Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 1 Folder 16 : Wardens, General (pp. 831-863)

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Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 1 Folder 16 : Wardens, General (pp. 831-863)
Audubon Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Florida
University of South Florida
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1 folder
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Box 1 Folder 16


Subjects / Keywords:
Audubon societies -- Diaries ( lcsh )
Ecology -- Florida ( lcsh )
History -- Gulf Coast (Fla.) -- 20th century ( lcsh )


The daily journals of Audubon wardens and statewide reports on certain sites and projects cover activities from 1900 to 1970, with most of the materials concentrated between the 1930s and 1950s.

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University of South Florida
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
032958557 ( ALEPH )
890709008 ( OCLC )
A47-00016 ( USF DOI )
a47.16 ( USF Handle )

USFLDC Membership

Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970

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. \ N1 1 A f A d b S \ ... 'ttona ssoctatton o u u on ocieties For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals 1775 Broadway, New York, N Y SANCTUARY DEPARTMENT Dear Mr. Ruppert: June l, 1936 Some months ago I wrote you, suggesting that your marsh property near Cold Spring, N.Y., would make an excellent wildlife sanctuary. Since then other matters have claimed our attention, but we have kept this sanct uary plan in mind recently made a survey of the area, a reportof which is enclosed. I believe that this report will indicate to you the outstanding value of your property for sanctuary purposes and the real need for preserving it permanently as a typical example of fresh water marsh and as a refuge for wild water fowl and many other kinds of birds. Due to drainage and real estate operations fresh water marshes have very largely disappeared over this part of the country and remaining areas of this type, quite aside from their natural beauty, have a great scientific and value. There is no reason why the area, if established as a sanctuary, could not become an outdoor laboratory for students of biology and especially plant and animal ecology. Natural foods are abundant, but additions in this respect could be made at small expense and by this and other means the value of the marsh to water fowl would be considerably increased. On the whole,the project would not only stimulate interest in wild life, which is one of the major results of any successful sanctuary but would be splendid publicity. Our original suggestion was that the marsh be deeded to the Audubon Association, together with an endow ment. fund for ita maintenance, or leased at a nominal rate of $1.00 a year for a period of ,say, twenty years, the Association being pledged in both instances to administer the marsh as a wildlife sanctuary. Our Sanctuary Director has estimated that the necessary warden protection could be obtained for $225 to $375 annually. An additional


Mr. Jacob Ruppert -2$50 to $?5 would be required at the outset for sanctuary signs. It should be pointed out that as a sanctuary the marsh would be .tax free and also that contributions for its maintenance as a refuge administered by the Audubon would be deductible from income tax. JHB:EM Enclosure Sincerely yours, John H. Baker, Executive Director


' MORAN DUM TO : MR.. BAKER FROM: MR .IIJ.EN t .. ; May 20, 1936 I met Allan Frost this morning at 8.20 and went with him to the Rupper marsh, which lies along the east side of the New York Central tracks about one half mile south of CoJd Spring. There is no doubt about it being a splendid example of fresh water marsh. It is fed by two major streams and has extensive tidal ponds at the north and south ends (see sketch map attached). The marsh supports a very extensive growth of cattail, mostly slender leaf variety, but with some broad There is an abundance of food plants attractive to water fowl. The two ponds make resting places for Ducks and 'the marshes good feeding ground, besides harboring many interesting species as summer residents. Regular summer residents include: Virginia Rail Sora Rail Florida Gallinule Pied-billed Grebe Least Bittern Green HerorV Black Duck Coot are occasionally seen in the summer, King Rail has been recorded in June and the Wood Duck is a possible summer resident in the immedi ate vicinity. Nest boxes along the wooded east share would bring results. In the late summer and early fall Egrets and Little BluevHerons have been observed on the marsh, and there is, of course, the possibility of Yellow-crowned Night Herons, Snowy Egret and other exotic visitors. Along the east side and at the north end there is a mixed woodland that we found this morning to be alive w1 th land birds, most of them residents. I haven't heard and seen so many Baltimore Orioles in a long time and we found two nests of this species within fifty yards of each other. Yellow Warblers are especially numerous and,ns would be expected,Red-wing Blackbirds and Maryland Yellow-throats are abundant. Constitution Island, through the representations of Mr. Frost and one of his predecessors, has been closed to hunting and will be maintained by the U.S.Army as the equivalent of a sanct uary without actually being designated as such. This property contains some boggy land and cattail marsh and its proximity to the


\ I -2-Ruppert area would increase the usefulness of that land if it should be established as a sanctuary. Formerly officers from West Point hunted in here and it contains a good many grouse, according to Mr. Frost. Little or no development of the Ruppert marsh will be necessary. A few large wooden signs would be an initial expense and a warden would have to be hired to patrol the area and keep out violators, at least during the hunting season. Apparently, there is some violation in the spring months as well. It is a rare thing to find real fresh water marsh these days and unless such areas are given special consideration their unique wildlife is sure to suffer. Such marshes as this have grown scarce and in many sections are fast disappearing. Aside from its value as a sanctuary it might well serve as an outdoor laboratory for field naturalists, readily accessible to the metropolitan area. However, its chief importance would be as a refuge for migratory birds, especially water fowl, along the Hudson River Vallf{ migration route. This importance would increase if the marsh were guarded. I believe that a sufficient number of wooden signs could be made and erected at a cost of $50 $75 These would have to be replaced about every five years. A warden should be employed for a minimum of three months in the fall at $ 75 a month ($225.00) or a maximum of two additional months in the spring ($375.00). All of the marsh, the two tidal ponds and a strip of adjacent woodland should be included in the area designated. I would recommend that it be called the "Jacob Ruppert Wildlife Sane t uary 11 R. P. A.


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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE STATE PARK DIVISION Dr. John Baker, National Association of Auduben societies, 1775 Broadway, New York City, N .Y. 72 Pondfield Road wes t Bronxville, New York W.rch 14, 1936 Subject: Constitution Island Marsh Dear Dr. Baker: Last summer there was som e discussion concerning the marsh owned by Jacob Ruppert east of the New York central Railroad. If I am correct, Allen Frost brought the area to your attention and suggested its v alue as a bird sanctuary. The whole thing was later complicated by rumors that the Park service was hoping to create a sanctuary there in conjunction with the constitution Island historical development. 'Te have had the o pportunity to chec k the status of the marsh with Washington lately, and find that the National Park service is definitely not planning anything east of the New York central tracks. so, we are passing this information to you Allen Frost is familiar with the marsh and we know will be glad to furnish you with details if you are interested. Sincerely yours, HELVIN B BORGESON DBB/wh Daniel B Beard Assistant Wildlife Technician


VASSAR BROTHERS. INSTITUTE POUGHKEEPSIE, N Y September 14, 1935. r John L. Baker, National Association of Audubon Societies, 1775 Broad ay, New York City. Dear J ohn : I have been waiting, hoping to have some word from Washington before writing you about the Ruppert marsh. Anything that I can say at this time is necessarily unofficial, for Mr. Baggley, our Supervisor from Washington told me when here, that he would look into the matter and let me hear from him from Washington. I have heard nothing, and he is at oresent in Salt Lake City. He, Dr W inecoff, and one or two others looked over the marsh with me sometime ago, and agreed that the plan of making this a sanctuary controlled by the Audubon Society was far more advisable than to add it to the Military Reservation. Incidently they all believed that it would never be taken over by the Government and that the thought that it miR"ht had germinated in one man' s mind only. They seemed to think that the idea was not practical, and would never develop. As I mentioned before, this is very unofficial. I am telling you just what I feel the situation to be, and why I feel as I do Personally, I think that this should be an Audubon Society proposition. Further, I think that if it is not, it will be no proposition as far as the Military Reservation is concerned. Knowing r Ruppert's objections to hunting on his property, I am inclined to think that he would fall in line ith the sanctuary idea, b I do not know. I only recently returned from a two weeks trip Pennsylvania, and am starting again Wednesday morning on another trip of ten days or two weeks Sincerely yours, AF:G


r. Allen Frost, Vassar Institute, Poughkeopsi JL Y. De Allen: September tenth 1935 Jacob pp rt wt-ot on June 27th., aay1n mo other thin s, "It you Till a vise me ore 1n deta11 just how you xpect to handle such a propoa1t1on, I aha l be to coop rate ith you to th full t extent that I find 1t po ss1 ble. 11 S1nc th t date I have been oom un1eat1 baok and forth with you an have not rep led to Ruppert s letter. I hink I ehoul Can you .,1ve me any fu:rthe:r 1nfo.rmat1on? I do not ant to b 1n the position of oo et1 1th any aovern ent department for th ncqu1o1t1on or the area, and vre are in no pos,1t1cm to pay anyth1na for it, or even eontr1bute to its If theGovernment is not involved in th e1tuat1on. I m1 ht succeed 1n 1nduo1 Ruppert to set 1t aaide, pel'Dl1t us to post it and himself provide the t'unde tor the necessary warden pro teotton. Executive Director.


I r. Allen Froat, Vase Brothers Inst1tut N. Y. Dear Allent i { July 30th 1935 Thanks for your letter of tbe 27th. I 111 await further ord fro you.. When I ran into Preece, 1t as he who brou ht up the subjeot of Rupperte land, not I. It seems to e that he must have bad some 1nd of the tact that aome. one had mentioned the tract to this Associa tion. I Just pass th1e along tor what it ay be orth. er s1neerely, w


VASSAR BROTHERS INSTITUTE POUGHKEEPSIE. N.Y. Mr. John H. Baker, National Association of Audobon Societies, 1775 Broadway, New York City. Dear John: ..J I July 27, 1935. Acknowledging your letter of the 25th, I want to say that I quite agree with you that Preece's activities are rather difficult to understand in this particular case, but I am waiting to hear from him, and will let you know as soon as I do. From Monday until Friday of each week, I am usually at E.C.W .S.P. #4, Cold Spring, N .Y., and the telephone is 310-R. Over the week-ends, and sometimes for a day or two during the week, I am apt to be in Poughkeepsie, spending most of the time at the Institute. The telephone here is 3959-M The Camp delivery is rather slow, and I should allow 48 hours for a letter, so that usually it is about as quick to send it to the Institute. I don 1t like the on this marsh proposition, for there is no question in the minds of Dr. Winecoff, the other technicians who have considered this area, and myself, as to the advisability of the Audubon Societies having the control of it; for we are very skeptical as to the "control" and use of it under army jurisdiction. Sincerely yours, AF:G


.r, llen Froet; Vasser P ough e ps1 N .. Y. De r Alla 1 I July 25th 1935 for yours or t e 23-rd I W1. 1 a -a1t further oro f 'to you b tor ta 1 t mat er up again ith Ruppert. don't :no qu te 1ha to rna e of r eoe 1neooft a-ren y t sts h d th1n well of him I as favorably 1 pr sse by h1 but Bill Carr ms to ha."'e no us for l L he.tev t1 e.nd. thinks e 1a a double-oro aser p r oxoollenoe. I ont see ust what interest he oula have at .reaont '! doubl -crossing ant oay with to ts tract. \ 7hen I hear turther you I 111 know better how to prooeed, if at all" If e can reach you ore quicklY by ma11 a your o p ddre e, 111 you be kind enough to let me have 1t and I w11l use it h re .fter. You migh t also g1ve me the tel pMn number again. You a v e tt to me verb y, but I have tor otten 1t. tU.ncerely yours.


VASSAR BROTHERS INSTITUTE '! POUGHKEEPSIE. N.Y. Mr. John H. Baker, National Association of Audubon Societies, 1775 Broadway, New York City. Dear John: July 23, 1935. I am finally answering your letters of July 3rd, and July 15th. After receipt of your letter of July 3rd, I made a number of trips to the marshes of Constitution Island; one of them in company with Dr. Winecoff and D B Beard, both of whom are very enthusiastic over the prospect of the National Audubon Societies acquiring this marsh as a sanctuary, if possible. Since your letter of July 15th I have tried to trace down the exact status of Mr. Preece's activities regarding this tract. So far I have found nobody but Mr. Preece who knows about it. Dr Winecoff, our Regional Wildlife Technician, who has had two of his men on Constitution Island, knew nothing about it; so, Dr. Winecoff and I are both writing Mr. Preece asking that he advise us just what he means. There is no question in my mind, nor in the minds of a number of men with whom I have discussed the matter, that it would be far more advisable for the A udubon Societies to secure the control of this area as a sanctuary, than to have the government add it to the Military Reservation. Frankly, I am very skeptical as to the manner in which they would control such a sanctuary, which you state Mr. Preece calls "inviolate". There are too many officers and army men at West Point who now use Constitution Island as their hunting ground, and would undoubtedly claim that they were practicing predator control in the marsh. Another point, it seem s to me from the information obtained from Washington, that there is not a ghost of a chance of the Government's paying Ruppert any price for the swamp. I did not suggest this proposition to you until I had discussed it ith others who would have known or at least should have known, if it was being considered as an addition to the Military Reservation. Mr. Preece is an excellent man, a splendid engineer, and exceedingly enthusiastic. I am inclined to think that his enthusiasm is a bit ahead of the facts, but I have, as mentioned above, written to him asking for definite facts. AF:G


... t-. Allen Frost, Holme a Street, Pou hkec psio, N Y De r l nf July lOth 1935' I ran into P oe in a.sh1n;ton th othor da He 1s t h tello ho na at e .ount 1n ln the 000 or'k and he told tno that the Rnppert h traot, oast or Const1 tut1 o n Isl and" a .an e.1os Jh1ch he had been tr 1n"" to get and a,dd to the Military Re ervationl of htoh Oonat1tut1 on Idlnnd now a pn t and me.kG it an 1nv1olate sanotuar tor .!.ld lite. l:>id you no t i&? If so why d.1d you suggest wo o to cet 1t7 l do not ant o eompot1t1ve eitamt!.on. It '.lfOUld eet'l to ne orr an entlrely eati s t aetory to 1 t the Governm nt a.oqu1re it. If the Gov rn n t 1 s tal k ... 1 a e. ent pr1oe to :ror 1 t, !" l are immedi ately out of the running. A o no I had a r ly rrom Ruppert a 1n tor a apeo1f1o I thoueht 1 had a l ready a4 hi one* I ha ve not a a.1n \ .rr1.tten hitl, ord trom you 1n t o 1 ott r ot JUly 3rd. er s tnoerely, ..


I t like to e.:te some wo d _ro oo ollord up the 1: th .Ruppert. Th.a.?ti:.a tor .. I'l..'1 e the otl&}eot-o Sineetely ours 1 JliDtCA


Cemeteries as Bird-Sanctuaries By T. GILBERT PEARSON THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AUDUBON SOCIETIES Circular No. 2 XERICA is planning new homes for her birds-homes where they may live with unrestricted freedom, where food and lodging in abundance, and of the best, will be supplied, where bathing-pools will be at their service, where blossoming trees will welcome them in the sprir.g and fields of grain in the fall, quiet places where these privileges will bring to the birds much joy and contentment. Throughout this country there should be a concerted effort to convert the cemeteries, the homes of our dear friends who have gone away, into sanctuaries for the bird-life of this land. And what isolated spots could be more welcome to the birds than these places, that hold so many sad memories for human beings? If any place in the world ought to speak of the Resurrection, in whatever form it may come to us, it is the cemeteries of our land. In them we should seek inspiring bird-songs, the nesting of birds, the sight of the little ones pre paring for the world in their flight; there we should find all the beautiful flowers and waving grain, which is typical of the spiritual harvest, and should be associated in our minds with comfort and peace. I visited, not long ago, one of the old-time cemeteries that was the pride of the neighboring city. It was indeed a place of beauty to the eye; but to my mind there is always something flat and insipid about a landscape, however, charming otherwise, if the music of singing birds is not borne to the ear, as one passes among its beauties. Therefore, I looked and listened for my feathered friends. Some English Sparrows flew up from the drive, and I heard the rusty-hinge-like noise of a small company of Purple Grackles that were nesting, I suspected, in the pine-trees down the slope, but of really cheerful bird-life there appeared none in this artificially beautified, forty-acre inclosure. There is no reason to suppose that, under riormal conditions, birds would shun a cemetery any more than does the traditional graveyard rabbit. It was not dread of the dead, such as some mortals have, that kept the song-birds from this place; it was the work of the living that had driven them away. From one boundary to another there was scarcely a yard of under brush where a Thrasher or Chewink might lurk, or in which a Vireo, or a dainty Chestnut-sided Warbler, might hang its nest. Not a drop of water W?-S dis coverable, where a bird might slake its thirst. Neither in limb or bole was there a single cavity where a Titmouse, Wren or Bluebird might construct a Eighth Reprint, April, 1934.


bed for its young. No fruit-bearing trees were there to invite the birds in summ e r ; nor, so far as I could see, any berry-bearing shrubs such as birds enjoy nor any weed-patches to attract the flocks of Whitethroats and Juncos that come drifting southward with the falling leaves of autumn. Had my visit to this place been made in April, or early in May, there might have been a different tale to tell. September would also have yielded more birds than June, for September is a season when the migrants are with us for a time. It is then that the little voyageurs of the upper air are wont to pause after a night of tiresome flight, and rest for the day in any grove that chances to possess even moderate home comforts. Some time ago B S. Bowdish made a careful study of the bird-life of St. Paul' s Churchyard, in New York City. This property is three hundred and thirtythree feet long and one hundred and seventy-seven feet wide. In it are a large church and a church school. Along one side surge the Broad way throngs From the opposite side come the roar and rumble of an ele vated railway. The area contains, according to Mr. Bowdish, three large, ten medium, and forty small trees. With great frequency for two years field-glass in hand, he pursued his work of making a bird census of the grave yard. No bird s nest rewarded his search for the place was absolutely desti tute of feathered songsters during the late spring and summer, and, with a single exception, he never found a bird there in winter. Yet it is inter e sting to note that in this noisy, limited area, during the periods of migration he dis covered three hundred and twenty eight birds, embracing forty species Why do not more of the birds that pass in spring tarry in this quiet place for the summer? The answer is that the cemetery has been rendered unat tractive to them by the merely human committee in charge of the property. During the season when birds are engaged with their domestic duties they are usually a very wise little people. They know perfectly well whether a region is calculated to provide them with sure and safe nesting-sites, and whether sufficient food and water are accessible for their daily wants. A little of this same wisdom on our part, and a comparatively small expenditure might make a bird-paradise of almost any cemetery. Such places are not usually frequented by men and boys who go afield for the purpose of shooting which is an important point in the establishment of a bird sanctuary. One great enemy of the birds, however, must be guarded against the domestic cat. This may be done fairly effectively by means of a cat-proof fence. Gunners and cats having been eliminated, few other enemies of birds need be seriously considered. Bird-catching Hawks are not often numerous in the neighborhood of cemeteries. Red squirrels have a wide reputation for pilfering birds' nests and when abundant may constitute a danger. Properly constructed bird-boxes, wisely placed have often proved to


,. be a means of increasing bird-life to an astonishing degree, and this is abso lutely the only means of getting hole-nesting varieties to remain during the summer in a cemetery from which all standing dead wood has been removed. J Even the strong-billed Woodpeckers will not abide in a region where the only trees are living ones, unless, perchance, an artificial nest entices the resplendent and dashing Flicker to tarry. Many a Bluebird, with its azure coat gleaming in the sunlight, visits the cemetery in early spring. From perch to perch he flies, and in his plaintive notes may be detected the question that every bird asks of its mate, "Where shall we find a place for our nest?" In the end he flies away. Thus when the roses and lilies bloom the visitor is deprived of the Bluebird's cheery song, for the little fellow and his mate have departed for the neighboring farm, where they may be found, perhaps, in the old apple orchard. A few cents expended for lumber, and a very little labor in making a small box to be attached to the side of a tree or erected on a post, are all that is needed to keep the Bluebirds where they may be seen and enjoyed by hun dreds of sorrowing visitors. In the same way the quiet little Wrens, whose loud bursts of song are entirely out of proportion to the size of the singers, may be attra,ted ip summer, to the number of two pairs or more to every acre. It is a curious fact, of which I believe but little has been written, that birds that build open nests may often be induced to remain in a given locality if attractive nesting-material is placed within easy reach. In many a cemetery Orioles may be tempted to weave cradles among the swaying elm limbs, if strings and fragments of brightly colored yarns are placed where the birds may find them. Baron von Berlepsch, whose in attracting birds to his place in Germany have been widely heralded, found that when the tops of bushes were drawn in closely by means of a wire or cord, the resulting thick mass of leaves and twigs offered so fine a place for concealing nests that few birds could resist the temptation to use them. Other means of rendering a cemetery alluring to nesting birds will readily present themselves, when one develops an active interest in the subject. It takes only a little thought, a little care, and a little trouble, to make it pos sible for many birds to dwell in a cemetery, and it must be remembered that unless they can nest there, the chances are that no great amount of bird-music will fill the air. The young of most song-birds are fed to a great extent on the soft larvae of insects, of which there is usually an abundant supply everywhere. Many mother-birds, however, like to vary this animal diet with a little fruit-juice now and then; and the ripened pulp of the blackberry, strawberry, or mul berry, will cheer the spirits of their nestlings. Such fruits in most places are easily grown, and they make a pleasant addition to the birds' menu. In a well-watered territory, birds are always more numerous than in a dry region. You may find a hundred of them along the stream in the valley to one on the


mountain-top_ A

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' I 1639 THIRD AVENUE NEW YORK June 27 1935. John H. Baker, Execu ive D rector, ation Association of Aun bon oci ties, 1775 Broadwe New Yor N Dear Sir: a in rec ipt of your letter o June 12th re erring to certain marsh property that I of Constitution sland near Col Sprinc, and vhich you .hink m gh make a good bird sanctuary for migrator and other water birds. t is impossible for me to advise you what I m h t be able to do in this me... tter wit such limited knowledge of your plans and purposes as I have at present time. However, if you will me more in detail just how you expect to handle such a proposition, sh"l.ll be ver glad to c operate with you to the f llest extent that I find it possible. Yours very truly, JR:M.H tfo


February 3 1939 The e areas shown me while in Larin County anuary 1939, qnd in which people concerned seemed to be most interested were as follows: 1 Tomales Bay 2 Bolinas La g oon ..5. Limantob'J\.; Bay 4 The possibility of putting a nature museum and nature trail in the Marin municipal water district between LaGunitas and Phoenix Richardson' s Bay is already in a state ram e refur,e but there is a pond at the head of the Bay 1thin about 100 yards of t h e main concrete highway that is regularly used by a considerable number of waterfowl and abo u t which il.merican Lgrets, Blue Herons and other birds are regularly found Livermore believes that t his is private land and tha t something should be done to preserve it even thoug h it is tn the present game for it is in dan pe r of being drained, for xample The choice spot, where oll the l oc a l birders in M rin t he one frequented most by 11rs. Albertus, is known as the Cears Point Cut -off b tit is not in larin County. It is further to the east a t the head of the Bay and the best part of it is about a oile and a half in lenrth from east to west. J H.Baker


\ Jo.aob 1120 th 0 !{ c D cot ca. a plan e t, t: s Sino _ely cure, Executive Director no tot"r Ye no ( / l 1t'e --../'


. { 1\ .' ; t \ Memorandum on Long-billea Curlew. May 25th 1936 Professor A. M Woodbury and others in Utah were concerned about the decrease of these birds about the Bear River Refuge and felt the limits of that Refuge should be extended for the benefit of the Curlew. I reported this to Gabrielson, who was sympathetic, but added that he had been advised that at the Crescent Lake Refuge in western Nebraska there are some 600 pairs of these birds breeding this spring, and that there is also a large colony in north Umatilla County, Oregon.


.. W KERR SCOTT, \ COMMISSIOMER OF AGlUL URE D S. COLTRANE, ASSISTANT TO COMISSI ER BOARD OF AGRICULtURE MRs. L L. STEVENS, J C S. YOUNG, D R. NOLAND, T G. CURRIN, J H POOLE, M L ADERHOLT, CHAS. F CATES, W G HARGETT, LIONEL WElL W I. BISSETT, SHAWBORO SHELBY CLYDE OXFORD WEST END LEXINGTON MEBANE RICHLANDS GOLDSBORO GRIFTON DR. J. S. DORTON, C. C. BOOKER, R B ETHERIDGE, J. W WOODSIDE, B W KILGORE, DR. WM. MOORE, C. H BRANNON, F E. M ILLER, HARRY T DAVIS, C W PEGRAM, A B. FAIRLEY, W. H. RHODES, C D BAUCOM, LOUIS H WILSON, A R. POWLEDGE, NORTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RALEIGH November 1, 1938 Mr. Robert P. Allen National Association or Audubon Societies 1006 Fifth Avenue New York City Dear Mr. Allen: STATE FAIR CREDIT UNIONS MARKETS SEED LABORATORY CHEMISTRY VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY TEST FARMS N.C. STATE MUSEUM DAIRY WAREHOUSE SYSTEM STATISTICS WEIGHTS & MEASURES PUBLICATIONS ACCOUNTS I have your letter of October 27 relative to the Battery Island Heron Rookery. the last ew years, the State Department of Conservation has taken a definite interest in taking care of areas such as this as public property. I have been instrumental in having them take over an Indian mound which is to be restored and know about this situation. Very defi nitely, there Division would be interested in taking care of this rookery if they could get it UDder their jurisdiction. The Pilots Association is an active and impor tant organization at Southport. They have a tower which overlooks the rookery. I am sDre that they would be anxious to develop and take care of the property if they were given the responsibility of doing so under the Parks Division of the Department of Conservation. HTD:SCG Very sincerely yours, Harry T. Davis, North Carolina State Museum


. HO TO PLAN BIRD 8 CTUARY by Roger T o r y Pet raon A Sanctua r 1 a place of refug e In olden days a fugitive co 1 often finds net ry by o1ng into a temple or ohtroh here he l c R fe from eoular l a e long as h rem ained. ThP-re are many h m a n anct r1es h re peop_ e find comfort and peace but most of us thin of sanctuarie 1n term of b1r o t ong-trd hav e uoh a 1 e r a n e t t a 11 enctuary et up for th r protection means but 11tt le 1n act s lly lncrea ing t h e s p cie It O fl not rve the a me function a '1rot ct ing a h ronry or sea -bir colony. re s ver 1 thousand 1ndi v1 d als of' the a e s pc cie ne t clo e togethe r an r e nee a l l y v uln rable to p r ecut .on. Wha t t hen r th chi t rea ons for a ong-bird anctuary? We b 1 ve the follo ing re moat important: 1 To a1nt in a ildern s area t Som nctu aim a t m s1ntein1ng n their origina l st pieces of 1 n tha t other 1. f! ould be plo ed under or be en gulfed in the brick, steel, and concret e of a gro 1n g c ty. The P 1 tto ck Bird Sanctua r y oper t d y t h Audubon Society i of t h 1 sortt There a old t nd of Dotgl s f rover 200 feet high is inviolate, Ju t b e yond Portla nd e t rn oundAry. e b 1ld muse m t o ou e r re object of nrt and hi8tor1ca l doc ant The i1derne area s a sort of useum pice -ssv d for 11 time. 2 -For p rsona.l njo ment: Th m all gerden nctus r 1s t pica h re t h e mot ve 1s pr m rt1y on of getting enjoyment from the birds t h t com e to 11 ve t h re. 3 -or Eduo t1ona l Purp o acs: The chief v lue of rost ong-b1rd net 1s educ wt1onal


I I I f I I I : fnsp1ra t 1on 1 and thea It i. a tcce a r y 2 -t thing are im portant as a means to an end rt of a 1ongt1me program hi1e it i true that a yet n\pecles has gon out of existence from 1 ck of such protection, over a long period it con forestall any such possibility through its influence on t he public mind A gift of fe acr es of 1 nd a ne t s1gn, an reaol t on on t he books of the local bird club are not enou gh to. c ate a ue fu1 b1 or na ture sanctuary. If 1t is to increase the loce1 b1!'d popul t ion, even the dd i t1 on of a '!C r den and fence will not c 1eve the purpose. The land m a t be managed so tha t more b rds cen find th ir 11v1ng on 1t o tha t the v1 an "standard of 11 v1ng'1 o1 ht b raised. of ::mim tl p opulation is very largely mana ement of t he p l nt environment on vhich they depend Without food cover a.nd water, or nyone of the three, wild life cannot exlat. Our ildlife forms fit into very definite habit t niches, nd, fr q 1ently, as we cre&.t e one e destroy nother and t he bird-11t'e that goes with it. Food and cover alone, ith no thought s to the kind, quality, and cont1nu1tv, is an th t can b easily corrected by studving s vo.ilable t ables of tr e shrubs, and vines att:ra.ctive to bird and consult t1on ith competent nur erymen Balanced p lantin shoul t8ke OE\r3 of t e needs of birds through-out the y e ar: Shrub ith soft fruits t t bird can feed to their fl dgling in June; wil cherries and dog ooda attractive to p sing flocks in late ummer and e rly fall; and, ost import nt of all. birches a nd other tree that fford food on the de d-line be en inter and spring It sho ld be rem em b d that once artificial inter feedin ha been undertaken it mu t be kept up For furth r a vice consult our loca l club or write the N tionsl A oc1 t1on of Audubon Societies 1006 Fift h Avenue N w York N Y


undergrowth in woodland and fields. stream is very small, being an overflow from the city reservoir, which is located across the road from this map on top of a hill and entirely surrounded by Teachers Colleg e property. Public Road. / L -J Proposed ( 8) J :'1' I Proposed drainage of swamp: I! I / / 1 5 to Proposed ( 6) 1 8 Wood land (mostly deciduous) G! I \ ROAD / acres. I I I Proposed Improvements to Campus From:Albert E. gog West M:aple >:>t. Johnson City, Tenn. J State Teachers College Johnson City Tenn.


t t Awrunt : 1935 r. J t'! oooy 1 l Duffn-o Av nue, Ventno C t N.J. 00 : no Inl t G loo n e o -slq;ly put p o. fO\J 1nrn1ng posters ac o o c-oth, nailo to n1oooa o bo ; t 1eac 1r;ns conta1n1n a. stat ncnt ao to the tat Federal G p otoctin \lc.;. birds. 11-very n,o npprooiate you coop( o.tivn 1n t o nattcr. V r trt ly yo a# Robert P Allen Sanct ary Director 1


' '!. ... STATE OF NEW JERSEY MEMBERS OF BOARD MEMBERS OF BOARD J. SPENCER SMITH. PRESIDENT. TENAFLY JOHN MURTLAND, VICE-PRES. ATLANTIC CITY FRANK DORSEY. PERTH AMBOY JAMES W COSTELLO, NEWARK J RAYMOND TIFFANY, SPECIAL COUNSEL HORTIE G. FLINT, SOUTH TOMS RIVE R HAROLD L JONES. GLEN R IDGE JAMES J KELLY, ELIZABETH LESLIE S STERLING, DELANCO VICTOR GELINEAU, DIRECTOR AND CHIEF ENGINEER BOARD OF COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION STATE HOUSE, TRENTON SUCCESSOR TO THE BOARD OF RIPARIAN COMMISSIONERS, THE DEPARTMENT OF INLAND WATERWAYS. THE INS P ECTORS OF POWER VESSELS, THE NEW JERSE Y SHIP CANAL COMMISSION AND THE NEW JE:RSEY HARBOR COMMISSION; ADMIN I STERS STATE AID FOR COAST PROTECTION MAINTAINS INLAND WATERWAYS AND OPERATES STATE INLAND WATERWAY T ERMINALS. #1 Place, Jer y N. J. J YJ 25, 1935 I/ Ml'. Robert P. Allen,1 ( Director, National Association of Audubon Societies, 1775 Bro. a dway, New York City. Dear Sir:-I am replyi ng to your letter of July 17, 1935, requesting information regarding the ownership of Salt Island and Pullen Island, located between Brigantine Inlet and Little Egg Inlet, New Jersey. These Islands are situate in the Township of Gallowa Atlantic CoUnty. We have ascertained from the Township ( Assessor that the Islands are owned by Seabay Corporation and A & H Corporation. Mr. J. Sooy, H l Buffalo Avenue, Ventnor City, New Jersey, is the president of these t w o corporations, who, no doubt, can give you full information. VG:CW


I I J Pe ooy! c t in ouo po t1on 1 r o udubon RP:. LIT Ve .. y t H T A J tat 9., .. 35. 1 o v1<1n1ty e coast 11 y co beaohos etod in ao u r ne nt oul be moot suity you s, ohore in t Ro bort P '-Allen G ot f Di otor







....., Septembsr 201 193$ l.r. Jar..os A -Sooy 1 North But s.lo Av,nue Ventnor, N J Dcr l" Scoy: is a poes1b1lity of nnot.. r oroa.n1to.t1on in your operty in tho t1no soot1on of' the I-le Jer-sey CA.n you tell n at t a t!.m 1 np.,Io. t ly ..-hat you rro ld ask ror your Land p r .ere rund ust exactly t :1 bo Ul( rries of yo 1 .. toldinga? I.n your lettet to m e of August 3 you tho property but I would apr>reo1nte ;;our o "; oo n";a.1n t! c little et ... il. ert ? onetua:.r llon D1 actor


; .. A HERON! IN MISSISSIPPI .. P. L. Mann, located about three and one-half miles aouth west of Glen Allen, Mississippi is within the R eedland quadrangle.1 Thia map shows it to be a. low area. about one and one fourth mi lee wide. The lake is very shallow a.nd is covered with button bueh, wil-low, a.nd C1Press. Very few other trees are found in the lake proper. It is admirably suited for a. Heron Rookery, being inaccessible to the average ma.rauier. Food in nearby Lake Washington, and the small sloughs .. This study was begun the month of May, 1935, and a preliminary report waa made a.nd along with reports of other field work of the Department of :Biology.2 Several visits have been made to this lake this spring. The first visit wa.s March 20, before the trees besan budding. We discovered a. colony of Ward 1 s Great :Blue Heron, (Ardea. herodias herodias) nesting in the tall cypress. We counted fifty-three (53) trees with a total of two hundred fifty-seven (257) ests. Three weeks later we returned to make moving pictures of the rookery. Some of the boy& climbed to the nests and f o und most of t hem with young birds. '!here were only a few nests with eggs. 'lhis sec ond visit also revealed many American Egre Heredia& egretta (Gmelin) ). They were nesting i n large colonies in the small 1 War Depa .rtment maps U. S. Engineers, Vicksburg, Miss. 2 :Biological Field work BULLETIN of the DE!oTA STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE Vol. II, No. 3, 1935


----.. I (2( and button bushes. birds are so that it is to accurately count the birds or nests. A few Littl Blues (Florida Cerulea) were seen, but no nests were found at this On May 8, we made another visit to the rookery. visit reveal ed many Little Blue a few Snowy (Egretta candidissima) and Snake birds (Anhinga a.nhinga) were numerous. The Snake birds were nesting in the cypress trees with the Great Blue Some of them ocl cupied old nests of the Great Blue. Anhinga eggs were collected I from the same nests from we had previously collected Great Blue eggs. wr i tar accompanied Mr. Ben Coffey, of Memphis, and a group of Boy Scouts to the Lake on May 24. The group banded over one thousand birds. Jmong them were l .....-:: the Snowy Florida Gallinule, (Gallinula galeata), American Egret, Anhinga, the vC_ v' Little Blue, and the Gre a t Blue. Upon our last visit (June 6) we banded several more and sno( ys. One of the Black Crown Night Heron (Nyctioerax naevius) apparently ab out five w eeks old was captured and banded. One nest of four birds of Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and seven nest ./ lings of Little Green Heron (Butorides virescens virescens) were captured and banded. The Purple Gallinule (Iovornis martinicu.s) was also found here but no nesting record has been established. All of these birds that were found in numbers seaned to have es-tablished definite nesting areas. l Reported by Mr. Ben Coffey. .. LJ. oo fo j


I 6"? l


... f' .. f. ;_. National Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals 1775 Broadway, New York, N.Y The Future of American Wildlife Lies in the Hands of Our Children Your Club Number is Dear It gives us much pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your remittance of $ in payment of the fees of addi-tional members of your Junior Audubon Club. The leaflets and buttons for these new members go out to you today. As interest in your Club is growing, we trust you are in-itiating many of the projects suggested in the reprint "Bird Study for 5chools". In particular we hope that you are able to take field trips, and that a majority of the children will undertake projects at home such as the construction of bird baths, feeding stations and bird houses, the planting of shrubs and trees to attract birds, et cetera. Will you send us the names and addresses of other teachers who might be interested in forming Junior Audubon Clubs? A list of all the teachers in your county would be welcome and helpful. Very truly yours, JOHN H. BAKER Executive Director


'I Memorandum to Mr. Baker. subject: Wild-life sanctuaries of New Y ork state. The program that Bump has initiated in the state will provide a great many breeding grounds for Ducks and other water birds, in addition to the places they have already obtained. I think a most satisfactory area for a wild-life sanctuary where no shooting would be permitted is already owned by the State, consisting of Northwest Bay and Tongue Mountain, an area bounded by roads, and where enforcement would be relatively easy if such a project were undertaken. A certain amount of Duck feed improvement could be maintained there and if it were properly posted and administered it would be a very creditable sanctuary, I believe. I also understand the Oak orchard swamp in the vicinity of Buffalo is a very good area, but I believe this is under consideration by Bump for such purposes. Perhaps the best thing for you to do would be to write Osborne or Adams and ask them to giveyyou a digest of their plans and how they wish to administer the areas they are already working on, and asking what provision is made for other forms of wild-life, besides game birds. Of course I can answer that question for the places I saw, but there are others. August 20, 193 5 Dictated but not read. u.r. /.._ warren F Eaton.


] ay 15, 1936. ,IEMORANDUM : Subject: To: Sc.nctuari es The only suggestions I have as to migratbny bird refuge areas in Nevi York and New England are probably the same that have been made by the other staff members. In New England, Merrymeeting Bay would be the number one choice. Thereis no really good Duck area in Massachusetts avmy from Martha 1 s Vineyard, except for Sea Ducks. There are anumber of good ponds on the south shore of the Vineyard but these are all owned by gun cl uos and would probably not be of sufficient size to warrant purchase by the Survey. On Long Island possible refuges are a part of Shinnecock Bay and Anson Hard1s place. In upper New york, Krugers Island on the Hudson ought to be considered. There are several good concentra tion. spots in the finger lakes area, but they do not adapt themselves to the Survey 1 a plans. Canvasbacks, Red-heads, etc., are quite safe from wholesale killing in their present gathering places. Nearly all the bent areas I know o f in Western New York are in the door-yards of cities where shooting 'ould be out of the question. Roger T Peterson


y ,. I J f '-. .. IvlEI.fOR.AN DUM May 15 1936 TO: I.ffi BA}<:ER FROM: MR. VOGT Belatedly, with apologies, I suggest the follow ing areas as of possible interest to Salyer, for duck sanctuaries The late Anson Hard's estate on Lon g Isla nd The JOnes Beach Sanctuary (which is merely leased) A large segment of Shinnecock Bay Troy M eadows Potter swamp, centra l N Y Montezuma Marshes n tt North Bay crugers Island, Barrytown


M E MORANDUM TO : MR.. BAKER FROM : }.ffi. ALLEN June 11, 1936 I presume you have t alk.ed with Mrs. Kelly about certain areas on the Pacific Coast near Alameda which she feels should be set aside as a permanent resting and feeding place for migrating shore birds. If we have not already done so, it ht be well to discuss this with Gabrielson or Salyer. Apparently, there are three main areas as follows: 1. Marsh near the Arden Salt Works, located south of Palo Alto and north of Sunnyvale. The property is evidentally owned by the Arden Salt Company. 2. Marshes on what is known as B a y Farm Island, which is on the boundary between Al13. meda and Oakland. 3. The San Leandro Marshes in that same general r eglon. R. P. A.


LIPPING FROM O E Tr::OlT {MICH.) FREE P R E S S JLILY 28 ; 1935 OUTDOOR AFFAIRS -----Puzzle "--------------------.......... By Jack Van A MAN came In a day or eo faith, he wants to be sure the enough to give them all th& did white crappies ever get Van Ettan In Iosco That is a question that is fish experts, because white i!ll!l-:pp .aes on the east side of Mlchi are found only in Lake Erie streams tributary to it, and Lake Michigan in the southT w.!stl!rn of the state, crappies in Michigan crappies, known to most as calico or strawberry Van Ettan Lake is a long from the S'luthern Michigan can be found of Did some umLerrnm, perhaps know more likely in the belief merely bringing in some :ordinary crappies, Introduce them to the far-away northern lake? The black crappie, or strawberry bass, Is dark, mottled and chunky. One of the best Identifying marks the anal fin, located on the under of the fish, near the tail. This definitely speckled with black. contrast, the anal fin of the w ite crappie Is virtually colorless. The white crappie may often be al most white, It Is more slender than the black and has bands something Uke the markings on a perch. In e Erie, the white crappie is the black. ':""!11 Michigan, ang er .n-awberry bass In weedy kes. Both the white and black sp" ies tJ like muddy rivers and warm ponds, but the white crappie is more tolerant of silty water. Th\l chief bait is very small minnows. They are also caught on !lies when feeding at the surface. Large catches have been made with the fly In Reeds Lake near Grand Rap. ids. ;Many fishermen prize the crapp1e as one of the best of our panflsh, which it is, except when the weather becomes warm. Then its flesh becomes soft and less ty. Crappies are given no protection other than size and creel limits. They must be at least six inches long and they are counted among the panfish, for which the limit is fish a day combined. They nest and breed early in the spring, along about April or May, laying their eggs in about one to eight feet of water. Their nests are made very similar to those of bass and sun fish, but are more often built under some overhanging shelter, such as submerged brush. Birds of Harm to Fish Blue Herons Do More Good Than Evil An rs are Inclined to blame the disappearance of planted trout to large fish-eating birds. But studies in trout streams show that the los11 of trout fry is to other fish, such as sticklebacks, sculpins, suckers, sunfish, catfish and even trout and other game fish, says the United States Department of Agri culture. Besides the fish enemies, there are water snakes, salamanders, crawfish, leeches, the larvae of diving beetles and insects such as giant waterbugs. These enemies are, In turn, de stroyed by birds. It is probable that, except at hatcheries, fish-eat ing birds more than make up for the harm they do by destroying natural enemies of the whole fish tribe. Fish-eating birds feed upon what Ill easy to get. Their choice of food depends so much upon availability that in most waters they get only a smalt of or comago and asked if It were seller can deliver, so that the sort of "exclusive" recreation Posslbh to sell 700 memberships purchaser will not be left hold p r o m I s e d by the salesman? lng the bag. What chance have you of "get in a hunting and tishlng club What assurance Is there that ting out even" if the club' at $300 the beautiful clubhouse on the membership is not to your llk"It all depends," we told him. promotion literature will ever lng? How far from your home be built? And what will the is the property located, how are "If you have exceptional acre-upkeep be and will the annual the roads, and what are the age to offer, with splendid fish-membership dues cover it? chances of your making enough ing and first class hunting, with How many m em b e r s will use of the property to get a e n o ugh territory and water there be, and will the acreage decent return on your Investfrontage to accommodate your included in the club grounds be ment? 700 members satisfactorily year after year, you should be able to sell that many. "If, on the other hand, you have only a few thousand acres of mediocre stuff that you want to unload for a maximum of profit, you may find the going pretty tough. Folks haven't forgotten the trimming they got on hunt and fish clubs back in 1929. They are going to be pretty critical of what you have to offer in 1935." BECAUSE the "boomers" of hunting and fishing lands are becoming active again, it may not be amiss to look back on the clubs which "blew up" In past years and see why they did so. Most of those charged too much for what they gave. They offered only medium good facilities of which there is a great quantity In Michigan and can be had more cheaply by renting, The promoters often had neither the ability nor the honesty to get lands of excep tional qualltlr. 'l'hey resorted to exaggeratie'ft, if not to sky-limit promisea. Unsound financing and wishful plans did not en dure wl'.en the time came for testing. IT is tbe exceptional purchaser w h o formulates what he wants and then deliberately shops to get it. Yet this proce dure is practically essential if you are to find a hunting and fishing club with which you are going to be 100 per cent. satis fied. Perhaps you won't find it. It all depends upon what you want. Such specifications will, for example, include your prefer ences for fishing. What kind of fishing, and In what quan tity? Is there enough lake area or enough stream area to supply fishing to all the many members in reasonable amounts, and can you be sure that the fishing will be good year after year? And don't forget that what the salesman may call good, you may call very poor. "Five miles of trout stream," the promotion literature may say. That may mean what it says, or it may mean "five miles of water" of w h i c h half is simply a "fish desert." "Five lakes on the property," the cir cular may boast. But what kind of lakes are theyz What kind of water, how deep, what kind of fish, what kind of shoreline? And a Jot more questions should be asked. What kind of hunting Is there on the property offered? How good is it and how long will it last? If deer, is there a bal anced area: summer ground, but also a winter yarding area, with plenty of deer feed? Or is the cedar swamp eaten out so that the deer will disappear within just a few years? What kind of trees are there? Is it fire cherry, jackpine, pop ple, white or Norway pine or hardwoods? M o s t promoters claim "virgin" timber, either not knowing or not caring that there : s scarcely any "virgin" timber left In Michigan, and that if the truth were known, "virgin" timber Is usually less attractive to game than second growth. If th!l timber is mature Umber, it may not last as long as it should. s& Bill r Will Aid Wildlife Federal Measure to Further Programs A blanket "wildlife" bill, passed by Congress and approved by the President, appropriates $6,000,000 for refuges, authorizes allocation by the President of additional money for the purpose from the fOur bil lion-dollar PW A fund and enacts at one swoop nearly all new wild life legislation sought by sportsmen In the present session of Congress. The new law will enable the Bio logical Survey to extend ite work on establishment of a great system of Federal refuges recommended last year by the President's Committee on Wildlife Restoration. A total of $8,f!OO,OOO was a:Jlocated In 1934 from submarginal land retirement and other funds. Over 600 ,000 acres of refuge sites were acqujred or op tloned in 20 states. New laws enacted with the passage of the bill follows : The "duck stamp law" is amend ed to permit anyone who has a dollar to purchase the stamps. Com munities are to be compensated for tax losses due to Federal refuge acquisitions by authorizing payments to school or road funds of 25 per cent of refuge revenues. The Lacey Act., regulating inter state shipment of game and other wildlife is amended to insure more effective Federal enforcement. Wind Cave National Game Pre serve in South Dakota Is transferred to the Department of the Interior as a National park. Rendezvous Near Aluminum Bands Common terns are nesting Tree Island in Saginaw Bay crushing --eggs. Upper left: Norman Gall of Sebewaing (right) banding a young tern. old. In the lower picture, you tern not over a day out of its dreds of terns in co-operation Biological Survey. Careful rAnrlhi t finally turned in, valuable and longevity of th'e birds Trout Fishing Better Th for New England lmpr_oved Wat:r .... Mak1ng The largest outdoor sporting event in the New England States, the New England Rendezvous, will Trout fishing In Michigan is de be held Lake Maranacook near cldedly better than last year. This


1m WL,rm ponds, but the white crappie \is more tolerant of silty water. The chief bait is very small minnows. They are also caught on flies when feeding at the surface. Large catches have been made with the fly in Reeds Lake near Grand Rap ids. jMany fishermen prize the crapp'!e as one of the best of our panfish, which it is, except when the weather becomes warm. Then its flesh becomes soft and less psty. Crappies are given no protection other than size and creel limits. They must be at least six inches long and they are counted among the panfish, for which the limit is 25 fish a day combined. They nest and breed early in the spring, along about April or May, laying their eggs in about onewto eight feet of water. Tl;leir nests are made very similar to those of bass and sun fish, but are more often built under some overhanging shelter, such as submerged brush. Birds of Harm to Fish Blue Herons Do More G'ood Than Evil An rs are Inclined to blame the disappearance of planted trout to large fish-eating birds. But studies in trout streams show that the greatest loss of trout fry is to other fish, as sticklebaclts, sculplns, suckers, sunfish, catfish and even trout and other game fish, says the United States Department of Agri culture. Besides the fish enemies, there are water snakes, salaman ders, crawfish, leeches, the larvae of diving beetles and insects such as giant waterbugs. These enemies are, in turn, de stroyed by birds. It is probable that, except at hatC'heries, fish-eat ing birds more than make up for the harm they do by destroying n .atural enemies of the whole fish tribe. and wishful plans did not en dure wt.en the time came for testing. IT is the exceptional purchaser who formulates what he wants and then deliberately shops to get it. Yet this proce dure is practically essential if you are to find a hunting and fishing club with which you are going to be 100 per cent. satis fied. Perhaps you won't find it. It all depends upon what you want. Such specifications will, for example, include your prefer ences for fishing. What kind of fishing, and in what quan tity? Is there enough lake area or enough stream area to supply fishing to all the many members in reasonable amounts, and can you be sure that the fishing will be good year after year? And don't forget that what the salesman may call good, you may call very poor. ''Five miles of trout stream,'' the promotion literature may say. That may mean what it says, or it may mean "five miles of water" of w hi c h half is simply a "fish desert." "Five lakes on the property," the cir cular may boast. But what kind of lakes are What kind of water, how deep, what kind of fish, what kind of shoreline? And a lot more questions should be asked. What kind of hunting is there on the property offered? How good is it and how long will it last? If deer, is there a bal anced area: summer ground, but also a winter yarding area, with plenty of deer feed? Or is the cedar swamp eaten out so that the deer will disappear within just a few years? What kind of trees are there? Is it fire cherry, jackpine, pop ple, white or Norway pine or hardwoods? M o s t promoters claim "virgin" timber, either not knowing or not ca1'ing that there :s scarcely any "virgin" timber left in Michigan, and that if the truth were known, "virgin" timber is usually less attractive to game than second growth. If th

---Coevering WRITE your specifications from a list such as that. a few of your own. And when you begin studying the nicely printed .literature, don't e misled by the State-owned areas which ara "within driv Ing distance." You can see those by making your head flUarters at a nearby hotel and a.t much less cost. The chief advantages a bona-Before You Join a Hunting Club iJisland Terns Thrive Again fide proposition has to offer are: high g r a d e h u n t i n g grounds and fishing w at e r s, better than those to be found on public areas, or less heavily fished or hunted; conge n I a I companions through selective membership; accessibility of lo cation, or exclusiveness; suf ficient acreage so there will be no crowding. If you insist upon all these things, it may be that the cost will be more than a few hundred dollars. But once have drawn your specifica tions, you may not be satisfied with a cheaper article. When the mlssus (most any body's missus) wants a dress, she doeu plenty of shopping and usually gets exactly what she wants or she doesn't, buy it. This method is commended to the head of the family when he thinks he wants to join a hunting orfishing club. 3,000 Young Likely to. Be Hatched By Jack Van Coevering Terns Tell Their Life Stories Common terns on Lone Tree Is land in Saginaw Bay have staged a remarkable comeback. There are probably twice as many of the black-capped, fork-tailed birds than there were two years ago and, when this season's hatch is completed, thE' population may be practically doubled. this Spring on Lone watch his step to avoid on a nest. Upper right: Aumann of Detroit probably a few weeks see a band on a baby The boys have banded hunthe United States Bureau of kept. When the bands are as to the migration, habits Reported hout State Given Credit for Happy Better enter your fish in the Free Press Fishing Contest, rather than wish you had. There is no charge or t>bliga tion. Use the entry blank on this page. The contest closes Labor Day. Entries to date are showing keen competition In all classes except those on trout caught with flies. There are but few entries there. Fly fishermen: Take note. Sportsmen Score in Pollution Fight When we visited the island with Herman Millerwise and Norman Gall, of Sebewaing, and Herman Few Pheasants Eaten by Foxes Analysis of Stomachs Gives Evidence Aumann, of Detroit, we found nesting at its height with eggs and young birds everywhere. Some of the terns were almost big enough for flight, others were a few days old and still others were just creep ing out of their shells. It was a great day for young terns to come into the world. The sun was shining brightly. The sand on the low ridges was warm. It is on these sand ridges that the terns prefer to make their nests, and in places they are so close together that one must watch his step. several spots we could and 'l'tt-frum -rno f5 nests in circle. Man;r of them were as close together as 24 Inches, although the more usual distance was about four feet apart. Many of the terns merely scooped out a little hollow in the sand, brought in a half dozen twigs and laid their eggs on that. But others, more industrious birds, built a rather complete nest of rushes or grasses, so that the two to four eggs lay in a veritable mattress. Eggs Turn Sun-Tan When laid, the eggs are a dull greenish brown, spotted or blotched with brown. As incuba tlpn proceeds, these eggs seem to turn darker, until by the end of three weeks when they are ready to hatch, they seem to be decidedly brown all over, as if they have ac quired a good sun-tan. Over and over, we could watch the process of hatching. At first, a tiny crack showed on the outside of the egg. As the little bird tore away at the shell with Its bill, the hole became larger and larger, until the entire bill was stuck through the hole. The bird worked away until finally the egg was cracked completely, and the ugly, wet body lay exposed to the sun. It did not take long before the sun dried out the little one. The down fluffed out and it became the attractive youngster that a tern chick is supposed to be. Even when Michigan foxes don't feast on only a few hours old, it stood up on pheasants; 'at least 14 foxes did not. its feet and tried to leave the nest, They were shot in Lapeer, Mont-to get into the shade of overhanging grasses and weeds morency, Go g e b I c, Schoolcraft, Because there were so many Mackinac and Chippewa Counties young birds daily available, it was and their stomachs were sent to an ideal day for banding them. Washington to be examined by the Norman Gall has been co-operating United States Bureau of Biological with the Bureau of Biological Sur vey for a number of years to band Survey. these birds and is piling up a reThe report says that the stom-markable total of birds banded. achs contained no positive evidence This day he succeeded in banding Currituck Sound sportsmen have that any of the foxes had eaten 200 of the little fellows in two hours, scored a victory over crab fisher-pheasants, although seven of the which makes a total of 410 terns he men who would have opened the I has banded this season. gates of the Chesapeake and Albe.were. from Lapeer CounErvin Sturgis, of Lexington, Mo., marie Canal and permitted the ty, right m the heart of Southern comes to the island each year to salty and polluted harbor waters Michigan's. There participate In banding the terns, of Norfolk, Va. to invade 300 was no positive evidence that and this season he has banded 110. square miles of nearly fresh Sound the foxes had eaten partndge or Other bird banders have placed alwaters merely for the sake of get-grouse. most 1,000 bands this season on the ting more crabs into the Sound. Instead of game birds, It was same island, which \means that At a hearing held in Norfolk, f?und that the red fox had prcbably 1,500 birds have already sportsmen rallied strongly in opfor the part on various been banded. 1 position to the proposal, which bas species of Wild miCe and to some ang ers on a been withdrawn. The Bureau of extent on rabbits. But it could not Increase Is Remarlmble Without ex-Biological Survey contended that be determined, by stomach analySince the hatch is not quite half eption, he says, fishermen report-opening the locks permanently sis, whether the rabbits had been completed, it is quite probably that d better trout fishing. In fact, in would ruin vast growths of aquatic diseased or dead from other causes. fully 3,000 terns will be hatched on me case,s anglers boasted that plants in the Sound upon which the Following are the frequencies of Lone Tree Island this year. This bulk of Eastern wildfowl depend for occurrence of material identified increase in the tern population is out fishing was the best in 10 food during the in the fox stomachs: remarkable in view of the destruc-ars. Deer mouse, 14; rabbit fur, 9; tion of eggs several years ago by J.n the Lower Peninsula, there undetermined flesh, 5; undeterm fishermen who were inclined to ems to be a similar return to Set Up 30 Bird Houses feathers, 5; grasshoppers, 3; unde-blame the terns for their fish-eating tter fishing. A year ago Bill termined fur, leaf fragments, shrew, habits. Two years ago they went to -reen, of Pontiac, was complaining Edward D. Magoon Chapter of domestic chicken feathers, 2 each; the island, destroyed many eggs and out the fishing in the AuSable the Izaak Walton League has set vegetables debris, lemming and gathered others into large piles as ver above Mio. This year, he says, out 30 wren houses in Causeway other meadow mice, chicken foot, high as several bushel baskets. re_ is no reason for complaint. Memorial Park near ll(luskegon as fox hairs gopher, sand, hairs of Since then, it has been proved m Edwards, of Grand Rapids, a part of the plan to make the whitetai!e'd deer, twigs, muskrat that the terns pick up shiner minhe fishes the Little Manistee park at the head of Muskegon fur, fox toes, leather, woody debris, nows almost exclusively, of which iver, reports that the brown trout Lake on US-31 a bird sanctuary. loon feathers, beechnuts, one each. there are unlimited quantities that stream are coming his way. ---------------------------------:: Ba and not. eldom a week-end goes by that he no'\>vd", ,.., -oes not connect with a brown from lieved. 5 to 20 inches long. FISHING CONTEST FOR 1935 The terns have not ee Bob Fortney, who oversees the for two seasons. They have Hatchery at Paris, reports the ... "'-'-' treams i stric ha "" llTh H-------------.....,""


this Spring on Lone his step -to avoid a nest. Upper right: Aumann of Detroit probably a few weeks see a band on a baby The boys have banded hun the United States Bureau of kept. When the bands are as to the migration, habits Reported hout State ons Given Credit for ers Happy ance to intervie w anglers on a mber of streams. Without ex ption, he says, fishermen report better trout fishing. In fact, in me case.s anglers boasted that out fishing was the bes t In 10 ars. In the Lower Peninsula, there ems to be a similar return to tter fishing. A year ago Bill een, of Pontiac, was complaining out the fishing in the AuSable ver above Mlo. This year, he says, "e. is no reason for complaint. am Edwards, of Grand Rapids, ho fishes the Little Manistee iver, r eports that the brown trout n that stream are coming his way. eldom a week-end goes by that he loes not connect with a brown from 5 to 20 inches long. Bob Fortney, who oversees the 'ish Hatchery at Paris, reports the treams in his district have shown decided recovery. Even the Pine iver is yielding many good catches, !though this stream showed less recovery than many others. When asked to explain the im proved fishing this summer, Fred Westerman, chief of the fish divi sion of the Conservation Department, was inclined to credit it to better water conditions. Streams are fuller; water levels are higher. Last year, streams were low and clear. This made fishing difficult and may have driven fish into hid 'ing where they were hard to catch. The factor of merganser ducks, which were very plentiful on the streams in the spring of 1934, was absent this year. While it is not known how destructive the mer gansers are, it Is probable that they took a considerable toll of trout preceding last year's fishing sea son and affected the fishing ad versely on some streams. Sudden Heavy Rains Fatal to Pheasants Heavy rainfalls which come with out warning may be causing serious mortality among Michi gan's ring necked pheasant chicks, asserts Dr. P. F. English, game cover and food specialist for the Department of Conservation. Heavy downpours in recent weeks have flooded pheasant nests, he says, and if the chicks are just out of the eggs, or only a few days old, they are likely to be drowned. Pheasant reports indicated an un usually large numbe r this summer, but weather conditions may depre ciate the number, Wfiy Not Enter Fish in Contest? Bette r enter your fish In the Free Press Fishing Contest, rather than wish you had. There is no charge or Obliga tion. U s e the entry blank on this page. The contest closes Labor Day. Entries to date are showing keen competition in all classes e x c ept those on trout c aught with flies. There are but few entries there. Fly fishermen: Take note. Sportsmen Score in Pollution Fight Currituck Sound sportsmen have scored a victory over crab fisher men who would have opene d the gates of the Chesapeake and Albe m arle Canal and permitted the salty and polluted harbor waters of :Norfolk, Va., to invade 300 square miles of nearly fresh Sound waters merely for the sake of get ting more crabs into the Sound. At a hearing held in Norfolk, sportsmen rallied strongly in opposition to the proposal, which bas been withdrawn. The Bureau of Biological Survey contended that openIng the locks permanently would ruin vast growths of aquatic plants in the Sound upon which the bulk of Eastern wildfowl depend for food during the Set Up 30 Bird Houses Edward D. Magoon Chapter of the Izaak Walton League has set out 30 wren hous e s in Causeway Memorial Park near :t.:ruskegon as a part of the plan to make the park at the head of Muskegon Lake on US-31 a bird sanctuary. Few Pheasants Eaten by Foxes Analysis of Stomachs Gives Evidence Michigan foxes don't feast on pheasants; at least 14 foxes did not. They were shot in Lapeer, Mont morency, Go g e b i c Schoolcraft, Mackinac and Chippewa Counties and their stomachs were sent to Washington to be examined by the United States Bureau of Biological Survey. The report says that the stom achs contained no positive evidence that any of the foxes had eaten pheasants, although seven of the stomachs were from Lapeer Coun ty, right in the heart of Southern Michigan's pheasant area. There was no positive evidence either that the foxes had eaten partridge or grouse. Instead of game birds, it was found that the red fox had sub sisted for the most part on various species of wild mice and to some extent on rabbits. But it could not be-determined, by stomach analy sis, whether the rabbits had been diseased or dead from other causes. Following are the frequencies of occurrence of material identified in the fox stomachs: Deer mouse, 14; rabbit fur, 9; undetermined flesh, 5; undeterm feathers, 5; grasshoppers, 3; unde termined fur, leaf fragments, shrew, domestic chicken feathers, 2 each; vegetables debris, lemming and other meadow mice, chicken foot, fox hairs, gopher, sand, hairs of whltetailed deer, twigs, muskrat fur, fox toes, leather, woody debris, loon feathers, beechnuts, one each. out a little hollow in brought in a half dozen twigs and laid their eggs on that. But others, more industrious birds, built a rather complete nest of rushes or grasses, so that the two to four eggs lay in a veritable mattress. Eggs Turn Sun-Tan When laid, the eggs are a dull greenish brown, spotted or blotched with brown. As incubatipn proceeds, these eggs seem to turn darker, until by the end of three weeks when they are ready to hatch, they seem to be decidedly brown all over, as If they have ac quired a good sun-tan. Over and over, we could watch the process of hatching. At first, a tiny crack showed on the outside of the egg. As the little bird tore away at the shell with Its bill, the hole became larger and larger, until the entire bill was stuck through the hole. The bird worked away until finally the egg was cracked completely, and the ugly, wet body lay exposed to the sun. It did not tal

CLIPPING FROM SAY CITY IMJCH. 1 TIM!'. .JUL. V 27, 1935 MANY FEATURES IN TERN COLONY Seabirds Ntst by Thousands On Lon Tree Island In Sa inaw Bay BY BEN EAST. 'l'o approtch Lone Tree Island, low -.ndy ciescent In Saginaw bay & few mile off the mouth of the Sebewalnc tiver, In a 11mall boat and see tbe &'reat cloud of common terns eddy ddenly up from their nesting gr nds the length and brea.dth of he !Bland Is an un forgettable ght. One Ins t the Island-a low creen reef parsely carpeted with vegetation d clumps of willows and stunte popple-Is quiet, with a few stra terns wheeling and swooping k and forth merhead. The next t tant the boat crosses an Invisible adllne seemingly eetabllshed by the birds. The solitude of sand and water and waving green rushes Is broken and the flock springs 'into flfght. eddying up like white swallows cif the sea from every part of the Is-land. They rise from the sandy backbo,ne of Lone Tree, from the gr&.lfl and weeds above the beach, from the gravel points ar.d ':>ars around the shore and even from the dry mud flats that extend far out on e;ther -side, mark of the low water levels of the bay this summer. A Swarming Cloud meet the boat, a overhead, like As One Seabird Takes A Picture Of Another


B men bt i. "Vorable aummer fully 6,!1 0 of theae ama)J "mlnnle guiJ'B" of bay flshermen..:....breed here In their ancestral nesting grounds. where common terns have reared their young for more than the last half century. At the helgh1; of the nesting sea son one could walk along the low sandy ridge that runs the length of the leland and step from tern nest to tern nest a fair share of the way If he chose to do so. The birds build little In the way of 11. nest. They scoop out a shallow, sauce-like hollow in the ground, perhaps adding a lin,lng and & carelessly built, untidy rim of bita of rushes and sea Here they lay a clutch of two or three, rarely four, attractive eggl, 'YII.rylng in color from buff to elive-&Teen, abundantly tspotted and ma.rked W\th dark brow'n or black. It Is not unusual for the nests to 'be located within two or three feet of other In favored areas about the Island, but despite the closeness of neighbors complete harmoiJIY 1eems to reign among the birds, even after the young are blotched. l Soon Leave Nest Shortly after hatched the young terns leave the nest, at least during the heat of the day, and seek sl1elter from the pitiless sun under nearby ,clumps of grass or weeds. But regardless of their change of location each mother appears to recognize and keep track of her own fledglings, returning to feed them at regular lnfervals and seemingly looking out tor 'onlY. ner o.,.vn family. If one f!eeks to study the n.13sting terns at close range, uildlsturbea by the known presence of an intruder a low blind set Up among a group of nests affords him a ready opportunity, We erected a blind, on our visit to the Island this summer, In an open sandy area near the shoreward end of Lone Tree, In the center ot perhaps a score or more of nests. The blind consisted of a. low cloth tent, about four feet square and no higher than that, with just room flnough Inside for one or two men and a ba.ttery of cameras. Before I crawled Inside I 11et up a camera overlooldng a nest 30 or 40 feet away n.nd ran a silk line fi:om the shutter to the blind. Then with Normari Gall ot eiebewaing, who had taken me to Tree, I entered the bfln

It" required only seven minutes from the time we entered the blfnd for complete quiet to return to tern colony in our section o! the island, with all of the brooding birds down on their nests once more. With one big camera inside the blind we commanded two nests di rectly 'n front and the making o!

$ and Waters ndu.cted bv Ben East E S EASANTTAKE Estimates That Many Were Slain By Hunters In Past Season BY GUY JENKINS July 27-What is of Michigan's pheasant game division department is answer and they befigures can be subbeyond a. reasonable annual legal kill they say 7 50,000 birds. is how they arrive at the there were 313,000 smalllicenses issued to Michigan Fred Brent, U. S. game pro-from Sylvania, Ohio was greatly Impressed in. the number of ducks and the food and coverage available for them following a tour through the SagInaw bay area Wednesday and Thursday. Brent was of the opinion that wildfowl throughout the region were far less afected by droughts than those in other parts of the country. In his inspection Brent made a tour of most of the marshes and waters in the area from the Iosco county line to Bayport. He Is federal game warden for not only Michigan but also Ohio, and Indiana. Deer Hunters Constructed Them BLUEJAY MIMIC TEASE Of BIROS Imitates Cry of Hawk, Song of Robin, Delights in Playing Pranks BY MAUDE L. BEADLE Among our common birds the bluejay, kinsman of the crow, is one of the most attractive and also one of the most saucy and mil'; chievous. A clown in the bird world, none seetru1 more inquisitive than he. By the side of our house years ago stood a large horse chestnut tree. We set up our lawn swing in Its shade. One warm afternoon I was reading in the swing when it seemed several birds had taken possession of the treetop. I heard a robin's familiar call and glancing up was amazed to see it came from the throat of a bluejay. His antics made me curious so I watched him. He stretched his head up In the air, ruffled his feathers and as if by a great effort produced the robin's call. He seemed to be studying over his performance 8.6 he would tilt hill head first to one side, then to the other and peer all about as if suspecting he had an audience. His next note was one of song. Mimicked Several I listened to his performance at least half an hour. During that time be imitated the call and song note of a number of different birds and made each note several times. At last he gave a discordant note that sounded like "Kee! Kee!" and with a flirt of his tall he was gone. We Jived In that house a year. Though I watched and listened In our yard I never witnessed an such


SATURDAY, JULY See Classification 59 for Excellen ROSE CITY REVIEW l WEATHER DETAILS ,. CLASSIFICATION INDEX BUSINESS SERVICESI---Exterminating and .l:<'umlgattng .... 21A LOCAL Heating, Plumbing and Metal Work .. 22 ENOS CAREER ( By Courtesy Con s urr.ers Power co.) Insurance, Surety Bonds ............. 23 ''est erday' s Last Night' s 8 a r.1 Laundering .... ........ .. .... 24 .... Moving, Truckl'lg, Storage 26 Editor To Publish Paper At Mio In Future Bp.,!al to Th Tillou. ROSE CITY, July 2 7.--With the publishing of thi s week's issue, the Rose C ity Review, local newspaper, passes out of e xist e nce aft e r having been publishe d here weekly for 31 years. The Review was recently b y W A Crandell, ot the Ogemaw County H erald and will b e consolidated w ith that pap er. Established In 1904 b y Calvin Goss it was purchased in 1919 bY Its present editor, B J Cournyer; who recentlY bought and wll! pub lish a. newspape r at Mlo. M r s Gerald Rice a.nd Miss Annabelle Chambers, of Rose City and Sandy Parker, Jr., of Lupton, llave been a.ppointed SERA recreation dlrector3. Vern N y e and Carlton Durfee are on a :fishing trip to the upper peninsula. -Miss Ada Fritz is visiting relatives ln Detro!t.-Mr. and Mrs. Earl Rockwell and Mrs. Ella Thell entertained relatives !rom Kentucky -Miss Ada Fritz i s v !sltillg r ela.tives In Dettoit. Gien Tuck underwent an appendectomy a t Tolfree hospital a.t West Branch. -Mrs. Ida Martin returned !rom Toledo and is visiting at the home o! her brother, Frank Ware. -Mrs. Len Ware and Miss Eugenie Rice are visiting the former's daughter, Mrs. Allen Galle y at Vanderbilt, Pa. High Low ToC.ay Painting, Papering, Decorating 26 86 66 H .. : :::::;; :::: EAST LANSING iuly. 27-(AP)-Pres Repairing and Rettnlshlng ........... 29 sure areas shOw a general easterl y trend Tailoring and Pressing with the lake reglo'l high now c overing \\'anted Bust 'less Servtcea 31 the northeastern stat e s, and a moderate EMPLOYMENTHelp Wanted-Female ....... / ........ 32 p ressure i ntervening over the northcentr$1 Help Wanted-Male .. .. .. .... .. .. 33 s t a t u Showers have occurred since Frl-HelP-Male and Female .. 34 .. "., ::: ::: :: gul f ..tales. It is somewhat cooler through Situations Wanted Male 37 N orth Dakota, while temperatures remain FINANCIALhigh thence southwo.rd and ooutheastward, Investments, Stocks and Bondo .... 38 w ith maximum yesteraay rangln,; from 90 Wanted St&oks and Bonds ..... 38A d eg rees to 1M der;rees, the latter reading Money To Loaq 39 being ge ',eral through South Dakota. PartBusl110ss Opportunity ":::::.::::::::::: o l y cloudy skies are Indicate

Many Ignore Question Hundreds of hunters paid no atto the question and some agents failed to get any inBut 69,845 hunters re ported a kill of 78,025 rln.g necks which means 2.6 birds per llcense. Harry D. Ruhl, chief of the division, on whose information the commission recently cut the open upland game season in southpeninsula from 30 to 13 days belleYes 2.6 birds per license is small. In making his calculation, Rub! that it would not be human for an applicant to say he exceeded the bag limit. Sec no applicant ever would rehe had killed a hen pheasant. hunting on their own not required to have liso there are few reports from The o 'nly farmer needing a se would be the man hunting on teighbor's land. n there are the birds killed rt season and hundreds of them are wounded and left by the r to die In some thicket. The er makes a careful search but is accepted that a. will carry a heavy load and succeed In concealing and the hunter don't find ust Consider Factors when one considers all I believe it is to say that the pheasant Michil'an will approximate birds a year," Ruhl said. is no question that in ur efforts to have law ob hundreds of hen pheasants killed e'\ery year. would make this prediction if no hens were killed by the for two years the pheasant could be extended to 30 the bag limit increased. judgment, the carrying caty of the cover in the pheasant would be reached with two if hens were left alone." the fall, Ruhl points out, hunters report a prodominance hen pheasants, sometimes he says many as to one. Yet in the ngwhen a bird count is taken e di\ision finds an average of 1-2 hens for every cock pheasant. The division is working up the gure to show the grouse kill for 933. ATERBUGS FISHED OUT BIRDS AT MAR I 0 N July 27-At Lake a curious sight may be day in summer. Grackles below the dam where the is shallow o,er the spill-to "fish" for water bugs and which inhabit the green and cling to the stones and rete. The birds are quite tame in actions resemble a flock of I black gulls. The new set of headquarters buildings on the Pigeon river forest and game refuge into which $32,000 of ear-marked deer l1cense money has gone a'o far. No. 1-The residence of the refuge keeper. No. 2-The staff house, for the use of state gar:ne m_en and working on the forest and refuge. No. 3-Belleve 1t or .not th!s imposing structure of stone and log is the garage. The IS part of the forge. No. 4-The old refuge headquarters, wh1ch the new buildings have replaced.. M ICHIGAN deer hunters paid for these buildings, since the money was taken from the special fund built up of $1.50 from each deer hunting license for the "acquisition, development, protection and maintenance'' of game refuges and public hunting grounds. The conservation commission has come in for considerable sharp criticism In conservation circles in recent weeks for its action in spending so much refuge money on a single headquarters, and there can be little question that the building!! are far more elaborate and costly than were needed. The completed setup will consist of two buildings in addition to the three shown above, a bunkhouse for workmen, already btlilt, and a spacious log barn now under construction. The refuge keeper's residence, No. 1 above, is the most pretentious of the fiye buildings. A huge, low log structure, 38x84 feet, It appears far better suited to be the summer residence o! the governor than the home of a refuge keeper. The garage, No. 3 of the pictures, also is a far more elaborate build than was needed and represents a waste of several thousand dollars. The commission has defended Its action by pointing to the old boxr like type of house, shown In No. 4, that formel;"IY served as forest and refuge headquarters. Undeniably it was necessary to replace this structure, as part of the development of the J'efuge. That fact harerYll.tion official recently commented, considerable rivalry seems to be developing between these agencies in recent months, especially in connection with the rapidly expanding interest in wildlife management. T HE biological surovey is pay ing more attention to game and wildlife affairs than ever before. The pari< service is outlining a game and wildlife policy for the national parks. '.rhe forest service is "wildlifing" at top speed on _the national forests. Even the bureau of fisheries is inclined to "wildlife." And each seems to the biological survey and the forest service. the department of interior retains the park service and the division of grazing, and so on. THE United States obviously needs a conservation department. Secretary of the Interior Ickes apparently believes it should be under his jurisdiction. J. N. (Ding) Darling, head of the biological survey, has indicated that he believes it a function of his burea1.1. Which right may be open to question, although a majority of the sportsmen and con servationists of the country so far seem to favor Darling. At any rate, regardless of who heads it or under which federal agency it is placed, the country needs such a department -fashioned much along the lines of Michigan's conservation department-if the wildlife and other natural of the United Statea re to be en the attentio they require to insure their p servation and resto tion He Is A Rogue so cleverly as to send chickens scurrying to shelter but never the Imitation of song notes before. Our next door neighbor was an ellierly .lady who was a great lover of birds and animals. Every winter she bought nuts and grain for the squirrels and tthe birds, scattering the food on the ground under a large maple tree in front of her home. One day in early spring I heard the birds congregating there. Suddenly with a great whir and rush of wings the flock 11wept up Into the air, hovered there for a moment, then scattered In all direction!!. Looked Innocent I thought someone passing In the street had startled them but theJ:e was no one In sight. Then I noticed a bluejay perched on a low limb of the tree. Perhaps because he looked so innocent I was sus picious of him and decided not to lose eight of him for the next few moments. He sat very quiet, only glancing about occasionally. Probably 16 or 20 minutes passed, then in ones and twos and Uttle groups the birds came dropping down out of the sky, alighting on the feeding ground. At once Mr. Jay was alert. He peer-ed down at them curiously, stretching his head down below the limb. He bided hie time until the ground seemed fairly back with the bird flock. Then he made a downward swoop just over their heads. His move was swift and silent and as before thare was a whir of wings and the flock mounted Into the air. Incredible as it may seem he pulled that joke ,on them several times before the mischievousness of his act seemed to "sink In" and the birds refused to be fooled again. One summer day when we lived in the country a pair of jays a):l peared in our yard, apparently seeking a. nesting place. But froi'n the first, things went wrong. T];ey could not agree on a site. Mrs. Jay chose a crotch in an oak tree beside our kitchen window. She carried a fEIW things there and tried to convince her husband that it was the placP, But even while she talked 1h soft twittering notes he turned his back on her, flew to another limb and began drumming on it with his bill. Mrs. Jay Wins Out Instead of gathering material f<:>l:' the nest, he broke off twigs with a vicious snap and threw them on the ground. Then he _went off by himself and sulked. At la!!t he flew away and a few minutes later, with seeming reluctance, she followed. We decided we had seen the last of them as days passed and they, did not return. But at last they appeared again and flew straight to the place Mrs. Jay had chosen the first day. They looked it over carefully, twitter-Ing softly, set to work and built their nest. They took eggs and i


r At Campus STUBIGIS, July 17 The Fourth Dilltrlct of the EAST LANSING, July 27-UP)American' Legion here Sunday wlll :nve thousand Michigan farll'lers hear Col. John G. Emery, former returned to their fields today, en-na.tional commander, as chief couraged by the words of a New York editor that a. new era of ag-speaker. ricultural prosperity Is dawning. ----------f. Wheeler McMlllen, editor of the The Bay City Daily 1111$ magazine Country Home, told the annual farmers' da.y gathering at Phone 3300 Michigan State college Friday that the next 20 years would see chemLecal Want Ad Rates agriculture and Industry u.nitCub Chuc !ng' in the utilization of Amencan One time, per word 2?2c 3c grown farm crops for the producMinimum ot 18 Words tion of much of the nation's mer-Cash ......... 45c Charge ...... 64c can tile goods that now comes from 3 .-onsecutlve times 10'1'. discount other sources. 7 consecutive times 30% Contests to display the Ingenuity Advertlalnc ordered tor lrre1111ar IDaerllome farmers have used in the uons takes the onetlme IDoerllon rate. No ael tor leaa thaD bar.a Of 18 manufacture of their own tractors ordl and rubber tired wagons .featured wAll 'waut Ada are lndu-.1 tor Quick the program yesterday. are relltrleted to their proper The crowd paid tribute to Prof. clanllleatlOII a'l'ld to the Ba7 Clt7 Levi. 'ft. 'Ttft, former professor of :&rrlcht to eCIU or hort1culture at the college. 1 reject any cluslllod advertising COPJ' Charced ads wlU be received by tete-KNOX DENIES DEPORTS phone and If paid at The Dally Tlmee n orttce Within alx daya after the expiration HE SEEKS PRESIDENCY ot the ad, cash rate will be allowed. No ado taken out.tde of city umtta. t.ds ordered tor three or aeven claya auel DeclareR Roosevelt's Tax Program Is 'Radical'. and 'Unsound'; Vtstts At Hoover's Horne SAN FRANCISCO, July 27--tlPl Col. Frank Knox, mentioned as a possible repu.bllca.n candidate tor president In 1936 was the guest of former President Herbert Hoover today. The Chicago publisher, who will !!peak a.t a meeting sponsored by the republican a.ssembly, a political group, tomorrow night, said flatly, however, that he was not an a.s pirant tor the presidential nomi nation. Colonel Knox, who insisted his visit was social and not political, declared th.e Roosevelt administra tion's policies were "radical" and that the country was "rapidly ap proaching the danger line where the ta.x btlrden equals one-third of the national ihcome." "The Roosevelt tax program," Colonel Knox said, "is utterly unsound." Cat, 22, Dies of Grief At Grave of Dead Mate MT. CLEMENS, July 27. -UPlPete, a cat who attained the ripe old age of 22 years, was found dead yesterday lying at the grave of Ju Ju, who, observers said, was his mate. It may have been a. coincidence, but some persons said he died of grief. OUT OUR WAY stopped before expiration, will be charged only for number of ttmoo &Cia appeared &lid adJustment m&de at the rate earneel. I!Jrror In advertisement ohould be N ported Immediately. The Dally Tlmea Will not be reoponalble tor more than one ID correct tnaortlon Special ratea tor )'ee.rl:r advertlllng upon request. No Aela TakeD After 11180 O'elodl A. IlL for Pabllcatlon Tbat DllJ' No Alia Taken After 1 P. M. llaiUII for Sunlla:r Edition. CLASSIFIED AGENCIES FOR COUNTY ADVERT18ERB It you live In the count)' you Jllay obtatn our low City Calh Ratea on Classlllod> Ad vorttslng by bringing your .Ad t9 D!le ot tho tollowtnc agencies: AUBURN-Aabum Pharmaqo.

phasis has been given all conserva tion affairs In Washington In the last two or three years. Under such conditions It is only natural that each bureau and department should be eager to fall in line, even to outstrip other agencies. The best results would be ob tained, however, by less individual effort. Too many cooks spoil the broth. At present, as Arthur Newton Pack, president of the American Nature association, recently pointed out, the bureau of education man ages Alaskan reindeer. the land office handles certain interior forests in A laska, the department of commerce controls through its bureau of fisheries the fish re sources of the country, the de partment of agriculture includes once ow any nlklng nor a single note of discord between them. A friend of mine once had a pet blue jay. Let out of his cage he proceeded to steal anyth.lng bright he could find. Later they would find under a couch pillow bright buttons, pins, even thimbles that he had tucked away. TO (By Staff CorrespOndent\ LANSING, July 27 Fred A. Westerman, chief of the fish di"ison of the conservation department, says the department plans to in-NEVADA BLACK RABBITT crease Its pilce perch rearing facili-Few of our common birds ties in the upper peninsula, if local England, Oscoda bar-LJCK FOX TERRIER are as handsomely garbed as communities succeed in financing is shown above holding the bluejay. His striking blue, the work through WPA. what is reported to be RENO, NeY., July 27-

----rHE MOURI--lEI<.


Tern Colony in Sag maw Bay Is Interes U 'ng Spot. (By BEN EAST) To a pproach Lone Tre e island, low sandy crescent in Sagii1aw bay, a few mile s off tile mout h of th S e b ewaing rive r irt a small boat and see the great cloud of common terns eddy suddenly up from their nesting grounds the I ngth and breadth of the island Is a11 unfor gettable sighi;. One instant he. Island-a low green reef sparsely ca.rpeted :with vegetation and clumps of '1\'illows and stunted popple--is quiet with a few stray t erns wh!ve rltead like white CIJree feet of each other In favore d area s about ,the i s l anc;l, but &espite the closeness of n eighbors <:omplcte h armony seems to r e i g n among the birds. eve n a f t e r the young are h atched. S O ON' LEAV E -NJJJS'l' Shortl y afte r h atchins the ;:te r n s leav e t h e nest, a: ing t11e heat o f the day, and seek s n elte r from the pitiless sun unde r of g rass or weeds, But regardle s s o f their chang e of location each mot h e r appears to r ecog11ize and keep track of h e r own fle d glings, r eturning to feed thetn at r e gula r intervals and seemingly looking out fOI' only h e r own f amily If one seek s to study ,the n e s t!ng t erns a t close r a nge, undisturbed b y t h e kno\y n prese n c e of a n In truder, a low blind u p among a grou p d! ar.for< l s him a ready opportunity. W e erecte d a blinrl. on our visit to the i s l and this summer, In a n ope n sandy a rea n e a r the shpre ward 'end of Lone i n the c e n t e r o f p erha p s a sco r e or p1ore of nest s. The blind conr.lst.e d of a low c loth tt.nt, a b out fou x fee t squ:1 r e and no hig h e r that tnn.t with jus t room e n o u g h inside for o n e o r t w o m a n tnd a b atte r y ol c a m e r a s B e I crawle d \n.::1c.o r s e t up a eanHrt-. overlookht;; a n est 3 0 n r 4 f ct-t av; ay and r? n 't silk line from 1h e sl.uHe r1 to the:. bllnd. The n with N orma n G a ll, S ebe waing who h a d t a k e s n1e to Lone Tree, I ente r e d the blind and set tle d down to await t h E r P turn o f the t erns to their h o nReh old clutie s. A SHOR'l' WATI We had only a short time t o wait. W ithin two or three mim,ttes after w e dis appeare d ins ip.e t h e low t e n t the hars h m e win:; cries o f the a n g r y t erns w heelin g ove r head, grew Jess fre q u e n t G t : adualr ly t h e nois e of flock drOllPe d lowe r and lowt" r and from a t iny peep -hole in the ;;! d e of the blind I saw the firs t t eru. dt o p down t o Tte r nest & .nd s e ttle u oon t w o e ggs. Our near e s t nP.ighbor, nest Ing within. 1 5 feet o f the wall o f the blind, was fir.;t to re.t u r n time afte r time w h e n m y excursions t o t h e camera out side put t h e flo" c k to fli ght a g ain. It t equire d only seven minutes from t h e time e n t e r e d the Dlind for compl e t e q u i c;: t o to tho t ern colony i n our section o r the i s l a n d w i t h all d f thtl b,roodi n g birds down 1 o n t h eir nests {)n e e m ore. With one big c a m e r a i n s id e the blin d w e c ommanded two nest s di rectly in front' and t h e o f picture s prove d a n easy feat h and icappe. d only b y t h e fact tha t t h e c l atte r o f t h e h e avy cam era shut t e r was lik e l y to s c atte r t h e nearest birds into f l i g h t. M a ltin g p ictu r e s w!th the c a m e r a set at t h e n e s t f arth e r awa y was equally eas y a lthou g h i t was n e c e s s a r y t o leave the blind eac h tim e ., oan 0 A n Outd WOodS and Waters oors Page Conduct e d b v Ben East One Seabird T ake s Anoth e r's Pi ct u re the< newly hatched te:I'D bear little resemblance t o theil.' elders they a.'l attractive in thir w ay. Panting fro m the pitiless heat or th'e,.snmmer sun on the barren s11,11dy island, this little beac;h awaits the return of its mothe r to t h e nes t where she will ho,cr him and at the same time r esume h e r bt;x>dlng of the unhatched egg. H e r m a n of Sebe waing, with a heavy natural i s t s can1era, in front of the small square ten t t h a t sel'l'!=!d a s a blind in photog r a phir1 g the te11ns o n neatby nests. Swallows Quill Deer Hunters Built 1hem Q JXlratlo)t !or ea)rcet: :k' v eals Amas a .Pionee r Vic tim .or Pork Barb; Had Eaten Flesh o r Quill-pig. I AMASAGeotge Prerp.o, 77, Jlio neer I ron County w oods m a n whose m emory g o e s b ack to the day whe n l a rge h erds o f deer Ina d e regular spring an,d f all :rp.i g r atjons ac1 oss the western end of the Upp e r Pen insula now c a n cfaim the distinction o f bein g proba b l y t h e o n l y m a n in 'Michigan ever to s uffer ser ious conseque nces from a p'o r cupine quilL Early in July P r emo d ev:elope d seve r : e stoma c h H e decide d h e was. a victim o f c a ncer. A f e w days l a ter h e w a s taken t o a Crys t a l Falls 'hos pita l f o r a n ope r ation, whic h r eveal e d not' a can c e r b u t a p o r c upiil e quiii about t h r e e f ourths .of an inc h long lodged i n the digestive tract. T h e quill h a d p unctu r e d the in testine cau sing PF!ritoniti s doctors said but Premo i s now on t h e r o a d to recove r y H i s son,, R alph, 1 ex.plains the sit uation by saying tha t h i s f a t h e r h a d e a t e n porcupine meat' some time befor e Porky m eat I s v e r y t ende r and d a d h a sn't man y t e e t h It h a ppen," the younger P r e m o says At a n y r a t e the quill was the r e a n d -Pre m o h i msel f belie ves its presence can b e for only by the fact t hat h e s w allow e d It whlle porcu pine whic h h e has b e e n fond. WOMAN FEEDING TWO. BABY HUMMINGBIRDS BOYNE CIT Y A n u n u s u a l i n cident of bird life 'b appe nt'd r e c e ntly at t n e f arm hon1 e of L e o n ard Dow. A humming b i r d w n s l cil\ e d b y flying agai n s t a windo w l eavin g two fle d gling s i n h e r n e s t. They w e r e d e s P r t e d b y t h e .. m a l e bird. T a l h a n s see m to b e thrivi n g aft e r t h e s h u tter ,.: a s tripped t o r ese-t it and c hange film T h e nJ<'st n o v e l J,>i c ture o t t h e a f t erno o n w a s one o f :;. IJr o o l tng t ern t a k e n by a notb?.r m embe r o f t h e BlUEJAY TEASE AMONG BmOS ; IS fUlL Would Keep A l l State Parks fiSHING Open Remai nde r of Seaso n T 'Of But Conservation Unit Must Have More Money or Close Some Next Ye a r Anqlina Falls Below Par: Cry ofHawk, Song of Robin; Also Shares Domestic Duties. Imitates B:v MAUDE L BEADLE A m ong our comm o n b i rds the bluejay, k i nsman o f the c row, i s one of t h e most. s aucy and m i s c hievou s A c l own i n t h e b ird wot Id none seems more inquisitive t h a n h e. B y t h e side of our h ouse years ago s tood a large h orse chestnu t tree. W e set u o our lawn s wi n g i n its shade. One warm afternoon I w a s read ing in t h e swin g w h e n i t seemed s everal birds had of t h e t r e etop I h e ard a robin's famili a r c all a n d gla n c ing up w a s a mazed t o see it c ame from t h e thro a t o f a blue jay. His a n t i c s mad e m e curious s o 1 watche d him. H e stre t c h e d his h e a d up i n the air ruf f l e d h is f e a t h e t s and a s if by a grea t effort pro d u c e d the robi n's c alL H e s eemeo t o be s tudyi n g o v e r his performance as h e would tilt his h e a d firs t to one side then t o the o t h e r and peer all about as if suspect ing h e h a d a n a udience. H is nex t note w a s one o f so n i sEVERAL I listen e d t o his per f o rmance a t least h a l f a n hou r. that t i m e h e i mitated: the call and s o'hg note s oC a numbei of diffe r bnt B ) BEN EAST LANS I N G All of l\Hchigan' s 53 state parks willremain open t h i s summer, if the s tate adm i n istrative boar d approves c ontemp lated a ction o f the conservatio n de p a rtme nt, but i t wlll b e necessa r y to clos e probabl y 20 or 25 o f t h e park s next seaso n unless additional funds are allo tted P. J Hoffm a s ter d i rector o f conse rvation an n ounced Friday. The depa r t m e n t h a s a s k e d for aut hority r o m t h e b o a t d t o ope r ate ali o f t h e state's p arks o n full s c hedu l e tl1i s s eason, w h i l e plan n i n g to c l ose alm ost of the parks in Ma. y a n d J u n e 1 9 36. New appropriatio n s f o r anoth e t fiscal yea r then w o u l d becom e availab)e. T h e c urtailment o f the depa r t m ent's work in s t a t e parks h a s been m ade n e c essa r y by t h e f a ilure o f t hP. l egislature this year t o a p propri ate sufficien t fund s t o car r y o u t h e fuli program The d efic i e ncy TRAIL TALKS Fed e r a l Conset,.-ntion. Too l\fnny Cooks. A o i rds and made each n o t e seveta l 0 o nsiderabl e agitation has beim time s. At l ast heg ave a disc ordan t l l e a r d recen t l y for the establishn ote sound e d like ''IO:::ce! J.Cee! and 1Yith a flirt o f h i s t a il he was ment of a national' conse rvatio n d e .. gone : p artme nt, p atterned a fter the more W e li v e d in tha t h o use a yea' r effi c i ent stat a conservation: d epart -Thou g h I watch e d a n d lis t e n e d w h e neve r a l o n e b l u e jay a p p eare d ments t q t ake o v e r o f all i n o u r yard I neve r witn e s sed anfederai c onservation aff airs. oth er. s u c h p erfo r ma,nce.. It has b e e n for s ome I h a d heard. jays imitate hawk s so cleverly a s t o s e n d chickerr s t ime that t h e r e is need for one scurrying to she lter but .never the c e n t ral 1agency' t o admi niste r t'h e imitat i o n o f a s o n g notes b efore. n atur a l r e sources o f the U n i 'ted Ou_r next door n e i ghbor w a s a n States a s those o f t h e individua:l elde r l y l a d y who w a s a gt e a t lover stat e s a s h a n dled. o f birds a n d anima l s : Ever y w i n -A t the pres e n t time a s u r prising t a r she bou g h t n uts a n d grai n for l y w i d e and illogical v a r i e t y .of d e t h e s q u irrels a n,p t h e birds, scat 1Jar tmen t s burea u s aY,Id o f fices in t e r i n g the foo d o n t h e ground u n W allhing t o n a r e engag e d i n more d e r !Jl a r g e mapl e t ree i n fron t o f h e r home O n e day i n earl y s p r i n g 0r les;; o v erlapping and some t imes I h d t h eve n conflictin g conservatio n e l' e:J'r e birQ.s congregatin g f t there. S udde nly w i t h a g reat whi r o r s an. d r u s h or wing s the f l o c l c swept As a n observa n t Michiga n eon up i n t o t h e n.i r ho;vme d t h e r e for servation official c ommented, cori a momen t t h ,en scattered i n all s i cle rabl e rival r y see m s to be ded i r e ctions. v e loping b etween the s e agencie s L O O K E D INNOCENT in recent m onths. especially i n I thou ght s omeone passing in the connect ion with the r a p i d l y e x s t reet h a d startle d t h e m b u t t h e r e p a n d i n g interest in wi'ldlife manw a s no o n e i n s i g h t Then I neagemen t t i cP.d a blue jay p e r ched p n a i o\v limb o f t h e t r e e Perhaps b ecau s e The biologi c a l surv e y i s paying h e loqlce d so innoce n t I was sus-. mor e a ttention to game a n d wild picious, o f h i m and. dec.ide d q o t t o life a ffairs tha n e ver before. The lose s i g h t o f him for the n ext few park s e r vice i s outlining a g a m e mome nts. and wild li f e policy for the n atio n H e sat v e r y qui et. only gla ncinga l p a t ks. The fore s t s e rvice Is aQout occa s ionally P r Qbably 15 o r wlldlif i ng" a t top s p e e d .on the 20 minutes p asse d t h en. in one s n ational forest s E v e n the bureau and ,two s l).nd l ittle groups t h G O!r dl; came o roppirig down o u t o r Of fis h e 1 ics is ihclin d to "wildlife. t h e s k y alighti n g o n the f e e d i n g And eac h seems t o har bor a vagu e ground "' 1'1tttlVI desir e t o r etr u'P 13.1 m o r e a m .bttious At once Mr. Jay w aS" a lert He p rogr a l'jl t h a n t h e others. peer e d down a t them curiol1sl y O f course conside rabl e new em stretch i n g h i s h ead down b e l o w P h a s i s h a s been g i v e n all cense r the limb. H e bidlld h is time until v a t i o n affai r s in Washi n gton i n the the ground seem e d fair ) y b l a c k l ast two o r three years. Under s uch with t h e bird flock T h e n : h e m a d e t i s o n l y n atura l t hat a s udden d ownwa r d ,swoop,' j u 9t' c eac h b u reau-. a n d departme n t over t h e i r h e a d s. H i s nwv:e was sho4ld b e eager. to fall in lin e e v e n ewif t a n d sile n t and a s b efor e to outstr i p o ther agencies. there was a w h i r of \vin g s a n d t h e The b e s t r esults woul d be ob-' flock mounted i n t o the air. tained, h o w' ; J)afentlV. < r elte v e ::rit. s h o u l d t h e m on t h e g r ound. T h e n he d e r his J N (Di o f f by htmsel f a n d s ul1 it a functio n o f h i s b u r e aJ. Vhtc h may be o p e n 'to q u estion, a l t h o ug-h e dectde d w e h a d seen the last a m a j ority of the s p orts m e n and t h e m .as days pass e d and t h e y c o nservationist s o f 1t h e couir t r y so dtd n o t r eturn. f a r s eem t f D I B u t a t last t h e y appe a red a g a i n 0 avor a r lll!f and f l e w s t raig h t t o the JJlace lVLIs A t any rate rega r dles s o f w h o Jay had c h o s e n the f i rst d a y. They h e a d s i le a f l o c k o f i:tla c k CHAS. E. MOULD, J R. 1133 W. Mic h ATe. QUALITY WORKMANSHIP, ALWAYS! KAL. SPECIAL AUTO BODY 42 5 E VINE PH. s-isz s II R a y GAGE & GREENE SPECI A L I S TS' 122 N. Westnedg e P h y 2396 4 ( O l d Good year Service D e p t ) dusk m ade m e d e c i d e I'd h a d enoug11. BASS A],l E HIT'l'ING Bass are still hitt ing i n good s t yle in m a n y lak e s d e s p i t e the heat, and s ome g o o d t r o u t catches hav e been broug h t t o creeL Although fish e x p e r t s d e n y th& old s t o r y ahou.t pike s hedding t hE'ir teeth a t this o f y e a r the fac t d o e s t ema i n tha t fis h take tefu gi'O in deeper water i n periocls of h o t w e a ther a n d late J uly a nn e n nd l o g i s the garage. Tile c himney i s p a t t o f t h e forgo). No. 4 T h e o l d r e f uge h e udqua.:t e r s wh:icb t h e n e w build ilt g:; hav e r e ] J laced. INSTALLED Windshie lds $2.50 ... W THE N a ca r i s stolen fro m a membe r W of t he A u tomobile Club ins u r e d w.ith this Exchan g e i h e member is pai d i n full within thirt y da ys-that is t wice as quickl y as most, f o li c j e s p ay-most poli cies do not pay unti s ixty 00)'3. BLUE Gltl FLY ROD OUTFIT SPECIAL $3.58 -Includ e s Rod, R e e l 10 Qts. and B l u e Gill $1.8 9 i n g 1\i inno w B u c k e t Speci a l price o f Sporti n g G oo d s D e pt. 339 N. B u r dick S t. 'You Are A h ead wltb n Koz y Conc h B e }Uod TmUors built t o you r '395 & orde r 1 2 U 1 6 f t models u p THE KOZY (;OA C H 0 0 -TRAlli E R -PHONE 2 1 6 5 8 E. Ave. SAVE R EBORING! a r e guar a n t ee d to Stop Oil P umping ltnpro e C o mpressi o n I n c rease l\Illeage P AUL S TALEY N Churcll Mic h i g a n deer hun t e r s paid f o r T h e c o mple t e d set u p wlll c o n s' these b u il d i ngs, since tbe money o f two b uilding s i n a d d ition t o t was taken f r o m t h e s p e c i a l fund thre e show n a b o v e a b unl;:h o u buil t u p of $ 1. 5 0 fi o m eac h deer f o r worl;;m e n a lready built and ,hunting li c e nse for the "acqu is i s pacio u s l o g b a r n now urrd e r c o t ion, d e v e lopmen t prole c.Lion a n d .structio n maint e nance o f gam e 1 and T h e refuge residen p ubli c hunti n g ground s. N o 1 abo v e is the m o s t p r e tentio T h e conserv'!r o n cornmis:sio n {':ts c:: t11e fiv e buildings. A I< com e in f o r <:

Pose. Calico Puzzle White Crappies in Van Ettan Lake Debated How did white crappies ever get !nto Lake Van Ettan i n Iosco County? That i s a question that i s puzzling fish experts, because white crappies on the east side of Michi gan are found. only in Lake Erie and streams tributary to it, and near Lake Michigan in the south western part of the state. All other crappies in Michigan black crappies, known to most as calico m strawberry Van Ettan Lake i s a long from the S'luthcrn Michigan N r ecords can be found of ngs there. Did some ual fisherman perhaps know but more likely in the belief 'he was mere l y bringing in some ordinary crappies. introduce them to the far-away northern lake? The b l ack crappie, or strawberry bass, is dark, mottled and chunky. One of U1e best identifying mark s the anal fin, located on the unde r of the fish, near the t a il. This definitely speckled with black. contrast, the anal fin of the crappie is virtually colorless. The white crappie may often be al most white. it1 is more slender than the black and has bands something like the markings on a perch. In Erie, the white crappie is U!e black. lL k -for in weedy lakes. and black sptdes t() like muddy rivers and wt,rm ponds, but the white crappie _is more tolerant of silty water The chief bait is very small minnows. They are also caught on flies when feeding at the surface. Large catches have been made with the fly in Reeds Lake near Grand Rap ids. /Many fishermen prize the crapp'ie as one of the best of our panfish, which it is, except when the weather becomes warm. Then its fiEish becomes soft and less 'asty. Crappies are given no protection othe. r t h a n size and creel limits. They must be a t least six inches long and they are counted among the -panfish, for which the limit i s 25 fish a day combined. They nest and breed early in the spring, along about April or May, laying their eggs in about eight feet of water, Their nests are made very similar to those of bass and sunfish, but are more ofte n built l.indet some overhanging shelter, such as submerged brush. Birds Absolv,ed of Harm to Fish Blue Herons Do More T An!;;r:f: are inclined to blame the disuppearance of planted trout to latge fish-eating bir ds. But studies in trout stream s show that the loss of trout fry is to other fish, such as sticklebacl,s, sculpins, suckers, sunfis h catfish and e v e n trout and other game fish. says the United States Department of Agri culture. Besides the fish enemies, there are water snakes, salaman ders, crawfish, leeches, the l arvae of diving beetles and insects such as giant waterbugs. These enemies are, in turn, de stroyed by birds. It is probable that, except a t hatC'heries, fish-eat ing birds more than make up the harm the y do by destroymg natural enemies of the whole fish trlbe. Fish-eating birds feed upon what easy to get. Their choice o f food depends so much upon availability that in most waters they get only a s m all proportion of game or com mercial fish-since those fish exist only in small proportion. Not only are the valuable fish more rare, but they usually inhabit deeper water and are m'ore elusive. Eveu in streams where the proportinn of trout is large, birds capture water insects, frogs, snakes and other water life more easily they do the elusive trout. The s t o machs of 150 great blue h erons-good examples of fish eat ing birds-were found to contain only a; few commercia l or game f i sh, many the s o-called OUTDOOR --. '-----=------------------.;;..._ _____ By Jack Van I T is the exceptional purchaser who formulates what he wants and then deliberately shops to get it. Yet this proce dure i s practically essential if you are to find a hunting and fishing club with which you are going to be 100 per c ent fied. P erhaps you won't find it. It all d e pends upon what you want Such specifications will, for example, include your prefer ences for fishing. What kind of fishing, and in wha t quan tity? Is there enough lake area or enough stream area to supply fishing to all the many members in reasonable amounts, and can you be sure that the fishing will be good year afte r year? And don't forget that wha t the salesman may call good, you may call very poor. "Five miles of trout stream," the promotion literature may say. That m a y mean what it says, or it may mean "five miles of watet" of which half is simply a "fish desert." "Five l a k e s on t h e property," the cir cul a r may boast. But what kind of lakes are What kind o f water, how deep, what kind !;:ind..Qf shor.eline-? And a lot more questions should be asked. What k ind of hunting is there on the property offered? How goodds it and how long will it last? If deer, i s ther e a b a l anced a rea: summe r ground, but also a winte r yarding a rea, with I plenty of deer feed? Or i s the cedar swamp eaten out so tha t the deer will disappear within just a few years? What ltind o f trees are the re? I s it fire cherry, jackpine, pop ple white or Norway pine or hardwoods? M o s t promoters claim "virgin" timber, either not knowing or not cat'ing that there ;s scarcely any "virgin" timber !tltt in Michigan, and tha t if t h e truth were known, "virgin" timber is usually less attractive to game t h a n second growth. If timbe r i s ma ture timber, it may not las t as long as it should. .. WE saw a circular recently, which boas ted that a club owned 30 ,000 feet of v aluabl e timber. This is only about 30 acres, which doesn't sound like nearly so m uch. Another club boasted of 1 00,00 0 acres, but one-half of the area was jack pine plains and burne d over stump land, good for neither fishing nor hunting It will hardly grow trees Divide u p the actual acreage of good and better fishing and h u n t i n g faith, he wai:J,ts to be sure the seller can d elive-r so that the purchase r will not be left hold ing the bag. What assurance i s there that the beautiful clubhouse o n the promotion literature wi1J ever be built? And what will the upkeep be and will the annual membership dues cover it'? How many m e m b e r s will there be, and wiJJ the acreage included in the club grounds be Federal Measure to Further Programs A blanket wildlife" bill, passed by C o n g ress and approved by the President, appropriates$6, 000,000 for refuges, authorizes allocation by the President of additional money for the purpose from the four bil lion-dolla,r PW A fund and enacts at one swoop nearly all new _wild life legislation sought by sportsmen in the present session of Congress. The new Jaw will enable the Bio logica l Survey to ext end iti> work on establishment of a great system of Federal refuges recommended last year b y the P resident's Committee on Wildlife Restoration. A total of $8,500,000 was aJJocated in 1934 from submargina l land retirement and other funds. Over 600 000 acres of ref uge sites were or op tioned in 2 0 states. New laws enacted with the pas sage of the bill follows: enough to give them all the. sort of "exclu s ive" recreation p r o m i s e d by the salesman? Wbat chance have you of "get ting out even" if the club's membership is not to your liking? How far from your home is the property located, how are the roads a n d what are the chances of you r m aking enough use of the property to get a decent return on your invest ment?. Aluminum Bands '!'It "'d uclt stamp law e d to permit a nyone who dollar to purchase the stamps. Com munities are to be compensated for tax losses due t o Federal refuge ac quisitions by authorizing paym ents to school or road funds of 25 per cent of refuge revenues. The Lacey Act., regulating inter state shipment of game and othe r wildlife i s amended ,to insure more effective Federal enforcement. Wind Cave National Game Pre serve in South Dakota is transferred to the Department of t h e Interior as a National park. Rendezvous Near for New England The l ar-ges t outdoor sporting even t in the New England States, the New England R endezvous, w ill b e held at Lalce Maranacook near Augusta, Me., from July 26 to Aug. 4. It is sponsored by the governors and directed by the Fish and Game Commissioners of the New Eng land States. Attractions Include skeet, trap and rifle shooting, bait and fly casting archery, quoits, canoeing, dog tra ils, swimming and outboard motot races. A b i g tent city, ca pabl e o f accommodating 1 000 tents has bee n made availabl e, and a trailer city will be Hotels, overnight camps and. tom.:ist homes will maintain a uniform rate. Norman of (right) banding a young tern. old. In the lower p icture, you tern not over a day out -of its dreds of tems in co-operation Biological Survey. Carefu1 rec finally turned in, valuable and longevity of th'e b irds Trout Fishing Better Th Improved Water .... '-.&.1 Making An Trout fishing in Michigan is decidedly better t han last year. This seems to b e the copclusion of an g lers who have been on t h e streams for a lmos t three months. Lake fishing is holding i t s own, too. Elver since the opening of the bass lakes on June 25, there have been consistent reports of good fishing from nearl y all parts of t h e state, which indicates that the fishing for this summe r is back in its old stride:" coars as rl'any acres will b e per member. That i s the acid test. In a swing through the P eninsula -A-; B. CooTe, seate intendent of hatcheries, as insecta The great blue heron also eats many small anima l s such as field mice. It is, however, de structive about fis h h atcheries. Under natural conditions biologist s believe that these birds do more i'OOd than harm. ----Automatics Prohibited In six Provinces and the North west Territories of Canada, the use of automatic and tepeating shot guns i s prohibite d by law. Ask the Editor Bullets at Night MR. EDITOR: Some o n e in our group c l a imed that on a d ark nig h t it is possibl e to see the p ath of a rif l e bullet. I s thi s true?J N., D e troit. ANSWER: This question was :passed on to Merton A. Robinson, ballistic engineer for Winc hester, 1 w h o replies: "The ordinary bulle t i s not vis i ble at night. T h e r e a r e some types o f m ilitary projectiles generall y te fened to as tracer bullets which contain a charge of t racer mixture in the base which i s ignite d by the powdet f lash and burns s teadil y during the earl y stages of the bul let's fli g h t thus indicating its path or trajectory. T h e ordinary U. S service tracet cartridge caliber .3 0 will produce a trace in the n e i g h borhood of 11 ,000 yards. It is possible that the correspondent has this type of pro jectile in mind, as the trace from these naturally become more di s t inct as the l i ght decreases. "It is interesting to note t hat in s hotgun s h ooting i n bright sunl i ght that under certain conditions or with ang les just right, the s holgun ]Jattern may b e rea dil y discerni b le This i s true to a cert ain ext ent o n bullets tmvj:ling at low VEllocities." If you want grouse huntin g, i s there good grouse cover: poples along the streams, swamp areas along g ravelly ridges where the p a t s like to live? If you want swimming, get a c hart of day to day temperatures over a five -year period. Go look a t the beach and be sure the childre n w ill b e saf e there IMPORTANT in any club scheme is the fin a n cing You had b etter c h eC){ up with you r banker or lawyer on that. No use dropping several hundre d dollars in a w ildcat s c h e m e. Does the promotion company own the ptopet"ty outright, or does it own onl y a s m all p lat with a n option on the b a l a nce? Sometimes promotion companies "own" a n a rea only on contract pur c hase. When the club m e m ber pays his money in good U. P. Sportsmen Wait Conclave Aug. 111 2 The a nnual meetin g of t h e Uppe r Penins u l a Sportsmen's Associ Ation will b e h e l d at Sault Ste. Marie o n Aug. 11 and 12. The program wlll begin with the annua l b a rbecue of t h e Soo Sportsmen's C lub late Sun clay afternoon at McGinn's Lake at Elm oss, about 1 9 m iles south wes t of the Soo on US2. There w ill b e a cruise on the St. Mary's River and the business mceti'lg on Monday, with a ban quet in the evening, says Peter Trude ll, Jt., of Negaunee, pres i d ent of the AssoC'iation, Distribute 21,430 Eggs Free pheasant eggs to t h e n um b el' of 21,430 were dis t ributed b y the State Game Farm this year. Last y ear 20,228 eggs di stributed. Above, is the b lack crappi e common throu g hout all Michigan. Below i s t h e white crappie, common in Lake Erie and found in the southern p art of t h e State. It is not found in northern Michi gan except one lake: Van Ettan Lake in Iosco County. Why the white crappie happens to b e there, even the fi s h experts cannot tel l. Note the difference in marki ngs of the two fis h The black crappie (above) i s mottled and chunky. T h e a n a l fi n i s definitel y s p eckled w i t h b lack. T h e white crappie (below) has b anded m arkings like a p e rch a n d the anal fin i s practically colorless. It i s a more slender fish than the b lack crappie, and generally speaking, rare in Michigan,


SUNDAY, JULY 28, COlONY IS SPOT Small Seabirds Nest by Thou sands on Lone Tree Island in Saginaw Bay. JHEY RESENT INTRUSIO' N By BEN EAST. 'l'o approach Lon e Tree slana, low sru1cly crescent in Sl'lginaw bay a few miles the 1noull1 of tbe Sebewaing river, in a small boat and the great cloud or common terns eddy suddenly up from their nesting grounds the lengU1 and breadt.h of tbe islru1d is an unfo:gettable sight. One instant the island low green reef sparsely carpeted with vegetation and clumps of '-'i llow s and stunted popple-is quiet, with a few stray terns and swooping back and forth overhead. The next instant lhe boat cro ssan invisible dea!lline seemingly established by U1e birds. The solitude of sand and water and wavIng green rushes is broken and the flock springs Into flight, eddying up like white swallows of I he sea from every' part of the island. They rise from sandy backbone of Lone Tree, :fJ.:om the and weed"' above the evrn from the mud flats tliat extend !ar out eltber side. mark of the low water le1els of the bay this summer. A Swarming Cloud. They rush to meet the boat, a swa.t'D1ing cloud overhead,' llke white chaff above a great green threshing floor. Th,eir mewing, plaintive cries of protest fill the air and become a din that will ring in the ears h9urs after the visit to Lone Tree is ended. Bird men estimate that in a ta'orable summer, fully 5,000 of these small seabirds-the "minnie gulls" of bay fishermen here in their ancestral nestmg grounds, where common terns have reared their young for more than the last half century. I SPORT One Seabird Takes Another's Picture W SUNDAY NEWS SPORT S and Waters IS MIMIC BmDS !Imitates Cry of Hawk, Song of Robin, Delights in Playing Pranks. ll)' 1,. nEAl)T,E, Among our bll'ds the kinsman of the crow, is one of the most nttrnctive and 1t one of the m st saucy and mischievous. a[k manags Alaskan reindeer, the July and August also seems to ,. b 1 .1 l f any egan drumming on it bewaing, who had taken me to land of ice handles certain infihd them with considerably his bill. Lone Tree, I entered the blin


i REPORT of a TRIP to the RN CAROLI s tor the PURPOoE of I SP C TING I JRON OOKERIES Dr .T.G1lb rt P 19?4 Dro d ay New ork, Y Dea r Dr. earson: The following is a report of tne trip made t your eu tion to various in North and South Carolina, lay 19 to June 5 1931. y stop as Charleston, where I rrived at :35 on the mornin of _ay As r lexander prunt, Jr. wa out of town I ent alone to cClel l ville and the ant e Gun Club. The superintendent, r L was ill at hie home in cClellan ville, but hie brot er, i r George B okman rovid d e with a boat and a ide. The latter was an old necro n ed and I found i to be well acquainted both ith hie bo t and 1th the ildernees of the cypre e-erown W eho Lake e st rted down the lake at noon through the aize ot cypress. It as my fir t view of such a scene nd I a reatly impressed. 1h loud, iercin cries of n osprey called our atten tion to the bulky ne t of this specie urmounting nearby cypress lto e h r I counted ten of th s nests, and e enou h birds to make m h nk hat 11 of the e n ete ust h ve been occu ied rlier this season. I counted at le t t enty of the h k on th 1 k young ere, of course, fully g rown a t hie date. .bortly embers of he family rd id e b an to a ear. First I sa a then Loui ian (my first), mature a Black-oro ed 1 ht ieron. all1 tor de a s p lash directly ben ath our bo s the first ot nine that counted. Th e e reptiles are not disturb d in sho Reserve, and have become quite tame A e s silently aroun a lar e uk n e" a loud,alarm d sq e.wking announced an entire family o f ood Duck, the rent bir e and a round dozen dueklin e The male bird as making most o f the noise, nd movi o f f to our righ t hand, drag 1ne ing e if it were broken. ean hile the female swam to our left, follo ed by the very small n very downy younestere. I motioned sam to try and overhaul the tail end of t his latter procession, nd held y cam ra in readiness. But just a soon ae our bow in their dir ct1on the younesters dove comin g u a surprisinG distance awny o I obtain d no clo e-upe. fter 1ne about two mile throucn the cypre sighted our first It is a difficult job estim tine th numbers of these birds or of t eir I finally decided on 400 individual birds, nd upon questioning 1 r L Beckman later e


found hie st1mate to be 350 so no doubt the truth lies some here bet een these two figures, 11 of these bi+ds were the eric n Egret. The nesting seemed to b well under way, and upon climbing to several ne te, high in the rather tall cypress, I found most of them 1th three owny young some few of the younG evidently several d ys old. fe neets still cont ined e s the u u 1 three of lain bluish green. One e gret, tully was discovered hanging by hie head from a forked limb beneath h i n st. e bad been dead some da s and the nest was empty N o doubt he ad hung himself urely accident, and I as. in fact, impressed by th pnarent k ardnees of the e ordinarily graceful birds hen hampered by the proximity ot teee limbe and branches, They were often seen to rie from nests and flap intervening ranches ith the most a kward and clumsy ovem nts im ginable. Neets or the, louwana and I.i ttle Blue erons were found in lo buttonwood, and all obeerifea-con ained e g s apparently somewhat incubated. I est.imated the m.ll1lbers of other herons s follo s : Loui 200; J1ttlevBlue eron 150; i ht Heron 50; leron 30; 2 I likewise count d 10 adult ood Duck, nd at le et 4 eroups of young But my most intere ting observation was to follow. As e neared the very end or aeho Lake I sa a flock o r etren e birds soaring and circling high in the ir. Th were in company with a number of Turkey Buzzards. Th strange birds number d ome 30 in all, and I was certain that I h d never in my lif e seen anything like them Sam cried out that they ere "gannets" but a careful observation with my lass showed them to be ogdvfbis. Soo n a few ot them settled in a nearby cypress, a dead stub, and th y ere ind ed americana. Several o f these birds had bit ot stick in t eir beaks, and thou h I w e un ble to locate any nests I was lead to think, from their actions, that these ibie were nesting birds. tnhing made their appearance to the number o f 12 I was anxious to find the nests o t t hese tranee-appearing birds, but had no success. I imagine they nest some here in that locality, where eeks might be epent without learning half o f the secrete. L te in the afterhoon e returned to the shore and r George Beckman drove e to oClellanville, here I met hie brother, ho was just able to be up and about. I tayed with the Beckman family for a ost exce'lent su'J er, and sent the even1n talking with .Beckman until ttme tor my bus to Charleston at 9:30, despite a cordial invitation to epen th nigh t It w a leasure to oongratulat th splendid coadition of the rookery. He seemed intelligent lover of 1ld life, and under his oar colony hould con,inue to thrive. r Beokman on e and the aeho Lake


The follo ing day was a trifle disappointing, I met [r. Alexander Sprunt, Jr. early in the. mo ... ning ( I y 21).! and as 1 t wae a showery day we went to hie home on the South Battery. There we ent over a chart of the James Island vicinity, and de cided to visit Buzzard and Heron Ielands during the At the Charleston'Mueeum I met one of the curators, Chamoerlain, who very graciously loaned me a pair of hip boots to use during the afternoon. like ise showed me the late Mr. Jayne e valuable collection or bird skine now the :Property of the mue um.. On James Island we found Ar.R.F.Grimball preparing to'trans port hie potatoes. He hadn't a emall boat in the water, but assure ue that it would be out ot the question to oroee the tidal mud flats around the island at that hour, He saye that the rookery i in good cond1 tion and the egrets unmoleeted except by buzzards. -' He told of writing you about this; and insisted that a few buzz arde ought to be killed for the sake ot the egrete and he rons nesting on the island, Mr.sprunt agreed that the buzzards may destroy numbers of both e gce and young Mr.Grimball estimated the numbers of neetLn rde &n Buzzard Island ae follows: snowy.IHeron 500; Little...alue Heron 800 ; louieianavfieron 700: Blaok.t'orowned Night Heron 200; Greenvreron 75; GreatvBlue I eron e Mr.Sprunt checked these t1guree for me and said that they agreed ith'his laet observations on the 1eland. Mr.Sprunt then aeked Mr.Grimball and a Hernandez who ie evidently in the formere employ if they had any knowledge of the shorebird eolony on Bird Key, near Island. Both of men paee that ay considerably, and Mr. Hernandez lives nearby, Both said that th birds, chiefly nestine Blaok Skimmers are being ehot at by local people. Mr.Hernandez then told ue the startling newe that the local Coast Guard have been using their Springfield rifles and ach1ne gune to fire on theee birds. :planned to inveeti ate these stories at once. Mr.Grimball the 1eh that you would visit him soon, and eende you his kindest regards. Ie impree ed me as an excellent man or his job. We proceeded from Gr1mball's that same afternoon to the shore ot James Island op posite Heron Telan,fi bieh latter is owned by the Charleston .1useum. 'rhe tHie a.e still at; lo and we were a>ain unable to land on the island. From tho shire we could see the reat numbers of egrete and .other herons. Mr.sprunt has made numerous tripe to Heron leland thi year and his account was very favorable. About 50 ,nowy Egrets are nesting there,besides several hundred).touisiana. LittlevBlue and Night Ferons, and a tew Greatv'Blues. A man named Oswald who lives on James Island within eight of the rookery, looks out for the birds, and t hey are unmolested. I anted to plan a return to thes two rookeriee at James Island on the following day, but Mr,Sprunt could only give one more day, hie ne business beinG very pressing and it lready hie plan to take me to Penny D am.


then motored to the beach on Folly Island, where we could vi the skimmer colony on Dird K y En route we m t with r eter Oethinr;, who then accompanied us .Getb1ng recalled with much plea ure, and :some quaint language, hie meeting 1th you eom onths go He said that he admired you greatly, not as n ornithologist, not as a cone.ervationiet and 1 ader, bu1J beoaue ot the enviable manner in qhieh you could eat two mullets at once, one held in itheJ hand e sa several hundred skimmers on the h1eher ground o f tl1e key, e.nd Sprunt thought they ight be nesting i n spite o t th alleged shooting Concerning aetion in the matter or these reported shootings, .Sprunt wrote me under date o t June l i n part. as follo e: I have found out that the bank (Bird Key} belongs to nobody so we can hardly forbid landing 0111 it. I also went and saw the commander of the local Coast Guard unit, tound him a lieutenant and very cordial. He heard e ith :sympathy and assured me that, although it as outeide their official juriediction to prosecute anyone, he would give his atrol order to take the names or anyone killing bird lookvery hard and tough nd throw a scare into them anyway I told him that as exactly what wanted and t hat a good scare would be about ae eft1oacious as anythinB else. e se med much interested in it and I think will do what he oan So in ep1te of my dieap oint ent at not being ble to lan on e1 th r Buzz rd or I eron islands I felt that this day as not spent in vain. arly on the following ornint (May22) I et r .Sprunt and we drove to enny Dam rookery in Christ Church parish. The roo ery is in a huntin preserve deep in heavily ooded section of the parish. This same district was a favorite haunt of the late ornithologist, M r Arthur T. 1 yne. and we hear th 'ayne's arbl r einging in the vicinity. cert inly a most beauti ful and never-ending tribute. Reaching the water, Sprunt and I shoved ott. in1 a "sco n and addled through the lo button ood And er cypr ss, sending scores of Little Blues nd trom their nests ith almost every paddle stroke. I disembarked and wading around amid tl'le lo bushes photoeraphed nests containing er .... s and young e majorit y of the and LouisianaVh rons had already hatched and all about me ere the ridiculous heads of tarin hungry young ters peer d trom their frail nests. arther on high in the oypres e found about 150 erican...-Egrete nes or some unexplained rea on none of the egrets had s Y t hatched althoug h at Santee we d found young in a lnrge majority of fee t from the ater. in a cypress, I reached the


. -neet of a pair o f Bl ck-orowned Nit;ht Herons and tOIUld the young w 11 grown. They ere extremely active, and one the largest; tried deeper tely to ewe.llo the toe of my rubber boot. A s with moet ot the Little Blue and Lou1eiana B et-one thie nest oonte:1ned were on the lookout for \ hi te Ibis, and did eee a sffigle bird. It flew from a oypr se treat our ap proach, uttering what Bent d -seribee as their "peculiar grunting n ote" No neete were discovered at this point, however Later we questioned the thenarby a native named G,E.Fort and learned t hat the .birds "that look like white leghorns ith long bills like a curlew" had moved their nests to a backwater to one ide ot P enny Dam. Sprunt said he thought there would be about J09 ibis in this colony. e tound th five paire of Ni6ht eron that have occupied P enny Dam. for several seaeone. T h ir nest were from those of ll other and more or lees removed from one aneth r Built in 1 r g e cypress trees they were generally about 15 to 20 teet fron the ater. 'l'h e complet list or birds nesting in t h e area is as foll o we: ericanvEgret 150; L1ttle"1Uue Heron 200; Lout 1ana leron 150; Blaek..Crowned Night Heron 175; Wh1tev!bis 100 (?); Yellowyerowned N i ght eron 10; ood Duck--at least 3 pairs. sa perhaps twenty Waterturkey, but discovered no positive vid noe of their nesting. According to the colony as a whole has g rown since last year. Conditione seemed ideal, and the egret hatch should b e considerable, Fieh crows did no t to be extremely numerous nor did we eee any signs of damag e caused by these troubleeome tello e11 ; I I arrived in 1lm1n gton late on a' 23, due to a brea down ,dJ-C the bus 1 n which I ae traveling Mr.taurence Bprunt wae buey with some out-ot-town bueinees a sociates, but rs. Sprunt met me at the hotel and very turned over to me a car and d river tor the trip to Orton. Everyone at Orton waa away except a mechanic named Jam.eah James chewed more tobacco tha n any man I ever eaw, but he ruJ certainly e qual to tbie occasion. H e first obtained an old negreee to do our c ooking, and then a an who was 1lling to act as guide on the following day, hich was Sunday, After eu per, having lit our pipes we strolled about the beautiful grounds of old Orton. James a vei'y proud of his connection with this hietoric and lovely place, B y the ligh t of half a moon w tood before the "big houeew hile J'amee in clumsy but earnest hraaee paid simple tribute to the t1ne old p l ace. H e even lit a match to show me the "1725" on th braes knocker of th huge portal. Chuck-ill'swido eo\mded his rapidly-uttered call as I turned in for the night, Early next mornine a great tall negro named Mathis and I shoved off trom the wharf close to Crane Neck. 'ie hat athis said ne the location of the last year's rookery without ight or sound of t h e birds. It the opinion ot ( \


-e-Mathie that the colony must have oved down the pond as he had been in both arms of Tom Branch and not seen a e1nele heron this only the rev1ou:s week So under that hot .sun he poled th eeven mile to the far end of Orton P ond and we saw thing.but oepreye. I climbed with some difficulty to two nests from whioh th etlrill-voiced hawks had flushed, but of course round them empty. ee th se birde b d already hatched. I had entertained hope ho ever, of finding partly aten rieh. but success on this score aa.not mine e observed numerous larg alligators. Returning in the direction of Crane Neck we sighted the hite forme of the egrets moving about among the distant Ae n matter of fact uthis had looked to the right instead of to the let't upon leavine the whart. and thue had miesed th ro kery !together, But eoon e were in the very midet of 1t. Our eratt s too wide-beamed to move b6t een the thickly crowing oypreee, so I jumped out up to my waist and holding my camera clear, ade my f y to a spot in the very center of the colony. Near the water thor were the louisiana and Little Blue erons 1 a l): hatched. Higher up were the lovely little Snowy Egrets, with serious-looking younestere peering from their t rail nests. ear the top wore tbe bulkter neste ot th American Egrets, the "LonB h1tee". on the edge of' the colony a few Black-crowned Night erons ere observed nesting, and like iee at least two pair of Anhinga Returning to th camp I found r .Baehelle.r; the Orton superintendent, returned. lie very eraoiouely obtained a narrow "bateau .. for me, and loading it on a truolt we took it at onoe to Crane Neck ith thie craft in the water we. ere to run far among the oypreee without ading. and in this ay I continued roy obeervation until sunset. The rookery at Orton is emall but exc e ( dingly in teresting. It io the only place that I vieitad here Snowy and American arete nest together in the same cyprevs, r tor that matter, wher Snowy..,. rete use cypress trees over wate in which to build their neet!. I estima.ted the numbers of egrets nd herons at Ortori P ond as .fol :to e.: American 50; Snow 1f'eret :.30; ?5; Li ttle"'tUue lteron 2 Night Heron 16. l e ob erved only t < or three Great Blue ierons and found no neets of thie spec1 s. I tayed S unday night with the Bacheller family, coing "frocging" in the old rice fi lds along the river a.ftor night fe.Jl. morning at 6 o'clock r Rochelle, a brother-i.n-la. of u-.nacheller, drove me in to "illnincton, h beins on his ay orth. rriving in New Bern late on Monday afternoon I as met by u.s.Gam e Protector 1111am I.. Bir.sch e drove at once to Havelock, where I obtained lod 1n8 at the home of a


Mre Rook t 6:30 a m. I wae met by Mr .Roland Taylor of Camp Bryan. W e dr.ove to the camp. pickin.g up a hal.t-wi t boy named Bill to help pole our boat. In Lake Ellie I aom1ted .1.. American Eerete. teeding in the tllarehy land Greo.t Taylor does not know if these "long whites" have ever nee ted tn that looal1 ty. At G::c__at Lake we found the eormor ante aee.embled in a single colony about 2-ff miles from the bo t landing, and on the eoutbern (left) eide of t:ne lake. A very careful count ave us the gratifying total ot oocupi ed neets, Many ot the neate contained the blaok-ekinned and hideous young. I thinlc:: the major! ty et111 held e_gg_e, to fQYX in a clutch, and all that I wae able to examine well inoubatedti three pail":t of BlackVcro ed Night H erollitl were seen on Great Lake and a single Great...-Blu. e .leo a on Lake fa.ylor took :rn.e to a neet in the shallow reed& and lily pads of .Ellis that I have ree.eon to believe wae the neat of the American Bittern. It eo this neet no doubt marks the eouthern range of this species. and 1e, I 'th1nk1 a record for North Carolina. Taylor ha.<.'l discovered it several days betore, and at that time flu bed the bird rrom her eggs,. He desori bed this bird and gave me a fairly a ccur.ate :picture ot an eriean Bittern. Hie name for th e bird we.e "Sedge Hen' and a.leo "Coot"; but that counts t'or not.hin g in an tdentif'ica.t1on. I then ehowed T .aylor pictures in Reede Pocket Guide of various rails ot the t'fO gallinulee, of' the coot and pied-b111 d grebe. He said that it as n one of thosEh I next ehowed him the various bt t t e rn:a and w1 thout heeita,tion he pieked the American Bittern ae the one that he had The nest was oon!ltruoted ot reede 1 mud and turt, It ae built in a. fairly open 8itua.tion1 alllOng .reeds eel graee and lily pads. The water on every e1de of it was about one toot in depth1 or perl');ape even le:5S The :neet it!!elt wa. e approximately one root square; it was b1:1:ilt up about eix or eight 1nohee above the water. 'fhere e-re five egge ot a plain brown'ieh or butfy color. These eggs were without or splotches or any sort. Later, as we were eta.rting tor Camp Bryan I heard a hollow sound that was evidently the call ot eome marsh bird. Taylor said that it was hie "Sedge Hen", the same bird that he had flueh.ed troro the nest. I obtained photographs ot the nest, in situation, w 1 th the eggs almoet entirely hidden by damp and dead reede, and aleo ot the five e ggs, VIi th the of reede re'rhe following dl!ly (May 27) I met Mr.Bb'"eoh and e drove to Beaufort. ar.(Ca.p'n Dave) God in, o\.ll" warden:,. ae alrea.dy t the rool<:ery, and we tound him there after a br iet search. Re had un bird glass over one !!lhoulder and over the other a .tlO bore gun the latter "for crows an' va.rm.ints", ae he explained. The birds 1n this rookery have taken up quarters, _and are now nesting deep in an extremely denee growth of myrtle, perhaps one half mile nearer ths town than previously. I climbed a convenient cedar and


-aae astounde d by the number ot birde that I sa From the ground they had been almo t ntirely h idden by the thick yrtl growth. from the top-mo t branches of the ced r ho ever, I was able to make a fo.irly accurate count. not ot ne te, but o r individuals. I et1mated from my count the following numbers : LittlcvDlu H ron 250J Louieiana. V Heron 250; ren 24; Blnckwiterowned Night Heron .God in did not know if the Snowy Eerete w re n sting. H promieed to determine thie point. The rookery ie carefully nd th only po ible danger eeeme to be fro fire, a parentl not an uncommon occuranoe in the locality. S o tar ae I could tell from so short a visit God in is doing an exc llent job of protecting the birds o thie rookery. r.r. 1reoh then drove e to the region of Deep Creek 8 omp. to inveetigat the colony o f Great Dlue Herons obe rved ther by r .Hadley in 192 After a n ber o f in quiries e obtained the local fire warden as a Then followed eevefal hours or fruitles w din g through the ell nigh impaeeable wilderness of De p Creek Swamp. uch of the time e ere nearly to our knees in black, sticky mire. mhe herons ere not there. .Pate, the fire mrden, thought they must have moved to n gro th on the far side o r the swamp, but this was onlj a guees. e aw a great m ny deer tracks and the track ot a sinele bear. T o W ood c o c k ere tlush d but no nests I obtained the name and address or th an ho guid d ."r .Hadley to the co l ony three ago and who y lmo 1 ts pre ent ere bout:! I saw numbers of Greatvnlue Herons t edin on River, a n d have no doubt that the rookery eomewhere in th t il ernees. very kindly drove me to t lantic where I oaugh the mail boat for Ocracoke From Mr.Birsch I as abl to learn nuch of wild-life protection methods a n d prob lems o r the locality. rom the boat I eaw numer o ue and laugbingvgulls, and some dozen Bro IVflelican. 'l'he latter are ere said to center about Portsmouth Beach They also con gregated at evening n ar Ocracoke Inlet. I put up at the Gaekills'. u s oame rotector Dirseh had prepared me some what for Ooraooke hen l arrived it as a game warden, eo tar as the natives were concerned. I learned later that my de arture from tlantic, where !i r.Birsch helped me get my luggag aboard th boat, as cause for a telephon e warning to the island, and a general warning among the islanders. Al thou h la violation on Ocr coke is not sarioue, there is apparently no question but that illegal gunnina is i ndul ged in occae1onally, to th direct henef1t o f local laraere. irech explained this ineular difficulty v ry clearly. I chose the following day for a journey a foot calcul ted to cov r the be ch d eend dune area bet een the inn nd Ocracoke Inlet. It a a cle r hot day ( ay 28) the humidity relieved by a slight breeze from the northeast.


; f .......,. The bird lite e exoeed1n ly 1nt r tin 1er 1 an 1 1 d,torty ile$ fro h inl nd nd t cina, on one 1 e t e or the ttl ntie. The 1 land 1e about 19 ile 1 nsth1 ver-ee er ps b t en one and t mil e 1n width. It is d up ot eand and 8hell, tth ocon 1on l cov eone1et1n ot yrtle tor the oet p rt. Th re e like ise reby areas. G1,o t etretche ot a d .. beae are ttraot1ve to grating 8bore birds, nnd th 1:sland lies in th dir ot route or y ting that tollo the Atlantic co et line. I counted only 24 epecieo ot bi e that fir t d ot h e 24, 9 wer birds. 1 o or theee 9 ere n tin epec1e ( ileon'e 0 ter-catoh r). : v n of the llst ere ater (CUlls. terns, eki re d pelicans}. The r ining p ciee ere lnnd birds. Oth r rip gave e total or 43 species. or th1e eom pl t 11 et 10 were bird 14 ter bi:rd.e and the re 1ning 19 l birds. he moet numerous 1 na bird inl th tiny Pr ir1e portion ot cover throuGhout tb 1 ngth of th iel d tnd it of th ee pr tty little on,at r ad r 1 1 l as oc1 te their peoul1 r nseend1 c not with Ocr cdce Iel nd. oet ot these blere w re hatched t hie d te, n round on t 1ly or fl dgli 6 bre in number 'l'he 11 o Plover ( looa.lly, tog h th the s 1:p l t d: rin eoka} were very n I di covered nne end e1n l young bird n the hot sand amone tha dunee n eracoke In let. I notic d th t th 11son Plover have an odd w y of quat t1 in littl hol o s in the s bet een runs. running th y orten epr d th 1r ing in a tr ne : nner nd e to move e oro the ound 1 th no ppar nt e ot loco otion, ince their le e re ao t in d r p1dly. Al o, thee re or oour e r t!l r light in eolorin nd bl nd th the ckground ot nd unon hict. hey re found Nunb rs ot eki e .. le at vieril$ nd oy ter-c toh rs ere n ting 1n scattred groupe on th hieher tretohe of ean near th Inlet. Probobly tbe Co Tern &ta in tbi loc lity ell. I not ble to dieoover he cge ot thee birde. ho ver but their actio nd the r port of n tive l d me to thi beliet. I t I r o ition of .. oun c egg ot lo er on ide ot dune The next d y I d an early tart tor Roy 1 Shoal. hureton. G kill, eon of Bill G ek1ll, w nt ith e I h vine h1r h1 bo t for the d Y t hioh e 4ay 29. ---------------" 1 ____ __


f r : -11Once more the day was clear and hot. A elight but pleaeant breeze continued from the northea.I!Jt, The boat wae elow and nearly two houre wer r quired to run the 10 miles to Royal Shoal Island. VIe paee ed various other t'lumps" of eand and shellt Bi.g R ook Island, where Bill Gaskill has taken title and built a cabin tor hie duok ... hunting eueste, and where e round some 300 LaughingvGulle neeting, Flounder Slough, a haven for about 5 00 L u g hin&A'}ulls; a nd Caetle Rook, where tons and gulli!J were obeerved feeding, but no neets were discovered. with "' t g :00 a .m. we dropped our anchor well"',in the btlbt or the island, and climbed into the skirr. I took to the bow ith my glaeees and oo.mera. and Thu:reton poled ue towards the beach. I first counted the Brown Pelican on the southwest tip or beaoh. There were xactly 136 ot them apparently feeding and resting ae t w o or three ere obeerved every now and then making very deliberate flights in t h e direction of t h e numeroue pound nets of the vicinity. As the hundreds of Laughing Gulls nd Royal Terns rose tn the air I caught the mag n1f1oe.nt scene with my camera lens. I !shed that I wae e quipp ed ith a sound and motion picture outfit, tor the movement and the babel of bird voioes ould delight many thousands ot bird students if eo recorded, Running our skiff up on the beach ve began a ma.t1c combing of the island.. I r ally ehould say "islands", for Royal Sho a l has divided near its center, forming two d1et1not islands. The ieland to the eouth, from which we had frightend the pelicans, was the principle nesting site of the Laughin gvGulls. e estimated Q.Q.O of thie epeoiee nesting there. The elieht ne:ste contained a few pieces of dry grass and weede. and most of them contained the latter olive-green, splotched and dot ted with dark brown occasionally one of these e gg s would be covered with and erose-streaks of dark brown, A tew egg s of th 'ern likewi e see n on this isle to the eouth but there ere no more than two dozen pairs on the 1eland. of these nests eontained e gge, but one observed contained eight. Neither the or Laughin g Gull had as yet hatch ed. The Common Tern egg e observed were olive-greenish covered with slight splotohee and dote of dark brown and gray. The Royal/and Cabot together w1 th a few Laug h i n g Gulls, were found nesting on the oreecentehaped island to the north, A e we ap proached their nests they roee and hovered in a beautiful,. scl'eamin g mass above our heads A s we stood perfectly till 1n awe and wonder at the sight, many of the !plen did big terns settled back on their eBge. W e round many of the Royal Tern8 already h atched, and I was able to see first hand the g reat difference that oooure in the downy plumage ot this epecies. Many ot these downy youn g were simply a pale buff eolor, others had the tips of down here and there marked with 'black. othere with brown so that they had a streaked a ppearence. In an area ab out 60 fee t long by 10 feet w1de I eetimated that the e gge were so concentrated as to total at leaet two egg s to the square foot. This e. grand total of 1200 egge and 1e, I think 1 a fair eetimate of the colony. Nesting amone theee 2400 Roy 1 Terns were about 20 pairs of Cabot Terne.


I Concealing ourselves as best e could i n a duck blind near one end of the colony, Gaskill and I watched the birds bf peering through or eke 1n the side of th blind. I also ob-t ined s e fairly good p1otur s by holding the lens opening or my cam ra against such crack and napping the shutter at random. ihen we ad been in th blind a tew moment nearly all of the colony had settl d down on their nests once more The oon tinuous chat er as without end and there e emed cause, every o often, for loud of indignation or imagined as a neighbor jostled the bird next him or a a core o f birds, app r ntly without c use, rose ith loud cries into the air, se tl1n back again ithin a minute or lees. I was interested in the stiff, black crest feathers of these terns. Time and again 'a bird ould raise these feathers from horizontal po ition to one very ne rly vertical. This habit added to their proud and fearl es ftspect. The smaller Oabot Tern I noticed, were on the defensive in their relationship to the Roy 1 Terns all around them Most of the nests of th Royal Terns contained a e1ngle egg; a very few had two eggs in th depression in the sand. In at least three nests or the Laughing Gull, ell hidden among the myrtle buehe and eel graee, I found the larg r eggs of the Royal Tern. In e ch instance there was one eg each of the two species. The gge of the Royal and Cabot Terns varied in color, but by f r the majority of them were creamy white, sparsely dot ted and plotehed with gray and dark brown On page 223 of hia"Life Hi torie of North rican Gull and Terns" .c.Bent speaks of the number of egg 1 id by the Cabot Tern, and quotes Stanley C .Arthur to the effect that only one es is laid and incubated by single bird. I wae very careful in observing the Cabot Tern on th ir e ge, and I bsolutely cert in that at len t one Cabot Tern was incubating a eet of t o eg a It i Dent' opinion that this is the normal number for this species. All eggs of the Cabot's T rn observed were cream white lightly potted and sulotcbed ith gray and d rk bro No oung of this species wer seen on the island Next day the wind shifted to southeast and for nore than t o days e had r in squalls, ith occasion 1 hiGh ind. I made excursions foot and added several species to my list for the island (Ooraook ) On June 1 the ind settl d in the eouth est, and the e ther s emed inclined to clear. I decided to ee rch this day for Legged Lump, and other islands in that vicinity, nd gain chartered Thurston Gaskill's boat for the journey. T o visitors to the island, r ,Sellere and ie Olson, wer t ken along ae interested guests. r.Sellere is a friend of Alex Sprunt, Jr., r .Gething, ch berlnin, d other people that I met in Ch rlee ton. e is engag d in newspap r ork nnd as anxiou to write an rtiole of y visit to Ocracoke. Young Gaskill informed me that hen he had 1 st visited Legp,ed Lum "to or three years go" i t had to be gr dually shing a ay. e traveled up the coast of Ocracoke Island, ll outei4e the long bar that follows this co st. In this w y re ched a pot where tatteras Inlet ae vi ible a well s the villag of att rn nd had found no sign of legged Ltimp. Our


.. boatman then steered back and forth over the water where he though the lump had been, but found nothing, Leseed Lump has entirely red. Running south ae put in at Cl rk'e Reef, low lump perh ps three miles north of Ooraeoke and one mile off shore. This reet is 1thout veget tton, being de up entirely ot sand and ehel with he p or dried eel erase strewn long the narrow be oh juet above high water mark. A t high tide the reet has an extreme height or little more .than one toot. There were some 6Q.O Blaok...Sktnmere and hundred e ch or Lea t/and on the sand as e approache4 in the ekitf. One pair or Oyeter-catchere and severo.l Laughint;-"Gulle ere also obe rved,. the.latter merely :fe e d1n on a narro bar just outh of the reef upon which we landed a number of Brownv.Pel1oan nd a few Florida/ Cormorant were resting. The tirst thing that met my upon stepping from the ekit ere the many hollows, or depress1one in the higher and From these hollows we had startled the skimmers. anCl I could see their feet m rk where they had been scratching. But I saw no egge A few egg pos ibly a score each1 or the teaet and Common Terns ere soon discovered, nnd then the tragedy became pparent. At the northwest end of the helter-skelter amid the drifted eel grass, were hundreds ot smashed ski gge l The torm of the two previous days had taken its toll. After a search one skim mer egg was found in eh re.cter1$tie It was quite arm and fresh, nd mu t have just been deposited that same morning Like iee ith the tern eggs, I learned trom Gaskill, Sr. that Legged Lump 1as once prot oted by n piling, but hat it has been aehing a w y ev r since the piling as neglected and went to pieces. It is a regrettable oceur nee. Tle t'lo days that :follo ed I traveled afoot through the salt marshss and alone; the stretchezs of beach to ards Hatteras. A liet of 43 species of birds was observed on Ocracoke nnd nv rby lump Ot these 43 .erhapa 25 or 26 are nesting speciee. I v1e1ted Mr. H.R.Brimley at t1e ctate useUlll in Ral ieh on June 4 I rel ted to him my experiences and enjoyed n most plea ant and 1ntereet1nc di cueeion. Mr.Brimley regretted the threatened extinction of alligators in Lwce Ellie and Great Lake,. nd we. mueh interest d in the .Amer. too.n Bittern a nest re .. port. 1974 Broad ay New York N.Y. June 15, 1931 I returned to New York on Jun 5 Respectfully eubmitted, Rob rt P .. All&n


( f! ... E ,' ., f 7c I ...... J BIRDS OBS VED on OC COKE IS ID and EAlUlY ISLAliDS --y 28-JUNE 5,. 1931 .robable neeting epeeiee thue: (n) 1 er1cn erring Gull 2 Laugh1ng Gull (n) 3 Bonapnrte s Gull .Gull-billed Tern 5 oynl ern (n) e cabot s Tern (n) ? .Common Tern (n) e e st Tern (n) 9 Blaok Ski er (n) 10 lorida Co o t ll.Brown Pelican 12 eric n erganeer 13 Creen eron l4.Cla er R 11 (n) 15 .Dow1tcher l6.Le s dp1 er 17 .Sem1 p t ed Sandpiper la.snnderl1 19 111et 20. nudeon1an curlew 2l.B1ao kb ell1ed Plover 22. Sem1palm ted Plover 23. 1laon' Plov r (n) er1c nn oyeterc tcher (n} 25. ourning Dove (n) 26. -erice.n Sp rrow Ln k 27 er1can oeprey 2 -b1 led Cuckoo (n) 29. Chtmney n itt 30.creste Flycatcher (n) 31. oad1an lyoutoher (n) 32. lieh crow n) 33 Redin Dl ckb1rd (n) 34 e dowlar (n) 35 ontt 11 Crackle (n) Sparrow (n) 3?.Song s rro (n) 38. Prn1r1 ar l r (n) 39.Flor1d Y lo throat (?) (n) o ookinc i r (n) 4l. c tbird (n) 42 .Brown Thrasher (n) 43.-Carolina r n (n)


1/ .. ,.,,. ?-0 PASS A' LOUTRE MUD LUMPS ---. Albert Matulich, Boothville, La. FREEM.AN S .!!Q.Q! Charles R. Beal, cJ..f. Box 25, Beals, Maine v MATINICUS ROCK Louis C. Choate, Matinicus Rock Station, ti 1 Maine OLD MAN'S LAND ---E B. Small, 121Bucks Harbor Ma ne /?.,._!,._,,.,'?: i'la lu-u. s6UTH EN;;o; GARDINER'S ISLAN'D M H. Edwards, Springs, L. :t., New York. .lr/ETI!V I C.. ME'i'HC ISLAND Woodbury M Snow, 0-fa L. In Go., -.I-.z ...fA-< f;1t d ft: Rockland, Maine. /: $100.00 v 35.00 20 .oo ./ 60.00 20.00 v' 20.00 II" zr. t:>O V' ?-.r'; 0 () /


LITTLE BEACH COLONY -2 -GENERAL WARDENS 1931 Samuel D. Box 145, C/o Coast Guard Station 120 Tuckerton, New Jersey. $50.00 CRANBERRY ISLAND Frank Banning, Noank, Conn. COBBS ISLAND G. W Cobb, Oyster, Va. _il-kd S HE LDON Ernest J. G reenwaly Richard 50.00 .3o. o o ./ 100.00 ,/ 50.00 a month .,(" for tour months >


&( WARDENS EtWLOYED BY THE ASSOCIATION ON THE MAINE COAST (1931) 50.00----Elisha G.Bunker--------Granberry Is. ? (Cranberry Is. ,Me.) Baker's Is. ? p Qulls--ll,OOQ uillemots--------100 4?etrels-----numerous #. :_) v(}t .Blue Herons----2 __ 60.00----.B.Small--------------Old Man (Bucks Harbor,Me.) Is.----=;gerring GuJJs----4,QOO -cr.Cormorants--1,000 iEiders--------------12 plus ..C.t .Blk-bk Gulls Double-Headed Shots--Gulls---5QOO 'tEiders Heron-----12 Gulls--1 '-tU. btd I ------------------------------------------------------------------(1ILwSnew1 RockGreen Is.-.wflerrjpg Gulls---2:)0Q plus JZ /1---.c.. /;c. Metinic Terns-----300 Hog Is.& $111s----509 ---------------------------------------------------------------------30.00----Geo.E.Cusbman---------Stratton Terns----1600 ( 3? Devonshire St. ----a few Me. ) Bluff Is pq Gpl 1 s---1 999


Maine Coast Wardens--Continued: \ 9!/' 35.00----Chas.R.Beal------------Freeman's Rock---Herring Gulls? ( Box 25,Beals,Me.) Note:Beal reported "9,100(Herring) in 1931 report. Norton and Allen thought that a would be ----------------------------------------------------------------------C.Choate---------------Matinicus Terns--1000 (Matinicus Rock Station, Mati;Q Me.) *Choate reported {1931): Terns---18,000 000 YPuffins-----------125


t, cinto h, Flori 1951 200 ,00 ------------------ICANOPY ROOICEl ... 11 ot cln o D Louisiana. RO'OOIt H. t1 kefield, Lo lexan or Sprunt, Jr., 2 South ttcry, c arl ston, s. c fl. L Odum., etcal e, eor 1 IVER 50.0 100.00 60.00 -----100.,00 loO .OO 100. 0 0 ------------


. .. 0 t I ,'-._ ..... J '1" \. ... .) 1 9'51 75 .00 D J i autort, North carolina. 50 .00 50 00 ) onth fo 1 to Sopt 550 00 ont h i' or 7 o n ths ber 1 to pril l) 175. 00 .:;;..;.;;..o.;;,;;;;;;;;,;;.;R;;.;;o.Y .!! SOU?H _l!LO!, L.A: