Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 1 Folder 18 : Sanctuary Visitors, 1938-1939 (pp. 882-925)

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Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 1 Folder 18 : Sanctuary Visitors, 1938-1939 (pp. 882-925)
Audubon Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Florida
University of South Florida
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Physical Description:
1 folder
Physical Location:
Box 1 Folder 18


Subjects / Keywords:
Audubon societies -- Diaries ( lcsh )
Ecology -- Florida ( lcsh )
History -- Gulf Coast (Fla.) -- 20th century ( lcsh )


The daily journals of Audubon wardens and statewide reports on certain sites and projects cover activities from 1900 to 1970, with most of the materials concentrated between the 1930s and 1950s.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
032958557 ( ALEPH )
890709008 ( OCLC )
A47-00018 ( USF DOI )
a47.18 ( USF Handle )

USFLDC Membership

Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970

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Mixed Material


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i REPORT of a TRIP to the RN CAROLI s tor the PURPOoE of I SP C TING I JRON OOKERIES Dr .T.G1lb rt P 19?4 Dro d ay New ork, Y Dea r Dr. earson: The following is a report of tne trip made t your eu tion to various in North and South Carolina, lay 19 to June 5 1931. y stop as Charleston, where I rrived at :35 on the mornin of _ay As r lexander prunt, Jr. wa out of town I ent alone to cClel l ville and the ant e Gun Club. The superintendent, r L was ill at hie home in cClellan ville, but hie brot er, i r George B okman rovid d e with a boat and a ide. The latter was an old necro n ed and I found i to be well acquainted both ith hie bo t and 1th the ildernees of the cypre e-erown W eho Lake e st rted down the lake at noon through the aize ot cypress. It as my fir t view of such a scene nd I a reatly impressed. 1h loud, iercin cries of n osprey called our atten tion to the bulky ne t of this specie urmounting nearby cypress lto e h r I counted ten of th s nests, and e enou h birds to make m h nk hat 11 of the e n ete ust h ve been occu ied rlier this season. I counted at le t t enty of the h k on th 1 k young ere, of course, fully g rown a t hie date. .bortly embers of he family rd id e b an to a ear. First I sa a then Loui ian (my first), mature a Black-oro ed 1 ht ieron. all1 tor de a s p lash directly ben ath our bo s the first ot nine that counted. Th e e reptiles are not disturb d in sho Reserve, and have become quite tame A e s silently aroun a lar e uk n e" a loud,alarm d sq e.wking announced an entire family o f ood Duck, the rent bir e and a round dozen dueklin e The male bird as making most o f the noise, nd movi o f f to our righ t hand, drag 1ne ing e if it were broken. ean hile the female swam to our left, follo ed by the very small n very downy younestere. I motioned sam to try and overhaul the tail end of t his latter procession, nd held y cam ra in readiness. But just a soon ae our bow in their dir ct1on the younesters dove comin g u a surprisinG distance awny o I obtain d no clo e-upe. fter 1ne about two mile throucn the cypre sighted our first It is a difficult job estim tine th numbers of these birds or of t eir I finally decided on 400 individual birds, nd upon questioning 1 r L Beckman later e


found hie st1mate to be 350 so no doubt the truth lies some here bet een these two figures, 11 of these bi+ds were the eric n Egret. The nesting seemed to b well under way, and upon climbing to several ne te, high in the rather tall cypress, I found most of them 1th three owny young some few of the younG evidently several d ys old. fe neets still cont ined e s the u u 1 three of lain bluish green. One e gret, tully was discovered hanging by hie head from a forked limb beneath h i n st. e bad been dead some da s and the nest was empty N o doubt he ad hung himself urely accident, and I as. in fact, impressed by th pnarent k ardnees of the e ordinarily graceful birds hen hampered by the proximity ot teee limbe and branches, They were often seen to rie from nests and flap intervening ranches ith the most a kward and clumsy ovem nts im ginable. Neets or the, louwana and I.i ttle Blue erons were found in lo buttonwood, and all obeerifea-con ained e g s apparently somewhat incubated. I est.imated the m.ll1lbers of other herons s follo s : Loui 200; J1ttlevBlue eron 150; i ht Heron 50; leron 30; 2 I likewise count d 10 adult ood Duck, nd at le et 4 eroups of young But my most intere ting observation was to follow. As e neared the very end or aeho Lake I sa a flock o r etren e birds soaring and circling high in the ir. Th were in company with a number of Turkey Buzzards. Th strange birds number d ome 30 in all, and I was certain that I h d never in my lif e seen anything like them Sam cried out that they ere "gannets" but a careful observation with my lass showed them to be ogdvfbis. Soo n a few ot them settled in a nearby cypress, a dead stub, and th y ere ind ed americana. Several o f these birds had bit ot stick in t eir beaks, and thou h I w e un ble to locate any nests I was lead to think, from their actions, that these ibie were nesting birds. tnhing made their appearance to the number o f 12 I was anxious to find the nests o t t hese tranee-appearing birds, but had no success. I imagine they nest some here in that locality, where eeks might be epent without learning half o f the secrete. L te in the afterhoon e returned to the shore and r George Beckman drove e to oClellanville, here I met hie brother, ho was just able to be up and about. I tayed with the Beckman family for a ost exce'lent su'J er, and sent the even1n talking with .Beckman until ttme tor my bus to Charleston at 9:30, despite a cordial invitation to epen th nigh t It w a leasure to oongratulat th splendid coadition of the rookery. He seemed intelligent lover of 1ld life, and under his oar colony hould con,inue to thrive. r Beokman on e and the aeho Lake


The follo ing day was a trifle disappointing, I met [r. Alexander Sprunt, Jr. early in the. mo ... ning ( I y 21).! and as 1 t wae a showery day we went to hie home on the South Battery. There we ent over a chart of the James Island vicinity, and de cided to visit Buzzard and Heron Ielands during the At the Charleston'Mueeum I met one of the curators, Chamoerlain, who very graciously loaned me a pair of hip boots to use during the afternoon. like ise showed me the late Mr. Jayne e valuable collection or bird skine now the :Property of the mue um.. On James Island we found Ar.R.F.Grimball preparing to'trans port hie potatoes. He hadn't a emall boat in the water, but assure ue that it would be out ot the question to oroee the tidal mud flats around the island at that hour, He saye that the rookery i in good cond1 tion and the egrets unmoleeted except by buzzards. -' He told of writing you about this; and insisted that a few buzz arde ought to be killed for the sake ot the egrete and he rons nesting on the island, Mr.sprunt agreed that the buzzards may destroy numbers of both e gce and young Mr.Grimball estimated the numbers of neetLn rde &n Buzzard Island ae follows: snowy.IHeron 500; Little...alue Heron 800 ; louieianavfieron 700: Blaok.t'orowned Night Heron 200; Greenvreron 75; GreatvBlue I eron e Mr.Sprunt checked these t1guree for me and said that they agreed ith'his laet observations on the 1eland. Mr.Sprunt then aeked Mr.Grimball and a Hernandez who ie evidently in the formere employ if they had any knowledge of the shorebird eolony on Bird Key, near Island. Both of men paee that ay considerably, and Mr. Hernandez lives nearby, Both said that th birds, chiefly nestine Blaok Skimmers are being ehot at by local people. Mr.Hernandez then told ue the startling newe that the local Coast Guard have been using their Springfield rifles and ach1ne gune to fire on theee birds. :planned to inveeti ate these stories at once. Mr.Grimball the 1eh that you would visit him soon, and eende you his kindest regards. Ie impree ed me as an excellent man or his job. We proceeded from Gr1mball's that same afternoon to the shore ot James Island op posite Heron Telan,fi bieh latter is owned by the Charleston .1useum. 'rhe tHie a.e still at; lo and we were a>ain unable to land on the island. From tho shire we could see the reat numbers of egrete and .other herons. Mr.sprunt has made numerous tripe to Heron leland thi year and his account was very favorable. About 50 ,nowy Egrets are nesting there,besides several hundred).touisiana. LittlevBlue and Night Ferons, and a tew Greatv'Blues. A man named Oswald who lives on James Island within eight of the rookery, looks out for the birds, and t hey are unmolested. I anted to plan a return to thes two rookeriee at James Island on the following day, but Mr,Sprunt could only give one more day, hie ne business beinG very pressing and it lready hie plan to take me to Penny D am.


then motored to the beach on Folly Island, where we could vi the skimmer colony on Dird K y En route we m t with r eter Oethinr;, who then accompanied us .Getb1ng recalled with much plea ure, and :some quaint language, hie meeting 1th you eom onths go He said that he admired you greatly, not as n ornithologist, not as a cone.ervationiet and 1 ader, bu1J beoaue ot the enviable manner in qhieh you could eat two mullets at once, one held in itheJ hand e sa several hundred skimmers on the h1eher ground o f tl1e key, e.nd Sprunt thought they ight be nesting i n spite o t th alleged shooting Concerning aetion in the matter or these reported shootings, .Sprunt wrote me under date o t June l i n part. as follo e: I have found out that the bank (Bird Key} belongs to nobody so we can hardly forbid landing 0111 it. I also went and saw the commander of the local Coast Guard unit, tound him a lieutenant and very cordial. He heard e ith :sympathy and assured me that, although it as outeide their official juriediction to prosecute anyone, he would give his atrol order to take the names or anyone killing bird lookvery hard and tough nd throw a scare into them anyway I told him that as exactly what wanted and t hat a good scare would be about ae eft1oacious as anythinB else. e se med much interested in it and I think will do what he oan So in ep1te of my dieap oint ent at not being ble to lan on e1 th r Buzz rd or I eron islands I felt that this day as not spent in vain. arly on the following ornint (May22) I et r .Sprunt and we drove to enny Dam rookery in Christ Church parish. The roo ery is in a huntin preserve deep in heavily ooded section of the parish. This same district was a favorite haunt of the late ornithologist, M r Arthur T. 1 yne. and we hear th 'ayne's arbl r einging in the vicinity. cert inly a most beauti ful and never-ending tribute. Reaching the water, Sprunt and I shoved ott. in1 a "sco n and addled through the lo button ood And er cypr ss, sending scores of Little Blues nd trom their nests ith almost every paddle stroke. I disembarked and wading around amid tl'le lo bushes photoeraphed nests containing er .... s and young e majorit y of the and LouisianaVh rons had already hatched and all about me ere the ridiculous heads of tarin hungry young ters peer d trom their frail nests. arther on high in the oypres e found about 150 erican...-Egrete nes or some unexplained rea on none of the egrets had s Y t hatched althoug h at Santee we d found young in a lnrge majority of fee t from the ater. in a cypress, I reached the


. -neet of a pair o f Bl ck-orowned Nit;ht Herons and tOIUld the young w 11 grown. They ere extremely active, and one the largest; tried deeper tely to ewe.llo the toe of my rubber boot. A s with moet ot the Little Blue and Lou1eiana B et-one thie nest oonte:1ned were on the lookout for \ hi te Ibis, and did eee a sffigle bird. It flew from a oypr se treat our ap proach, uttering what Bent d -seribee as their "peculiar grunting n ote" No neete were discovered at this point, however Later we questioned the thenarby a native named G,E.Fort and learned t hat the .birds "that look like white leghorns ith long bills like a curlew" had moved their nests to a backwater to one ide ot P enny Dam. Sprunt said he thought there would be about J09 ibis in this colony. e tound th five paire of Ni6ht eron that have occupied P enny Dam. for several seaeone. T h ir nest were from those of ll other and more or lees removed from one aneth r Built in 1 r g e cypress trees they were generally about 15 to 20 teet fron the ater. 'l'h e complet list or birds nesting in t h e area is as foll o we: ericanvEgret 150; L1ttle"1Uue Heron 200; Lout 1ana leron 150; Blaek..Crowned Night Heron 175; Wh1tev!bis 100 (?); Yellowyerowned N i ght eron 10; ood Duck--at least 3 pairs. sa perhaps twenty Waterturkey, but discovered no positive vid noe of their nesting. According to the colony as a whole has g rown since last year. Conditione seemed ideal, and the egret hatch should b e considerable, Fieh crows did no t to be extremely numerous nor did we eee any signs of damag e caused by these troubleeome tello e11 ; I I arrived in 1lm1n gton late on a' 23, due to a brea down ,dJ-C the bus 1 n which I ae traveling Mr.taurence Bprunt wae buey with some out-ot-town bueinees a sociates, but rs. Sprunt met me at the hotel and very turned over to me a car and d river tor the trip to Orton. Everyone at Orton waa away except a mechanic named Jam.eah James chewed more tobacco tha n any man I ever eaw, but he ruJ certainly e qual to tbie occasion. H e first obtained an old negreee to do our c ooking, and then a an who was 1lling to act as guide on the following day, hich was Sunday, After eu per, having lit our pipes we strolled about the beautiful grounds of old Orton. James a vei'y proud of his connection with this hietoric and lovely place, B y the ligh t of half a moon w tood before the "big houeew hile J'amee in clumsy but earnest hraaee paid simple tribute to the t1ne old p l ace. H e even lit a match to show me the "1725" on th braes knocker of th huge portal. Chuck-ill'swido eo\mded his rapidly-uttered call as I turned in for the night, Early next mornine a great tall negro named Mathis and I shoved off trom the wharf close to Crane Neck. 'ie hat athis said ne the location of the last year's rookery without ight or sound of t h e birds. It the opinion ot ( \


-e-Mathie that the colony must have oved down the pond as he had been in both arms of Tom Branch and not seen a e1nele heron this only the rev1ou:s week So under that hot .sun he poled th eeven mile to the far end of Orton P ond and we saw thing.but oepreye. I climbed with some difficulty to two nests from whioh th etlrill-voiced hawks had flushed, but of course round them empty. ee th se birde b d already hatched. I had entertained hope ho ever, of finding partly aten rieh. but success on this score aa.not mine e observed numerous larg alligators. Returning in the direction of Crane Neck we sighted the hite forme of the egrets moving about among the distant Ae n matter of fact uthis had looked to the right instead of to the let't upon leavine the whart. and thue had miesed th ro kery !together, But eoon e were in the very midet of 1t. Our eratt s too wide-beamed to move b6t een the thickly crowing oypreee, so I jumped out up to my waist and holding my camera clear, ade my f y to a spot in the very center of the colony. Near the water thor were the louisiana and Little Blue erons 1 a l): hatched. Higher up were the lovely little Snowy Egrets, with serious-looking younestere peering from their t rail nests. ear the top wore tbe bulkter neste ot th American Egrets, the "LonB h1tee". on the edge of' the colony a few Black-crowned Night erons ere observed nesting, and like iee at least two pair of Anhinga Returning to th camp I found r .Baehelle.r; the Orton superintendent, returned. lie very eraoiouely obtained a narrow "bateau .. for me, and loading it on a truolt we took it at onoe to Crane Neck ith thie craft in the water we. ere to run far among the oypreee without ading. and in this ay I continued roy obeervation until sunset. The rookery at Orton is emall but exc e ( dingly in teresting. It io the only place that I vieitad here Snowy and American arete nest together in the same cyprevs, r tor that matter, wher Snowy..,. rete use cypress trees over wate in which to build their neet!. I estima.ted the numbers of egrets nd herons at Ortori P ond as .fol :to e.: American 50; Snow 1f'eret :.30; ?5; Li ttle"'tUue lteron 2 Night Heron 16. l e ob erved only t < or three Great Blue ierons and found no neets of thie spec1 s. I tayed S unday night with the Bacheller family, coing "frocging" in the old rice fi lds along the river a.ftor night fe.Jl. morning at 6 o'clock r Rochelle, a brother-i.n-la. of u-.nacheller, drove me in to "illnincton, h beins on his ay orth. rriving in New Bern late on Monday afternoon I as met by u.s.Gam e Protector 1111am I.. Bir.sch e drove at once to Havelock, where I obtained lod 1n8 at the home of a


Mre Rook t 6:30 a m. I wae met by Mr .Roland Taylor of Camp Bryan. W e dr.ove to the camp. pickin.g up a hal.t-wi t boy named Bill to help pole our boat. In Lake Ellie I aom1ted .1.. American Eerete. teeding in the tllarehy land Greo.t Taylor does not know if these "long whites" have ever nee ted tn that looal1 ty. At G::c__at Lake we found the eormor ante aee.embled in a single colony about 2-ff miles from the bo t landing, and on the eoutbern (left) eide of t:ne lake. A very careful count ave us the gratifying total ot oocupi ed neets, Many ot the neate contained the blaok-ekinned and hideous young. I thinlc:: the major! ty et111 held e_gg_e, to fQYX in a clutch, and all that I wae able to examine well inoubatedti three pail":t of BlackVcro ed Night H erollitl were seen on Great Lake and a single Great...-Blu. e .leo a on Lake fa.ylor took :rn.e to a neet in the shallow reed& and lily pads of .Ellis that I have ree.eon to believe wae the neat of the American Bittern. It eo this neet no doubt marks the eouthern range of this species. and 1e, I 'th1nk1 a record for North Carolina. Taylor ha.<.'l discovered it several days betore, and at that time flu bed the bird rrom her eggs,. He desori bed this bird and gave me a fairly a ccur.ate :picture ot an eriean Bittern. Hie name for th e bird we.e "Sedge Hen' and a.leo "Coot"; but that counts t'or not.hin g in an tdentif'ica.t1on. I then ehowed T .aylor pictures in Reede Pocket Guide of various rails ot the t'fO gallinulee, of' the coot and pied-b111 d grebe. He said that it as n one of thosEh I next ehowed him the various bt t t e rn:a and w1 thout heeita,tion he pieked the American Bittern ae the one that he had The nest was oon!ltruoted ot reede 1 mud and turt, It ae built in a. fairly open 8itua.tion1 alllOng .reeds eel graee and lily pads. The water on every e1de of it was about one toot in depth1 or perl');ape even le:5S The :neet it!!elt wa. e approximately one root square; it was b1:1:ilt up about eix or eight 1nohee above the water. 'fhere e-re five egge ot a plain brown'ieh or butfy color. These eggs were without or splotches or any sort. Later, as we were eta.rting tor Camp Bryan I heard a hollow sound that was evidently the call ot eome marsh bird. Taylor said that it was hie "Sedge Hen", the same bird that he had flueh.ed troro the nest. I obtained photographs ot the nest, in situation, w 1 th the eggs almoet entirely hidden by damp and dead reede, and aleo ot the five e ggs, VIi th the of reede re'rhe following dl!ly (May 27) I met Mr.Bb'"eoh and e drove to Beaufort. ar.(Ca.p'n Dave) God in, o\.ll" warden:,. ae alrea.dy t the rool<:ery, and we tound him there after a br iet search. Re had un bird glass over one !!lhoulder and over the other a .tlO bore gun the latter "for crows an' va.rm.ints", ae he explained. The birds 1n this rookery have taken up quarters, _and are now nesting deep in an extremely denee growth of myrtle, perhaps one half mile nearer ths town than previously. I climbed a convenient cedar and


-aae astounde d by the number ot birde that I sa From the ground they had been almo t ntirely h idden by the thick yrtl growth. from the top-mo t branches of the ced r ho ever, I was able to make a fo.irly accurate count. not ot ne te, but o r individuals. I et1mated from my count the following numbers : LittlcvDlu H ron 250J Louieiana. V Heron 250; ren 24; Blnckwiterowned Night Heron .God in did not know if the Snowy Eerete w re n sting. H promieed to determine thie point. The rookery ie carefully nd th only po ible danger eeeme to be fro fire, a parentl not an uncommon occuranoe in the locality. S o tar ae I could tell from so short a visit God in is doing an exc llent job of protecting the birds o thie rookery. r.r. 1reoh then drove e to the region of Deep Creek 8 omp. to inveetigat the colony o f Great Dlue Herons obe rved ther by r .Hadley in 192 After a n ber o f in quiries e obtained the local fire warden as a Then followed eevefal hours or fruitles w din g through the ell nigh impaeeable wilderness of De p Creek Swamp. uch of the time e ere nearly to our knees in black, sticky mire. mhe herons ere not there. .Pate, the fire mrden, thought they must have moved to n gro th on the far side o r the swamp, but this was onlj a guees. e aw a great m ny deer tracks and the track ot a sinele bear. T o W ood c o c k ere tlush d but no nests I obtained the name and address or th an ho guid d ."r .Hadley to the co l ony three ago and who y lmo 1 ts pre ent ere bout:! I saw numbers of Greatvnlue Herons t edin on River, a n d have no doubt that the rookery eomewhere in th t il ernees. very kindly drove me to t lantic where I oaugh the mail boat for Ocracoke From Mr.Birsch I as abl to learn nuch of wild-life protection methods a n d prob lems o r the locality. rom the boat I eaw numer o ue and laugbingvgulls, and some dozen Bro IVflelican. 'l'he latter are ere said to center about Portsmouth Beach They also con gregated at evening n ar Ocracoke Inlet. I put up at the Gaekills'. u s oame rotector Dirseh had prepared me some what for Ooraooke hen l arrived it as a game warden, eo tar as the natives were concerned. I learned later that my de arture from tlantic, where !i r.Birsch helped me get my luggag aboard th boat, as cause for a telephon e warning to the island, and a general warning among the islanders. Al thou h la violation on Ocr coke is not sarioue, there is apparently no question but that illegal gunnina is i ndul ged in occae1onally, to th direct henef1t o f local laraere. irech explained this ineular difficulty v ry clearly. I chose the following day for a journey a foot calcul ted to cov r the be ch d eend dune area bet een the inn nd Ocracoke Inlet. It a a cle r hot day ( ay 28) the humidity relieved by a slight breeze from the northeast.


; f .......,. The bird lite e exoeed1n ly 1nt r tin 1er 1 an 1 1 d,torty ile$ fro h inl nd nd t cina, on one 1 e t e or the ttl ntie. The 1 land 1e about 19 ile 1 nsth1 ver-ee er ps b t en one and t mil e 1n width. It is d up ot eand and 8hell, tth ocon 1on l cov eone1et1n ot yrtle tor the oet p rt. Th re e like ise reby areas. G1,o t etretche ot a d .. beae are ttraot1ve to grating 8bore birds, nnd th 1:sland lies in th dir ot route or y ting that tollo the Atlantic co et line. I counted only 24 epecieo ot bi e that fir t d ot h e 24, 9 wer birds. 1 o or theee 9 ere n tin epec1e ( ileon'e 0 ter-catoh r). : v n of the llst ere ater (CUlls. terns, eki re d pelicans}. The r ining p ciee ere lnnd birds. Oth r rip gave e total or 43 species. or th1e eom pl t 11 et 10 were bird 14 ter bi:rd.e and the re 1ning 19 l birds. he moet numerous 1 na bird inl th tiny Pr ir1e portion ot cover throuGhout tb 1 ngth of th iel d tnd it of th ee pr tty little on,at r ad r 1 1 l as oc1 te their peoul1 r nseend1 c not with Ocr cdce Iel nd. oet ot these blere w re hatched t hie d te, n round on t 1ly or fl dgli 6 bre in number 'l'he 11 o Plover ( looa.lly, tog h th the s 1:p l t d: rin eoka} were very n I di covered nne end e1n l young bird n the hot sand amone tha dunee n eracoke In let. I notic d th t th 11son Plover have an odd w y of quat t1 in littl hol o s in the s bet een runs. running th y orten epr d th 1r ing in a tr ne : nner nd e to move e oro the ound 1 th no ppar nt e ot loco otion, ince their le e re ao t in d r p1dly. Al o, thee re or oour e r t!l r light in eolorin nd bl nd th the ckground ot nd unon hict. hey re found Nunb rs ot eki e .. le at vieril$ nd oy ter-c toh rs ere n ting 1n scattred groupe on th hieher tretohe of ean near th Inlet. Probobly tbe Co Tern &ta in tbi loc lity ell. I not ble to dieoover he cge ot thee birde. ho ver but their actio nd the r port of n tive l d me to thi beliet. I t I r o ition of .. oun c egg ot lo er on ide ot dune The next d y I d an early tart tor Roy 1 Shoal. hureton. G kill, eon of Bill G ek1ll, w nt ith e I h vine h1r h1 bo t for the d Y t hioh e 4ay 29. ---------------" 1 ____ __


f r : -11Once more the day was clear and hot. A elight but pleaeant breeze continued from the northea.I!Jt, The boat wae elow and nearly two houre wer r quired to run the 10 miles to Royal Shoal Island. VIe paee ed various other t'lumps" of eand and shellt Bi.g R ook Island, where Bill Gaskill has taken title and built a cabin tor hie duok ... hunting eueste, and where e round some 300 LaughingvGulle neeting, Flounder Slough, a haven for about 5 00 L u g hin&A'}ulls; a nd Caetle Rook, where tons and gulli!J were obeerved feeding, but no neets were discovered. with "' t g :00 a .m. we dropped our anchor well"',in the btlbt or the island, and climbed into the skirr. I took to the bow ith my glaeees and oo.mera. and Thu:reton poled ue towards the beach. I first counted the Brown Pelican on the southwest tip or beaoh. There were xactly 136 ot them apparently feeding and resting ae t w o or three ere obeerved every now and then making very deliberate flights in t h e direction of t h e numeroue pound nets of the vicinity. As the hundreds of Laughing Gulls nd Royal Terns rose tn the air I caught the mag n1f1oe.nt scene with my camera lens. I !shed that I wae e quipp ed ith a sound and motion picture outfit, tor the movement and the babel of bird voioes ould delight many thousands ot bird students if eo recorded, Running our skiff up on the beach ve began a ma.t1c combing of the island.. I r ally ehould say "islands", for Royal Sho a l has divided near its center, forming two d1et1not islands. The ieland to the eouth, from which we had frightend the pelicans, was the principle nesting site of the Laughin gvGulls. e estimated Q.Q.O of thie epeoiee nesting there. The elieht ne:ste contained a few pieces of dry grass and weede. and most of them contained the latter olive-green, splotched and dot ted with dark brown occasionally one of these e gg s would be covered with and erose-streaks of dark brown, A tew egg s of th 'ern likewi e see n on this isle to the eouth but there ere no more than two dozen pairs on the 1eland. of these nests eontained e gge, but one observed contained eight. Neither the or Laughin g Gull had as yet hatch ed. The Common Tern egg e observed were olive-greenish covered with slight splotohee and dote of dark brown and gray. The Royal/and Cabot together w1 th a few Laug h i n g Gulls, were found nesting on the oreecentehaped island to the north, A e we ap proached their nests they roee and hovered in a beautiful,. scl'eamin g mass above our heads A s we stood perfectly till 1n awe and wonder at the sight, many of the !plen did big terns settled back on their eBge. W e round many of the Royal Tern8 already h atched, and I was able to see first hand the g reat difference that oooure in the downy plumage ot this epecies. Many ot these downy youn g were simply a pale buff eolor, others had the tips of down here and there marked with 'black. othere with brown so that they had a streaked a ppearence. In an area ab out 60 fee t long by 10 feet w1de I eetimated that the e gge were so concentrated as to total at leaet two egg s to the square foot. This e. grand total of 1200 egge and 1e, I think 1 a fair eetimate of the colony. Nesting amone theee 2400 Roy 1 Terns were about 20 pairs of Cabot Terne.


I Concealing ourselves as best e could i n a duck blind near one end of the colony, Gaskill and I watched the birds bf peering through or eke 1n the side of th blind. I also ob-t ined s e fairly good p1otur s by holding the lens opening or my cam ra against such crack and napping the shutter at random. ihen we ad been in th blind a tew moment nearly all of the colony had settl d down on their nests once more The oon tinuous chat er as without end and there e emed cause, every o often, for loud of indignation or imagined as a neighbor jostled the bird next him or a a core o f birds, app r ntly without c use, rose ith loud cries into the air, se tl1n back again ithin a minute or lees. I was interested in the stiff, black crest feathers of these terns. Time and again 'a bird ould raise these feathers from horizontal po ition to one very ne rly vertical. This habit added to their proud and fearl es ftspect. The smaller Oabot Tern I noticed, were on the defensive in their relationship to the Roy 1 Terns all around them Most of the nests of th Royal Terns contained a e1ngle egg; a very few had two eggs in th depression in the sand. In at least three nests or the Laughing Gull, ell hidden among the myrtle buehe and eel graee, I found the larg r eggs of the Royal Tern. In e ch instance there was one eg each of the two species. The gge of the Royal and Cabot Terns varied in color, but by f r the majority of them were creamy white, sparsely dot ted and plotehed with gray and dark brown On page 223 of hia"Life Hi torie of North rican Gull and Terns" .c.Bent speaks of the number of egg 1 id by the Cabot Tern, and quotes Stanley C .Arthur to the effect that only one es is laid and incubated by single bird. I wae very careful in observing the Cabot Tern on th ir e ge, and I bsolutely cert in that at len t one Cabot Tern was incubating a eet of t o eg a It i Dent' opinion that this is the normal number for this species. All eggs of the Cabot's T rn observed were cream white lightly potted and sulotcbed ith gray and d rk bro No oung of this species wer seen on the island Next day the wind shifted to southeast and for nore than t o days e had r in squalls, ith occasion 1 hiGh ind. I made excursions foot and added several species to my list for the island (Ooraook ) On June 1 the ind settl d in the eouth est, and the e ther s emed inclined to clear. I decided to ee rch this day for Legged Lump, and other islands in that vicinity, nd gain chartered Thurston Gaskill's boat for the journey. T o visitors to the island, r ,Sellere and ie Olson, wer t ken along ae interested guests. r.Sellere is a friend of Alex Sprunt, Jr., r .Gething, ch berlnin, d other people that I met in Ch rlee ton. e is engag d in newspap r ork nnd as anxiou to write an rtiole of y visit to Ocracoke. Young Gaskill informed me that hen he had 1 st visited Legp,ed Lum "to or three years go" i t had to be gr dually shing a ay. e traveled up the coast of Ocracoke Island, ll outei4e the long bar that follows this co st. In this w y re ched a pot where tatteras Inlet ae vi ible a well s the villag of att rn nd had found no sign of legged Ltimp. Our


.. boatman then steered back and forth over the water where he though the lump had been, but found nothing, Leseed Lump has entirely red. Running south ae put in at Cl rk'e Reef, low lump perh ps three miles north of Ooraeoke and one mile off shore. This reet is 1thout veget tton, being de up entirely ot sand and ehel with he p or dried eel erase strewn long the narrow be oh juet above high water mark. A t high tide the reet has an extreme height or little more .than one toot. There were some 6Q.O Blaok...Sktnmere and hundred e ch or Lea t/and on the sand as e approache4 in the ekitf. One pair or Oyeter-catchere and severo.l Laughint;-"Gulle ere also obe rved,. the.latter merely :fe e d1n on a narro bar just outh of the reef upon which we landed a number of Brownv.Pel1oan nd a few Florida/ Cormorant were resting. The tirst thing that met my upon stepping from the ekit ere the many hollows, or depress1one in the higher and From these hollows we had startled the skimmers. anCl I could see their feet m rk where they had been scratching. But I saw no egge A few egg pos ibly a score each1 or the teaet and Common Terns ere soon discovered, nnd then the tragedy became pparent. At the northwest end of the helter-skelter amid the drifted eel grass, were hundreds ot smashed ski gge l The torm of the two previous days had taken its toll. After a search one skim mer egg was found in eh re.cter1$tie It was quite arm and fresh, nd mu t have just been deposited that same morning Like iee ith the tern eggs, I learned trom Gaskill, Sr. that Legged Lump 1as once prot oted by n piling, but hat it has been aehing a w y ev r since the piling as neglected and went to pieces. It is a regrettable oceur nee. Tle t'lo days that :follo ed I traveled afoot through the salt marshss and alone; the stretchezs of beach to ards Hatteras. A liet of 43 species of birds was observed on Ocracoke nnd nv rby lump Ot these 43 .erhapa 25 or 26 are nesting speciee. I v1e1ted Mr. H.R.Brimley at t1e ctate useUlll in Ral ieh on June 4 I rel ted to him my experiences and enjoyed n most plea ant and 1ntereet1nc di cueeion. Mr.Brimley regretted the threatened extinction of alligators in Lwce Ellie and Great Lake,. nd we. mueh interest d in the .Amer. too.n Bittern a nest re .. port. 1974 Broad ay New York N.Y. June 15, 1931 I returned to New York on Jun 5 Respectfully eubmitted, Rob rt P .. All&n


( f! ... E ,' ., f 7c I ...... J BIRDS OBS VED on OC COKE IS ID and EAlUlY ISLAliDS --y 28-JUNE 5,. 1931 .robable neeting epeeiee thue: (n) 1 er1cn erring Gull 2 Laugh1ng Gull (n) 3 Bonapnrte s Gull .Gull-billed Tern 5 oynl ern (n) e cabot s Tern (n) ? .Common Tern (n) e e st Tern (n) 9 Blaok Ski er (n) 10 lorida Co o t ll.Brown Pelican 12 eric n erganeer 13 Creen eron l4.Cla er R 11 (n) 15 .Dow1tcher l6.Le s dp1 er 17 .Sem1 p t ed Sandpiper la.snnderl1 19 111et 20. nudeon1an curlew 2l.B1ao kb ell1ed Plover 22. Sem1palm ted Plover 23. 1laon' Plov r (n) er1c nn oyeterc tcher (n} 25. ourning Dove (n) 26. -erice.n Sp rrow Ln k 27 er1can oeprey 2 -b1 led Cuckoo (n) 29. Chtmney n itt 30.creste Flycatcher (n) 31. oad1an lyoutoher (n) 32. lieh crow n) 33 Redin Dl ckb1rd (n) 34 e dowlar (n) 35 ontt 11 Crackle (n) Sparrow (n) 3?.Song s rro (n) 38. Prn1r1 ar l r (n) 39.Flor1d Y lo throat (?) (n) o ookinc i r (n) 4l. c tbird (n) 42 .Brown Thrasher (n) 43.-Carolina r n (n)


1/ .. ,.,,. ?-0 PASS A' LOUTRE MUD LUMPS ---. Albert Matulich, Boothville, La. FREEM.AN S .!!Q.Q! Charles R. Beal, cJ..f. Box 25, Beals, Maine v MATINICUS ROCK Louis C. Choate, Matinicus Rock Station, ti 1 Maine OLD MAN'S LAND ---E B. Small, 121Bucks Harbor Ma ne /?.,._!,._,,.,'?: i'la lu-u. s6UTH EN;;o; GARDINER'S ISLAN'D M H. Edwards, Springs, L. :t., New York. .lr/ETI!V I C.. ME'i'HC ISLAND Woodbury M Snow, 0-fa L. In Go., -.I-.z ...fA-< f;1t d ft: Rockland, Maine. /: $100.00 v 35.00 20 .oo ./ 60.00 20.00 v' 20.00 II" zr. t:>O V' ?-.r'; 0 () /


LITTLE BEACH COLONY -2 -GENERAL WARDENS 1931 Samuel D. Box 145, C/o Coast Guard Station 120 Tuckerton, New Jersey. $50.00 CRANBERRY ISLAND Frank Banning, Noank, Conn. COBBS ISLAND G. W Cobb, Oyster, Va. _il-kd S HE LDON Ernest J. G reenwaly Richard 50.00 .3o. o o ./ 100.00 ,/ 50.00 a month .,(" for tour months >


&( WARDENS EtWLOYED BY THE ASSOCIATION ON THE MAINE COAST (1931) 50.00----Elisha G.Bunker--------Granberry Is. ? (Cranberry Is. ,Me.) Baker's Is. ? p Qulls--ll,OOQ uillemots--------100 4?etrels-----numerous #. :_) v(}t .Blue Herons----2 __ 60.00----.B.Small--------------Old Man (Bucks Harbor,Me.) Is.----=;gerring GuJJs----4,QOO -cr.Cormorants--1,000 iEiders--------------12 plus ..C.t .Blk-bk Gulls Double-Headed Shots--Gulls---5QOO 'tEiders Heron-----12 Gulls--1 '-tU. btd I ------------------------------------------------------------------(1ILwSnew1 RockGreen Is.-.wflerrjpg Gulls---2:)0Q plus JZ /1---.c.. /;c. Metinic Terns-----300 Hog Is.& $111s----509 ---------------------------------------------------------------------30.00----Geo.E.Cusbman---------Stratton Terns----1600 ( 3? Devonshire St. ----a few Me. ) Bluff Is pq Gpl 1 s---1 999


Maine Coast Wardens--Continued: \ 9!/' 35.00----Chas.R.Beal------------Freeman's Rock---Herring Gulls? ( Box 25,Beals,Me.) Note:Beal reported "9,100(Herring) in 1931 report. Norton and Allen thought that a would be ----------------------------------------------------------------------C.Choate---------------Matinicus Terns--1000 (Matinicus Rock Station, Mati;Q Me.) *Choate reported {1931): Terns---18,000 000 YPuffins-----------125


t, cinto h, Flori 1951 200 ,00 ------------------ICANOPY ROOICEl ... 11 ot cln o D Louisiana. RO'OOIt H. t1 kefield, Lo lexan or Sprunt, Jr., 2 South ttcry, c arl ston, s. c fl. L Odum., etcal e, eor 1 IVER 50.0 100.00 60.00 -----100.,00 loO .OO 100. 0 0 ------------


. .. 0 t I ,'-._ ..... J '1" \. ... .) 1 9'51 75 .00 D J i autort, North carolina. 50 .00 50 00 ) onth fo 1 to Sopt 550 00 ont h i' or 7 o n ths ber 1 to pril l) 175. 00 .:;;..;.;;..o.;;,;;;;;;;;,;;.;R;;.;;o.Y .!! SOU?H _l!LO!, L.A:


- n


.... I r j j i l 1


CARLL TUCKER 420 LEXINGTON AVENUE NEW YORK CITY 1 December 27th, 1938. Mr. John H. Baker, Executive Director, National Association of Audubon Societies, 1006 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. Dear John:-I em in receipt of your letter of December 22nd enclosing draft of "Sanctuary Visitors Policy". I agree with the general provisions outlined. I suggest that in the Fourth Paragraph, you insert the word "approximate" so that the sentence will read: "Visitors must have in their possession a numbered permit signed by the Sanctuary Director, previously obtained from New York, specifying the approximate time of the visit. * n I wonder if the local warden might safely be given some authority to issue permits. A member of the Association might not have any expectation of visiting a sanctuary but finding that one was in the neighborhood during his travels, he might like to inspect it. There might be considerable delay if he applied for a permit from the New York Office. This is only a suggestion on my part and I do not know whether it would be practical to grant some discretion to the wardens. {_ ou-dCT/R




i l 'AL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ZOOLOGY QUEEN'S PARK AT BLOOR STREET TORONTO, ONT. December 29, 1958 Mr. John H. Baker National Assn. of Audubon Societies, 1006 Fifth Avenue, New York N. Y. Dear Mr.. Baker: While I am not as familiar as I should like to be with the Audubon Society's sanctuary policy, I believe the plan outlined in your letter of December 22nd. including the sug gestion to issue official permits to sanctuary visitors, is a good one I am accordingly in favour of printing the permits and publishing the suggested article. Yours very truly, JRD/S


( .,.. 1 I I J SA CTIIJTARY VISITORS POLICY ------Visitors to other concentration areas guarded by Audubon wardens are welcome Such visitors will be expected to secure a permit from the New York office !Qr sanctuary to be visited. and this permit will be signed pP9S9R'bed 1 the warden in It is requested that all visitors agree to t e following rules before accepting a visitors' permit. 1. Approach to a nesting colony or other group of birds will be made at the discretion of the warden. Photographs will not be taken without the knowledg e and supervision of the '' 'arden. 2. The wardens will not be expected to deviate from routine p atrol routes in ta.king visitors over their regions. Visitors will pay all gasoline a.nd oil expenses and toll charges hen traveling in a warden's car or boat, and at all times will provide their own food. P.. Visitors may give a warden ..... remuneration for his services if they so desire, but the wardens will not expect such fee or tip. 'NATIONAL A &SOCtA TJON 0 AUz:>UBCJ N sac ( /:: r I G-..s 1 o o' ,:,'.{!f J., Ave. N i-w Yo-r/::., N Y. VISITOR;' S PERMIT NATIONAL SOCIATION OF AUDUBON SOCIETIES (signed) J, 'JA-\! C) f ::{ "'Pili9 gl,9pFJJ OP ]H'i P 4 v1s1 t II(],, bee:JE..: Wai den in clllH"ge ) e..'1 \l y ""J>\ u... "\61\.. NY,ff 7.,


I I I I Memorandum for Mr. December 16, 1938 Here are supgestions as to the wording on the back and front of the permits for visitors to sanctuaries and also sugp.;ested article for BIRD-LORE. I think it would be well if I got this policy passed on at an early meeting of the bxecuti ve Conmii ttee. I have left out all reference as to v a iation of re ulations and conduct at different types of sanctuaries. When e have settled on t e general principles -4-t will be referred to on the permit BIRD-LORE article. It rill the be up to vou to five specific instructions to eacri warden in charge as to the restrictions he is to enforce in the particular sanctuaries in his area.


() .. S ANCTUARY Vlt>ITORc >JQLICY It is the desire of the of Directors of the 1'4qtio n 1 Ass ciation o Audubon 0ocie ies to e-11C')1ira"e visits by members a n d friends to the s ane 1 q_rie"'-' throuPhout t h e countr b y the h S Sociqtion. 8 vi i n arie stio 1 s t m l a t ter a p p r eciation and ten d to iden _ubl c interest n preservatio n of w i l d ir'e deIT1 nstrtites h o rever, tha t it i s essentia l to establ i s n c rta in PP'1 l a t on s with r ePPrCl to t h e c onauct of vis itor"'-' in the vicin' t r of 11d if s q ct aries and it is eArnestlv re\ t q t m mbers ana frie. a s o f t h e Associ',tio n coooe ro.te 1holeheartea.l v th t h e conai tioris of the offici11.l p rm its to visit t h e s ane 1 2:ries, which m a v be btq'ned on 8 1 l i c a ti on from the &anct ci v irector a t 1006 ]'if t h .n venue, r ew York, N Y Persons w ill not be permitted to vj it the s nctuary area s less accomp nied by the v arden in cha r g e The arden in har e ill h ave full discretion as to the tiT1ing of visits 1 =md the conduct of visitors in t h e irnrnedi e vicinity o the s a nct111-1 i s Vis i tors must a numbered pel"illit, s mPd bv t h e anctu-:i Di cto previously obtr-iined fro, York s pecifyinf" the.ti1.:i.e o f ti1e visit. 'l'his )E'l" it mill be s rrendered to the warden in chi:ir g e a t t h e tim e of t n e v sit. Wardens will b inst 11cted not to conduct to the s ctuari s persons "ho ar not provided vri. t spec A.l perm ts, even t rou.-zh the 'may be members of the Visitors shall not ask the t o dig r s s from the reg lar route of his patrol. Visitors \vill be expected to re fun the vrarden for the cost of gasoline and oil used in tre. sport tion. -No tipA shall be offered to the wardens. Should visitors feel th t t hey w i.. h to contribute more the.n ius t the cos t of' ana oil, contributions to the S on ctua r y Fund eent direct to 1 006 ifth Avenue Ne w York, N Y will be de ply a p p r 6 iated. o h'lnciin,i;:of bi d s and no takinp: o f uictu es in the sanctua ies will be permitted T li t>10ut s pecia l authori 7atio n Fullest in t t e observatio n of t h e 8 e revulations, v1hich experience hs roved n Pcess r ir tl e bA c.t i t0 e s t s o f the wildlife in t h e a n itto be t n first con id rei.tion, will be de ply aunrecieteu.


National Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals 1775 Broadway, New York, N. Y --............:


I J I UNIVICllITY a,. WtcaNIN COLLEGE CF' AGRICULTURE MADlDN, WlCDNIN DCPARTMIENT DP" AEIRICULTURAL. l::CONOMIC 424 University Farm Place January 3, 1939 Division of Wildlife Management Mr. John H Baker National Association of Audubon Societies 1006 Fifth Avenue New York, N. Y. Dear Mr. Baker: I approve of the Sanctuary Visitors Policy attached to your letter of December 22 Sincerely yours, ') Aldo Leopold Professor of Wildlife Management


KERR LINE EXPRESS SERVICES NEW YORK-PACIFIC COAST-FAR EAST PACI FIC COAST-PHILIPPINES -JAVA-STRAITS-INOIA PACIFIC COAST TE XAS -NEW ORLEANS-SOUTH AFRICA INOIA December 29, 1938. Mr. John H. Baker, National Association of Audubon Societies, 1006 Fifth Avenue, New York., N. Y. Dear John: I entirely approve the "Sanotuary Visitors as set forth in your draft;. I am looking forward to seeing you out here. Sincerely yours, KR:EC


/ )' .--....... National' Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals 1006 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y.


CTUA.RY VISI1 RS POLICY tt 1 the des1re of the E rd of Dir ctore of the at1onal Aseoc1at1on of :ud.ubon Soc 1et1e s to encou rag vi its by member and friend to the s notuari ma1nt 1n d throu hout the country by the s oc1 t1on. Such visit unquestionably stimulate greater pprec1at1on and tend to wid n public interest in the preserv tion of wildlife. Exper1enc demonstrates. however th t it i essent1 l to stablish oe?'ta1n regul t1 one w1. th regard to th conduct or visitors in the immediate vicinity of wildlife sanctu r1e and it 1s e rnestly requested that members n friends of the Association coo erate wholeheartedly 1th th condition ot the offioi 1 permits to vi it the sanctuaries, which may be obtained on ap lie tlon from the Sanctuary Dir ctor 1006 ifth Avenue, e York, .Y. Person 111 not be pe 1tted to visit the sanctuary rea unless coo pan1ed by th warden 1n charge. The warden in charg will have full 41soret1on as to the timing ot v1 1t and th9 conduct of vl 1tor 1n the 1mmed1 te Vicinity ot th s notu r1e Visitors mu t have 1n their possession numbered pennit igned by the S notu ry Director, prev1ously obt 1n d fro Ne Yor specifying the t1m of the vi it. his permit 111 b urrendered to the srden in charge at th time of the vi e1 t. r ens a111 b instructed not to oonduot to th e nctu r1 person who re not nrov1ded with pecial permits. even though th y y be embers of t A ool tion. Visitors sh ll not ask the warden to digress fro the regular route of his p trol. V1 1 tors will be expected to refun the wa.rden for the co st of g soline nd oil used 1n transportation. No t 1p shall be offered to the w rdens. Should th visitors feel t t they wish to contribute mor th n Just the cost of gasolin nd oil, contributions to the Sanctu ry Fund sent direct to 1006 Fifth Avenue, Ne York H .Y. will be deeply appreciated. No banding of birds and no t ing of pictures 1n the anctuarie will b permitted w1thou s cial authorization. Fullest cooperation 1n the obeerv tion of these reason ble regulation wh1oh experience s prove nece sary 1f the best int r et of the wildlife in the anctuaries 1 to be the fir t con 1der tion, will b de ply ppreciated.


l Sept embe r 1 1938 <\ ... UE?.:ORANDUH TO: I R Eli.KER FRO!..: U R ALLEN SANCTUA.'t\Y VISITORS POLICY The increased number of visitors t o many of ur Sanctuaries makes it more or less imper ntive tha t we establish a definite visitors polic The followine suggestions are made after discussion o f this subject with and r r Sprunt. In general, we .ant the public a d especially members of the Association, to see at first hand the wor k that are doing in our various sanctuary projects. In other words, e realize that there is publicity value in visits to our Sanctuaries by menbe r s and others, some of whom may be potential contributors to the Sanctua r y Fund Ho ever, it is also apparent thc"..t unless such visitors are "managed11, so t o s peak, they may cause dru:iage to the bird life in sanctuary areas, especially amonG colonial nesting birds during the breedin season. A sanctuary visit rs policy should consider these points. It should also consider the various types of sanctuary areas. For example, soo e HerQn colonies are on islands, some are not; in s me colonies the birds over ater, i n others over dry land. Conditions in a colony of Terns nesting on a rocky ledbe on the northeast coast are quite different from conditions in a c0lony of Royal Terns on a shell island in t h e south. It is probable that a vorkable visitors policy must have categories, covering conditions in the different types of aren s administere d by the Association. The follo ing break-down Nill aid in checking over the policy that follo s in order to determine whether or not eac type of area has b een iven c ns1derat1on. Types o f Sanctuary Areas 1 Seabird Colonies. a Seabird colonies, alne to Connecticut (rocky ledces, islands vith rock or pebble beaches). b Se .bird colonies, Long Island t o Florida and the Gulf states (sand and shell beaches, sand bars, shell islands, spoil banks, marshes and mnrsh islands). 2 Heronrie s (inc uding Ibises, Spoonbills) a.. Insul r c olonies (nests over "rater (nests over or on dry land b Mainland colonies (nests ov e r (nests over or on dry land c Threatened species ( Spo nbill, E stern G ossy Ibis, Great ih1te Heron, etc. )


Sec. 1 Sec. 2 Sec 3 Sec 4 Sec 5 2 3, Roosevelt Sanctuary 4, Witmer Stone Sanctuary 5, Kissimmee Prairie and Brownsvi"lle Region 6 Rniney Sanctuary ? Other Snnctuar1es 1here Special Regulationn are necessary (Green Island, V1ngt1un Islands, Buzzard Island, etc.) PROPOSED SANCTUARY VISITORS POLICY The staff will encourage members of the Associ0t1on and interested individuals : 'ho may wish to become members or otherwise sup port our activities, to visit sanctuary projects currently administered by the Prospective visitors ill apply to the Ne 'i Yor .. of fie vhere the -'111 be v, 1th the essential provisions of our visitors policy, given a visitors' card on which a. dir,est of these regulations are printed, and will then print name and permanent address in the space provided on the card, and such card to the -.e.rden in at each area visited. Signing the card will colilLlit the to the rrnv1s1ons of t1e visitors At rer;ula r interVPls the 1ur<.i..en 1111 nail these cards to the New York office. Visitors to bird colonies and ildlife areas L"tlo.ra.ed by Audubon ia!': bns .1111 respect the advice and sucgestions of such larJ.ens ree; ard1ng tirne of vi s1 t, limit of a >proaeh to nests, duration of v1si t and general conduct in the vicinity of the bird colony. Visits to an Audubon S nctuary area will n t be made except in the co npany of an authorized Audubon W rden. (Seabird Colonies) Visitor s to c o onies o f Terns, Gulls Petrels, Cormorants, Sk1Mmers and similar species uprded by the Aasoc1 tion, 111 under no circumst nces among the nests, or young birds. 11'hen possible, visitors will view such colonies fr m a boat s t or>ped or anchored close to the nesting area, or, in the discretion of the 'ard.en, and hen locnl circunstnces permit, v111 remain on the fringe of the area. Visitors Yill not remain close to the nesting area for a protracted period so as to cause the loss of er11s or young from heat, cold or dQstruction by other aniaals. (Heronries, includi ng Ibises, Egr e t s Spoonbills, etc.) Visitors to coloni s occupied by Herons, Egrets, I151Ses, Spoonbills and sinilP r species will refrain froo alking directly beneath or amo n e concentrated g r011ps of nests. Whenever the locRle per its, visit rs will vie colonies


Sec. 6 Sec ? Sec. 8 Sec. 9 3 -r roosts rorn a boat and under no circumstances will land close to sue colon es or roosts en a reason ble in nection can be made from the.boat. Visitors are cautioned to avoid visits to nesting sites hen nest-building or eg lnyinr, is under iay, and the arden's advice on this point must be respected. Visitors will not be permitted to approach the nestine or ro sting places of Ros eate Spoonbills or to 6alce a Jnnding on islands or keys 1here this species is present. Sp onb1lls raust be observed from a reasonable dist ce. Landings are not permitted on Bottlepoint Key, Observation Shoal (Redlight Reef) or tt.mes Bay Island except in an emergency, and then only hen supervised by the arden in charge. Special privileges should n t be requested and cannot be g r anted. Visitors to the Roosevelt Sanctuary a t Oyster Bay N Y oay not enter the Sanctuary proper unless permitted to do so, or accompanied, by the superintendent. Visitors will remain on the paths and \7111 not disturb flo :rers, r'a bs, trees, vines or birds' nests. / Visitors to the i11 tr:ier Stone Wildlife Sn.nctuar at C e ay Point' .J., will be adfiscd Of t" e limits of the s ctuary by the Warden in char e, and will be requested to star within those limits ns ouch as possible. Kissimr:iee Prairie (Fla. ) r ownsvil e Regi n ex.) urisitors ho apply to the Association for a guide th u;Jh ur V den Patrol on these areas have a choice ')f two types of service: (a) arrangements '111 be!.e for ting the den L:. e and obt 1n1nG from hln t e latest advice on location of outstanding species and concentrntion in ic1 case the visitor iill r.inke the tour unaccompanied or, b) warden ill take visitors w1 th him on routine p trols in ich case the visitor will be expected to pay gasoline nd oil expenses and other expenses auc1 as menls, repairs, tolls, etc. It ;111 also be understood that the la.rd.en may not deviate fror.i his routine patrol. Visitors may ive tie arden a re son ble fee for his personal services if t1ey so desire. Sec. 10 Visitors to the Rainey Sanctuary, Vermilion Parish, La must purchase food in Abbeville before board na t e Ass elation's boat a t Intra Co. st 1 City. Unless they desire to hire a cook at two dollars ( (2. 00) per day, visitors .ill be expected to do their o n cookin No chnr e is n for boat service or 11 v1ng quarters, but boat trips to various ,arts f the Sanctuary must be ma e on routine patrols by the superintendent or his assistant, unless the visitor makes special arrangements 'th the superintendent and urees to pay fA.soline nnd oil expenses. Visitors cannot be taken care of for extended periods. Sec 11. Visitors to Green Island Bird Sanctu ry, CP.oeron County Texas cannot be accomnOdnted They ill be expecteJ to reimburse the en in char e t the tine f their visit for gasoline an oil used by h1ril1n:-!errying-them fr m


4 1 t HoJsehead Island to Green Island. Green Island visitors oust not along the paths during the heat of the day and under no circumstances use the paths "Ji thout the :la rd.en s approval or leave the paths ln order to inspec t nests, etc. Visitors to the V1ns t un Island s State Bird sanctuary, Chambers County,,exas, must apply to Joseph li Helser, Jr. (Houston Outdoor Nature Club) for a special permit in order to visit this area. The Buzzard Island Sanctuary, C "rleston County, s c n y be observed: from the 1larden' s boa t and landinss m de 11t h t h e larden if condl tions permit. V1s1 tors sho1lld cor.lnunionte wi t h the a. en by telephone from Charleston to learn :.rhen tides and other circumstf\ncee b e favorable, Sec. 1 2 Special perr:i1ssion oust be obtained f rom the NeM York office to take p h to0raphs o r band birds in Audubon Sanctuary a reas. Approval, if ranted, ,ill be stamped n the visitor's peroit c a.rd The Wflrden in cha rge may request visitors to leave if in his J udgenent they are, by their conduct1 d oa.ging or exposin to dro;ir e or othor 1ld life. R P A


o wJ.ll e \ .. a orlt tt lfl3 ot in l ft! t no!k":lz.atl on bla 1r the b t the ti.e 1 ..


f ; POLICY WITH R EGARD TO V ISITORS TO t AUDUBON SANCTUARIES Visitors are welcome at the san ctua.rie s of the Nati on al A s socia ti on of Audubon S ocieties provided that s pecifid written permits to visit each wanctuary at a given be obtained from the As so cia t ion. s headquarter s at 1006 Fifth Avenue, N e w Y or;;: City, and tha t the sa.nctuary b e subsequently visited in the cojpany of the Associa tion' s W arden. The Associa t ion does not like to restrict visitors to its sanctuaries, but has l e a rned from experience tha t insistence u pon certain reasonable rule s and regulations is abeolutely n eces sary to a.void unintended disturbance tJf the birds. Visit ors may join wa. rdens on routine patrols provided t h a t(l)they do not ask the warden to alter his route and ( 2) pl'''v:l:uw that when t r ave 11 n g vi; i t h a warden the visitor pay for all gasoline and oil purchased. Visitors will a lso be expecte d to provide eheir own food. A h omina l fee m a y be given to t h e wara.en if t h e vi si t o r desire s


I .. POLICY WITH REGARD TO VISITORS TO AUDUBON SANCTUARIES Vi 1 tors l"' we l oom a t the sanctuarie s or t h e National As oc1atio n of Audubon Soc 1 et1 s provided that specific wrl.tten permit to v1e1t e ch anctuary at a given time be obtained from th Ae oc1 t1on s beadq u rter at 1006 Fifth Avenue, New York City, and. that th anotu r be ubsequently v1 1te in th ny of the ssoc1at1onr ard n The As ocia.t ion d oes not 11k to restrict visitors to its sanctuaries) but has learned from experi ce that in 1stenc upon c rtain reasonabl rules and regulation is necessary to void unintended disturbance of th birds.


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National Association o f A d b u u on Societies t For the Protection of Wild Birds and A mmals Founded 1901Incorporated 1905 t T fILBERT PEARSON, LL.D Presiden t THEODORE S PALMER M D 1 s t V ice-Pr es FRANK R OASTLER M D 2 n d Vice Pre s Hom e Office 1775 BROADWAY N e w York N Y WILLIAM P WHARTON. Secr e tary ROBERT CUSHMAN MURPHY. D .Sc. T reas u re r SAMUEL T. CARTER. Jr .. Attorney ACTIVITIES LEGISLATIVE ROOSEVELT BIRD SANCTUARY D / EtJGENE SWOPE in charge Active in State and Feder al legislation for Wild Bird and Animal Protection. SAN CTU ARY Owns and maintains various bird sanctuaries and game refuges. LECTURE Audubon lecturers address thousands of audiences annually. CHILDREN S EDUCATIONAL Organizes annually over 350 000 children into bird study clubs. PUBLICATION Bird pictures leaflets, bul letins and magazine, Bird Lore COOPERATION Cooperates with Federal State and / / Oyster Bay, N. Y. /2z4o Society officials. ... ::::";.::: fl,t4

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PAGE TWO-B 1\fary Pickford To Pictures B:r LOUELLA O. Special Dispatch T1 HOLLYWOOD, March 27. -N return to the screen in a biography of the Christian Science faith and With Key To the Scriptures," is tb to this desk in months. My inform the Christian Science Church, who idea of our Mary in such a pictureO since it is well known "America's ( sweetheart" is herself deeply inter ested in Christian Science. Plans for production are much farther along than anyone realizes though, naturally, the whole pro.i ect depends upon the official ap proval of the Christian Science I Church to both the screening of Mrs. Baker's life and Mary's por traying the role. Personally, I be lieve Mary woulcj be excellent and that it is an ideal vehicle for her return to her acting career. More o ver, such a movie should make plenty of money. Hollywood Snapshots Snapshots of Hollywood collected at random: Ross Clark, Barbara Freitchie's estranged groom, con soling himself with Jane Truex at a night spot; Mary Brian and Regi nald Gardiner having themselves some fun at another spot; the Gay ety waxed fast and furious when Ella Logan in one party and Cary Grant in another sang Scotch duets; Melvyn Douglas, now a member of the state relief board, if you please, in Sacramento on official business; Billy Selwyn and Ona Munson a happy pair of night clubbers; George Brent getting plenty of femme interest at a tavern; Eddie Judson and Rita Hayworth carried off a rumba prize at a cafe; The three stooges sail June 21 for a six: weeks of personal appearances in London and Dublin. They were a riot on their recent tour; the fourth Lane sister, Leota, opens in New York in a stage play and the mother 1 of this s uccessful sister group is heading East for the premiere; Jane Bryan has obtained permission from her studio to take two months off for stock work in Milford, Conn.; Patsy Kelly and Nils Dagge, a wealthy Danish socialite, at the Club Bali; where is that St. Pat rick's day marriage of Patsy and Tom Riley, or were they spoofing? Eddie Stevenson and Gertrude Michael, who haye always been that way, cafying with Bruz Fletcher; Constance Collier, a flu victim, is trying to recuperate; Sol Lesser and his bride, heading for the B Bar H ranch to celebrate their twenty sixth wedding anniversary. RADIO PJ Recommended In 7:30 P. M.-WQAM-Eddie Cantor, 8:00 P. M.-WQAM-Cavalcade of J 8:30 P. M .-WIOD-Richard Crook'.s 9 : 00 P. M .-WQAM-Spencer Tracy WIOD-Hour of Charm, 9:30 P M .-WIOD-Eddie Duchin, l 10:00 P Lombard< 10:30 P M.-WQAM-Columbia Worl The following program schedule radio stations, which are responsible lngs. lllarc,h. Z7 566-WQAM 8 :45 7 :00 7 :15 7 :30 7 :45 7 :5 5 8 :00 8 :05 8 :15 8 :3 0 8:t5 News Flashes Checkerboard Time WQAM Trio Sh,\ne News Flaahes Mountain Music Bob Byron (CBS) Betty and Bob Hymns G!fmans Dally Chuckle Favorite Waltz News Flashes 610The Early Bit News Fluhes MOTn,l,nir Devo Gene and Ole Swlnir Serena, Hometown Al News Flashes Cl H 9:00 9 : 05 9:15 9:20 11:25 9:30 9:45 10 :00 10 :0 5 10:15 10:20 10:25 10 :3 0 10:45 10:50


BLAZE FIGHT MAPPED Wardens and Legis lators Discus s Plans; Fires Burn In 2 Counties Sta t e fire w ardens and legislators met with a group of 50 farmers Thursday at Davie to consider methods of fighting Everglades fires a s destructive fires burned in Brow ard county and over 15 0 acres of Da d e county muck land. William Stafford, warden of the Everglades Fire Control district, comprising more than four and a half million acres, to l d the group he could keep the firs e under con trol if the state l egislature will in c rease his annual appropriation from $38, 500 to $55,00 0 for the next two years. The increased funds, he explained, would allow ihm to employ extra men to patrol the Everglades. He suggested requirement of pass es for persons entering the Everglades and the outlawing of alligator hun ting. Favors County Contro l Senat o r Ernest R. Graham of Dade county told the group he fa vored the return of fire control t o the counties and said smoke w o u l d continue until the spring rains. H. M. Forman, chairman of the Everglades drainage district, sug gested w ater c ontrol through a series o f lock s in Everglades canals as the only means o f fighting the fires. Stocks, de puty state fire warde n said that of four separate fires in Dade county, only o n e was cau s ing him any uneasiness the one jump ing the county line a n d firebreaks from Broward county. With H E. Overstreet, Dade county representative, h e made a survey from a coa s t guard airplane. Bisca y n e Cana l I s Hope "The Biscayne canal, two miles a w a y from the fire, is our strong hold there, Stocks sa,id, expressing belief the waterway would halt the on rush of the flames if nothin g e lse did S t ocks said the dam across the Tamiami canal 12. miles o u t from Miami had afforded great protection from fire to a cons iderabl e area in its vicinity by causing an 1 8-inch water level. South of the Tamiami Trail a fi r e was moving in the general directio n of the Ten Thousand is lands, away from habitation. The w arden s a i d this fire caus ed no a larm. Hampe r s Air Traffic Heavy early-morning smoke h i n der e d air traffic into a n d out o f Miami. A southbound Eastern Air Lines' New York ship wa held two ho urs on Mor r i son field West Palm Beach until the smoke had cleared from there south. It arrived here at 8:10 a. m Pan American Airway s hel d a Havana-bound clipper up a pproxi mately 30 minutes until a mist smoke had lifted at Dinner key. R egular service was resumed by all air liners, in and out, by 8 a. m.


By ELLIS HOLLUMS l:secatlYe l:dltor of Tbo Beral4 WHILE we are all sneezing and wheezing from the smoke in the Everglades and cussing out Governor Cone about it, as though he ought personally to don a fireman's hat and dash down here and put out the blaze, it might be well to give thought to how we can. go about preventing these fires. Fact is, the governor and his cabinet have been as much con cerned about them as are we who have to live through them. They do not suffer the physical effects of the smoke, but hundreds of telegrams, letters and telephoneO calls have beleagured them in the capital, demanding action that should have been taken by the le g -islature rather than the governor two years ago. A session ls upon us and it behooves representatives in the 11 counties affected to present a plan for prevention of such fires that we can reasonably hope will work. The cost of such a plan would be infinitesimal compared with the millions of dollars of loss to privately and publicly owned land in the 'glades. I don't pretend to know what it would take, but there must be some way of getting at the source of the trouble and there ought to be some sort of an expert on it somewhere. Attorney General George Couper Gibbs has been working seriously on the matter, in spite of having re marked jocularly when approached with the problem: "I'm willing to be a polic ema111 (referring to gambling edict), but I don t know anything about being a fireman He has sent representatives into the area, and has studied every bit of information he can find on the subject of 'glades fires. H e plans to make a personal inspection as soon as he can get away from Tallahassee. In the meantime, every able-bodied prisoner at the Belle Glade farm has been sent out to help, and every piece of machin ery that could be used has been sent with them.


6,a98 Becomes First To Qual ify For City Elections During Ma MIAMI VOTERS these days a miss i oner candidates and he it with a smile. The signature T. Lundstrom's petition; Ralp with Sid Palmer's petition, ar. TAX IMMUNITY rn WIPED OUT Decision Means Levy On Salaries Office Holders BY THE ASSOCIATED l'RF.11!1


a1.. 0.111 .......... ..... ,. r night. SCHOOLS WILL GET a RACE TRACK FUNDS b oi Be cl l ; All of Monroe's Share To t -D 1 iverted Under Papy l 111 a.)': i( of h1 tr it KEY WEST, Fla., March 29.; All of Monroe county's race track P ;: money will be diverted to the ; Monroe county board of education I. for general school purposes under S ll terms of a bill to be introduced at t r the coming session of the legisllature by B. C. Papy, state repre o sentative. n The race track money, which aggregates about $25,000 a year, is [. now received by the county com missioners and allocated to various lt county funds. The school board has not shared in the di stribution. Papy also wi11 apply for passage of a local bill which would make s it unlawful to capture, kill or inr jure any deer within Monroe coun t y An exception is made that species might be taken for propat gation or scientific purposes. Papy said that if the wholesale slaughter of the deer is allowed to ., continue, in a few years they will f be extinct. d r0


41--84. 4 1 -5. -85. 1-87. 17. 7. :-87. I. 46-42 -88. o 1 0. 1. :-92. ; 96. -97. 9'L SHIRA H PRESIDENT AND MEDALIST-J i at the Mi,ami Biltmo r e Count r y ida State Amateur Golf char of the association for the last 1 Pahol{ee Edges Flying L's, 6-4 Bor den Twirls Fi v e-Hit Game As Team Whips Blue Devils FORT LAUD ERD A LE, Fla., March 29.-Pahokee High's base ballers defeated Fort Lauderdale, 6-4, in a hectic game here Wednes day Getting away to an early Jead, the visiting Blue Devils piled up a t h.ree-run lead, on!L!_o b _low UJ? in


L'LrMINATION of fire in the Ever .l'.J glades should be of interest to the national Audubon societies and to national conservation organiza tions. The nres are destructive of homes of many thousands of North ern' birds that come down here to 1 spend the winter, and in that se n se I the national societies should be in terested in solving the problem. Byron B. Freeland, one o f our most public-spirited citizens, is o f the opinion that the national g o v ernment should take some interest,! l too, in preserving one of the great est natural r esources of the country He points out that reclamation proj ects and irrigation projects of all kinds are going forward in Western states, while apparently no one has called attention to the needs of the 'Everglades. From a national stand poiljlt, the Everglades are potential 1 the sugar bowl of the United i ates, as well as ltolding possibili ties of producing enough winter iVegetables to feed the nation. Only way to really keep out fire, Mr. Freeland believes, is water con cleaning out canals to allow a free flow of water, putting in locks o control that flow, and maintain oroper water levels MAr; z T


of prosperity at e1ecLwu ------1 alter it. The slight preference for Republicans at this time does not even indicate that they can win. But the fact that about half of the voters today say they would like to see the G. 0. P. win, whereas less than 40 per cent voted Republican in 1936, is one indication that the Republican party symbol is once more regaining some of its popular appeal. Many Undecided The first question in the survey asked a cross-section of voters in all parties: "Which party would you like to see win the presidential election in 1940?" The vote of those with opinions was: Would Like Republicans to Win 51% Would Like Democrats to Win 49% The study found that approximately one voter in every five (18 per cent) had not yet made up his mind which party he wanted to see win. Since most of the undecided graup vot)'!d11for Roosevelt in 1936 +hpir future decision will havf> ;rn


Keep Battling, Mr. Leffler MORE power to President Leffler of the chamber of commerce in his forthioight demand on Governor Cone to make men and money im mediately available to fight ruinous Everglades muckland fires. 1 Mr. Leffler speaks for every citizen who is horrified to see a stupendous agricultural asset of. the commonwealth wantonly abandoned to destruction because legislators are indifferent to what happens to the state's resources so long as their own interests or those of th-eir !riends are not directly affected .. He spraks, too, for all re s idents and visitors 'of this progressive area of Florida whose throats and lungs have been assai.led and irritated by the pallid clouds of acrid smoke that descend upon them nightly and from which there is no escaping within doors or ouL The chamber of commerce president will find Broward and Palm Beach counties ready to back him in any movement aimed at remedying a condition that has been a sin and a shame in Florida for more than 15 years. But hopes of immediate help should not run too high. With the exception of Governor Sholtz the executive office has not been sympa thetic in recent years to protecting the Ever glades against disastrous fires. It was Sholtz who brought about the first appropriation which created the Everglades Fire Control District, setting up an allotment of $50,. 000 for salaries and equipment. The last legislature raised it to $77,000, which is still patently 1 nadequate for the purpose. The fire now raging in Broward county em phasizes how meager is the equipment of the district. The additional $27,000 was supposed to be used in greater part for more fighting units -pumps, trucks, discs, plows and hose. Instead, Mr. Cone appointed three additional fire ward ens at a salary of $150 a month which took care of $10,800 that should have g,.one into needed equipment. Under Mr. Cone the district has ac quired one tractor and a second-hand truck. Cone political appointments have kept Everglades firefighting equipment in shortened 1tate, Mr. Leffler. But don't be discouraged. If you don't hear favorably from Governor Cone, carry the battle right into the legislature. Many a legislator will be eager to help if the counties enriched With Everglades muck will stand up and demand that their representatives make adequate provision to preserve this great natural from utter destruction.


Dam on Runyon \ Says 'Glades Varmints May S car e Him Out of Chance To Get R i c h MA YEE om: ideas of scenic loveliness are a little nut t y but we have alway s thought that dark ly brooding section of south Florida known as the Everglades a positively beautiful landscape. You take it along toward nightfall when the ning shadows are clo sing in, and the white hero n and othe r wild fowl are winging their way out of the dusk as noiselessly as so many great bats and the onl y sound you can hear is the wind, and it really is impressive to the eye and ear. The only things we never could stand about the Everglades are the little snakesies, such as mocca sins and rattlers, and the mosquitoes. The alligators are all right with us. They never get fresh with any bod y who does not try to wrestle them or make them into shoes pocketbooks and suit cases. We will giv e you the panthers and the wildcats, but at least they k eep out of sight and try to mind their own busi n ess The mocca sins and the rattlers and the mosqui toes are another matter. In the Everglades, they are a ll over the joint, as the saying 'is, though we are pleased to report that the belt and hatband in dustry is gradually thinning out the snakes. If a method is ever discovered to skin a mosquito and u t ilize the hide for something useful or even just fa s hio n able, the Everglades may be a swell place to have a bungalow. Well, what we are getting at is that it l o oks a s if we may have to let those varmints in the Ever glades scare us out of the opport1J,nity o f becoming rich. They may strike oil any day Row in the 'Glades and if they do we will be one sore butcher, as t h e saying is. We can remember when we could have had practically all the 'Glades for the price of an old wool hat if we could have guaranteed to pack up the region and take it out of Flo rida. Now much of the section in which oil is sus pect is in the hands of the big oil companies. For i nstance, Robert Bruce Campbell, of Peninsula O il and Refining Company, said to J:ie a subsidiary o f Humble, which in turn is said to be an a ffiliate of S tandard Oil of New Jersey, has about 700,000 acres two and a half miles south of the Tamiaml Trail at a plac e called Pine Crest townsite, which is 44 miles wi: s t of Miami, and there a test well is now 1 b eing driven, with Editor Hollums, of The Miami has ready a lot of that old-fashioned wood type higher n than a cat's back with which t o disfigure the grace E ful front page of The Herald when and if they tap a that basin of oil that experts think may lie deep 11 under the muck of the 'Glades. The last we heard r the Pine Crest well was down 3,200 feet and the drillers had neatly overcome a cavity oi: 18 feet with cottonse ed hulls and hay which enabled them to rr keep going Loffland Brothers, of Tulsa, Okla., are doing the 'drillin g and it costs $15,000 per month to operate t the rig, and as the job has been going on for s ome jmonths you can see that somebody with a fairto middling bank roll is behind it. Pine Crest townsite was a Florida boom -time development. ,It is in Monroe county, of which the county seat is Key West. The Tamiami Trail is the great highway that rolls through the Everglades from Miami to Tampa. Some 38 miles to the west ward of Miami and a few hundred yards off the Trail, Gaston Drake, a Miami lumber man, went hunting for oil years oack but los t his t ool s and had to quit. This is said to have been the first venture of the kind in the dark and dreary 'Glad e s though there was a hole sunk at Kendall, 15 m ile s south of Miami, but not in the 'Glades, which was aban doned at 4,500 feet. Some oil was found at Brewton in the middle of the state years ago, but not enough to make it worth while, and there is a well at Cedar Key s that is down to 4,800 feet and has so far failed to show oil. Howe ver, it is said that in the 'Glades proper, investigatory charts have disclosed that the ground i s such that oil may be found there. Remember that may The Sun Oil Company of Philadelphia is said to be running a survey and the Gulf Oil Company has le as ed 1 200,000 acres from Barron G. Collier in Collier county that was named for him. Collier is a famous advertising man who conceived the idea of a sort of Monte Carlo in Florida and in 1923 got the legi slature to piece together bits of other coun ties into the new Collier county. The Monte Car l o scheme never jelled and Col lier had a lot of land left on his hands and proba bly stm has. A million acres in the 'Glades is a mere garden patch. The state of Florida owns a raft o f i t and has stopped leasing it for a while, awaiting developments. Fifteen years ago, William G. Blan chard, a geologist, argued there might be oil in the 'Glades and tried to g e t the legislature of that time t o protect the state' s rights, but they just said, What! Oil in the 'Glades? Har! Har! Har! It may be there. Oil is where you find it.


1 \ \J h 1, 0 i re ores Ln l .. c iveu o :.i"" ti b t I I .inl' 0 ny na. you; You will fin t. you n ood portion o your n Pru:rie. Frot i a i er th Cr 1 n o .. oo t ne r o .. n ell to the ai r iri e there ill b n .. uch of intere .. :t. be su. to o h ... a ine t i l o un o L. a look t the old lo { ear D, n r a wt.era C r o l i n u 'ro u ts once bund nt nu e Oh1n'-' er h i s f re or:ibers s i n t h m If yo'u h' ad Tavern ier, h m e .. raen lau de o 'e ey W e t you stoulu stop t nf'.'eme nts ai e.1 of ti.ue, to meet th t p l o Lc;"e 1 s


\ /' r ; I 1 : I I 1 I r yo u of ne.., unu. ct n i. 0 I hO) ple11sure i pi:.: D th 11 S"'t i 'J ( u fl r from '"is .. eJanu .. ry 24, 1939 nt bpoonbill ooloqy 1 of t t i n roun th A.Y.., in o ., i be n office n. "'i u v .n nj yo' L. trip it ill b you on o et.i. &incer J..../ yo\,1rs1 iotr;t"t P !.llen d nc u r y D irector ..,


33 St. Pul' s Pl. Mt. Vernon, N. Y May l'.) 1939 Mr. Robert P Allen, C"c.nctuary Dir ctor N tion 1 As o" 'udub on Soci t i-;e 1))6 jjift'1. .\v nue Y o r k ity, H. Y. D :u Mr Al 1 n I n r e 91 y t o your 1 e t t e r o f M.._ y 1 m y husb n I enjoyed our trip in t h e :r.: .. _ira'e Pr irie country, I wis-'.1 to refer you t o my 'lS l e tter vhich you n A tnil 19. e were un-.ble to use t we h'd to your s .. nctuary ...._s we received no r to t h letter we w?ote W rd a _,110.ndler at! iri..r him when h could meet u .... We stopped at the Southl.,., nd Hote l nd m;;tde inquiries an were told th t m ny p ogle na passe e to tn s nc tuary but h d been un le t ,C.Q..Otct t _1e Wu,rden you M y in y ur ett r, the is very large nd Wkrden to8co0e with th lio1.r3 nu.n i b r of visitors11 I think tht vb. i c a m n ti on e d in y o r ore vi o us 1 e t t:, e r would care of the s i tuc; .ci on and would b d by the many et. idents that


to for bird study. A e f o r my own experience, I did not ;...tternpt trip in Kissirrm1ee region b i n g without a whi c h w e t needed A n Audubon guide miJht wJll fill need and add to the ..,,re:,;i,t w ork t : 'le Society is doing A this rvice would o r obably be c heerfully paid and add to need.ed c onservciti on funds. Sincerely your.;,


lfollyrood Farm Lexington, 1\.y s-/.!.for


lfollyrood Farm Lexington, '"Ky. u. t-A-e... c. & ..... : ,,L tu.. L ,,,,: 1 TL T. ( :J LM.-'a'-11'r'(f 4-o ,;l ,_ ,,_r I / 3 o f -, !) 7 4lj c.-:., a.-o-,,.._,(._ a;.,_;. L-,,._a-h,,._, .... ,,_:c, F 1r 4 "" ;:::c_ 'F-I .-


ERWIN O FREUND 6733 WEST SIXTYFIFTH STREET CHICAGO Phon e P ol'ts m oum 8 2 0 0 May 2, 1939 Mr. Robert P. Allen, Santuary National Association of Audubon Societies 1006 Fifth Avenue New York, New York Dear Mr. Allen: Replying to your letter of April 29 in egard to visiting the sanctuaries in lorida, I am sorry to have to advise you that I did not use the permit which you so kindly sent to me and my party. I contacted the warden, but was informed by him that his boat had broken down and he had not been able to discover what was the matter with it. Under the circumstances I did not feel that we should impose ourselves on him and we, therefore, postponed our visit until next year. n Sincerely yours, EOF LC


I f GUY M PETERS ARTHUR DIXON WILLIAM BURRY, JR. JAMES E ELWORTH JOHN C TRUSSELL DAVID B STERN, JR. BURRY JOHNSTONE, PETERS & DIXON LAW O F F ICES 105 SOUTH L ASALLE STREET, C HICAGO 0.BLE" ALJORESS: li'UNBUR-CHtCAGO TELEPHONE RANOOLPM OIOJ BRUCE JOHNSTONE COUNSEL RUNNELLS & BURRY 1688-1908 RUNNELLS. BURRY & JOHNSTONE 19081913 BURRY, JOHNSTONE & PETERS 1913 -1928 May 3, 1939 Mr. Robert P. Allen National Association of Audubon Societies 1006 Fifth Avenue New York, N Y Dear Mr. Allen: I have your letter of May 1. While I appreciated very much your sending me the permit to visit various of the sanctuaries, including the Kissimmee Prairie Sanctuary, my time in Florida was limited to a week or ten days, and I did not have an opportunity to avail myself of the permit. I am not, therefore, able to give you any suggestions for handling of visitors. Sincerely yours, gmp-j


--' ,.._ < lssuecl by THE HOME OFFICE FORCE OF PROVIDENT MUTUAL I LIFE INSURANCE COMPAN Y VOL. XXVII PHILADELPHIA, PA., MARCH, 1939 NO. 3 x OFF THE BEA TEN T RAI L I N FLORIDA E. w. MARSHALL ;\FTER the Leaders' Round Table Convention at Palm Beach, l\Ir. f1 and Mrs. Linton, Mrs. Marshall and I were able to make a short tour of Southern Florida for the purpose of pursuing a hobby-the observation of interesting birds. The trip took us into out-of-the-way places and gave us experiences and thrills which made every part of the 1000 mile journey exciting and stimulating. In Palm Beach we were greeted by thousands of robins in great flocks. At the Inlet there were many varieties of terns, gulls and shore birds, some quite new to us, but particularly we enjoyed the pelicans. Everyone has seen pictures of this ungainly and prehistoric-looking bird with its large bill and bill-pouch. F l ying in the air it is a marvel of control. When it dives after a fish it hits the water with the grace of a freight car, but seldom misses its prey. It is fun to watch a small flock of pelicans flying in single file and playing "follow the leader." Whatever the leader does at a given point, the others imitate exactly when they reach that point-whether it is flapping, soaring, turning, rising, falling, alighting or whatnot. Like chi l dren, one after the other they do their stunt. From Palm Beach we drove inland to Okeechobee City where we stayed for three nights. On the way we encountered a red-shouldered hawk with a broken leg, standing by the road, with its mate nearby giving cries of distress. There were great quantities of water fowl along the extensive shores of Lake Okeechobee. x


3 8 BETWEEN OURSELVES The t o wn o f O k eec h o b ee C it y ( 1700 po pulati o n ) i s th e m e t ro polis of th e K i ss im e e Prairi e r eg i on. This i s a grassy are a o f seve r a l th o u sa nd square mil es wh e r e g r az in g i s co ndu c t e d o n a large sc al e At Okee c h o b ee C ity, o n Saturday nig ht it w as int e restin g t o see the cow boys in th e ir tw o-gallo n h a ts, a nd a fe w Ind ians, wh o had co me to t o w n fo r Saturda y evening rec r e a t i o n. vVe a lm os t fe lt as i f w e w e re in t h e Far \i\T es t. The n ext tw o clays w e r e l a r ge l y spent o n Ki ssime e P rairi e or in th e v icinit y T h ro u g h the courtesy o f the Natio n a l Audubo n S ocie t y, t heir w a rd e n took u o n a pa r t o f hi s patro l-a ve r y m e m o rabl e expe ri e n ce. In th e l a r ge a r ea o f a pp roxi m a t e l y 3500 square mil es un de r hi s care h e h as th e ca ttl e m e n t oge th e r with bis fri e nd s and r e l a ti v e s and WATCHING CRANES ON THE PRAIRIE officer s of th e l aw, orga ni zed so th a t th e presence of a n y s u sp1c10u s l oo kin g intrude r i s r epo rt e d t o him qui c kly. T h e r e a r e m a n y s tran ge a n d rare b ird s in thi s a r ea and d e t e rmin e d ac ti o n a nd unc e a s in g vi g i l ance a r e n ecessa r y to protect th e m fro m p ro f ess i o nal egg colle ct o r s a n d hunte r:;. Form e rl y egg in g an d s hootin g were so pre val e nt that th e rare birds we r e rap i d l y approac hin g extincti on. but n o w th ey are b eg innin g t o in c r ease s l owly b e ca u se of thi s protectio n In o rd e r t o reac h so m e r e m o t e s p o t s in his t errito r y th e w a rd e n tra n s p orts hi s saddle d h o r se in a traile r a s fa r as p oss ible, and th e n rid es o n h o r se b ac k the r es t o f th e w ay. He m e nti o n e d th e int e r es tin g fac t th a t hi s h orse act s e v e n m o r e e xc it e d a nd ove rj oyed t h a n a clog wh en th e traile r i s gotte n o u t fo r s u c h a t r ip


BETWEEN OURSELVES 39 -----""=== -==-A SNAKE Brno The Kissimee Prairie is a rat tlesnake country and the warden carries his hypodermic anti-toxin outfit along all the time. He said that the rattlesnake danger was "exaggerated," and that he had only been struck three times in his Ii fe, the last time within a month! Fortunately we did not encounter any snakes anywhere on the trip al though you may be sure we kept our eyes open when we walked about. The warden first took us about twenty miles out on the desolate prairie, for a while over a rough sand road and finally on a trail through the grass. Palmetto clumps and palm trees were dotted sparsely here and there. This brought us to the "Crane Country" where we watched a flock of over two hundred Florida cranes-an almost extinct bird. It was quite an experience to see these fine large birds out in their native wilds. Then circling about, we crossed the marshes of the Kissimee River and saw a variety of unusual birds. The most interesting one was the anhinga or snake bird. It is shaped something like a heron, but has a long thin neck and head which it twi sts around in a snake like manner as it feeds in the water. It has many curious ways. As we were crossing a bridge we saw what seemed to be a snake standing on its tail in the middle of a small river. Looking more closely we realized that it was a snake bird swimming with its body completely under water and with its very long neck extending up into the air and wriggling like a snake. Several other characteristically local birds were enjoyed, such a s the rare hawk known as Audubon's caracara. A bald eagle several fine varieties of herons and egrets, and a goodly array of duck s of vari ous species, gallinules and coot, also displayed themselves for our benefit. Continuing along a prairie road we saw our first burrowing owl. THE BuRRowrnc OwL WATCHES Us


40 BETWEEN OURSELVES This r s a graceful littl e bird which lives in a burrow. The warden stopped u s and pointed, and there we sa w a littl e h ead, with beautiful brown and green i s hyellow eyes, peeping at u s jus t above the ground A moment l a ter the littl e fellow popped up and stood by his h o le. bowing t o u s again and again in his n e rv o u sness As we ap proached h e turned his h ead thi s way and that and finally fle w away. Later on we saw two more of these attractive littl e creatur es, and fell quite in l ove with them. I\Ir. L int o n wa s able t o take some colored movies of one of them although they are n o n e too easy to photograph At o n e point far out o n the prairie, in th e mid s t o f n o wh e re, w e found a bird enthusias t si ttin g o n a camp-chair, with m ovie camera se t up, patient l y waiting fo r a n ow l t o return t o its burrow a n d have it s picture tak en He had already been there a half-hour. We wond e red which would h ave the greater s t aying ability, th e man or the owl! Before lon g w e had another thrill-a s i ght of a flock of wood ibi s They are grea t crane-like birds with s tunning black and white plumage and l o n g down-curved bills. After w e had fri ghte n e d them int o the air, they stopped flappin g and began to soa r around and around in a flock, floatin g higher and higher like leav es caught in a n eddy, until they rose so far that they could not be observed satisfactorily. T h e ride with the warden covered about 1 80 mile s whi c h was full of e njoym ent a w e wer e always on th e alert for the un expe cted and w ere frequentl y rewarded. Toward the encl of the da y we drove out on a main road t o an o ran ge orchard o wn ed by one of his rela tives, and there we picked dozens and dozens of delicious tree-ripen ed oranges whose fragrance and fine flavo r were a delight t o u s for severa l clays. T he n ex t clay we drove so uth to the Evergl ades, takin g back roads wherever possible. On the way we w e re able to observe flocks of various spec i es of ibi s and other water fowl. One larg e flock of beau tiful white ibis, disturbed while fishing, perched o n tree s clo se t o the road so th a t w e co uld en j oy t o the full th e sight of their pink h eads and lonO" down-curved bills, l ove l y white p lu mage a nd black win g tips. A bird e nthu s iast w e encountered s h owe d u s th e ne s t o f a barn owl with five white fluff y ow l ets which hi s eel at u s vigorously when we peered in. A l ong the wayside we saw many shrikes, a bird which preys on rodents and small birds, a nd at one point we notic e d a "st o r eroom" where a s hrike characteristically had strung seve ral of it s victims on a barbed wire fen ce. The Everglades w e re dry thi s yea r b eca u se of a great deficiency in rainfall, so that the water bird s w e re not as preva l ent as usual. H o wever, we saw many heron s and eg r ets and enco unter ed some species of bird which we had never see n b efore Vle stayed overnight at the thriving town of Everglad es, e ntir e l y built o n ground dredged from the s wamps. Before retiring w e drove back to a patch of woods and listened to the g r ea t horned owl, and the littl e barred ow l which hoots in true Southern dialect, "vVho cooks for yo u, wh o cooks for yo u all." The following clay we drove east o n the Tamiami Trail, visiting


BETWEEN OURSELVES 41 one of the Seminole Indian camps and passing a great grass fire on the way. Our destination was Tavernier, about forty miles out on the Keys south of the mainland. On the road, we visited Royal Palm Park hoping to see new species of birds, but were disappointed. However, we were given a very distressing example of the need of greater education in the con servation of wild life. Entering the park, at a pool near the road we saw a beautiful white snowy egret with its lovely plumes. Unfortunately it flew just as we were about to photograph it, but we expec t ed to get the picture on our return. Coming back in twenty minutes we looked for the bird but could not find it. Then we noticed something white in the water and there was the bird, dead. While we were at the lodge, the caretaker remarked that he had just heard a shot. It was a case of wanton or shooting of that beautiful rare bird. Continuing out onto the Keys, we reached the little hamlet of Tavernier, where we stayed overnight at a small one-storied, fisher men's "hotel" right at the ocean's edge, seemingly only a foot or so above high water. T}1e narrow beach was of solid coral formation. Later in the evening we were informed that this was the only building within fifty miles which withstood the hurricane of 1935, and that only because it was bolted clown! The owner had a harrowing time during the hurricane, having to swim around or perch for hours near the ceiling on top of tall furniture. Some of the neighbors had still worse experiences when their houses collapsed and the water over whelmed them. A barometer is standard equipment in every house and the local saying is, "When that needle gets clown to --, don't believe what they say over the radio but get onto the mainland as fast as you can." Desiring to visit the local Audubon Society warden that evening, we started out to walk but were discouraged by our host. Later we discovered that rattlesnakes and black widow spiders were found in the vicinity. At this little hotel we enjoyed the simple life, including ablutions in cold rain water pumped from a cistern. Fresh water is obtained only from rain water collected from the roofs, or in tank-wagons from the mainland. We were given limes instead of lemons in our tea as only limes will grow in the coral soil. The next morning the local Audubon warden took u in his cabin boat to a small key about five miles out in the Gulf of Mexico. There was a warm tropical sun, the sky was blue and the ocean was tinted in many shades of blue and green-a lovely setting for the trip. The little island we approached is about one-half mile long and one-quarter mile wide and is completely covered with a jungle of mangrove bu hes to the water's edge. The interior of the island is at sea level and is a swamp with about six inches of muddy water, below which is soft muddy silt of indefinite depth. On this island is the only known nesting colony in Florida of the very rare roseate spoonbill-a beautiful large pink water bird with a curiously shaped bill. The birds were nesting at the time and there were thirty-nine adults and' forty-two chicks on the island accorclinrr to


42 B ETWEEN OURSELVES i th e w a rd e n. It i s o n e of hi s r espo n sibil iti es t o prote ct th e bird s from hunte r s a nd egg co ll ec t o r s and t o see th a t n o o n e disturbs the m durin g th e c riti ca l n es tin g se a son. He has und e r his care a co n s id e rable num b e r of i s l a nd s o n whi c h th e r e i s wild life to b e protect ed. T h e ward e n s h ave to b e bo ld a nd d e termin e d in th e ir w o rk o f p ro tecti o n Three o f th e m h ave bee n kill e d in pas t yea r s b y an g ry hunte r s who h a d been b alke d in the ir purpo ses Anc h o rin g n ear th e i s l a nd w e g r ea tl y e nj oye d watc hin g the b e au tiful spoo nbill s a nd th e rare g r ea t whit e h e ron s fly in g around a nd p e rch in g in t h e fo lia ge A l so so m e sple ndid mano -war bird s fle w b y much t o o u r delig ht. W e w e r e amu se d b y th e s i ght o f man y adu lt p elica n s I N THE MANGR O V E SWAMP n e s tin g o n a n a dj a cent tin y k ey The ir he a d s a nd n ec k s jutte d from th e foliag e lik e pin s in a pin c u s hi o n. Vve n eve r tire d o f w a t c hin g p elica n s whe re ve r they w e r e t o b e fo und T h e warde n th e n in fo rm e d u s that h e w o u l d land u s o n th e i s l and so that w e co uld t a k e p ictur es o f the bab y bird s Howe v e r w e w o uld h a v e t o keep o u r eyes o pen b eca u se a sh ort tim e b efore th e marks and eggs o f a c ro co dil e had b ee n see n o n th e i s l and The crocodi l e i s a sa lt w a t e r species so m e wh a t lik e th e alliga t o r but i s vici o u s and attack s o n s i g ht. Thus thi s new s ch ee r e d u s up g r e atl y A s the r e ptil e ca n run faste r th a n a man, if o n e app ears th e prope r t ec hniqu e i s to climb th e n ea r es t tree as r ap idl y a s p ossible At thi s p o int w e unde r s t oo d o n e o f th e r easo n s wh y t'1e ward e n carrie d a l a r ge and w i c k e d-l o oking r evo lver o n his hip A l so wl:! w e r e t old t o follo w our g uid e care full y, a s th e r e w e r e dee p s i nk h o l es h e re and th e r e a nd it w o uld n o t b e w ell to fall int o th e m


B ETWE E N O URSELVES 43 E mbarkin g in th e littl e row boa t w e w e r e land e d o n the n arro w b eac h in b a r e f ee t with o ld kha ki trouser s rolle d u p a b o v e our kne es. T h e n our g uid e pu s h e d throu g h the bu s h es int o th e s w a mp. T h e mud un de r n ea th the water wa s soft a nd w e sa nk up t o our kn ees and k ept s inkin g s l o wly wh e n w e s tood s till. W e r elig i o u s l y follo w e d hi s in struc ti o n s that w e mu s t n eve r put our wei ght o n the front foo t YOUNG ROSEATE S POONBILLS BY NEST a nd )ift our b a ck foo t until w e w e r e sure o f our foo tin g The re was n o o pp ortunity t o w o nd e r whe th e r the r e w e r e s nak es or oth e r h o rribl e thin gs und e r wat e r, a s the exc it e ment o f the adventure s w e pt a ll s u c h th o u g ht s a w ay E v e n the poss i b l e app ea r a n ce o f the cro c o dil e beca m e re m o t e a s w e t e et e r e d o n o n e l eg a nd th e o th e r fe r ve ntl y h o pin g t h a t we w o uld n o t fall clo wn in the w a t e r and s lime. H o w e v e r w e did k eep a n occas i o n a l eye o n th e n ea re s t man g rov e bu h in c ase it might b e n e cessary t o climb it in a hurry. ti Afte r what see m e d t o b e a l o n g, h o t pass a ge w e c am e to bu s hes wh e r e rosea t e s p oo nbill s w e r e ne s tin g The b e autiful adult bird s flew awa y a nd t h e re w e a w l o v e l y littl e whitish -p m k chic k s o n th e n es t eye in g u s app r e h ells 1 ve l y an d o p e mn g an d clos in g th eir c uri o u s little s p oo nlik e bills S o w e climbed th e bu s h es in our b a r e f ee t ( a rathe r ,/ p ainful ope rati o n ) a n took p i ctures of these interes tin g, rare birds. & A l so w e w e r e fortuna t e t o o btain pictures o f a young g r ea t whit e h ero n. (Mr. Linto n 's co l o r e d m o vin g p i ctures of these bird s turne d out to b e e xce lle n t. ) By thi s tim e w e h ad h ad e n o u g h a nd r a th e r c h ee rfull y but care full y r etrace d our s t eps t o th e b e ach. Goin g out int o the wate r we w as h e d off the mud fro m our ro ll edup trou sers, ro w e d out to the boa t a n d c h a n ge d o u r cl o th es with mu c h relief. It w a seve ral da ys befor e w e s t o p ped f e eling the scratc h es o n our fe e t a nd l egs afte r thi exp e ri e n ce while we w e r e a t the k ey the co m ma nd e r o f th e Coas t Guard ca m e in hi s a ir p l a n e with M r G ilbert Gro ve n o r th e P re s i dent o f the atio n a l Geographica l Soc i e t y, a nd a n o th e r Audubo n Soc iet y w arde n They w e nt in t o th e n es t s bande d th e b ir ds, a nd t oo k p i ctures O n e BABY G REAT WHITE H E R ON


..... ) Robert P .Allen, Audubon Society, I006 Fiftb Ave N Y Dear Mr.Allen, EDWARD WOOLMAN BUCK AND PANMURE ROADS HAVERFORD PENNSYLVANIA Since you have so kindl y asl rnd me for comments on t h e problem caused by the increasing numbers of v isitors to the Bird Sanctuarie s in F l orida, I wish to assure you that my short visit was sufficient to show me that you surely have a r e a l job. I did not have time to visit the Kissimmee Prairie re_ ion, but hope to do so another year. At Key West I met both M r .Sprunt and M r M o ore. Mr. Moore arranged a boat trip for our party,and showed us many Frigate B irds a n d Great White Herons. The latter I had not see n before. Warden M o ore certainly made g ood for us in every way possibl e Thi s is a wonaerful region,and should have all the protection you c a n get with planes and motor boats. The cooperation of the Joast Guard must be very valuable. But it was at Tavernier that my visit was not so pleasant. Wardem True: as waiti n v for me there, but explained that his motorboat was out-ofcommiss ion. While we were t alking another party joined us. After that, I was n o t in-it at all,as they were from the West. So I had to drop out. H owever I gathered that h e was a professional photographer a n d bad t alrn n some "wonderful" pictures of birds. But he was not a member of the Audubon Soc.,and k new very little about our a f fairs. He and his wife were determ ined to get what t hey had come after. As I knew that you d i d not allow visitors to photograph the Sp oonbills, I bad given-up the idea anybow ,only wishing to see t hem Quite recently I received the enclosed leaflet. I am not acquainted with M r Marshall,but I do know M r .Limton,wbo is an expert mountain climber. Perhaps I a m mistaken, but from at the Aca demy of Natural Sciences,neither of them is known as an ornithologist or a bird lover. Please understand I s hould not have thought to commen t except for your inquiry. I c ertainly fee l that you could limit your permits to members of the Audubon Society. Also,that your instructions, not to disturb t h e rare birds on their nests s hould be positive and absolute. This is not intended to be a criticism of M r .True as be seemed to be a gocd man;and also I do not know all the cumstances. There is no question at all that the Society has a mighty big j o b in protecting these splendid birds Near Oca l a I saw t w o larg e flock s of White Ibis,which made a grand sight. But automobiles and motor boats were everywhere,and woods 'fires were very common. Assuring you of m y interest,Irl,/' _,J/ Very truly yours, ..


5304 Knox Street Germantown Goa. Philadelphia Pa. 1t_ CP .. ...,....,,, 'zs._ 1t._ a.-ol G. i.....__ --..._\\-


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Mr.1Robert P. Allen, Sanetuary Director. Dear Mr. Allen: May 3, 1939. I was very much intereste d in receiving your letter this morning, for I had been wondering just exactly ho w well the present system had been working.I was neve r able to get in i/Ug)ch with Mr. Chandler, so I unable to see the Kissimmee Prarie with ll_j.m,c. However I learnt afterwards that he was engag-ed sho wing Mr. Sprunt around. But I did get a chance to see Lake Okeechobee by going over to a bass fishermans house about a mile up the K and @etting him to take me out to the marshes. This made a v e r y interesting day, seeing many birds including limpkins. W e waded around about three hours looking for their nests but without any luck. I was amazed by the number of duck still W e saw many well over a hundredAof lesser scaup and c o ot)'-, plus quite a number of w i dg eon and a few wood ducks. Luckily I was able to @et in touch with Mr. Eifler v ery easily, and my visit t o the LakeWasilj.ngton area w a s a great success. I arrived at his house fairly early in the afternoon, and waited till six hen we went out on the lake and watched the birds fly to their rookeries. Tb....j.s was one of the most facinating anf interesting sights I h ave ever I spent the night at his. house and the next morning w e set out for the head of the St. Johns River at about seven in the morning. It took about four or five hours ana. 1as extremely inter esting. W e saw almost all of the larger herons re seen n i g.b..._:t, before, plus two limpkin and s everal Florida and Purple gallimules. The t r i u as a whole


" was a great success and very interesting, and I hope to be able to get down aga;in sometime a nd make a more thourough visit. problem of ho to manage the nm;j.ber of that want to see the sanctuaries is difficult to solve, and I rather A_ if a position to e v en mention my opinions, but meverthe-less I shall. It is really only fair tb._;3.t the member s shouLd see the sanctuaries when 'they are in Florida, but yet I can see that it is impossible for the wardens to accomod a t e so and t h a t it would be too expensiveAhave an extra man to show think people around. I should/that possibly you should charge some-if .not quite a bit,for the permits and thereby pay for part of the extra cost of keeping a man on duty.l!!\to show people around. But if you can't do tha t I think that important to s pend the funds on protecting the b irds than on letting the people see them.




CONDmONS OF THIS PERMIT Sanctuaries may be entered only when visitor is accompanied by the warden in charge. The warden has full authority to stipulate the time of visit and prescribe the conduct of visitors while in the immediate vicinity of sanctuaries. Visitors will not request wardens to digress from regular patrol routes. Visitors will refund warden for costs of gasoline and oil consumed in transportation by warden's car or boat, and will provide their own food. Visitors will not tip the warden. No banding or photography will be permitted. This permit will be surrendered to the warden at the time of the visit. Cooperation of visitors in fully complying with these necessary regulations is earnestly requested. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AUDUBON SOCIETIES 1006 Fifth Avenue New York, N Y.


P err:a it No. r I V I SITO R S PERMIT NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AUDUBON SOCIETIES Subj ect t o the rules on the reverse of this ............................ ... 8. .... ..... .. ,. ........... L. .... '! .. is to visit, if ponie d by ... Q .. .. ?Jl.. : .................... th e Audubon Warde n in charge, the ....... ...................................... ...... ............................... ... S anctuary area at (or near) .... ... .... ,. .... .... '. ..... ............................. ....................... .............. ............................... .in ......... ....... (mo. ) ..l.J.l....i .... .......... 1r(yr.) i)( ........... .' .......... D a te of visit: Sanctuary D irector


CONDmONS OF Tms PERMIT Sanctuaries may be entered only whe n visitor is accompanied by the warden in charge. Th e warden has full authority to stipulate the time of visit and prescribe the conduct of visitors while in the immediate vicinity of sanctuarie s. Visitors will not request wardens to digress from regular patrol routes. Vi s itors will refund warden for costs of gasoline and oil consumed in transportation by warden's car or boat, and will provide their own food. Visitors will not tip the warden. No banding or photography will be permitted. This permit will be surrendered to the warden at the time of the visit. Cooperation of visitors in fully complying with these necessary regulations is earnestly requested. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AUDUBON SOCIETIES 1006 Fifth Avenue New York, N Y


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