 28 Sullys Hill National 657!1 700 Game Preserve OREGON: Cold Springs'------------33 2, 520 Klamath Lake'----------18 81, 619 Lake Malheur ____________ 19 88,960 McKay Creek'----------83 1 813 Three Arch Rocks ________ 10 Upper Klamath Wild Life 85 8,140 Refu ge.' PORTO RICO: Culebra __________________ -----------------Desecheo I s land __________ ----------------SouTH CAROLINA: Savannah River----------82 2, 352 SOUTH DAKOTA: Belle Fourche'----------34 13,680 Wind Cave National 567!1 7, 000 Game Preserve. UTAH: Bear River Migrntory 88 (') Bird Refuge. Strawberry Valley________ 35 14,080 WASIDNGTON: Columbia River__________ 79 8 Conconully'-------------40 1,120 Copalis Rock__ ___________ 1 3 Dungen ess Spit___________ 67 227 Ediz Hook___________ ____ 68 84 Flattery Rocks-----------11 68 Smith lsland_____________ 65 5, 600 Quillayute Needles_______ 12 117 WISCONSIN: Gravel Island (Lake 60 Michigan). Green Bay--------------56 Upper Mississippi River 8 7 (') Wild Life and Fish Refuge (see Minnesota) WYOMING: Elk Refuge ______________ Flat Creek ______________ Pathfinder'-------------Fore&t Service ARIZONA: Orand Canyon National Game Preserve (Kaibab and Tusayan Forests). ARKANSAS: Ozark National Game Refuges Nos.1, 2, 3, and 4 (Ozark Forest). t On reclamation project. 687!1 4,520 76 40 41 34,949 103 886,208 108 21,500 Chief species protectad Buffalo, elk, antelope, prairie chickens, sharp-tailed grouse, quail. Ducks, geese, swans, shore birds. Gulls, cormorants, white pelicans. Ducks, shore birds. Grebes, cormorants, ducks, geese, shore birds. Gulls, white pelicans, ducks, shore birds, grouse. Grebes, gulls, terns, ducks, Wilson's phalaropes. Buffalo, elk, white-tailed deer, antelope, golden-eye and wood ducks, geese, pheasants. Ducks, geese, swans, herons, sharp-tailed grouse Ducks, geese, coots, gulls shore bird s. Grebes, gulls, terns, cormorants, pelicans, ducks, geese, swans, heron s avocets. Ducks geese. Puflin s guillemots, murres, gulls, fork-tailed petrel s cormorants. Ducks, geese. Gulls, royal terns, Bahama ducks, herons coots ground doves. Terns, boobies, man-o' -war birds, oyster catchers. Ducks sho re birds, herons, rai!s coots. Ducks, geese, cur lew s, prairie chickens, pheasants. Buffalo, elk, antelope, grouse, quail. Ducks, geese, sho re birds Ducks, sage grouse. Gulls, duck s geese, blue herons. Gulls, ducks, herons, sooty and sharp-tailed grouse, Hungarian partridges Puffins, murres, g l aucous and western gulls, petrels, cormorants. Grebes, loons, gulls ducks. Pigeon guillemots, California murres, cormorants Tufted puffins, pigeon guillemots California murres. Western grebes, pigeon guillemots, California murres, cormorants, ducks. Grebes, auklets, gulls, cormorants, ducks. Herring gulls Do. Elk winterl, ducks, geese, sage grouse. Elk in winter ducks, geese. Ducks, geese. Mule deer, mountain sheep, Kaibab sq uirrels, grouse, band-tailed pigeons. dusky White-tailed deer, bobwhite quail, turkey s. In process of establishment On national monuments administered by the National Park Service and by tbe Forest Service birds and animals are also protected under Federal law, although these are not strictly game preserves or bird refug es. See also game preserves on military reservations administered as national forests.

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J NATIONAL WILD-LIF E RESERVATIONS 5 Reservations administered by the D epar t ment of Agriculture-Continued State and des i gnation Furest Service-Continued CALIFORNIA: Num-beron Acres map Sequoia National Game Refuge (Sequoia Forest) 109 15, 770 GEORGIA: Cherokee National Game Refuge No.2 (Cherokee Forest). NORTH CAROLINA: Pisgah National Game Preserve (Pisgah For est) OKLAHOMA: Wichita National Game Preserve (Wichita For est) SOUTH DAKOTA: Custer State Park Game Sanctuary (Harney Forest). TENNESSEE: Cherokee National Game Re f uge No.1 (Cherokee Forest). W ASH!NGTON: Mount Olympus Nation 81 Monument (Ol ympic Forest). Wyom i ng: Shoop Mountain Game Refuge (Medicine Bow Forest) 106 14,000 102 98,513 100 60,800 104 44,360 105 30,000 101 299,370 107 28, 318 Chie f spec i es p r otected Mule dee r bears, g r ouse quail f ur anima l s. White-tailed door, quail, turkeys. E l k white tailed door, gray squirrels, rabbits q u a il, turkeys. BuJialo, antelope, elk, white-tailed deer, ducks, quail, turkeys. Mountain goats, mountain sheep, deer, elk, dusky grouse, ruffed grouse. White-tailed dee r quai l turkeys. Olymp i c elk, b l ack-tailed deer, bears, gr o use. Elk, mule deer, grouse. RESERVATIONS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NumState !'nd designatio n bcron Acres Chie f species protected map Bureau of Fis heriu ALASKA: A f ognak Forest and Fish 136 Cultural Reserve. 512,000 Sea otters. l'rlb!.io f Is l ands ___________ 137 49,000 Fu r sea l s, sea lions, anklets mur r es, g ull s Bureau of Lighthouses f uhna r s, cor m orants, r i bilo f sandpipers. CALIFORNIA: Ailo Nuevo Island Light-135 ---------Sea lions. bouse Reservation South Farallon Is l and 133 120 Sea li ons p u !!ins, anklets guillemots, gu ll s, petr e l s LigbthouseReservation cormorants. (seeNavyDepartment). LOUISIANA: Cbandeleur Lighthouse Reservation. 130 5, 000 Lau ghing g ull s, te rn s, skimmers, pelicans. Errol Island ______ __ ______ 134 640 Laughing gulls, tern s skimmers RESERVATIONS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Sta t e anrt designat i on National Park Seroice ALASKA: Olacie r Bay National Monument. Katmai National Monu ment. Mount McKinley Na tiona l Park. Num-beron Ac res map 164 1, 164, 800 165 1 087,990 166 1, 692, 800 Ch i ef species protected Puffins, p i geon gu ill emots, gulls, ter n s cormo r a n ts eider ducks, m ountain goa ts, bea r s foxes Brown bears, f oxes, wate rfowl. Mountain sheep, caribo u moose, bears, g r ouse. On the n ationa l monuments administe r ed by the National Park Ser v ice a n d by the Forest Ser v ice bir d s and animal s a r e a lso protected under Fede r a l l aw alth o u g h these a r e not strictly game preserves o r bird refu ges.

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6 MISC. PUBLICATION 51, U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE Reservations administered by the Department of the Interior-Continued NumState and designation heron Acres map ARIZONA: Orand Canyon National 160 Park. Papago Saguaro National 154. Monument. Petrified Forest National 150 Monument. ARKANSAS: Hot Springs National 164 Park. CALIFORNIA: General Grant National 141 Park. Lassen Volcanic National 156 Park. Muir Woods National 151 Monument. Sequoia National Park___ 14.2 Yosemite National Park__ 143 COLORADO: Colorado National Monu-153 mont Mesa Verde Natio nal 149 Park. Rocky Mountain Na-155 tiona! Park. HAW AU: Hawaii National Park ____ ------IDAHO: Yellowstone National 140 Park (see Montana and Wyoming) MAINE: Acadia National Park____ 161 MONTANA: G l acier National Park____ 152 645,760 1, 940 25,908 928 2, 536 104,320 426 386,560 720,142 13,749 49, 126 241,739 158,720 23,040 9,600 981,681 Yellowstone Nationnl Park (see Idaho and Wyoming). 140 126,720 NORTH DAKOTA: Chie f species protected Mountain sheep, mule deer, antelope, beavers, squirrels, dusky grouse. Nongame birds. Do. Nongame birds. Mule deer, quail, g rouse. Mule deer, bears, quail, grouse. Deer, nongame bird s. bears, quail, grouse. Mule deer. Elk, mule deer, bears. Elk, mule deer, mountain sheep, bears, beavers, sooty grouse. Hawaiian geese, nongame birds. White-tailed deer, beavers, ducks, geese, grouse. Deer, elk, moose, mountain sheep, mountain goats, bears, ducks, geese, grouse, ptarmigan. Sullys Hill National Park_ 148 780 (Sea Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, administered OKLAHOMA: Platt National Park _____ OREGON: Crater Lake National Park. SOUTH DAKOTA: Wind Cave National Park_ UTAH: Bryce Canyon National Park. Zion National Park _____ W ASHINOTON: Mount Rainier National Park. WYOMING: Orand Teton National Park. Yellowstone National Park (see Idaho and Montana.) by Bureau of Biological Survey, Department of Agriculture.) 146 849 Buffalo, elk, white-tailed deer. 145 1 59, 360 Black-tailed deer, elk, bears, martens and other fur 147 163 162 144 (") 10,000 14,080 76,800 208,000 96,000 140 I, 992, 960 bearers, grouse. (See also Wmd Cave Natwnal Game Preserve, adminis tered by Biological Survey.) Mule deer, grouse. Do. Black-tailed deer, mountain goats, bears, grouse. Elk, mule deer, bears, grouse Buiialo, mountain sheep, antelope, mule deer elk white-tailed deer, moose, bears, white pelicans, ducks, geese, swans, dusky and ruffed grouse. Created while this publication was In press and not included on map, p. 8.

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J NATIONAL WILD-LIFE RESERVATIONS 7 RESERVATIONS ADMINISTERED BY THE NAVY DEPARTMENT 0 NumState and desi g nation heron Acres C hie f spe c ies protected map HAW AU: Midway Island s ______ ------VIRGINIA: --------Albatro ss es, Laysan rails, Laysan finches. Nava l Operati o n B as e (Hampton Roads) 172 945 Rabbits, quail. Navy Mine Depot (Yorktown). 173 12,467 Rabbits, q u ail, turkeys Birds are protected o at the nava l ammunition depot, St. Juliens Creek, Va. (221.6 acres), and at tbe Norfolk (Va.) Navy Yard (361.6 acres), by order of the commandant, Fifth Nava.l Distr ict. RESERVATIONS ADMINISTERED BY THE WAR DEPARTMENT7 State and designation GEORGIA: Num-ber on Acres map C hief species protected Chickamauga and C hat-180 6, 542 Deer, rabbits, gray s q uirr e l s, quail, turkeys. tanooga N a tiona.! Mili-tary Park (see Tennessee) MICIDGAN: Brady District -----183 2, 680 Deer, squirre l s, quail. MISSISSIPPI: Vicksburg Nationa.l Mili-182 1, 323 Deer, squirr e l s, opossums, rabbits, raccoons, foxes, tary Park. quai l. MONTANA: Fort Miss oula Dis trict'----------1, 276 Deer, rutted grouse. NEW MEX1CO: Zuni District'----------184 45,423 Deer, squirrel s turkeys, grouse. SOUTH DAKOTA: Meade District'------187 5, 548 Dee, antelope, prairie chicken s. TENNESSEE: C hickamauga and Chat-180 Roads Rabbits, gray squirrels, quail, turkeys. tanooga Natlona.l Mili only. tary Park (see Georgia). Shiloh National Military 181 3, 546 Deer, foxes, raccoons, opossums, squi rrel s, m u skrats, Park. skunks, minks. WYOMING: Pole Mountain District'-_ 189 56,132 Antelope, prairie chickens. Wild life i s protected a.lso on 8 otbe. r nationa l parks-Antietam Guilford. Court House, N C ., Moores Creek, N C., Gettysburg, Pa., Fort Donelson, Tenn., Stones Rtver, Tenn. Fred ericksburg, Va ; and Petersburg, Va.-on 2 nati onal mon ument reservations-Fort Pulaski, Ga. and Meriwether Lewi s Tenn.-and on national cemeteries. Game preserve on military r eservation administered as nationa l f o r est by order of tbe Secreta ri es of War and Agriculture.

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e Admi,/3frretl o/ Suryy o/ olfltr fitlmJI M11rch I, 83140CM FIGURE !.-Location of the national wild-life reservation s listed on pages 2 to 7. To lind the names of the reservations in any State, refer in the list to the corresponding number under that State. Those numbered under 100 were established primarily for the p rotec tion of their wild life and will be found in the list administered by the Bureau of Biological Survey; those numbered above 100 are of reservations established primarily for other purposes and the wild life is administered incidentally by the agency in charge of the area. See Figure 2 for location of reservations in Alaska. Reservations are also included in the list for Hawaii and Porto Rico 00 ..... fT1 (") q t:D t' ..... (") 0 z C1l ..... q fT1 t1 t.:J >-3 0 l:lj ;.. ..... (") t.:J

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NATIONAL WILD-LIFE RESERVATIONS WtLD-LtFE RES/VAT/ONS OF 17LASKII FIGURE 2.Location of wild-life reservation s in Ala s ka. For explanation of numbers, see legend for Figure 1, page 8. By Executive order, scrne of the islands in the Aleutian Islands Reservation (No. 61) were removed from the reservatton in November, 1928 ADDENDA 9 Since the issuance of the first edition of this publication the follow ing additional reservations have been established: Reservations administered by the Department of Agriculture State and designation Date estabAcres Chief species protected li s bed Bureau of BiolO(Jical Suroev FLORIDA: Cedar Key s ___________ __________ July 16, 1929 224 C ormorants, pelicans, herons. MONTANA: Benton Lake ________ _________ Nov 21, 1929 12,234 Duck s geese, s hore birds.

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ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE March 14, 1930 Secretary of Agriculture ________ ___ ___ ARTHUR M.' HYDE. Assis tant Secretary _____ __________ _______ R. W. DUNLAP. Director of Scientific Work _______ ________ A. F. WooDS. Director of Regulatory Work ____ ___________ WALTER G. CAMPBELL. Director of Exten s ion Work _______________ C. W. WARBURTON. Director of Per s onnel and Busi ness AdminisW. W. STOCKBERGER. tration. D i r ector of Information _______ ___________ M. S. EISENHOWER. Solicitor ________________________________ E. L. MARSHALL. Weather Bureau ________ --_________ CHARLJilS F. MARVIN, Chief. Bureau of Animal Industry ____ _____ ____ JoHN R. MoHLER, Chief. Bureau of Dairy Indus try ________________ 0. E. REED, Chief. Bureau of Plant Industry ______ ______ _____ WILLIAM A. TAYLOR, Chief. Fores t Service ___________________________ R. Y. STUART, Chief. Bureau of Chemistry and Soils_ _______ ____ H. G. KNIGHT, Chief. Bureau of Entomology __________ _________ C. L. MARL.ATT, Chief. Bureau of Biological Survey ___ ___________ PAUL G. REDING'roN, Chief. Bureau of Public Roads_ _________________ THOMAS H. MAcDoNALD, Chief. Bureau of Ag1-icultural Economics __________ NILS A. OLSEN, Chief. B ureau of Home Economics_ __________ ___ LoursE STANLEY, Chief. Plant Quarantine and Control Administration_ LEE A. STRONG, Chief. Grain Futures Administration _____________ J. W. T. DuvEL, Chief. Food, Drug, and Insecticide Administration_ WALTER G. CAMPBELL, Director of Regulatory Work, in Charge. Office of Experiment Stations_ _____________ -----,Chief. Office of Cooperative Extension Work ________ C. B. SMITH, Chief. LibrarY--------------------------------CLARIBEL R. BARNETT, Librarian. 10 U S GOV ERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1930 l!'or sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. --Price 5 cents

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I u u u n--u 1111 u u 1111 u u u .. Ill i i i i i I I i i i i i Nature -Trail Survey made in 1939 by the r = Conservation Committee \ i of l The Garden Club of America I t I I I I i I I i I I I f i COPYRIGHT, 1939 BY THE GARDEN CI,Ull OJ AMEIUCA i i I i i l I \ ...... .. I -

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Sanctuary and Nature Trail Survey made i n 1939 b y The Conservation Committee of the Garden Club of America Foreword we take pride in g1vmg you the following Survey which was thought of, and carried out entirely, by Mrs. Luis J. Francke, Vice-Chairman for Preservation. By h er untiring effort, and with the wonderful co-operation of Member C lubs she offers this monograph as a permanent reco rd. Mrs. Andrew Murray Williams, P isca taqua Garclen Chtb. Preface HELEN OGDEN WILLIAMS, Chairman. MRS. Lurs J FRANCKE, Vice-Chairman for P1eservation, N01th Comrtry Gmclen Chtb of Long Islancl The inte rest shown by the C lubs in thei r answers to the Questionnaires has given the greatest satisfaction to the Conservation Committee and we wish we might personally thank every single one who h elpe d. W e hop e that every m e mb e r who us es the Survey will realiz e that it has been made by our m embers themselves. W e hop e that everyone will realize, too, that if the Sanctuary they r eporte d is not included, th e r e must b e a good reason for it. National and State Parks are not included in this Survey because printe d lists of them arc already a vailabl e One of the main objects of the Survey was to point out that without proper protection a Sanctuary cannot function. W e believe that for Native Plant and Song Binl Sanctuaries at l east one of the following protective m easures must be assured: A r esident Warden, or a high fence, or wall with a gate that can be lo c k e d wh e n the Warde n is not present, or both the enc losur e and the c ustodian. Also fire lanes or fir e towers are very desirable. Waterfowl Sanctuaries arc protecte d by surrounding water and a W arde n in the Nesting Season. Natme Tm'il s r equire policing in some areas but do not necessarily 1equi1 e a Warde n. A true Sanctuary is an especially well guarded area and should not be confused with a Nature Trail. The forme r d epen ds on protection for its existence, while the latter m ust b e open to the public to be effective. The ideal might be to us e a Naturc 'l'rail as the app1 oach to a Sanctuary. As signs a1e a nec essary part of the Nature Trail, t h e re might be some asking the public to: "Help Us to Protect the S anctuary Beyond." Also one on the gate might say that: "Th e Sanctuary is holding the natural beauty in trust, as Nature designe d it, for the benefit of both present and future citizens.'' Signs of that kind have been known to make a good impression ann might go a long way towards furthering c ivic pride and appreciation. The words "Help Us" and "Protect" appeal to nearly every one. 3

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When this Sanctuary and Nature Trail Survey was first started there wer e two objectives; one, to find out how many actual Sanctuaries and Nature Trails there were in the States wh ere GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA Clubs exist and how much of the work in establishing them had been done by Garden Clubs; and two, at the same time to learn whether the Club members were conscious of potential Sanctuary areas in their neighbor hoods-Since that small beginning, so much water has gone over the dam in the reports of potential Sanctuaries that we have had to refrain from even reading about the "magnificent stands of fast disappearing forest trees'' or ''ravines with rocks dripping with rare wild flowers and ferns in danger of being dynamited'' etc. All the reports on potential Sanctu aries have been filed for future use. Our attention has been concentrated on what has actually been accomplished in establishing Sanctuaries and Nature Trails. The Smvey which follows answers the first of om ques tions, but there are many sides of the picture created by the voluminous conespondence from the Clubs that do not show in the Survey proper. With that in mind, some of its varied aspects may be mentioned here. For instance, one wonders why the 1e are not more Garden Club owned Sanctuaries. Since the investment of 75,000 in one Sanctuary (Redwoods) in 1931, by m embers of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA, one wonders why they have not gone further in the much neede d and constructive work of purchasing special areas. There is scarcely a neighborhood without its treasures of trees or swamps OI' ravines that ate daily threatened. Swamps a1e of inestimable value in beautifying the landscape as well as preserving the native terrestrial orchids and azaleas, gtasses, mallows, wild ros es shadbush and other lov ely native plants. They are generally llOt useful to the agriculturist and alas, are too often used by him as a dump. Swamps can be us e d as Sanctuaries very successfully, for native plants and birds too. A pair of b eavers create conditions favorable to both native plants and birds. If it is necessary to drain the swamps for mosquito control, th e wisest way seems to b e to lead the water into the ponds where control measures can be practiced very much more easily and cheaply than in ditches. It has been found that stocking the pond with larvre-eating fish helps to control mosquitoes ; also, populating the shore with frogs, toads and harml ess snakes is very inexpensive and effective. Many birds nest natmally in swamps, and e levated wooden platforms may be use d as n esting ''islands" in the swamp, thus providing dry n esting sites attractive to additional species. All the Flycatche rs like to build their nests near swamps. Plants such as wild rice and millet are easily added to the existing food supply. Cons ervation is being practiced in a magnificent manner by both Federal and State Governments in their National and State Parks, and the Departments of Agriculture, Forestry, etc., that it seems the Garden Clubs should confine their activities to the smaller propositions of providing protection to small areas both for song birds and native plants. The work of the Biological Survey in establishing the huge Waterfowl Refuges is of vital importance for -the perpetuation of species of Waterfowl and for their multiplication, but it bas done comparatively little for the song bird population, except incidenta lly. The same may be said of the National and State Parks in the perpetuation of native plants, especially the small wild flow e rs which should be prese1ved in smaller areas in every County. It is the natmal heritage of every child to be able to see the wild flowers in their native haunts without traveling to distant places. The example set by the Litchfield, Connecticut, Garden Club is thrilling. The one hundred and fifty acres of beautiful and varied land and wate r whieh Mr. Alain White and his sister, Miss May W. White, turned ovet to the Litchfield Garden Club to manage and preserve, has grown more and more beautiful as natUl'e has been allowed to reassert herself with the h elp from the Club members in planting certain flowe1s that belong ecologically to that region. To hear that the Club spent $1,200 4 (

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last year on the approaches to the beautiful memorial bridge being built. by a citizen in the San.ctuary, nnd to see a great colon y of wild senna in bloom and hear that ''a member planted it,'' and that their regular budget covered the cutti11g of ten miles of paths all summer was to prove what one Garden Club can do in the preservation of beauty. It is interesting to note that the Committee managing the Sanctuary is composed of half Garden Club members and half townspeople. The Chairman of the Com mittee is a member of the Garden Club Then take the small Garden Club of Tryon, North Carolina, so ably described in The Readers Digest by Donald Culross Peattie. His mother was president of that Club and was one of the founders of the Pearson's Falls Sanctuary. The members of that small Club had the courage to buy over three hundred acres containing several waterfalls and a ravine to save them from destruction by a Po\ver Company, and today it is the perfect example of Nature 1 eprodncing the loveliest flowers and flower ing shrubs because of the protection given. Incidentally, the project drew the Garden Club members together and gave them something to work for; to pay off the mortgage and interest charges. This is an outstanding example because the Garden Club bought the laud, established the Sanctuary, and now owns and maintains it, a unique distinction. They have a picnic ground outside the Sanctuary proper for which they charge twenty-five cents per person admission. Let us look at the Pleasant Valley Bird Sanctuary at Lenox, lv,Lassa ch us etts, which is a model for the whole country now. Originally, Miss Mary Parsons in 1928 proposed to her Ga1den Club that it undertake the establishment of a Wild Flower Sanctuary on an old farm with a huge old barn. Eventually, an Association was formed with members of the Garden Club and of other organizations and individuals which now owns and runs this Sanctuary, one of the best in the Country. It adopted a broader ideal than that proposed originally, of a r ese rvation for rare and vanishing American wild flowers, in providing for: first, to have growing there every tree, shrub, wild flower and fern native to Berk shire County; second, to have living there-by attracting them-every bird resident in the County a nd all migratory species passing through; and third, to interest people, young and old, in this plant and animal life so that they would wish to preserve and not destroy it. Vi&itors to the four Nature Trails at Bear Mountain would never dream that they were started through a game played by a man with a few boys at Tuxedo, nearby. Little did those responsible for the first Nature Trail realize what a giant was being born! 'l'he idea was enlarged u):>on and this area is now the pride of The American Museum of Natural History, The Palisades Interstate Park Commission, and the many scien tists who I'UU it. Another outstanding Native Plant and Scenic Sanctuary is at Point Lobos Reserve, California. Beloved of artists and nature lovers, it was for years ignored by the rest of the public except for picnicking. Then a group of artists and nature lov ers interested the State Park Commis sion, the Save-TheRedwoods League, and the Carn egie C01poration of New York, acting through its President, Dr. John C. Merriam, also Presi dent Wilbur of Stanford University, and others They formed a Commis sion, studied the situation from every point of view and then stated their policy and purpose as follows: '' 'To lceep at a high level of pelfection the 1mique nat11ml conditions 1tpon which the ,q1eatest values of Point Lobos depend, in order to malce these permanently available for the enjoyment, education and inspiration of the public.' ''Thus was the pu1pose stated, and thus was the policy detmmined both fo1 the development and use. Its g11iding principle was modemtion. Ex isting conditions we1e c hang ed as little as possible, and these only in the inte1est of resto1ing natmalness or checking destnwtive tendencies. Automobile 1oads, f01' instance, 1vere 1ed1wed f7om sixteen thousand to eight thousand feet, and their scars removed, without lessening thei1 main function 5

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.. of carrying visitors within 1easonable distance of impo1tant points Parking places were located after cmeful study. 1'he finm meas a1e to be entered only on foot, over unobt1usite tmils which follow the logical of travel and lead to of greatest ancl interest, as determined by the analysis of the property. Entrance is free, except that the Commission has retained as a protective rneasttre an toll of fifty cents pe1 car, which has the three-fold rnerit of p1oviding 1evenue for ad ministration, weeding casual travele1s who are not interested, and giving enhanced appreciation of an expm ience thl-ough having paid for it. Maraudms of the landscape, it is {o1tnd, clo not so readily mobilize on foot.'' As a direct result of the fine protection given this area, the dread cypress canker may never reach these g l orio u s t rees-th e last of the Mon terey Cypress, as au original stand. It is earnestly hoped that State Park Boards will realize that the best way to save our wild flowers is to establish many small Sanctuaries, fenced in enclosures of native plants, within the State Parks, where fur thermore, adequate protection, preferably with a custodian, will be give n The visit made last spring by some Garden Club members to a State Park, followed by a visit to an adjoining private place, proved that where the public had not been admitted and the area guarded, t h e Wild Flowers formed a carpet, whilst in the Park there were onl y remnants here and there of what bad been great colonies before the Par k was made and the public admitted. Park policing had not prevented vandalism and the education of the public in appreciation may be co-incident with t h e total extinction of anything worth saving. Recreation for humans should not be paid for with natural beauty; each has its place in Nature. Play grounds and picnic sites cannot also be ''Sanctuaries'' for either plants or bh-ds. This Committee hopes to visit as many of the Sanctuaries as poss i b l e and will be glad to receive news from time to time of those now reported and of any new Sanctuaries or Nature Trails. We wou l d li k e to keep a reco1d for our files. We shall be delighted if we can be of assistance in giving advice on the establishment of new ones. California Andre e Clark Bird Refuge, East end of Santa Barbara, California, ad joining Highway 101 and Southem Pacific Railroad. Waterfowl Sanct uary Fo1ty-three acres. Establish ed in 1928 by citizens of Santa Barbara, Mrs. Huguette Clark giving 54,000. Now owned by City of Santa Barbara. Supported by city taxes. Budget $1,780 Two islands (arti ficia l for nest ing.) No boating, no auto parking at nearby 1oads, except at o n e point. Regula1 feeding of birds. List of birds. Open to public f r ee Protection given by full time caretaker, two signs asking public to protect it; no picnic area, no vandalism. Reported by Miss Pearl Chase, California Representative (1938-1939), Garden Club of Santa Bmbam and Montecito. Condor Sanc tu a r y, Los Padres National Forest (located in Sisquoc River area), California. Special Federal Condor Refuge. Twel ve hundred acres. Establish ed i n 1936 by Secretary of Agriculture, owned by U. S. Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. No visitors allowed Exact location not made public. No roads or hails near. Naturalist paid from privately subscribed funds secured with aid of National Association of Audubon So cieties. For a limited period have a student .naturalist and guard for spe cia! observation. Effort is being made to prevent California Condor, t h e largest bird in N01th America, from becoming extinct. Covers, roosts, and nesting places have been supplied. Reported by Miss Pearl Chase, through Forest Service, Santa Barbara. 6

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The Garden Club of America Redwood Grove, 'fwo hundred and thirtyone miles north of San Francisco on Eedwood Highway in Humboldt State Redwood Park, Humboldt County, California. Native Plant Sanctuary. Song B i1d Sanctua1y. Three thousand one hundred and two acres. Establish e d in 1931 by the gift from the GAR.DEN CLUB OF AMERICA. members of 7 5 ,000 which was matche d by the California State Park Board Fund. Also a gift of land for approaches by Mrs. William Kent of California, and the gift of funds for a bridge by Mrs. William H. Sage of Albany, New York. Now owned by the State of Califomia and supported by State funds. The GARDEN CLuB m' AMERICA has supplied additional funds since establishment of grove for Custodian-Naturalist in summe r months. Entrance in summer is ove r a bridge and in winte r by feny. Open free to public. Partial prot ection give n by Custodian in summer only and patroll ed by Park Warden, who also patrols othe r P a rks. Some v andalism reported last winter. Vi1gin Coast r e dwoods and anc i ent yews with an unusual ground cover and shrubs. Mimeographed list ''Redwood Highway Flora,'' and pamphlet ''Trees, Shrubs and Flowers of the Redwood R egion.'' Information all year obtain a ble from Save-the-Redwoods League 714 Sansome Street, San Francisco, California. Telephone Douglas 2553. R eporte d by Miss P earl Chase through Save-the-Redwoods League Goleta Slough. Eight mile s West of Santa Barbara, Califomia. P1ivate Waterfront S even hundred acres. No admission. Established 1931 by pre s ent own ers: Pete r Coop e r Bryce and H. L. Chase. Fenced in, locked gate t enant farme r During duc k s eason very few attempt to trespass, but g a m e warde n and t e n ant are ale1't. 'l'his area has been famous for years for its shore life and number of game birds. There is an ''island'' and heavy growth of rushe s and othe1 cover and food. Fairly shallow estuary along the ocean where waterfowl of all so rts have compl e t e protection. R eporte d by Miss P earl Chas e Laguna Blanca (Spanish for "White Lake," natural lake), fou r miles w est of Santa Barbara, California. P1ivate .Wa t erfowl Sixty acre s Op e n to public free. M any students visit the shore s of the lake throughout the y ear. Esta blish e d by present own er, Hope Ranch Estates ( two thousand acre s ) H S Chase, President. Deputy Sheriff Patrol in motor full time Cats and othe r predators controlled. No boating or fishing allow e d e x cept for short p eriod to two or thre e persons by permit. R eporte d by Miss Pearl Chase. Lake Merritt Duck Sanctuary, Oakland, California. City Waterfowl About one a c r e on shore Establishe d by 1869 State Legislature. Now own e d and supported by Oakland Park D epartment. Open to public free Fence d in, lo c k e d g a t e W arden in attendance. Birds f e d and b ande d. An ''island' was made in the lake as sp ec ial nesting plac e and for young duc ks, als o for safety at night. R eporte d by Mrs. Ergo A. M ajors, Conservation Chairman, Piedmont Ga1de n Club. The Muir Woods in Marin County, 2 2 miles S. W. of Mill Valley, Cali fornia. F e d ewl Nat i ve Plant .th'e a Five hundre d acres. Donated in 1908 to U S. Gov enunent by Mr. William Kent. Name d in honor of the famous naturalist, John Muir. Budge t '1, 5 00, F ederal appropriation. Has a Cus todian a.nd the Gov e rnm ent Range r is a N aturalist. Sm all muse um. It has a cree k and mountains, a fine stand of virgin redwoods, with f erns and othe r tropical growth. 'l' .here is a picnic a.1ea and signs asking protection. The r e is no vandalism; the public appreciates the park. Lists of native plants and song birds. Reported by M1s. Norman B Livermore C alifomia. R epresentative 19391940, M embe r -at-Lar,qe, tlll'ough Thomas T Kent. 7

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Point Lobos Pre serve, Carmel, California. Native Plant Resmv e Es tablished by Save-The Redwoods League and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Supported by automobil e toll of fifty cents per ear to reach vicinity. Thtee hundre d species of plants, one hundred and seventy-eight vertebrates, eighty-eight species marine invertebrates. Fine specimens Mon terey_ Cyp ress. Special work on eyp1ess disease control. Protected by geologic formation and sea, also no roads, only foot paths. Decrease in vandalism. Paper bound book issued by Carnegie Institution, Washington, "Vertebrate Animals of Point Lobos Reserve," typed list "Plants and F l owers at Point Lobos Preserve.'' R eported by Miss Pearl Chase. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden of the Native Plants of California, Santa Ana Canon, Orange County, California. Private Native Plant Sanc tuary. Five or six acres. Permit from F F. D. Anaheim, Secretary at above addr ess for visiting the Garden during April, May and June on Fridays may be had by enclosing a three-cent stamped addressed envelope. Established by the owner, Mrs. Susannah Bixby Bryant, Member-at-Large. Privately supported. Sandy rive r bottom along Santa Ana River. Only plants indigenous to Orange County. R eporte d by Miss Pearl Chase. Redwood Regional Park, in hill back of East Oakland, California. En trance on R e dwood Road. City Native Plant and Song Bird Sanct1tary. Seventeen hundred acres. Establishe d in 1 9 36 by present owner, East Bay R eg ional Park District, 820 Chabot Road, Lake Temescat, Oakland. Sup ported by five-cent tax levy. Fence d in, locked gate, Warden in attendance. Grove of redwoods tlr1ee and a half miles long. To be kept in native state for hik e rs and horseback riders. Open to public by pe1mit. R eporte d by Mrs. Ergo A. Majors, CollSei'vation Chairman, Piedmont Gar den Cl1tb. Round Top Regional Park, in hills back of Oakland, Califomia, off Sky line Boul e vard, City Native Plant Sanct1wry. Two hundred and twenty eight acres. Establishe d in 1936 by present owner, East Bay Regional Park District, 820 Chabot Road, Lake remeseal, Oakland. Supported by flve cent tax l evy. Fenced in, locked gate. Open to public by permit. Signs asking public to protect it. Hilly area kept in native state. R eporte d by Mrs. Ergo A. Majors, Conservation Chairman, Piedmont Gmden Club. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Mission Canyo n Santa Barbara, Califor nia. Native Plant and Song Bird Sanctnm y. Thirty acres. Established in 1926 by Mrs. William H.. Bliss and Dr. and Mrs. E. J. Bissell. Owner, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Inc. Supported by private endowments and gifts. Budget .,000. Full time Wa1 den and full time Naturalist in at tendance. On duty 8 A M. to 6 P.M. Fenced in with shrubbery and trees. Small building called Information Center. C lasses for adults and children. Signs asking protection. No vandalism. Woodland, water, rock formation. Garden Testricted to p lants indigenous to California. R eporte d by Miss Pearl Chase, and Mrs. Neville T. Usher, Conservation Chairman, Garden of Santa Bmbam and Mont ecito Colorado Broadmoor Garden Club Wild Garden near Color ado Springs, Colora do, on Cheyenne Mountain about three miles from Broadmoor. Educational Native Plant Gard en 1 'wo acres. In 1935 establ ish ed by Broadmoor Gar d e n Club. Own e d by Club and mainte nance from treasury. New planting by special donations from members. Not open to public except by invita tion. Fenced in front with rail fence of aspen logs, the rest with four stands of barbed wire. Picnic tables and seats; rustic benches at view 8 ..

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-points. Wood land with water piped iu, mountains. Disp lay of the flora of Colorado in naturali zed plantings. Plants a l ong trails labell ed wit h botanic and common names. List of flora given. Song birds present. Reported by Mrs. James Waring, Colorado Representative, Garden Club of D enver Cheyenne Mountai n Nature Preserve, south of Schoo l on 1200 Cheyenne Road, Colorado Spr ings, Colorado. Nature 'l 'mil. Seven and one-half aeres. Given in 1926 by the Myron Stratton Home Estate to School; supported by school taxes. Woodland and stream. A pienie area. Signs asking protection by public; no vandalism. Fe need in. Bird feeding house, labelled Nature Trails, and outdoo r theatre in woods R eported by Mrs. James Waring. Sharp Tail Grous e Preserve. Five miles south of Castle Roek (south of Dem
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specimens of birds and animals in Connecticut. Classes of childten in mu seum only. Now owned by Audubon Society of Connecticut. Endowed. La1 ge pond, fresh water, marsh land. Forty-two species of birds nested here one year. Reported by M1s. Clare n ce B. Sturges, Conservation Chairman, Fairfield. 'l'he GARDEN CLUB OF,AMER.ICA Chairman Southern New England Zone. Fayrewold. Quaker Ridge, North Greenwic h, Connecticut. P. 0 Port chester, New York. Native Plant Sanctuary. Song Bi1d Sanctua?"y. One hundred and eighty acres. Established in 1899 by Benjamin '1'. Fairchild. Now owned by B. Tappen Fail-child, nephew. Privately supported. Garden open by appointment, Mr. Benjamin '1'. Fairchild, 76 Laight Street, New York City Telephone, Walker 5-7900. Superintendent of Fayrewold, Mr. Russell Jones, P 0. Portchester, New York. Telephone, 2850-J Greenwich, Connecticut. Protected by walls, locked gates and natural barriers, thickly planted impenetrable hedges. Woodland, pond, swamp, meadows, cultivated fields, rock formation. Of geological interest, sixteen great rocky ledges, old native trees, profusion of wild flowers which are rapidly disappearing elsewhere List of flora with time of bloom. An abundance of wild life, deer, hare, heron, wild duck, pheasant, quail, woodcoc)<, wild doves, warblers and other song birds. Reported by Mrs. B. Tappan Fairchild, No1th Country Garde11 Club of Long Island, New York. Copies sent to New York Clubs; Garden Cl1tb of Orange and D1ttchess Counties and Bedford Gmden Club (both of which founder was member) and to Greenwich Gmden Club, Con necticut. Fern Planting of Mrs. Edward D. Thurston Jr. Sharon, Conn one a11d one-half miles from Post Office ou road to West Cornwa ll. P1ivate New England Fem Planting. 'l'hirty-five hundred square feet, a ll under flat house._ Established 1939 by Mrs. Thurston. Owner is in residence and appointment may be made to see it by writing or by telephone A com plete collection of New England and Mid-Atlantic States ferns, featuring both alkaline and acid soil plants. Reported by Mr. Edward D. Thurston, Jr., Conservation Chairman, Mill brook Garden Club, Inc. (New Y OI'k). Litchfield Wild Garden. One mile south of Litchfield Center, Con n ecti c ut. Take South Street. Nat ive Plant and Song Bird Sanct1wry. One hundred and fifty years. Founded November 1922, by White Memorial Foundation and Wild Gal'den Committee. The Garden Club has the manage ment of the Sanctuary 'and k eeps ten miles of trails out. The appl'oac h es to the Frances Howe Sutton Memorial Bridge were given by the Litchfield Garden Club, costing ,200. The bridge connects the mainland with an island on which many terrestrial o1chids a1e found, a l so fine pines. A Warden and also a Naturalist Botanist, part time, and a workman. C l asses for children. No picnic area but seats in wooded parts. Signs asking help in protecting area. Decl'ease in vandalism. Has a Bil'd Curator an omithologist. Gl'oups of c hildren, members of Botanical Gardens, and of Garden Clubs visit Sanctuary under guidance of botanist host ess. Kept wild, in natural state; one-half mile of river front, meadowland, hills, and rocks, ponds and streams. Box with slit in it placed at entrance for questions by guests. Litchfie l d Garden Club contributes a nnn ally, many gifts from Litchfield people and va1ying sums from White Foundation. Wild Garden Committee is formed half of members of Litch field Garden Club, a nd half of individuals living in the town. Miss Florence E. Ennis, member of the Litchfield Garden Club, is Chairman. Reported by Mrs. Clare nc e R. Hyde, Conservation Chairman, Litchfield Garden Chtb, and Miss Ennis. New Canaan Bird Sanctuary and Wildwood Preserve. Old Stamford Road one mile from center of New Canaan, Connect i cut. Native Plant and Song Bird Sanctuary. Sixteen acres. Established in 1917 by The New Canaan Bird Protective Society. Now owned by New Canaan Park Association. 10

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Budget ,000. Supporte d by du es and so m e aid from Park Board whi c h now pays caretaker's wages Comp l e t ely fenced in by high wire fence. No signs. No vandalism. W a1den in attend ance, except Mondays. Trail with most impo1tant f e rns, trees, and flowers labelle d Woodland, N oro ton Riv er, two ponds, swamp. Small Sanctuary House with meeting room, kitc hen and library, very small. 'fhis sanctuary joins Mead M emorial Park wh e r e t h ere is a playground with children's pool and children's garde ns. In the Sanctu a r y bird and naturew a lks a r e h eld during the season Designe d to permit maximum n esting a 1 eas and concentration of native p l ants; cens n s over fifte e n years shows gratifying inc 1 ease. Patc h of trailing arbutus raise d from seeds. Two old colonie s of trailing arbutus growing where soft coa l was formerly unload e d, are thriving. New Canaan Garde n Club contributes $5 0 to $ 100 per y ea r for new plant material. Every f ern found in Con n ecticut in Sanctuary, rarest l a b e l e d. R epo1ted by Miss Myra Val entine, Conservation C h ailman, (19381939 ) New Canaan Ga1den Chtb. P eoples F o res t N a ture T rai l. Peopl es' State Forest, Barkhamsted, one mil e north of Pleasant Valley, Connectic ut. Sixty ac r es. Established in 1934 by Connecticnt Forestry Department Supported by State appropria tion. Typica l Connecticut wood land with one -quarte r acre water, moun tain laure l. Patrolman. Natura list in attendance. Natural History Mu s e um Lock e d g a t e during fir e season on l y, picnic area. Inc1 ea se in vandalism R eported by Mrs. Edward W. Frisbie Cons ervation Chairman, Connecticut Valley Garden Chtb, through State Forester, Hartford, and District Forestry, Torrington. P oota tu c k Sta t e F o res t N a ture T rai l. Pootatuclc State Forest, along west shore of .Squantz Pond, New Fairfield, Conn ecticut. Established by Con n ecticut Forestry D epartment with the C.C. C Snpported b y State appropriation. Wa1de n in attendance infrequently, no special protection. Picnic area, s i g n s asking p1otection by public, increase in vandalism. Rugged rock formation, mountains, wood l a nd, water, swamp. Reporte d by M1s. Edward W Frisbie through State Forester, H a1tford, and District Fores t er, Torrington. Delaware G reat Blue H er o n ry, Delaw a r e City, D e laware. Speci al Bl11e H er on N esting Ground. Tw enty acres. Lease d. R eporte d by Mrs. MacMillan Hoopes, Delaware R epresentative, Cons e rva tion C h ai1ma n, Gmd e n Clu.b of Wilmington. Florida Key West Area, K e y West, F lor i d a and adjacent k eys north to Noname K ey, National Association of Aud1t b on Societies Warden se r v i ce all year round Principal spe c i es, G1eat White H ero n, Key D ee r, H e rons, Egre t s, Hawks, Owls. R eporte d by Mr. John H. Baker (Executive Director), Vice-Ch airman fOI Edncation, Conservation Committee, the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA. Kissimmee P rairie, North of Lake Ok eec hob ee, Florida. National Association of A11d1tbon Societies. Warden service all year round. Principal spe c ies: Audubon's Caracar a, Florida Crane, Florida Burrowing Owl, Limpkin, Swallow -tailed Kite Everglade Kite, Herons, Egrets, Ibises, H awks Owls. R eporte d by Mr. John H. Baker. 11

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Lake Okeechobee Central Florida. National Association of Audubon Societies. Warden service i n spring nesting season Principal species: Eastern Glossy Ibis, Wh ite Ibis. Reported by Mr. John H. Baker. Lake Washington. Near Meibourne, F l orida. National Association of Audttbon Societies. Warden service during b1eeding season. Principal spe c i es: American Egret, Snowy Egret, Little Blue Heron, Louisiana H ero n Water-tur key, Black-Crowned Nigh t Heron, Yellow-crow n ed Nigh t Heron, Florida Duck, Eastern G l ossy Ibis, White Ibis, Limpkin, Florida Cormorant. Reported by Mr. John H. Baker. Southwes t Coas t. Tampa Bay, Florida, to Cape Sabl e to Card So u n d. National Association of Audttbon Societies. Warden Service all year round. Principal species: Roseate Spoonbill, Heron, Egrets, Ibises, Eagl es, Kites. Reported by Mr. Joh n H. Baker. Tamiami Trail. From Fort Myers, Florida to Miami, F l ori d a. Waterfowl areas of special interest. Driving along high way one may see concentrations of the follow ing: W hite Ibis, American Egret, Snowy Egret, Loui s iana Her on, Wood Ibis (occasional), Swallow-tailed Kite (occasional), a n d inci den tally a great variety of small birds, as is a l ways true in suc h areas. Reported by Mr. Joh n H Baker. Upper Florida Keys Keys i n F lorida Bay, and Overseas H i g h ways, Flor i d a. Ca r d Sound Bridge to Marathon. National Association of Audub on Societies WaTden seTvice all year Jound. Principal species: Great White Heron, Roseate Spoonbill, Reddish Egret, W h ite-crowned Pigeon, Herons, Egrets, Hawks, Owls. R eported by Mr. John H. Baker. Georgia G eorgia Coastal Flatwoods Project, (Soil Conservatio n Utilization Pl'Oject) U S. Highway No. 1 (near Waycross), War e a n d B r antley Coun ties, Geor gia. Special Pine Barrens Area, State Native Plant and Wile! Life Sane tu.ary (the only exception to our l'Ule not to list State Parks). Thirty eight thousand acres. Established in 1936 as Wild Life Refttge and Ex perim ental Station by Federal Government (thousands of dollars expen d ed by W.P.A.). Now owned by Federal Government, whic h has l eased it t o Geo rgia Department of Natural Resources for fifty years (from 1938). Previously supported by Federal aid, now being transferred to State. P rojects of Natural Resources, Forestry, and Wild Life Departmen ts, a l so Soil Conservation. Woven wire fence. Warden, full t i me. Naturalist, full time. Warden protects deer and other wild life (hunting prohibited ) Three fire towers. Eighty mi l es of trails and ten miles of 1 oadways. 10,000 acres for preservation of wild life. More t han 1 ,000,000 slas h p i ne seedlings in nmseries. Open to public free. 125-acre lake surrou n de d by picnic grounds with tables, benches, firep l aces, and wat er. Signs ask ing public to protect area. Decrease in vandalism. Con tains woodland, water, swamp, p l ains, and cultivated fields. Reported by Mrs. John W. Grant, Georgia Represen tative, Conservation Chairman, P e achtree Garden Chtb, t h ro ugh U. S Government Land Utiliza tion Divisio 11, N E. Atlanta. Illinois Anne Higginson Spice r Memorial. In Kenilworth Park at K e nilwort h and Richmond Road. Village Parle Nature Trail. 'l'wo acres. Establi s h ed in 1931 by Kenilworth Garden Club and Kenilworth Park Boar d, now owned and maintained by latter. Signs used to ask publi c to protect area. 12

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) Very little vandalism. Protected by Kenilworth polic e Wild :flower path featuring planting of Mertensia and Flowering Crab. Childre n use 'l'rail for study. Reported by Mrs. A. W. Wakely, Con se r vation Chairman, K enilwort h Garden Club. The Charl es Ware Memori al Garden K enilworth Avenue and Warwick Road, K en ilworth, Illinois. Educational Native Plant Area. Three-quarters of a n acte. Established in 1938 by Mrs. Charle s Ware, membe1 of K eni l wo 1 t h GMden Club, and maintain e d by K enilworth Park Boa1 d Too small for a Warden, b\lt beautifully marke d and maintaine d L ow stone wall. Protected b y K enilworth poli ce Reported by Mrs. A. W. Wakeley. Grossepoint L ighthous e N a tu re T rai l. Evanston, Illinois. C'ity Trail, about three acres. Established in 19 3 7 by Gard en Club of Evanston. Now own e d by City of Evanston. Maintaine d b y Garden of Evanston. Budget '300 to $500 a nnually. Op en to public. Fence d on two sides, has a frontage on the s hor e of Lake Michigan. Warde n liv es in Park, on duty parttime. A picnic area. Practically no vandalism. Native shade and s un lo vi ng plants labe l e d, giving co mmon L atin and family names. O ccasio n a l lectures are given to special groups. A c ours e in Nature Study pla1med for spring of 1 939 for Girl Scout Leaders. Groups of Girl Scouts and Leaders visit the Nature Trail as do school children with t eac h e rs. Reported by Mrs. Arthur H Boettche r, C ons er v ation Chahmau, Gm den Cht b of Et, anston. Lincoln M emoria l G a rd e n ten miles from Springfield, Ill., on L a k e Springfield. Special Educati onal Native Plant Area. Approximately one hundred acr es. Established 1937 by the Garden Club of Illinois; the GAR DEN CLUB OF AMERICA Founders' F u nd financed the planting of a small area in 1939 Supported by Springfi eld Parks Syste m. Op e n to the pub lic; Mrs. T. J. Knudson, of the Garden Club of Illinois, GladaCIes, Spl'ing field, Ill., is Warden, part time. Council Rings; no vandalism. Woodland, water, swamp, cultivated fields. ati ve plant materi a l contributed by about fifty garden clubs; map showing plantings. Reported by Mrs. Josep h M. C udah y, Secon d Vice Presid ent, the GARDEN CLUB OF' AMERICA, Lake Forest Garden Club. M ahoney P ar k, Sheridan Ro a d, at South Boundary of K e nilworth, Illi nois Natu1 e T!ail. About five ac r es. Established 19 35 by Kenilworth Home and Gard en C lub. Owned and mainta in e d by Kenilworth Park Board. Protected by Kenilworth Police. Fenced in with gate that may be lo cke d. Increase in vandalism du e to encroaching business cente r and road with h eavy traffic. Nature Trail visited b y groups of children who learn their native trees and shrubs there. Planted by J e ns J e n se n, who has specialized on us e of n ative plant material. Reported by Mrs. A. W. Wakeley. Morton Arbore tum, Lisle, Illinois, near Chicago Native Plant, Song Bird and Waterfowl Sanct1ta1y and Trail. Seven hundre d and thirty four ac1es. Founded in 1921 by Mr. J oy Morton, son of J Sterling Morton (founder of Arbor Day) and fathe1 of Mrs. Joseph M. C udah y Second Vice-President, the GARDEN CLUB OF' AMERICA. Now owned by Morton Ar boretum trustees. Endowment fund set up by Mr. Joy Morton. Budge t app1oximately 40, 000 per year. Library a nd H erbarium. Free lectures and guided bus trips. Illinois Nature Study S c ho o l since 1 936 h eld h e re. Fall cours e s of stud y planned for 19 39. Arboretum open to public free, fenced in, gate lo c k e d at night. Superintendent or som e m ember o'f the staff on grounds from s un up to sun down. Woodland, river, three lak es, and severa l swamps, growing Illinois flora, also a ny plants tha t will grow in soil and climate Signs us e d asking public to protect area. No van d a lism. Printed list of plants. Type d list of song birds and waterfowl. Reported through Mrs. Arthur H. Boettcher, through Director Morton Arboretum. 1 3

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Indiana Wahoo. Southwest part of Mooresville, South Lockerbie Street, Indiana. P1ivate Song Binl Sanctuary. 'l'hree acres. Open to public, owners u sually at hom e, Mr. and Mrs. A. L Wheeler. Established in 1927 Classes for Scouts, also girls from seven years to Scout age. Decrease in vandalism since talks to school children. Two acres of woodland near White Lick Creek, water along one side of property, l ow bottom land, circular bluff, ravines on three si d e s List of song birds. Native plants, dominant spe cies named. Reported by Mrs. W. Richardson Sinclair, Indiana Representative, Con servation Chairman, Indianapolis Garden Club. Louisiana D eadman 's Isl and, V ermilion Bay, Louisiana, near Rainey Sanctuary. National Association of Societies. Warden service during nesting season. Principal species: Herons, Egrets. Reported by Mr. John H. Baker (Executive Director), Vice-Chairman for Education, Conservation Committee, the GARDEN CLUB OF AMt;IUCA. P a s s a'Loutre Mud Lumps. Mouth of the Mississippi Delta, Louisiana. National Association of Societies. Warden service during breeding s eason. Principal species: B1own Pelican. Reported by Mr. John H. Baker. Rainey W ildli f e S a n c tuary. Nea1 Abbeville, Louisiana. National Asso ciation of Auchtbon Societies. Warde n se1vicc all year rou nd Principal species: Blue Gees e Shore Birds, Ducks. Reported by Mr. John H Baker. Maine Baxter Woods N ature Trail and Bi r d S anctuary, Portland, Me., Forest Avenue, near W oodfords Station. N atme l'1ail. Twenty-nine acres. Es tablished 193ii by Conservation Committee of the Longfellow Garden Club, Mrs. B. L. Preston, Chai1man The City helps maintain J?aths, etc., and the Garde n Club cares for it personally; with a budget of $ 1 5. Naturalist in attendance part time. Four hundre d labe ls have been placed jn Nature Trail. Classes conducted for teachers and child1en. Woodland, water, swamp, cultivated field. Large old trees, abundant ground cover and wild flowers, pond and picnic atea with fireplaces, within easy access for city children. Signs asking public protection, decrease in vandalism. This was made out of a woodland used for a dump heap; one hundred truck loads o.f cans a11d mbbish were removed to make this Natme Trail. Reported by Miss Ha.n-iet V. C. Ogden, Maine Representative (19381939), Garden Chtb of j]{t. Desert, through Longfellow Garden Club. D uck I s l and. A bout six miles southeast o.f Bass Harbor Head (Mt. Desert Island), Hancock County, Maine. National Association of So ciet-i e s. Visited by Audubon Nature Camp students. Fifty acres. Warden service. Year t owld Car etaker for Little Duck property, acts as Warden for botl.t islands during nesting season. Principal species : Leach's Petrel, Herring Gull, Great Blackbacked Gull. Reported by Mt. John H. Baker (Executive Vice Chairman for Education, Cons ervation. Committee, the GARDEN CLUB m AM:ERICA. L i t tl e Green I s l and. Off Muscougus Bay, in Knox County, Maine, Na tional Association of Audubon Societies. Visited by Audubon Nature Camp 14

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) students. Principal Gulls. .. Twenty-five acres. Warden service in breeding season only. species: Leach's Petrel, Artie Tern, Common Tern, Laughing Reported by Mr. John H Baker. Todd Wildlife Sanctqary. In Muscongus Bay, Maine. National A.sso ciation of Audubon Societies. (Audubon Nature Camp held here.) Three hundred and thirty acres. Warden service all year round. Principal species: Song Birds, Osprey, Havens. Reported by Mr. John H Baker. Maryland Gwynn 's Falls Nature Sanctuary. In N. W. section of Baltimore County, Maryland, just over City line (twenty minutes by car) in vicinity of Gwynn's Falls Park System. In an isolated area within grounds of Wood lawn Cemetery. Native Plant and Song Bi1d Sanctnary. One hundred acres. Established in 1937 by Mr. Lyttleton B. P Gould. Warden full time, Naturalist part time, members of Natural History Society of Mary land. Area used by Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts for years. T1espassing signs. No vandalism. Woodland, water, swamp, cultivated fields. In th' e wooded area there are large stands of dogwood and redbud trees with predominantiug tree cover of oaks. There are rolling hills and s lope s on either side of Gwynn's Falls, and at the bottom wildlife cover attractive to song birds and small mammals. List of birds. Reported by Mr. Lyttleton B. P. Gould at suggestion of Curator of Pleasant Valley Bird and Wild Flower Sanctuary, Lenox, Massachusetts. Massachusetts Annie Brown Wildlife Sanctuar y. Plum Island, in townships of Newbmy, Rowley and Ipswich. Watmfowl Sa1l.ct1taTy. Fifteen hundred acres. Es tablished October 1936 by The Society of Bir d Clubs of New England, and the Massachusetts Audubon Society, now owned by the latter and supported from membership dues and donations. Budget '3,000. There is a perma nent Resident Wmden and a Naturalist in attendance. It is open to the public free. Sea beach, sand dunes, upland, salt marsh, woodland, swamp. This large wilderness area contains plenty of water and feeding and resting places for waterfowl. On part of p1operty is situated the old Dole farm, dating from 1781. Sketch Map of Plum Island sent. Reported by Mrs. Ward Thoron, Conservation Chairman, North Sh01e Gar den Chtb, through Massachusetts Audubon Society. Gralton G a rden Club Sanctuar y Route 140 out of Grafton, Mass., to ward Upton. About one mile from Grafton Center, left turn down gravel road, less than one hundred feet to trail entrance. Nature Tmil. About three acres. Established in 1938 by Grafton Garde n C lub, which now owns and supports it by appropriations. Small signs ask public to pro tect it. No vandalism. Small brook a nd soarse woodland. Thirteen species of ferns native t h e1e grow in t h e old road, one half mile long. Seventy-five species of shrubs and small plants have been added. List of flora. Reported by M1s. Frank C hannin g Smi t h Jr., Conservation Chairman Worcester Garclen Chtb, through Grafton Gar:den Club. Milton Wild Flow e r Garden, Milton, Massachusetts. Milton Hospital Driveway a11d Cunningham Park, Edge Hill Road, near E!lst Milton, along brook brd. Edncational Native Plant Garclen Now owned by Cunniilgham Parle Supported by Milton Ganlen Club, cooperation of Trustees of Cun15

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riiugham Park. Budget a year for upkeep, additional for pla11ting; 100 a year for fighting poison ivy, gift of Park 'L'rustees. Op en to public free. C l asses conducted by Schools and Scouts. Educatio11al project for townspeople. Decrease in vandalism due to school cooperation through teach ers sent to Nature Camp eac h summer. Sign: "Milton Wild Flower Ga1den for all to Enjoy not Destroy.'' List of planted material native to woods, and along brook. Reported by Mrs. Walter Denison Brooks, Consen'ation Chairman Milton Garden Club The Northfield Hotel Nature Trail, East Northfield, Mass. Nlt tu1e 1'mils, one a mile long, the other three quarters of a mile; about twenty acres. Established in 1936 by the Hotel, Mr. A. G Moody, Manager; now sup ported by it. Fenced in. Naturalist, Mr. Maurice Btoun, in attendance dUJing May and periodically in summer. Op en to public free. Signs asking public protection; no vandalism. Classes for adults con ducted in spring. Woodland, water, swamp, rock fo1mation. One hundre d and t hirty eight species of birds listed; plants partially listed. Many uncom mon native plants introduced. Bird boxes and feeding shelters erected. Nature Trail very popular, designed to sustain interest the year round. Reported by Miss Elsie M. West, Massachusetts Representative, Buzza1ds Bay Garden Club, through Mr. Maurice Broun, Clll'ato r Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Pa. Pleasant Valley Bird and Wild Flower Sanctuary, Ler rox, Berkshire Coun ty. Two miles northwest of village. Native Plant and Song Bi1d Sanc t uary Nature trail. Four hundred and fifty-four acres. Established iu 1928 1929 by Pleasant Valley Bi1d and Wild Flower Association of Berk shire ounty. Owned by the Association and supported by membership fees and occasional donations. Budget 4,000-'5,000 per year. Resident Warden, Naturalist, all year. Single strand wire fence, grounds patroll ed Nature classes arranged by appointment fo1 adults a11d irregu l arly for chil dren. Three fireplaces and frequent benches. Signs asking public pro tection, no vandalism noted. Tea room, shop, wild flow e r gardens, fernery, beaver colony. Nature Trail with all types of labels Museum of Natural History with e lectric nature games, herbarium, birds' nests, living anin1als, insects, and collection of local antiques. Eight mil e network of trails for walking and climbing, mountain lookouts. Woodland, ponds, swamp, cultivated fields, l edges. Reported by Miss Mary Parsons, Lenox Gmllen Clttb, t hrough Dr. George J. Wallace, Warden, Pleasant Valley Sanctuary. The Worcester Garden Club Plant Sanctuary and Nature Trail. Western Worcester, Massachusetts, partly in Paxton, about four miles from Worces ter and one and one -l1alf mil es west of Tatunck, part in Boynton Park. part in Dr. Kinnicutt's estate. Native Plant Sanct1ta1'Y and Nat111e Tmil. Two hun(lte d acres. Established in 193 5 by Worcester Garden Club. Now owned by City of Worcester and Dr. Roger Kinnicutt. Supported by Worcester Garden C lub. Budget 300. Warden in r eside nc e, fina11ced by City. Open to public free. Picnic area in Park and at Dr. Kinnicutt's. Signs asking public protection; decrease in vandalism. Woodland, brook and water falls, rock formation. Feed birds in winter. Thirty species of t r ees, twenty-five species of ferns, shrubs and wild flowers in abundance. C la sses for children. Reported by M1s. Frank C hanning Smith, Jr. Michigan Edwin S George Reserve. Museuui of Zoology, University of Michigan, near Pinckney, Li ingston County, Michigan. Native Plant and Song Bird Sanctumy. Thirtee n hundred and twenty acres. P t esente d to University 16 I \

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J of Michigan in 1930, by Colonel Edwin S. George. Budget variable; sup ported by the Unitrersity under the direction of Museum of Zoolog y Fenced with locked gate and patt"Olled. Signs asking protection. No vandalism. Under supervision of Director. Full time Custodian and part time Natural ist. Woodland, springs, bog. Oak-Hickory Association on Momines and Eskars. Tamarack, Chamrodaphne, Rims vernix, Ile x Reporte d by Mrs. Frederic k C. Ford, Michigan R epresentative (1938-1939) Conservation Chairman, Gm d e n of Michigan. W K. Kellogg Bird Sanctuary. Wintergreen Lake, Kalama zoo County, East Lansing, Michigan. Wate 1 [owl and Song Bi1d Sanctua1 y. Five hun dre d acres. Established in 1927 by Mr. W. K. K e llogg, of Battle Creek. Inspired by Jack Miner. Now owned by Michigan State Colle ge, East Lansing. Supported by trust funds established by Mr. Kellogg, with some from College Summer Course in Field Biology (listed nuder Nature Camps). Notify Director in advance for guide servi ce Dr. Miles D. Pirnie (Ornithologist and Director), Battle Creek, Michigan. Full time Naturalist in attendance. One hundre d and forty acres fenced; almost no vandalism. Forty acres woodland, twenty-thr ee ac1es water, seven acreP swamp. Aviary. R eporte d by Mrs. Fre derick C FoHl. New Hampshire F e rn Garden of Mrs. La F ell Dickinson, W es t Swanzey, N. H. Private Native F ent Two acres. Established in 1925 by Mrs. Dickh1 son (member, Monadnock GMd e n Club). Open to those interested, by ap pointment. Signs asking publi c protection, no vandalism. List of f erns. R eporte d by Mrs. Fre d e rick M. Dearborn, Conservation Chairman Monad no clc Gard en Club, Director the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA.. Fern Garden of M1s. Frank Channing Smith Jr., Chesbam, N. H., lo cated on Nubanusit Lake, one and on e h alf miles from nearest road. Pri vate Native F ern San c tumy Sb:ty six acres. Appointment to be made by l etter last of June to Labor Day. Establishe d in 1931 by Mrs. Smith (Con servation C hairma n W o1ceste r Gard en Massachusetts) Woodland, water, swamp, rock formation. Ov e r fifty speci e s of f erns, interesting varieties and hybrids. Reported by Mrs. Robert D. Sterling, New Hampshire R ep1esentative, Co ns e 1 vation C h airma n, D u blin Gard en through Mrs. Frank C Smith, Jr. Lost Rive r Nature Gard e n Lost Rive r Reservation, Kinsman Notch, North Woodstock, N. H. Native Plant GMd e n. On e and one half acres in garden, eight thousand in R eservation. Establishe d in 1926 by So c i ety for P1ot ection of N. H. Fores ts. Lost Rive r Museum of N atmal History, establishe d 1939, supported through g e n eral llicom e of Lost River R eservation. New Hampshire Nature Camp, established by the late Mrs. Laure n ce T. -Webster, m embe r Hill Ga1 d en Clttb, held in Reserva tion whi c h has rocky woodl a11d in the mountains. Native plants of White Mountains of N H. in g arde n, label ed. Prllited list. R eporte d by Mrs. Fre d eric k M. Dearborn. New Jersey The Cora Hartshorn Wild' Plower and Bird Sanctuary Short Hills, N. J. Entrance off Chatha m Road near R ailroad Station. P 1 ivate Native Plant and Song Bird Sixtee n acres. Establishe d in 192 3 by Miss Cora Hartshom, m e mb e r of the Shmt Hills Gmden Clu b, owned by h e r and has b ee n will e d to the Township. Protec t e d by stone w all with stone house at entrance. Full time caretaker. Open to public by appointment, for Scouts, 17

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etc. Hills, valleys, ferns, t h tee miles of paths, deed. Fawn Dell Ope n Air Theatre, circular tenace seating six hundred pop l e Four large lean-to bird feeding stations. Stone house for meetings. Fifty-five genu ses, two hundred and thirty-two species of wild flowers Reported by Mrs Ernest K. Halbach, Conservation Chairman, Short Ga1den Club East Orange Wate r Reser v ation Millburn and Livingston Township, N J. Song Bird and Waterfowl Sancttwry. Twenty-three hundred ac1 es. Es tablished by East Orange Water Depattment w h ic h owns and s upports it. No admission; no one allowed to trespass, no dogs allowed to roam. Parts fenced with locked gate. Full time Warden. Wood land and water. Re foresting done; acres of everg1 eens planted. List of birds. Reported by Mrs. Ernest K. Ifalbach Co n se1vation Chairman, Short Hills Garden Club. Hackensack Water Company, B01oughs of Hanington Park, Haworth, Emerson, Oradell and Hillsdale, N. J. Song Bird and Game Bi1d Sanctuary. Five hundred acres. Established in 1904, but fenced in in 1934 by Hackensack WaterShed Co., which now owns it. Locked gate, and f u ll time Warden in attendance. Onl y open to p ublic by appointment. People recommended to Game Warden given special l icense to fish and hunt foxes. Signs asking public protection; decrease in vandalism. At one time Os preys neste d there. Woodland, water, swamp, p lains and glacial deposits. Many rare birds. On the ''island'' in Woodcliff Lake, there is a Bittern Rookery, with t housands of nests, as many as three nests in one tree. Reported by Miss Sarah L. C l ephane, New Jersey Reptesentative, Conservation Chairman, Englewood Garden Jockey Hollow W i ld Flower Nature Trail, Primrose Brook, Morristown. National Historical Park. Nature Trail. Two hundr ed and fo1'ty acres. Established in 1935 by National Park Service under supervision of M i ss Marie L G. Halsted and Park Ranger, who supe rvises it. Now owned by U. S. Government, which supp01ts it. Material gi.ven by Garden Clttb of Monistown. Co llection of native flora of Jockey Hollow Section; Fringe d Gentians especially features. Printed list of flora on Wild Flower Nature Trail giving color, common name, scientific name, family, habitat, trail section, general character and time of b l oom, Nat me Trail labeled. Mimeographed list of song birds in the Park, specifying whether per manent residents, winter visitants, summer res idents, or transients. List of mammals in the Park. R eported by Miss Marie L. G. Halsted, Conservation Chairman, Garden Club of Mmr i stown. Pauls boro Rooke ry, near Paulbotougb, Gloucester, N. J. National Asso ciation of Attdubon Soci etie s Five acres. Warden service seasonal. Prin cipal spec i e s : Am erican Egret, Little Blue Heron, Black-crowned Nigh t Heron. Reported by M 1 John H Baker (Executive Director), Vice -Chahman for Education, Conservatio11 Committee, t h e GARDEN CLUB OF AMERTCA.. W i tmer Stone Wildlife Sanc tuar y, Cap e May Point, N. J. National As s ociation of Au.dtt. bon Soc i eties. Twentyfive acres. ;warden service. War d e n Obs erve r August to Nove mber. Caretake r November to August. Princi pal species: Migrating Song Bird-s, H a wks, Eagles, Owls Reported by Mr. John H. Baker. New York Bea r Mount a in Park (Palisades Interstate Park), Bear Mountain, N Y. Native Plant and Animal Sancttta1y (See Bear Mountain Nature Trails and Trailside Mtts eums), Fortyseven thousand acres. Owned by State of New 18 l

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' l I York. Supp01-ted by State. Twenty-six Wardens. One hundre d and -forty police. Four Nature Trails. Trailside units established in 1919. Five. Mu s e ums. B e ar Moun tain Nature Trails and Trailsid e M 1 ts emns, Bear Moun tain, N. Y. Nature Trails. Fiftys eve n acres. Establishe d at Bear Moun tain in 1926 by American Museum of Natural History and Palisade s Inter state Park. Commission. Now owned by State of New York and supported by State, American Museum and private contributions. Budget varies from '10,000 to $ 12,000 per year. Two Custodians at all times, full time. Eighteen instructors, four months eac h year, five instructors in winter. Two police on Nature Trails. Open to public free 9 A. M. to 6 P. M. daily. Daily classes for adults and children. Annual attendance four hundred thousand. Many signs asking public to help pte s erve area. Decided decrease in vandalism. Woodland, water, swamp, rock formation Nature Trails: 1, Geology; 2, Bota ny ; 3, General; 4, Introductory Hudson Highlands flora including fiftytwo species of f erns. Museums: 1, Geology; 2, History; 3, Botany; 4, Beaver; 5, Zoology. All phases of Nat ural History of the Hudson Highlands. Reporte d by Mts. William R. Wood, Conservation Chairman, Gard en Club of Omn_qe and D1ttch ess Counties, by Mr. William H Carr, Director, Bear Mountain Nature Trails and Trailside Mus e ums. Dutchess County Ecological Laboratory, Vassar Coll ege, Poughkeepsie, N. Y Educat i onal Native Plant Guard e d Area. Three and one half to four acres, was establishe d in 1922 by Dr. Edith A. Roberts, membe r of Garden Club of Orang e and Dutch ess Counties, with funds contributed largely by Mr. Frederic R. Newbold, also by Ga1den Club of Orang e and Dutch ess Counties This work unde r Dr. Roberts, Chairman of the Botany Department, done at Vassar College is of particular interes t to the Conservation Committee of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA, as this Committee gave scholarships at c oll e g es and universities for the propagation of n ative plants from 1923 to 1926. Mrs. Francis C. Farwe ll and later Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, as Chair man of the Committee, recei d contributions from member Garden Clubs for this work. At that time there were students working on the propa gation of native plants at Vassar College, the University of Chicago, the University of Washington, and Ohio State University. Mrs. Farwell in t e r este d Dr. Henry 0. Cowles, Botanist at the University of Chicago, to visit the work being done at Vassar College under Miss Roberts' direc tion. A report on the work the n done on the G er mination of Seeds of Plants Native to D1ttch ess County New York, by Miss Esthe r Mitchell (on the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA schola1ship) was published as a reprint from the Botanica l Gazette of March, 1926. The Ecology of the Plants Native to Dut c hess Cmmty, New York, by Edith A. Roberts and Margaret F. Show, was publishe d in 1923 by the Conservation Committee of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA. An outgrowth of the work, for which credit is given to the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA, was a serie s of articles which appeared in The Hous e B eautif1tl unde r the title of "Plant Ecology," and which was later presented in the book Ammican Plants for American Gardens, by Edith A Roberts and Elsa Rehmann, published in 1929. It is now owned by Vassar. College, supported by College funds in part, and private gifts. Area bound by stone wall and ptotected by College Guards. Guide can be had by appointment with Dr. Edith A Roberts, Department -of Botany, at College, New England Building. Woodland, watet, swamp. Plants in Ecological Associations. Methods of propagation of many native plants shown Signs request public protection. Practically no vandalism. Classes for adults or children conducted by tequest. Reported by Mrs. William R. Wood Conservation Chairman, Gard en Club of Orang e and Dut c h ess Counties, through Dr. Edith A. Roberts, member. Fern Planting of Mrs. Edward D. Thurston, Jr. S ee "Connecticut." Reported by Millbrook Gard en Club, Inc., New York. 19

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Gilgo Island Bird Sanct uary Township of Babylon, Long Island (South Shore of Long Island) N Y. National Association of Audubon Soc ie ties. Fifty acres. Wa1den service seasonal. Principal species : Commo n Tern, Least Tern, Black Skimmer, Piping Plover. Reported by Mr. John H. Baker (Executive Director), Vice-Chairman for Education, Conservation Commission the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA. Irvington Bird Sanctuary Village Park, Irvington-On-Hudson, N.Y. lag e Song Bi1d Sanctuary. Established by Irvington Garden Club. Now own e d by Village of Irvington. Has a Car etaker, is fenced, and protected by the police. Op e n to public free. Reporte d by Mrs. Franklin M. Haines, Cons ervation C hairma n Garden Clltb of Irvington-On -Hudson. N e w Y o r k Botani cal G a rden, Park, New York, Y. Spe cial Na tive Plant Area. Forty acres. H e mlock Forest given by City of New York with the provision that it be kept in natural condition. Several miles of trails. Elsewhere, southeast of the Rock Gardens, a Native Plant Sanctuary, ecologicall y planted. Material contribute d to this by Co ns er vation Committee of the GARDEN CLuB OF AMERICA; grown from see d dm ing course taken at the Garde n. Reported by Conservation Committee. North Shor e Bird and Game Sanctuar y, Inc., Mill Neck, L. r., N. Y. Private Wildlife Songbird, Shorebi1d and Wate1fowl Sanctuary. Four thousand acr es Established in 1930 by owners of n earby es t ates. SupP<}rted by membership dues. Game Warden. Two hundre d and fifty acres salt water, twelve acres fresh ponds. Best concentration point for fresh water land birds on Long Island; salt water area, swamp lands, meadows, natural springs, native and exoti c plantings. Thirtyseven winter feeding s h elte r s. Two thousand to three thousand Black Ducks in winter. R eported by Mrs. Ralph Peters, Conservation Chairman ( 1938-1939), North Country Gard en Club of Long I s land -Pound R idge R es ervat ion, C ross River, N Y. Entrance on Route 123. C01mty Native Plant and Song Bird Sanctuary. Nature Trails. Ov e r fom thousand acr e s Reservation establish e d b y W estchester County Park C om mission, 192 5. Nature T1ails 1930 Museum 19371 938 Exhibits in Mu s eum by Bedfo1d Gard e n Club. B edford Garden Club pays salary and e x penses of full time Nature Guide, about ,25 0 annuall y. W arde n a nd staff e mplo ye d by County. Classes for adults, informal talks for children. Many picnic areas apart from Nature Tra ils in Reservation attract good class of people. Interest iri conservation is aroused. Fire hazards stressed. Need of protection urged; signs ask h elp. Labelled Nature Trails m e three and one -half miles long and have ov e r one thousand labe ls. Rich local flor a listed. Song birds liste d. Swamp, beaver pond, woods and rocks. Museum exhibits on a ll branche s of local Natural History changed with season. Reported by Miss Delia West Mmbl e Cons e1vation C hairm a n, D edford Gard en Club Roo se v e lt B i rd Sanctu a r y, Oyster Bay, Long Island, N. Y National Asso ciation of A1tdu bon Twe lv e acres. Warden service year round. Principal sp ecies: Song Birds. R eporte d by Mr. John H. Baker. Southampton Township Wildfow l Associ ation Village of Suffold County, Township of Southampton, Long Isla nd N. Y. To wns hip Native Plant, Song Bird and Wate?fowl Sanct?tmy. Fifteen hundre d and nve acres. Establishe d in 1935 by Association. Fenced in area (twenty-nve thousand fee t of fence with lo c k e d gate) owned by the Sanctuary and Village of Quogue. Bay area owned by the Town of Southampton, set aside as a refuge. All adjoining property ow11ers permit use to Warden and post their property against trespassing a nd shooting. Full-time Warden-Naturalist. Budget: 20

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} .. approximately 1,50 0 per annum; supported by vo luntary subscriptions and labor and m embership dues. Schools bring their class es, and Boy Scout and Girl Scout Groups visit the Sanctuar y, under supervision.. Several hundred signs u se d, poste d in accordauce with Conservation L aw, Section 672. Sanctuary licensed for a N. Y. State Game Breeder's Permit from Biological Survey for banding w a t erfowl, song birds, and raising waterfowl for scientific purposes. One thousan d acr es of woodl and; arm of Qu antu ck C r ee k and two ponds; both salt a nd f1 es h marshes; over a mil e of very exce llent untouc h e d swamp. List of flora. List of du c k s, g eese snipe, purple Gullinul e, h e ron, gulls, game birds, song birds a n d othe1s, animals a nd rodents. Artific i a l f eeding is main source of food for waterfowl and song birds; thirty five tons of feed per annum, whic h is over fifty per cent of m aintenance cost. R eported by Mrs. C h a rl es Bank Belt, Treasuret, the Gard en Chbb of SmbU
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.. men. Open by appointment. Woodland and water. Two hundre d birds (listed.) Signs ask protection of area, decrease in vandalism. Reporte d by Mrs. Wilfred W. Sunderland, Conse rvation Chairman, Dayton Garden Club B edfor d Nature Trail o r Tin k e r 's Cree k Bedford Reservation, on Route 2 1 and Route 82 near Brecksvill e Ohio. Nature 1'mil. One thousand seven hundred and eighty-five acr es Established in 1 929 when Cleveland Natural Sci e n ce Club and Western Res erve Chapter pointed out its value. Own e d by Cleve l a nd Metropolitan Park and maintained by taxes. Labelled Nature Trail and Girl Scout yea1 round cabin. Museum of Natural Science .Club. Open to public by appointment for Club use Warden-Natumlist, Ellis C P ersing (co-author of text books Elementary Sc ience by Grad es), School of Education Western R eserve University. C l asses for adults and children. 'l'wo hundred and thii-ty -seve n picnic tables; three picnic a r eas. Signs ask ing protection; no vandalism. Woodland, water, mountains. Principal fea ture: the Pilgrini Sycamore marked by t h e D A.R. R eporte d by Mrs. Harrison B. McG raw and Mrs. Josep h H. Thompson. Charles Mill R ese r v oir. Near Ashland and Mansfield, Ohio. U. S. Route No. 30. Song Bird and Watm'fowl Sanctuary. Eightee n hundred acr es Establis h e d in 19 38 by Ohio Division of Conservation in cooperation with Muskingum Water s h ed Conservancy District, supported by both and owned by latter. Full tinle Warden and Naturalist in att endance Protected by sign s and patrol, farm fences. May be visite d by appointment if the r e i s a purpose expressed. Field trips have been conducted on the a rea for Aslt land Coll ege students. One hundred and fifty acr es of woodland, water, marsh, and cultivated fie lds. Excell ent waterfowl refuge. Dming 1 938 fall migration, counte d ove r five thousand ducks a nd such oth e r Shore Birds as Great Blue Heron, Jack Snipe, Egret, etc. List of principal spec i es given. Reported by Mrs. Wilfre d W. Sunderl and. Cleveland M etopolitan Par k System, C uyahoga County, Medina County, and Lake County, Ohio. Nature 1 'rails and M1rsemns Ten thousand acres. Established in 1918 by Act of State Legisl ature, now own e d by C l eve l and M etropolitan Park Board, s upported by taxation. Co-ope rativ e enterpris e between Park Board and the Museum of Natural Histor y (Park Naturalist, Dr. Arthur B. Williams, C l eveland Museum of Naturalist History, 2 717 Euclid A venue, C l eve land Ohio). Seve r a l eco logical studies of park areas have been made by Park Naturalist, author of Composition and Dynamics of a B eec h Mapl e Climax Comm1mity. On e full time Naturalist, four part time. Police. Five Labe ll ed Nature Trails, two Labell ed Wild Flower Trails, three Trailsid e M u seums Sch e dul e d Sunday afternoon lectures Guided trips, Bird Walks, Tree W a lk s, Geology Walks. University Summer Session course in Natural History of the Parks, Western Rese r ve University. Woodlands, gorges, l'iv e r valleys, ravines, uplands, forests, wild flow eis, birds and mammals, g eological exposures of grea t interest. Eighty-three species of native trees (exclusive of thorns, Cmtreg11s) have been liste d, and about one t housand oth e r plant species. Practically a ll of the s umm e r resident species of birds of the C l eve l a nd Region nest in the Metropolitan Parks. Studi es of breeding bird populations have b ee n made in four Park areas. R eporte d by Mrs. Harrison B. McGraw and Mrs. Joseph H Thompson. H a rriet K ee ler M emoria l Woods, Breckville Reservation on Route 21 and Route 82, n ear B1ec kville, Ohio Natme 1'mil. T hirty acr es. Established by Wome n's City Club, i n honor of writer and naturalist. Own e d by C l eve l and M etropolitan Park District and supported by t a x es Protected by one of twenty Special Park Police. Warde n-Naturalist, C l eveland Museum of Natural History. S h elter House a nd Children's Camp Chippe wa. Picnic area. Signs asking protecti o n ; n o increase in vandalis m slight decrease. C l asses for adults a nd childre n Woodland, water, swamp, rock formation Ravines and m any species of t r ees. Reporte d by Mrs. Harrison B. McGraw and Mrs. Joseph H. Thompson. 22 <

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) H i nckl ey Lak e Bird Sanc tuar y Route 606 and Bellus Road, Cleveland, Ohio H eron ry. Fifty to sixty nests of Great Blue Heron. Now owned by Cleveland M etropolitan Park Board, supported by taxes, Warden in attend ance, protected by Special Park Police Picnic area, signs asking public to protec t area. R eporte d b y Mrs. Hanison B. McGraw, Conservation Chairman, Shake r Lakes Gmaen Clu b and Mrs. Joseph H. Thompson, Conservation Chairman, Ganlen Club of Cleveland. Holde n Arbore tum Kirtland Township, twenty-five mile s east of Cleve land. Mail address, Care Cleveland Museum of Natu1al History, 2717 Euclid Ave., Cl eveland, Ohio. Native Plant ana Song Bi1cl Sanctumy. Nature Tmi l [o1 Hors eme n. One hundred and fifty acres. Established in 1931 by Mr. Albert F. Holde n Endowment not yet available. Gifts have made b eginning of work possible during last few years. Maintaine d by Cleveland Museum of Natural History. May be visited by appointment. Superintendent and grounds crew constantly on property. Chairman of Arboretum Committee, Warden and Naturalist in attendan ce. Wood land, wate r, bog. N ative forest and paintings of vario u s eco l ogical units (native and foreign). R eporte d by Mrs. Harrison B. McGraw and Mrs Joseph H 'l'hompson. M a dd e n Park, Near Madden Park Country Club, R.R. 6, Dayton, Ohio Native Plant ana Song Bird Sanct1wry One hundre d a n d eighty acres. Established in 1927 by City of Dayton. Now owned by City and supported by City operating fund. Fenced in. Ward e n in atte nd a nc e Woodland, water. Picnic area; signs asking protection, decr ease in vandalism. R eported b y Mrs. Wilfred W. Sunde rl and. Mary Ell s worth Lod g e Bird Sanct uar y, R.F. D 2, Cuyoga Falls, or Silver Lake Estate Ohio. Private Natite Plant ana Song Bi1a Sanct1tary. Forty acres. Open to public pay one dollar for guide Established in 1874. D e dic a t e d in 1930 by Mr. Wm. R. Lodge in memory of h is wife. Mr. Lodge, son and grandson in attendance as Wmden and Naturalist. Old fence, signs asking public protection. Some vandalism; p i cnic table destroyed and n esting sites in old trees removed. Five acres artificial lake and Cuyahoga Rive r. Woodland and swamp. Mr. Lodge plante d thirtyfive hundre d conife rs and berry-bearing shrubs. Classes for adults and children. R eporte d by Mrs. Harrison B. McGr a w and M r s. Joseph H. T h ompson North Chagrin Nature Trail, S.O.M. Center Road betwee n Mayfield a n d Chardon Road, Cleveland, Ohio. Native Plant, Song B i1a ana Watm"{oti!l Sactuary. Nat1t1e Tmi ls. Thirtee n hundred and ninety-se" e n acres. l!'irst of Cleveland's Parks; establis h e d and owned by Cl eveland Metropolitan Park. Suppo1ted by taxes. Birds and flora liste d Two labe lled N atnre 'l' rails. Warden-Naturalist live s in summer at the T1ailside Museum. No vand alism; signs asking protection. Picnic area. Classes for adul ts and childre n Woodl and and water. Fo1est Lane Bir d Sanctuary. R eporte d by Mrs. Harrison B. McGraw and Mrs. Jose ph H. Thompson. Plant Sanctuar y in Fine Arts Garde11S, Euclid Av e nue and East Boulevard Wade Park, Cleveland, Ohio; from Euclid Av e nue to front of Muse u m. Nat1t1e Trail. Established 1913 1930. Mr. J H. Wade gave t h e land. Fre d e r i ck L. Olmsted of Boston was l a n dscape archi t ec t. Cleveland Ga1ae n Club fin a nced it. Now own e d by City -of C l eveland and financed by taxes, Museum m emberships and Sherwi n Fund. Garden supported by interest on 250,000; Garden Center maintained separately. Picnic area in park be hind Art Museum. Signs ask protection, no vandali sm. C l asses fo r adults and children. A Horticultural Superintendent i n c h arge and a Naturalist in attendance at Garden Center. Cl eveland Garde n Center is an Educational Museum. Natme Trail made by students of Botany Department of W es t ern Res er ve University. R eporte d by Mrs. Harri son B. McGraw and M r s. Joseph H. Thompson 23

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Rock y R i ver Nature Trail Cleveland, Ohio. I n the Rocky Rive r l'teserva tion. Nature Tra il. Entrance opposite Mastick Park. Half mile south of Puritas Springs Road. Look for signs on Park Boulevard. One acre. Es tablished 1925 by Cleveland Metropolitan Park Board; now owned by it and financed by taxes. Protected by Private Park Police of Cleve land Metro politan Park. Warde n -N atUJ"alist in attendance. Slight amount of van dal ism Fine conservational label s on Nature Trail. Abundance of wild flowers. Museums close by. Classes for adults and children. Picnic area and Bouie Park Swimming Hol e Woodland, water, swamp, rock formati on. Reported by Mrs. HmTison B. McGraw and Mrs. Joseph H. Thompson. South Chagrin Natur e Trail Cleve land, Ohio. At J unction of North Mile s Road with River Road on the east bank of the Chagrin Rive r. One acre. Established 1937 by Cleveland Metropolitan Park Board. Now owned by Park District, and supported by taxes Warden-Naturalist in attendance. Classes for adults and children. Picnic area, signs asking for protection; vandalism slight in Cleveland M etropolitan Parks. Woodland, and rock formation. Special feature: Squaw Rock Flora and b irds l iste d. Mus e um in cabin called Cleve land Natural Science Club. Area used by Science Club. R eported by Mrs. Harrison B. McGraw and Mrs. Joseph H. Thompson. Oregon Audubon Society Bird Sanctuary adjoining Macleay Park on West Cor n e ll Road via Lovejoy Street. Near City limits, N. W Portland, Oregon. Song B ird Sanct1tary. Caretaker full time, Warden-Naturalist. Fenced in. Public admitted free Classes for adults and children. Signs asking public protection, no vandalism. Woodland, stream, swamp, small area in culti vated fie lds, mountains and canyon. Trees, b erries, shrubs, f eeding places, nesting places Wate r but not aquatic birds; song birds. R eporte d by Mrs. John L. Kamopp, 01egon R epresentative, Conservation Chairman, Portlancl Gard en Club. Mrs. E. C Dalton, Pr i v a t e Sanc tu ary, St. Hele ns, Oregon. Native Plant and Song Bird San c tuary. Ninety acres. Establ ish e d 1S20 by Mrs. Dalton. Owned by Dr. and Mrs. E. C. Dalton. Protected by fences and State Police cooperate in attempting to prevent all forms of va ndalism of w h ic h t h ere is a d ec rease Poste d. Sixty acr es still in natural state with dense under growth, having no trails. Thirty acres with trails throughout. Woodland, water, swamp, and rock formation. Fronts on Columbia River, has large native trees, vines, ferns. May be visited by appointment. R eporte d hy Mrs. John L Karnopp. Macleay Park Portland, Ore gon. Cornell Road via W. Lovejoy Street. At City limits. Native Plant Sanctuary. Two hundre d acres. Established about 1913 Given to City by Macleay Estate. Understanding is it will b e kept in natural state. Only such trails as necessary for walking. Hillside, canyon, majestic Firs, Spmce H e mlock and Cedar. Ferns in shade and wild flow e rs. Class e s for Girl S c outs. Picnic area very simple, only fallen logs for bench es and tables N eve r greatl y troubled by vandalism. Care taker a.nd park worke rs unde r direction Superintenden t of Parks. R eported by Mrs. John L. Karnopp. Pennsylvania Bo wman Hill Stat e Wild Flow e r Preser v e Washington Crossing Park, Bucks County, Pa. Two and one -half mile s b elmv New Hope. On Route 32. Native Plant Sanc tuary. Natttr e Tmils. One hundred acres. Established 24

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.. 1934 by Washington Crossing Park Commission and Mrs. C. C. Zantzinget, President, Council for the Preservation of Natural Beauty in Pennsylvania. Supported by Member C lubs and Mrs. Zantzinger, Patriotic Organizations and Federation of Pennsylvania Women W.P.A. projects have done h eavy work since 1934. Picnic area separated from trails. Many signs asking public protection, considerable decrease in vandalism. Director of Preserve, also a Superintendent of Park. Three Naturalists. Dr. Edgar '1'. Wherry, Swarthmore, Pennsylvm1ia, will gladly furnish information regarding native plants. Fourteen labelled Nature Trails. Thousands of wild flow ers, ferns and allied plants. Wood land, Pidcock Creek and famous old Delaware Rive1 Canal, swamp, plain, mountains and rock formation. A California redwood two hundred years old. Key to headquarters in historical Thorup son House may be obtained from Park Guard; 1ecords, bulletin board, loc a tions of plantings with spec i es given. Bould e rs set every fifty feet a long tr ail to mark distance from entrance. Reported by Mr C. C. Zantzi11ger, Conservation C hairman, The W e e dms Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Drehersville, Schuykill County and Berks County, Pa. Special Sanct1ta1y for Migrating Hawks and Eagles Fourteen hundred and one ames Estab1ished in 1934 by Emergency Conservation Committee, New York, N. Y. Now owned by Hawk Mountain Sanctuary Association, Mrs. C. N. Edge, President. Curator, Mr. Mau rice Broun, Route 1, Orwigsburg, Pennsylvania, September. through midDecember. Pa trolle d during hunting season. Admission charge of fift een cents to non members of Association. Supported by membership subscription. Several picnic areas, signs asking public p1otection, no vandalism. Rocky, mountain ridge, famous flyway for migratil1g Hawks and Eagles, attracting many hundreds of bird students and conservationists. R eported by Mrs. C C Zantzinger through Mr. Maurice Broun, Cmatoi". Mt. Johnson Island Sanctuary. In lake formed-by Conowingo Dam in the Susquehanna River. Near Drumore and Lancaster, Pennsylvania. National Association of Audubon Societies Twenty-one acres. Warden service year round. Principal species: Bald Eagle. Rhode Island Kimball Bird Sanctuary, Watchaug Pond, Charlestown, Rhode Island. Song Bird Sanctuary. Two hundred acres. Established 1914 in memory of a member of the Kimball Family. Now owned by Audubon Society, State of Rhode Island. Originally a very wild area with ample cover for bil'ds; now, a state highway intersects the property destroying much of its value as a Sanctuary. Wmdeu and his wife in charge live on the reservation. Wood land, pond, swamp, plains, some cultivated fields, an d rock formation. A picnic are a. Bird walks often cond ucted fol' Audubon Society members and children. Reported by Mrs. Wallace Campbell, South County Gmden Cl1b of Rhode I sland Mary P. B. Hazard Memorial Land, On Post Road to Matanuck, R. I. Native Plant Sanctuary (partial protection). 'l'wenty acres. Established 1936 by South County Garden Clnb. Owned and operated by Cl u b which feels it is their main project; Chairman, M1s. Charles Perkins, Wakefield, R. I. Boundaries defined and signs put up summer of 1939. Better to make appointment to see it, as it is difficult to find. Lowland and rocky hills. Native Rhododendrons, Laurel, Daphne, Chamrecypa1is, B lu eberries, Sweet Fern, Lady Slipper, Pipissewa. Reported by Mrs. Wallace Campbell. Native Orchid Area Near Worden's Pond, Peace Dale, Rhode Island P1ivate Native Plant Sanct1tary. Two hundred to three hundred acres. 25

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... Open to fri ends of members of Gard en Club only, by appointment. Estab lished 1929. 0Wll e d by wild flower expert, Mr. Albert E Lownes, Jr. Signs asking public protection. Fenced in. Thickets, swamp, plains, cultivated fields nearby, and ro c k formation. Principal featme: on e acre of Orc h is spectabi!is. R eporte d by Mrs. Wallace Campbell. Old Moun ta i n F ie ld s, Peace Dale R.I. Na-tive Plant and Song B ird Sane tumy (Partial Protection). Twentyfive acres. Give n to town of P eace Dale by the five children of Mrs. R. 'f. Haza1d. C r eated a Bird Sanctuary, and has bee n plante d with native rhododendrons and North Carolina rhodo d endron, heather, wild flow ers. Tupelo t1 ee of giant size, r ocky outcrop pin gs, pond and a very wild area which gives excellent cove r for birds. Ad ministered by President and Town Counc il, the President of the Rhode Island State Coll ege, and the Preside n t of the South Cm-ol ina Gmden Chtb. Warden there part time. Fence d in. No signs; vandalism, picking of rhododendrons. Picn i c area; Girl Scouts have a hou se there. Woodland, water, swamp, hills and l edges. R eporte d by Mrs. Wallace Campb e ll. Rhodod e ndron Tunne l a walk from Tue k e 1 :ton Road, Wakefield, Rhode Island. Mrs. C h a rl es P erkins, Wakefi eld, will give informa,tion on how to reach it. Special P1ivate Native Plant .tilea. Twenty acr es. This unusual are h of rhododendrOllS, about one eighth of a mil e long, is large enough to drive a Ford ear through it. It is privately owned, with a public right-of way to this land. No signs, no vandalism. Woodland, water, pond near, hills, and rock formation. Reporte d by Mrs. Wallace Campbe ll. South Carolina Buz z a r d I s land Near C harl eston, South Caro lin a. National Assoc i ation of A1tdubon Societies. Six acres. Ward e n service during breeding season. Principal species: Snowy Egret, American Egret, Little Blue H ero n, Louisi ana H e ron, Black-crowned Night Heron. R eporte d by Mr. John H. Baker (Executive Director), ViceC hairman for Education, Conservation Committee the GARDEN CLUB OF. AMERICA. Tennessee The R ive r s id e P ark B ir d S a n c tuar y, City P ark, on the Miss i ssippi River, near Memphis, T e n nessee. City Pmk Song Bi1d Sanctuary. Nat1t1e Tmil Seven ae1 es Establi h e d in 1 934 by City Park Commission at the request of the Council of Garden Clubs Boy Scouts have cooperated by placing feeding stations and grain. Supponed by Commission and sponsore d b y Counci l. Park Warden full time. Picnic area, not too near. Labelled as "Bird Sanctuary. No vandalism. Nature Trail. On a high bluff ovel looking the Mississippi River, woodland with hon eys u ckle. Boy Scout c lasses. R eporte d by Mrs. Robin F Mason, Conservation C hairma n (19381939), M emphis Gard en Club. She lb y Count r y For es t B i rd Sanc tu a r y, S h e lby County Forest is fifteen mil es north of M emphis, T ennessee Native Plant, Song Bird and Water fowl Sanct1tary Natu1e Tmi l Twelve thousand five hundred acr es Estab lishe d 1937 by M emphis Gard en Club and National Park Service. Now own e d by F e deral Government. Sponsored by M em phis Garclen Club under direction of National Park Service and State Department. Plants furnished by Garde n Club, labor by Park Service. ''The M emphis Gard en Club was 26

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the fortunate recipient of the 1937 Founder's Fund Award of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA, its project, the Woodland Trail in Shelby Forest Park. A Bird Sanctuary been planted at the extreme northern end of the trail and t h e National Park Service has a lready built an attractive feeding sta tion. The whole is screened by a blind of cane. The sc h oo l s of t h e city and county have outlined a comprehensive course of nature with the Woodland Trail its center of interest. The labels provided by the Department of the State of Tennessee will be of great help to the students, as they are to t h ose who use the trail now for p leasure and study.'' (Report of Mrs. Winston Michie in t h e BULLE'l'IN of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA, Jul y 1939, page 12-13). Full time Project Manager, also full time Naturalist. Forest, river and a lake, hills and a reclaimed eroded land, fine beech tiees Song birds and waterfowl. Reported by Mrs. Robin F Mason Texas Eagle Lak e Sanctuar y at Rod and Gun Club, Houston Texas. Special N esting Area. Most important place for nesting birds in 'l'exas in summer. These species depart before the game bird shooting o n the premises later in the year The Sanctuary was established through the interest of the late Mr. J. J. Carroll, member of the Rod and G u n Club. The nesting species are: Snowy Egret, Little Blue Heron, American Egret, Louisiana Heron, Yell ow -crowned Night Heron (probabl y the largest colony in t h e U. S.) ; Water Turkey (or Anhinga); White-faced Glossy Ibis (a few); Ful vous Tree Ducks (Mexican Bird, coming into Texas due to increasing growing of rice). A high estimate on the number of nesting bitds in this Sanctuary is twenty thousand. Mrs. J. J. Carroll is C hairman of Bird Life, of the Ga1 den Club of H01tston. The paintings of birds ex hibited at the Conserva tion Committee Annual Meeting in Houston, 1939, were by Mr. Carroll He was primarily responsible for getting warden service initiated all along the central part of the coast of Texas. Reported by Mrs. John F. Staub, Con servation Chairman, Gmden Cl1tb of Houston, th1ough Mr. J. M. Heiser, Jr. (Honorary Member), Chairman of t l te Conservation Committee, Texas Natme Federation. (His comment on Natural Area Preser ve is: "The important thing now is to secure general understanding of what is needed, selected areas definitely and permanently dedicated to the preservation of natural conditi ons and species, not incidental to other ideas 01 uses but as a primary and fundamental purpose.'') The following Texas Sanctuades are maintained by the National Association of Aud1tbon Societies and we1e reported by Mr. John H Baker (Execu tive Director), Vice -Chairman for Education, Conse rvation Committee, the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA. Cran e Island s, Laguna Madre near Corpus Christi e Bay, Texas. Ten acres. Has had Warden service, but Warden not hired for 1939. Principal species : Roseate Spoonbills. Dunham Island. Between Mud Bay and Aransas Bay, Texas. Thirty-five acr es. Warden service Principal species : Snowy Egret, Louisiana Heron, Roseate Spoonbill. Fir s tChain-0-I s lands Between Espiritu Santo Bay and San Antonio Bay, Texas. Thirty-nine acres. Has had Warden service. Warden not hired for 1939. Principal species: Willet, Snowy Egret, Mottled Duck. Green Island. Southe1n e n d of Laguna Madre just north of Brownsville, Texas. Three thousand eight hundred and seventyone acres. Full time Warden service. Principal species : Reddish Eg1 et, Heron, Egrets, White Ibis. 27

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Hyne s Bay I s lands. North San Antonio Bay, near Victoria, Texas. Eight acres. Warden service seasonal. Principal species: Roseate Spoonbill, White-faced G l ossy Ibis, White Ibis, Herons, Egrets. North a n d South Bird I slands. Laguna Madre (no r t hern part), Texas. Seventy acres Has had Warden service. Warden not hired for 1939. Principal species: Terns, Gulls, Skimmers1 Herons, Egrets, Willets, Mottled Duck, Brown Pelicans. S econd Chain-OfIslands Extreme western end of San Antonio, Texas Seventeen acres Warden service during Breeding Season. Principal spe cies: Roseate Spoonbill, Herons, Egrets, T erns, Gulls, Skimmers, Mottled Duck. She ll I s lands. In San Antonio Bay, Texas. Thirty-five acres. Has had Warde n service. Warden not hired for 1939. Principal species: Snowy Egre t, Louisiana Heron, Roseate Spoonbill. Third Chain-Of-Islands. Between Mequite Bay a n d Mud Bay, Texas (Rockport). Twentytwo acres Principal species: Brown Pelican, 'ferns, Skimmers, Oyster-catchers. V ingt'un I s l ands In Galveston Bay (Chambers County), Texas. Seventeen acres. Warde n during breeding season. Principal species : Roseate Spoonbill, White-faced Glossy Ibis, Herons, Egrets. West Ba y Bird Island. Extreme southwest part of West Bay, near San Luis Pass, Texas. Eighty acres Has had Warden service. Warden not hired for 1939. Principal species: Brown Pelicans, Terns, Gulls, Skimme r s, Herons, Egre ts, Willets. Vermont Long Trail Lodg e Nature T r ail, Sherbourne Pass, Rutland, Vt., in Green Mountains, ten mil es east of Rutland, elevation twentytwo hundred feet. Nat1tre Tmil. Fifty acres Established in 1934 by L. G. Treadway Service Corporation, New York, N Y. Now supported by Long Trai l Lodge. Nat uralist, Mr. Maurice Broun, in attendance from June 1 to August 31. Mu seum puts emphasis on conservation; no stuffed spec i mens Open to public free. Picnic area, signs asking publi c protection; no vandalism Eighty four species of birds listed and four hundred species of native plants. Wood land, water, swamp, mountains, rock formation. Wild flower gardens contailling representative Green Mountain flora In heavily wooded section of Vermont through which pass tho usands of tourists and hikers of "Long Trail.'' R eported by Mrs. E l m e r H. Joh nson, Vermont Representative, Bennington Cl ub, through Mr: Maurice Broun, Curator Hawk Moun tain Sanctuary, Pa. Virginia Lochha v e n W ild Life Pre s erve On the West side of a Cove of the Lafay ette Riv e r off orth Shore Road in Loch h aven, a suburb of Norfolk V i r ginia. Native Plant and Song Bird Sanctuary. (Partial protection). Five acres Part of Hermitage Foundation, presented in March 1938 to t h e Loch haven Garden Club by Mr. and Mrs. William Sloane Owned and supported 28 (

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) by Lochhaven Garden Club Open to public by appointment. Mrs. M. H. Justice, President, will gladly furnish information, Budget about $25 a year. Protected by fence. Decrease in vandalism. Woodland, water, marsh. Native trees abound. Wild flowers p1esent and transplanted. Feedin g d e vice for birds. Reported by Mrs. Thomas P Thompson, Bird Chairm!tn, Ga1den Chtb of No1follc. Pilgrim 's Rest. Adjoins Forest Lawn Cemetery. City Native Plant and Song Bird Sanct1wry. Nature T1 ail. Fifteen acres. Established in 1937 as a WP A project on City Property. Now owned by City of Norfolk. Supported by City and WPA. Fenced in with guards on duty. Full time Warde n. Signs asking for public protection. Decrease in vandalism. Museum with Herbarium. Classes conducted for children. Open to public free. Wood land, water, swamp. Native flora, many Lady's Slippers. Reported by Mrs. Thomas P. Thompson. Wild Flower Preserve. Ten miles from Norfolk, Virginia, adjoining City Watershed. On Route 460. Native Plant and Song Bird Sanctuary in City Pmlc Eight acres. Taken over in 1928 by Garden Club of Norfollc (the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA) and Princess Anne Garden Club (Federated Gar den Clubs), which maintain it. Budget $50 a yea1. City of Norfolk leases it to C lu bs. Fenced in with lo cke d gate. Warden (colored) in attendance; lives in neighbo1 hood Posted by the City. Decrease in Wood land, water, swamp. Many species of wild flowers have been planted. In May the Atamasco lil y, native to this J 'egion, is in bloom. Rep01ted by Mrs. Thomas P. 'l'hompson. Cobb 's Island Sanctuary Near Cape Charles on eastern shore of Virginia. National Association of Audubon Societies. Warden service seasonal. Prin cipal spec ies: Least Tern Common Tern, Royal Tern, Forster's 'l'ern, Oyster-catcher, Gull-billed Tern, Black Skimmer, Laughing Gull, Wilson's Plover, Clapper Rail. Rporte d by Mr. John H. Baker (Executive Director), Vice-Chairman of Education, Conservation Committee, the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA. West Virginia Ogleby Park, Wheeling, Ohio County, West Virginia, five miles from ce n teo of City, U. S. Route 250. Natu1e Trai l in City Pmlc. Seven hundred and fifty acres. Established 1927 by City of Wheeling (Wild Life Refuge by West Vilginia Consmvation Commission). Owned by Wheeling and sup ported by taxation. Oglebay Park Nature Training School, founded. 1928, held here for two weeks' session, with second two weeks' session h eld in Allegheny Mountain section. Full time Naturalist. C lasses for adults and childre n Full time Recreation Committee. Picnic area, no signs asking public protection. Protected by public sentiment. Never has been much vandalism. Three hundred acres of woodland, small streams, hills, stratified rock formation. Reported by Mrs. William E. Chilton, Sr. West Virginia Representative, Conservation Chairman, Kanawha Garden Chtb, through Director. Wisconsin The Fabrice Farm Elkhorn, Wisconsin, fifteen miles north of Lake Ge neva. Private Native Plant and Song Bird Sanctuary. Four hundred and seventyfive acres. Established 1931 by Mr. Edward Fabrice; now owned and supported by the Fabrice family. Fenced in, with lock e d gate. Full 29

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time Warden. Signs asking public protection, no vandalism. Woodland, water, swamp, some cu ltivated fields, and rock formation. Song birds. Reported by Miss Edith Kohlsaat, President, Lake G enev a Gard e n Club. R idge s Sanctuary, Bailey's Harbor, Door County, Wisconsin, one hundred and fifty miles north of Milwaukee. Special Native Plant Area of Ecological Inte1est. Established 1937 by Mr. Albert M. Fulle r, Mr. J e ns Jensen, Mr. George Sicker, and year round and summer residents. County Game Warden and Naturalist in attendance o ccas ionally Op e n to public, preferabl y by appointment made with Miss Emma 'l'oft, Treasurer, Bailey's Harbor, Wis consin. Signs asking public p1otection beli e ved to have decr ease d vandalism. Woodl ands, ponds some Niagara limestone. General direction of ridges east and west, with sloughs three-fourths of a mile lo n g separating them. Central portion of ridges higher, with plants a d apted to sandy region, while on the edges grow the thick arborvitre, tamarack, black spruce, orch i ds and acid soil plants. This corporation formed to save p lant survivors of ice age. A thesis on these Ridges writte n for Wisconsin University. Jens J e n sen, intemationally known landscape architect says of them: ''We must teach p eo ple that a Sanctuary rep1esents a place whe1e wild life both plant and animal, is permitted to liv e unmolested by man, a God given shrine of vast importa n ce to the cultural life of man.'' .. ''Important for the future well-being of our race.'' List of flowers, trees, shrubs, and vines. Reporte d by Mrs. H arry Swigart, Wisconsin R epresentative, G1een T1ee Garden Club. W ychwood, Lake Geneva, W a lworth County, W i sconsin PTivate Native Plant, Song Bird and Game Bird SanctuMy. Seventy -five acres Estab lish e d in 1932 by Mrs. Charles Hutchinson Estate. Now own e d and maintabled by University of Chicago. F m 1ced in with lock e d gate. Full time Wa1' den a nd Naturalist. Op e n to public by appointment, made with Mr. Charl es Morse, 82 7 Wisc onsin Street, Lake Geneva, Wisc onsin. List of flor a and birds being m a d e by Natralist, Mr. Mors e in coop eration with C hicago University. Gro u ps under leade rship have privile g e of observing; students of University of Wisconsin, with Professor Aldo L e opold, Divisio of Wildlife Management, especially intereste d in game birds. Wood land and wate r. Book on Sanctumy by t h e l a t e Mrs. H utch inson, memb e r of Lake Geneva Garden Club : '' Wyc hwood-The H ist01 y of an Idea,'' by Mrs. Frances Kingsl ey Hutchinson. ( The Frances K. H u t c hinson Award of the Lake Geneva Garden Club is the sum of ,000 collected from t h e many friends of the founder of that Club, the income of which is to be used a nnually, or a.s ofte n a.s may seem wise, to further wild flower preservation work. ) Reporte d by Miss Edith Kohlsa.a.t. 30

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Summary of Sanctuary and Nature Trail Survey California --------------------------------I2 Colorado --------------------------------4 Connecticut -------------------------9 Delaware --------------------------------------I Florida -----------------------------------7 Georgia -------------------------------------I I 1/inois ------------------------------------6 New Jersey -----------------------------------6 New York -----------------------------------1I North Carolina ____________ :____________ 2 Ohio ------------------------------------------I3 Oregon --------------------------------------3 Pennsylvania -------------------------------3 Rhode Island ------------------------5 Indiana ------------------------------------I South Carolina -------------------------I Louisiana ------------------------------------3 Tennessee 2 Maine --"----------------------------------------4 Maryland ... -----------------------------I Massachusetts ____ .-----------------------6 Michigan ____ -------------------------------2 New Hampshire-----------------------3 Texas ------------------------------------------I2 Vermont -------------------------------I Virginia ---------------------------------------4 West Virginia --------------------------I Wisconsin --------------------------------3 Total ---------------------------------------------I27 Sanctuaries and Nature Trails: Established by Ga1de n Cl1tbs -------------------------------------------------------------------1 2 Own e d by Gard en Clubs ....... ----------------------------------------------------------------6 Wholly SltppO!ted by Gmd e n Clnbs ------------------------------------------------------9 PMtially supp01ted by Garcle n Clubs ----------------------------------------------------8 Total --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35 A l tho u gh l ess than one quarter of all the Sanctuari es and Nature Trails listed wer e established or s uppot'te d by Garden Clubs, many in this S u rvey wet e inspire d by individual members. NOTE: A co mplete bibliography o f Natu e Trail literature i s give n in t h e pamphlet 1 'e n Years of Nature Trailing by W illi a m H Carr Director, Bear Mountain Nature rrrai' s and Trai l id e Museum, obtain able for twent y ce nt s from Th e Ame rica.n Museum of Natu m l History, Central Park at 79t h S treet, New N. Y. Wildlife an d the Land, publis h e d by t h e U. S. Governme n t Printing Office listing the F e d eral R efuges i s obtainabl e from t h e Bureau of B i o l ogical Survey, U. S. Department of t h e Interior, Washington, D. C. :\ 1

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