Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 1 Folder 31 : South-West Coast Patrol Inspection Reports, 1938

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Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 1 Folder 31 : South-West Coast Patrol Inspection Reports, 1938

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Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 1 Folder 31 : South-West Coast Patrol Inspection Reports, 1938
Audubon Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Florida
University of South Florida
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1 folder
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Box 1 Folder 31


Subjects / Keywords:
Audubon societies -- Diaries ( lcsh )
Ecology -- Florida ( lcsh )
History -- Gulf Coast (Fla.) -- 20th century ( lcsh )


The daily journals of Audubon wardens and statewide reports on certain sites and projects cover activities from 1900 to 1970, with most of the materials concentrated between the 1930s and 1950s.

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University of South Florida
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University of South Florida
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This object is protected by copyright, and is made available here for research and educational purposes. Permission to reuse, publish, or reproduce the object beyond the bounds of Fair Use or other exemptions to copyright law must be obtained from the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
032958557 ( ALEPH )
890709008 ( OCLC )
A47-00033 ( USF DOI )
a47.33 ( USF Handle )

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11 l I '"'. I I TAMI A M I TBA IL J D SOUTH-WEST \. COAST INSPECTION, SEPTEMBE R 1 9 3 8 i ami in early a.m. of September 30th. Proceeded west on the Tami a .mi Trail until reaching K rome ve., and turned south on it to see the sign at the first bridge. This I found to be riddled with shot-holes. Ap p arently, a. couple of loa.ds of buc k-shot had been fired at it. A large piece was torn out of the center and many other smaller holes appeared here and there. The sign was photographed and a print is atta ched herewith. It might be 0 used in BIRD-LO E as a.n evidence of how some people "help" in the campaign of bird protection T h i s sign is 2.3 miles south of the junction of K rome Ave., with the Tamiami Trail. The signs along the 1 in good order and well placed, firm and substantial. There is ono 15.7 miles east of the Y, and another 4.6 miles east. Both of these face e astward. T here. is one 3.1 miles west of the Arch County line) facing westward, and another 16.2 mile west of the ImmokaleeEverg l ades road, also facing west and in good condition. ater conditions along the Trail are much better than they were in the s 9 r ing, b u t nothing to brag about yet. The b rd life alon this area was away off from normal times. I saw no feeding birds whate er east of the Y. Only a ard's Heron or two, and h a reached Turner R iver before I saw e first egret, although I thought I caught a glimpse of one just west of the Y. The first_ bunch of feeding birds was seen virtually at the Immokalee Road, just two miles to t h e eastward. There were egrets rom s point, wes t to Royal Palm Hammock, there were "aattered flo e ets feedin totalling about 115 for the entire stretch. All of were in the grass to the south of the Trail, hardly a half dozen birds on the nort h side. For the first time I saw Qreat 1hi te Herons from the Trail. They were lo cated as follows: the first was seen on t h e north side of the canal a t a point 7.3 miles east of the stood while I passed glowly in the car, every detail of the plumage and legs being distinct. Another was seen on the far (north) side of the canal at a spot 3.7 miles eadt of the Y and behaved as the other had. The third was noted 3 miles east of t h e Y and was on the south side of the canal just outside the row of larg e rocks which border the shoulder of the Trail. I stopped for it, and it flew a t once. Later on, I saw one more, making in all, 13.7 miles west of the Immokalee-Everglade s Road. At a point 2 3 4 miles west of the Y, is a large s awmill in operation. This was not here last May when I passed. It goes by the name o f Clancy Lumber Co. It be a e outfit, for there is a regular street of f rame houses, facing each other just east of the mill buildi ng. It appeared to be operating at full capacity, and m any people were coming a nd going about it. SOl1fHWEST COAST Arrived in Everglades in the afternoon, after having had a conference with Ray Barnes at Bonita prings, earlier in the day, at which time, I f o und out all I wished to know concerning Hart and his behavior of. rece t months Found the "Au d ubo n t i e d up at the doc k and Ha.rt and Stewart aboard. Met the latte for f irst t ime Har eemed nerfectly affable and talkerl for a while as if lnothi n e w h atever had happened, as as though he were still on the job.


... I 1 i i -2I { I Tolti me a.bout the recent trips made on patrol and went over t h e connit1or. o f the boa.ts etc. Gave me hie reports for the last few weeks which herewith attached. lent over the situation and he gives the following figures as representing the populatio n of the S outh-west Coast as nearly as he can give it. Tampa Bay area ....... 48 birds Est r o Bay 27 ....... ChaPJ.:otte Harbor 12 ti ..... Goodland Point 34 .... IndiBJ'l Key Pass 5 ...... Buzzard Key 130 (includes Augur -hole) ....... ... Cape Canal 34 ...... 290 He reported two flamingoes seen by Victor B rown, taxidermist at Everglades. flying over the golf course there on Sept. 1 5th. They were going due so uth. BOATS. Clutch on "Audubon" slipping Hart says it nee d s a ne w bronz e band (bushing) Had considerable trouble with it on last trip. A recen t note from Ray Barnes states whole clutch in sad condition due to lack of 1 brication. Motor a pparently O K Boat a ppeared clean and neat, though t h e paint job i s nothing to hre. g a b ou t The "Bradley" looked fair, but was said to be lea. k ing badly from a piece of worm eaten timber in the keel, forward of the wheel. Hart attempted to plug it but found the piece too riddled to hold. It had to be pumped out about every t w o h01n Barnes 18 to see to thie also. It is not usable in its present condition a.a the wiring etc. becomes wet tU'lless pumped out often. Ed :fl oore was s hocked at the look s o f both boa.ts when he saw them His coming was not expectea. and he said the y looked nearer to pigpens than boats. He seems to h a ve bee n treated in a most cavalier manner by Hart. much to the shame and embarrasment of Stewart. art's deflection hae been gone i nto i n the statement prepared a s to the condition and recommendation s for the future of the s. w c P as well as my i mpressions of Stewart. so these will not be repeated here. Hart said he was willing to stay on through October until we could mak e a decision. but I though t the sooner he left the better. There w o uld have been little patrol wor k done anyway. as he would porbably have most of t he time in Fort Myers with h i s newy).fe. He h a d a. proposition to make to the Assoc iation, i n which h e w ould stay in charge of the boat!l, and go down the coast "occasion ally" with the other men. tell them what t o do if a rookery, or roost was located a n d leave them there to watch it. He himself would return ashore, and m aintain a road patrol! Thi s to be d one at the same salary h e has bee n getti n g H e stated he would be o n the lookout for pink s at all tim e 3 I clid not t 1 outrigh t th11t t his arrang ement would not be satisfactory, but s a i d tha t I would refer it to the office. and he w o u l d be notified 19.ter! I t old him t hat hi.a resignation would b e accepted as of Sept. H e was, I thin.le:, a little surprised and t aken aback a t this, but said tha t i t w a s all O K with him either way! There appe a r to b e r oosts no w at Royal Palm Hammock, Buzzard Key, and a s pot in the :.(,oo p a.bout 4 miles south of McGill's Station and a bout i mile, in the cypress. Stewart told me later that Har t did not actually g o i n there. but did his figuri n g f r o m t h e car. Recomme ndations for this patrol are e m bodi e d i n another statement. R e spectfully submitted; I Supervisor Southern Sanctuaries.


{ ACTIVITIES IN M IAMI ON ...... SEPTEMBER INSPECTION I I J .,,, l 9 3 8 On the morning of the 28th. September I went t o the Coast Guard Air Station hoping for a survey flight. No contact had bee n made with the Commander since May. H e had been inactive all su.rnmer and the situation at the Station hA.d been in charge of Lieut. W B Scheibel. It has been a. difficult time, but ap p e ars much better now a.nd things loo very bright with the Commander almost a new person and taking a keen interest in everything. I have never seen hi more jovial, affable and full of ideas, and it was a great releif. uch construction work is going on at the Station in the creation of a new ramp for the planes. Piledrivers and other heavy e quipment completely block the entrance and exit of planes, and these are scattered about the various airports in Miami. This condi tl on will prevail until at least Christmas. The Commander said that it was not convenient to fly that day so I returned to Miami. an d spent the day in contacting various pBrties along lines of the fall program. M R. SCHALLER. Spent some time with him in his office. Had a satisfactory talk and received the best of co-operation. His re-ap ointment has not yet come throueh. due he supposes, to the recent of the G vernor. There seems to be s ome doubt of it yet, and the new man who may get j .t, is just standing by, I heard a good deal a.bout this set-up later on, and it seems that Scahller can have his job back if he will do certain things to the powers that be, among which he has to get rid of Newt Lewis! This he highly reluctant to do, but it seems he has to, if he wants his own job. Not thAt Lewis has done anything out of the way, or i s not a. g ood officer, r.ut sim ply that he is not in the political g ood graces of the incoming man, if the latter does come in. I was told by another party in c onfidence that Schaller is inclined to think


J -2-tha t he can hold all t he rest of his force if he gets rid of Newt, but that if the new man comes in, he will probably make a clean sweep and put all new men in, which would do a w ay with the jobs of Homer Rhodes, Winty, Ray Barnes and others (this is what B arnes is worried about, and evidently he k no w s more about it than he t old me). So it a ppears to be the case Schaller must promise to fire N e w t Lewis a nd he does not want to d o this, and so ie stalling for time in the ho p e that something else will ha ppen. KEY DEER REFUGE. Schaller a nd Lewis have made a trip to the Lower Keys a n d surveyed the whole situation i n regard to the set-up sugge sted by us. They are all for it, but the present block is the fact that there is a law on the books which states tha t any area ta en qver by the State as a refu ge must b e thoroughly posted. The posti n g of the ey Deer Refuge would entail such a co1>t a s to be absolutely prohibitive. key included woul d have to be provid e d with sign s five hundred feet around the entire key. It would tak e hundreds and hun dreds of dollars to post Big Pine Key alone. Due to the he avy m a ngrove growth around many of the keys, the signs would have to be in the w ater outside, a nd the coral formation of the bottom would n c essitate blasting or some such drasti c action. They t herefore, have definitely a b a ndo ned the whole idea as such, but Schaller suggested a remedy. s aid that I should see r. Singleton at the K e y West Cha mber of Commerce, and get him to s ponsor a local bill to the 193 9 legislature asking tha t certain very important keys be set up as a deer refuge, and inserti n g a special c lause stati n g tha t permission asked to post these keys only a.lon g t he roads. This would not be prohibiti ve and Schaller offered to provid e the labor of ,etti n g up the signs, getting the a n d having them made with s pecial lettering if we will pay for the signs the m s elves. H e will provid e the men and labor for putting t hem in p l ace. e could agree as t o the wording. I therefore did see r. Singleton in l..ey 11/est, but the c onfernece is reported in the report of that area. He is entirely wi llin g to s ponsor the bill.


.. J -3-Schaller sated that he wanted to co-operate f urther with us in any matter and that he w a s ready now to help us out with wardens at times, and that perhaps we could even co mbine on the salaries of some, the going in with the Association on payment and the two of us working a.lon g that line. This was an encouraging sign, but no committment was made of courtte. He does not have any money now but hopes to by t he first of the year. NE1Y T O N LEW I S I had a long talk with him after lunch. He is as cordial as Schaller and said he had no objectio n on a combination of State-Association wardens. He stated that he thought we had done better work in south Florida this p year than ever before, and had high praise for the set-up in the Upper 'Aeys as re ards the Lowes. l"i e stated that road shooting had been virtually stop ped there, among the natives, but that it would have to be watched thh winter with the tourists. He say s that the Lowe combination is one of the strongest moves w e h ave ever made, and that the conditions as far as he can see by observation, and even asking around, appear to be first class. A s regards the South-west Coast, he said he thought that Ray Barnes' brother wou. d mak e us an excellent man if we could ge t him, but that he would never come for the salary we have been accustomed to paying. He too, stated that t h i s was one of the greatest obstacles we ha.d in that patrol, that we co uld not get good men o n the job with the money .lie knew a.bou t the trouble w e have had, and said that only recerttly had men been on that w e would be willing to co-operate with, He mentioned h aving heard of Hart and that he had a good name all throughout last winter and spring. (I asked Ray Harnes later about his bllother and he told me that thoug he was a "good boy" and a hard worKer, that he did not think he woul d stick with a job which entails such monotony and isolation as the s .. C.P.) Lewis stated that he thought a cessation of the S. 'l.C.P. during the fall would not have a detrimental effect and that he would advise such a thing if we thought we co1 ld do better by the first of the year. He offered to help


: J -4-,I ) financially about January 1st., but of course he himself m.ay be out of a job ( by then though he apparently does not know it now. If we had Ra.y Barnes on, or would take him on. maybe v ; e could work out a. combination with the State ---which would ta. .ke some of his salary off of us. EARL MOORE. Saw him for an evening. He is now wor king with Kelsey through January as a special deputy, doing wor k now with the dove season, and later on with the ducks. lie is as inter.e3ted as ever, and is m11ch in the field. He had been to Bottlepoint Key lately. and saw nine Reddish Egrets there. On a trip down south of the Loop, he recently came across a camping place, and strewn about it were the r e mains of seven spoonbills, the heads and feet being in evidence. This camp is at spot about 12 miles south and west of the point where the Loo p Road ta.keiJ the sharp turn northward toward Mc-Gill's Station. In the open a nd is a smal l p o n d 1Jurro u n dect by sawgr ass a n d fri n ged with a few willowtJ. ttis opinion of the s w.C.P. paralled that of Lewis. He insists tha t w e cannot expect m uch results with the kind of men we have had. He believes it to be an i mportant patrol and that it h a s not been carried out effectively. of the comments were as a.a that received from Commander vonPaulsen, who seem s to see little i f any go od i n the patrol at all. tte says he would lik e to see it ,tried on a different basis, an

---' co DIT 0 JS ON sourH-11/E. T COAST FLORID DECENJ3 1 938 On December th. 1938 I c1H1t cted R y Pu.rnes, the fir:-Jt tine rli ncfl h vi nt on the job for 1. in Nove her. v.e hs;..d ... n intere::iting fWd entirely :H.tis f8.ctury conference, !l. a he has the si like t e M9.r ines, "well in had"! De9 ite hi:J .,;i e knowJpclpe of the 1:10 the:Jt ree!ent trips b boP.t to Ch1)e Sa le nd the many rivers betwee n Everglade1:1 rwa the huve shown him that there ir. more to learn! He has then, hired at his own expenoe, Ii\ JTJan he ,,;:no ws ell, ho in t hor0 O'hly familiar :1ith all tho Re ws.terd, and hag had him o 'f!cent trips. Once ell in mi.nd w"terconrHe i remembered by Barnes, and hf! t ready now to go out on hiR own without a:Hli:3t0nce of a ny Inter ting sic1elights Jear tmong the n t ives of that region in to B arnes' connection with the The 11ord n.:J :.;;_; eH.rl fi-.,r 1 ncl wide, a ncl. there is fre1uent mention o f it amone the guidel>oatmen ancl "boys about town'' in ve.rgb.des. .ore hunt._ne-licensPs, Rnd dnck stamps haire b e e o a i .verglades this pa.tit month than in i<1.ny i n recent years! The prestige of the ASdociatior h!\.S take ':I. b1l..tch the duck si tnation n.bout the, and patrol the roofltR of Bn7-za r d i<..ey and thA he dNR.ter s of thP roM Turner, south to R.bnut Broad. The hirds are no.i concentrated in the the glades crnd the Gulf and a r e very heRvy in the vicinity of Turner River ane lf!arned, none in the Go cHand Point area, t hoU[h this will be checked y enin. T l 1e concentration of bet reen Turner ana Honstan Riv rs, Bi:-1.r:ne con. iders to bP. the u,k ock bir 1::1, w hich heavily thin "11nmAr si.n d early fRll hy beirie 3hot for f o'or1 by they h[WE' d.'!ert t:ie D1wk Hock <1.ref'., o,.. the 11:.tfer rep,i. o!1s in t P. inner b ayn. T._e entire Bie C p ef!J been covered by a r ne:3 from thA f'.ir. He f .ew Fort nouth over rim o n the to the T Miami Tra 1 turne( ast a short diatnnce froP1 it ancl flew up to point h u t o osite the Y then north, bearing weatward, nd C!ri:is-cross' e;, covered the reeion a out the I difl.n RAserni.t ion :-1.nd I rr.t'lokRlee, LR.Ke ford etc. There were no bird.s in e vidence, that iR, none to .'1_9f!El.K of. T ey e a l l feecl ine nouth of the Trail, ;i.:nc1 thi::i out from what I could 1.rne my elf the dt:<.y I cro1rnecl the Trail ancl re t It i interestinp, t,o note thRt many of the guicleoat en h1we rea hed the of con. jd!" ring t e hird:3 as rn 8BSet to their bu!.liness. Barne h s b o r erl n e;oofl many of their bo,;;,tff ... nc1 he .r..nows lots of the mirn nyw ay. :;.lJ ire> him tha t the y are llehi t d him, an he feels t h 1 .. t e c&.n


-2count on them as beine sincere, b t wil to i t thRt they do not i fringe any of the! I s toriped a t M2.c s "Oasis" goine out, and one o f the first thing. he to me wa:-1 thH.t he Na.s glad R y :Barnes was with the dHociA. t 5 o n Thia wa.::1 before I ht<.cl mentione a R n y thing R.bout p. rnes t all. h e stR t e autho riti e s SP Pm p e r f ectl y OX a bout his leRvin g tho1gh oorry of conrse, that he hRs given up their ervice. B;.;,rnes that nurve y of th. :ipo "nbilJ. flit11n tion on t P !rnuth west coa.:-it this w nter be hL,hly desirable. H e 1ill t ternp t to l ocate a n y whic are reportor to him, lmt he ( IOuld Nelcom e Rom e aid in a more or lesfl pro f easional mR.nne r as to wha t he cR l l s "rea bir d men ,. to be a long with him f o r u Neek or so o n boats. He is linine u p loc alities and reports to that end. BOAT N D DIS O SAL: S o mewha t of a shock awaited me i n thiR c onnection, aa it will doubtless 'J)e to t e he"l.clnua rr,ers office. Ho1i1ever, t hPrA .::eemed no help for it, t.i.nrl I believe thRt a rnes co d do nothin.?' elne than was done. Jt w5._ l bA recalled th t :.1.fter my September trip t"'l Everglades, I reported th t Har t had state d the clutch on the "Audubon'' was s l i pp i n g a n d that a.bout ten dollars w onld set it rieh t i t needed hut s ome band, or bushinr,. It will als o be rec lled that Bnrnes offered to l ooK out for t e boat s after Hart had been rel ea::1ed and that he v1onl d the m to Naples and a<11:1ist Stuart i n pat r o l until I had &. c h"'nce to tal k over the situation i n New York a t th a n nno. l me ting He went to Everglades r:..c cordingly, to mov e the boats a n d vas greeted by Stuart telling him t hao.t far from h ine a ble to take the u.du bon' t o aplPs i t could not be move to t h e next dock! He Hart had n.nde r -rated the matter o f the clutch a n d thRt HRS' n t a l l the trouble. B a rnes therefore, look"!d into it, to0k! the clutch out anc1 eicRmined it. I t VJ9.3 c omplAtely ruin e d Every par t wus burned up, o w orn out from lack. o f lubrication. T h iH led to a n exami n.tion of the recluction gear a n d it was taken out, and founc1 to be a8 completel y dA troyed as the c lutch. Ba rnes was ther e fore face d with having t o d o something in order to p n t the boat in a n y kind of shape, a n d by then, word had come t o him thu.t w e had d ecide d t o s e U t!e e c_njpment A s a prospect i A purchaser would h2.rdly l oo k Rt a boat ithout a cl tch or rP.duction gP.a r there was certf.inly nothing t o do but pnt them in. Th i s a r n e s io.d done, a n d waii ubmitted h ill b y Jolley, o f t h e Manh ttan Mercantile. T h e amount of i t a palled h i M t.o thA P XtAnt t h a t hA ,.r onlr no t OA. it, a n d he looked in1, o and c ecKE>cl flVery it m T h e p'l.r t s werA found to hE> a l ri ht f S to ;Jrice, thA reduction eeA.r pa.rtjcuJ.arJ.y V .ry ex:per S ive. Jolley charged no commission o n the pieces w hatever. BR.rnes tolcl him he w ould nntil I came d o w n t o do a nything a bout the biJ.l, !'l.nd told roo it above. H e wns greatly worried a bout i t but I do not see w h a t else h e could have d o ne, and told R O CertR.inly, the boat was no good without being a b l e t o be move d and these parts 1 1ere baolutely essential. Barnes hrul the "Andu on" h::..u.led ont R n d vent o ver eir!'!ry i ?'lch o f the hnll findine it s olid ancl sound throne;hout. He then copper-pai nted t h e bottom, this at his own R.n rPplRced lost c ookine u tensiJ s electric hs all ove:r the boat (not one wa:'I i n evidence whe he mAnt over). This a mounts to Jome Reven teen d o l ""r s but is i n no hurry for i t and that he just could n o t to t o oh. the enuip he says that fie the lf.1.r g e bill


-3-alreR.dy led up for motor He the amount itemized as far as his personal expenses are concerned. After the boa t was put i n e ood s hape agR.i n he i nvited inspection rmd had aevera l peo ple o o a t i t w ith R view to purchase He received a high offer of $7'50,00 It r1eem3 th t the best chance to sell a boat is one which c a n he uned for fif'.lhine; off-shore. This the "Audubon" is not fitted f o r the after cabin being muc h i n the way a n d no room for nets 1'.ft 1:1.rnP.s states that the mm tan k s and the motor a r e qorth more than the hi he s t price he coulcl and he advocate9 not selling the boat a t all, certainly not right no w I n this I aeree The "Audubon", now being is better dhape than it has for many months can be put to g o o d use thifl winter R.S A. hr ... 1'e head,,narters dowr. f!o1 th. 1 o t is open, e cept for H !'!pra y hood, i>.nd one has t o camp ashore when ont i n it, a t mo!'lt of the time. If he t oo k the '' uct 1hon" d o wl" to hend of Shark. River, or ot er utr:;,tegic locality a n d left i t t" Pre, he conld uae it RS '" floaUng hea.dc-uarters for living ?.n d also the storage of eH.soline a n d groceries which he would use o n extended trips i n thRt area. r:l.'hen v .hen n.n y o ffice s t aff dow n o r a n y there w oul<" he a pl ce t o live down south, where t10 or three e xtra could e taken c a r e of. I would hi5hly recomme d thRt thig b done. B rnes Rays that \rhen the roo1cery season i ... over, and during the slac k times next snrnrner, he will undertak e to remove thP cabin drop the deck R ome, a nd convert the whole after end of the boe.t into that suitable for fishing, a n d thf.1.t we conld d ell it then if we care to, a n d it wou a bring a much hetter price. He was a ships carpenter before he became a warden, and i s well s1ite d to do t is k i n o a "ob. Every 11orn part .vhich h!.!. been r e1)lacea on the boat has 'heen cs.ref1 lly ept by B a n d th se Pre in b ox aboard ready fo inapP.ction a t a n y time. 'rhe cone'! i tio i n :t hich e found them c a n be ily seen by a. g lance a t t hese Man of the teet h ori t he cogs in the reduction 60R r Here Str"pied completely off The hill for the ,rnr Rnd parts th a t tache(l, toe e ther with :... l etter. rom J olley in reea r d to it. The Bran e y is, hy t h i d ti."'le, sold! ThA hituation in reeu.rd to it is as follov1s. At l? a .Ant it i s !3torAd a t E s H.nd t.ho1lgh t h e moto r w s put int condi tio y the purch1'l.t!e of a generator i<.nc other nece.=rnary items, the hull is i n po o r condition. A tiri'I) r i n the kee is irn badly worm -eaten that the o a t leRkA conflt.i.ntly, mid it id a laree or er to replnce it. Estirnhte s or. the cost u f repA.irs to the B r&l.dley r:..n to a out $75. 0 0 B a rnes ctec ided n o t t o do an thine a bont i t ncl l'ltore it. S m .dlli P m:J, the who runs the bo>tt m yt; 11.t Evergl11.des then hlrr; i offer of one hnndred doll&r:=i cRs[l kH the ho t at,iod. It ,eems tha t he, being in the hu.ilin ss, WR.Fl w illir:e; to the job of rec:omli tioning it hirnse lf in h i .-1 !Jp l:'.re time hut he would not offer u 10re Bt ... rnes then asked him if he wonld Q.b.:1orb som e or the recent expense of ne.vr w h j ch had lleen placed on the motor but never used. This he agreed to d o and so he ewe 1 22 5 o the boat. This a mount was deducted by Jolle,y f 1 om the amount owed by the .tl8Hoci:..tion o n t e recent b o a t bill. (see bill etc. ) The a mount of $2 2 3 5 that is, for he gent t he one o to e w York. Therefore the total owed on t e attached bill i s $ 170. 91 .Ei-.rnes t old m e the whole .; i on vthtln I wa$ dovm, arid I conJ.d t 0 .. ee t & t ci.n thine could be BRined b y spendin


-4-seve ty-five dollar3 or s o i n gcttine the bac k into conai tion nc bly no be ine a le to get nore for it than illil11. 3 o fered aa it .rne:J' bot ta..ce::i its place far h tter. The "lud bo h o ever; can m ..<:e t;oorl 1.we of :.Jtill .i:-RS NWEL: s.schal Stuart v.ras given notice of rel .r;;e Deceriber 1st. I have told hin that perh1:1.p .ve coul d U!'e h i m 1:1. aea;:1ont'l man !lorn. where on the east coast urinP' thP r oo ery BeR.son nex t ear He riay le v e Ever ls. dea j ust before if h s no uri e or h i m t th" t c me, a the latt r ay3 he doea no t t hjn he .vill. I tilKed to EJ<.rl i n M in.mi d he i::1 willing to come o n 11ith the A::isoci&.tio full tirne, "' t $125.00 per mon t h to v o r,.., under Bo..r nes. I r rttrie_riE>nts for thR1:1e two to e;et together io.nd go over plan s for patrol o Decemner 17th., so there will be no lot t i r e ufter Jan1U1.ry 1st. 'I1hE" Comm nder t h i th::..t r l bee R. it too ze' lo fl i n enforcing the lette of t hP law during his .vHh Kelsey b.tely, iwd that he does not u e proper C::.i. cretion i n here there was m ore ie;nor::..nce than a wtlful inter,t to bre .K the 1 w He arl s .too ready to c!'ac k down hard v1ithout n y palli1:.1.t i o tall, a n d thii. t in this I hinK B rne h the s:,;,me i dea, but feel s lre that he will iron out anythJng o f t i s sort i th E arl. The ter i:J pP.rfect 1 willi n e to work unr r Barnes' orders n d I do not loo for ny friction. Ba rne a was le vin for 11hi te-m1ter Ba.y 'hen I lP.ft him, t i s "the next d y n d i a d own there now He .-::1ayB t h t u.r.terli wil be active bont 1.1.nc1 f' w11.nts to be ont o n the job as Mnch as posHible. HE'! seems greatly interebtAd in the wor x and it is reJ ief to rea.liZl'? thH. t we have such R rP:iponslble man on d.eck BI LS: Condit. i o n. wit the bir

I I I f -flto the Tetons or he Yellowston e for t h e bird w s a Cla r s utcra cKer There it sat p reenir: its plumaee unconcerne l y in f 11ll sunlight wit h the early r ayfl out evAry part of thA black, g r ay a nrl white pattern. The a.lm o. t white, cer t ainly l j ghter than the 1 JacK which was of a dflcidetl e ray. The whit e pi\tch in the b l a c k vings, Rnd the bla.cJ{ t1>.il with its w h ite outer fea thers were 11.s a.s t ho ngh thf! liird wafl i n my hRnd I w atched it for Rome time, the n t hrew a small rock: towar d the tree to mRke it This d i d not cl i sturl) i t so I thrAw :... econd d t h some what better 11.i m for it too.r-off, and flew par allel with the T r ail for a h ort r istance am U. t again in a cypres s I ::Jtunierl it as lone as 1 w i shed, ann then drov e off, lea vine it sitting there. I could h ardly b elieve 111yself whRt I hacl seen, but there wa s no mist king it. Three summers out west with nutcrac,rnrs leRve im ressionl:i of the s pecies which are indelible, b u t even had I never seen the bird before, there would h ve been no donbt ahont lt. I wh1hed f o r a gnn heartily!! I c annot think of a.n:y spP.cies which wa s furthe r fr0t11 my Mind the inntant hAf orA I s1<1.v1 it. SI'GN8: All the 4 x n w oo den signs nlone the 'i.'rail were i n nosi ti on an

A REGARDING CERTAIN WARDEN PATR L S IN SOTJI'H FLORIDA AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT It i s inevi ts.ble that. in vast o. terri toi y as is embraced in the southern sanctua.ry system, there wil l be some area or areas, which w ill b e productive of more problems than others. Falling in this category is what is known as the South-west Coast Patrol of Florida. It has, beyond all others combined, caused the writer more thought, worry and 1measiness. The doubt of efficiency and desire for improvement has been in his mind for many months, a nd has now come to such a climax as to no longer admit of further d.elay in setting forth his convictions. ithout going too much into retrospective detail, the out-standing worry in connection with this Patrol can be expressed in one word personnel. Perhaps that should be a.mended to prooer personnel. The area is a very larBe one; it entails hardships, isolation and monoton y all of these calling for more than ordinary endurance, care and applied practicality, to say nothing of loyalty and devotion to the cause. It seems definitely to the writer that we have failed to secure real results there for the simple reason that the job has been too large for those who have attempted to fill it. This has bee n evident for s ome time, and the thought and unrest of mind in regard to it has perhaps, been reflected in the reports of that area, but much of his uneasiness and thought has not been represented in these reports. There seemed to b e no point in expressing it at the time, and there was the constant hope that concli tions would improve. However, it is obvious that they cannot im9rove with the type of men we have had. In the less than four years in which the writer has supervised this patrol, there have been fourteen different men on the job! In that state-


' ,.. -2-ment alone lies an indictment. These men have, as a rule, been without definite home connections and possessed little sense of responsibility, other than that connected with thei r own daily lives. They have been footloose, una.mbi tious, lazy a.nd careless. They produced at first, an impression of dependability and seriousness for they were always at their best v1hen contacted and accompanied on patrol. There have been bitter disappointments connected with m a ny of them, which transpired at later d .ates. That most of them were unmarried and without particular ties or responsibilities, was thought to be an advantage. The writer has come to view this in a different light. A home, property and family ind.uces responsibility and forethought, things which make for solidarity and seriousness. These ualities have been sadly lacking in the personnel of the S.' .c.P. A good man is a respectable man. If he cannot keep up his own respectability he inevitably loses his own self respect, but he must be imbued with these qualities in the first place. It follows then, that w e have not had what might be called g ood" men. Some good wor k has been d o ne of course. W e h a v e performed a service to conservation i n that area with a. forc e which m i ght have produced far more so lid and conscientious work. W e have done very well, on the whole, with t h e mat erial we have w orked with, but it has been going down recently, and the g ood accomplished as against depreciation of moral effect and upon the e quipment, remains problematical. The effectiveness of this Patrol reached its height probably during late 1937 and the first half of 1938. Some fine results wera obtained for a while under w A. Hart the warden in charge. T houg h a "cra c ker" lik e some o f the others, he seemed a superior type and a vpeared vi tally interested i n the wor k doing s plend.idly in investigating difficult areas and fulfilling what we set him to do. However, in the testing, he has shown that there is no background, no solidarity and real sense o f responsibility. In a word, he was not, after all, a "good" man.


,. -3-\"-ithout going into details a.gain, suffice it to say that, in t h e worda of o ne of his associates, Ha.rt has gone "woman crazy". He was married to a woman in Fort yers early in July. .Iuch more time has been spent ashore since than has been spent on patrol; Association gasoline has been used for his private consumption; the e uipment ehows la.c k of and his behavior and actions noted and commented on by many people in that area. H e has borrwed money from state wardens, friends and fellow workers and more often than not, has not returned. it. In a word, Ha.rt has "washed out" and revealed himself as po ssessing no stamina., or foundation of real worth. It is another illustration of what has happened before, but which the w riter thought would not be the case with a superior type of na"ti ve. From time to time, comments from certain parties interested in our work in that area., have been reouested by the writer. Knowing that they 1ere in a. position to kno1v, he has asked them what they considered the essentials of a s uccessful patrol on the South-west Coast. Invariably, the answer has been the It ha.1 1 transpired that the men we have had not the right sort because they are of mediocre caliber, they are inadequate to the job, but have been hired because we pay me1iocre salaries. To a large degree we have gotten what we paid for, in some cases, more. However, we have never yet had a real first-class man on the job because we have not paid a first-class salary. Those asked to comment have said that we can not expect good wor k and goo d results without putting the job into hands of g ood men, and we cannot get good men without paying more money than we have. More men of the sort we have had nan be There are really numbers of them, but if they are ta.ken on, it will sim,ly be a repetition of the past. It will always be the same in the very nature of the case; it cannot e ver be anything else. So much is clear and so much has been proved beyond any doubt. Association ownership o f e uip ment was thought to be an excllent move. T he writer has eve n come to doubt this. M one y has been poured out on bo ats


0 engines, repairs and the like, and something else seem to go wrong. I t stands to reason that a man without much sense of responsibility will hardly tak e care of another's e quipment in' a careful, economical manner, when often, he himself lets his own deter rate. Hart took better care of t h e boats than anyone else, but even he left them in a condition that de mands more expense in spite of the fact that they were overhauled this summer. Vith better men on the job, better care would have been taken of the e quipment, and better results would have been obtained. The seventy five and one hundred dollar a month men we have had, have produced seventyfive and one hundred dollar jobs, and this is not sifficient to this patrol. Two kinds of men are ava ilable for this work, good men and inefficient ones. e have tried out the latter thoroughly and they have been found wanting. Obviously, the only thing to do is to change if we expect this thing to be really successful. This I was certain of when I went to Florida in September, but was not certain that the right man could be found at once, nor did I have the authority to take him on if I located him. So certain was I that something had to be done in the way of a change, that I had decided to ask for a discontinuance of the s.w.c.P. for the month of October at least, and perhaps longer, until we could reach a decision on it by personal conference in New York. Cessation of the Patrol might have re-acted in allowing the roosts to be shot by natives this fall, but after all, some shooting always goes on, and one wonders at times, how much there was anyway, with the Patrol operating. question to be settled at once was what to do with the remaining member of the force, Pat Stewart and the boats. Hart resigned as of September 30th., and after finding out f\1lly about his actions for the 9ast summer from those who really knew what they were, I accepted that resignation. However, I did not want Stewart simply to tie up the boats a n d remain inactive. He seems to be a perfectly responsible man, mature of years, an


-5-excellent mechanic, tough and wiry, but sadly puzsled at what the job was all about this summer because of Hart's staying ashore, and acting as he did. He wants to do the right thing, and wondered more than once whether he Hhould sa7 anything, but being new on the job, he said he thought that he better wait for things to come to a head, as he was uite sure this would be the case sooner or later. I had a long conference with Ray Barnes about the matter, and found that he knew exactly what the situation was, in many ways far better than I did. Since Mr. Baker's visit in March, Barnea has taken a great deal of interest in the Association's work. He did not know much about it before then, but has learned a lot since. He seemed to take to Hart very much, and has given him much help. He has taken him with him into the eypress country, has accompanied him on aerial surveys, and worked with him often. He did so not only because he liked Hart, but he wanted to know more about the Association. Hart, during the summer, has taken advantage of Barnes' attitude and repeatedly borrowed his car, pistol, and even money from him. He has not repaid the money, and though I attempted to find out the amount Barnes would not reveal it. He said it was a personal matter of his, and that if he lost it, it would be his fault and no one else's. His di1appointement in Hart is considerable, but he lays it to the woman owever, it was Barnes who offered such help on this matter of what to do with the boats etc., during October, that I accepted it gladly He said he would go to Everglades, brine the boats up to Naples, without letting anyone know where they weret and would accompany Stewart down the coast on several trips in order to show him the country. Stewart says he can go back to any place he has been to once, and since has been brough t up in boats and knows them intimately, he is really a better waterman than Hart ever was. Barnes said he would also take Stewart into the eypress and along the Trail and show him something of the land side of ths wor k as well Jxs:xwatmxix as the water end.


-6-And so this is the case at the present. Barnes found more wrong with the boats than was told me by Hart and this work is b eing done, after which he will tutor Stewart along the coast. This takes care of the Patrol through October, and even later if necessary, at least until a settlement can be reached through such a conference as this. Before I left Florida however, came the chance I was looking for as to a man to put in charge of the s. w .c. P It seems to me that a new day will da.wn for us if he can be had. For the first time we have the opportunity Of getting a really first class man, one with every sense of responsibility, experience, and an unimpeachable record of law enforcement and knowledge of country which is the joy of his present supe riors. This man is Ray Barnes: I will confess that it came as a surprise to me but there seems to be a great deal bac k of it. As I mentioned above, he has been studying the A 8sociation closely and he has been watching developments in the State Ga.tne and Fish Commission with uneasiness. Just before I left, he put the cards on the table, and in confidence, told me why he was offering his services which I had formerly. in a joking way, wished we could obtain For some months he has been worried about the State set-up and apparently with reason. Politics are at the bottom of it, Schaller's appointment, Newt Lewis' condition, and the determination of some officials to cause a general shake-up has ma.JV' of the State wardens uneasy. This is all very involved, and can hardly be entered into here, as it would make this paper run to inordinate length, but the situation certainly exists, and it is causing trouble in the State force. It seems to be a sinking ship and Barnes has no desire to be one of the rats. Not that he in under a cloud, by no means, it simoly means he is looking to the future and he thinks, which cannot be said for every body down there. At any rBte, for the first time in nine years he is ready to leave the service and he bring s the following offee to this Association. His entire time, e xperience and would be ours for the return of a salary pro-


-7portina.te to these advantages. It is worth while to look at his e quipment, as well as his cualities. This what is involved. 1. An excellent boat, fast, clean and well kept, constructed expressly for work on the South-west Coast. It should need no work whatever, except minor repairs, for at least t w o years. 2. A Ford V-8 coupe driven about 24,000 miles 3. A 'glades "wagon", he avily for work in the cypress and ithout which it is impo .rnible to penetrate areas in wet w e ather. 4. A horse, saddle and e uipment 5. Complete campin g outfit, tent, cooking utensils, stove, firearms etc. 6. Eighteen ye ars experience in the Evergla.des, the South-west Coast and Cape Sable 7 The respect and good-will of the entire community and a record of nine years of game enforcement, with the high praise of officials of thA State Game Department from Mr. Kennedy of Tallahassee to Newt Lewis of M iami 8. A thorough kno wledge of the wildlife and the people of the area This e ouiP,ment to be kApt up by him, the As ocia.tion furnishing only expense of gasoline and oil, which would do away with the allotment for repairs now allowed on our boats. He will enlist in our service for a figure of five dollars less than that he no w receives, in order as he sa.ys, to become connected with an organiza-tion which he feels is free of politics, intrigues and red tape, and which is striving for ideals which he endorses without reservation personally. This figure to be 175.00 per month. He further states that he will come on a six months trial basis and that, if we do not actually s a ve money in boat repairs, gasoline bills and other items which will no longer exist under his direction, he will resign at the end of that period. He ma.kea this offer only because he feels certain that a saving will be accompl ished and that we will be pleased with his efforts. 1 1 e cannot of course, do it a.lone. There must be another man, and I see


-8-no reason w h y Stewart should not fill the place sat isfa.ctorily. I have long wanted some land work as well a s water on this job, as when rookery comes in the cypress, w e could have a nay of guarding that. Of course, it may be n ecessary at times to place a m R n on such a s pot for a. few Neeks at a time, but this can be arranged by Barnes because he would know who to pick and the price w ou l d be about \'1ha.t we would pa y anyway. arnes'. boat would allow of ours to be either distributed elsewhere, or be sold if desirable. Neither the ".Audubon" or the ''Bradley" is well to work on that-coast, the former draws much too much water, and would not be useful in the eys for that reason, while the speed boat is not constructed for heavy water, a n d is far from bein During the fall roosts would be guarded and patrolled by these t w o en, one of them being left in a camp if necessary and the other runnine patrol. They coul d carry on wor k at the Cape along waterfowl regulations and attempt to break up the illegal duc k shooting there. T he conduct of patro l and the methods employed could be settled by Barnes as the conditions warranted, his long k nowledge of how to do thes e things being a g uiding factor. A s for Barnes be i n g married and a home owner, this has certainly not militated ag1dnst his efficiency in the past a.nd his o'ltnarship of property only makes h i m t he more responsible, a nd trustworthy. In such a case, his condition is an advantage. He does not hesitate to stay out for weeks a.t a time, and would not in future where the need a.rises. This t w o msn patrol is something long advoc ated by Com m ander von Pa.ulsen, ""ho has insisted that two capable, responsible men could cover more ground and do more work than that which w e h a ve done heretofore. Barnes has just completed a. course in flying and is capable of handling a plane a.lone. e could get a. plane from Gulf Airways in Fort Myers, under regular prices at an y time for sudden e mergencies of aerial survey etc. and wou l d also h a ve the of the Coast Guard.


-9So, it seems to me that this is an opportunity which may well result in the salvation of the S.W.C.P. W e have tried the other method for a long while, about seven years or so, and the result has been a. continual shifting of personnel which cannot pro duce any sense of loyalty or ambition; oftimes no more than indifferent work and doubtful results. I ask that, for a.n experiment, if no more, that a six months trial of the above plan be attempted, through the next rookery season for instance, and results compared at the end of that time; that this "good" man be obtained and paid a good salary. If this is not acceptable, I can only say that I shall continue to do the best I can and to strive for the best results which can be had from the material we work with. It difficult however, in the light of past results, to promise much for the future in this method. So much for the South-west Coast Patrol, a word about other areas. e have been rather fortunate elsewhere in securing some good men for small salaries. Chandler on the K issimmee Prairie, though he tells me he is trying it for a year only, is now on all year for $90.00 per month. His situation ia unique. He is not heavily responsible to anyone, though certainly having strong home ties as regards his mother. His expenses are few and his tastes simple. Thus far, he ha.s given every evidence of doing his job w e ll, but it is not a. complicated one. Claude Low e in the Upper .h..eys could not have begun to enc what he has without the constant assistance cf his father. He has a wife and t w o children but I understand that the Judge virtually supp orts them all. This Lowe combination is discussed under the report of that area., suffice it to si;w here that it is a highl3 important one. I was told by Newt Lewis o r instance, that he considered it one of the strongest moves we ever made in south Florida, and was productive of more good in a short while than anything he had known t here. Claude has had serious misfortune during this yeaziwith his wifefs ill health, his own experience of h aving his teeth


-10removed and the wreck of his car. He has had to get a new engine for his boat, besides buying the boat itself. All this the J u dge has helped out with wonderfully. He told me himself that he has spent over a thousand dollars on it, and had done it in the interest of a cause he believed in, not because he was hoping for a return on his money. However. and this is the point, he did ask me when Claude's "probation period" was to end? He alluded to the promise made to Claude when w e took him on last January or Fe bruary, that he woul d be paid seventy-five dollars per month for s i x months, and if at the end of that time, his vork was satisfactory, he would be given a raise. He has been on for eight months and nothing has been said of an increase. are somewhat on the spot ab out this, and the boy has be e n really as e arnest and ha.rd working as he could be, with all the handicap& he has had. I earnestly recommend this be attended to as soon as pos sible. One l ast word, an d this i n regard to Ed M oore at K ey Viest. Of all the work done in Florida this year, his stands out as pioneer endeavor and remA.rkable results. It is diacussed also in the report on field conditions. I should simply lik e to point out a few details whi ch perhaps, w e hav e not considered in the light of unalterable facts. It is true that status there is tenuous, we cannot be sure of the future, but even if this term of ffice is shortened som e what, it is obvious that we shoul d recognize the desperate situation he is up against and alleviate it if at all possible. Before saying anything else, I tish it thoroughly understood that this is through no reruest of his. As he put it. he '' d o w n here with my e yes wide open a.t one hundred per month". At the sam e time, I should like to lay these facts before you as facts, and ask that you consider them in the light of your own conclusions if you were in his Place. lso I think, you can a ppreciate how I felt du.ring the time I was there in his home, and seeing what I saw, can understand the feelings which possessed me.


-11-It is certainly the cas e that a man's state of mind can have a. great deal t o do with the kind of job h e turns out. How can one, who is constantly co nsume d with worry over how to provide for his family compare with an individual w ho does not this t o contend with? Obviously a mind un-burdened with this worry a.plies i t aelf to the task i n hand with greater freedom a.nd ori g ina.l i ty. S o m e of us kno 1 w ha.t i t means to scrim p a.nd have little or nothing a.t the end of the month; some of us a.r e un able to see how bills can be paid, but I doubt if a.ny of us were ever actually in the condition of be i n g unable to supply the neceasa.r.Y food for our children. I should not lik e t his to go any further than us who hear it, but I d o think that we ou ght to k no w it. Ed Moore ha.a be en unable to l i ve on What w e have pa.i d him for an y month since he has bee n o n the job. T here-fore it follo w s t h a t he has had other funds. He has, u p to now. Before going to Key Vest he s old some of hh furniture; he had fiorrie back pay coming to him from the Survey, and he had some money owin g him from other people. These came in by driblets, enough to keep him going plus what w e have p a i d Now, these sources exhausted i s no more in sight. I t s i mply a.mounts to his not having enough to provide for food and lodg-ing and necessary expenses. To sup9ort a family of a wife and two chil-dren on one hundred dollars a month is not possible, and of all in dollars a place lik e ey West where everything is high, so high that else is hardly more than ten there. I arrived in Key West on a. Sunday afternoon, Oct. 2nd. 1 hen the boys started for school next morning they asked for lunch money, a.nd there was exactly thirty-eight cents in the house. That was ALL. His chec k had been coming just before, or on the first of the month. There is n ever a nything left at the end of the month, and when the checlc does not a.rtiv then he is forced to borrow money to buy food with. There is no credd. tr;there, every t hing is cash. He dislikes to have to borrow it does not lea ve a g ood impr ession a s regard s h i mself or


-12-the Association but after a ll. people must eat. I left .-..ey 1 est on the morning of the 6th. October, and the check had not then arrived, and things were desperate. He had to borrow money from me, and I bought the groceries for the time I was there. It brought me face to face with conditions I had no idea. existed. here is nothi n g but the barest of neccesi ties ever bought there, and there is'nt a. cent provided for clothes. Every penny of the salary is budgeted and there is not enough to get by on vi th necessities, much less anything else. D rs. Moore not only cook s and cleans the house, doing a.11 her work, but has had to wash clothes throughout the SUJ'IU'ller. It so far has not been too much for her, but l a a.bou t to becom e :JO. This is what worries Ed so, he sees her in a. condttion unprecendented before in their lives. 'rhey utterly uncom plaining a.nd cheerful, but it is something that is plain to see that they are becoming more and more alarmed at what the future holds. When one arrives at a stage of actually not having a meal llhead, things are indeed desperate. nyone who in uires only casually into what oore's presence has meant in conservati on in Jey \ lest cou l d not fail to be impressed. lie is doing a grand job, he could do much better if he were not in this mesh of worry and alarm at his inability to provide for his family adecm.a.tely. Is there nothing we can do to see to it that som e of this worry ia relieved? I t ;5 the jobAworth more to us, I think we can all readily agree tha.t :lt iB, and that shou l d be done. Per.1Jonally, I had n o idea tha t thing s were as desperate as this. I bring it to you because it ia my d u t y as one who checks cond.i tions in s uthern areas, a n d that ; e have succeeded in laying such a s plendid folmda.tion in a area deserves better recognition. I realiz e the difficulties we are up against, and that it is hard to foresee the future, but t his thing is important t o the extent of sacrifi ce, and personally, I am ready to sacrifice if alleviation can be obtained. I k no w what h ard times are, "bu t I hav'n t yet been in the s traits outlined above.


-13I t ia desirable to institute any means possible to i nd uce a of loy a lty a nd p ride i n the s ervi ce of the w arden personnel. W e a gree that inter e s ted, hA.rd working and loyal men who believe that the organization they are working for ta e a an interest i n t h e m and s hows it, are a far b e t ter f orce f o r good results than m en who are clock watchers a n d wor k d.od.gers. So much i s perfect l y o bvious. While good s alarie s go far towarc bringing this a bout, there are o tl:)er means as well, and easier perhaps to accomplish. O ne thing is the matter of uniformity o f a ppear ance, and an accepted t y p e of dress whic h would be recognized as standi n g for the organisation establishing i t I do not mean a uniform in the accepted sense, but a simple similarity of app e arance of the wardens wherever t h e y may opera te, a nd so t hey can be recognized by and natives visitorsAas differing from the co wpunchers, conchs or dwellers who are their nei6hbors. It w ould seem to m e that it woulc l b e de sirable for a ward1:m to be required to purchase such an outfit w hich could be provid e d at very reasonable c os t to him. This of course, has reference particularly to those who are employe d the year round. Not that seasonal men should not fall in l i ne a lso, but they are the ones who arA seen oftener and by more 90ople. As to the outfit itself, g ood strong shirts of kakhi cloth would be sufficient, with troU&ers of the same shade. Two shirts and three pair of trousers woul d be sufficient. Shoes and headwear are more or less immate-rial. The shirts migh t have small atrap s running from the nec k to the shoulder. something just a little different from the ordinary work s hirt, and of good ruality. There should be some sort of identifying insignia, which might the s hape of a. triangle, o r circl e o f black cloth, u.pon which could be embroidered a white heron. Aroun d this could be delineated the words National A udubon Association. It would seem further desirable for the warden's locality to be stated, and such terms as K issimmee Division, E verglades Division etc etc., m i ght a ppear below the insignia which could


< -14-be worn at the left shoulder. At the cuff might appear small bare of some color, each bar to represent a year's service with the Association. I believe that the ado:ption of an outfit such as this would engender a. spirit of pride in the wearer, he would feel as if he really belonged to something and was a part of it. Of course, there would be timeR when it would be advisable not to wear it, but this would be at the discretion of the warden. When meeting visitors, attending any conference or gathering such as court, talks etc., he would certainly make a far better a ppearance that the costumes now worn by most of our men. The public would be impressed and so would the wearer. The cost of such an outfit s hould be small and the warden not burdened by purchasing it. It iii the wholehearted desire of the writer to see the warden force take a pride in the Association and themselves, and to feel that they are a part of an organization which is back of them and. their welfare. Any move made in this direction would pay dividends. Respectfully submittetl: Southern Sanctuaries.


! I WARDEN'S ANNUAL REPORT for National Association of Audubon Societies NOTE: This report should be filled out as promptly as possible after the close of the breeding season. Salary will not be paid until receipt of a detailed report. Name of arden Date >foY 3 t; Areas protected: list each separate colony (island, pond, swamp, etc.) and give lot3 cation (township, county or parish). z:.,.r(Pr--v ?77--..4..z;;:;:,__. s: e--e ...-,, l>'1'ah 0 Q QUESTION 1. Name all species of birds you protected, and give approximate number of old birds present in each separate colony. ud;t. --.:z:r-===-0 --(! .?-;_/ /c::ez ---,. .d _,,,,,_ a; t..J L & 11>.f}-:nt CU(-A17V'""&4'( Io&> ::i.s rr --/o)....,_


QUESTION 2. Were a normal number of young reared this year? If not give reasons. QuESTIOn 3. If damage was caused by the elements-storm tides, rams, etc.-state 0 0 z 0 QUESTION 4. Were the birds or their eggs disturbed by factors other than weather. -cd.e-1 QUESTIOn 5. Was there any increase or decrease in the number of old birds this year? What was the cause? QUESTION 7. On additional sheets give any notes of interest regarding the birds and recommendations for improvement of the sanctuary and warden service. "'""4 tr:l


.. ;1' J ANNUAL R E P 0 R T F 0 R 1 9 3 8 or The Supervisor Southern S anctua.:r.ies Sprunt, Jr ..


THE SANCTUARIE S Much of interest, not a little of anxiety and considerable accomplishment has marked the year in the southern sanctuary work There have been changes. additions, d _eletions and setbacks, but the writer feels assured, as this year closes, that the. Association has gained perceptibly in areas hitherto almost untouched. The Tyb e e Rookery was not m aintained this year, as was indicated in last year's annual report. After almost two and a half, the Santee i n coastal South Car olina was discontinued also. This area was set up and guarded by two all-year war dens because of the discovery thereon of the lTory-billed loodecker and the Carolina Paro quet. However, the stead y decline in these birds, or at least the failure to observe them on frequent trips, indicated that they ha.d moved out of this area, and it was thought well to concentrate the expense of these men elsewhere. Two spells of rese anch were indulged in this area, one in December 1937, w hen a group stUdied the ground eri tieally, and again in March 1938, !or a peri od of several days. The resulting inability to locate any of the birds was discouraging and the pressing need elsewhere demanded that the discontinuance be effected. The long dreaded Santee-Cooper Power Project was a pproved this year and went into effect, the money for a huge p ower development being granted by the Government. e feel sure that this will result in a detrimental manner on the lower Santee Basin, and will still enter strong pro tests against it, but whether the thing has progressed too far to stop, remains to be seen. This area seems to be a disappointment, but we have the satisfactio n of nowing that tried as hard as we could to esta.bUsh something there, and the great stretch of river swamp inTolved is simply too large !or a detailed study. It be that both the woodpecker and the quet may occur elsewhere along the Santee River, and if this turns out to be the case, protec-


c -2-tion will be instituted once more. Our other Car olina area, Buzzard Island in the Stono River, was in good con dition throughout the nesting season and a splendid crop of young were raise d there. Florida as, holds the sanctuary limelight, and there is much to be 1Ud about that state. Orange Lake Sanctuary in Alachua County, was discontinued There. were not sufficient birds there to warrant protection, at least by paid wardens, an d the general set-up there as regards personal matters between our last warden an d the previous one were such as to de cide it better not to have either. It was inspected and checked, but the the nee d was so much greater el1ewhere that it was felt un wise to continue this area tem porarily at least. Lake ashington Sanctuary was in effect as usual, but the great concentration at the St. Johns River Jams, which took place in 1937 to materilize this year. However he birds at the "old" rookery were in s plendid condition and did well. The Kissimmee Prairie was again highly successful. Warden Chandler was very much on the job, and had a number of visitors as well as office personnel to conduct about the area. Cranes, Caracaras, Burrowing Owls, Limpkins and Clossy Ibises made a good hatch. T he rookery of the latter s pecies at Red Light Beef in Lake Okeechobee, came off lOO'll> being guarded by Chandler night and da.v during the nesting season. It mig h t be well to state h ere that W a r den Chandler has now been taken on as a year-round warden, somethingwe have wished for a long while, and will now be active on the Prairie during the hunting season. The South-west Coast Patrol went fairly smoothly through the winter and spring, but changes in the personnel tooK place in the summer and early fall, due to resignations and other contingencies. The long spell of fire a n d drought militated heavily against rookery birds in this area du r i n g the who l e of the neating season, and few concentratione were located.


-3-Muc h time was spent in the Charlotte Harbor area during the s pring. while the winter was taken up with guarding roosts in the Ten Thousand section and Cape S a ble areas. A two man patrol is now in force on this coast, it is beinB tried as against the three men force which has been in force in r ecent years. Aerial sureys, through the courtesy of the U. s. Coast Guard and the Goodyear Rubber C o have been continued. These have been of, great value as formerly. The status of the Great vhite Heron has been entirely satisfactory and the s pecies has "come back" to a mar ked and very gratify ing degree. S hooting a l ong the Tamiami Trail has been much reduced this year, the co-operation of the state game wardens being helpful in this. It is still a dangerous thing along other highways of the south of Florida, but it is hoped that the state will wak e up to these in time. and govern them as well as the Trail has been patrolled during 1938. The Upper "eys have been inspected a.nd guarded regularly throughout the year, and much of information on the nesting of the Pigeon has been charted and filed. One of the ad a i tions to the sanctuary wor k this year has been the establishing of Edward M. Moore, formerly of Bull's Island and Charleston, s .c as the Association representatie at The Lower are thus included now as a sanctuary area, and kr. Moore has carried conservation into Aey est in a r emarkable way. li e has paid particular attention to the Cuban element which, hitherto, has been completely ignored. The effort to save the Key Deer has bulked largely in the wor k in the Lower .Keys this year, and that progres s ha1 been made with a difficult group, is undeniable. Mr. A. H. Hadley worked in ey est in Januray 1938 with the city schools. and made a most favorable i mpression. ey est is now linked with the Florida mainland b y motor road. the Over-Aeas Highway bei ng o pened to traffic in A pril 1938, tho ugh not of0


-4-ficially so until July 4th. Both the pri l and iay inspections b y the writer utilized the highw ay instead of the old ferries. is now about three and a half hours from M iami instead of all day. Naturally, this will increase tourist traffic tremend ously, and there will doubtless be some shooting from t h e road, as hap[)ens in so many parts of the state with tourists. Mr. Moore has been given room space in the .Key est Cham er of C ommerce, and literature is distributed, and info r mation dispensed from there, by him. I n Louisiana, the Mud Lumps colonies of Brown Pelicans enjoyed a success ful year under the guardianship of Warden Loga. A lO()J(i hatch was raised, outside the normal mortality i ncident in colonies of this type. No violations occured. The exas areas came off well. Spoonbills and Reddish Egrets had a s plendi d year. The Associatio n missed greatl y the prese nce and work of Mr. James J. Carroll of Houston, who died in February 1938. A memorial tablet was erected on the Second-Chain-of-Islands this last June i n his h onor.with a very impressive c e remony attended b y Mrs. Carroll, her three daughters, Dr. William Wrather of Dallas, C. Bissell Jenkins, Jr., of Charleston, s.c., Mr. J o hn H. Baker an d the writer. These islands ex hibited a fine colony of egrets, herons, spoonbills, and the other areas in the v icinity were all successful. Gre e n Island. was visited and studied as to grackle depredation by Mr. Tarleton Smith of Texas, acting with Warden Larson. A detailed report was rendered by the former, and the uestion of whether grackle control will b e instituted in area w ill b e settled by the Board of Directors this tall. There was a successful hatch of Reddish EgrAts this year, far in excess over the pitiful showin g of 1937. Warden Blanchard did a fine job in the Bnownsville area in hie roving work. He contacted many h unters, and did s plendid conservation work among the Mexican e lemen t somewhat anal gous to Mr. Moore's work among the Cubans 0


-5-of KJJy est, though not as intensive and instructive in many ways, in the very nature of the two cases and men. Blanchard was kept on for six months in the year, an d it is hoped that lufticient funds will be available in the future to hold him the year round. Stoppage ot injurious dredging in the Vingt'un Islands area was accomp-lished. this sea.on, and it appears that the channel through the T hree Islands area was not as detrimental as w e thought it would be. Thia channel is steadily silting u p e.nd !ewer boats are using it. The writer was joined on several trips by personnel from the New York office. Mr. Allen was with him for three weeks in Florida in January; of the Museum Comps. Zoology, Cambridge, Maas., Walsh, Grisoom Aa.nd Chamberlain of the Charleston Museun, worked in the Santee area with him in December. Mr. John H. Baker was in Florida with him, off and on, in March and Director James J. Murray was there at that time also. Mr. Baker was present on much of the Texas inspection during this year also. Director Desmond contacted in Florida during April. Messrs. Baker, Walsh and Peterson w orked with him in the Santee in the month of arch, accompanied by Mr. Ba yard Christy of Sewickley, Pa. This past year has seen more than any other, participation of the office staff in the southern areas. Lar e signs have been erected in strategic places in Florida, and these have accomplsihed much good, from all comments received. The Kissimmee Prairie region, the Tamiami Trail, the Cape Sable area and the whole of the Keys are e uip:ped with these signs now. Co-operation on the part of many individuals has helped greatly in the w ork of the year. The u. s. Coast Guard and Goodyear Rubber Co., have alreadu been mentioned. Messrs. Joseph Heiser, Irby Davis, and Judge O. F. Hartman rendered va.ulable service in Texas; The Florida Audubon Society, game off' ic and Capt. iestervelt aid.ed in lorida. .Mr. Chamberlain of' the Charleston Museum helped in the Santee area. 0


" -6-I t must be borne in mind that after every inspection trip, detailed re-ports have been sent to New York. These cover any and every phase of the sanctuary work a.nd go into the last detail. Therefore, if this seems rather generalized, it simply is because that detail would be repetition, as all phases of endeavor have already been covered in inspection reports. Following is a list of inspection trips made throughout the year: Locality Date Mileage Santee.Sanctuary Oct. 5, 1937 146 miles It Nov. 9, 1937 132 Nov. 30, 1937 120 ft Dec. 4, 1937 126 ti Dec. 8, 1937 120 ft It Dec. 11, 1937 120 Dec. 13, 1937 120 Dec. 29, 1937 129 ti Florida Je.n.5-26, '38 3909 Feb.3-18, '38 2578 Apr.4-14, '38 2545 It 202 1 Texas June 9-30 3 8 4412 Maine July 22-Aug. l 7 3335 Florida Sept. l'UJ3 Total miles travelled .!n. Florida on 1938 inspection trips .. 115'15 mi. Total .!.n Florid a year 1117(;, Again the writer wishes to express thank s and ap preciation for the con-sideratio n shown him at all times by the officials of this Association, and to say once more that he could desire no better co-operation than is given by all members of the New York office staff. Another year has shown the capability of Mr. Robert P. Allen as a sanctuary director, and his grasp on the whole situation is such that contact and explantations are always of the most pleasant and satisfactory types. S u pervisor Southern


EDUCATIONAL W 0 R K In following the accustomed policy of engaging in e ducational endeavor at every available op portunity, numerous chances presented them selves and were taken advantage of when possible. Many lectures were foregon e because the request for them interfered with scheduled field work:, but t his is unavoidable in the nature of t hings. Interest in this phase of conservation endeavo r is more marked tha n ever in the district where the writer is engaged, and that is taken as a most encouraging sign. Tho ug h a co mplete list of engagements i s given below, some comment might be m ade in regard to a few out-standing items. Two state A u dubon societies were addressed during the year, the Florida and Massachusettes Soc ieties; the Georgia Ornithological Society was supplied, as well as the Henderson (N.C.) Bird Club. The audience of the. Mass. Audubon Seo., gathering numbered in excess of seven hundred ( 7 0 0 ) and was held in the ball room of the Hotel Statler in Boston. The 1938 annual meeting of the Georgia Ornith. Soc,, was held in the Okeefinokee Swamp early in October, a n d the writer was a representative o f thi s Association at tha t gathering. The write r was present at the Audubon Nature Camp in Maine from July 28th. throu gh August 17th. Sessions were addressed on the sub ject of the Houthern sanctuaries, these talk s being illustrated with lantern slides. Numerous individual conferences wer e held with the enrollees on the situation; att e ndan c e of field trip s was participated i n and a general policy followed of making himself useful! As usual, m a ny wished to know something particularly about Florida birds, and such information was given as often as asked. Throughout the year, b y correspondence, this has been done with other and itineraries outlined to those wishing to see as much as possible of the Florida areas in a limited time. In writing the accustomed policy of maintaining contact with the local newspapers has bee n continued, and the Association's work has been k e p t before


Educational ork --2-the public as often as feasible. Though the text for the sanctuary bulletin was prepared in 1937, the work itself did not a ppear until this year, under the t itle BEAU11IFUL BIRDS O F THE SOUTHERN AUDUBON SANCTUARIES. It seem s to h ave been well received, at least judging by the variety of comments which have reached the writer, this is reasona le to suppose. Not having any figures on the number sold, this cannot be given. Special artciles have been prepared from t ime to time for EIIID-LORE, as we 11 as book reviews for that periodicd, as well as for the Bulletin of the Mass. Audubon Soc. A paper was prepared on the present status of the Roseate Spoonbill in this country t o be read at the annual meeting s of both the American rnithologists' Union ( \ ashington) and the National Asso. Audu b on Socs. (New Yor k). Ten radio arldresses were vTritten and delivered over the station ICSC Charl eston, S.C., during t he s pring of this year. One was given each week for that period, but these were discontinued throughout the summer because of the protracted absence of the 1riter from Charleston. Numerous short articles of scientific interest were prepared and published in THE AUK, the official organ of the A.o .u. Several special invitations to membership were sent out by the writer on t h e prepared cards iseued for this pittpose. Two of these accepted to the writer's k no wledge, but as all were requested to be sent dlr ct to New York, no report has been rendered by the de partment receiving them, and a. complete chec k cannot be given. There were fourteen of these invitations mailed. Three members were received as a result of a talk given at the St. John's Lutheran Church in C harleston on 'eb. 23rd. 1938 (this is t h e Church served for s ixty years by Rev. John B achman, the contemporary and friend. of Audubon). Thus, the writer is sure of at least five members procured during 1938, n othing to boast about, but simply as a record.


. Educational /ork--3List of engagements fulfilled during 1938 Place Date Mileage Ga. Ornith. Soc. Savannah Oct. 9, 1937 224 miles Bryn Mawr School, Baltimore Oct. 29, 13 7 tincluded i n Annual Meet) Garden Club, Mt. Pleasant,s.c. Nov. 3, 1937 15 miles Bird Club, Henderaon, N.C. Nov. 5, 1937 625 School, Johns Isl. s.c. Dec. 1, 1937 18 Public meeting, Kay Fla. .Tan. 14, 1938 (inclu. Jan. Fla. trip) Public Tavernier, Jan. 21, 1938 St. Andrews School, S.C. Feb. 4, 1938 7 .5 miles Mass Aud. Soc. Boston Feb. 12, 1938 1948 St. John's Church, Chas. S.C. Feb. 23, 1958 7 Garden Club, Run, s.c. Feb. 24, 1938 40 St. Andrews Society, Chas. Feb. 28, 1938 B P.T.A ... c. Mar. 1, 1938 85 ti Fla. Aud. Soc. Winter Park, Mar. 7, 1938 (inclu. Mar. Fla. trip) P.T.A. Chas. High Sch ool Mar. 22, 1938 5 miles Lions Club, Chas. s.c. 5, J.938 8 S.C. Econ o mic Soc. Chas. Apr. S, 1938 6.5 Amer. Legion, Chas. s.c. Apr. 13, 1938 6 Courtenay School, Chas. s.c. .A pr 4, l 93 8 6 Vocational School, M ay 5, 1938 6.6 Garden Club, s.c. May 7, 1938 130 Total groups addressed 21 Total miles 3146.1 Respectfully s ubmitted; !es.


. c .. S P E C I A L A C T I V I T I E S The following items are so classed sirnply because they do not aopropriately fall in with any other activities engaged in. They were done in line of the general work of the year. and explain themselves individua.lly. Oct. 22, 1937 Attendance upon the annual meeting of this Association in New York City. Mileage 1909 Nov. 15, 1937 Attendance upon annual meeting Amer. Ornithologists' Union in Charleuton, s .c. Dec. 12, 1937 Trip to McClellanville to take E.B. Chamberlain of the Chareslton Museum to Santee Sanctuary for special work with party engaged in research on Ivory-billed \ oodpecker and Carolina Paro cuet. Mileage 80 Feb. 14, 1938 Attendance upon Gam e Conference in Baltimore, Md. .. Mileage included on trip to Mass. Audubon Society speaking tour. Mar. 23, 1938 Trip to Bluefield Landing, Santee River, to Messrs. Walsh and Peterson of New York office staff, and put them on River for voyage down to Bluff Landing. Mileage 152 Mar. 24, 1938 Investigation in Santee Sanctuary with party from New York on search for woodpeckers and paroquets. Mileage 545 Apr. 12, 1938 Trip to Bull's Island with the Carll Tucker party. Mileage 63 May 11, 1938 Trip to Washoe Reserve, Santee Gun Club to check conditions in Egret RookP-ry as to effect of non-visitation policy employed for past sveral years. Mileage 108 Seven trips to Seven Oaks Plantation, Johns Island. to confer with Dr. John C. Phillips on Association business. Mileage 84 Total mileage these trips 29<41 miles Supervisor Southern Sanctuaries


-tJ ..., T R A N S P 0 R T A T I 0 N A s h a s been t h e custom during the sveral years, t here is given be-low a summary of the mile age cove r e d during the year of 1938. As formerly, there h a s b e e n no attemp t to include foot distances for more or less ob-vious reasons. Th ere is no w a y of arriving at an accurate figure, It varies so much on each trip tha t no average can be arrived at, and hence it is eliminated. The usual types of transportation have been employed throughout this year much as in former onea. T he writer did not use the Goodyear dirigible in 1938, flights i n i t being participated in by other members of the staff. Rail was empl oyed in atten dance on the A.O.U. and Audubon meetings and the trip to Boston and Baltimore in li'ebruary. As usual, thP. great preponderance of milAage is accomplished by a utomobile. Following is the summary: Water mileage......... 738 Railroad :3014 ......... .Airplane 1383 Au to mobile ,_.2.,,3 .... 5,..4i.lo5.__ __ Total 28680 miles Respectfu.lly submitted; Supervsor Southern Sanctuaries.


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