Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 2 Folder 10 : Alexander Sprunt, Jr. Misc.

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Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 2 Folder 10 : Alexander Sprunt, Jr. Misc.

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Audubon Florida Records, 1900-1970, Box 2 Folder 10 : Alexander Sprunt, Jr. Misc.
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Alexander Sprunt, Jr. Misc.
Audubon Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Florida
University of South Florida
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1 folder
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Box 2 Folder 10


Subjects / Keywords:
Audubon societies -- Diaries ( lcsh )
Ecology -- Florida ( lcsh )
History -- Gulf Coast (Fla.) -- 20th century ( lcsh )


The daily journals of Audubon wardens and statewide reports on certain sites and projects cover activities from 1900 to 1970, with most of the materials concentrated between the 1930s and 1950s.

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University of South Florida
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University of South Florida
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Resource Identifier:
032958557 ( ALEPH )
890709008 ( OCLC )
A47-00048 ( USF DOI )
a47-48 ( USF Handle )

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t ) ANNUAL REPORT of Alexander Sprunt, Jr. Supervisor Southern Sanctuaries National Association Audubon Societies for l 9 3 7


E D U C A T I 0 N A L W 0 R K Following the policy of former, educational endeavor has been accom plished whenever possible. Field work is constantly taking more and more of the percentage of time, and lectures have fallen off this year over those in 1936. Re uests for such things have increaaed over former years, and many have of necessity had to be refused. They came either at times when field work was scheduled, or were received after a return from a period in the field, and the date asked for already past. The interest and desire for talks on conservation is evidently quite prevalent, and the writer regrets that more of thia cannot be accomplished. The writer was present at the Nature Camp of this Association on Hog Island, Maine for some while this summer, viz., from July 23rd. to and including August 29th. Following the program of 1936, talks were made to each session of the i Camp, on the work of the so 11thern sanctuaries, these being illustrated by slides. The general subject of the south-eastern areas, with stress of Florida, was the subject of one talk and the Gulf Coast area, stressing Texas was the other. These two talks were given to each session, and seemed to be well received. Individual conferences were quite a part of the work, and many of the students had a variety of problems, on which they asked advice. any wished to know some-thing of the possibility of visiting these sanctuaries, the proper time of year and procedure to establish. Additional work was also done at Camp on the finishing of the manuscript for the forthcoming bulletin on persecuted species, to be published by the Associ-ation this fall. Conferences were had with Mr. Baker. corrections to text already written were made, and several new species covered by new material. The writer has continued his keeping of a photographic record of sanctuary inspections, and these have now been incorporated into two large albums. Both were taken to the Maine Camp this summer, and available for examination by


-2-the students. They evoked a remarkable amount of interest and comment. A mass of correspondence has been attended to throughout the year in regard to numberless phases of the work. bird identification, questions relating to the establishment of feeding stations. bird baths. etc. etc from many southern localities. Many have reouested itineraries for Florida trips. and all have been answered. The wardens entertained quite a number of visitors on their patrols, always with the understanding that their presence should never conflict with the regular routine duties. The practice of reporting sanctuary inspections trips to the local newspapers has again been followed, and the clippings are kept in a scrapbook devoted entirely to newspaper comments of Association work. Everything that has appeared in included in this scrapbook The writer has continued the writing of the department in the Charleston e w s and Courier, of Woods and faters, a nature col'Wllil which he has maintained now for nearly eight years, daily except Sunday. This frequently gives opportunity for bringing the work of the Association be-fore the local public. Scienitifc notes have appeared from time to time in The Auk, as worth while records mad. e themselves known. Distribution of literature regarding the Association has been done whenever opportunity or request arose. Several requests or skeak:lng engagements for the coming fall and early winter have already been received, and these will be filled i f possible. Co-operation with all other departments of the Aasociatlon has of course. been entered into from time to time. Help has been extended to the Hawk & Owl work by writing various articles, and supplying of local information. Artciles for BIRD-LORE from parties capable of presenting valuable material, has been solicited and progress made along this line. Much contact ha.a been had with representatives of the U. s. Biological Survey locally, notably the offcials of the Cape Romain Refuge near Charleston, where aid and advice have been asked for and given.


-3Following is the list of localities and dates where the writer was able to fill s peaking engagements during the fiscal year of 1937. Locality Date Charleston Garden Club Nov. 4, 1936 Ashley Hall School (Chas) Nov. 17, 1936 Augusta G arden Club, Ga. Feb. 28, 1937 College. R oc k H ill, s.c. Apr. 6, 19 3 7 } Cam den Garden Club, Camden fl 7, 1937 Audubon Nature Camp, Maine July-Aug. '37 Following were members secured. Affiliates with AssociationCharleston G arden Club Cam den Garden Club Augusta Gar den Club Indi vidualsC. J Lewis, Mia.mi, Florida John K abel, Dayton, Ohio Mrs. Boardman, Augusta, Ga. H. J. Slocum, Charleston, s.c. E A W illiams, Mileage 8 mi. 5 309 394 3232 Res pectfully .. Supervisor Southern Sanctuaries.


S P E C I A L I N V E S T I G A T I 0 N S The following trips were made as occasion arose, on matters hardly di-rectly connected with either sanctuary or educational matters, but which fall in line with the general aspects of the Association co-operative work. Each is descriptive and will explain itself. l. October 1936. Pittsburgh, Pa., and New York City. Mileage 2256.5 Purpose was to attend the A.O.U. and Audubon Association annual meetings. Papers were presented at each meeting on the work of the Sanctuary Dept. Various contacts made with many ornithologists and others engaged in conservation work. 2. Kov. 4th. and 13th. 1937 U.S. Coast Guard Base, Chas. Mileage 40 These trips were made to establish relations with the newly created Air Base at the Charleston Navy Yard, and to ask the Commanding Officer about flights over this region when necessary, such as surveys of the Santee by air. Cordial co-operation was secured. 3. Dec. 16th. 1936 Visit to E. E Murphy, Augusta, Ga. Mileage 156.4 This trip was made to secure the co-operation of Dr. Edward E. Murphey, one of the best ornithologists of the South, in contributing his excellent writings, both in prose and poetry, for BIRD-LORE. Plans were also made for lectures to the garden club of Augusta, and certain schools. 4. Jan. 19th. 1937 Bull's Island, S.C. 11/lileage 61.4 This trip was made at the request of the authorities of the Cape Romain Federal Refuge, in order to aid in the annual duck census carried on by the Survey. This was accomplished, the writer working with Edward M. Moore for the day among the p onds and marshes of Bull's Island. 5. Various dates. Seven Oaks Plantation, s.c. Mileage 99 These trips were made to the winter home of Dr. John C. Phillips, in order to discuss certain phases of the Association work. All of these had direct business with Asso., matters, either the discussion of Florida trips, reports on what was found there; Santee-Cooper project discus$ions etc. Other trips were made to Dr. Phillip's home through the season, these being more of a social nature. Total mileage on these trips amounted to 2613,3 miles. Respectfully submitted; Supervisor Southern Sanctuaries.


I I { T R A N S P 0 R T A T I 0 N As usual, various types of transportation have been utilized, covering all types as have characterized former y ears. N o attempt has been made to estimate foot mileage. It was thought at one time that a pedometer might be useful in establishing distances in various sanctuaries, such a s the Santee area in South Carolina, but no instrument was available that was anywhere n ear accurate. The table below gives accurate mileage as covere d by the types of transportation listed, and is not guesswork. It will illustrate the amount of varied travel which is calle d for in work o f this kind, and is a brief of the amount of work done in some ways V iater Dug-out Rowboat Outboard skiff Inboard motor C a.bin cruiser Air Goodyear Dirigible Douglas Amphibian Viking Seaplane Surface Atlantic Coast Line R.U. Penn sylvania R.R. Chevrolet automobile and others. Total Mileage by Types Water Mileage .... ....... ............... 1203.B miles Air It .... ..................... 1955.0 Railroad ......................... 1621 0 II Automobile ........................... 26207 0 Total ..... 30986.8. It Respectfully submitted; Supervisor Southern Sanctuaries.


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t. a 13082 g PPOINTMENT-0ATH AND STATEMENT S. L. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL WASHINGTON, D.C .January 31, 19 35. Mr. Alexander Sprunt, Jr., CAUTION! This letter, while evidencing an appointment as of the date thereof, is not to be accepted as a credential for operating. Any person approached by the holder is entitled, on demand, to view his regular departmental credentia l in the form of a badge or a current identification card. Bureau of Biological Survey. Sir: You are hereby notified that you have been appointed to the position of United States Deputy Grune Warden without compensation, in the Bureau of Biological Survey, ---You are hereby authorized to enforce the provisions of the ratory Bird Hunting Strunp Act and the Migratory Bird Treaty .a.Ct and regulations thereunder. You are required to take the oath of ofPice immediately, and fill out the personal history sheet, enclosed herewith, and return the same (through the Chief of Bureau) the Chief, Division of Appointments. You will report for duty in writing to the Chief of the Bureau of Biological By direction of the Secretary of Agriculture: Respectfully, Chief, Division of Appointments. Legal residence: South Carolina C.S. Authority: S -5598


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I II -TO: FROl: D KE LJ..EN Janu y 5 193? Subject : Qolo r Available for Bulletin #19 -a .f\plnte by Jac q s in b 0 Fu r t s in Ho ell --excell nt old bulletin --g ood and on sc. p l t v 2 v 3 --1a.. ditto a & b o.bove .....,.......,...,..........,....,..._.........,.......,.. with Great W"hita r:g rP-t 1 ? Lou1atnnn 8 Little Blue Hnron .._...9 GrePn He1 on eron -eron ood I bie n aubspec1 s \ rd' on und r l bove ( no other a plate 1 Jt3 by c ques b Fuertes poor, on .. snm p l t e etc. as listed nbovo I sEl[l]e tile.too s e.. & b r c a) in o 11 --exceL 1n old bulletin it rA, t 1h1t e o plate by Horsf 11, F.d. a e # 1 3 by J oques in (this ls 11fl1g t 1ctur_ eho n) f .}109 -pocr excel. specioo b plat by Horsfall, Ed .Len f 54 -fair c te by Fuertes in old bulletin --poor (Brewster' s not painted) a p lo. e by ue t e i n ol bull tin -sho o both phas s --poor a p l ate by J ncques in Ho ell -the fli ht picture. Th1a s .,, c1es fnlr b. plnte by Fuertes i n old bul-et1n ood pl t # 1 3 by J acques -the fl1 ,ht pic ture --oo b plate by Puertos i n o_d bull,tin, three p s s --poo plat b : Fur s in old bullotin -odki b plate b Horafo.ll, Ed. P. f '16e -r;ood ( no nzerts or Ant ony e) n plate 1 old bullet i n by uertes bad b pla P 18 e in Howell --poor n plate b y Fuerte in old bul. --excellent b plnt ,, 10 by a.cquon in o o ... l oor not nr, by J c ques n Ho.ell good Glossy Ib1Qn by ac quea in H 11 good 15. 7h1 te-f'noed IbisV 16. lh1te Ibis nothing a p l te 22 by J cquoa in Ho rell exce.l (1mm. aho in pl t 119 by J .1n Ho ell) b plat by Broe.a, Ed .Lea f 1 120 --poor


' i) .. -2nothing ). 8 ROeato a. plate # 21 by Jacques in Howell -fair ,,_,/' b. plate by Horsfall, Ed.Leat.# 74 --not gocXL lQ. Elaminrr;e --nothing


, I May 27, 1937 E ORANDUM TB: ET RSO FRO LLE Subject: New Plates tor Hero n Bull a 1 x n f'ollo 1!. by you : I t 1 a m y u erst t ha t a t least five and possibly pl tea 11 be ma. e tor the revised H e r on Bulletin. The eub j t 111 quir ri lnal p 1nt1 s to be ur 1 2 3 I n d 1t1on, B Pr m ecide t t an on 1 l te should n l y p euare o include the Ame1 c Egret, Louis1an H e r on in eat r et 11 t the y a r portray 1n the 1 te :from H o all' e b ook ( # 1 ) ls oul a late. e hPJl or! 1na.l paintings by Jacques, plat s from hlc h ere made fro 1 Ho. 111 a book and b l o cks f rom paint 1 s by Fuerte for t o l nal Heron bulletin s follo s : ? "uneric ret, Snm1y Egret, Louisiana H on Li 'ttle Blu Heron and t rd e Heron ( # 13 t om Ho ell) 8 Gro t White H ron, a H""ron rd1e Heron 1th adult and immature White Ibis in the c gro nd ( #19 from Howell) ffhite I b i s (in ( #22 from Hoiell) 10. Raddieh Egret ( t o -eolor ph.1.sea>, Little Blue Heron (three pluma es), S nowy E r t ( #1 Horon Bulletin) Thia covers all sp oles considered in the v1aed bulletin. Before b ,1nn1?1G o k on the ne pictures, you 111, of course, oh c k o ver this memo it Baker so as t o be certain that these 1natruct1ona a.r final. 7 1 R. P A 'I b ,...( .... I c 4( I -[


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. National Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals ins Bro adway, New York, N. Y The Future of American Wildlife Lies in the Hands of Our Children Your Club Number is Dear It gives us much pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your remittance of $ in payment of the fees of ad di-tional members of your Junior Audubon Club. The leaflets and buttons for these new members go out to you today. As interest in your Club is growing, we trust you are initiating many of the projects suggested in the reprint "Bird Study for Schools". In particular we hope that you are able to take field trips, and that a majority of the children will undertake projects at home such as the construction of bird baths, feeding stations and bird houses, the planting of shrubs and trees to attract birds, et cetera. Will you send us the names and addresses of other teachers who might be interested in forming Junior Audubon Clubs? A list of all the teachers in your county would be welcome and helpful. Very truly yours, JOHN H. BAKER Executive Director


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BI R D CALE.ND AP\. National Association of Audubon Societies For the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals 1775 Broadway, New York, N. Y The Future of American Wildlife Lies in the Hands of Our Children Your Club Number is Dear It gives us much pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your remittance of $ in payment of the fees of addi-tional members of your Junior Audubon Club. The leaflets and buttons for these new members go out to you today. As interest in your Club is growing, we trust you are initiating many of the projects suggested in the reprint "Bird Study for Schools". In particular we hope that you are able to take field trips, and that a majority of the children will undertake projects at home such as the construction of bird baths, feeding stations and bird houses, the planting of shrubs and trees to attract birds, et cetera. Will you send us the names and addresses of other teachers who might be interested in forming Junior Audubon Clubs? A list of all the teachers in your county would b e welcome and helpful. Very truly yours, JO'HN H. BAKER Executive Director


ORDER Turkey vulture, S i t (l'R s) Black vulture, S R s White-tailed kite, A Swallow-tailed kite. S R s Mississippi kite. Sit s E. goshawk, Wit [W. goshawk]. w Sharp-shinned ha wk, PR Cooper's ha wk. Pit E. red-tailed hawk, P i t Krider's h awk. Cns W. red-tailed hawk, TV Harlan's hawk. TV N. red-shoulde r ed hawk. SR (PR) Florida red-sh ouldered hawk, SR s )(.Broad-winged hawk, S R Swalnson's hawlt, American rough-legged R Ferruglnous rough-leg, Cas [Harris's hawk]. sw Golden eagle, WV N. b ald eagle, l'Jt (WV) S. bald eagle, PR s M a rsh hawk. TV ( R ) (WR) VAmerlcan osprey, S R Prairie talcon. Cas Duck hawk, R E. pigeon hawk, TV (WR) Richardson's pigeon hawk, Cas )

Family SturnicJae Starling, J,R } ,nmily Virconidae [Blac k-c-avped vireo], sw V>'hlle-eyed vireo. Hit Bell's vireo. RR yYellow-throa ted vireo. SR Blue-headed v ireo. 'fV \/Red-eyed vireo, SR Philadelphia vireo, TV c vE. warbling vireo, S i t Family Com11so f hl;v11idae Rlark and while warbler. SR Prolhonotary war b ler. s F.walnson's warbler SR i;tC Worm-eating warbler. RR Golden-winged warbler. TV R ne) Blue-winged warbler, SR Brewster's warbler. ('11H Lawrenre s warbler. Cns B3<'hmnn's warbler. Rlt s warbler. TV Or ange-crowned warhler, TV Nashvill e warbler TV N. pruln warhler, [S. l a warbl erl. !-'!<' yellow wnrhler. FH. Alaska. yellow warh1i:>r, A warbl e r TV Cane i\'TR.y warbler, 'l'V e B l aC'k-throated bl11e wnrbler. TV Myrlie wnrbl e r TV (Wit s) Bla<'k-throntel'Chestnut-slded warbler. 1'V (SR el R::ty-breasted w:i rhlC'r TV e Blark-poll warbler. TV N. nine warbler. TV P s) J{irtland's w:irhh>r, f' 1R N. prairie wnrhler, Sit s '" pal m W"'rbler, TV .,,O,enblrd. SR N. water-thrush, Cns e Grinnell's water-thrush. TV /Louisiana SR v Ilt Eurovean tree sparrow, PR e Fnmn)' I rtrriLln e Bobolink. TV (SR n ) -IE. meadowl ark, S R (PR) S. meadowlark, FR se W meadowl ark, R w (PR w) Yellow-headed b lackbird, S R n & w E. red-wing, PR s. S R n Gi ant red-win g \VV Thick-blllecl red-wing, \VV w vorchard o r iole, S R ""Bal timo r e oriole, S R [ Bullock's oriole]. w Rusty blackblrcl, TV (WR e) Brewer's b lackbird, TV V'Bronzed g rackle R (PR s) E cowbird, S i t (PR) F amily Thru.upido.e Scarlet tanager, SR vSummer t a n ager, S R Family Fringillidae E cardinal, Pit Rose-breasted g rosbeak, S R Black headed grosbe k. Cus w E blue grosbeak. R s [vV. blue grosbeak]. sw Indigo bunting, SR L azuli bunting, Cas Painted bunting, SR s Dlc kclssel, S R E. evening grosbeak. W V n E. purple finch, W R Canadian pine grosbeak. WV n [Gray-crowned rosy fin ch], nw Common redpoll. \YV n N. pine slskln. W R VE. goldfl n c b Pit [Pa l e goldfinch]. 'v Red crossblll WV (WR) [Bendlre's crossbllll. w White-winged c rossbill. WV n Green-tailed towhee. A )(Red-eyed towhee. SR (PR ) (Alabama towheel, se Arctic towhee, WV w Lark bunting, Cas w E. savannah sparrow. TV e W. savanna h sparrow Cns E grasshopper sparrow, TV e \V. grasshovper sparrow, SR Baird's sparrow. T V Leconte's sparrow, TV (WR s) ,V. IIenslow's sparrow. TV (SR n & w) Nelson's s p arrow, T V El vesper svarrow. Sit n&w, 'VR s E. lark soarrow. SR Bnc-hman s soarrow. SR s [\\'hfte-wlnged juncol. w Ria le-col ored junrn. '''R i"hufeldt's Junco, Cns Montana Junc o. W V F.. tree sparrow. R W. tree sparrow. '"V w -IE. chippi n g s p arrow, S R C lay-colored sparrow, T V ....IE. field sparrow, P R s f";R n W. field sparrow. w sparrow. TV (\VR w ) \Vhlte-rrowned s p arrow, TV ( \VR s) GamheJ's svarrow. \\TR w V"Whtte-throate1. TV n, WR s E fox sparrow. TV n. \ V R s Lincoln's sparrow. TV !WR w) i ,;. (SR n) :Mississippi son g svarrow. W R (SR n ) D:ikotn. V nw longsvur] '\V L a pl a n d longspur, \\' V n l o ngi;our]. n w Rmith's J ongspur, TV Chestnut-collared 'VV E. snow bunting, W V n R udolf Ilcnnltt D epartment o f Z oolog,., Unive rsity of Jllay, 1037 Audubon S o c i e t y of l\lissom i. Leafle t N o 4 POC K E T LIST OF l\flSSOURI BIRDS Condensed from the "Check-list of the Birds of Missouri" by Rudolf Bennltt (Univ. i\Iissourl Studies, Vol. VII. No. 3 1933) with additi o n s and changes base d upon new Information to May l, 1937. S t anrlnrcl ponula r n a mes according to the A. O U. Check-list, 1931. F amily nnmes listed only for ORDER PASSERIFORMES; e lAewhere. separation Into families Indicated by spaces. The ANSERIFORMES and FRINGILLlDAE are divide d into sub-families. Season a l S t atus: P R -permanent residents. SR-summer residents. S V-surnmer visitants, usuall y from the south in late summe r. \Vltwinte r residents. \ VV-winter vtstt ants, usu ally f rom the north during severe winters. TV-transient visitants in spring and f all. Cn.s--casual, 1 e of v ery infrequent occurrence, usually in t r a nsit. A-accidental. i. e .. entirely fortuitous. f a r from the usual r ange Sym b ol s in p a r e ntbescs indicate the seasonal status of a few individuals -introduced species. Distr i buti o n in Missouri: Letters ( s e n w etc.) f o llowin g the symbol for season a l status indicate the section of Missouri in which the bird ore dominantly occurs. In the absence of suc h letters, the symbol applies to tbe entire State. ;ify1>0t heticul list: Birds Identified near Missouri and of possible occurrence here are listed i n b rackets. Accomvanying letters ( n e. sw, etc.) inclica te general distribution outside Missouri and also the section. of Missouri In which the bird sboul d be most carefully watcbed for. Birds e x tinct in Missouri are omitted. For more accurate accounts see Widmann. 1'Prelimlnary Catalogue of the Birds of Missouri" (Trans. S t Louis Acad. Sci., Vol. XVII, No. 1, 1907) Harris, "Birds of the K ansa s City Region" (ibid., Vol XXIII, No. S 1919); and Bennltt's "Check-list." ORDER G A VIIFOR)JES Common l o on. T V Lesser loon, T V w Red-throated l oon, Cas ORDE R C OLUlBlFOIBIES Holboell' s grebe, Cas Horned pebe, TV Eared grebe. TV Wester n grebe, C as Pied-billed grebe, TV (SR) ORDER PELECA N I FORMES White p e lican, TV E. brown pelican A Doubl e crested cormorant, TV (SRs) [Mex lean cormorant], s wa t er-turkey, S R s Man-o'-war bird, A ORDE R C J C O NHFORMES Great blue h eron. SR n, TV s W ard's heron S i t s American egr e t. S R s. s v n Snowy egret, SV s (Reddi s h egret). s Louisiana h eron, S V s .Lltlle blue h eron. S V (SR s) V E green heron, S R .../B lack -crowned nlgbt b e r o n Sit Yellow-crowned night h e r o n S V s, ( R s) American bittern, S R E. least bittern, S R Wood Ibis, S V s (E. glossy Ibis). se W'hlte-faced glossy Ibis, Cas While Ibis, A [Roseate spoonbill] s O RDER ANSEIU:FOI UIES Whistling swan, '11V Common Canada goose 'fV (WI{) Lesser CC\na.4.a. goose. 'rV Jl utchins's goose, TV [American bra n t]. n e \\".hite-fr onted goose. TV Lesser snow goose, TV Blue goose, TV Fuhous tree duck, A Comm o n m a ll ard, TV (WR) (, Rn) Red-legged black duck, TV (Wit) Common black duck, TV (Mottled duck). s Gadwall, TV Euro:r>ean widgeon, A Baldpate, TV American pintail, TV (\VR s) Green-winged teal. TV (WR s ) Blue-winged teal, TV (SR n) C inn amon teal. Cas Shoveller, TV (SR n) Wood duck, TV (Sit) (WR s) R eahead. TV Ring-necked duck, T V Canvas-back, TV Greater scauv duc k TV /( Lesser scau p duck, TV American goldeneye, 'fV ( W it) Barrow's goldeneye, 'VV n Buffle-head TV (WR) Old-squaw, WV n W harlequin duck, WV n [Pacific eider). nw (King eider] n v;;rhite-winge d scoter, \\' V n Surf scoter. \ VV n American scoter, \\' V n Ruddy duck, TV Hooded merganser, TV

, I



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NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY Founded 1905 ... Dedicated to Conservation of Wildlife, Plants, Soil and Water and Its Relation to Human Progress National Headquarters: 1130 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, New York




Charleston, s.c. July 29, 1959 Dea r Mr S prunt: I have your letter of July 24th asking for heron-ibis p o pulation figures at the Drum.. Island rookery this y e ar. I aade no thoroug h study of the p o pulation at the rookery, b u t I am happy to give y ou .my obse rvations a n d popula tion "guess ti.mates" mad e on four trips to the island. I think the best way t o h a ndle this chore is by dates and s pecies. In this way y o u will b e able to get a b etter picture of the entire s eason and can note the population changes from d ate to date. 2 8 America n E g ret, 4 00-450 n e s ts. Black-cro w n ed N i g h t Heron, a p prox. 100 nests. ( These t w o species have been nesting a littl e earlier each y e ar. The y now b e gin nesting on Drum Island almo s t three weeks earlier than they did six y e a r s a g o.) 35 White .. Ibis, 11 Glossy Ibi s and a f e w s.malle r herons c ircled o verh ead during this visit. A pril 19 -White Ibis, a pprox. 2,500 nests L ast y e a r this species number e d 80-100 pairs and nested i n a restricted area on the island. This y e a r t h e y have s h o w n an astoundi n g increase and s prea d a l l ove r the i sland. l Glossy Ibis, app rox. 8 0-100 nes t s This is about the same number of this species as noted l ast year. No increase. Howe ver, last y e a r the Glossies nested in a small colony o n o n e end of the isla nd. This year the y have scattered. Snowy E g ret, a p prox. 4 00 nests. Louisiana, a p prox. 4 00 nests. Littl e Blue, a pprox. 200 nests. A pril 2 5 Cattl e E gret, 25-30 nests. May 11 -This is double the number of nests found last year. Yellow-crow ned Night Heron, 15 nests. This double the number o f nest s found last y e ar. W hite Ibis a p p e a r to be t ak i n g over the island. A number of new nests noted since last trip. hite Ibis still incr$asing LarB e portion of nests holding young but many new nests note d with 1, 2 or 3 eggs. Smaller herons h a v e been forced to outer fringes of colony. Vhite Ibis o n this date appe a r to number between 6,000 and 7,000 birds. a n y nests have been built on top of s maller herons' nests. As many a s 11 nest s noted in on e salt water cedar.


-2I am sorry I c an't o ffer a ny information on the Blake Santee colony for I missed that one this year while doing som e field work in the northwestern part of the s t ate. But I h ave heard, as you, tha t the Glossy colony there was larger than previously. A small White Ibis c olony of a bout J O pairs w a s found in the f a r reaches of Penny Dam backwater t his season. N one were noted i n t h e o l d c olony in 's. I hop e th is information will b e of aid t o you in your research. If there a r e other questions which co m e to mind, I will be only too g l a d to answer i f p o ssible. With best regards, I a m Sincerely, r;:=s Erne s t Cutts




NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY f?ej ea r c h 'JJe p a rlm enl SEP 2 5 1959 Founded 1905 ... Dedicated to Conservation of Wildlife, Plants, Soil and Water and Its Relation to Human Progress National Headquarters: 1130 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, New York


SURVEY OF NORTH AMERICAN WADING BIRDS Outline of SEecies, PurEose, Methods, etc. :::= i..._ 1 List of Species (1) Great Blue Heron and subspecies ( 2) Great White Heron (and WUrdemann's Heron) ( 3 ) American Egret 4) Snowy Egret 5) Reddish Egret (6) Catt.le Egret ( 7) Louisiana Heron (8) Little Blue Heron (9) Green Heron (10) Black-crowned Night Heron (11) Yellowcrowned Night Heron v--(12) W ood Stork (13) Eastern Glossy Ibis 14) White-faced Glossy Ibis (15) W'--ite Ibis (16) Roseate Spoonbill 2. Purpose of Study Tl--e purpose of the wading birds s t udy is to assemble all available publisred and unpublished records of these species in a compre hensive, up-to-date report; to include reports on the occurrence, breeding, spring migration, swrrner dispersal, winter range, etc. (distribution) and to map this infonnation in accurate detail, as a permanent record and for discussion and analysis. Included also will be a record of the 'history of breeding sites, and remarks as to the cause of desertion if known, in the case of sites no longer occupied. Data on numbers should be added w'hen reliable figures are at hand. t'he long range purpose of t'his study will be to bring together exact information in a comprehensive form on the past and present distribution and status of the species concerned. From such information the conservation needs of each of these birds will then be readily apparent, and future plans for their adequate protection and preservation can be based on sound fact. 3 Methods


J 1 t Wading Birds Study 2 ( (Methods) (a. Sources) The existing literature will have to be covered ttoroughly. R.P.A. has a complete file of Audubon Field Notes, and will be responsible for extracting all data from ttis publication, as well as assembling a file of the names (and mailing addresses when available) of all contributors. Alex Sprunt, Jr., will go through all literature in his personal library and such -publications as are on file in the Museum and elsewhere Within reach. Ti-e librarian at Audubon House may be able to help with other periodicals not available to either Allen or Sprunt; otherwise, some other arrangement will have to be made for obtaining this data. All information and data will be placed on 3"x5" index cards (see sample cards attached), each card bearing the name of the species concerned at the top, for ready reference and filing. As a large number of cards are assembled they will be sent by parcel post to R.P.A. for mapping and cross-indexing. In addition to the literature, both investigators will obtain all possibl e data of an unpublished nature from such reliable sources as are known to them, by correspondence or personal interview. Allen will likewise"the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and similar agencies in an effort to obtain data on wading bird colonies from their files and reports. Yet another source, of great value in reviewing the historical background, will be Audubon Warden's Reports and unpublished field reports. A llen has many of these on hand; others will be on file at Audubon House. (b. Details Wanted) In writing cooperators we should request as much detail regarding status and habitat as can be supplied. It will be of value to know the vegetation types represented in nesting, roosting and feeding locations. As for status, if a species has increased or decreased in a given region, this fact should be made clear and known or possible reasons stated. Perhaps it will be a wise policy to begin with a modest request from each cooperator --a list of wading bird colonies known to him, for example --and follow-up with additional requests for more details, as the individual situation seems to warrant. (c. General) is merely a tentative outline and we can rearrange it to suit our needs as we go along. The main thing right now is to get started on the literature and to make a beginning with our list of cooperators and their addresses. Once the literature has been covered, these cooperators will be our most waluable asset in this study, and we will want to build them up and enlist their enthsiastic assistance as we move along. Tavernierl Florida May 26, 1'157 R.P.A.


AUDUBON ROBERT P ALLEN Research Associate NATIONAL SOCIETY Telephone: ENright 9 -2100 Box 205 Tavernier Florida Founded 1905 ... D edicated to Con s e r vat ion of W il dlife Plants Soil and Water and Its Relat ion to Human P rogress




Dear Niglit Heron: Box 205 Tavernier, Florida August 22, 1957 Enclosed is a summary of the American Egret and former nesting sites known to us as of this date. I have assembled this so as to Show us where our gaps may be found. And these be fairly obvious1 W e have almost of recent value from Louisiana, and neP.d current nesting reports from many regions. Perhaps t,.,is list will you to see wnere we stand on this species and with it in you may find it easier to keep after correspondents in the gap areas. I nave a carbon copy of the summary. Also, herewith are a few more names and addresses for your file. Letters to each of them may bring in further information. Although the American Egret file is incomplete, these figures are of interest. Total Number of Active (1956/57) Colonies Reported ------------45 Total Pairs -----2417 U.S. & Canadian Colonies that are either Inactive or Unreported ---213 Sites Inactive Status Since 1940 ----23 Sites Inactive Status During 1920's-1930's-40 Sites Destroyed or Inactive Before 1910 -------------------------30 Sites Known to be Destroyed by Developments(housing,fa:nns, lumbering,groves,airbase, etc.)-------11 Sites Deserted Because of Drainage and/or Drought ------------------------24 Sites Deserted Following Disturbance (snooting,etc.)------29


Mr. Alexander Sprunt, Jr. 2 -August 22 ,1957 Ot'her "lost" sites were deserted or destroyed from unknown causes. Of course figures are of no real value until we have entirely ex'hausted our sources. Many more nestinggroups may be turned up and t'he currently active status of ot'hers made known to us. It does look as if t'h e total population may prove to be alarmingly low? Can t be certain as yet. On my map t'he most startling situation is t'he number of deserted sites in Florida, many of w'hic'h (in Everglades National Park) were heavily populated by numbers that a ppear nowhere else at this timeo Can t'h e species continue to increase and prosper with out t'his backlog of large Florida colonies? Wliet' "er or not tlie species returns in numbers to Florida sites remains to be see n Restored nesting and feeding habitats may not materialize, at least without a great deal of help in tlie form of artificial water-level control devices. All of which is certainly a very big unknown as of t'his writing. So muc'h for now A good rain early this a m has c o oled us off a bit. Jo'hn Davis doing fine. But it is still early daysl Our verra best to you and Margaret. As ever, enclosures Robert P Allen


Dear Night Heron : Box 205 Tavernier, Florida August 23, 1957 T receive the Flor ida Naturalist and 'have already written John Storer about t,.,e reported nesting of Wood Ibises (pardon me, Storks? ) in the San Luis Valley in, of all places, Colorado. I 'haven t even the first occurrence record for Colorado,,t at I can recall, at least in recent years, but t'here is a record in Bent of two near Denver, August 30, 1902 And that' s a long way from ti..,e San Luis Valley, which lies just above the New Mexico line and gives birth to the headwaters of the Rio Grande River. A line from Irby Davis, received today, states that 'he hasn' t even seen a Wood Stork in his region since 1952 However what John Storer says, in the Naturalist, is "we learned of Wood Ibis nesting, etc. A pparently 'he didn' t see them himself. Anyway, we' l l know in time. Meanwnile your cards co vering Caw-Caw Swamp (1885) and yourown Penny Dam (1928) observation seem to establis'h at two Sout Carolina breeding records. Rig,.,t? As for tne Louisiana records -4 sites 1908 and 1918 seem definite enough Lowery appears to think but I 'll write him for his opinion. Replies on the Wood Stork letter are coming in wit'h every mail. Not1.,ing startling t'hus far. Henry Stevenson seems to imply that there might be a small colony or two in nort ern Florida, but adds t'hat he doesn' t know of any such. Maybe we'll manage to arouse enougn interest to dig one out. Thanks for t'he batch of data received (and duly carded, mapped and filed) today. Good stuff, all of it. Some of these "heron nuts" tor s,,,ould it be "rookery nuts"?) are going to be a tremendous help. Your plan for checking T e Season are swell. Handle Milby with care% Pulling t,.,e "Pink Curlew" out on t,..,e ways Monday aom. Will be ready for t'he spoonbills when t ey s'how up Our exceeding best to you and Margaret. Yrs Robert P Allen


Box 205 Tavernier, Florida September 4 1957 Dear Nig""t Heron: I ve finally gotten around to tle wood stork mat rial again, after a necessary session w orking o n t""e boats. Had t e Pink Curlew hauled and w ran into a number of unexpected difficulties. Nothing serious, but it required some deciding, etc. All o k now. Your last set of cards, etc., are excellent. I am as baffled as you about the lack of notes in t""e Auk, but I reckon it's more oversight or neglect than anything else. However it could be the relatively few spots on a map of tne U S w""ere they can be seen, especially as a breeding species. If it comes to t at, I suppose that you and I could run over to Louisiana next spring and maybe fly over some of those inpenetratable swamps of Lowery's% How' s tat for a word? see happens in the meantime Aren t there anv otner field men in that state? Glad to know wi...ere Salt Lake Valley is (wasl) I guess that colony can be discounted. Had a card from Sandy and will look for him here around the 17th. Must now tackle a veritable mountain of Wading Bird questionnaires, returned with surprising promptness b y USFWS refuge managers. Some good stuff in them Best to you both. Yrs.


NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY r:Jjd&fvmwh 1180 ROBERT P. ALLEN Research Associate 28 Telephone: ENright 9 Box 205 Tavernier, Florida September 26, 1957 Dear Nig'"'t Heron: We've been so busy around here t at I've '"'ad little c'hance to keep up wit my letter writing. Jo'hn Davis has been finis,,.,ing work on t e boats, in preparation for t'"'e winter's work and Sandy has been giving me a hand in t e office. So, at any rate, gettin' cotched up! Today, unless t,...,e weat'h er worsens, the t,.,ree of us are going out over ti..e "Spoonbill Routett. Ti,, ere are at least 10 pinks gathered at Cowpens, and using the P1antation Slough for We may find others at some of the other nesting sites. As I believe you know our winter field work here wit"' the pinks will be concerned witn locating and mapping --exactly --all feeding sites on the main keys, so as to determine t eir relative importance and status as real estate. certain number of t,,.,ese must be preserved as is, if possible. flamingo Collier, et al. w""at'"'is Next w eek, while I run over to Nassau on business, Sandy will make a -tour up through t'"'e Lee, Hendry, etc. region clecking on wood storks And to t'"e big lake to talk wit Glen and see green snail study plots are like. Sometime in between and betwixt, I'll find time to go over my wading bird data and let you know just now I stand, to date. N o .. wood storks in the entire Everglades Park area as of yesterday (Robertson), but some unknown 'hundreds scattered around Collier to Hendry region. From all accounts received to date it may be t at tne two or three t ousand in Florida are tne biggest lot to be found in the entire U S o Let's nope more turn up elsewhere? Regards to you and Margaret. It's great having Sandy ""ere I only wish it could be permanent. Yours, Founded 1905 ... Dedicated to Conser vation of Wildl ife Plants Soi l and Water and Its Relation to Human Progress Robert P Allen


AUDUBON ROBERT P ALLEN Research Associate NATIONAL SOCIETY Telephone: E Nrigh t 9 -2100 Box 205 Tavernier Florida Founded 1905 ... D e d icate d to Cons e r v a t ion of W i ldlife Plants Soil and Water and Its Relation to Human P r ogress


Dear Nig'ht Heron: Box 205 Tavernier, Fla. May 29, 1958 After consultation with your son we decided to send t'his to Arizona rat'he r t an risk missing you in ci-.arleston. Enclosed is yo u r copy of t'he Miami News story. W e t'houg'ht t at Williams did a good job, overall.-rcion't know w'hy a copy oft e series-wasn't sent to you unless he was off in some ot'her part of t'he state on an assignmento T'hey send 'him off a good dealo Your letter wit'h report of t'he flig'ht over Caw-Caw, etco received. -Excellent! And t'he way you 'have made up t'he cards is very 'helpful. Many t'hanks; Will probably 'have some questions later on w'hen I 'have a c ance to enter all t'his in t'he 1958 record and distributi onal map we are now working o n Getting some fine cooperation from many quarters now and t'he 195 reco r d o ug'ht to be rea s ona l indicative as to bot'h status and distribution o f at least our two major subjects, t e wood stork and t'he egret Sandy's Louisiana trip payed off very well, wit'h a dditional dividends in the form of furt'her reports still to come in. I must write Benny as to expense accounts and will see w'hat arrangements t 'hey want to make regarding bot'h you and Sandy o Of course you must 'have funds for sue t'hings as needed aerial surveys and for office sup plies, etc. Will let you know w at 'he says. I may 'have to go to Inagua in late June and not return until mid-Julyo Soyour visit down 'here for conference s'hould be after t'hat, eit'her late July or early August No word from Glenn, and I never see 'his "reports", w'hic'h are probably perfunctory any way. However Costi and Ligas flew the Lake on May 20 and cov.ered Kings Bar Halifax Bank, etc. Nothing startlingo Only some 300-350 pairs of Amer. Egrets all as of t'hat dateo Vl'hile you are w:way we will discuss W'hat you can best do to 'help wit'h correspondence and so on and send you a list of names, letters, etc., W'hic'h will be awaiting you on your return from Old Mexico and t'he Wild West. Best to Margaret and to Jo'hn Henry And have a wonderful trip. i. /3? FWJi ((Jv(/1)


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Box 205 Tavernier, Fla. June 17, 1958 Dear Night Heron: Sandy has probably written you about his new home! It1s a very nice little place and only a stones throw away from us. At t he moment he and I are setting up our schedule for the next few weeks --he on wood storks (Fellow Wood Storks, that isl ) and I to I nagua for a flamingo check I won1t be back until July 9th. We1ve been talking about how y o u might help our "war effort" and there seem to be two fields o f endeavor in which we nead assistance at this time. One is i n the end less chore of combing through the existing literature f o r significant data. So f a r w e ve done littl e or nothing --chiefly t h e latter -with The Auk. You might cons ieer beginning right back at the earliest issue available to you up there. Als o Ornithologist & Oologist, those issues you've not checked as yet. tells me the Museum has a file of the Ibis. We need any and all reports therein o f Wood Stork occurrence and breeding in the Western H emisphere outside of the U S I t might a lso be possible to find notes on this same subject elsewhere, in Amer.Mus. publ ications, Carnegie Mus. publications, or elsewhere. I had likewise thought of writing people who have worked and collect ed in South America for comments, sug gestions (includin g the names and addresses of ornithologists down there) as to Wood Storks in Middle and South America Do anything along these lines that occurs to you. In checking through the literature, remember that we are in the process of assembling a c ard-file bibliogr aphy on the wading birds. It will help to k eep these according to a standard method, and I1d sug gest the following form: RALPH, C.JOHN AND CLEMENT L. RALPH 1958. Notes o n the !resting of Egrets N e a r San Rafael, Calif. Condor, 60: 1 : 70-71 And so on But more or less i n the ab ove form The second need is to find ad4itional wading bird cooperators, especially in states and regions where we have poor representation. On this we have some idea s that will require letter-writing, a job you can certainly handle! However, this will require a personal conference, and we can take it up when you are here in August I f that1s o k We have the co mplete cardfile of cooperators here, as well as a map of the u s showing the present coverage. 11Alex --What last Nov.'? or so later, Ivan Tomkins appends theis note to a recent report: do yo u think of collecting 5 Long-billed Dowitchers with one shot And again in May 1958 I counted 1)8 Stilt Sandpipers, and a day 140 Hope the Mexican trip was a big success. and Margaret and say howdy p artner to John Henry l Our best to you Yours


NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY Re:Jearch ':J)eparlmenf Ju1y 10, 1958 Dear Heren: Back from a hot but interesting trip te Inagua. Beth Reger PetersGn and Bob Murp"y were wit" me and we had a fine time of it, as you can imagine. I've been up things since ge tting back, and preparing a full repert for Je"n, went eff to "im in yesterday's mail. Sandy has been nort" to or eur wood stGrk colonies with Roger (the avid photegrapher) and new is back here (Sandy, that is --I that Roger found his way home!). And we are working on our wading birds material. So tar about38f or our last questionnaires have been returned for 1958. Will go over this with you w'i.en you are liereo At tlie same time will be interested in hearing about yeur Mexican adventures! along wl'len convenient. Early Au.gust will be tine. But let me know a head. I no pressing correspondence rig"-t now, but will have s to leave you ""''en you are here. In the mean tiae it will be te dig away a t references in the literature. Except fer the Snewy and we have very little ref er ence material in our files en the herons. From a quick flick threug'i my cards it appears that you went back in the Auk as far as at least 1920. And in the Oelegist to at least Our cellective best to bot" ef you, and let us knew w'ien y e u will be &own. Yrs. FIAl.t, Founded 1905 ... Dedicated to Conservation of Wildlife, Plants, Soil and Water and Its Relation to Human Progress National Headquarters: 1130 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, New York


NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY k-I.//# ffet.,.., -..... /...,,.,,._ Jly.1. ,4--/ t.a. ./, -z-k_, .44' (--e._ ?tA)?rM.c.-.. -..,.e.. .....--(2,0()0 -a,f'T' ly.J. a-....-c.r) 7 ,/ -. .a---u. .m'! a/-;;1-.137. ./ Founded 1905 ... Dedicated to Conservation of Wildlif Pl e, ants, Soil and Water and Its R I National Headquarters: 1130 Fifth A e at1on to Human Progress venue, New York 28, New York


o runt, r oscent n 44, c O c S t: < ..-cmo i:. te Ix. Dl o "ti-J 1., s "t c:., He ropliec t lo of i ory-bi ed U }MVe r:: th vc. 1 iuni, Fl,,.. U r l ?nc cr1 o s -'; \1:1 f it is a fact, c "be hol ul t C" l to t':c u b lic p e a.l'ld tho i1u' s o s rv'.lti 11s t:1 t u.o D. uOC cia '" o e u c refr' rcJ.J hl;,, Gct>r:i;it'I Cfl so is ll t ct, r u 1 ('f se t5ll '!.10 bso:-v, s. In rnn n yow il'l ,/r!\11 5 0 the htt i v r y b lll wuc: r __ rt,.J ty u e" a rec rt 'l J ul you J:Jl s l 'Iall.mR) 11 nam ,. "Jlt!. n tl .hen you r .turn t e\.i-, i + 1 y 11 !""' 'JO quit It ,. int er es+ l .. tr c ri v o 11., t11 J. r;1 t"' o f i ,, J.n c... u 1t .... l.ty, lti to, l'lst reDortcu t t o y e n e;e in the st t-..s i tu 1Juvulation o f b::.r s ?


NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY Jedea r c h ::be p a rlmenl July 14, 1958 Dear Night Heron: Sandy and I have been talking over the question of additional cooperators for our wading birds surveyo What do you think of the idea of writing each of the 48 State Game Commissions, asking for names and addresses of any biologists or other field men, including wardens, who might be in a position to report to us on heron colonies? The only exceptions would be Florida, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri and Illinois, where we have already made contacts. Let us know what you think. In going through the Ibis it might be a good idea to check for any especially good life-history material on waders, and particularly on other storks --the white stork of Europe, etc., and African species such as the yellow-billed stork, which s eems nuch like our wood stork in many respects. As we get deeper into our wood stork study we'll want to make comparisons with these other forms, if possibleo Your suggestion of August 2nd, a Saturday, for arrival here sounds finel We'll be off duty and waiting for you with a bucket of iceU Sandy has a spare bed, so you won't have to sleep on the floor. Will relate the details of our Inagua trip when I see you. Best to Mg_rgaret and Jeanie. Yours, Founded 1905 Dedicated to Conservation of Wildlife, Plants, Soil and Water and Its Relation to Human Progress National Headquarters: 1130 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, New York


NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY Re:Jear c h '::lJe p a rlmenl Founded 1905 Dedicated to c onservation of Wildl"f p I e lants, Soil and Water National Headquarters: 1130 Fifth A and Its Relation to Human Progress venue, New York 28, New York


... NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY Re3ear c h ::!J e p a rlm enl HiAv c. ----,J..--(k, '7. .,,t. {/. J' vx J-.,. I 1t /2.f 14..r-4-!I "/' '-<.0-h(... ;:: If'. J', I A ;r. w.,O,L,.J'f,.J_ 1905 Dedicated to Conservation of Wildli-fe, and Water and Its Relation to Human Progress National Headquarters: 1130 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, New York


,,..... .'1. PROGR8SS REPORT ON THE WADIN G BIRDS SURVEY, II (November 1958) Research Department National .Audubon Society ..


A P:ROGnESS RER'JRT O N Tn J l i [.'l.:Jn r G BPIDS SURV-.w. II. (Nove mber 1958 ) Research National hudubon Society* In the year that has passed since \'le first reported to you on the difficulties that are faced. by som e of our wading birds, our survey bas been extended to cover all critica l areas within the U .S and our list of voluntee r observers now exceeds 35 0 With this expansion has com e a wider and more det ailed knowledge of the present breeding distribution and status of this group o f birds, and a more accurate numerical picture of p o pulations. Because of the urg e ncy of their se:!_i arate problems, we have continued to give mos t of our attentio n to the Wood StorR: and the Common Egr et. The greater part of t his prog ress report will relate to these two species. In addition t o t h e v aluable contributions made b y our cooperators in the field, we want to express our t Lanks to the or...:,.anizations and a c;encies Federal, State and local, have demonstrate d specia l interest in the wading birds and assisted us i n various ways in the present undertaking We are especially in debted to the Game Commissions in Florida and Louisiana for their cooperation in flying our rie rsonne l on aerial surveys. It i s our ho!e that a complete list of all of these may be publishe d a t a future date. In add it ion to the regular research staff, Peter Isleib acted as w arden and observer at t h e Bear Island colony from March 30 until July 1. The Woo d Stork Population You will be happy t o learn that there a r e more Wood Storks in the U .s. than we suspected, w hile an unexpectedly productive S:?ring nesting season has nearly doubled the total po:riulation of last winter. At the same time, with a greatly increased kno\vlede.:e of these bird s and their habits and distribution, we now have a much broader understanding of t heir survival problems, \thich are very real. The f a cts that have bee n assembled s p eak for t h e m s elves I n the United States the Wood Stork has bee n essentially --and still is a Florida s:riecies. There are record s of its nesting in Texas, Louisiana, A nd South Carolina, but never in l a rge num b ers or with any continued success. In F lorida there appear to have been s e v eral more or les s distinct Wood Stork pop ulations one that was confined to big trees in the i solated inland wilderness of the Big Cypress; another to marsh-edge sites at t h e heads df the Southwest Coast rivers; still others to cypress-bordered. lakes in the central uplands, or along the upper St. Johns River. There were also a few coastal sites, with the large nest p latforms built hig h i n t all red man grove s In our efforts to reconstruct a model of the orig inal Wood Stork population, as it was before man cam e along and a ltered or destroyed many of theS'e habitats, we have recorded 4J nesting locations i n Florida, a1d 7 in other sta t es. Of thes e 50 W o od Stork sites, 15 were occupied during the 1957-58 season, or about of the original number. But these figures do no t tell the w hole story. Of t h e 15 currently active colonies, 10 w ere successful, 5 being wiped out by severe winter weather. The number of n esting pairs in the 1 0 successful colonies varied from 750 in the largest ( Micanow in Alachua County), to 115 (Charlie Creek in Hardee County). The was 312 nests per colony. These figures compare r a ther poorly with those of 25 years ago, when J0,000 Wood Storks nested in Corkscrew Swamp alone perhaps 5,000 more elsewhere in the *Robert P Allen, Sandy Sprunt, hlexander Sprunt, Jr. 1 -


Big Cypress (Sadie Cypress, Doctors Hamrno,ck, Bear Island) and no less than 20,000 to J0,000 in the great rookeries at the headwaters of Shark and lane River::i, in what is now Everglades National Park. We may never see Wood Stork colonies of such size a gain, but the fact tha t they once existed -such a relatively short tim e ago -should not be t hrust aside or forgotten. If we are to find a way to insure the permanent surviva l of the Wood Storks that remain, we must know what destroyed these immense congregations of the recent past, Our 10 successful colonies of this past year \'/ere distributed as follows: J in South Florida in the Big Cypress region and 7 in Central and North Florida. All but one of these central and northern sites were in cypress swamps, although in one ca s e (the Teneroc colony in Polk County) the nest trees were dead, having been kille d by sludge from a nearby phosphate mine, still active. The lone exception w a s the Hancock colony, also in Polk County, where the birds were nesting in d ead oak trees in the middle of another active phosphate sludge pit! The question of what might be term ed "habitat security" is the basic one of t h i s entire Wood StoJk: problem.. A breakdown of the 15 sites occupied this past season indicates that 6 are owned by commercial or industrial companies intereste d in mining lumbering cattle raising or development; 5 are privately owmed, all but t w o of them by people who are more interested in development than in Wood Stork Only one-third, or 5 sites, are on protected land --3 in Everglades National Park and 2 in Audubon Sanctuaries, only one of which (Corkscre w Swamp) is actually owned outright by the Society. It i s worth noting tha t of the 5 colonies that failed, 3 are in Everglades National Park while the first nesting at Corkscrew Swamp $anctuary also failed! So park or refug e status is not everything. But it is still a definite, r o c k bottom essentia l so far as lone-term planning is concerned, and a careful appraisal of the land-ownership situation in e ach of these cases will be made during the next year and follO\'led by appropriate recommendations, Another basic field for detailed i s the life history of t h e species. What w a s once a field for pure ornithologica l research now can provide the measuring sticks and many of the rules for survival. We have made considerable progress in our studies of the life history of Mycteria americana. F o r e xample, a m on g othe r new facts, we have learned that: (1) Wood Storks in 1957-58 nested primarily in Bald Cypres s (68'% of all bird s involved in nesting attempts); but 13% nested in r e d mangrove, 8% in partially cut cypress, 6 % in dead o aks and 5 % in the s maller pond cypress. (2) Arrival of the fl .Jck at nesting sites varie s considerably, extreme arrival d ates in Florid a b eing Nov.19 (1957, Corkscrew) and April 20 (195 8 Reedy Creek), (3) The d ate on which first eggs may be laid in Florida colonies varies from Nov, 2 9 (1957, Corkscrew) to .hpril 2 8 (195 8 Reedy Creek), In general, it can be said that winter nestin groccur only in South Florid a sites, spring nesting s chiefly in Centra l and North Florida. But, spring nesting s may also oc cur in South Florida, a s in 195 8 but perhaps only following failure of the winter at tempt. (4) Th e incubatio n perio d for t h e Wood Stork i s 28 to JO days. Three egg s i s the u s u a l clutch, four or five e g g s rare. The averag e ne s t mortality figure is not known precisely, but the production of young reared to the flight stage appears to a v erag e 2,2 youn g per pair. (5) Averag e mort ality rates are not but are probably in the area of 4o% for the firs t yea r o f life and thereafter. There is no data on average longevity in the wild. (6) It s e e m s likely, a s .l1.Udubon suggested, that o n the average t h e Wood Stork breeds for the first tim e during its third year, seldom e arlier. ( 7) Detailed studies of the food habits and ne eds of the Wood Stork have not yet been undertaken. Within a 20 mile circle of Cor kscrew Swamp, these birds were obs erved feeding in natural prairie flag ponds, cypress heads, borrow ditches, 2 -


the shorelines of rock pits, inundated fallow farm fields and flooded pastures. The r e lationship of these areas to future drainage programs, expansion of farm lands and othe r development has a direct bearing on the future of the Corkscrew Wood Stork Colony. A summary of population totals is encouraging, especially when co mpared with our estimates of a year ago. Thanks to t h e energetic surveys conducted. in Central and North Flor ida by the Florida Audubon Society (chiefly by Lisa von Borowsky), frequently with the cooperation of the State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, 7 p reviousl y little -known Wood Stork colonies were added to the list. These Colonies produced 76% of the young reared this year, and thus saved the Wood Stork from a very disastrous season. All of these colonies are relatively small, \.Jhen compared with the former nesting concentrations recorded in South Florida in earlier years. They averaged 315 pairs each. Yet, together with the young salvaged from a poor season in South Flor i da colonies, a total of 6 ,350 young were succesfully reared to flight stage in the 10 Florida colonies, This boosts the population considerably, nearly doubling it in size. Our field cooperators in southeastern and Gulf Sta tee, and throughout Florida, have reported (as of August 1) some 2400 Wood Storks that are evidently non-breeders. Approximately 5o% of these were in Florida, the remainder in South Carolina, Georgia Louisiana, b.rk ansas and Texas. ]from past performance we can specul a t e that none of these will be present in these same regions by t h e start of the next nesting s eason l ate in November. It i s our present estimate that in early December, when Wood Storks will once again ga t her at the regular winte r breeding sites in South Florida, the total U.S. popu lation will number between 13 ,000 and 14,000 individuals. Of these, some 7,eoo (or 3,800 pairs) should be of breeding age, enough adult stock to promise a t least 10 productive colonies through the winter and spring seasons, 1958 -59. We will be watching these results with great care. The ability of this species to hold its own at the present population level will depend on normal ne sting success in all colonies over a period of some years. These will be Critical years for the Wood Stork. Th e Common E p r e t Reports have been r eceived on nesting colonies of other wading birds through out the country. W e a r e pleased with the coverage on several of these (although numerous gaps exist), and speci a l mention should be made of the Great Blue Heron reports, which are v ery complete for several important regions. There is n o space here for even a brief summary of these reports, however, as our analysis of the present distribution and status of the Common Egret is not only lengthy, but of outstanding importa n ce at this time, In order that you may understand the significance of their place in the whol e p icture, we will outline briefly the geographic and ecologica l units that make up the tota l population o f t his egret in the U S There are 9 such units, as follows: ( 1) Pacific Coast, with breeding colonies in southern Oregon, the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and the San Francisco Bay area. D elta (2) The Southwest unit, with small colonies along the lower Colorado River. (3) Th e Dry Gulf Coast, from. the Rio Grande to the Brazos. (4) The Humid Gulf Coast, from the B razos to and including the Mississippi (5) The Uppe r Mississippi Drainage. ( 6) 'l'he J:1is.sj_ s _sJ_p..J?.L Dr:._a_inage. (7) The unit comprising coastal areas along the Atlantic Seaboard from Massachusetts to Dela\ 1 are inclusive, ( 8 ) The coastal areas from Maryland to northwest Florida inclusive -3-


(9) The Florida peninsula from approximately the Suwannee River south. on the 195 8 egret nesting season have been received from cooperators in all of these uni ts, and we have analysed ea0h of them separately. 1. Florida improvement over last year, and still the largest number of colonies and nesting pairs of any po:iJ.ilation group, but a long way from a return to anything even approaching the peaks of the 19JO's. The 55 nestine colonies reported and 7,0J4 nesting pairs of all nesting pairs of t his species reported in the U.S.) represent but a fraction of the number of Common Eg r ets breeding in Florida 20 or 25 years ago. A significant figure is tbe average size of c olonies, in t his case 120.6 pairs. The t hree largest -Alafia Banks, Cortez, and Pinellas Bird Key, with some 500 pairs each --are an i mprovement over recent y ears. The tren d in all Florida colonies appears favorable, but long range optimism i s by no means justified. Dev elopments in Florida continue to boom as never before, and on a sounder and more permaneH t bas is. Additional drainage, mosq_uito control, real estate, industrial, f&rming and. cattle-raising projects are in the i mmediate future and many of these are being planned on a huge scale. Water control for the entire state south of lake Okeechobee is now a major subject under discussion, and the eventual results in terms of water diverted to wild-life lands, such as Bverglades National Park, are definitely up in t h e air as of this writing 2. Southeast(Alantic CJast states, Georgia to Maryland inclusive plus Alabama) -This population group, limited for the most part to a fairly narrow coasta l strip, nevertheless bas the advantaee of including man y original and important breeding sites. Here, in Georg i a and South Carolina this species made outstanding gains during its recovery from the Plunage Trade slaughter. Yet today the 24 nesting colonies reported contained only CJfo of the nation's total, or 1,798 nesting pairs, and a lo 1 average of 74.9 pairs per colony. J. Northeast (Delaware New Jersey, Connecticut, Hew York and Massachusetts) Promising gains mad e in tbe Northeast in recent years are no w being nullified, chiefly from the growing pressure of land developments, highway projects and allied activities. In Massachusetts, Common .6grets nested successfully at South Eans o n in 1954 and 1955, and on House Island in 1956. Both have failed since. On Lon g Island there is again a small colony near Jones Beach, while on Fisher's Island these birds dropped off unaccountably to 12 pairs in 1958 The New Jersey Coast has been the rea l proving ground for the Northeast, however. The first modernnesti ng of this species in New Jersey was recorde d in S alem County in 192!-'3. During the las t Jf1 years, the Common 3gret population increased to a pea k of several thousa n d birds, but began a gradual d ecline late in the 19401s tha t has continued to a.ate. In all, some 16 sites have now been abandoned (the reasons: highway construction, fill for ship channel, building and rea l estate developments). The largest surviving colony (Stone Harbor) is now11completely hemmed in by developments. The disturbance this year (1958 ) brought about a desertion of some Com mon Egrets The Town will not sell the thirty-some-odd acres except for building purposes" (Mills, in litt). At Cape May Point, once a mecca for water birds and many kinds of migrants, heavy deposits of smoke and dust from the manganese plant are making a virtua l desert of a large area \ Jher e migrants once fed and rested. At .avalon, several t hriving rookery sites are now deserte d as a result of the construction of a new 4-lane hig hway and other developments. Even the relatively unspoiled marshes and tida l creeks of Gloucester, Salem and Cumberland Counties have los t most of their heronries and all of their egret colonies -probably because insecticides employed in mosq_uito control have killed off the natural food supply. Only 7 nesting groups of Common were reported in the northeast section in 1958 A total of 317 nesting pairs were involved (less than 2% of the national total), with a very poor average of 45.2 pairs colony. 4. Humid Gulf Coast(from the Brazos River in Texas east to and including -4 -


the Mississi!Jpi Delta) --One of the least spoiled area s in the entire country, t hanks to t he economic values of both natural and mana : ed marshlands (important waterfowl wintering areas, fur trapping, rice culture). As a result of these conditions, plus large acreages set aside in Federal, State and private refuges, the e gret population is s e cond numerically to Florida's, and can boast the highest pairs-per-colony average in the nation. In 1958 we recorded: 16 colonies with a tota l of 5,235 nesting pairs of Common (26% of the national total), and an average of 327.1 pairs per colony. The healthiest wading-bird situation in the U .s. 5, Dry Gulf Coast(Brazos River in Texas west and south to the Rio Grande) -U p-to-the-minute totals not available in time for imclusion in this r eport, but the habitats concerned, while highly productive in normal years, do not compare with those of the Humid Gulf Coast. Apparently, from past performance, there are some 5 or 6 nesting colonies that include t his species, and in the n e i ghborhood of 900 to 1,000 pairs, although this may pos sibly be too hig h an e stimate. The avera ge of pairs-per-,colony would run about 1 80. The future h ere may depend on the extent of recreational, housing and industria l development and on the permanent establishment of strictly inviolate sanctuaries at critical sites. At present, the Hational Audubon Society holds leases from t he state on a nu mber of t he be s t area s and provides seasonal w arden patrols. 6. Mississippi Drainage(Ka.nsas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and parts of Missouri, Kentucky Tennessee, Louisiana and Mississippi) -All reports covering t his population group during 195 8 have not been received at this writing, but the data on hand is probably representative of general conditions as of this year. A total of 9 colonies with ne sting egrets has been reported -6 in 2 in western Tennessee and 1 in Mississippi. Total number of nesting pairs i s 723, an of 80.3 pairs per colony. The great disappointment here has been the unexplained decline of the famous Cranetown Rookery on Reelfoot lake, Tenn., from 2,000 or 2,500 pairs last season to only 80 pairs in 195 8 This colony has been a sizeable one since about 1932, a eradual build-up until this year. The Duck River colony nearby dropped from 150 pairs in 1957 to 100 pairs t his season. OklahoJ71a and Arkansas sites hav e shown som e promise and may continue to do so provided local habitats can muster sufficient carrying ca!Jacity. An interesting colony at Okla ho m a City was shot-up recently, but !Bs r e formed nearby. Apparently more educational work is needed in this area. 7. Upper Mississipp i Drainage(the Dakotas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisco n sin, Illinois, Indiana and parts of Missouri, Michigan, Ohio and Ontario ( Iak e Erie ) ) -Prior to the plume-hunting p eriod, Common Eg r ets nested in several of thes e states, including Wisconsin, Indiana and in the Illinois River Valley, It may not be ge n erally apprecia t ed that thes e nesting groups were shot out by plum e hunters, some of them a s early as 18 79. In recent years these birds have staged a comeback. In Illinois, Iowa and Missouri alone T, E. Musselman and otheEs have recorded a n i mpressive nu mber of site s whe r e Common E grets nested Many of these are still active, but there appears to have been a recent decline in t he total e gret p o ::iulation. According to Jim Hodges of Davenport, Iowa, 11during the pa.s t two years the nesting concentrations in come areas hav e bee n broken up and. d eserted the Mississippi River has become a tremendous place for recreation. There are small power-driven boats This means t hat islands that in the past were visited by a rare fisherman, now are plagued b y Sunday visitors the trend now appear s to be that instead of having a larg e colony on a single island, there are many small isla nds that have from 2 to 10 ne sting pairs (letter of 19, 195 8). Another Iowa site (in Jackson County) was established in 1942, had 250 pairs of Common in 1943 and was abandoned in 194 5 Horicon Marsh colony in Wis cons in has dropped from 200 pairs to 20 pairs in the last two years. There was even an overflow into Canada, with a f e w 5 -


pairs nesting as far north as East Sister Island Ontario (1 pair in 1953, 6 pairs in 1957); Manitoba (1 pair in 1955); Q.u1App elle Valley, Sask. (1 pair in 1 955). Apparently all of these Canadian sites were abandoned by e g r ets this y ear. Along the M ississippi a n d Illinois Rive r s this seasom, 17 col onies were reported t o total 1,593 pairs of Common but som e of this data may need revision. This would be an average of 9 9.5 pairs per colony, which i s only fair, One hopeful circumstance h ere i s the fact that the direct source of t his particular popul ati0n i s evidently the Humid Gulf Coast, where conditions are good. 8 Pacific Coast(southern Oregon, the S acramento and San Joaquin Valleys and San Francisco Bay area) -These colonies were wiped 0ut during t h e plumehunting days, but in the last JO have recovered. Never larg e they seem to h ave returned to somethine near their original status. Whether they can hold to t h i s is another matter. In 1 95 8 there were 12 e g ret colonies with 2 ,473 nesting pairs (12 % of the national t otal). The a v erace riairs -per-colony figure is 206, s econd only to the average for the Humid G u l f Coast. However, there are som e l o c a l and future problems. In 195 8 t h e r e was an active e g r e t colony on Tulare lake for t h e first t ime in severa l years. Tulare lak e i s in Kings County, Calif. According to George lakata of Wasco, the Tulare lak e basin i s fed by overflow from the Ka.1,;rna h K ern, Tule and White Rivers, throug h a system of canals and ditche s About every third yea r there i s a fiho .O.d stage with excellent conditions for w adine; birds, but in summer hig h temperatures and low humi dities sometimes r esult in rapid evapora tion a nd a complete drying u p of nesting sites and feeding ground s Avia n botulis m i s the n common If the waters of the Tule a nd Kawe:;,.h Rive r s are sub j ected t o c ontrol, as now proposed, this situation will become even more critical than it i s now. Bill Kirsher of Sacramento reports 11a serious reduction11 in Common Ef::r ets, Grea t Blues a n d N i ght Herons in his r e gion over the last 1 0 y e a r s H e r eports tha t much of the riparia n woo d l a n d along the Sac r amento River, where these birds rooste d ii terally by the hundreds, has been cut dow n b y the Army En gineers to make the l evees safer." Other causes cited are a eria l spraying of insecticide s on 10cal rice fields, and clearing for agricultur a l l ands and for r ecreational a reas (one of these a Boy Scout target rang e in a are a once o ccup i e d by about 100 pairs of Common Esr ets). Arnol d Small of los An gele s has r e : iorted t 0 us on a bandone d site s \'/here Commo n and o t her wad e r s once nes t e d These include Buena V i s t a lak e in E ern County no w dry m o s t of the year due to Isabella Dam in the Kern River; Salton Sea, whic h h a s risen since the late 19J01s and continue s to rise Other coasta l and limno r i a l marshland s o f i mportance a s feea_ing and 1,;1intering areas are beinr: lost due to real estate and othe r developments. Mr. S m all lists a reas on Mission B ay (filled f o r a golf course and beach); Jl!Iaxton BrO\'lll Sanctuary (scheduled for drainage); U pper Newport Bay (filled for bathing b each); Playa del Rey (yacht harbor developm ent); Bo l s a C h i c a ( d eveloped for par !dng a r e a); Morro Bay ( d r edged for deep wa ter h arbor). P erhaps the only site s with a reasonably well assured future a r e t h o s e in the upper Sacramento Valley a n d the U.S. F ish and Wildlife Refuges in n orthern California and southern Oregon. The Pacific Coast e g r e t population, and that of the S outhwest, have no actual r e lation, or p hysical contacp, with other U S e grets. 9. Southwest(lower Col o racio River) This i s the smallest and the l e ast promising population group, on controlledwater conditions in an arid region. In 195 8 there were 2 active colonies of Common Egrets, with Jfi nesting pairs. This is an average of only 1 8 pairs per colony the lowest in the country. I m peri a l Refug e (Taylor Wood s on the California side) had 20 pairs; Havasu Refuge, n ear Topock Ariz., 1 6 pairs 6 -


Summary In 19.58 therEi were 146 nesting colonie s of Common i

POR,T ALEXANDER SPR UNT, Jr. Supervisor Southern 8ancfuarie5 NATIONAL Asscr.1ATION of f\uouBoN .Societies 193{;)


f 195i ---,


The fiscal ye a r ju.Ht passed has neen perha s t he greatest activit in sanctuary endeavor dur rg the Bsoc: .u.t i r s hit.1tor y A'hile some area s form erly guarded were discontinued becmrne of no further nee o protecton, desertion of birds to other localities or other causes, e w one s were added and protection affor ded to place s and species no hit he rto guarded. I Emera.l the well estab i ed sanctuaries of Jo ears standing contir,ned t o show the value o a r den service, B..nd Frn.tisfac tory con ditions have prevailed among t he birds. As u 1 Flor a cont'nuei:i to be the meltine ot of vRrions theories, warden and plans. Drastic changes were necessary in the year r ound war de n force on he South-west coast. U to 1arc 1st. 1936 a four-man ( force was maintained, but hii:i proved unsatisfactory, an a three-man patrol has now been instituted which romises etter res11 s Resi g -nations incompetence and other reasons necessitated the remo v a l of $ Orne b .Jince early oi r n fossr J,.. R R oberts and Ar-thur Kirk have been the mainstay of the South-west coast worK On e t 1 s t., a third man was added in the person of. :r. Reiman, a youn ornitholog ist o f Philadelphia. 'his departnre f rom plac'ng na ive talent o n the wor WA.S though t wise as a chec.K o n continuons n unors which env y je lousy and politics prompt against the ne .tive force His re::Jence there will be i the nature o f a confidential adviser and a n aid i n general patro l work as wel l as reporting movements o birds. Some unavoidable shootine took place in the B i g C y p ress area i n t h e spring rooKery season. As soon as any intimation of da.ger to the birds 11/as known, the A.rdens wer e m oved from the coast patrol to the cyp ress but were too late to prevent the damage Investig ti on proved that some


-2-luming iH goine on and and reports of these findings were referred to the U S Bj ologicA.l Survey whic h will aid the Association in further efforts to stop it. A mar.Kea improvement in the administratio n of the South-west coast patrol was instituted thL year in the purchase and installation of our own e quipment in boats. he cruiser Widge on long used on the Rainey Sanctuary in Louisiana was brought over to Florida and fitted as a. floating headq_uarters, from which the new D o dge speedboat op r ates o n patrols far and near. This obviates dependence on boa s owned "by the w rdens, a nd ha already proved s uc cess. Rookeries at Marco, Duel < Rock a n d other localities in the Ten Thousand Islands were guarded and man y thousands o f young birds sue-cessfully reared. R oosts were watched as well and shooting in them was at a minimum In the Keys much has bee n accomplished. The Great V1hi te Heron was protec-ted i n both the Upper and Lower Keys and showed a decided improve ment over its former des erate con i tion. The seasonal arden in the L ower K e y s was retai ed trough June 15th., and on May 1st., an all-time warden was pla-ced on duty in the Upper i>-eys, thus affording protection not only to t he Grea t White Heron there, but the Roseate Spoonbill and Vhi te-cro wned ? ig101 pa.i r b et"n'I """c.'r.e." fu I n tMfBr E protection has been extended t o the latter, eon, the first time that Large signs were erected a t Key Largo the entrance of the Over -seas High way and at Dove Cr ek (Plantation Key) warning tourists and others of the prohi ition on s hooting a mid the Keys. Aerial surveys were made several t imes during the course o f the year. These were made possible by the United States Coast Guard and the perso-nal intere3t and of Commander C C vonPaulsen and Lieuts. Eric.1rnon and Clemmer of the Miami Base A five hour flig h t was made over the Everglades and the Big Cypress are a in t he dirigible owne d and mai n -taine d in Miami 1 ) y the Goodyea r Tire & Rubber Company Valuable aid and adv i c e was rendered the wor.K in sonth Florida. by Uni te

-3-Management Agent, Jay V Kelsey, to whom the incere thanks of the writer and this Association are due Throughout many years he has been a source of strength and enc onragemen t A search was instituted in the La ke O keechobee area during April for nestin colonies of the Glossy Ibis, the work being done by Felix Smith, of Lake Harbor, hired by the Though too late in the season to be more than partially successful, plans are made for a more intensive endeavor in the coming year. Conditions o n the K issimmee Prairie where t he Association maintained a warden from Jan. 1st. through 118.y 15th. were entirely satisfactory. It wa s the first time that organized patrol was undertaken in this area and protection afforded such birds as the Florida Cr ane Burrowing Owl, Caracara a nd Limp.Kin. An inn vati on in the shape of mar .. dng all e g g s f ound with a rubber stamp, bearing the name of the ssociation, was in situted as a discouragement to collectors. Many eggs were s o treated in this region, long a mecc a for collectors. 'l'hP L ake A.Shington Sanctuary in Brevard County again enjoyed a s plendj d season. Egrets, herons, a nhingas, white and glossy ibises were protected here. '11he regular Yard. en was on duty from April 1st. through June, and an extra man was placed on from April 15th., to M ey 15th., as a special guard to the glossy ibis This man was on duty night and day spending the time on a platform erected in the marsh near the rookery. No warde n was maintained at Orange Lake due to the falling off of the population there. The La, ke Miccosukee Rookery near Tallahassee was also discontinued due to the fact that the owner now affords protection. Buzzard's Island, the Audubon o ned sanctuary for herons in the Stone River, Charleston County was guarded as in the past. A fine season was the result. Penny Dam Back-water also in Charleston County was not watched by a warden this year, but the writer made trips occasionally to see the


r -4-condition of the decreased opulation of herons, this area often fluctuating from year to year. due to water conditions. The Association leased five thou.sand acres in the San tee Swamp of Georgetown County s .c., from the Vest Virginia Pulp & P aper Co. in order to assure protection to the Ivory-billed W o odpecker, discovered in the area in Ma.y by the writer and Lester L lalsh of the Association staff. Two wardens were placed on duty the year round, and the writer has made monthly trips to the region in order to check conditions and patrol. In Louisiana, the Rainey Sanctuary continues to fill its need as an inviolate area for waterfowl:. Var i ous improvements have been instituted in the shape of canals, d a ms, gravel banks for geese, and the clearing of p onds of cat-tails, as w ell as the planting o f others with banana waterlilies. This work has been under the able supervision of Richard Gordon the Superintendent and the improve ments were checked by t he writer on an inspection in March. The Achafalaya and Calcasieu-Cameron Rookeries were discontinued, the form e r because protection is no longer necessary and the latter being t a ke n over by the Biological Survey. In Texas conditions satisfactory. Wardens were maintained a t the Ving 'tun, Second-Chain and Green Islands Sanctuaries. A new colony of Roseate Spoonbills was found in H ynes Bay and a warden placed on duty there for the season. T is colony proved to be the largest in Texas and also s howed thousands of ihite-baced Glossy and hite Ibises. Very unfavorable weathe r conditi ons p revailed early in the nesting season along the Texas coast which militated against as many birds breeding as was the case last year. High tides swept the whol e coast in late ay and did damage to some of the young of the herons and ibises, but not to the extent of causing any alarm. Green Island is in splendid condition and the Heddish Egret enjoyed a fine season. This species was noted as a nesting b ird further northward


-5-and eastward than ever before, having penetrated almost to Galveston now. A serious situation developed at the Three Islands SanctW1.ry near Point Isabel, as a result of a channel being dredged through the area by a local navigation company This was undertaken without pArmission f rom the Association a n d directly violates the terms of the lease under which these islands are held. A heari g was held on the matter in Brownsville, in early May, to which the writer proceeded by air f rom Charleston. The rulin o f the court was unfavorable to the Association, a n d a nother hearing called for June 29th. also in Brownsville. The writer was present together with various witnesses in order to show that great damage would result to the birds as a consequence of the area being opened to boats. he ruling of the court N'as again unfavorable, it being maintained that there would be no damage The case has been appealed and it is hoped that progress will be made in eliminating thi obstacle to protection in that part of Texas. s in past years, the Association was greatly aided in this state by the generous support of Messrs. J J Carroll and J Alsto n Clapp of Houston Mr, Clapp provided the writer with the means o f inspecting the Ving'tun Sanctuary and Mr. Ca.rroll, the Chain-of-Islands and Hynes Bay Their aid and encouragement is invaluable. The warden personne1 of the Association is entirely satisfactory and capable. The men are diligent, interested u.nd keenly alive to their re-sponsibilities. and constitute a force which is a power for conservation. There Nere on duty, by states, the following, in the southern sanctuaries; orth Carolina .. 1 South Carolina ..... 3 F orida ........... 8 Louisiana ..... 3 Texas .............. 4 Total 19 warden It It The areas constituting t he southern sanctuaries last year were as follows:


6 -Beaufort ookeries, orth Carolina .. Buzzard's Island South C a r olina ....... herons "/ herons-egrets Santee Sanc tuary, 11 Lake iVashing t o n F l o rida K issimme Prairie, Upper Key s 11 Lower Keys, 11 lest Coast, ainey Ref ,.ige, L ouisiana M ud Lumps, Ving'tun Island, Texas Sec ond-Chain 11 Green I. and, 11 Hynes B a y II ............... Ivory-billed V oodpec ker herons-egrets-ibises-anhingas cranes-caracara-owls-limpkins herons-egrets -pigeons-spoon ills herons-herons-egretsi bises-spoonbills duc ks-geese pelicans heronse0rets-spo o n ills-duck s hero ns egrets-skimmers-terns herons-egretsi l Jises-spoonbills Inspection trips were made throughout the year at varying intervals to all the a ove Detailed reports following each trip were made to the head office, these covering all findin gs r e garding conditions, wardens, birds and recommendations. follow below D ate Oct 1 5 1935 Oct. 1 2 Nov. 25, Dec 4 Dec 9-10 11 Jan. 13 18 1 936 Jan. 19-21, i!eb. 21, Feb. 24 Mar 2 r 17-23, 1936 April 13, Apr. 2130, M a y 5 9 May 11, 11 May 13, 11 May 15, May 23-28 June 8-July 4,11 July 1 4 S e p t0 I he ates and time spent o n e ach trip to each state n s p e c t i 0 n R Locality Mileage F lorida 1803 Santee 12 0 Santee 1 20 Santee 1 2 5 Santee 160 Florida 88n S an t e e 252 Santee 138 Florida 2316 Louisiana 2170 Santee 166 Florida 2606 T exas 3411 Santee 15 3 P enny C 6 2 Lambs S C 30 Florida 158 5 Texas 5083 Santee 151 Santee 125 '),, Respectfully submitted ftU..t.aM4w Supervisor S o u t hern Sanctuaries.


Educational a.ctivi ties have been enterec1 into at e very a vailable op-oortuni ty, following the policy of last year. It is understood tha t every rer :uest for lectures, illu trat ed and otherwise, hould be met w hen such re uest does not interfere with the work in the field. This, the writer has don e during 1936 Com p arison with the report of last year w ill show tha t not as many addresses were made this past twelve months, the reason for this being that the field wor k consumed more time than it did in 1935 Requests have been received from schools, garden clubs, agricultural societies, the Boy Scouts, 4 H Camps and simila r organir.ations. The au-diences h a ve been universally interested. and expressed keen p lea. sure at the l an t e r n slides. I t i s diffi c ult to estimate exactly the concrete re-sults from such engagaements, but it is reasonably certain that members for the Association have been procured by this means. Junior Audu bon Clubs have been the result in some of the South Carolina schools and Pa-rent Teacher group s have expressed their recommendation of these clubs. The Agricultural Society of South C arolina asked the writer to address the members o n the s u b.ject of birds being beneficial to that industry and made the writer an Honorary lemi:le r of their organization. At the direction of the Executive irector of this Association, the writer visited the Audubon Nature Camp on Hog Island, Maine for two weeks during the summer and made t w o evening lectures to the enrollees of one period, on the ub ject of the Southern Sanctuar.ies. M any individual conferences were had with school teachers and nature orkers, while at the Camp, prob-lem s affecting their particular locality and needs being discussed. The writer took part in a c onservation symp osiurh conducted at the Camp by r 'liilliam Vogt of this Association, this being a very valuable feature of the work accom plished there this pa.t summer.


( -2-or was also done on the preparation of news releases and routine of the Camp schedule four day cruise among the bird islands of the Maine coast was made in co mpany with Messrs. Robert P Roger T Peterso n and Allan Cruickshank of the -ssociation staff, in order to ascertain conditions a m on g the northern sea-bird sanctuarie s an ma e comparison s of gains since the survey of 1931 by M r Allen. Beginning in late summer. the w o nk of p reparing a ne w edition of the "Her ons of the United States" published by the Association in 1924, was underta.icen It was tho _,ht well that, since the publication is conside rably out o f date, and tha t many cha nges have been experienced by the spe cies involved, another and more up to da t e bulletin be i ssued. This work has proc e eded well t oward co mpletion with the inclusion of the s poonbill a n d ibises in addition to the herons, these birds being particularly of interest becaus e o f the protection afforded them The manuscript for t he bulletin in almost finished. O n all sanctuary inspection trips and oth e r s which are of general 'nterest, the writer has k e p t a phtographic record of localities, bir d s and coo perating parties. These are incorpo rated in an album which is shown to anyone desiring to see it, ancl which help s to inspire interest in what the is doing. M a ny letters have come in, and have be e n answered on questions of identification, n ature policies of the A s sociation, requests for the arrangement of bird itineraries in lorida and other parts of the South. No accurat e record is kept of the e but they run into scores, and represent ouite an item in the correspondence which the writer i. oblige d to participate in and which has to do with his activities in the educational line. The writer h s kept up his daily (excep t Sunday) n ature co lumn in the Charleston (s. c ) N ews and C ourier", a practice now well into its 7th. year. t every o pportunity he h a s b r ou ght in the wor k of the hSSociation.


-3ewspaper accounts of his expeditions in the sanctuary wor k to Florida and other s t ates a p p e a r as interview s in the loc a.l (Ch arleston) papers. Follovting is a list o f the localities and dates where the w riter illustrated talk s on the work of the Association. Locality Charlotte-Davidson, N.C. 'Hnthrop College, S C Charleston Parent-Teachers Asso. ( S imons School) Manning, S.C. Public and High Schools At lanta Bird Club 'latt School, Charleflton Flora acDonald College, Red S prings, N C A gricultura l Society of S .C. Charleston 4-H Cam p Greensboro, N.C. Date Oct .14-15 35 Oct. 16 1935 Nov. 27, 1935 Dec. 14. 1935 Dec. 20, 1935 Jan. 30 Feb. July 1 5 1936 S e p t 3, 19 3 6 PUBLICATIONS r< v 136 Mileage 5 45 7 169 620 6 400 10 310 The writer has published the f ollowing in line with hin work in the field of ornithology during 1936 BIRD-LORE ........ 2 articles The A U R 11 '' Res pectfully submitted, Supervisor Southern Sanctuaries.


'"' '\? "' C 1 J L 0 l \..J Certain matters have arisen from time to time which canno t be cor-rectly characterized as either sanctuary routine work, or educational activ-ities. Therefore, for want of a better term, "Special Investigations" has been lliled to cover them The following may be included in t his general type. 1. Trip to Columbia, S.C. October 1 0th. 19 35 Mileage 270 miles. This was undertaken in order to present t he AssociA. tion' s official protest to the prop osed Santee-Cooper D evelopment Project. The writer prepared a brief and delivered it at the hearing held in the State House to which the public was i nvited. It was called to consider the ouestion as to whether wild-life would be detrimentally affected by the proposed development. A full report was rendered on the result on return to Charleston. 2 Trip to Toronto, Ontario and New l:ork City, Oct 19-Nov. 2, 1935 This trip was made in order to attend the annual congre s s of the .American Ornithologists' Union, at which a paper was presented by the writer on the status of the areat White Heron The New York sto p -over was to attend the annual meeting of this Association. Mileage 2351 miles. 3, Trip to Brownsville, Texas May 5-9, 193 6 Mileage 3411 miles This trip was made by air from Charleston in order to be a t the hearing called to con.ider the affect on wild-life by the prop osed construtcion of a channel through the Three Islands Sanctuary of this Associat ion in Cameron County, Texas. A report on this trip wa. made a t its com letion. 4. Trip to Lambs, S.C M ay 1 5th. 1936 30 miles Thi trip was made to investigate reports of the occurrence of the hi te-ta.' led Kite in that section of South Carolina. It terminated but numbers of he Mississipp i Kites were seen. 5. to New Yor k N.Y. May 31st. June 2nd. 1480 miles This trip was made to the Association Head quarters in order to lay plans as to best procedure to follow in view of recent reports re garding the South-west E'lorida. wardens. Plans were also made in regard to the forthcoming Texas inspection and other matters thrashed ou t in personal contact rather than by correspondence, which was not satisfactory. Total mileage on these special trip s amounted to 1,542 miles Respectfully submitted; Supervisor Southern Sanctuaries.


In .t'1U'l4ti1u 1ce o the wor k du.rin the past year, the writer has U A of th ol o w n means of transrortation o a t temp t has been made to keep a recor of t he rnil e ge a ccomplished afoot this hein unnecessa y aa e l l as next to T he .ileage is no t divided in t his account J states, being the totals accomp lished b y each means of transportation utilized. I t simply giv e s an idea o f t h e distances u.nder aKen and indicates t h e scope of t he work done in the southern area. Nater P i rogue Dug-ou t Rowboat Outb oard Motor Inboard Ca in Cruiser Types of Transportation Air Goodyear Dirigible Do g las Amphibian Stinson Trimotor Lockheed '' lectr IJ.1otal .ileages b y ype s Surf ace Pennsylvania R R Atlantic Coant Line Boston & fa ne Southern Chevrolet Motor-car ldsmobile Buick Ford It 11 iater Mileage ... ....... ........... 637 miles ir 11 .. .. .. .... .. ....... 4550 ailroad .. ................ .... 6648 Autom obile ................ ....... __ __ Total 31326 miles fo:ispectfully tted, ./K4aMvtftN lexand r Sprmt, Jr. Su'1Prvisor So11thPrn Sanctuaries.


NATUR.;J ohn O'Reilly T h e O rdeal o f the Wood Ibis America' s only true stork is threatened by Florida' s disastrous winter NORTHERNERS fighting s nowdrif t during the grim winter j ust e nd ing s mirk e d when they learn e d of pal lid touri3ts fleeing Florida in droves and of hotel owne rs cryi ng t h e blues and holding out fre e meal s as bait. Ice on palm trees may be funny from a distance but to Floridian adding up t h e state's l osses it wa no mirk ing matter. To fleeing to ur ists t h ey had to add ruin e d citrus crops, frostbitten vegetable farms, dying cattl -and dead storks. The storks were wood ibises, t h e on l y tru stork in the United States. The wildlif e losses of the winter ar hard to eva lua te in numbers, dollar s or esthetic val u es, but in the case of the wood stork ornithologists hav e come up with a detai l ed picture of what happens to s ub tropical bird col onies when hit by cold, rain and wind The past winter may hav e an important bearing on the contin u ance of wood storks as a part of the rich bird lif e w hi ch attracts so many visitor s to Florida. The record i s more detailed for th e wood storks because ornithologist s, alr eady worried ove r their declining numbers, were making a study of t he species when the winter storm s truck Drought, drainage, lumbering and other factors have affected t h statu s of this spectac u lar bird. Twen t y years ago there were more than 100,000 of them. Today their numc o n t inued P hotogra p h b y D avid Govd n o"


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SAA FOR STREET SHOES, TOO? Athle te s wear s hoes mad e of genuine Kangaroo leather for lightness, pliability, and streng th But why only a th l e t es? 1o reason a l all, a s you ca n ce! f o r here' our F ea th e r Flex Medalis t lookin g ve r y s m art in bri ght black Kangaro o o comforlabl L oo A s k your W a rd Hill deal e r for th e F eather Flex M e da l i s t or write address below for Feathe r Flex Ca t a logu e Immediate D eliv ery econ o m y c a r See it at the lnlenwtional Automobile Show. Booth 5. New Yorlc Coliseum, Apr. 5-13 For name of nearest dealer phone or write Saab Motors Inc., 405 Park Ave., New York 22 PL 1 71 1 5 54 SPORTS ILLUSTRATED ftfor("/i 31, 19 5 8 NATURE continued On January 5 a few birds with eggs were still sitting. On January 6 the wind was 20 miles per hour. Five adult wood storks observed t h e day b efo r e were missing. B y January 1 2 all nesting attempts had ended. Or nithologist Alexander prun t IV wrote: "Two wood storks see n over the trees. There isn't a sing l e occu pied ne t anywhere in the swamp." B y this time the nearby farm lands were inundated, and prunt wrote of the c uriou s sight of fruiting tomato plants under water. THE LAST COLONY Five small er co loni es which the wood storks had established in so uth Florida s uff e r ed fates s imilar to t h e on e at Corkscrew. A co lon y of 150 nests in the Sadie Cypress was wiped out b y the sam e storm. A s mall colony of 25 n ests was lost at Monroe Station. On January 12 there wer e two co l onies still hanging on in the Everglades ational Park, one at Cuthbert Lake and one at East Ri ve r Dr. William B. Robertson, park biologist, found about 300 pairs at each p l ace. They had survived the first storm, but in late January another storm knocked out both colonies. At t he end of January, Robe r t P. Allen, ornithol ogist studying the wood stor ks, took me a l ong to check the on l y remaining colony, a group of onl y fi, ; e nests in Joe Bay at the southern tip of the F lorida mai n land. The five n!"sts were dese rted. Allen pointed out that normally there is an annu a l l oss bf about 3 0 % among the adul t birds. F ifty years ago, when the American and snowy egrets were nearly wiped out by the plume hunters, the wood storks escaped because they lacked the fancy p lumage then so much in demand. In succeeding years they prospered, and there we r e many rooker ies in F lorida. Then the drai n age of the E verglades, coup led w ith the severe drought of t h e '30s, de prived them of muc h of their feeding gro und. In additi on, lumbering operations continued to take away the big cypress trees in which they pre ferred to nest. Now the peri l s of co ld weather during their nesting season are making it still harder for t h e wood storks to survi ve. "If they don't get a successful nesting soon," Allen said, "the wood stork will be added to the list of rare birds. END


bers probably do not exceed 4,000. During the two previou s winters their nesting efforts in the Corkscrew Swamp, which had the largest remaining colony, had been unsuccess ful because of excessive drought. This swamp, with cypress trees more than 800 years old, is a sanctuary owned and guarded by the National Audubon Society. When I visited it 19 years ago it harbored 15,000 wood stork nests. Last fall conditions were right for a good nesting. There had been rain; sloughs and ditches were full of water; minnows, crayfish and other natural food were abundant. As though to compensate for their previous nesting failures the wood storks soared into the big cypress trees and began nesting earlier than they ever have before. On November 20 Warden Hank Bennett, custodian of the colony, was elated as he watched the wood storks coming to the nesting trees. On wings spreading five feet or more they cir cled over the swamp, then dropped their landing gear as they approached the treetops. The first eggs were laid on November 29, and Hank heard the voices of the first young on December 29. A later airplane reconnaissance resulted in a fina l estimate of approximately 1,000 breeding pairs. By January 1 many young had been hatched, and the co lony was off to a good start. Things were l ooking up for the race of wood storks. At 11 o'clock on that same night a light rain started, accompanied by a little wind. By midnight the rain had be come heavy and the wind, which was from the north, increased with gusts up to 20 miles per hour. At 7 a.m. on January 2 all adults were sitting, but no young could be heard. Light .rain and a steady wind continued, and the temperatures dropped sharply. The wind rose during the night and probably reached 30 miles per hour. On January 3 the rain began to let up, but the wind remained high and the temperature low. In the afternoon an inspection of some of the nests indicated that two-thirds of them were deserted. Crows, turkey vultures and black vultures were flying over the treetops. Later, vultures were observed standing on deserted wood stork nests. Late in the day the rain stopped, but the wind increased to 35 miles per hour and the temperature dropped below freezing. obviously your first choice 1958' s ROOMIEST IMPORTED 4-DOOR ESTATE WAGON It costs far less than its bulky American "cousins" -yet is unsurpassed for performance Has most p ower in its class ... longest whee l base ... smartest "stayin-style" lines .. .. unitary construction for greater strength -up to 35 m.p.g. Imported-car economy with custom-car quality! Drive a family of fi v e and 400 l bs. of luggage Fold the rear seat down and c arry 700 l bs. of cargo. New Manumatic Transmission i s optional -no clutch! A cinch t o park ... a dream in traffic. See your Hillman/Sunbeam Dealer now! Parts and ser vi ce from coast to coast 4-Door Estate Wagon $2299 P.O E Four other models from $1639 P.O E Western States, slightly higher ECONOMY WITHOUT COMPROMISE A Rootes Product Rootes Motors, Inc., 505 Park Avenue, N e w Yo r k N Y. 9830 West Pico Blvd., Los Angeles, C a l if. In C a n ada: Rootes Motors (Canada) Ltd., Toronto, Montreal V a ncouver CHIPPEWA* Shortie the boot you'll want to live in all w ee k e nd long! H e r e's handsome West ern styling that's lightweight, yet rugg ed. Handcrafted comfort for every active minute of you r day! Another outstanding boot from the largest selection in the United States the "origina l Chippewa Line. See the Shortie at fine stores eve ry where, or write for your dealer's name and your FREE Boot Car e Booklet. Mode l 4385 s hown. ""'""'""" ................. .. (' .. ORIG'i'NAL ) ''n"1111111111.,,..,,,1,,,,..,,,,..,,,,.,,1 CHIPPEWA SHOES CHIPPEWA SHOE CD. CHIPPEWA FAllS. WIS. AIG, u S. PAT. oF. 2627 River Street pusH. BUTTON W6NDERCAST A push of the button-s-w-i-sh of the rod -PRESTO-you're Push-Butron Fishing. Bait casting AND spinning advantages. Ask your dealer about machined gears, smo-o-th drag, non-reverse crank, rug-ged construction-other outstanding features. No. 1775 with line, $19.95 Send for 5 new fishing booklets -FREE SHAKESPEARE COMPANY KALAMAZOO, MICHIGAN SPORTS ILLUSTRATED March 81, 1958 53


8A THE MIAMI NEWS, Monday, May 5, 1958 Tragedy In The Eve r glades No. 2 Man, Weat h er, Pus h Wood Ib i s To Br inl { By VERNE O. WILLIAMS Report-er ot The News BIG CYPRESS SWAMP -We rattled down an old logging road through wild back country north of the Tamiami Trail. Ahead was a rendezvous with top ornitholo gists at a guarded site where a handful of great birds were des perately seeking to raise young in the tops of the cypress. "Don't disclose the location. We can t risk having the birds disturbed," Robert P. Allen, rel search director of the National Audubon Society had said. A vig orou s Hemingway type with a spade beard, Bob Allen has spent his life pursuing fla mingo, roseate spoonbill, whooping crane and other vanishing spe cies. A few weeks before he had discovered that about 150 pairs of wood ibis were making an un expected, late season nesting in the cypress. This was vital news because of the precarious plight to which the se big white birds have been reduced in the last three years. Dwindle To 4,000 Miami News Photo by Mas.sey Once numbering in scores of thousands in Florida, the wood ibis has plummeted to under 4 ,000 indi viduals. In the two disastrous nesting seasons of '56 and '57, no young at all were raised. Then, in January of this winter, howling gales once more forced the rem nants off their nests. ROBERT ALLEN STUDIES WOOD IBIS Research Director Of National Audubon Society rusty-skinned heads that mark the Cypress and Everglades National Now, in a long abandoned site, wood ibis glided in to the cy-Park. There, they were beaten these few were breaking nature's laws to try again press. down like egrets in the same rookeries by a grim triad drainage, drouth and fire After negotiating a slippery lit tle bridge of railroad rails set side-by-side, we pulled up by a bright green tent. You could hear the birds "talking over in the c ypress. The sound, reminiscent of a frog pond, is actually the young in the nest crying for food. Allen came out to meet us ac companied by Audubon wardens Hank Bennett and Pete Isleib. We walked out to a blind sev eral hundred yards from the near est nesting trees. "C onsiderate of them to nest by a road," Bob said. Several great white birds with the black-tipped wings and "You can see why the natives call them ironheads," he added. "But they're really a stork the only one native to this country." Feed Their Young We watched the big birds change with each other on the nest and feed the young by re gurgitating the menu most like ly consisting of crayfish, minnows and water snakes. Not long afterward, Alexander Sprunt Jr. and his son, Sandy Sprunt, both top Audubon field men arrived and a roundtable discussion got under way at the tent. Three years ago the surviving wood ibis numbered about 13,000. Then came disaster after disaster the perfect example of what can happen to a species when man pushes them to' the brink. This winter will serve to illus trate. By New Year's day, at least 1200 young were calling in the nests of the Corkscrew Swamp rookery near Immokalee. That night the weather turned stormy. By 24 hours later a gale was Untouched by the plume hunt ers, the wood ibis had gradually been forced from two score swamp rookeries throughout Florida by logging and drainage of feeding grounds. The remnants concentrated in l a half-dozen locations in the Big blowing. The big birds rocked in their treetop nests pelted by sheets of chi1fi, wind-driven rain Young Were Deserted "Next morning," recalls Pete Isleib, "we saw vultures circling over the colony. We knew what 1 had happened The big birds had deserted and the young had died in the nests. There were only a few wood storks left. You'd see o'le still siting with vultures and crows on the nests around." Other small colonies in the cypress were lost at the same time. That left two rookeries, Cuthbert Lake qnd East River, in Everglades National Park, where the birds were still setting eggs and survived. One had 300 pairs, the other 200 pairs. Then Came The Gale 'l'hen, in late January, came the vicious northeast gale that blew 70 miles per hour and sank the racing yacht Revonoc with all hands. With its howling gusts went the park rookeries. "This had been an early wet year and we looked to it to make up for the past," commented Bob Allen. "Now you can say that if the wood ibis doesn't have two to three good seasons immediately, it's in most serious trouble." But even if this statuesque wad ing bird has such a break from nature, it is caught in the same deadly cycle of Everglades drain age that has decimated all the onetime great rookeries of South Florida. TOMORROW: an The Tide Be Reversed?


Big Rool{eries Die Out As 'Progress' Marches Continued from Page 1-A spokes to stand up," comments here. "We are very much aware Mr. Allen grimly. of the problem." The inevitable end is now visible in the case of one species Without the park, of course, the the handsome wood ibis tha t situation would offer no hope at this year reached the danger all. With it a whole environment point from which it is only a step of living things unique trees and plants, alligators and sea cows, as well as birds is being preserved. And some birds such as the rare roseate spoonbill are gaining ground. The big problem and that's another story is to halt the drainage c ycle and bring the Ev erglades back. Swvey Reveals Trouble This is underscored by Bob Al len's continuing survey of small wading bird colonies scattered across a dozen other states. Al most without exception they are in tt'buble. The rush of progress has drained marshes, pushed highways through sanctuaries and brought housing developments to avian doorsteps. to extinction TOMORROW: Plight Of The Wood Ibis. The underlying conclusion is in escapable. If the wading birds can't make a go in their one time South Florida strongholds, g they have small chance of surviv.. s ing in peripheral states. E t "It's like removing the hub I from a wheel and expecting the


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PAGE 89 o s ,hs o n l a h t u 0 o.L th 0 et si1ic -00 l s o f the 6 000 ctua:cy, t 0 + f 1e 0. na 0 1 i c Y a1 as l'm d o oll l I .. t t. lhvi a .. ,o a t :o ni; an ( ) n ""r:i.CG, C O 1 Jlc;t ly n the lPce n l h' u u ncned hat a co nt '1Ci '"lti 'l'he la ter. of n c o I -nu i' i c an e o a 1 O')'' 1 A r c uary on e o f e.t t'o of at asset an i c rt inl r n l ( t of c o e d d t [I, ty, c a l of ... oo !'"' s t s on th e s i nn d O C r r trn:tl no a vis i o can a ociet-on e Island 1. arson tha, o .i a '4 to n I -l (Uh rl s t on ) sid e t s hav x -, and a "'O t o o t l e ad i c n .,., f rom d J u .f t n f T h i s c a n a. u u d ho 0 T or i z tiona.1 t i is set in c em "r.


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I, NATIONAL DUBON Mr. Alexander Sprunt9 Jr. 2 New Town Lane The Crescent Charleston 44, S C. Dear Pop: SOCIETY December 13 1961 Thanks very much for s ending along the letters from David Wingate and Ingram Ri chardson. Both of these were interesting in the extreme particularly the one fro m in gate. I still don 1 t know quite to make of these r ather frequent occurrences on Bennuda It seems such an unlikely place for eagles. We were very glad indeed to get Ingram's letter too as this represents I think the only active nest from the Georgia coast so far. I talked to Ivan Tompkins about it in Washington and he couldn' t add anything either, except that he feels that there certainly should be more along the coast somewhere I checked over your contribution to the 11Auklet11 and must say I1d never hare recognized it as com n g rom you I can t quite figure out B a ndy J Aeger11 either. I don t have the faintest idea. We got your other letter about Christmas, etc., this morning and we'll reply to that at more length later. Founded 1905 ... Dedicated to Conservation of Wildlife, Plants, Soil and Water and Its Relation to Human Progress Notional Headquarters: 1130 fifth Avenue, New York 28, New York

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Baker, John II. 19 O News of Wildlife and Conservation. A u d ubon !agazine, 52: 4 :256-257 ----.... ..... -..;i / I "'. '' D e a r P o p I hate t o do this to you b u t have to. I an currently engaged i n making up a i blio grapLy on the wood stork on ile cards. I 'ln doing it from our current c ard file o n referT ences that you c-md e veryone else has dug u p fro .. 1 tie li tern ture. I find t iat o n these c a r clo of yours I can' t d o it. You haven' t included tie title o f the a r ticle o r note o r whatever. faturn lly I nill have to have the. f o r tie final bib i ograp:i.y. They 1on' t be hard t o find as the page re crences are all there. lore though. N o particula r hurry about it. I h ve i n ishcd u p a l l the rest of the c a rds that \'le have s o f a r I t e 350 titles ... 11 dy 0

PAGE 101

SURVEY OF NORTH WADING BIRDS ----e --.. T CICI... 4 ..__, ----..-:0-:tional Jiudubon sooiot:r Box :?.OS a:vmrn:l0r 8 F or1d1.1t rrm first for :l:nformnti<)ll on th diatribut.iot.'l !l\00 s :. u of Nortl Arn.1lriean Yf;.ding birds nm .. to a list o r. ubsorvGJ e: eiru. OM go,, Sir.c t hin I?.ney h&.'V vo d 't@ oolp thio und nd tive p ti :tpanta umr nurub 250, oog.t d in 4 8 :Wis and 2 0 prmnc a., h had Ncm n t spondt11ncG mm'l.V of you9 somo a whom p!'t1Viously r port0d on t h o oe ation and chnxac l"' f ing bied oloni"a in th0 r gion through thr$ 19$7 s@asone A f Q)'W ial turr..ed :Ln thei.r r@ports for 958.; ThG purposa of p s nt l 8ttcX" i s t.c ou to comp l t@ the enclos d f'orm as so on as yow:i 195 8 :lnf orma: ion :ts :t Th0 r spons to date has b en ost gl"A :U'ying 1!J. ar" ho f\11 that tho 11 be rm ujor g p in ow: dat for thia 1958 s i..dditio:na_ copioe of tho tmclosed :toriu will son cm It you wish to th* nan10a of othors who should b@ dd d to our et of c ooperators p l a.a do GO 1 c n in.fct"flmtion tas be n rcctir v d and :ma. y : ?rogr-Jtss Report wil_ l bt1 st!n t t o C:OO})$l" tors o It ie hop@d th.;. t thiis report v.U.1 a blUnnnary of th@ pl'f;a&n bt"Osding distrl.but:ton am atatu9 of th Common Egret 9 as -w-r;ll ru:i an o our M!ld 'ri:th Ngard 'liO M.ditional information on thfl oth('r vru:l.erso A br-lef' report on the 1958 Wood sto.;;k b1"ed:tng coloni0a1> and mi ppraiaal @ present 8f,a.tutt,., is 'b1.1ing mailed to all who have s
PAGE 102

URV y OF ORTH AMERICAN WADIH Q B.IRDS ( ...... -....... -... -4'I R t "" -N .ght Heron -A .. _, ... .. ..... --It 1'0U hav8 intomation e t tor each nesting t h l oc K ions ilxlicatedo -.. .., -.... ..... G -o'l .. .., ............ -----aD.. .. ...... c. .. .. ...,. __ of ht.

PAGE 103

WOOD STORK SURVEY io Audubon Soei y :sax 2 0s Tn-micr Florid niqu1ta f intormation on tlii3 oceurrcinc@"' curren t tus cf th Wood stor ) D.H!1 mail d to a po c i liet 0 1 cir :ln t h Ia. (} S1mli th!lm rnbl amount of d has b n 1"9Cflivc d,, In dition the load b a n ID.Q Noo l j o c tor fiC!lld :1.nve eitigat on and as a rosult.e ht s abed on <9'All phas.0s of th o life b1 or:r and ha:v :rwport.d group of n=br..ding wood storks in orgia. atd Sou.t aa well as in a. tw a t h an non.,,breed<0rl!'i l!U"ti o oncl"'Dad c I r c nd.drabl 1mportance1 to ooata adctl t onal bn.ding c a if aey rl1Jt and at th s amts ti.Ile t..o r11co1"d. t ho eic c1irreMCJ of dl non.,.,ON e&t r a.Q Oocsurreneie reportis will be sp.cially valuabb during tM r11onth5 whe:n a no dispersal th bordors cf F"lorid.., an 8xpocted. TM osed cards vi..U make it aasy tor y o 'ti}l lildvist! ot u c h oc c\U"l"en e s., Mo cud will be sent t o you on raqust o '!o'tt!" con h olp make 1 possiblce for us to evalua'W t Btatu.:1J D t; S P* i .l'I mo:t"V cm.rat e y and thuei to p an moH t1f UW::.'5 t'ol" brirJg g sibout ts P., !Waeiil"c h Oinctor Spr11nt J S4mt.ll,y' s li.MU'Ch bs

PAGE 104


PAGE 105

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PAGE 106

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l' NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY 950 THIRD AVENUE NEW YORK, N.Y 10022 (212) 832-3200 Cable : NATAUDUBON 16 May 1974 Mr. John Culler Editor South Carolina Wildlife P.O. Box 167 Columbia, South Carolina 29202 Dear John, Here is the article about Alexander Sprunt, Jr., written by Dr. Carl W. Buchheister. Dr. Buchheister, as I am sure you know, is President Emeritus of the National Audubon Society. He was associated with Alex Sprunt through most of both of their careers with the Audubon Society. Dr. Buchheister's address and telephone number are: 7814 Marion Lane, Bethesda, Maryland, 20014, (301) 656-1271, in the event you need to get in touch with him. I hope this reaches you in time. We had to do certain checking on dates and other facts in this office. CHC:bs enc. cc: Dr. C. W. Buchheister/ Alexander Sprunt, IV Carlyle Blakeney Library Charles H. Callison Executive Vice President AMERICANS COMMITTED TO CONSERVATION

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tLEXANDER SPRUNT, JR., SOUTH CAROLINA NATURALIST By Carl W. Buchheister To the world of the scientific naturalists and interested laymen alike, the wildlife of South Carolina was made known, beginning early in its history, by a number of exceptional individuals of varying backgrounds, talents and personalities. And to those intense and gifted naturalists, including contemporary colleagues, South Carolina and the nation owe a tradition rich in nature exploration, discovery, literature and art. Alexander Sprunt, Jr., who died at his home in Charleston January 3, 1973, was one of the great ones. This is a tribute to Alex Sprunt, but to set the stage lets take a quick look at some of his distinguished predecessors. The first of the great contributors was the Englishman, Mark Catesby, who came to Charleston in 1722. One can hardly think of South Carolina without thinking of Catesby's book, "The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands." That great work appeared in three editions, the last in English and German, in 1771. He worked in the interior as well as the coastal areas of the state. He studied 104 species of birds thoroughly; painted many with plants found in association with them. And his book became one of the best illustrated accounts of South Carolina bird and plant life of the time. And for years to come, it was eagerly read in Europe and America. Then, between 1773 and 1778, the noted naturalist of Philadelphia, William Bartram, made exploratory visits in South Carolina. He studied and made drawings of animals and plants, collecting many of the latter. He reported on all in his letters and journals. His name is perpetuated in the scientific name of the Upland Plover, Bartramia longicauda, a bird he saw in the state. Early in the next century, two men, good friends and working closely together, made most substantial contributions to the state's and the country's ornithological

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-2-history. Their names are known today far and wide. The one, a man of the cloth, the Reverend John Bachman, was for many years pastor of St. John's Lutheran Church in Charleston. The other, a man of the world, was the handsome, romantic, gifted artist-naturalist, John James Audubon. Bachman, active in the field during time off from pastoral duties, discovered four birds new to the Charleston region. Two of these his colleague Audubon named after him, the Bachman's Warbler and the Bachman's Sparrow. Bachman was of great help to Audubon in producing the latter's monumental work, "Birds of America", which the great artist illustrated with his own paintings. Some were painted in Charleston. One most reluctantly omits even mention of the names of a number of men who contributed to the state's ornithological history over the passing years. In 1883, a native South Carolinian, Arthur Trezevant Wayne, who became one of the greatest contributors of all, gave up his business to devote himself wholly to ornithology. From that date to 1930, this man of prodigious activity confined his field studies, except for a few outside excursions, to Charleston County, an area within twenty miles of his home in Mount Pleasant. He made a tremendous contribution by adding many new birds to the state list, by his influence in the making of young ornithologists who were his students, and by his book, The Birds of South Carolina, published by the Charleston Museum in 1910. Thus South Carolina became the first of the southeastern states to have its own bird book. While Wayne was making ornithological history, Alexander Sprunt, Jr. was born in Rock Hill, on January 16, 1898, one destined to become a great contributor to that history himself and whose influence was to extend far beyond the state. Several years after his birth, the family moved to Charleston, where he was to reside the rest of his life. His father, the Reverend Alexander Sprunt, D.D., was pastor of the Scots Presbyterian Church for thirty-six years. And for all his 74 years, Alexander Sprunt, Jr. was a faithful member of the same church.

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-3-Alex, as he was known to close associates and friends, became interested in birds at a very early age. Some members of his family attributed that interest to his playing with blocks with pictures of birds on them! He had a romantic interest in nature, that priceless gift of childhood, with its precious endowments of a sense of mystery and a sense of wonder. As one close to him throughout his adult life, I can attest that he never lost either endowment. Small wonder that with such interests, the boy Alex became a member of the first Boy Scout troop of Charleston. He went into the field and began his meticulous note-taking, a trait which he developed to a high degree and one that became an invaluable asset in later life. He kept careful lists of the birds he saw on his field trips. And as was virtually a universal custom for boys at that time, young Alex had a collection of bird eggs. As wasteful and destructive as the practice appears to us today, it did, in a number of cases, create an active love and protective concern for birds. A surprising number of zealous bird protectionists have confessed to egg collecting in their childhood. Possessed of an excellent mind, Alex was a good student. He became a prodigious reader, and Ernest Thompson Seton, the best seller natural history writer of the day, was one of his favorite authors, and one who influenced his own later writing. His high school years were spent in two private schools in Charleston, Porter Military Academy and the Smith School. At the age of 17, in 1914, he entered Davidson College in North Carolina. In 1918, a year from graduation, at the height of World War I, a patriotic zeal moved him to leave college and join the U.S. Navy. He did not know, of course, that the war would end in November of that year. He served two years. In addition to enabling him to serve his country, the experience created an interest in v and love for the U.S. Navy that endured. He had a lifelong interest in n aval history. Although owing to war service, Alex did not graduate from Davidson College,

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-4-that institution, at the height of his distinguished career in 1954, made him a most honored alumnus by bestowing upon him an honorary Doctor of Science degree. Out of the Navy and in his early twenties, Alex had not lost any of his boyhood interest in birds. It was as providential as it was natural that the young man should come under the influence of Arthur T. Wayne. As a volunteer and a friend, with never a thought of (and there was no possibility of any) financial recompense, Alex became Wayne's disciple and helper. Much of his time was spent at Wayne's home. He paddled the canoe and rowed the boat, transporting Wayne to look for birds in places accessible only by water. Wayne was reputed to be an excellent teacher, a virtual martinet in demanding perfection, an indefatiguable field man. After walking miles throughout the day, he was able to skin birds late into the night. Under such a master who had remarkable knowledge of birds, small wonder that young Sprunt, the eager disciple and helper, determined to make ornithology his career. Although Wayne depended on the collected specimen rather than the field glass for identification, his ability to identify a bird even with the unaided eye was legendary. Alex always loved to tell the story that dramatically confirmed that uncanny ability. Wayne had a pet cat of which he was very fond. One day, while sitting on his porch, Wayne saw the cat go under the house with a bird in its mouth. He jumped up exclaiming, "There goes a Northern Pha 1arope!11 In seconds, both Wayne and Alex were crawling on hands and knees under the house, hastening to get the bird before its destruction. They were too late, but they got enough of the plumage to establish a proof positive identification of the very first Northern Phalarope for the state bird list! Years later, Wayne collected a specimen in South Carolina unaided by a cat. In 1920 Alex Sprunt married Margaret Malcomson Vardell. Her father too was a distinguished Presbyterian minister and the president of Flora McDonald College.

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-5-Although always and proudly a South Carolinian, Alex cherished his Scot heritage. For many years indeed he was the perennial secretary of the St. Andrew's Society and contrived never to miss its annual meeting on November 1, the feast day of its patron. At the festive dinner of the Society, one of the highlights of the traditionpacked program was Bobbie Burns' "Ode to the Haggis," recited movingly from memory by the honorable secretary, Alexander Sprunt, Jr. It made precious little difference to the assembled South Carolinians of Scottish ancestry that the ilTlllortal words of Burns were rendered in a rich low-country dialect. As must be apparent to the reader by now, Alex Sprunt was a man of great loves and fierce loyalties. These included: God, family, friends, the St. Andrew's Society, South Carolina, Charleston, ornithology, the Charleston Museum, conservation, and the National Audubon Society! He always expressed his feelings frankly and with refreshing lack of inhibition. In 1924 Alex became associated with the Charleston Museum, working on a halftime basis. In addition to adding to its bird skin collection, he served as taxidennist and preparator. Many of the ornithological exhibits which he helped prepare can still be seen at the Museum. He mounted deer heads and waterfowl brought to him by sportsmen, and many of his excellent mounts can still be seen in the game rooms of certain low-country plantations. Alex Sprunt was a gifted raconteur. This talent he manifested abundantly orally and with the pen. He carried on a voluminous correspondence with ornithologists and friends throughout the country. He was invited frequently to give lectures by various organizations and schools. All the time he served the museum, he wrote articles on nature subjects for magazines. He wrote as he spoke, forcibly, colorfully, and eloquently.

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-6-In 1930, Arthur T. Wayne died, certainly one of the greatest contributors to ornithological history of South Carolina. How fitting it was that two of the young ornithologists who had been his students, then colleagues at the Charleston Museum, E. Burnham Chamberlain and Alexander Sprunt, Jr., should collaborate in bringing their mentor's book up to date. The revision, embodying all the new findings since 1910, a period of twenty-one years, was published by the Museum in 1931. It was entitled "Second Supplement to Arthur T. Wayne's Birds of South Carolina." While continuing field studies in ornithology, Alex Sprunt began in 1930 to devote more and more time to writing. In 1929 he became a nature columnist for the Charleston News and Courier. Six days a week, month in and month out, for 16 years, his column, "Woods and Waters" appeared. His topics were not limited to birds but included all animals, plants, their habitats, and even the weather. He supplemented his various field experiences with a prodigious amount of reading. Consequently his wide knowledge enabled him to write with authority and enthusiasm about mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plants, where and how they lived. He loved and explored all of the natural environments, from the seashore to the mountains, and he visited most of them in the U.S. during his lifetime. He did not limit his interest to the natural history of an area. The human history interested him just as much. He loved to talk to people and find out what they knew and how they felt about their local animals and plants. He had an amazing knowledge of the views of the rural people of the low-country from the sophisticated plantation owner to the illiterate field hand. Of the latter group, he had an impressive collection of stories, ranging from truth to fiction. He fascinated hosts of listeners all over the United States by retelling such tales in the native dialect. His imitation of speech and gesture were uncanny.

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-7-Through his ornithological writings, his newspaper column, and articles in magazines, Alex Sprunt was known throughout the country. More and more professional and amateur sought his help in observing birds to advantage. He was most generous in responding to all inquiries and leading many in the field personally. It is hardly surprising that during a visit to Charleston in 1934, President John H. Baker of the National Audubon Society sought out the rising young ornithologist and engaged him to be the full time Southern Representative of the Society. He was at the time also serving as seasonal warden on Penny Dam Reserve Sanctuary, a position he took over from Wayne. And henceforth Sprunt's field was to be the whole U.S. and his mission the conservation of all wildlife and the environment. Continuing to base in his beloved Charleston, he travelled throughout the South supervising the Audubon wildlife sanctuaries from South Carolina to Texas. In this important work, his knowledge of birds and their habitat requirements was of valuable help to the Society's administration and to the individual warden. He was inmensely helpful in winning the sympathetic interest of local people to the sanctuary program. In certain areas there was even hostility to the Audubon Society for closing an area to all hunting and to any of its efforts to effect better protection for wildlife. But Alex Sprunt had the zeal of the true missionary. Through personal visits and talks at meetings, he made many converts. The Society was not long in utilizing Alex Sprunt's exceptional ability as a missionary to an even more effective extent. It assigned him to a leading role in its lecture program. Provided with motion picture films taken especially for him by expert wildlife photographers, which he narrated in person, he spent at least several weeks of each year on the road. He lectured to audiences of adults and youth in

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-8-every one of the contiguous states, in every Canadian province, in Bennuda, the Bahamas, and Puerto Rico. He was one of the most sought after and effective of speakers. He gave every lecture as if it were the last and therefore the most important in his life. At other times during the year, Alex Sprunt coordinated station wagon tours for the Society beginning in 1940 in the Okeechobee-Kissinmee Prairie region of Florida, in Virginia at Cobb's Island, and in South Carolina at Bulls Island, and later in the National Audubon Society's great Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. There exist today persons all over the United States and Canada who speak with enthusiasm and tremendous appreciation of participation in a wildlife tour with Alex Sprunt. He was an inspirational field leader. His enthusiasm was contagious. He never lost his childlike feeling for the world of nature. Despite a full schedule of responsibilities in the National Audubon Society, Sprunt continued to compile and to In 1935, his "Dwellers of the Silences", a collection of short stories about animals, was published. This channing book had the added distinction of being illustrated with black and white drawings by one of the finest wildlife artists of the day, John Livingston Bull. Sprunt and his long time associate and fonner colleague at the Charleston Museum, E. Burnham Chamberlain, collaborated again in co-authoring "South Carolina Bird Life". This very complete bird book, containing all the new infonnation to date and beautifully illustrated, was published in 1949. The four artists whose paintings were reproduced in the book were John Henry Dick, Edward von S. Dingle, Francis Lee Jacques, and Roger Tory Peterson. In 1953, Sprunt's Album of Southern Birds appeared. He revised and brought up to date Florida Bird Life, published in 1954. He revised and expanded North American

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t -9 -Birds of Prey and was the instigator and major contributor to the Warblers of North America. These were published in 1955 and 1957 respectively. His collection of essays entitled Carolina Low Country Impressions was published in 1964. His talents and achievements were recognized internationally. Long an elected member of that august scientific society, the American Ornithologists Union, an honor in itself, he eventually was elected a Fellow. That was high honor indeed tendered by his peers! He was honored too by affection and gratitude in the hearts of thousands of people in his state and far beyond its boundaries. Alex Sprunt's was the wonderful achievement of having shaped the hearts and minds of hosts of his fellow men. To them he gave the priceless gifts of awareness and concern for the ineffable beauty of the natural world. His widow and a daughter, Miss Jean V. Sprunt, live at the family home in Charleston. His son, Alexander (11Sandy11) Sprunt IV, is Director of Research for the National Audubon Society, residing in Tavernier, Florida, where the Society maintains scientific headquarters

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, I .,,...-.> --c. w l '1) 1, 11-' l: J\ NI) l'vl J\ 11lN1.; IU:sou I\ c l'..S HULi< J\NI> IUO:<.; I ,/\' 'IU ../ l H: J 1 \ I l T iv! I: NT M/\Y 1. 1S7'7.' Promulgatccl \lndcr authority of Section 23-43, Section 23-45, Section 28-107 anr] Section 28511, 1
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3 '!'hat no pcn:on shall lrebpass on the Alexanr.lerSprunt, Jr., Wildlif<. Refuge and Sanctuary. 4 ThCl. t the penalty for violating any of the Rules and Regulations ,, herein cited shall be as prescribed by Section 28.-5,11, 1962 South Caro ina Co:ie of Laws. 5. Tha t except as mo:iific :l or changed. hereby, all prevailing laws, rules and regulations concerning fishing, h\mting and boating in So\ Caro ina shal remain in full force and effect. j Ii ""


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