2013: Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Speleology, Czech Republic, Brno, July 21-28, 2013 Volume 1

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2013: Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Speleology, Czech Republic, Brno, July 21-28, 2013 Volume 1
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Produced by the Organizing Committee of the 16th
International Congress of Speleology. Published by the Czech
Speleological Society and the SPELEO2013 and in the
co-operation with the International Union of
SpeleologyEdited by Michal Filippi, Pavel Bosak
Plenary LecturesFrom Olomouc 1973 to Brno 2013: A review
of progress in physical speleology during the past forty years
/ Derek C. Ford --
The moravian karst in the anthropological perspective /
Martin Oliva --
The caves that microbes built the frontier of cave and
karst science / Annette Summers Engle.
Session: History of Speleology and Karst
ResearchSpeleology of Georgia / Lasha Asanidze, Kukuri
Tsikarishvili, Nana Bolashvili --
The history of speleological progress in Turkey / Seluk
Canbek, Meltem Pancari, zlem Uzun --
A historical dataset: Marcel Loubens and the Couffre de
la ierre St. Martin / Arrigo A. Cigna (Ed.) --
The Alburni Massif, the most important karst area of
southern Italy: history of cave exploration and recent
developments / Umberto Del Vecchio, Francesco Lo Mastro,
Francesco Maurano, Mario Parise, Antonio Santo --
A masterpiece of historic cave surveying: several
representations of Miremont-Rouffignac Cave (Dordogne, France),
thcenturies / Christophe Gauchon, Elisa Boche,
Stphane Jaillet --
Speleological developments in Iran since ISEI 2008 /
Saeed Hasheminezhad --
50 years of cave rescue in Hungary / Cyula Hegeds --
Athanasius Kircher's chapter XX "About caves, fractures
and the innumerable passages of the Earth" and the Grotto of
Antiparos from "Mundus Subterraneus", 1678, translated from
Latin / Stephan Kempe, Cottfried Naumann, Boris Bunsch --
Nazi Military use of German Caves, Dr. Benno Wolf and the World
Cave Registry Project/ Friedhart Knolle, Stephan Kempe,
Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos --
Story of the dolomite d. de dolomieu or b. hacquet? /
Andrej Kranjc --
"Giving us an identity" the constructing of memory in
the history of speleology / Johannes Mattes --
The discovery of caves in Khammouane, Laos (1992-2013) /
Claude Mouret, Jean-Franois Vacqui --
Significant "errors" of some Thesalonica's geologists and
archaeologists regarding Petralona Cave / Nickos A. Poulianos
The Rio Camuy Cave system, Puerto Rico, after 55 years of
speleology / Ronald T. Richards --
Cerigo speleological project Ioannis Petrocheilos and
speleological research in Kythera Island, Greece, from 1930 to
1960 / Konstantinos Prokopios Trimmis, Georgia Karadimou --
Contribution of Hermengild and Karel korpil to the
Bulgarian speleology / Alexey Zhalov, Magdalena Stamenova --
Jenolan show caves; origin of cave and feature names /
Kath Bellamy, Craig Barnes, Julia James --
The slovene karst portraited in the "Universal Geography"
of Conrad Malte-Brun and Elise Reclus / Luiz Eduardo Panisset
Travassos --
In memoriam of Erato Aggelopoulou Wolf: the first greek
female caver / Konstantinos Prokopios Trimmis, Pelly Filippatou
Oldest documented caves of the world: Birkleyn Caves /
Ali Yama.
Session: Archeology and Paleontology in CavesNahal
Asa'el Cave: a unique 6,000 year old wooden installation and
the late chalcolithic presence in hardly accessible caves in
the Judean Desert, Israel / Uri Davidovich, Ro'i Porat,
Elisabetta Boaretto, Nili Liphschitz, Aihai Mazar, Amos Frumkin
Sediments and faunal remains of the Kurtun-1 Cave at
Baikal Lake / Andrei Filippov, Fedora Khenzykhenova, Igor
Grebnev, Margarita Erbajeva, Nikolai Martynovich --
Barov (Sobolova) Cave, moravian karst (Czech Republic)
upper pleistocene fosiliferous in-cave sediments instructive
paleontological excavation / Vlastislav Kna, Martina
Roblikov --
Maresha a subterranean city from the hellenistic period
in the Judean foothills, Israel / Amos Kloner New profile of
Ciemna Cave sediments (Polish Jura) problem of correlation
with former investigations / Maciej T. Krajcarz, Teresa
Madeyska --
Cave archaeology in Hungary synopsis and new
perspectives / Orsolya Laczi --
Neolithic drawings from Bestaovca Cave, W. Slovenia /
Andrej Mihevc --
Caves in the neolithic and early aeneolithic periods from
the near east to central Europe / Vladimr Pea --
The culture of anthropogenic caves with stone doors in
ancient Armenia / Samvel M. Shahinyan --
Levantine cave dwellers: geographic and environmental
aspects of early humans use of caves, case study from Wadi
Amud, northern Israel / Micka Ullman, Erella Hovers, Naama
Coren-Inbar, Amos Frumkin --
Reconstruction of the Chatyrdag Plateau (Crimean
Peninsula) environment during the last 40,000 years based on
stable isotopic analysis of red deer bone collagen / Michal
Gasiorowski, Helena Hercman, Bogdan Ridush, Krzysztof Stefaniak
A gallery of late medieval and modern paintings and
inscriptions in Na piku Cave, Silesia, Dzech Republic / Petr
Jenc, Vladimir Pesa, Lubomir Turcan, Dominika
Machacova, Martin Barus --
Results of studing the paleolithic kapova cave
(shulgan-ash) images / Yu. Lyakhnitsky, A. Yushko, O. Minnikov
The Cave edna Peina (Thirsty Cave), Serbia / Mladen
Milosevic, Robert Misic, Maja Slijepcevic --
Archaeology and the winter solstice in the caves of the
bohemian karst, Czech Republic / Vladimr Pea --
Fossil assemblages from neanderthals sites of Slovakia -
preliminary results / Martin Sabol, Tomas Ceklovsky,
Radoslav Benus, Marianna Kovacova, Peter Joniak, Julia
Zervanova, Rene Putiska --
Pre-historic remains at the Crrego do Cavalo farm,
Piumh, Minas Gerais, Brazil / Mariana Barbosa Timo, Luiz
Eduardo Panisset Travassos, Bruno Durao Rodrigues --
Anatolian caves in strabo's geographica / Ali Yama.
Session: Protection And Management Of Karst,
EducationExploration, Protection And Management Of Karst
Caves: Good And Bad Practices / Bartholeyns Jean-Pierre --
Proposal To Establish Geoturistic Trails At The Monumento
Natural Estadual Gruta Rei Do Mato, Minas Gerais, Brazil /
Felipe De Avila Chaves Borges, Luiz Eduardo Panisset
Travassos, Fernando Alves Guimaraes --
The Development Of Show Caves: New Materials And Methods
/ Arrigo A. Cigna --
Quality Assessment Of Show Caves: The Management
Evaluation Index (Mei) / Arrigo A. Cigna, Daniela Pani --
"Cave Lighting" Project: Theory And Practice Of The
Development And Maintenance Of Modern Subterranean Tourist
Attractions A Speleologist's Point Of View / Alexander
Chrapko, Larisa Utrobina --
Environmental Monitoring And Radiation Protection In
Skocjan Caves, Slovenia / Vanja Debevec, Peter Jovanovic --
Cave And Karst At The Cinema: Cultural Speleology And The
Geographicity Of Symbolic Landscapes / Luiz Afonso V.
Figueiredo --
Venezuela's Guacharo Cave: The Guides' Perspective /
Govinda Aguirre Galindo, Maria Alejandra Perez --
Groundwater Protection And Management In A Covered Karst
Water System / Fang Guo, Guanghui Jiang --
Icaverns: Promoting Cave And Karst Understanding And
Stewardship Via Smart Device Applications / Dianne Joop,
Michael Hernandez --
Petition For Protection Of Cave Contents/ Barbel Vogel,
Friedhart Knolle --
Cave And Karst Resources And Management In The United
States Forest Service / Johanna Kovarik --
Solving Karst Flooding In Las Cruces, Peten, Guatemala
Lewis Land, George Veni --
Karst From Sao Desiderio Region (Bahia Northeasthern
Brazil): Protection And Management Proposition / Heros Augusto
Santos Lobo, Ricardo Galeno Fraga De Araujo Pereira, Lucas
Padoan De Sa Godinho --
Under Your Feet: Developing And Assessing Avenues For
Promoting Karst Groundwater Awareness And Sustainability
Through Community-Based Informal Education / Leslie A. North,
Jonathan Oglesby, Jason S. Polk, Christopher Groves, Tim
Slattery --
The Status Of Cave Wilderness In The United States Of
America / Patricia E. Seiser --
Karst Areas And Their Protection In The Czech Republic
Leos Stefka --
The Cave Animal Of The Year An Easy Way To Wide-Spread
Public Resonance / Barbel Vogel, Stefan Zaenker, Helmut
Steiner --
The Brands And Geotourism Sustainable Development Of Show
Caves In China / Yuan-Hai Zhang, Wen-Qiang Shi --
The Development Of Chom Ong Cave As An Ecotourism
Destination In Northern Laos / Joerg Dreybrodt, Siegfried Moser
Outline Of Italian Regulations Concerning The Design Or
Adjustment Of Tourist Paths In Italian Show Caves / Alessio
Fabbricatore --
The Relationship Of Karst Landforms And Land Use,
Ksiromero Region, Western Greece / Miljana Golubovic
Deligianni, George Veni, Katherina Theodorakopoulou --
Applied Drama: A New Tool Of Teaching Cave Protection /
Konstantina Kalogirou, Konstantinos Prokopios Trimmis --
Ten Years Of Www.Speleogenesis.Info: Challenges And
Perspectives / Alexey Kopchinskiy, Alexander Klimchouk --
Protection And Management Of Karst Regions In Indonesia
Yuniat Irawati --
The Distribution, Protection And Utilization Of Karst
Caves In Hainan Province, China / Wenqiang Shi, Yuanhai Zhang
"Prokarsterra-Edu" A Karst-Educational Project / Petar
Stefanov, Dilyana Stefanova, Dimitrina Mikhova, Leos Stefka.
Session: Karst and Caves: Social Aspects and Other
TopicsKarst Morphology Of Martian Evaporite Surfaces /
Davide Baioni, Nadja Zupan Hajna, Maria Sgavetti --
Esa Caves: Training Astronauts For Space Exploration /
Loredana Bessone, Kristina Beblo-Vranesevic, Quirico Antonello
Cossu, Jo De Waele, Stefan Leuko, Paolo Marcia, Petra Rettberg,
Laura Sanna, Francesco Sauro, Stefano Taiti --
Study Of Pulmonary Functions Of Tourist Guides In The
Caves / Vanja Debevec, Peter Jovanovic --
A Virtual Distributed Caving Library / Graziano Ferrari
Halotherapy And Halo Health Improvement Pavel Gorbenko,
Konstantin Gorbenko --
Inn Valley Undergrounds: The First Anthropospeleological
Concept Of Show Caves / Peter Hofmann --
Biological Evaluation Of Therapeutic Properties Of Salt
Mines / Constantin Munteanu, Diana Munteanu, Iuri Simionca,
Mihai Hoteteu, Delia Cinteza, Horia Lazarescu --
Historical Water Quality Data From Cerna Valley/Baile
Herculane Romania / Gheorghe M. Ponta, Neculai Terteleac --
Natural And Cultural Heritage Values Of The Yongcheon
Lava Tube Cave On Jeju Island, Republic Of Korea / Kyung Sik
Woo, Ryeon Kim, Jong Deok Lim, Yongmun Jeon --
Temperature And Air Humidity In The Ice Passage Of The
Pikova Dama Cave, Moravian Karst (Czech Republic) / Vaclav
Zdimal --
Analysis Of The Effects Of The Nicoya 05 September 2012
Earthquake In "Terciopelo" Cave And The Karst Of "Cerro Barra
Honda", Nicoya, Costa Rica / Gustavo Quesada Carranza,
Ferdinando Didonna, Carlos Goicoechea Carranza --
Some Aspects Of The Geographical Distribution Of Buddhist
Caves / Alexandre M A Diniz, Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos,
Vanessa De Sena Brandao, Felipe Vieira Pena Rios --
Improvement Of Caving As A Form Of Physical Activity /
Natalija Mihajlovic --
Caves And Protected Areas In Sardinia (It): The Example
Of The Grotta Del Papa Cave System In The Isle Of Tavolara /
Daniela Pani, Selena Montinaro, Egidio Trainito, Giacomo Cao.
Double Cave Maps Of Turkey / Ali Yamac.
Session: Biospeleology, Geomicrobiology And EcologyChase
In History After The Endemic Niphargus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)
Species Of Hungary / Gergely Balazs, Dorottya Angyal --
Mineral Precipitation In Vitro Using Isolated Bacterial
Strains From Syndai Caves, Meghalaya / Ramanathan Baskar,
Sushmitha Baskar --
Terrestrial Mesofauna Biodiversity In Unique Karst
Environments In Southern Africa / Gerhard Du Preez, Pieter
Theron, Driekie Fourie --
Microbial Processes In Sulfidic Hypogene Karst / Annette
Summers Engel --
The Resources, Environment And Development In Karst Area:
A Case Study In Fengshan Geopark (China) / Jiang Guanghui, Guo
Fang --
Unravelling Underground Ice Microcosms / Alexandra
Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Corina Itcus, Andreea Rusu, Elena Popa,
Denisa Pascu, Ioan Ardelean, Aurel Persoiu, Traian Brad, Bogdan
Onac, Cristina Purcarea --
Bat Communities Of Czech Caves Over 45 Years Of
Continuous Monitoring / Ivan Horacek, Tomas Bartonicka,
Jiri Gaisler, Jan Zukal, Ceson --
Food Chain Length In Groundwater: Patterns In 15N Range /
Benjamin T. Hutchins, Benjamin F. Schwartz --
Cave-Dwelling Fauna From Karst Areas Of Portugal / Ana
Sofia P.S. Reboleira, F. Goncalves, P. Oromi --
Biospeleological Research In The Lao / P.D.R. Helmut
Steiner --
Study Of A Bacterial Community On The Surface Of A
Stalagmite In Heshang Cave, Central China / Hongmei Wang,
Qianying Liu, Rui Zhao, Qiang Dong, Xiaoping Wu --
The Cave Fauna Of Luxembourg / Dieter Weber --
New Data To The Distribution Of Four Aquatic Troglobiont
Macroinvertebrate Species In The Caves Of The Mecsek Mountains
(Sw Hungary) / Dorottya Angyal, Gergely Balazs --
Molecular Analysis Of Microorganisms Diversity From
Perrenial Underground Ice Sediments / Corina Itcus, Alexandra
Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Denisa Pascu, Ioan Ardelean, Aurel
Persoiu, Traian Brad, Cristina Purcarea --
Bryophytes At Lamps In Selected Public Caves In The Czech
Republic Past And Present / Svatava Kubesova --
Patterns Of Missing Legs In Hadenoecus Subterraneus Cave
Crickets And Reduction Of Foraging Success / Kathleen H.
Lavoie, Suganthi Thirunavukarasu, Mohammed Chandoo, Utsav
Pandey, Elizabeth Lavoie, Kurt Helf --
Can Commensal Fungal Populations Protect Bats From
Geomyces Destructans Infection? / Kelsey Njus, Samantha Kaiser,
Marcelo Kramer, Hazel A. Barton --
Microfungal Community Of Movile Cave, Romania / Alena
Novakova, Vit Hubka, Sarka Valinova, Miroslav Kolarik,
Alexandra Maria Hillebrand-Voiculescu --
Microbial Iron Cycling And Biospeleogenesis: Cave
Development In The Carajas Formation, Brazil / Ceth W. Parker,
Augusto S. Auler, John Senko, Ira D. Sasowsky, Luis B. Pilo,
Melanie Smith, / Michael Johnston, Hazel Barton --
Predation Mediated Carbon Turnover In Nutrient-Limited
Cave Environments / Melissa Wilks, Hazel A. Barton.


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VOLUME 1 Edited by Michal Filippi Pavel Bosk16thINTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGYProceedings


2013ProceedingsVOLUME 1Edited by Michal Filippi Pavel BoskCzech Republic, Brno July 21 28, 201316thINTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY


16thINTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY Czech Republic, Brno July 21 28, 2013Cover photos (some photos were adjusted/cropped) Top left Jos Bidegain, on his way for the recovery Marcel Loubens body. Author unknown. For details see the paper by A.A. Cigna. Top right Walking Mammoth a prehistoric drawing from the Kapova Cave, Russia. Photo by O. Minnikov. For details see the paper by Y. Lyakhnitsky et al. Bottom left Astronaut David Saint-Jacques (CSA) collecting microbiological samples for the scientific programme of the ESA CAVES course. Photo by V. Crobu. For details see the paper by Bessone et al. Bottom right The long-legged cave centipede Thereuopoda longicornis a typical species of Lao caves. Photo by H. Steiner. For details see the paper by H. Steiner. Produced by the Organizing Committee of the 16thInternational Congress of Speleology. Published by the Czech Speleological Society and the SPELEO2013 and in the co-operation with the International Union of Speleology. Design by M. Filippi and SAVIO, s.r.o. Layout by SAVIO, s.r.o. Printed in the Czech Republic by H.R.G. spol. s r.o. The contributions were not corrected from language point of view. Contributions express author(s) opinion. Recommended form of citation for this volume: Filippi M., Bosk P. (Eds), 2013. Proceedings of the 16thInternational Congress of Speleology, July 21, Brno. Volume 1, p. 453. Czech Speleological Society. Praha. KATALOGIZACE V KNIZE NRODN KNIHOVNA R International Congress of Speleology (16. : Brno, esko) 16th International Congress of Speleology : Czech Republic, Brno July 21,2013 : proceedings. Volume 1 / edited by Michal Filippi, Pavel Bosk. -[Prague] : Czech Speleological Society and the SPELEO2013 and in the co-operation with the International Union of Speleology, 2013 ISBN 978-80-87857-07-6 (bro.) 551.44 551.435.8 902.035 551.44:592/599 502.171:574.4/.5 speleology karstology speleoarchaeology biospeleology ecosystem management proceedings of conferences speleologie karsologie speleoarcheologie biospeleologie ochrana ekosystm sbornky konferenc 551 Geology, meteorology [7] 551 Geologie. Meteorologie. Klimatologie [7]VOLUME 1ProceedingsISBN 978-80-87857-07-6 2013 Czech Speleological Society, Praha, Czech Republic. Individual authors retain their copyrights. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any data storage or retrieval system without the express written permission of the copyright owner. All drawings and maps are used with permission of the authors. Unauthorized use is strictly prohibited.


Scientific CommitteeChairmanPavel Bosk (Czech Republic) Karst and PseudokarstVice-ChairmanMichal Filippi (Czech Republic) Karst and PseudokarstMembers Ji Adamovi (Czech Republic) Pseudokarst Philippe Audra (France) Speleogenesis Jean-Pierre Bartholeyns(France) Management and Protection Aaron Bird (USA) Exploration Didier Cailhol (France) Speleogenesis Matt Covington (USA) Modelling in Karst and Caves Robert Eavis (USA) Exploration Anette S. Engel (USA) Geomicrobiology Luk Faltejsek (Czech Republic) Biospeleology Derek Ford (Canada) Climate and Paleoclimate Franci Gabrovek (Slovenia) Modelling Mladen Garai(Croatia) Survey, Mapping and Data Processing Martin Golec (Czech Republic) Archeology and Paleontology Christiane Grebe(Germany) Management and Protection Nadja Zupan Hajna(Slovenia) Extraterrestrial Karst Ivan Horek (Czech Republic) Biospeleology Stephan Kempe (Germany) History Aleksander A. Klimchouk(Ukraine) Speleogenesis Ji Kyselk (Czech Republic) Exploration Peter Matthews (Australia) Survey, Mapping and Data Processing Iona Meleg (France) Management and Protection Mario Parise (Italy) Artificial Underground Bohdan P. Onac (USA) Mineralogy Yavor Shopov (Bulgaria) Climate and Paleoclimate The names of the Committee members are given along with their home countries and fields of research they represented as convenors.


ContentsPreface 10 Plenary Lectures 13FROM OLOMOUC 1973 TO BRNO 2013: A REVIEW OF PROGRESS IN PHYSICAL SPELEOLOGY DURING THE PAST FORTY YEARS Derek C. Ford ......................................................................................................................................15 THE MORAVIAN KARST IN THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Martin Oliva ....................................................................18 THE CAVES THAT MICROBES BUILT THE FRONTIER OF CAVE AND KARST SCIENCE Annette Summers Engel ........................................................................................................................................................................................22 Session:History of Speleology and Karst Research 2720SPELEOLOGY OF GEORGIA Lasha Asanidze, Kukuri Tsikarishvili, Nana Bolashvili ....................................................................29 THE HISTORY OF SPELEOLOGICAL PROGRESS IN TURKEY Seluk Canbek, Meltem Pancarc, zlem Uzun ........................................................................................................................................33 A HISTORICAL DATASET: MARCEL LOUBENS AND THE GOUFFRE DE LA PIERRE ST. MARTIN Arrigo A. Cigna (Ed.) ................................................................................................................................................................................................36 THE ALBURNI MASSIF, THE MOST IMPORTANT KARST AREA OF SOUTHERN ITALY: HISTORY OF CAVE EXPLORATION AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Umberto Del Vecchio, Francesco Lo Mastro, Francesco Maurano, Mario Parise, Antonio Santo ......................................41 A MASTERPIECE OF HISTORIC CAVE SURVEYING: SEVERAL REPRESENTATIONS OF MIREMONT-ROUFFIGNAC CAVE (DORDOGNE, FRANCE), XVIII-XIXthCENTURIES Christophe Gauchon, Elisa Boche, Stphane Jaillet ..................................................................................................................................47 SPELEOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN IRAN SINCE ISEI 2008 Saeed Hasheminezhad ............................................................51 50 YEARS OF CAVE RESCUE IN HUNGARY Gyula Hegeds ................................................................................................................54 ATHANASIUS KIRCHERS CHAPTER XX ABOUT CAVES, FRACTURES AND THE INNUMERABLE PASSAGES OF THE EARTH AND THE GROTTO OF ANTIPAROS FROM MUNDUS SUBTERRANEUS, 1678, TRANSLATED FROM LATIN Stephan Kempe, Gottfried Naumann, Boris Dunsch ..........................................................59 NAZI MILITARY USE OF GERMAN CAVES, DR. BENNO WOLF AND THE WORLD CAVE REGISTRY PROJECT Friedhart Knolle, Stephan Kempe, Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos ..............................................................................................65 STORY OF THE DOLOMITE D. DE DOLOMIEU OR B. HACQUET? Andrej Kranjc ....................................................................71 GIVING US AN IDENTITY THE CONSTRUCTION OF MEMORY IN THE HISTORY OF SPELEOLOGY Johannes Mattes ......................................................................................................................................................................................................75 THE DISCOVERY OF CAVES IN KHAMMOUANE, LAOS (199113) Claude Mouret, Jean-Franois Vacqui ..........................................................................................................................................................81 SIGNIFICANT ERRORS OF SOME THESSALONICAS GEOLOGISTS AND ARCHAEOLOGISTS REGARDING PETRALONA CAVE Nickos A. Poulianos ............................................................................................................................88 THE RIO CAMUY CAVE SYSTEM, PUERTO RICO, AFTER 55 YEARS OF SPELEOLOGY Ronald T. Richards ..................................................................................................................................................................................................93 CERIGO SPELEOLOGICAL PROJECT IOANNIS PETROCHEILOS AND SPELEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN KYTHERA ISLAND, GREECE, FROM 1930 TO 1960 Konstantinos Prokopios Trimmis, Georgia Karadimou ........................................99 CONTRIBUTION OF HERMENGILD AND KAREL KORPIL TO THE BULGARIAN SPELEOLOGY Alexey Zhalov, Magdalena Stamenova ........................................................................................................................................................103 JENOLAN SHOW CAVES; ORIGIN OF CAVE AND FEATURE NAMES Kath Bellamy, Craig Barnes, Julia James ......................................................................................................................................................107 THE SLOVENE KARST PORTRAITED IN THE UNIVERSAL GEOGRAPHY OF CONRAD MALTE-BRUN AND ELISE RECLUS Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos ........................................................................................................................111 IN MEMORIAM OF ERATO AGGELOPOULOU WOLF: THE FIRST GREEK FEMALE CAVER Konstantinos Prokopios Trimmis, Pelly Filippatou ..................................................................................................................................117 2013 ICS Proceedings


OLDEST DOCUMENTED CAVES OF THE WORLD: BIRKLEYN CAVES Ali Yama ......................................................................118 Session:Archeology and Paleontology in Caves 121NAHAL ASAEL CAVE: A UNIQUE 6,000 YEAR OLD WOODEN INSTALLATION AND THE LATE CHALCOLITHIC PRESENCE IN HARDLY ACCESSIBLE CAVES IN THE JUDEAN DESERT, ISRAEL Uri Davidovich, Roi Porat, Elisabetta Boaretto, Nili Liphschitz, Amihai Mazar, Amos Frumkin ........................................123 SEDIMENTS AND FAUNAL REMAINS OF THE KURTUN-1 CAVE AT BAIKAL LAKE Andrei Filippov, Fedora Khenzykhenova, Igor Grebnev, Margarita Erbajeva, NikolaiMartynovich ..................................129 BAROV (SOBOLOVA) CAVE, MORAVIAN KARST (CZECH REPUBLIC) UPPER PLEISTOCENE FOSILIFEROUS IN-CAVE SEDIMENTS INSTRUCTIVE PALEONTOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS Vlastislav Ka, Martina Roblkov ............................................................................................................................................................133 MARESHA A SUBTERRANEAN CITY FROM THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD IN THE JUDEAN FOOTHILLS, ISRAEL Amos Kloner ..................................................................................................................................................................139 NEW PROFILE OF CIEMNA CAVE SEDIMENTS (POLISH JURA) PROBLEM OF CORRELATION WITH FORMER INVESTIGATIONS Maciej T. Krajcarz, Teresa Madeyska ....................................................................................146 CAVE ARCHAEOLOGY IN HUNGARY SYNOPSIS AND NEW PERSPECTIVES Orsolya Laczi ..............................................150 NEOLITHIC DRAWINGS FROM BESTAOVCA CAVE, W SLOVENIA Andrej Mihevc ................................................................156 CAVES IN THE NEOLITHIC AND EARLY AENEOLITHIC PERIODS FROM THE NEAR EAST TO CENTRAL EUROPE Vladimr Pea ............................................................................................................................................................159 THE CULTURE OF ANTHROPOGENIC CAVES WITH STONE DOORS IN ANCIENT ARMENIA Samvel M. Shahinyan ..........................................................................................................................................................................................164 LEVANTINE CAVE DWELLERS: GEOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF EARLY HUMANS USE OF CAVES, CASE STUDY FROM WADI AMUD, NORTHERN ISRAEL Micka Ullman, Erella Hovers, Naama Goren-Inbar, Amos Frumkin ................................................................................................169 RECONSTRUCTION OF THE CHATYRDAG PLATEAU (CRIMEAN PENINSULA) ENVIRONMENT DURING THE LAST 40,000 YEARS BASED ON STABLE ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF RED DEER BONE COLLAGEN Micha Gsiorowski, Helena Hercman, Bogdan Ridush, Krzysztof Stefaniak ............................................................................175 A GALLERY OF LATE MEDIEVAL AND MODERN PAINTINGS AND INSCRIPTIONS IN NA PIKU CAVE, SILESIA, CZECH REPUBLIC Petr Jen, Vladimr Pea, ubomr Turan, Dominika Machaov, Martin Barus ......................................................................176 RESULTS OF STUDYING THE PALEOLITHIC KAPOVA CAVE (SHULGAN-ASH) IMAGES Yu. Lyakhnitsky, A. Yushko, O. Minnikov ....................................................................................................................................................182 THE CAVE EDNA PEINA (THIRSTY CAVE), SERBIA Mladen Miloevi, Robert Mii, Maja Slijepevi ....................187 ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE WINTER SOLSTICE IN THE CAVESOF THE BOHEMIAN KARST, CZECH REPUBLIC Vladimr Pea ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................188 FOSSIL ASSEMBLAGES FROM NEANDERTHAL SITES OF SLOVAKIA PRELIMINARY RESULTS Martin Sabol, Tom beklovsk, Radoslav Beu, Marianna Kovov, Peter Joniak, Jlia Zervanov, Ren Putika ............................................................................................................................................................................................................192 PRE-HISTORIC REMAINS AT THE CRREGO DO CAVALO FARM, PIUMH, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL Mariana Barbosa Timo, Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos, Bruno Duro Rodrigues ..............................................................196 ANATOLIAN CAVES IN STRABOS GEOGRAPHICA Ali Yama ..........................................................................................................202 Session:Protection and Management of Karst, Education 20511EXPLORATION, PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF KARST CAVES: GOOD AND BAD PRACTICES Bartholeyns Jean-Pierre ......................................................................................................................................................................................207 PROPOSAL TO ESTABLISH GEOTURISTIC TRAILS AT THE MONUMENTO NATURAL ESTADUAL GRUTA REI DO MATO, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL Felipe de vila Chaves Borges, Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos, Fernando Alves Guimares................................................................................................................................................................................209 THE DEVELOPMENT OF SHOW CAVES: NEW MATERIALS AND METHODS Arrigo A. Cigna ..............................................215 2013 ICS Proceedings


QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SHOW CAVES: THE MANAGEMENT EVALUATION INDEX (MEI) Arrigo A. Cigna, Daniela Pani ............................................................................................................................................................................219 CAVE LIGHTING PROJECT: THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OFMODERN SUBTERRANEAN TOURIST ATTRACTIONS A SPELEOLOGISTS POINT OF VIEW Alexander Chrapko, Larisa Utrobina ............................................................................................................................................................223 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND RADIATION PROTECTION IN SKOCJAN CAVES, SLOVENIA Vanja Debevec, Peter Jovanovi ......................................................................................................................................................................226 CAVE AND KARST AT THE CINEMA: CULTURAL SPELEOLOGY AND THE GEOGRAPHICITY OF SYMBOLIC LANDSCAPES Luiz Afonso V. Figueiredo ....................................................................................................................................................229 VENEZUELAS GUACHARO CAVE: THE GUIDES PERSPECTIVE Govinda Aguirre Galindo, Mara Alejandra Prez ....................................................................................................................................235 GROUNDWATER PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT IN A COVERED KARST WATER SYSTEM Fang Guo, Guanghui Jiang ..................................................................................................................................................................................237 ICAVERNS: PROMOTING CAVE AND KARST UNDERSTANDING AND STEWARDSHIP VIA SMART DEVICE APPLICATIONS Dianne Joop, Michael Hernandez ..................................................................................................................................241 PETITION FOR PROTECTION OF CAVE CONTENTS Brbel Vogel, Friedhart Knolle ................................................................244 CAVE AND KARST RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE Johanna Kovatk ......................................................................................................................................................................................................246 SOLVING KARST FLOODING IN LAS CRUCES, PETN, GUATEMALA Lewis Land, George Veni ........................................252 KARST FROM SO DESIDRIO REGION (BAHIA NORTHEASTHERN BRAZIL): PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT PROPOSITION Heros Augusto Santos Lobo, Ricardo Galeno Fraga de Arajo Pereira, Lucas Padoan de S Godinho ........................256 UNDER YOUR FEET: DEVELOPING AND ASSESSING AVENUES FOR PROMOTING KARST GROUNDWATER AWARENESS AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH COMMUNITY-BASED INFORMAL EDUCATION Leslie A. North, Jonathan Oglesby, Jason S. Polk, Christopher Groves, Tim Slattery ............................................................262 THE STATUS OF CAVE WILDERNESS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Patricia E. Seiser ........................................265 KARST AREAS AND THEIR PROTECTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC Leo tefka ....................................................................270 THE CAVE ANIMAL OF THE YEAR AN EASY WAY TO WIDE-SPREAD PUBLIC RESONANCE Brbel Vogel, Stefan Zaenker, Helmut Steiner ..........................................................................................................................................274 THE BRANDS AND GEOTOURISM SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SHOW CAVES IN CHINA Yuan-Hai Zhang, Wen-qiang Shi ......................................................................................................................................................................277 THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHOM ONG CAVE AS AN ECOTOURISM DESTINATION IN NORTHERN LAOS Joerg Dreybrodt, Siegfried Moser ..................................................................................................................................................................281 OUTLINE OF ITALIAN REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE DESIGN OR ADJUSTMENT OF TOURIST PATHS IN ITALIAN SHOW CAVES Alessio Fabbricatore ......................................................................................................................................285 THE RELATIONSHIP OF KARST LANDFORMS AND LAND USE, KSIROMERO REGION, WESTERN GREECE Miljana Golubovi Deligianni, George Veni, Katherina Theodorakopoulou ................................................................................291 APPLIED DRAMA: A NEW TOOL OF TEACHING CAVE PROTECTION Konstantina Kalogirou, Konstantinos Prokopios Trimmis ..................................................................................................................296 TEN YEARS OF WWW.SPELEOGENESIS.INFO: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES Alexey Kopchinskiy, Alexander Klimchouk ................................................................................................................................................297 PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF KARST REGIONS IN INDONESIA Yuniat Irawati ......................................................299 THE DISTRIBUTION, PROTECTION AND UTILIZATION OF KARST CAVES IN HAINAN PROVINCE, CHINA Wenqiang Shi, Yuanhai Zhang ........................................................................................................................................................................303 proKARSTerra-Edu A KARST-EDUCATIONAL PROJECT Petar Stefanov, Dilyana Stefanova, Dimitrina Mikhova Leo tefka ..............................................................................................307 Session:Karst and Caves: Social Aspects and Other Topics 313KARST MORPHOLOGY OF MARTIAN EVAPORITE SURFACES Davide Baioni, Nadja Zupan Hajna, Maria Sgavetti ................................................................................................................................315 2013 ICS Proceedings


ESA CAVES: TRAINING ASTRONAUTS FOR SPACE EXPLORATION Loredana Bessone, Kristina Beblo-Vranesevic, Quirico Antonello Cossu, Jo De Waele, Stefan Leuko, Paolo Marcia, Petra Rettberg, Laura Sanna, Francesco Sauro, Stefano Taiti ............................................................................321 STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTIONS OF TOURIST GUIDES IN THE CAVES Vanja Debevec, Peter Jovanovi ......................................................................................................................................................................328 A VIRTUAL DISTRIBUTED CAVING LIBRARY Graziano Ferrari ..........................................................................................................332 HALOTHERAPY AND HALO HEALTH IMPROVEMENT Pavel Gorbenko, Konstantin Gorbenko ..........................................336 INN VALLEY UNDERGROUNDS: THE FIRST ANTHROPOSPELEOLOGICAL CONCEPT OF SHOW CAVES Peter Hofmann ........................................................................................................................................................................................................339 BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES OF SALT MINES Constantin Munteanu, Diana Munteanu, Iuri Simionca, Mihai Hoteteu, Delia Cinteza, Horia Lazarescu ....................343 HISTORICAL WATER QUALITY DATA FROM CERNA VALLEY/BAILE HERCULANE ROMANIA Gheorghe M. Ponta, Neculai Terteleac ........................................................................................................................................................347 NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE VALUES OF THE YONGCHEON LAVA TUBE CAVE ON JEJU ISLAND, REPUBLIC OF KOREA Kyung Sik Woo, Ryeon Kim, Jong Deok Lim, Yongmun Jeon ................................................................353 TEMPERATURE AND AIR HUMIDITY IN THE ICE PASSAGE OF THE PIKOV DMA CAVE, MORAVIAN KARST (CZECH REPUBLIC) Vclav dmal ................................................................................................................................................................355 ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE NICOYA 05 SEPTEMBER 2012 EARTHQUAKE IN TERCIOPELO CAVE AND THE KARST OF CERRO BARRA HONDA, NICOYA, COSTA RICA GustavoQuesada Carranza, Ferdinando Didonna Carlos Goicoechea Carranza ....................................................................360 SOME ASPECTS OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BUDDHIST CAVES Alexandre M A Diniz, Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos, Vanessa de Sena Brando, Felipe Vieira Pena Rios ............365 IMPROVEMENT OF CAVING AS A FORM OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Natalija Mihajlovi ..........................................................369 CAVES AND PROTECTED AREAS IN SARDINIA (IT): THE EXAMPLE OF THE GROTTA DEL PAPA CAVE SYSTEM IN THE ISLE OF TAVOLARA Daniela Pani, Selena Montinaro, Egidio Trainito, Giacomo Cao ..............................................370 DOUBLE CAVE MAPS OF TURKEY Ali Yama ............................................................................................................................................377 Session:Biospeleology, Geomicrobiology and Ecology 38149CHASE IN HISTORY AFTER THE ENDEMIC NIPHARGUS (CRUSTACEA: AMPHIPODA) SPECIES OF HUNGARY Gergely Balzs, Dorottya Angyal ....................................................................................................................................................................383 MINERAL PRECIPITATION IN VITRO USING ISOLATED BACTERIAL STRAINS FROM SYNDAI CAVES, MEGHALAYA Ramanathan Baskar, Sushmitha Baskar ..........................................................................................................................384 TERRESTRIAL MESOFAUNA BIODIVERSITY IN UNIQUE KARST ENVIRONMENTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA Gerhard du Preez, Pieter Theron, Driekie Fourie ....................................................................................................................................386 MICROBIAL PROCESSES IN SULFIDIC HYPOGENE KARST Annette Summers Engel ............................................................391 THE RESOURCES, ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN KARST AREA: A CASE STUDY IN FENGSHAN GEOPARK (CHINA) Jiang Guanghui, Guo Fang ..........................................................................................................................................395 UNRAVELLING UNDERGROUND ICE MICROCOSMS Alexandra Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Corina Itcus, Andreea Rusu, Elena Popa, Denisa Pascu, Ioan Ardelean, Aurel Persoiu, Traian Brad, Bogdan Onac, Cristina Purcarea ............................................................................................................401 BAT COMMUNITIES OF CZECH CAVES OVER 45 YEARS OF CONTINUOUS MONITORING Ivan Horek, Tom Bartonika, Jit Gaisler, Jan Zukal, bESON ....................................................................................................402 FOOD CHAIN LENGTH IN GROUNDWATER: PATTERNS IN 15N RANGE Benjamin T. Hutchins, Benjamin F. Schwartz ............................................................................................................................................403 CAVE-DWELLING FAUNA FROM KARST AREAS OF PORTUGAL Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira, F. Gonalves, P. Orom ....................................................................................................................................409 BIOSPELEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LAO P.D.R. Helmut Steiner ..............................................................................................413 STUDY OF A BACTERIAL COMMUNITY ON THE SURFACE OF A STALAGMITE IN HESHANG CAVE, CENTRAL CHINA Hongmei Wang, Qianying Liu, Rui Zhao, Qiang Dong, Xiaoping Wu ..........................................................420 2013 ICS Proceedings


THE CAVE FAUNA OF LUXEMBOURG Dieter Weber ..............................................................................................................................4 21 NEW DATA TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF FOUR AQUATIC TROGLOBIONT MACROINVERTEBRATE SPECIES IN THE CAVES OF THE MECSEK MOUNTAINS (SW HUNGARY) Dorottya Angyal, Gergely Balzs ....................................................................................................................................................................426 MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MICROORGANISMS DIVERSITY FROM PERRENIAL UNDERGROUND ICE SEDIMENTS Corina Incu, Alexandra Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Denisa Pascu, Ioan Ardelean, Aurel Peroiu, Traian Brad, Cristina Purcfrea ..........................................................................................................................................430 BRYOPHYTES AT LAMPS IN SELECTED PUBLIC CAVES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC PAST AND PRESENT Svatava Kubeov ..................................................................................................................................................................................................431 PATTERNS OF MISSING LEGS IN HADENOECUS SUBTERRANEUS CAVE CRICKETS AND REDUCTION OF FORAGING SUCCESS Kathleen H. Lavoie, Suganthi Thirunavukarasu, Mohammed Chandoo, Utsav Pandey, Elizabeth Lavoie, Kurt Helf ..................................................................................................................................................432 CAN COMMENSAL FUNGAL POPULATIONS PROTECT BATS FROM GEOMYCES DESTRUCTANS INFECTION? Kelsey Njus, Samantha Kaiser, Marcelo Kramer, Hazel A. Barton ..................................................................................................436 MICROFUNGAL COMMUNITY OF MOVILE CAVE, ROMANIA Alena Novkov, Vt Hubka, rka Valinov, Mirosl av Kolatk, Alexandra Maria HillebrandVoiculescu ....................441 MICROBIAL IRON CYCLING AND BIOSPELEOGENESIS: CAVE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CARAJS FORMATION, BRAZIL Ceth W. Parker, Augusto S. Auler, John Senko, Ira D. Sasowsky, Luis B. Pil, Melanie Smith, Michael Johnston, Hazel Barton ......................................................................................................................................................................442 PREDATION MEDIATED CARBON TURNOVER IN NUTRIENT-LIMITED CAVE ENVIRONMENTS Melissa Wilks, Hazel A. Barton ......................................................................................................................................................................447Partners, Sponsors 450 Authors Index 452 2013 ICS Proceedings


Dear readers, the Proceedings volumes you are holding in your hands were issued within the 16thInternational Congress of Speleology (hereafter 16thICS) on July 21, 2013 in Brno, Czech Republic. Let us welcome you to its reading. In total, over 320 contributions (over 250 oral presentations and over 70 posters) by more than 750 authors have been received to be included within the Congress Proceedings. This represents over 2,300 received e-mails and a similar number of responses during the last 6 months, approximately 4,300 electronic files and over 1,450 printed pages of the text. To put it simply, really, really much interesting stuff concerned with cave and karst subject. The authors guidelines stipulated that the particular contributions should not exceed 6 pages of text and we were delighted to find that most authors prepared contributions close to this upper limit. Only very few contributions did not exceed one page of text. This illustrates a clear willingness of the cavers and karst scientist to share their discoveries and research conclusions. The presented contributions (abstracts/papers) stand for both oral and poster presentations as indicated in the headings. Contributions in each session are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the first author. All contributions were reviewed from the viewpoint of technical quality and scientific content by members of the scientific committee and invited reviewers. The authors had the opportunity to revise their papers in response to reviewers comments and we were pleased to see that the reviews have improved the clarity and readability of the contributions. However, profound improvement of the English language could not be arranged due to the shortage of time and insufficient human resources; the authors themselves are therefore responsible for the linguistic level of their contributions. Thirteen thematically different sessions and six special sessions were scheduled within the call for your contributions to cover the whole range of subjects to be discussed within the wide scope of the 16thICS. The low number of contributions for some of these detailed sessions necessitated their merging with others. As a result, eleven original and three joint sessions are presented within the Proceedings. The contributions were grouped into three separate volumes. The purpose of this arrangement was that each particular Volume is filled with a certain logical hierarchy of topics, and that related topics are presented together. It was also the intention that the content of each Volume is topically balanced and contains both generally interesting (popular) topics with rich photographic documentation and hardcore scientific topics dominated by tables and plots. Volume I starts with three plenary lectures representing three global topics related to 16thICS subject. Further it contains papers concerned with history of research (session History of Speleology and Karst Research), archeology and paleontology (sessions Archaeology and Paleontology in Caves), topics focused on management and preservation of caves and karst areas and other social-related aspects (sessions Protection and Management of Karst, Education; Karst and Caves: Social Aspects and Other Topics). In the last mentioned session you can also find a small part devoted to extraterrestrial karst. Volume I is ended by a relatively large portion of biology-oriented papers placed within the session Biospeleology, Geomicrobiology and Ecology. Volume II contains the traditionally heavily attended session Exploration and Cave Techniques and by the related session Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground. These exploration topics are, we believe, logically supplemented with contributions from the field of Karst and Cave Survey, Mapping and Data Processing. The content of the second Volume is completed with a somewhat more specialized session Modelling in Karst and Cave Environments and with session Cave Climate and Paleoclimate Record. The last mentioned session probably better fits to the end of Volume III, but it was placed into Volume II in order to reach balance in the extent of the individual volumes. Volume III also starts with traditional, heavily attended topics organized in two sessions: Karst and Caves in Carbonate Rocks, Salt and Gypsum and Karst and Caves in Other Rocks, Pseudokarst. These topics are supplemented by the related session Speleogenesis. This last volume of the Proceedings is ended by the study of cave minerals, included in a specific session Cave Minerals. It is clear already from the previous ICS meetings that the range of the published topics becomes wider and wider, including localities in the whole world but also owing to the access to high-quality spacecraft images from other planets. The range of the instrumental, analytical and software methods employed in cave and karst research is remarkable and shows that the topic of cave & karst exploration attracts an ever increasing number of researchers even from already established scientific disciplines. Let us also say a few words about the selection of the cover photos for the Proceedings volumes. The idea was to select such photos which would best represent all topics (especially those enjoying the highest interest) in each particular volume and be of high technical quality. Since we believe the cover page is a place for a serious presentation of the inner content, we made our selection from photos used in the presented papers. In one case the additional photo was requested to get a better representation of the topic. For our purpose, we decided to place several photos on the cover page of each volume. We hope that you enjoy them. We wish to take this opportunity to apologize for the all mistakes which might have possibly originated within the operations with different versions of the manuscripts and other related files and e-mails which passed through our computers. We believe that everybody find their interesting reading in the Proceedings and we wish that the whole publication (Volumes IIII) becomes a valuable record of the 16thmeeting of enthusiasts addicted to the fascination of the underground world.Preface10 2013 ICS Proceedings


Finally we wish to thank all the authors for their contributions. Enormous thanks belong to the reviewers and especially convenors (members of the scientific committee) of the particular sessions for their time and effort in the improvement of the overall message of the texts. We also wish to thank Michal Molhanec who significantly helped with the on-line form for the contribution submission, to Ji Adamovi who repeatedly helped us with the improvement of our English, and to Jan Spruina, Zdenk Motyka, Jana Holubcov, and Renata Filippi who contributed to the preparation of the Proceedings. After the few introductory words, lets now enjoy the papers from localities all over the world, presenting all forms of activities in karst, caves and other related surface and subsurface environments! Michal Filippi and Pavel Bosk Proceedings editors11 2013 ICS Proceedings




Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings 13




FROM OLOMOUC 1973 TO BRNO 2013: A REVIEW OF PROGRESS INPHYSICAL SPELEOLOGY DURING THE PAST FORTY YEARSDerek Ford School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Canada, In the forty years between the Olomouc and Brno congresses our exploration and knowledge of the worlds natural solutional caves has increased enormously. There have been exciting new discoveries in every region, with particularly great expansions in eastern Asia and Latin America. There are 22 mapped cave systems longer than 100 km in the May 2013 list of longest caves (including two that are largely or entirely underwater), and more than 300 longer than 15 km which is sufficient to provide abundant genetic information. More than 160 caves have been descended to depths greater than 750 m, twelve of them being >1,500 m. What has been learned from these advances in caving? This paper presents the authors personal assessments of some of the significant advances that have occurred in our understanding of physical speleology.1. Speleogenesis1.1. Meteoric water caves We have a much better appreciation today of the morphologic and genetic range of solutional caves that are found in the karst rocks, and are able to distinguish between them more clearly. The principal type (quantitatively dominant in most caving regions) is the unconfined (or hypergene,epigene ) meteoric water cave system. In the 1950s and 1960s the foremost genetic problem was seen to be the relationship between these systems and local water tables. This was substantially resolved in 1971 by recognition that four different basic geometric relationships can and do occur in Nature, plus combinations of two or more of them. The 1973 Olomouc congress proceedings also include a first formal hardware model study of how the plan patterns of hypergene caves develop. By 1975 physical model studies of the range of their recharge geometries had been completed and causes of the development of complex patterns of passages such as the Holloch, Switzerland, were well understood. The solution kinetic basis for the cascading sequences by which such patterns are built was elucidated in 1977 and after. Later refinements have emphasized the importance of epiphreatic passage creation in alpine systems. 1.2. Hypogene caves Ascending water ( hypogene, often thermal) solutional cave systems are more widespread than was recognised in 1973, and are now much better differentiated. Understanding of the role of inter-formational groundwater flow in cavern morphogenesis has been greatly enhanced by studies in the giant gypsum maze caves of the Ukraine and Moldavia. At the Olomouc congress there was discussion of the potential genetic significance of sulfuric acid produced by oxidation of pyrite in bedding planes but no real inkling of the explosion of understanding that was to come after 1978 with recognition of the distinct H2S class of water table notch caves that may be found in carbonate rocks: work primarily in the western USA has predominated here, including perhaps the most spectacular individual cave discovered in the past forty years, Lechuguilla (1986) in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. The H2S studies have also drawn our attention to the importance of condensation corrosion (CO2-driven as well as H2S) in all caves, epigene, hypogene and marine. I think that understanding is still lacking for shaft-type hypogene caves and hypogene solutional overprinting on complex paleokarst such as is found at Budapest, in the Jewel and Wind maze caves of South Dakota and in parts of Lechuguilla. 1.3. Marine mixing zone caves A third distinct class of solution caves that we now recognise is that of fresh water/marine mixing zone cavities. They have been well explained in a sequence of conceptual models based on examples in young limestones in the Caribbean and Pacific. Coastal caves in older, harder and deformed, limestones tend to be more complex mixtures of epigene development with marine overprinting related to changing sea levels.2. Computer simulations of cave genesisThe advent of much cheaper computing with PCs in the 1980s opened up computer modeling of groundwater flow and cave genesis in soluble rocks. The early focus was upon testing the cave plan hardware model results of 1971, which were confirmed and then extended by addition of local mixing corrosion and other effects. In 1997 addition of a code allowing standard deviations up to 2.0 about the mean aperture within a given fracture significantly advanced our understanding of differences in genesis on joints and bedding planes. Modeling of cave system development in depth has not yet been successful because it has not reproduced the cascading effects. Modeling of hypogene speleogenesis is in very early stages. A challenge I propose for future modellers is to take an intersecting 3D network of fractures and bedding planes with standard deviations ranging 0.2.0 in aperture and attempt to reproduce the real caves that we climb and crawl in computing is so much cheaper now than it was at Olomouc! Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings 15


3. Mud and other crud: Clastic deposits in cavesSince 1973 there has been an immense amount of new work on deposits in caves. Neglecting the distinctive facies of entrance zones, studies of clastic materials (the clay, silt, sand, pebbles, boulders, etc. that make us happily filthy and bruised) have largely proceeded along the conventional lines of sedimentary classification. In the authors opinion there are now too many slightly differing classifications being proposed, newcomers not troubling to familiarise themselves with the previous literature: UIS might strike a sub-commission to propose a standard framework, based on facies concepts for my preference. There has been distinguished work on the weathering of cave walls and clastic sediments, particularly in the ancient caves of Australia and Slovenia. The nature and mechanics of breakdown are now well understood, chiefly from work in the USA; this does not make me any less uneasy when crawling through a boulder choke. The physical dating of cave clastic sediments has advanced in fits and starts. The first major achievement was the measurement of paleomagnetic profiles in the late 1970s in clay sediments in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, which detected two magnetic reversals and gave an initial and reasonable chronology for that great system. It has been extended to Tennessee, and widely applied in central Europe by a Czech and Slovenian team headed by the President of this congress. The problem of convincingly locking the sequence of magnetic excursions and reversals measured in a cave to the global magnetic record based on precisely dated lavas remains. More recently cosmogenic dose (or 10Be:26Al) dating of quartz sands and pebbles has been applied in North America, where it firmed up and extended the paleomagnetic chronology in Mammoth and some other caves, and in Siebenhengste in the Alps. The method is limited to the past fivesix million years at present, and will always give the maximum residence time for a sample at a given site rather than establish its true time there: however, it has the greatest promise for clastic dating at present.4. Cave mineralsBeyond question, interest in the precipitates in caves has drawn more scientists into physical speleology than any of the other subjects discussed above (or, probably, more than all of them combined). At the 1997 speleo congress at La Chaux de Fonds, the UIS and National Speleological Society of America launched Cave Minerals of the World, an international effort involving thirty two contributors from fifteen different countries. The number of different minerals confirmed in that volume exceeded 200. There have been some breathtaking individual discoveries such as the giant gypsum crystals of Naica Cave, Mexico, the improbable Chandeliers of Lechuguilla, and the enormous stalagmites and flowstones of the river caves of China, Malaysia, Laos, etc. Russian speleologists have taken the lead in describing the ontogeny (competitive construction of crystals) in calcites, aragonites and gypsum, Romanian speleologists in studies of ice in caves. Standing in a class of its own has been the recognition that in some H2S caves common clay minerals in the limestone may react with the acid to produce hydrated sulfates such as alunite, a compact and hard crystalline substance that can be dated by the 40Ar/39Ar radiometric method. This is a means of dating the true time of genesis of the host cavity. It was applied to the H2S caves of the Guadalupe Mountains in 1997 to show a convincing range of ages, oldest to youngest, from 12 million years ago down to the present. It is unfortunate that its geologic range of application is quite limited at the present time at least.5. Dating and paleo-environmental studies of calcite and aragonite speleothemsThe precise dating of calcite and aragonite stalagmites and flowstones, and study of the oxygen and carbon isotope, trace mineral, and other ratios in them to extract past temperatures and other paleo-environmental information, has been the principal focus of speleothem studies. 14C dating was applied first but has a limited time range and other problems. In 1973 the applicability of what is the chief method today, 230Th/234U (uranium series) dating had just been established by a statistically sufficient number of ages from a handful of labs, with the first geomorphic application (the age of an antecedent river canyon in the Northwest Territories, Canada) being published that year. The230Th/234U methodology of the time was crude, however, requiring large amounts of sample with comparatively high U content and two weeks on a radiation counter to obtain just one age with % error. The breakthrough that launched what must be described as the modern bandwagon in speleothem studies came with successful application of mass spectrometry to the counting problem, first for corals in 1986/7 and then for stalagmites (and even ostrich egg shells) in 1989. Today one gram of sample or less will suffice, an age can be obtained in as little as twenty minutes on the machine and the age range of the method is extended from 350,000 to ~600,000 years B.C.E. The cost of establishing your lab has increased by an order of magnitude too, of course. In 1975 the first published U-dated records of O isotope patterns that extended over one glacial cycle or longer, from stalagmites from West Virginia and the Canadian Rockies, showed reasonable correlation with the O isotope paleoclimate patterns then being discovered in deep sea sediments. In 1976 the first report on remnants of the precipitating water in stalagmites (their fluid inclusions) appeared; flu inc studies have continued ever since but remain tantalising in their promise of precise cave paleotemperatures that never quite convince me. In 1979 it was shown that many speleothems preserve chemical and detrital paleomagnetic records, allowing expansion of measured timescales to 780,000+ years in samples from the Canadian Rockies and elsewhere. Alternating periods of growth and then cessation with minor weathering began to permit better definition of the ice ages in mountain regions. In the 1980s annual or seasonal banding in stalagmites began to be recognized via an increasing number of phenomena. There were lighter-darker calcite pairs in flowstones deposited in a 19thCentury Belgian canal tunnel, the alternation of calcite and aragonite at microscopic scale Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings 16


in mites from South Africa indicating wetter and drier seasons respectively and, most widely applicable, the demonstration with Bulgarian samples that many speleothems carry important luminescence signals originating from soil organic acids. Luminescence studies yield very high temporal resolution and can bring the researcher to the interface with biospeleology. Following the introduction of U series mass spectrometer dating there has also been an explosion in studies of modern drip rates, water chemistry and isotopes in caves in many different environments to better interpret the past deposits. Teams today seek and find correlations with NAO, El Nino, ENSO regional climatic events, etc. The statistical analytic methods being applied have become very sophisticated.6. Back into deep timeIn conclusion, it should be recognized that caves are the longest lasting elements in a landscape because parts of them are protected inside the host rock. Filled paleokarst caves are known in Archean and all younger rocks. Uranium in speleothems in caves will eventually decay to stable lead. The first successful Pb/U dating of limestones was reported in the 1980s and was achieved in a speleothem in 1996. This method can date the oldest rocks and landforms on Earth. An age of ~90 million years for the earliest phase of cave development in the Guadalupe Mountains was published in 2000 and there are hints of much greater ages from the ancient karst landscapes of Australia.17Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings


18Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings THE MORAVIAN KARST IN THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEMartin Oliva Moravian Museum Anthropos Institute, Zeln trh 6, 659 37 Brno, CZ, Although the Moravian Karst is our main karst region with the longest caves, its greatest originality rests in its anthropic dimensions. The process of prehistoric settlement was influenced by two factors, i.e. positively by a mild climate and presence of natural shelters, and negatively by the ca 10 km distance from the nearest river. The densest occupation is documented in the Middle Palaeolithic and in the Magdalenian. Very important for the human image of the Moravian Karst are also the phenomena relating to the dense settlement of this territory in the historic periods and to the proximity of Brno city as a centre of research.1. IntroductionSince this introductory paper deals with humans in the Moravian Karst, not with its geology and karsology, only some basic data relating to this region will be mentioned. The Moravian Karst with the area of 85 square km lies in the southern part of the Drahany Upland, at the average height 450 m above sea level. It consists of Devonian limestones and some of its valleys are filled with Miocene sediments. It is the largest and most developed karst territory in the Czech Republic that is divided into three parts: northern with the underground Punkva River, central with the Jedovnick and the K tinsk brooks, and southern with the ka Brook (Balk and Flek 2009).2. The Palaeolithic occupationIn principle, the process of prehistoric settlement was influenced by two factors, i.e. positively by a mild climate and negatively by the ca 10 km distance from the nearest river (the Svitava). Together with non-preservation of intact ante-Saalian sediments this has caused that the traces of Lower Palaeolithic are found missing. The oldest finds from the K lna Cave (Fig. 1) originate from the end of the Saalian glacial period (Valoch 1988). These are several flakes and cores showing the use of the Levallois reduction strategy. For the Eemian interglacial there is a rich industry of the Taubachian occurring, which features microlithic tools and apart from the dominant spongolite a considerable representation of quartz among the raw materials. Both of these raw materials occur also in the immediate vicinity of the cave, although the main sources of Cretaceous spongolite are located 10 km westward in the valley of the Svitava River. The third and last Middle Palaeolithic culture the bearers of which have settled in the cave is Micoquian. It comprises mainly smaller bifaces with a thick base, at times of asymmetric shape, bifacial knives and a number of side scrapers. The oldest layer containing such implements, i.e. 9b from the transition of Eemian and lower Vistulian, yielded also 2 leaf points. The richest layer 7a was deposited in a relatively mild climate, although still much colder than that of today. Reindeer were the main game animals, and the remains of mammoths (almost exclusively tusks and molars) probably originated only from gathering. A great proportion of bones bear traces of cutting, or were utilised as retouchers. Roughly modified adzes made of reindeer antlers and a rib with sharpened ends represents the first bone tools. There are about one tenth of retouched implements among ten thousand lithic artefacts. The prevailing spongolites were brought to the cave in a slightly modified form; numerous cortical flakes attest to this. With the exception of local coarse raw materials, or contrariwise the most distant imports all stone materials (spongolite, Jurassic chert, quartz and quartzite) were processed by the same method, mostly until the total exploitation of the core. However, chopping tools were manufactured almost exclusively from pebbles of the local Culmian graywackes. Perhaps the most distant import may be a handaxe made of Central Slovakian (?) or Hungarian andesite. Raw materials of a more distant provenance appear in the form of retouched tools more often. The eagerly anticipated remains of Neanderthals appeared in the form of a parietal bone fragment, the right part of upper jaw with 4 teeth, and 3 deciduous teeth, perhaps lost in exfoliation. Radiometric date from 49 to 43 thousand years BP was acquired from burnt bones found near the jaw. The fauna from the most recent Micoquian layer 6a indicates very rough (cold and dry) climate. A Neanderthal mandible and a scarce lithic industry come from the vd v st l Cave in the southern part of the Moravian Karst. Although the two mentioned cave sites are best known due to the finds of Neanderthal remains, many more Middle Palaeolithic localities are found in the open field in the area of the Boskovice furrow, ca 10 km to the west (Bo itov, Doubravice, ern hora etc.), where rich outcrops of spongolite occurred. It is difficult to make an estimate, to what extent Neanderthals intentionally sought after these areas of raw material resources, and to what extent it is only the effect of increased clarity of the remains caused by the Figure 1. Klna Cave before the war.


19Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings quantity of chipped raw material. Only a small number of scarce tools, mainly leaf points discovered in the caves Pod hradem, Ryt sk (Fig. 2) and Pekrna, which apparently served as hunting stations, were preserved from the Early Upper Palaeolithic period. These belong to the Szeletian culture, the bearers of which have probably been Neanderthals still. Just as inconspicuous are the traces of presence of the so-called mammoth hunters that rendered Moravia famous through sites like P edmost and Doln Vstonice. In contrast to the preceding cultures, the Gravettian hunters have not settled in the margins of uplands, but consistently along rivers to have a view of broad river valleys. This was probably connected with the movements of mammoth herds (these pachyderms could not move very far from rivers because of their large demands of water) and the need of inter-group communication of hunter bands during seasonal mammoth hunts. Large depots of Northern flint attest to such contacts (Oliva 2007). The local sources of cherts ceased to be of interest at that time, and the Svitava River valley rising towards hilly region was not a favourite mammoth corridor. The radiocarbon dates from the classic phase of the Gravettian (Pavlovian) originate only from the Pod hradem Cave, but the associated lithic industry is inconspicuous. An assemblage with large retouched blades of spongolite from layer 6a in the K lna Cave can be dated as Late Gravettian, i.e. around 22 thousand years noncal. BP. Auerochs and bizons were supposed to prevail in the game fauna but the dates acquired directly from their bones are much more recent thus we probably have to do with a contamination of layers. A roll made of tusk and decorated with dots and platelets of ivory with parallel grooves were unearthed during older excavations (Valoch 1988, Fig. 17). Palaeolithic civilization, the Magdalenian. Nearly all the sites are located in the valleys or their parts, through which some brook flows even. The most important of these are the Pekrna and the Klna caves. Especially the Pekrna Cave with its quantity of relics and unique works of art counts among the foremost sites of this culture in general. Engravings of animals and magical marks on spoon-like items made of lower jaws of horses and complete scenes carved into horse ribs belong to unique objects in Europe (Valoch 2001). Hunter equipment has improved by the introduction of thrower of spear and harpoon, i.e. a weapon with a separable point (provided with a blood groove or backward teeth), which was intended to remain in the animal body and to cause exhaustion through blood loss. Although most of the raw materials come from the glacifluvial sediments in Silesia, the interest in local sources has revived a proof of this is an intense production of blades from the local chert in the so-called Southern branch inside of the B skla Cave (Oliva 1995). This is why the absence of any trace of the Magdalenian in the exploitation area for spongolite in the Boskovick Furrow is surprising, even more so that open-air settlements are found in the surroundings of the Moravian Karst. If reindeer and horses occurred in the valleys and on the plateaus of the Moravian Karst, they had to move around this area so much the more. The occupation of the K lna Cave has continued until the Final Palaeolithic (layers 4 and 3: Valoch 1988, 21), whereas for the Mesolithic it has not been corroborated so far.3. Later prehistoric periodsThe Neolithic is only represented by the developed phase of the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK). The ceramics with the so-called Notenkopf ornamentation was found mainly in the caves Vpustek, Barov and Ko sk jma. A shard depicting a human face originates from the latter situated in the northern part of the Moravian Karst (Fig. 3). In the Vpustek Cave, the LBK vessels were found in a very damp and draughty corridor with a difficult access, i.e. in a place entirely unsuitable for occupation. Researchers from the 19thcentury mention thick layers of sinter with fireplaces, pottery, and animal bones. The effect of the draught has perhaps fanned the fires during some kind of ceremonies. One pot contained burnt human bones; therefore this used to be a burial place as well (Wankel 1871; Hochstetter 1883). Of other Neolithic cultures, the traces of the Late Lengyel and the Jeviovice cultures occurred in the caves (Skutil 1970). A pattern carved into the ceiling of the Southern branch in the B skla Cave discovered by M. Oliva in 1994 probably dates back to the period of the Baden culture (Oliva 1995, 36). In the Bronze age, the stay in the caves can be hardly linked with aridization, as it is maintained e.g., for the Urnfield Period (Jger and Loek 1978). Exactly the karst areas belong among the driest; only the interiors of the caves themselves are humid. Although aridization could have made the long-term stay in the damper parts of the caves more pleasant, humans have always avoided occupation of such caves. The reason to dwell in the inhospitable parts of the caves could not have been the move of humans after fertile soil either, especially not within the karst. If the Contrary to Gravettian, the entrance parts of the caves attracted the reindeer and horse hunters of the last great Figure 2. Leaf point from the Ryt sk Cave.


20Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings population really suffered from aridity, the dampness of the karst caverns could have possessed psychic and symbolic meaning, and some parts of the caves might have become the scenes of various ceremonies. It is a question whether reasoning about the purpose of the stay in a cave based on the character of the objects left behind is indeed as groundless as it is sometimes stressed. As a rule, most of the profane functions (as a shelter for shepherds, casual hunters, woodcutters, outcasts, threatened people) do not leave behind any pottery, the carrying of which is very impractical and usually unneeded. It is symptomatic that exactly the caves most suitable for human occupation yield very small numbers of such finds. However, vessels of any kind (drinking cups, bowls for food, storage jars to hold sacrificed products etc.) were necessary in places, where some special activity required also formalisation and representativeness of the equipment. Obviously, such activity is more likely performing of ceremonies than occasional overnight stays of several individuals. Pottery is also important as grave goods, as isolated graves from the Early (Had, K lnika caves) and Middle Bronze Age (pod Klnikou Cave) prove (Stuchlk 1981). Therefore, even if the caves have been used mainly for profane purposes, which is probable, the majority of the documented finds would testify to rather non-profane activities, and archaeological perspective would thus make the rendered picture markedly distorted. An exception probably is the Pekrna Cave, situated at the southern margin of the Moravian Karst, adjacent to the region that used to be densely settled in prehistoric times. At the times when people were threatened, they might have taken a refuge in this prominent and hospitable cave, taking all their equipment inclusive of utensils with them ( ervinka 1926). In the Hallstatt Period, the Moravian Karst might have attracted people as a source of iron ore, although there are no exploitation or metallurgy activities known from that period. Among the not too numerous relics from that time the famous ritual centre in the B skla Cave stands out, regretfully explored by J. Wankel too early (1871). The original interpretation of the finder that it is a burial of a chief on a chariot, accompanied by damaging of property and human sacrifices, especially of young women, has gradually been abandoned. Each of the chariot wheels has a different diameter, men prevail among the dead, the alleged altar is grinding slabs. J. Nekvasil (1969) has linked this ceremonial madness with the panic aroused by the incursions of the Scythians. At present this eerie find is regarded as a long-term ritual centre, to which crops and riches used to be brought from far and wide and where humans, perhaps captives, used to be buried, and maybe even killed (Parzinger et al. 1995; Golec 2007). There are no La-Tne finds occurring in the Moravian Karst, and only a bronze brooch originating from the Roman period was discovered in the K lna Cave (Podborsk 2012).4. Historical timesIn the Old Slavonic period (end of 8thto 11thcentury) production of iron developed but settlements were still missing (Souchopov 1986). The oldest occupation of the deserted village Byst ec near Jedovnice does not fall before the 13thcentury (Belcredi 2006) and was made by colonists from Lower Austria. The villages in this area were founded both by the bishops of Olomouc and by the local nobility, whose fortified castles on the rocks have distinctly marked the landscape of the Moravian karst. It is clear that the castles and caves in the deep dry valleys became the refuges of outlawed knights and brigands. Well known is the Hladomorna (i.e. Dungeon or Oubliette) Cave connected by a small corridor in its ceiling with the Holtejn fortified castle; as late as in the 19thcentury numerous human bones inclusive of child bones used to be found there. A medieval fortification has also been discovered in the big portal-type Ryt sk Cave (the Knights Cave). Without doubt, tales about fairies (e.g., in the Balcarka Cave) and devils emerged already in the Middle Ages; the activities of the latter within the karst area are supported by the numerous toponymic names (e.g., Devils Bridge, Devils Gate, Devils Windows etc.). Apart from agriculture and pasturage, an important part of economy continued to be ironmongery. Iron ores were extracted mainly near the Rudice village, and ironworks were founded in the towns Adamov and Blansko in the 19thcentury. Towards the end of the 19thcentury, especially the northern part of the karst was so overgrazed by sheep that it was reminiscent of the Balkan landscape (Fig. 4). The reports by the Renaissance and Baroque scholars regarding the finds of fossil bones in the cave loam constituted the early stages of scientific research in the Moravian Karst. These bones were rightfully considered very ancient, antediluvian, and their curative properties were likened to the wholesome effect of unicorn bones. In 1669, Johann Hertod of Todtenfeld metered the depth of the abyss in the Sloupsk Caves in the Lords Prayers he was able to recite before the stone he threw reached the bottom. The first to descend into the Macocha Abyss was the Minorite Lazarus Schopper in 1723. Johannes A. Nagel, the court mathematician, set on the journey to the Moravian Karst at the command of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I in 1748. The most outstanding caver and speleoarchaeologist of the 19thcentury was undoubtedly dr. Jind ich (Heinrich) Wankel (1821 Prague1897 Olomouc), who has proven the contemporaneity of humans with cave bear and Figure 3. Shard of LBK wessel with the human face, width 10 cm, Kosk jma Cave.


21Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings unearthed the ritual centre in the B skla Cave. The first list of caves was created thanks to his continuator Martin K a lawyer; for this purpose the caves were systematically localized in the karst valleys, numbered, measured and described, and the largest of them even schematically mapped. Jan Knies of the following generation had merit in exploration of smaller caves; in this way he discovered the majority of the Magdalenian sites. At the very beginning of the 20thcentury Karel Absolon (1877 Boskovice1960 Brno) has started offensive speleological exploration of the Moravian Karst. His most significant exploratory and mainly organizational achievement was the discovery of the Punkva Caves in 1909 and making the bottom of the Macocha Abyss accessible, both through the dry track and the waterway (the Punkva stream) in 1933. In the central and southern part of the Moravian Karst in the period between the wars mainly German amateurs (engineers H. Bock and K. Feitel) were active, who succeeded in passing the siphon at the end of the B skla Cave and penetrating into new spaces. Since 1948 the Speleological Club of Brno has been carrying out versatile exploration activities in the entire karst area. Their greatest achievements include the penetration into the large domes of the Rudice Cave System and mainly the discovery of the Amatrsk Cave system on the collecting channels of the Punkva River below the plateau. As regards archaeology, the most important research was performed in the Pekrna Cave (K. Absolon in the interior in 1925; B. Klma in front of the entrance in 1961) and in the K lna Cave (K. Valoch 1961).5. ConclusionAlthough the Moravian Karst is our main karst region with the longest caves, its greatest originality rests in its anthropic dimensions. We have in mind not only the worldfamous archaeological sites, but also the phenomena relating to the dense settlement of this territory in the historic periods and to the proximity of Brno as a centre of research. The former is connected with a rich verbal folklore (legends) and popular names of all more prominent caves, the latter with the extraordinarily long and manifold tradition of the research.AcknowledgmentThis article was financially supported by the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic by institutional financing of long-term conceptual development of the research institution (the Moravian Museum, MK000094862).ReferencesBalk L, Flek J, 2009. Moravsk kras. In: J Hromas (Ed.) a kol. Jeskyn Chrn n zem R XIV, 393. Praha. (in Czech). Belcredi L, 2006. Byst ec: o zaloen, ivot a zniku st edovk vsi. MVS, Brno. (in Czech). ervinka IL, 1928. P edv k vrstvy v Pekrn asopis Moravskho zemskho musea, 24 (1926), 30 (in Czech). Golec M, 2007. Cesta do podsvt: B skla. iv archeologie 8, 39 (in Czech). Hochsttter F, von 1883. Hhlenforschungen. Sitzungberichte der math.-naturwiss. Classe der kaiserlichen Akad. der Wiss. LXXXVII/1, 168 (in German). Jger KD, Loek V, 1978. Umweltbedingungen und Landesausbau whrend der Urnenfelderzeit in Mitteleuropa. In: W. Coblenz (Ed.): Mitteleuropische Bronzezeit, 211. Berlin (in German). Nekvasil J, 1969. Knec poh eb v jeskyni B skla. In: Hallstatt a B skla. Pr vodce vstavou, 38. A BrnoBratislava Praha (in Czech). Oliva M, 1995. Das Palolithikum aus der B skla Hhle. Pravk N 5, 25 (in German). Oliva M, 2007. Gravettien na Morav Disertationes archaeologicae brunenses/pragensesque 1, BrnoPraha. Parzinger H, Nekvasil J, Barth FE, 1995. Die B skla Hhle: ein hallstattzeitliches Hhlenopferplatz in Mhren. Mainz am Rhein (in German). Podborsk V, 2012 Prav k a stedovk nlezy z jeskyn K lny a okol. In: K. Valoch a kol.: K lna. Historie a vzkum jeskyn 139. Acta speleologica 2, Praha (in Czech). Skutil J, 1970. Pravk a asn doba djinn Moravskho krasu a stedovk osdlen naich jesky In: K. Absolon: Moravsk kras 2, 315. Academia, Praha (in Czech). Souchopov V, 1986. Hutnictv eleza v 8.1. stolet na zpadn Morav. Studie A SA V v Brn Praha (in Czech). Stuchlk S, 1981. Osdlen jesky ve star a st edn dob bronzov na Morav. Studie A SAV v Brn, Praha (in Czech). Valoch K, 1988. Die Erforschung der K lna-Hhle 1961. Mit Beitrgen von J. Jelnek, W. G. Mook, R. Musil, E. Opravil, L. Seitl, L. Smolkov, H. Svobodov, Z. Weber. Anthropos N. S. 16, Brno (in German). Valoch K, 2001. Das Magdalnien in Mhren. Jahrbuch des Rmisch-Germ. Zentralmus. Mainz 48, 103, 14 tab (in German). Wankel H, 1871. Prhistorische Alterthmer in den mhrischen Hhlen. Mittheilungen der Anthrop. Gess. in Wien, Sep. aus Nr. 11, 12 und 13 (in German). Wankel H, 1882. Bilder aus der Mhrischen Schweiz ind ihrer Vergangenheit. Wien (in German). Figure 4. Landscape near Ostrov overgrazed by sheep. Photo A. Wiesner about 1905.


22Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings THE CAVES THAT MICROBES BUILT THE FRONTIER OF CAVE AND KARST SCIENCEAnnette Summers Engel University of Tennessee, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Knoxville, Tennessee, 37996 USA, Life in caves can take many forms, from pigmentless, eyeless animals, such as fish, salamanders, spiders, and beetles, to colorful, passage-covering slime and microbial biofilms floating in water. Cave animals have been the subject of study since the sixteenth century in Europe and China, although the formal discipline of biospeleology has existed only since the middle of the nineteenth century. Most biospeleological investigations focus on understanding the distribution of caveadapted animals in the subsurface, their population sizes and dynamics, life cycles, and the genetic basis of adaptation to darkness and extreme environmental conditions, such as nutrient and energy limitation and oxygen deprivation. However, there is still much to be learned about obligate cave fauna, nutrient cycling, and cave ecosystem dynamics. Oddly enough, investigations of the microbial diversity and ecology from cave and karst landscapes could improve our knowledge of life in caves overall. Early biospeleologists considered microbes that colonized caves to be merely a subset of surface microorganisms, predominately serving as secondary organic matter degraders and food sources for higher organisms. The discovery of chemosynthetically-based ecosystems at the deep-sea hydrothermal vents, in groundwater, and in caves, toppled the dogma that all life on earth was dependent on sunlight. It is now well known that reactive air, water, and rock interfaces in the subsurface contain abundant and active microbial biomass. Because subsurface habitats can exist for thousands to millions of years, microbial activities can significantly affect ecosystem development by cycling nutrients and degrading or producing organic matter that serves as the energetic base of the ecosystem. In essence, these microbial activities drive the biodiversity we observe in caves today. But, microbial activities also alter solution geochemistry and overall cave geology by causing rock dissolution or mineral precipitation. Consequently, not only do microbes impact how cave ecosystems function, as well as how cave-adapted animals likely survive and persist through time, but the actual habitats themselves are being modified and formed by microbial processes. Current technological and experimental advances that incorporate metabolic assays, isotopic labeling, and genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches now permit the study of microbial diversity and functional activities in ways that were impossible decades ago. Exciting discoveries will continue to increase our knowledge of cave ecological and geological processes, and eventually lead to better ways to protect and conserve these novel places.1. IntroductionThe cave habitat is divided into three major zones based on light intensity: entrance, twilight, and dark zone. Each zone has specific physicochemical and nutrient conditions that control the types of organisms present in that zone. Biospeleologists who first began investigating the life of caves were predominately interested in the strange and exotic animals that they found throughout caves. Troglobites are obligate cave-adapted terrestrial animals, and stygobites are obligate groundwater-adapted animals. Obligate caveand groundwater-adapted animals have evolved unique characteristics suitable for the subsurface habitat. Some of the organisms that live in caves and aquifer are able to move freely in and out of a cave (e.g., trogloxenes such as bats and cave crickets), whereas other organisms (e.g., microbes) are more likely to be dependent on transport or translocation to move them into or throughout a cave. Cave and karst habitats can have nearly constant temperatures and stable geochemical conditions, although some sections of a cave may change rapidly, such as in a stream due to seasonal or periodic flooding, or even within the entrance zone from daily changes in light. The diversity and metabolism of organisms that can and will colonize these habitats are affected by the juxtaposition of physicochemical conditions, changes in extreme circumstances (i.e. during a flood), availability and speciation of redox-sensitive elements, and the types and loading of carbon and other nutrients. Figure 1. Water droplets condense on the hydrophobic surfaces of colorful microbial biofilms on a cave wall in Slovenia.Usually, such macroscopic biofilms can be white, yellow, orange, or pink in color, especailly if they are from within the dark zone. If near the cave entrace, biofilms can have a dark green to pale green and even purple color. Each of the colors can be correlated to specific microbial groups.In general, cave and karst fauna can have rich diversity,with representatives of roughly a third of the recognized bacterial phyla, half of the recognized archaeal phyla, and broad representation among the microbial eukaryotes, although


23Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings knowledge of microeukaryotic diversity is fairly limited. Because microbes colonize virtually every surface and interface with all zones of a cave system (Figure 1), including in cave streams with dynamic geochemical interfaces (Figure 2), understanding microbial diversity and function is central to all of the karst-related sciences. This extended abstract summarizes a plenary lecture that highlights the history of cave and karst microbiological studies, the importance of microbes to cave ecology, and describes how microbes influence geological and geochemical processes in caves. The abstract concludes with future prospects that will continue to push the frontiers of cave and karst sciences from microbiological research.2. History of Cave and Karst Microbiological StudiesThe earliest microbiological studies of cave and karst habitats examined sediment and water by using microscopy or enrichment and isolation culture-based approaches. From the 1900ss, many cave deposits were considered to have a microbiological origin, even if researchers could not prove it until more recently, including cave nitrate (saltpeter or saltpetre) deposits, carbonate moonmilk, and other speleothems. Some ironand sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were identified from caves, and these groups, specifically sulfuroxidizing bacteria, were implicated in the sulfuric acid-promoted dissolution of limestone as early as the 1930s. In the 1960s through 1980s, based on what was known of microbial diversity from culture-based approaches available at that time, cave and karst microbes were thought to be a subset of surface (e.g., soil) microbes flushed into caves from meteoric drip waters, surface streams and air currents, or carried into the caves by animals. Consequently, the ecological role of most microbes in caves was assumed to be primarily as secondary degraders and food sources for higher organisms. The role of microbes as primary producers in caves was not established until the mid-1990s from geochemical, isotopic, and ecological work done in the Movile Cave, Romania. The Movile Cave was discovered in 1986, following soon after the discoveries of chemosynthetic ecosystems at the deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Prior to the research done in Movile Cave, which also coincided with the development and application of molecular genetics techniques in the 1980s and 1990s, earlier investigators relied heavily on routine methods developed from medical microbiology. Many microbes were discovered by these techniques, and for many years these were the only methods to obtain information about microbial diversity and nutrient cycling from karst settings. Nonetheless, even when the metabolic requirements are known, laboratory enrichment and pure culture isolation has been difficult because many of the cave and karst habitats are oligotrophic and culturing selects for fast-growing rather than slow-growing groups. In fact, it is estimated that less than 1% of known microbes are culturable using current techniques. More recently, advances in molecular techniques have made it possible to circumvent culture-based problems and to identify microorganisms based on the evolutionary relationships of genes isolated from materials originating from caves and karst. Unlike animals, microbial classification is complicated by different levels of genetic relatedness and the extent of gene flow within and between taxa (i.e. horizontal gene transfer). This has resulted in a limited assessment of microbial diversity from caves. Since the 1990s, cave and karst microbiological studies have kept pace with new technology and most research has focused on the census of microorganisms colonizing a particular habitat. By comparing all of the known gene sequence data from caves around the world, related microbial groups are found in geographically separated cave systems. This suggests that colonization of the subsurface is not an isolated phenomenon. Consequently, the genetic diversity of cave and karst microbial communities may be particularly important to characterize and understand microbial species and ecotype concepts because of the global distribution of caves having similar physicochemical constraints from cave zone to cave zone, and from cave to cave in different regions. Recently, new research directions attempt to understand what microorganisms are doing to the cave physically (e.g., geochemical and geological impact) and to the cave ecosystem functionally. Broadly speaking, however, most research is still descriptive, using molecular surveys and culture-based analyses of habitats. The future of cave and karst microbiology research, and potentially most of the cave sciences, will improve by connecting phylogeny to function and by utilizing a combination of culture-, genomics-, and proteomics-based analyses. Through the biochemical evaluation of genes, enzymes, and metabolites, our knowledge of the ways that microbes shape their habitat and of the role that the cave and karst habitat has in selecting the metabolic and functional types of microbes within that habitat will improve.3. Ecological Roles of Microbes in CavesPhotosynthesis is not possible in the dark zone. Therefore, most cave and karst ecosystems are assumed to be dependent on allochthonous material (brought into the cave) from wind, drip waters percolating through the epikarst from the surface, stream drainage, or even as Figure 2. White filamentous microbial mats in the sulfidic cave stream from Lower Kane Cave, Wyoming (USA). The microbial mats extend from a spring in the cave for more than 20 m along the stream.


24Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings guano. The most common type of allochthonous material is as dissolved and particulate organic matter. A range of allochthonous organic matter can occur in caves, as anyone knows from encountering leaves, tree trunks, and even automobiles deep inside caves (Figure 3). In some shallow cave settings, including in lava tubes, plant roots (rootsiscles) can also penetrate cave passages or aquifers, which can have rich (micro)biota. carbon as an autotroph, or assimilating organic carbon initially produced by autotrophs. Heterotrophs use existing organic carbon for cellular energy and their carbon sources. Figure 3. Pile of organic matter, ranging in size from fine to course particulate material in a Kentucky (USA) cave entrance. Cavers are behind the pile for scale. Just like on the surface, where microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi) are responsible for the majority of decomposition of organic matter, microbes are also important to breaking down organic matter in caves.Microbes are also responsible for processing organic matter, although the flow of carbon and energy in cave ecosystems has been poorly investigated compared to open surface streams. Most microbes in epigenic cave systems are degraders and food sources for animals. But, since the 1990s, increasing evidence suggests that microbial primary productivity (i.e. chemosynthesis) augments cave ecosystem carbon and energy budgets. There are now more than a dozen caves worldwide, most being hypogenic systems, where energy sourced from microbial chemolithoautotrophic primary productivity supports cave ecosystem (Figure 4). Chemolithoauto-trophy sustains large population densities of obligate troglobitic and stygobitic animals at several trophic levels, with Movile Cave being the exemplar chemolithoauto-trophically-based cave system. If the base of these ecosystems is impacted, such as from changes in water quality, then the ecosystems would likely collapse. This fact makes conserving the entire karst system at the level of the groundwater basin and watershed, and not just the cave, critical for protecting these fragile systems.4. Geomicrobiology of CavesMicrobes profoundly impact geochemical and geological processes in karst, even if we currently cannot recognize or understand all of the microbial geochemical and geological forces in subsurface settings beyond where we can explore and experiment. Microbes affect the geological and geochemical systems due to their metabolism, from obtaining carbon, along with other nutrients, to gaining energy. Carbon for cellular growth originates by either converting inorganic carbon (CO2, HCO3 -) to organic Figure 4. Physella spelunca coexisting with microbial mats in the sulfidic stream from Lower Kane Cave. The snails have isotopic compositions that demonstrate they consume carbon sourced from microbial chemolithoautotrophy.The physiological mechanisms for capturing chemical energy are diverse, and the distinction between a chemosynthetic and a photosynthetic organismis based on whether the initial energy source comes from inorganic chemicals ( litho) or light (photo). Microbes that gain energy through chemosynthesis and fix inorganic carbon are chemolithoautotrophs (literally self-feeding rock-eaters). During chemosynthesis, microbe gain energy by transferring electrons from one chemical (electron donor) to another (electron acceptor) that originates from groundwater or rocks and minerals. Inorganic electron donors can include, but are not limited to, molecular hydrogen or reduced sulfur compounds. Microbial dependence on oxygen is also important. Aerobes require oxygen, which serves as the terminal electron acceptor for oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds (e.g., sulfide, thiosulfate), iron oxidation, or ammonia oxidation. In reducing environments, anaerobes do not require oxygen, and use alternative electron acceptors for respiration in the following order: NO3 Mn4+ Fe3+ SO4 2CO2. Consequently, microbial harvesting of energy from rocks and from water influences the mineralogy of the habitat and geochemistry of the system. This means that cave and karst settings provide unique sites to explore geomicrobial interactions compared to other subsurface environments because the habitats can be explored by humans or easily by remotely operated autonomous vehicles. Although geomicrobial processes have been studied since the 1900s, recent studies provide evidence that microbes are responsible for metal and nutrient cycling in caves and lava tubes, including iron and manganese, nitrogen, sulfur and carbon, as well as for processes related to mineral (i.e. carbonate) precipitation and carbonate dissolution in epigenic and hypogenic systems. For example, microbes cycling iron and manganese in caves form metal-rich deposits (Figure 5), and active carbon metabolism (e.g., respiration) affects carbonate formation rates of speleothems. In essence, microbes are responsible for physically and geochemically shaping their habitats.


25Plenary Lectures 2013 ICS Proceedings Most geomicrobiology studies can be generally categorized as: (1) studies that attempt to understand the abundance, diversity, and activities of microbial communities; (2) studies that attempt to relate microbial diversity to ecosystem function; and (3) studies that attempt to use microbes to explain mineralogical phenomena, like precipitation or dissolution of minerals or deposits. The majority of cave and karst geomicrobiology studies fit into the first category, which means that the future of geomicrobiological research should focus on the other two categories.5. ConclusionsOngoing research in cave and karst habitats is revealing rich and diverse microbiota that warrant greater attention outside of the field of microbiology. Microbes serve as the foundation of different cave and karst ecosystems because of the decomposition of organic matter and from chemolithoautotrophic primary productivity. Obviously, microbiological research from caves has changed our perception that all life on earth is dependent on photosynthesis. But, it is also possible that microbiological research can also change our perception of the extent to which geochemical and geological processes are impacted by microbes. From current research, microbes do not simply passively colonize subsurface habitats, such as aquifer rocks or speleothems, without having a significant effect on the mineralogy, lithology, and geochemistry. Going forward, we need to move beyond observational investigations that focus on categorizing microbial communities from caves and karst, and instead advance our understanding of the geomicrobial and biogeochemical roles of microbes by using sophisticated experimental and analytical methodologies. From these discoveries, it will be possible to quantify process rates and mechanisms that are controlled by microbial ecophysiology and functional activities. It will be possible to truly measure the rates of specific metabolic reactions to demonstrate how fast, and to what extent, microbes build (i.e. form) and modify caves. This is the new frontier of cave and karst science.AcknowledgmentsThis extended abstract was inspired by conversations with Scott Engel, Megan Porter, Diana Northup, Benjamin Schwartz, and others over the years. I also appreciate the efforts of current and former graduate students in my program working on cave and karst problems, including Terri Brown, Kathleen Brannen, Audrey Paterson, Cassie Gray, and Kelli Wilson Randall. Field work has been supported by too many people to list here, and major funding for the research has been provided from numerous sources, including the Louisiana Board of Regents [LEQSF(2006-2009)-RD-A-03], the National Science Foundation (DEB-0640835, and most recently from the Jones Endowment for Aqueous Geochemistry at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville.ReferencesThe content for abstract was motivated by, or derived from, the following publications:Engel AS, Stern LA, Bennett PC, 2004. Microbial contributions to cave formation: new insight into sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Geology, 32, 369. Engel AS, Northup DE, 2008. Caves and karst as model systems for advancing the microbial sciences. In Martin J, White WB (Eds.). Frontiers in Karst Research, Karst Waters Institute Special Publication 13, Leesburg, Virginia, 37. Engel AS, Meisinger DB, Porter ML, Payn R, Schmid M, Stern LA, et al., 2010. Linking phylogenetic and functional diversity to nutrient spiraling in microbial mats from Lower Kane Cave (USA). ISME J, 4, 9810. Engel AS, 2010. Microbial diversity of cave ecosystems. In Barton L, Mandl M, Loy A (Eds.). Geomicrobiology: Molecular & Environmental Perspectives, Springer. 219. DOI:10.1007/978-90-481-9204-5_10. Engel AS, 2011. Karst ecosystems. In Reitner J, Thiel V (Eds). Encyclopedia of Geobiology, Springer Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series (EESS, formerly Kluwer Edition), Berlin Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, 521. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9212-1. Engel AS, Randall KW, 2011. Experimental evidence for microbially mediated carbonate dissolution from the saline water zone of the Edwards Aquifer, Central Texas. Geomicrobiol J, 28, 313. Engel AS, 2012. Chemoautotrophy. In Culver D, White W (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Caves. 2nd ed., 125. Engel AS, 2012. Microbes. In Culver D, White W (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Caves. 2nd ed., 490. Gray CJ, Engel AS, 2013, Microbial impact on carbonate geochemistry across a changing geochemical gradient. ISME J, 7, 325. Porter ML, Engel AS, 2008. Balancing the conservation needs of sulphidic caves and karst with tourism, economic development, and scientific study. Cave and Karst Science, 35, 19. Figure 5. Microbial colonies formed on Mn coatings from a cave in Tennessee (USA). The tip of the finger points to bare limestone and microbial colonies on the limestone that have black centres, suggestive that the colonies may enhance Mn mineral formation on limestone over time.




History of Speleology and Karst ResearchSession:27 2013 ICS Proceedings




SPELEOLOGY OF GEORGIALasha Asanidze, Kukuri Tsikarishvili, Nana Bolashvili TSU, Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, 0177, 6 Tamarashvili, Tbilisi, Georgia, Georgian mountainous karst region is one of the unique in the world. Due to karst-creation standard conditions the maximum depth of karsting exceeds 4,000 m. The similar hydrogeological potential has only the mountain regions of Mexico, Indonesia, Turkey and China. According to the data of September 12, 2012, number of researched caves exceeded 1,300 in our country, out of which 820 (63%) cavities are vertical and 480 (37%) subhorizontal. It is remarkable that out of more than 1,000 m deep 60 karst caves of the world 6 caves are found in Georgia, they are: world # 1 cavechampion Kruber cave (2,197 m deep), Sarma cave (1,830 m), Tovliana-Mezheni cave (1,753 m) Pantiukhin cave (1,508), Iliukhin cave (1,275 m) and Dzou shaft in Gagra and Bzipi massifs.1. IntroductionBy an active participation of our expedition groups in high mountain limestone massifs of Georgia the waterbearing system of Napra-Mchishta (Bzipi massif) was revealed, which is also one of the deepest (2,345 m) in the world, whereas the depth of Iliukhin-Reprua (Arabica) hydrogeological system reached 2,307 m. Today similar hydrogeological systems can be found only in Mexico (Cheve 2,553 m) and China. Lowland karst caves are distinguished mainly by sub horizontal, watery, often multistory labyrinth caves and water-abundant karst river outlets including one of the largest (3,285 m) in capacity ( 1.5 million m3) Akhali Atoni Cave System and many entrieslabyrinth type cavity of Tskhaltubo (Kumistavi) discovered in early 80s, researched part of which exceeded 15 km. Geophysical researches conducted in 1982 proved existence of unknown(without natural entrance) karst cavities full of air and water in the amphitheatre-like depression of the Mchishta at the depth of 50 m below surface. In the 300 m long siphon corridor of complex morphology, where the strong stream of the Mchishta River (9.5 m3/sec. mean annual and 200 m3/sec. during flood, maximum depth of water reaches 46 m. Such long and deep siphons are very few in Eurasian continent. Besides, none of the water abundant underground rivers of Georgia (Mchishta, Tsachkhura, Tsivtskala et al.) have been studied entirely. Western Georgia karst outcrops lie along the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus mountain range extending some 325 km from the Psou River to the Ertso Lake area. The total area of karst rock outcrop amounts to about 4,475 km2, or 6.4% of the total area of Georgia. According to the hypsometrical data the karst belt is characterized by a sharply delineated vertical zonation, from the coastal area (with its submarine springs) to 2,757.6 m a.s.l. (at the Peak of Speleologisis on the Arabika Massif).2. MethodsFor investigation visual, yearly geomorphological and climatological observation data were used. According to them speleological map was composed in GIS system. Distributions of Georgian caves according to sub provinces are given.3. Results and discussionOn the basis of the results of complex geographical and speleological investigations the karst of Western Georgia is subdivided into: a) the middle and high mountain limestone massifs (>1,000 m a.s.l.), comprising the Arabika, Bzipi and Gumishkha high mountain and the Okhachkue, Kvira, Gaucha, Mingaria, Askhi, Khvamli, Racha and Kudaro middle mountain limestone massifs; b) the foothills and intermontane plain (low mountain) limestone massifs (<1,000 m a.s.l.). From the Gagra area to the Psirtskha. Gumista, Chaama Tsebelda and Panavi limestonemassifs in Abkhazia; the Urta and Unagira limestone massifs (Ekismta, Abedati and Nakalakevi) in Samegrelo; in the Kvemo Imereti region the SatapliaTskhaltubo and Okriba massifs (Kutaisi-Navenakhevi and Okriba-Argveta) and the Zemo Imereti structural plateau together with all of the Chiatura district; c) the clasto-karstic massifs of the plain, represented by the Bach-Otkhara and Duripshi plateaus, the Jali and Tsebelda conglomerate massifs (in Abkhazia) and the vast clasto-karstic regions of Central Samegrelo (Tintilozov 1976) (Fig. 1). According to data available on November 2012, the number of the caves investigated in Georgia exceeds 1,300, whereas in the 1960s the number of recorded caves barely exceeded 300 (Kipiani et al. 1966; Tatashidze et al. 2009). The total length of the explored caves is 240 km and the depth of the Figure 1. Speleological map of Georgia.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings29


known systems is more than 61 km. 65,5% of the caves investigated lie in the middle and high mountain massifs (1,900,400 m a.s.l.); 30.4% caves are in the foothills and intermountain lowland and 4.1% are developed on the limestone conglomerates of the plain (Fig. 2). Some 326 caves (67.7%) out of 480 registered horizontal caves are about 100 m long. 120 caves (24.9%) are from 101 m to 500 m. 25 caves (5.4%) are from 501 m to 2,000 m and 9 caves (2%) are more than 2,000 m long (Fig. 3). Among the 826 vertical caves cuttently registered in Georgia, 724 (87.6%) are 100 m deep, 88 (10.6%) are from 101 m to 500 m deep. 7 (0.9%) are from 501 m to 1,000 m deep and 8 (0.9%) are more than 1,000 m deep (Fig. 4). In Georgia Interest in caves begins from late past periods, but for 60thof 20thcentury in scientific literature only 60 well explored horizontal caves and pits were known (Kipiani et al. 1974). The most important discovery was made in 1961 in Akhali Atoni vicinity, when unknown underground emptiness (void) were found with 50,000 m2 area and 1.5 million m3volume. Republic authority with recommendation of management of Institute of geography passed a resolution for organization of public services and amenities on this monument. With this resolution was founded further development of speleo tourism in Georgia. Significant speleological discoveries were made on Tskaltubo limestone massif in the beginning of 80thof last century. Expedition group of institute of geography had found many entrance labyrinth types Tskaltubo (Kumistavi) cave system, which now is made for tourists according to modern standards.4. Discussion and ConclusionsThere are few karst regions on the earth, which hydrogeological potential is more than 2,000 m. As it is turned out, there are great perspectives of deep penetration into the karst provinces of Mexico, Indonesia, India, Georgia and Turkey. It is proved in our country, yet in 60s of the last century in the Arabika limestone massif (in the range of Gagra) number of deep mines and karst shafts discovered and partly investigated by Georgian researchers (Maruashvilietal. 1961; Tintilozovetal. 1965; Kiknadze 1972). A valuable contribution was made by the speleosections and amateur speleologists expeditionary units of different cities of Russia and Ukraine (Voronezh, Dnepropetrovsk, Kiev, Krasnoyarsk, Moscow, Novokuznetsk, Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg, Simferopol, Tomsk,Cheliabinsk, etc.) to the discovery and research of the deepest karst caves of Georgia. (Iljukhin1974, 1978; asian2005; iselev1987, 1990). As it is proved by studies, the limestone massifs of Bzipi and Arabika (Abkhazia, Georgia), in which the worlds deepest shafts are formed, are clearly distinguished by the perspectives of depth penetration (Fig. 5). Figure 2. Speleological map of Georgia. Figure 3. Caves according to longitudinal gradation. Figure 4. Caves according to depth gradation. Figure 5. Large cave abysses location scheme on the Bzipi and Arabika limestone massifs.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings30


At present there are 89 karst abysses on our planet with the depth of more than 1,000 m. 17 out of them are located in Austria, 16 in Spain, 13 in Italy, 9 in Mexico, 7 in Georgia, 7 in Slovenia, 6 in France, etc. (Gulden 28.03.2011). An absolute world record was established when the record depth of more than 2 km (2,197 m) was overcome in the Krubera (Voronja) Cave (Abkhazia, Georgia) on the limestone massif of Arabika. We have basis toassume that development of speleo investigations in Georgia is optimistic and realistic. From worlds ten deepest karst caves 4 are situated in Georgia. First three position occupy Kruber (2,197 m), Sarma (1,830m) and Iluzia-snow-Mejeni (1,753 m) caves situated in high mountain limestone massifs (Table 1). Georgian karst caves are the deeper than the deepest karst abysses (Lamprechtsofen depth 1,632 m; Mirolda 1,626 m; Jean Bernard 1,602 m), which were assumed as an underground poles for many years. Georgian investigators (Z. Tatashidze, T. Kiknadze, J. Jishkariani and others) have proved experimentally the existence of worlds deepest karst hydrogeological systems in Georgia (Lapra-Mchishta 2,345 m and Iliukhin Reprua 2,307 m) which are sensational perspectives for speleological discoveries.#Cave Depth Length Country name(m)(m)(Region) 1Krubera 2,19716,058Georgia (Voronja)(Abkhazia) 2Sarma1,8306,370Georgia (Abkhazia) 3Illyuzia-1,75324,080Georgia Mezhonnogo-(Abkhazia) Snezhnaya 4Lamprechtzofen1,63238,000Austria Vogelschacht (Salzburg) Weg Schacht 5Gouffre 1,62613,000France Mirolda/Lucien (Hautle Bouclier Savoie) 6Reseau Jean 1,60220,536France Bernard (Hautle Savoie) 7Torca del Cerro 1,5897,060Spain delCuevon (T.33)(Asturias) Torca de las Saxifragas 8Shakhta 1,5085,530Georgia Viacheslav (Abkhazia) Pantiukhina 9Sima de la 1,5076,435Spain Cornisa Torca (Leon) Magali 10Cehi 2 1,5025,291Slovenia (Julian Alps) Table 2. Some data about development of world longest caves. Table 1. Worlds deepest caves (Gulden 2012).Nowadays from more than 100,000 karst caves registered longer than 50 km length are 57, more than 100 km length are 20 caves. World largest horizontal bottom caves are Mammoth (USA, length 627.6 km), Jewel (USA, 257.5km) and Optymistychna (Ukraine, 236.0 km). Areas of those massifs, where worlds longest caves are situated quite smaller than Bzipi (150 km2), Askhi (200 km2) and Arabika (100 km2) watershed basin areas on western periphery of Georgian karst zone, where Mchishta, Tsachkhura and Tsivtskali underground rivers flow (Table 2). #Cave Current Area of the Maximum name total massifextent lengthholding theof the massif (km)cave (km2)(km km) 1Mammoth 627.63510.5 8.5 Cave System (National Park) 2Jewel Cave 257.56.56 2,5 (National Monument) 3Optymistychna236.01.51.9 2.2 (Optimisticeskaja) (qypsum) 4Mchishta, Georgia?20025 25 5Tsachkhura, Georgia?15010 15 6Tsivtskala, Georgia?10013 11 5. ConclusionAn investigation result gives us opportunity to assume existence of giant cave systems in Georgian abounding underground river basins. There are several tens unstudied underground monuments in Apkhazeti, Samegrelo, Racha and Imereti regions. During the last 50 years a lot of work was done, but hence we do not know much about Georgian the most interesting underground phenomena. For abounding in debit underground basins are still inaccessible for investigators (Shavtskala, Tsachkhura, Rechkhi and others) Studies conducted until present not only confirmed the prognosis of Georgian researchers about the truly great prospects of Speleology in our country (Tintilozov 1988; Tintilozov et al. 1987; Tintilozov et al. 1988; Tatashidze et al. 1993), but by the obtained results Georgia strongly embedded among the countries with the first degree speleoresources in the world.AcknowledgmentsWe are very grateful to the Scientific Board of the Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography for funding our fieldinvestigation and to Prof. R. Gobejishvili. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings31


ReferencesKipiani Sh et al., 1974. Saqartvelos karsti (Georgian Karst). V.1, Tbilisi, 350 (in Georgian). Maruashvili L, 1963. Dasavlet saqartvelos karstuli zonis Geografiuli da speleologiuri daxasiaTeba (Geographycal and speleological characterization of western Georgia karst zone) / Georgian cave and abysses. v.1, Tbilisi, 79 (in Georgian). Maruashvili L, 1973. Speleologiis safuzveli (Fundamentals of Speleology), Tbilisi, 368 (in Georgian). Tatashidze Z. et al. 2009. Saqartvelos karstuli mrvimeebis kadastri (Cadastre of the karst caves of Georgia), Tbilisi, 665 (in Georgian).History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings32


THE HISTORY OF SPELEOLOGICAL PROGRESS IN TURKEYSeluk Canbek1, Meltem Pancarc 2, zlem Uzun3 1Eskiehir Osmangazi University, Meelik Yerle kesi 26480, Eskiehir, Turkey, Antalya Cave Research and Conservation Association, Yenign mah. Yunus emre cad. 1081 sok. Baki Kocaku ak apt. no 1 Muratpaa/Antalya, Turkey, meltempan@yahoo.com3Anadolu University, 2 Eyll Yerle kesi 26470, Eskiehir, Turkey, ouzun1@gmail.com1, 2Speleological Federation of Turkey, An ttepe Mah. Kubilay Sok. Kubilay Apt. 17/1 Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey1, 2, 3Eskiehir Cave Research Association,niversite Evleri Sosyal Tesisleri No: 5, 26040 Gltepe, Eski ehir, Turkey The number of caves in Turkey is estimated to about 40,000. Ca. 3,000 of them were investigated by the end of 2012 and about 200 are studied annually. Cave research in Turkey dates back to 1927 but continuous work began in 1955, when Temuin Aygen and his friends initiated the scientific exploration of caves in Turkey. This individual effort continued until 1964, when the Cave Research Society was founded that speeded up cave research once more. Today, caving and cave science are carried by government research institutes, associations, university clubs and independent groups. Clubs and associations studying caves decided to form a Federation in 2008 and became the Speleological Federation of Turkey in 2009. The SFT today initiates cave studies and organizes cave rescue and speleological training workshops. With commissions on cave rescue, documentation, standardization and cave protection, the SFT continues its studies according to UIS standards.1. Introduction40% of Turkeys surface area consists of carbonate and sulfate rocks prone to rapid erosion (Nazik et al., 2003). This shows that Turkey is very rich in terms of karst and caves. Many authors estimate the total number of caves in Turkey to be around 40,000. Approximately 3,000 caves have been studied by the end of 2012. As all over the world the interest for outdoor sports has recently increased in Turkey. As a consequence, caving activities and speleological studies have increased as well. Here we give a short history of cave studies in Turkey, followed by an introduction to the Speleological Federation of Turkey, founded in 2009.2. The Speleological History in TurkeyIn Turkey, cave research started rather late. According to the records, the first cave study is the one carried out in 1927 by Professor Raymond Hovasse from Istanbul University in the Yar mburgaz Cave in Istanbul on its biology (Pancarc and nl, 2003). The second study was conducted by Professor Cemal Alagz from Ankara University and called Karst Phenomenon in Turkey (Alagz, 1944). Later in the years 1949 and 1950 K. Lindberg from Sweden did research on the fauna of some caves in Anatolia and published it in Annales de Speleologie in France with the title of Notes on a few Turkish Caves in French (Pancarc and nl, 2003). The first team to investigate a cave in Turkey was that of Temuin Aygen and his friends that studied the Konya Maraspoli Cave in 1955. Until 1965 many caves were investigated under Aygens leadership. In 1964, upon the establishment of the Cave Research Society caving studies speeded up (Pancarc and nl, 2003). University clubs and associations founded afterwards increasingly contributed to the speleology of Turkey. Technical abilities were developed more and more and serious expeditions into the deeper caves were initiated. Until the mid s only three groups (Cave Research Association, Boazii University Cave Research Club, and General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration) carried out speleological research with almost no communication between the groups; communication was only among individuals. After the early 1990s when the first deep cave exploration was done by the Turkish cavers, caving in Turkey accelerated and new student clubs and communities were founded. The First Speleology Symposium in 1990, in stanbul, was the first truly national meeting of Turkish cavers. At the beginning of the symposium the groups had a chance to introduce themselves and their research. The Cave Research Community, the Bo azii University Cave Research Club, the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, the Nature Researches Association, the stanbul Technical University Diving Club and the Zonguldak Cave Research Club participated in the symposium. This was the first glimpse on a national federation but its prospects were not seen promising at that time. At the end of the symposium it was decided to settle first for a communication web among cavers. In 1992 the Boazii University Cave Research Club had an accident in Ddenyayla and the Cave Research Community joined the group in the rescue. After that the importance of communication among the groups and the necessity of a cave rescue group were understood well. In 1993 a panel was held in stanbul on the The problems of Turkish Caving and Suggested Solutions. Here a national union was mentioned for the first time under the name Turkish Cavers Union. As a result of this meeting the Turkish Caving Groups Coordination Board was founded and the prime goals of the group were defined as to provide inter-group communication and coordination, to have a rescue organization, to establish a Turkish cave inventory and to organize communication with foreign History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings33


groups because of an increasing number of unauthorized explorations by foreign cavers. With the proclamation prepared and presented by the Cave Research Community and the Bo azii University Cave Research Club during the Second Speleology Symposium held in Ankara, the foundation of the Turkish Cavers Union was announced and a legislation proposal was presented. The association was accepted by the other groups participating in the symposium. The proposal contained the definition and the goals of the association, terms of membership, composition of an executive council, and rules and missions of the procedure. A short text announcing the foundation of the association informed caver groups abroad. The first meeting of the Turkish Cavers Union was held on 14thJanuary, 1995, in Ankara leading to the commissions on standardization and rescue. After the meeting in 2004, the work of the Union accelerated. In regular workshops cave rescue was trained. To some of these cave rescue teams from Bulgaria, Belgium, France and Slovenia were invited for cooperation and training. After the meeting in Eskisehir in 2004, SRT techniques were practiced in Olympos, Antalya. Following this, cooperative rescue was trained with Bulgarian cavers in Oylat, Bursa, in March 2005. Belgian, French, and Slovenian cave rescue teams were invited at different times and cooperation and training was organized. These activities strengthened the Union and meetings were held annually: stanbul 2006, Eski ehir 2007, zmir 2008 and Antalya at the end of 2008. During the last general assembly of the Turkish Cavers Union it was decided to become a federation. As a result, the Speleological Federation of Turkey was founded 17thNovember, 2009.3. Speleological Federation of Turkey (SFT)The SFT unites caving communities and university clubs. The SFTs prime missions are: To provide communication among caving groups; to maintain a national cave rescue team; to protect our caves and karst landscapes; to defining training standards; and to represent Turkish cavers at national and international platforms. By end of 2012 six associations and nine university clubs are members of the SFT. In addition the SFT cooperates with the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, and the Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks. The administrative board of the SFT is formed by representatives of all associations and university clubs. Its main duty is coordination among groups. The tasks of the federation are performed by the following commissions: The Cave Rescue Commission organizes national rescue trainings, coordinates with national and international search and rescue organizations and manages S&R operations in case of caving accidents. The Cave Protection Commission determines possible threats on caves, prepares and performs action plans on cave protection, and conducts courses on cave protection. The Training and Documentation Commission keeps training standards updated, formulates documents and organizes publications within the federation. These are the current members of the SFT and the organizations working in close cooperation with it: Ma ara Ara t rma Derne i (MAD) / Cave Research Association: It was thefirst caving organization to be founded in Turkey, Ankara, 1964. It cooperates with other clubs during cave expeditions both nationally and internationally and conducted many cave meetings. It keeps the Turkish cave inventory and trains new cavers. It still plays an important role in Turkish caving and is active in Ankara and Bursa. Bo azii niversitesi Ma ara Ara t rma Kulb (BMAK) / Boazii University Cave Research Club: This is the first university caving club, founded in 1973. It conducted many successful expeditions into deep caves, such as reaching the endpoint of Peynirlikn Ddeni at 1429 meters depth, still the deepest cave in Turkey. It is still active in stanbul. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Mdrl Ma arac l k Birimi (MTA) / General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration Caving Unit: This is the first governmental speleological organizing, established in 1978. Until now it is pioneering the Turkish cave inventory, and provided a great deal of information, helping other institutions, associations, university clubs and groups. It is active in Ankara. Hacettepe niversitesi Ma ara Ara t rma Kulb (HMAK) / Hacettepe University Cave Research Club: Founded in 1988, it surveyed many caves, organized symposia and caving photography contests. It is active in Ankara. Dokuz Eyll niversitesi Ma ara Ara t rma Kulb (DEMAK) / Dokuz Eyll University Cave Research Club: It was founded in 1994 and is active in zmir. Eski ehir Ma ara Ara t rma Derne i (ESMAD) / Eski ehir Cave Research Association: It s tarted cave research in 1995 and became an institution in 2006. It is active in Eski ehir. Ege niversitesi Ma ara Aratrma Kulb (EMAK) / Ege University Cave Research Club: It was founded in 1996 and is active in zmir. Toros Ma ara Ara t rma ve Koruma Derne i (TAMAK) / Toros Antalya Cave Research and Conservation Association: It started as Toros Outdoor Sports in 2002 and became an association in 2008. It is active in Antalya. Ankara niversitesi Ma ara Ara t rma Birimi (ANMAB) / Ankara University Cave research Unit: It was founded in 2004 and is still active in Ankara. Akdeniz niversitesi Ma ara Ara t rma Kulb (AKMAK) / Akdeniz University Cave Research Club: It was founded in 2006 and is active in Antalya. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings34


stanbul Teknik niversitesi Ma ara Ara t rma Kulb ( TMAK) / stanbul University Cave Research Club: It was founded in 2007 and is active in stanbul. Ege Maara Aratrma Dernei (EGEMAK) / Aegean Cave Research Association: It was founded in 2008 and is active in zmir. Bo azii Uluslararas ma ara ara t rma Derne i (BUMAD) / Bo azii International Cave Research Association: It was founded in 2008 and is active in stanbul. zmir Ma ara Ara t rma Derne i ( ZMAD) / zmir Cave Research Association: It was founded in 2008 and is active in zmir. Anadolu niversitesi Do a Sporlar Kulb (ANADOSK) / Anadolu University Outdoor Sports Club: It was originallyfounded in 2000 and established a caving unit in 2008. It is active in Eskisehir. Do a Koruma ve Milli Parklar Genel Mdrl Maara Koruma Birimi (DKMP-MKB) / Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks Cave Protection Unit: It was founded as a unit affiliated with the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, in 2008. It is active in Ankara. Uluda niversitesi Ma ara Aratrmalar Toplulu u (UMAST) / Uludag University Cave Resear ch Group: It was founded in 2012 and is active in Bursa. The alphabetical order of clubs and associations in the SFT are listed in Table 1. These clubs and associations add nearly 200 caves to the inventory every year during the expeditions they organize. The Federation is also a member of international unions and federations. Since 2006 SFT, which has been a member of Balkan Speleological Union (BSU), participates in the Balkan Cavers Camp which is organized every summer. SFT had this camp in Antalya Olympos in 2006 with the attendance of 250 cavers. Name Type Year of No.of Foundation Members AKMAK Univ. Club 2006 30 ANADOSK Univ. Club 2000 11 ANMAB Univ. Club 2004 12 BUMAD Association 2008 30 BMAK Univ. Club 1973 60 DEMAK Univ. Club 1994 36 EGEMAK Association 2008 25 EMAK Univ. Club 1996 45 ESMAD Association 1995 35 HMAK Univ. Club 1988 30 TMAK Univ. Club 2007 42 ZMAD Association 2008 30 MAD Association 1964 73 TAMAK Association 2002 16 UMAST Univ. Club 2012 20 Total 495 Table 1. Associations and university clubs in the SFT. The federation holds regularly a national cave science symposium. The last one was in Eski ehir, 1stBalkan Speleology Symposium and 6thNational Cave Science Symposium in November 2012. ( Also, the federation publishes a magazine called SpeleoTurk since 2004.Figure 1. SFT Logo.The official web site of the SFT is The logo of the SFT is shown in Figure 1. The contact person of the SFT is the General Secretary Meltem Pancarc (, +90 506 3307560).4. SummaryCaving and speleological research accelerated noticeably after the 1990ies in Turkey. Caving associations and university clubs at first joined under the umbrella of the Turkish Cavers Union (TCU) in 1998 and then founded the Speleological Federation of Turkey, 17thNovember, 2009. Cave training standards were improved and national training camps, and workshops and symposia on cave science were conducted. A group for cave protection was established and the SFT is working with related ministries on rewriting cave protection laws in Turkey. Furthermore a national cave rescue team was established. SFT is open for cooperation with cavers from abroad.ReferencesAlagz Cemal A, 1944. Trkiye Karst Olaylar Trk Co rafya Kurumu Yaynlar I, Ankara (in Turkish). International Balkan Speleological Symposium. Nazik L, Trk K, zel E, Acar C, Tuncer K, 2003. Trkiye Ma aralar n n Envanter al malar Ma ara Ekosisteminin Trkiyede Korunmas ve De erlendirilmesi Sempozyumu, Alanya, I, 91, 6 (in Turkish). Pancarc M, nl P, 2003. Ma aralar n Sportif Amal Kullan m Ma ara Ekosisteminin Trkiyede Korunmas ve Deerlendirilmesi Sempozyumu, Alanya, I, 10314, 6 (in Turkish). Trkiye Ma araclk Federasyonu. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings35


A HISTORICAL DATASET: MARCEL LOUBENS AND THE GOUFFRE DE LA PIERRE ST. MARTINArrigo A. Cigna UIS-SSI, Str. Bottino 2, I-14023 Cocconato, Italy, This brief article reports about a significant documentation, quite relevant to the history of speleology, eventfully found quite recently: seventeen photographs, dating back to the 50s of the last Century, and concerning the incident of Marcel Loubens in the Gouffre de la Pierre Saint Martin.1. IntroductionSome years ago in a flea market, an envelope with 17 pictures was found, with a written note on it: Photos sent by the French Consulate in Florence on May the 17th1955. In June 2012, two commemorative plaques in memory of Beppo Occhialini and Giulio Racah were set on the wall of the Corchia Show Cave entrance, the sa called Antro di Corchia, a cave system in the Apuan Alps (Italy). Occhialini and Racah carried out many explorations in the Corchia Cave, during the s of the last Century. This event called the attention to the old photos, forgotten in a drawer. It seems to the owner of the photos rather appropriate to deliver such memories to the 16thInternational Congress of Speleology, especially for their intrinsic historical value. Figure 1. The boundary stone between the French and Spanish border, which gave the name to the pothole. Figure 2. Marcel Loubens at the entrance of the pothole Gouffre de la Pierre St. Martin in August 1951. Figure 3. The preparation of the Loubens rescue inside a shepherds hut.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings36


Figure 4. After the cable failure and Loubens fall, the Lyon scouts try to descende by ladders (August 1952). Figure 6. The special container for the recovery of Loubens body is transferred to the camp at the entrance of the doline. In front Norbert Casteret (right) and Jos Bidegain, behind Robert Lvi and George Lpineux. Figure 5. August 1954: the Loubens body recovery operation starts. Three tons of various equipment are parachuted on the top of Soum de Lches. A special container for the recovery of Loubens body was also used. Figure 7. Robert-J. Lvi (left) and Norbert Casteret (middle).History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings37


Figure 8. The Lyon scouts move from Picq Atheray towards the pothole for the recovery of Loubens body. Figure 9. The doline at the top of the pothole. Figure 10. Assembling of the winch. Figure 11. The engineer Corentin Quefflec at the winch board.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings38


Figure 12. The preparation for the descent: waterproof caving suit, helmet and harness. Figure 13. Norbert Casteret, the first one to enteri the pothole. Figure 14. Jacques Labeyrie descending into the pothole. Figure 15. The container for Marcel Loubens body descending the pothole.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings39


AcknowledgmentsThe contribution of some friends was instrumental in preparing this note: Margherita Cigna, Francesco De Sio, Fabrizio Fallani, Daniela Pani. Figure 16. Jos Bidegain, who will recover Marcel Loubens body, going down with his descender. Figure 17. The first grave of Marcel Loubens with the inscription written by Beppo Occhialini: ICI MARCEL LOUBENS A VEU LES DERNIERS JOURS DE SA VIE COURAGEUSE (Here Marcel Loubens lived the last days of his brave life).History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings40


THE ALBURNI MASSIF, THE MOST IMPORTANT KARST AREA OF SOUTHERN ITALY: HISTORY OF CAVE EXPLORATION AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTSUmberto Del Vecchio1,2, Francesco Lo Mastro1,3, Francesco Maurano1,4, Mario Parise1,5, Antonio Santo1,6 1Alburni Exploration Team, Italy2Gruppo Speleologico CAI Napoli, Napoli, Italy, delvecchio@geoinformatica.it3Gruppo Speleologico Martinese, Martina Franca, Italy, lomastrofrancesco@gmail.com4Gruppo Speleologico Natura Esplora, Summonte (AV), Italy, francesco.maurano@gsne.it5CNR-IRPI, Bari, Italy, m.parise@ba.irpi.cnr.it6Dip. Ingegneria Idraulica, Geotecnica ed Ambientale, Napoli, Italy, The Alburni Massif (Campania, southern Italy) is a karst mountain extremely rich in caves and other karst landforms, situated between the valleys of the rivers Calore and Tanagro. After some initial activities at the turn between the 19thand 20thcenturies, systematic speleological explorations were carried out in the early 50s by the Commissione Grotte Eugenio Boegan. During the following decades, the push toward further explorations reduced, until, in the late s the will to explore together gave life to AIRES, an association joining cavers from many different grottos. The main outcome of this co-operation was a book, entirely dedicated to the Alburni caves, which is still today the most important reference to study the area. In the 90s, the activities went on, even though not within the framework of a co-operated action. Nevertheless, several important exploration results were obtained. Recently, it was again decided to make a joint effort in order to better plan and carry out research in the Alburni; thus, the Alburni Exploration Team was born, and since 2009 all the activities in the area are duly coordinated, and the news about any discovery is shared with all the interested cavers in real time, also by means of a dedicated website. The present article describes briefly the history of explorations in the Alburni Massif, following the main phases of research, and then focusing on the activities carried out in the last years. Aims of the paper are to present to an international audience the potentials of this karst area, to attract the interest of other cavers, and disseminate the information about karst and caves of Alburni to the local population, as a fundamental step toward protection and safeguarding of this precious natural environment.1. IntroductionThe Alburni Massif (Fig. 1) is located in the Apennine Chain of Italy (Campania region), and represents the most significant karst area of Southern Italy. The name Alburni takes its root from a word meaning white, due to the main color characterizing the area, related to exposure of the carbonate rocks. The massif has been the object of several cave expeditions, due to a greawt variety of karst landforms, including some hundreds of caves. After a period of relative still in the exploring activities, in recent years a new phase was started, thanks to the re-established co-operation among the main grottos working in the area. This article describes the history of the main phases of caving research and exploration in the Alburni Massif, aimed at highlighting the importance of this karst area, and to show the many potentialities it has for further developments; following a geological and morphological introduction to the area, the main activities carried out during the years will be described, and the new (still ongoing) research mentioned, before concluding the article with future perspectives for caving activity in the area.2. Geological and morphological settingThe Alburni Massif is in the heart of the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, between the valleys of the rivers Calore and Tanagro, and represents a karst ridge extremely rich in dolines, ponors, caves, and swallow holes.The karst nature of the area is illustrated by the presence of over 400 caves explored so far (Table 1). Among these, the mostFigure 1.The Alburni Massif seen from NW (photo: F. Maurano). History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings41


Location of these springs between elevation from 260 to 70 m a.s.l. shows that the overall thickness of potentially karstifiable limestones exceeds one thousand meters (Santangelo and Santo 1997). In addition to classical karst caves in the Mesozoic limestones, it has to be pointed out that different types of caves can be observed, which also include those produced by landslides in the slope breccias deposits (lateral spreading caves according to Santangelo and Santo 1997). Several caves open in correspondence of swallow holes, as described by Santangelo and Santo (1997): vertical inputs from perforated overlying beds, and lateral inputs from adjacent impervious rocks (contact ponors), represented by the clays of the Miocene flysch formations. As concerns the morphological position of the swallow holes, these are mostly located along fault scarps or at the lowest points of endorheic valleys and basins. famous are represented by the show caves of Castelcivita, the longest in Southern Italy with a total length of 5.4 km, and of Pertosa, about 3 km long (Parise 2011). Covering a total area of about 280 square kilometers, the massif is one of the many carbonate ridges of Southern Italy, mostly consisting of limestones and dolomitic limestones of Mesozoic age, originated in carbonate platform environments. Karst features are mostly concentrated within the Cretaceous sequence, with overall thickness over one thousand meters. Apart from the Mesozoic deposits, more recent, Miocene terrigenous formations can be found laterally to the limestones along the sides of the massif, and as filling materials within structural basins developed at the highplain. As concerns the geomorphological setting, the Alburni Massif can be described as a monoclinal structure gently dipping to the SW; delimited by fault scarps (main systems N 030, N 070, and N 120), the massif shows a summit plateau, developed in elevation between 1,000 and 1,500 m a.s.l., where many closed basins of karst origin can be identified. A great variety of surface and subterranean karst landforms has developed in the area, and represents the main character of this mountain. Basal springs are distributed at the SW and NE sides, with mean discharges ranging from 3 to 7 m3/sec (Celico 1979).Figure 2. Geological sketch of the study area. Key: 1) alluvial deposits; 2) debris; 3) lacustrine deposits; 4) conglomerates (Pliocene); 5) marly limestones and quartz sandstones; 6) varicoloured clays; 7) limestones and marls; 8) Mesozoic limestones; 9) dolostones and dolomitic limestones (Upper Triassic Jurassic); 10) fault; 11) overthrust. Figure 3. Morphological sketch of the Alburni Massif (after Santangelo and Santo, 1997). Key: 1) swallow holes along fault walls; 2) swallow holes in valleys; 3) surface solution shaft; 4) intrastratal caves; 5) collapse sinkhole; 6) spring; 7) inverse erosion shaft; 8) cave due to lateral spreading; 9) fossil hanging phreatic conduits; 10) phreatic conduits related to the present water table; 11) water table karst conduits; 12) vertical shaft along fracture; 13) basal spring. Table 1.Main caves in the Alburni Massif. The star in the last column indicates spatial development of the cave. Cadastral Name Depth Development no. (m) (m) Cp 94 Fumo 443 1,590 Cp 255 Gentili 437 2,036 Cp 472 Piani S. Maria III 422 1,850 Cp 1406 Campo 403 1,542 Cp 244 Gatti I 402 657 Cp 253 Vitelli 385 1,800 Cp 487 Ossa 291 250 Cp 92 Madonna del Monte 288 435 Cp 671 Confine II 266 461 Cp 93 Melicupolo 259 154 Cp 86 Piani S. Maria I 253 755 Figure 4. Network of the main karst systems in the central sector of Alburni. Key to symbols: 1) caves (numbers indicate the entry in the Campania register); 2) main endorheic basins (see Table 2); 3)underground flow direction, by cave explorations and tracing tests. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings42


Progressive development of erosional processes in many cases caused the downward migration of the input sites, which resulted in the presence of both inactive (the oldest and highest) and active (the youngest and topographically lowest) ponors. There is an overall dependence of the size of ponors (and the related subterranean karst systems as well) with that of the feeding catchments: the dimensions of the inactive ponors are larger than those of the active ones, which should derive from wider areas collecting water and transporting it toward the input points.Table 2.List of the main caves in the central sector of Alburni Massif (shown in Figure 4), and their main characteristics. In the last column, the first letter indicates position of the cave access at the valley bottom (v) or along a faults scarp (f), and the second (in upper case) the endorheic basins, as shown in Figure 4. Cave no. Cp 253 Cp 92 Cp 250 Cp 94 Cp 709 Cp 86 Cp 472 Cp 476 Cp 902 Cp 451 Cp 452 Cp 672 Cp 488 Cp 1145 Cp 98 Cp 671 Cp 102 Cp 222 Cp 105 Cp 480 Cp 481 Cp 487 Cp 255 Cave Vitelli Madonna del Monte Fra Gentile Fumo R. Lombardi Piani S. Maria I Piani S. Maria III Gravaccine Stretta La Pila I La Pila II Inverno S. Carpineto Cavaggione Confine I Confine II Parchitiello I Parchitiello II T. Aresta Varroncelli I Varroncelli Ossa Gentili Length (m) 1,800 435 335 1,590 108 755 1,850 54 235 700 265 1,420 500 300 240 461 565 4 144 160 100 250 2,036 Depth (m) 385 288 232 443 147 253 422 51 113 122 153 201 117 226 216 266 205 7 116 118 127 291 437 Catchment basin (km2) 0.12 1.14 0.25 0.81 0.37 0.34 0.37 0.23 0.44 0.25 0.27 1.03 Activity inactive active inactive active inactive active active inactive inactive active active inactive active inactive active inactive active inactive inactive active inactive inactive active Location (see Fig. 4) f in A f in A f in A f in A f in A f in B f in B f in B f in B v in C v in C f in C f in C f in C f in C f in C v in D v in D v in D f in F f in F f in FKarst appears to be controlled by a combination of lithological and structural features, starting from the local structural setting and the relationship between bedding and water flow direction (Fig. 4).3. History of explorations3.1. Man and the caves in the Alburni Massif Even though with less remains than those found in many other caves located near the coasts of Campania, some Alburni caves testify to the frequentation by man since Paleolithic times (Pellegrini and Piperno 2005). This in particular occurred for the most accessible sites, located at the foothills of the massif, and/or close to water sources. Apart from the prehistoric frequentations, as concerns the main topic of this article, that is caving explorations, the pioneering activity actually began during the 19thcentury, and had a tragic end (Boegan and Anelli 1930): in 1889, two brothers from a nearby town entered the Castelcivita cave using oil lamps to explore the system, still unknown at that time. Carbon dioxide from a lateral branch of the cave system extinguished the lamps after the two had entered 300 m into the cave. They were not able to find their way out, and were rescued only eight days later. One of the brothers died soon after, and the other went insane. The Castelcivita karst system became a show cave in 1930, and two years later also at Pertosa the cave was opened to the public. At this latter site, however, the first lighting system was installed only 30 years later, due to a dispute between the municipalities of Pertosa and Auletta (Russo et al. 2005; Parise 2011). 3.2. Beginning of the caving activities At the beginning of the 1920s, the Commissione Grotte Eugenio Boegan from Trieste, the oldest grotto in Italy, began its caving activity in the Alburni Massif. Since that time, with an increasing pace in the 50s and 70s, the explorations were carried out systematically, producing remarkable results in terms of numbers of explored caves. The surveys were published in several articles. These provided the first documents showing the remarkable features of the Alburni Massif, and the exploration potentials of the area (Vianello 1965). Thus, many other cavers from different parts of Italy became to be interested to cover this area in their activities. In 1950, the Gruppo Speleologico CAI Napoli began to work in the area, especially carrying out scuba diving explorations. The above mentioned grottos were followed later on by Circolo Speleologico Meridionale and, in the years 1960s, by other grottos from Latium: namely, Circolo Speleologico Romano and Speleo Club Roma. In the late s, after some years of minor activity, the change to new exploration techniques led to abandonment of cable ladders. Nylon ropes and new, more reliable and lightweight History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings43


gear allowed to carry out better explorations within the abysses of the Alburni Massif. Three grottos (Gruppo Speleologico Martinese, Gruppo Speleologico Dauno and Gruppo Speleologico CAI Napoli) were the most active at that time and began to co-operate during the explorations. At the same time, they also produced a survey register, where all the informations about the outcomes of each survey were recorded. Toward the end of the s, to stress the joint will to explore together, AIRES was born, as an association covering different grottos and aimed at obtaining the best from joint explorations and researches. In this way, the Alburni Massif became an important meeting point for all Italian cavers. The main outcome of this crucial period in the exploration history of the area is the book Alburni Mountains speleological researches(Bellucci et al. 1995). It is still today the main reference for anybody interested in exploring the Alburni caves. During the middle s further cavers are attracted to the Alburni. As a consequence, new results are obtained in caves such as Grava del Casone Vecchio, Auletta, Piani di S. Maria, and Grava dInverno. In the time period 1994, systematic explorations were carried out in branches of Grava II dei Gatti, and the overall cave topography increased three times (from 500 to 1,500 m of development). In 1997, at Grave del Casone a 140-m deep shaft was found and explored and new ways of continuation in the karst system were hypothesized. Unfortunately the following exploration camps were not able to produce significant results. During the 1998 summer camp, remains of a cave bear were found at the grotta Milano; the remains were later recovered in November 2005 in collaboration with the Earth Sciences Department of Federico II University in Naples (Meloro 2007). During the 2001 summer camp the Piani di Santa Maria karst complex was examined, and previously known caves were connected (Proietto and Buongiorno 2001). In two years (2002) exploration activities performed mostly in winter times were carried out at Grava dellAuletta by cavers from Campania, Apulia, Molise, Latium and Umbria; the exploration efforts allowed to double the original depth of the cave (Buongiorno 2003; Russo et al. 2003). New caves have been found in the meanwhile (2005) in the massif, adding further data and information to the overall evelopment of karst in the area: Grava di Cesare (23 m deep) and Grava di Matteo (85 m deep). 3.3. Scuba diving explorations Notwithstanding the huge karst potential in the Alburni Massif, scuba diving explorations have been limited so far to a quite small number of caves. This because many sumps end in lakes of small size, with unpassable narrow conduits, or water flow moving within passages with gravel and sand deposits. At this regard, we recall here the dives at Serra Carpineto and at Falco, carried out between the end of the s and the early s by GS Neretino. Most of the scuba diving explorations, on the other hand, were interested in the springs located at the massif foothills: Old Mill and Ausino in the Castelcivita territory, and Auso at S. Angelo a Fasanella. At Castelcivita the first attempts date back to the s, but only in the following decade the research became systematic, thanks to the efforts by CAI Napoli. A tragic event, however, marked the beginning of a still period, when in 1973 three divers (Giulio de Julio Garbrecht, Giandavide Follaca and Sergio Peruzy) lost their lives at the Old Mill resurgence. After this tragedy, the scuba diving activity by CAI Napoli re-started only in 2005. Nevertheless, some activity was produced by other divers from different parts of Italy: in the early s a group from Foligno succeeded to link Castelcivita and Ausino caves. In about the same years, M. Bollati, L. Casati and J.J. Bollanz brought the Old Mill explorations to a depth of 117 m, with an overall development of 450 m. In 2001 the activity went ahead, again thanks to L. Casati and Z. Zenkak, who were able to increase the development of the explored cave to 550 m, with a branch rising upward to -85 m. Explorations at the Auso started in the s and had no significant outcomes initially. This was due to the impossibility to open a passage in the slide deposits in the main basin. During the same years, the lucky discovery by GS Martinese of an inclined phreatic conduit ending with a 10m-deep shaft flooded at its bottom (Lo Mastro, 2010) has to be noted. A preliminary inspection, carried out without the use of tanks, resulted in the identification of a large passage, with an estimated length of some 30 m. In 1993 R. Onorato and in 1994 M. Diana explored the passage and, through a large room, came out in another air-filled cavern leading back to the slide deposits in the basin. The last explorations are dated 1998, when a team composed of M. Diana, R. Malatesta and G. Caramanna, entering the new passage identified in 1994, surveyed about 200 m of air passage, and found a new submerged gallery of about 30 m, that remained unexplored so far. 3.4. The Alburni Exploration Team (AET) During a national cave meeting in 2008, the idea of joining again the efforts was shared by cavers from Apulia and Campania. Immediately after, it was decided to give life to the Alburni Exploration Team (AET) as a natural followup of AIRES. An important point was the will to directly involve the local populations, both to disseminate the results reached and to add further value (that is, the karst caves) to this territory, very rich of natural beauties.Figure 5. Grava dInverno: the meanders in the newly explored sectors (photo: F. Maurano). History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings44


The main explorations carried out in the last years by AET are those at Grava dInverno, Grava del Campo, Grava dei Vitelli, and Grotta del Vento. Tens of cavers have worked in the time period 2006 at Grava dInverno, carrying out an exploration that, even though mostly sub-horizontal, had several degrees of difficulties due to the many narrow passages, the presence of mud, and several areas with breakdown deposits. Nevertheless, the final outcome resulted in greatly extending the known development of the cave, reaching 201 m of depth, and a length of over 1.4 km, which makes Grava dInverno one of the longest caves in the massif (Maurano et al. 2009). Grava del Campo was one of the many swallow holes clogged by sediments at its bottom; however, a small climb allowed in August 2008 to find a narrow meander through which, after a number of steps, a further winding sector, with sharp bends, was reached. The difficulties to move in that part of the cave were overcome by the evidence of further voids ahead, testified by the strong air current. Thus, after much work to widen the passage, at the end of the summer 2009 a caver went through and explored alone the two successive shafts beyond the narrow passage. Continuing the exploration later resulted in finding alternating shafts and horizontal passages, until the final meander, ending in a sump at the depth of 403 m, was reached. Grava del Campo represents today the fourth deepest cave in Campania, and is over 1.5 km long. Grava dei Vitelli was discovered in 1962 by CGEB and was later object (1987) of explorations that brought its development to 1,880 m, with depth of 385 m (Bellucci et al. 1995). In 2009, at a depth of 270 m, some cavers have performed a 30-m high climb, finding new spaces consisting of meanders and conduits alternating with small rooms with breakdown deposits and some shafts. After some 500 mt of development, for a difference in elevation of +100 m, cavers are today blocked by an intermittent sump. During the explorations, a remnant of a red deer antler was found. Starting from field observations and analysis of the main caves in the area, in the last years GS Martinese has worked in the sector of the massif where three of the most important caves (Madonna del Monte, Fra Gentile, and Fumo) areFigure 6. Grava del Campo: coming out from one of the narrow passages (photo: G. Pinto). located. The three caves are likely parts of a single karst system and should connect to a basal underground river, so far never reached. With such an aim, detailed surveys allowed in 2010 to identify an important fault, and a work of identification and mapping of the dolines in the area brought to discover what seemed a fossil cave: 30-m deep, it ended clogged by mud and sediments, but with an open crack on one side, from which a very strong air current came out that gave the cave its name: Grotta del Vento (Wind Cave). The obstacle was finally removed with much work, reaching new underground void. From there a narrow passage (passed after many days of hard work), led to a tectonically-controlled shaft that was estimated to be about 150 m deep. At around half of its depth, the shaft is divided in two sectors by a wide rock terrace; this passage allows, on one side, to connect to Grava del Fumo, in a 100 m-deep shaft (Fig. 7). Thus, Wind Cave is the fossil sector of the same system of Grava del Fumo. As demonstrated, even though this area has always been one of the most frequented by cavers, further possibilities of explorations still exist, and hopefully will result in the future to discover and understand the functioning of the hydrologic system of the Alburni Massif.4. ConclusionsThe Alburni Massif is without any doubt one of the most remarkable karst areas of Italy and has been too often underestimated in the past, in terms of it karst potential. The history of speleology briefly described in this paper documents that the activities carried out in the area have often had no continuity, with many efforts produced individually by small group of cavers. On the other hand, remarkable results have been reached when carefully planning the activities (also on a sound scientific basis), and concentrating the efforts on a single cave or karst system. In this latter regard, the recent foundation of the Alburni Exploration Team and the derived will to strongly move toward a common goal, is very important and hopefully will yield other, important results in the near future. At the same time, we would like to close this article by highlighting a very crucial aspect that so far was never been dealt with in such a manner: that is, the communication with the local population. It is aimed at disseminating the results of the caving activities, by involving as much as possible the local communities in speleological activities, and in transferring to them the importance to safeguard and protect the very peculiar and fragile environment represented by karst, both at the surface and underground, in an attempt toward living in a sustainable way in karst areas.AcknowledgmentsThe researches and explorations carried out in the Alburni Massifs would had not been possible without the passionate work and the fatigue of many cavers from different parts of Italy that over the years made it possible to reach the results described here. We warmly dedicate the present article to all of them. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings45


ReferencesBellucci F, Giulivo I, Pelella L, Santo A, 1991. Carsismo ed idrogeologia del settore centrale dei Monti Alburni (Campania). Geologia Tecnica, 3, 5. Bellucci F, Giulivo I, Pelella L, Santo A, 1995. Monti Alburni: ricerche speleologiche. De Angelis, Avellino. Boegan E, Anelli F, 1930. La Grotta di Castelcivita nel salernitano. Le Grotte dItalia, 4, 215. Bonardi G, DArgenio B, Perrone V, 1988. Carta geologica dellAppennino meridionale in scala 1:250,000. Mem. Soc. Geol. It., 41. Buongiorno V, 2003. Nuove esplorazioni alla Grava Auletta sui Monti Alburni (SA). Speleologia, 48, 81. Celico P, 1979. Schema idrogeologico dellAppennino carbonatico centro-meridionale. Mem. Note Ist. Geol. Appl. Napoli, 14. Lo Mastro F, 2010. LAuso negato. Immersioni nei sifoni terminali di Grotta del Falco e Serra Carpineto.Proc II Reg Congr Speleol, 3 June 2010, Caselle in Pittari (SA), 52. Maurano F, Bocchino B, Proietto G., 2009. Caldi estati ad Inverno. Speleologia, 60, 30. Meloro C, 2007. La fauna quaternaria di Grotta Milano (Petina, Salerno).In: S Del Prete, F Maurano (Eds.). Proc I Reg Congr Speleol Campania Speleologica, 1 June 2007, Oliveto Citra (SA), 75. Parise M, 2011. Some considerations on show cave management issues in Southern Italy. In: PE Van Beynen (Ed.). Karst management. Springer, 159. Pellegrini E, Piperno M, 2005. Preistoria e protostoria della Campania. In: Russo N, Del Prete S, Giulivo I, Santo A, (Eds.). Grotte e speleologia della Campania. E. Sellino, Avellino, 117. Proietto G, Buongiorno V, 2001. Esplorazione sui Monti Alburni: la zona dei Piani di Santa Maria. Puglia Grotte, 5. Russo N, Maurano F, Proietto G, Buongiorno V, 2003. La Grava dellAuletta (Monti Alburni, Campania). Aggiornamento esplorativo. Puglia Grotte, 5. Russo N, Del Prete S, Giulivo I, Santo A, (Eds.), 2005. Grotte e speleologia della Campania. E. Sellino, Avellino. Santangelo N, Santo A, 1997. Endokarst processes in the Alburni massif (Campania, Southern Italy): evolution of ponors and hydrogeological implications. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, 41(2), 229. Vianello M, 1965. La terza campagna speleologica sullAltopiano dellAlburno della Commissione Grotte E. Boegan. Rassegna Speleologica Italiana, 1, 27. Figure 7. The system Grava del Fumo Grotta del Vento, that now is the deepest karst cave in Campania (-443 m). Drawing: O. Lacarbonara. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings46


A MASTERPIECE OF HISTORIC CAVE SURVEYING: SEVERAL REPRESENTATIONS OF MIREMONT-ROUFFIGNAC CAVE (DORDOGNE, FRANCE), XVIIIXIXthCENTURIESChristophe Gauchon1, Elisa Boche1,2, Stphane Jaillet1 1Laboratoire EDYTEM Universit de Savoie, CNRS, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac, France Centre National de Prhistoire, Ministre de la Culture, 24000 Prigueux, France,, Miremont-Rouffignac is a horizontal cave, more than 4 km long; it seems like a true maze. Here we present three unpublished surveys which have been drawn up between ca. 1765 and 1824. They have just been re-discovered and they are really spectacular. When Martel came to Miremont-Rouffignac in 1893, at least five different maps of the cave had already been drawn.1. IntroductionThe cave of Miremont-Rouffignac is known at least since the end of the XVIthcentury and was often visited. Miremont is a horizontal cave, more than 4 km long; it seems like a true maze in which visitors were afraid of losing their way. To avoid such accidents, visitors tried to draw the map of the cave as they advanced further and further (Delluc, 1981). At the same time, engineers tried to draw up accurate surveys, possible in an effort to link them to the surface cadastre. Cave science historians (Bouchereau 1967 and 1970; Bitard 1978; Shaw 1992; Guichard 1993; Choppy 2002) have noticed for a long time that the cave of Miremont has been surveyed early on but many questions remained unanswered. This paper presents three unpublished surveys which have been drawn up between ca. 1765 and 1824. These have just been re-discovered and they are really spectacular.2. Three unpublished surveysThe first of these maps is preserved in the French National Library in Paris; it is an anonymous small map (22 16.5cm), well coloured. The author of this map has not yet been identified, neither the circumstances of its survey. The accuracy of this map is very good, including the narrow access to the underground little river (Fig. 1). The second map was discovered in the Archives of the Departmental Board at Prigueux: largerthan the first one (73 51.8 cm), it is a very detailed map, showing 28 cross sections and a profile of the entrance (Fig. 2). At least two copies of this map exist and have been published, one by the local painter Bouquier, the other one by the famous engineer Bremontier. These first two maps were most possibly drawn up between ca. 1765 and 1778; they still pose many questions about authors, dates and circumstances. The third map is a bit later. It was surveyed in 1824 by Fayard, Marty and Fayolle (Fig. 3). It is kept in the public library in Prigueux. A copy is kept in the Archives of the Departmental Board at Prigueux (published in Delluc 1987). It is also a large coloured map (71 50 cm), with an interesting attempt to integrate the geometrical map with a landscape view of the cave entrance. These coloured maps were made very carefully and accurately. They are witness of a great semiological inventiveness in the art of cave mapping: how to link together map and profiles, how to distinguish dry galleries and underground rivers, how to draw the cave fillings At least two more surveys were conducted during the XIXthcentury: one by Couasnard and Lapradlie in 1840 that was lost and never relocated (quoted by Martel 1894, but who didnt see it), another one by the priest Hippolyte Brugire about 1880. Finally, when Martel came to Miremont-Rouffignac in 1893, at least five different maps of the cave had been drawn, an exception in the history of cave science! Martel, with Rupin and Lalande, spent two days to draw up even a sixth one (Fig. 4).3. ConclusionsFor all these reasons, Miremont-Rouffignac appears to be a major place in the history of speleological investigations and especially for cave surveying. Possibly only Postojna in Europe could be compared with Miremont-Rouffignac.AcknowledgmentsWe gratefully thank Jean Bouchereau, Jean-Pierre Bitard and Francis Guichard, the grand old gentlemen of caving in Prigord for their decisive help. This research has given us the opportunity to make their acquaintance and to have with them instructive and glowing discussions: old surveys, new friends! History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings47


Figure 1. This anonymous little map (22 16.5 cm) is preserved in French national Library in Paris. The author has not yet been identified. Figure 2. This map has been discovered in the Archives of the Departmental Board at Prigueux (73 51.8 cm). It presents a larg e map, including 28 cross-sections and a profile of the entrance. The author has not yet been identified.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings48


Figure 3. This coloured map (71 50 cm) has been surveyed in 1824 by Fayard, Marty and Fayolle. It is kept in the public library at Prigueux (with a copy in the Archives of the Departmental Board at Prigueux). Figure 4. The map of Miremont-Rouffignac by Martel in 1893. When he came to this cave, at least five different maps of the cave had already been drawn.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings49


ReferencesBitard J-P, 1978. Sur la grotte de Miremont. Splo Dordogne, n 69, 59. Bouchereau J, 1967. La grotte de Miremont en Prigord. Spelunca Mmoire, t. 5, 116. Bouchereau J, 1970. Gographie ancienne du Prigord souterrain: la grotte de Miremont. Splo Dordogne, n 34, 9. Choppy J, 2002. Premires descriptions, premiers plans de la grotte de Rouffignac. Douzime rencontre doctobre. La Bachellerie, 134. Delluc B, Delluc G, 1981. Une visite la grotte de Rouffignac en 1759. Bulletin de la Socit Historique et Archologique du Prigord, CVIII, 364. Delluc B, Delluc G, 1987. La grotte de Rouffignac: un plan de 1814. Bulletin de la Socit Historique et Archologique du Prigord, CXIV, 255. Guichard F, 1993. Explorations souterraines en Prigord antrieures Martel. Cent ans de splologie franaise, 37. Martel E-A, 1894. Les abmes: les eaux souterraines, les cavernes, les sources, la splologie: explorations souterraines effectues de 1888 1893 en France, Belgique, Autriche et Grce. Delagrave, 578. Shaw TR, 1992. History of Cave Science, the Exploration and Study of Limestone Caves, to 1900. Sydney Speleological Society ed., 338.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings50


SPELEOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN IRAN SINCE ISEI 2008Saeed Hasheminezhad, Sarah Edalatian Arasteh Iranian Cavers and Speleologists Association (ICSA), The Iran Speleology Association (ISA) founded by Changiz Sheikhli, a veteran caver, and his friends in 1946 was a head start in developing the activity of caving and speleology in Iran. It was a small group of cavers but with a respectable number of achievements. Unfortunately, due to political reasons and war, Iranian cavers became separated from the international community of cavers resulting in improvised caving and climbing techniques a dangerous trend that actually cost several lives. The International Speleological expedition to Iran (ISEI) in 2008 was a great opportunity for the Iranian cavers to reconnect their caving community to the international caving and speleological community. Several national cave meetings inspired by ISEI finally led to the establishment of the Iranian Cavers and Speleologists Association (ICSA) which is considered the true descendant of the ISA. During the past five years after ISEI 2008 Iranian cavers have made appreciable progress in caving techniques and the number of cave discoveries and surveys has increased a great deal. Joining the UIS in 2013 will be the next objective of Iranian cavers and speleologists in the attempt to have more cooperation with the international caving and speleological society.1. IntroductionIran Speleology Association (ISA) founded by Changiz Sheikhli, a veteran caver, and his friends in 1946 (Fig. 1) was a head start in developing the activity of caving and speleology in Iran. It was a small gathering of cavers which had appreciable achievements. Unfortunately due to political reasons and war, Iranian cavers got separated from the international community of cavers which resulted in improvised climbing techniques in caves a dangerous trend which cost several lives. In 2007, after a visit paid to Iran by Fadi Nader, UIS general secretary, having a meeting with Ms. Leila Esfandiari, Mr. AfshinYousefi and Mr. Kazem Faridyan, the countdown to start a great speleological event began. Damavand Club sponsored by the Cultural Heritage Organization hosted 14 members of UIS from five different countries and the International Speleological Expedition to Iran (ISEI) was held in 2008 under the excellent joint leadership of Mr. Javad Nezamdoost and Dr. Fadi Nader (Fig. 2).2. Achievements and activitiesISEI 2008 was a gathering of enthusiastic Iranian cavers which resulted in uniting them nationally. This unity was first visible five months later in Ghar Baton near Mashhad at a national gathering of cavers and continued to be felt at several other similar gatherings in different regions in Iran until March 2010. Then a national caving gathering led into a poll to elect the board of founders to establish the Iranian Cavers and Speleologists Association (ICSA). After a year of effort and cooperation the ICSA was finally registered with the Ministry of Internal Affairs as an NGO, an event that was celebrated in the presence of more than 100 cavers from different cities of Iran in March 2011 in Shemshak Hotel near Tehran. There the first ICSA board of directors was elected, namely: Javad Nezamdoost (ICSA President) Ghasem Ghaderi (Vice President) Yousef Vaghef (Financier) Majid Saghafi Saeed HasheminezhadFigure 1. ISA board of directors in 1946. Figure 2. ISEI2008 logo.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings51


The following meetings were held before and after the official registration of ICSA: 1. Ghar Baton in Sarayan, Mashhad March 2009 2. Ghar Hampoeel in Maragheh, Tabriz July 2009 3. IST Lebanon September 2009 (Fig. 3) 4. Ghar Parau, Kermanshah September 2009 5. Ghar Yakhmorad, Cave Rescue Maneuver, Tehran February 2010 6. Shemshak Hotel, Tehran March 2010 (ICSA Board of Founders Election) 7. Ghar Hampoeel, Cave Rescue Maneuver, Tabriz April 2010 8. Ghar Qalaichi, Bokan July 2010 9. Ghar Jahanbin, Hafshejan September 2010 (discovering the deepest pit) 10.Day of Clean Caves September 2010 (the polluted caves in 20 different cities were cleaned) 11. Ghar Angareh-mino, Shiraz August 2010 12. Akhlomad Valley, Mashhad, self-rescue gathering December 2010 13. Shemshak Hotel, Tehran March 2011 (ICSA Board of Directors Election) 14. Salt Domes Expedition, Qeshm Island, Shiraz April 2012 During most of these gatherings it was attempted to train new cavers and familiarize them with caving techniques, cave mapping and self-rescue techniques (Fig. 4). The gathering in Shiraz was a great chance to meet and attract several speleologists and involve them in caving activities, e.g., Mr. Ezat Raeesi, a well-known Iranian geologist. Mr. Ghasem Ghaderi, ICSA Vice President, is also a geologist who is active in training Iranian cavers in geology. Establishing good relations with cavers and speleologists of other countries has been a concern from the onset. The recent cooperation of ICSA cavers with geologists of Oxford University to visit and sample some Iranian caves is a good example. Hosting the UIS officers during the Salt Domes Expedition in 2012 was another example. It was also a genuine act of assisting and cooperating with Iranian geo-scientists. A new development among Iranian cavers is that caves are now actively searched for in order to discover new caves and entrances. For example, Ghar Jahanbin was considered the deepest single pit in Iran 140 m deep. Now a pit 208 m deep has been discovered and explored! Several further caves were discovered and surveyed by new cave mappers based on UIS standards (Fig. 5). There are now also several active websites and weblogs concerned with caving and speleology: & It is undeniable that it was the great impact of ISEI2008 and following activities which motivated the Iran Mountaineering and Sport Climbing Federation (IMSF) to activate its Caving Working Group (CWG). Eight months after ISEI2008, five trainers were sent to Poland to participate in a cave training course to learn caving techniques based on the ones practiced in the world of caving and to discard the techniques adopted from rock climbing. Now CWG works as an active department to train cavers and has a close cooperation with some geologists. Arranging a cave rescue training for Iranian cavers with French instructors in September 2012 was another attempt by IMSF to broaden its technical knowledge base. Another achievement of ISEI2008 and the following activities is the foundation of the National Speleology Working Group ordered by the Presidents Office in 2009. This working group which considers management of caves in Iran consists of delegates of several national organizations. The president of this work group will be Figure 3. Iranian cavers motto participating in IST200. Figure 4. Author descending the first shaft of Ghar Bolour. Photo by Vahid Ashrafi.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings52


the delegate from the Environmental Conservation Organization. Although there was first only one seat reserved for one NGO delegate both the ICSA and the IMSF now have delegates to represent Iranian cavers.3. ConclusionFrom the outset it was tried hard to maintain friendly contacts with cavers world-wide in order to keep Iranian cavers and caving techniques up-to-date and to keep pace with international developments. ISEI 2008 was a fruitful attempt which resulted in practicing modern caving techniques and putting a distinctive line between caving and rock climbing in caves! Recent cooperation of ICSA cavers with geologists of Oxford University to visit and sample some Iranian caves as well as hosting the UIS officers during two fruitful expeditions in Iran have illustrated the Iranian thirst to have more cooperation with the international caving and speleological community. Now, after five years, Iranian speleologists and cavers are ready to join UIS in order to be an active member country.ReferencesMohammadifar D, 2007. Encyclopedia of Iran Mountaineering and Caving. Tehran: Sabzan. 665. Figure 5. Map of Ghar Shamsham, one of the first maps sketched according to UIS standards. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings53


50 YEARS OF CAVE RESCUE IN HUNGARYGyula Heged s Hungarian Cave Rescue Service, H-1024 Budapest, Keleti Kroly u. 15/A, Hungary H-2092 Budakeszi, Makkosi t 57-59, Hungary, The first registered cave rescue operation in Hungary was in 1927. Later in 1932 a cave rescue accident was the reason to establish the first Rescue Society of Counties and Cities. Because of the increasing number of cave accidents the Cave Rescue Service was established within the framework of Hungarian Speleological Society in 1961. The official establishment gave a significant progress and we begun to develop our common equipment base. A few years later we lost the Hungarian Speleological Society for the Hungarian Red Cross because of a change in legal background. Joining to the speleo-education system we published the cavers safety regulations in 1983. In the same year we had organized the 5thInternational Cave Rescue Conference in Aggtelek where 16 countries participated. In 1989 the 10thUIS Congress was held in Budapest and on that occasion the UIS Cave Rescue Commission held a symposium as a pre-congress event where 21 countries were represented. The legal background had changed again by the end of 1980s and we left the Hungarian Red Cross and went under the authority of the Hungarian Nature Friend Federation as a member society. Our legal status changed into an independent society on the occasion of the political transition and our new name has been Hungarian Cave Rescue Service (HCRS) since 1991. As an independent organization we have created contracted cooperations with the Police, Ambulance, Civil Protection, Fire Service, Ministry for Environment Protection, Hungarian Speleological Society, and Hungarian Nature Friend Federation. Our target was to cover with our activity as large a part of our country as we could. Therefore we established two country branches: North Hungarian Branch of HCRS with its center at Aggtelek and South Hungarian Branch of HCRS with its center at Pecs. On the base of the experiences of some cross border rescue activities we have created close contacts and regular collaborations with Horsk Zchrann Sluba (HZS) from Slovakia, Salvaspeo Corsa Romania and Salvamont Bihor also from Romania and Grskie Ochotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe (GOPR) from Poland. In 2007 we organized the 11thInternational Cave Rescue Conference in Aggtelek again. 26 countries participated. During the Conference an important document was born: the Aggtelek Agreement. The Hungarian Cave Rescue Service had celebrated its 50thanniversary of establishment in Pal-volgyi Cave at 29 April, 2011. Now the HCRS has more than 100 members who are all volunteers and we are able to do a cave rescue operation anywhere in our country independently of other organizations.1. Accidents and rescue operations before HCRSHubert Kessler is the person who suffered the first registered cave accident in year 1921. He was 14 years old when he went alone to a cave with a ladder made from clothes-rope and broomstick. He had dropped down his hand light which stopped working. He had no other lighting equipment, not even a match. He rambled for many hours and only by luck did he find his way out. The first registered rescue operation occurred in autumn of 1927. Participants of an International Speleological Congress went to visit Almasi vertical cave in North Hungary. Hubert Kessler and Gyula Kiss took a metal ladder into the cave and went down 40 meters and they waited for the visitors there. One of the 30 participants at the cave entrance unluckily kicked down a stone that fell into the cave. Kessler and Kiss leant to the wall but a piece of the stone hit the back of Kiss who blacked-out. Later he regained consciousness, but he could not speak and was helpless. A rope was sent down from the surface and Kessler made a sitting loop on it and Kiss was pulled up by the people on the surface. Later in 1932 seven scouts went to a cave splitting into two groups close to the entrance. The four-member group came back to the surface but the three-member group did not. The four scouts informed the local authority about their lost friends. The authority sent cavers and firemen i nto the cave to find the three scouts. The firemen used a fanfare for the searching. Because there was no result after 24 hours of searching, the gendarmerie looked for Lajos Barbie who knew that cave well. Finally he found the scouts in the part of the cave which was explored by him six weeks earlier. That event was the reason to establish the first Rescue Society of Counties and Cities.2. Establishment of Cave Rescue ServiceThere are no other large cities in the world where one can find so many caves which are so easily accessed by public transport than in Budapest. After the 2ndWorld War caving became more popular year to year in the early 1950s. A notable step in that progress was the reestablishment of the Hungarian Speleological Society in 1958. Another organization for cavers was the Hungarian Nature Friend Federation. More and more people went cave exploring to look for some adventure. Caves were open then so it was easy to enter them. As a result of that popularity children got lost more frequently. The caves were unknown to police and the fire brigade so that they regularly asked for help from experienced cavers. Within a short period of time a well-functioning alert system was formed between authorities and cavers. Soon it became clear that a wellorganized rescue team was in need with standard and experienced members to increase the efficiency of rescue operations (Tardi 2011). History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings54


It is interesting that the final step in the establishment of the Cave Rescue Service was a false alert. It concerned two lost students in April, 1961. Almost all of the cavers were looking for them for a week without any result. That long search needed good organization and teamwork. Finally the two students turned up in Yugoslavia where they went to leave Hungary for western countries. On purpose they left false information about themselves that they were in a cave to deceive the searchers. The lesson was that cavers can be in demand of similar wide range searches any time. After that operation Dr. Gyorgy Denes discussed the situation with speleoclubs and organized the Cave Rescue Service within the framework of the Hungarian Speleological Society, where he was the General Secretary at that time.3. The first two decades (1961)The official establishment was a significant progress for the Cave Rescue Service. The Civil Protection gave us a storage room in mid-1960. Earlier all of us were using our personal equipment but after the establishment we began developing our common equipment base. The Police provided transportation, communication and logistic possibilities during rescue operations. In return we helped not only the Police but the Civil Protection and the Fire-service with search of lost people in difficult places and in case of special accidents. We began training regularly and learnt first aid (Fig. 1). Because of legal changes we lost the Hungarian Speleological Society for the Hungarian Red Cross. There were some serious accidents, but the main activity was to search for persons lost in caves. It became a question of status among cavers to become a member of the Cave Rescue Service within the caving community. Therefore we could select the best candidates. It was a peculiarity of that age that we could not accept those volunteers who had no access to a phone, so that many able cavers could not become a member of the Cave Rescue Service. Some memorable events happened at that time. In autumn of 1961 three young boys disappeared, but it was not sure if they were in a cave at all. Fortunately one of their friends knew about their earlier caving adventures and he called the Cave Rescue Service. After some questions it became clear in which cave the boys could be. Four hours after the alert and six days after the boys disappeared we found them in a less known passage of the Matyas-Hill Cave. They had entered the cave with only one electric hand light, but it had been dropped and crashed. They suffered severely because of the cold, but more seriously because of lack of water. They had tried to drink their own urine, but that was not the solution. Later they heard some water drops and barely found the source of the noise. They tore out their trouser pockets, knotted them with laterite and when that became wet they pressed that water into their mouths. At the time we found them they already thought that they were practically dead. They had to stay for one month in hospital and luckily regained their health. In the same year there was another serious accident when a young girl suffered a spinal injury in Meteor Cave. We managed to bring her to the surface and she finished her caving career as a happy mother a few years later. In the same cave a young boy fell down about eight meters suffering a serious head injury. We brought him to the surface such that his condition did not get worse, but unfortunately he died in hospital two months later. The danger of losing orientation was illustrated by an event which happened in 1975. Four young boys went caving without notifying anybody and nobody looked for them. Cavers found them six weeks later and the Cave Rescue Service could only recover their remains (Fig. 2).Figure 1. Cave rescuers in the 1960s. Figure 2. Recovering four dead boys in 1975. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings55


4. Next period from 1980 to 1991The UIS Cave Rescue Commission held its 4thConference in Zakopane (Poland) in 1979 and Hungary was asked to organize the next Conference due in 1983. At the same time Dr. Gyorgy Denes was elected as the General Secretary of the Commission. We decided to organize that event in Aggtelek. At that time our decision was not risk-free because political consent was needed for all international activities, especially to organize an international event. There was no possibility to ask for that consent in Zakopane, but we managed to obtain it after we arrived home. The early 1980s was the period when many caves were gated. At the same time vertical caving techniques changed from ladders to using rope techniques. Parallel, a wellorganized speleo-education system came into existence and we published caving safety regulations in 1983. As a result of that progress the search for lost children became less often but injuries often were more serious. So a reorganization of the Cave Rescue Service became necessary. We functionally divided our activity into peace and rescue operation time. During peace time the president conducted activity democratically but during rescues the operation leader conducted the activity in hierarchical order (Horvth 2011). That was the situation when we began to organize the 5thInternational Cave Rescue Conference with 16 countries participating: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great-Britain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Soviet Union, Spain, Switzerland, United-States, and Yugoslavia. More than 50 presentations concerning cave-rescue equipment, problems, methodology, first aid, rescuer training, accident origin statistics and cave rescue organizations were given. Dr. Gyorgy Denes was elected as Vice-President (Dnes, 1983). The 10thUIS Congress was held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1989 (Heged s 1989). On that occasion the UIS Cave Rescue Commission held a Symposium as a pre-congress event. 21 countries participated: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great-Britain, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia (Fig. 3). The legal background changed again by the end of the 1980s and the Hungarian Nature Friend Federation took over the patronage from the Hungarian Red Cross. Our legal status changed into an independent society on the occasion of the political transition and our new name is Hungarian Cave Rescue Service (HCRS) since 1991.5. HCRS between 19911As an independent organization we contracted cooperations with the police, ambulance, civil protection, Fire Department, Ministry of Environment Protection, Hungarian Speleological Society, and Hungarian Nature Friend Federation. Our target was to serve as large a part of our country as possible. To do that we established two country branches: North Hungarian Branch of HCRS with its center at Aggtelek and South Hungarian Branch of HCRS based in Pecs (Fig. 4). In 2002 we had to manage two large rescue operations in addition to some smaller ones: In the evening of the 25thof January, 2002, a cave diver had an accident in Rakoczi Cave of Esztramos Hill, North Hungary. That area is a part of the Aggtelek National Park. The cave is known since the early 1920s when it was found by miners. The first survey was made in 1958. Since that time its exploration has been almost continuous both above and below the water level. Nowadays the total length of the passages amounts to 650 meters and the vertical dimension is 87 meters (44 meters below water level). On that 25thof January ten divers entered the cave for training and photography, divided into three groups. They went into different passages of the cave because the caves standing waters does not move and stirred-up mud takes a long time to settle. Visibility decreases quickly during each dive. It takes about one month for the water to clear up again. The first two groups returned from their dive without any problem, but one member of the third group lost his way. He was the last in his group and at a narrow point the guiding rope slipped from his hand and he could not find his way in the muddy water. He swam back into clearer water where he spotted the surface above his head. He rose up and found himself in a very little chamber, but with breathable air. It was a totally unknown part of the cave because the water level was lower than usual and had left the small chamber high and dry. He dived four times to try to find his way back, but he did not manage to locate theFigure 3. Andr Slagmolen (left) on the Symposium. Figure 4. The branches of HCRS.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings56


dive line, because the 18 meters deep passage was narrow with zero visibility and his air reserve was very small. The first rescue divers began looking for him immediately, but they could not find him. Later the rescuers heard his crying through the cracks of the rock. That was why they didnt stop the rescue activity. Soon it became clear that they needed more people to solve the situation, so they alerted the Police and the HCRS. The extended rescue operation began and altogether 289 persons participated (64 divers 55 Hungarians, four Slovaks, five Czechs; and 122 cavers 89 Hungarians, 28 Slovaks, and five Czechs). There were 286 dives altogether. Fifty-five participants from police, army, companies, municipalities, authorities, fire-departments, ambulance, etc. assisted as well (Adamk and Hegeds 2002; Hegeds 2003). After 118 hours we rescued the lost diver and brought him to the surface alive (Fig. 5). In October of the same year a Hungarian speleogroup with experienced cavers went into the Valea Rea Cave, Bihor Mountains, Romania. Their aim was to explore and survey unknown parts of that cave. At 10 oclock a.m. of 26thOctober a 32 year old member was injured by a falling rock that broke his right leg causing two open traumata. This happened three kilometers in the cave and 170 meters below the entrance. The Romanian cave rescuers and the HCRS were alerted at 2 p.m. At first medical service was provided to the injured by Romanian and Hungarian doctors. Finally 26 Romanian, 52 Hungarian and four Slovak cave rescuers and 14 other supporting organizations worked for more than 40 hours to bring the victim to the surface. Aggravating circumstances were bad weather and heavy rain in the previous days, because the cave itself is a sinkhole. The rescue base (Fig. 6) was 50 kilometers away from the nearest village and the cave entrance was eight kilometers away from the rescue base, a foot-path not passable for cars. After the rescuers brought the caver to the cave entrance it took more than two hours to carry him to the rescue base by foot. Romanian ambulance was waiting for him and brought him to the state border where he was put in a Hungarian ambulance, taking him finally to the hospital. Luckily the injured speleologist regained his health completely and even joined the HCRS later. On basis of these across-the-border rescue experiences we decided to look for formal collaboration possibilities and currently we have close contacts and a regular collaboration with Horsk Zchrann Sluba (HZS) from Slovakia, Salvaspeo Corsa and Salvamont Bihor from Romania, and Grskie Ochotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe (GOPR) from Poland (Hegeds 2011). In 2007 we organized the 11thInternational Cave Rescue Conference in Aggtelek again, with 26 countries participating (Fig. 7). The main topics were organizational aspects of cave rescue, contributions of cave rescue squads to civil protection during disaster, medical aspects from examples of actual rescue operations, cave rescue exercises or training courses, equipment and radio transmission (Hegeds 2007). During the Conference an important document was born: the Aggtelek Agreement. The representatives of the 26 countries agreed on certain basic recommendations concerning cave rescue operations. The point was to form rescue teams and to let them operate on a basis legally approved by state authorities. Thus the document, endorsed by our speleological federations, may serve as a support in the negotiations between rescue managers and administrations (Urbain 2011). During the Conference Dr. Gyorgy Denes was elected Honorary President of the UIS Cave Rescue Commission. Figure 5. The rescued diver after 118 hours in the cave. Figure 6. Rescue base in the Bihor Mountains. Figure 7. Stamp issued on occasion of the 11thInternational Cave Rescue Conference.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings57


We celebrated the 50thanniversary of our establishment in Pal-volgyi Cave on 29thApril, 2011 (Fig. 8). The participants of that event were our collaboration partners, supporters, old members and many of the rescued persons. The HCRS saved altogether 500 lives during more than 200 rescue operations within 50 years.6. NowadaysToday the HCRS has more than 100 members, including seven medical doctors, plenty of rescue and medical equipment and material, plus office and storage space. In this way we are able to conduct cave rescues with an ample logistic background anywhere in our country independently of other organizations. We are organizing education and training on a regular basis. In 2012 we revised the safety regulations of caving that is a part of the speleo-education system. The HCRS members are volunteers and most rescues are on their own cost. The insurance background of cavers is unsettled in Hungary even for rescuers during operations. Our financial background is also unsettled. The number of sponsors is decreasing from year to year and it is difficult to break even with the costs of rescue operations. We are trying to find regular sponsors. We are widening the range of our activities with others organizations such as the education of firefighters, search and rescue of lost persons in difficult terrain, or assisting paragliders in trouble etc.ReferencesAdamk P, Heged s G, 2002. 118 ra a barlang fogsgban, Tltos kiad, Budapest (in Hungarian). Dnes G, 1983. VI. Nemzetkzi barlangi mentsi konferencia, Karszt s Barlang, I.II., 62 (in Hungarian). Heged s G, 1989. Barlangi mentsi szimpzium, Karszt s Barlang, I.II., 15 (in Hungarian). Heged s G, 2003. 118 hours in cave as a prisoner, Regards/Splo Info No48 MaiJuin 26. Heged s G, 2007. 11. Nemzetkzi Barlangi ment konferencia, Karszt s Barlang, I.II., 85 (in Hungarian). Heged s G, 2011. Regional collaboration among cave rescue services, 12th International Cave Rescue Conference, Dryanovo, Bulgaria, /hu_regionalcollaboration_hgy.pdf. Downloaded at 15 Dec, 2012. Horvth R, 2011. A Magyar Barlangi Ment szolglat trtnete, Manuscript on the occasion of the 50thanniversary of the establishment of HCRS (in Hungarian). Tardi P, 2011. A Magyar Barlangi Ment szolglat rvid trtnete, Manuscript on the occasion of the 50thanniversary of the establishment of HCRS (in Hungarian). Urbain B, 2011. International Cave Rescue 19651, 12thInternational Cave Rescue Conference, Dryanovo, Bulgaria, que_par_bernard_urbain.pdf. Downloaded at 15 Dec, 2012. Figure 8. A group of the cave rescuers during the 50thanniversary of the Hungarian cave rescue. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings58


ATHANASIUS KIRCHERS CHAPTER XX ABOUT CAVES, FRACTURES AND THE INNUMERABLE PASSAGES OF THE EARTH AND THE GROTTO OF ANTIPAROS FROM MUNDUS SUBTERRANEUS, 1678, TRANSLATED FROM LATINStephan Kempe1, Gottfried Naumann2, Boris Dunsch3 1Institut fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, TU-Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, 64287 Darmstadt, Deutschland, kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de2Mozartstr. 13, D-06886 Lutherstadt Wittenberg, gonau@gmx.de3Philipps-Universitt Marburg, Seminar fr Klassische Philologie, Wilhelm-Rpke-Str. 6 D, 35032 Marburg, The early literature on caves includes also Latin texts. Apart from short notices of caves in Renaissance and Baroque books, texts dealing with specific caves are rare. Four of those deal with the Baumanns-Cave, Harz. Those of Eckstorm (1589, publ. 1620), Lachmund (1669), and von der Hardt (1702) were translated and published by our group; the text contained in Leibniz Protogaea was already published by Engelhard, 1949. Here we report on the translation of a fifth text, i.e. that of Cornelius Magni describing the first documented visit of the Grotto of Antiparos headed by Count Nointel, French Ambassador to Constantinople, during Christmas of 1673. It is documented in Mundus Subterraneus by the Jesuit polyhistorian Athanasius Kircher. In the first edition of his book, 1665, Kircher included only a three-page section on caves (Lib. 2, Cap. 20) but added Magnis letter to it in the third edition on 1678 (possibly already in the second edition) both in Italian and in Latin, thus expanding Cap. 20 to twelve pages. The letter itself, in spite of its length, does not conta in many real details and is therefore given only in summary. We suggest that this letter was of immense value to Kircher, as it described a real, recently discovered cave. It therefore served to back up his model of the hydrological cycle that postulated that water was heated by the central fire of Earth and driven up underneath the mountain ranges to feed the sources of rivers. 1. Latin Cave TextsCaves caused curiosity early on in the history of science (e.g., Shaw, 1992). Little known are the early Latin texts referring to specific caves. The Baumanns-Cave, Harz, Germany, one of the best documented caves in early literature, is the object of several texts in Latin. After Agricola, Matthesius (citations not fully verified) and Gesner briefly mentioned the Baumanns-Cave in the middle of the 16thcentury, it was Heinrich Eckstorm who wrote the first longer report about the cave in 1589 in Latin (published 1620), albeit without ever visiting the cave. He was followed by Johannes Letzner who visited the cave in 1599 (or shortly later) who gave the first account in German. More German descriptions were to follow in the 17thcentury, notably those published by Merian in 1650 and 1654. In 1669 Lachmund published a short Latin description in Oryktographia Hildesheimensis based on a visit in 1666. Leibniz visited the cave at the end of the century, but his report was published only 50 years later in his famous Protogaea, 1749 (Engelhard, 1949). In 1702 the last of the Latin reports was published by von der Hardt in Acta eruditorum, the most important German scientific magazine at that time. It was for the first time accompanied by a map and longitudinal sections of the cave based on a rough survey. The detailed description of all the formations (cross-referenced with the map) established a canon of curiosities shown to visitors for almost two hundred years. The map was copied by Leibniz (1749) and Linn (1779). The texts of Eckstorm, Lachmund and von der Hardt were translated and published by us (Kempe et al., 2004; refer also to this paper for references of the publications mentioned here) while the Leibniz text had been translated earlier by Engelhard (1949) (reproduced in Kempe et al., 2004). Apart from these texts, several others, albeit short, Latin texts relate to caves, specifically dealing with the bones found in the caves, such as Horst (1656). These sources have been dealt with in Kempe et al. (2005).2. Kircher and the Mundus SubterraneusOne further substantial Latin text deals with caves in general and with one cave in particular (the Grotto of Antiparos). That text is contained in the famous Mundus Subterraneus by Athanasius Kircher, first published in 1665 (Fig. 1). G. Naumann and B. Dunsch have translated this text into German. Its full length will be published elsewhere, since it is far too long to be reproduced here. Athanasius Kircher (Fig. 1) was born in Geisa, a small town in the Rhn/Thringen/Germany, 26 km NE of Fulda on May 2nd, 1602 and died November 27th, 1680 in Rome (Vonderau Museum Fulda, 2003). He was one of the foremost Jesuit scientists of his day and a true cosmopolitan and polymath, interested in many different subjects. Kircher studied at Geisa, Fulda, Paderborn (where a large karstspring may have triggered some of his ideas about the water cycle and where he joined the Jesuit Order in 1618), Cologne, Koblenz, Aschaffenburg, Heiligenstadt, Mainz and Speyer. 1622 he had to escape the approaching protestant troops under Duke Christian of BraunschweigLneburg to Cologne. While crossing the frozen Rhine, he broke through the ice and barely managed to save his life. In Heiligenstadt, Kircher became a teacher of mathematics, Hebrew and Syrian and was ordained in 1628. In the History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings59


following year he became professor of mathematics and ethics at the University of Wrzburg. In 1631 Kircher was forced once more to escape from protestant (Swedish) troops, and went to Avignon. Then, in 1633 he was appointed mathematician to the imperial court at Vienna, but also received a professorship for mathematics, physics and oriental languages at the Collegium Romanum in Rome. In 1637 he traveled to Malta, and on his way back to Rome in 1638 he witnessed the devastation caused by recent eruptions of Mount Vesuvius (which he also scaled), again an experience kindling his geological interests. In 1645 he was relieved of his lecture duties to concentrate on his research and publications. His oeuvre is vast: Between 1631 and 1680 he published 44 books containing enormous amounts of copper etchings done according to his instructions. Throughout his life, he corresponded with hundreds of colleagues, of whom nearly 800 are still known by name, and he collected all sorts of natural and artificial objects that were displayed at the Museum Kircherianum in the Collegium Romanum, a must-see for all visitors of the Holy City at the time. After the annulment of the Jesuit Order in 1773, the museum fell into neglect and in 1874 the remaining items were distributed to other Museums in Rome, Turin and Florence. Mundus Subterraneus was the only book that saw three editions during Kirchers lifetime (1sted. 1665; Fig. 2). It encompassed two folio volumes with twelve books. Each text page has two columns, accompanied by keywords on both margins (Fig. 3). The 3rded. (1678) comprises 346+487 pages. It is available as a one-volume facsimile reprint since the International Geological Congress in Florence, 2004. Both editions are also available on the internet ( Even though the title suggests a comprehensive book on caves, it is actually a textbook on physical geology, dealing with many aspects of the planet Earth. The work is published in folio, containing twelve books with their titles (abbreviated) and contents (in modern words) (length according to 3rded.): Volume I: 1. Centrographicus (mathematical geography) 55 pp. 2. Geocosmus (how the Earth functions) 76 pp. 3. Hydrographicus (oceanography) 46 pp. 4. Pyrographicus (volcanology, but also dealing with winds in a second section) 67 pp. 5. De Lacuum, Fontium, Fluminumque Origine (fresh water) 68 pp. 6. De Quarto Rerum Naturalium Elemento quam Terram dicimus (geochemistry) 31 pp. 7. De Mineralium seu Fossilium Natura (sediments, soil) 20 pp. Volume II: 8. De Lapidosa Telluris Substantia (palaeontology, petrography, mineralogy, gemology and subterraneous animals, such as dragons, etc.) 124 pp. 9. De Venenosis Lethiferis Fructibus (poisons or deadly substances: minerals, plants, animals) 56 pp. 10. Metallurgia sive Ars Metallica (metals, mining, processing) 66 pp. 11. Chymiotechnicus (chemistry and alchemy) 96 pp. 12. Polymechanos (miscellaneous) 161 pp. Book 2 contains the cave texts. The book starts with a view to the moon and the sun and proceeds with an over-view of continents, mountains, rivers, and the hydrological cycle. According to Kirchers thinking, it was driven by subterraneous heat: The meteoric origin of ground water had not yet been discovered. All of the mountain ranges are thought to contain vast empty spaces that collect water driven up by heat (Fig. 3). Figure 2. Titel of the first edition (1665) of Mundus Subterraneus (after the original copy owned by the Universittsund Landesbibliothek Darmstadt). Figure 1. Portrait of Athanasius Kircher when he was 53 years old. (Source: Wikipedia).History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings60


Similar caverns are supposed to exist underneath the Himalaya, southern Africa and in the Andes. These central caves are not the only virtual caves. Kircher postulates the existence of large subterraneous canales that connect various lakes and marginal seas with each other. One of these connects the fearsome maelstrom Vortex Norwegicus with a vortex in the Sinus Bothnicus below Norway and Sweden (Figure p. 159, 3rded.). Through another one ( Canalis subterranea in Charybdin) southern winds press water underneath Sicilia into the Charybdis, the famous Homerian current in the Strait of Messina (Figure p. 101 3rded.). Most prominent are canales that connect the Mare Nigrum (Black Sea) with the Mare Caspium underneath the Caucasus, and it in turn to the Mare Persicum. Another channel system connects the Mare Mediterraneum with the Mare Rubrum (Red Sea) along the later Suez Channel and the Mare Rubrum with the Mare mortuum Asphalticum (Dead Sea) (Canalis subterranea bituminosa) (Figures on pp. 86 and 87 of 3rded.). Since the Suez Channel has been built and the Red-Dead Channel is in the planning to halt the further sinking of the Dead Sea level (e.g., Abu Ghazleh et al., 2009), both of these canales may actually come into existence, albeit not constructed by nature. The text relating to real caves is found at the end of the Liber secundus. The Caput XX, De Antris, Hiatibus, & innumeris Terrae meatibus (Chapter 20, about caves, cracks and innumerable passages of Earth) has only three pages in the first edition of Mundus Subterraneus but twelve pages in the third edition (pp. 120 to 131). This is because Kircher added a letter written by Cornelius Magni from Parma written to him on Naxos on 31stDecember 1673 (pp. 122) about the visit of the Grotto of Antiparos. Magni was a member of a tour initiated by Count Nointel, the French ambassador at Constantinople (Istanbul).Figure 3. Page 71 of the first edition with the etching showing the Alps and its subterraneous cavity feeding the alpine rivers. This letter appears to be of such importance that Kircher published it both in Italian and in Latin. Magni was the author of several travel books, i.a. of Relazione della citt dAthene, colle provincie dellAttica, Focia, Beozia, e Negroponte, ne tempi che furono queste passeggiate da Cornelio Magni LAnno 1674, Parma 1688 and Quanto di pi curioso, e vago h potuto raccorre Cornelio Magno nel secondo biennio da esso consumato in viaggi, e dimore per la Turchia, seconda Parte Parma 1692.3. Kirchers Text on Caves in GeneralKircher starts this chapter by citing Jacobus Gaffarellus (Jacques Gaffarel, 1601; librarian of Cardinal Richelieu) who, in his work Mundo Subterraneo, divided caves into five categories: Divine, human, animal, natural and artificial. In detail, the divine group ( Divinas) contains caves where angels have appeared (such as the Grotto on Mons Garganus where St. Michael appeared) or the Indian Temple caves, the catacombs in Rome, oracle caves and caves of fauns, dryads and nymphs, among others. In addition to that, it also contained virtual caves like those of hell or other religious fictions. The group of the human caves ( Humanae Cryptae) comprises grottos of giants, the Muses or Sybilles, shown in Mediterranean countries, like in Cumae near Naples. Into this group he also counts hermitages like the grotto of St. Paul on Malta and the Cave of St. Beaume (Maria Magdalena) in France. Animal caves ( Cryptae Brutales) are dens of lions, wolves, bears, snakes and dragons, among others. The natural caves ( Cryptae Naturales ), which come in many kinds, have natural powers associated with them, some of which are medical; others are full of metallic vapors, fumes and water, yet others contain ice and crystals like the one on Mons Seranus. Others are Aeolian, blowing air or have resolutiva, restrictiva, congelativa (dissolving, adstringent, freezing) powers. The final type ( Artificiales Cryptae) contain caves dug by humans, like the grotto of Posillipo (near Naples) or those near Syracuse, or underground quarries for marble and other minerals. In the second part of the chapter he deliberates more on the natural caves that are those that the divine wisdom installed in the interior of earth for the natural necessities. Some of those are open to humans at the surface, others are inaccessibly deep in the interior of the geocosm, coming in three kinds, internal branching nets of Hydrophylacia, Pyrophylacia, Aerophylacia i.e. those that contain water, fire (magma) and air. The multitude of those open to the surface and leading into the abysses of bottomless depths give rise to the rhetoric question of how many there would be in the inner marrow of Earth? The inherent powers of some caves derive from those deep in the interior, either wateror fire-filled, changing in relation to the rocks through which they rise. Therefore some caves are endowed with the succo petrificio , the petrifying juice (see also Kempe et al., 2004), turning everything into stone, i.e. producing speleothems. Others induce the power of foresight (as some think) or cause chastity or libido on the contrary. Some are narcotic or induce insomnia and others are full of oil, blood-colored fluids, asphalt, salt, vitriol History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings61


(which I remember to have seen). We know that he has been to Malta, but he does no mention that he saw the caves there. Interesting is also the fact that he apparently counts volcanic conduits ( Pyrophylacia ) into the class of natural caves.4. The Antiparos Letter by C. MagniThe longer part of the chapter XX on caves in the third edition is devoted to the letter of Cornelius Magni about the Grotto of Antiparos. In its introduction, Kircher reports how Magni visited him in Rome, enroute to the orient and how he urged his friend to send him a report about the cave because the printer, van Waesberge in Amsterdam, was waiting for the second edition. This suggests that the letter was already included in the second edition, whose date of appearance is, however, still unknown to us. Magni had in fact written this letter already a few days after his cave visit, but did not have had the opportunity to deliver it. It was written in Italian and Kircher reproduces it both in Italian (left column) and in Latin (right columns). Magni starts the letter with an address to most esteemed father and continues to praise extensively his sponsor, the Count of Nointel (Charles Marie Franois Olier, Marquis de Nointel, 1635, Ambassador since October 1670 until 1680 of Ludwig XIV at the court of Mehmed IV., who reigned 1648 in Constantinople), who invited Magni to the voyage into the Archipelagos (Aegean Islands, more specifically the Cyclades). Within two months they visited Tenedos, Lesbos and Mytilene, Chios and Mykonos, Delos, the former treasury, the rich Naxos, and finally Paros, that offers safe and easy anchorage, causing many pirates to stay there during storms and winter. Once they reached Paros, the ambassador heard about a gigantic statue in a cave on the neighboring island, Antiparos (35 km2) and decided to visit there on December 22nd. The party found a house where a priest lived, and the Count sent his young librarian (most likely the orientalist Antoine Galland, 1646, later famous as the French editor of the stories of 1001 Nights) to reconnoiter. He came back elated, and the Count immediately left with the party to walk four miles through plains and hills, reaching a small mountain where they found the gaping entrance to the cave. Twenty paces in, they came across a gigantic statue, a large stalagmitic column, twenty hands (ca. 4 m) tall. Depending on the angle of view, one could recognize a giant, its head artfully carved with forehead, eyes, nose and beard, but with a body of an ill-conceived miscarriage. Behind that, another, similarly tall column came into view along with other smaller formations. In the background of this cave theatre, a dark opening, a hole of about three hand-spans width, was found. The Count inquired from the locals what was beyond. An 80-year-old man was the only one who thought that the dark pit would end in an unplumbed lake. Stones thrown in seemed to vanish after leaving a lot of noise. The Count then sent one of his sailors down with a torch. After 15 min, he came back reporting that he had proceeded 50 feet and had seen many flowstone formations, of which he brought some pieces. Even though it was already quite late in the day, Magni also wanted to go down, and with the help of a rope he climbed courageously (nitrates) or naphtha. In any case, it seems as if each cave has a different character according to the material through which the channels rise. In the third part of the chapter Kircher discusses several caves reported by antique authors, beginning with the Specus Corycianus (near Korghoz, Cilicia, Turkey) as described by Mela, Solinus, Pliny, and Strabo. This cave is larger than can be easily described. It opens up in a mountain above the coast, where an abyss leads down 1,500 steps through greenery, ending in a cave with a mighty river that has not been explored. Next, Kircher cites Aelians Various Histories and his description of a plutonic abyss in Aryan India (Persia to India) into which the Indians drive 3,000 (Aelian actually says 30,000) various animals, sheep, goats and cattle. They cannot be seen at the bottom, but their voices are heard, and every day more animals are sacrificed. Another example is the story of a deep pit near to the last one, related by Seneca in a moralizing context in his Natural Questions (5.15.1), who himself cites, according to Kircher, Asclepiodorus (in Seneca, correctly, Asclepiodotus). Into it King Philipp II of Macedon sent miners to explore if the old greed has left anything for future generations. The miners, equipped with material to last for several days, gave reports of huge rivers and immense masses of water. Seneca comes to the conclusion, referred to by Kircher, that the Earth is hollow in many parts: Believe that exists below what you see above. Below Earth laws of Nature exist that are less known to us, but nevertheless existing. Just as the ocean spreads across Earth, the interior of Earth has fresh water in surplus and even more so, as Earth opens towards depth. Kircher continues that subterraneous caves are of diverse shape, caused either by chance or by Nature: Some are very high, others extensive or of bottomless depth, or have many entrances. All of them, however, have nature as author, endowed with properties almost corresponding to the local conditions. After these conclusions Kircher goes back to Strabo and quotes more reports on caves, namely a cave near Metaurus that runs underground in a riverbed, then a cave in Mauretania along the coast, seven stadii, i.e. about 1,330m, long, open to tides, and another one 130 stadii, which would be ca. 25 km, long between Palea and Andeira which was transgressed by a goat. He then begins to quote more recent reports, among them the book of the missionary PLro Pais (Pedro Paez, 1564) who had visited Ethiopia and written about the sources of the Nile, postulating subterraneous contacts with those of the Niger. Finally Kircher turns to Ramusius (Giovanni Battista Ramusio, 1485) and his three volumes on travels. According to that work gigantic caves collect water underneath the Andes so that the miners have never heard of anything more terrible. Among other stories a boat is mentioned, that traveled 140 miles underground: A story even Kircher admits not to believe. One of the interesting conclusions from all these citations of older sources is that Kircher has not seen many caves himself. The only one is the Monte Serana cave at Trevi/Umbria about which he says me vidisse memini History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings62


down the first man-high step. Six steps in, he looked up into the wide cavity of a cave of enormous extension persuading him that the entire mountain was empty and cavernous. His voice would propagate for more than a mile and the many dripstone features would merit a more intensive inspection. The slow downward gliding taught him the immeasurable size of the abyss, but with trust in the rope and his sailor-guide he reached a short, flat, small room with another column wrapped with festoons and tubelets. After his eyes had adjusted, he progressed another few paces finding himself at a cliff 30 hand-spans deep (6 m?). Being ordered back, he retraced his steps and reported to the Count. Since dawn set in, further exploration was postponed until the following day. On the way back Magni lost his direction and covered twelve miles instead of four before reaching the house for the night. Next morning His Excellency ordered a ladder, ropes, sailors, candles, torches and provisions from the pirate ships in harbor at Paros. Back at the cave Magni helped to rig the entrance with the ladder. Then ten sailors with candles in their hands were sent in to light the descent. Now the Count himself climbed down, partly holding on to the rope, partly being guided and carried by the sailors. He rested at the place Magni had reached the day before and inspected all the formations there. Meanwhile the sailors had descended along different routes and illuminated the cave, appearing like the demons that are painted in the background of images of hell. After everybody had been brought down by the ladders, they discovered that they were standing in a kind of huge theater with a rectangular stage and curtains. The appearance of these things filled His Excellency with such enthusiasm that he decided to stay not only for hours, but for full days and nights. Furthermore, he wanted to conduct a Christmas service in the cave. To this end he ordered 500 wax candles, 20 torches, and a number of lamps at Paros. Within the theater a frozen mass 15 palms high (1.5 m?) rose, forming a kind of pyramidal taber-nacle. The altar for the service of the holy night was to be erected at its foot. The stalagmites nearby served as torch-holders. Magni takes many sentences to describe the scenery with all the dripstones and draperies. Some of these form a seat or throne eight palms across (1.6 m?). Meanwhile, many Maltese Knights and others had landed on Paros and came over to join the service. Three priests were available as well. One of them had a portable chapel decorating the altar. The sailors climbed into every corner to place lights there. One of them discovered a hollow formation which served as a much admired lamp, symbollizing the star of Bethlehem. Another formation, held by two columns, was illuminated and looked like the crib. Nevertheless, the bottom of the cave had not yet been reached. Next to the theater a descent opened up. It was followed for 50 paces down and led into a small room. Its floor was not composed of solid marble like elsewhere, but was so soft due to the water collecting there, that a stick could be sunk for six or seven hand-spans (1.3 m?). Of all the wonders of frozen water three or four stones that were holding each other up were especially remarkable, since they were covered with protrusions like mushrooms that broke at the slightest touch. The Count collected a certain amount of them. The service started with the Matutin, followed by the midnight service and, after two hours of rest, by the morning service. Not much later, the sun hit the entrance of the cave giving its upper part a golden hue. A really exceptionally beautiful sight, as Magni commented. The sailors had brought various war-machines and fired those several times during the Gloria in excelsis, both at nightfall and in the morning. The sound reverberated through the cave as if it had been produced by large guns. On the way out to sunlight, they discovered an old, partly weathered inscription in Greek letters at the entrance. As much as one could read, it reported about a certain Antipatros who had come here at the time of Alexander III of Macedon (356 BC). It is not apparent whether they also visited the caves interior. The Count had ordered to put up an inscription as well to commemorate his own visit. Magni then wonders why throughout all those years during which the Venetian fleet had been present nobody had had the desire to visit the cave. Magni then measured the length of rope that was used. It was 60 sailor paces or Roman cannae long (a Roman canna, or stick, is 2 to 2.3 m long, the descent therefore had a length of over 120 m). With this rather scientific remark the description of the cave ends, followed by a lengthy explanation of why the letter had been delayed.5. Further ReportsCornelius Magni was not the only one to write a report about this visit. Count Nointel wrote one himself, however it was only published as late as 1892 by M. H. Omont. This report is accompanied by two drawings, one of the entrance and one of the interior of the cave. The second picture shows how the participants rope down into the cave on the left, while to the right the Christmas dinner, the altar where the mess has been read and the night biwak of the ambassador on the floor are depicted. The next person to visit the cave and to write about it was the botanist Joseph Pitton deTournefort (1656), who visited the cave in 1700 (Tournefort, 1717) publishing a picture of its interior. Salmon and van Goch used the Nointel and Tournefort reports in their treaties on the Ottoman Empire, 1749. It also contains a copper etching of the grotto, but it appears not to be based on Nointels sketches. The grotto was therefore well known in the travel literature of the 18thcentury when Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier (1752) visited the cave in 1776 and published three large, superbly done copper etchings of it in his opulently edited two volume folio opus Voyage pittoresque de la Grece (1782, 1809 and 1822). The first volume was the result of a geographical demanding round trip through the Aegean which included his visit to the Grotto. The first etching contains a map of the cave including ground view (Fig. 4), longitudinal section and scale. The second one depicts the entrance of the cave and the third one a view of the interior. At the entrance, one can clearly see the rope that helped to descent the first step as it is wound three times around the corroded stalagmite. 14 people armed with torches are seen as they History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings63


prepare for the adventure, all very lively depicted. Two locals in costumes are seen standing by, watching the scene skeptically, one of them smoking a long-stemmed pipe. To the right a building is seen set into the entrance of the cave. The picture of the interior shows 17 people; eleven are seen at a distance working their way down along on ropes and ladders, six stand at the bottom of the large hall. They are already occupied with scientific investigations, as is indicated by the knotted rope of the person to the left and the sitting figure holding a sheet of paper. A corpulent man with a mustache, most probably Count Choiseul himself, is seen en-face, giving orders to the drafter. All visitors wear either short jackets or long coats, simple trousers or more stylish knickerbockers and long socks. The realistic depiction of the stalactites and stalagmites, and their lighting from the torches is most admirable. More torches are for later use deposited in the foreground. These etchings were later copied first by Rosenmller and Tilesius (1805) and then by Bertuch in the 6thvolume of his famous Bilderbuch fr Kinder (1807). The last visit of literary interest was that of Lady Elisabeth Craven in May 1786. On invitation of Count Choiseul she visited the cave and wrote extensively about it in her travel book (1786). She was not only the first woman in the cave, but also the first one to write about a cave visit in literature (Kempe et al., 2006).6. ConclusionsIt is interesting that only two caves dominate the Latin text corpus about caves, the Baumanns Cave and the Grotto of Antiparos. Both are, according to todays standards, rather small caves, the first one being just 150 m long (in its historic section) the second one measuring about 100 30 m. Kirchers eagerness to print the lengthy Antiparos description of C. Magni was apparently guided by one big weakness of Mundus Subterraneus: the lack of substantial evidence that his model of the global water cycle through caves in the interior of the Earth is valid. Chapter 20 in Book 2 lists only a small number of caves (and most of them from antique sources) and is only three pages long originally. The enthusiastic report of Magni, with some of its exaggerated phrasing, was therefore a welcome addition to substantiate Kirchers global model.AcknowledgmentsThe authors are grateful to Paolo Forti for trading one of the rare Mundus Subterraneus facsimiles with us.ReferencesAbu Ghazleh S, Hartmann J, Jansen N, Kempe S, 2009. Water input requirements of the rapidly shrinking Dead Sea. Naturwissenschaften 96 (5), 637. Bertuch C, 1807. Bilderbuch fr Kinder, Bd. 6, No. 64. LandesIndustrie-Comptoirs, Weimar. Choiseul-Gouffier MGFA, 1782, 1809, 1822. Voyage pittoresque de la Grece, Vol. 1. J.J. Blaise Libraire, Paris, 207, IX notice etc., 1 + 347, 2 index. Craven E, 1789. A Journey through the Crimea to Constantinople. GGJ and J Robinson, London, 327 (1 map, 8 engraving). Engelhard W von, 1949. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1749, Protogea, bersetzung. W. Kohlhammer Verlag Stuttgart, 182. Kempe S, Dunsch B, Fetkenheuer K, Naumann G, Reinboth, F, 2004. Die Baumannshhle bei Rbeland/Harz im Spiegel der wissenschaftlichen Literatur vom 16. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert: Lateinische Quellentexte. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften, Bd. 7/1, 171. Kempe S, Rosendahl W, Dppes D, 2005. The making of the cave bear Die wissenschaftliche Entdeckung des Ursus spelaeus. Festschrift G. Rabeder Mitt. Komm. Quartrforsch. sterr. Akad. Wiss., 14, 57. Kempe S, Kempe E, Ketz-Kempe C, 2006. Die ersten Beschreibungen von Hhlen durch Frauen: Lady Cravens Besuch der Hhle von Antiparos und Johanna Schopenhauers Schilderung der Peaks Cavern. Natur und Mensch, Jahresmitt. 2005 der Naturhist. Ges. Nrnberg e.V., 19. Kircher A, 1665. Mundus Subterraneus, 1. ed. 2 Vol. J. Janssonium & Elizeum Weyerstraten, Amsterdam, Vol. 1. 19 + 346 + 3, Vol. 2. 10 + 486 + 12. Kircher A, 1678. Mundus Subterraneus, 3. ed. 2 Vol. J. Janssonium Waesberge & Filios, Amsterdam, 366 + 507 and Index (facsimile 2004 Arnaldo Forni Editore, Bologna). Omont, MH, 1892: Relation de la visite du Marquis de Nointel la grotte dAntiparos (1673). Bulletin de gographie historique et descriptive, 4, 394, 2 plates. Rosenmller JC, Tilesius WG, (eds.) 1799. Beschreibung merkwrdiger Hhlen; Ein Beitrag zur physikalischen Geschichte der Erde, 2 Vol. Breitkopf u Hrtel, Leipzig, XVI (incl. Index), 294, 10 hand-colored etching in separate Vol. 4to, XXVIII, 4 index, and 391, 8 etchings. Salmons, van Goch, 1749. Die heutige Historie oder der Gegenwrtige Staat der Europischen Trkey als des gegenwrtigen Staats des Trkischen Reichs, Zweiter Theil. Gebrder Korte, Altona und Flensburg, 192. Shaw TR, 1992. History of Cave Science, the Exploration and Study of Limestone Caves, to 1900. 2nded., Sydney Speleological Soc., Broadway, New South Wales, Australia, 338. Tournefourt, JP de 1717: Relation dun voyage au Levant (1717) (Engl. Ed. 1718), vol. I, 146. Vonderau Museum Fulda (ed.), 2003. Magie des Wissens, Athanasius Kircher (1602) Jesuit und Universalgelehrter. M. Imhoff, Fulda, 63. Figure 4. Map of the Grotto of Antiparos by Choiseul-Gouffier (1782) (Collection S. Kempe). History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings64


NAZI MILITARY USE OF GERMAN CAVES, DR. BENNO WOLF AND THE WORLD CAVE REGISTRY PROJECTFriedhart Knolle1, Stephan Kempe2, Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos3 1Editor, Verband der deutschen Hhlenund Karstforscher e.V., Grummetwiese 16, D-38640 Goslar, Germany, fknolle@t-online.de2Professor, Institut fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, TU Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de3Professor, Graduate Program in Geography, PUC Minas, Brazil, Dr. Benno Wolf was the mastermind of German speleology in the pre-World War II time, an eminent speleologist and an early activist for nature protection. He maintained international connections and was an honorary member of the British Speleological Association. Dr. Benno Wolf was also an instigator of the German cave registry and in 1923 called for a uniform, systematic structuring of registry documents. In particular, Dr. Wolf possessed a valuable and extensive private library of cave literature that served him as the basis for his work on a world cave registry. This was to cost him his life as the transfer of the Nazi arms production into bomb-proof underground locations awakened the interest of the Nazi henchmen for his cave material. In spite of being a protestant, Wolf, of Jewish origin, was interred in the concentration camp Theresienstadt and died there in 1943. Long time forgotten, the most important German caving award today is named after Dr. Benno Wolf as a symbol of the troubled history of German speleology and environmental protection.1. IntroductionThose expertat preparing defenses consider it fundamental to rely on the strengths of such obstacles as mountains, rivers and foothills. They make it possible for the enemy to know where to attack. They secretly conceal themselves under the nine-layer ground. (Tu Yu, A.D. 735; from Leith 2009). Battles were fought in various geographical and geological settings since mankind invented arms (Underwood and Guth 1998; Rose and Nathanail 2000; Ze evi and Jungwirth 2007). In the course of World Wars I and II and the following Cold War, the role of Military Geosciences became more and more important. According to Tietze (1993), Military Geography can be regarded as Security Geography and characterises the simplest and most deep-seated relationship man has with his living space, the desire to protect it from other men or to aggressively acquire new land from other people. Understanding of terrain becomes in this instance a powerful weapon. Thus, Military Geography can be considered as a form of applied geography, understood here in its widest sense, including cartography, climatology, geology, geomorphology, geodesy, remote sensing etc. and the whole spectrum of human geography (Tietze 1993). Military Karstology and Speleology play a special role in karst areas. Day (2004, 2010), Kranj and Travassos (2009), Travassos (2009), Lu i and Travassos (2010) and Travassos (2012) discuss examples of military use of karst and caves in Jamaica, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and other parts of the world. Since Military Geosciences started to develop, researching the underground cavities serving as potential shelters to regular armies, guerrillas, armament factories or storages and civilian population came into the military-strategic focus. Osama bin Laden and the recent military actions in Afghanistan have brought into the publics eye the landscapes, but also the geology and caves of this country. Geologys underlying role in recent events is particularly apparent because our adversaries have moved below ground. The military needs geologic intelligence on the locations and characteristics of caves, and on how resistant tunnel entrances may be to conventional and penetrating bombs. Geology has become particularly important in the search for Taliban and Al Qaeda forces in Afghanistan, where the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates there are more than 10,000 caves, both natural and manmade . (Leith 2009). In Military Speleology, the role of caving clubs and cave registries is of interest. Much has been written on military geologists and their work, but the active or passive role of cavers and caving clubs and the use or misuse of their cave registries in Military Geosciences is often unclear. The secret services of many countries are active in collecting Mil-Geo and cave data (Knolle 2011). One of the most interesting and tragic cases of this kind is the speleological work of Dr. Benno Wolf, his life and his death in a Nazi concentration camp (KZ).2. Who was Dr. Benno Wolf?Benno Wolf was born 1871 in Dresden, Germany. He had Jewish ancestors but he and his parents both physicians were christened Protestants. Wolf studied law in Berlin where he also passed his state examination in 1895. In the same year he also obtained his PhD in Leipzig. In 1908, he became a judge at the district court at Elberfeld. Later on, Wolf moved to Berlin, where he functioned as a judge at the court Berlin II. From 1912 on, Wolf additionally worked for the Prussian nature conservation bureau with a focus on legal questions. Since 1898, Wolf was intensively involved in caving and cave research and soon became a well known speleologist. Not only were his achievements in the technology of cave exploration noteworthy as being ahead of his time, for example in Slovenian vertical caves, where he was member History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings65


of the caving clubs Hades and Touristi Triestini, but he was also recognised as an authority in scientific cave research and had many national and international contacts. In Berlin, Dr. Benno Wolf had attracted as an interdisciplinary net-worker a group of nature conservationists, geo and bioscientists as well as patrons and supporters, and inspired them with his enthusiasm for cave research. He was present when the Hauptverband Deutscher Hhlenforscher ( Main Association of German Speleologists) was founded in 1922 in the Steiermark (Styria/Austria). Dr. Wolf was even elected as its first Vice President. Back in Berlin he founded in addition the Gesellschaft fr Hhlenforschung und Hhlenkunde Berlin ( Society for Cave Research and Speleology Berlin) in 1923. Dr. Wolf was elected as the first secretary of the society (Wolf 1924). Its membership list is a venerable who-is-who of the speleological network that Wolf initiated, including such prominent names as Dr. Walther Arndt, Prof. Dr. Barsch, Dr. Kurd v. Blow, Prof. Dr. Ludwig Diels, Prof. Dr. Paul Dienst, Prof. Fraatz, Prof. Dr. Gtze, Prof. Dr. Otto Hamann, Dr. Max Hilzheimer, Prof. Dr. Krause, Prof. Dr. Paul Krusch, Prof. Dr. Georg Kyrle, Prof. Dr. Lehmann, Prof. Dr. Nller, Dr. Werner Paeckelmann, Prof. Dr. Josef Pompecky (then 1stPresident of the society), Prof. Dr. Arthur Schlossmann, Prof. Dr. Walther Schoenichen, Dr. Walter Schriel, Dipl.-Ing. Friedrich Stolberg, Prof. Dr. Weissermel, Prof. Dr. Fritz Wiegers, Prof. Dr. Wunstorf, Prof. Dr. Ernst Zimmermann and institutions including the Zoologisches Institut und Museum der Universitt Berlin and the Staatliche Stelle fr Naturdenkmalpflege. Wolf had also won the support of sponsors and promoters such as the factory owner Heinrich Kortkampf and the factory director Ludwig Posselt. Even the cave administration of the Heimkehle (Southern Harz Mts.) became a member, not knowing that the cave would be acquired later by the Nazi armament. Dr. Benno Wolf was also an instigator of the German cave registry and had begun calling for a uniform, systematic structuring of registry documents in 1923. In particular, Wolf possessed a valuable and extensive private library of cave literature that served him as the basis for his work on a world cave registry a project hardly thinkable today. This work was to cost him his life as the transfer of the Nazi arms production into bomb-proof underground locations awakened the interest of the Nazi henchmen for his cave material. Wolf secured experts from home and abroad for the cave information project, obtained money for research purposes and published a first world-wide cave animal catalogue (Wolf 1934, 1934, 1939a, b, 1941). After more than 21 years of professional involvement in Prussian natural conservancy he became a victim of antiJewish discrimination. 1933, Dr. Wolf was expelled from the civil service. Also in 1933, the well-known geologist and speleologist Walter Biese left Nazi Germany for political reasons and immigrated to Chile via Switzerland, because his life was believed to be in danger (Spcker 1961). Probably because of his many international contacts within Europe and overseas, and perhaps to give him some help against the Nazi prosecution, Wolf was named a British Speleological Association honorary member in 1936. Wolf edited the Mitteilungen ber Hhlenund Karstforschung, the journal of the Hauptverband Deutscher Hhlenforscher, until 1937 and was the Chairman of the Hauptverband for many years. To avoid endangering the Association with too much political exposure, Wolf had turned the chairmanship over to his most active patron, the factory owner Julius Riemer, before it was too late. But of course everyone knew that Wolf was still the inofficial head of the German cave researchers (Kater 2006; Knolle 2012). In May 1941, all German and Austrian speleological clubs were forced to merge and to form a Reichsbund fr Karstund Hhlenforschung in Salzburg. This new Reichsbund stood under the direct influence of the SS-Ahnenerbe organisation. From now on Dr. Benno Wolf was left more or less on his own. In order to confiscate Wolfs library of cave literature for the SS Ahnenerbe cave research institute and its armament goals, Wolf, aged 71, was arrested by the Gestapo on July 6, 1942, and deported on the 17thElderly Transport out of Berlin to the concentration camp of Theresienstadt. There he died half a year later, on January 6th, 1943, as a result of inhuman imprisonment (Stoffels 1995c). None of his cave research colleagues at home or abroad were able to help him they did not even know where he was.3. Underground weapon production3.1. Natural Caves From 1940 on, allied bombers flew first attacks on German cities. From year to year these attacks became more massive and dangerous for the Nazi war production. As one of the answers to this situation, the military looked for bomb-safe shelters for their weapon production. In 1943, Hitler and Gring gave orders to transfer war technology into caves, cellars, and mining sites. Hundreds of potential caves and caverns were listed by geological and mining authoritiesFigure 1. Dr. Benno Wolf, about 1930. Photo F. Mhlhofer. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings66


and an underground reconnaissance was done in the entire German Reich area. Three secret service reports, written after the end of war, give a profound overview of the Nazi activities in natural caves. In the three-volume report German Underground Installations (British Intelligence Objectives SubCommittee 1945) the projects were analysed and described. Vol. 1 reports on Unique Design and Construction Methods, Vol. 2 on Adaptations of Existing Facilities and Vol. 3 on Installations of General Interest. Nearly all projects were in artificial underground cavities. In Vol. 2 the Dechen Cave is mentioned (Nr. 50, S. 31): An ammunition storage in a cave located in a hill on the north side of the ISERLOHN-LETHMATHE road. The cave is a natural, winding cavern with two entrances The cave is extremely damp and has numerous stalactites and stalagmites. This cave was formerly a tourist attraction and is owned by Iserlohn Kreisbahn A.G. (Orthography slightly corrected). Another report Engineering Geology in Germany (Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency 1945) contains four papers. Amongst others, the Mittelwerk-Nordwerk and Woffleben projects in the South Harz area are described. The paper summarises: Hills of anhydrite and gypsum seem to be almost ideal construction sites for large underground factories, both from the economic and military standpoints. This is the reason why the Nazis concentrated so much of their underground weapon production in the South Harz area. Most interesting under caving aspects is paper No. 4 Source data for investigation of German and French underground factories . In alphabetic order, underground production and storage sites are listed, among them (orthography slightly corrected): 1. Baumannshoehle, near Goslar. Series of caves in Harz Mts, 8 miles SE of Goslar. Used by Junkers Flugzeug u. Motorenwerke A.G. Ref.: Shaef Report No. 5, 25 April 45 on Evacuation of Intelligence Targets. 83. Iserlohn/Letmathe. Map ref., 4416/Q2/9407. Reported ammo. dump in Dechen-Hhle Grotto north of IserlohnLetmathe road. Grotto has surface are of 60,000 square meters. Ref.: Fatherland No. 17. Another report Underground Factories in Central Germany (Combined Intelligence Objectives SubCommittee 1945a) describes 13 underground war production sites, most of them in the South Harz karst area. Nr. 12 has five pages, accompanied by a cave map of Heimkehle Cave and an aerial photograph. It describes project A5, the production of airplane landing gears and tools by the Junkers-Werke in the Heimkehle Cave near Rottleberode: This small factory is located in a natural cave which formerly had some reputation as a tourist attraction Conversion of the cave to industrial use was seen to have involved leveling and flooring the cave with concrete, the erection of shops with walls of brick or precast concrete blocks, and roofed with wood and tarred paper; and the excavation of three short tunnels all brick lined The labour force for operating the plant numbered 650, of which 500 were employed on production. The monthly output was 250 undercarriages. (Orthography slightly corrected). This project was also called Thyra-Werk (Fig. 2). Nearly 80% of the labour working here was forced labour. For more information on the situation of the cave today (Fig. 3), an interesting show cave again (see The cave contains also a small monument in honor of those who were killed there (Fig. 4). In the end, natural caves proved not to be ideal for underground military production because of their moist air provoking corrosion, irregular shape, variable ground water levels, instable geological character, and their often remote location.Figure 2. Aspect of Heimkehle Cave in WW II. From Baranowski (2000). Figure 3. Heimkehle cave today. Photo Ernst Schuhose. Figure 4. Monument to the victims of Nazi forced labour in the Heimkehle Cave. The flat floor in the foreground was once the floor of the Junkers factory; the brick wall in the back was part of the effort to stabilise the cave roof during the WW II operations. Photo Stephan Kempe. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings67


3.2. KZ Mittelbau-Dora The underground concentration camp (KZ) Mittelbau-Dora became more widely known ( The secret Nazi Mittelbau in the Kohnstein Mountain at Niedersachswerfen near Nordhausen (Thuringia) was probably the biggest underground war plant in 1945 worldwide the entire tunnel system finally amounted to 120,000 m2. Following the allied attack on Peenemnde and its V-weapon production, this new plant in the South Harz karst area was installed in 1943 in a partly pre-existing and later on massively enlarged artificial tunnel system in upper Permian anhydrite (Werra Series). Exploration and geotechnical work was done by the pro-Nazi geologist Dr. Walter Schriel. At the same time, an above-ground KZ, named MittelbauDora, was built, in the first phase as a satellite camp of the KZ Buchenwald. In December 1943, the first three V2 rockets were completed, followed by 52 more in January 1944. Parallel to the V2 rockets, and the V1 (flying bombs) production more plants moved underground to this place in the course of WW II, e.g., the Junkers Flugzeugwerke from Dessau. In 1943, this KZ registered 108 victims; however, this figure grew to 34,000 at the end of 1944. All inmates were forced to work under inhuman, horrible circumstances. It is estimated that about 20,000 of them were killed by labour or by violence of the guards. Following the evacuation of the KZ in April 1945, US soldiers entered the tunnels and found the underground factory. Even though the existence of the Mittelbau tunnel plants had been detected by intelligence, the allied knowledge about Dora-Mittelbau was poor at least up to the first big air attack on London. The Nazi wonder weapon history became widely known after 1945 by the US operations Overcast and Paperclip that implemented German armament knowledge into the US rocket program personified by Wernher von Braun. Later on, the Red Army came to Thuringia and still found so much technical material and Nazi personnel, that this improved the USSR rocket program very effectively as well. Thus, world history was written in these anhydrite tunnels in the South Harz. A very small section of the tunnel system is open now for the public within a guided walk through the KZ area.4. Post-1945German cave research suffered tremendously under the Nazis political and military misuse of the discipline (Schaffler 1991; Stoffels 1995a, b; Kater 2006; Knolle et al. 2007; Knolle 2012). In 1947 R.G. Spcker initiated the foundation of a new and politically unencumbered German cave research society, the Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Karstforschung. Spcker was very adamant about dealing with the brutal and unjust events of the past; in one passage in the minutes of the founding meeting in Nrnberg from September 13, 1947, it states, SPCKER thanks all those who were active in the society and recalls in particular those no longer living. Most specially, the President for many years, state district court Judge Dr. BENNO WOLF, Berlin, who died in the concentration camp Theresienstadt, Herr Prof. Dr. ARNDT, Berlin, who was executed by the henchmen of the Third Reich and the former Chairman Prof. Dr. HILZHEIMER, Berlin, as well as all those who had to forfeit their lives in the war years. In honour of the dead the participants of this meeting will now rise. (Spcker 1947). This new cave research society, however, soon faded away. The Verband der deutschen Hhlenund Karstforscher e.V. (VdHK;, founded in 1955, did not initially come to terms with the past, but individual cave researchers repeatedly built on the work of Dr. Wolf. In 1995, in Iserlohn-Letmathe at the annual general meeting of the Verband and after years of research within the Society, Dr. Benno Wolf was unanimously honoured posthumously 52 years after his death. The protocol records: Agenda Point 9: Motion to honour Dr. Benno Wolf Unanimously, the posthumous naming of Dr. Benno Wolf as honorary member of the Association was passed. Those present rose from their seats to hold a minutes silence for the cave researcher who lost his life in a concentration camp. Agenda Point 12: Founding of a Dr. Benno Wolf Prize It was unanimously voted to create a Dr. Benno Wolf Prize for outstanding research achievement (motion: F. Knolle, J. Obendorf, J. Gtz and the association board). With these decisions the VdHK finally honoured a person who, in spite of his great achievements for German and international cave research and nature conservancy, had been, up to then, almost totally forgotten.5. ConclusionsUnfortunately, memorial work of Nazi victims in Germany is still incomplete. The Nazi offenders themselves were at first occupied with assisting each other in whitewashing their crimes. They repeatedly played down their involvement in the crimes and, where possible, withheld evidence. Many unpublished papers, incriminating documents and other objects of evidence, if not already deliberately destroyed during the war or at the end of it in 1945, were lost or have remained, until today, unobtainable. The Verband der deutschen Hhlenund Karstforscher e.V. itself was not innocent recognising Dr. Benno Wolf and his work should have begun much earlier (Spcker 1986). An active Nazi, Prof. Dr. Gustav Riek, was even named an honorary member of the VdHK in 1968. A look at historical publications since 1945 awakens the impression that cave researchers of Jewish ancestry like Dr. Benno Wolf have been actively forgotten. We are confronted up to now with excuses, legends and prefabricated memory gaps and in that way have provided us with the difficulty of having far too little evidence to contradict the fabricated tales of the Nazi generation. Only two small caves bear the name of Benno Wolf. The Dr. Benno Wolf Prize has, however, developed into a History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings68


successful memorial project and has also radiated into German nature conservation the fate of Dr. Benno Wolf is now discussed more widely. The German Stiftung Naturschutzgeschichte (Nature Conservation History Foundation; has become active and the German Bundesumweltministerium (Federal Ministry for the Environment; supported appropriate projects; see also Frohn and Schmoll (2006). To honour Dr. Benno Wolf a private initiative has laid a memorial plaque in front of his former home in the Hornstrae 6 in Berlin-Kreuzberg in 2005. These plaques have been laid by the sculptor Gnter Demnig as slightly raised paving stones bearing the names of Nazi victims. On the brass name plates on the upper sides of the paving stones the names and biographical data of the victims as well as date and place of deportation are engraved. Another memorial plate (Berliner Gedenktafel) was installed in 2008 at the Haus am Kleistpark, where Wolfs natural conservation working place was from 1912 to 1933.AcknowledgmentsFor advice and support and their memorial work for Dr. Benno Wolf we thank Gustave Abel, Walter Biese, Michael K. Brust, Renate Gruber-Lieblich, Dr. Rainer Hutterer, Fritz Reinboth, Charlotte Riemer Bernd Schtze, Herbert Schaffler, Richard G. Spcker Dieter Stoffels, Prof. Dr. Hubert Trimmel, Roland H. Winkelhfer, Prof. Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn, Dieter W. Zygowski and all other VdHK members actively engaged in establishing the Dr. Benno Wolf Prize.ReferencesBaranowski F, 2000. Die verdrngte Vergangenheit. Rstungsproduktion und Zwangsarbeit in Nordthringen (Repressed past. Arms production and slave labour in Northern Thuringia). Mecke Druck und Verlag, Duderstadt. Biagini E, 1993. Spatial Dimensions of Conflict. GeoJournal, 31(2), 119. British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, 1945. German Underground Installations. 3 vols., London. Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, 1945a. Underground Factories in Central Germany. File No. XXXII17, London. Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, 1945b. Underground Factories in Germany. File No. XXXIII-38, London. Day MJ, 2004. Military campaigns in tropical karst terrain: the Maroon Wars of Jamaica. In: DR Caldwell, J Ehlen and RS Harmon (Eds.). Studies in Military Geography and Geology. Kluwer, 79, Dordecht. Day MJ, 2010. Human interaction with caribbean karst. Acta Carsologica, 39(1), 137, Postojna. Frohn H-W, Schmoll F, 2006. Natur und Staat. Staatlicher Naturschutz in Deutschland 1906 (Nature and state. State nature conservancy in Germany 1906). Naturschutz u. Biologische Vielfalt, 35, 1 (Dr. Benno Wolf 189). Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency, 1945. Engineering Geology in Germany. Report No. 18, Washington. Kater MH, 2006. Das Ahnenerbe der SS 1935. Ein Beitrag zur Kulturpolitik des Dritten Reiches (The Ahnenerbe of the SS 1935. A contribution to Third Reich culture politics). Studien zur Zeitgeschichte, 6, Inst. f. Zeitgesch., 4thedition, Oldenbourg, Mnchen. Knolle F, 1990. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Hhlenkunde im Schatten des Nationalsozialismus (On the history of German speleology in the shadow of the Nazis). Mitt. Verb. dt. Hhlenu. Karstforscher, 36(1), 4. Knolle F, 2001. Nazi-Hhlenerlasse, militrische Hhlenkataster und alliierte hhlenkundliche Geheimdienstberichterstattung (Nazi cave decrees, military cave registry and allied secret service reports on caves). Mitt. Verb. dt. Hhlenu. Karstforscher, 47 (2), 48. Knolle F, 2003a. Dr. Benno Wolf 1871. Natur u. Landschaft, 78(9/10), 437. Knolle F, 2003b. Dr. Benno Wolf in memoriam Zum 60. Todesjahr des Naturschutzjuristen und Hhlenforschers (Dr. Benno Wolf in memoriam 60thdeath anniversary of the nature conservancy lawyer and speleologist). Natursch. u. Landschaftsplanung, 35(11), 346. Knolle F, 2011. Die Stasi in der Hhlenforschung noch viel unerforschtes Neuland. Mitt. Verb. dt. Hhlenu. Karstforscher 57(4), 115. Knolle F, 2012. Julius Riemer und die Hhlenforschung (Julius Riemer and speleology). Mitt. Verb. dt. Hhlenu. Karstforscher, 58(4), 110. Knolle F, Schtze B, 2005. Dr. Benno Wolf, sein Umfeld und seine interdisziplinre Wirkung eine Klammer zwischen den deutschen Hhlenforscherverbnden (Dr. Benno Wolf, his environment and his interdisciplinary impact a bridge between German caving clubs). Mitt. Verb. dt. Hhlenu. Karstforscher, 51(2), 48. Knolle F, Stoffels D, Oldham T, 2007. Who was BSA Honorary Member Dr. Benno Wolf (1871)? A retrospective look at European caving and Nazi history. The British Caver, 129, 21, Cardigan, UK. Kranjc A, Travassos LEP, 2009. A importncia do carste e das cavernas eslovenas para atividades militares ao longo da histria: atividades de arqueologia histrica (The importance of Slovene karst and caves through history: activities of historical archaeology) In: Juvandi de Souza Santos. (Ed.). Ensaios de Arqueologia. Campina Grande: UEPB, 13. Leith W, 2002. Military Geology in a Changing World. Geotimes, February 2002. American Geological Institute, Lu i I, Travassos LEP, 2010. Cavernas de vida e morte no Carste Dinrico (Caves of life and death in the Dinaric Karst). O Carste, 22(3), 97, Belo Horizonte. Reinboth F, 1991. Der Zentral-Hhlenkataster des Hauptverbandes deutscher Hhlenforscher (The central cave registry of the Main Association of German Speleologists). Karst u. Hhle 1989/90: 99. Reinboth F, 1996. Zur Geschichte der Hhlenforschung im Harz (On the history of speleology in the Harz Mountains). Karst u. Hhle, 1994/95, 63. Rose EPF, Nathanail CP, 2000. Geology and Warfare. Examples of the Influence of Terrain and Geologists on Military Operations. The Geological Society, Bath. Schaffler H, 1991. Die Hhlenforschung im Dritten Reich (Speleology in the Third Reich). Karst u. Hhle, 1989/90, 33.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings69


Spcker RG, 1947. Begrssungs-Ansprache des Vorsitzenden der Abteilung fr Karstforschung der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nrnberg, R. G. SPCKER (Opening Speech Department of Karst Science, Natural History Society Nrnberg, President R. G. SPCKER). Mitt. Dt. Ges. f. Karstforschung, 1(1), 7. Spcker RG, 1961. Walter Biese zum Gedchtnis (Walter Biese in memoriam). Mitt. Verb. dt. Hhlenu. Karstforscher, 7(1), 1. Spcker RG, 1986. Ahasver Spelaeus Erinnerungen an Dr. BENNO WOLF. Bearbeitet und mit Anmerkungen versehen von F. REINBOTH und F. KNOLLE (Memories of Dr Benno Wolf, with remarks from F. Reinboth and F. Knolle). Mitt. Verb. dt. Hhlenu. Karstforscher, 32(1), 4. Stoffels D, 1987. Dr. Benno Wolfs Wirken in RheinlandWestfalen (Dr. Benno Wolfs impact in Rheinland-Westfalen). Spelogruppe Letmathe Mitt. und Berichte, 4(2), 10, Iserlohn. Stoffels D, 1995a. Dr. Benno Wolf und das dunkle Kapitel deutscher Hhlenforschung (Dr. Benno Wolf and the dark chapter of German speleology). Der Hhlenforscher, 27(2), 35, Dresden. Stoffels D, 1995b. Dr. Benno Wolf Ein Pionier der Hhlenforschung in Deutschland (Dr. Benno Wolf a pioneer German speleologist). Spelologisches Jahrbuch Verein f. Hhlenkde. Westfalen 1994, 78, Iserlohn. Stoffels D, 1995c. Dr. Benno Wolfs Todesdatum festgestellt (Dr. Benno Wolfs date of death determined). Mitt. Verb. dt. Hhlenu. Karstforscher, 41(4), 55. Tietze W, 1993. Military Geography Wehrgeographie Geography of Security. In memoriam of Arthur Kiihn, Dec. 6, 1904Dec. 31, 1992. GeoJournal, 31(2), 215. Travassos LEP, 2009. O Abismo emonovo (emonovo Brezno) e seu uso no perodo ps-guerra (The emonovo shaft and its use in the post war period). Proc. VIII Encontro Nacional da ANPEGE, 1. Travassos LEP, 2012. The cultural importance of karst and caves: from ancient times to the present. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing, 316 Saarbrcken. Underwood JR, Guth PL, 1998. Military Geology in War and Peace. Reviews in Engineering Geology XIII, The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado. Wagner A, 1981. Erinnerungen an Landgerichtsrat Dr. Benno WOLF (Memories of county magistrate Dr. Benno WOLF). Mitt.-Bl. Abt. Karstu. Hhlenkde. Naturhist.Ges. Nrnberg, 14(1/2), 24, 8.Wolf B, Ed., 1924. Jahresbericht der Gesellschaft fr Hhlenforschung und Hhlenkunde in Berlin (Annual report of the Society for Caving and Speleology in Berlin). 23, Berlin. Wolf B, 1934. Animalium Cavernarum Catalogus. Volumen I et II. Dr. W. Junks-Gravenhage. Wolf B, 1934. Animalium Cavernarum Catalogus. III. Dr. W. Junks-Gravenhage. Wolf B, 1939a. Fossilium Catalogus, Pars 82. Fauna fossilis cavernarum I. Dr. W. Junk B.V., Den Haag and A. Asher & Co. B.V. Wolf B, 1939b. Fossilium Catalogus, Pars 89. Fauna fossilis cavernarum II. Dr. W. Junk B.V., Den Haag and A. Asher & Co. B.V. Wolf B, 1941. Fossilium Catalogus, Pars 92. Fauna fossilis cavernarum III. Dr. W. Junk B.V., Den Haag and A. Asher & Co. B.V. Ze evi M, Jungwirth E, 2007. The Influence of Geology on Battlefield Terrain and its Affects on Military Operations in Mountains and Karst Regions: Examples from WW1 and Afghanistan. Rudarsko-geoloko-naftni zbornik, 19, 57, Zagreb.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings70


STORY OF THE DOLOMITE D. DE DOLOMIEU OR B. HACQUET?Andrej Kranjc Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Novi trg 3, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, kranjc@sazu,si Abstract. The author describes the discovery and research of the rock nowadays called dolomite by two eminent researchers, the chemist and geologist Balthasar Hacquet and the geologist Dodat de Dolomieu. The first one described the rock from the karst in the nowadays Slovenia in 1778 and called it Stinkstein. The second one sampled the rock in Stubaier Alps and described it in 1791 as pierres calcaires trs peu effervescentes avec les acides. Dolomite was probably mentioned already in Linnaeus Systema Naturae (1768) and later in publication of G. Arduino in 1779. In 1792 NicolasThodore de Saussure published the paper Analyse de la Dolomie where he named this rock the dolomite in the honour to D. de Dolomieu. Abstrait. Lhistoire de dolomie D. de Dolomieu ou B. Hacquet? Lauteur dcrit la dcouverte et la recherche de la roche qui furent effectues par deux chercheurs minents, le chimiste Balthasar Hacquet et le gologue Dodat de Dolomieu ; il sagit de la roche qui sappelle aujourdhui la dolomie. En 1778, le premier dcrivit la roche du karst de la Slovnie actuelle et lappela Stinkstein (la roche puante). Le deuxime trouva cette roche dans les Alpes de Stubai et la dcrivit en 1791 comme les pierres calcaires trs peu effervescentes avec des acides. La dolomie fut mentionne probablement dj en 1768 dans le Systema Naturae de Linn et un peu plus tard par G. Arduino en 1779. En 1792, Nicolas-Thodore de Saussure publia larticle Analyse de la Dolomie o il nomma cette roche la dolomie, en lhonneur de D. de Dolomieu.1. IntroductionBaltazar (Balthasar, Balthazar, Belsazar) Hacquet de la Motte was born in 1739 or 1740 in France and died in 1815 at Vienna. In older sources Le Conquet (Brittany) is mentioned as his birth place while some recent publications suggest Metz or its surrounding (Gauchon 1999; umrada 2003) where he started his school. He was a surgeon in different armies, at last in the Austrian one. With the help of Van Swieten, the doctor of the empress Marie-Therese, he came as a surgeon to Carniola where he spent 20 years (1766 to 1787). During the first years he was a surgeon at Idrija mercury mine, replacing the well known physician and naturalist Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (1723), who lived there in the years 1754. In 1773 Hacquet moved to Ljubljana where he held different positions, being professor of chemistry and of obstetrics and secretary of Agricultural Society of Carniola among the others. Finally he left bigoted and uncultured Carniolians and took the offer of the new founded University at Lvov (Lviv) to become the professor of natural history and medicine there. He travelled a lot, especially through Southern, Eastern and Central Europe, from Grossglockner to Moldova, from Bosnia to Poland. He studied rocks, minerals, geology, waters, relief, plants and even human activities, mining activities and metallurgy especially, folklore and languages even. Hacquets latest bibliography (Juni and Kranjc 2013) enumerates about 140 of his articles and books. For Carniola, for Slovenia and for karstology and speleology the most important is his tetralogy O ryctographia Carniolica oder Physikalische Erdbeschreibungdes Herzogthums Krain, Istrien, und zum Theil der benachbarten Lnder (Oryctographia Carniolica or Physical description of Duchy of Carniola, Istria and partly neighbour countries)published on 623 pages in 1778 in Leipzig. In this and other of his works he often describes rocks and their analyses (Kranjc 2003). Ten years youngerof Hacquet wasDieudonn Sylvain Guy Tancrde de Dolomieu usually known as Dodat de Dolomieu (Dolomieu, Isre, 1750 Chateauneuf1801). Like Hacquet he started with military career as a member of the Knights of Malta. He spent his spare time taking research excursions throughout Europe collecting mineral specimens and visiting mining areas. His particular interests included mineralogy, volcanology, and the origin of mountain ranges. Although Dolomieu was greatly interested in volcanoes, he became convinced that water played a major role in shaping the surface of the Earth through a series of prehistoric, catastrophic events. Dolomieu was not an uniformitarian geologist. His contemporary, James Hutton(1726), did not publish the principle of uniformitarianismuntil 1795. Dolomieu was an observationalist and spent much time collecting and categorizing geological data. Unlike Hutton, no scientific principles or theories are credited to him, although he left his permanent mark on geology in another way (Wikipedia, Gratet de Dolomieu). In 1779 he became a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, and about 1797 its Founder Member (Zenger et al.1994).2. First descriptions of the dolomiteHacquet was not just a traveller and he was not just writing down the diary and impressions of his travels, he was researcher, a chemist as he called himself. During his travels he gathered samples of rocks, plants, and water and carried them home for detailed inspection and analyses. It was not an easy task; for the analyses he took (or sent) home a sample of few buckets (Austrian bucket has about 56 litres) of water. How seriously he researched rocks can be seen from the 1stvolume of his Oryctographia carniolica: there are 12 pages of description and discussion about 17 analyses of a sandstone sample (Hacquet 1778). It is not surprising that he, as a keen observer, found in the field already that there is a type of limestone quite different than the other. In the first book of Oryctographia carniolica (Hacquet 1778, 65) (Fig. 1), describing his travel across Istra (Istria) Peninsula, he remarks: I came to Lipica. Here History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings71


for the first time I found very black Stinkstein, Lapis suillus (stinking rock). In the third book of Oryctographia he is talking about Podpeka Jama cave (its survey was published in Valvasors Die Ehre in 1689 already) and its geology (Hacquet 1784, 166): Aller Orten waren die Wnde der Grotte, so wie der Boden sehr glatt, schmutzig-braun und ohne Tropfstein. Als ich den Stein untersuchte, fand ich, da es blosser Stinkstein (Lapis suillus) war. Valvasor, hat auch bemerkt da diese Hhle keinen Tropfstein hat Auch ich wute nicht, da der Stinkstein untauglich sey, Tropfsteine zu bilden, die blosse Erfahrung berwie mich hier; denn in dieser Grotte, so gut wie anderwrts, sieht man, da aller Orten Wasser von oben herunter trpft; folglichfehlt es an den Erzeugungsmitteln nicht. Es hat also das Ansehen, da das Wasser nicht im Stande sey von diesem Stein viel aufzulsen, wegen des Phlogiston, das mit dem Kalksteine verbunden ist . (Everywhere the walls as well as the floor of the grotto were very smooth, dirty brown and without flowstone. As I inspected the stone, I noticed that it was pure Stinkstein ( Lapis suillus). Valvasor did also notice that this cave has no flowstone. I also did not know that stink stone was incapable of forming flowstone, the first hand experience taught me this here, because one sees in this grotto, as any other, that water drips everywhere from above, so that there is no lack of the means to generate (flowstone). It therefore appears as if the water is not capable to dissolve much of this stone, due to the Phlogiston, that is bound with this limestone.) (Translated by S. Kempe). Hacquet mentioned this rock also in some other parts of the text: hill at Nazarje, where the monastery lies, are clay strata and Stinkstein (Hacquet 1778, 112); between Bistra and the springs of the Ljubljanica there is limestone only, somewhere changed into the Stinkstein; this lapide suillo is of grey or black colour somewhere. (Hacquet 1778, 155); on the Karst there is a lot of limestone belonging to Stinkstein, so hard to produce sparks by a steel. It is fine-grained, grey coloured with addition of some iron. It effervescents slightly with the acid only when it is crushed. It is specific to contain a lot of petrifications. The rock is maybe also bituminous. (Hacquet 1789, 41). From the text and analogy it is obvious that Hacquets Stinkstein is a special rock, a special kind of limestone or carbonate rock. In 1779 when Hacquet visited Tyrol (he described this travel in 1780) (Hacquet 1780), he surely fell upon the Stinkstein too. So it is possible to say that Hacquet discovered a new kind of rock Stinkstein or Lapis suillus. Nowadays there is no rock with such a name. What happened, why not? Similar to Hacquet, Dolomieu was also a great traveller, even greater. During some mineralogical excursions in the Tyrolean Stubaier Alps, west of the Brenner Pass, Dolomieu recognized an abundance of rocks that resembled the limestone but were only weakly effervescent with acid. At first he thought his acid had lost its strength, but he noted that, when powdered, these rocks reacted with small effervescence and completely dissolved. On returning to Italy, in the calcareous mountains overlying the basement in the Bolzano Trento area, he noted that beds have similar characteristics to those in the Stubaier Alps but were horizontal and contained shell impressions. In 1786 Dolomieu donated calcareous acid-resisting limestone to his friend Felice Fontana, the director of Florentine Cabinet of Physics & Natural History. Even before, during the autumn 1784, when travelling through Ljubljana, Dolomieu visited also Hacquet. Dolomieu described their meeting in his letter of September 6, 1784 to Picot de la Peyrouse at Toulouse: Jai vu Laibach le docteur Hacquet, qui publie une immensit douvrages de minralogie et de botanique ; je ne vous en ai pas parl parce que je ne savais pas que vous eussiez t en relations avec lui. Il a de lesprit, des connaissances mais il me parat quil ne digre pas assez ses ides et ses systmes, et quil se hte trp de dcider sur le moindre aperu. En gnral tous ces Allemands sont trs savants et presque tous les Italiens fort ignorants (At Laibach [Ljubljana] I saw Dr. Hacquet who publishes immense works on mineralogy and botany; I did not mention him to you because I did not know that you are in contacts with him. He has the spirit and the knowledge, but I think that he does not digest his ideas and systems and that he jumps too quickly to the conclusions at the slightest indication. In general, all these Germans are connoisseurs and nearly all the Italians are great ignorants) (umrada 2001, 69). Did they discuss this unusual limestone too? Up to 1790 Dolomieu and Hacquet corresponded but their contacts abruptly ended because of political situation after the storming of the Bastille. On January 30, 1791 Dolomieu sent the letter from Malta to Picot de la Peyrouse. It was published in July 1791 under the title Sur un genre de pierres calcaires trs peu effervescentes avec les acides et phosphores-centes par la collision(On a Type of Calcareous Rock that Reacts Very Slightly with Acid and that Phosphoresces on Being Struck) in Roziers Journal de Physique (Dolomieu 1791) (Fig. 2). In this letter Dolomieu in fact adopted Hacquets description of a Tyrolese calcareous acid-proof rock, but without mentioning his name (Juni and Kranjc 2013). He introduced the new concept that limestone and dolomites were formed in the universal ocean before the time of precipitation of the Secondary Mountains, and hence before the occurrence of marine organisms. A year later (1792) in the same Roziers Journal de Physique Nicolas-Thodore de Saussure published the paper Analyse de la Dolomie (Saussure 1792). Saussure named Dolomieus rock dolomie in the latters honour, as Dolomieus descriptive term was so unwieldy (Zenger et al. 1994) and the name of Hacquet was passed over in silence again. So the new discovered rock was born and baptised. But was it really new and Dolomieu the first to describe it? It is clear that Hacquet mentioned this unusual limestone rock at least in 1778, in Oryctographia carniolica, 13 years before the basic description of de Dolomieu and 14 years before Nicolas-Thodore de Saussure coined the name Dolomite. Regarding Hacquets descriptions or better mentioning of Stinkstein it can be said that there are some queer features. In the first book of Oryctographia Hacquet published 17 analyses, which he performed himself, of sandstone (it has to be Eocene Flysch) found in Brkini Hills (South-eastern Slovenia). Due to results he proposed the new name for this rock: Mittelstein ; sometimes additional adjective has to be needed: Sandiger Mittelstein The same 17 analyses, they seemed to be a standard, he used to research Idrijas mercury ore, as stated in the second volume of Oryctographia. At Bohinj he found variegated jaspis, History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings72


similar to petrified Coburg wood and performed four chemical analyses of it. And for the new found rock, the Stinkstein there is nothing apart from few remarks.In the first book of Oryctographia (1778, 65)he stated: near Lipica I found for the first time the Stinkstein . This statement can have a double meaning: the first, that he has fallen upon Stinkstein for the first time (ever in his life); and the second, that he has found it for the first time in Carniola or just the first time along his travel from Kras towards U ka Mountain in the Eastern part of the Istra (Istria) Peninsula. In any case it is unusual that he did not analyze it or that he did not mention where or when he previously published the results. To Tyrol where from Dolomieu brought his specimen of (later named) dolomite, Hacquet travelled later, after publishing the first volume of Oryctographia. From the year 1766 to 1778 included, he published 29 articles and a book the first volume of Oryctographia. The most (eight) of articles are dedicated to veterinary science, six to medicine, three each to fossils, mining and travelling, two articles to botany and metallurgy, and one article to geology, zoology and statistics. Considering the titles only, it does not seem that any of the mentioned publications can include analyses or description of the Stinkstein.3. ConclusionIn the twelfth edition of Linnaeus Systema Naturae (1768) (Zenger et al. 1994) is an unreferenced Latin quotation of a marmor tardum from the surroundings of Roedburg, a white marble that effervesces very slowly. It can be recognized as dolomite. Hacquet mentioned few times dolomite under the name Stinkstein given by him in the first and the fourth volumes of his Oryctographia (1778, 1784). It is not known (yet) if he did, and if, where he did publish detailed description and results of this rock analyses. A year later (in 1779), G. Arduino published an article on chemical observations on fossils where he mentioned a vein of white brecciated marble (Arduino 1779). According to his description and analysis the rock would be termed the dolomite. In 1791 Dolomieu published the article On a Type of Calcareous Rock that Reacts Very Slightly with Acid and that Phosphoresces on Being Struckin Roziers Journal de Physique. In 1792 in the same journal NicolasThodore de Saussure published the paper Analyse de la Dolomie where he named this rock dolomite in favor of its discoverer Dolomieu. It is not an easy and a pleasant task to judge. In any case, B. Hacquet found that the rock we call nowadays dolomite is a special rock and he published this in 1778, without being remarked or cited by his contemporaries.AcknowledgmentI am thankful to S. Kempe for his help with my language problems.ReferencesArduino G, 1779. Osservazioni Chimiche Sopra Alcuni Fossili. In: 12, appresso Benedetto Milocco, 58, Venezia (in Italian). Figure 1. Frontispiece of the first volume of Hacquets Oryctographia carniolica (1778). Figure 2. The title page of Dolomieus article on dolomite (1791). History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings73


Juni S, Kranjc A, 2013. Bibliography of Balthazar Hacquet (1739) and his contribution to natural sciences. Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti, Ljubljana. Kranjc A, 2003. Balthasar Hacquet, predecessor of modern karstology. Hacquetia, 2, 129. Linnaeus C von, 1768. Systema Naturae, 12thimproved edition. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, 3, 41, Holmiae (in Latin). Saussure N-T de, 1792. Analyse de la dolomie.Jour. Physique, 40, 161 (in French). umrada J, 2001. iga Zois in Dodat de Dolomieu (iga [Sigismund] Zois and Dodat de Dolomieu). Kronika, 49, 65 (in Slovene). umrada J, 2003. K vpraanju izvora Balthasarja Hacqueta. Zgodovinski asopis, 57, 3 (128), 347 (in Slovene). Valvasor JW, 1689. Die Ehre de Herzogthums Crain. I. Th. Wolfgang Moritz Endter, Laibach Nrnberg (in German). Wikipedia, Gratet de Dolomieu: mieu (November 23, 2012). Zenger DH, Bourrouilh-Le J, Carozzi AV, 1994. Dolomieu and the first description of dolomite. Spec. Publs. Int. Ass. Sediment., 21, 21. Dolomieu DG de, 1791. Sur un genre de pierres calcaires trs peu effervescentes avec les acides et phosphorescentes par la collision. Jour. Physique, 39, 3 (in French). Gauchon C, 1999. Investigations about Balthazar Hacquet. Slovensk kras, 37, 53. Hacquet B, 1778. Oryctographia Carniolica oder physikalische Beschreibung des Herzogthums Krain, Istrien und zum Theil der benachbarten Lnder.I. Part, VIIXVI, 1, Leipzig (in German). Hacquet B, 1780. Mineralogisch-Botanische Lustreise von dem Berge Terglou in Krain zu dem Berge Glokner in Tyrol, im Jahr 1779 vom Professor Hacquet. Schriften der Berlinischen Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde Bd. 1, 119 (in German). Hacquet B, 1784. Oryctographia Carniolica oder physikalische Beschreibung des Herzogthums Krain, Istrien und zum Theil der benachbarten Lnder. III. Part, IXXX, 1, Leipzig (in German). Hacquet B, 1789. Oryctographia Carniolica oder physikalische Beschreibung des Herzogthums Krain, Istrien und zum Theil der benachbarten Lnder. IV. Part, VIIIXVI, 1, Leipzig (in German).History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings74


GIVING US AN IDENTITY THE CONSTRUCTION OF MEMORY INTHE HISTORY OF SPELEOLOGYJohannes Mattes Department of History, University of Vienna, Universittsring 1, A-1010 Wien, Austria, On the basis of constructivist cultural studies the paper discusses the process of historicization in the field of speleology and cave exploration. The analysis is based on the method of discourse analysis and contextualized from a historical and sociological point of view. The main focus lies on the end of the 19thand the beginning of the 20thcentury, when speleology was institutionalized as private clubs and governmental organizations and a collective identity of the explorers was formed. To ensure higher reputation within the scientific community, the discipline was historicized. With a coherent and obligatory narration of speleology the caving groups were able to generate self-supporting identities, which let the cave explorers feel as successors of a long tradition and legitimated contemporary ambitions. The process of musealization, collective celebrations like jubilees and the heroization of deceased speleologists played an important role for the cementation of memory. Preserving the narration of speleology, museums retain and reify memory as moments of greatness for subsequent generations. Jubilees and anniversaries of speleological institutions or clubs became welcome occasions for perpetuating and remodeling obligatory concepts of the history of science. The heroization of past cave explorers provided an opportunity for identification and instrumentalization of the commemoration. The results suggest that traditional research interests in the history of speleology should be reconsidered. In many cases the history of speleology is still seen as an apologia of the research history. Instead, outstanding exponents of the disciplin e and discoveries should be contextualized. The self-definition and -description of cave explorers and the scientific discipline are not historical constants. They have been discussed permanently throughout history.1. IntroductionWhy we are studying the history of science? What are our aims when drawing an obligatory picture of the past and focusing on particular questions, while we ignore other historical problems? For which purpose are we talking about great speleologists, fathers of cave science, their long-lasting achievements and the starting point of our discipline? Franz Kraus (1834), author of Hhlenkunde, writes one of the first articles about the history of speleology for the daily newspaper Neue Freie Presse of Vienna (see Figure 1). In his article he places special emphasis on the positive effect of historiography for the collective memory: The history of caves still lies idle, because nobody has yet tried to arrange a systematic assorted and academic composed tableau of the results from different researches. [] [The Speleological Club in Vienna] will have an honorable position, when cave exploration in Austria can be considered as completed and somebody tries to write a history about it. (Kraus 1879, pp. 4) From the late 1980s onward sociologists like Hannah Arendt have often stated that history and traditional historiography were outdated and at their end (Arendt 1994). New trends are focusing on the construction of collective and personal identity through memory, cultural and social implications and functions of historical narration. In the United States of America this dispute is generally known under the term science war and should be seen as a part of the postmodern criticism of science. In his paper Historiography of Science Michael Aaron Dennis adjudicates programmatically on the changed self-concept of the history of science: No longer is the history of science the story of individual researchers confronting a nature that must be persuaded to reveal its secrets. Instead, the new historiography has made the identification of the natural and its boundaries one of the prime areas of inquiry. What has taken place is nothing less than a redrawing of the boundaries separating the natural and the artificial. (Dennis 1997, pp. 1)Figure 1. Kraus paper on the history of cave exploration. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings75


Speleologists like Adolph Schmidl (1802) and duard-Alfred Martel (1850) began to travel to the economically underdeveloped karst regions as tourists and named their explorations after a military expression campaigns. For that purpose, underprivileged groups like woodcutters, shepherds, hunters and other locals were excluded from the exclusivity of the first look (Mattes 2012a). Although they still took part in the underground campaigns of their employers as guides and carriers, they were excluded from the right of naming, interpretation and ritual appropriation of the underground places, which was limited to the urban leaders of the expeditions.Since 1860 urban travelers started the (re)discovery of already known caves (Shaw 2008). In addition to that, famous caves were Even if the dispute is still going on, a return to secured scientific truism and a historiography of banal scientific achievements is implausible. However, the history of science has reflected these new positions and investigated how traditional conceptions of the development of the sciences are affected in order to make sense of actual scientific practices. For Franz Kraus the basis for a prosperous development of the field is a collective and combined narration of speleology. So a historiography of cave science not only has the role as a generic basis for the distribution of meaning, but also gives identity to each caver and gives significance and legitimation to such activity. In this regard an entanglement of what Hans Reichenbach has called the context of discovery and the context of justification can be noticed (Reichenbach 1962, pp. 231). Even today the link between exploration and justification in scientific practice is probably closer than many natural scientists would admit. Franz Kraus message, cited above, refers to the meaningful function of the history of speleology. The view back to the beginning and origins of the cross-disciplinary field of speleology often acts as an affirmation of the own identity, as a confirmation of the status quo. The sources for this sort of instrumentalization go back to the end of the 19thcentury, when the foundations for the history of cave science were laid.2. Construction of a collective identityAt the beginning of the 19thcentury caves were seen as areas of artistic inspiration and as archives of natural history. On the basis of a modified perception of nature, scientists and travelersof the urban civic elitepenetrated deeper and deeperinto thesubterranean worlds They discovered not only the depth of subjectivity, but also recognized caves as the location of empiricism. Since 1880 cave exploration has been institutionalized as governmental institutes and private clubs. Thus at the end of the 19thcentury speleology in Europe went through a radical change. Urgent karst-hydrological problems, such as drinking water supply and water engineering, became quickly the scope of speleology. In the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the karst landscapes of Trieste, Carniola and Moravia and the Northern Limestone Alps were declared as the type research areas for speleology. Due to the fact that deeper shafts were inspected, teamwork gained more and more importance for cave exploration however only a small part of the explorers earned most of the reputation. Back then the explorers found themselves in constant competition. Expeditions from the 18thand 19thcentury, which consisted of an employer, a guide and carriers, led to the development of new research groups. In accordance with the principle of division of laborostensible equal members were working together in order to start with the survey and detailed documentation of caves. This modification in the social structure of research groups resulted in anincreased social disciplinary action and instruction of the members, who were typically organized in hierarchical groups. The travelers did no longer see themselves as passive visitors. They began to consider themselves as cave explorers and conquerors (see Figure2). The speleological practice of naming and surveying underground places and new media for documentation played an important role for the ritual appropriation and conquest of subterranean worlds during the imperialism period (Mattes 2012a). As a shared definition of a group, whose members have the same common interests, experiences, and solidarities, the term cave explorer became a widespread expression within the society of the 19thcentury. For the Sociologist Owen Whooley the three major processes through which movements construct an identity are the establishment of boundaries, negotiation, and development of consciousness (Whooley 1988, pp. 70). Similarly the construction of boundaries refers to collective norms, corresponding rituals and a special logic of exclusion from science. Figure 2. The perception of cave explorers as deep-alpinists and conquerors of the underworld. Painting of Alexander von Mrk: Ice-Tower in the Eisriesenwelt (engl. World of Ice Giants) in Werfen near Salzburg (Archive of the showcave Eisriesenwelt, 1913).History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings76


developed into showcaves and were opened for the public. This change in the self perception and social perception of cave explorers and speleologists is linked to an occurrence of a collective identification, which can be observed since the 1880s. These three conditions apply to the caving clubs at the end of the 19thcentury. Through demarcation speleological organization created new group values and structures, which were published in just founded periodicals and club statutes. Especially Franz Kraus Hhlenkunde (1894), duard-Alfred Martels Les Abmes (1894) and La Splologie, ou science des cavernes (1900)played an important role for the definition of the disciplines technical terms and aims. Even the urban civic elite, fascinated by an imagined escape from civilization and longing for an original condition, entered caves searching for their lost immediate relationship to nature. The urban tourists did no longer feel as travelers, but began to regard themselves as explorers. The look of an admiring traveler changed to a competitive, demanding perception of the nature. In German this new selfconsciousness led to a modification of the formerly common terms durchforschen (engl. delve) and durchmessen (engl. stride). Focusing on the observer and no longer the nature as an object, now the explorers started to use the expression erforschen (engl. explore) and vermessen (engl. survey) (Mattes 2012b, pp. 123). Furthermore, in day-to-day activities like expeditions and general meetings the collective identity of speleologists became manifest. In 1911 the First Speleological Congress of the Austro-Hungarian Empire took place in HallstattObertraun. There, not only expeditions were organized, but also the explorers discussed the social and scientific function of speleology and the limits to common cave visits. This historically based distinction, which is for the contemporaries anything else but clear, can be seen as a social construction. Before World War II collective identity in cave exploration was often linked to national concepts of identity. Especially during the Austro-Hungarian Empire cave exploration was a leisure activity of the German speaking social elite, mixed-speaking societies like the Club Touristi Triestini can be seen as an exception.3. Historicization of speleologySimultaneously with the institutionalization of speleology in private clubs and governmental organizations since the 1880s, the historiography of the discipline was initiated. The ambition was not only to construct a coherent and far back into the past reaching history of cave science, but also to legitimate the contemporary ambitions and to forecast a prosperous development of the field. In particular with the creation of a persuasive prehistory early cavers tried to promote the acceptance of speleology as an independent scientific discipline and to legitimate contemporary research interests. On the other hand the historiographers also attempted to attribute themselves or their club an important personal role in the history of speleology.Figure 3. Photo of the Speleological Exhibition Salzburger Hhlenschau (Archive of the Speleological Club of Salzburg, 1913).During a period of around 1910, when caving clubs were founded, a second phase of increased discussion and debates on speleo-historycan be noticed. With a steady and uninterrupted history of the own scientific field the communities were able to generate self-supporting identities, which let the explorers feel as successors of a long and successful tradition. Already duard-Alfred Martel unintentionally confirmed this circumstance in his book Splologie ou Science des Cavernes (1900): You would need a lot of pages and a whole enumeration of dates, famous names and titles of oeuvres to draw a complete tableau of all the activities, which were undertaken in caves during the last 125 years. (Martel 1900, pp. 8) Finally, duard-Alfred Martel did not choose without reason the end of the 18thcentury as the birth date of speleology. He could have also defined the first known exploration of the Breitenwinner Hhle or the Baumannshhle (Germany), Streins and Gassners penetration in the Geldloch (Lower Austria), Nointels visit of a cave in Antiparos (Greece) or Kirchers and Valvasors theoretical and practical examination of the underground (Italy, Slovenia) as the initial point of speleology. But of course the end of the 18thcentury the Age of Enlightenment , to whom many disciplines refer their history, ensured higher legitimation and reputation within the scientific community. This increased interest in the history of cave exploration at the beginning of the 20thcentury can also be observed at a local level. After the foundation of the Upper-Austrian Section of the Austrian Caving Association, the secretary Ludwig Benesch delved into 30 volumes of the newspaper Linzer Tagespost in order to publish three articles on the heimatliche Hhlenkunde (engl. local cave research) in the feuilleton (Benesch 1911).4. Locating memory4.1.Musealization During the second phase of increased discussion and debates on the history of speleology since 1910, the musealization of the discipline was initiated by the explorers themselves. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings77


According to Anja Lauktter, the process of musealization can be divided in the three steps remove, recreate, reintegrate (Lauktter 2010, pp. 120). First the objects were removed from their original historical context, then their semantic meanings were changed by integration in the museums rules and classification system, and finally the objects were re-integrated in exhibitions and the visitors view gave them an exclusive aura and the significance of museums objects. For Theodor W. Adorno the objects lost historical and cultural context, caused by the process of musealization, attempts to fix and reify memory as moments of greatness for subsequent generations (Adorno 1997). Thus museums became the location of memorialization and the construction of identities. Only one year after the establishment of the AlpenvereinMuseum (engl. Museum of the German and Austrian Alpine Club) 1911 in Munich, the First Speleological Museum of Austria was opened to the public in Linz (Upper-Austria). It counts also as the first speleological museum world-wide. The exhibition, housed in the fortification tower on the Pstlingberg near Linz, consisted of several showrooms where models of caves, special equipment like a folding boot to cruise subterraneous rivers and an aquarium with several specimens of the olm Proteus anguinus were presented. The exposition was designed as an artificial grotto and should create a cavern-like atmosphere (N. N. 1912). Due to moisture the museum had to move to the museum Francisco-Carolinum in 1915 and was integrated in a new exhibition in 1917 (Shaw 2010, pp. 146; N. N. 1913, pp. 6). The author of this paper was able to localizethe exhibits of the speleological museum, which are today in the property of the Obersterreichisches Landes-museum. Temporary expositions on speleology took place in 1908 and 1911 in Graz and in 1913 under the name Salzburger Hhlenschau in the castle Mariabell in Salzburg (see Figure 3). In 1922 the Salzburger Hhlenschau was reopened in extended and adapted form as a museum in the Castle Hellbrunn, also located in Salzburg. Regarding the content, Erwin Angermayers draft for founding a Central Speleological Museum of Austria in the year 1922 tried to create an illusion of completeness and integrity, focused on the history of speleology: Departement B: Applied speleology or the exploration and exploitation of caves [] V. Underdepartment. Clubs and Societies History of cave exploration in Austria. Tables: historic events/explorations, statistics of the growth of speleology in Austria, strongbox with badges of clubs, index of speleological clubs. Images of famous cave explorers. (Angermayer 1923) Also the decontextualized objects for the speleological museums, which the exhibitors got from different clubs and the Ministry of Agriculture, were re-integrated in a new context. During the opening of the Speleological Museum in Linz in 1912 the speakers mentioned the importance of this new institution for the development of the discipline: [Ing. Hermann Bock as President:] The intent of the club [Austrian Caving Club, Section Upper-Austria] was only to create the basis for the growth, further completion and propagation of speleology. [Rudolf Willner as functionary of the ministry of agriculture:] The Caving Club has set an everlasting memorial for itself in the history of speleology. Actually, the foundation of museum is a further page in the history of cave exploration. (N. N. 1912, pp. 3) The new arrangement of the objects in the speleological museums not only had the function to instruct visitors, but also to convince them of the prosperous development and the social benefits for the local tourism and the exploitation of underground deposits. By focusing on the past with its images of famous cave explorers as a constitutive element of speleology, lieux de mmoire (engl. places of remembrance; Nora 1984) like museums hold and legitimize the narration of speleology for the public and the explorers themselves. 4.2. Jubilees Since the end of the 19thcentury jubilees of caving clubs, organizations and meaningful discoveries, became welcome occasions for presenting the history of speleology. As a constitutive element of the bourgeois culture of remembrance, secular jubilees were celebrated since the French Revolution at the end of the 18thcentury. Around 1900 at the zenith of the bourgeois era a downright search for historic remembrance days began in order to present a social group publicly. In contrast to the dynastic culture of remembrance, which tried to affirm established traditions, values and norms during the jubilee, bourgeois remembrance attempted to connect to new traditions and values. These were generated during celebrations and ceremonies. In collective rituals, cults and myths like speeches, meetings, publications, and exhibitions, bourgeois and scientific clubs generated the consciousness of unity, created a corporate identity and history. The content, which should be commemorated, was always controlled and instrumentalized to legalize future purposes. Since the beginning of the discipline until today, collective memory and normative views of history were activated and updated during speleological events and congresses. One of the first jubilees celebrated by caving societies was the 20thanniversary of the section Kstenland of the Austrian and German Alpine Club (Triest) in 1893. Peter August Pazze, chairman of the club, wrote in a historical chronic publicized on the occasion of the event: Everything, what the secretaries of the section have narrated during the last 20 years of the glorious existence of the club, is presented in this book. It is ingeniously dedicated to all the companions as a remembrance for the long-standing harmonious solidarity and modest, unselfish and successful activity of the club. (Pazze 1892, pp. 1) These processes of remembrance are often linked to competing national memories or mythologies. Until the end of the 1950s speleology and cave exploration was part of competing concepts of national greatness and remembrance. In the Austro-Hungarian Empire cave exploration was propagated as a leisure activity of the History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings78


German-speaking social elite. This concept often implicates also the exclusion of the Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Italian and Jewish population, who founded own monolingual clubs. When we celebrate anniversaries and jubilees of caving clubs and discoveries, we should pay attention to the mechanism of this problematic process of historicization. Behind the belief in a continuous development of the field, an inconsiderate belief in progress is frequently hiding. The present becomes a logical conclusion of events from the past and the history of speleology is reduced to a history of the achievements of the discipline. 4.3. Modeling heroes of cave science At the beginning of 20thcentury the focus of speleology did not only lie on the caves and the subterranean discoveries, but especially on the explorers themselves. In biographical texts and obituaries speleologists like duard-Alfred Martel or Leopoldine Fuhrich (1898) were often described as heroes of cave science, persons with supernatural strength. In most cases the intention for the posthumous glorification didnt come from the affected explorers. The instrumentalization of the commemoration often served as a self-affirmation for subsequent explorers and as a legitimation for their future aims. Because of this construction of an own history with timeless geniuses, each individual can feel like a lawful successor of a heroic explorer and give meaning to his activity (Mattes 2013). Bringing nationalism and scientific demand together, Hermann Bock described Fuhrich as a victim for her home country, as a fallen soldier in combat: Poldi Fuhrich was the most faithful companion and the earnest friend. Like the soldiers at war she died on the field of honor. She was in battle for the progress of science and for the glory and welfare of the fatherland and nation. (Bock 1926, pp. 70) Also in expedition diaries and protocols of caving clubs the speleologists not seldomly depicted their researches and discoveries as underground campaigns, obstinate battles against nature. The male-dominated caving societies often brought speleology and alpinism together and pursued right-wing politics. Each penetration in the subterranean world is connected closely with heroic acts of naming, interpretation and ritual appropriation of the underground places, which can be seen in the context of naming and owning of colonial territories during the imperialism period. Meter by meter of the mountain must be gained as a virgin territory. Special results like the length, total depth and vertical rage of a discovered cave were used as a scale for the heroic achievements of each explorer and his personal importance. The medium of photography and the improved caving equipment led to an increased social disciplinary action within the research group. The strict division of labor between the cave explorers corresponded to the social prestige of each explorer. Due to the fact that speleologists began to separate themselves from ordinary cave visitors and tourists, carbide lights, rope ladders or distinctive instruments for cave mapping became emblems for speleology. Similarly, the usage of photography as a suitable method for documentation had an effect on the self-perception of the cave explorers and the perception by others: During the romanticism period the painters were focused on the individual perception of the subterranean landscape, where humans just played a subsequent role as staffage figures. Because of the demanding lightning conditions, the photographers shifted the explorers to the centre of their artistic compositions. The most popular motif was no longer the predominance and greatness of the nature, but the explorer, who penetrated nature as a conqueror (see Figures 4, 5).Figures 4, 5.The usage of photography had an effect on the self-perception of the cave explorers and the perception by others. The most popular motif was no longer the predominance and greatness of the nature, but especially the explorer. Left: Picture in Jules Vernes A Journey to the Center of the Earth (Paris, 1864). Right: Research group in the Gassel-Tropfsteinhhle near Ebensee Austria (Archive of the Speleological Club of Ebensee, 1919). History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings79


Arendt H, 1994. Zwischen Vergangenheit und Zukunft. Piper, Mnchen. Benesch L, 1911. Beitrge zur heimatlichen Hhlenkunde. Series 1. In: Linzer Tagespost, 7.5., 1; Linzer Tagespost, 14.5., 17; Linzer Tagespost, 27.8., 18. Bock H, 1926. Tdlicher Absturz der Hhlenforscherin Poldi Fuhrich in der Lurgrotte bei Semriach. Mitteilungen ber Hhlenund Karstforschung, 4(3), 66. Dennis MA, 1997. Historiography of science. An American Pespective. In: J Krige and D Pestre (Eds.). Science in the twentieth Century. Routledge, Amsterdam, 1. Hagner M, 2001. Ansichten der Wissenschaftsgeschichte. In: M Hagner (Eds.). Ansichten der Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Fischer, Frankfurt a. Main, 7. Kraus F, 1879. Zur Geschichte der Hhlenforschung. In: Neue Freie Presse, 27.12., 4. Kraus F, 1894. Hhlenkunde. Wege und Zweck der Erforschung unterirdischer Rume. Gerold, Wien. N. N, 1912. Erffnung des Ersten sterreichischen Museums fr Hhlenkunde. In: Linzer Tagespost, 14.5., 3. N. N, 1917. Verwaltungsbericht. In: 75. Jahres-Bericht des Museum Francisco-Carolinum, 75(1), 1. Martel A, 1894. Les bimes. Les eaux souterraines, les cavernes, les sources, la splologie: explorations souterraines effectues de 1888 1893 en France, Belgique, Autriche et Grce Librairie Charles Delagrave, Paris. Martel A, 1900. Splologie ou Science des Cavernes. Carre /Naud, Paris. Lauktter A, 2010. Kultur in Vitrinen. Zur Bedeutung der Vlkerkundemuseen im beginnenden 20. Jahrhundert. In: Kolbe-Museum (Eds.). Wilde Welten. Aneignung des Fremden in der Moderne. Koehler & Arnelang, Berlin, 109. Mattes J, 2012a. Cave Expeditions in the early 20thc.: Social Hierarchy and the Exclusivity of the First Look. 5thInt. Conf. Europ. Society for the History of Science, Instit. of Historical Research, Athen, Greece, 141. Mattes J, 2012b. Die Vermessung des Erdinneren Eine Geschichte der Hhlenforschung in sterreich vom 19. Jahrhundert bis zum Beginn der Ersten Republik. Mensch, Wissenschaft, Magie Mitteilungen der sterreichischen Gesellschaft fr Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 29(1), 107. Mattes J, 2013. Alexander von Mrk and Poldi Fuhrich The conception of heroes in cave exploration in the early 20thcentury. Earth Science History 32(1), 132. Nora P, 1984: Les lieux de mmoire. Gallimard, Paris. Pazze PA, 1893. Chronik der Section Kstenland des Deutschen und sterreichischen Alpenvereins 1873. Fest-Publication zur Vollendung des XX. Vereinsjahres. Self-published, Triest. Reichenbach H, 1962. The Rise of Scientific Philosophy. University of Carlifornia Press, Berkeley/Los Angeles. Shaw T, 2008. Foreign Travellers in the Slovene Karst 1486. Karst Research Institute at ZRC SAZU, Postojna. Shaw T, 2010. Aspects of the History of Slovene Karst 1545. Karst Research Institute at ZRC SAZU, Postojna. Whooley O, 1988. Collective identity. In: J Ritzer and JM Ryan (Eds.). The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology. WileyBlackwell, Malden/Oxford, 70.5. SummaryWhen we are studying the history of speleology we should contextualize the biographies and the scientific knowledge, which is often influenced by cultural components like hierarchical structures. Nowadays, when we are reading (auto)biographies, laudations, official speeches, obituaries or popular articles on speleology, it seems that the history of speleology has in large parts still an apologetic function. For todays scientists, it is absolutely necessary to realize this problematic division of labor between speleological sciences and the history of science. However, this predominance of historical thinking implicates also a clear purpose for the present. Because of the construction of an own, coherent history with its timeless geniuses, each individual explorer claims a place in history. As a result, former and future personal action is historically legitimated, gets higher meaning and importance and becomes comprehensible for the explorer himself. So the faith in the past is exceptionally frequently linked with a naive belief in progress. For a very long time the connection between the popular imagery of progress, reminder service, memory and justification function shown here reduced the history of speleology to an assistant of the subject discipline. This excluded also an independent point of view. Not without reason Michael Hagner remarks in his book Ansichten der Wissenschaftsgeschichte: This historiography of scientific knowledge is anything other than established and is still regarded as a welcome or unwelcome novelty. (Hagner 2001, pp. 30) Until today the benefit of the history of speleology and cave exploration is valuated as a memory of the speleological discipline, which is especially utilized for special occasions. This practice excludes the possibility of an independent profiling and professionalization. Historicizing the history of speleology would be a good start.AcknowledgmentsI would like to thank Walter Klappacher (Salzburg), Dietmar Kuffner (Ebensee) and Friedrich Oedl (Werfen) for providing historical photos and for their continuous support. This study was also greatly assisted by Eva Lederhilger (Vienna). My thanks are also owed to Stephan Kempe and Andrej Kranjc for their helpful reviews of the paper.ReferencesAdorno TW, 1997. Valry Proust Museum. In: TW Adorno (Eds.). Gesammelte Schriften. Kulturkritik und Gesellschaft I. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a. Main, 181. Angermayer E, about 1923. Entwurf zu einem Zentral-HhlenMuseum in Salzburg unter teilweise Bercksichtigung eines vorhandenen Raums von Alexander v. Mrk (1914) sowie unter Bercksichtigung der Werke ber Hhlenkunde von Kuebel (1906) und Kyrle (1923), manuscipt. In: Archive of the Landesverein fr Wien und Niedersterreich.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings80


THE DISCOVERY OF CAVES IN KHAMMOUANE, LAOS (1991)Claude Mouret1,Jean-Franois Vacqui2 1Geospel, 18 rue de la Libert, 87380 Magnac-Bourg, France, claude.mouret.geospel@orange.fr21106 route de Bouloc, 31620 Castelnau dEstrtefonds, France No less than 26 campaigns of cave exploration, mapping and studies have brought a deep insight into the previously almost unknown karst of Khammouane. This 290 40 km wide area of highly diagenetized permo-carboniferous carbonate area in Laos has revealed no less than 90 caves to our team, totalling some 170 km of development. The most extensive cave in Khammouane is so far 29 km long and we reached a +467 m relative elevation in another cave. Perhaps the largest cave opening in the world (215 m wide), a dozen of large chambers, giant passages and world-class through rivers were also studied. Scientific work encompasses geology, karst organization and characteristics, hydrogeology, biology, ethnospeleology, ecotourism and other topics. This overview of this lifetime work on karst (23 years) is presented within its historical framework. Human aspects are taken into account and recommendations, including contract writing, are given.1. IntroductionAs from 1991, systematic explorations and geological studies of the Khammouane karst area were initiated by the first author. In 1992, the first detailed cave mapping work was performed by the two authors (Mouret et al. 1993). Since, both of them have continuously cooperated until today, over no less than 26 exploration campaigns. The team had a variable size, from two to 15 persons. Altogether, no less than 40 persons came with us, from France, Germany, America, Romania and Laos, of course. We warmly welcomed all cavers willing to participate in the explorations and a number of scientific speleologists joined us. However, the system proved to reach a critical point when a few of the invited persons behaved as challengers, then left without sharing their results (e.g., surveys) acquired with the team, despite their promises. Since the end-2009, we have been remapping those parts of caves which were diverted from the results of our team. Despite it is very timeand money-consuming, this work helps us in better understanding scientific aspects of the karst of Khammouane. We also continue mapping newly discovered passages.Figure 1. Simplified map of the karst of Khammouane in Laos and its continuation in neighbouring Vietnam. Dots represent the ma in areas that we investigated. Numbering of dot areas refers to text: a number may correspond to several nearby caves. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings81


This paper stresses the key periods of the 1991 to 2013 explorations, a view of the results achieved and some of the overwhelming difficulties we had to overcome.2. A global approach to the karstSince the beginning, our approach to the karst has always been global, as our goal consists of understanding the large tropical karst of Khammouane (290 40 km) in its natural and human setting (Mouret 2001, 2004). This large scale approach has been prepared by a previous similar approach to other karst areas and by a long experience of cave studies and geology in many areas throughout the world. The global approach that we set up requires an adequate sampling and selection of caves to be explored and a careful recognition of karst phenomena and characteristics which can be original, never-described, nor interpreted. In addition, concentrating the mind on global karst organisation is of paramount importance, rather than focusing on unrepresentative or marginal details. A major breakthrough has been made on the karst hydrology, including the mapping of underground flows and the correction of more than once erroneous flow directions on the topographic maps (Mouret et al. 2003). We have been able to reconstruct the karst hydrogeological organisation of a substantial part of the large Khammouane karst. The global approach had to permanently adapt to a variety of constraints and pressures, including human aspects. It is worth also mentioning that speleology in Laos requires compulsory official specific authorizations.3. A thorough search for caves and characteristic karst featuresAs our goal was a global approach to the karst, we first had to identify the most significant areas after a selection work based on scarce old speleological literature, more than 60 years old geological studies and modern investigations by the first author and other geologists, satellite imagery (Landsat at the time), morpho-geology (morphology and geology tied by their common logic), hydrogeology and other features of interest. Search for caves in the field was systematically performed, mainly by the two authors. Together, more than 1,000 km of walk under variably difficult conditions were used to look for caves and another 2,000 km of walk for access to prospection areas. Most of the search was made along cliffs, as the karst surface is in many areas extremely rugged and very hardly accessible, with sheer cliffs, tsingy morphology and fengcong landscape. The first author (team leader) often arrived in advance and was the last to leave, in order to look for more new caves and passages. The rule he applied was: never finish an exploration campaign without knowing what the team would have to explore during the next campaign. Altogether, 460 days were spent in Laos by CM and 340 by JFV, i.e. far more than any other team member. Cave mapping is only a part of our work, but it illustrates the gradual and almost regular progress globally made at every new campaign (see Fig. 3). Cave drawing was performed by several persons. The first author has been by far the main mapper and the second has highly participated in most of the surveys made by the team. Their cave maps on gridded paper have been shown to the team at every campaign. From the extremely difficult conditions in 1991 to the present day far easier explorations in Laos, we followed a long path, permanently improving the things, including the logistics, based on Mr Vannivongs deep experience and CMs years-long experience of field work in difficult remote areas elsewhere in Southeast Asia.4. Main caves discovered and mappedAltogether, 90 caves were explored and mapped. Out of them, 26 exceed a 1 km length, ten exceed 5 km, six are over 10 km, and three over 15 km and one is above 25 km. All these caves are still under study by us. Here below, references such as 1b or 5a refer to Figure 1. Tham Nam Non : 1b. Major temporary flowing resurgence. Giant passages. Two large chambers. Discovery by the first author (CM) on Landsat imagery, then confirmed on old geological maps. Investigations in: 1994 (the two authors and B. Collignon), 1997, 1999 (21 km), 2004, 2005 (25 km), 2010, 2011. The 55 m long final sump was dived in 2010 by others (what we learned afterwards), just after our publication on the cave: it is connecting Tham Nam Non with Tham Song Dang, both already mapped by us (Mouret et al. 2009). Total known length is over 29 km. Tham Koun Dn Tham Houay Sai (the downstream part of what we called the Nam Dn System which includes sinking points several kilometres away). 5c. Koun Nam Dn is the karst spring (resurgence) of the Nam Dn. The two main cave outlets flow during flood periods. Discovered in 1997 at the initiative of CM, after his geological investigations that followed the discovery of Tham Houai Sai (a different cave which is a temporary sinking point see further down, 5b) and the discovery of Tham Kagnung by the two authors and J. Lordon in 1996 (Tham Kagnung is a subperennial sinking river cave, 5a).Figure 2. A surface view of Khammouane showing rugged morphology with tsingy, as seen from one of the upper outlets of Tham Phiseua. At the location, vegetation is nil to scarce and xerophytic. Photo by C. Mouret. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings82


1997 (0.5 km), 1998 (6.5 km), 2000 (7 km), 2004, 2005 (11 km), 2006, 2010, 2011 a, b, c, 2012 (17 km). Three large chambers. Tham X Bang Fai: 8b. Through cave with one of the largest underground rivers in the world (6.3 km long through-river). One large chamber. First investigations by local fishermen, at least during the very early 20thCentury (probably even before) then full crossing by Maceys team on a bamboo raft in 1904. 1995 (the authors, B. Collignon and C. Lagarde, in the difficult context of an ordnance-rich area due to previous wars) (9.1 km); 1996: car failure creating impossibility to reach the cave, then area closed to foreigners for nearly a decade; 2007: 1.5 km added; 2008: another 1 km; 2009 (the two authors alone for remapping). New length: 15.1 km (Mouret et al. 2010). Tham Nam Hin Boun, now largely called Tham Konglor: 1a. Through-cave with a large river (7.5 km through) used by villagers since the 19thCentury at least. First western crossing by P. Cupet and H. Counillon in 1892. Sketch map by Macey (1908). Resurvey by the two authors and B. Collignon in 1994 (11 km). Additional investigations out of the river in 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2011 (13 km). Giant galleries. Two large chambers. Tham Phiseua: 5c. Discovered in 1996 by A. Gregorys team (1 km). Kind written authorization to continue exploration obtained from him by CM. 1998: reconnaissance inside by CM. 2000: Mapping starting at the entrance (J.M. Ostermann and CM) (1.3 km); 2002 (5 km, +315 m), 2003, 2004 (+376 m), 2005 (8 km, +465 m), 2006 (11 km), 2010, 2011, 2012 (+467 m, see below). Sloping maze cave (Mouret et al. 2001) along dipping strata. Hollow stalagmites discovered by CM for the first time in Khammouane. Tham Houai Sai (in the polje of Ban Vieng): 5b. Sinking temporary flowing river belonging to the Nam Dn watershed. One large chamber. Discovery by Jean-Franois Vacqui (JFV) and C. Ferron in 1996. 1996 mapping mainly by the authors (2.5 km); 2000, 2001 (with X. Nogus) (9.9 km), 2011 (10.1 km). Tham L: 5a. Two-level fossil cave in a cliff in the polje of Ban Vieng. Giant passages. One large chamber. CaveFigure 3. Progress of cave mapping during the 18 first campaigns, until Year 2009 included (n). After that, persons-related problems forced us to remap a part of the caves.Campaign 13 in 2004 was devoted mainly to archaeology and related surveyed length is short. learnt in 2001 from Ban Vieng villagers at CM initiative. 2001 mapping by CM, X. Nogus, J. Lordon and C. Noiriel (1.5 km), 2002 (3 km), 2004, 2005, 2006 (8 km). Tham Thon: 2a. Temporary flowing sinking streams leading to resurgence in the Nam Hin Boun valley. Information gathered in 1991 by CM. 1997: CM initiative to go there and mapping together with F. Brouquisse (2 km). 1998, continuation by the same mappers and L. Deharveng (8 km). The cave was subsequently explored by a team led by FB without us and connected in 2001 to a cave already explored by captain Jouans team in 2000. The new investigations covered the central part of the system only (total length: ca. 15 km). Tham Song Dang: 1b. Multiple sinking points of Nam Non, followed by giant passages. First mapped by the authors and Y. Dreybrodt in 2003 (4.5+ km). Additional mapping in 2004. Total length: over 5 km. Tham Boumlou: 4a. Sinking point of upper Nam Pakan at the end of a narrow, 12 km long, blind valley. First reached in 2002 with JFV (see below). 2004 (ca 5 km). Tham Kwan Ha: 1c. Temporary flowing sinking river. Discovered in 2009 by the two authors, and mapped. 2010, 2011, 2012 (4 km+, work in progress). 16 caves currently have a measured length between 5 and 1 km including: Tham Kwan Ha (CM, JFV, 2009); Grotte Sans Nom, i.e. Nameless Cave, 3 km (1b. Discovery CM, JMO in 2004); Tham En in Phon Thiou area (2.7 km) (discovery CM in 1991, 3a); Grotte Marie Cassan (4d. Cassan, 1948; CM, 1991, 2003; 2004); Tham Phu (4a. discovery CM, 2004); Tham Ene near Tham X Bang Fai (8b. Discovery CG in 2007); Tham Heup (2b. Macey, 1908; CM-FB-JFV, 1998), Tham Koun Houay Feuang (CM, FB, 1997; topo 2002, 2006. 5a); Tham Lom, Tham Th (CM, JL, LD, AB 1998. 2b); Tham En near Thakhek, (6a. CM and JFV, 1992, 1.98 km, giant entrance); Tham Deua (CM-CG-JFV, 2003. 4d); Tham Khamouk (CM-CG, 2003. 4d); Tham Kagnung (CM, JFV, JL, 1996. 5a), 1.5 km, head of Nam Dn System), Tham Lom (CM, JR, 2005.5c. Mapping by JMO in 2006); Tham Phuhung (CM-FB, 1997.1a); Other caves of specific interest : Tham Nam Thieng, Tham Nong Ka, Tham Pa Fa, Tham Phanoi.5. Main discoveries and results on karstGeology : thickness of the Permo-Carboniferous carbonate, petrography, palaeontology, stratigraphy, sedimentology and depositional environments, petrophysical properties, tectonics, geohistory (palaeoburials and erosion depths, using a variety of methods), mineral seams crossed through by cave passages, phosphate and guano deposits. Palaeokarst: discovery and interpretation of buried palaeokarst morphologies below Liassic red beds deposited under continental environments. Cave maps: more than 170 km surveyed. Karst systems: main types of cave systems, including subhorizontal active and fossil networks, sloping mazes (up to + 487 m), sunken passages, global organization. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings83


significant number of papers was published in proceedings of previous International Speleological Congresses and in Spelunca, among others. Publications have been made despite not all parts of the surveys of our team were made available to us and despite heavy pressure put on our persons. We obviously had also to care of our timeconsuming professional work and heavy responsibilities and activity in national and international speleological federations. Co-autorship has been given to team members who put their surveys in the pot. 50 km of cave maps have been published with detail and another 28 km has been published as simplified maps. In the final work, full data (maps, longitudinal sections and cross-sections) will be given.7. Welcoming new team membersWe welcomed all persons who expressed their interest in exploring caves of Khammouane with us. The conditions were co-signing publications and complementarity in everybodys speciality. Logically, no duplication of somebody elses work was permitted. Newcomers had to respect previous work and to bring something new and useful to the team: techniques, knowledge or at least participation to the team effort and friendship. Every year, the team leader (the first author) proposed the caves and passages to be explored. In the field, he did not hesitate to givebriefings on the current knowledge, to show the maps already drafted on gridded paper and to explain the objectives of the exploration. Newcomers were taught of caves newly discovered (see Chapter 3). They were made aware of unexplored passages in caves under study and even guided, when necessary, by the authors up to the starting point of the survey of virgin galleries. Often, they were helped in such virgin passages by JFV, even for mapping. This was a major real proof of our deep consideration for them, by providing them with easy-to make discoveries. The knowledge of unexplored galleries given to newcomers was largely the result of previous intense cave mapping work (see Chapter 3), as parts of passages under survey were left for the next campaigns. Giant underground volumes: discovery of more than a dozen of giant chambers, of wide-sized passages (up to 120 m wide). Cave sediments: studies of a number of fossil and present day sediments, with importance for the interpretation of cave genesis. Hydrology : identification of the main, binary and unary, karst watersheds in Khammouane, identification of the sinking points, springs and many of their mutual relations, study of floods and of low waters, characteristics of flooding effects at surface. Water chemistry: studies of chemical and physical characteristics of karst waters. Cave meteorology : repeated measurements in a number of caves at different seasons. Earthquake effects: the March 2011 Fukushima major earthquake was felt in a gallery located at the end of a funnel-shaped large chamber in the Nam Dn System. Exceptional sonic phenomena were observed there. Speleothems: among others, discovery of hollow stalagmites, pseudowallmites, rims, giant cave pisoliths, shields, circles of calcite, black circles, phosphate crusts, gypsum and moonmilk, giant speleothems such as pillars, rimstone pools, etc. Cave mineralogy: sequential discrete sampling (a few tens of grams) in relation with cave organisation and geology, Xray analyses, interpretation of thin sections, speleothem fabric. Archaeology: study of two caves with respectively 229 (Mouret et al. 2005) and more than 100 Buddha statues and other artefacts. Cave wall drawings and paintings (Ostermann et al. 2003). Biospeleology : study of cave macrofauna (buffaloes, wild boars, wild goats, snakes, rats, birds, bats, fishes, worms, crabs, the largest spider in the world and other arthropods) and microfauna. New species and genera. Palaeontology : discovery of rhinoceros bones (now extinct in the area) and of wild goats. Ethnospeleology: burial caves, hidden treasures related to Buddhism, cave use during Vietnam war, Buddhist caves, modern cliff and cave wall drawings, hunting and fishing in caves, caves as a link between villages, cave is money aspects. Cave and karst protection: respect for caves, selection of permanent paths for progression, recommendations, guidelines for protecting caves open to visitors, assistance to Tourism Authority of Khammouane and to provincial Governement. Active participation in UNESCO meeting for selecting new World Heritage areas in Asia and setting guidelines and recommendations for this. Photography and videography: comprehensive sets of photographs realized. Movies, shown at German TV. Promotion of ecotourism: promotion of selected caves for tourism. Tham Konglor, mapped by us in 1994 and after, is now one of the world landmarks for tourists. This has contributed to the large economic development of the valley. Guidelines for officials on caves and karst value.6. PublicationsDespite not everything has been published yet, we have produced more than 60 papers on our explorations (Mouret 2001) and results. A comprehensive work is in progress. AFigure 4. A fossil passage formed horizontally alongstrike of dipping carbonate beds, in Tham Phiseua. The slightly incised passage floor is covered with moonmilk and gypsum crust. For purpose of protection and respect, we walked only on the rocky shelf. Photo by J.-F. Vacqui. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings84


The purpose of this was to maintain motivation in the team. In addition, this allowed us better exploring and studying a cave, thanks to knowledge gained in others. We will see that this way of doing is not satisfactory because it generated unwelcomed consequences. For instance, a minor one is that a couple of persons lacked politeness by complaining that the virgin passages were not good enough for them. They refused admitting that the discoveries offered to them could easily have been kept by us for our own use. A major one is that they subsequently did not communicate any of their surveys. We feel that a few persons brought heavy disturbance and tried to kill our explorations and take them over, based on what they learnt from our knowledge. Recently among them, one or two never came with us in speleology.8. Six periods of exploration8.1. First period: pioneering (1991 to 1995) In 1991, CM started studying the geology of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic strata in Khammouane. A good number of cave entrances were located in the field or learnt of, e.g., Tham En in Phon Thiou area, Tham Thon, Grotte Marie Cassan, also the characteristic polje of Ban Vieng. Roads were rare, narrow and unsurfaced, so access to sites wasextremely difficult. Ongoing guerrilla rendered body guards compulsory. No foreigner can imagine today what Laos was at the time, as so much good progress has been made since. In 1992, the first author managed to set up a first exploration campaign, under difficult conditions. Perhaps the widest cave entrance known in the world (215 m across) was discovered. 1993 was a period of political instability and no exploration was allowed except two reconnaissance campaigns by CM. In early 1994, the authorization to explore caves was obtained again. Immediately in 1994, then in 1995, we re-explored, after precursors a century ago, and accurately mapped with detail two major world-class river caves, Tham Konglor and Tham X Bang Fai through-caves (see above). We started exploring the gigantic Tham Nam Non and clearly established its large potential (it is currently the longest in Laos over 29 km). 30 km of passages had already been surveyed in Khammouane by us as per 1995.Figure 5. A fossil passage in Tham Nam Non, with multistory rimstone dams. Photo by J.-F. Vacqui. 8.2. Second period: normal explorations (1996 to 1998) The team was enlarged. In 1996, the Nam Ngo springs area near the Vietnam border proved disappointing and the X Bang Fai could not be accessed because of vehicle failure. J.F. Vacqui discovered the Tham Houai Sai dry sinking stream. With CM, he discovered and started exploring Tham Kagnung, the only perennial sink in the polje of Ban Vieng. CM geological studies then indicated two spots to be checked in a large karst valley on the opposite side (SW) of the massif: they might be the resurgence(s) of Tham Kagnung and possibly Tham Houai Sai streams. This was the beginning of the knowledge of the Nam Dn System. In 1997, Tham Nam Non was continued. The resurgences deduced from the study of Tham Kagnung were effectively discovered, including the spring of the major Nam Dn, not shown on the then available 1:100,000 topographic map. CM surveyed the beginning of these three caves. Based on 1991 data, Tham Thon was spotted by CM and FB and mapped for over 2.5 km (FB drawer). In 1998, the area of Ban Nakhok was investigated (Tham Heup, Tham Th, Tham Nam Thieng). Tham Thon was mapped up to 8 km length. The Nam Dn caves (Tham Houay Sai and Tham Koun Dn) were mapped to over 7 km and CM wrote that their system would be no less than 25 km long. 8.3. Third period: so many worries (1999 to 2004) FB refused to join the team in 1999, despite our repeated invitations. He claimed he wanted to write papers with no co-author. Our focus was placed on Tham Nam Non, bringing the cave survey to over 21 km. After the 1999 campaign, we had already surveyed 60 km in the karst. In 2000, a newcomer (JMO) was invited by CM. Mapping Tham Houai Sai (in the polje of Ban Vieng) and Tham Houay Sai (in the Nam Dn valley) was significantly pushed further and Tham Phiseua was mapped from the entrance over more than 1.3 km. Tham Nong Kha showed at the ceiling the painting of a man. In 2001, Tham Houai Sai was pushed to 10 km. The fossil Tham L was discovered after CM questioned villagers, and mapped with three other colleagues. Tham Koun Houay Feuang (1997 CM-FB discovery) was surveyed. In 2002, Tham Phiseua, Tham L and the Nam Pakan valley (Tham Boumlou was first reached by JFV and three other colleagues) were studied. More wall drawings, including further human representations were discovered and studied. The karst of Lak Sao was investigated for the second time after 1991. More than 90 km had already been mapped in Khammouane by our team as per 2002. During the period, we suffered a number of problems: FB, then a national speleological bodyofficial, continued Tham Thon, with a team he set up on purpose, and joined it with another cave mapped in 2000 by captain Jouans team. In this way, a part of our work was diverted, as for two other caves discovered by CM. In 2001, FB mapped a passage in Tham Phiseua which branches from our 2000 discoveries without him. In 2002, he explored the resurgence of Nam Pakan that we had officially declared to a national speleological body as one of our objectives. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings85


In 2003, partly with a newcomer invited by JFV: CG, CM resurveyed (after Cassan 1948) Grotte Marie Cassan up to the final sump. We mapped other caves in the same area (Tham Khamouk, Tham Deua). With Y. Dreybrodt, the two authors accessed the sinking point of Nam Non and mapped Tham Song Dang over some 4.5+ km, this just after further mapping in Tham Phiseua. We were then at 105 km all together surveyed in the karst. In 2004, we went to Tham Phiseua; then we continued Tham Boumlou, while a team led by a national speleological body official was trying to push up from the resurgence. A sump prevented them invading the upstream part of the cave that we were exploring. We mapped Tham Phu discovered by CM; then we continued Tham L. 8.4. Fourth period: apparent peacefulness or the wolf in sheeps clothing (2004 to 2005) Again in 2004, after the discovery of Tham Pa Fa by a villager, CM was invited by the Tourism Authority of Khammouane to study the cave and he asked CG to join. In 2005, we focused on Tham Nam Non, Tham Phiseua and especially the Nam Dn System. Many results remained unavailable to us despite repeated promises. 8.5. Fifth period: new big worries (2006 to 2009) 2006 was a good year for exploration and a bad one for human relations in the team. A group of four persons that we, JFV or CM, had invited to join our team, one in 2000, one in 2003 and two in 2004 were especially aggressive. CM had invited for 2006 a team of divers abandoned by their leader, who was with us in 2005 upon invitation by CM. The Nam Dn System was further mapped, as was Tham Phiseua and Tham L. A dozen of kilometres were surveyed, but many of them are not available to us. In 2007, focus was placed by CM on the X Bang Fai, which was newly accessible again. In 2008, two of the aggressive team members tried to take over the leadership using a number of disputable ways. The X Bang Fai area was on focus again and, upon CMs proposal, further work in the Grotte Marie Cassan area. Later on, we realised that, as in 2006, we were not told all the truth.Figure 6. The entrance to fossil Tham L (tree for scale). Photo by C. Mouret (2006). For 2009, CM put on the program further work in the Nam Non area. As so many surveyed kilometres were concealed by a few team members, it was decided that the latter would map separate caves, in order that our own work be not jeopardized. The two authors both discovered Tham Kwan Ha after a long prospection and operated a large part of the mapping work. They were unduly overtaken in the cave by two other team members while doing so. This latter behavior resulted, together with the long-concealed surveys, in a serious explanation. A few months later, the team split, due to said unwillingness to work together. Subsequently, the other team used all diverted results as a capital to attract new and many people around them. 8.6. Sixth period: remapping missing parts (2009 to 2013) The two authors understood that they would never receive the missing parts of the surveys that they asked for so many times during six years: 49 km altogether, probably a world record, this from a few persons only! Therefore, our publications were blocked and a part of our own surveys had become useless, due to lack of link with more proximal parts of caves. So, we decided to resurvey the missing parts, in order to publish. At the end of 2009, the two authors resurveyed and checked enough data of the X Bang Fai to produce a paper in Spelunca Bulletin. In 2010, together with Terry Bolger, they further explored Tham Nam Non and Tham Koun Dn Houay Sai in the Nam Dn System, making a very good mapping breakthrough in a giant maze area. Meanwhile, the other team went partly to caves already under advanced mapping by us, partly to caves started by them in 2009 and largely to a major cave about which they told us in 2008 that there was no continuation, after we taught them the entrance. In 2011, the authors and Jacques Rolin resurveyed missing passages mainly in Tham Nam Non, Nameless Cave, Tham Kwan Ha, Tham Phu and in the Nam Dn System. CM wrote that the length of the latter was likely to be over 50 km long. During that campaign, the authors made the bitter experience to find out that the other team had also been mapping the Nam Dn System, after the publication of our report on 2010 work. At the next 2011 peak dry season, the two authors further explored and mapped the System, as well as Tham Phiseua, Tham Houai Sai (>10 km), studied Tham Phanoi and made further studies in Tham Heup and Tham Nam Thieng. They went again into the karst at the end of Year 2011, pushing the Nam Dn System, Tham Phiseua and the Tham Nam Non mapping. In 2012, the other team returned to the Nam Dn System in February, our usual period of exploration. Therefore, the authors and J. Rolin could go there at the end of the dry season only. The previous elevation of Tham Phiseua (+465 m, a figure based on GPS control by CG in 2005 and checked by us with GPS and Google Earth in 2012) was revised by us to a lower value, but we gained another +24 m and now accept a +467 m value. Our mentor and excellent friend in Laos, Mr. Vannivong History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings86


Soumpholphakdy, passed away no long after this 25thcampaign, after having organised for us the Laotian part of the logistics since 1994, in close co-operation. At the end of 2012, we payed respects to our friends ashes, then we continued the Nam Dn System, Tham Kwan Ha and other caves, as he liked, until the first days of 2013. We continue our work in Khammouane in his honour. Early 2013, more caves we are exploring are being investigated by the other team.9. Relations with other teamsOn our own, our wish was (and still is, despite adversity) to maintain good relations with people. We had no special problem with teams from other countries and a few teams from our country. However, we have to face the paramount problems arisen from persons that we kindly invited and trusted. They came with us, learnt about the caves we discovered and explored, collected scientific knowledge and contacts from us, including the way how going through in the country and a good picture of our ideas and program. Now they use our elective time period during the dry season and all our usual facilities. They continue, on their own and with a very large team, the exploration of caves which were started mapping by our team and regularly continued by us until today, rather than to look for unexplored caves, still so numerous in such a large karst. In this way, we are dispossessed from a large part of our investment in time, money, effort and knowledge and of our results by persons that we welcomed and soon did not respect the rules of the team Among the so many persons who came with us, many have been very correct.10. Conclusion: protecting our work and proposal for written contractsDespite clear mention to newcomers of the way how the team works, a few (though too many!) persons did not respect the rules and cheated the rest of the team, with 49 km of diverted mapped passages. No less than eight caves that we discovered, mapped and studied (black dots on Figure 1) have been continued to be explored by others without our approval, despite our many publications and clear statements that they were under study. 1.5 month after the printing of our paper on Tham Nam Non, others dived inside without informing us. We continued and continue exploring all caves we discovered during our 26 campaigns over a time span of 23 years already, a lifetime investment which, we feel, has been deliberately jeopardized by invited persons. Our experience may happen to other speleologists, especially when good results are achieved So, requesting any team member, especially newcomers, signing a full written contract is nowadays a must and our deep recommendation, with all aspects duly documented. Changing world and mentalities have largely moved traditional respect, friendship, trustfulness and verbal agreements into the abysses of a past lost for ever. It is preferable facing the future with a re-adjusted behavior designed to better fit todays reality.AcknowledgmentsOur exploration campaigns have been possible thanks to the help of Mr. Claude Vincent, then of Mr. Vannivong Soumpholphakdy. We cherish their memory and continue our explorations in their honour. Nothing would have been possible without our many friends and our families. Definitely, we have loved Laos since our first contact and we do appreciate the wonderful people and magnificent nature. Seeing the country changing permanently toward a good and fascinating future is a great pleasure.ReferencesMouret C, 2001. Le karst du Khammouane au Laos central. Dix ans dexplorations. Spelunca Bull., 84, 7. Mouret C, 2004. Khammouan, Laos-Vietnam. In: Gunn J. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science, Fitzroy Dearborn publisher, 483. Mouret C, Ghommidh C, 2005. Dcouverte dune grotte exceptionnelle au Laos: Tham Pa Fa (Khammouane). SploClub de Paris Publ., Proc. 14thRencontre dOctobre, 58. Mouret C, Nogus X, Noiriel C, Vacqui J-F, Lordon J, Guichard E, 2003. Distribution des coulements dans la partie centrenord du karst du Khammouane, Laos, la latitude des rivires Nam Bout et Nam Pakan. Splo-Club de Paris Publ., Proc. 13th Rencontre dOctobre, 94. Mouret C, Ostermann J-M, Khamlasy K, 2001. Un marqueur de lvolution du karst du Khammouane, Laos Central : Tham Phi Seua. Splo-Club de Paris Publ., Proc. 11thRencontre dOctobre, 73. Mouret C, Vacqui J-F, 1993. Deux coulements karstiques souterrains du Laos Central. Spelunca Bull., 51, 41. Mouret C, Vacqui J-F, Lordon J, Thierry L, 2009. Le rseau karstique gant de Tham Nam Non au Khammouane, le plus long du Laos. Spelunca Bull., 116, 27. Mouret C, Vacqui J-F, Collignon B, Thierry Rolin J, Steiner H, 2010. La rivire souterraine gante de Tham X Bang Fai et le rseau karstique associ. Spelunca Bull., 119, 35. Ostermann J-M, Mouret C, 2004. Dcouverte de figurations paritales dans des grottes et abris du Khammouane, Laos central. Spelunca Bull., 35, 35.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings87


SIGNIFICANT ERRORS OF SOME THESSALONICAS GEOLOGISTS AND ARCHAEOLOGISTS REGARDING PETRALONA CAVENickos A. Poulianos Paleoanthropologist Greek Ministry of Culture, former president of the Anthropological Association of Greece, 7Daphnomili st, Athens 11471, Greece, For more than half a century Petralona cave is known mainly due to the discovery during 1960 of a human fossil skull. Its morphology revealed primitive europeoid traits, corresponding to approximately 700,000 years ago. In this concept Petralona man represents the eldest ancestor of the Europeans that used a particular pre-Acheulian Palaeolithic culture, accompanied by the first known traces of fire. The above conclusions entered into excessively strong debates for several decades, mainly by various scholars of N. Greece. According to the authors point of view these debates are due to (and/or led to) significant errors, concerning even damages to the Petralona human skull, to other findings, and to the cave chambers. The lack of research and excavating permissions over the last 30 years to several scientists all over the world intensified the related problems, preventing a closer approach within an open and sincere scientific dialog.1. Introductory historyPetralona Cave was incidentally discovered in May 1959, on the Chalkidiki Peninsula (Macedonia, N. Greece). It is located at an elevation of ~300 m above sea level on the western slopes of the Kalavros (Katsika) Mountain. In September 1960 an almost intact human skull was discovered in a small chamber. Initially the fossil material was considered unstratified (mixed by running water) and of Upper Pleistocene age (~50,000,000 years old). In accordance with this chronology the human skull was therefore considered to be that of a Neanderthal woman, with a similar morphology to African skulls (cf. Kokkoros and Kanellis 1960; Breitinger 1964; Sickenberg 1964: Marinos et al. 1965). Macedonia the newspaper of Thessalonica was the first on 18thSeptember 1960 to report about the discovery of Petralona man, publishing photography of the skull. Aris Poulianos (father of the author) was working in the same year on his PhD thesis The Origin of Greeks (its main conclusion being that there is an uninterrupted presence of the same population in the Helladic area, as well as most of the Balkans since prehistoric times) under the guidance of Academician G. F. Debetz in Moscow. Therefore and because Petralona man was indirectly connected to his thesis, A. Poulianos (1961) sent a first short note to Voprossi Antropologhii, based on the picture published in the above-referred newspaper. Also, the Petralona discovery triggered A. Poulianos return to Greece at the earliest possible time and, within the context of a huge effort to re-initiate anthropology to its motherland, he started exploringnd the Petralona Cave in 1965 (cf. A. Poulianos 1967, 1971). Soon he came to the conclusion that Petralona man was: (1) a male and not a female, (2) europeoid and not africanoid, (3) and belonged to the Lower to Middle Pleistocene (~700,000 years old) and not to the Upper Pleistocene, and that he therefore was (4) a praeneanderthalian Archanthropus (i.e. an archaic Homo sapiens, also referred to asa late Homo erectus or even a Homo heidelbergensis) and not a classical Neanderthal. It is therefore the first europeoid, that practiced his own Palaeolithic culture and important for our general understanding of the hominisation process. The Lower to Middle Pleistocene age is based on the detailed analysis of the cave stratigraphy (34 geological layers have been excavated until today). It is also based on the study of the Palaeolithic tools, as well as the exact diagnosis of the Palaeofauna that was discovered in almost all layers. Among the fossils of extinct species such as lions, hyenas, bears, panthers, elephants, rhinos, megacerines, bisons, various species of dear and equids were found, as well as 25 species of birds, 16 species of rodents and 17 species of bats. A considerable factor that helped in reconfirming the age of Petralona man contributed methods of advanced by nuclear physics. The materials used for such a purpose were bones, clay, stalagmites and ashes, the earliest traces of fire that have been lightened by human hands on Earth. The systematic excavations of the site proceeded mainly during 1974 under the auspices of the Anthropological Association of Greece (AAG foundedin 1971 by Dr. A. Poulianos), a large scientific groupwith 52 prominent specialists from twelve countriesthat was formed to support the studies. Researchers as B. Kourten (Finland), M. Kretzoi (Hungary), M. Ikeya (Japan), P. Bosak and I. Horacek (Czech Republic), G. Belluomini (Italy), A. Moigne (France), R. Murrill (U.S.A.), are among the most known authorities engaged in the studies, applying also many innovative scientific methods. The Lower to Middle Pleistocene chronological considerations were also reconfirmed by the author, while correlating Petralona with Razdolje, Stranska Skala, Mosbach, Isernia and other Lower to Middle Pleistocene sites (cf. N. Poulianos 1989). During this same period A. Poulianos advanced his excavations, publishing dozens of articles and in 1981 he built the Anthropological Museum of the AAG next to the cave at his own expenses. In 1989 and 1998 the author defended his two PhD theses, the first at the Florence Anthropological Institute of the State University in Italy and the second at the Prague Geological Institute of the Academy of Science. In 1997 new catalogs of the fossils were compiled, this time in a digital form. This process was unfortunately advanced History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings88


with no state support and under tremendously adverse conditions. As a consequence N. Poulianos in 2008 wrote: to this digitalization purpose the most scientific effort of the Anthropological Association of Greece is directed The new data were presented for the first time at the UIS Congress at Sheffield by N. Poulianos (1977), who already participated as a high school student in the Olomouc UIS Congress in 1973(cf. Sifneos and Poulianos 1974). New data were also presented at the UIS congresses at Kentucky, Barcelona, Brasilia, Kalamos (Attica, Greece) and more recently at Kerrville, 2009 by the author (cf. also detailed bibliography at 6petrlona/bibliography/bibliography.html). On the other hand almost 1,000 articles, radio and TV reports concerning the AAG contribution to Petralona cave studies have being brought to the public in Greek and other languages (cf. in Today Petralona Cave bejewelled with stalagmites and stalactites is a touristic destination and at the same time constitutes an excavating site of considerable importance for many aspects regarding the passage from the end of the Lower to the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene. Prehistory, stratigraphy, palaeontology, archaeometry, palaeoecology, biostratigraphy and palaeoanthropolgy are the main topics under continuous investigation. These topics attracted a broad international interest and stimulated extensive studies of the site, leading to manifold discussions especially regarding the chronology of the cave. However, several scholars were reluctant to accept the above-referred revisions and others have never accepted them. As a result, the opponents of Dr. A. Poulianos managed to cause the interruption of the research three times. The first interruption was effected under the military junta (1967). The second was caused more recently (1983), i.e. in democratic times. The third interruption occurred on 4thApril 2011, when AAG was again expelled from Petralona cave by an illegal (according to the appeals of the attorney Nicolas Triples) court decision. During all of the interruptions many excavating data disappeared (findings, diaries, catalogues etc.), indicating that medieval mentality still survives within scientific circles even in the 21stcentury. In order to challenge the chronologies of Dr. A. Poulianos, some Thessaloniki-based geologists tried to date directly the skull by the method of amino acid racemisation. This method could not then surpass 200,000 years, but the amount of bone used caused severe damages to the skull. Since 1979 Dr A. Poulianos and especially other non-Greek anthropologists (Murril 1980 from USA; Hennig et al. 1982; Protsch 1983 from Germany; and Stringer 1983 from England) had published their concerns addressed by AAG also to the Greek Government about the catastrophic interventions made on the human skull by cutting off bone pieces. However, this matter was never investigated. A committee of Thessaloniki geologists and archeologists ignored the above-mentioned palaeoanthropological data, declaring that they observed no damages. To my understanding unless an international committee is formed with the participation of at least one AAG member, the matter will not be solved soon. Since the Petralona human skull belongs to the international prehistoric heritage, its protection should become of first priority today.2. Last decade statusBesides never investigating the mentioned damages on the Petralona skull and never discussing the new evidence for the Petralona chronology, the Greek Archaeological Service also failed to address concerns on other important issues: I. Due to the long established Czech-Hellenic collaboration and the high scientific standards of Czech Geologists and Speleologists, AAG invited Dr. Pavel Bosak (and today our Brno UIS President) along with Dr. Ivan Horacek to visit Petralona Cave end of 2005 in order to formulate a program for further research with new techniques on speleogennesis and archaeometry. Along with the official and detailed proposals towards theArchaeological Service, the financial support of approximately a quarter million Euros was offered by the Czech Academy including also EU funds. Until now and despite the huge economic crisis during the last years, a response was not provided. At Kerrville in 2009 Dr.Pavel Bosak renewed his proposals, but again there was notany reply, demonstrating that in Greece the official apparatus did not function properly. Specifically in Bosaks 2009 letter is written: On behalf of the Czech Academy and in continuation of the 2005 proposal at investigating the speleogenesis, as well as the chronology of stalagmitic materials from Petralona Cave, I would like to renew the possibility of proceeding with such a program. Herewith, it is also noted that only for the next year (2010) there will be still the possibility of covering all lab and transportation expenses by the Czech part, and that the co respective results may be presented in the next (16th) International Congress of Speleology, which will be held in Brno during 2013. Kerrville, Texas, USA, July 21st2009, Pavel Bosak, VicePresident of the International Union of SpeleologyFigure 1.Dr. Aris Poulianos explaining the significance of the Petralona cavestratigraphy. 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II. In 2007 Professors of Geology & Palaeontology at Thessalonica University published a bilingual book (in Greek and English) regarding Petralona Cave (Koufos and Tsoukala 2007). In this book many mistakes are reported (some also supported by state archaeologists), but the most evident concern are: A) The authors deny the existence of a stratigraphy in Petralona Cave, in order to question the correlation that exists between the chamber where the Petralona skull was found and the caves stratigraphic sequence (cf. Fig. 1). B) Another distortion regarded the place and cave chamber that Petralona man was found as doubtful, in order to even more confuse the entire picture. Here it is worth of mentioning that the same issue was in details discussed at the Budapest UIS Congress, and further published on many occasions (p. ex. in both of N. Poulianos PhD theses). However, these bibliographical data were again totally ignored. III. During the aforementioned illegal abolishment of 4thApril 2011, AAG officially asked several times to produce commonly accepted catalogues of the findings together with the state employees. The authorities denied even this simple and absolutely necessary action, for a number of the about 100,000 findings deposited in the Anthropological Museum. By the end of November 2012 it became also known that the Archaeological Services started to rename and/or renumber findings that have been already published before, an action that surely will lead to great confusion in the future and violates common scientific rules as well as the rights of the first publishers. IV. After the illegal abolishment of AAG in 4thApril 2011, the Central Archaeological Council (CAC) decided that all of the drawings reproduced by one of the most important Greek folk painters, the late Christos Kagaras (resistance fighter against the Nazi occupation of Greece), must be covered and hidden as not adherent with the findings of Petralona Cave. This is unfortunately not correct, since these paintings (today displayed only on the AAG affiliated website) are referred to the prehistoric inhabitants of the Petralona region. Others of his drawings represent also the evolution of life, inspired from another great painter, the Czech Augusta Burian. It is worth mentioningthat the former President of France, Valery Giscard dEstaing, during his visit to Petralona exalted Kagaras paintings, calling them magnifique. CAC also decided to remove many sculptures made by Agella Korovessi who was the silver (2nd) winner at Beijing 2008 Olympic Art Games. Protests of AAG as well as of the main Greek artistic organization never reached the states ears. Also, the sculpture of a Miocene giraffe, 3 m high, being the biggest tourist attraction, did not escape (in September 2012) from todays barbarism. It is estonishing that during our current economic crisis state funding was not only available to destroy artistic representations but also among other similar irrational actions to replace the existing perfectly functional central gate with a very expensive one October 2012. V. On several occasions to both Poulianos even a simple lecture to schoolchildren or to a tourist group in front of the Petralona Cave was forbidden upon absurdexcuses (claiming that the excavators are not granted to such rights).Figure 2. Ivan Horacek, Aris Poulianos and Pavel Bosak in the Anthropological Museum of Petralona Cave 24 Oct. 2005 (from newspaper Chaos). Figure 3. A picture of Ch. Kagaras, indicating prehistoric inhabitants of Petralona cave hunting a rhino. Figure 4.The giraffe referred to in the text as it was until October 2012. Figure 5.The giraffe referred in the text, as it is destroyed and lying on the ground today (18thNovember 2012) 150 m away from the entrance of Petralona cave.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings90


VI. The marble keystone of the Petralona Anthropological Museum was removed at the end of 2011. On this keystone it was carved that the Greek state inaugurated the building in 1978 on the initiatives of Dr Aris N. Poulianos. VII. On 8thMarch 2012 a masked man tresspassed the house of Aris Poulianos and his wife Daphne (200 m near the cave) attacking them with a rifle. The 88 years old anthropologist struggled with the gunman in order to stall him and give his wife the time to escape to the woods. As a result he got injured and received seven stitches at the local hospital. The gunman stole money he found and managed to get away. The most interesting issue is that as the state faces economic hardship no budget was allocated to post guards after 2011, and it was done so without informing the Poulianos family. VIII. Duringsummer 2011 CAC services provided unreal data to the Greek Parliament concerning the financial aspects of the cave. Until now no formal investigation started on the topic. IX. For one and a half year and for thee consecutive times the CAC services refused to the author (as well as to Dr. E. Kambouroglou and Dr V. Giannopoulos members of ISCA scientific committees) the study of the material deposited in the Anthropological Museum, while at the same time from its exhibition hall many findings are missing, as for example a fossil leaf covered by stalagmitic material. The photo of this leave is published in the Greek version of the journal Economist Intelligent Life in November 2012. Again, no answer was ever given to what happened to this fossil leaf. X. Since almost two years 13 employees of the AAG, all from Petralona village, are sent to unemployment for no apparent reason, augmenting this tremendous phenomenon of the Greek society. The President of the European Anthropological Association, Professor C. G. Nicholas Mascie-Taylor, in 5thSeptember 2012, summarized most of the above points, in a distress letter towards to the Greek Archaeological Service (where it was given the general protocol number 992999 on 28-9-2012): University of Cambridge,Head of Department of Archaeology and Anthropology Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QY, Tel: +44 (0) 1223 335456, Email: To the Greek Ministry of Education, Religions, Culture and Sports, Bouboulinas 20-22, Athens 106 82, Greece 5 September 2012 Dear Sir, I am writing on behalf of the European Anthropological Association, which is the umbrella professional and academic association linking all of the national European biological anthropology and human biology societies, to express our concerns about the conservation of the Petralona Cave and Skull, the misinformation of the dating of the skull, as well as the treatment of personnel associated with the conservation of the Cave. The bases of our concerns are that the skull has been damaged through many scratches and the crown of a tooth (1stright molar) cut off. As requested by Anthropological Association of Greece what is required is a detailed description of the present status of the skull, so that no one in future can arbitrarily damage it further. There is also the problem of dating which has been scientifically dated at about 700,000 years ago not 300,000 as is given at the Figure 6. The keystone as it was until 2011. Figure7. The empty space on the Anthropological Museums wall, indicating where the keystone was until 2011. Figure 8. The fossil leaf referred to in the text. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings91


information desk (today in front of the cave) There is a very detailed record of the excavations and findings which need to receive further public presentation but which have never been catalogued so as to prevent specimens going missing. It is very unfortunate that the Greek Archaeological Department stopped Dr. Aris Poulianos from further work in the Cave without any explanation. It is also very worrying that Dr. Poulianos and his wife were physically attacked and injured in their home earlier this year and the culprits have not been found. He was also verbally abused when attempting to give an invited presentation to teachers and school children. Senior anthropologists and geologists have also been denied access to the Cave and the specimens for further study on a number of occasions without substantive reasons. Earlier this year there has also been misinformation given to the Greek Parliament concerning financial aspects of the Cave. I look forward to receiving answers to these questions. Yours faithfully Professor C G N Mascie-Taylor MA, PhD, ScD (all Cambridge), FSB, FNAS (Hungary)3. Instead of an epilogueAccording to Dr. A. Poulianos all of the above questionable and rather suspicious events are due to the attempt of some state employees to receive EU funds for a project that already exists, presenting it as their own. Hopefully, the AAG along with the support of the International Scientific Community will not allow this to happen, especially because of the duty to protect Petralonas international and cultural heritage. It is also an expectation that the Archaeological Service will start to change the way it functions and will awaken especially with regards to public interest.ReferencesBelluomini G, Delitala L, Poulianos A, Poulianos N, 1988. Epimerization ages of fossil teeth from Petralona Cave (Northern Greece). Abstracts of the 2ndPanellenic Congress of Anthropology. May 27, Athens 1988. Report published under the title: The Man of Petralona, an estimated age by amino acid racemization dating. Anthropos 12, 59. Athens, 1990. Breitinger E, 1964. Der Neanderthaler von Petralona. Communication at the 7thInternational Congress of Anthropological and Enthnological Sciences, Moscow. August 1964. Hennig G, Herr W, Weber E, Xirotiris N, 1982. Petralona Cave dating controversy (reply).Nature, 299, 281. Horacek I, Poulianos N, 1988. Further data on bats of the Early Pleistocene site, Petralona, Greece. Abstracts of the 2ndPanellenic Congress of Anthropology. May 27, Athens 1988. Published in Anthropos, 12, 50. Ikeya M, 1980. ESR dating of carbonates at Petralona Cave. Athens. Anthropos, 7, 143. Kokkoros P, Kanellis A, 1960. Decuverte dun crane dhomme Palaeolithique dans la Peninsule Chalcidique. LAnthropologie, 64 (5), 438. Kretzoi M, 1977. The Fauna of small vertebrates of the Middle Pleistocene at Petralona. Athina. Anthropos, 4, 131. Kretzoi M, Poulianos N, 1981. Remarks on the Middle and Lower Pleistocene vertebrate fauna in the Petralona Cave. Athens. Anthropos, 8, 57. Koufos G, Tsoukala E, 2007. Petralona: one cave, one praehistory. Ed. Thessaloniki Un, 135. Kurten B, 1983. The age of Petralona Man. The proceedings of the 3rdEuropean and 1stPanhellenic Anthropological Congresses. Athens. Anthropos, 10, 16. Kurten B, Poulianos A, 1977. New Stratigraphic and Faunal material from Petralona Cave with special reference to the Carnivora. Athens. Anthropos, 4, 47. Marinos G, Giannoulis P, Sotiriadis L, 1965. Palaeoanthropological research at the Petralona Cave Chalkidiki. Epist. Epetiris of the Fisic Matem. Fac. of Thessaloniki University, 9, 140. Moigne AM, 1983. Macrofauna of la Caune de lArago Tautavel France. Anthropos, 10, 257. Protsch R, 1983. Two letters to the Anthropological Association of Greece. (23-11-1982 & 22-8-1983). Proceedings of the 3rdEuropean and 1stPanhellenic Anthropological Congresses. Athens, Anthropos, 10, 71. Poulianos A, 1961. Discovery of a skull of Palaeolithic Man in Greece. Voprossi Anthropologhii, 8, 162. Poulianos A, 1967. The Place of the Petralonian man among Palaeoanthropi Anthropos C 19, (N.S.11), 216. Akten Anthropologischen Kongresses Brno. Poulianos A, 1971. Petralona: A middle Pleistocene Cave in Greece. Archaeology, 24, 61. Poulianos N, 1977. New data on the stratigraphy of Petralona Cave. Proceedings of the 7thInt. Spel. Congress. Sheffield (1977), 366. Poulianos N, 1981. The Archanthropinae of Petralona Cave. In: Beck BF (Ed.), Dep. of Geol., Georgia Proceedings of the 8thInt. Congress of Speleology, July 18, 1981, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, 508. Poulianos N, 1989. Petralona Cave within lower-middle Pleistocene sites. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 73, 287. Poulianos N, 1998. Pleistocene mammals of Petralona Cave Chalkidiki, N. Greece. PhD thesis on Palaeontolgy defended at the Geological Institutes of the Check Academy and Charles University, Prague. Poulianos N, 2005. A tooth of a second human from Petralona Mausoleum. Proceedings of the 14thInternational Congress of Spelaeology, Kalamos Attica 21 August 2005, v. 2, 574. (Reproduced also in the present website with color and more photos). Poulianos N, 2008. Petralonae Palaeolithicum The eldest technology of modern humans. Athens, 340. Sickenberg O, 1964. Die Sugetierfauna der Hhle Petralona bei Thessaloniki (preliminary report). Athen. Institute for Geology and Subsurface Research, IX(1), 3. Sifneos A, Poulianos N, 1974. The 6thInternational Congress of Speleology (in Greek). Anthropos, 1, 107. Stringer CB, 1983. Some further notes on the morphology and the dating of the Petralona hominid. Journal of Human Evolution, 12 (8), 731.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings92


THE RIO CAMUY CAVE SYSTEM, PUERTO RICO, AFTER 55 YEARS OF SPELEOLOGYRonald T. Richards Universidad del Turabo and Sociedad Espeleolgica de Puerto Rico Inc (SEPRI), PO Box 366894, San Juan, PR, USA 00936-6894, Speleology began in Puerto Rico in 1958. Russell Gurnee led the expeditions that explored the Ro Camuy Cave System and was the person who proposed that it be protected by the government. The Parque Nacional de las Cavernas de Ro Camuy opened in 1986. Gurnee was also a founding member of several speleological organizations on the island. Most speleological publications about Puerto Rico have been written in English by non-Puerto Ricans. In the field, Speleology in Puerto Rico has always been carried out in both Spanish and English. Ideas developed in the caves and karst of Puerto Rico have been applied to other areas like Guam and China. Five caves in the Ro Camuy Cave System have all been managed differently. Cueva Clara de Empalme is a successful show cave. It is difficult for scientists to obtain permission to visit Tres Pueblos which is the river level of the system. Cueva Angeles is used for extreme ecotourism and is too expensive for most locals to visit. Cueva Humo has no management and Cueva Ensueo is a failed show cave. The composition of the floating material in the cave system has changed over the last 55 years. Originally it was logs and leaves and now includes manmade garbage like tires and plastic bottles. The air temperature of the cave system ranges from 21.2 C in February to 24.3 C in August. The water temperature is near 22.6 C and the relative humidity is around 90.6 percent.1. IntroductionSpeleology began in Puerto Rico in February 1958. The previous month Russell Gurnee had almost died in a snowstorm outside of Gage Caverns in New York, USA. One of the cavers in the group was Jos Limeres, a Puerto Rican doctor who practiced in Newark, New Jersey, USA. They decided that their next caving trip would be in a warmer place like Puerto Rico. After visiting a number of caves in the southwestern part of the island, on their last day in the field they went to northwest Puerto Rico where the geologic maps said that there was limestone. In 1958 very little was known about the geology of Puerto Rico. While driving alongside the Ro Camuy they stopped and talked to the local residents who took them to Cueva Humo and Cueva Clara de Empalme. It would be ten years before they knew that these two caves were part of the same system, the Ro Camuy Cave System. The Ro Camuy Cave System is in the municipios of Camuy, Hatillo, Lares, and Utuado. Municipios are inclusive and are the equivalent of counties in the United States. Later that year Gurnee presented a paper about Puerto Rico at the Second International Congress of Speleology in Bari, Italy (Gurnee and Gurnee 1974) which is about 800 km south of Brno, Czech Republic. A trend began in 1958 that has continued to today. Speleology in Puerto Rico is carried out both by Puerto Ricans and people from the United States. Most of the speleologists from the United States who have worked in Puerto Rico have been members of the National Speleological Society (NSS). At one point, Gurnee was the president of the NSS. In the field Spanish is crucial to obtain information from the people who live near the caves. The 1958 trip did not discover anything new because they were lead to the cave entrances and into the caves by the local residents and no cave exploration could have taken place without the language skills of Limeres. Most of what has been published about the caves of Puerto Rico has been published in English by people from the United States whose first language is English. Some of the speleologists publishing about Puerto Rico have been people like Russell and Jeanne Gurnee or Joan and John Mylroie (Mylroie and Mylroie 2007) who have never lived on the island but have made many trips and know the island well. Others have been people from the English speaking countries who have lived on the island for many years. This list would include Joseph Troester (Troester and White 1986), Tom Miller (Winter et al. 2011), and this author (Richards et al. 1998). A similar situation exists in other fields of environmental science in Puerto Rico. Most of what has been published about birds and water resources has been published in English by non-Puerto Ricans. Speleology is the scientific study and documentation of caves. Publishing is crucial to Speleology. Before 1958 caves in Puerto Rico were part of the resource base and were used in many different ways but were not seen as subjects of study and documentation. As humans we are driven to make art and the oldest known art is in caves in France and Spain. Caves in Puerto Rico have been used for artwork both by the Tainos who were on the island when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1493 and by the Christians who make up the majority of the population today. For many decades people have gone in caves in Puerto Rico to mine guano, obtain water, and search for crabs and shrimp to eat. In the 1960s when Russell and Jeanne Gurnee were exploring the cave system, bananas were grown in the Tres Pueblos sinkhole at the entrances to the cave system and carried out over 100 m vertically on the backs of men. Isla de Mona is an uninhabited island that is 70 km offshore and has been politically part of Puerto Rico since the 16thcentury. Between 1887 and 1927, 150 Gg of guano were removed from the island (Frank 1998). Guano is rich in phosphorus and is used as fertilizer. In 1950 the Nationalist Party organized an armed insurrection against the United States and its colonial dominance over Puerto Rico. For years the author has heard rumors that Cueva History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings93


Aguas Buenas in Aguas Buenas was used by the Nationalist Party to store rifles and I have spoken to a life-long member of the party who said that he has spoken to the person who removed the rifles. Russell Gurnee was an advocate of Conservation through Development where part of the cave would be commercialized and turned into a show cave. The revenues from the visitors would provide the funds to protect the cave as a whole. Gurnee produced development plans for a number of caves in Puerto Rico. His designs often included expensive items like elevators and cable cars. No cave in Puerto Rico has ever been developed according to the plans developed by Gurnee. For the Ro Camuy, Gurnee proposed an elevator to enter the cave, a trail with bridges that would take the visitors along the Ro Camuy above Tres Pueblos but high enough to be above most floods, and a cable car to lift the people out of the Tres Pueblos sink. Instead of the Gurnee plan, the government of Puerto Rico adopted a cheaper and shorter plan that has the tourists visiting only the higher and drier Cueva Clara de Empalme. This study will give an overview of the status of Speleology in Puerto Rico and will look at how five caves that are in the Ro Camuy Cave System or its drainage area are currently managed. The five caves that will be discussed in this paper are Cueva Clara de Empalme, Tres Pueblos, Angeles, Humo, and Ensueo. The five caves have five different management statuses. One is a show cave, one is protected and seldom visited, one is used for extreme ecotourism, one has no protection, and one is a failed show cave.2. Speleology in Puerto Rico in the 21stcenturySpeleology includes exploration, documentation, scientific research about caves, publication, education, protection, and organizing support activities like search and rescue. These objectives are generally organized by speleological organizations. Organized Speleology in Puerto Rico has undergone several forms. In the 1970s the Gurnees and cavers resident in Puerto Rico organized a grotto of National Speleological Society (NSS). This was the first grotto of the NSS outside of the United States. Later some of the Puerto Rican members felt that Puerto Rico should have a national speleological organization in the same way that the island has a team at the Olympics separate from the United States. In 1976, the Sociedad Espeleolgica de Puerto Rico Inc (SEPRI) was organized with the Sociedad Espeleolgica de Cuba as its inspiration. Russell and Jeanne Gurnee were founding members of SEPRI. There have been divisions over the years and today the organization that represents Speleology in Puerto Rico on the international level is the Federacin de Espeleolgia de Puerto Rico (FEPUR). Today in Puerto Rico there are four speleological organizations in FEPUR. The four groups have varying levels of activity. Two of the organizations have monthly public meetings and organize regular field work. In Puerto Rico, over the last 20 years, exploration and mapping has shifted from the main island to Isla de Mona. In 1992, Joseph Troester was working for the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and he organized a series of field trips to Isla de Mona which included both resident and off-island scientists. John Mylroie had developed his ideas on flank margin caves in the smaller caves of the Bahamas and he was invited to visit Isla de Mona because it is a place where his ideas would be tested on a larger scale. The Earth has an estimated 40,000 islands of which 30,000 are tropical. Good science on one oceanic tropical island should be applicable to other oceanic tropical islands. Today Mylroie is using his flank margin cave model to study the geologically more complex Mariana Islands in the Pacific (Stafford et al. 2005). The two largest of the Mariana Islands are Guam and Saipan. The Mariana Islands are next to the Mariana Trench, the deepest point in the oceans of our planet. Puerto Rico is next to the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest point in any ocean outside of the Pacific. Ideas developed in the karst of Puerto Rico can also be applied to continental settings. With a diameter of 305 m, the Arecibo Telescope is the largest radio telescope in the world and is essential in tracking asteroids that might at some point in the future collide with the Earth. The genius of the telescope is the idea that because the karst processes naturally form the bottom of a sinkhole into the shape of a telescope mirror, the telescope will be less expensive than if you tried to carve the rocks into that shape. Today there is a discussion of using multiple sinkholes in China to build a larger radio telescope. The project is known as Super Arecibo (Baoyan and Jingli 2008). Today not all aspects of Speleology in Puerto Rico are at the same level. Unfortunately, on the main island of Puerto Rico there has been very little publication of cave maps in the last 20 years. At the same time decades of educational work has left large segments of the general population with the idea that caves should be protected. It is common to find caves that have been used as garbage dumps but in many cases it is clear that the dumping took place decades ago. Leaders of speleological organizations are available to give public talks or to present at public hearings organized by government agencies. Government agencies have solicited the opinions of speleological groups on projects that will affect caves and karst. Puerto Rico has hosted regular cave rescue classes including the national event for the United States. In Puerto Rico the word national is used in two ways. The nation being referred to can either be Puerto Rico or the United States depending on context. The National Park referred to in this article is national for Puerto Rico and not the United States. The volunteer instructors at the cave rescue classes are from both the island and the United States. The Puerto Rican instructors have translated the course materials into Spanish and people like Efrain Mercado are working to help organize cave rescue classes in a number of countries in Latin America. A number of caves in Puerto Rico are now protected. The Parque Nacional de las Cavernas de Ro Camuy has 1.08 km2(108 hectares) of land and controls 8 of the 9 entrances in the main part of the Ro Camuy Cave System. The park operates Cueva Clara de Empalme as a show cave. The National Park opened in 1986, 24 years after if had been proposed by Gurnee. A number of other caves are in state forests or natural reserves. The most important nature reserve with caves is Isla de Mona. The Puerto Rico Land Conservation Trust owns the land around a number of the entrances to the Ro Encantado Cave System in Florida, Ciales, and Manat and Cueva Convento in Guayanilla. The History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings94


National Science Foundation has paid for the establishment of a field station at Cueva Culebrones in Arecibo that is operated by the Bayamon campus of the Universidad Interamericana. Cueva Culebrones is one of a number of caves where the Puerto Rican boa ( Epicrates inornatus) gathers at the cave mouths to eat bats. The director of the field station is Armando Rodrguez-Durn, the foremost expert on the bats of Puerto Rico. Of the 13 species of bats on the island, 10 roost in caves. Rodrguez-Durn has published a number of publications on how bats use the caves (Gannon et al. 2005). All caves in Puerto Rico are protected by law but for most caves this protection is a piece of paper in a law library. Important caves that have no protection include Cueva Humo of the Ro Camuy Cave system, Cueva Cucaracha, Aguadilla, which has 700,000 bats, the largest known bat colony (Rodrguez-Durn and Lewis 1987), and the dozen or so caves in the Aguas Buenas Cave system. The private property system has collapsed in many parts of the karst of Puerto Rico. The area around the caves has become uninhabited as people have abandoned agriculture and moved closer to highways to have better access to jobs, schools, hospitals, and shopping. Property descriptions may include trees and rocks that no longer exist. In many cases the land is owned by collection of grandchildren and other family members of the last person who actually lived on the land. As of the 2010 census there are more Puerto Ricans in the United States than in Puerto Rico and this family collection is usually spread out between Puerto Rico and the United States. Many lands in karst areas could be claimed by the government for non-payment of property taxes. What this means is that most caves in Puerto Rico can be entered if you know where they are. In many cases the local residents do not know who owns the land near the cave. What is protecting the caves is a lack of interest. There is declining visitation in many caves of Puerto Rico. In the 1968 when an NSS expedition explored and mapped Cueva Aguas Buenas there were groups of school children in the cave every weekend (Gurnee 1968). Today in 30 visits to this area it is extremely rare to see another group in the cave. In many areas local residents do no know where the cave is and the trails leading to the cave are overgrown with vegetation. One change since the explorations of the 1960s is the collapse of small-scale agriculture on the surface above the Ro Camuy Cave system. In the 1960s the land above the cave system was used to grow coffee, sugar cane, milk cattle, tobacco, squash, bananas, and other fruits. Today the land is more forested than it was 50 years ago. At that time most houses were wooden and had neither running water nor electricity. During one expedition to explore the Ro Camuy Cave system water for the team members was transported from 6 km away (Gurnee and Gurnee 1974). The new highway 129 which provides visitors access to the National Park also allows the residents to drive to their jobs in Arecibo and other cities. The vast majority of the houses in the area around the National Park are concrete and virtually all have running water and electricity. As in all of Puerto Rico, cell phone towers are common near the National Park. The USGS operates a gage at the Ro Camuy near Bayaney (50014800). Between 1984 and 2010 the median daily discharge at this station was 2.1 cubic meters per second (USGS 2012). The Ro Camuy has several resurgences (Gurnee and Gurnee 1974) and the station is downstream from all of them. The combined discharge of the several mouths of the Resurgence of the Ro Camuy is the largest spring in Puerto Rico and is a second magnitude spring. First magnitude springs have a median discharge of over 2.8 cubic meters per second (Copeland 2003).3. Cueva Clara de EmpalmeIn Puerto Rico, a Cueva Clara is a cave where you can see the light from the entrance. Cueva Clara de Empalme is a show cave operated by the government as a national park. Visitors pay to park and an entrance fee of around 12 dollars. They travel from a visitors center to the cave in tram. Most of the tour takes place in one large room and except for one section the entrances are always visible. One section overlooks a bat colony. The bats that live in caves in Puerto Rico reduce insect levels and increase the biodiversity of the forest by spreading seeds and pollen. The cave has electric lights, concrete walkways, handrails, and tour guides. Tours are in either Spanish or English. In 2008, Socorro Elaine Smith (Fox News 2008), a visitor from Los Angeles, California, USA was killed by a falling rock as she waited for the tram to take her back to the visitors center. The cave was closed for a year while a bunker was built to protect the visitors. The visitors can see the Ro Camuy in the distance at a lower level but have no contact with the river. The Parque Nacional de las Cavernas de Ro Camuy is one of the most important tourist attractions on the island. In 1967 Stewart Peck collected over 100 blind depigmented amphipods from a 180 mm deep pool in Cueva Clara de Empalme. At the time of collection the pool contained hundreds more of the species. These animals were later described as a new genus and species Alloweckelia gurneei The species was named to honor Russell Gurnee (Holsinger and Peck 1968). The pool where this species was collected still exists and is next to the concrete trail used by thousands of tourists. The amphipod no longer lives in the pool and its status is unknown.4. Tres PueblosThe entrance to this section of the cave is the Tres Pueblos sinkhole. This is the river level of the cave system. The entrance is controlled by the National Park and is restricted. Some people visit this section by rappelling into the Ventosa entrance and exiting via Tres Pueblos. All river levels of this cave system are dangerous and prone to flash floods. In 1968 Hector Bueso died while trying to exit during a flash flood. He was swept through the sinkhole and into the cave on the other side (Gurnee and Gurnee 1974). Several times the National Park has permitted this section to be used for mock rescues on Good Friday when the park is closed to the public. After a year of negotiations, the author was able to enter this section to measure the air temperature and relative humidity for the first time in 49 years. The air and water temperature and relative humidity data collected in the Ro Camuy Cave System are shown in Table 1. The History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings95


annual range of air temperature in the Ro Camuy Cave system is 3.1 C. The water temperature is around 22.6 C and the relative humidity is 90.6 percent. The early explorers noted the amount of wood and other floating debris in the river. The biggest change in the cave between 1962 and 2011 is that the naturally occurring wood and leaves now includes floating garbage. The source of the garbage is not cavers but rather garbage placed in the river upstream of the cave system. The cave has floating garbage such as tires, aluminum beverage containers, and plastic bottles. Puerto Rico as a whole and the upstream communities in particular produce far more garbage than they did 50 years ago. The river is transporting the garbage through the cave system as part of its natural function to move sediments and floating materials to the ocean.5. Cueva AngelesThe Angeles sinkhole is a smaller version of the Tres Pueblos sinkhole. Tres Pueblos is 120 m deep while Angeles is 110 m. The Angeles sinkhole is also not as wide as Tres Pueblos, The Ro Angeles flows on the bottom of the sinkhole. In both sink holes the river flows out a cave on one side and into a cave on the other side. The Angeles sinkhole is upstream of Tres Pueblos and the river is a tributary of the Ro Camuy. At both locations the roof may be 30 m or more above the river. The Angeles sinkhole is about 2 km southwest of the Tres Pueblos sinkhole and 3 km north of Cueva Humo. The general direction of the flow in the Ro Camuy Cave System is from south to north. In 1972, while still an undergraduate, Emily Davis led the expedition that connected Cueva Angeles with Cueva Humo (Gurnee and Gurnee 1974). After her marriage, she became Emily Davis Mobley. Under Puerto Rican law caves are owned by government. Private land owners can control access across their land and can block access to caves. The land around the Angeles sink hole is owned by Rossano Boscarino who owns Aventuras Tierra Adentro a company that provides guides services for customers who want an adventure. Boscarino is an experienced rock climber and in 1991 participated in the rescue of Emily Davis Mobley in Cueva Lechugilla, New Mexico, USA. With a price of 175 dollars, the visitors are picked up in hotel district of San Juan and transported to Cueva Angeles. The trip to the cave includes four ziplines over the sinkhole, a 40 m rappel to enter, and a 60 m Via Ferrata to exit. Via Ferrata is an Italian word that means Iron Way and is a system of ladders that are climbed with protection. In the Alps the Via Ferratas are recognized tourist attractions. Except for the Angeles sinkhole, the author is unaware of any Via Ferratas in Puerto Rico. Both Cueva Clara de Empalme and Cueva Angeles are examples of how caves can be used to generate employment in Puerto Rico but with different business models. Many residents of the island, including organized school groups, have visited the National Park. Salaries are lower in Puerto Rico than in the United States and the price of the Cueva Angeles trip means that the vast majority of the people who have seen this cave live in the United States. The author has biological notes from more than 50 caves in Puerto Rico. In November 2012, in Cueva Angeles the author observed 5 live scorpions which are more than in any other cave visited by the author. In most caves whip spiders are more common than scorpions but this is reversed in Cueva Angeles6. Cueva HumoIn 1958 there were homes near Cueva Humo that could not be reached by car. Today there are no such homes. The roads have been extended or the remote houses were abandoned. The inside of the cave is much as it would have appeared in 1958. There is some but not a lot of graffiti. There has never been an attempt to commercialize the cave. The status of Cueva Humo is like that of most caves in Puerto Rico, if you know where it is there are no barriers to visit the cave. The number of people living near the cave has declined and levels of visitation are probably down. In 2012 the cave has bats, gnats, and water-deposited debris just as it did in 1958. Like most caves in Puerto Rico the bat population has never been counted. In much of the Ro Camuy Cave System the height of the roof and the size of the entrances are obstacles to counting the bats. The only published bat census data from Puerto Rico are caves with a single constricted entrance that makes the counting process.7. Cueva EnsueoCueva Ensueo is a small cave that is higher and dryer than the other caves discussed in this paper. Cueva Ensueo has pools but no flowing water. The cave is a failed show cave. Jeanne Gurnee wrote a proposal to commercialize the cave (Gurnee 1968). What was attempted was on a much smaller scale. For years the cave had a non-functional power cable with light bulbs at regular intervals strung out in the cave. The cable was recently removed by members of SEPRI. The cave has some pretty formations. There are at least two other caves nearby that have failed at commercial operations. La Cueva de Camuy was a private facility that operated for many years and at times had a bar and restaurant in the cave. More recently it was a recreational area that besides visiting the cave included a swimming pool and pony rides. A nearby cave also has the ruins of wooden ladders and wires that were nailed to the wall. In November 2012 La Cueva de Camuy was in ruins with all the buildings missing roofs. The cave was so open that an off road vehicle could drive into the cave. In November 2012 the author observed two live and two dead scorpions in Cueva Ensueo. This is the cave with the second largest number of observed scorpions. Cueva Ensueo is 2 km southeast from Cueva Angeles.8. ConclusionIn Puerto Rico as in the United States, most attempts to commercialize caves fail and in bankruptcy the cave is left damaged and unprotected. Russell Gurnee and his idea of Conservation through Development overestimated the market for show caves in Puerto Rico. If all the projects proposed by Gurnee in Puerto Rico had been built then most would have failed and a much larger sum of money would History of Speleology and Karst Research oral2013 ICS Proceedings96


have been lost. The challenge before the people of Puerto Rico is to develop Speleology among Puerto Ricans and not exclusively outsiders. The more cave science that is done by Puerto Ricans resident in Puerto Rico, the easier it will be to integrate the speleologists into activities to protect the caves. It is also a challenge to protect caves even if the market will not support Conservation through Development. The bats that live in unprotected caves in Puerto Rico reduce insect populations and increase biodiversity in the forest by spreading seeds and pollen. The Ro Camuy Cave System has an annual range in air temperatures of 3.1 C. The five caves in the cave system are all managed differently. One has electric lights, concrete walkways, and bunkers to protect the tourists from falling rocks. One has administrative obstacles that make legitimate scientific access difficult. One is used for extreme ecotourism. One is an abandoned show cave and one has no protection. In the Ro Camuy Cave System the composition of the floating material has changed from exclusively natural to now including manmade garbage which is deposited near the river near upstream communities.ReferencesBaoyan D, Jingli D,2008. Review on patents about mechanical design of next generation super large radio telescope. Recent Patents on Mechnical Engineering. 1: 217. Copeland R,2003. Florida Spring Classification System and Spring Glossary. Florida Geological Survey Special Publication No. 52. Tallahassee, FL. 22 p. Fox News, 2008. Falling rock kills California woman at Puerto Rican cave. 0,2933,320498,00.html(accessed on 9 December 2012). Frank EF, 1998. History of the guano mining industry on Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 60(2), 121. Gannon MR, Kurta A, Rodrguez-Durn A, Willig MR, 2005. Bats of Puerto Rico: An Island Focus and a Caribbean Perspective. Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock, TX, 239. Gurnee J, 1968. National Speleological Society Field Trip to the Aguas Buenas Caves, Puerto Rico. National Speleological Society, 35. Gurnee J, 1988. The Ensueo Cave Study, Ensueo Cave, Hatillo, Puerto Rico; expedition period: February 18, 1987. US National Speleological Foundation Closter, NJ 64. Gurnee R, Gurnee J, 1974. Discovery at the Rio Camuy. Crown Publishers, New York, 183. Holsinger JR, Peck S, 1968. A new genus and species of subterranean amphipod (Gammaridae) from Puerto Rico, with notes on its ecolody, evolution and relationship to Caribbean amphipods. Crustaceana 15(3), 249. Mylroie JR, Mylroie JE, 2007. Development of the carbonate island karst model. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 69(1), 59. Richards RT, Troester JW, Martnez MI, 1998. An electromagnetic geophysical survey of the freshwater lens of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 60(2), 115. Rodrguez-Durn A, Lewis AR, 1987. Patterns of population size, diet, and activity time for a multispecies assemblage of bats in a cave in Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science, 23(3), 352. Stafford K, Mylroie J, Taboroi D, Jenson J, Mylroie J, 2005. Karst development on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Controls on dissolution in relation to the carbonate island karst model. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 67(1), 14. Troester JW, White WB, 1986.Geochemical investigations of three tropical karst drainage basins in Puerto Rico. Ground Water, 24(4), 475. United State Geological Survey, 2012. http://waterdata.usgs. gov/pr/nwis.sw(accessed on 9 December 2012). Winter A, Miller T, Kushnir Y, Sinha A, Timmermann A, Jury MR, Gallup C, Cheng H, Edwards RL 2011. Evidence for 800 years of North Atlantic multi-decadal variability from a Puerto Rican speleothem. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 308, 23. Table 1. Air and water temperature and relative humidity data from various locations in the Ro Camuy Cave System, Puerto Rico. Data were collected by the author with the exception of the 1962 data which are from Gurnee and Gurnee (1974). TemperatureRelative Elev.AirWaterHumidity LocationMonthYearmCC% Tres PueblosFeb19621582020100 Tres PueblosFeb201115821.289.4 Tres PueblosAug201115824.391.7 AngelesNov201221023.422.7 HumoSep201225023.822.4 EnsueoNov201228022.5 History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings97

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Figure 1. Map of the Ro Camuy Cave System in the municipios of Camuy, Hatillo, Lares, and Utuado, Puerto Rico. Base map produc ed by Thalia Vev. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings98

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CERIGO SPELEOLOGICAL PROJECT IOANNIS PETROCHEILOS AND SPELEOLOGICAL RESEARCH INKYTHERA ISLAND, GREECE, FROM 1930 TO 1960Konstantinos Prokopios Trimmis, Georgia Karadimou Hellenic Speleological Society, Department of Northern Greece, School of Geology AUTH Thessaloniki Greece, This paper aims at presenting Ioannis Petrocheilos works and days and the speleological research on the island of Kythera, Greece, from 1930 to 1960. Ioannis Petrocheilos was born on Kythera and conducted the first speleological research in the area in the early 30s. Within 20 years Petrocheilos explored and studied more than 20 caves on the island with a specific and precise methodology. All his notes and data from that period survived in the archives of the Hellenic Speleological Society. Within the framework of the Cerigo Speleological Project we studied the history and the chronicles of that period in order to shed light on the beginning of Greek Speleology.1. IntroductionAs part of the Cerigo Speleological Project from the Local Department of Northern Greece of the Hellenic Speleological Society (H.S.S.), the historical background of the speleological research conducted on the island of Kythera between 1930 and 2008 was studied. According to the historical evidence, the first speleological research in Kythera was conducted by Ioannis Petrocheilos, the founder of the H.S.S., from the early 1930s to 1960.The H.S.S. Department of Northern Greece continued the research on the island within a new framework until 2008. The speleological project of Kythera (Cerigo Speleological Project) was launched, in which scientists and speleologists from the Hellenic Speleological Society, the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the University of Crete participate. Research conducted between 1930 and 1960 is of great importance not only for the island but for entire Greece as well, because during this period the principles for both the creation of the H.S.S. and the general exploration and research of caves in Greece were established. Furthermore, Ioannis Petrocheilos was the first Greek speleologist who also originated from Kythera.2. Ioannis Petrocheilos1Ioannis Petrocheilos was born in Smyrni (Izmir), Minor Asia, in 1900. His parents were natives from the island of Kythera. Petrocheilos dream was to be a composer and therefore he studied music. In 1917, he started climbing, painting and drawing landscapes. He enrolled at the Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences of the University of Athens in 1918 and graduated in 1921. Between 1922 and1926 he worked as a chemistry teacher in public schools. In 1930, he moved back to Kythera with his wife Anna Minardou, originally from the island of Tinos, to work as a teacher at the school of Potamos village. He stayed on the island for two years. During this period, he explored two caves on the island and familiarized himself with speleology. This new activity enchanted him and he was awarded a scholarship from the Ministry of Education for a special course at the Sorbonne, Paris, in physical geology and anthropological geography (1932). Petrocheilos then returned to Kythera and continued teaching at the same school as before that, by that time, had become a secondary school. He started working in the field of applied speleology, scouting the island. In the two following years he explored four further caves in a more systematic way this time. In 1937, he published his first paper, bearing the title Geotectonics. Furthermore, heFigure 1. Ioannis Petrocheilos in Ag. Sophias Cave, Kythera, 1936. Photo M. Sophios. 1Biographical information about Ioannis Petrocheilos was gathered from the following published works: Grafios Nidas 1961, Ioannou 2000, as well as from documents in the archive of the Hellenic Speleological Society.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings99

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drew the geological map of the island, published posthumously by the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (1935). He also discovered a fossil skeleton of Elephas antiquus in Kythera, a discovery that was even announced at the French Speleological Society. In 1937 he was transferred to the secondary school of Andros, where he taught until1943. In that year, during the World War II, the Germansbombed the island, and his residence was burnt to ashes. All his household effects and his scientific archive, his library, his scientific instrument collection as well as the manuscripts he had drafted during his 13-year speleological and geological research were lost. In 1943 he was therefore transferred to Athens where he worked as a teacher at the Evangelical School of Nea Smyrni. In 1948, he published a book on inorganic and organic chemistry which was republished in 1950. In 1949, he participated with his wife Anna Petrocheilou in the 1stInternational Speleological Congress in Valance, France. In 1950, he was invited to participate in the 4thSpeleological Congress in Bari, Italy. In the same year, he, his wife and a few other intellectuals founded the Hellenic Speleological Society which he served as its president until his death on February 11th, 1960. In 1951, he was appointed geologist at the Ministry of Industry and, later, at the Institute of Geology and Subsurface Research (which later became the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration). In 1954, Petrocheilos returned to Kythera. Together with G.Grafios Nidas, his wife and the photographer Manolis Sophios, he explored 14 caves on the island. In 1957, he participated in the 5thInternational Congress I.N.Q.U.A. held jointly in Madrid and Barcelona, Spain where he announced the first discovery of an Ursus spelaeus canine in Greece (Perama Cave, Ioannina). At the same congress, Gasparis Mistardis, member of the Hellenic Speleological Society, made another announcement regarding the traces of old glaciers in Greece. Petrocheilos was elected member of the International Committee studying the Quaternary in the Mediterranean. Healso participated in marine research using the oceanographic boat Alcyone, in order to study the coasts of Southern Peloponnese and Northern Crete. He also completed a series of studies at the prehistoric cave of Alepotrypa in Diros, Mani. In 1959, he and his wife explored the cave of Agios Andreas in Kastania (Voion municipality). At the request of the Institute of Geology and Subsurface Research, he explored and excavated the Kokkines Petres cave in Petralona, Chalkidiki where he discovered traces (bones and teeth) of cave bear, wolf, deer and other animals and he anticipated the discovery of traces of prehistoric man. His hunch proved to be correct when subsequent researchers discovered a human skull, shortly after his death (in 1960). Between 1950 and 1960, Petrocheilos conducted a series of extensive scientific research which included hydrological research on the water system of 50 communities and the town of Thebes, landslides and settlement displacement; while at the same time he was examining in collaboration with some colleagues the possibility to create a subsurface dam at the bed of river Evinos. Additionally, he conducted drills in Athens (Patision Street, Nea Ionia, Larissis station) in order to examine the subsoil in the Greek capital in view of the construction of the metropolitan railway, known as the Athens Metro, part of which was inaugurated in 2000. Beginning in 1951 he also published descriptions and studies conducted in caves in the Bulletin of the Hellenic Speleological Society. Alongside with his research since 1925, he published a number of articles in scientific and nature magazines. In 1980, instead of holding a commemoration ceremony, Anna Petrocheilou published a volume with his poems, which she discovered in his archive after his death to her surprise, since she was not aware of his poetic talent until then. The volume bears the title Odoiporontas (foot-walking).3. Speleological research in Kythera, 1930Information on the research conducted in Kythera during this 20-year period of Petrocheilos studies was gathered from source documents of the Hellenic Speleological Societys archive. The archive maintains a file for each cave, including the caves registry number as well as all relevant information. We examined 19 files2including Figure 2. Kuriakoulou cave, Kalamos, 1936. Photo M. Sophios. Figure 3. The position of the Island of Kythera in the eastern Mediterranean. 2These are the files (caves) registry numbers present in the archive: 2858, 2859, 2861,466, 2862, 2863, 2864, 2865, 2866, 495, 496, 509, 501, 558, 559, 698, 313, 4146, 314.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings100

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50 documents in total. Some files only contained a single document with information on the respective cave (e.g., 2866:Tourkos Cave). Nevertheless, most files included three to five documents. All documents but one had the signature of Ioannis Petrocheilos, while the names of those people who accompanied Petrocheilos in his explorations were not mentioned. The notes were taken in Demotic Greek and used multi-accented (or polytonic) spelling. Spelling rules were not always followed while there was a significant number of abbreviations and end-off-line broken words. The hand-writing was illegible even though some letters were written respecting the principles of calligraphy. In general terms, the hand-writing indicates that the notes were taken hastily, though no significant corrections appear. The paper used is not specific. Notepad sheets with horizontal blue lines and white A5 notepad sheets were mostly used. However, in some cases the writer used rice paper sheets, and in one case he even used the packaging from a pack of cigarettes. These 19 caves were basically explored between 1930 and 1931 and during 1936, 1952, 1954, and 1955. Most caves were examined during 1954 (14 caves) while in 1930, 1931, 1952, and 1955 only one cave was examined per year. The first cave to be explored was the cave at Cape Moudari, in the north of the island. At first, the cave expeditions were more like excursions and nature trips. Later on, after Petrocheilos returned from France, the cave tracing was done more systematically while at the same time the team started examining the caves geologically. In 1954, the research was more organized. The caves explored at the time were recorded alongside with a basic sketch of the area, while geological, biological, archaeological, historical, and other observations were also included. Furthermore, numerous pictures from the entrance and the interior of the caves visited during that expedition are present. To summarize, it appears that the 1954 research represented the first organized large field speleological expedition in Greece. Similar expeditions did not occur until the 1980s, when the first organized expeditions in areas such as the plateau of Astraka in Epirus, Kymi in Euboea, and Crete took place. The notes do not bring to light any specific methodology that might have been followed during the research. They include information regarding the observations of the research team as well as more specific geological observations made by Petrocheilos himself. At the beginning of each document information about the caves location is given, its accessibility and the interior dimensions. Then, details on the geology of the cave rock follow. Finally, each report concludes with any further details available regarding the cave. Seven out of 19 cave reports were complemented by a basic sketch of the cave.4. SummarySpeleology of Greek in Greece was not conducted until the second quarter of the 20thcentury with the research of Markovitz and Petrocheilos (Merdenisianos 2007). Petrocheilos continued his research until his death in 1960 and can been seen as the founder of scientific and exploratory speleology in Greece. He left behind important speleological publications and data collections and the countrys first speleology society as his legacy. The speleological culture of Petrocheilos and his research methods were born and shaped in Kythera during the 1930s. A Kytherian and his small island were determined by fate to give birth to Greek speleology. As a small homage to this great teacher, the Cerigo Speleological Project aims at highlighting his activity and speleological legacy.Figure 4. Plan by Io. Petrocheilos of Ag. Sophias Cave Ag. Pelagia, Kythera, 1954. Archive of M. Sophios. Table 1. Caves of Kythera and their data. No of the Name of cave and nearest Year of cave village explor. 2858 Ag. Aikaterinis, Kapsali 1954 2859 Theologou, Pitsinades 1954 2861 Klefti, Kalamos 466 Kuriakoulou, Kalamos 1931 2864 Paliochora, Paliochora 1954 2866 Tourkou, Mulopotamos 1952 495 Ag. Sophia, Ag. Pelagia 1954 496 Panagia Orfani, Mulopotamos 1936/1954 509 Sparagariou, Kapsali 1954 501 Ag. Eleftheriou, Logothetianika 1954 558 Fournoi, Fournoi 1955 559 Spilaio Moudariou 1954 698 Vigla, Drumonas 1954 313 Ag. Ioannis, Kapsali 1936 314 Ag. Pavlos, Kapsali 1936/1954 315 Ag. Pelagia, Felwtis 1954 Ag. Sophia, Kalamos 1936/1954 Ag. Sophia, Mylopotamos 1936/1954 History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings101

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AcknowledgmentsThe research for this paper was supported by the Nicholas Anthony Aroney Trust. We warmly thank them. We would like also to acknowledge Mrs Eleni CharouKoronaiou for the archive work and Ms Emily Varnava and Ms Konstantina Kalogirou for the tireless assistance in the English editing of this article.ReferencesGrafios-Nidas N, 1961. In Memorial of Ioannis Petrocheilos. Bulletin of the Hellenic Speleological Society vol. 6, 2 (in Greek). Ioannou I, 2000. The History of The Hellenic Speleological Society from notes.Bulletin of the Hellenic Speleological Society vol. 22, 13 (in Greek). Merdenisianos K, 2007. A Summary of the History of Greek Soeleology and the Hellenic Speleological Society. Athens. 10 (in Greek). Documents from the archive of the Hellenic Speleological Society. Documents and photos from the archive of Manolis Sophios.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings102

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CONTRIBUTION OF HERMENGILD AND KAREL KORPIL TO THE BULGARIAN SPELEOLOGYAlexey Zhalov, Magdalena Stamenova Speleo Club Helictit Sofia, Bulgaria,, The article presents some biographical aspects of the Czech nationals Hermengild and Karel korpiland their contribution to karst and cave studies in Bulgaria and in developing Bulgarian speleology.1. IntroductionAs a result of the Russian-Turkish War and according to the Treaty of Berlin, in 1878, two states wereestablished inthe Bulgarian lands: Principality of Bulgariaand the autonomic self-governing province East Rumelia, which was dependent on the Ottoman empire. In autumn 1885,both states united into one the Principality of Bulgaria. In this period a considerable number of new secondary schools wereopened in the Bulgarian cultural sphere. These needed well educated teachers of different disciplines. Because of that the Bulgarian government invited manyforeigners to work asteachers. Most of them came from Slavic countries. In the first two decades after the Liberationof Bulgaria, more than 300 foreign teachers from 22 nationalities were employed (Penev and Petrov1988). More than 100 of these teachers were Czechs. This was a result of the interest and sympathy of Czech people towardsthe destiny of Bulgarians. At the same time,manyCzech intellectuals aspired to help with the educational and cultural development of Bulgarians in practice. Theysaw Bulgaria not only as a country where they could express themselves as pedagogues,but were also keen to help in the research of Bulgarian flora, fauna, mineral resources, archaeological sites,etc.2. Why Hermengild and Karel korpil went to BulgariaThe brothers Hermengild and Karel korpil settled in Bulgaria as a part of a large group of Czechs, whose aim was to assist the newly established Bulgarian state. The korpils family had close relation with the family of Prof. Dr. Constantin Josef Jire ek. The father of the korpil brothers was anephew of Jire eks father. Constantin Jire ek was a Czech historian, diplomat and slavist. He entered the Bulgarian service in 1879 and in 1881 became a minister of education inSofia. The bulk of Constantins writings dealt with the history of the South Slavsand their literature, including: History of the Bulgarians, The Principality of Bulgaria, Travels in Bulgaria, etc. The close relationship between the two families played a very important role in increasing Hermengilds and Karels interest towards Bulgaria, which caused them to go there and to devote themselves to the cultural prosperity of the country.3. Brief biography of the korpil brothers3.1. Vclav Hermengild (Hermin) korpil (Fig. 1) was born onFebruary 8th, 1858 in the city of Vysoke Myto (now part of Usti nad Orlici District, Pardubice, Czechia). He finished high school in Chrudim and Pardubice and graduated at the Technical University in Prague and in natural sciences atthe University of Leipzig. After he finishedhis education, he was invited by the East Rumelian governmentandin 1880 he was appointed as a teacher in Plovdivs mens high school. Since 1906 he was teacher in various Bulgarian cities: Sofia, Sliven, Ruse and Varna, where he helped in the schooling of natural history, geography, zoology, botany, arithmetic and German. H. korpil published the first summary of mineral treasures in Bulgaria including a geologic map a pioneering research that served as the basis for scientific mineralogy studies in Bulgaria. Very valuable were also his studies on the geography of Bulgaria. mong them, together with his brother, he studied the basic karst areas of Bulgaria including about 90 caves. Hermin korpil began the study of the natural resources in the surroundings of the town of Sliven and described them in his book Izkopaemi bogatstva iznamereni do sega v tzelokupna Bulgaria (Fossil Treasures Found up to Date in Bulgaria) (korpil 1882). In this book Hermin korpil described Morova dupka ( rovitza) near teven, the cave of Demir Baba near village Svestari, the Sokolska Cave at Sokols monastery near Gabrovo and also Zmeevi Doupki Cave (Dragon Cave) near Sliven. In the same work H. korpil made a detailed description of the cave Zmeevi dupki, and concluded: It is important forus tobe aware of the alluvium on the bottom of this cave. It is possible to find fossils of prehistoric man and such of prehistoric animals of that era there. The next book of Hermin was Prirodni bogatstva v celokupna Bulgaria (Natural Resources of the Entire Figure 1. Hermengild korpil.Figure 2. Karel korpil.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings103

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Bulgaria), issued in 1884 (H. korpil 1884), in which he located and described more caves than in his first book. Later he published the book The PrehistoricPeople in Bulgaria (korpil 1886).Init,the author described in details the cave-rock dwellings (most of them artificial) in Dobrudja, Dobrudgas Black Sea shore, the region of Provadia, Shumen and the in the river valley of Russenski Lom northern Bulgaria.Hermin korpil also founded a museum in Sliven, as well as a museum of natural sciences in Ruse in 1902. From 1906 until his death he was the curator of the Varna Archaeological Museum. For decades he was the main motivator there fostering the interest and studies in the history of Varna, Varna Region, and northeast Bulgaria. Hermengild korpil died on June 25th, 1923, and was buried near Varna. 3.2. Karel Vclav korpil (Fig. 2) wasborn also in Vysoke Myto onMay 15th, 1859. He had finished high school in Pardubice before graduating at the Charles University and the Technical University in Prague. In 1881, he wentto East Rumelia. Here he worked as a high-school teacher in the Bulgarian cities of Plovdiv (1882), Sliven (1886), Varna (1888, 1894) and Veliko Tarnovo (1890). In 1894 Karel korpilsettledin Varna on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. There he foundedthe Varna Archaeological Society and later theVarna Archaeo-logical Museum. Since 1915 untilhis death he served as director ofthismuseum. He was also a teacher and lecturer at the Naval Academy and the Trade School. Karel and Herman started to work as teachers in natural science and mathematics, devoting their free time to the research and description not only of antiquities but of Bulgarian karst and caves. In his career of more than 50 years, Karel published around 142 works, whether as the sole author or in collaboration with his brother, including 30 in German, Russian and Czech, primarily devoted to Bulgaria. He discovered and headed the excavations of the mediaeval Bulgarian citiesat Pliska, Preslav and Madara. Karel was member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Bulgarian Archaeological Institute. He wasamong the first researchers of the karst terrains and its archaeological remains. Meanwhile, in1877, whenKarel served as teacher in Sliven, hemade a trip around North Bulgaria during which he visited and mapped the Emenska Cave near Emen village,Tarnovo region (Fig. 3).This is the first map of a Bulgarian cave known up to date (korpil1887). In 1915 Karelkorpilwent in pension and became a director of Archaeological Museum of Varna. He acted in this duty till his death onMarch 9th, 1944, and was buried among the ruins of the firstBulgarian capital Pliska.4. The basic contribution of the korpilsfor the study of Bulgarian karst and cavesThe most significant contribution of the brothers korpil to the study of Bulgarian karst was in the field of physical geography. Their most important speleological books were: Kraskh zjevecu v Bulgarsku, Sources et pertes deau en Bulgarie(Fig. 4)and Krazhski phenomena in Bulgaria (Fig. 5). In 1895, in Praha H. and K. korpil reported for the first time about the karst phenomena in Bulgaria (korpil 1895) internationally. In this work they described the conditions of karst and cave development and also the location and general information on 55 Bulgarian caves. More complete and detailed was their later book, published in France: Sources et pertes des eaux en Bulgarie (Springs and Sinkholes in Bulgaria) (korpil and korpil 1898). In it they gave results of specific terrain explorations, described over 100 karst phenomena (uvalas, caves, springs) and published additional information of 18 newFigure 3. The map of Emenska Cave 1887. Figure 4. Cover of the book Sources et pertes des eaux en Bulgarie. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings104

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caves. The book included 21 figures that clearlyillustrate the hydrogeological connection between sinkholes and karst sources in the explored regions. The following book, published in Plovdiv in 1900, was razhki yavlenia (Underground Rivers, Caves and Springs) (H and K korpil 1900), that summarized the results from the brothers continued speleological research in Bulgaria. Besides publishing data about the phenomena of the superficial karst, its caves and karst springs, this book was also theoretical, including characteristics and mechanisms ofthe formation of karst phenomena. In the book eleven new caves are described. The book deals also with many cave research related aspects palaeontology, archaeology, zoology, climatology, hydrology etc. It is illustrated with 30 drawings, maps and photos. In these three books a total of 87 natural cavesaredescribed. The information from these books became the starting point for the conducting of the next more profound researches of the karst and caves in Bulgaria. Duringtheirstudies in Bulgariathe brothers korpil encountered dozens of artificial or semi artificial cave monasteriesand inthe end of the XIX century the term rock monastic cloisters was introduced into scientific terminology(korpil1914).This is also the most significant contribution to archaeological research of these objects in karst areas. K.korpil scientifically documented and described over100 rock-cave churches and monasteries along the Lom Rivers (surveyed in 1887, 1892 and 1912 by the Archaeological Commission for identification and preservation of antiquities in Bulgaria at the National Museum in Sofia). He explored also the rock monasteries and hermitages in South Dobrudja (concentrated along the Black Sea coast and the Suha River) (Fig. 6).Meanwhile korpil explored also the cave hermits and churches in the periphery of the Shumen Plateau and surveyed and described more than ten natural and tens of artificial objects (K korpil1905; K korpil 1932). The books contain also the maps of all explored cave churches and monasteries. korpils explorations and publications mark the beginning of further studies of the natural and rock cut caves under archaeological and religious aspects. Figure 6. Map of Cherven Rock Cut Monastery. 5. ConclusionsFinally, who were these two scholars?Karel korpil the engineer and organizer, the fundraiser and researcherof international scale,who helped to establish many scientific associations at their early phase in Bulgaria; and Hermin korpil the naturalist and traveler, who helped continuously in the studies of his brotheras a teacherand educatorin Bulgaria, the explorerand writer of the first books in natural history, geology, geography, speleology in Bulgarian language. The researches ofthe korpil brothers wereoften selffunded and all unearthed monuments were preserved in Bulgaria. As a sign of appreciation of their activityfor the development of Bulgarian education, science and culture, many Bulgarian places(streets in Varna, Sliven, Plovdiv, Sofia, Kavarna), schools, a villageseaside resort, were named after the brothers. korpil Glacieron Graham Land, Antarctica, wasalso named after Karel korpil. In honour of the korpil brothers three Bugarian plants were named: Shkorpilova vedrica ( Fritillaria graeca ) Fam. Liliaceae, Shkorpilova mashterka ( Thymus euximius) Fam. Lamiaceae (Dimitrov 2006) and Argostelimia SkorpiliiVel. (Stanev 2001). Even today, 100 years after the publication of the first important works of the korpilbrothers about Bulgarian karst and caves, these books are favorite and importantFigure 5. Cover of the book razhki yavlenia.History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings105

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readings of Bulgarian speleologists and cavers. Without any doubt Hermengild and Karel korpils must be listed among the founders of Bulgarian speleology and caving. Finally we have to ask, what Karel and Hermann korpil left during the period of their stay in Bulgaria from 1880 to 1944?In spite of the fact that the known original sources of korpils have been studied many times, there are still little personal dataabout the brothers activity. Apparently the names of K. and H. korpil as karst and caves explorers are not well known in their native country the Czech Republic. More information probably could be found inthe archives attheir birthplaceVysoke Myto, like their birth certificates or any other early sources.Figure 7. Karel and Hermengild korpil 1905, Varna. AcknowledgmentsWe would like to express gratitude to our friend Marcel Meyssonnier and to Dr. Pavel Bosak for sending some very important works of the korpil brothers.ReferencesDimitrov N, 2006. htm, accessed 25. 02. 2013. Penev A, Petrov P, 1988. Chuzdenci prosvetni deytzi v Bulgaria. Narodna prosveta, Sofia (in Bulgarian). Stanev S, 2001. Hermengild korpil in: Malko poznati imena ot bulgarskata botanika, Academichno izdarelstvo M.Drinov& Pensoft publishing, Sofai, 25(in Bulgarian). korpil H, 1882. Izkopaemi bogatstva iznamereni doesega v celokupna Bulgaria. Bulgasko zname press, Sliven (in Bulgarian). korpil H, 1884. Prirodni bogatstva v celokupna Bulgaria. Plovdiv (in Bulgarian). korpil K, 1887. Notebook of the excursion of K. korpil, teacher in Sliven in 1887 with the sketch map of Emenskata Cave. Scientific Archive Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, F165 .u. 779. korpil H, 1896. Purvobitnite ludi v Bulgaria. H.G. Danov press, Plovdiv (in Bulgarian). korpil H, korpil K, 1895. O Krasskych Ljcvceh v Bulgarsku. Ropr. Ceske Akad, Praha, 4 (2), 29 (in Czech). korpil H, korpil K, 1898. Sources et pertes des eaux en Bulgarie. Memoires de la Societe de speleologie, III (15) 1 (97) (in French). korpil H, korpil K, 1900. razhki javlenija (podzemni reki, peshteti i izvori). Pchela. Plovdiv (in Bulgarian). korpil K, 1905. : , , 385 (in Russian). korpil K, 1914. Opis na starinite po techenieto na reka Rusenski. Lom. Sofia (in Bulgarian). korpil K, 1932. Madaro-Mogilskoto plato. Byzantinoslavica, 4, 85 (in Bulgarian). Figure 8. The monument of Karel and Hermengild korpil in front ofn the Historical Museum in Varna. History of Speleology and Karst Research oral 2013 ICS Proceedings106

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JENOLAN SHOW CAVES; ORIGIN OF CAVE AND FEATURE NAMESKath Bellamy1, Craig Barnes2, Julia James3 1226 Rankin Street, Bathurst, NSW 2795, Australia, Wybalena Grove, Cook ACT 2614, Australia, cbarnes6@bigpond.com3The School of Chemistry, F11, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia, The Jenolan Caves Historical and Preservation Society researchers and surveyors worked together to place names on maps being produced by the Jenolan Caves Survey Project. Their sources for the cave and feature names were guidebooks, newspaper articles, tourist publications, postcards, and photographs. Valuable contributions also came from the oral history supplied by past and current guiding staff. From 1838 to the present day, guides have striven to acquaint visitors with the exotic cave environment, resulting in a tradition of giving features familiar names. To the informed, names of caves and formations can take on a hieroglyphic character that can guide you through the history of the caves. Being aware of the feature names can give a glimpse of the discoverers, prompt interest in the adventures of early visitors and even recognise the work involved in making the caves accessible. The result is that over a thousand names have been found that links historically and culturally to the discoverers, management and visitors.1. IntroductionIn 2005, as part of the Jenolan Caves Survey Project, the authors started to work on names for the maps. The Jenolan Show Caves are made up of caves, sections of a system that have been given specific names to facilitate them as cave tours (Figure 1). The naming project immediately expanded as some cave and feature names provided an historical and cultural record of the Jenolan Show Caves. The result is an important record of the tradition of naming at Jenolan from the discovery of the caves to the present day.2. Discussion2.1. The early years The first recorded descriptive names, commenced with the discovery of the arches in 1838 (Ralston 1989). Samuel Cook (1889) suggested that an arch known as the Devils Coach House was so named for reasons that had led to similar names for numerous Devils Pinches and Peaks for surface features around the world. Captain Cook had given the name Devils Basin to a harbour because of its gloomy appearance, being surrounded by savage rocks. For a brief period, the Devils Coach House was renamed Easter Cave, although the name never became popular. The cave system has been known by various names: McKeons Caves (1856), Binda Caves (1867), FishRiver Caves (1879), and finally on 19thAugust 1884 the name Jenolan Caves was approved (Havard 1933). By the 1860s names had been established for the New Cave (Ralston 1989). Visitors began their tour to this cave by hiking through the bush to Wallaby Hole, entering the cave through the Sole of the Boot to reach the Cathedral. They had to negotiate The Slide by sitting on a bag and descending further into the cave. In the Exhibition Cave they climbed over rocks, lunched on Picnic Rock and drank water from the Hidden River. In Lurline Cave those familiar with William Wallaces opera Lurline, first performed in 1860, could see the coral bowers and cells to which Rudolph was transported (Cook 1889). In an area of the Bone Cave called the Irish Corner there was an interesting formation known as the Potato Patch, and further along Bone Cave were Snowball Cave and Crystal Fountain. Returning to Irish Corner, visitors were astonished to find they had to ascend a wire ladder to return to Cathedral and thence the cave entrance. Although this route is not used today, many of these names are still in use on the Lucas tours.Figure 1. Jenolan Show Caves. History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings107

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Some names became enshrined with the advent of guidebooks; English visitors see in this stalagmite the features of Lord Salisbury (Trickett 1905). According to the 1924 Orient guidebook, visitors one and all will recognise uncanny imitations and decorations seem veiled in a film of suggestion where more is meant than meets the eye and depends to a certain extent upon the imagination (Havard 1924). Figure 2 shows the Old Curiosity Shop where such a process has resulted 13 named features amongst a mass of helictites. The names for the features in this figure can be found in Figure 3. At presenttheOrient (Figure 3) contains 134 named features, by far the most of any cave at Jenolan. Many of the features have been renamed over time, with some features like the Dome of St Pauls renamed as many as 5 times (so far), to give a total of 206 names for the Orient alone. There are only 119 of the 206 names on figure 3; it was not possible to fit any more on! 2.2. Names and Name changes The reasons for names and name changes for caves, parts of caves and features are multitude, and the following paragraphs outline just a few examples. The shapes that prompt a person to choose names are usually explained by culture, history and, sometimes, even profession. The chambers in the Orient (Figure 3) have names from that part of the world which now known as the subcontinent. The imagination of guides and tourists From the very beginning, cave guides and tourists used names to describe formations, in part to make the strange more familiar. It is a tradition that has evolved and has continued even at the present as new cave is discovered. For example, renamed by young visitors, the Unicorns Horn has become ETs Finger and The Minarethas become The Ice Cream Cone. The cave divers have named a stalagmite as the Upside Down Ice Cream Cone. A medical person was probably responsible for describing the helictites in the Dragons Throat in Baal as Diphtheria Symptoms. The beautiful and small There are many sparkling calcite crystal decorations at Jenolan, such as stalactites, stalagmites, flowstones and helictites, that have been named but some of the most intriguing formations are obscure. Old publications and photographs have enabled identification of these treasures. Among one mass of tangled helictites, named The Battlefield, is the minute Leaping Stag. The Diminutive Horse Head is one of the smallest examples of named features at Jenolan (Figure 4). The ambience of the environment George Rawson (1883) wrote of a visit to Fish River Caves that one is bought into a silent and reverent attitude hence it is no surprise that many names of religious significance were used. There is an Organ Loft and Pulpitin the Grand Archway, a Sanctuary in Nettle, a Cathedral and Bishop in Lucas, Twelve Apostles in Orient (Figure 5), with Imperial and Chifley both having a Vestry. Biblical names include Elijahs Retreat, Tower of Babel and Lots Wife. Historical events have also played a part, particularly in renaming features. The Terraces in Exhibition Chamber became the Pink and White Terraces in remembrance of those in New Zealand destroyed by the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera (Cook 1889). Mafeking was besieged during the Boer War for 217 days, from October 1899 toFigure 2. The Old Curiosity Shop. Figure 3. The Orient Map. History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings108

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May 1900. The relief of Mafeking by the British from the Boer coincided with the discovery of a high level passage in the Exhibition Chamber, hence its name and the names of some features in it (Figure 6). Currently, there is a proposal to commemorate the Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee with a named dome and arch in Jubilee and Imperial respectively. Honouring Australian dignitaries In 1878 the New Cave was named Lucas after John Lucas, M.L.A; In consequence of the great interest I displayed, and by the publication of my paper, which first drew the attention of the public to them, the Surveyor-General and other high officials made an official visit, and named the largest cavern The Lucas Cave (Rawlinson 1976). One formation was named Judge Windeyers Couch because it is said that the learned judge sat on it when he visited the caves (Cook 1889). In 1952, the Left Branch of Imperial was renamed Chifley Cave in honour of J.B. (Ben) Chifley, who represented in the Federal Parliament the region that included Jenolan. The name change attracted some criticism; The gesture, however well intentioned, will not give much pleasure to Mr Chifleys admirers, for the sake of the memory of a highly regarded man, I hope some more tactful Chief Secretary changes the ludicrous name of Chifley Cave back to what it was before (Sunday Herald 1952). Cave incidents Jeremiah Wilson, exploring Jubilee in 1893, described the dreadful experience of having his candle go out and believing he had no matches. Fortunately he found some in his pocket, but he ensured the event was not forgotten by naming the place where he was at the time Wilsons Despair. In Imperial, Ridleys Short Cut was named after a visitor who stepped back to allow a lady to pass and fell through (to a cave below) (Leeder 1994). The guides describe the incident as a rambling visitor who strayed from the fold, put a foot in the wrong place, and descended fifty five feet without the benefit of the rope. He landed on a coil of netting and bounced off (Ralston 1989). The influence of lighting Different lighting can influence what can be recognised in the caves. Scenes lit by flickering candles, and at times augmented by magnesium lamps, delighted early visitors. However, the Stooping Lady could be seen only by candle light, the magnesium flare being too penetrating for this particular effect (Foster 1890). Harry Potters Scar was visible in the Exhibition Chamber until the lighting system was recently upgraded. The new lighting did however result in a perfect representation of a Terracotta Warrior appearing in shadow on the wall over the River Styx in Lucas. After Ladies In Lucas, Queen Victoria is unmistakable as she looks out over the Royal Chamber in the Lucas (Figure 7). Other ladies are also featured throughout Jenolan, with Lady Cecilia Carrington, Queen Esther and Margarita Cracknell having chambers, as do Selina and Lucinda. Katie and Edie have their bowers and Matilda has a retreat, while Josephine, Nellie, Ethel and Minnie only merited grottos (Figure 8).Figure 4. Diminutive Horse Head. Figure 5. The Twelve Apostles. Figure 6. Map of Mafeking. History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings109

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3. ConclusionIn this discussion the evolution of names in the Jenolan Show Caves has been illustrated with selected examples; the Excel spread sheets for the Survey now contain more than a thousand names. The Jenolan Show Caves can be thought of as the Caves of a Thousand Names.AcknowledgementsThe authors acknowledge the valuable contributions from the Jenolan Caves Reserve Trust, Jenolan Caves Historical and Preservation Society, the Jenolan Cave Guides and the many caver helpers, Jenolan Caves Survey Project for use of the maps, and Al Warild for drafting figures. Photos: C. Barnes (Figures 5, 6), J. Lim (Figure 2), G. Whitby (Figure 4).ReferencesCook S, 1889. Jenolan Caves: An Excursion in Australian Wonderland, Eyre and Spottiswoode, London. Foster JJ, 1890. The Jenolan Caves, Charles Foster Government Printer, Sydney. Reprinted (facsimile edition) 2011, Jenolan Caves Historical and Preservation Society. Havard WL, 1924. The Orient Cave, A. J. Kent Government Printer, New South Wales. Reprinted (facsimile edition) 2011, Jenolan Caves Historical and Preservation Society. Havard WL 1933. The Romance of Jenolan Caves, Artarmon Press, Sydney. Reprinted (limited facsimile edition), NSW Department of Leisure, Sport and Tourism. Leeder PM, 1994. Personal letter to Jenolan archived by Jenolan Caves Historical and Preservation Society. Ralston B, 1989. Jenolan: The Golden Ages of Caving. Three Sisters Productions Pty. Ltd. Australia. Rawlinson N, 1976 John Lucas: Conservationist or Vandal, Occasional paper for 8 May 1976 meeting of Jenolan Caves Historical and Preservation Society. Reprinted (facsimile edition) 2010, Jenolan Caves Historical and Preservation Society. Rawson GH, 1883. Guide to and Description of the Fish River Caves, original handwritten manuscript. Reprinted (facsimile edition) 2012, Jenolan Caves Historical and Preservation Society. Sunday Herald, 1952. Candid Comment, Sydney NSW 6thApril 1952. Trickett O, 1905. The Jenolan Caves, New South Wales, 2ndedition, William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer Sydney. Figure 7. Queen Victoria. Figure 8. Location of features named for ladies.History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings110

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THE SLOVENE KARST PORTRAITED IN THE UNIVERSAL GEOGRAPHY OF CONRAD MALTE-BRUN AND ELISE RECLUSLuiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos Doctor in Karstology, Researcher and professor at the Graduate Program in Geography, PUC Minas, Av. Dom Jos Gaspar n. 500, Corao Eucarstico, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 30535-610, The karst landscape and the caves can be perceived by several people in an equally varied way. From the layman to the scientist, especially caves, assume different meanings according to historical and cultural conditions of a particular society. Therefore, one can say that the human relationship with caves is not really new in the history of mankind. It is also not less new the motivation for their use as shelters, safe houses and sacred places. Thus, caves and karst are important historica l and geographical records of specific regions. In this context, the importance of the Slovene karst to Geography is confirmed by the Universal Geography of Conrad Malte-Brun and Elise Reclus, two important classical geographers. By the analysis of their works (Universal Geography) it was possible to identify how some important aspects of the karst landscape were portraited.1. IntroductionThe karst landscape and its caves may be perceived by different people in many different ways. From the layman to the scientist, especially caves have different meanings according to the historical and cultural evolution of a society. Regions developed in carbonates such as limestone, make up about 10 to 15% of the Earths surface (Ford and Williams 2007). Williams (2008) states that karst is found mainly in soluble rocks such as limestone, marble and dolomite. However, it also can be developed in evaporites (e.g., gypsum and halite). The carbonate outcrops comprise about 15,000,000 km2of the non-frozen Earths continental area (11% of area). But percentage the subsuperficial carbonates involved in the movement of subsurface groundwater are considerably higher, perhaps about 14% of the world. A new proposition of these percentages, especially regarding rocky outcrops, was made by Williams and Fong (2008). The new proposal shows that about 12.5% of global land surface outcrops have carbonates. The authors emphasize that they have tried to differentiate the areas where the carbonate rocks are relatively pure and continuous from those with relatively impure and discontinuous deposits. More recently, Hartmann and Moosdorf (2012), based on a new global lithological map, proposed that the continents are covered by 64% sediments, a third of which are carbonates. In almost all karst regions, archaeologists find evidence of human settlements. Around the world one can see that whole populations are supplied by karst water and, in many cultures, caves are still used as places for religious practice, as cultural manifestations, or for any other purpose (Travassos 2007). Such forms of use also comprise tourism in all its aspects, such as Cultural Tourism and Geotourism. The study of this peculiar type of relief could be already seen in the works of Greek and Roman philosophers as highlighted by various authors (e.g., Travassos 2007). Brief descriptions of the Classical Karst (Region of the Kras Plateau, Slovenia) have already appeared in works of the 4thcentury BC, as well as in the works of Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Polybius, among others. In a clear description of a sink and a resurgence, Posidonius of Apameia (135 BC) stated that the river Timavus disappeared between the mountains, flowing into an abyss, only to reappear at a distance of 130 stadiums, toward the sea (Kranjc 1997; Kranjc 2006; Travassos et al. 2006). The Roman geographer Strabo (63 BC AD) was probably the first to mention Lake Cerknica (Kranjc 2006). In the Late Antiquity, the Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger Table, Peutinger Map) already showed signs of human settlements on karst areas. Cultural tourism in the Kras region (even in its primitive form) dates back to at least 280 AD in Sveta jama (Holy Cave), and at the Landarska jama (Cave of Landar) around 888 AD. Countless travelers were also attracted by the natural beauty of Postojnska jama (Adelsberger Grotte, Cave of Postojna) since at least the 16thcentury and the jama Vilenica (Vilenica Cave) since at least 1663 (Travassos et al. 2006; Travassos 2011). According to Kranjc (1997), Travassos et al. (2006), and Travassos (2011), the region of the Kras Plateau became popular by the description of geographers, topographer, scholars, and travelers at the end of the 17thcentury and beginning of the 18thcentury. This popularity was also due to the fact that Trieste (Italy) became a free trade port in 1719 (Fig. 1).Figure 1.Partial view of Trieste, probably from the Kras Plateau or, il Carso (Reclus 1876b, 58). History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings111

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The authors continued to demonstrate the importance of the region to karstology when affirming that many researchers were pioneers devotinge further studies to the region of Kras. Kranjc (1997), Travassos et al. (2006) and Travassos (2011) mention the books of J.V. Valvasor (1689), J.A. Nagel (1748), B. Hacquet (1778), and F.J.H. Hohenwart (1830) and Kempe (2008) notes that the German word Karst evolved in parallel to the word kras and is documented on older maps such as those issued by Ortelius, Mercator, and Blaeu and in the text of Sebastian Mnster (1628). Geographers and geologists of the 19thcentury started to use more frequently the term karst and the work of Jovan Cviji (Das Karstphnomen, 1893) provided the scientific basis of the study Classical Karst, followed by F. Kraus (1894) and E.A. Martel (1894), among others (see Kranjc 1997; Kranjc 2006; Travassos et al. 2006; Travassos 2011). Based on the original works of Malte-Brun and Elise Reclus, this paper intends to show how these two classical geographers made significant contributions to the study of karst, specialy in Slovenia.2. The Universal Geography of Conrad MalteBrun (1755)The first major work of encyclopedic inspiration in the domain of European geography was the Universal Geography (Geographie Universelle) of Conrad MalteBrun, Danish that was forced to exile in France due to his ideas, considered too liberal for the time. (Amorim Filho 1988, 19). The worked intended to provide a kind of renewal in geographical ideas that he thought to be crucial at that time (Amorim Filho 1988). Conrad Malte-Brun was born at Thisted, Denmark, 1775, and is believed to be the founder of the first modern geographical society. Exiled from Denmark in 1800 for his verses and pamphlets in support of the French Revolution, Malte-Brun established himself as a journalist and geographic writer in Paris (Britannica 2010). In his work karst and caves were integrating physical and human studies. Numerous references to the geology and the type of limestone from various regions of the world were made. Caves used as dwellings places and temples were also identified. Descriptions of cavities filled with fossils and concretions are also common in the eight existing volumes. In his preface to Volume 1, Malte-Brun (1827) says that the idea of the work is to group in a series of historical speeches both the Ancient World and the Modern Geography in a way that could provide to the reader a vivid picture of the whole world, with all the different countries, their memorable places and their societies. He recognized that it appears an immense undertaking, when we consider how many varied details require to be combined in a work of moderate size. (Malte-Brun 1827, iii). Malte-Brun continues stating that, in studying the physical aspects of the world, we shall take a view of the leading features of nature; the mountains (), the seas (), and the rivers and the valleys by which it is intersected. We shall seek our way downward, through caverns and through mines. (Malte-Brun 1827, iv). Cavities and fissures of the Globe, grottos, caves, underground water, bones and even volcanic caverns are described (Malte-Brun 1827, 84). In other parts of the work he affirmed that he will point out and occasionally describe at length the most remarkable caverns and grottos of our globe; but we must here confine ourselves to general views (). Among the numerous caverns of Carniola, that of Adelsberg is said to afford a subterranean walk of two leagues; but this computation of rather too enthusiastic writer requires to be confirmed. (Malte-Brun 1827, 86). Still regarding the region of Slovenia, he stated that many caves contain deep pits of water, or wells, sometimes so extensive as to acquire the name of subterraneous lakes (Malte-Brun 1827, 86). Malte-Brun registered the presence of other cavities issuing rivers from underground. Such examples are the innumerable cavities of the Julian Alps, in Carniola and Croatia that possibly affect the seasonal regime of the Lake of Cirknitz (Malte-Brun 1827, 86). It is important to mention that historically the region of Carniola was in Austria known as the Duchy of Carniola (until 1918), with the capital of Laibach (Ljubljana). The mountainous region which stretches to Illyria (the area in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula) are, to a great extent, composed of calcareous rocks which geologists have called Secondary, and which, from their tendency to give way, so as to form numerous cavities, might well be termed cavernous. It seems, indeed, as if all these heights were hollow; at least it cannot be denied that almost as many rivers flow below as above the ground. The stranger who follows their course, observes them entering and returning at different distances from the depths of the earth. Others become wholly dry at certain seasons of the year, and afterwards reappear. (Malte-Brun 1832, 212). He further affirmed that is possible to enumerate more than a thousand caverns in the chain that traverses Illyria from north-west to south-east; but none can be compared in point of extent with the one at Adelsberg, which is situated in a small valley at no great distance from that burgh. Some writers consider it equal in length to five miles. It is by no means easy to trace the rapid declivities in the labyrinth, or the narrow and tortuous passages which lead to immense halls. All agree that it surpasses most places of the kind; the soil is encrusted with fossil bones; a torrent rushes through the cavities with a frightful noise, which is repeated by many echoes; stalactites adorn the halls, and appear in some places like the ruins of old palaces, in others like magnificent columns. (Malte-Brun 1832, 212). Not too far away from the Grotto of Adelsberg, Malte-Brun (1832, 212) described the Cave of Magdalene, although not nearly so large as the last, is fully as deep, and perhaps as remarkable on account of its stalactites (). Their calcareous concretions exhibit the most varied forms. (Today called rna jama, part of the Postojnska jama system). Regarding the field of biospeleology, the aquatic species known by the name of Proteus anguinus abounds in a small marsh at the extremity of the cave (Malte-Brun 1832, 212). History of Speleology and Karst Research poster2013 ICS Proceedings112

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Malte-Brun stated about the Lake of Cerknica that it has been more frequently examined by naturalists than any other (). Calcareous mountains bound it on every side; Mount Jovornick commands it on the south, and the Sliviza on the north. It may be about four or five leagues in circumference in dry seasons and in wet about seven or eight. The waters of eight streams flow into it, and four or five islands rise in the middle of the lake; the village of Vorneck has been built on the largest of these islands. The lake disappears at irregular periods, and flows through forty clefts or apertures in its channels. The inhabitants then collect the fish that have not been carried away by the water, and shoot the aquatic fowl that seek in vain for their haunts. The husbandman deposits the seed in the fertile ooze, trusting that his labors may be crowned by an abundant harvest; but his labor, his outlay, and his hopes, are often vain. By the same issues, which served to drain the lake, the waters rise suddenly with a tremendous noise resembling a thunder; the fish reappear, the teal and water birds find their wanted asylum, and man complains of his improvidence. (Malte-Brun 1832, 212). The main credit of Malte-Bruns work is due to the fact that it helped to increase the prestige of geography, being sovereignfor aproximatly 60 years until the emergence of Elise Reclus Universal Geography (Amorim Filho 1988, 21). Even though one cannot consider him as a karstologist, it is possible to recognize his precise descriptions of the karst landscape and its phenomena.3. The Universal Geography of Elise Reclus (1830)Elise Reclus is mostly known because of his Gographie Universelle (1876), the largest opus on regional geography ever written by one person, among other publications. Even though criticized by some French geographers and sometimes thought as superficial in some issues (geological basis of Geography, for example), the work of Reclus may be described as magnificent. (Amorim Filho 1988, 24). All the 19 volumes of the Universal Geography approach the thematic of caves, ponors, springs, and the use of karst by different cultures. The books are divided as follows: Volume 1 Southern Europe (Greece, Turkey in Europe, Rumania, Serbia, Italy, Spain and Portugal); Volume 2 France and Switzerland; Volume 3 Austria-Hungary, Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands; Volume 4 The British Isles; Volume 5 The northeast Atlantic. Islands of the North Atlantic, Scandinavia, European islands of the Arctic ocean, Russia in Europe; Volume 6 Asiatic Russia; Volume 7 East Asia; Volume 8 India and Indo-China; Volume 9 SouthWestern Asia; Volume 10 North-East Africa; Volume 11 North-West Africa; Volume 12 West Africa; Volume 13 South and East Africa; Volume 14 Australasia; Volume 15 North America; Volume 16 The United States; Volume 17 Mexico, Central America, West Indies; Volume 18 South America (the Andes regions); and Volume 19 Amazonia and La Plata. Like Malte-Brun, the karst phenomena which most called Reclus attention were caverns, dolines, ponors and springs. He often related legends associated with these places. For the present paper, special attention was paid to Volumes 1 and 3. Althougth Reclus talked about other regions than Slovenia in Volume 1, it is important to state that he mentioned the same karst phenomena as common in Slovenia. Under this perspective, in Volume 1, he discussed and compared the limestone mountains of Bosnia with those of the Jura, being very similar due to the existence of grottoes, sinkholes, and subterranean rivers. Sinkholes from 60 to 100 feet in diameter, and shaped like funnels, are met with in many localities. Several rivers appear suddenly at the foot of a hill, and, after flowing on for a few miles, disappear again beneath some portal in the rocks. The land of the Herzegovina especially abounds in phenomena of this kind. The ground there is pierced by sinks, or ponors, which swallow up the water derived from precipitation. Blind valleys and troughs present everywhere the traces of currents of water and of temporary lakes, and after heavy rains the subterranean basins sometimes rise to the surface, and a river then flows for a time along the valley. As a rule, however, the inhabitants are compelled to collect the water they require in cisterns, or to fetch it from long distances. Elsewhere the hydrography of the country is subject to annual changes. Lakes which still figure upon our maps are drained through subterranean passages only recently opened; other lakes are formed in consequence of some passage, which formerly carried off the surface water, having become choked with alluvium. No more curious river probably exists in the world than the Trebinishtitza in the () Herzegovina. (Reclus 1876a, 127). (This river may be the Trebinica (=Trebinjica) river, in the south of Bosnia-Herzegovina). In Volume 3, possibly the most important book regarding this paper, Reclus discussed the Kras Plateau, or, as he would call it the Carso, with its piled-up stones and grotesquely shaped rocks, presents a unique appearance . (Reclus 1876b, 40). He also refered to the abundance of dolines of all shapes and dimensions: some of them presenting the appearance of amphitheatres surrounded by rows of seats. These sinks swallow up all the rain that falls, when they are converted into temporary lakes, unless the water immediately disappears in the bowels of the earth. (Reclus 1876 1894b, 40). For the bottom of such karst features, the author noted that these hidden spots are carefully cultivated by the inhabitants, for upon the open plateau, owing to high winds and arid soil, cultivation is not practicable . (Reclus 1876b, 40). Still talking about the Kras Plateau, he affirmed that it forms a good natural boundary, for it presents great difficulties to a traveler, not so much because of its height, but owing to its formidable precipices . (Reclus 1876b, 43). Obviously, Reclus also made important references to the Dinaric Alps and registered countless seasonal lakes and karst springs and paid attention to the behavior of these lakes and karst-rivers present in the region as a strong strategic barrier, not only because of their height, but also because of the want of water . (Reclus 1876b, 43). The limestone of which they are composed quickly sucks up the rain, and no other country in Europe abounds so History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings113

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largely in underground rivers. These rivers have their waterfalls, their freshets, and other phenomena, like rivers flowing on the surface. M. Schmidt1and others, by descending into the sinks and embarking in small boats upon mysterious watercourses, have succeeded in mapping several of these subterranean river systems. Of all these rivers the Rieka, or Recca, near Trieste, is the most famous. Rising upon the Snowy Mountain, it flows for some distance through a narrow canyon, until it disappears beneath the rock, surmounted by the picturesque village St. Canzian. Still lower down it flows over the bottom of a sink, then forms some cataracts, and disappears once more, only to appear again after an underground course of 22 miles. (Reclus 1876b, 43) (Fig. 2). Reclus also mentioned that a large portion of Carniola and Dalmatia would show sinking rivers in the limestone. When encountering layers of impermeable rocks, occasionally the underground rivers re-appear on the surface. When those rivers are not visible on the surface, many towns have to use cisterns for their water supply although voluminous rivers flow through inaccessible caverns beneath them . (Reclus 1876b, 66). About the Pivka River he reported that it is swallowed up by the caverns of Postojna, or Adelsberg (), (it) is perhaps quite as remarkable a river as the Timavo. After an underground course of about six miles the Pivka once more reaches the surface, a calm and powerful river. Soon after its junction with the Unz, it is again swallowed up, and only reappears a short distance above Laibach. (Reclus 1876b, 66). As it is commonly observed in the reports of travelers and scholars, the imaginary of karst areas almost always presents some points in common. In this case, Reclus said that on a map these rivers, which hide themselves from time to time in underground channels, resemble a serpent cut into pieces. (Reclus 1876b, 45). Regarding the human relationship with karst, Reclus stated that one of the most difficult tasks of the people dwelling around the Carso consists in protecting themselves against the sudden floods caused by these subterranean rivers. The water, not being able to spread laterally, rises vertically, fills up the sinks, and even overflows them. The Rieka has been observed to rise 350 feet above its ordinary level in the sink of Trebic. The villages are thus perpetually threatened by inundations. The inhabitants take many precautions to avert the danger. They place gratings over the openings of the sinks, to prevent their becoming choked up; they occasionally clean cut the underground channels; and sometimes even resort to blasting in order to open more commodious passages for the surplus waters. Permanent or temporary lakes are formed in many places, in spite of these precautions. (Reclus 1876b, 46). Even with all the precautions, perennial or temporary lakes (Fig. 3) form in various places, but none can be compared with the Zirknitz which lies on the northern slope of the Carso. (Reclus 1876b, 47). In the dry season its water is drained off through the numerous fissures and caverns which perforate its bed. After rains it rises to the surface, sometimes very suddenly, and occasionally the lake spreads over a surface of 30 square miles. Drainage works have to some extent regulated the ebb and flow of the lake. In former times, however, the whole of the plain was occasionally converted into a lake, and the villagers alternately gained a livelihood by fishing and by tilling the land when it emerged. (Reclus 1876b, 67).Figure 2.Drawing showing a map of the region surrounding Postojna and Planina. Scale 1:120,000 and one can see also the rivers Pivka and Unz, as well as the Planinko polje (Reclus 1876b, 66). Figure 3.Drawing showing a map of the area of Lake Cerknica or Cerkniko jezero. Scale 1:115,000 (Reclus 1876b, 67).1This may be a misprinting for Adolf Schmidl. History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings114

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Kranjc (2006) remarked on the antiquity of the first citation of the Lake Cerknica: The Roman geographer Strabo (63BC 21 AD) was probably the first to mention it and G. Leonberger (1537) was the first to publish it. According to the Kranjc (2006), the early authors from the 16thand 17thcenturies often just admired it but in the 18thcentury many dedicated themselves to discuss its seasonal behavior scientifically, and for the first time proposals emerged to change its regime (e.g., drying up the lake).Figure 4.Partial view of Lake Cerknica or Cerkniko jezero. (Photo: L.E.P. Travassos.) Figure 5.View of Lake Cerknica from the Mount Slivnicain the winter. (Photo: L.E.P. Travassos.) Figure 6.View of Lake Cerknica from the Mount Slivnicain the summer. (Photo: L.E.P. Travassos). 4. ConclusionsThis study was intended to demonstrate how the Slovene karst was portraited by two important Classical Geographers, who both published a Universal Geography. One can say that most of the descriptions of the Slovene karst are mostly correct with the exception of the surface of the Lake Cerknica made by Elise Reclus. He claimed that the lake has an area of 30 square miles or more than 75 km2, while in reality the lake surface changes from 20 to 25 km2(Dolinar et al. 2010). These authors state that during an average flood, water covers an area of 20 km2. If one think about the surface of the plain, one can see that the polje is a relatively flat enclosed karst depression, with a floor area of 70 km2, and a catchment area of over 475 km2(ibrik et al. 1976; cited by Kova i 2010), thus Lake Cerknica has an extensive karst watershed (Kranjc 2003; cited by Dolinar et al. 2010). Possibly Reclus was mentioning the area of the polje, not the water surface. Further measurements of the karst water behavior was not given by the authors, so one must understand that such behavior were identified only by personal observation and indigenous information. The work of Malte-Brun (with approximately 4,200 pages divided in eight volumes) lacks in cartographic representations, but some artistic illustrations are included. Unfortunately the karst region of Slovenia or the Dinaric Karst is not pictured, just discussed. The magnificence of the Slovene karst took the geographers attention presenting interesting descriptions of the territory. In the work of Reclus, regional maps were made with the intention to better explain the texts. The author showed the inundation zone of the Sava, the caverns of Postojna (Adelsberg), the Lake of Zirknitz and the Plain of Laibach. Many projects have been suggested; a lot of research and even some practical works were conducted until the middle of the 20thcentury. No project was fully implemented because of fear of flooding the capital, Ljubljana. After World War II, the situation changed. Instead of draining the lake, it was proposed to make the lake permanent. The first experiments were not successful and in the 1980s attitudes towards the lake changed. Environmental movements prevailed and many projects began to protect the ephemeral lake as a natural phenomenon (Kranjc 2006) (Figs. 4). History of Speleology and Karst Research poster2013 ICS Proceedings115

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It is desirable to expand this work towards the study of other fields of geography such as general geomorphology, for example. Only with an in-depth study of the two authors, one can assure that they have an important role in the development of Karstology. Regarding Elise Reclus, perhaps one of the reasons for this was the fact that he had spent most of his life in exile, away from France, due to his political ideas (Anarchism). Amorim Filho (1988) reminded that Reclus participated in the resistence movement against Napoleon III, end of 1852, and in the Paris Commune in 1870/71. The exile didnt give him the stability demanded for a productive academic life. Finally, one can say that the reading of classical geographers is considered to be a good opportunity for interdisciplinary academic work, helping future researchers to better understand the present by knowing the past.ReferencesAmorim Filho OB, 1988. As Geografias Universais e a passagem do milnio. Revista Geografia e Ensino, 3(9), 19 (in Portuguese). Britannica, 2010. Conrad Malte-Brun. Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica Online Academic Edition, 11 Mar. 2010. Dolinar N, Rudolf M, raj N, Gaberik A, 2010. Environmental changes affect ecosystem services of the intermittent Lake Cerknica. Ecological Complexity, 7, 403. Ford DC, Williams PW, 2007. Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology. Wiley, London, 576. Hartmann J, Moosdorf N, 2012. The new global lithological map database Glim: a representation of rock properties at the Earth surface. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst, 13(12), 1. Kempe S, 2008. Die Entdeckung des Unterirdischen, Geschichte der Hhlenforschung. In: Kempe S, Rosendahl W (Eds.), Hhlen: verborgene Welten; Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt, Darmstadt, 14. Kranjc A, 2006. Seasonal karst lake Cerknica (Slovenia) 2000 years of man versus nature. Helictite, 39(2), 39. Kranjc A, 1997. Introduction. In: Kranjc A (ed.), KRAS: Slovene Classical Karst. ZRC SAZU, Ljubljana, 07. Kova i G, 2010. An attempt towards an assessment of the Cerknica Polje water balance. Acta Carsologica, 39(1), 39. Malte-Brun C, 1827. Universal Geography, or a Description of All the Parts of the World on a New Plan According to the Great Natural Divisions of the Globe; Accompanied with Analytical, Synoptical, and Elementary Tables. Published by John Laval, Philadelphia, v.1, 503. Malte-Brun C, 1832. Universal Geography, or a Description of All the Parts of the World on a New Plan According to the Great Natural Divisions of the Globe; Accompanied with Analytical, Synoptical, and Elementary Tables. Published by John Laval, Philadelphia, v.5, 427. Reclus E, 1876a. The Universal Geography: Earth and its Inhabitants. Edited and translated by E.G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., Etc. London: J.S. Virtue & Co. Limited, v.1 (Southern Europe Greece, Turkey in Europe, Rumania, Servia. Italy, Spain and Portugal), 504. Reclus E, 1876b. The Universal Geography: Earth and its Inhabitants. Edited and translated by E.G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., Etc. London: J.S. Virtue & Co. Limited, v.3 (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands), 504. Travassos LEP, Kohler HC, Kranjc A, 2006. The 6thSINAGEO and the insertion of the Karst Geomorphology Thematic Session. Acta Carsologica, 35(2), 170. Travassos LEP, 2007. Caracterizao do carste da regio de Cordisburgo, Minas Gerais. Masters Degree Thesis. Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de Minas Gerais, 98. Travassos LEP, 2011. The Cultural Importance of Karst and Caves. Doctorate Dissertation. University of Nova Gorica, Slovenia, 373. Williams P, Fong YT, 2008. World Map of Carbonate Rock Outcrops v3.0. SGGES/University of Auckland: New Zealand., 10 Feb. 2009. Williams P, 2008. World Heritage Caves and Karst. A Thematic Study. A global review of karst World Heritage properties: present situation, future prospects and management requirements. IUCN, Switzerland, 57.History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings116

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IN MEMORIAM OF ERATO AGGELOPOULOU WOLF: THE FIRST GREEK FEMALE CAVERKonstantinos Prokopios Trimmis1, Pelly Filippatou2 1IHellenic Speleological Society, Department of Northern Greece. School of Geolgy AUTH Thessaloniki Greece, pktrimmis@gmail.com2Hellenic Speleological Society, Sina 32, Athens, 106 72, In the spring of 2012 Erato Angelopoulos Wolff died, aged 102 years. Erato was the woman who left her mark on Greek caving in the late 1920s and early 1930s. During that period, some active members of the Greek Mountaineering Club of Athens (EOS Athens) were caving in Attica, Euboea South and North-eastern Peloponnese. Caves like Koutouki in Peania, Attica, Ermis in Ziria, Corinth and Ag. Triada Karystos Euboea, were explored for the first time by this group. Erato was the only woman who participated in these explorations. She also published these explorations in articles that she signed them herself in the Ekdromika chronika magazine of EOS Athens. The research for this presentation was supported by Nicolas Anthony Aroney Trust, as a part of Cerigo Speleological Project. History of Speleology and Karst Research poster2013 ICS Proceedings117

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OLDEST DOCUMENTED CAVES OF THE WORLD: BIRKLEYN CAVESAli Yama OBRUK Cave Research Group; Acikhava Apt. 16/7, Nisantasi, Istanbul, Turkey, The Birkleyn Caves are located near Lice, 25 km north of Diyarbak r, south-eastern Turkey. Three of the four caves are close to each other and dry, but the forth is the longest and the most important of them. It is known as Iskender-i Birkleyn among locals, and is traversed by a branch of the Tigris River flowing through it. These caves are probably among the most interesting caves historically and speleologically because they contain 3,000 years old Assyrian inscriptions and reliefs engraved on the walls. When the former stream bed of the Birkleyn River, which the caves are named after, was blocked by subsidence in prehistoric times, the river opened a new bed to itself by physical erosion inside a nummulitic Tertiary limestone south of its former bed. The Birkleyn Caves were first examined by Taylor in 1862. Later Lehmann-Haupt made a short study of the caves in 1899. After a long interval, Anthony C. Waltham visited the region in 1974 and in 1977 members of Speleo Club de Paris mapped three of these caves. In 2007, Andreas Schachner from German Archaeological Institute began to study the Birkleyn caves in detail. The best known one of those caves, Iskender-i Birkleyn has a total length of 870 meters and was thought to be the spring of Tigris because of its interesting geographical position. This was probably the reason why Assyrian kings Tiglath-Pileser I and Shalmaneser III had reliefs and inscriptions made there. Likewise, the same cave was depicted as the Tigris Source in the bronze ornaments at the gates of Balawat City, which is now in Iraq, forced under Shalmaneser III. Those bronze reliefs, which date back to 850 BC, are displayed in the British Museum today and it is most probably the oldest picture in the world that depicts a cave. In this poster session these caves will be reviewed geologically and the translations of the Assyrian inscriptions on the cave walls are presented in detail.1. IntroductionPerformative engagements with specific, culturally significant places were among the primary means of configuring landscapes in the ancient world. Ancient states often appropriated symbolic or ritual landscapes through commemorative ceremonies and building operations. These commemorative sites became event-places where state spectacles encountered and merged with local cult practices. The Early Iron Age inscriptions and reliefs carved on the cave walls of Birkleyn Caves in Eastern Turkey (Fig. 1), known as the Source of Tigris in monuments, present a compelling paradigm for such spatial practices. Assyrian kings Tiglath-Pileser I (1114 BC) and Shalmaneser III (858 BC) carved images of kingship and accompanying royal inscriptions at this impressive but remote site. This important commemorative event was also represented in detail on Shalmaneser IIIs bronze bands at Tell Balawat (Fig. 2), as well as in his annalistic texts, rearticulating the performance of the place on public monuments in Assyrian urban contexts.These bronze ornaments from the gates of Balawat Iraq, dated 850 BC, are on display at the British Museum today and most probably are the oldest pictures in the world that depict a cave. It is clear that the Tigris Source must have ranked high as a sanctuary not just in local but also in international esteem. Shalmaneser III deemed a visit to this cave so important that in 852 BC he had his army take a detour on its march back from inner Anatolia to Assyria; he and his predecessor Tiglath-Pileser I performed sacrifices at the Tigris Source and both left inscriptions and reliefs at the site. Moreover, as a holy precinct in open nature, with unlimited water and shelter from the powers of nature offered by three caves in addition to the river grotto itself, the Tigris Source would seem uniquely qualified to serve as a refuge sanctuary.Figure 1. Location of Birkleyn Caves. Figure 2. Balawat door bands, showing sacrifices and Birkleyn Cave at upper band, right corner. (Source: Wikipedia). History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings118

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2.2. Cave no. 2 This cave lies in the northern outcrop and has a NE-SW direction like the others. It has a length of 150 meters, an average width of 25 meters and a height of 20 meters. It has been used from prehistoric to medieval times. Sadly, inside and outside of the cave many traces of illegal excavations are found. In front of the cave, there is a rock mass resembling a huge platform. On the eastern side of this natural agglomeration, where the cave wall intersects the outside wall, there are two more inscriptions and another relief that belongs to Shalmaneser III. The content of this inscription, which dates back to 858 BC, is almost the same as the inscriptions of the same king in the entrance of Cave no. 1. 2.3. Cave no. 3 With a total length of 600 meters, this cave is located 200 meters east of Cave no. 2 and has two parts. After a large entrance and two large spaces between small clearances and bluffs that expand to the canyon, the visitors enter the interior of the cave with a narrow corridor. The whole cave is covered with stalactites and stalagmites. The ceramics, that are found everywhere in the cave, suggest that the cave was used intensively in the past. 2.4. Cave no. 4 Located above the entrance of the Cave no. 1, at the northern bluffs, this cave consists of two successive spaces. The majority of the ceiling of the main chamber, which is larger compared to the entrance, has collapsed. The original size of the cave is therefore difficult to estimate. In the light of the discoveries of archaeologists, it is seen that these two spaces were used over ages intensively by humans. On the floor of this cave, several terracotta fragments were found mostly from the Iron Age.2. Caves of Birkleyn in general2.1. Cave no. 1 This is the most important one of the four known caves in the region, also called Tigris Tunnel. It is located underneath of the southern bluff that forms the westward expansion of Mount Kohra and has a northeast-southwest direction (Fig. 3). The cave has a total length of 870 meters and is 20 meters high on average. At the entrance of the cave, 4 meters above the floor there are three cuneiform inscriptions. The westernmost one is the inscription and relief of Tiglath-Pileser. 1.5 meters away is the Shalmaneser IIIs inscription and relief, and another inscription of the same king 10 meters further on. In the following the translations by Russel (1986) are cited. The inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I(1114 BC): With the supports of my lords, the great gods Ashur, Samas (and) Adad, I, Tukult -apil-Earra (Tiglath-Pileser I), the son of Ashur-resh-ishi, the king of Assyria who is the son of Mutakkil-Nusku, the king of Assyria, the conqueror of the great sea of Amurru Land (=Mediterranean Sea) and the great sea of Nairi Land (=Lake Van), have been to the Nairi Land three times. The inscription of Shalmaneser III (858 BC): ulm nu-aar du (Shalmaneser III), great king, strong king, the king of four realms, the king of Assyria, the king of all humanity, with the support of his guides, the great gods Samas and Adad, the mighty one (king) proceeds with power. They (the gods) gave him (the king) the mountains from the place the sun rises to the place the sun sets. A king that never stops to follow his enemies and like the hills that flood devastated, strides the impassable rivers and mountains, a brave, merciless king. Son of Aur-nir-apli (=Ashurnasirpal II) who is the son of Tukulti-Ninurta II, the king of Assyria, the conqueror ruler from the sea of the land of Nairi (=Lake Van) to the great sea where the sun sets (=Mediterranean Sea). I have taken the land of Hatti and all their borders, the land of Melindu, the land of Daianu, the land of Suhmu, the city of Arsaskun, the crown city of Urartus, Aramu, the land of Gilzanu, the land of Hubuskia-(the region) from the spring of Tigris to the spring of Euphrates, (the region) from the sea within the borders of Mazamua (=Caspian Sea) to the sea of the land of Kaldu (=Persian Gulf) under my feet. I went to Babylon and made a sacrifice. I went to the land of Kaldu, took their cities under my rule and accepted their tributes and gifts. Adda-idri of Damascus and Irhulenu of Hamat revolted with fifteen cities. I fought with them four times. The second inscription of Shalmaneser III (858 BC) reads: The great gods Ashur, Bel, Sin, Samas, Adad, Ishtar who like my kingdom and elevate my name. ulm nu-aar du (Shalmaneser III), son of Aur-n ir-apli (=Ashurnasirpal II) who is the son of Tukulti-Ninurta II, the king of Assyria, the conqueror ruler from the sea of the land of Nairi (=Lake Van) to the great sea where the sun sets (=Mediterranean Sea). I have conquered the land of Hatti completely. I entered the Enzu Crossing. I conquered the lands of Suhmu, Daianu (and) Urartu completely. I went to the land of Gilzanu. I accepted the tributes of the people of Gilzanu. I went to the land of Nairi for three times. I wrote my name to the spring of Tigris.Figure 3. Map of Birkleyn Caves (after Schachner 2004). History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings119

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ReferencesAygen T, 1990. Die Hhlen der Trkei. Istanbul, 62. Halliday WR, Shaw TR, 1995. The Iskender-i Birkilin Caves in the 9thand 12thcenturies BC. The NSS Bulletin, Journal of Caves and Karst Studies, 57 (2), 10810. Harman ah 2007. Source of the Tigris, event, place and performance in the Assyrian landscapes of the Early Iron Age. Archaeological Dialogues, Cambridge University Press, 14 (2), 179. Kusch H, 1993. Die Tigrishhlen in Ostanatolien (Trkei). Die Hhle, 44 (3+4), 69, 10110. Lehmann-Haupt CF, 1901. Der Tigris-Tunnel. Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fr Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, Berlin, 33, 226. Lehmann-Haupt CF, 1910. Armenien Einst und Jetzt. Leipzig, 325. Rossner EP, 1987. Die neuassyrischen Felsreliefs in der Trkei. Rossner, Mnchen, 108 (46). Russel H, 1986. Assyrian monuments at the Tigris Tunnel. Aratrma Sonular Toplant s Ankara, 3, 286. Schachner A, 2004. Birkleyn Ma aralar Yzey Ara t rmas Ara t rma Sonular Toplant s ,Ankara, 23, 1891 (in Turkish). Schachner A, 2009. Assyriens Knige an einer der Quellen des Tigris: Archologische Forschungen im Hhlensystem von Birkleyn und am sogenannten Tigris-Tunnel. Wasmuth Ernst Verlag, Tbingen, 239. Timing H, 1984. Die Hhle in der bildenden Kunst. Die Hhle, 35 (3/4), 177. Waltham AC, 1976. The Tigris Tunnel and Birkleyn Caves, Turkey. British Cave Research Association Bulletin, 14, 31. Wikipedia. jpg. Accessed Feb. 2013.3. ConclusionThough it has been a politically problematic region of Turkey for a long time; we believe that culture, history and natural beauties are the assets of all mankind. In the light of all the information above, it is evident that Birkleyn Caves have a great natural and historical importance and those lonely natural values in a troubled land have to be taken under protection without wasting any more time.Figure 4. Entrance of Cave no 1 (Tigris Tunnel). (Foto by author). History of Speleology and Karst Research poster 2013 ICS Proceedings120

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Archeology and Paleontology in CavesSession:121 2013 ICS Proceedings

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NAHAL ASAEL CAVE: A UNIQUE 6,000 YEAR OLD WOODEN INSTALLATION AND THE LATE CHALCOLITHIC PRESENCE IN HARDLY ACCESSIBLE CAVES IN THE JUDEAN DESERT, ISRAELUri Davidovich1, Roi Porat1, Elisabetta Boaretto2, Nili Liphschitz3, Amihai Mazar1, Amos Frumkin4 1Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel, Radiocarbon Laboratory, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl St., Rehovot 76100, Israel, of Archaeology, The Botanical Laboratories, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, of Geography, The Hebrew University, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel, Human occupation of caves located within high sheer cliffs in the remote arid region of the Judean Desert forms a distinct regional phenomenon of the Ghassulian cultural sphere during the Late Chalcolithic period of the Southern Levant. Over the last sixty years scholars have debated the nature of this phenomenon, suggesting that the caves were used either for habitation, as seasonal herders shelters or storage facilities, for mortuary or ritual functions, or as temporary refuge place s. Recently, in order to test the various interpretations, the spatial and material traits of 70 caves with reported Chalcolithic remains from the Judean Desert were analyzed. One such cave is located in Nahal Asael (Asael valley), ca. 10 km north of Masada and 5 km west of the Dead Sea shore. This small cave features one of the most difficult approaches among the studied caves, demanding a vertical abseiling of ca. 30 m. The cave was first visited in 1960, and a rare wooden construction, a platform made of unworked logs, was discovered in its innermost passage. The discovery prompted the late archaeologist P. Bar-Adon to launch an expedition to the cave in 1974. However, neither the initial discovery nor the results of the 1974 expedition were ever published, and even the exact location of the cave was forgotten over the years. As part of the renewed research we collected unpublished documents related to this cave, and re-located the cave in the field. This was followed by systematic survey and mapping of the cave, detailed examination of its environmental properties, and sampling of the wooden installation for taxonomic identification and radiocarbon dating. The results show that the platform, which was constructed of local trees, is dated to the early fourth millennium BC, and is thus the earliest of its kind in the entire Levant. The highly difficult access to the cave, the location of the platform within its deepest section, its careless construction, and the scarcity of other material remains, all seem to support the notion that the cave, as other neighboring caves, served as an ephemeral refuge during the Late Chalcolithic period.1. IntroductionDuring the Late Chalcolithic period (ca. 4500 BC), a new culture emerged in the Mediterranean, semi-arid regions of the Southern Levant (present-day Israel, Palestine and Jordan). This culture, termed the Ghassulian culture after the type-site of Teleilat Ghassul (e.g., Mallon et al. 1934), is characterized by rural communities settled in various environmental zones while practicing mixed farming subsistence economies (Levy 1986a; Gilead 1988a; Rowan and Golden 2009). Debates concerning the level of social complexity, existence of hierarchical institutions and degree of economic specialization characterize the scholarly discourse on the Ghassulian (Levy 1986b, 1995, 2006; Gilead 1988b, 2002). One of the hallmarks of this cultural phase, which marks a distinct change from the preceding periods, is the wide-scale exploitation of the subterranean sphere. Caves, both natural and artificial, served for various purposes in and around the settlements, such as habitation, storage and burial (e.g., Perrot and Ladiray 1980; Perrot 1984; Gilead 1987; Gopher and Tsuk 1996; van den Brink 1998; Scheftelowitz and Oren 2004). These caves were easily accessible from the sub-aerial sphere, and their forms were chosen (or fitted) to suite their intended functions. The Judean Desert, a small local desert in the rain shadow of the Judean Highlands (Fig. 1), shows a somewhat different pattern. While no permanent settlements are known in this region during the Late Chalcolithic period, numerous natural caves, opened in the cliffs of the Dead Sea Escarpment and the deep canyons draining into the lake, contain material remains from this period. The first caves with Ghassulian materials were discovered in 1952 (in Wadi Murabaat; de-Vaux 1961), and during the last sixty years ca. 100 caves with similar remains were found in the entire region (e.g., Aharoni 1961a, b; Avigad 1961, 1962; de Vaux 1962; Yadin 1962, 1963; Allegro 1964; BarAdon 1989). The most renowned is the Cave of the Treasure, located in Nahal Mishmar (Mishmar valley), where a hoard of more than 400 copper objects was hidden, wrapped in a reed mat, in a niche inside the cave (Bar-Adon 1961, 1962, 1980). Over the years, several interpretations for the Late Chalcolithic presence in the precipitous caves of the Judean Desert were suggested. Most scholars view the caves as either herders shelters or storage installations in relation to seasonal movements of semi-nomadic pastoral groups (e.g., de Vaux 1970; Mazar 1990; Gates 1992). Another prominent suggestion is that the caves served as temporary refuge places for groups of people fleeing from the sedentary areas in turbulent times (e.g., Avigad 1962; Haas and Nathan 1973; Ussishkin 1980). Other hypotheses include permanent habitations (de Vaux 1961), semisedentary traders stations (Tadmor 1989), mortuary preferences (Ilan and Rowan 2007) or a cultic incentive of an unclear nature (Bar-Adon 1980; Goran 1995). All explanations remained rather speculative, however, as no comprehensive examination of the environmental, spatial Archeology and Paleontology in Cavesoral2013 ICS Proceedings123

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Here we wish to demonstrate the characteristics of the Late Chalcolithic presence in the Judean Desert caves using one case-study, that of Nahal Asael Cave (henceforth NAC). This cave, located only two km northeast of the famous Cave of the Treasure (Fig. 1), contains a unique wooden installation, discovered already in 1960 but never studied in detail, even though the cave was extensively excavated in 1974. Neither the initial discovery nor the results of the excavation were ever published, and the very existence of the cave was forgotten over the years. In what follows, we discuss the results of our renewed research of the cave, which included a study of the unpublished materials relating to the previous explorations of the cave, and recent fieldwork concentrating on environmental and spatial aspects, as well as on the wooden installation. At the end of the paper we consider the contribution of NAC to the discussion over the role of the Judean Desert caves within the Ghassulian cultural sphere.2. MethodsUnpublished documents, including a field notebook of the 1974 expedition to NAC written by Pesach Bar-Adon, the caves excavator, as well as a prosaic summary written by an expedition member, S. Heiman, an Israeli Defense Force order, and a few photographs, were located in the house of P. Bar-Adons son, Doron, in 2006, and formed the starting point for the present research. Following conversations with D. Bar-Adon, Y. Tsafrir and Y. Govrin, all participants in past explorations of the cave, the latter was re-located in the field in spring 2007. Consequently, a systematic survey and mapping of the cave was undertaken. Mapping was conducted using basic equipment (Leica Disto D3 laser inclinometer and Silva Ranger 3 prismatic compass), and mapping grade was 5B. The focus of the renewed research was the wooden installation found in the innermost passage of the cave. Samples from four different logs were taken for wood identification. Cross and longitudinal, tangential as well as radial sections were made by hand with a sharp razor-blade. The identification of the wood to species level, based on the three-dimensional structure of the wood, was made microscopically from these sections. Comparison was made with reference sections prepared from living identified tree specimens and with anatomical atlases. Two of the aforementioned samples were submitted for Radiocarbon dating. Both samples were pretreated in order to extract the cellulose and to remove any contamination. The purity of the extracted cellulose before dating was checked using Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis. The cellulose was oxidized to CO2and then transformed to graphite for the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurement (see detailed procedures in Yizhaq et al. 2005). Calculated 14C ages have been corrected for fractionation, referring to the standard 13C value of -25 (wood). Calibrated ages in calendar years have been obtained from the calibration curve Intcal04 (Reimer et al. 2004) by means of the 2005 version of OxCal v. 3.10 software (Bronk-Ramsey 1995; 2001). and material characteristics of the caves under discussion was conducted. In order to test the aforementioned interpretations, we recently compiled all available data from 70 caves in the region (Davidovich 2008), ca. 20 of which were discovered by us during an intensive cave survey conducted between 2001 and 2005 (Eshel and Porat 2009). Our analysis of the spatial and structural properties of the caves seems to support the refuge model, at least with regard to the majority of caves (Davidovich forthcoming). The most fundamental issue is that of accessibility. Most of the caves are located within high precipitous cliffs, and demand walking on steep slopes above sheer cliffs, and in half of the cases also the use of ropes and rope ladders. No attempts to improve the access ways were noted, and there are no signs indicating that access was essentially different during the Late Chalcolithic. Regarding structure, all caves were used entirely in their natural form, in many cases involving the use of dark, narrow, low, and unventilated spaces. Only rare examples of man-made modifications for prolonged occupation were observed. In addition, the material remains found in the caves are essentially different from contemporary settlement sites, primarily in the low frequency of several mundane artifact categories, such as small ceramic vessels and various flint tools. These features stand in striking contrast with the patterns observed in the subterranean spaces used within the settled provinces of the Ghassulian culture (above). They also differ from historic and modern cave use patterns of both settled agriculturalists and semi-nomadic pastoralists living in and near the Judean Desert (Davidovich 2008).Figure 1. Study area of the Judean Desert with place names mentioned in the text. Small black dots mark caves with Late Chalcolithic remains. 1) Nahal Asael Cave; 2) Cave of the Treasure; 3) Wadi Murabaat Caves. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings124

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3. Environment and Cave StructureNahal Asael (Arabic: Wadi an-Nidah) is a short ephemeral ravine draining ca. 10 km2of the central part of the Judean Desert into the Dead Sea. It flows along its upper course in a shallow channel, but ca. 1 km west of the Dead Sea Western Fault Escarpment it enters a deep box-shaped canyon, entrenched in Late Cretaceous carbonate rocks of the Judea Group. A major dry waterfall divides the upper part from the lower, 300 m deep canyon, which ends in the Dead Sea Fault Escarpment. Further east, Nahal Asael flows in the Quaternary fill of the Dead Sea depression. The latter has developed as a pull-apart basin within the Dead Sea transform since the late Miocene (Garfunkel 1997). The major dry waterfall appears to be a nickpoint associated with the Plio-Pleistocene downcutting of the lower canyon, responding to the deepening Dead Sea depression. The waterfall retreats in a rate reflecting the rare flash-flood events (occurring no more than few times a year) which perform the major geomorphic work. Annual precipitation in the Nahal Asael catchment is ca. 70 mm. NAC is located ca. 300 m east of the major waterfall (grid reference 233200/590110, New Israel Grid), approximately 100 m below the top of the northern bank of the canyon, within the Turonian limestone of Shivta Formation (Raz 1986; Fig. 2). The approach to the cave involves a walk on steep slopes of Nezer Formation, leading to the top of the vertical cliff ca. 30 m above the caves opening. From this point, the only way to get to the cave is by abseiling down the cliff face, which drops ca. 50 m further down below the cave towards the canyon bed.Figure 2. View of NAC in the northern bank of Nahal Asael, as seen from the opposite bank. NAC, as most other Judean Desert caves (Frumkin 2001; Lisker et al. 2010), developed as an isolated chamber karst cave below watertable during the mid to late Cenozoic (Frumkin and Fischhendler 2005). It was drained empty when base level and associated watertable dropped during the development of the Dead Sea morphostructural depression. Sometime during the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, the cave was truncated by the entrenching canyon. The most dominant process which shaped the present structure of the cave is roof collapse, possibly of tectonic origins. The cave is comprised of outer and inner sections (Fig. 3). The outer space is a 9 m long, 12 m wide and 7 m high chamber, and its floor is entirely strewn with collapsed boulders. Shallow pockets of sediments are found between the boulders, containing concentrations of small branches, probably bird-nesting materials. From the northeastern part of the chamber one can descend ca. 2 m, through two narrow shafts-like opening between collapsed blocks, to the inner, lower part of the cave, which consists of a few intersecting narrow and low passages, forming a maze-like structure. This area of the cave is completely dark and requires crawling. Only little sedimentation is found in the passages, mostly the result of local erosion together with minor biogenic contribution (mainly bat guano). Box-work is abundant on the ceiling of the passages, due to selective weathering of bedrock between paleokarstic veins of calcite. The innermost passage is slightly higher compare with the rest of the system (over 2 m), and has a trapezoidal cross-section with elevated shoulders; it contains almost no sediment. The total length of the inner section reaches 30 m.Figure 3. Plan and sections of NAC. 4. Past ExplorationsNAC was first discovered in 1960 by a survey team of Camp C headed by P. Bar-Adon, one of four camps that formed part of the Judean Desert Operation, a large-scale expedition to the caves located between Ein-Gedi and Masada, on the Israeli side of the Judean Desert (Bar-Adon 1961). One young volunteer (and a future professor of archaeology), Yoram Tsafrir, managed, with great difficulty, to abseil down to the cave, where he found peculiar concentration of wooden logs that were clearly brought by humans. While the evidence for anthropogenic activity inside a very hard-to-access cave was intriguing, the expedition later focused on other caves in the region, mainly the Cave of the Treasure (Bar-Adon 1980). It took another 14 years before Bar-Adon decided to go back to NAC. In August 1974, in the heat of the summer, he arranged an expedition devoted exclusively to the exploration of this cave. Administration and manpower were provided by the Israel Defence Force, under an order entitled Bar-Adon Operation. According to the unpublished field documentation, the actual excavation in the cave totaled five days. The work included survey, mapping, and minor excavations in the inner passages and Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings125

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around the shafts connecting the inner and outer parts of the cave. It turned out that the few anthropogenic elements found in the cave were all observed already during the preliminary survey, while the excavations yielded nothing but a small unindicative flint flake. The survey finds included the wooden platform (to be described in detail below), few more logs scattered in the southernmost part of the inner passages (probably the ones seen by Tsafrir in 1960), as well as few pieces of ropes and a small ceramic bowl collected from the innermost passage, southwest of the platform. The bowl, which was dated by Bar-Adon based on typological grounds to the Chalcolithic period, was in fact the only typo-chronological element found inside the cave. Both the bowl and the ropes were lost after the excavations, and their re-assessment is therefore impossible. Thus, the dating of the anthropogenic activity in the cave in general, and of the wooden platform in particular, remained somewhat obscured following BarAdons expedition.5. The Wooden InstallationAs already mentioned, the main find from NAC is the wooden installation, constructed in the northeastern portion of the innermost passage. This is a kind of platform (which may also by termed shelf or board) made of unworked wooden logs, which was built ca. 1.4 m above the passage floor, and ca. 0.7 m below its ceiling, leaning on the elevated shoulders of the passage (Fig. 4). Two logs (0.9 and 1.2 m long) were placed across the passage, while the other logs (1.3.6 m long) were laid perpendicularly on top of the former, spaced 10 cm apart, in a disorderly fashion. The logs are 5 cm thick, and their weight is estimated in 2 kg each. Few twigs were placed on top of the construction, but it is unclear whether it was entirely covered with twigs in origin. All the wood was preserved in a dry state, as most organic materials found in the Judean Desert caves.Figure 4. The wooden platform of NAC, looking NE. The location of radiocarbon samples MA1 and MA4 is indicated. The dendroarchaeological inspections have shown that the wooden platform was made of local trees, growing in the Dead Sea basin and the eastern part of the Judean Desert. Four different logs were sampled, three from the main construction and the fourth from the twigs resting on top. The state of preservation of the xylem was excellent in the three logs, while the xylem of the small twig was found deformed. Two samples were identified as made of Acacia raddiana Savi (Acacia), while a third specimen (the twigs) was attributed to the same genus, but could not be identified to the species level. The fourth log was made of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) desf. (Christ thorn; Jujube). Both tree species can still be found today in distances of up to 1 km from the cave. Two of the Acacia specimens, a thick log (MA1) and the small twigs (MA4), were dated by radiocarbon. The stable isotope ratio 13C and the radiocarbon results are reported in Table 1. Both samples gave 13C values close to -25, in accordance with their identification as deriving from a C3 plant. The calibrated 14C ages show that one sample (MA1) most probably dates to the 45ththcenturies BC, while the second sample is dated to the 40ththcenturies BC. Both ages fall within the accepted range for the Late Chalcolithic period, though the second age may be considered rather late in the period, on the verge of the transition to the Early Bronze Age I (Gilead 1994; Bar and Winter 2010; Davidovich forthcoming).Table 1.Stable isotope ratio 13C and radiocarbon results for two samples from NAC wooden platform. Sample # MA1 MA4 Lab # RTT 5894 RTT 589513C (PDB)14Cage (years BP) Calibrated age 68.2% prob. (years BC) Calibrated age 95.4% prob. (years BC) -25.2 5590 65 44904560 -23.45 5110 60 39704050 6. DiscussionThe wooden platform of NAC constitutes a unique item from the Late Chalcolithic period in the Southern Levant, and the earliest well-preserved wooden construction known from the entire region. The dry conditions prevailing in the Judean Desert, as well as the hardly-accessible location of the cave, contributed to the preservation of this rare element. While other caves in the region yielded occasional wooden logs, including modified ones (e.g., the Cave of the Treasure: Bar-Adon 1980; Wadi Murabaat Cave #2: deVaux 1961), only in one case was a relatively large wooden log radiometrically dated to the Late Chalcolithic (in Zruia Cave; Davidovich forthcoming). The only other wooden platform known from the Judean Desert, found in Nahal Mishmar Cave #5, ca. 300 m west of the Cave of the Treasure (Bar-Adon 1980), had never been dated, and there are circumstantial arguments in favor of a much later date for this element. The incentive for the construction of the platform in NAC and its exact use remain somewhat vague. While carrying the logs into the cave and inserting them into its innermost section were very demanding tasks, the actual construction appears to be rather carelessly built. No effort was invested in modifying the logs or in constructing a solid installation (as the logs were not tied together). The platform probably served to carry something on top which would have been better off the ground, but there are no indications as to what Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings126

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this might have been. Options include daily artifacts such as beddings and utensils, food supplies, or even prestigious objects, though the flimsy construction may not accord with the latter option. The radiocarbon dates place the wooden platform within the time-frame of the Late Chalcolithic period, and are paralleled by few dozens of dates from other Judean Desert caves (Davidovich 2008: 131). Although the two dates obtained from the platform are a few centuries apart, it is more likely that both belong to a single constructional phase rather than to two chronologically-separated phases. It seems that the later of the two dates, in the very early fourth millennium, would be the better estimation for the time of construction of the platform (and of the occupation of the cave in general), as it derives from small twigs. The existence of an earlier date might be the result of an old wood effect related to the relatively thick log from which this date derives. Another possibility is that the occupants of the cave used old dry trunks for the construction of the platform. It should be noted that the radiocarbon dates accord well with the Chalcolithic date ascribed by BarAdon to the ceramic bowl based on typological grounds (above). The radiometric dating of the platform showed beyond doubt that NAC is indeed part of the phenomenon of Late Chalcolithic presence in hardly-accessible caves in the Judean Desert cliffs. Actually, it is one of the caves with the most difficult and dangerous approach in the region, involving both walking over steep terrain and the use of long ropes to reach the caves mouth. Even more astounding is the fact that such an effort was invested in a cave with very little space for occupation. In fact, the only potentially convenient part of the cave is the outer chamber, but the latters floor is piled up with boulders, and no attempts to evacuate them and to create a more suitable space were noted. The inner passages are even less suited for a long stay, as they are dark, dusty, unventilated and tedious to move through. It seems that the Late Chalcolithic occupation of NAC was rather ephemeral, as attested by the meager material remains found in the cave, even though it was meticulously surveyed and excavated. The erection of the wooden platform possibly indicates that some preparations for an extended stay were made, but the poor execution and the scarcity of related artifacts suggest that eventually the occupation was brief. This should come as no surprise, since the topographic setting and the caves structure are not favorable for prolonged habitation. Considering the question posed in the beginning of the article, regarding the nature of the Late Chalcolithic presence in the Judean Desert caves, it appears that NAC fits well within the temporary refuge model. The highly difficult approach to the cave, its inhospitable structure, the lack of man-made modifications intended to create more convenient spaces, and the scarcity of material remains, all seem to support the notion that the cave served as an ephemeral hideout for a small group of people, occupying the cave for a short duration. Other interpretations raised in the past regarding the discussed phenomenon do not seem valid in the case of NAC; it is highly unlikely that the cave served as a temporary shelter for shepherds or other passersby, and there are no indications for mortuary or ritual practices conducted in the cave. Yet, it should be stressed that the high degree of difficulty in accessing the cave coupled with the almost complete absence of artifacts makes NAC a somewhat unusual manifestation of the refuge phenomenon. In addition, the exact function of the wooden platform within the refuge model is unclear (could it be that it once carried important objects for the people taking refuge in the cave, which were removed when they decided to leave the cave for good?). It may be hypothesized that the cave had a specific function within the system of refuge caves in the Judean Desert, a function which remains, for the time being, a mystery.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to Doron Bar-Adon, the son of NACs explorer Pesach Bar-Adon, who allowed us to use unpublished documents stored in his private archive, which formed the basis for the re-evaluation of previous work conducted in the cave. Thanks are also due to Prof. Yoram Tsafrir and Dr. Yehuda Govrin for sharing their field experience in past explorations of the cave. This paper is dedicated to the late Prof. Hanan Eshel, who supported the renewed study of NAC from its onset.ReferencesAharoni Y, 1961a. The caves of Nahal Hever. Atiqot, 3, 148. Aharoni Y, 1961b. Expedition B. Israel Exploration Journal, 11, 11. Allegro JM, 1964. Search in the Desert Allen, London. Avigad N, 1961. Expedition A. Israel Exploration Journal, 11, 6. Avigad N, 1962. Expedition A Nahal David. Israel Exploration Journal, 12, 169. Bar S, Winter H, 2010. Canaanean flint blades in Chalcolithic context and the possible onset of the transition to the Early Bronze Age: a case study from Fazael 2. Tel Aviv, 37, 33. Bar-Adon P, 1961. Expedition C. Israel Exploration Journal,11, 25. Bar-Adon P, 1962. Expedition C The Cave of the Treasure. Israel Exploration Journal, 12, 215. Bar-Adon P, 1980. The Cave of the Treasure, the finds from the caves in Nahal Mishmar. Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem. Bar-Adon P, 1989. Excavations in the Judean Desert. Atiqot, 9, 1 (in Hebrew). van den Brink ECM, 1998. An index to Chalcolithic mortuary caves in Israel. Israel Exploration Journal, 48, 165. Bronk-Ramsey C, 1995. Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy: the OxCal program. Radiocarbon, 37(2), 425. Bronk-Ramsey C, 2001. Development of the radiocarbon prograam OxCal. Radiocarbon, 43(2), 355. Davidovich U, 2008. The Late Chalcolithic period in the Judean Desert: identification, settlement pattern and material culture as a basis for social and environmental reconstruction. M.A. Thesis, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel (in Hebrew).Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings127

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Davidovich U, forthcoming. The Chalcolithic-Early Bronze transition: a view from the Judean Desert caves. Palorient. Eshel H, Porat R, 2009. Refuge caves of the Bar Kokhba revolt, second volume. Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem (in Hebrew). Frumkin A, 2001. The Cave of the Letters sediments indication of an early phase of the Dead Sea depression?. Journal of Geology, 109(1), 79. Frumkin A, Fischhendler I, 2005. Morphometry and distribution of isolated caves as a guide for phreatic and confined paleohydrological conditions. Geomorphology, 67, 457. Garfunkel Z, 1997. The history and formation of the Dead Sea Basin. In: TM Niemi, Z Ben-Avraham, Y. Gat (Eds.). The Dead Sea: the lake and its setting. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 36. Gates M-H, 1992. Nomadic pastoralists and the Chalcolithic hoard from Nahal Mishmar. Levant, 24, 131. Gilead I, 1987. A new look at Chalcolithic Beer-Sheba. Biblical Archaeologist, 50, 11017. Gilead I, 1988a. The Chalcolithic period in the Levant.Journal of World Prehistory, 2, 397. Gilead I, 1988b. Shiqmim and the Chalcolithic period in southern Israel. Journal of Israel Prehistoric Society, 21, 145**. Gilead I, 1994. The history of the Chalcolithic settlement in the Nahal Beer Sheva area: the radiocarbon aspect. Bulletin of the American Schools for Oriental Research, 296, 1. Gilead I, 2002. Religio-magic behaviour in the Chalcolithic period of Palestine. In: ED Oren and S Ahituv (Eds.). Studies in archaeology and related disciplines, Aharon Kempinski memorial volume (Beer-Sheva XV). Kiryat Sefer, Beer-Sheva, 103. Gopher A, Tsuk T, 1996. The Nahal Qanah Cave: earliest gold in the Southern Levant (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology 12). Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv. Goren Y, 1995. Shrines and ceramics in Chalcolithic Israel: the view through the petrographic microscope. Archaeometry, 37(2), 287. Haas N, Nathan H, 1973. An attempt at a social interpretation of the Chalcolithic burials in the Nahal Mishmar caves. In: Y Aharoni (Ed.). Excavations and studies, essays in honour of professor Shemuel Yeivin. Institute of Archaeology-Carta, Tel Aviv, 143 (in Hebrew). Ilan D, Rowan Y, 2007. The Judean Desert as a Chalcolithic necropolis. Paper presented in the American Schools of Oriental Research 2007 Annual Meeting, 14.11.2007, San Diego, CA. Levy TE, 1986a. Archaeological sources for the study of Palestine: the Chalcolithic period. Biblical Archaeologist, 49, 82. Levy TE, 1986b. Social archaeology and the Chalcolithic period: explaining social organizational change during the 4thmillennium in Israel. Michmanim, 3, 5. Levy TE, 1995. Cult, metallurgy and rank societies Chalcolithic period (ca. 4500 BCE). In: Levy TE (Ed.). The archaeology of society in the Holy Land. Leicester University Press, London, 226. Levy TE (Ed.), 2006. Archaeology, Anthropology and Cult: The Sanctuary at Gilat, Israel. Equinox, London. Lisker S, Porat R, Frumkin A, 2010. Geology of caves in the northern section of the Dead Sea Fault Escarpment. Judea and Samaria Research Studies, 19, 323 (in Hebrew). Mallon A., Koeppel R, Neuville R, 1934. Teleilat Ghassul I: compte rendu des fouilles de linstitut biblique pontifical 1929. Pontificii Instituti Biblici,Rome (in French). Mazar A, 1990. The Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10000 B.C.E. Doubleday, New York. Perrot J, 1984. Structures dhabitat, mode de la vie et environnement: les villages souterrains des pasteurs de Beersheva dans le Sud dIsrel, au IV millnaire avant lre chrtienne. Palorient, 10, 75 (in French). Perrot J, Ladiray D, 1980. Tombes ossuaries de la rgion cotire palestinienne au IV millnaire avant lre chrtienne (Mmoirs et travaux du centre de recherches prhistoriques Franais de Jrusalem 1). Association Paleorient,Paris (in French). Raz E, 1986. Geological map of Israel, Sheet 16-I, En-Gedi, 1:50,000. Israel Geological Survey, Jerusalem. Reimer PJ, Baillie MGL, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Bertrand C, Blackwell PG, Buck CE, Burr G, Cutler KB, Damon PE, Edwards RL, Fairbanks RG, Friedrich M, Guilderson TP, Hughen KA, Kromer B, McCormac FG, Manning S, Bronk Ramsey C, Reimer RW, Remmele S, Southon JR, Stuiver M, Talamo S, Taylor FW, van der Plicht J,Weyhenmeyer CE, 2004. IntCal04: calibration issue. Radiocarbon,46(3), 1029. Rowan YM, Golden J, 2009. The Chalcolithic period of the Southern Levant: a synthetic review. Journal of World Prehistory, 22, 1. Scheftelowitz N, Oren R, 2004. Givat Ha-Oranim: a Chalcolithic site (Salvage Excavation Reports 1). Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv. Tadmor M, 1989. The Judean Desert treasure from Nahal Mishmar: a Chalcolithic traders hoard? In: A Leonard Jr., BB Williams (Eds.). Essays in ancient civilization presented to Helen J. Kantor. The Oriental Institute, Chicago, 249. Ussishkin D, 1980. The Ghassulian shrine at En-Gedi. Tel Aviv, 7, 1. de-Vaux R, 1961. Part I: archaologie. In: P Benoit, JT Milik, R. de-Vaux (Eds.). Les grottes de Murabbat (Discoveries in the Judean Desert II). Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1 (in French). de-Vaux R, 1962. Part I: archaologie. In: M Baillet, JT Milik, R. de-Vaux (Eds.). Les petites grottes de Qumrn (Discoveries in the Judean Desert III). Clarendon Press, Oxford, 3 (in French). de-Vaux R, 1970. Chapter IX (b): Palestine during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods. Cambridge Ancient History3, Vol. I(1): 498. Yadin Y, 1962. Expedition D The Cave of the Letters. Israel Exploration Journal, 12, 227. Yadin Y, 1963. The Finds from the Bar Kokhba Period in the Cave of Letters. Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem. Yizhaq M, Mintz GIC, Khalally H, Weiner S, Boaretto E, 2005. Quality controlled radiocarbon dating of bones and charcoal from the early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) of Motza (Israel). Radiocarbon, 47(1), 193.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings128

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SEDIMENTSANDFAUNALREMAINSOFTHEKURTUN-1 CAVE ATBAIKALLAKEAndrei Filippov1, Fedora Khenzykhenova2, IgorGrebnev3, Margarita Erbajeva2, Nikolai Martynovich4 1Karst Research Inc., 752 Luxstone Square SW, T4B 3L3 Airdrie, Alberta, Canada, andrei_filippov@shaw.ca2Geological Institute SB RAS,6a Sakhjanovoi, 670047 Ulan-Ude, Russia,, erbajeva@gin.bscnet.ru3Museum of Natural History,2-258 Lesosechnaya, 630060 Novosibirsk, Russia, mnh66@mail.ru4Krasnoyarsk Regional Museum of Local Lore,84 Dubrovinskogo, 660049 Krasnoyarsk, Russia, Rich Upper Pleistocene fauna was studied in the Kurtun-1 Cave. The cave is located in Rhiphean limestone in the South West vicinity of Baikal Lake. Entire collection of faunal remains comprises of 23 species of large mammals, 20 species of micromammals, 29 species of birds, 13 species of terrestrial and aquatic molluscs, and 1 species of fish. Kurtun-1 is the only site at Baikal where terrestrial fauna of Kargin Interglacial (MIS 3) is known.1. IntroductionThe cave Kurtun-1 (Fig. 1) is located in Rhiphean limestone on the Primorski Mountain Ridge, South West of the vicinity of Baikal Lake (Fig. 2), on the left bank of the Kurtun River at the height of 133 m above thalweg of the river valley. The site was studied by researchers from the East Siberian Scientific Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineral Resources (Irkutsk), Archaeological Laboratory of the Irkutsk State University and Geological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.2. MethodsCave sediments were tested in five pits and a trench (Fig.3). Test intervals ranged from 5 to 20 cm depending on saturation of sediments by limestone rubble and the size of clasts. Sedimentsweresievedindrycondition through 5 mm round aperture screen and bones were picked up from this coarse fraction. Then size fraction -5 mm was washed and wet screened using 1 mm mesh sieves. Size fraction +1 mmwas being dried up and faunal remains were extracted.3. CavesedimentsCave deposits from the entrance grotto were studied in the test pit #2 (Fig. 4), from the top to bottom:Figure 1. Entrance of Kurtun-1 Cave. Figure 2. Location of Kurtun-1 Cave. Thickness, m Unit1. Limestonerubbleofgranuletopebblesize, withcommonslabsofbouldersize, abundantplant detritus, excrementfrom pikas and rodents, and molluscs shells.0.1.15 Unit2. Unconsolidatedbrecciaconsistingofclastsfrom pebbletocobblesize, someirregularlensesofclastsfrom granuletopebblesize, with soft light brown silty clayey moderately calcareous cement, occasional wood debris and pieces of tree branches. Rock fragments are represented by limestone and firm orange brown claystone with manganese films on clast faces.Brecciafillsaverticalholeupto1.8 m deep along the west wall. Contact with unit 3 is gradual.1.0 Unit3. Multicoloredclayeybrecciaconsistingofangular firmclaystoneclastsupto80%. Cement is soft orange brown sandy silty clay with yellow mottles and convoluted lenses. Occasional highly weathered siliceous schist fragments. Sharpsubhorizontalcontact with unit 4.0.9 Unit 4. Greenish brown silty clay with fine mica and indistinct inclined parallel lamination. 0.3 Unit 5. Clay breccia with granule sized clasts. 0.1 Unit 6. Greyish yellow and lemon-yellow clayey silt with indistinct lenticular structure. >0.2 Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings129

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According to grain-size analysis, unit 6 consists of silty (36.9 %) clays (48.7 %) with admixture of fine (2.3 %) and medium (0.3 %) sand. Quartz prevails among the light minerals (84.5 %), while muscovite plays a secondary role (12.1 %). Quantities of potassium feldspar and plagioclase are insignificant (2.8 % and 0.6 % respectively). Heavy minerals predominately consist of unidentified Ti minerals (44.6 %), minor quantities of zircon (11 %), tourmaline (11.8 %), pyrite (8.6 %), leucoxene (8.1 %) and epidote (4.8 %) with admixture of ilmenite (3.2 %), goethite (1.6 %), garnets, sphene, hornblende, anatase, disthen, and tremolite (0.5.7% each). Cavesedimentsin the Kostenosny Passage were studied in the test pit #1 (Fig. 5), from top to bottom: Thickness, m Unit 1. Sandy loam, brownish grey, containing limestone clasts up to 0.4 1.2 m, stalactite and flowstone fragments up to 0.7 0.5 0.4 m, abundant mammal bones, fish scales and plant detritus. The layer was highly disturbed by pika burrows and saturated with their excrements. 0.5.9 Unit 2. Silty clay, brown, with abundant fine limestone and grey siliceous slate fragments, bones of large mammals and micromammals. Quantity of rock fragments vary in wide limits. 0.4.6 Unit 3. Sandy silty clay, brownish-grey.0.1.2 Unit 4. Silty clay, reddish-brown, highly calcareous, containing abundant fragments of firm claystone.0.15 Observed thickness: 1.7 The #1 pit exposed limestone at bottom only near the wall. Centralpartsofthepassagehavemuch thicker sediments; full thickness of cave deposits was intersected nowhere. Theupperrubblelayerof unit 1 in theKostenosnyPassage was formed from the Kargin Interglacial (MIS 3) to Holocene. This conclusion is supported by 14Cdata 33,500,000 (GIN-5823) of brown bear bone extracted Observed thickness: 2.3 Grain-size analysis of the 2-d unit showed, that sediments consist of silt (11.7%), sand (20.1 %) and clay (46.7 %). Fine and medium sand grains prevail in sand fraction (11.7 % and 5.6 % respectively). Light minerals consist of quartz (82.0 %) and potassium feldspar (11.4 %) with minor quantities of muscovite (3.6 %), biotite (0.3 %) and plagioclase (2.7 %). Main components of heavy minerals are epidote (26.8 %) and hornblende (22.8 %), minor pyrite (8.4 %), unidentified Ti minerals (11.8 %), goethite (7.3 %), ilmenite and magnetite (7.1 %), leucoxene (2.6 %), zircon (2.6 %) and garnet (2.0 %). Illiteandchloritecompose the clay fraction of unit 2. Cement and filling of the clay breccia of the unit 3 consist of silt (18.4 %) and clay (63.5 %) with insignificant admixture of fine and medium sand. Bulk content of carbonates, both in the form of sandy and silty grains, and also in a form of cement, comprises 15.5 %. Lightmineralsofsedimentsoftheunit3 consistofquartz (86.2 %), muscovite (9.8 %) and insignificant admixture of plagioclase (2.3 %) and biotite (0.6 %). Heavy minerals consist of epidote (31.6 %), ilmenite (22 %), hornblende (14.1 %), unidentified Ti minerals (8.8 %) and goethite (6.8 %), with very minor zircon (3.8 %), tourmaline (2.7 %), sphene (2.4 %), rutile (1.5 %), leucoxene (1.7 %), pyrite (1.5 %) and garnets (1.2 %). Grain-size analysis of sediments of the unit 4 showed dominancy of the clay fraction (81.7 %) and presence of silt particles (1 1.2 %). Fine and medium sand content was insignificant (0.9 % and 0.1 % respectively). Light minerals of the unit 4 consist of quartz (66.6 %) and muscovite (33.3 %) with admixture of potassium feldspar (0.3 %). Heavy minerals consist of unidentified Ti minerals (33.1 %), limonite (18.9 %), pyrite (12.1 %), ilmenite (10.3 %) with minor amount of hornblende (9.8 %), zircon (6.3 %) and tourmaline (7.0 %).Figure 3. Map of Kurtun-1 Cave. 1 test pit: a on cross-section, b on plan; 2 trench; 3 loam; 4 rock fragments: a of cobble to boulder size, b of pebble size; 5 large mammal bones; 6 fragments of stalactites and flowstone cores. Figure 4. Cross-section of cave deposits from the entrance grotto: northern wall of the pit #2. See legend at Fig. 5.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings130

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from the depth 0.4.6 m. The unit 1 is not stratified and contained the remains offossilPleistoceneandsubfossil Holocenefauna. Brown silty clays of the underlying unit 2 in the Kostenosny Passage were accumulated during Kargin Interglacial (MIS 3) on the basis of 14Cdata >40 K (SOAN-2902) obtained from charcoal. Also the shell of a relatively molluscs were found. Amongstthebonesoflargemammals, 11 % of which belongtothe extinctspeciesofthe UpperPalaeolithic faunal complex, namely woolly rhinoceros, Baikalian yak, cave hyena and cave lion. At the present time, the Siberian goat, red wolf and arctic lemming locally extinct on the Primorski Ridge (Nekipelov et al. 1965), while their bones Figure 5. Cross-section of cave sediments in the pit #1, Kostenosny Passage. 1 host rocks; 2 limestone fragments: 2 of boulder and bigger size, 3 of cobble size, 4 of pebble size; 5 clastic silty clay; 6 sandy silty clay; 7 silty clay; 8 claystone clasts; 9 pikas excrements; 10 wooden debris; 11 large mammal bones; 12 micromammalia bones; 13 mollusc shells; 14 fish remains.thermophilic terrestrial mollusc Gastrocoptatheeli (West.) (Popova et al. 2002)was found there. No paleontological remains were found in the underlying units 3 and 4.4. FaunalremainsBonesaturationofsedimentsvariessignificantlyin differentpartsofthecave. Bone remains are rare in the entrance grotto, whereas they were abundant in the Kostenosny Passage. The latter can probably be explained by the likelihood of usage of distant parts of the passage as dens by carnivores. Relics of recent bears lair and foxs den were clearly visible before excavations began. Extensive physical weathering of walls and ceiling triggered collapse of blocks, slabs and smaller rubble, and also contributed to impoverishment of the paleontological remains in the entrance grotto. Overall, 602identified bones of 23 species of large mammals and small carnivores were extracted from the cave sediments; one taxon was identified to genus. Total number of micromammalian bones is not available because plentiful bone remains obtained from unit 1 in the Kostenosny Passage were not counted. Micromammalian remains belong to 20 species and 12 taxa identified to genus. Collections of avifauna remains consist of 194 bones of 29 species; 4 taxa identified to genus. Along with the above, numerous Arctic grayling remains, isolated snake spondyls, and shells of 13 species of terrestrial and aquatic are part of the cave taphocoenosis. The most abundant remains among the large mammal bones belong to roe deer (19.0 %), red deer (10.0 %), musk deer (9.5 %) and brown bear (9.0 %). The bones of the extinct woolly rhinoceros, cave hyena and bison make up 4 %, 3.5 % and 2 % respectively. Faunal remains extracted from the layers, which had been formed during Kargin Interglacial (MIS 3), have especial significance amidst obtained collection because terrestrial fauna of this time interval was not yet studied at Lake Baikal. Total number of large mammal bones comprises of 301 specimens. Remains of roe deer, red deer and sable prevail (18 %, 12 % and 10 % respectively), and the bones of other mammals are less common: wooly rhinoceros, cave hyena and badger (all by 6 %), fox (5 %), brown bear and reindeer (by 4 %), wolf and bison (by 3 %). The collection of micromammalian bones extracted from the Kargin sediments consists of 3,510 specimens. The largest part of it belongs to the remains identified only to Arvicolidae family, which comprises 42.7 % of whole collection. Remains of other rodents and lagomorphs are far less abundant: Ochotona hyperborea (18.8 %), Lepus timidus (2.8 %). Clethrionomys rufocanus (12.5 %), C.rutilus (5.1 %), C. sp. (2.3 %), Microtusgregalis (4.0 %), M. sp. (3.4 %), Alticolacf. argentatus (3.4 %). Abundance of pika remains in taphocoenosis of the cave is attributed to the wide spread nature on rocky screes and cliffs in the surrounding area. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings131

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The list of the Kargin fauna is populated with fish (1 species), snakes, birds (20 species and 4 taxa identified to genus), terrestrial (7 species) and aquatic (1 species and 2 taxa identified to genus) molluscs. A list of fauna of the Kargin Interglacial from the cave Kurtun-1: Mammalia: Insectivora: Sorex sp.; Chiroptera: Murina hilgendorfi Peters; Lagomorpha: Lepus timidus L., Lepus sp., Ochotona hyperborea Pall.; Rodentia: Pteromys volans L., Sciurus (Sciurus) vulgaris L., Tamias (Eutamias) sibiricus Laxm., Spermophilus (Urocitellus) undulatus Pall., Spermophilus (Urocitellus) sp., Marmota sp., Apodemus sp., Micromys cf. minutus Pall., Cricetulus sp., Alticola cf. argentatus Severtzov, Clethrionomys rufocanus Sundev., C. rutilus Pall., Clethrionomys sp., Lagurus cf. lagurus Pall., Myopus sp., Arvicola cf. terrestris L ., Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis Pall., M. aff. fortis Bchn., M. (Microtus) oeconomus Pall., M. cf. arvalis Pall., Microtus sp.; Carnivora: Canis lupus L., Vulpes vulpes L., Cuon alpinus Pall., Ursus (Ursus) arctos L ., Martes (Martes) zibellina L ., Mustela (Kolonocus) sibirica Pall., M. (Putorius) eversmanni Lesson, Meles meles L., Crocuta (Crocuta) spelaea Gold., Panthera (Leo) spelaea Gold., Felis (Lynx) lynx L.; Proboscidea: Mammuthus primigenius Blum.; Perissodactyla: Equus sp., Coelodonta antiquitatis Blum. ; Artiodactyla: Sus scr ofa L ., Moschus moschiferus L., Cervus (Cervus) elaphus L ., Capreolus capreolus L ., Rangifer tarandus L ., Bison (Bison) priscus Boj., Capra (Ibex) sibirica Pall., Ovis (Ovis) ammon L. Pisces: Salmaniformes: Thymallus arcticus Pall., Thymallus sp., Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes. Aves: Anseriformes: Anas clypeata L ., A. platyrhynchos L ., A. acuta L ., A. guerguedula L., Bucephala clangula (L.), Mergus serrator L.; Falconiformes: Accipiter gentilis (L.), Falco peregrines Tunstall F. tinunculus L.; Galliformes: Bonasa bonasia L., Tetrao tetrix (L. ) T. urogallus L ., Lagopus sp., Perdix dauricae Pall.; Strigiformes: Strix sp., Otus scops (L. ) Surnia ulula (L.); Apodiformes: Apus pacificus (Latham); Piciformes: Picus sp.; Passeriformes: Turdus sp., Monticola saxatilis (L. ) Pyrrhula pyrrhula (L. ) Coccothraustes coccothraustes (L. ) Nucifragacaryocatactes (L. ) Pyrr hocorax pyrr hocorax L. Mollusca: Gastropoda: Succinea ex gr. oblonga (Drap.), S. putris L., Bradybaena schrencki (Midd.), Vallonia tenuilabris (Al. Brawn), V. ex gr. pulchella (O.F.Mller), Gastrocopta theeli (West.), Pupilla muscorum (L.), Lymnaea sp., Anisus (Gyraulus) acronicus (Fr.), Bivalvia: Euglesa sp.5. Archaeological findingsIsolated bone artefacts were found in the upper layer 0.6.8 m in the Kostenosny Passage (Goryunova et al. 1996). They are represented by the harpoon, needle case and the fishhook of unknown age. Most likely the cave was used occasionally as a temporary dwelling by human beings. A fire-pit was discovered in the layer of brown loam with limestone rubble at the depth of 0.9.0 m. 14C data >40K (SOAN-2902) was obtained from the charcoal. The charcoal location was in the entrance part of the manhole into the Kostenosny Passage. The passage was used by brown bears, foxes, cave hyenas and cave lions as a den and a lair. This suggests that the fire was started with the purpose of hunting for carnivores.6. ConclusionsThe Upper Pleistocene site Kurtun-1 is characterized by vast diversity of discovered species of mammals and birds, and novelty of number of finds: 1) the richest site of the Kargin mammal and avian fauna by the number of species in Eastern Siberia; 2) the only site of Upper Pleistocene avifauna at Baikal lake; 3) first locality at Baikal where bones of the cave hyena, the steppe polecat and the red wolf were found; 4) second locality at Baikal containing remains of Panthera (Leo) spelaea Gold. (the first find was made in the vicinity of the Sagan-Zaba bay (Ovodov2009); 5) first site at Baikal where relatively thermophilic terrestrial mollusc Gastrocoptatheeli (West.) was found in the Upper Pleistocene sediments; 6)the presence of fire-pit and charcoal older than 40 thousand years in cave sediments, advantageous location of the entrance grotto for temporary shelter, overnight stop and hunting for carnivores allows to consider the cave Kurtun-1 as the most promising place for the search of Palaeolithic human remains at Baikal at the present day. The cave carries a great potential for additional characteristics of the fauna of Kargin Interglacial.ReferencesGoryunova OI, Filippov AG, Vetrov VM, Berdnikova NE, 1996. Caves of Pribaikalski National Park (materials for the Code of archaeological sites of the Irkutsk region). In: Archaeological heritage of Baikal Siberia: study, conservation and usage, issue 1, Irkutsk, 101 (in Russian). Mlikovsky J, Chenzychenova F,Filippov A, 1997. Quaternary birds of the Baikal region, East Siberia. Acta Societatis ZoologicaeBohemicae,61, 151. Nekipelov NV, Sviridov NS, Tomilov AA, 1965. Animal world. In: Predbaikalia and Transbaikalia. SciencePress, Moscow, 282 (inRussian). OvodovND, 2009. LargeUpperPleistocenecatinSiberia. What isit? In: Questionsofarchaeology, ethnography, anthropology ofSiberiaandneighbouringterritories, vol. 15. Publishing House of Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Novosibirsk, 182 (in Russian). Popova SM, Shibanova IV, Filippov AG, 2002. Climate Reconstructions of Upper Cenozoic in Pribaikalia. Geography and Natural Resources, 1, 10815 (inRussian).Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings132

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BAROV (SOBOLOVA) CAVE, MORAVIAN KARST (CZECH REPUBLIC) UPPER PLEISTOCENE FOSILIFEROUS IN-CAVE SEDIMENTS INSTRUCTIVE PALEONTOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONSVlastislav Ka1, Martina Roblkov2 1Czech Speleological Society, ZO 6-01 B skla, Kianov 330, 594 51, kanabat@email.cz2Moravian Museum, Anthropos Institute, Zeln trh 6, 659 37, Brno, Since the discovery of Barov Cave in 1947, three periods of excavations in the inner part of the cave had been done until present, in context with both caving activities connecting distand parts of the cave and archeological/paleontological research projects proceeded within the cave entrance. Fossil bone remains of typical Upper Pleistocene fauna (Weischelian glaciation) were excavated, exspecially bone remains of the cave bear ( Ursus ex gr. spelaeus). These activities followed by intensive speleological work led to the filling up all the entrance parts with huge slag deposits. Then the locality became unclear and taken as paleontologically completely excavated. As the consequence of the underlying sediments slide succesion in the northwest part of the Shaft II, new layers of bone rich sediments were opened in the basis of the old excavation sites and their surroundings. Subsequently, new restoration of old excavation sites was done, the terrain had been cleaned, newly topographically measured and used as the entrance to more distand parts of the cave. New instructive profiles have been opened in front of the fossiliferous debris tongue. Fossil bone remains excavated during these works belong to these taxa: Ursus ex gr. spelaeus, Panthera spelaea Crocuta spelaea Canis lupus, Vulpes sp., Rangifer tarandus, Cervus sp., Capra ibex, Lepus sp., Aves gen. sp. Most of the samples still wait for identification, which will proceed next season. No remains of Pleistocene small mammal fauna were found yet, the washing result is still negative (rodent bones found in there are recent), as well as the palynologic analysis. One of the valuable founds is almost complete skull of the subadult cave lion ( Panthera spelaea ) female with part of her postcranial skeleton. Researches, excavations and recovery works still run in the cave, the goal is to create educative site of the Pleistocene paleonthology for the next student or speleologist generation didactical use.1. IntroductionPaleontological researches inside the caves of Moravian Karst have their rich tradition. Many of the caves here became the classic localities of Quaternary paleontology, used since the start of 19thcentury and, naturally, exploated by bone collectors and for some magic purpose since almost ancient times. Some of them were hugely devastated and destroyed, when only a small part of paleontological founds is now kept in some european museums, some classic localities are now used as open-for-public sights and very recent excavations were going on mostly as salvage activities, when turistical use had priority. The finds of these localities were scientifically processed and now are kept in public collections in museums and other institutions. Keeping at least a part of the original sediments, bone layers of Pleistocene fauna, stone beds, artefacts or local finding situation is presented in case of very important archeological or paleoantropological sites in entrance part of caves like K lna Cave. In-cave sediments left in shape of the instructive cross-section, profile, or intact layer sequence, these are much rarer. Mostly they had been built in caves not allowed for public visitors, ones of the most important are those in Holtejnsk Nezam stnanch Cave and Mal lesk Cave. Here in the caves of active speleological work the goal is to discover a new part of the cave or connect it with another underground place. Profiles and cross-sections are one of more consequences only. Most of the Pleistocene bear caves with bone rich sediments of the Upper Pleistocene has been already exploated, processed and used for another purpose, they are already empty. Intending to visit some in-cave fossiliferous Upper Pleistocene sediments (once so typical for many Moravian Karst caves), at least partially preserved, one must look after elsewhere. Its worth to look at the cave where works began later, i.e. the cave was discovered later, and the terrain, cave shape, inaccesibility, or inatractivity (of course, the in-cave facie does not offer such rich variety of results and discoveries, there are no rich stratigraphically important fossils, above all small mammals and molluscs) caused saving the cave off the very interest. However, even there are some complications here.Figure 1. Second Shaft in Barov Cave, shape in 2007, V. K a. Barov (Sobolova) Cave, situated in the central part od Moravian Karst on the right side of Josefovsk dol Valley, had been discovered in 1947 by Dr. A. Sobol and hid companions, digging through the debris at the entrance under the wall of Krkav skla limestone rock cliff. Now the entrance lays in 346 m above sea level. The cave is complicated polygenetic system of vertical and horizontal corridors and shafts. The active Jedovnick potok Creek Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings133

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bones of the woolf (Canis lupus), and the cave lion (Panthera spelaea). Sadly, all space on the ground of the cave between the entrance and the Shaft II. had been covered by very thick layer of slag deposits. In 1958, R. Musil opened the test pit at the beginning of the passage between entrance corridor and the Shaft II. He sketched basic stratigraphy of the sediments as the debris cone, excavated Upper Pleistocene large mammals bone remains and, based on these excavations, characterized the cave as the typical cave bear den (Musil 1959, 1960). From these excavation finds the brain case of the cave hyena (Crocuta spelaea), the part of ibex (Capra ibex) skull and two hemimandibulae of the cave lion (Panthera spelaea) are worth to be reminded here. These finds show that the cave served to cave hyenas as a den, too. There were clearly cave hyenas transporting their prey body parts to the cave as they still do with their prey and den in Africa. Sadly here again, lots of debris, slag, huge quantity of sandy and clay material had been deposited within the cave, too. The next phase followed between 1983 and 1986, when in terms of the research project, L. Seitl managed comparatively extended excavations within the cave. Most of excavations were concentrated in the entrance parts, archeology and sedimental cone in front of the cave. Some in-cave sediments were excavated at the branch called Medv d (Bear Branch). Three layers were distinguished, upper loess-like, middle bone sediments and underlying reddish clay, all covered by calcite sinter plate. Bone remains belonged mostly to cave bear and cave hyena, very interesting was pelvis fragment of the wooly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) chewed by hyenas. Most sediment was taken away from the cave, washed and purely controlled, in case of the in-cave sediments with negative result. flows through the underneath level. It is the part of B skla Rudick propadn cave system, the second longest in the Czech Republic. Total denivelation of the Barov Cave reaches 60 meters, the length is app. 900 m. There are three levels of the cave, each has the different shape and formation. The upper level is mostly vertical, chimneys are or filled with sediment (Jurassic and cretaceous origin) or already emptied. The entrance corridor is such an emptied chimney, filled at the base with fossiliferous Pleistocene sediments. The middle level in shape of six shaftlike domes is created by sedimental fallings and slides filling otherwise unbroken underground corridor, approximately 100 m long (see Fig.1). The names of these shafts correspondent with the time of discovery in 1947 (First, Second, Third, in following we use I., II.). The underneath level is, in fact, the system of siphons and corridors on the flow of Jedovnick potok Creek. Two of shafts protrude to the creek (I. and II.). There were lots of actions and speleological works done at the underneath level of the cave from 2006 to 2012, including water pumping and hydro-mining, digging and new discoveries.2. Previous paleontological excavations and researchesThe first paleontological excavations were done by A. Sobol and his companions in 1947, some bones of Pleistocene mammals were taken from the ground in the entrance corridor, from some small excavations and connective passages dug between the entrance and the Shaft II (see Fig. 2). Some paleontological material had been found directly on the surface of the entrance corridor and small cavities near Shaft II. From the collection of A. Sobol (now in Moravian Museum Brno) is to list long bones and jaws of cave bear cubs ( Ursus ex gr. spelaeus), numerousFigure 2. Entrance part of Barov Cave, measured by F. Musil and P. Koukal 2012. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings134

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Other speleological works (digging, excavations, washing, measuring) were then concentrated in the distand parts of the cave, fossiliferous sediments yet unexploated dissapeared under the slag deposits, the corridor nearby was used only to pass to the next parts of the cave, excavation sites were abandoned, only some small test pits made by cavers appeared and disappeared. Only important natural proces inside the cave was continual falling of the underlying sediments in the northwestern part of the ShaftII. The shaft had changed many times, continuous slides of the complexed sands, clay, and gravel sediment of uncertain age formed the shape of the shaft (Hypr and Koudelka 1995). The strongest slides took place from 2008 to 2011, when the space of the Shaft II increased by one third. The new cross-section through fossiliferous sediments emerged nearby both older excavation sites Musil 1958 and Seitl 1986. Then, immediately, the reconstruction of all former excavation sites started, the new passage between entrance corridor and the other parts of the cave was made and after that, new test pit through the debris cone at the centre of the fossiliferous sedimental tongue was started to dig and explore. The place has been named Podeb kov sonda (Testpit Under the Ladder, see Fig. 3). The branch of the sedimental tongue near former Musil 1958 pit, on the northwestern border of the Shaft II, has been named Li chodba (Fox Passage). These three test pits (Li Fox, Medvd Bear, Podeb kov Under the Ladder) are the places, where we process current excavations and research.Figure 3. Excavations in the probe Pod eb kem in November 2012, photo by M. Mal. 3. Material, methodology and osteological analysisThe excavated area is the front of large sedimental tongue spreading from northwest, ending on the border of the ShaftII. Its topography follows the ceiling relief almost without difference. The parts cropped by pendants have thickness to 2.5 m, the main part is a lot thinner, about 30 cm. Only some parts are covered by the sinter plate, most parts are buried under slag and debris or sandy deposit.Figure 4. Li (Fox) Passage test pit profile, shape of December 2012, A. Mtl, V. K a. The fossiliferous sediments appear in all test pits consisting of three layers. Layer A is overlaying, consisting of sands, clay and loess-like sediments and rarely contains Pleistocene bones, the remains of recent rodents (Apodemus, Microtus) are present. It reaches thickness up to 60 cm in terminal parts of the tongue, where originally the calcite plate covered it (Seitl 1988). Layer B is constituted by limestone blocks, debris, sinter and calcite fragments, quartzite, silicite stones, sand, clay and disarticulated Pleistocene bones in mass from 10 cm to 1.2m. Layer C is incontinual base of the layer B, consisting of red clay, corroded limestone blocks, sinter plates and the clusters of crashed and compressed Pleistocene bones (see Fig. 4). It is from 5 cm to 80 cm thick. The sediments of the layers B and C were washed, the result was negative yet, palynological analysis was made from the sample of the layer C in Li (Fox) test pit, it is negative, too (Dolkov in verb. 2012). Numerous osteological materials are found in both Li (Fox) Passage pit and Medv d (Bear) pit, and so in currently Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings135

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excavated test pit Podeb kov (Under the Ladder). Bones are not in situ, they were transported vertically and horizontaly as a part of rocky sediments of the debris cone. Consequently, bones are not in anatomical position, their affiliation with skeletons is unrecognizable. Larger bones like skulls, pelves, long bones, are often badly fragmented, although it is possible to reconstruct most of them. Bone determination of paleontological finds is processed using comparative collection of Anthropos Institute, MM and osteological handbooks, atlasses and monographies (Hue 1907, Lavocat 1966, Pales and Lambert 1971, Schmid 1972). Ontogenetical age of the bone remains is reckoned by Habermehl (1985). Minimal number of individuals (MNI) is to reckon using methodics of Chaplin (1971), cave lion dentical measurment by Driesch (1976). All osteological, taphonomical and paleontological analyses is just beginning, the research is still running, all results are to be taken as preliminary. Dominant species within all finds is the cave bear from the group of Ursus spelaeus, what corresponds to the situation published by Musil (1959, 1960) and Seitl (1988). Until now, these taxa were validated from our current excavations within all three test pits: Ursus ex gr. spelaeus Rosenmller, 1794 Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) Capra ibex Linnaeus, 1758 Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) Cervus sp. Linnaeus, 1758 Vulpes sp. Frisch, 1775 Lepus sp. Linnaeus, 1758 In comparation with frequency of remains of the cave bear, other taxa, lions, hyenas and wolves exceptional, bone remains of ibex, reindeer, deer, hare and foxes are very rare, but present. Only a part of the osteological finds from current ecavations in Barov Cave could be analysed until today. The first analysed sample is from Li chodba excavations. As is visible from results, 95.3% of determined bones come from cave bear ( Ursus ex gr. spelaeus), both wolves and cave lions are 2.3%. No other taxa were found in the sample. Following samples are to be analysed and the taxa ratio can be different. The cave bear bones processed until now (December 2012) belong to at least 4 individuals, (MNI = 4), the bone remains of wolf and lion both belong to just one individual (MNI = 1). In case of the cave bear, all parts of skeleton are present here, presumably no alimentar transport (at least out of the cave) or only slight manipulation with carcasses took place. Basing on the teeth development and wearing, epiphysal merging and cranial suture shape it shows, that most present remains of the cave bear belong to young adult individuals, bear cubs or senile individuals are present more rarely. Both sexes are present in case of the cave bear. Bone remains of the cave lion and wolf from Li chodba test pit belong to adult individuals. Very important find comes from newly excavated test pit Podeb kov (Under the Ladder). Here almost complete skull of the cave lion (Panthera spelaea) subadult female has been found, including complete mandible, and a part of postcranial skeleton (see Fig. 5). Basing on the age, size, bone shape and situation, these bones appear to belong to the skull: axis, atlas, three cervical vertebrae, one thoracal vertebra, two lumbar and seven caudal, five sternal segments, ulna, two metacarpals, two tibiae, patella, calcaneus, all metatarsals of the left hindlimb, and several individual carpals, tasals and phalanges. In spite of fact, that the excavation is still at the beginning, the number of bone remains belonging to this individual can increase in the future. Most of the cranial sutures are still open, the individual is young, about two to thre years old, until the discovery of this skull supposed as a female. Dental measurment of lower praemolares p4 and molares m1 were accomplished in comparation with data of the works of F. G. Baryshnikov (2011). In the article, there the data of the length and width p4 and m1 from many European localities are present (Baryshnikov 2011, pp. 205, tab. 3). The data from the individual of Barov Cave correspond with female shape (see Tab. 1 and Fig. 6, Fig. 7). The individual is a young, not fully grown female with already permanent teeth, unique in the region of Moravian Karst and this part of the central Europe by its well-preserved state.4. DiscussionIndividual fossiliferous sediment layers in Barov Cave are presumably not a consequence of more in-cave landsliding events, the base (layer C) is the result of relatively slow sedimentation gravitationally transported bones and other components to shallow waters or muddy pits on the surface of underlying sediments, where the bones were crashed and fragmented by stones overlaying consequently. Faunal structure in individual parts show slight difference (no hyenas present in Li test pit, at least some hyenas in others), taphonomical state is slightly different too, it suggests that different parts of sedimental tongue have different origin, e.g., places of source. The shape of sediments in the entrance corridor shows the possibility, that the animals during Upper Pleistocene time used this part of the cave, which was more complex, large sized underground dome, as a den, the transport of bone remainsFigure 5. Situation in the time of the cave lion (Panthera spelaea) skull excavation in October 2012, photo by I. Harna. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings136

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Table 1. Length (L) and width (W) of cave lion (Panthera spelaea) lower molars m1 from European localities, according to Baryshnikov (2011). Molars m1 from Barov Cave (bold print) fall into the range of females. Figure 6. Ratio of length to width of cave lion molars m1 from European localities (see Tab. 1, according to Baryshnikov 2011). Molars of males and females are clearly divided on the basis of size. Molars from Barov cave fall into the range of females decidedly. Males Females Locality LWLocality LW Kents Cavern, England 30,014,7Kents Cavern, England 26,712,5 Kents Cavern, England 29,815,7Kents Cavern, England 28,014,8 Kents Cavern, England 30,815,3Jaurens, France 27,914,2 Jaurens, France 29,915,1Jaurens, France 28,014,1 lHerm, France 31,315,3Circeo, Italy 25,913,8 Widkirchli, Switzerland 31,216,5Zoolithen Cave, Germany28,114,4 Wierzchowska Grna, Poland31,117,0Wierzchowska Grna, Poland27,813,5 Wierzchowska Grna, Poland30,916,2Wierzchowska Grna, Poland27,112,8 Schusteriucke, Austria 30,316,0P edmost, Czech Republic26,712,8 Lautscher, Austria 29,716,9P edmost, Czech Republic27,912,6 Pedmost, Czech Republic30,214,1vd v Stl, Czech Republic25,813,4 Kodak, Ukraine 29,915,5 Barov Cave, Czech Republic27,314,1 Krasnyi Yar, Russia 32,016,7 Barov Cave, Czech Republic 27,413,9 Sukhoi Log, Russia 28,914,1Starye Duruitory, Moldova25,912,4 Kurtak, Russia 30,114,9Krishtaleva, Crimea, Ukraine25,912,4 Krasnyi Yar, Russia 27,013,3 Shubnoe, Russia 27,513,5 Medvezhiya Cave, Russia26,213,6 could not be for a long horizontal and even vertical distance (Complete skull of young lioness could not survive such transport). So the entrances had to be different and maybe numerous, being now buried (along with most of the entrance corridor) under meters of Holocene sediments, debris and man-made deposits. Most of the cave entrance part served as wintering habitat for cave bears, while (probably in periods, when bears were not present) some parts could be a hyena den or a shelter for cave lions. Although the most finds are remains of the cave bears, increasing number of other taxa promises that, in following seasons, the locality can bring some more important finds opening the view at the paleoecological state of the Upper Pleistocene in the central part of Moravian Karst.Figure 7. Young cave lioness left lower jaw, excavation Pod ebkem in Barov cave. 5. ConclusionAlthough the fauna is not much varied, the place still seems to be an ideal training site for Pleistocene paleontology. The goal is not what we remove from the cave, it is about something different. The most important is, what remains in the cave as an instructive educational locality shaped for in situ teaching. We will form the locality in Barov Cave to the didactic tool for university students of paleontology, geology, karsology etc., cavers, speleologists, instructed visitors. It is presumable, that the rest of our test pit in Podeb kov will grant more various fauna than any others in Barov and as such can be ideal cross-section profile for the next studies. As well as the teachers and specialized public get unique place to see rests of intact Pleistocene bone sediments. The excavation in Li chodba test pit now already serves as such teaching profile. The restoration of other parts of the cave continues. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings137

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AcknowledgementAuthors wish to thank their colleagues from the Czech Speleological Society which helped with sometimes harsh work in the cave and granted photographs. Last but not least, autors want to thank to Direction and emploees of the Protected Landscape Area Administration and Anthropos Institute of Moravian Museum, for their kindly support.ReferencesBaryshnikov GF, 2011. Pleistocene Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the Kudaro Paleolithic cave sites in the Caucasus. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, Vol.315, No. 3, 2011, 197. Driesch von den A,1976. A guide to the measurement of animal bones from archaeological sites. Peabody Museum Bulletin 1, Harvard University, Cambridge. Habermehl KH, 1985. Altersbestimmung bei Wildund Pelztieren. Verlag Paul Parey. Hamburg Berlin. Hue E, 1907. Ostomtrie des mammifres. Muse Ostologique, tude de la Faune Quaternaire, Paris, Librairie C. Reinwald, 186 tables. Hypr D, Koudelka P, 1995. Sesuvy v jeskynch varuj. Speleofrum 95, 49. esk speleologick spole nost Praha. Chaplin RE, 1971. The study of animal bones from archaeological sites. Seminar press, London New York. Lavocat R, (Ed.) 1966. Faunes et Flores Prhistoriques de lEurope Occidentale. Atlas de Prhistoire, Tome III, ditions N. Boube et c., Paris. Musil R, 1959. Jeskynn medv d z jeskyn Barov. Acta Mus. Morav., Sci. nat. 44 (1959), 8914. Musil R, 1960. Die Pleistozne Fauna der Barov Hhle. Anthropos 11 (N.S.3), 7, Brno. Pales L, Lambert Ch, 1971. Atlas ostologique pour servir lidentification des Mammifres du Quaternaire. Editions du centre national de la recherche scientifique. Paris, 302 tables. Seitl L, 1988. Jeskyn Barov (Sobolova), jej osdlen a sav fauna ze zv ru poslednho glacilu. Acta Mus. Morav., Sci. nat. 73 (1988), 89. Schmid E, 1972. Atlas of animal bones. Elsevier publishing company. Amsterdam London New York.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings138

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MARESHA A SUBTERRANEAN CITY FROM THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD IN THE JUDEAN FOOTHILLS, ISRAELAmos Kloner Department of Land of Israel and Archaeology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel, The ancient city of Maresha is identified with Tell Sandahannah, situated in the Judean Foothills, about 40 km southwest of Jerusalem.The city was founded in the Iron Age and continued in existence until the late Hellenistic period. During the Hellenistic period Maresha flourished and became the central city of a region known as Idumaea. The archaeological site consists of an Upper City (= UC), a Lower City (LC) and a large number of artificial subterranean complexes comprising caves, columbaria, water cisterns, store rooms, oil presses etc, designated as the Subterranean City (= SC). This Hellenistic period subterranean infrastructure is the focus of this paper. In this paper we present and discuss the typology and functions of the caves of Maresha. We suggest to identify ten basic types of rock-cut (artificial) caves: 1. Columbarium (pl. Columbaria) Subterranean dovecotes; 2. Olive presses (or, olive-oil plants); 3. Baths (and filter chambers); 4. Underground quarries; 5. Cisterns; 6. Stables; 7. Ritual caves; 8. Storage chambers; 9. Burial caves; 10. Hiding complexes1. IntroductionThe ancient city of Maresha is identified with Tell Sandahannah, situated in the Judean Foothills, about 40 km southwest of Jerusalem. The archaeological site consists of an Upper City (= UC), a Lower City (LC) and a large number of artificial subterranean complexes, comprising caves, columbaria, water cisterns, storage rooms, oil presses etc. These complexes, rock-cut underneath the LC, are designated as the Subterranean City (=SC). This subterranean infrastructure is the focus of this paper.2. History of MareshaThe city of Maresha was founded in the Iron Age and continued in existence until the late Hellenistic period. During the Hellenistic period Maresha flourished and became the central city of a region known as Idumaea. According to 1 Macc. 5:66, Maresha was used by the Seleucids as a base from which to instigate attacks on Judea and therefore became subject to reprisals from the Maccabees (2 Macc. 12:35). During the reign of the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus I (137 BCE), Maresha, along with the rest of Idumaea, was conquered. Well dated finds attest to the abandonement of the upper and lower city in 112/111 BCE or slightly later. Maresha was briefly (and only partly) inhabited during three additional, later periods: the Bar Kokhba Revolt (132 CE); the Byzantine period; the early Islamic period.3. Archaeological Exploration and the Lower City (Fig. 1)Archaeological excavations were conducted in the UC in the summer of 1900 by F. J. Bliss and R.A.S. Macalister on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund (= PEF). These and the renewed excavations revealed the ancient layers of a Tell (mound) dating to the Iron Age II and the Persian periods, with two Hellenistic phases (Ptolemaic and Seleucid); (Bliss and Macalister 1902; Kloner 2003). The Seleucid city, established on the top of the mound, dating from the 2ndcentury BCE, is referred hereafter as the Upper City. The UC in its last phase was fortified, almost square in plan and measured about 6 acres (24 dunams; Avi-Yonah and Kloner 1993). At the foot of the upper city there was a vast surrounding lower city, covering c. 80 acres (320 dunams). Excavations on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority (= IAA) have been directed by the author in the LC and in the SC from 1972 to 1999 (Kloner 1996; Kloner 2003). The LC at least in its general layout was almost certainly planned in advance. The street grid and adjacent buildings were obviously pre-planned and public buildings were also provided for. In excavation Areas 53, 61, and 930 in the LC, large dwelling houses were uncovered, with ground level areas extending between 150 to 400 square metres. Walls and parts of buildings were discovered in all of the excavation areas of the LC. The densely built-up buildings appear to have served as residences, commercial stores, and workshops. Most of the construction work at Maresha employed roughly rectangular blocks of local chalky limestone (regarding the characteristics of the local stone, see below). Most of this building stone was extracted from subterranean quarries that were left disused following the stoneextraction process. Other sources of stone were quarried in subterranean spaces that were primarily, and in a few cases only subsequently, adapted for use as workshops, columbaria, and water cisterns. A fortification wall surrounded the LC. The general course of this wall is marked on the map (Fig. 1), that also includes the location of the UC uncovered in the 1900 excavations, and the subterranean complexes that were surveyed, measured, and drawn during our work. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings139

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4. The Subterranean CityThe SC is unique in terms of its overall size and number of spaces, by comparison to all other known complexes in other regions and from other periods. Artificial, man-made caves were found beneath all excavated residential houses and in all of the excavation areas. The number of subterranean rooms and spaces accessed through one opening from the ground surface varied from one to four. The most common layout of a subterranean unit, consisted of a descent by way of a dromos-like staircase (Fig. 2), which gave access to spaces on the right and left, and to a third space whose opening was opposite the lower end of the dromos. Only in few cases were there more than four subterranean spaces per house. Where there were more than four subterranean spaces, these apparently served specialized functions. The cave interiors were sometimes joined up at a later time by the cutting of openings through the contiguous walls. New chambers were also later hewn and added to the complex. The hewing of the caves at Maresha apparently started in the eighth century BCE and reached its peak in the 2ndcentury BCE. Bliss and Macalister numbered the subterranean complexes they found below the LC from 1 to 63 and published a map of their locations. They pointed out that many of these complexes were not surveyed. More than 100 additional complexes have been identified and documented since (Fig.1). The subterranean complex no. 61 at Maresha, for example, which is defined as one cave, comprises of aboutFigure 1. Maresha: General plan, showing the UC, the LC, surrounded by a wall, and location of 160 subterranean complexes in the SC. (Kloner and IAA expedition). Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings140

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50 different chambers and spaces connected to each other in the underground (Fig. 3). The soft chalk that was systematically removed from the caves was used for building, and this process links between the quarrying of the subterranean chambers, subsequently used for specific functions, and the construction of buildings on the surface of the site.5. The Geology of Maresha and the Surrounding RegionThe area of the Judean Foothills is characterized by formations of soft, chalky limestone from the Eocene. Maresha is situated on rocks of the Zora formation, the Maresha member. The thickness of Maresha member varies between 30 m and 100 m. Above the chalky limestone, known locally as kirton, a harder nari crust formed, 1 to 3 m thick. The residents of the region in antiquity were familiar with the geological conditions. Due to the relative ease of quarrying and accessibility, thousands of subterranean chambers were hewn in the region, for various purposes (Bliss and Macalister 1902:204; Kloner 2003:4).6. A Typology of CavesThe entrance and basic layout: The most common arrangement of the caves in Hellenistic Maresha consisted of a descent by way of a dromos-like rectangular staircase, which gave access to spaces on the right and left, and to a third space whose opening was opposite the lower end of the dromos-like staircase. In this paper we present and discuss the typology and functions of various types of caves, typical to Maresha. We suggest to identify ten basic types of rock-cut (artificial) caves: 1. Columbarium (pl. Columbaria) Subterranean dovecotes 2. Olive presses (or, olive-oil plants) 3. Baths (and filter chambers) 4. Underground quarries 5. Cisterns 6. Stables 7. Ritual caves 8. Storage chambers 9. Burial caves 10. Hiding complexes 6.1. Columbarium (pl. Columbaria) Subterranean Dovecotes Hundreds of columbaria hewn in caves have been found in Israel, mainly in the Judean Foothills. This large number may be due to the ease of hewing the soft limestone and the structures durability even when subjected to secondary use in later periods. A great deal of research has been devoted to ascertaining the purpose of the niche-bearing structures, and numerous explanations have been offered (Tepper 1986). Today, most researchers tend to agree that the structures in question were used to raise pigeons (Tepper 1986; Kloner 2000; Zissu 1995). The term columbarium refers to structures used for the raising of doves or pigeons. (The term also applies to subterranean structures containing niches for crematedFigure 2. Stepped corridor (dromos) leading into subterranean complex in area 53 (B. Zissu). Figure 3. Plan of Subterranean Complex 61 (Kloner and IAA Expedition). Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings141

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made of wood, rope, leather, etc., the presses have entirely survived. All of them were planned in advance as olive-oil plants and were built and operated according to an identical method: Each contained a crushing basin and two or three pressing installations of the lever and weights type (Kloner and Sagiv 1993). The crushing basin had a concave crushing surface and a convex or lens-shaped crushing stone cut in order to fit them. There was only one crushing stone to each crushing basin. The lens-shaped crushing stones (of a somewhat different method) are known from other Mediterranean sites, as Olinthos and Pompeii (Kloner and Sagiv 1993). The pressing installation: The beam (varied in length 4.5.5 m) was anchored in a niche cut in the wall. A rock cut wall about 1.5m high divided the area at the back where the beam niche was found from the main chamber of the press. The collecting vat was at the bottom of a cylindrical aperture that was cut into this wall and that was open both to the back and the front. The crushed olives were piled up over the opening of the collecting vat and held in place in the cylindrical aperture, the sections of wall on either side acting as press piers. The beam was raised and lowered in the openings in the cylindrical aperture pressing down on the crushed olives; the extracted liquid seeped straight down into the vat. In front of the collecting vat there was often an elongated shallow rock cut basin in which the jars for the oil, water and residue probably stood. Each press in which traces of the weights can be found, was equipped with three weights of the type with a bore in the form of a reversed T. There was usually an entrance in the dividing wall, cut with the purpose to enable passage between the back room and the main press room. The presses often came in pairs and then the approach to both back rooms was through one entrance in the wall that was usually between the two presses. In some cases a third press was added, probably because the two presses were insufficient to handle the amounts of crushed olives in given point of time. An unusual feature in the Maresha press rooms was a cultic niches a small rock-cut altar located in a niche in the wall, often above the entrance in the dividing wall, between two presses (Kloner 2003: 51). ashes. But it should be stressed that these burial installations are common in Italy in Rome, Ostia, Pompeii and elsewhere, but entirely absent from the archaeological record in Israel, where cremation was a rare custom, practiced mostly by Romans). Pigeons raising was a source of economic income; pigeons were raised for three purposes: their meat was a fine source of food; their droppings were used as an excellent fertilizer; the doves were used for cultic purposes as sacrifice in pagan temples. In order to maintain this active economic endeavor there was the need of quarrying caves with small niches (about 0.25.25 m each), arranged in rows along the walls. Pigeon-raising in Israel, particularly in the area of the Judean Foothills, evidently dates back as far as the third century BCE; it flourished during the Hellenistic and Early Roman periods. The number and technological sophistication of underground dovecotes reached their peak in the Judean foothills, particularly at Maresha and its surroundings. At Mareshas LC, 85 columbaria installations were found in caves, dating from the third and the second centuries BCE. The number of niches per cave varies from 200 to 4,000. These columbaria were carved underneath the dwellings of the lower city, and were accessed by staircases from their courtyards. The pigeons would fly in and out of the subterranean chambers through vertical shafts opening at the courtyard level of dwellings. The Columbarium cave situated in the western part of the LC (Subterranean Complex 30), was quarried in the shape of a double cross and contains about 2,000 niches (originally it contained about 2,600). This cave, locally known as esSuk, is one of the largest and best designed by its size, by its shape and by its quarrying quality (Fig. 4). 6.2. Olive Presses (Olive-Oil Plants) Twenty-seven subterranean olive presses (or olive-oil plants), all of them hewn in the chalky bedrock, were found at Maresha. The presses are located beneath the dwellings of the LC and accessed by rock-cut steps from courtyards or from streets. The presses are dated to the Hellenistic period, from the third-second centuries BCE. With the exception of perishable, organic components that were ofFigure 4. Main columbarium in Complex 30 (B. Zissu). Figure 5. Olive press in Complex 61 (B. Zissu). Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings142

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6.3. Caves used as baths (and filter chambers) Baths were unearthed in some of the subterranean complexes at Maresha. More than twenty rock-hewn facilities have been discovered, which served as baths mainly in the third and second centuries BCE. The plans of a the bathing installation at Maresha are similar to each other; a typical bath contained a staircase leading from the surface to a roomlet, a feeding channel and funnels, through which hot or lukewarm water were flown to the roomlet, and a low seat that was carved on the roomlets floor, enabling the bather to seat inside the half-meter deep water. It is worthy of mentioning the Bath Cave in subterranean complex no. 82. It had two small chambers containing seats for the convenience of the bathers (seating-bath), who showered in sprays of water emerging from jets in the bedrock wall. The bather was concealed from the slave pouring the water, and thus his modesty was preserved. One other cave with a bath, which is located in subterranean complex no. 61, under one of the dwellings, was probably the private bath of the house owner. Some scholars postulated that the baths and the practice of washing the body were involved with some cultic purifying rites. As early as the third and second centuries BCE, the Idumean population of Maresha used also another type of baths similar in layout to the mikwaot or Jewish ritual immersion baths. These stepped and plastered water installations, were hewn underneath homes in the UC as well as in the LC (Kloner 2003:15; Kloner and Arbel 1998:162). Since the mikwaot at Maresha apparently predate the conquest and conversion of the Idumeans to Judaism by John Hyrcanus I by the end of the second century BCE they probably testify to similar ritual purification practices among Jews and Idumeans. We cannot rule out entirely the possibility that the baths belonged to Jews living in the city prior to the Hasmonean conquest. Another kind of installation involved with water, was designated as filter chamber by Macalister. There were at least 15 filter chambers, or filtration rooms at the site, which were small rooms usually hewn directly above the cisterns to collect rainwater that was drained into them. The runoff water was flowed from these small rooms to the cisterns through a small opening spilling into the cistern itself. The cisterns were huge in size in proportion to these small rooms. The writers assume that the filter chambers had the same function as the baths. A total of about 60 bathing installations were documented so far at Maresha. 6.4. Quarries Some 2,500 chambers and spaces of various dimensions and designs have been discovered beneath the lower city of Maresha and its surroundings. These spaces are arranged in 160 clusters, designated by us as subterranean complexes. These complexes sometimes contain as many as 70 spaces per complex. Bliss and Macalister (1902) determined that any connection between underground spaces and chambers, even if reached by climbing or crawling, associated them with the same complex. We still follow this method (Kloner 2003: 18). Among the types of caves originally cut to quarry blocks of chalk, used to build the houses of the city, the underground quarries are particularly prominent. It is obvious that the purpose of the quarrying was to extract blocks of kirton for construction and then to use the resulting large, underground spaces for various purposes, as storage, the housing of animals, and so on. 6.5. Cisterns The water supply of Maresha was almost entirely based on runoff diverting and collection in water cisterns. Most of the bell-shaped subterranean caves at the LC that were accessed by spiral curving staircases with well carved parapets and comprised a hewn channel along the stairs for runoff drainage are water cisterns (Fig. 6). These are wide as well as relatively deep bell-shaped cavities, usually circular in plan (about 10 m high and 6 m across; few are oval or square in shape). Given that the local kirton is water impervious, merely a part of the subterranean cisterns are plastered, usually along fissures in the rock, for allowing the collection and storage of rain water. A typical cistern has a spiraling staircase with parapets, leading down for the drawing of water and the cleaning of silt that accumulated over time. The cisterns could have held up to 300 cu ms. each, and they were usually cut in the rock in pairs or threes. About 320 subterranean cisterns were identified underneath the houses of the LC, dating mainly from the third century BCE to the first century CE. Cisterns of this type, with aesthetically designed parapets are found only in few other sites in the Judean Foothills.Figure 6. Typical cistern in Complex 61 (B. Zissu). 6.6. Stables Seven subterranean stables for horses, mules and donkeys and probably also cattle, were found in the LC. They were identified as such by the discovery of hewn feeding troughs placed between pillars supporting the roof, and by the stone floor that was sloped to facilitate the collection of urine, which was an important component in the tanning industry in antiquity. There are also places to tether the animals in these chambers. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings143

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6.7. Ritual Caves Another type of cave-use is as artificially cut installations for ritual and cultic purposes. Such caves are found in Subterranean Complex 51 and at some other Hellenistic period subterranean complexes. This assumption is based upon discovery of decorative cultic niches in some of the areas as well as schematic anthropomorphic reliefs carved into some of the walls. It is possible the reliefs are representations of the Idumaean god Kos. The exact purpose of these chambers awaits further discussion. 6.8. Storage Caves There is little doubt that many of the subterranean areas at Maresha were also used for the basic function of storage. The presence of ties in the walls, storage niches, and remains of silo-shaped chambers are clear indications of this. 6.9. Burial caves (Necropoleis) Three cemeteries (= necropoleis) are known in the vicinity of the LC, and outside the perimeter of the walls. The necropoleis contain a total of 40 burial caves, all of a similar design: a rectangular chamber into whose walls loculi (burial niches) were cut, featuring typical gabled openings. All the burial caves were initially cut in the Hellenistic period. Two of these caves, discovered in 1902, had outstanding decorations and wall paintings (Peters and Thiersch 1905) dating from the third century BCE. The Hellenistic period burial caves of Maresha were longterm family tombs made for the burial of families of the city residents. The tombs continued to serve this purpose throughout the 3rdand 2ndcenturies BCE. (Peters and Thiersch 1905; Oren and Rappaport 1984; Kloner 2003). Inscriptions and other epigraphic remains from Mareshas necropoleis reflect the multi-ethnic makeup of the city; Idumaeans, Phoenicians, Greeks, some Egyptians and possibly a few Judeans were part of the population, producing the special ethnic and social fabric of this Hellenistic city. 6.10. Hiding Complexes Hiding complexes are a particular type of subterranean complex linked to the second Jewish Revolt against the Romans (the Bar Kokhba Revolt, 132 CE) and to the period of preparation prior to the outbreak of that revolt. The Judean Foothills, where about 110 sites (out of total 140 in Judea) with about 380 (out of a total of c. 450 in Judea) hiding complexes have been found, has been revealed as a major focus for the activity of this revolt (Kloner and Zissu 2009). At Maresha five hiding complexes were located on the western slope of the LC.7. ConclusionsAlmost all Maresha subterranean spaces were hewn to serve existential and economic needs. The underlying assumption is that the residential houses of Maresha, and the subterranean chambers and means of production hewn underneath, served the local population over generations. Economic activities were conducted below the surface of the ground out of engineering considerations, due to the durability of the rock walls and ceilings. The cost of quarrying and providing suitable spaces for workshops and installations in the underground was far cheaper and more convenient than constructing these above ground where the cost of building and maintenance of structures was much higher. Descent into the subterranean spaces was from the houses above, from courtyards and inner spaces, from rooms and corridors to baths, from passages between houses, and in some cases from passages to the street adjacent to the house through separate entrances. Manufacturing and processing installations and other types were found in caves throughout the LC. Olive-oil presses and columbaria were very common, albeit in smaller concentrations in the northern sector compared with most of the areas of the city. As indicated above, these installations were closely connected with the large residential units. Even where the entrances to the installation were not in the house itself, the caves extended directly beneath the rooms of the house. Water for use in the home or for sale was drawn from rock-cut cisterns, sometimes being used jointly by neighbouring households. Thus, two such adjoining installations even if they had been hewn in the rock during one operation each had its own entrance and functioned independently.ReferencesAvi Yonah M, 1977. Mareshah (Marisa). In M Avi-Yonah and E Stern (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. III, Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem, 782. Avi-Yonah M, Kloner A, 1993. Maresha (Marisa). In Stern E (Ed.), The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land III. IES, Jerusalem. 948. Bliss FJ, Macalister RAS, 1902. Excavations in Palestine During the Years 1898. Palestine Exploration Fund, London. Kloner A, 1996. Maresha An Archaeological Guide. Israel Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem (Hebrew). Kloner A, 2000. Columbaria in Jerusalem. In: J Schwartz, Z Amar and I Ziffer (Eds.), Jerusalem and Eretz Israel, Eretz Israel Museum, Tel Aviv, 61. Kloner A, 2003. Maresha Excavations Final Report 1 Subterranean Complexes 21, 44, 70. IAA Report No. 17, Israel Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem. Kloner A, 2001. Water Cisterns in Idumea, Judaea and Nabatea in the Hellenistic and Early Roman Periods. ARAM 13, 461. Kloner A, Arbel Y, 1998. Maresha-Area 61 (Subterranean Complex). Excavations and Surveys in Israel 17, 157. Kloner A, Sagiv N, 1993. The Olive Presses of Hellenistic Maresha, Israel. In MC Amouretti and JP Brun (Eds.). Oil and Wine Production in the Mediterranean Area (Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique, Supplement 26) Athens and Paris, 119.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings144

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Kloner A, Zissu B, 2009. Underground Hiding Complexes in Israel and the Bar Kokhba Revolt. Opera Ipogea 1/2009, 9. Oren E, Rappaport U, 1984, The Necropolis of Maresha-Bet Govrin. Israel Exploration Journal 34, 114. Peters JP, Thiersch H, 1905. Painted Tombs in the Necropolis of Marissa. Palestine Exploration Fund, London. Tepper Y, 1986. The Rise and Fall of Dove-Raising. In: A Kasher, A Oppenheimer and U Rappaport (Eds.). Man and Land in Eretz-Israel in Antiquity. Yad Ben Zvi, Jerusalem, 170. Hebrew. Zissu B, 1995. Two Herodian Dovecotes: Horvat Abu Haf and Horvat Aleq. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series 14, 56.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings145

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3. Description of the profile24 lithologically different layers were distinguished during the excavations in 2007 (Fig. 2). They are grouped into 6 series: Series I layers 19-17 theyform the oldest series. They are reddish and yellowish clays and silty loams. Series II layers 16-9 a series with greatest thickness, built mainly of loams and silty loams with abundant limestone rubble. These layers are usually colored brown or grayish brown. Sedimentary structures do not occur, except of rubble impact structures, what indicates relativelyNEW PROFILE OF CIEMNA CAVE SEDIMENTS (POLISH JURA) PROBLEM OF CORRELATION WITH FORMER INVESTIGATIONSMaciej T. Krajcarz1, Teresa Madeyska2 1Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Research Centre in Warszawa, Twarda 51/55, PL-00818 Warszawa, Poland; mkrajcarz@twarda.pan.pl2Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Research Centre in Warszawa, Twarda 51/55, PL-00818 Warszawa, Poland; Ciemna Cave is a famous Polish palaeolithic site, the eponymic site for Prondnikian culture of Neanderthal man. Archaeological investigations have been conducted since the beginning of 20thcentury and engaged many researchers. However the reliable scheme of chronostratigraphy of sediments was not established. It was a reason for providing new excavation in 2007 that yielded a 5 meters long profile of sediments. The sequence was divided into 24 layers, grouped in six lithostratigraphical series. They are: I the oldest one, yellowish and reddish clays and silty loams; II brown and grayish brown loams and silty loams with limestone rubble, dated to marine oxygen isotope stage OIS 5 and probably also OIS 6 and OIS 7; III brown and grayish brown debris of limestone rubble, dated to OIS 4; IV brown and grayish brown loams, silty loams and loess with limestone rubble, dated to OIS 3; V yellowish brown redeposited loess, dated to OIS 2; VI dark humus sediments, dated to OIS 1. The upper part of profile may be easily correlated with analogous or similar sediments excavated during former investigations. However correlation of lower part with older data is difficult and may be only roughly made on the basis of current knowledge. Further researches are necessary to explain the detail stratigraphical position of sediments from the Ciemna Cave system.1. IntroductionCiemna Cave is known as palaeolithic site and was explored from the beginning of 20thcentury (Czarnowski 1924; Krukowski 1924, 1939; Kowalski 1967, 2006). Among other Middle Palaeolithic chert tools, S. Krukowski has found there a characteristic asymmetrical knives and named them prondniks after Pr dnik, the name of stream flowing beneath the cave. Basing on the chert artifacts from this cave and from the Wylotne Rockshelter, so called Micoquo-Prondnikian assemblages were defined by Chmielewski (1969).Published information about the lithological composition of sediments was very poor. New excavation has been provided since 2007 by Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University (P. Valde-Nowak, K. Sobczyk, B. Ginter), Archaeological Museum in Krakw (M. Zaj c, D. Stefa ski) and Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Pol. Acad. Sci (P. Wojtal, B. Mi kina) with participation of Institute of Geological Sciences, Pol. Acad. Sci., representing by the authors.2. Geomorphological settingCiemna Cave is one of the biggest caves in southern part of the Polish Jura Chain (Krakw-Cz stochowa Upland, southern Poland). It is situated near the top of the Pr dnik Stream karstic valley, at altitude of 62 m above the valley bottom, 372 m a.s.l., and is connected with the middle horizon of caves in the region (see Madeyska 1977). It is developed in Upper Jurassic rocky limestone (Gradzi ski et al. 2007). Besides the main chamber and channels the cave system consists of several parts, fragmentally destroyed by erosion and situated outside the cave: tunnellike form Oborzysko Wielkie, passing into small cave called W Leszczynie Cave and unroofed area called Ogrojec an open terrace, a part of former cave (Fig. 1). The recent excavations are situated in the main chamber, while the former ones at the entrance area and in the Ogrojec.Figure 1. Plan of the Ciemna Cave system; location of older trenches after Kowalski (2006). Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings146

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low energy of sedimentary environment and low sedimentation rate. As the contrary, postsedimentary structures are numerous and formed as subsidence bending and cryoturbation. These disturbances were caused by climate-controlled secondary processes. Macroscopic differences between layers are weakly marked and boundaries are unclear.Main differences are caused by color and rubble quantity. Detail analyses indicate important differences in weathering parameters, however in lower part these differences are also poorly marked. Series III layers 8-6 are limestone debris with brown and grayish brown sandy-silt matrix. The rubble is sharp-edged, mechanically weathered.Figure 2. Profile of sediments in Ciemna Cave excavated during 2007.Series IV layers 5-2.2 brown and grayish brown loams, silty loams and loess with limestone rubble. Clasts are smoothed what indicates mild climate during sedimentation of the series. Series V layers 2.12-2.11 should be distinguished as a separate series, although the most weakly developed. Layers occur in south part of chamber only, near the cave wall. These sediments are yellowish brown loess with sparse limestone rubble. Some sedimentary structures were noticed and they have a form of poorly preserved trough stratification. It indicates that sediments were washed into the cave by water flow or by mud slides. Series VI layers 1.2-1.1 the youngest dark colored humus sediments. Two layers are relatively different. The upper one 1.1 is a modern cave pavement built of condensed trodden sediments. The lower one 1.2 is the remnant of natural layer. The primary uppermost part of profile including the greater part of the Holocene sediments has not survived. It is proved by erosional character of 1.2/1.1 border as well as traces of sediment removing, preserved on the walls.4. DiscussionSeries I layers 19-17. Age of these sediments was not established, however it should be noted that similar red loams or clays lying in similar stratigraphic position are known from other caves of Polish Jura(for example from Bi nik Cave, Nietoperzowa Cave, Cave in Dziadowa Ska a, Koziarnia Cave). Their age was estimated to Neogene or Lower Pleistocene (Madeyska 1981; Miros aw-Grabowska 2002). Layer 17 is lithologically similar to layer 19 and its lense-like shape suggests that it is a fragment of layer 19, redeposited by slope processes. Analogical situation was observed in Bi nik Cave and connected with OIS 8 / OIS 7 boundary (Krajcarz and Cyrek 2011). Similar sediments were also noticed from outside parts of Ciemna Cave system from Ogrojec (Madeyska 1981) and from entrance to the Ciemna Cave (Krukowski 1939). In Ogrojec the sediments lie in the same position in the bottom part of Quaternary profile, directly on the rock surface (Fig. 3). At the entrance to Ciemna Cave situation is different red loam is situated between loess series (Fig. 3). Here the loam layer is thin and mixed with Pleistocene bones (Krukowski 1939) what indicates that sediment is not preserved in situ, but it was redeposited from the cave interior by slope processes. It may not be excluded that the loam was redeposited during the same event which resulted in deposition of layer 17 inside the cave. However the fresh character of lowermost loess at the entrance to the cave and good preservation state of frost-weathered rocky bottom in this place (Krukowski 1939) suggest that the redeposition event was relatively young and should be correlated with Vistulian Glaciation (OIS 5d-2). Further investigation is needed to explain that situation. Series II layers 16-9. Layers 15-16 and 11.2 exhibit the highest stage of limestone rubble smoothing in the whole sequence of this set, what probably indicates interglacial (or warm interstadial) age of mentioned layers. They can be correlated either with OIS 7 and OIS 5e, or with OIS 5e and OIS 5c isotopic stages, respectively.Further researches are necessary to choose one of these stratigraphical models. Layers younger than 11.2 present distinctly lower weathering stage of limestone rubble, what indicates that climatic conditions had moved toward more cold and dry Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings147

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conditions of Early Vistulian. The age of whole series II is OIS 5, and lowermost parts probably may be correlated with OIS 6 and OIS 7. Analogical sediments are not known from the entrance to the cave, however they were found in Ogrojec (Madeyska 1981; Kowalski 2006). Poor Middle Palaeolithic levels are known from these sediments, both from the Ciemna Cave interior (Sobczyk 2011) and from Ogrojec (Kowalski 2006), what additionally allows to correlate these sediments. Series III layers 8-6. The limestone rubble is strongly mechanically weathered, with sharp edges, what indicates that these sediments are related to cold Pleniglacial period of OIS 4 stage.These layers should be stratigraphically correlated with loess sediments of the same age (Fig. 3) that occur at the entrance to the cave and in Ogrojec (Krukowski 1939; Madeyska 1981; Kowalski 2006). It seems probable that redeposition of sediments at the entrance to the cave (mentioned above) and deposition of the thickest loess series at the same place are related to the same period of Early Pleniglacial. Series IV layers 5-2.2. Limestone ruble is weathered and smoothed what indicates the climate milding during deposition of these layers. Weathering parameters as well as radiocarbon dates (unpublished data B. Alex, P. Wojtal), Middle Palaeolithic levels in lower part and Jerzmanowician-like artifacts in its upper part (Sobczyk 2011) allow to correlate this series with Middle Pleniglacial, isotopic stage OIS 3. Similar loams with rich Middle Palaeolithic (Micoquian) level were described from Ogrojec (Krukowski 1939; Madeyska 1981). At the border of Ogrojec and Oborzysko Wielkie the loams disappear, however Micoquian cultural layer is still present between two loess packets (Krukowski 1939). Series V layers 2.12-2.11. Probably these loess-like redeposited sediments constitute the only trace of Upper Pleniglacial, i.e. OIS 2, inside the Ciemna Cave. On the contrary, well preserved loess deposits occur outside the cave (Fig. 3) and were found in each archaeological trench, at the entrance to the cave, in Oborzysko Wielkie and in Ogrojec (Krukowski 1939; Madeyska 1981; Kowalski 2006). Series VI layers 1.2-1.1. These sediments were undoubtedly accumulated during Holocene, OIS 1. Layer 1.2 is a natural deposit, partially destroyed by erosional event, most probably due to anthropogenic activity in modern times. It is possible that modification of cave interior was connected with preparation of cave for the visit of Polish king Stanis aw August Poniatowski in 18thcentury. These layers may be correlated with humus sediments from outside parts (Fig. 3), described from all trenches and excavated during the earliest archaeological works in 19thcentury by Czarnowski (1924). Holocene sediments are the best developed in Ogrojec and Oborzysko Wielkie where they are stratified and contain numerous Holocene artifacts (Czarnowski 1924; Kowalski 1967). Similar black humuous sediments are known from almost every cave of Polish Jura (Madeyska 1981).5. ConclusionsUpper parts of newly excavated profile of sediments from Ciemna Cave may be easily correlated with sediments from outside parts of the cave system (at the entrance to the cave, in Ogrojec and Oborzysko Wielkie ). More problematic is lower part of new profile. Several models of chronostratigraphy of this part may be presented on the basis of current data. In addition, former investigations had not provided reliable stratigraphy of sediments from other archaeological trenches. Further detail studies are needed to explain the stratigraphy and age of sediments from Ciemna Cave system. Figure 3. An attempt of correlation of sediments excavated in different archaeological trenches (from 1918 according to Kr ukowski 1924, 1939; from 1963 according to Madeyska 1981, Kowalski 2006; from 2007 new data) and possible geological cross-section from the Ciemna Cave interior across Ogrojec to Oborzysko Wielkie.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings148

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AcknowledgmentsThis study was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education grants numberN N109 185240and 691-N/2010/0-Ukraina.ReferencesChmielewski W, 1969. Ensembles Micoquo-Prondnikiens en Europe Central. Geographia Polonica, 17, 371. Czarnowski SJ, 1924. Jaskinie i schroniska na Grze Koronnej na lewym brzegu Prdnika pod Ojcowem. Sprawozdanie z bada paleoetnologicznych. PAU, Krakw (in Polish). Gradziski M, Michalska B, Wawryka M, Szelerewicz M, 2007. Jaskinie Ojcowskiego Parku Narodowego. Dolina Pr dnika, Gra Koronna, Gra Okopy. Ojcowski Park Narodowy, Muzeum im. Prof. W adysawa Szafera, Ojcw (in Polish). Kowalski S, 1967. Ciekawsze zabytki paleolityczne z najnowszych bada archeologicznych (1963) w Jaskini Ciemnej w Ojcowie, pow. Olkusz. Materia y Archeologiczne, 8, 39 (in Polish). Kowalski S, 2006. Uwagi o osadnictwie paleolitycznym w Jaskini Ciemnej i Mamutowej w wietle bada z lat 1957. In: J Partyka and J Lech (Eds.). Jura Ojcowska w pradziejach i pocz tkach pa stwa polskiego. Wydawnictwo Ojcowskiego Parku Narodowego, Ojcw, 335 (in Polish). Krajcarz MT, Cyrek K, 2011. The age of the oldest Paleolithic assemblages from Bi nik Cave (southern Poland) in the light of geological data. Przegl d Archeologiczny, 59, 55. Krukowski S, 1924. Doliny Pr dnika i S spwki jako teren przedhistoryczny. Ochrona Przyrody, 4, 85 (in Polish). Krukowski S, 1939. Paleolit. In: S Krukowski, J Kostrzewski, R Jakimowicz (Eds.). Prehistoria ziem polskich (Encyklopedia Polska, tom IV, cz I dzia V). Polska Akademia Umiejtnoci, Krakw, 117 (in Polish). Madeyska T, 1977. The age differentiation of caves and their sediments of the Sspowska Valley. Kras i speleologia, 1(10), 71 (in Polish with English summary). Madeyska T, 1981. rodowisko cz owieka w rodkowym i grnym paleolicie na ziemiach polskich w wietle bada geologicznych. (Studia Geologica Polonica, 69, 1 (in Polish with French summary). Miros aw-Grabowska J, 2002. Geological value of Bi nik Cave sediments (Cracow-Cz stochowa Upland). Acta Geologica Polonica, 52(1), 9710. Sobczyk K, 2011. Jaskinia Ciemna archeologiczne dylematy. Materia y 45. Sympozjum Speleologicznego. Ojcw, Poland, 93 (in Polish).Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings149

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CAVE ARCHAEOLOGY IN HUNGARY SYNOPSIS AND NEW PERSPECTIVESOrsolya Laczi Etvs Lornd University, Faculty of Humanities, Ph.D. School of History 1053 Budapest, Mzeum krt. 4/A, Hungary Directorate of Hajd-Bihar County Museums, Dri Museum, 4026 Debrecen, Dri tr 1, Hungary, Caves are not only the parts of our natural, but our cultural heritage as well. A significant number of caves contain particula r archaeological remains, from the Paleolithic to the Middle Ages. In the Ph.D. thesis we are trying to reconstruct the role of the caves in different younger prehistoric eras (from the Neolithic to the Iron Age), by examining the archaeological finds, relationships between the settlement types and involving new scientific methods. It is very important to reinterpret the find material from old excavations in the light of the new results as well. Our first attempt of reinterpretation was the Baradla Cave, which resulted in several unanswered questions.1. Cave protectionThe first legislations of Hungarian cave protection came from the beginning of the 20thcentury, in 1935 the law only involved the protection of the caves with scientific value. Since 1961, caves have been ex lege protected. In 1998, the conditions of cave exploration, research, visit, and the obligations of the researchers were strictly codified. In the late 19thcentury, the archaeological data were mostly discussed by researchers interested in the Paleolithic period. In later eras because of the rich open air settlements, cemeteries, etc. cave sites were not, or only marginally mentioned in the prehistoric investigation.2. Research history, cave sitesIn cave exploration, the first written document is known from 1549, and only mentioned the stalagmites (Wernher 1549). From the 18thand 19thcentury, our most common source of research are itineraria; systematic research and excavations only began with Baron Jen Nyrys work at Hungarys largest natural cave, the Baradla Cave at Aggtelek (Nyry 1881). At the beginning of the 20thcentury, remarkable and large-scale excavations began at Hungarys greatest archaeological cave sites, like Szeleta Cave, Istlls-k Cave (work of Lajos Bella, Jen Hillebrand, Ottokr Kadi Tivadar Kormos, Andor Sad, Gza Megay, Andor Leszih, etc. their work highly exceeded the centurys excavation standard.) After World War II, the researchs opportunities suddenly declined, only a few tried to continue mostly in the Paleolithic period the cave research. Within the framework of younger prehistoric (Neolithic, Copper Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age) several attempts were made to collect and organize the cave sites of each archaeological culture: Jzsef Korek and Pl Patay in 1958 the Neolithic Bkk Culture (Korek, Patay 1958), Tibor Kemenczei in 1970 (Kemenczei 1970) and 1984 (Kemenczei 1984) the Bronze Age Kyjatice Culture, Zsuzsanna M. Virg between 1995 (Virg 1995)and 2002 (Virg 2002)the Copper Age Ludanice Culture, and Gyrgy Lszl in 2009 Copper Age Baden Culture (Gyrgy 2009). Also sereval attempts were made to collect all the Hungarian archaeological cave sites, last time Kinga Szkely tried to summarize archaeological records of the National Cave Registry ( The Registry does not contain earlier archaeological literature, thus the latest list considered to be incomplete. Despite of the several attempts, no one could valuate the significance of this settlement type from the Neolithic period to the Iron Age.3. Baradla CaveThe Baradla Cave is the longest natural cave in Hungary, with the lenght of 20,500 m, and part of the BaradlaDomica Cave System (25,000 m total length). The Slovakian Domica Cave like the Hungarian Baradla Cave is also a Middle Neolithic cave site. This outstanding cave system has been on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1995, with altogether 712 caves from the Aggtelek Karst (Hungary) and Slovak Karst. The cave system has 10 known entrances, 3 opens from Slovakia and 7 from Hungary ( list/725). Strikingly large number of educational and scientific literature is known about the Baradla Cave, but there is hardly any work in which the author is striving for completeness. Despite the continuing interest, long-winded summaries of archaeological work are rarely born. Most of the literature does not use their results and observations but uses fragments from existing reports, or information based on verbal communication. This makes it more difficult to create a proper scientific assessment; meanwhile completely contradictory information can be revealed in the literature. Previous archaeological finds from the Baradla Cave were taken to different collections across the country, more archaeological remains (human bones, botanical specimens) whereabouts were an open question at the time of documentation. The Baradla Cave finds are officially stored in two museums: the Herman Ott Museum at Miskolc and the Hungarian National Museum, however it is likely that Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings150

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large amount of artefacts are in private collections. The situation is complicated by the fact that the data in the inventory books of the Hungarian National Museum does not always match the stored material. The recent earthworks, visitor activities and the natural water drips steadily disturb the intact archaeological layers. Despite of the hundreds of years of illicit excavations, illegal collecting, archaeological excavations and earthworks still a significant amount of artefacts can be found in the cave. The last intensive field survey in 2001/2002 without any excavation resulted more than 8,000 archaeological finds (Fig. 1). After several years of excavations and research it is clear that there was no Paleolithic occupation in the Baradla Cave, the first inhabitants were the people of the Middle Neolithic Bkk Culture (The Bkk Culture is a part of a large, Middle Neolithic culture complex in the Carpathian Basin, the Alfld Linear Pottery Culture, i.e. ALPC, which is parallel with the European Middle Neolithic culture complex, the Transdanubian Linear Pottery Culture or simply Linear Pottery Culture, i.e. TLPC or LPC). After the Neolithic period, the cave was only inhabited in the Late Bronze Age by the people of Kyjatice Culture. The publication of the finds is based on in the absence of stratigraphy the artificially created geographic information system (GIS), which contains a total of 246 units, following the natural units of the cave. The field survey and the mapping was started at the main entrance, the separation of the spatial units is based on the natural demarcation of the cave branches. According to the archaeological finds (mostly ceramic styles and burial rites), the areas closer to the caves natural entrance were mostly inhabited during the Bronze Age, the more distant areas were inhabited during the Neolithic period (Holl 2007). Both household and fine ceramics had been found at the whole occupied territory, as well as chipped and polished stone tools, bone tools and animal bones (Raczky et al. 2007). Despite the accurate field work, elaborate GIS, the great number of literature, systematic processing of ceramics, there is still very little known about the concrete usage of the Baradla Cave. This problem gave us the idea to investigate all the archaeological cave sites in the country, also publishing the material finds, and examining the relations with the other type of settlements. Hopefully this work can finally reveal the exact functions of the cave sites through the ages.4. The archaeological use of cave sitesOne of the greatest questions is the purpose of inhabiting various caves during the different phases of prehistory. In several caves, artefacts from the Paleolithic to the Middle Ages can be found. The reason probably lies within the various usage in different ages. Not all the caves were used for animal husbandry or housing purposes, mostly the suitable sized and easily accessible caves were occupied. Often the fear of a supernatural being withheld the people of the use of the cave, but the supernatural was often the rhythmic drip of the stalactites, or the clattering of cave bats and owls. In archaeological terms, we can distinguish secular and ritual usage. 4.1. Secular use Water access: One of the most obvious secular usages of the caves was obtaining water. In prehistoric cultures, water played a very critical role in the life of the community. Settlements were mostly established nearby natural water sources, like ponds, rivers or caves. Water had a special role in the life of the community, for example in the end of the Middle-European Neolithic, lack of water and its deterioration often led to ritual acts (Holl 2007; Laczi 2011). In the Baradla Cave, more than a kilometre away from the natural entrance a Bkk Culture pottery was placed under a stalactite, probably during a drier weather period. The hemispherical, well burned, incised and incrusted fine pottery is the last occurrence of any archaeological artefact in the cave branch, which can indicate both secular and ritual function. The lack of artefacts also encumbers the interpretation of the bowl, no other remains are known from that part of the cave (Kiss 1997). Husbandry: Not only archaeological remains refer to animal husbandry in the caves, but the name of the caves, rock shelters as well. The Istalls-k Caves name refers to the livestock function, it means stone stable. According to written sources, more than one thousand swine could been herded in (Paldi, Kovcs 1965), and it was also the nocturnal and winter shed of the local landowners flock of sheep in the 19thcentury (Hla 1995). Other cave names, like Kecsks (Goat) Cave, Kis-Lcs r (Small Horse Barn) Cave also refers to animal husbandry (Gunda 1962). One of the oldest linguistic evidence is the Greek word strunga, which means milking pen. The Romanian strung Albanian trung Ukrainian strunka, Hungarian esztrenga words can be traced back to the cave word (Laczi 2011). Besides the nomenclature, the most important source of lifestocking in caves is animal bones and fire rings. However, we should be careful with both phenomena, because animal bones especially if fragmented and cut marks can be found on them rather indicate the meats ingestion in the cave. Also the fireplaces can be more recent than we first suspect.Figure 1. Incised three-quarted spherical Bkk Culture fine bowls fom the Baradla Cave, stray finds. (O. Laczi, The Neolithic archaeological finds of Baradla Cave at Aggtelek [Az aggteleki Baradla-barlang neolitikus emlkanyaga], MA Thesis, 2011, unpublished. Table XLVIII. 2). Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings151

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Habitation: The most important, and also the most divisive role of the archaeological caves is the habitation function. In the early and middle 20thcentury, archaeologists discovered different stakeand post hole structures with fireplaces in caves, which were interpreted as houses. Two of these asymmetrical structures were excavated in the Baradla Cave in 1937 by Sndor Gallus (Korek 1958; Fig. 3), and two in the K lyuk Cave in 1958 (Gyrgy 2009), by Jzsef Korek (Fig. 2). Both of the authors agree that the stake hole structures were houses, and their main function was the protection of fireplaces from the dripping water. The irregular arrangement, the dry cave climate and the great number of the stake holes contradict this theory. Balzs Holl, cave researcher drew my attention that these holes are likely to be imprints of the torches people used to light with through the ages until the late 19thcentury. However, the clear archaeological evidences of habitation are the large amount of household pottery, grinding stones, animal bones, fireplaces from sterile layers, etc. Other: We have no archaeological evidences for other secular uses, but defensive, storage, high-stand, mining (clay, limestone, guano), medical treatment functions could also have been important. 4.2. Ritual use Cultural anthropologists agree that whenever a crisis threatens the community, the people can respond by increasing ritual activity to propitiate the divine being, presumably a similar case had happened in the caves as well. Burial: The first and very important ritual cave use is the burial function. The most common rite in cave burial is the inhumation. One of the most frequent skeleton burials in Hungary can be connected to the Bkk Culture. However, few burials can be found in caves, the exact rites can be precisely studied. Middle Neolithic burials are contracted, lying mostly on the left side, with only a few grave goods (like pottery, spondylus beads and/or bracelets, lithic tools and sometimes red ocher). Artefacts associated with the burials are slightly, or not differentiated by gender. The Late Copper Age Baden Cultures cave sites also include burials. In the recently excavated si Cave, cavers and archaeologists collected the human bones from the disturbed graves. The bones were identified and they belonged to at least three people (a young woman, a child and an infant.) Unfortunately the burial rite couldnt be studied because of the heavy disturbance (Kemenczei 1984, 42). In the Late Bronze Age Kyjatice Culture the most characteristic burial type similar to the other Late Bronze Age Cultures is the cremation. The only exception is the cave sites of the culture, where graves with inhumation rite are documented. The relatively small number of inhumational cave burials may refer that the people had a special role in the whole community (Tompa 1934). Despite of the archaeological investigations and collections in the Baradla Cave, one can still find human bones scattered on the surface, sometimes under 2 cm thick dripstone layer.Figure 2. Reconstructions of the stake hole structures in K lyuk Cave. (J. Korek, Bkk Culture settlement in the Hillebrand Cave [A bkki kultra teleplse a Hillebrand barlangban], Folia Archaeologica X, 1958, p. 23, figure 4ab, 5ab). Figure 3. Reconstructions of the stake hole structures in the Baradla Cave (unpublished after Sndor Gallus, Hungarian National Museum Archaeological Repository). Figure 4. The so-called furnace from Baradla Cave (F. Tompa, Jahre Urgeschichtforschung in Ungarn 1912, Bericht der Rmisch-Germanischen Kommission 24, 1934, 39).Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings152

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Special objects: One of the most controversial objects in the Hungarian cave archaeology is also from the Baradla Cave. Ferenc Tompa excavated in 1929 the so-called furnace 200 meters away from the entrance. The elongated, rounded-end furnace was surrounded by a higher rim, it was also found in a sterile Neolithic layer, and it was lying directly on the rock, at the depth of about 130 cm. Closer to the rounded edge (from approx. 30 cm distance) three, each of 10 cm diameter holes were placed in an isosceles triangle shape. Next to the three smaller holes, there was a 25 cm diameter small pit, which was interpreted as a fire ring. The author interprets the whole structure as a place of worship (Fig. 4). Unfortunately we have no opportunity to reinterpret the furnace from primary source, because it has been destroyed during the excavation process (Raczky Anders 2003). Face-pots: The so-called face-pot fragments excavated in several caves may refer to special use as well. This pottery type played a special role in the Central European Middle Neolithic: according to the newest results, they were external manifestations of templates, maps of existence coded into clay, corresponding to comprehensive views of the world (Tompa 1937; Fig. 5). Depots: The large amount of Bkk Culture fine ceramics in the Baradla Cave raises the possibility of a Middle Neolithic storehouse in the cave branches. Unfortunately, due to lack of archaeometrical research we are unable to give further information about this possibility. In 1929, a Late Bronze Age special assemblage of artefacts had been excavated by Ferenc Tompa in the Baradla Cave as well. The treasure-hoard included 28 pieces of gold items, including bracelets, spirals, and small gold fragments. The findings are still unpublished (Tompa 1937).5. The problems with Hungarian cave researchOne of the most important problems with the Hungarian cave research is the limited amount of archaeological literature. Most of the literature comes from the early 20thcentury, and based on the Paleolithic research. We are also lack of greater, summary works, we have only smaller publications with an archaeological cultures cave site register or a summary of a specific site (like Szeleta Cave).Figure 5. Face-pot fragments from the Baradla Cave. (J. Kalicz and J. Kos, Neolithic anhtopomorf vessels from the NorthEastern part of the Carpathian Basin (jk kori arcos ednyek a Krpt-medence szakkeleti rszb l), a miskolci Herman Ott Mzeum vknyve, 2000, Picture 11, after J. Korek and P. Patay, The spread of Bkk Culture in Hungary (A bkki kultra elterjedse Magyarorszgon), Rgszeti Fzetek II/2, 1958). The inadequate documentation of previous excavations and field surveys is also a great problem, at some sites it is extremely hard to examine the exact places of the earlier excavation trenches. Sometimes there is a strip of land left unexcavated, and we are also able to reconstruct the section walls, but most of the previously excavated caves are completely disinterred with no possibility of control excavations. The unprocessed archaeological finds from rescue excavations encumber the appropriate research, the museum inventory system also makes it difficult to do our job. There is only minimum or no communication between the different research areas, like hydrology, geology, biology and archaeology, the cave exploration also drifted towards the sport caving. Too much attention from hiking people and excessive cave pollution is also a great problem. Most of the cave archaeological finds are unfortunately stray finds, not even the contemporaneous documentation transmits the exact findspot.6. New perspectives and methodsLike in any other archaeological sector, cave archaeology has undergone a paradigm shift as well. After the long-term historical approach, within the framework of processual and postprocessual archaeology researchers started to involve the neglected sciences like geology, radiocarbon dating, twoand three dimensional modelling, etc. Field survey, mapping of archaeological sites, the relationship between open-air settlements, cemeteries and cave sites have become a quite popular new research area. One of the most significant research advances is the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method for dating small amounts of organic substances. Based on the radiocarbon dating, AMS method is able to determine even the age of the pigments of Upper Paleolithic cave paintings (Valladas et al. 2001). One of the most recent results of the Slovakian cave research is the dating of an organic-rich dripstone stratum between two white, sterile dripstone layers filled with charcoal particles. These radiocarbon results from the Domica Cave perfectly fit in the chronology of the Middle Neolithic Bkk Culture (Gradzi ski et. al. 2003). Like in the Domica Cave, the Baradla Cave is rich in charcoal dripstone layers as well: one of the fragmented stalactite formations includes two charcoal layers, separated with sterile white dripstone strata. The two charcoal layers could probably cover the two main archaeological periods (Middle Neolithic and Late Bronze Age) in the cave. Relatively new method in the archaeological research is the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method, which is mostly used in biology and chemistry, measuring the lightabsorbing features of the material. The technique is suitable for dating calcite (stalactites, bones and microorganisms), aragonite (corals and molluscs) (Ikeya, Ohmura 1981), hydroxyapatite (fossil teeth and bones) (Ramya and Velraj 2012) and quartz (volcanic and sedimentary rocks, bones and aquatic organisms). Attemps have been made for dating zirconium, rock salt, gypsum, feldspar, archaeological ceramics and peat. The disadvantage of the technology that Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings153

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would like to thank Balzs Holl for the help with the GIS system and maps, the great ideas, motivation and inspirational thoughts and photographies.I thank Gbor Rezi Kat, who carried out the field survey and excavation at the Baradla Cave in 2001/2002, and ceded the right of publication to me. My sincere thanks also goes to Piroska Csengeri for the lot of help, useful literature, ideas and advice during the procession of the Bkk Culture ceramic finds.ReferencesFisher EC, Pyne L, Marean C, 2005. Caves, Sea Levels, and Sand Dunes: Applying 3D GIS to South African Achaeology. ( et al 2005 GEOconnexions 3-D GIS at MB.pdf 2012. 11.02.). Gradzi ski M, Grny A, Pazdur A, Pazdur MF, 2003. Origin of black coloured laminae in speleothems from the KrakwWielu Upland, Poland, Boreas 32, 532. Gunda B, 1962. The question of cave husbandry, (A barlangi llattarts krdshez), Ethnographia. LXXIII/3, 448451. Gyrgy L, 2009. Late Copper Age finds from the si Cave (Esztergom-Pilisszentllek) (Ks rzkori leletek az sibarlangbl [Esztergom-Pilisszentllek]), srgszeti Levelek 11, 42. Hla J, 1995. The caves as economic buildings (A barlangok mint gazdasgi pletek. Barlangi llattartsra vonatkoz XVII XX. szzadi adatok a Krpt-medencben), In: J. Hla, svnyok, k zetek, hagyomnyok. Trtneti s nprajzi dolgozatok. (letmd s tradci, 7.) MTA Nprajzi Kutatintzet, Budapest, 291. Holl B, 2007. The archaeological research of Baradla Cave (A Baradla-barlang rgszeti kutatsa), Archaeolgiai rtest 267. Ikeya M, Ohmura K, 1981. Dating of Fossil Shells with Electron Spin Resonance, The Journal of Geology 89, 247. Kemenczei T, 1970. The Kyjatice Culture at Northern Hungary (A Kyjatice kultra szak-Magyarorszgon), A miskolci Herman Ott Mzeum vknyve 9, 17. Kemenczei T, 1984. Die Sptbronzezeit Nordostungarns, Archaeologia Hungarica 51, Budapest. Kiss L, 1997. Etymological Dictionary of Geographical Names I-II (Fldrajzi nevek etimolgiai sztra III), Budapest, Istllsk entry. Korek J, 1958. Bkk Culture settlement in the Hillebrand Cave (A bkki kultra teleplse a Hillebrand barlangban), Folia Archaeologica X, 17. Korek J, Patay P, 1958. The spread of Bkk Culture in Hungary (A bkki kultra elterjedse Magyarorszgon), Rgszeti Fzetek II/2. Laczi O, 2011. The Neolithic archaeological finds of Baradla Cave at Aggtelek (Az aggteleki Baradla-barlang neolitikus emlkanyaga), MA Thesis, unpublished. Lauritzen S. E, Mylroie J. E, 2000. Results of a Speleothem U/Th Dating Reconnaissance from the Helderberg Plateau, New York, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 62/1, 20. Nyry J, 1881. The cave of Aggtelek as prehistoric cemetery (Az aggteleki barlang mint skori temet ), least 4,000 years old remains can be dated (Wencka, Krzyminiewski 2004). The dripstone formations are also suitable for climate studies: scientists examined the thorium/uranim (Th/U) ratio of the dripstone samples in the North American McFail Cave. The measurements showed that the period between 7600 and 7000 BP was warmer and wetter, and between 7000 and 3000 BP a slower transition towards the cooler weather have been observed (Van Beynen et al. 2004). The method was also used at the Helderberg Plateau for dating the caves without archaeological remains (Lauritzen and Mylroie 2000). The fairly decentralized nature of the cave science facilitated the formation of very different types of research methods. The different national research traditions considerably complicated the analysis of the gathered information. Because of the presence of geographic information systems the comparison of caves became somewhat easier. The storage, display and comparison of the large amount of collected cave data is essential for the appropriate research. However the three-dimensional recording of the archaeological finds is sufficiently widespread, the research of three-dimensional cave modelling is in relatively early stage. The Arizona State Universitys South African coast studies shed additional light on the paleoclimate, paleoenvironment and paleoanthropology (Fisher et al. 2005).7. ConclusionsThe use of different scientific methods (e.g., radiocarbon dating, Th/O ratio measurement, EPR, GIS) is essential of the up-to-date processing of the previously excavated and newly discovered cave sites. The special status of caves disturbance, polluttion, finds in secondary context and their protection by law constantly requires to involve more and more research areas and methods over time. Every successful response to a question leads to a couple of new question: what is the relationship between the cave sites and the open-air settlements? What were the natural features of the cave during the different archaeological ages? What led the people to inhabit these dark, dangerous subterranean formations? The upcoming Ph.D. dissertation about the Hungarian cave archaeology can be a source of a versatile, searchable database and a tool for starting-point of the newer cave research. In this work, it is extremely important to revise the old excavations finds, and (re)interpret in the light of new research. We are also planning to collect the problematic, unregistered archaeological sites field survey, excavation, sampling and analyzes for science.AcknowledgmentsI would like to express my gratitude to my MA and Ph.D supervisors, Prof. Dr. Pl Raczky and Dr. Zsolt Mester for their continuous support, encouragement and advices. I Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings154

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Paldi-Kovcs A, 1965. The shepherding of Eastern Palc people (A keleti palcok psztorkodsa) M veltsg s Hagyomny VII., Debrecen. Raczky P, Anders A, 2003. The internal relations of the Alfld Linear Pottery culture in Hungary and the characteristics of human representation, In: E. Jerem. and P. Raczky (hrsg.), Morgenrot der Kulturen Frhe Etappen der Menschheitsgeschichte in Mittelund Sdosteuropa. Festschrift fr Nndor Kalicz zum 75. Geburtstag, Budapest, 155. Raczky P, Domborczki L, Hajd Zs, 2007. The site of PolgrCs szhalom and its cultural and chronological connections with the Lengyel culture, In: Koz owski, J. K.-Raczky, P. (eds): The Lengyel, Polgr and related cultures in the Middle/Late Neolithic in Central Europe, Krakw, 49. Ramya R, Velraj G, 2012. Electron Spin Resonance Dating and XRD Analysis of Archaeological Bone Samples Recently Excavated in Tamilnadu, India, Internatinal Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 3/5, 1398. Tompa F, 1934. 25 Jahre Urgeschichtforschung in Ungarn 1912, Bericht der Rmisch-Germanischen Kommission 24, 27. Tompa F, 1937. Some details of prehistoric gold trade (Adatok az skori aranykereskedelemhez), Archaeolgiai rtest 49. Valladas H, Tisnrat-Laborde N, Cachier H, Arnold M, Bernaldo de Quirs F, Cabrera-Valds V, Clottes J, Courtin J, ForteaPrez J. J, Gonzles-Sainz J. C, Moure-Romanillo A, 2001. Radiocabon AMS dates for paleolithic cave paintings, Radiocarbon 43, 977. Van Beynen P. E, Schwarcz H. P, Ford D. C, 2004. Holocene climatic variation recorded in a speleothem from McFails Cave, New York, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 66/1, 20. Virg Zs. M, 1995. Die Hochkupferzeit in der Umgebung von Budapest und in NO-Transdanubien (Das Ludanice-Problem), Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 47, 61. Virg Zs. M, 2002. Data on the Middle Copper Age archaeological topography of Budapest environs (Sites of the Ludanice Culture), Budapest Rgisgei XXXVI, 9313. Wencka M, Krzyminiewski R, 2004. Identification of Paramagnetic Centers and the Dating of Cave Dripstones by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Applied Magnetic Resonance 26, 561. Wernher G, 1549. De Admirandis Hungariae Aquis Hypomnemation, Basel. Official web page of the Hungarian National Conservation ( United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, World Heritage Convention Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst ( and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings155

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Bestaovca was first entered in 1913 but the cave was not explored and surveyed until 1979. Cavers noticed pieces of prehistoric pottery, charcoal and some bones scattered on the cave floor and reported this to the local museum. Archaeologists visited the cave but because of the difficult access no further exploration was done (Saksida and TurkNEOLITHIC DRAWINGS FROM BESTAOVCA CAVE, WESTERN SLOVENIAAndrej Mihevc Karst research institute ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, SL-6230 Postojna, Slovenia, Bestaovca is the remnant of an old horizontal cave system which was reshaped by sediment fill, karst denudation and collapsing. The present entrance to the cave is a 25 m shaft. Red ochre drawings are preserved on the walls in the main passage of the cave, along with black dots on the passage ceiling. Dating of the dots and charcoal with 14C suggest that the drawings are about 7,000 years old, dating from the Neolithic period. The ochre drawings are most likely of the same age, but they may also be older. Some drawings have been damaged by dripping water or condensation or are covered with fine white calcite crystals. The drawings are preserved because sediment creep closed the main former entrance to the cave. This stabilised the climate in the cave and made the cave climate favourable for preservation. The drawings from Bestaovca currently represent the only known Neolithic cave art in the wider area of the Dinaric Mountains and the neighbouring Alps.1. IntroductionBestaovca is 250 m long and 45 m deep. The cave is located at the top of a small hill on the Karst plateau about 10 km from the coast of the Gulf of Trieste at a height of 480 m (45.92N, 13.22E). A small opening with a 25 m shaft is located at the top of a large entrance chamber. The floor of the chamber is covered by rocks that have been thrown into the cave over the past two millennia by farmers clearing rocks from the karst surface. From this chamber a narrow passage and 15 m shafts lead to the main part of the cave. This consists of a nearly horizontal passage about 150 m long, 10 m wide and up to 15 m high. Phreatic features on the walls and allogenic fluvial deposits, clays and silts show that the passage is a relic of an old epiphreatic cave (Mihevc 2001). The passage, known as Glavni Rov (Main Passage), was until recently connected with a collapse doline. The connection between the cave and the doline was later closed as a result of sediment creep, separating Bestaovca from one of the entrances, which is now just a large rock shelter or abri called Perkova Pe ina. Present climatic conditions in the main passage are stable, mean annual temperature is about 9 C, and fluctuations of temperature and humidity are small.Figure 1.Kras plateau above the Gulf of Trieste and position of Bestaovca cave E of Seana. Figure 2.The vertical entrance to the cave. Figure 3.Perkova Pe ina the former main entrance is today separated from Bestaovca by sediment fill. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings156

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1988). The pottery was defined as Neolithic. More attention was devoted to the cave when Mihevc (2001) used archaeological remains in the cave as a time tracer to evaluate the intensity of sediment creep, which he attributed to the fact that the cave had two entrances in the past and was exposed to severe seasonal freezing. Sediment creep narrowed the entrance from the collapse doline and eventually completely filled it. The entrance was already narrow when Neolithic people began using Bestaovca, but the cave was still quite exposed to the elements and cold in the winter. When the passage filled completely, the cave climate became stable, enabling the formation of straw stalactites on the ceiling and the growth of stick stalagmites on the formerly unstable floor (Mihevc 2009). Close study of the evidence for these events led to the discovery of red ochre drawings on the cave walls and black dots on the ceiling. The discovery was kept secret until a stainless steel gate had been installed to protect the cave against further damage. Work in the cave is still in progress (Mihevc and Velu ek 2012) and the results presented here are only preliminary results.2. DrawingsThe drawings are symbols made with red ochre on the walls and black dots on the passage ceiling. There are 32 red lines or dots preserved in three different places. Some of them are only remnants and their original shape cannot be discerned. They have been washed away by dripping water or condensation or covered with fine white calcite crystals. The drawings only cover a very small proportion of the cave walls.Figure 5.The main panel with drawings and white coating of calcite crystals. Figure 6. The largest group of drawings. Figure 4. Schematic cross section of the two caves. The arrow indicates the narrow part of the passage that was blocked after t he drawings were made and separated the caves. The largest group of drawings consists of 23 dots and lines. Straight vertical lines prevail. These were probably made by fingers soaked in red dye. The longest line (31 cm) splits into two branches in its lower part. Some of the lines are double width and also split in the lower part. It is most likely that these were made by two fingers. A smaller number of drawings appear on two other panels, althoughFigure 7.A V-shaped symbol (top left) and three similar symbols in the lower central part of the image. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings157

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only four of them are fully preserved. In a more distant part of passage there is a drawing of one V-shaped symbol and a group of three identical V-shaped symbols tilted to the left at an angle of about 45. Near the largest panel on the ceiling of the passage are 35 scattered, rather irregular black dots. These were made by torches or burned sticks at least 1.5 m long. Radiocarbon dating of one of the black dots, of a piece of charcoal from a fireplace and a piece of charcoal from a torch show a narrow time span of about 500 years, dating to between 6730 BP, which matches the age determined for the pottery. In addition to the drawings, in three places there are remnants of grass or some other plant that were deliberately positioned where dripping water deposited on them a thin layer of calcite, thus preserving their shape. After the drawings were made the entrance closed completely and created conditions that preserved the drawings.3. ConclusionsThe discovery of cave art in Bestaovca is very important for several reasons. The drawings currently represent theFigure 8.Grass or some other plant was covered by a thin film of calcite. only known Neolithic cave art in the wider area of the Dinaric mountains and the neighbouring Alps. They help us to understand the conditions in which cave art might be preserved. In the entrance sections of comparable caves in the area, seasonal air movements cause condensation on the walls in summer and desiccation in winter. Condensation can wash away the drawings, while evaporation of the water can cover them with white calcite crystals. Cave art is probably therefore preserved deeper inside the caves, in a zone with a more stable climate. The find is also important because it tells us that there are still many things to be found even in well-known caves or karst areas such as the Karst plateau.ReferencesCoracci J, 1980. Bestaovca, 3630. Cave survey and description. Kataster jam / Cave Register, Karst Research Institute of the ZRC SAZU and Speleological Association of Slovenia, Postojna. Saksida V, Turk I, 1988. Mer e. Varstvo spomenikov 30, 200, Ljubljana. Mihevc A, 2001. Speleogeneza Divakega krasa, (Zbirka ZRC, 27). Ljubljana: Zaloba ZRC, ZRC SAZU, 180. Mihevc A, 2009. Cryoturbation of the sediments at the cave entrances: case studies from Skednena jama, Poto ka zijalka and Bestaovca Cave. In: Steguweit L, (ed.). Hugo Obermaier Society for Quaternary Research and Archaeology of the Stone Age, 51stAnnual Meeting in Ljubljana, 14ththof April, 2009. (Erlangen): Hugo Obermaier-Gesellschaft fr Erforschung des Eiszeitalters und der Steinzeit, 26. Mihevc A, Velu ek A, 2012. Neolithic drawings from cave Bestaovca, W Slovenia. In: Steguweit L, (ed.). Hugo Obermaier Society for Quaternary Research and Archaeology of the Stone Age, 54thAnnual Meeting, Toulouse, 10ththof April, 2012.(Erlangen): Hugo Obermaier-Gesellschaft fr Erforschung des Eiszeitalters, 36. Figure 9. Main passage (Glavni Rov): a caver is standing in front of the main panel with the drawings. Black dots can be seen on the ceiling. The floor was levelled due to cryoturbation and sediment creep from Perkova Pe ina. After the connection was closed, sediment stabilised and tall stick-like stalagmites began to grow. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings158

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CAVES IN THE NEOLITHIC AND EARLY AENEOLITHIC PERIODS FROMTHE NEAR EAST TO CENTRAL EUROPEVladimr Pea Vlastiv dn muzeum a galerie v esk Lp, nm. Osvobozen 297, CZ-470 34 esk Lpa, Czech Republic, Interpretive models of the function and significance of caves in prehistoric society are closely related to developments in the field of archaeology and changes in thinking during the 19thand early 20thcenturies, which in Central and Southeast Europe continues to have a strong influence on these models to this day. Looking at the period from the Neolithic to the Early Aeneolithic, the paper tests the relationship between archaeological finds, caves characteristics, and basic functional models of their use (habitation, pastoralism, cult practices). The most important archaeological sites are associated primarily with dark or semi-dark caves, and for the most part show evidence of cult activities. At the same time, the main phases of cave habitation correspond to periods of significant climatic changes with periods of drought. It would appear that cult activities during these periods of climatic disruption occurred only in traditional societies, whereas caves were not used by cultures that were more advanced from a civilisational viewpoint. From a general cosmological viewpoint, the underworld is part of the nonhuman realm and, like the heavens, is reserved for the gods. As a natural archetype in human society, caves were a space for communicating with the gods and, along with archaeological sites from hilltops, may express a knowledge of the mythological axis mundi as early as during the Neolithic and Aeneolithic.1. An interpretation of caves as a socio-cultural phenomenonFrom the beginning of archaeological excavations in the 19thcentury up to the present day, caves as archaeological sites have most often been interpreted as longeror shorterterm settlements, refuges or shelters for herdsmen; other possible interpretations for caves include cult functions and shelters for social outcasts. I see the beginnings of these notions of the universal functions of caves in two contexts. Until the second half of the 20thcentury there was a predominant interest throughout most of Europe in Palaeolithic history, and an interpretive model of Palaeolithic cave settlement was subsequently applied to post-Mesolithic find situations that were often less distinct or even different. Secondly, at the close of the 19thcentury society in general (including archaeology) viewed caves mainly as a refuge from war or as providing shelter from inclement weather while engaged in agricultural or pastoralFigure 1. A chronological and geographical overview of the use of caves in the region stretching from the Near East to Central Europe, showing the hypothetical waves of the spread of the cave phenomenon (arrows). Cultures with an especially strong relationship to caves are marked in red (Pea 2011). Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings159

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activities away from ones main settlement. Speculations as to the greater importance of cult activities and the symbolism of caves does not appear with greater regularity in the literature until the 1980s, but the image of caves as a place of habitation persists. Using the Neolithic period as an example, the present paper attempts to describe the phenomenon of cave use within the broader chronological context while also providing a functional interpretation of the archaeological evidence in connection with the natural character of caves (Pea 2011).2. Testing the functional models of caves2.1. The Levant and Anatolia The Near East is an important region for the study of caves in many different aspects. At the end of the hunter-gatherer period of the Late Palaeolithic, caves served as more or less seasonal sites that were also used for certain ritual activities. The gradual sedentarization of the people of the Natufian culture added residential objects to cave entrances, with the more important sites probably inhabited for the greater part of the year (Hayonim, Nahal Oren, i.e. Bar-Yosef and Valla eds 1991). In terms of morphology, the preference was clearly for bright, spacious and dry caves (Kebara, Shuqba, Erq el Ahmar, Hilazon Tachtit etc.) or the entrance areas of larger, wetter, and darker karst caves or the terraces in front of them (e.g., Raqefet). A similar trend continues in the PrePottery Neolithic (PPN), for which there is clear evidence of more central settlements of long-term use as well as seasonal (summer) sites. The blossoming of Neolithic culture in the Near East during the PPNB and the emergence of large settlement agglomerations is accompanied by the first evidence of a cave cult (Nahal Hemar, Bar-Yosef and Alon 1988). The Pottery Neolithic can be called a period of transformation of mans relationship to caves. Following the cultural collapse in the southern Levant and the regions partial depopulation at the close of the PPNB, but in Anatolias Neolithic settlement centres this relationship apparently moved towards the ritualization of the underground world, one possible example of which are the anthropomorphic cave speleothems from the shrine in atal Hyk. In the Late Neolithic, interest in dark and wet caves not well disposed for habitation spread to the southern Levant as well, but archaeologically more significant contexts associated with cult activities are not found in this region until during the Chalcolithic. If we accept the frequently proposed connection between climatic events (indicating, at least in local situations, the desiccation of the landscape) and the profound changes in Neolithic civilisation at the end of the PPNB, then the possibility that agricultural society would turn its attention to karst caves with a permanent circulation of underground water that was essentially independent from external fluctuations seems the logical result of the new threat to society and culture. Cave burials can be seen as early as during the Natufian Culture, when we find not only occasional burials in inhabited caves but also the first smaller burial sites separated from the inhabited area. All known burials are pit burials, and were apparently marked on the surface. There is no safe evidence of cave burials during the subsequent Pre-Pottery and Pottery Neolithic, nor is there any mention of other human remains. The situation changed during the Middle Chalcolithic at the latest, when the first caves were transformed into graves i.e. into spaces assigned exclusively for the dead and with the associated cults, with the bodies placed on the surface of caves, either into ossuaries inside underground spaces (Pea 2011, 2011a, with bibliography). 2.2. The Balkans and SE central Europe A similar picture of the transformation in the choice of caves is offered by the central Balkans and the Carpathian Basin from the Late Mesolithic to Early Neolithic. With the emergence of the Star evo-Cri II B culture outside of the Mesolithic region near the Iron Gates on the Danube River, the Neolithic population focused its attention on various types of caves (Petrescu 2010), many of which are not well suited or downright unsuitable for inhabitation. A similar trend can be seen throughout the region during subsequent periods all the way to the Middle Aeneolithic. In addition to a highly variable morphology of cave interiors, we also frequently encounter skewed find sets that, with a few exceptions, lack any evidence of chipped or ground tools being processed on site, or in which food remnants are seriously underrepresented. Only two localities show evidence of features that may be considered residential (Devetashkata, Aggtelek in front of Baradla Cave; Mikov and Dchambazov 1960, Korek 1970). The find contexts and the actual finds indicate that these sites were used intermittently for a long time (at Aggtelek, the Tiszadob group through the Bkk I culture); in my opinion, the evidence points towards a conscious and/or final placement of artefacts, and not towards discarded waste material left behind after the cave was abandoned (Pea 2011).Figure 2. Cave in the mountain, or mountain in the cave? Childrens drawing from an art contest held by the Cave Administration of the Czech Republic (2010). In prehistoric central Europe, we encounter the connection between the underworld (cave) and sky (mountain) during periods of climatic unrest, as demonstrated by archaeological finds from both borderline worlds. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings160

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2.3. Pastoralism Pastoralism has been frequently associated with the use of central European caves since the 19thcentury, but this connection is only rarely based on more specific evidence. By comparison, the caves of the Near East offer abundant materials for study. The oldest known sites (rockshelters) are found in the Pottery Neolithic of the southern Levant (Rosen et al. 2005). In the landscapes of the Near East, rock overhangs and bright caves containing only a limited range of finds related to a mobile way of life and typical layers of ash left over from the burning of dung are to this day associated with a nomadic way of life (e.g., Kuijt and Russell 1993). We find almost no cave localities in Central and Southeast Europe with characteristics similar to those of the Levant. Although we do encounter caves with thick cultural layers and a large amount of pottery in the potential pastoralist landscape of the Romanian Dobruja (Har uche 1976), there is no further evidence except in the microregion surrounding La Adam Cave not to mention the fact that several caves (e.g., Baba, Limanu) are not suitable for providing refuge to livestock. Another presumed pastoralist region in the Neolithic is the karst of Hungary and southern Slovakia, for which based on the study of the regions most important caves, Domica, Baradla and Ardovo there exists a hypothesis (Lichardus 1974) regarding winter cave habitation with stabling for livestock. We might counter that the set of animal bones from Domica and Ardovo Caves consists primarily of game (70 %), meaning that domesticated species including the most common (sheep/goats) strike us as merely supplementary. What is more, none of the many comprehensively explored caves throughout the region yielded layers of ash containing animal dung, which would have indicated the long-term stabling of animals. Also, the model of winter cave habitation and summer pastures in the surrounding countryside does not correspond to the system of transhumance as described for the Near East and Balkans, which by all indications never included dark and wet karst caves. 2.4. Cult and ritual activities In all regions, the aforementioned change in the significance of caves associated with the emergence of the agricultural civilisation of the Pottery Neolithic was expressed primarily in the choice of new types of caves that had not been sought out previously and that were less suitable or entirely unsuited for habitation. It would seem that these sites may have been visited for their specific natural features for instance, cave formations featuring various sinterous formations that often were of an anthropomorphic or zoomorphic nature, underground sources water, or the overall character of dark spaces without any sensory stimuli and thus suitable for meditation or for bringing about altered states of consciousness. Whereas the Neolithic find contexts in Balkan caves are generally nothing special, with the onset of the Aeneolithic they become more distinctive, and there is an increase in the thickness of cultural layers and the number of finds, especially pottery (e.g., Devetashkata, Ho ilor, Romne ti). In archaeological terms, the apparently most significant function of caves is as a place of final probably votive placement of various items, with vessels (empty or not) later clearly predominating (e.g., Kjuljuk in Bulgaria, Meziad in Romania) (Pea 2011 with bibliography). In the karst regions of the western Carpathians, the intensive use of caves spread at the beginning of the Middle Neolithic. The archaeologically significant Domica, Baradla, and Ardovo Caves are part of an active karst system interlaced by underground streams and contain Neolithic finds exclusively in dark portions of the cave far from the entrance. The specific importance of these caves or of the activities performed therein is evidenced by archaeological finds containing a high incidence of anthropomorphic decorations of vessels, as well as the more frequent incidence of decorated ceramic tableware as compared to open air settlements (Kalicz and Makkay 1977, ika 1989, Sojk 2003). In the smaller Bkk Mts. caves, the cultural layers contain human bones related both to occasional burials (Bdspest) as well as to potential ritual activities (Istllsk). In the Moravian Karst, dark caves or caves with decorative cave formations would appear to have been popular for cult activities as well (Ko sk jma, Vpustek).3. Caves as an archetype of nature in human culture?Based on archaeological sources, I can say that for the studied area of the Near East, the Balkans, and the SE part of Central Europe there is clearly more information on various forms of cult activities starting in the Neolithic than the mostly unclear evidence of a habitational, economic, or pastoralist character. Settlement activities or shelters outside of permanent settlement structures are related to the economic and social development of society (i.e. archaeological culture) and can be highly variable on the level of individual human lifetimes. If we take into account the period of the past 400 years, practically every generation has experienced some war or period of unrest, but archaeologically speaking these events have left only very imperceptible traces in caves (Pea 2013). A similar situation can be found in Central Europe and further to the east in relation to modern pastoralism, which has left very different and less conspicuous traces than the majority of important Neolithic cave sites. The conspicuous alternation of periods of intensive use of caves with periods containing no archaeologically documented interest has been repeatedly discussed by researchers (e.g., Matouek 1996), albeit with uncertain or pessimistic conclusions. The alternation of several centuries of hiatus with another several centuries of more or less continuous usage (Fig. 1) tends to indicate global causes that go beyond the specific local problems of society. Should the majority of important Neolithic caves yield evidence of cult or ritual use, then this would mean that periods of interest in caves are related to the religious topics of the era and the long-term needs of communicating with the spiritual realm. Human culture can be threatened by extensive military conflicts or global changes in climate. Both causes have been felt in the past and continue to have a catastrophic impact primarily on a societys economic and Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings161

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more promising. Theories as to the practical importance of such caves as mere sources of water are off target, not to mention the fact that despite their wet character most caves could scarcely suffice as an equivalent source of water. According to the general cosmological division of the world into three planes (the sky and the underworld as the seat of the gods and the earths surface as the realm of people), caves are part of the non-human realm. This is confirmed among other things by cultural anthropologists observations from various parts of the world (e.g., Eliade 1971, Brady and Prufer eds. 2005). The underground, with its typical attributes of permanent darkness and the absence of stimuli, differs significantly from mans natural environment and in the mythologies of non-European nations is inhabited solely by gods or demigods that rule the forces of nature associated in particular with rainfall and harvests. In mythology, the main significance of the underworld is as the potential source of all rivers and streams that spring from the ground, as well as all plants that grow out of it. Similarly, on the basis of ethnoarchaeological analogies, caves contain a multitude of meanings as sacral symbols or as diverse parts of comprehensive ideological systems, and when associated with the vagina or the womb of the earth and fertility, they may represent places of transition between different states of existence (Brady and Prufer eds. 2005, Lewis-Williams 2002). What is more, caves frequent location on mountains or hillsides forms a figurative Cosmic Axis Axis Mundi connecting the underworld with the heavenly realm (Satari 1981, Matouek 1999). This connection may in fact be why caves are ascribed the ability to influence the weather and why people have sought the source of winds in the underground, i.e. in the draughts coming from cave (for Mesoamerica, Brady and Prufer eds. 2005, 21fl; for Central Europe, Pea 2013). Even in the recent past, this vertical view of the world was still a natural, universally valid and respected part of the human awareness of existence (e.g., Eliade 1971). In fact, the concurrent existence of cult activities in caves as well as on hilltops and mountain peaks may represent an archaeologically tangible testament to this Cosmic Axis.4. ConclusionIt strikes me as likely that because they were accessible natural objects from the underground realm of the universal cosmological model of the world, caves represented primarily a place for man to communicate with the relevant deities that according to the various cultures mythologies ruled over the natural elements. Thus, during times of climatic pressure, not only actual sources of underground water but perhaps also most other caves in general became places of worship and cult rituals. Of course, this return to natural values as the result of global events could take place in those cultures and societies that retained at least a partial awareness of man being a part of nature. According to our picture of caves, in most cases this therefore did not include highly developed societies with significant social hierarchies and advanced levels of organization at least not in the studied territory from the Neolithic to the Early Aeneolithic. Also, despite the presumed universality of this interpretation, this does not mean that all caves were agricultural potential. As compared to conflicts, climatic changes are reflected either indirectly through changes in settlement structure and topography, or are increasingly documented and thrown into a clearer light by palaeoclimatological research. The strong correlation between unstable climatic fluctuations of the Sub-Boreal period (i.e. Loek 1998) and an increase in cult practices (not just in caves but also at other natural features) serves to corroborate events from the Late and Final Bronze Age and may offer an explanation for the situation in the Neolithic and Aeneolithic as well (cf. fluctuations between 5200 and 5000 cal BC Gl, Juhsz and Smegi 2005, Gronenborn 2012). In response to the question, If all the cultures from this period were under the same environmental pressures, why didnt they all use caves during this same period? I offer the following hypothesis: Cultural societies express their identity via cultural norms, through which they define their relationship to extra-cultural phenomena which, according culturological definitions, include all that is biological and natural. The stronger a societys socio-cultural sensibilities and the deeper its faith in its mechanisms of cultural development, the lower its need to turn to culturally indefinable and incomprehensible nature and its forces. As is clearly visible from an overview of the cave phenomenon from the Neolithic to the Early Aeneolithic (Pea 2011), the most civilised societies in terms of the most advanced expressions of material culture and social (power) hierarchies i.e. the inhabitants of large settlements, tells or agglomerations show only an imperceptible or often no interest in caves as compared to the agricultural populations of less fertile regions with a lower social and power hierarchy. For these traditional societies, caves may have represented an unchanging archetype of the natural forces that were more than tangible during times of environmental change. Global climate changes with periods of drought affected first and foremost landscapes with a sensitive ecosystem of which karst regions and their caves are a perfect example. As the landscapes economic potential declined, the regions underground with its wet spaces (and, in rare instances, underground streams of water) must have appeared all theFigure 3. The cave as a living being in a mixed-media drawing from an art contest held by the Cave Administration of the Czech Republic (2010). Among the peoples of Mesoamerica or Siberia, the caves personification with the intangible forces of nature is a part of the cultural consciousness to this day, and fragments of this worldview have been preserved in central Europe as well. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings162

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necessarily and unconditionally used merely as places of cult activity or sacrifice. In many cases, specific regional or societal customs or cultural traditions surely played a role as well. Caves as important cult or religious sites fall within the concept of the sacral landscape, whose universality is documented by geographically remoted analogies (Brady and Prufer eds. 2005). Such a concept of the landscape is closer to the traditional view of the Central European landscape of the Middle Ages and the modern era, and was only recently forgotten by modern society.ReferencesBar-Yosef O, Alon D, 1988. Na al emar Cave The Excavations. Atiqot 18, 1. Bar-Yosef O, Valla F eds, 1991. The Natufian Culture in the Levant. Ann Arbor, Internat. Monography in Prehistory Archaeol. Ser. 1. Brady J, Prufer K eds, 2005. In the Maw of the Earth Monster. Mesoamerican Ritual Cave Use. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin. Eliade M, 1971. The Myth of the Eternal Return: Cosmos and History. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton. Gl E, Juhsz I, Smegi P eds, 2005. Environmental archaeology in North-Eastern Hungary. Varia archaeologica hungarica XIX, Budapest. Gronenborn D, 2012. Das Ende von IRD 5b: Abrupte Klimafluktuationen um 5100 den BC und der bergang vom Altzum Mittelneolithikum im westlichen Mitteleuropa. In: Siedlungstruktur und Kulturwandel in der Bandkeramik, AFD Beiheft 25, 241, Dresden. Har uche N, 1976. Unele probleme ale postpaleoliticului n lumina spturilor din pe terile dobrogei. Pontica, 9, 13. Kalicz N, Makkay J, 1977. Die Linienbandkeramik in der Groen ungarischen Tiefebene. Studia archaeologica, VII, Budapest. Korek J, 1970. Eine Freilandsiedlung und Grber der Bkk-Kultur in Aggtelek (Auszug). Archaeologiai rtesit, 97, 3. Kuijt I, Russell K W, 1993. Tur Imdai Rockshelter, Jordan: Debitage Analysis and Historic Bedouin Lithic Technology. Journal of Archaeological Science, 20, 667. Lewis-Williams D, 2002. Mind in the cave. Thames and Hudson Ltd, London. Loek V, 1998. Late Bronze Age environmental collapse in the sandstone areas of northern Bohemia. In: Hnsel N (ed.): Mensch und Umwelt in der Bronzezeit Europas, 57, Kiel. Lichardus J, 1974. Studien zur Bkker Kultur. Saarbrcker Beitrge zu Altertumskunde, 12, Bonn. Matouek V, 1996. Archeologick nlezy z jeskyn eskho krasu 3x jinak (Archaeological finds from the esk kras /Bohemian Karst/ caves three times in a different way). Archeologick rozhledy, 48, 16. Matouek V, 1999. Hora a jeskyn P sp vek ke studiu vvoje vztahu lovka a jeho p rodnho prosted ve stedn Evrop od neolitu do ranho st edov ku (Mountain and Cave: A contribution to the study of the development of the relationship between man and his natural environment in Central Europe from the Neolithic to the Early Middle Age). Archeologick rozhledy, 51, 441. Mikov V, Dchambasov N, 1960. Devetakata petera. Sofija. Pea V, 2011. Mensch und Hhle im Neolithikum. Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Arts, Charles University, Prague. Pea V, 2011a. Jeskyn v neolitu a asnm eneolitu: pohled z P ednho vchodu (Caves in the Neolithic and Early Eneolithic: a view from Near East). Praehistorica, 29, 275. Praha. Pea V, 2013. Der neuzeitliche Mensch in der Hhle: Die Speloanthropologie als archologische Quelle. Pamtky archeologick, 103, in print. Petrescu S M, 2010. The archaeological repertory of the caves in Banat. Timi oara. Rosen S, et al, 2005. Dung in the Desert: Preliminary Results of the Negev Holocene Ecology Project. Current Anthropology, 46(2), 317. Satari S, 1981. Mountains and caves in art: new finds of terracotta miniatures in Kudus, Central Java. Bulletin of the Research Center of Archaeology of Indonesia, No 15, 1. Sojk M, 2007. Osdlenie spiskch jask od praveku po novovek. Archaeologica Slovaca Monographiae Studia X, Nitra. ika S, 1989. Kultra s vchodnou linernou keramikou na Slovensku. Bratislava.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings163

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THE CULTURE OF ANTHROPOGENIC CAVES WITH STONE DOORS INANCIENT ARMENIASamvel M. Shahinyan The Armenian Speleological Centre, Rostom 61, Yerevan, Armenia There are lot of underground constructions in the Armenian Highland, which has not natural tunnel gates, have stone made doors, and in the holes there are from 500 to 3,000 liter capacity pitchers for grain and some vine and oil products in just rock-cut and cave monuments. Those anthropogenic caves are called the caves with stone doors. Almost 100 of them could be found in the foot of mount Aragats. Those caves are considered to be Midvale period constructions, but depend on our observations we could justify that there appeared in 6 thousand years ago.1. IntroductionBased on the large amount of collected scientific material about rock-carved dwellings and anthropogenic caves in Asia Minor and in the Armenian Highland, we can boldly speak about the cave culture. I think we can use the term cave culture since, starting from architectural and engineering specificities up to the daily life and relationships of the cave dwellers have made a unique thinking and culture. The surroundings of Mount Aragats have been repeatedly investigated by archaeologists, architects and naturalists, and since 1982 also by speleologists. The speleological expedition of the Geographic Society of the Armenian SSR Academy of Science in 1982, 1989 and the expedition of the Armenian Speleological Center, since 2002, have implemented voluminous works in this site discovering, studying and classifying rock-cut and cave monuments. Simultaneously, local geological surveys were carried out to provide the geological assessment of the location of the cave structure. Overall, more than 160 rockcut structures and improved and used-by-man caves were discovered in the area from Talin to Ashtarak and then Mount Ara Aragats area. The caves with stone doors are rare rock-cut structures. This type of cave structures have compactly survived only in this area.2. Stone doors and tunnelsThe maximum size of the stone doors of caves in Aragatsotn region is 160 cm 130 cm 42 cm, weighing more than 3 metric tons; the minimum size is 60 cm 40 cm 16 cm. The stone doors are placed both lengthwise and crosswise, depending on the composition of and structure of the rocks in the installation place. Stone doors are placed in frames and work like regular doors. The frame is a plate with comparatively large cutting and made of a partially polished basalt, andesite and in rare cases hard tuff. In one corner of the plate, usually near the already installed stone doors, in the left side (where the entrance is), a funnel-shaped pit was dug up to 50 cm deep and up to 50 cm diameter of edges. In both sides of the stone door there are hewed lugs adjusted to the funnels carved in the stone frame and firmly but still suitably enough to keep the mobility of the well settled door. Figure 1. Image of tunnel from inside the cave. Figure 2. Stone door (secret door) between the two rooms of the cave. Figure 3. Large stone door: the entrance.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings164

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The technology of installation of stone doors prompts that these anthropogenic caves were built based on a plan of general architectural setting. This is evidenced by the sequence of construction process.3. MethodsFirst, the tunnel was dug, and then the stone doors and separate polished pieces constituting the frame were taken in. Inside the cave, while in horizontal state, the plates with funnel-shaped pits were fitted on the lower and upper sections of the door and then placed vertically in the tunnel: Then the side plates of the door frame box were installed, one from each side. Then the door was reinforced with rock pieces, in rare cases using also mortar. In the last phase, the tunnel was laid, and small and large pieces of volcanicfragmented rocks were disorderly filled over the surface section, thus covering up the structure. The lower and the upper sections of the frame of the stone door is polished, smoothed in the size of the segment of the doors movement and ends by a low lug crossing the stone plate in its entire length and limiting that surface, which restricts the doors movement and does not allow to open outwards. The rotation axis is put under slope to the direction of the stone door lugs, which makes the work of the door easier. Even a child can easily shut the door weighing hundreds of kilograms: My son Aren was only 8 when he could open and shut average size stone doors. Inside, the stone doors are locked either by entering edge under the door or by a lock. All doors we have come across or studied are opened only towards the cave so it is impossible to lock from outside. There is a unique example of engineering solution of a lock in Seven-Door Cave, to the north of Kosh village, in the vicinity of medieval St. Stapanos Church. Right on the left section of the frame of the entrance door (looking from inside the cave), three 12 cm deep, 4.5 cm wide and 36 cm long parallel furrows are carved on the basalt plate in 5 cm distance from each other. From the flank of the frame, in the middle of the plates cutting, a vertical penetrating hole is opened that crosses these furrows Figure 4. The lug of the axis of the stone door enters into the round pit on the plate over the arch.through the entire width of the plate. There is a 6 cm deep, 5 cm to 7 cm wide and 13 cm long pit carved towards the hole. After locking the door from inside the cave, a pole made of a hard material (metal, stone, at least hard wood) is inserted into the penetrating hole so that it thrusts into the door pit. The parallel carved furrows play a role of windows, whence the watcher can see and make sure the shutter is well placed. This was how the doors were locked in past times. On most of the stone doors, special pits were made on one or both sides to fix the door handle. As we already mentioned, the funnel-shaped pits carved on the upper and lower plates towards the rotation axis are not necessarily carved only on the plates. We have come across several foundation stones that look square, similar to stone for chopping up grains, which are still used in mountainous villages. Such mortar-like component of the frame with pits intended for the stone door lugs was used only for the lower section of the door; the surface of the upper section plate is smooth. In rare cases one can encounter doors with lugs smoothed only in the lower part. Stone doors processed this way have, as a rule, smaller than average size. These carefully smoothed square or rectangular 18 cm thick basalt doors are disseminated mainly on the slopes and at the foot of Mount Aragats, as well as in quaternary lavas erupted from the volcanic mountains in Lake Sevan basin or in the area of caves located in the contact of consecutive layers. Figure 5. Flooded cave.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings165

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stone doors are built in a way that the doors can be locked only from inside; i.e. when there is nobody inside the cave, it is easy to enter the cave in case when the main stocks of food for the survival of a large group of people were stored there. On the other hand, the possibility of locking the stone doors only from inside directly points out that a person or a large group of people had the opportunity to get isolate themselves from the world for some ritual reasons. And there is not a single structure for defense or any construction detail that would indicate the necessity of confronting the enemy; hence the hypothesis that theft, robbery, fraud and war were alien to the times of stone-door caves. Probably this thinking was characteristic to the natives of the Armenian Highland in 1stndmillennia B.C. and then it became a custom and was preserved until mid 20thcentury. Here are descriptions of a few caves.4. Results and discussionSeven-Door Zagha (the cadastre number 172-9). Located to the north of Kosh village, 0.1 km north of St. Stepanos Church, in the right cliff wall of Vanadzor, approximately 30 m high from the bottom of the ravine. The narrow corridor covered with basalt pieces leads to the hall. You can pass through the tunnel-corridor only if you bent or creep. The tunnel is laid with whole rectangular basalt plates with removed sharp lugs on the surface. Along both sides of the corridor, the vertical 10 cm thick basalt plates laid without mortar are arched by similar plates that provide the ceiling of the tunnel. The engineering concept of the tunnel resembles a megalithic structure. Although the local people call this cave a Seven-Door Zagha, it has only A large number of caves with stone door, about 60, have survived in the areas of Kosh-Avan and Sasunik-Ujan; there are another two, still used, caves with large doors in Talin region and a few doors and ten door frames on the volcanic mountain slopes in the south and south-east of Gegharqunik marz. All these have been processed by the same principle and mainly for the same purpose to lock the tunnel and cave entrances. We came across the remains of the only ignimbrite tuffmade smoothed door in the vicinity of Karmrashen; however, I dont think this can be a pattern. The caves with Figure 8. The doors lug fitted in the pit of the cover. Figure 9. Probably wooden handle was fitted into the pit made on the outside surface of the door. Figure 6. The stone doors are locked from inside with a lock. The lock can be made of a stone or wooden beam which passes through the rigid stone and enters deep into the pit over the door. Figure 7. The lock and the pit over the door into which the catch of the lockenters.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings166

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Figure 11. Plan and section of cave; cadastre #172-9.two doors, one directly at the entrance and the other at the hall entrance. The doors is likely working, however the dust, soil and sand accumulated during many years covered the doors foundation with a 20 cm layer thus making the door nonoperational. The door was still working at least in 1987 when we were studying and measuring the cave. The frame of the stone door of the hall has three lengthwise hollows with another transverse hollow crossing these three. The transverse hollow is made on the surface that longwise fits in the door frame. Most likely, transverse hollow has been made to run the shutter, while the longwise crackhollows played the role of windows to see how the shutter moved. The doors, like in all other caves, open inward. On the north-east wall of the cave, a clay canal opens 2.5 m above the ground. The diameter of the mouth of the pipe is 23 cm. How the canal conveyed water to the cave through the thick basalt layer with 15 m cutting is something still to be find out. The assumption could be that the pipe way was a natural hydrodynamic tunnel, and the ancient builders, after laying the clay pipe through the tunnel, have skilfully veiled the tunnel with some constructional trick still unknown to us. The walls of the cave are laid with large pieces of basalt reinforced by lime mortar. In the southern and south-western part of the cave, under the wall, there are casks on two platforms for keeping fluid (probably vegetable oil or wine) and for dry food (grains). The first platform is 15 cm above the bottom of the cave; and 4 cask mouths open here, while in the second platform, 120 cm higher than the first one, 6 cask mouths open. The small cavity located at 6m depth from the tunnel entrance was perhaps another storage place. The cave is one of the favorite places for the village children; they are frequent guests here. They often make fire, however the smoke immediately flows out through the cracks in the basalt cover. Bkoyi Gegh Seven-Door Cave (the cadastre number 172-9). This cave is located in the right cliff wall of the Bkoi DzorFigure 10. Plan and section of cave; cadastre #172-6. ravine, 20 meters above the ravines bed, 1 km to the northwest of Ujan village, 100 meters to the north of cave. It is possible that the cave has received its name due to the number of its doors in the past. The tunnel-passage leading to the cave is hardly passable; two nearly equal size doors are placed here, both can be easily opened and shut. Here, like in all caves with stone doors, the doors are locked from inside. The artificially laid part of the tunnel is totally collapsed, and most likely the remaining 5 doors were left under the landfall, as the local folklore says. The entrance of the tunnel is narrow and hardly passable. The narrow passage leads to the first door; opening this door you move on to the second door either creeping or half-sitting. Opening the second door, you appear in the cave hall. The distance from the entrance to the 1stdoor is 3 meters, and from the 1stdoor to the 2nddoor 2.5 meters. The hall is misshapen, the bottom is flat, and the ceiling is 2.4 meters high. There are cask-like pits in the corners of the cave, which are intended only for storage of grain food. There are no fired clay casks. There is an opinion that the cave was of ritual importance.AcknowledgmentsThe stone-door caves are rare architectural, engineering and cultural monuments of the past that are now exposed to the danger of demolition. These caves are part of not only Armenian culture but also part of the culture of the IndoEuropean peoples in general. With the loss of these caves we will lose yet another possibility of seeing the past alive. Saving these caves must be the point of concern for all of us. Figure 12. Pit for liquidfoods.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings167

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ReferencesShahinyan MS, 2012. About one peculiarity of rehabilitation of ancient sacred structures of peoples of Indo-European family and medieval Armenian churches. 4th International Conference CPAC. Chestokovo, Poland. 707. Shahinyan MS, 2008. Global changes of environment and the great migration of people from Asia Minor at the end of the Quaternary period.WAC-6 World Archeological Congress, Dublin, 300. Shahinian MS, 2005. The Caves of Armenia, V.1. Zangak, Yerevan. 172 (Arm. Version). Shahinyan MS, 1989. The Xenophon dwellings and their analogues in basin of Lake Sevan. UIS 10 congress, Budapest. 446. Shahinyan MS, 1989. Cave dwellings with stone doors. UIS 10 congress, Budapest, 440. Shahinyan S, 2003. Caves in the process of Armenian peoples mental and culture development, Ejmiatsin, N 5, Ejmiatsin, 55. Figure 13. Clay pipe of canal opening in the cave.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings168

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LEVANTINE CAVE DWELLERS: GEOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF EARLY HUMANS USE OF CAVES, CASE STUDY FROM WADI AMUD, NORTHERN ISRAELMicka Ullman1, Erella Hovers1, Naama Goren-Inbar1, Amos Frumkin2 1Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem,, Department, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel The human use of caves has its origins as far back as million years ago, when early humans began to use them as seasonal camp sites. At about 500,000 Ka the use of caves by these small groups of hunter-gatherers became a widespread phenomenon in Africa and Eurasia. In Israel alone (at an area of 8,800 km2) there are about 40 prehistoric caves, dated between 500,000 and 50,000 Ka. Because the number of caves on the landscape is much higher than the number of caves used by our ancestors, we assume that the preference of particular caves within a groups geographic territory involved a system of decision-making based on selection criteria. We attempted to identify these criteria in the Amud catchment, where four well-known Paleolithic caves are located. The study included a systematic pedestrian survey of the canyon, detailed documentation of the physical properties and locational characteristics of the caves, and analysis for pattern recognition with GIS and statistical methods (at an area of 2.6 km2). One hundred and twenty caves and rock shelters were located, studied and mapped. By comparing the characteristics of caves that were uninhabited with those of the four known Paleolithic sites we constructed a model of the preferable cave. Paleolithic hominins selected large caves, consisting of one large central hall, with large entrance that allowed good ventilation and natural day light. Preferable caves were rather hidden and protected in the lower part of the canyon and could be approached easily from the streambed or lower slopes. Finally, prehistoric caves in the Amud canyon are located next to the stream outlet (rather than at the center of the hilly region), where a large number of habitats could be reached on a daily basis.1. IntroductionAt the dawn of mankind, different types of hominins (early humans) evolved at the African savanna. A set of preconditions have led at least one of them to develop culture and technology. The earliest stone tools are dated 2.6 Ma years ago, at Gona, East Africa (Semaw et al. 2003). The earliest firm evidence to controlled use of fire is 780,000 ka years old, at Gesher Benot Yaaqov site, Israel (Alperson-Afil and Goren-Inbar 2010). Technological and cultural innovations accumulated, allowing early humans to occupy a growing variety of ecological habitats and resulted in the geographic expansion of Homo erectus outside Africa. The strategy of using caves as temporal shelters might be considered as one of these innovations. The advantages of cave occupation may have played a significant role in colonizing of cooler climate zones out of Africa. The prehistoric site at Wonderwerk Cave (South Africa), with an arguable date of 1.58 Ma (Chazan et al. 2012), may be the earliest recorded cave occupation, but it is followed by a long gap in cave habitation by hominins. Other, more firmly dated cave site is Sima del Elefante (Spain) ~1.3 Ma (Martinn-Torres et al. 2011). Then, from about ~600,000 Ka and through the Late Lower Paleolithic (LP) and the whole Middle Paleolithic (MP), occupation of caves by humans became a widespread phenomenon with hundreds of cave sites at Africa and Eurasia (Neuville 1951; Lubin 1997; Rink et al. 2003; McNabb and Sinclair 2009; Lombard 2012). Prehistoric research in Israel began during the 1920s with the work of pioneer archaeologists Turville-Petre (excavation in Zuttiyeh Cave, 1925), Garrod (excavation at Shukbah Cave, 1928), Neuville (excavation at the Judean desert and Qafzeh Caves, 1928) and others (See summary in Hovers 2009). Currently, the PL and MP record of Israel and the southern Levant is relatively rich in excavated cave sites. Some 30 of them are known from the Mediterranean climatic zone, especially from Mt. Carmel and Wadi Amud. Additional 10 are known from the western fringes of the Judean Desert, mainly in Wadi Haritun and at Upper Wadi Arugot (Neuville 1951) (Fig. 1). Some caves have a long sequence of layers (e.g., Tabun Cave in Wadi Mearot and HaYonim Cave in the Western Galilee, with finds from the LP through the MP [Garrod and Bate 1937; Jelinek 1982; Stiner 2005]). Other caves have a shorter occupation sequence (e.g., Amud Cave, dated to late MP ~70,000,000 Ka [Hovers et al. 2011; Valladas et al. 1999]). In some cases, occupied caves are clustered geographically (e.g., Wadi Mearot, Wadi Amud, and Wadi Haritun). Yet, not all the caves in these cave-rich areas were occupied. Moreover, some catchments with large caves in them seem to be devoid of prehistoric cave occupations. The repeated occupation of specific caves over thousands to tens of thousands of years therefore points to underlying processes of selection from an existing inventory of available caves and rock shelters, based on a combination of decision criteria. The pull and push of hominin groups to specific places depends on physical traits of the landscape as well as social considerations (e.g., Jochim 1976). The type of study reported here is informative about the former type of decision criteria, as it stands to reveals regularities in cave locations relative to landscape features. But it can also point to some social considerations. Our purpose in this study was to create a model of early humans decision-making system Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings169

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regarding the selection of caves for occupation by hominin groups. Towards this end, we collected geological and speleological data regarding caves and their nearby landscapes. Characterizing both Paleolithic caves and empty caves at a selected research area, in this case Wadi Amud enabled us to discerning some features that are shared by Paleolithic caves which likely played a role in early humans decision-making process. The use of a cave as a seasonal occupation site offered several advantages, such as protection from the elements: rain, wind, direct sun light, some isolation from cold temperatures, as well as a confined space easier to protect from predators. The typical archaeological finds in cave sites dated to the LP and MP consist of the remains of stone knapping and stone use and faunal remains. Plant remains are less common. From the late LP (ca. 400 Ka), combustion materials and remains of fireplaces become typical feature of cave occupations. Hearths were used among other possible purposes for food processing and probably for heating and lightning, and perhaps also for protection from predators. Such finds, and their massive accumulation in many of the prehistoric caves, indicate that the localities were used repeatedly as habitation sites by groups of prehistoric hunter-gatherers. Combined with nonanthropogenic sediment accumulation, this has led in some instances to the accumulation of deep stratigraphic sequences reaching several meters.2. Geography and geologyThe majority of caves in Israel (among them the caves that contain prehistoric occupations) are karstic chamber cavesFigure 1.Map of Israel with important LP and MP cave sites. The research area is marked with black frame. that formed up to tens of millions years ago in calcareous lithology (limestone or dolomite) as phreatic hypogenic voids. Incision of streams, associated with tectonic uplift of the central mountain range of Israel, as part of a regional uplift truncated and exposed those karstic caves (Frumkin and Fischhendler 2005). As a result they became accessible to hominins inhabiting the landscape. Wadi Amud drains an area of 124 km2of the Upper Galilee. The channel drops some 1,400 m from an elevation of 1,200m above msl at its origins at Mt. Meron, to 200 m below msl at its outlet, at the Sea of Galilee, over an aerial distance of 15 km. The climate at lower Wadi Amud is Mediterranean semi-arid, with 450 mm annual rainfall (Hovers 2004). The direction of the flow and the configuration of the channel are a phenomenon of the last ~2 myr, and were formed as a result of channel capture due to tectonic activity in the Rift Valley (Kafri and Heimann 1994). The geographical structure of the middle and lower part of the stream consists of two geological formations (Timrat and Bar-Kokhba Fms.) of Eocene limestone (Bogoch and Sneh 2008). The Bar-Kokhba Fm. forms cliffs and canyon morphology, while the underlying Timrat Fm. appears as moderate slopes. The meteoric water draining eastward over the steep gradient incised a deep canyon through the hard limestone, exposing a large number of karstic voids (Fig. 2). Our project focuses on this section of Wadi Amud (Fig. 1), where four prehistoric cave sites are located (see below). From an elevation of 20 m above msl, to the stream base level at the Sea of Galilee 200 m below m.s.l.Figure 2.General view of Wadi Amud canyon (looking south).3. MethodsIn order to explore the use patterns of caves by prehistoric people at Wadi Amud we first had to gain detailed data about the number, morphology, location and contents of the caves and rock shelters in the study area. Filed work was conducted as follows: a) Defining the survey areas: Wadi Amud drainage system was selected because it has four known Paleolithic cave sites located at the same canyon, less than 2 km from one another (from north to south: Shovakh, Amud, Zuttiyeh and Emireh caves). b) Survey of both walls of the wadi, using topographic maps (1:50,000) and panoramic photographs: Every cave Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings170

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larger that 2 2 m, and every rock shelter that could provide some protection from the elements, were mapped. The panoramic photographs facilitated locating cave entrances, which sometimes were hardly observed by foot. A systematic field survey of the slopes at different elevations allowed us to locate hidden cave openings as well as remains of eroded caves. c) Description of the characteristics of each cave or rockshelter, including : 1) Determining its location by 12 digit GPS coordinates (ITM coordinate system); 2) Morphological description with planar and vertical standard cave mapping (Grade 5B), (Dasher 1994); measurements were done by Leica Disto D3 laser meter-inclinometer and Silva Ranger 3 prismatic compass; 3) Determination of prehistoric human presence by archaeological observation; 4) Documentation of a variety of traits/features such as evidence of roof collapse, speleothems, breccias, etc. d) Creating a computerized database : Data was processed in an ACCESS data base, to enable sorting and comparing the different parameters. e) Spatial and statistical analysis of the data .4. ResultsIn total, an area of 2.6 km2was surveyed along ~6 km of Wadi Amud canyon. One hundred and twenty caves and rock shelters were located and mapped (Fig. 3). Most are phreatic voids that developed along tectonic fissures. Ninety percent of the caves and rock shelters are within the massive limestone cliffs of Bar Kokhba Fm, while less than ten percent are within the well-bedded limestone slopes of Timrat Fm. The latter caves are also much smaller. 4.1. Prehistoric sites Four Paleolithic cave sites had been known in Wadi Amud prior to the current study (Turville-petre 1927, Binford 1966, Gisis and Bar-Yosef 1974, Valladas 1999, Hovers et al. 2011) (see Table 1). An additional cave (AmE-15) was found during the survey. This cave contains anthropogenic breccia inclusive of flint artifacts, bones and what appears to be charcoal. Similar breccias are described at many Paleolithic cave sites in the Levant (e.g., Zuttiyeh, Tabun, Qafzeh caves) and we therefore deduced that the artifacts in the breccia of AmE-15 reflect Paleolithic human activity in the cave. Some other caves yielded considerable amount of flint artifacts and bones of large mammals, but with the absent of any fossil directeur we could not determine the time of the human activity there. 4.2. Cave types We distinguish between caves and rock shelters: The shape and dimensions of a cave forms a confined void, in which the conditions differ from those of the surrounding environment. The morphology of a rock shelter offers only some protection from the elements, and is considerably more exposed than a cave. We sorted both types according to their dimensions (Tab. 2). The size category refers to the main hall of the cave/rock shelter. Beside those, other three types of caves were found at the research area during the survey: Phreatic passages (narrow and long passages with phreatic morphology, such as oval cross section); Maze caves (having a network of chambers and passages along tectonic fissures); Tectonic fissures (have elongated shape and straight parallel walls along fractures or tectonic faults, but did not develop to wide passages) (Tab. 2). 4.3. Cave approach The approach difficulty level was assessed on the basis of two parameters: 1. Slope inclination (minor/moderate/ steep/nearly vertical). 2. Time required to approach the cave from the nearest topographically comfortable area (e.g., streambed or the plateau above stream) while carrying 10 kg load. A short time approach is considered as a walk of up to 5 minutes. Medium time approach takes 5 to 15 minutes and long approach is of more than 15 minutes walk. An easy approach is when the slope is minor or moderate and walk takes up to 5 minutes. A medium approach is when the slope is moderate and walking time is medium. A difficult approach is when slope is moderate and walking time is long or when slope is steep and no matter how long the walk is; dangerous approach is when the slope is almost vertical or vertical in a manner that requires the aid of belay equipment or rock-climbing skills. Table 3 shows the distribution of assessed approach difficulty regarding to each cave type.5. Discussion5.1. Cave dimensions The first notable characteristic of the prehistoric caves at Wadi Amud is their relatively large dimensions. Shovakh, Figure 3. Caves, rock shelters and prehistoric caves at Wadi Amud (N =120).Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings171

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Table 1. Periods of prehistoric occupations at Wadi Amud caves. Shovakh CaveAmud CaveZuttiyeh CaveEmireh Complex UP Transition MP-UP++ Late MP++ Middle MP Early MP + Late LP + LP = Lower Paleolithic 1.4 Ma/250 Ka, MP = Middle Paleolithic 300/250/47 Ka, UP = Upper Paleolithic 50/47 Ka (Levant chronology). Table 2. Distribution of caves and rock shelters according to their dimensions and type. Cave typeLength (m.)Width (m.)N% Large chamber caves X 15 X 15 7 5.8 Medium chamber caves 8 X <15 8 X < 15 12 10 Small chamber caves 2 X <8 2 X < 8 37 30.8 Large rock shelters 2 XX 15 9 7.5 Medium rock shelters 2 X8 X < 15 12 10 Small rock shelters 2 X2 X < 8 35 29.2 Phreatic passages 3 2.5 Tectonic fissures 3 2.5 Maze caves 2 1.7 Total 120 100% Table 3. Distribution of estimated approach difficulty according to cave types. Easy Medium Difficult Dangerous Large chamber caves 3 3 1 0 Medium chamber caves 4 5 3 0 Small chamber caves 11 21 2 3 Large rock shelters 0 5 3 1 Medium rock shelters 4 6 2 0 Small rock shelters 9 21 4 1 Phreatic passages 0 3 0 0 Tectonic fissures 1 1 1 0 Maze caves 1 1 0 0 Amud and Zuttiyeh are among the largest caves in the research area (Fig. 4). AmE-15 is a medium sized cave. The Emireh complex consists of a small cave, a small rock shelter and a medium size rock shelter. However, in this site the bulk of prehistoric sediments was found at the foot of the cave and rock shelters and was not restricted to the confined space, unlike the other prehistoric caves. Therefore it is possible that when early humans choose to use Emireh complex their main consideration wasnt derived by a need for a very efficient shelter, and the site was chosen for other reasons (see below). The selection of large caves might indicate that they were occupied by a band of few tens of individuals, rather than by nuclear families of ~3 or ~4 individuals (for suggested band sizes see Layton et al. 2012). 5.2. Cave morphology The mutual characteristics for caves with Paleolithic presence in Wadi Amud are that they have a large spacious main hall and that this hall is well ventilated and illuminated or semi illuminated by natural day-light, having wide and tall entrances. Some other caves in the research area are few tens of meters long, with some medium size halls, but have narrow entrances, and the halls are dark. These caves show no presence of Paleolithic finds, although they are very often rich with proto-historical and historical archaeology. 5.3. Cave approach All the prehistoric cave sites at Wadi Amud are much easier to approach from the gorge below, then from the plateau above. All approaches require some walk up hill but it is a rather short and moderate climb (Tab. 4). Taking into account that 50,000 Ka the bed of Amud Canyon was some 6 m higher than it is today (Inbar and Hovers 1999) the approach to Emireh, Zuttiyeh, Shovakh and AmE-15 caves was even easier than it is today. Actually, in Wadi Amud, all large caves that are easy to approach were occupied at Paleolithic times. Amud Cave is different: it is not located very high (only 35 m up the slope), but requires some scrambling up an almost vertical rock face. Climb is not dangerous but it is a bit physically demanding. Inbar and Hovers (1999) have suggested that during the MP occupation of Amud Cave, the approach was even harder than it is today, as the soft sediments of the cave floor extended 10 m to the east and created a slope steeper than today (Inbar and Hovers 1999). Therefore Amud Cave stands out, as none of the other LP or MP cave in Israel is difficult or dangerous to access. The relatively easy approach to the LP/MP caves is consistent with the assumption that those caves used for habitation, and were populated by human groups assembled of men, women, infants and elderly. The other relatively large caves at Wadi Amud (AmE-8, AmE-10, AmE-11) are located much higher in the slope and seem to be devoid of Paleolithic presence. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral2013 ICS Proceedings172

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They are not so difficult to access, but the climb is more time consuming (Tab. 4). It is possible that the long climb required have ruled them out for a Paleolithic use. Regarding Amud Cave, we can suggest two possibilities: firs, it is possible that the steep but short climb to the cave offered an excellent protection from predators and invasion of other unwanted animals. It was pointed out that the cave is remarkably poor with evidence of presence of hyenas (Inbar and Hovers 1999). Second, the cave may have been chosen due to cultural reasons: few meters to the north of its entrance there is an impressive natural stone pillar, about 20 m Tall. This pillar stands out dramatically at the view, and gave the wadi its modern name (The Wadi of the pillar = Wadi Amud, Hebrew). 5.4. Cave location and landscape control It has been suggested that site location of hunter-gatherers in the landscape takes into account a strategic viewpoint, which gives an advantage regarding the visibility of food resources (Jochim 1976). The view from Shovakh, Amud, Zuttiyeh and AmE-15 Caves is quite limited and offers no major control of the landscape. The view observed is that of the opposite canyon wall, with hardly any view of the stream bed and no sight of the plateaus and hills above the canyon. Emireh complex is located differently, at the margin of the Ginosar Valley, and has a wide view of the valley, the surrounding hills and lake. We suggest that the selection of Emireh as a habitation site potentially has more to do with control and accessibility to food resources than with providing shelter. 5.5. Cave location and variety of habitats All prehistoric cave sites in Wadi Amud are within the distance of 5 km walk from the fertile Ginosar valley. Although this research focuses on the middle and lower sections of Wadi Amud, it is known (at least until now) that there are no Paleolithic cave sites in the mountainous Upper Galilee. It is possible that hominins looked for caves that were located at the openings of Wadis, since this localities are ecotones, where both hilly/mountainous and valley habitats can be approached on a daily basis. The same notion applies to all of the Paleolithic cave sites of the Carmel Mountain.6. ConclusionsThe Wadi Amud project is just the first step in a comprehensive research that will relate to the phenomena of cave habitation during the end of the Lower Paleolithic and the Middle Paleolithic in the Levant. At this stage we can suggest the following as significant characteristics of the Paleolithic caves sites, and what we assume represents the preferences of early humans regarding to cave-site selection: 1) Large-medium caves (but not rock shelters). 2) A cave with morphology of one main hall, which has a large entrance. That hall is well ventilated and well illuminated. 3) A cave that is relatively easy to approach. 4) Approach to the cave is based on movement through the streambed or lower slopes. 5) The cave is located within a distance of daily walk from a large valley and large body of water. The use of large caves which are relatively easy to access, along with the typical archaeological finds in those caves, support the hypothesis that each cave was used by a band of several tens of hominins. The cave selection was with preference for proximity to divers habitats, from where a verity of food resources and raw materials were brought to the cave and there they were processed and consumed. Our future research will aim at characterizing all LP and MP cave sites in the Mediterranean climate zone of Israel, in order to get a better understanding of Paleolithic human decision-making patterns regarding cave selection and cave use. Table 4. Caves accessibility. Cave Vertical distance from streambed (m)Estimated approach difficultyPaleolithic presence Emireh 10 Easy Yes Shovakh 15 Easy Yes Zuttiyeh 20 Easy Yes AmE-15 30 Easy Possibly yes Amud 35 Difficult Yes AmE-8 120 Medium Was not observed during survey AmE-10 100 Medium Was not observed during survey AmE-11 100 Medium Was not observed during survey Figure 4. Width and length dimensions of caves and rorck shelters at Wadi Amud (N=120). Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings173

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AcknowledgmentsWe thank the Amiran Foundation for sponsoring the Wadi Amud cave survey project. Thanks are also due to the Israel Nature and Park Authority for allowing the survey at the Amud National Park. The following individuals were most helpful in the fieldwork: Boaz Langford, Uri Davidovich, Yonaton Goldsmith, Nadav Nir, Itay Abady, Roi Tsabar, Netanel Paz, Shiri Eshar, Gadi Herzlinger and Shemesh Yaaran. Vladimir Boslov and Yenon Shivtiel from the Israel Cave Research Unit are thanked for their support. We thank Yonaton Goldsmith and Ido Vechtel for their help with the GIS software and illustrations. Thanks to Ariel Buler-Malinsky and Ravid Ekshtain for their advise at the lab. Thans to Yuli Gekht for creating the ACCESS database.ReferencesAlperson-Afil N, Goren-Inbar N, 2012. The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Yaaqov: Volume II Ancient flames and controlled use of fire. Springer, Dordrecht, London. Binford SR, 1966. Mearat shovakh (Mugaharat esh-Shubbabiq). Israel Exploration Journal, 16, 18, 96. Bogosh R, Sneh A, 2008. Geological map of Israel 1:50,000 Arbel sheet 4-1, State of Israel, Ministry of National Infrastructurs, Geological survey, Jerusalem. Chazan M, Avery MD, Bamford KM, Berna F, Brink J, FernandezJalvo Y, Goldberg P, Holt S, Matmon A, Porat N, Ron H, Rossouw L, Scott L, Kolska-Horowitz L, 2012. The Oldowan horizon in Wonderwerk Cave (South Africa): archaeological, geological, paleontological and paleoclimatic evidence. Journal of Human Evolution, 08.008 Dasher RG, 1994. On-Station A Complete handbook for surveying and mapping caves. National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama, USA. Frumkin A, Fischhendler I, 2005. Morphometry and distribution of isolated caves as a guide for phreatic and confined paleohydrological conditions. Geomorphology, 67, 457. Garrod DAE, and Bate DMA, 1937. The Stone Age of Mount Carmel I. Clarendon press, Oxford. Gisis I, Bar-Yosef O, 1974. New excavations in Zuttiye Cave, Wadi Amud, Israel. Paleorinte, 2, 175. Hovers E, 2004. Cultural ecology and the Neandertal site of Amud Cave. Reprinted from: Arkheologiya i paleoekologiya Evrasii (Archaeology and paleoecology of Eurasia). Papers in Honor of Vadim Ranov. Derevianko AP and Nokhrina TI (eds.). Novosibirsk: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS Press. Hovers E, 2009. The lithic assemblages of Qafzeh Cave. Oxford. Hovers E, Malinsty-Buller A, Goder-Goldberg M, Ekshtain R, 2011. Capturing a moment: identifying short-lived activity locations in Amud Cave, Israel. In: Tensorer JM, Jagher R and Otte M (eds.). The Lower and Middle Paleolithic in the Middleast and neighboring regions. Basel Symposium (May 2008), 10114. Inbar M, Hovers E, 1999. The evolution of Lower Wadi Amud during the Late Pleistocene. Horizons in Geography, 50, Haifa University, 27, (Hebrew). Jelinek A, 1982. The Tabun Cave and Paleolithic Man in Soutehrn Levant. Science, 216. 1369. Jochim MP, 1976. Hunter-gatherer subsistence and settlement a predictive model. Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, London. Kafri U, Heinman A, 1994. Reversal of the palaeodrainage system in the Sea of Galilee area as an indicator of the formation timing of the Dead Sea Rift Valley base level in northern Israel. Paleogeography, paleoclimatology, paleaoecology, 109, 101. Layton R, OHara S, Bilsborought A, 2012. Antiquity and social functions of multilevel social organization among human hunter-gatherers. Int J Primatol, 33,1215, DOI 10.1007/s10764-012-9634-z Lombard M, 2012. Thinking through the Middle Stone Age of Sub-Sahara Africa. Quaternary International, doi:10.1016/ j.quaint.2012.02.033. Lubin VP, 1997. Human use of caves in the Caucasus. In: Bonsal C and Tolan-Smith C (eds.). The human use of caves. BAR series 667, Oxford, 144. Martinn-Torres M, Martin-Frances L, Grada A, Olejiniczak A, Prado-Simon L, Gomez-Robles A, Lapresa M, Carbonell E, Arsuaga JL, Bermudez de Castro JM, 2011. Early Pleistocene human mandible from Sima del Elefante (TE) cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain): a palaeopathological study. Journal of Human Evolution, 61(1), j.jhevol.2011.01.004 McNaab J, Sinclair A, 2009. The Cave of Hearths: Makapan Middle Pleistocene research project. University of Southampton. Neuville R, 1951. Le Paleolithque et le Mesolithque du Desert de Judee. Paris. Rink WJ, Schwartz HP, Ronen A, Tsatskin A, 2003. Confirmation of a near 400 Ka age for the Yabrudian industry at Tabun Cave, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31,15. Semaw S, Rogers JM, Quade J, Butler RF, Dominguez-Rodrigo M, Stout D, Hart S. W, Pickering T, Simpson WS, 2003. A 2.6 million-years-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Evolution 45(2), 169. Stiner CM, 2005. The faunas of HaYonim Cave (Israel): A 200,000-year record of Paleolithic diet, demography, and society. Cambridge. Turville-Petre F, 1927. Researches in prehistoric Galilee, 1925: a report on the Galilee skull. London, the British school of archaeology in Jerusalem. Valladas H, Mercier N, Froget L, Hovers E, Joron J-L, Kimbel WH, Rak Y, 1999. TL Dates from the Neanderthal site of Amud Cave, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science, 26(3), 259.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves oral 2013 ICS Proceedings174

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RECONSTRUCTION OF THE CHATYRDAG PLATEAU (CRIMEAN PENINSULA) ENVIRONMENT DURING THE LAST 40,000 YEARS BASED ON STABLE ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF RED DEER BONE COLLAGENMicha Gsiorowski1, Helena Hercman1, Bogdan Ridush2,3, Krzysztof Stefaniak4 1Institute of Geological Sciences PAS, Twarda 51/55, PL-00818, Warszawa, Poland, mgasior@twarda.pan.pl2Department of Physical Geography and Natural Management, Geographical Faculty, ChernivtsiYuriyFedkovych National University, Kotsubynskogo 2, 58012 Chernivtsi, Ukraine3Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology, 4 Prospect Vernadskogo, Simferopol 95007, Ukraine4Department of Palaeozoology, Zoological Institute, University of Wroc aw, Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335 Wroc aw, Poland The Crimean Peninsula is an extraordinary region located on the border, between Europe and Asia. Because its location, the region was important refuge for migratory animals during entire Pleistocene. One of the most important species of great herbivores in the Crimean region is red deer ( Cervus elaphus). Its remains are represented in great number from several cave sites, including Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave (Ridush et al. 2012). Recent genetic studies on samples from that cave suggested presence of two group Western (European) and Eastern (Asian) red deer in different periods of the Pleistocene (Stankovic et al. 2011). However, the reasons of domination of Western or Eastern red deer is still not know.The answer might be the changes in climate and environment conditions during the last 40,000 years. For recognize these changes we studied isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen of collagen from red deer bones deposited in EmineBair-Khosar trap cave. Some of remains were dated with radiocarbon and Uranium-Thorium dating methods for time control in the sediment sequence. On the beginning of our record, we found high values of 15Ncoll, suggesting relatively high soil activity and indirectly high temperature. The high 15N concentrations were correlated with high 13Ccollvalues. Hence, we think that this part of sequence was deposited during relatively warm and dry period (OIS 3) and that steppe was dominant vegetation type at that time. After that, 15Ncollvalue decreased significantly and 13Ccollremain on similar level than before. This strong decrease in soil activity suggests climate deterioration and tundra development during Last Glacial Maximum. After LGM, 13Ccolldecline to the minimum value -17.5 and 15Ncollsignificantly increased reflecting mild climate condition and extend of forest nearby the cave.AcknowledgmentsThis study was supported by NCN grant no N N307 638140, and IGS PAS internal project Krym.ReferencesRidush B, Stefaniak K, Socha P, Proskurnyak Y, Marciszak A, Vremire M, Nadachowski A, 2012. Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave in the Crimea, a huge bone accumulation of Late Pleistocene fauna. Quaternary International, in press. Stankowic A, Doan K, Mackiewicz P, Ridush B, Baca M, Gromadka R, Socha P, Weglenski P, Nadachowski A, Stefaniak K, 2011. First ancient DNA sequences of the Late Pleistocene red deer (Cervus elaphus) from the Crimea, Ukraine. Quaternary International245, 262.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings175

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A GALLERY OF LATE MEDIEVAL AND MODERN PAINTINGS AND INSCRIPTIONS IN NA PI KU CAVE, SILESIA, CZECH REPUBLICPetr Jen1, Vladimr Pea1, ubomr Turan2, Dominika Machaov3, Martin Barus4 1Vlastiv dn muzeum a galerie v esk Lp, nm. Osvobozen 297, CZ-470 34 esk Lpa, Czech Republic, petrjenc@centrum.cz2Severoesk galerie vtvarnho um n v Litomicch, Michalsk 7, CZ-412 01 Litom ice3Dominika Machaov, Moravsk 37, CZ-120 00 Praha 24Biskupstv Litom ick, Dmsk nmst 1, CZ-412-88 Litomice Na piku Cave, located in the Jesenk Karst, is the only publicly accessible cave in the Czech Republic to contain a unique gallery of ca. 4,000 historical inscriptions and symbols from the Middle Ages to the middle of the 20thcentury. The caves first written mention is from the 15thcentury. This period also coincides at least partially with the oldest horizon of features in the cave petroglyphs of a globus cruciger or a jousting shield with a stylized tableau apparently depicting Adam and Eve beneath the Tree of Knowledge (1519), paintings of the sun and a crescent moon (15thand 16th-century) and the Adoration of the Cross with Jesus Christ and the portraits of patrons representing secular and churchly power (most probably the 1530ss). An analysis of red pigments from the 16thand 17th-century features shows the use of special pigments. The historical context offers a connection, over the course of the 16thcentury, between the cave and intensive mining on the surrounding noble or bishops estates. The caves surroundings were apparently an important site of mining, and the mines ownership (i.e. an indication of who held mining rights) may have been legitimized using wall paintings that were comprehensible to anyone. The prospecting horizon ends with the onset of the Thirty Years War, as reflected in a significant decline in the number of dated inscriptions and archaeological finds. The cave was practically forgotten until the early 19thcentury. The greatest number of inscriptions comes from the time after the cave opened to the public in the 1880s.1. IntroductionNa pi ku Cave is a karst system situated in Devonian crystalline limestone (marble) formed by surface water at an elevation of around 439 m. The passages unusual shapes are the result of an underground lake from the waters of a continental glacier that extended to the northern borders of the Czech Republic during the next-to-last ice age (Zaj ek et al., 2005). The caves air temperature is 7 C and the relative humidity ranges from 90 to 98 %. The cave is located in the Jesenk Karst on the northern slopes of the Hrub Jesenk range, within the municipality of Supkovice, Jesenk County, Olomouc Region. A report mentioning this cave from sometime before the mid-15thcentury is the oldest description of a cave in the Czech Republic and one of the first in all of Central Europe. The caves interior contains the largest set of epigraphic relics ever found in the Czech Republic, numbering around 4,000 inscriptions and illustrations made using various techniques. The central painting of Christ on the cross with figures standing in adoration has no equal in any other Central European cave.2. An overview of historical reportsThe oldest written record of the cave is in Wegweiser zu den Bergwerken in der Oberlausitz und in Schlesien by Antonius Wale, a merchant from Florence who was active in mining in the Silesian town of Wroclaw between 1410 and 1443. Compared to other mining localities, the cave is mentioned only briefly, and classified more as an interesting place than an important prospecting or mining locality (CDS XX, 198). The text, which is usually dated to 1430 or 1436, contains a brief description of the caves passageways leading into the interior of pi k Hill (Spitczenstein, 516 m), second-hand information on the site, and an obligatory report as to the discovery of treasures typical for this type of locality and for Italian literature. The text also includes two symbols (a crescent moon and sun), which the editors of the CDS interpret as silver and gold i.e. the alchemist symbols that (according to the text) can be found in the cave. These symbols truly exist on the cave walls, and according to our research they belong to the oldest demonstrable horizon of epigraphic relics; based on the layering of inscriptions, they are older than 1583 (Fig. 2). Later brief mentions (1689, 1806, 1836) offer an indirect link between the caves existence and mining activities on pik Hill. Drechsler (1951) also states that the entrance to the cave was allegedly walled up for safety reasons and remained closed until work was undertaken to make it accessible to the public. That the site was all but forgotten can be seen from historical maps: maps from the 1760s indicate the now-nameless creek previously known as Gold Wasser and the local place name Kalch Ofen, but maps from the mid-19thcentury lack any information whatsoever. The first detailed reports about Na pi ku Cave come from when it was made publicly accessible in 1883. During this time, the village of Supkovice (Saubsdorf in German) was known as the Silesian Carrara because of the local marble mines. Another description of the cave by Lu ek and Ryav in 1949 formed the foundation for the caves extensive tourist-related works in 1954, which gave the cave its contemporary look. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster2013 ICS Proceedings176

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3. The original layout of the caveBefore it was made accessible to the public, the cave opened up into a funnel-shaped chasm created by ancient mining activities. According to A. Makowsky (1886), from the bottom of this chasm one entered the caves first section consisting of the Main Corridor (sections A and B; Fig. 1) measuring 54 m in length, 2 m in width, and with a predominant height of 1,5 m. Short branches lead off to both sides. The third left-hand branch (Double-Heart Chamber [E]) was 33 m long, 1m wide and 1,6 m high, and terminated in a 7 m-deep chasm with sporadic water at the bottom. All these spaces were covered with various types of partially damaged deposits and, except for a few places, were blackened from torches. The rear part of the cave was called Labyrinth after three interconnected chambers whose connecting corridors are often passable only by crawling or sliding along the ground. The interiors were around 2 m high and the sinter deposits were equally damaged and blackened from smoke. From the central Great Dome (D), one passed through a 18 m-long corridor measuring 2 m in width and 1 m in height to reach the final Dome of Hope (C); length 15 m, width 3 m, height 3 m. Leading off from this chamber is a crevice passage (C2) rediscovered in 1885 and 25 m long, up to 1m wide and 1,8 m high, with whitish speleothems and sinter formations. The overall measured length in 1886 was thus 111 m, or 232 m if we include all branches. It is not entirely clear why todays corridor (F) leading off from the entrance into the crawlspaces with abysses was not mapped at the time.4. Archaeological finds from the caveJ. Skutil (1953) described the caves sediments as archaeologically sterile. When the cave was made publicly accessible in 1954, no archaeological finds were observed, which was more the result of inattentiveness and lack of interest during construction work, since the volume of material removed from the cave in 1954 was enormous. The first finds were made in 2007 by employees of the Na pi ku Cave Administration in various parts of the cave during the renovation of walkways and while cleaning chasms. Other surface finds followed during epigraphic documentation, primarily in corridor F in 2008 and 2012. The fragments of pottery and iron objects found in various parts of the cave represent a chronologically roughly uniform set of unglazed pottery as well as glazed ware. Due to the absence of more significant fragments, the finds can be dated only roughly as being from the advanced High Middle Ages (14ththcentury) and the early modern era. The most significant horizon is from the conclusion of the High Middle Ages (late 15thto first half of the 16thcentury). This period corresponds at least partially with the oldest horizon of historical engravings and paintings. The most significant grouping of finds in the front part of corridor F points towards a secondary deposit from the area around the funnel-like entryway. In these locations, mining activities opened up the corridor onto the floor of the entrychasm, as documented by the situation in a filled-in depression next to todays stairway from around 1884.Figure 1. Map of the cave as per V. Ouhrabka, amended and supplemented. White segments with light gray borders quarried away in 1954. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings177

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5. Documentation and restoration of paintings and inscriptionsIn the late 19thcentury, reports of the extraordinary wealth of epigraphic relics on the walls and ceiling throughout the cave garnered only little attention. Their significance was first emphasized in the mid-20thcentury by J. Skutil (1953), who provided an overview of at least the most important, leaving out a large number of scrawlings and scratchings dating for the most part from the nineties of the 19thcentury. Especially interesting is his description of the central painting of the adoration of the crucifix (improperly called Calvary; Fig. 2), which was later erroneously associated with the caves use as a shelter from religious persecution. In 1989 student M. Korejtkov engaged in a preliminary unpublished inventory, and in 1993 P. Zaj ek and K. Gregor (Moravian Karst Cave Administration) made black-and-white photographs of selected epigraphic features. These unsystematic attempts at recording the state of the inscriptions are important for a comparison with todays state and show the increasing tendency towards the features degradation caused by the high humidity and the formation of sinters. In 2003, the Archaeology and Speleo-Anthropology Office of the Regional Museum and Gallery in esk Lpa systematically documented all surviving inscriptions, paintings, and engravings in the cave (Jen and Pea 2009). The cave was divided into sectors and each epigraphic feature was given a number, surveyed and mapped (Fig. 1). The researchers took detailed photographs including closeup details, and selected features were also sketched. A total ca. 4,000 features were recorded (more than 4,900 images) in 796 main locations (Jen and Pea 2011; on methodology see Jen Pea, Ptkov eds. 2001, Roh ek 2007). Since 2011, a supplementary research project has focused on a historical assessment of the acquired information, and a restoration project has been working to save the most important paintings degraded by moisture and sinter growth. Long-term microclimatic measurements are being performed at the site of selected features, and the use of pigments is being analyzed as well (Ing. Martin Dvo k and Ing. Ivana Kopeck, Prague). These findings will be used to engage in the stabilization and restoration of the oldest features. The analyzed paintings are found at the intersection of the Main Corridor and the Double-Heart Corridor, at the border between sections A, B and E. The paintings did not use standard techniques; they were painted onto a chipped ceiling without a base coat or organic binding agent. The main feature (the Adoration of the Cross; Fig. 2) is preserved only in fragments; at the upper part of the picture, there are only traces of the color layer, best visible when lit from the side. The nearby paintings of the sun, cross, and moon are preserved in an easily recognizable form. The base underneath the painting is non-uniform, and consists of smaller sinter formations with depressions. The color layer is slowly being washed off the protruding sections by the dripping water, and so is preserved only in the depressions. This layer is also being reduced by the growth of sinter or the formation of small speleothems. Samples of the pigments were microscopically analyzed under incident light using a Leica DML optic microscope. An external analysis of organic materials (varnish and binding agents) was performed via FTIR spectrometry (diamond ATR technique) on a Nicolet FTIR spectrometer. The determined spectrum was compared with the standard spectrums from various industrial databases. The samples were analyzed in a solid state from both sides and within the limited possibilities of the measuring equipment. The determined spectrums are not from pure substances, but mixtures. In some cases, the analysis could not determine a specific substance, but only the chemical group to which it belongs (e.g., waxes, polysaccharides). By the end of 2012, a total of 11 samples were taken for analysis. The stratigraphy of layers is clear, the individual paintings are monochrome and painted directly on the limestone wall without a standard base coast. One important piece of information is the nature of the pigments used: minium (red lead, Pb3O4), burnt umber, and vermilion i.e. painting materials, not randomly used local sources. The paintings were made with a particular intent and with a knowledge of painting techniques. The binding agent was probably soft cave sinter (moonmilk), whose consistency corresponds to normally used binding agents (oil, resin, etc.), or it may have been limewater. The paintings were never restored and are preserved in their original form. The technique resembles al fresco paintings made on a wet foundation (plaster or lime paints) by wiping paint diluted with (lime)water. It is hypothetically possible that the artists took the caves particular environment into account when choosing a suitable technique for their inscriptions.6. The oldest paintings and inscriptionsThe oldest dated feature is located in the rear part of the Heart Corridor (E) and was not identified until 2003. It is a chiseled image in the form of a jousting shield. The scene inside is probably a stylized tableau of Adam and Eve beneath the Tree of Knowledge, a(nn)o with the year and the letters hb (Fig. 4). Nearby is a solitary petroglyph of a globus cruciger (a symbol of secular power, the sovereign ruler; Fig. 3) and an etching resembling the Rod of Asclepius. Another set of painted features is located at the intersection of the Main Corridor with the DoubleHeart Corridor (A/B/E) near the caves central painting, the Adoration of the Cross (Fig. 2). It is a painting of a cross with the crucified Jesus Christ and a figure standing on each side in adoration. The red initials HSZ covering the older cross are of chronostratigraphic significance; based on their placement elsewhere in the cave, these came from 1615. Like the neighboring paintings of the sun and crescent moon, the scene of the adoration is done using a dark red pigment (made using vermilion), which differs from pigments from the 17thand 18thcenturies. It is quite possible that the sun and crescent moon which were previously mentioned in connection with the oldest description of the cave date from as early as the 15thcentury; in any case, they predate the year 1583. Using iconographic analogies, the Adoration most probably dates to the 1530s to 1550s. Especially in Silesia, this subject is quite common in Renaissance art after the middle of the 16thcentury, and so the figures bowing to the Holy Cross in the painting in Na pi ku Cave may very well be a patron/nobleman (on Christs right) and a high church official (on his left). Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster2013 ICS Proceedings178

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The oldest horizon is associated with inscriptions (including the year) dated to the 16thand early 17thcenturies. This includes the oldest name in the cave, Sam(uel) Baksor, which is dated by the inscription . An interesting inscription is the red HSZ 1615 made using minium, which can be found in practically all parts of the cave and has survived in 11 locations. In our view, another feature associated with the period of increased interest in the cave from the Late Middle Ages to the Thirty Years War are the inconspicuous cuts made here and there by tools (chisel/pick), which document the expansion of impassable corridors at a time long before the cave was made accessible to the public. In most cases, they are covered by fossil moonmilk. It is quite likely that this horizon of cave visitations is associated with at least some of the graphic symbols made using charcoal or red clay (diamonds, lines, human faces, crossed sabers and more). Based on the distribution of features, the most frequently visited area would seem to have been the section from the entrance to the scene of the Adoration and from there the crevice passage of Double-Heart Corridor. By comparison, there are almost no features in the largest area (the Great Dome [D]); instead, they are accumulated at its rear margins, where they seem to point the way to the caves end in the Dome of Hope (C).7. An attempt at a historical interpretationBased on the available information, the cave was discovered either while digging a mineshaft or quarrying limestone. According to historical sources, gold was mined intensively in nearby Zlat Hory at least since the first half of the 15thcentury, with a peak after 1467, when the bishopric in Wroclaw added the mining district to its properties. In 1510, the Fuggers an influential merchant family allied with Wroclaws Bishop Johannes V. Thurzo, acquired the Jesenk (Freiwaldau) estate, where they were successful in mining.Figure 2. Central feature of the Adoration of the Cross from the 16thcentury with the mouth of the Double-Heart Corridor (B/E); at the lower left is the painting of the son and moon with the black cross. Photo P. Jen Figure 3.Engraving of globus cruciger, Double-Heart Corridor (E). Photo P. Jen Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings179

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but the inscriptions GA 1642 and GATLOF 1645 in the Main Corridor (A) may be connected with the Swedish invasion to Moravia during those years (Kolektiv 2009). The prospecting tradition was no longer relevant after the Thirty Years War; based on inscriptions, the cave was visited only rarely, and general awareness of its existence slowly faded. A minor revival of interest took place in the early 19thcentury, but a more significant increase in visitors came only after it was first made publicly accessible after 1883, when most of the walls and ceilings were covered in thousands of signatures and dates, most commonly graphite or ink and charcoal.AcknowledgmentsThe research project was made possible by financing and multifaceted support from the management of the Cave Administration of the Czech Republic and staff members at the Na pi ku Cave Administration Evelyna Vozbalov (director) and Ivana Foitov, the involvement of our colleagues t pn Havel and Vojt ch Novk from the Regional Museum and Gallery in esk Lpa, and university and secondary school students who participated in documentation efforts. The evaluation of our findings required consultation with or help from specialists Prof. Hana Ptkov of Charles Universitys Faculty of Arts in Prague (archival studies, epigraphy), Ing. Martin Dvo k, Prague (conservation and restoration technologies), and Ing. Ivana Kopeck, Prague (pigment analysis). We are also indebted to RNDr. Petr Zaj ek and Mgr. Vratislav Ouhrabka of the Department of Cave Preservation at the Cave Administration of the Czech Republic for their expert collaboration and technical support.ReferencesBaletka T, 2004. Dv r olomouckho biskupa Stanislava Thurza (1497), jeho kancel a sprva biskupskch statk Sbornk archivnch prac, 54(1), 3. CDS XX. Codex diplomaticus Silesiae, XX. Schlesiens Bergbau und Httenwesen. Urkunden 1136. Breslau 1900. Drechsler A, 1951. Saustein und Tropfsteinhhle von Saubsdorf. Der Altvaterbote, 4(1), 24. Janl R, 1959. Kapitola z d jin nerostn t by v hornch revrech olomouckho kraje. Sbornk krajskho vlativ dnho muzea Olomouc, IV, 179.Both towns received mining freedom in quick succession Zlat Hory in 1524 and Jesenk in 1529. The regions greatest mining boom was in 1550 under Bishop Balthasar of Promnitz. Starting in the mid-16thcentury, high-quality limestone was mined in the region as well (Zuber 1966, 85). The alchemist symbols in the cave are of the sort we know from precious-metal prospecting sites; combined with the choice of pigments (minium/red lead, burnt umber, vermilion) and painting techniques, they point towards higher social classes of religious or secular power. Bishop Johannes V. Thurzo (1506) had close ties to mining, thanks to which he acquired extensive wealth. In 1510, he published his own mining rules. His brother Stanislaus, 1496 Bishop of Olomouc, also promoted mining within his bishopric (for instance on the Osoblaha estate), where the Fuggers were active as well (Baletka 2004, 154; Janl 1959, 179). In fact, we date the central image of the Adoration of the Cross, with its symbolic depictions of secular and spiritual power, as having being created in the 1530s to 1550s. We thus assume that the caves surroundings were a region of significant mining activities whose ownership may have been legitimized in the form of wall paintings that were comprehensible to anyone, with references to the bishop and the Fuggers. The paintings also acted as a reminder that, without the owners permission, it was forbidden to mine around the peak of pik Hill including hidden underground. The Christian symbolism also fulfilled a generally protective function, especially in the dangerous underground environment. Another painting besides the Adoration of the Cross that supports this theory is the globus cruciger, which as a symbol of royal power and in its isolated placement in the cave may represent a (to us unknown) royal act related to the cave. Mining activities involving precious metals were always subject to royal inspection, although the king could temporarily pass it on to the nobility. The globus cruciger in Na pi ku Cave may thus represent the return of mining rights back under royal control. Written dates from the 17thcentury are predominantly from that centurys first quarter, and probably reflect the waning prospecting tradition of the 16thcentury. The onset of the Thirty Years War only had a marginal impact on the region,Figure 4.The oldest feature in the cave, dated with the year , Double-Heart Corridor (E). Photo P. Jen. Figure 5. Location of Na pi ku Cave. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings180

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Jen P, Ptkov H, Pea V eds, 2001. Historick skaln rytiny v Labskch pskovcch 1. etapa dokumentace v okol Jetichovic. Porta Bohemica, 1, 149. Litom ice. Jen P, Pea V, 2009. Projekt dokumentace historickch npis a maleb v Jeskyni Na pi ku. In: ime kov B ed. Zp stupn n jeskyn 2008, Ro enka Sprvy jeskyn esk republiky, 32. Prhonice. Jen P, Pea V, 2011. Vzkumn projekt Zchrann dokumentace, studie obnovy a rekonstrukce historickch npis a maleb v Nrodn p rodn pamtce Jeskyn Na pi ku. Zv re n zprva, I.VI. etapa vzkumu (Projects final report). esk Lpa. Kolektiv, 2009. Djiny Olomouce, svazek 1. Olomouc. Lu ek Z, Ryav P, 1949. Supkovick jeskyn ve Slezsku. eskoslovensk kras, 2, 287. Makowsky A, 1886. Die Tropfsteinhhle von Saubsdorf in sterr. Schlesien. Altvater, 4, 1. Jesenk. Rohek J, 2007. Epigrafika v pamtkov p i. Praha. Skutil J, 1953. Skaln npisy z jeskyn v Supkovicch ve Slezsku. Prodovdeck sbornk Ostravskho kraje, 14, 236. Zaj ek P, et al., 2005. Jeskyn Na piku. AOPK: Praha. Zuber R, et al, 1966. Jesenicko v obdob feudalismu do roku 1848. Ostrava.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings181

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RESULTS OF STUDYING THE PALEOLITHIC KAPOVA CAVE (SHULGAN-ASH)IMAGESYu. Lyakhnitsky, A. Yushko, O. Minnikov Russian Geographical Society, Grivtsova Pereulok, 10, Saint-Petersburg, 190000, Russian Federation Kapova Cave (Shulganash) is located in the Southern Urals, Russia. In 1959, A. Ryumin discovered Paleolithic paintings in it. Current research of a team from VSEGEI and RGS resulted in the discovery and classification of more than 140 new images. There is an assumption of long process of creating the images and informative value of abstract symbols. A conclusion was made that in the Southern Urals, a center of ancient human culture rather similar to the Western European one had existed during the Paleolithic.1. IntroductionKapova Cave (Shulgan-Tash; Fig. 1) is located in Bashkortostan, the Southern Urals, in the Shulgan-Tash reserve. In 1959, A. Ryumin discovered Paleolithic drawings in it (Ryumin 1960). Later, they were studied by O. Bader (1965) and V. Scelinskij (Scelinskij, Sirokov 1999). Our team from VSEGEI and RGS has been engaged in studying and fixation of Kapova Cave paintings for more than 10 years under a contract with the Ministry of Culture of Bashkortostan. During this time, more than 140 new images were discovered. Totally, 195 images are known, which are very diverse. They can be divided into zoomorphic (anthropomorphic) realistic drawings, abstract geometrical symbols and obscure spots relics of the images. A very important characteristic of the image is the colour. Previously it was thought that this is almost monochromatic red ocher with some variations, but now it is clear that a variety of dyes from scarlet to brown and black was specially created. Based on image morphology, style, colour and location in the cave, it is possible to develop a classification that will take into consideration all peculiarities of the images and allow conclusions about ancient artists ideas, epochs of image creation and the intended purpose. The Kapova Cave drawings form several groups depending on a set of features and image location in specific parts of the cave; they show different stylistic features, reflect different traditions and concepts of world perception and possibly were created in different epochs. Image classification is required for the historic and art review of the painting. The problem of image conservation is very serious. As for their state, only 14 % of the images can be assessed as satisfactory, 15 % are of intermediate state, and the majority (71 %) are in poor condition, i.e. the degree of degradation is so high that it threatens their total loss.2. Survey groups of drawingsRed realistic outline drawings in the Drawings Hall of the first floor (Going Mammoth, Big Horse, etc.) are best known and best preserved. These zoomorphic drawings are rather realistic, resemble in their style the Magdalenian paintings of Western Europe. They are contour; some of them show zones of contour line widening and shading of details, parts of figures (Big Horse and Rhino). Only the Red Mammoth is a silhouette figure dyed almost completely, but the intensity of the dye varies. Drawings of this type are dominated by mammoths (7); there are woolly rhinoceros (2) and a bull. The colour of these images is red; the intensity of the dye is medium and low. Almost all of them are made in the same style, as if following a certain canon. Besides, two anthropomorphic images occur in different compositions. There is only one geometric symbol in the hall a large trapezium with twelve edges at the bottom right corner of the first composition. This is a single formational group that resembles most of all the West Figure 1. Plan of the Shulgan-Tash Cave.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings182

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European Madeleine. According to the classification of Leroi-Gourhan, the images belong to the transitional group between the third and the fourth. The painting is dated from the age of the coal from the O. Baders prospecting shaft in the Drawings Hall (Tatiana Shcherbakova material); according to VSEGEI laboratory data, their age is 16,000,000 years. This is undoubtedly the Upper Paleolithic. Drawings of the ground floor with distinct styling elements accompanied at least by two geometric symbols (trapezia) can be assigned to the second group of realistic red images (apparently originally polychrome). Horses from the Chaos Hall and the Bison from the Symbols Hall are assigned to this group. There are already no mammoths among the animals. Drawing stylization is expressed in further elongation of horses neb, contour distortion of the upper horse silhouette, unnatural sharp bend of the tail, exaggerated mane luxuriance. Near the animals, there are characteristic trapezia found only in the Kapova Cave. They widen upward, have internal near-vertical edges and earlets hanging from the upper corners; the right one is short and left one is long. Sometimes the earlets are bifurcated. The trapezia are geometrically correct, have a different number of edges and peculiar internal features of the structure. A new figure appears one-sided bent staircase above the Upper Horse. The drawings in the ancient time were covered with thick sinter calcite crust owing to which they are well preserved. They were multicolour (from red to black and brown). These compositions are situated on the ground floor of the cave: at the entrance to the Symbols Hall and the Chaos Hall. This is the continuation of the ancient tradition with the observance and development of its rules. They belong to the fourth group of Leroi-Gourhans classification. The age of the drawings of this group is probably the most recent stage of the Paleolithic. The third group of drawings in the Symbols and Dome halls is characterized by small, scarce zoomorphic stylized and formalized simplified drawings of abundant abstract symbols. Instead of the traditional trapezia, various new symbols appear: U-shaped, radial, circular, various derivatives of trapezia, etc. In this case, there is no distinct relation between zoomorphic drawings and symbols. Probably they were drawn at different times on the same site. They are characterized by poor preservation, the lack of details, static figures of animals. New Mammoth and Red Horse are among typical zoomorphic images of this group. The image of a mountain goat from the Dome Hall probably also belongs to this group. This group includes numerous and variable images of the northern wall in the Symbols Hall and small spot symbols indicators. In addition to the trapezia, there are also triangles. The best expressed Double Triangle is situated on the northern wall of the Symbols Hall. Another variety of symbols is a trident. These figures are derivatives of trapezia. They differ in the fact that they contain only one internal edge, side faces are parallel and the top face is almost invisible. The typical Trident is situated in the northeastern corner of the Symbols Hall. There are symbols, derivatives of a trapezium, with internal, sometimes complicated structure, usually parallel side faces and double short earlets. They can be exemplified by the Complex Trapezium in the Chaos Hall. U-shaped structures are rather abundant. Several of such symbols are drawn on the northern wall of the Symbols Hall. There is an interesting variety of characters Y-shaped sticks that remind an asymmetric shanghai (branch fragment with a spike) accompanied by a number of straight line segments, small triangles. Two of these symbols are in the Chaos Hall. Central-type structures consisting of segments of circles, arcs or spirals with a bright isometric spot in the center are distinctive. Such symbols are drawn on the northern wall of the Symbols Hall. There are also straight and slightly curved lines located, as a rule, in groups, vertically, e.g., oblique lines in the Chaos Hall. Three complex structures that resemble trapezium derivatives with elements of radial structure that remind cast of a huge hand are described. They are exemplified by the Radial Structure on the northern wall of the Symbols Hall. In this group, symbols located in isolated flattened cavity under the eastern wall of the Chaos Hall are of interest. These are singular, specific, usually complex, composite symbols consisting of several elements. The most representative of them is Tower symbol consisting of two red rectangular structures with short horizontal black lines in between partly accentuated with red ocher. It is elongated vertically. There are also such symbols as Complex Trapezium and Tuning Fork, which are distant derivatives of traditional trapezia. Such symbols have not been described elsewhere. Images of the ground floor are usually poorly preserved. This may be due to the loss of a methodology or unfavourable conditions, large water inflow, impact of condensate. Perhaps they were created during interglacial periods or in postglacial time, when hydrological and meteorological conditions in the cave deteriorated. In general, the group mainly consists of abstract symbols; they were created based on an entirely new concept, although some rare details came from old symbols of previous groups. For example, double earlets of some complex symbols. Apparently, this group of images was created already in post-Paleolithic time. Next, very complicated and heterogeneous type of images is spots that usually look like unstructured irregular-shaped images. These are relics of very poorly preserved drawings, dye stains of destroyed images, and sometimes, perhaps, natural formations. Interpretation of the spots is a challenge. Computer image processing techniques allow in some cases the identification of the primary structure of the drawings or symbols, but often such an interpretation is ambiguous. In this case, the suggested interpretation is probabilistic, and the conclusion of the authenticity of the received version of the image depends on the skills and qualification of the operator. The spots are common in the halls of the ground floor of the cave. The fourth group is points. In fact, they are small spots. These small images consist of points indicators, small symbols, fragments of image relics, and natural mineral formations. Despite their small size, they sometimes show a distinctive geometric structure, small tails and other features. Their identification is even more difficult than that of the spots. A typical indicator is Acoustic Point in the Crossway Hall or triangular Secret Symbol in the Chaos Hall. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster2013 ICS Proceedings183

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Most of the Kapova Cave images are red and painted with ocher. But the ocher differed in composition. This was specially prepared red dye of different tints, which consisted of iron hydroxide, natural red (and other) clay ocher made of weathering crust and various mineral admixtures. The ocher composition was specific in different regions depending on the availability of natural components. There is a small brown ironstone occurrence not far from the Kapova Cave. In the immediate vicinity of the drawings in the Split of the Chaos Hall, there are nests of limonite, goethite and other varieties of brown ironstone. The choice of primary mineral components was very wide. Sampling of brown ironstone microadmixtures and ocher samples showed their high similarity and rather diverse composition of both. We managed to find an ancient palette a plate with the ocher prepared by an ancient artist. We studied its composition. It turned out that the basis of the dye consisted of burnt brown ironstone and clay ocher. We carried out an experiment on the preparation of the dye. In order to get cherry-red hematite from the brown ironstone, it is necessary to anneal it intensively in the fire. The resulting hematite grains were grinded with clay and then mineral admixtures were added to this mixture to obtain necessary colour tint. Then, in order to give the adhesion properties to this mixture, the resultant powder was rubbed up with animal glue a mixture of fat, blood and lymph. The resultant mixture could be brought to the consistency of oil and then rubbed into the rock. Images (usually symbols) differing in tint from the typical scarlet colour are repeatedly found the cave. Darker, tinged with violet, dark red colour residing in some images is distinctive visually. An example is a bright line on the right side of Hash symbol on the eastern wall of the Dome Hall. One of the initial components for this paint was purple clay, which is found in the cave vicinity. Monochrome drawings and symbols prevail in the cave; however there are many shades of scarlet with different saturation. Perhaps, they acquired such appearance under the influence of negative hypergenesis factors, which have destroyed the dye for thousands of years. The only composition that relatively quickly after its creation was preserved by thick calcite crusts (Horses from the Chaos Hall) was almost polychrome after opening. It is characterized by bright red and dark red lines of the main outline, red with brownish tint zones of acute neb, crest, and tail of horses, thin, black-brown lines of the external outline, pink, light red interior zones of paintings. Kapova Cave paintings were originally polychrome or had a richer palette than now, and that makes them more similar to the West European analogs. The question on the authenticity of black images is fundamental. Archaeologists have not considered black figures as a subject of study, but for one symbol of the ground floor. However, the presence of several black images requires a solution. Using of coal for black images is most probable, but perhaps this is pyrolusite (MnO2), which is found in the cave in the form of crusts and films of cavern filling. The fifth group of images is distinguished conditionally, as paintings authenticity has not yet been proved. These are black archaic drawings with primitivism features, present only in the Paintings Hall on the first floor. They can be exemplified by Black Mammoth, Black Fox, and Black Horse. According to Leroi-Gourhan, this is the first or the second group. It can be assumed with very great care that the age of these paintings may be close to the Middle Paleolithic. It seems that the Kapova Cave drawings considerably differ from the West European samples, and the very concept of drawing pictures from the Kapova Cave and many paintings and symbols are quite specific and have the right to be considered original within the overall global cultural Paleolithic field. The first composition on the eastern wall of the Drawings Hall is a solemn procession of animals, representing the totem of some groups of people. All of them are disposed regularly, compositionally bound together. All but one animal are on the hall perimeter from the right to the left. Lone Going Mammoth ahead, other animals in a large V formation move at some distance behind. One has the impression of a solemn procession. This is an esoteric painting drawn on a certain canon. The second composition on the western wall of the hall is noted for the absence of solemnity and conventionality. It is more likely a sketch of an everyday scene, subordinate to the compositional unity, using the same stylistic devices. The wall is sufficiently large to accommodate many figures, however only 4 animals are drawn.3.ConclusionsIf we compare these compositions with the masterpieces from Western Europe caves, for the first time it seems that they are much more primitive, but thoughtful profound reading of the paintings shows that they are just different in conception. The difference between the Western drawn up in detail, multi-figured masterpieces of art and compositions from the Kapova Cave is about the same as between the splendor of Catholic churches decoration and imagery of Russian icons. Artist of the Kapova Cave sought not to reflect the external beauty of animals, but to create their images, to convey the inner solemnity of meeting people with the world of their totems, with higher forces in which they believed. This is sort of Paleolithic altar, not an art gallery. Hence the observation of certain canons, conditionality in paintings. This classification is, in fact, genetic; of course, it is based on the general regularities and has a hypothetic character. Nevertheless, the actual material enables such grouping, beyond the timeframe. Perhaps the difference in the pictures character is to some extent due to the functional specifics of various areas of the cave sanctuary; however this is less likely for the Kapova Cave. Thus, images from the Kapova Cave are quite diverse morphologically. This is one of its features, and it confronts future researchers with complex and difficult questions on understanding the collected material, which of course does not fit into the concept of art and represents a complex system of cultic, conventional symbols, abstract and perhaps information signs. 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them. As they have a different number of internal edges, it is logical to assume, as a hypothesis, that these are a kind of numerical symbols characterizing a group of people worshipping these animals totems. Variety of symbols in the Kapova Cave is much greater than in the West. This can be explained by the fact that it apparently remained the largest regional sanctuary for a long time, and drawings and symbols of different traditions, at least of two epochs were telescoped in it. Thus, the described properties and features of the Kapova Cave images provide strong evidence of the originality of this interesting monument, which proves the existence in the Southern Urals during the Paleolithic of an independent source of the original ancient culture that has evolved for a long time, probably even after the end of the Paleolithic.Figure 2. Zoomorphic (anthropomorphic) realistic drawings, abstract geometrical symbols and obscure spots relics of the images. (Shulgan-Tash) Kapova Cave. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings185

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ReferencesBader ON, 1965. Kapova Cave. M.: Nauka, 34. Lyakhnitsky YuS, Yushko AA, Minnikov OA, 2008. Treasure of the Paleolithic Drawings and symbols of the Shulgantash Cave, Ufa, Kitap, 180. Ryumin AV, 1960. Cave paintings in the Southern Urals. Proceedings of the Commission for Scientific Geology and Geography of Karst, Information Collection 1, M. MOIP. Scelinskij VJ, Sirokov V. N. 1999. Hhlenmalerei im Ural. Karpova und Ignatievka. Die altsteinzeitlichen Bilderhhlen im sdlichen Ural, Sigmaringen, 171.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings186

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THE CAVE EDNA PE INA (THIRSTY CAVE), SERBIAMladen Miloevi 1, Robert Mii1, Maja Slijepevi2 1SEC Rock & Ice, B. M. Sre e, Bor 19210, Serbia2Institute for Biological Research Sinia Stankovi , University of Belgrade, Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, Serbia, The SEC Rock & Ice has been doing new speleological research of the karst massif of Lazars Canyon and the Zlot river basins for 12 years now. During this period 245 speleological objects have been located and Lazars Cave, whose length of mapped channels was 1,720 m, today is the longest cave of Serbia with 10,870 m of mapped channels. On the day of May 2nd2012, a team: Milan Stojadinovi Mladen Miloevi Dejan Mirosavljevi located the cave which not only offers a key to understanding of the huge cave system but also is significant because of the paleontological finding of an ibex (Capra ibex). It has been estimated that the ibex fossil remains are between 780,000 and 120,000 years old and that they belong to the middle Pleistocene period. According to the estimate made by the paleontologists of the Natural History Museum in Belgrade, this discovery is of greatest importance for Serbia as well as for Europe.1. IntroductionFossil remains of Capra ibex has been found in Zlot cave complex, near Bor town in eastern Serbia. This discovery is very important, estimated by paleontologist of Museum of Natural History in Belgrade. Remains of ungulates in caves are present but often rare, but they are in very good conditions because of specials terms in caves. They may be introduced by carnivores as their pray and after-wards the bones were scavenged by carnivores. It is assumed that remains of Capra ibex in Zlot cave complex maybe introduced by river, since the cave in which they found remains, are the oldest found abyss of the main river. It has been estimated that the ibex fossil remains are between 780,000 and 120,000 years old and that they belong to the middle Pleistocene period. Basis on preliminary results this is the oldest fossil remains of Capra ibex in the Balkan penisula and maybe in Europe.2. MethodPrecise identification and age estimate will be made after excavated of remains using uran-234/thorium-230 method, which use when the age range of the sample comes out carbon-14 (more than 40,000 years).3. ResultsLeft parts of the skull were found with preserved impressive horn size. After excavated of remains we will have some results like precisely size of the scull, age of remains etc.4. ConclusionAlso, fossil remains of Capra ibex were found in Austria and Eastern Alpine caves, and in Slovenia, but it is considered that fossil remains of Capra ibex from Serbia are much older, because this species extinct from this area.ReferencesBauer K, Spitzenberger F, 2001. Alpensteinbock Capra ibex Linneaus, 1758. In/ V: Die Sugetierfauna ster-reichs, Grne Reihe des Bundesministeriums fr Land-und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft 13, 753, Wien (in German).Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings187

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ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE WINTER SOLSTICE IN THE CAVES OF THE BOHEMIAN KARST, CZECH REPUBLICVladimr Pea Vlastiv dn muzeum a galerie v esk Lp, nm. Osvobozen 297, CZ-470 34 esk Lpa, Czech Republic, After the Moravian Karst, the Bohemian Karst is the most important region of speleo-archaeological interest in the Czech Republic. The regions caves are primarily smaller in size, but around 80 known sites with archaeological finds document interest in them throughout prehistory. During the agricultural prehistoric era, use of the caves peaked in the Middle to Later Neolithic and the Late Bronze to Early Iron Age. When contemplating their function, the most clearly visible aspects tend to be those related to cult activities. During the Bronze Age, vertical caves and dark caves were used as well. In the Neolithic, abundant finds are often concentrated in caves that for various reasons were not suitable for regular habitation. The example of Nov Cave shows a possible connection between the caves unusual Neolithic find context and lighting impressions inside the dark cave during sunrise around the winter solstice, which allows us to assume the possibility of cult rituals associated with this important date in the surrounding caves with an entrance oriented to the southeast.1. IntroductionThe roughly 130 km2Bohemian Karst is the largest karst region in Bohemia and the only karst region with a demonstrated incidence of prehistoric cave localities in Bohemia. It consists of islands of Silurian and Devonian limestone, separated from one another by non-karst rock, fault lines or valleys at an elevation of 200 meters above sea level. The regions cave systems tend to be smaller in size (as compared, for instance, to the largest karst region in the Czech Republic, the Moravian Karst), which is caused in part by the regions lack of water and this despite the fact that the its axis between Prague and Beroun is made up of the Berounka River. The climate of the Bohemian Karst is moderately warm to warm, with mild winters, an average annual temperature of 8 C, and average annual rainfall of 530 mm.2. Summary of the caves useThere are around 80 speleo-archaeological cave localities registered in the Bohemian Karst from practically all periods of the prehistoric and historic eras. The high level of interest in caves is related to the regions location within the ancient settlement area of the Bohemian Basin, which has been continuously settled since at least the early Neolithic. The distribution of caves with evidence of human presence significantly corresponds to the natural concentration of karst phenomena resulting from geological developments, and is concentrated in three more or less separate regions: a central region delineated by the municipalities of Karltejn, Tetn, Srbsko and Svat Jan pod Skalou; the southeastern region of Kon prusy; and a northeastern region on the outskirts of Prague. The main archaeological interest in the caves of the Bohemian Karst was in the 1920s to 1940s, when many of todays known localities were explored, for the most part comprehensively. Other individual explorations followed in the 1950s (F. Proek) and the 1980s and s (V. Matouek). The findings of these explorations have been published (Fridrich and Sklen 1976, Sklen and Matouek 1994, Svoboda et al 2004). The caves of the Bohemian Karst were already known to the populations of the Middle Palaeolithic, but more localities are not recorded until during the Upper Palaeolithic. Human skeletal remains and artefacts in the tourist complex of the Kon prusy Caves are dated around 30000 BP. Several smaller caves (e.g., D rav Cave with a ibex carved on a shale tablet) were settled during the Magdalenian period, and a larger open settlement was located on the promontory near the village Hostim. Occasional finds document a human presence in caves in the Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic as well (Fridrich and Sklen 1976, Vencl 1995, Svoboda 2000). By the Early Mesolithic, the highest peak in the Bohemian Karst, Bacn (499 m), was probably a shrine, as documented by theFigure 1. Location of the Bohemian Karst and sites of caves from the Bronze Age/Hallstatt Period. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings188

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lowest horizon of human remains in vertical fissure I (Matouek 2001). A significant increase in archaeological cave finds is associated with the Middle and Late Neolithic (see section 3). During the Aeneolithic, interest in caves apparently fluctuated depending on the various archaeological cultures (e.g., Koda and T Vol caves, and the Bacn II fissure). Sporadic interest in caves continued in the Early and Middle Bronze Age (Sklen and Matouek 1994, Matouek 2001). A second significant find horizon from the caves of the Bohemian Karst corresponds with the period from the Late Bronze Age (Bz D / Ha A, ca. 1200 BC) to the Early Iron Age (Ha D, ca. 380 BC) a total of 37 sites. All types of caves were used: vertical (pit) caves, horizontal clefts, cave passages, and halls. Less commonly found non-ceramic finds (in particular bronze rings, bone awls and human bones) come from vertical caves, horizontal caves with shafts, narrow clefts, and caverns whose height does not exceed 160 cm i.e. not from spacious and bright caves. According to a pottery analysis, sets consisting primarily of decorated vessels and graphite-painted ceramic tableware are associated with caves that have narrow or overwhelmingly dark interiors (Barrandova, Tursk Matale/Posledn S Ve Strni) and are found alongside other find categories (human bones, zoomorphic vessel, strainers/incense burners, or items made of bronze, stone and bone). The relationship between the spectrum of finds and the choice of caves leads the author to consider the possibility that these caves held a special status, for instance associated with ritual activities. This is because a profane use of these localities can be imagined only under the most extreme conditions. During this period, the caves were located in a relatively densely settled area, so they were no farther than 2 km from the settlements of the time (Matouek and Pea 1998, Pea 2006). In terms of archaeology, during the Late Iron Age (the Celtic era), the time of the Roman empire, the Migration Period, and the Early Middle Ages caves appear only as isolated localities or finds (Sklen and Matouek 1994). The onset of the Middle Ages (and the general spread of Christianity) probably led to a transformation of the importance of caves. Exceptional places with a prehistoric tradition and a spirit of a place ( genius loci) were Christianised (Svat Jan pod Skalou, Tetn, Prokopsk Cave), while the most common use for other caves was as shelters or refuges later mostly during wars. An important locality in this regard are the tourist-accessible Kon prusy Caves, whose public tour route includes a money-forging workshop from the 1460s to 1470s. During the 16thand early 17thcentury, the Bohemian Karst (like other regions) was probably sought out by prospectors, as possibly indicated by passages dug into the clayey sediments and roughly dated using archaeological finds (Kon prusy Caves, Krpnkov), as well as by the proximity to Prague, which under Emperor Rudolf II had become a European centre of alchemy. This era also saw an increased interest in speleothems, which the monks mined in the no longer extant caves near Svat Jan pod Skalou, then processed, and sold as medication (Pea 2013).3. Caves during the Neolithic (5100 4300 BC)There are Neolithic finds from around 30 caves in the Bohemian Karst. In terms of inhabitability, only the largest of these (Koda, Nad Ka kem, Sloupov) offer room for 2 nuclear families i.e. hardly enough for the inhabitants of a Neolithic long house. The other caves could be used at most by a few individuals in the case of crevice passages with a width of up to 2 m only in the most extreme circumstances, while others are entirely unsuited for settlement purposes either because of their small size or their (for instance, vertical) shape (Pea 2011). Caves were used during the Middle Neolithic (Late Linear Pottery) and during the Late Neolithic with an overlap into the Early Aeneolithic (Stroke-ornamented ware culture, Lengyel horizon), but only in the central area and the NE Prague area. The finds and find context offer evidence of cultural strata with numerous preserved and scattered fireplaces and occasional preserved structures (Na Pr chod Cave). The dominant finds are fragments of vessels, but there are also larger pieces or even some vessels preserved in their entirety (Mal and Hlohov caves). It is highly probable that these last two caves involved the final placement of vessels in connection with cult activities. Generally associated with sacral purposes are the finds of dislocated human bones in the Late Neolithic cultural layers in Galerie and Nov Caves and, in Prague, possibly in Prokopsk Cave as well. The significance of the extraordinary archaeological context in the rear portion of Nov Cave is further enhanced by an astronomical observation of the unusual conditions at sunrise around the winter solstice, which offers the possibility that this cave (and possibly, though with a less spectacular effect, the neighbouring Patrov and zk caves as well, and perhaps even Galerie Cave) was associated with cult rituals marking the start of the astronomical year (Pea 2011).4. Astronomical phenomenon and archaeologyNov Cave (municipality Srbsko, Beroun county) and another 12 archaeologically significant caves are located in a distinctive rock formation above the Berounka River. The caves entrance, which opens towards the southeast, is located 45 m above the surface of the river in the upper part of a side ravine. The entryway narrows into a low passageway that opens up into a vestibule that today measures ca. 190 cm in height. From here, two impassable crawlspaces lead off into the rock massif. In both summer and winter, the lighting conditions inside the cave can be called twilit or semi-dark, which reflects the enclosed shape of the cavern. On 21 December 1996 (i.e. on the winter solstice), the author and A. Majer recorded unexpected lighting conditions in the cave. At 9.30 in the morning, the sun rose above the opposite slope of the ravine, and the suns rays illuminated the rock above the caves entrance. As the sun rose in the sky, the rays entered the cave and projected a brilliant orange disk onto the caves rear-most part 12 m Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster2013 ICS Proceedings189

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from the entrance, in front of the low right-hand passageway; the disk quickly grew in size, climaxing at 9.45 a.m. as a diamond measuring about 40 cm in height. This final shape was the result of the row of rocky protuberances in the caves entryway, which allowed only some of the suns light to enter. The sunrays reflecting back from the illuminated location coloured the caves twilight in a dim orange glow. The entire event lasted half an hour, with the constantly shrinking suns disk disappearing completely at 10 a.m. and the vestibule again falling into a half-darkness (Pea and Majer 2003). The author observed the entire event again during later years, and documented it photographically on December 24, 2000 and January 4, 2001. During the second measurement 13 days later, the astronomical phenomenon was the same, except that the changing angle of the suns rays gradually deformed the diamond shape. Although it was not possible to precisely define the phenomenons period of existence, it is probably observable at most for a period of 2 weeks before and after the solstice, but the shape is purely vertical only for a period of several days around December 21, 2000. In Nov Cave, this unusual natural phenomenon is further accentuated by the extraordinary archaeological find context. The original surface in the Neolithic was a mere 30 cm higher than today, and the cave thus had similar lighting conditions. In the Middle Neolithic, there was a fireplace at the beginning of the right-hand passageway, and deeper inside, near where the suns rays hit the cave wall, there was a layer of ash and an overturned bowl. Another fireplace located in the just 80cm-high left-hand passageway contained chipped stone tools and a ground stone hatchet. A similar find context is repeated for the Late Neolithic, with a fireplace again located in front of the right-hand passageway, an ash heap in the lefthand crawlspace, and the vestibule yielding among other things splintered human bones (Sklen and Matouek 1994). Both fireplaces in a space just ca. 1 m high call into doubt the practical use of fire, not to mention that, at least today, the caves microclimate is static and the crawlspaces do not act as natural chimneys. The lighting conditions inside the cave were thus very similar during the Neolithic, and we may assume that the rising sun shone into the cave in a similar manner as it does today. The exceptionally impressive spectacle in which the reflection of the rising sun is briefly transformed into a shape resembling a womans womb makes Nov Cave a holy site that was home to rituals associated with the winter solstice and perhaps also Mother Earth. The sites special status is also confirmed by the unusual find context, which differs from profane activities. To date, the author has been unable to find any analogous phenomenon for a speleo-archaeological locality in the literature.5. ConclusionAs much as the caves of the Bohemian Karst with their overwhelmingly bright interiors enabled occasional profane usage, more specific evidence relates primarily to cult activities. However, this claim may be made only for the Neolithic and Late Bronze to Hallstatt Period, when the caves were visited more frequently and for which we have corresponding archaeological findings. For the Neolithic, the group of caves around Nov Cave in the central Bohemian Karst offers a possible connection with cult activities and the winter solstice i.e. the start of the agricultural year. It is certainly no coincidence that these caves with their presumed function as sites of cult activities are among the localities with the thickest cultural layers, unusual find contexts, and the largest number of archaeological finds. Similar contexts are found in other karst regions in central and southeast Europe during periods of intense interest in karst caves (Pea 2006, 2011).ReferencesFridrich J, Sklen K, 1976. Die palolithische und mesolithische Hhlenbesiedlung des Bhmischen Karstes. Fontes Archaeologici Pragenses, Vol. 16. Pragae. Matouek V, 2001. Das urgeschichtliche Heiligtum auf dem Berg Bacn im Bhmischen Karst. In: Archologische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Ostbayern/ Westu. Sdbhmen, 10. Treffen 2000, 82. Rahden/ Westf. Matouek V, Pea V, 1998. Keramick nlezy v jeskynch ve st edn Evrop n kolik poznmek inspirovanch nlezy v jeskynch eskho krasu. (Finds of pottery in caves of Central Europe. Some comments inspired by finds in caves of the Karst Region in Bohemia). Archeologick rozhledy 50, 1998, 224. Pea V, 2006. Vyuvn jeskyn v mlad dob bronzov a haltatsk ve vybranch oblastech st edn Evropy (Hhlennutzung in der jngeren Bronzezeit und Hallstattzeit in ausgewhlten Gebieten Mitteleuropas). Pamtky archeologick 97, 47. Pea V, 2011. Mensch und Hhle im Neolithikum. Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Arts, Charles University, Prague. Figure 2. Nov Cave illumination map (isolines in lux) showing the penetration of sunrays from 9.30 to 10 a.m.(dashed lines) with diamond-shaped climax (full line). Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings190

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Pea V, 2013. Der neuzeitliche Mensch in der Hhle: Die Speloanthropologie als archologische Quelle. Pamtky archeologick 103, in print. Pea V, Majer A, 2003. Svteln podmnky v jeskynch z pohledu speleoarcheologie (Light conditions in caves: the archaeological approach). Speleofrum, 22, 22. Sklen K, Matouek V, 1994. Die Hhlenbesiedlung des Bhmischen Karstes vom Neolithikum bis zum Mittelalter. Fontes Archeologici Pragenses, Vol. 20. Pragae. Svoboda J, 2000. The depositional context of the Early Upper Paleolithic human fossils from the Kon prusy (Zlat k ) and Mlade Caves, Czech Republic. Journal of Human Evolution, 38, 523. Svoboda et al, 2004. Svoboda J, van der Plicht J, Vl ek E, Kuelka V, 2004. New radiocarbon datings of human fossils from caves and rockshelters in Bohemia (Czech republic). Anthropologie, 42, 161. Brno. Vencl S, 1995. Hostim Magdalenian in Bohemia. Pamtky archeologick Supplementum 4, Praha. Figure 4. Srbsko Rock face with zk and Patrov Caves; Nov Cave is outside of the picture on the right. Figure 3. Srbsko Rock face with caves, seen from the south. All photos V. Pea. Figure 6. Nov Cave. Sunrays entering the cave. Figure 5. Srbsko Nov Cave, entrance. Figure 8. Nov Cave. Sunrays being projected onto the cave wall near the right-hand crawlspace (24 December 2000). Figure 7. Nov Cave. Sunrays being projected onto the cave wall around the winter solstice (4 January 2001).Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings191

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2. Studied sitesThe Neanderthal settlement from the Bojnice area (48o46 N 18o34 E) near Prievidza is well documented mainly in two locations the Prepotsk Cave (Bojnice I) and the Hradn priekopa (Bojnice III). The Prepotsk Cave, representing an abri with 8 metres long cave space within the travertine heap, is known since 1926 (Medveck 1927). The researches of Proek (1952) and Brta (1966) here demonstrated one of the most important Neanderthal settlements in Slovakia with Early Mousterian culture. The last dating by 14C method places this settlement to the period before 40000 BP, corresponding with Moravian Micoquian sites of Klna (layer 7a) and pka (Kaminsk and Neruda 2010). The location Hradn priekopa has been identified in 1964 close to entrance gate of the Bojnice castle. The subsequent research in 1966 to 1969 shows the presence of 11 cultural layers with Taubachian stone tools, disrupted fireplaces, animal bones and gastropods from the end of the Eemian to the beginning of the Weichselian (Brta 1972). In spite of the discovery of large quantity of fossil remains of malacofauna (Proek and Loek 1951) as well as ofFOSSIL ASSEMBLAGES FROM NEANDERTHAL SITES OF SLOVAKIA PRELIMINARY RESULTSMartin Sabol1, Tom eklovsk1, Radoslav Beu2, Marianna Kovov1, Peter Joniak1, Jlia Zervanov1, Ren Putika3 1Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynsk dolina, SK-842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic,,,,, zervanova@fns.uniba.sk2Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynsk dolina, SK-842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic, benus@fns.uniba.sk3Department of Department of Applied and Environmental Geophysics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynsk dolina, SK-842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic, The environment of Neanderthals was distinctly changed during the Late Pleistocene in the whole area of their occurrence because of severe climatic changes. Differences found in the composition of fossil assemblages reflect that in the terrestrial envitronment. Based on the definition of the taxonomical diversity of extinct organisms, the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, and the exact age determination of the fossil record, a definition of individual events is possible from the evolutionary-phylogenetic and the climatic-environmental viewpoints. The fossil record also represents an evidence of multiple immigrations, including also migration of Neanderthal hunting groups. The most important Neanderthal sites in Slovakia with the large quantity of fossil remains are as follows: Bojnice, ertov pec, Gnovce, and Bee ov.1. IntroductionThe Neanderthal Man (Homo neanderthalensis) is an object of the intensive worldwide research since the time of his discovery in 1856 in the Neanderthal Valley near Dsseldorf. This extinct human kind, occupying Europe and Near East almost over 200,000 years, left proofs enough of his presence, such as skeleton remains, stone tools, or game remains in caves or in open-air settlements. At present, the research of Neanderthals is focused not only on the study of their population history, living requirements, technology and social organization, but mainly on their phylogenetic position from the palaeogenetic viewpoint as well as on their environment, including also the study of their adaptive ability on climatic changes at the time of their existence (Koenigswald et al. 2006). From this viewpoint, the palaeontological remains of organisms from the Neanderthal sites have the greatest information value because many of them responded very sensitively to environmental changes and form an important source of proxy-data about palaeoenvironmental conditions (Winiewski et al. 2009). The presence of Neanderthal Man in the territory of Slovakia is documented minimally at 31 sites from the Middle Palaeolithic Period (Kaminsk 2005). Except for 2 sites with finds of Neanderthal anatomical remains (Gnovce and aa), the rest of sites is mainly known by a record of stone industry connected with the Neanderthal population (Taubachian, Mousterian, and Micoquian). Only exceptionally, some sites represent a more continual settlement with the large palaeontological, or archaeozoological record respectively. The best-known sites are as follows: Bojnice, ertova pec, Bee ov, HrkaOndrej, and Gnovce (Fig. 1). Apart from Hrka-Ondrej (Kaminsk (ed.) 2000), the fossil remains from the sites are only partly interpreted ( ertova pec, Gnovce) or theywere so far not totally evaluated (Bojnice, Bee ov). Fill this niche, a new scientific project started in 2012, focused mainly on the definition of the taxonomical diversity and the palaeoenvironmental conditions in the territory of Slovakia during the Neanderthal period.Figure 1. Location of Slovak Neanderthal sites under study. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings192

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vertebrates (Hokr 1951, Proek 1952, Fejfar ex Brta 1972), indicating an organized hunting of relatively small Neanderthal group (Brta 1972), the whole fossil record has so far been not studied in details from the taxonomical, taphonomical, palaeoecological, and biostratigraphical viewpoints. The ertova pec site is situated in the Povask Inovec Mts. near Radoina village (48 33 N 17 E). It is 27 metres long cave with two opens. The first excavation at the site has been realized by L. Zotz in 1937, later by F. Proek in 1950 (Hokr 1951, Musil 1996). During the last research of the cave in 1958, headed by J. Brta, three Palaeolithic layers with stone industry of Gravettian, Szeletian, and Mousterian have been found. A find of fireplace within the layer 4 with Szeletian stone tools yielded a datum 38320 BP (Brta, unpubl. manuscript), whereas 14C dating of found cave hyena remains yielded the age older than 50000 BP (Nagel, pers. comm.). Although Musil (1996) partly evaluated a fossil record from the cave, a part of found fossils from the time of Brtas research, recently housed at the Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, was so far not studied yet. The best known and the the most important of mentioned Neanderthal sites in Slovakia is the travertine mound of Gnovce-Hrdok (49 N 20 E) with the sedimentary record from the Saalian termination up to the Holocene. A scientific research at the site was realized since 1880s, but the complex systematic research was realized only during 1955, conditioned by the famous record of Neanderthal braincase in 1926. The research results have been published in the final report (Vl ek et al. 1958) and within a monograph (Vl ek 1969). The basic analysis of palaeontological findings of mammals was realized by Fejfar (in Vl ek et al. 1958), who divided them into 6 groups, providing together with fossil molluscs (V. Loek) and plants (V. Kneblov) a basic picture on both the climate and the palaeoenvironment in the vicinity of Gnovce during the formation of the travertine mound. Apart from remains of mammals, birds (Petrbok 1937, 1939), and reptiles (t pnek 1934), the most important record at the site is represented by fossils of Neanderthal Man. The age of the place, where Neanderthal fossils have been found, was determined as 105000 BP (Jger 1989). Recently, the datum is, however, called into question (Rabeder, pers. comm.). Also, the whole palaeontological record from the site, unlike the palaeoanthropological (Vl ek 1969) and archaeological one (Bnesz 1990), was so far also not evaluated in details, including so far not studied fossils housed in the Podtatransk Museum in Poprad (Bekessov 2007, Bekessov and Mlynr ikov 2009). Travertine heaps near Bee ov (49 N 19 E) are next promising site, where no archaeological and also no systematic palaeontological research was realized up to now, although J. Kovanda found a flint artefact in the location of Skalie in 1960 (Kaminsk 2005). Also, remains of the Pleistocene fauna from the location of B a are known since the period of travertine exploitation before the Second World War. In spite of reference to gastropod fauna and isolated finds of small mammals (Vakovsk and Loek 1972), the substantial part of faunal record from the site (except of fossil remains of lions; Sabol 2011) is not evaluated yet.3. Preliminary results3.1. Bojnice I Prepotsk Cave So far (October 2012), the detailed morphometric analysis of vertebrate fossils (more than 350 remains) from the site (Brtas pit III) shows relatively large animal diversity. The whole up to the moment studied assemblage consists of frogs (Anura indet.), birds (cf. Anas querquedula cf. Falco sp., Aves indet.), hares (Lepus sp.), rodents (Arvicola terrestris, Microtus cf. agrestis-arvalis Rodentia indet.), canids (Canis lupus, Vulpes sp., V cf. lagopus), ursids (Ursus sp., U. ex gr. spelaeus), mustelids (cf. Martes sp.), cave hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea ), cave lion ( Panthera spelaea), woolly rhino (Coelodonta antiquitatis ), horse ( Equus cf. germanicus), cervids (Rangifer tarandus, Cervidae indet.), bovids ( Bos primigenius Bison priscus, Bovidae indet.), and woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) (Figs. 2 and 3). Based the taxonomical determination and the sedimentary record, found taxa represents an assemblages that lived probably in open Late Pleistocene environment with the presence of a water area or source (a travertine lake hot travertine spring[-s]) in the near vicinity.Figure 2. Fossils of mammals from the Prepotsk Cave. 1: Equus ferus cf. germanicus (1 P3 sin., 2 P4 sin., 3 M1 sin.,4 M2 sin.), 5: Coelodonta antiquitatis (5 P2 sin., 6 M1 dext.,7 M3 dext.), 8: Bovidae indet., m2 sin., 9: Rangifer tarandus (9 P2 sin., 10 calcaneus dext.), 11: Mammuthus primigenius (molar fragment). Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings193

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From the viewpoint of the quantification of studied mammalian fossils, remains of carnivores (42 %) and perissodactyls (26 %) dominate, althought the largest quantity of fossils (228 bone remains) is undeterminabled (Mammalia indet.) because of their fragmentation. Many of these fragments, however, display marks of biotic agents, such as hyena (bitting, gnawing, and chewing marks) or ancient man (cutting marks and fragmentation due to marrow). Some bone fragments were also attacked by fire with the temperature moving in the range from 300 C to 550 C (based on the colour of bone fragments). The preliminary results allow to characterize the site mainly as a hyena den that was occasionally used by small groups of Neanderthals during their migrations, probably in a warmer period (interstadial) of the Last Glacial. 3.2. Beeova travertine quarry Fossil record from fissures of the Bee ova travertine quarry consists mainly of remains of large mammals that have been found during the exploitation in 1920s and 1930s. The largest portion of fossils comes from rhinos (Rhinocerotidae indet., probably Coelodonta antiquitatis ) (36 %), showing also gnawing marks at some bones. Originator of these taphonomic characters could be hyenas (absent in the fossil record) or a lion-like felid ( Panthera sp. Panthera cf. leo), although fossils of ursid (Ursus sp.) are also known from the sedimenetary fillings of the travertine fissures. The rest of the found mammalian remains belongs to caballoid horses ( Equus sp.), cervids (Cervuselaphus, Megaloceros giganteus Cervidae indet.), and bovids (Bos primigenius and/or Bisonpriscus, Bovidae indet.). So far, the exact age of Bee ova fossil assemblage(-s) is unknown.Although the mid-Pleistocene (Holsteinian?) age of the Bee ova-Ba travertine is assumed (Gradzi ski et al. 2008), vertebrate fossil record found in the rusty karst loam from travertine fissures is younger. Its preliminary analysis indicates a possible existence of minimally two temporal different faunal assemblages the former one probably from the Last Interglacial period and the latter one from the Last Glacial period (maybe from an Interstadial?). The thanatocoenosis of the lower red loam corresponds to a warm humid climate, which was a little colder than at present. Fossils of Clethrionomys and Apodemus (Fejfar in Vakovsk and Loek 1972) indicate a development of mixed forest. From this viewpoint as well as on the basis of found flint artefact, the Bee ov is assumed to be a potential (Middle) Palaeolithic site with the presence of ancient (Neanderthal) man. It could be supported also by a record of partly polished cervid antler with possible cutting marks(?) (Fig. 4). Figure 3. Fossils of mammals from the Prepotsk Cave. 1: Panthera spelaea, m1 sin., 2: Crocuta c. spelaea (2 p4 sin., 3 C sin.), 4: Canis lupus, ulna sin., 5: Vulpes sp. (5 C dext., 6 Mt III sin.), 7: Lepus sp., humerus dext., 8: Arvicola terrestris, mandible dext., 9: Aves sp. I, tarsometatarsus dext., 10: Aves sp. II, tarsometatarsus dext. Scale A (1), scale B (7).Figure 4. Detailed view on the cervid antler part with possible cutting marks produced by an ancient man(?). 3.3. ertova pec and Gnovce As abovementioned, the fossil record from the both sites have been previously evaluated either only in the form of basic palaeontological analysis (Fejfar in Vl ek et al. 1958) or only as a part of the whole collection (Musil 1996). From this viewpoint, a repeated complex evaluation of the fossil record from both these sites is required, using modern taxonomic, taphonomic, isotopic, and dating methods. It will be opened in 2013. On the other hand, a new field research of the ertova pec Cave could yield more exact data on the faunal composition, environment, and climate in the time of existence of the last Neanderthal communities in the Central Europe.4. ConclusionsThe state of the art of Neanderthal palaeoenvironment during the Late Pleistocene in the territory of Slovakia is more or less limited only on basic data from archaeological researches, realized mainly in 1950s to 1970s. Based on Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster2013 ICS Proceedings194

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new scientific approaches and achieved knowledge in connection with data from other scientific fields as well as research methods (taphonomy, forensic (palaeoanthropology, isotopic analyses, and radiometric dating), the solution of some unanswered questions will be important (e. g. What did species live in Slovak territory at the time of the presence of Neanderthals? Which of them did form a forage and material basement of Neanderthals? What was a relationship between Neanderthals and large predators (such as lions, bears, or hyenas; see also Rosendhal and Darga 2004)? How did single phases of the Late Pleistocene in the Slovak Carpathians differ from the viewpoint of climate, palaeotemperature, or composition of faunal assemblages? What were migration paths of fauna and ancient people? etc.). From this viewpoint, the main objectives of the new project are focused on (1) the specification of the Late Pleistocene biodiversity at selected sites, (2) the determination of biotic and abiotic taphonomic agents at selected sites, (3) the reconstruction of climaticenvironmental conditions at the Slovak territory during the Late Pleistocene, (4) the specification of the stratigraphical position of Neanderthal sites selected in the Slovak Carpathians, and (5) the definition of geophysical characteristics of the sedimentary environment and its changes caused by human activity. It can also stimulate a new interdisciplinary field research of prospective localities, such as ertova pec or Bee ov.AcknowledgmentsThis work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under contractAPVV-0625-11 as well as by the Grant Agency for Science, Slovakia (Vega 1/0396/12).ReferencesBnesz L, 1990. Mittelpalolitische kleinfrmige Industrie aus den Travertinfundstellen der Zips Slovensk archeolgia, 38, 45 (in German). Brta J, 1966. Mittelpalolithische Besiedlung des Burgberges und der Hhle Prepotsk jaskynka in Bojnice. Einige beachtenswerte palolitische Fundstellen in der Westslowakei. VIIe Congrs international des sciences prhistoriques et protohiostoriques Tchcoslovaquie 1966, excursion en Slovaquie, Nitra, 10 (in German). Brta J, 1972. Pravek Bojnc od starej doby kamennej po dobu slovansk. Bratislava (in Slovak). Bekessov M (ed.), 2007. Neandertlec z Gnoviec. Podtatransk mzeum v Poprade, Poprad (in Slovak). Bekessov M, Mlyn ikov D, 2009. Gnovce nlezisko neandertlskeho loveka a jeho ivotn prostredie. Katalg pecializovanej expozcie 1969. Podtatransk mzeum v Poprade, Poprad (in Slovak). Gradziski M, Duliski M, Hercman H, Stworzewicz E, Holbek P, Rajnoga P.,Wrblewski W, Kov ov M, 2008. Facies and age of travertines from Spi and Liptov regions (Slovakia) preliminary results Slovensk kras, 46(1), 31. Hokr Z, 1951. Vsledky paleoosteologickch vzkum v SR za rok 1950 V stnk st ednho stavu geologickho, XXVI, 35 (in Czech). Jger K-D, 1989. Aussagen und Probleme radiometrischer Untersuchungen zur Datrierung des Travertins von Bilzingsleben (Kreis Artern) EthnographischeArchologische Zeitschrift, 30, 664 (in German). Kaminsk (ed.), 2000. Hrka-Ondrej. Research of a Middle Palaeolithic travertine locality. Institute of Archaeology of the Slovak Academy of Science, Nitra. Kaminsk 2005. Hrka-Ondrej. Osdlenie spiskch travertnov v starej dobe kamennej Archeologick pamtnky Slovenska Monumenta Archaeologica Slovaciae, 8, 1 (in Slovak). Kaminsk Neruda P, 2010. Revzne spracovanie paleolitickej industrie z vskumov Prepotskej jaskynky v Bojniciach I. 16. Kvartr 2010 Sbornk abstrakt Brno, 13 (in Slovak). Koenigswald W von, Condemi S, Litt T, Schrenk F (eds.), 2006. 150 years of Neanderthal discoveries. Early Europeans Continuity and Discontinuity Terra Nostra, 2, 1. Medveck KA, 1927. Paleolitick jasky a v Bojniciach Sbornk Muzelnej slovenskej spolo nosti, XXI, 10911 (in Slovak). Musil R, 1996. ertova pec a jej fauna Slovensk kras, XXXIV, 5 (in Czech). Petrbok J, 1937. Pta pero z doby ledov na Slovensku Nrodn politika, 28. 8. 1937, Praha (in Czech). Petrbok J, 1939. Je b (Grus sp. cf. cinerea Bechst) v risswrmienskch travertinech na Slovensku P roda, 32 (1), 42 (in Czech). Proek F, 1952. Vzkum Prepotsk jeskyn v Bojnicch v r. 1950 Archeologick rozhledy, IV, 3 (in Czech). Proek F, Loek V, 1951. Sprva o vzkumu kvarteru paleolitickho sdlite v Bojnicch V stnk st ednho stavu geologickho, XXVI, 104 (in Czech). Rosendhal W, Darga R, 2004. Homo sapiens neanderthalensis et Panthera leo spelaea du nouveau propos du site de Siegsdorf (Chiemgau), Bavire/Allemagne Revue de palobiologie, 23 (2), 653 (in French). Sabol M, 2011. A record of Pleistocene lion-like felids in the territory of Slovakia Quaternaire, 4, 215. tepnek O, 1934. Pleistocnn elva bahenn (Emys orbicularis L.) z travertin v Gnovcch. Bratislava, 8, 216 (in Czech). Vakovsk I, Loek V, 1972. To the Quaternary stratigraphy in the western part of the basin Liptovsk kotlina Geologick prce, Sprvy, 59, 101. Vl ek E a kol., 1958. Zusammenfassender Bericht ber den Fundort Gnovce und die Reste des Neandertalers in der Zips (SR). Archeologick stav SA V, Praha (in German). Vl ek E, 1969. Neandertaler der T schechoslowakei. Academia, Praha (in German). Wi niewski A, Stefaniak K, Wojtal P, Zych J, Nadachowski A, Musil R, Badura J. Przybylski B, 2009. Archaeofauna or palaeontological record? Remarks on Pleistocene fauna from Silesia Sprawozdania Archeologiczne, 61, 5.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings195

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PRE-HISTORIC REMAINS AT THE CRREGO DO CAVALO FARM, PIUMH, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZILMariana Barbosa Timo1, Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos2, Bruno Duro Rodrigues3 1Spelayon Consulting, Masters Degree Student at the Graduate Program in Geography, PUC Minas, Av. Dom Jos Gaspar n. 500, Corao Eucarstico, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 30535-610, Scholarship Provided by CAPES, mariana.timo@gmail.com2Doctor in Karstology, Researcher and professor at the Graduate Program in Geography, PUC Minas, Av. Dom Jos Gaspar n. 500, Corao Eucarstico, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 30535-610, luizepanisset@gmail.com3Master in Geography, Doctorate Student at the Graduate Program in Geography, PUC Minas, Av. Dom Jos Gaspar n. 500, Corao Eucarstico, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 30535-610, Scholarship Provided by CAPES, The distribution of human occupation in Brazil is not a new subject. Neither is the fact that in the country, remains of past occupation are very common in carbonate karst areas. For this reason, during the field studies for the geomorphological mapping of a future natural reserve, remains of prehistoric occupation where found. The region of the Crrego do Cavalo farm, which is mainly drained by the Barreado creek, is located at the west portion of the Speleological Karst Region of Arcos-Pains-Dorespolis and is famous for its archaeological potential. The municipality, known for increasing mining activites, urges for the identification of such sites in order to preserve them as much as possible. In this work, the authors identified a total of 51 caves in the research area and 7 of them contain significant archaeological remains. Considering the archaeological remains identified in the study area, and their spatial distribution, one can infer that the region was occupied by prehistoric communities due to the fact that these traces are distributed along the 2,913 km2of the study area. These traces should be treated as important documents that should lead to the understanding of the ecological and cultural relations of these prehistoric group and/or goups. 1. IntroductionThe idea of an Environmental History began to emerge in the 1970s, succeeding the first global conference on environment, and also the growing environmental movements in various countries. Its main goal was to deepen the understanding of how humans were, over time, affected by their natural environment and, conversely, how they can affect the environment. In very simple terms the Environmental History deals with the role and place of nature in human life (Worster 1991). Therefore, according to Oliveira (2007) in order to understand the processes that promote landscape transformation, Environmental History rest on two pillars which constitute the landscape: culture and territory. Canedo (2009) afirms that one can understand culture through three fundamental concepts. First, on a wider sense, where all individuals are producers of culture being nothing more than a set of meanings and values of human groups. Second, as the intellectual and artistic activities with a focus on production, distribution and consumption of goods and services that makes up the system of the cultural industry. And the third concept states that culture can be perceived as a tool for political and social development. The term territory has important associations with the term power, since territories are formed primarily from relations of power. Territoriality remains associated with the relations of power and presents itself as an attempt to establish a territory (not always concrete) through well-defined borders (Lisboa 2007). For Worster (1991), besides the above described, Environmental History must also consider the concepts of the natural sciences. This is due to the fact that this type of analysis must always start with the reconstruction of past landscapes, seeing how they were and how they worked before being modified by human groups. Thus, the environmental historian must relate the development of various civilizations with some concepts of the natural sciences such as ecology, geology, geomorphology, pedology and climatology, for example. The authors of this paper also think that Kasrtology and Speleolgy can play an important role in this analysis. Understanding the dynamics of ecosystems also requires an understanding of how social and ecological factors interact, and how these interactions are continuously modified (Fraga and Oliveira 2011). As Prof. Yuan Daoxian, a renowed kasrtologist from China would say, comprehending karst dynamics is also very important to better understand the complexities of human use of karst. Worster (2011) says that scientists tell us that a natural ecosystem has a role, so everything influences the functioning of the whole. Inversely, all things are affected by being in an ecosystem. In this line of thought appears the term techno-environment (or the application of technology to the environment) as the core of any culture. This is the most important influence on how people live with each other and think their world. According to Oliveira (2007), the changes that occur in this process concern the landscape transformation. Within this interdisciplinary vision, the integrated study of Environmental History can bring valuable benefits to understanding of landscapes transformation, particularly on very current issues such as global climate change, biodiversity losses and landscape fragmentation. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings196

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Therefore, over time, the succession of these uses leave marks, spatializes itself and overlaps as paleoterritories a concept proposed here as a part of the process of succession and defined as the spatial distribution of the ecosystems used by past populations in search of their conditions of existence. Hence, the paleoterritory is an anthropogenic variable of abiotic and biotic processes that influence the development of forests regeneration, for exemple. In this case, traditional cultures play a decisive role (Oliveira 2007). Similar to the concept of paleoterritory one can suggest the term palimpsest (concept used to describe a papyrus in which the original text was scraped to make way for a new one) to characterize the constant search of geomorphology, karstologyu and speleology for scars, tracks or secrets hidden in the landscape. The historic features of the landscape constitute a significant factor in its evolution, which reflect how human relationships influence their occupation (Fraga and Oliveira 2011), the same way that the control of the landscape is made by interactions of terrestrial geosystems (Press et al. 2006). For all these reasons, this paper is intended to demonstrate that a not well known prehistoric group and/or goups used a specific karst region in the south portion of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.2. Study areaThe study area, (aprox. 2,913 km2) is located at the Crrego do Cavalo Farm, between the municipalities of Dorespolis, Pains, Pimenta and Piumh (Fig. 1), cities at the west portion of Minas Gerais State (IBGE 2010). With a tropical climate subjected to dry winters, the average annual temperature registered is 20.7 C. July is considered to be the coldest month with an average temperature of 16.3 C, and January the warmest one with an average of 23.3 C. The local annual average rainfall is arround 1,344 mm (Meganesse et al. 2011). The vegetation cover in the study area is transitional, with fragmentsof Atlantic Rain Forest and Cerrado, knonw as the Brazilian Savannah. The main typology observed associated with limestone is the Seasonal Decidous Forest (Barbosa 1961). The vegetation displayed on the study are is also called Dry Forest, mainly associated with the karst relief, composed by typical features such as dolines, ponors, outcrops, and karren (Fig. 2), for example (Timo et al. 2012). Regarding the study area hydrography, the Crrego do Cavalo Farm is located in the portion of the Upper So Francisco river portion. The surface drainage area is controlled by the Patos Creek, a tributary of the So Francisco river. The Patos creek has its flow from south to north, with its source near the city of Pimenta. It flows reaching the So Francisco river near the city of Iguatama. The main tributaries of the left bank of Patos Creek are the Cavalo Creek and the Barreado Creek. The Cavalo creek, which delimits the cities of Piumh and Pimenta, flows to the Patos Creek in the study area. The most representative watercourse in the study area is the Barreado creek which has much of its flow in the underground. For this reason are frequent many sequences of sinks and resurgences, carved in calcarenite lenses. The gradual lowering of the local base level provides today, access to these conduits that are actually a series of caves arranged in the path of this watercourse. Localy they are known as the Barreado System. Therefore, resurgences and sinks are the most significant features of exokarst, occurring abundantly in the region (Campelo and Pizarro 2004). A system of karst lakes or ponds is also connected to the Barreado Creek. These are located in solution dolines. Collapse dolines can also be seen in the study area, and its upper edges are between altimetric elevations that rage from 700 to 720 m. The region of the Barreado creek basin is located in the western portion of the Speleological Karst Region of ArcosPains-Dorespolis (SKRAPD), placed in the Block of Patos creek (Bloco do ribeiro dos Patos)as the main geomorphological compartiment of this province. The most important karst features of the Barreado creek are the large massive limestone outcrops (heavily oriented in NWSE direction), plus a set of caves with conduits structured along axial planes in hinge zones of asymmetric folds with preferential direction to NE. In this system, 51 caves were found and explored, with slopes greater than 10 m and horizontal developments up to 1,000 m. These numbers are important considering the average size of caves in the SKRAPD. The high hydraulic gradient in place has a significant importance to local speleogenesis, with the predominance of ancient caves interconnected due to the drop of groundwater level. Caves like the Loca dos Pescadores, Loca da Mureta and the Gruta dos culos are examples of caves related to the current water level. It is also noteworthy in the region, the vast potential of archaeological findings. According to Timo et al. (2012), 7 caves out of the 51 found had prehistoric archaeological remains characterized by lithic hatchet remains, pottery and pottery shards.3. Prehistoric occupation at the Crrego of Cavalo FarmAccording to Toledo and Molina (2007), cited by Fraga and Oliveira (2011) the environment in which human societies produce (or reproduce) the material conditions for their existence are to be considered as a kind of social metabolism. These authors proposed the study of social metabolism based on five processes: 1) appropriation, 2) transformation, 3) distribution, 4) consummation and, 5) excretion. From the perspective of the landscape, one can consider that archeology is dedicated to the study of human societies, by the remaining set of materials. In other words, the material culture, its arrangement, and especially, its location in the Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster2013 ICS Proceedings197

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landscape in which established historical and environmental relations (Orejas, 1998). Accordding Orejas (2008), the material culture is understood as the group of physical evidence resulting from human activity such as its artifacts and remains of its manufacturing, housing structures, urban centers, manifestations of art, food waste, and the modified environment, among others.Figure 1. Topographic map of the research area: Crrego of Cavalo Farm, karst region of Arcos, Pains and Dorespolis, Minas Ger ais, Brazil. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings198

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These traces should be treated as documents, vectors of information that leads to the understanding of the ecological and cultural relations of prehistoric peoples. In this perspective, all structures or material remais, as well as its articulation with the natural and modified environment, or the landscape itself, are potentially significant for the reconstitution of cultural processes from the past. Regarding the suty area, one can say that the richness of the archaeological remains identified in it is enormous. Its natural caves function as true time capsules (Prous, 1992), which preserves these remains allowing the establishment of occupation sequences of prehistoric groups who inhabited the region The number of identified archaeological remains in the region suggests that it was occupied by a prehistoric group (or groups). According to the proposal of social metabolism, this community has used the region and its available resources in order to survive in the karst. The availability of water resources in the area is an important factor for the establishment of this particular group (or groups). The entire area is drained by perennial and seasonal streams which probably was the same setting in the past. In the site one can also found raw material for the production of pottery bowls that were used in ceremonial burials, as well as for storing food and water. Furthermore, most of the caves have large euphotic zones where light are present during the all day. This characteristic would be very important for human occupation in cave entrances since in Brazil it is not commom to find remais of deep cave usage by prehistoric peoples. Neverthelessit is noteworthy the existence o cave art in dark zone in the caverna das mos, in the state of Par, Brazilian Amazon. This occurrence was registered by Travassos, Rodrigues and Motta (2012). Finally, for the group or groups of the Crrego do Cavalo Farm, caves provided also a privileged view of the region. This strategic position in the territory could facilitate some kind of control in this area. Currently, the vegetation of the area is very modified, mainly by human activities such as deforestation for the expansion of grazing areas for cattle. Dry Forests only can be observerd on carbonate outcrops, possibly spared (a priori) by its position in the rocky escarpments and over its tops, inappropriate and incompatible with livestock activity.Figure 2. General aspect of the karst area. Flooded doline with limestone outcrop in the back (Photo: Marco Tulio Magalhes). Figure 3. Archaelogical remains at the Loca dos Pescadores. The GPS serves as a scale with 15 cm near pottery fragments (Photo: Mariana Timo). Figure 4. Surgency at the Barreado creek, near to the Loca dos Pescadores (Photo: Mariana Timo). Figure 5. Archaelogical remains at the Gruta da Lamparina. The scale has 7 cm and is near a broken bowl (Photo: Mariana Timo). Figure 6. Archaelogical remains at the Gruta da Lamparina. The scale has 7 cm (Photo: Mariana Timo).Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings199

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The remains were found during the studies for the development of a geomorphological map of the area and, therefore, one can say that it is necessary further and in depth studies performed by professional and academic archaeologists in order to better understand these evidences.AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank ICAL Indstria de Calcinao Ltda. for allowing the researches in the area, and also the scholarships provided CAPES, the Brazilian Government Agency responsible for coordinating the improvement of graduate personnel.ReferencesBarbosa GV, 1961. Noticias sobre o Karst na Mata de Pains. Boletim Mineiro de Geografia, (2), 3. Boulet R, Kohler HC; Filizzola HF, 1992. Estudo da Cobertura Pedolgica de uma Vertente Adjacente Uvala do Conjunto Crstico da Lapa Vermelha de Pedro Leopoldo, MG. Proc. III Congr. ABEQUA, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 59. Cabral DC, 2011. O que uma Floresta? Natureza, Materialismo e Dialtica Scionatural. Anais do XXVI Simpsio Nacional de Histria ANPUH, So Paulo. Campello M; Pizarro A, 2004. Caracterizao Geoespeleogica da Poro Sul da Bacia do crrego do Barreado, Municpios de Pains, Piuh, Pimenta e Dorespolis MG. Anais do 42 Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia. Available at: cbg/2004-ARAXA/14_770_CAMPELLOMS.pdf. Canedo D, 2009. Cultura o Qu? Reflexes sobre o Conceito de Cultura e a Atuao dos Poderes Pblicos. V ENECULT Encontro de Estudos Multidisciplinares em Cultura, Salvador BA. Available at: Fraga JS; Oliveira RR, 2011. Social Metabolism, cultural landscape, and social invisibility in the forests of rio de Janeiro. In: Canevacci, M. Antrophology, Rijeka: Ed. Intech Open Acess Publisher, no prelo. Ibge Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatstica. 2008. Mapa de Vegetao do Brasil. Avaliable at: biomas.pdf. Karman I, Snchez LE, 1979. Distribuio das Rochas Carbonticas e Provncias Espeleolgicas do Brasil. Espeleo-Tema, (13), 105. Lisboa SS, 2007. A Importncia dos Conceitos da Geografia para a Aprendizagem de Contedos Geogrficos Escolares. Revista Ponto de Vista, Colgio de Alpicao Coluni, UFV, Viosa, (4), 23. Meganesse LN, Gonalves JM, Fantinel LM, 2011. Avaliao das Disponibilidades Hdricas da Provncia Crstica de Arcos-Pais-Dorespolis, Alto So Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil. XI Congresso Brasileiro de guas6. ConclusionAccording to the abundance of archaeological remains, the region of the Crrego do Cavalo Farm can be analyzed by the concepts of Environmental History. It seems that this karst area offered ideal conditions for the survival of a prehistoric group (or groups), demonstrated by the amount of material found and its spatial distribution along its 2,913 km2. It is important to emphasize that this work is a preliminary approached which inteded to show the importance of the region, and not all pictures of the artifacts were inserted due to size limitations. Figure 7. Intact pottery at the Gruta dos culos. One can see some incrustations over the artifact, giving some idea of its old age (Photo: Mariana Timo). Figure 8. Detailed image of the pottery from figure 5 at Gruta dos culos. The artifact was removed from the cave by an Archaeologist from the municipality of Pains. As scale, the flashlight on the right of the image has 30cm. (Photo: Mariana Timo).Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings200

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Press F, Siever R, Grotzinger J, Jordan TH, 2006. Para Entender a Terra, Trad. Rualdo Menegat (coord.) et al. Ed. Bookman, Porto Alegre, RS. Prous A, 1992. Arqueologia Brasileira. Ed. Unb, Braslia, 605. Roldan LF, Wahnfried ID, Klein DA, 2004. Breve Abordagem Geolgica das Provncias Espeleolgicas do Brasil. Redespeleo Brasil. Available at: Travassos LEP, 2010. Contribuies Cientficas do Professor Dr. Heinz Charles Kohler para a Geomorfologia Crstica Tropical Brasileira. Sociedade & Natureza, Uberlndia, 22(3), 625. Viadana AG, 2008. A classificao fisionmica de Kuechler empregada na definio dos padres vegetacionais do cerrado. Estudos Geogrficos, rio Claro, 103. Worster D, 1991. Para Fazer Histria Ambiental. Estudos Histricos, rio de Janeiro, 4(8), 198. Subterrneas. Avaliable at: http://www.aguassubterraneas. Miranda, E. E, 2005. Brasil em Relevo. Campinas: Embrapa Monitoramento por Satlite. Available at: Oliveira RR, 2007. Mata Atlntica, Paleoterritrios e Histria Ambiental. Ambiente & Sociedade, Campinas, (X), 11. Orejas A, 1998. El estudio del Paisaje: visiones desde la Arqueologia. Arqueologia Espacial Arqueologa del Paisaje, (19), 9. Timo et al., 2012. Relatrio da Anlise de Relevncia das Cavidades Identificadas na Fazenda crrego do Cavalo, Piumhi MG. Spelayon Consultoria ME, 361. Travassos LEP, Rodriques BD, Motta ARS, 2012. Representaes rupestres em cavernas arenticas de Rurpolis, Par: uma primeira aproximao. Olam: Cincia & Tecnologia, UNESP, Rio Claro, (12), 5. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster2013 ICS Proceedings201

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ANATOLIAN CAVES IN STRABOS GEOGRAPHICAAli Yama OBRUK Cave Research Group; Acikhava Apt. 16/7, Nisantasi, Istanbul, Turkey Only a small part of the written works of Ancient Greece, Rome and Byzantium which could reach today is about geography. The works of Pliny, Pausanias and Strabo are the most important ones among them. In the works of these authors, some caves that they happened to see or hear are mentioned. Yet, these sources need to be approached carefully because many superstitious, myth and hearsays are available in such ancient geography books as in various other books written in ancient history. Among all these books, the most comprehensive work about the Anatolian geography is the Geographica written during 7 AD by Strabo who was born in Turkey, ancient Amaseia. This is a general book of geography consisted of 17 books; and its 12nd, 13thand 14thvolumes are completely about Anatolia. Strabo, in these three books, mentions 7 caves that he sees or hears. Today, some of the 7 caves which is mentioned in Strabos book is still unknown but, some others are among the most important ones of Turkey. Those 7 caves mentioned in Geographica, written by Strabo, will be analysed in this poster presentation and the transformation of them within 2,000 years will be shared.1. IntroductionSome of the written works beginning from Ancient Greece and Rome to Byzantium and Middle Ages which could reach today is about geography, and these books give us invaluable information about the nature of that region. In a way, we can regard them as the priceless sources of nature history written hundreds of years ago provided that we search them carefully. We say on condition that we search carefully because many superstitious, myth and hearsays are available in such geography books as in various other books written in ancient history. There are a few different books telling Anatolian geography. On the other hand, Geographica by Strabo is one of the primary resources and the one which lays the largest place to Anatolian geography. This is a general book of earth geography consisted of 17 books; and its 12nd, 13thand 14thvolumes are completely about Anatolia. Although there are some pieces of papyrus available dated to 100 AD, most of the the manuscripts, which are about 30 today, are all the copies from Middle Ages. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus (modern Amasya of Turkey) at 64 BC. His life was characterized by extensive travels. He journeyed to Egypt and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and time spent in Rome. Travels throughout the Mediterranean and Near East, especially for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus (27 BCAD 14). Strabo moved to Rome in 44BC, and stayed there, studying and writing, until at least 31 BC. Its been known that around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile, reaching Philae. It is not known precisely when Strabos Geographica was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some authorities place its first drafts around 7 AD, others around 18 AD. In addition to Strabo, in the works of Pliny, Pausanias and some other classical authors, there are various information about Anatolian caves. Analysing all those ancient resources and travel books of the people wandering around that land hundreds years ago in terms of speleology will open new horizons to us for the future.2. Anatolian Caves in Strabos GeographicaStrabo mentioned 7 different caves in his three books about Anatolia. Interestingly, though he had travelled most regions of Anatolia, he had mentioned only 7 caves and 6 of them are on the south of Maeander River, the area with nearly no limestone and the 7. Cave is on the Mediterranean shore. The caves of Anatolia from Strabos Geographica are: Book 12. Chapter 8. Section 16. Above the city lies Mt. Cadmus, whence the Lycus flows, as does also another river of the same name as the mountain. But the Lycus flows under ground for the most part, and then, after emerging to the surface, unites with the other rivers, thus indicating that the country is full of holes and subject to earthquakes. The abovementioned Mt. Cadmus is Mount Honaz, in the South east of Denizli. Lycus River, namely rksu today, on the other hand, flows from the west and unites with Menderes River near Sarayky in the west. Yet, this river flows in the narrow canyons in the most parts; even in a small canyon in front of the Colossae ruins near Honaz town, which gives its name to the mountain. However, as far as we know, it has no underground course. We say as far as we know because there is no underground course in the Honaz part of the river but the parts before arriving Honaz Town of the river have not been researched in detail. Book 13. Chapter 4. Section 14. while the Plutonium, below a small brow of the mountainous country that lies above it, is an opening of only moderate size, large enough to admit a man, but it reaches a considerable depth, and it is enclosed by a quadrilateral handrail, about half a plethrum in circumference, and this space is full of a vapour so misty and dense that one can scarcely see the ground. Now to those who approach the handrail anywhere round the enclosure the air is harmless, since the outside is free from that vapor in calm weather, for the vapor then stays inside the enclosure, but any animal that passes inside meets instant death. Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster2013 ICS Proceedings202

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The cave that Strabo is mentioning is namely Hierapolis Plutonium today which is in Denizli/Pamukkale, and in the South of Hierapolis Theatre. Later on, Apollon Temple was built on the structure. According to the report of Italian School of Archaeology, Apollon was joining Kybele who is the most important goddess of the region before Helen. The cave, closed with the collapse of the temple, was excavated and found again in 1964. Today, after the restoration, it can be seen almost as Strabo mentioned. On the entrance of the cave, there is a marble niche dated to Roman period. In spite of the fact that the poisionous vapor that Strabo mentioned now has become fairly less compared to the past, the entrance was still closed with a handrail. Book 14. Chapter 1. Section 8. This mountain lies above Heracleia, and at a high elevation. At a slight distance away from it, after one has crossed a little river near Latmus, there is to be seen the sepulchre of Endymion, in a cave. Today, we definitely know the cave which we suppose that Strabo mentioned. There is a mansion which is remoured to be Endymions on a point near lake, under the ruins of Temple of Athena in Kap kr Village on the shore of Bafa Lake. On the other side, it is quite surprising that Strabo did not mention several important caves which were discovered by Anneliese Peschlow in the area and only mentioned one cave that he thought to be the sepulchre of Endymion within. Book 14. Chapter 1. Section 11. Thence, within four stadia, one comes to a village, the Carian Thymbria, near which is Aornum, a sacred cave, which is called Charonium, since it emits deadly vapours. Unfortunately, we do not know the exact location of this antique town. However, in the light of the data from the other narrations of Strabo, we can say that this settlement is between Avsar Village and Ske, near Byk Menderes River. In Anatolia, there are many different caves called Charonium dedicated to Charon who carries the deads to Hades with his boat in the underground river Styx, mentioned in Greek Mythology. Book 14. Chapter 1. Section 44. On the road between the Tralleis and Nysa is a village of the Nysaeans, not far from the city Acharaca, where is the Plutonium, with a costly sacred precinct and a shrine of Pluto and Core, and also the Charonium, a cave that lies above the sacred precinct, by nature wonderful; for they say that those who are diseased and give heed to the cures prescribed by these gods resort thither and live in the village near the cave among experienced priests, who on their behalf sleep in the cave and through dreams prescribe the cures. The place of Acharaca is not precisely known. In the excavations carried years ago in Salavatl Village near Ayd n, Sultanhisar, the sacred precinct, Pluto and Core shrines were also discovered. Yet, other Charonium which he mentioned to be just on the upper part of the mentioned temple is unavailable. George Bean, in his work Turkey Beyond Maeander, talks about a sulfureous river called Sarsu in a deep and steep valley in the west, and states that the dejective foldings on the rocky slopes of the valley may be the places used instead of a natural cave. Numerous dedications to this cave in the ancient resources show the place as a significant religious point. Book 14. Chapter 1. Section 45. Thirty stadia from Nysa, after one crosses over Mt. Tmolus and the mountain called Mesogis, towards the region to the south of the Mesogis, there is a place called Leimon, whither the Nysaeans and all the people about go to celebrate their festivals. And not far from Leimon is an entrance into the earth sacred to the same gods, which is said to extend down as far as Acharaca. What is surprising is that no cave could be found in this area despite the detailed description whereas the place of Leimon is even if roughly known. The city is estimated to be in the South of Ayd n, Sultanhisar, near Karahay t Village today. What is more, the land is smooth aluvial soil which is not available for the formation of any caves. Book 14. Chapter 5. Section 5. and to Crambusa, an island, and to Corycus, a promontory, above which, at a distance of twenty stadia, is the Corycian cave, in which the best crocusgrows. It is a great circular hollow, with a rocky brow situated all round it that is everywhere quite high. Going down into it, one comes to a floor that is uneven and mostly rocky, but full of trees of the shrub kind, both the Figure 2. Hell and Heaven caves (after Aygen T 1984). Figure 1. Location map of 6 caves of Strabos Geographica: 1) Mount Honaz, 2) Pamukkale, 3) Bafa Lake, 4) Avsar Village, 5) Salavatl Village, 6) Karahay t Village.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings203

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evergreen and those that are cultivated. And among these trees are dispersed also the plots of groundwhich produce the crocus. There is also a cave here, with a great spring, which sends forth a river of pure and transparent water; the river forthwith empties beneath the earth, and then, alter running invisible underground, issues forth into the sea. It is called Picrum Hydor. This is namely Heaven Cave today, near Silifke. There is an underground river reaching Mediterranean Sea after flowing a few more kilometers from the deepest point of doline, which is 70 m depth and 200 m width. In this cave, the only change within hundreds of years from the narrations of Strabo to-day is that there is no more a crocus in the cave and a church built during the Byzantium period. It is also very surprising that Strabo, who mentioned Heaven Cave in such a detail, did never mention other doline, Hell Cave, which has nearly the same depth as the Heaven Cave and only 50 metres far from this doline, but however he had mentioned Picrum Hydor, namely Dilek Cave today, which is nearly two kilometers far from these two dolins.ReferencesAygen T, 1984. Trkiye Ma aralar (Caves of Turkey), stanbul Bean GE, 1989. Turkey Beyond the Maeander, London. Peschlow AB, 2006. Tarih ncesi nsan Resimleri, Istanbul. Strabo (Translated by Jones HL), 1929. Geography, Vol. VI, Books 12-13-14, Loeb Classical Library No. 223, London. Syme R, Birley A, 1995. Anatolica: Studies in Strabo, Oxford.Archeology and Paleontology in Caves poster 2013 ICS Proceedings204

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EXPLORATION, PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF KARST CAVES: GOOD AND BAD PRACTICESJean-Pierre Bartholeyns UIS Karst and Cave Protection Department Patrijzenstraat 16, 3078 Everberg, Belgium UIS Adjunct Secretary Commission Wallonne dEtude et de Protection des Sites Souterrain, Belgium, Power Point presentation (75 diapositives with 85 photographs) illustrating good and bad practices in protection of cave exploration and discovery management.1. IntroductionAll natural areas deserve protection; the karst ecosystem and the caves in particular, because of their sensitivity and fragility, need more. The caves with their sparkling and thousand-year-old landscapes and the karstic underground environment in general, can for various reasons be rapidly and irreparably devastated. The thoughtless exploration of recently discovered cavities or the wild but not managed visits of superbly sintered networks in a considered way can be one of the causes. It will form the gist of this lecture. This is astonishing because discoverers and plunderers are nevertheless all cavers!2. Pictorial demonstrationNo wishful thinking, but specific and realistic proposals. No nonsense, all reports and all suggestions are illustrated by photographs that are sometimes astonishing or comical. No long speeches, the pictures even speak for themselves; the sad truth of the before and after photographs. The topics and subjects taken on in the 85 pictures deal with graffiti, staining and breaking of concretions following the cavers passing through, wanton destruction, carbide,Figure 1. Drawing realized by Franquin for the Commission de Protecction des Sites Splologiques (Belgium). bivouacs, leaving behind of waste and pollution which they generate, and looting and sale of concretions. The problem of the closings and the doors caves should not be looked at as such because they are there for a reason and are not there to annoy cavers. Advices, tricks, easy ways and alternatives are often suggested to avoid, heal or overcome the problems encountered during the explorations. Take care, because to foresee is better than to repair; this takes much time and a lot of patience. This is not a reason to feel guilty, depressed. Despite all these negative aspects, caving remains a wonderful experience and the ultimate integration of nature, adventure, sport and science.3. ConclusionWithout cavers, there would be no caves! Their discoverers are their best protectors. Cavers, they who discover the jewels of the underground world, must remain the attentive protectors of this fragile and irreplaceable collective inheritance. As such, they must always be regarded as essential and impossible to circumvent partners in the management and the protection of the karstic environment. Generations of young cavers are now educated continuously for caves and karst are respected. Together now trying to remove the stigma left over the years by their predecessors unconscious.Copyright and acknowledgementsPaul De Bie of the Splo Club Avalon Belgium, initiator of this reflexion. To the cavers all over the world who replied to my search for pictures. To the Commission Wallonne dtude et de Protection des Sites Souterrains. To Karen Sobol for her immeasurable linguistic support. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings207

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Figure 2. Sensitization poster at the Postojna cave entrance (SLO). Figure 3. High-Tech cleaning. Grotte du Pre Nol (BE) Photo: Paul De Bie. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings208

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PROPOSAL TO ESTABLISH GEOTURISTIC TRAILS AT THE MONUMENTO NATURAL ESTADUAL GRUTA REI DO MATO, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZILFelipe de vila Chaves Borges1, Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos2, Fernando Alves Guimares3 1Geographer, Masters Degree student at PUC Minas, Graduate Program in Geography, PUC Minas, Av. Dom Jos Gaspar n. 500, Corao Eucarstico, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 30535-610. Environment technicianat Brandt Meio Ambiente, felipeacborges@gmail.com2Doctor in Karstology, Researcher and Professor in the Graduate Program in Geography, PUC Minas, Av. Dom Jos Gaspar n. 500, Corao Eucarstico, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 30535-610, luizepanisset@gmail.com3Geographer, undergraduate of PUC Minas University, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, In recent decades humanity has experienced various changes in its relations with the environment. Since the 70s, several environmental movements have emerged around the world, highlighting the importance of preserving natural resources. In this context, more recently, the terms geodiversity, geoconservation and geotourism have been adopted to help conserve the geological heritage of our planet. Thus, the creation of Conservation Units, such as parks and natural monuments such as the Monumento Natural Estadual Gruta Rei do Mato (Natural State Monument Rei do Mato Cave) have emerged as an attempt to preserve an important karst area. Its regional context appears as a landscape with caves and limestone outcrops that host traces of South American prehistoric man. This paper aims to propose the creation of geological and educational trails in this monument, in order to help increase karstological knowledge. Field missions have been carried out, and four geosites identified and proposed, each with its specific points of geomorphological interest. Such points of interest have been linked in each geosite to form trails of different difficulty degrees for access and natural heritage interpretation. Finally, the idea is the proposal of a type of field school to help teachers and students better understand karst and cave dynamics.1. IntroductionThroughout the second half of the 20thcentury and the first decade of this century, concern about environmental issues has been raised, with natural resources being more valued. Several movements promoted by civil society, members of universities and political authorities throughout the world have, thus, encouraged and fought for environmental preservation, sometimes at the expense of economic development and sometimes combined with the idea of sustainable development. In the fields of geography and geology, studies about environmental issues have recently proposed the terms geodiversity geotourism and geoconservation (see Brilha 2005; Gray 2004; Hose 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000; Sharples 1993, 1995, 2002). These terms have been created to demonstrate the importance of various physical aspects of the environment, the need to preserve them, and also, the desire to spread information about their importance. In this context, this study aims to propose geological and educational trails with the use of interpretive resources for different target audiences at one Brazilian Conservation Unit (UC) called Monumento Natural Estadual Gruta Rei do Mato (MNGRM) or, in English, the Natural State Monument of Rei do Mato Cave. Such trails would provide what are referred to in this work as a field school that will help teachers and students better understand karst and cave dynamics. Consequently, it has been necessary to undertake research, to identify geosites and places of geomorphological interest, in order to identify areas likely to become trails which could link different sites and also enhance the knowledge of tourists or students on geological, geomorphological, archaeological and cultural aspects of each identified place. Located in the northern portion of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, capital city of the State of Minas Gerais, the MNGRM remains susceptible to uncontrolled human activities that can be detrimental for the natural environment. The present mining activities in the vicinity of the highway BR-040 and the urban occupation of Sete Lagoas city can endanger the preservation of the Natural Monument. It is believed that the work would help planners better use the area by promoting environmental awareness among the people visiting the site. Such awareness should not only make visitors care about the Monument, but also about other similar karst areas. In addition, visitors will be able to spread ideas and strengthen the case for conservation by causing authorities to increase supervision and enforce environmental legislation.2. Study AreaThe Natural State Monument Rei do Mato Cave is located in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais (Fig. 1). Bordered by two main roads, the conservation unit is about 60 km from the state capital, Belo Horizonte. The regions climate is tropical semi-humid with rainy summers and dry winters. Average high temperatures of 29.2 C can be registered with the minimum annual average being 22.1 C. The annual rainfall ranges from 1,200 to 1,500 mm (CPRM 2010). The hydrographic network of the region is part of the So Francisco river and Paraopeba river sub-basins. Being located over limestone rocks, the site presents sinks and underground systems which support groundwater storage and movement. 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3. MethodsThe methodological procedures adopted to achieve the proposed objectives can be best understood by splitting them into three stages: the first refers to the period prior to the completion of field missions; the second refers to field missions; and the third corresponds to the post-field missions. 3.1. Pre-field Missions During this step the authors conducted a bibliographical review to better explore the concepts and principles of geodiversity geotourism and geoconservation. The authors also reviewed papers regarding different techniques to be used in making pedagogical and/or geological trails and how to promote the physiographic characteristics of the study area. Satellite images were used and provided by Google Earth (free version). A mosaic of 1:5,000 images was made, in order to better orientate the field missions. 3.2. Field Missions The authors considered the field missions as the most important and crucial stage of the research. Four field missions took place, and the researchers used GPS (Garmin The city of Sete Lagoas, as well as the Natural State Monument, is located in the geological macrostructure called So Francisco craton, a geotectonic province corresponding to the western part of the Congo/So Francisco craton, which occupies the center of Western Gondwana and was originally split into two by the opening of the South Atlantic (Almeida 1977). One can find carbonate rocks of the Bambu Group, Sete Lagoas Formation, there. Also lateritic and alluvial deposits can be seen (CPRM 2010). The Monument is near the convergence of two geological units of the Bambui Group: the Serra de Santa Helena Formation (northern portion) and the Sete Lagoas Formation (the southern portion). The first is marked by the presence of mudstones and siltstones. The second has limestone rocks, medium gray to dark gray in color and rich in organic matter (CPRM 2010). The terrain is characterized by typical karst features with ponors, sinks, dolines, blind valleys, karren and caves. The predominant vegetation in the area is dry forest, otherwise known as Deciduous Seasonal Forests, associated with large areas covered by carbonate rocks. The Cerrado vegetation or Brazilian Savannah can also be found in the northern part of the Monument in the areas covered by the Serra de Santa Helena Formation. The touristic structure of the State Monument is composed of an auditorium with capacity for 120 persons, exhibition areas, a small cafeteria, office and administrative area, restrooms, locker rooms and an exclusive parking area for approximately 200 vehicles. The Rei do Mato cave, the main attraction, is a show cave currently lighted by LED technology. The area of the monument is noted as an important archaeological and paleontological site on the register of rock paintings and ceramic artifacts. Prehistoric burial can also be located in the vicinity (MINAS 1984 apud Soares 2007).Figure 1. Location map of Minas Gerais, Sete Lagoas, and the Natural State Monument of Gruta Rei do Mato. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings210

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eTrex Vista HCx), the mosaic of GoogleEarth images of the study area (scale of 1:5,000), digital cameras, helmets, lights and field notebooks. The first mission was exploratory and intended to identify main places of geomorphological interest, and also points of archaeological, cultural and historical significance. These points were registered, photographed and marked in the GPS. The routes tracked by the GPS were also saved. The other field missions aimed to identify other possible routes for the trails and were also saved for future analysis. The expected time for each probable trail was also recorded. 3.3. Post-field Missions In this step, the first action was to organize a database with the information collected in the field including the name, geographic location, elevation, description, time spent and photographic records of each trail and point identified. The identified paths and the points stored in GPS were introduced in the software in TrackMaker 7.13, which allowed the conversion from *.gtm extension to *.shp to be used in ArcGIS 10 licensed for academic use at PUC Minas University. After calculating the length of each trail, maps were produced. According to the time spent, length, and difficulty of each trail, the authors decided to differentiate the level of access and complexity of the interpretative resources to be developed. To elaborate the interpretative resources of the identified sites, various proposals were made to be printed as signs (2 m 1.2 m). In these prototypes various types of information regarding coordinates, location map with satellite image, altitude, geological and geomorphological information are recorded. Due to their size and numbers, these have not been included here, although one example is shown in Fig. 2.4. Results and DiscussionsBased on the conducted field missions, the authors have proposed different trails with different places of geomorphological interest (Table 1). Geosites have beenFigure 2. Example of one of the panels explaining the process of doline formation. Source: Research data. Table 1. Geosites, Trails and Points of Geomorphological Interest. Source: Research data. POINTS OF GEOMORPHOLOGICAL INTEREST TRAIL NAME GEOSITE Rei do Mato Cave/Gruta do Rei do Mato Limestone Towers/Clover cave/Torres Calcrias e Gruta do Trevo Stonebreaker Massif/Macio do Britador Climbing Massif/Macio das Escaladas Gruta do Trevo Trail Stonebreaker Trail/Climbing Trail Gruta Rei do Mato Trail Grutinha small cave Gruta Rei do Mato Rei do Mato cave Torre Crstica I Karst tower I Torre Crstica II Karst tower II Torre Crstica III Karst tower III Gruta do Trevo Clover Cave Macio explorado por minerao massif exploited by mining activity Dolinas de Abatimento Collapse dolines Processo de dissoluo do calcrio Solution process of limestone Sumidouro, rea de recarga do Carste Ponors Expresses Culturais: Bob Marley e Nossa Senhora Cultural expressions: Bob Marley and Our Lady Abrigo da Macumba Macumbashelter Figure 3. Proposed trails and points of geomorphological interest. Source: Research data. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings211

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the authors to propose a panel containing information about the attractions of this trail: The Grutinha (small cave), which is an important archaeological site, and the Gruta Rei do Mato, a karst cave with rare types of speleothems (Fig. 4 and Fig. 5). This trail crosses the geosite named Gruta Rei do Mato. The trail is paved with stones and, according to data obtained by GPS, has an approximate length of 291 meters. The cave can be reached leaving the tourist installations of the Natural Monument, passing by the Grutinha (small cave) after 248 m, at which point the panel relevant to this trail should be installed. The altitude along the path varies from 858 to 885 meters and the average time spent by the tourists is 50 minutes, including a visit to the Rei do Mato cave. The return is made by taking the same path. Due to its short length, structure and the fact that it has the largest and most famous geomorphological landmark, the trail is most often visited by people with no knowledge of Earth Sciences. For this reason, the authors have decided to develop an interpretative resource that does not require specific knowledge of karst geomorphology or geology. This trail can be used by any kind of audience, including elementary school students. Moreover, the access conditions favor its classification as easy level. 4.2. Gruta do Trevo Trail This trail is the second proposed by the authors. It leaves the tourist center and has its end in the Clover Cave (Gruta do Trevo), near the highway BR-040. Besides the existing clearings along its route, there is no formal touristic structure. On the trail, normally used in educational or promotional events of the Natural Monument, are four places of geomorphological interest: Torre Crstica I Karst tower I, Gruta do Trevo Clover Cave (with some rock paintings Fig. 6), and two other limestone towers in the back of the Clover Cave called Torre Crstica II Karst tower II and Torre Crstica III Karst tower III. The proposed trail is 777 meters in length from the parking area to the Clover Cave and the second and third karst towers. The first karst tower is located about 520 meters away from the parking area and the altitude of the trail varies from 848 to 865 meters. The average time spent is proposed for all four trails (Fig. 3). Three trails of different difficulty levels of access and educational interpretation have been identified (Rei do Mato Cave, Limestone Towers/Clover cave, Stonebreaker Massif and, Climbing Massif). Twelve places of geomorphological interest have been selected and seven interpretation panels were developed as prototypes. 4.1. Gruta Rei do Mato Trail The Rei do Mato cave trail is the only one that already exists and is in regular operation. However, the route of this trail is lacking any interpretative resource, which has causedFigure 4. Entrance of Gruta Rei do Mato the small poles at the entrancemeasure approximately 1m and can be used as scale reference. (Photo: Felipe Borges.) Figure 5. Twin columns at the end of the tourist path of Gruta Rei do Mato. (Photo: Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos.) Figure 6. Rock Art: representation of a deer in Gruta do Trevo. (Photo: Felipe Borges.) Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings212

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one hour and a half. As with the first trail, the return takes the same route back. Due to the longer length of the trail, the absence of touristic structures and a certain degree of knowledge and abstraction for the interpretation of how karst towers are formed, this trail has been classified as intermediate-level. Those exploring this trail should possess some prior knowledge of Earth Sciences (high school students and others interested in the subject). Two features panels have been developed, one to be located near the first karst tower and the second near the Gruta do Trevo (Clover Cave). 4.3. Stonebreaker Trail / Climbing Trail The third trail is considered the longest and most complex. The hike can be started from the tourist center, but it is recommended it start in another location, outside the limits of the Natural Monument. The trail can be divided into two sections. One starts in an old disabled limestone quarry (locally known as stonebreaker or britador) near the State Highway MG238. The second section, which can also be considered another trail, is linked to the first one as a single route, due to complex geological, geomorphological and structural features. When starting the Stonebreaker Trail/Climbing Trail, it is recommended to follow two directions. The first, towards the west, takes the group to two places of geomorphological interest: the Macio explorado por minerao (massif exploited by mining activity) and the Dolinas de Abatimento (Collapse dolines) (Fig. 7), located in the geosite Stonebreaker Massif/Macio do Britador.Figure 7. Collapse boulders inside the collapse doline. It is believed that the collapses occurred due to quarrying activities. (Photo: Lucas Zenha.) After studying this geosite, the group should return to the beginning and move towards the east, starting the trails at the Climbing Massif/Macio das Escaladas geosite. This path contains four places of geomorphological interest: 1) Processo de dissoluo do calcrio solution process of limestone, 2) Sumidouro, rea de recarga do Carste Ponors of karst, 3) Expresses Culturais: Bob Marley e Nossa Senhora cultural expressions: Bob Marley and Our Lady; and 4) Abrigo da Macumba Macumba shelter. The Stonebreaker Trail/Climbing Trail extends 1,969 meters from the Collapse dolines to its end. The altitude varies from 800 to 835 meters and the average time to complete its path is approximately two and a half hours. The distance between each place of geomorphological interest relative to the starting point of this trail is outlined in Table 2. Much of the trail occurs in areas very close to the massif and is covered with dense vegetation.Table 2. Distance between each place of geomorphological interest relative to the starting point of this trail. Source: Research data. DISTANCE FROM THE TRAIL STARTING POINT (METERS) 173 POINTS OF GEOMORPHOLOGICAL INTEREST Macio explorado por minerao massif exploited bymining activity 390 Dolinas de Abatimento Collapse dolines 1,012 Processo de dissoluo do calcrio limestone solution process 1,037 Sumidouro, rea de recarga doCarste Ponors of karst 1,019 Expresses Culturais: Bob Marley e Nossa Senhora cultural expressions: Bob Marley and Our Lady 1,422 Abrigo da Macumba Macumba shelter To better inform visitors about the complex phenomena of the area, four interpretative panels have been created. The first one refers to the Macio explorado por minerao massif exploited by mining activity and should be installed in front of this outcrop. It contains information about the formation of karst massifs, mining activity and its impacts on karst. The second panel refers to the point called Dolinas de Abatimento Collapse dolines, and should be installed in front of the dolines. For the places of geomorphological interest called Processo de dissoluo do calcrio Limestone solution process and Sumidouro, rea de recarga do Carste Ponors of karst one panel has been made taking into account the physical constraints found in the area. A similar factor occurs with the places of geomorphological interest called Expresses Culturais: Bob Marley e Nossa Senhora Cultural expressions: Bob Marley and Our Lady and Abrigo da Macumba Macumba shelter. Due to space limitations and the possibility of damaging some places, it was decided to make a single panel for the two to be installed in the area in front of Abrigo da Macumba Macumba shelter. Another factor that encouraged the authors to merge these two places into a single panel was their cultural aspect: sacredness. Although the interpretative resources help the tourist and/or students understand the importance of each place, given the level of knowledge required on this trail, it would be necessary to have an expert on karst to guide the group. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings213

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Considering the length, difficult access, high level of knowledge needed to understand the karst phenomena developed in such places of geomorphological interest, this trail has been classified as high difficulty. Earth Science knowledge is needed to better understand the site. It is recommended for undergraduate and graduate students of disciplines related to Environmental Sciences and Earth Sciences, such as geography, geology, biology.5. ConclusionsThis study has aimed to propose a field school activity in Natural State Monument Gruta Rei do Mato to help disseminate the knowledge of Earth Sciences, in general, and karst geomorphology, in particular. The authors have also tried to highlight some geological and geomorphological attributes of the Natural Monument, in order to help with the conservation of its geological heritage. Four geosites, which are the main objects of three educational trails, have been proposed. For each trail the authors have identified places of geomorphological interest totaling twelve points. The tracks have been characterized in terms of their location, extent and average time spent. The level of knowledge required for the interpretation of each place of geomorphological interest has also been identified. For the interpretation of these places, the authors have proposed information panels containing the main features of local interest regarding the geological, geomorphological, speleological, archaeological and cultural aspects of the region. It is the authors desire to implement this project in conjunction with the staff of the Natural Monument, in order to disseminate knowledge of karst using the principles of geodiversity, geotourism and geoconservation. Organizing such actions could be also a way to enhance the social and economic development of the region through well-planned geotourism. The tools and techniques of primary data acquisition and GIS have proven quite useful for making the tourist trails and educational proposals. It is important to mention that a second phase of this study must be carried out in order to study the possible environmental impacts of the proposed trails. Since this is a preliminary work of an issue still under development in Brazilian karst areas, the identification of carrying capacity of each trail has not yet been made.AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank Margaret Keeney who kindly improved the English of this work.ReferencesAlmeida FFM, 1977. O Crton do So Francisco. Revista Brasileira de Geocincias, 7, 349 (in Portuguese). Brilha J, 2005. Patrimnio Geolgico e Geoconservao: A Conservao da Natureza na sua Vertente Geolgica. Palimage Editores, Viseu (in Portuguese). CPRM Servio Geolgico do Brasil, 2010. Projeto Sete LagoasAbaet, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (in Portuguese). Gray M, 2004. Geodiversity: Valuing and Conserving Abiotic Nature. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, England. Hose TA, 1995. Selling the Story of Britain`s Stone, Environmental Interpretation, 10 (2), 16. Hose TA, 1996. Geotourism, or Can Tourists Become Casual Rockhounds? In: MR Bennett, P Doyle, JG Larwood and CD Prosser (eds). Geology on your Doorstep: the Role of Urban Geology in Earth Heritage Conservation. London, Geological Society, 207. Hose TA, 1997. Geotourism Selling the earth to Europe. In, K Marinos and T Stournaras (Eds), Engineering geology end the Environment. Balkema, Rotterdam. Hose TA, 2000. European Geotourism geological interpretation and geoconservation promotion for tourists. In: D Barettino, WAP Wimbledon, E Gallego (Eds.). Geological Heritage: its conservation and management. Madrid, Spain, 127. Soares CES, 2007. A rea de Proteo Especial Estadual da Gruta Rei do Mato e os Aspectos Inerentes a Utilizao Turstica dos Recursos Naturais e Culturais. Final Proc. XXIX Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia, Ouro Preto, Brazil, 281 (in Portuguese). Sharples CA, 1993. Methodology for the Identification of Significant Landforms and Geological Sites for Geoconservation Purposes. Report to the Forestry Commission, Tasmania. Sharples C, 1995. Geoconservation in Forest ManagementPrinciples and Procedures, Tasforests, 7, 37. Sharples C, 2002. Concepts and Principles of Geoconservation, Tas manian Parks and Wildlife Service Web,$FILE/geoconservation.pdfProtection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings214

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF SHOW CAVES: NEW MATERIALS AND METHODSArrigo A. Cigna UIS-SSI, Str. Bottino 2, I-14023 Cocconato, Italy, The fundemental criteria presently adopted are the protection of the cave environment, the safety of the visitors and a correct profit from the cave management. Recent years have seen a veritable plethora of innovations and concepts relating to the best cave management, which are here pointed out. New criteria for the application of new materials and an up-todate methodology for the best development of show caves are reported.1. IntroductionThe development of a wild cave in order to obtain an easier way started many ten thousands of years ago when our ancestors decided to use the caves for their ceremonies. Obviously at that time the main scope was to obtain a reliable result with the simplest intervention. Probably some steps carved into a steep soil are one of the earliest examples (Fig. 1). If the consequence to the environment was negligible the step life was acceptable only if their use was limited to a small number of people. Similar interventions continued for a long time, but only more recently the interventions on wild caves became more relevant when the aim was the development of a cave into a show cave to be visited by a large number of persons.Figure 1. The prehistoric (6000 years b.C.) staircase in the Grotta dei Cervi di Porto Badisco, Italy (Photo Cigna). Excavations, demolition of some formations, construction of pathways became widespread and the advantage for the visitors prevailed to the protection of the environment. Only in the last tens of years the protection of the environment was taken into due account to make a choice among different solutions. This paper has the scope to describe the up-to-date solutions provided by the most advanced technology.2. The development of a show caveThe fundemental criteria presently adopted are the protection of the cave environment, the safety of the visitors and a correct profit from the cave management. All such criteria must be taken into account otherwise the development would have very negative effects. As David Summers (2012) stated, the worst fate that can befall a cave is for it to be developed as a show cave, then for it to fail as a business entity, and be closed. The cave becomes very vulnerable to misuse. Therefore the show cave nust not be profitable for the short term, but perpetually. The view that a show cave is a golden goose laying golden eggs implies that the goose must be properly fed and protected. This means that is necessary to having all of the knowledge and awareness regarding the physical needs of the cave to ensure that its environment is preserved and conserved. Recent years have seen a veritable plethora of innovations and concepts relating to the best cave management, which are here pointed out.3. Materials3.1. Conventional materials 3.1.1. Surface infrastructures Buildings, with the ticket office, direction, guides, souvenirs, etc., were built as close as possible to the cave entrance. The same criteria were followed for the car and bus parking, which were asphalted. Often these areas were close to the cave and, in particular, above the cave itself, with the consequence of avoiding the rainwater percolation. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings215

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Occasionally only, wood was used for bridges and staircases because of its decay in a wet environment (Fig. 3). Its use in ice caves was frequently adopted because it is less slippery and the organic decay is absent in this special environment. In temperate temperature caves wood becomes an important food source altering the cave biota. 3.1.3. Lighting The lighting candles, torches and oil lamp were successfully substituted by electric lamps in the XXthCentury. Unfortunately the overall luminous efficiency of incandescent lamps is no higher than 5% the rest of the energy being released as heat. This fact implies an unwanted release of energy to the environment and a higher cost of the power supply. 3.2. Modern materials 3.2.1. Surface infrastructures The siting of the above ground facilities must be well planned by avoiding that these features be built over the cave itself, or relevant parts of it. In particular any intervention such as the watertight surface of a parking area must be avoided. Any change in the rainwater seepage into a cave as well any change to the land above the cave may have a negative influence on the cave and the growth of its formations. 3.2.2. Pathways In the last tens years new material were developed with incredible advantages with respect to the past. In particular the pathways can be built entirely with plastics. The material used for the pathways, including the railing and kickplate, are manufactured by a pultrusion process. It is is a continuous molding process whereby reinforcing fibres are saturated with a liquid polymer resin and then carefully formed and pulled through a heated die to form a part. Pultrusion results in straight constant cross section parts of virtually any shippable length.where continuous fibreglass roving and mat is covered by resin. The resin used for handrails is, e.g., isophtalic polyester and the resin used for other components is vinil ester. Both have a low flame spread rating of 25 or less. These materials are delivered in various colours, avoiding, e.g., the brightness of the stainless steel that is not aesthetically agreeable. 3.1.2. Pathways The first developments of show caves had a minor impact on the environment because in general the pathways were obtained by carving some steps into the rock in order to decrease to a minimum the displacement of material into or out the cave. Also formations, mainly flowstone, were excavated to allow an easy transit of visitors. A further improvement was obtained with concrete (reinforced when necessary) for steps and floor. This material has no adverse effects on the cave environment because from a chemical point of view has the same composition of limestone. The iron or steel used to reinforce the cement could sometimes cause breaks when got rusty. The handrails in stainless steel were also a convenient solution, particularly when they were also used as pipes to provide water in different parts of the cave to wash out the pathways. The higher cost of stainless steel was justified by a lack of any maintenance also after many years of operation Cigna et al. 2000). Sometimes zinc plated iron structures solved the problem of providing pathways in difficult situations as overcoming cave passages at a level higher than the lower floor or negotiating upwards or downwards a pothole or a big hall (Fig. 2). It must be stressed that zinc is toxic for cave fauna and therefore it is acceptable only in caves with an important water flow that assures a good dilution of any zinc release.Figure 2. Zinc plated iron parhways in the Su Mannau Cave, Sardinia, Italy (Photo Cigna). Figure 3. Wooden staircase in Grotta di Trebiciano, Trieste, Italy, These staircases have been initially installed in 1894 during the investigation for providing water for Trieste. The platforms (top in the photo) were installed one century ago in pitchpine treated with copper sulfate and carbonileo (Photo Maizan/SAS). Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings216

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These components have abot one-third the weight of steel allowing easy installation using standard circular or sabre saws. Stainless steel bolts connect the different parts. Such pathways may be easily repaired or modified to adapt to new layout if necessary. Since the mechanical properties of this materials are very close to steels properties it is evident the advantage because also long sections can be easily transported inside a cave, while the different parts can be easily woked out with simple instruments. 3.2.3. Lighting Nowadays very efficient light sources have been developed. The most useful in caves are the LEDs and the cold cathode lamps (CCL). Both are characterized by a very long life of 50,000 hours and longer. The LEDs cost from 20% to 100% more than CCLs for the same results. In Table 1 a comparison among the overall luminous efficiency (as lumen/watt) per input power for incandescent lamps (ILs), LEDs and CCLs. The advantage of the new light sources is evident both for the cost of lighting and the long life of the lamps. But these new sources have specific qualities of their own. LEDs are point sources while CCLs are linear. LEDs may be choosen with different temperature colour, i.e. warm (with a red component) or cold (more white). CCLs may be produced with a negligible contribution of their emission spectrum in the regions (around 430 nm and 640 nm), which mostly contribute to the chlorophyllian process. In this way the proliferation of lampeflora is reduced. The emergency lighting can be obtained at a very low cost with the rope light i.e. a flexible plastic polymer rope with lights in inside that can be cut at a convenient length and placed along the pathways (Fig. 4). In particular such emergency lights can be divided into two sections distributed alternatively and connected to two different power lines in order that, in case of a failure of one section, there will always be another one in operation. Such a kind of lighting can also supply enough light to the pathways in normal conditions, and special features only must have additional light sources. 3.2.4. Environmental monitoring In the past a complete network to supply environmental data to a central computer was considered a best solution data to a central computer was considered a best solution to be achieved. But it was experienced that such a network might be convenient for larger caves only. The main problems being a relatively high cost (installation and maintenance) and the danger of damages due to lightning, which may discharge high tension peaks on the line connecting the sensors with the main computer.Table 1. Indicative comparison of the overall luminous efficiency per input power for different lamps (lm/W). Lamplm/W Incandescent (IL)15 Light emitting diodes (LED)45 Light emitting diodes (LED)67 Figure 4. The emergency lights placed along the edge of the pathway in the Grutas de Bustamante, Mexico (Photo Cigna). A less expensive solution, which is also more robust, is obtained with a sumber of stations whose data are download, e.g., once a month, and the elaboration is carried out in a computer outside the cave without any harware connection. In addition to the usual parameters (temperature, relative humidity, etc.) radon became a relevant issue due to the regulation in some countries requiring a monitoring of its concentration in air on a yearly basis. The scope is the evaluation of the yearly average dose to cave guides to be kept below a given value, otherways this personnel woub be classified as professionally exposed and implying a number of constraints for the cave managers (Cigna 2005). The most suitable detector is the etched track detector because it is unaffected by humidity, may be kept to record the average concentration up to one year and their cost is very low. Other detectors do not comply with such characteristics and, in general, should be avoided.4. Methods4.1. Conventional methods 4.1.1. Pathways In the past the layout of the passages was simply obtained on the spot according a procedure quite similar to that adopted for the staircase of Fig. 1. Later, the use of concrete and the escavation into the rock of formations required a more detailed preparation. 4.1.2. Lighting The layout of the lighting network was often left to local electricians, resulting in a bundle of cables close to the passages, with the lamp sometimes attached to cave walls or formations. 4.2. Modern methods 4.2.1. Pathways The design of fibreglass pathways needs a detailed survey of the strip where the pathway its self will be installed, because each element can be prepared in advance according Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings217

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the design. During the assembly of the pathway the legs require only small adjustment that can be easily obtained with sliding feet. 4.2.2. Lighting The power supply must comply with both the country rules, which at present are in general rather severe and the aesthetic requirements. The plastic pathways may host below the platform and along the legs, pipes with the cables of the power supply. The cable network may be somewhat more complex than in the past because in general only the parts of the cave occupied by visitors should be switched on. The power supply of the emergency light should be splitted into at least two independent sections as reported above. 4.2.3. Other networks In case of a complete network to supply environmental data to a central computer, as well as the telephone, cables run into other pipes. To improve visitors safety, a special network enabling a guide to talk with the outside office from any point of the cave would be strongly advisable. 4.2.4. Visitors carrying capacity As it is well known, caves may beclassified caves into widely different energetic categories. Heaton (1986) proposed three categories: high-energy, moderateenergy, and low-energy levels. In order to avoid any permanent change in the environmentl equilibrium it is necessary to avoid the introduction of energy beyond the intrinsic cave capacity. Such a constraint implies a limitation of both electric power supply for the cave lighting and the visitors flow, i.e. the visitors carrying capacity. This limit may be evaluated according different methods and specialists only are entrusted to carry out the whole procedure according the best choice to be applied to each local situation (e.g.: Mangin et dHults 1996; Lobo et al. 2013).5. ConclusionsThe UIS Management Guidelines for Show Caves are very useful recommendations, if not a list of the least requirements, for a good development and management of a show cave. But such guidelines do not include the principle that it is imperative to keep oneself always up-todate with the advancement of technology. But it is also important to have an open mind and not to stick to old solutions when something new and more reliable becomes available. Since technology is evolving so fast, it is often impossible to suggest or recommend the best solutions because in the meantime an important improvement has already occurred. In addition to the new materials and methods reported above, any data collection might be of little or no use at all in the absence of persons who have the capacity to take advantage of the data themselves. Probably a good Scientific Committee abreast of the management is the most important tool to assure a good development of a show cave. In any case the members of such a committee must obviously have a deep competence in their specific fields of interest but also a good knowledge of the cave environment is instrumental.AcknowledgmentsThe author is grateful to dr. Daniela Pani for the revision of the English text and to M.Restaino and S. Dambrosi for providing the vintage picture of the Trebiciano cave.ReferencesCigna AA, Cucchi F, Forti P, 2000. Engineering problems in developing and managing show caves.J. Nepal Geological Soc., 22: 85. Cigna AA, 2005. Radon in caves. International Journal of Speleology, 34, (1): 1. Reprinted also in the Proc. of the 6thISCA Congress, 2006: 8318. Heaton T, 1986. Caves. A Tremendous Range in Energy Environments on Earth. National Speleological Society News, August: 301. Lobo HAS, Trajano E, Marinho MdeA, Bichuette ME, Scaleante JAB, Scaleante OAF, Roche BN, Laterza FV, 2013. Projection of tourist scenario onto fragility maps: Framework for determination of provisional tourist carrying capacity in a Brazilian show cave. Tourism Management, 35: 234. Mangin A, DHulst D, 1996. Frquentation des grottes touristiques et conservation. Methodes dapproche pour en tudier les effets et proposer une rglementation. In: Cigna A.A. (ed.) BOSSEA MCMXCV, Proc. Int. Symp. Show Caves and Environmental Monitoring, Cuneo, Italy: 137. Summers D, 2012. Address delivered at the ISCA Conference 2012, Greece-Turkey, 4 November 2012 (in print).Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings218

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QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SHOW CAVES: THE MANAGEMENT EVALUATION INDEX (MEI)Arrigo A. Cigna1, Daniela Pani2 1UIS-SSI, Str. Bottino 2, I-14023 Cocconato, Italy, arrigocigna@tiscali.it2SSI, Via Gherardo delle Notti 13, 09121 Cagliari, Sardinia (Italy), Show caves management should meet two basic criteria: the protection of the environment and the profit. The protection of the cave environment has been the prerogative of many initiatives, which have been reported in many examples. A first editing of the show cave management guidelines already started at once with the foundation of the International Show Caves Association (ISCA) in November 1989, and the most updated version is presently headed by the Union International de Splologie (UIS). The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology for a quantitative assessment of a show cave management level. The Management Evaluation Index (MEI) calculation procedure based on the definition of indicator scores is here described. Some application examples referring to show caves from all over the world are reported.1. IntroductionShow caves management should comply with at least two basic principles: the protection of the environment and the profit. These two principles shall apply simultaneously with no conflict. In the view of ensuring and improving standards of financial income, both the best environmental preservation and the high-quality management represent at once the main goals of show cave managers. In other words, a show cave represents the chicken with golden eggs that needs regular feeding. Sometimes, however, the immediate profit prevails mainly due to the shortsighted attitude of undervaluating further possible dangers for the cave. Around middle of the last Century, several attempts were made in supplying management recommendations for preventing cave spoiling risks, however common. During the 3rdInternational Congress of Speleology in Vienna (Austria) in 1961, Gordon T. Warwick presented a paper on cave protection. At that time, the main threats to caves were represented by large engineering workings, as roads, railways, tunnels and quarries. The regulations of the Cave Preservation Society of Great Britain, founded on September 1953, were attached to the paper. These rules, still fully applicable, include two subjects about the outside cave environment, and 18 focused on the inside. Later, during the 4thInternational Congress of Speleology in Postojna in Slovenia, a Symposium on show caves was organised. Two paper contributions (Gurnee 1971 and Petrochilos, 1971) included some information on good management rules for both correct visitor behaviour and criteria of development of a show cave. During the same Congress, the opportunity to establish a Commission for Show Caves was discussed within the newborn Union Internationale de Splologie. During the following 5thInternational Congress of Speleology, held in Stuttgart in 1969, the Commission was indeed established and became operative during the successive International Congresses. In the meantime, an International Congress on the Scientific, Technical and Economical Aspects of Show Caves was organised in Borgio Verezzi, Italy. The UIS Commission for Show Caves guidelines for the correct development of show caves was included in the proceedings (AA., 1982; page 352). As a matter of fact, it was the contribution by show caves all over the world to be instrumental to many scientific researches, against the widespread belief that a show cave is a lost cave for science. Such contributions give a great support to science, although the relatively small amount of funds available as compared as the whole budget of the cave management.2. The guidelines evolutionWhen the International Show Caves Association (ISCA) was founded in November 1989, the opportunity of supplying show cave managers with a document listing what should be done and what should be avoided, particularly for the protection of the cave environment was again taken into account. Meanwhile, a similar initiative was jointly developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Union Internationale de Splologie (UIS) and presented at the 11thInt. Congress of Speleology in Beijing, China, in 1993 (Watson and James 1993). Under the coordination of ISCA, a draft of the Management Guidelines for Show Caves was submitted to the attention of stakeholders and presented at the 14thInternational Congress of Speleology of Kalamos, Greece in 2005. After relevant contributions by the members of the Scientific and Technical Committee of ISCA, the document was then shared with the Union Internationale de Splologie (UIS) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature and natural Resources (IUCN-WCPA). This release was presented at the 15thInternational Congress of Speleology of Kerrville, Texas, USA in 2009 (Cigna 2009). Due to several objections and economical reasons, during the 6thISCA International Congress of Liptovsk Mikul, Slovakia, in October 2010, the General Assembly of ISCA Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings219

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Index (KDI) based on a framework encompassing physical, biological, and social aspects, and the evaluation of a number of indicators for each category. Each category should encompass detailed attributes: geomorphology, atmosphere that deals with air quality; hydrology that includes surface practices influencing water, mineralogy/ore and ore deposits Subsequently a sustainability index for Karst environments was also described (Van Beynen et al. 2012). A similar approach was recently adopted to evaluate the indoor cave environment with particular emphasis to mine caves (Pani and Cigna 2012). Since the implementation of the Management Guidelines for Show Caves requires different time intervals depending on the local situations, a system to obtain a quantitative evaluation is here described. A Management Evaluation Index (MEI) for show caves can be determined by applying the indicator scores composing did not formally approve the final release of the document. Since the prevalence of economic interests on widely acclaimed scientific principles, adding risks for the cave environment, is not an acceptable policy, the UIS Karst and Cave Protection Department took on further Guidelines updates, by the contribution of its Scientific Committee and allowing their dissemination within the show caves domain. These Guidelines must be assumed as recommendations to the show caves managers. Consequently it should be admitted that some show caves, presently operated, require some time for the implementation. Therefore the full adoption of the Guidelines should be considered as a goal to be achieved together by both the protection of the environment and the socio-economical constraints.3. Quatitative evaluationAs reported above, in terms of cave management, the environmental sustainability emphasises the interrelated nature of economic, social and environmental factors, and the need for an integrated approach that recognises their interconnection and interdependency. Central to environmental sustainability is the notion of ecological thresholds, where human-induced changes can push a natural system beyond the point of recovery. Van Beynen and Townsend (2005) proposed a procedure for reducing the outdoor cave system to elements easy to be studied by the evaluator, so that the human-induced effects on caves can be measured. They proposed a Karst DisturbanceTable 1. Indicators matrix for show cave management index. Category Previous study Acces and pathways Visitors Surface Cave environment Attribute Suitability Synergy Conflict Funding Entrance Cave structures and deposits Materials Lighting Lighting network Flow Ecosystem Cleaning Monitoring Fauna Management Indicator Access to the cave Close-by attractions Local facilities Partners Access Formations Pathways and other facilities Light sources Lamp position Light spectrum Lampenflora Power supply Sections Capacity Adventure tourism Disturbance Frequency Climate parameters Protection Cave managers Guides 0123 Difficult None Very important No interest Artificial, no air locks Wide destruction Wood Incandescent lamps Close to walls and direct light No limitations Widespread No emergency Single network No limitations Free Totally modified Never No monitoring None Not competent No school Poor Little Relevant Indifference Artificial, poor air locks Some damage Some wood Halogen lamps Close to walls and no direct light Some limitation Some cleaning One emergency power supply Some portions not automatic switching To and from trail With one guide Many interventions Some time Few stations Food in cave allowed Some competent Some education Fair Some Little Some interest Artificial, fair air locks Little damage Concrete High efficiency No close to walls and some direct light Fair limitation Frequent cleaning More emergency power supply Many portions and not automatic swithing Round trail With two or more guides Few interventions Some time and water disposal Many stations Only for bats Fairly competent Some education and foreign languages Perfect High value None High interest Artificial, good air locks No damage Sainless steel or plastics LEDs No close to walls and no direct light No emission forchlorophilian processAbsent More emergency power supply and many sections Many portions and automatic switching Compilance with capacity With guides and strict trails Pristine Frequent and water disposal Many stations and scientific committee Any species protected Fully competent Good educations and foreign languages Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings220

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CategoryAttributeIndicatorFrasassi CaveKartchnerCango CaveAven Armand (IT)Cave (USA(SA)(FR) Previous study SuitabilityAccess to the cave2323 SynergyClose-by attractions1213 ConflictLocal facilities2333 FundingPartners1313 Access and pathways EntranceAccess13-*3 Cave structuresFormations 2 3 0 3 and deposits MaterialsPathways and2.5 2,5 2.5 2.5 other facilities LightingLight sources 0 2.5 1,5 2 Lamp position 1 2 0,5 2 Light spectrum0 2 1 1 Lampenflora 1 2 0.5 1 Power supply 1 3 2 1 Lighting networkSections 1 3 0 2 Visitors Flow Capacity 0 3 3 2 Adventure tourism1 3 3 3 Surface EcosystemDisturbance 3 3 3 3 Cave environment CleaningFrequency 1 3 1 1 MonitoringClimate parameters0 3 2 0 Fauna Protection 0 3 3 3 ManagementCave managers0 3 3 3 Guides 1 3 3 MEI = 34 94 60 71 Cango Caves has a natural access without any tunnel the matrix, as reported in Table 1. This indicator matrix was built according to the UIS Management Guidelines for Show Caves (Cigna 2009). The index is obtained by tallying all of the indicator scores ( In) and dividing this sum by the highest possible score (=3), multiplied for the number (N) of applicable indicators considered. The resulting value ranges between 0 and 100: In*100 MEI = (1) N*3 A mean score, as e.g., 2.5, typically applies as intermediate value, for instance when concrete and stainless steel are used at the same time for pathways and other facilities. A higher value of MEI indicates a good management assessment. Values below 40, therefore, suggest a rather poor compliance with an acceptable management level, values up to 60 correspond to a management that can be conveniently improved, while values starting from 60 to 100 confirm a good management.Table 2. Management Evaluation Index for: Frasassi C. (IT); Kartchner C.(USA); Cango C. (SA), Aven Armand C. (FR). 4. ExamplesThe method here described aims to provide an objective evaluation of a show cave management quality after its development. It is well known that, during its life, the management of a cave may change both in positive and in negative way, and monitoring this evolution might be useful. Following, the application of the assessment matrix to four show caves located in different parts of the world and with different levels of management is reported as an example. These are: the Frasassi Cave (Italy), the Kartchner Caverns (Arizona, USA), the Cango Cave (South Africa), and the Aven Armand (France). The results are reported in Table 2. While starting the development of the Kartchner Caverns in the Arizona National Park, the Frasassi Cave was designated as the best example of a show cave management, therefore visited and analysed in detail. Cango Cave is one of the oldest show cave in the world, where also protection criteria were applied. The rather low value obtained by the Frasassi Cave, which is the most important show cave in Italy, confirm the decay of its management in the last tens of years. This downside aspect unfortunately was already clear to anyone familiar with the cave. Kartchner Caverns has been developed following very strict plans during both the engineering works inside the cave, and successively the opening to visitors. This cave has kept its top position in the show caves management list. Cango Cave started to be visited in the XIX Century and, therefore, it suffered some lack of knowledge about the environmental protection criteria. In particular, the lampenflora spread out in some part of the cave to the point that it is not possible to further clean out the walls. The socio-economical situation of the Country, unfortunately, led to some decrease of routine management. The Aven Armand is one of the most important French show cave. Its development started in 1927 and was successively improved according to the best protection criteria. The Management Evaluation Index as applied to the four mentioned caves (Table 2) is, respectively: Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings221

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Frasassi Cave (Italy) 34 Kartchner Caverns (Arizona, USA)94 Cango Cave (South Africa)60 Aven Armand (France) 71 Score 34 for Frasassi Cave merely means that significant changes of management are required for a positive assessment; a MEI equal 60 for Cango Cave means the need of few actions for rising to a proper level that the most important show cave of the country should hold. Scores 71 and 94 for Aven Armand and Kartchner Caverns respectively highlights a quite good cave management, the latter being just at the top of the classification.5. ConclusionsIt is often assumed that the development of a cave into a show cave does not mean at all that the cave itself is lost for science: this is not always true. Show cave managers, conversely, have provided an instrumental support for the achievement of important scientific investigations. The development of a show cave implies many actions, which could negatively affect the cave environment. The management guidelines quoted above give a general indication for a suitable protection of the cave environment and the visitors safety; their level of implementations must be, however, evaluated. It must be also emphasised that a continuous effort to keep up to date the management to avoid the risk of serious mistakes, is required. The Management Evaluation Index (MEI) here described can be considered as a useful tool to supplying quantitative and objective data. This procedure might be applied by the organisations interested in the cave environment protection to evaluate the level attained by any show cave.AcknowledgmentsThe authors are grateful to Bob Casavant, Andr David, Hein Gerstner, and Steve Mouton for their invaluable help to provide some additional information on the present management of show caves.ReferencesCigna AA, 1982. Atti Convegno internazionale sugli aspetti scientifici, tecnici ed economici delle grotte turistiche. Borgio Verezzi 20 Marzo 1981. Le Grotte dItalia, s.4, X: 1. Cigna AA, 2009. The ISCA Management Guidelines for show caves. Proceedings 15thInt. Congr. of Speleology, Kerrville, Texas, USA, 2: 1085. Cigna AA (Ed.), 2002. Monitoring of caves Conclusions and recommendations. Acta Carsologica, Slovenska Akademija Znanosti in Umetnosti, Ljubljana, 31 (1): 175. Gurnee RH, 1971. Conservation through commercialization. Proc. 4thInt. Congr. Speleology, Ljubljana 1965, 6: 10914. Pani D, Cigna AA, 2012. The paradox of cave mine conservation. Proceedings of the 2ndInt. Symp. On Mine Caves, 26 April 20012, Iglesias, Italy (in print). Petrochilos A, 1971. Amenagement touristique de grottes.Proc. 4thInt. Congr. Speleology, Ljubljana 1965, 6: 119. Van Beynen Ph, Townsend K, 2005. A Disturbance Index for Karst Environments, Environmental Management, 36(1), 10116. Van Beynen Ph, Brinkmann R., Van Beynen K., 2012, A sutainability index for karst environments. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 74(2), 221. Warwick GT, 1965. Cave conservation in Grat Britain. Proc. 3 Int. Congr. of Speleol., Vienna 1961, 4: 9917. Watson J, James J, 1993. A world wide network on cave protection and Management. Proceedings of the XI Int. Congr. of Speleology, 2 August 1993, Beijing, China: 201.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings222

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CAVE LIGHTING PROJECT: THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF MODERN SUBTERRANEAN TOURIST ATTRACTIONS A SPELEOLOGISTS POINT OF VIEWAlexander Chrapko, Larisa Utrobina GermTec GmbH & Co. KG (Cave Lighting Project), Hohe Strasse 700 Geb. 5B, 35745 Herborn, Germany,, This presentation tells about eight year experience of GermTec GmbH & Co in equipping (development and maintenance) modern subterranean tourist attractions. Here are just a few tourist attractions we equipped: HerbstlabyrinthCave (Germany), FundataCave(Romania), PostojnskaJama(Slovenia), GrottedeClamouse(France), PrometeusCave, Georgia, HllgrottenCave(CH), WendelsteinCave(Germany). We are going to talk about problems arising when operating a cave for a long time on a daily basis, as well as strategies and tactics in their solution. We are presenting tried-and-true modern technologies and equipment, which allow minimizing the harm caused by anthropic interference when operating a cave. The objective of this presentation is to attract attention of speleological society towards the problems in running speleological tourist attractions. We would also like to present technical and technological innovations which can help to preserve show caves.1. IntroductionToday, there are more than three thousand operating subterranean tourist attractions, located all around the world. On average, three to five new ones open to the public every year. Due to the high demand of quality service, in modern society, show caves are very popular tourist attractions. There are plenty of people who would like to discover the wonders of an underground world. Running a show cave can be cost effective, if it is well organized, has proper infrastructure and marketing. Subterranean tourist attractions have not been accurately classified yet. Our classification is not accurate either; this is just a relative systematization. This classification is based on the point of view of speleologists developing show caves. In our humble opinion, the human component an criterion which must be taken into consideration and which is essential for the proper planning/concept of a show cave business attraction. The major criterion is the specific attraction Natural subterranean cavities, such as caves, ravines, canyons, funnels and craters, etc. Man-made attractions such as tunnels, mines, excavations, religious objects, drainage systems, etc. As a rule, natural vs. man-made attractions attract a different type of tourist. As far as man-made attractions are concerned, information is of major importance. The point is to show and tell the history of the object and the role of human activity within it. Natural subterranean attractions are aimed at presenting the underground world with its mysteries and wonders, beauty and fragility. A strong emotional impact of a show is of more importance than information provided. The approach to equipping natural and man-made attractions differs as well. Properly functioning technical lighting is a major focus when equipping a man-made attraction. As for natural attractions, the artistic perspective is more important, because it presents the beauty of the inside surroundings to the public. Equipping and running a natural tourist attraction is a more sensitive business, which requires caution and high professionalism. Visitors must be provided with the highest comfort possible, with minimum interference of the cave ecosystem. Today, there are more than 300 show caves in Europe alone. But, for some reason, only few of them make the public want to return again. Lets see what affects the contradictory perception of tourist attractions? low quality lighting (a cave is seen as a poorly lit basement), general condition of a cave (lamp flora, mold on the walls, litter), technical condition of show routes and lighting equipment (rusty, slippery paths, broken steps, outdated lighting fixtures, cables along walk ways, etc.), low quality of shows (boring and uninteresting tours), Figure 1. Cave Lighting Project logotypes.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings223

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Project Cave Lighting is : a consulting business: we have hundreds of presentations of our equipment and offer consulting for owners/managers of subterranean tourist attractions worldwide. about 40 equipped tourist attractions, including: brand new unique show caves, which didnt suffer from human activity/damage. Namely we performed allinclusive work in the Herbstlabyrinth Cave in Germany from developing a business concept and a show cave concept, to overall equipment installation (controlled LED lighting system, FRP route paths, monitoring system). poor maintenance and care of caves. Owners are out to make maximum profit. They overcrowd caves and do not care about natural ecology. This is especially sad and unpleasant to cave lovers, including speleologists. Idea of Cave Lighting was born when visiting one of those caves mentioned above Eight years ago (in 2005) two speleologists visited some show caves in Germany. The unbelievably poor maintenance/condition of one of those caves unbelievably disappointed and upset the cave professionals. They both decided that, since show caves are extremely popular among crowds of tourists (not just speleologists), the aim should be to preserve the caves as much as possible. Visitors must have a chance to enjoy and experience the mysteries of the underground world, while experiencing maximum positive emotions and unforgettable memories without harming cave ecosystem.2. Methods of Cave Lighting ProjectCave Lighting Development is eight years old now. Project Cave Lighting has been constantly developing: We formed a team of speleologist associates and specialists in different adjacent fields (design engineers, constructing engineers, planners, lighting designers, assemblers, IT specialists, etc.); We developed special equipment purposely designed for caves. (LED lighting systems, music systems, control systems, etc.); We selected and tested modern ecofriendly materials and technologies; We gained precious experience in the planning and running of subterranean tourist attractions.3. Results Project Cave Lighting today is: philosophy of light, conceptual and individual approach to every task, exclusive equipment purposely designed for caves, manufactured by us; modern materials for subterranean show; international team of speleologists; registered trade name; successful business project.Figure 2. Cave Lighting Team, 2006. Figure 3. Cave Lighting Manufacture. Figure 4. Cave Lighting LED Lamp. Figure 5. Cave Lighting FPR. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings224

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Restored attractions. Namely we restored the Fundata Cave in Romania. Tours to this cave hadnt been properly organized before; therefore it was in a poor condition. In 2011 Romanian speleologists, together with Cave Lighting cleaned and restored the Fundata cave and turned it into a successful subterranean tourist attraction. It was all-inclusive work from planning to ready to operate cave. We partially or completely upgraded/replaced outdated electrical equipment and redesigned lighting systems in the part of oldest show caves in Europe, Postojnska Jama (Slovenia) and Grotte de Clamouse (France). In some caves we designed and installed electrical power supply systems, lighting systems, music and light systems (DMX-show) and monitoring systems. These systems were developed according to customers requirements (Prometeus Cave, Georgia). Besides modern lighting and music systems, our project specialists developed unique software which integrates all of these systems into one network and allows remote controlling and if necessary, correct operation of all (something similar to a smart home system). Hllgrotten Cave (CH), Wendelstein Cave (DE). Cave Lighting project is constantly developing. We observe modern scientific achievements and cooperate with leading speleological organizations and associations (ISCA, Karst Institute (Postojna), speleological clubs in different countries, etc.). We continue to perfect our equipment and promote our specialists self-development. In the near future, we plan on reconstructing that cave in Germany which made such an unforgettable negative impression on the Cave Lighting development creators eight years ago.4. ConclusionsThe objective of this presentation was to attract attention of speleological society towards the problems in running speleological tourist attractions. Speleologists and show cave owners must work hand in hand, use all discoveries in modern science and up-to-date technologies if they want to find solutions.ReferencesChrapko A, 2006, Project descriptions, company website GermTec GmbH & Co. KG, http://cavelighting.comFigure 6. Project by Cave Lighting.Dechenhhle, Germany, 2012. Figure7. ProjectbyCaveLighting. Herbstlabiynth, Germany, 2012. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings225

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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND RADIATION PROTECTION INSKOCJAN CAVES, SLOVENIAVanja Debevec1, Peter Jovanovi 2 1Park kocjanske jame, Slovenija, kocjan 2, SI 6215 Diva a, Slovenija, for Occupational Safety, Chengdujska 25, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenija, kocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park kocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park kocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.1. Introductionkocjan Caves were listed in UNESCO World Heritage List in 1986. The Caves system of 6,5 km consists of extraordinary underground halls, chambers and canyon of the Reka River. Its underground course was recognised as wetland of international importance according to Ramsar convention. The Park kocjan Caves is also a Man and Biosphere Reserve Site, known as The Karst Biosphere Reserve. Monitoring of caves microclimate consists of radon and microclimatic parameters survey. We have been performing the monitoring of the radon for almost two decades now. The continuous monitoring of temperature, CO2, relative humidity and wind flow on defined spots started four years ago. Radon 222Rn enters the underground spaces of the caves by diffusion from the rock surface of the walls, floor, depths, where it is produced as decay product of 226Ra. Rn is radioactive gas with decay half-time 3,83 days and results in short-lived decay products polonium 218Po, lead 214Pb, bismuth 214Bi and polonium210Po. All these are heavy metals that are retained in the air as free floating particles or as attached to the molecules of water and aerosols in the air. During respiration they are laid on surface of respiratory ways from the nose and pulmonary alveoli, where they decay with emitting particles alfa, beta or gamma. The most dangerous are both isotopes of polonium, which emit alfa particles that can cause damages in the cells of epithelium of bronchial walls of lung.2. MonitoringAccording to Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection we are obligated to have regular monitoring of radon, education and medical exams for tourist guides that are exposed to radiation in majority of their working time (The Rules on Radiation Activities Performers Commitments 2004, The Rules on conditions and methodology for dose estimation in radiation protection of workers and inhabitants 1994, The Ionizing Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 2003). Environmental monitoring in the caves was designed in a way to assess the anthropogenic impact on delicate caves environments and consequently the carrying capacity of the site. The latest is defined by the highest number admissible that does not cause irreversible damage to the site and still enables the visitor to enjoy in quality visit of the site. Several aspects should be included in order to propose a range of lower and upper limits. Among most important are of course physical features of the site, social and economical aspects of the site. In the caves the number of guided visits is also limited by the advised time spent in the cave that does not cause rise in effective dose of Rn. Observation of anthropogenic impact is done by survey of dynamics of temperature, humidity, CO2, which are supposed to rise after the visit (Decree by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration 1999, The Ionizing Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 2003). Monitoring of caves microclimate reveals interesting dynamics of parameters that are on general believed to be constant. The influence of outer air is observed in certain part of caves.3. MethodsIn kocjan Caves we have designated six measuring places in the caves for Rn concentration among them three for constant monitoring of temperature, CO2, humidity and wind flow.The monitoring programme is performed by Institute of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana and Park kocjan Caves, Slovenia.We continuously measure Rn concentration and Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings226

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quarterly also Rn daughter products using these instruments: RGA-40 (Scintrex, Canada) EQF-3020, RTM-2010 (Sarad, Germany), for Rn daughter: WLM-30 (Scinterx, Canada), EQF-3020 (Sarad, Geramany) and Rn integrated method: track each. The effective dose for employees is calculated by the model ICRP32. Some other parameters of caves microclimate are measured by instrumentsAhlborn ALMEMO, Germany, temperature is measured by thermocuples, humidity by stationary Psychrometer FP A836-3, CO2by Almemo sensor FYA600CO2. Last year we adopted measurements of temperature and humidity also by Hanwell instruments HT330. During summer and winter period of 2011 a monitoring of concentration of particles was performed by low volume sampler Sven Leckel SEQ47/50 with gravimetric method. In December 2011, PM10 and gases NO, NO2, NOx, CO, where analysed with Airpointer, optic method.4. Results and discussionThe first part of the cave Silent Cave is quite closed and therefore the circulation of the air is modest. On the contrary the second part of the cave Murmuring Cave is more opened towards outside and the influence of the outer air are observed. The highest Rn concentration was measured in summer period in Silent Cave system: Kalvary, Tent, Great Hall entrance and Great Hall. The lowest value of Rn concentration was measured in Murmuring Cave and Limestone pools. This is true for entire period of monitoring with fluctuations that depends on outside temperature and exchange of air. The average values of Rn daughter products were measured in first part of the caves, from April to October when there is a highest difference between temperature in the cave and outside. Factor of balance is high through the year due to modest ventilation of the first part of the cave. Several measurement sites in the caves, revealed constant temperature in first part of the caves 11.9 C and rising up to 13 C in Murmuring Cave. There is slight increase in temperature and CO2levels after the visits of tourist in more closed spaces, though no permanent rise in value is observed (Figure 3). The same is true for CO2, with night and day dynamics. Since the air flow is modest in first part of the cave, there is constant influence of outer air in Murmuring Cave. The air in the cave is very clean as resulted from data of PM10 and gases (Figure 5) (Cigna 1993, Cigna 2000, Comparative dosimetry of radon in homes and mines. 1991, Debevec 2002). With comparison of average monthly data from meteorological station in the surface, we can observe rise in temperature at the measuring point Bridge during the summer (Figure 4). There is air flow towards the inside of the caves, due to difference of air temperature which is not so high during the winter. This can explain also the high values of Rn concentration in the first part of the cave, due to poor air exchange (Figure 1). The environmental monitoring is planned and performed in order to establish the upper limit of carrying capacity (CC) for caves area. Physical carrying capacity is mainly related to the geomorphological features, but in real carrying capacity values, we can determinate also other parameters that are found to be altered by the presence of tourist or the visit itself is altered due to accessibility, weather conditions or other phenomena. We have measured the values of microclimatic parameters in order to observe the irreversible change in value due to the number of visitors. For now no such changes were found. Though we can say that one of the limiting factor for visits is also radon concentration from the point of view of occupational safety, since tourist guides can not have extended time of tours due to the low annual effective dose. For easier implementation of adoptive management it could be useful to introduce an indicator that could describe the balance between man and caves environment.Cave Use Index should accomplish the data of CC and present the possible limits of anthropogenic impact on biotic and abiotic component of the ecosystem. Figure 1. Average concentration of Rn at different locations in kocjan Caves. Figure 2. Average annual effective doses in ten years period of monitoring. Figure 3. Increase of temperature and CO2values after the visits of the caves.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings227

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Where we can define: CUI = Ecc/Hhf Ecc Environment factors related to carrying capacity, Hhf Human health factor One of the most important aspects of radiation protection is also education and medical exams. The rise in awareness resulted in lower annual effective doses in ten years period of monitoring (Figure 2).5. ConclusionsThe concentration of Rn and daughter products is higher during summer and lower during winter period. During summer the night day dynamics is observed; during the night the concentration of Rn rises, and descend during the night, since then the difference between temperature between outer and inner air is lower and results in modest air exchange. There is a need for and continuous measuring of ions, dust particles, aerosols besides other parameters of caves microclimate in order to find the limit of carrying capacity of the cave. The estimation of the latest should have also take in to account the effective dose due to radiation. It should be well established in order to provide the workers in such special environment with proper occupational safety.6. SummaryMonitoring of caves microclimate in kocjan Caves was established in order to define and monitor carrying capacity of the World Heritage Site. Due to the dinamyc of air exchange variations in parameters are observed. High levels of radon concentration are present in first part of the kocjan Caves due to poor ventilation. Continuous monitoring is a useful tool for adaptive management and study of microclimate in the caves.AcknowledgmentsThis study was enabled by cooperation between the Institute for Occupational Safety Ljubljana and Park kocjan Caves. We would like to thank the management of both institutions for supporting the monitoring in the caves.ReferencesCigna AA, 1993. Considerations on the environmental aspects of radiation protection. V: OECD-NEA, Radiation Protection on the Treshold of 21stCentury. Proceeding of ans NEA Workshop, Paris, 11 January 1993: 1. Cigna AA, Burri E, 2000. Development, management and economy of show caves. International Journal of Speleology, 29B, 1/4: 1. Comparative dosimetry of radon in homes and mines. 1991. Washington D.C., National Research Council Academy press: 244. Debevec Gerjevi V, 2002. Medicinski nadzor oseb zaposlenih v kocjanskih jamah, Slovenija. Acta Carsologica 31, 1: 97. Decree by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration, Ministryof RSof Health, 1999. The Ionizing Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, Official Gazette of RS 50/03. The Rules on Radiation Activities Performers Commitments, Official Gazette of RS 13/04. The Rules on conditions and methodology for dose estimation in radiation protection of workers and inhabitants, Official Gazette of RS 115/94. The Ionizing Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, Official Gazette of RS 50/03. The Rules on Radiation Activities Performers Commitments, Official Gazette of RS 13/04. The Rules on conditions and methodology for dose estimation in radiation protection of workers and inhabitants, Official Gazette of RS 115/94. Figure 4. The influence of outer air. Figure 5. Measurement of different gases in the caves air.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings228

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CAVE AND KARST AT THE CINEMA: CULTURAL SPELEOLOGY AND THE GEOGRAPHICITY OF SYMBOLIC LANDSCAPESLuiz Afonso V. Figueiredo1,2,3 1Universitary Center of Fundao Santo Andr (FSA); Santo Andr, So Paulo, Brazil, lafonso.figueiredo@gmail.com2Coordinator of Section of Environmental Education and Speleological Training (Brazilian Society of Speleology-SBE) and Assistant Secretary of the Federacin Espeleolgica de Amrica Latina y del Caribe (FEALC)3PhD on Physical Geography at University of So Paulo (FFLCH-DG-USP) Abstract. The aim of this paper is to analyze of technical and scientific and also symbolic aspects in-circuit cinema films, produced between 1927 and 2012. We start from study of the geographicity of symbolic landscapes. We used 150 films related to the theme cave, cavern and karst, which were identified between 2007 and 2012. The material was registered in their own spreadsheets and analyzed by its symbolic and technical-scientific contents. The data were obtained on video stores, sites specializing in film and others (IMDb, Allmovies, Adoro Cinema, Wikipdia and others) and in film analysis texts and their relation to studies about natural and symbolic landscapes. The oldest examined film was Metrpolis, a classic science fiction movie directed by Fritz Lang in 1927, which shows a conflict of classes, being a group of rulling elite and another of oppressed and enslaved working class who lives in an underworld. It was observed that there is a negative imaginary world around the idea of the cave, this fact has been reinforced and seeing erroneously appropriate by film production. It was also observed that most of the movies that have the cave as a background landscape are the horror or suspense categories. In the selected movies for film analysis about caves it is observed that they are always accompanied by excitement of the unknown and the discovery, interlaced by the adventure, the hideout, while feelings of fear are most evident in Batman Begins film, because of the protagonists relationship with the bat, even as a determinant of the genesis of the hero. In the Dead Poets Society film the cave appears as pleasant place and a sense of freedom, fraternization, but the aura of being something hidden. It is hoped that studies such like promote actions through the films more suitable for environmental education and speleological training more appropriate to spread the environmental and cultural role of the caves, allowing the development of activities that promote the protection of the speleological world heritage. Resumen. Cuevas y karst en el cine: espeleologa cultural y la geograficidad de los paisajes simblicos El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar los aspectos tcnicos, cientficos y simblicos presentes en las pelculas de circuito de cine producidos entre los aos de 1927 y 2012. El punto de partida fue la perspectiva de estudios relacionados con la geograficidad de los paisajes simbolicos. Fueran identificados 150 pelculas acerca del tema cuevas, cavernas y karst, identificados entre 2007 y 2012. El material recogido fue catastrado en formulario prpio y analizado por su contenido simblico y tcnico-cientfico. Los datos fueran obtenidos en tiendas de vdeos, sites especializados en el cine o afines (IMDb, Allmovies, Adoro Cinema, Wikipdia, entre otros) y en artculos y textos sobre analisis flmica y su relacin con estudios del paisaje natural y simbolico. La pelcula ms antigua analizada fue Metrpolis, un clsico de la ciencia-ficcin dirigido por Fritz Lang en 1927, en el cual se relata acerca de los conflictos entre clases sociales, siendo una elite gobernante y otro compuesto por la clase trabajadora que viven oprimidos y esclavizados en un mundo subterrneo. Se observ que existe un universo imaginrio negativo alrededor de la idea de cuevas, y este hecho ha sido apropiado y reforzado por la produccin de las pelculas. Se observ tambin que la mayora de las pelculas que tienen la cueva como paisaje de fondo son las de la categora de terror o suspense. En las obras seleccionadas para analisis flmica la cueva viene siempre acompaada por la excitacin del desconocido y del descubrimiento entrelazado por la aventura, el escondrijo, al mismo tiempo se producen sensaciones de miedo que parecen ms evidentes en la pelcula de Batman Begins, derivado de la relacin del protagonista con el murcilago, incluso como factor determinante de la gnesis del hroe. Por otro lado en la pelcula Dead Poet Society la cueva aparece como lugar agradable y la sensacin de libertad, de fraternidad, sino tambin por el aura de hacer algo oculto. Se espera que estos estudios puedan promover acciones a travs del cine para la educacin ambiental y la formacin espeleolgica de manera ms adecuada para el papel de proteccin ambiental y cultural de las cuevas, permitiendo realizar actividades que pueden ayudar a proteger el patrimonio espeleolgico mundial. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings229

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1. IntroductionThe caves have values connected with dreams, stimulation to the imagination oppressed, loves hidden, place of mysteries, discoveries, secret chamber, or even housing. Bachelard (1990, 2000) helped us to identify this task resulting from reveries of underground images. In film production that symbolism is potentiated and it is offered to the viewer in a more definitive form or not, according to the vision of the author/screenwriter, director, suffering sometimes also influences of producers, sponsors and spectators. From the analytical point of view the essay conducted by Travassos (2007), yielded evidence for a deepening in the psyche and cave symbolism present in film productions. In this study, the author reflects on the role of the karst in works of fiction, checking the imaginary in literature, film and media, where many times the word cave is associated with negative feelings, as well as claustrophobic shadowy world where demons live (Travassos 2007, p. 62). This research reinforced that representations of caves appear both in film and in literature, because it often movies are readings of literary works, such as Chronicles of Narnia, Harry Potter and The Lord of the Rings. The author also identifies diverse landscapes of fear as analyzed by Tuan (2006); these movies are fantastic adventures, science fiction or action. But this negative imaginary of the caves is a favorite of horror movies, such as recent: The Descent and The Cave. The locations and natural sceneries favorite when it comes to karst landscapes are Romania, Slovenia, Mexico, New Zealand, Scotland and England; in rare cases also depict regions of Brazil, as the Chapada Diamantina in the movie Tourists, by having a typical karst (Travassos 2007, p. 66). In their final discussion, the author emphasizes that the works analyzed were identified as the most classic and could be divided into two different worlds, a fictional and one real landscape. He believes that these issues are fundamental to understand the values of karst landscape and ways to seek their preservation (Travassos 2007, p. 69). The purpose of this study, connected to Anthropospeleology Committee of the Section of History of Speleology and Section of Environmental Education (SBE), was to conduct an analysis of the technical, scientific and symbolic aspects in films of the cinematographic circuit, produced between 1927 and 2012. Preliminary versions of this study were presented in Figueiredo (2001, 2010a, b), Figueiredo, Travassos and Silva (2009) and Figueiredo and Travassos (2010). Following this path, we intended to make a critical reading of the imaginary cave in these movies, checking which are symbolic images embedded in movie productions, in addition to descriptions and depictions of underground landscapes. The theoretical basis of the research focused on cultural geography (Rosendahl and Corra 2001a, b; Claval 2007) and humanistic geography (Tuan 1980, 2006; Grato 2006). The search for geographicity of symbolic landscapes, based on film production reinserts the question of the lived world and the perceived world and allows approximations of possible educational and phenomenological dimensions The Mole People (1956, re-released in 1964) cover an archaeological survey of ancient Sumerian people who possibly would live in caves. The other film was Beast from Haunted Cave (1959), indicating an emphasis on horror and thriller, with the presence of frightful monster in the cave.Another old movie registered as Sette contro la Morte (1964), an Italian-Germany production, distributed in the U.S. in 1965 with the title The Cavern, by virtue of portraying the lives of a group that takes refuge in a cave and gets stuck during the Second World War, has a strong sensual appeal to the standards of that time. involved with this theme. Were also used texts about film analysis (Vanoye and Goliot-Lt 1994; Pereira 2000; Vadico 2001; Melani 2006; Ito and Nogueira 2007) and the relation between cinema and landscape studies (Steward 2004; Peckham 2004).2. MethodsData were obtained on video rentals or video stores, movie in Theaters, DVD, or specialized sites like (IMDb, Allmovies, Adorocinema, YouTube, Wikipedia, and others). The search was conducted by the terms cave, grotto, natural cavity, karst, karst landscape, speleology among others keywords associated. We identified 150 films title, between the years 2007, which possessed content related to the topic cave and karst landscape. The material was registered in own worksheets and analyzed by its own symbolic and technical-scientific contents according to the used references. Two movies were selected for more detail analyses (Batman Begins and Dead Poets Society).3. Results and discussion3.1. General analyses of the filmography Among the older films analyzed, we emphasize four films, whose predominant category was fiction and horror, but one also addresses aspects of drama, romance and the War. The oldest of all is the film Metropolis (1927), a classic science fiction film directed by Fritz Lang, who portrays a population divided into a class of the ruling elite and another class of workers who live in an underground world, totally enslaved. Figure 1. Poster of Fritz Langs Metropols (1927).Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings230

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interpersonal relationships involving friendship, discovery, skills and heroism. 3.3. Technical and scientific aspects of the caves From the point of view of the technical and scientific aspects, the images depict the karst landscape worked as a physical medium, even artificial (scenarios). It is observed in Figure 3 is a predominance of words that represent aspects of the typology of caves, prevailing images of endokarst, internal features, especially the inner halls and the formats of the ducts and galleries, especially in large environments frameworks shooting, but also the strictures and labyrinthine networks. Walk-entry is also portrayed in the film as well as the presence of walls and cliffs. Of all the cinematographic works analyzed, over 60% of them were distributed in Brazil since 2000. Predominant adventure genre films, action, fantasy or science fiction, and followed by horror and suspense, noting that some of the previous category may also be present doses of suspense or horror related. Only 13 of analyzed films treat animation, though Beowulf is also an animated film. The films that deal with cave as the main focus of the plot are the horror and suspense genre, which indicates excessive use of negative or pejorative imaginary for the cave in film production, prevailing views about monstrosities, deformation or brutalization. On the other hand, in the other films the cave presents aspects of adventure, discovery and learning. 3.2. Symbolic aspects of the caves Regarding the symbolic aspects were chosen 64 keywords used as indices of the films, which were subjected to these words and ranked, based on the preliminary study of Figueiredo (2001) and doctoral thesis (Figueiredo 2010b). Figure 2 shows the distribution of simple indices and the interrelationship between the words most often cited. The results highlighted that the image of the cave in the film sample contains aspects of conflict and confrontation, creating difficulties, exposing limits. In many movies were portrayed situations of struggle or battle and the issues of power and domination. Reinforcing also the danger, traps and obstacles almost insurmountable, generating injury or death. The study identified that appear caves as shelters, residence, hiding place, refuge, with emphasis on hostile environment. However, appear moments of challenges overcome, search and demand, where there are aspects ofFigure 2. Diagram of indices representing the symbolic aspects of the cave in the analyzed movies. Figure 3. Model for conceptual map-cave and the technical and scientific aspects. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings231

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The caves are often associated with the presence of water, such as rivers, underground lakes, waterfalls, and are sometimes related to the sea or coastal regions. This is due to the vision of water as forming agent and shaper of cavities and caves that usually appears real world. The last highlight comes on account of exokarst, external images and the karst landscape, ruiniform features with bridges, Karren, pinnacles and karstic cones (cockpits). One issue to be emphasized is the lack of cave fauna in the cinematographic caves, even bats, which are regular inhabitants. When bats appear that are associated with negative content and horrifying, like vampires who attack mercilessly, and then why filmographic emphasis, however, they often end up being replaced by something more terrifying as giant spiders and insects, monsters, dragons and orcs. 3.4. Description of selected movies The selected films allow a dip in the cave symbolism, with several specific tones, while also presenting some similarities. The selection was: Dead Poets Society and Batman Begins, so we managed to cover two major filmic categories: drama and action (HQ), but it was possible to make a general presentation of images on posters and promotional material from several movies. The movie Dead Poets Society is based on the novel and adaptations made by Tom Schulman, who won the Oscar for best original screenplay, with director Peter Weir and actor Robin Williams as a protagonist, like the controversial and provocative literature teacher, John Keating.The plot is built around the discovery by some young school freshmen, a strict boarding school, about the existence of a secret society where students took refuge in a cave near a river that crossed the forest to freely read the classics of literature, especially those prohibited by the school, like a Henry David Thoreau. The scene of the way to the cave at night is remarkable; flashlight beams of lights running and dancing in the woods, and everything goes as if the boys were in a back in time, back in history, back to secret societies, there is an excitement in the air, what will be awaiting them. The cave used in the movie was mounted in a studio setting, because the locations in the field were not enough for filming and there was the problem of light. To solve this was prepared a hole in the artificial cave, which made the function of skylight, was created a perfect environment with speleothems, drip and everything.The director says that the history of cinema is littered with caves badly made, he evenFigure 4. Poster and scenographic cave of DPS. would like to make a book about it, so the film crew went to great pains to do something that was very close to reality and could handle the filmography needs. In the case of Batman Begins the focus, of course, was the adventure, superhero, and again reveal the chthonic heroes, neomyths. The protagonist is a young millionaire and living with their fears and regrets. The cave is represented by these fears, being used as a symbol of the bat to the genesis of the hero. The story could be divided into four major parts in which the fear provides the plot for the film. First, would be nightmare: fear terrifying, the the second step would be, Penance and training: fear that attacks and its control, the third time would be the pregnancy of superhero: fear that approaching, and the last moment was action, fear shared with enemies. This cave, filmed in Batman Begins, oddly enough, such perfection, was also produced in the studio. It is of huge proportions, with several galleries, a wide river with a tributary, and a waterfall as well as a large main portico entrance. Spent up millions of reinforced concrete and a shed for this gigantic undertaking, which were made even more action scenes during the recording. 3.5. Movie posters, scenes and visual narratives Several other films portray caves as a place of mystery, conflict and fear, the monsters, or even the adventure of treasure, discovery and friendship, other recent films are more realistic. The images of Figures 6 to 13 show some promotional materials, movie posters, scenographic caves and scenes of their films, emphasizing the cave in cinema. Figure 5. Movie Poster of Batman Begins.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings232

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Figure 6. Movie Poster of The Cavern homonyms. Figure 9. Movie poster and horrible scenes of The Descent. Figure 8. Movie poster and choking scene of Turists. Figure 7. Two old movies about horror and caves. Figure 10. Two adventure movies about caves. Figure 11. Movie poster and suspense scene of The Cave. Figure 12. Movie poster and adventure scene of Sanctum. Figure 13. Movie poster of Cave of Forgotten Dreams. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings233

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4. ConclusionsIt is observed at the end of this film analysis that there is a negative imaginary universe prowling the idea of cave and has been appropriated by film production, exploring and strengthening archetypes. In the selected works the cave always came accompanied by the excitement of the unknown and discovery, punctuated by adventure, the hideout, while feelings of fear appear more evident in Batman Begins, arising from the relationship of the protagonist with the bat, even as a determinant of the genesis of the hero, while in the cave appears as DPS nice place and the feeling of freedom, brotherhood, but also by the aura of doing something hidden. Recent movies such as Sanctum and Cave of Forgotten Dreams have a more focused approach in speleological activities and in the cave as it really is. (Figs. 12 and 13). Despite not appearing monsters or excessive mysteries, still present a sense of adventure or a more poetic language, as highlighted by Herzog film. The investigation is still in progress, due to its scope and research possibilities, with various developments, now reaching more than one hundred films registered. Moreover, it is expected that such studies favoring environmental education and training speleological most appropriate dissemination of environmental and cultural role of the caves, allowing activities protected speleological world.AcknowledgmentsI would like to thank you to the professor and Ph.D. Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos (PUC-Minas), for his contributions and researches about imaginary of the caves, show up the caves in the movies and literature and help me in the first versions of this study. I thank the Brazilian Society of Speleology (SBE) for believing this work through the Commission of Anthropospeleology. I would also like to thank the professor and Ph. D. Sueli Angelo Furlan (DG-USP) for her safe guidance, by encouraging me during my doctorate. And I also need to thank for my son Milton Figueiredo (15 years old) about your collaborative film survey, watch and share many of these movies for my analysis.ReferencesBachelard G, 1990. A terra e os devaneios do repouso: ensaio sobre as imagens da intimidade. Martins Fontes, So Paulo. Bachelard G, 2000. Potica do espao. 5thed. Martins Fontes, So Paulo. Claval P, 2007. A geografia cultural. 3rded. Editora da UFSC, Florianpolis. Figueiredo LAV, 2001. Symbolic aspects of caves. Final Proc. 13thInternational Congress of Speleology, 4thSpeleogical Congress of Latin America And The Caribbean, 26thBrazilian Congress of Speleology, 26. UIS/FEALC/SBE, Braslia. Figueiredo LAV, 2010a. Cavernas como paisagens simblicas: imaginrio e representaes. Final Proc. 2nd. Seminrio IberoAmericano de Geografia Fsica and 6thSeminrio LatinoAmericano de Geografia Fsica, CEGOT/Universidade de Coimbra. Coimbra, Portugal. Figueiredo LAV, 2010b. Cavernas como paisagens racionais e simblicas: imaginrio coletivo, narrativas visuais e representaes da paisagem e das prticas espeleolgicas. Ph.D. Tesis, Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Cincias Humanas, Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo, Brazil. Figueiredo LAV, Travassos LEP, Silva AS, 2009. A caverna no cinema: anlise preliminar de paisagens naturais e simblicas. Final Proc. 30thCongresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia, SBE/GRUCAV/Unimontes, Montes Claros. Figueiredo LAV, Travassos LEP, 2010. La cueva y el cine: entendiendo la geograficidad del paisajes simblicos. Final Proc. 6thCongresso Latino-Americano e Caribenho de Espeleologia, FEALC/SEC, Matanzas, Cuba. Grato LHB, 2006. Da projeo onrica bachelardiana, os vislumbres da geopotica. In: Oliveira, L et al. Geografia, percepo e cognio do meio ambiente. Edies Humanidades, Londrina. Ito LM, Nogueira AA, 2007. A anlise flmica como instrumento de apoio para formao de professores do ensino de cincias: Estudo de caso do filme A Era do Gelo. Trabalho de Concluso de Curso (Bacharel em Cincias Biolgicas) Colegiado de Cincias Biolgicas, Faculdade de Filosofia, Cincias e Letras, Centro Universitrio Fundao Santo Andr, Santo Andr, SP. Melani R, 2006. Matrix e a caverna de imagens. Cultura Cri-ti-ca. APROPUC, 4, So Paulo. Peckham RS, 2004. Landscape in film. In: Duncan, JS. A companion to cultural geography. Blackwell Publishing, London. Pereira PPG, 2000. Cinema e antropologia: um esboo cartogrfico em trs movimentos. Cadernos de Antropologia e Imagem. UERJ, 10(1): 51, Rio de Janeiro. Rosendahl Z, Corra RL (org.), 2001a. Paisagem, imaginrio e espao. EdUERJ, Rio de Janeiro. Rosendahl Z, Corra RL (org.), 2001b. Matrizes da geografia cultural. EdUERJ, Rio de Janeiro. Santaella L, Nth W, 2001. Imagem: cognio, semitica, mdia. 3. ed. Iluminuras, So Paulo. Santos E, 2001. Filologia e cinema. Rev. Philologus. CEFEFIL, 7(21), Rio de Janeiro. Steward PJ, 2004. Caves in fiction. In: Gunn, J (ed.). Encyclopedia of caves and karst science. Fitzroy Deaborn, New York. Travassos LEP, 2007. O carste como pano de fundo nas obras de fico: dualidade de percepes. O Carste. GBPE, 19(2): 62, Belo Horizonte. Tuan Y, 1980. Topoflia: um estudo da percepo, atitudes e valores do meio ambiente. DIFEL, So Paulo. Tuan Y, 2006. Paisagens do medo. EdUNESP, So Paulo. Vadico LA, 2001. Viagem no tempo atravs de suas mediaes: um panorama sobre o surgimento e evoluo do tema atravs da literatura e cinema. InterAtividade.: FIRB, 1(1): 137, Andradina, SP. Vanoye F, Goliot-Lt A, 1999. Ensaio sobre a anlise flmica. Papirus, Campinas, SP.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings234

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VENEZUELAS GUACHARO CAVE: THE GUIDES PERSPECTIVEGovinda Aguirre Galindo1, Mara Alejandra Prez2,3,4 1Cooperative 928 rl, Alexander Humboldt Natural Monument, Caripe, Monagas, Venezuela, govindagalindo@hotmail.com2Department of Geology and Geography, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, maria.perez@mail.wvu.edu3National Speleological Society4Venezuelan Speleological Society Abstract. The Alexander Humboldt Natural Monument, better known as Gucharo Cave, is located in northern Monagas State, in eastern Venezuela. This is the most famous cavern in the country and also its third longest (10.2 km) (SVE 1968). It counts with approximately sixty thousand (60,000) visitors a year. The members of the Ramn Salazar Cooperative 928 rl, who have a contract with the National Institute of Parks, provide the guiding services to these visitors. The present work is the groups first initiative to capture, from the guides own perspective, the impact that the cave has had on their lives. Resumen. El Monumento Natural Alejandro de Humboldt, mejor conocido como La Cueva del Gucharo, se encuentra ubicado al norte del estado Monagas, en el oriente de Venezuela. La misma es la caverna ms famosa del pas y la tercera ms larga (con 10.2 kilmetros) (SVE 1968). Recibe un aproximado de sesenta mil (60.000) visitantes al ao, contando para la atencin de dichos visitantes con un sistema de visitas guiadas las cuales son realizadas por autorizacin y tutela del Instituto Nacional de Parques por el grupo de guas agrupados bajo la figura jurdica de la Cooperativa Ramn Salazar 928 rl. El presente trabajo representa la primera iniciativa propia de miembros de dicha Cooperativa en relatar el impacto que la cueva ha tenido en sus vidas.1. IntroductionBased on archaeological artifacts found and dated at the Alexander Humboldt Natural Monument, there is evidence that American indigenous peoples have visited Gucharo Cave since at least 3,500 years ago (Perera 1976). It was not until the XVII century that we have definite evidence that Spanish missionaries also visited the cavern, and eventually developed it as a site of gucharo or oilbird (steatornis caripensis) oil production (Urbani 1999). With this Gucharo Cave begins to gain its international fame, thus attracting both regional and foreign visitors. Among the most famous was Alexander Humboldt, who together with Aime Bonpland, local missionaries and indigenous guides, entered 422 meters into the cave on the 18thof September 1799 (Urbani 1975). This, in very broad strokes, begins the tradition of guiding visitors to Gucharo Cave. While there have been some efforts to analyze and document the history of guides at the cave (Prez and Galindo 2009), this is the first time that they do so in their own voice, and at their own initiative.2. Guiding at the CaveHistorically, or at least since the XXthcentury, a trek within Gucharo Cave was an adventure. As visitors of yesteryear note, there was no stone path as there is today. Uno sala baao de charco (One would come out bathed in mud), is one of the more common commentaries referring to the experience. More recently, the focus on the Gucharo Cave experience is more educational, while at the same time maintaining some of the traditions of interpreting the symbolism of the formations and their shadows, such as the Palm, Moses, the Nazarene, the Cows Tongue, and the imposing Tower. There is special emphasis made on the photosensitivity of the nocturnal oilbird (for this reason there is no electric lighting in the cavern, the importance of the ecosystem, and specially on addressing the popular but erroneous myth that the cave reaches Brazil. The service that the guides currently provide has many faults. However, it is virtually impossible to meet a visitor that does not enjoy the experience. It is very rare to get negative feedback from tourists. More likely is that visitors expectations are dramatically exceeded, especially if those expectations were that the guides would only point out stone figures throughout the 1,200 meters of cave tour. Still, tour experiences do vary, depending on the group and the guide. They vary between an hour and a half to three hours in length, all of it marked with characteristic Venezuelan humor (particularly the eastern Venezuelan kind). It is worth noting that the round trip can easily be done in less than an hour because of the stone path.Figure 1. Tourists at the entrance of Gucharo Cave (Prez 2008). Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings235

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The guides make up a diverse group with their personalities and aptitudes. Some have university degrees such as educators with Masters degrees. Others only count with a basic elementary school education. However, all of them have been marked by the experience of being guides of Gucharo Cave. To take on this responsibility, which involves dealing with such diverse public, one has to be dedicated with love to the job. Its biggest reward is to be part of a symbolic place of national and international importance. Being a guide at Gucharo Cave is an opportunity to learn and teach, things that happen daily, based on the anecdotes of the guides. It could not be any other way, considering that the guide that has been working in that capacity the least has been doing so for 15 years.3. ConclusionRecognition of the historical and cultural importance of Gucharo Cave would not be complete without accounting for the role of guides that have defined the experience of thousands of visitors. For the first time, and by their own initiative, these guides share what the experience means to them, in their own words. It is hoped that this effort will help produce a more complete and human history of this natural monument.ReferencesPerera MA, 1976. Notas sobre una excavacin en la Cueva del Gucharo (Mo. 1), Estado Monagas, Venezuela. Boletn de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologa 7, 249 (in Spanish). Prez MA, Galindo G, 2009. The guides of Venezuelas Gucharo Cave: A historical and ethnographic study of locals contribution to its romotion, exploration, and conservation. 15 Int. Cong. Speleology, Kerrville, Texas, 1202. SVE, 1968. Mo. 1 Cueva del Gucharo. Boletn de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologa 1, 97 (in Spanish). Urbani F, 2005. Historia espeleolgica venezolana. Part 12. Adiciones a la bibliografa y cronologa de la Cueva del Gucharo. Boletn de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologa 39, 2 (in Spanish). Urbani F, 1999. Historia espeleolgica venezolana. Parte 10. Una cronologa de la Cueva del Gucharo. Boletn de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologa 33, 51 (in Spanish). Urbani F, 1975. Hasta dnde lleg Humboldt dentro de la Cueva del Gucharo? Boletn de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologa, 6(12), 136 (in Spanish). Figure 2. Juan Antonio Tronchoni (member of the Speleology Section of the Venezuelan Society of Natural Sciences, later Venezuelan Speleological Society) with Ramn Salazar, mid 1960s. Salazar was known as the caretaker of the cave years prior to the formalization of the park rangers and guides at the site. He, among other local guides, offered key support to the speleologists from Caracas who finally explored, surveyed, and published the map of the cavern in 1968 (Prez and Galindo 2009; SVE 1968). The Guides Cooperative is named in his honour (SVE Archives). Figure 3. First author Galindo holding a fresh water crab in one hand and the guides preferred mode of lighting (a Coleman lamp) in the other, during a trip into the non-touristic sector of the cave, November 2012 (Prez 2012). Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings236

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GROUNDWATER PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT IN A COVERED KARST WATER SYSTEMFang Guo, Guanghui Jiang Key Laboratory of Karst Dynamics, Institute of Karst Geology, MLR, Guilin, China, The International Research Center on Karst under the Auspices of UNESCO, Guilin, China Southwestern China covers a karst area of 540,000 km2, and supports a population of approximately 100 million people. This groundwater can easily regress or become highly polluted without effective management. Sound management of karst areas requires the conscientious participation of citizens including homeowners, planners, government officials, farmers and other land-use decision makers. A covered karst water system in Southwestern China was expatiated as a pilot study. Hydrogeology condition and geo-environmental problems were investigated in detail. An auto monitoring station for hydrology and water chemistry was built to detect the change of water resources. A series of educational materials were developed and delivered to the local government, residents, and students. An artificial tracer test and a groundwater polluted accident were tracked to increase understanding of the vulnerability of the areas karst aquifer. More than 200 people attended the communication and training course on groundwater protection and environmental justice law. By which, several efforts have appeared as a result, such as a proposal for Lingshui water resources protection that was put forward. 1. IntroductionChina is currently undergoing rapid growth with economic development, especially in the west of China, which has changed greatly since the policy of Western Development in 1999. Rapid economic growth in southwestern China is also bringing fundamental changes to traditional land use and human activities. Some of the activities that have the greatest impact on the environment include intensified agriculture, mining, and infrastructure development(Yuan 2003). Coupled with a growing industrial base and urban expansion, these activities have caused varying degrees of contamination to the karst aquifers throughout the region (Guo et al. 2010). Typical tools for managing groundwater in karst are (Kacaroglu1999; Escoleroet al. 2002): land use zonation; pollution risk assessment and management; groundwater monitoring; increased public awareness of the value and vulnerability of the aquifer.Due to the wide distribution of karst areas in Southwestern China and the limit of scientific and technologically-trained professionals, managing the areas resources without the support of local people is difficult. For example, karst groundwater pollution readily occurs because of a lack of implemented and enforced karst regulations and a lack of knowledge regarding the unique character of karst areas. Education is an important part of any natural resource protection plan because it can often be difficult for people to protect something they do not understand (Zokaites 2006). This is especially true for karst protection, because karst isan unfamiliar topic to most people. Students, citizens, farmers and agency personnel in karst areas need education to gain the necessary knowledge to help protect this valuable and unique resource. This paper reviews actual and potential measures of karst groundwater protection and management in selected karst springs in Southwestern China. The paper does not present a comprehensive study of science in karst areas, but more a pilot study of how to manage karst groundwater resources in potential contamination. The purpose of this paper is to explain how important public education on karst is and how to apply the scientific study results to protect groundwater resources. More karst areashould be tried to protect water resources through science and education in order to provide basic measures for future groundwater management.2. Geography and hydrogeology2.1. Study area Lingshui Spring is located inWuming County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Lingshui Spring, the former training base forthe Chinese National Swimming Team, is a highly scenic spot that produces excellent drinking water for more than 100,000 people. With the establishment of the Nanning Association of Southeast Asian Nations economical garden, more than 200,000 consumers will rely on the spring by 2025. However, water quality was graduallydeteriorated and water level declinedfollowing bythe agricultural and industrial activities in the spring catchment increasing. For example, NO3 -which is related to agriculture activities has increased over the past 30 years, while water consumption has also gradually increased, resulting in discharge that has decreased by nearly 50% compared to that in the dry seasons of 1977 and 1978. From summer in 2008, submerged plant-tape grass was found to be gradually degradedor die, which destroy the original sight and ecosystem. It is still the perennial problem of how it happens and how to control. The local government and residents are appropriately worried about these problems. 2.2. Climatic and Hydrogeologic setting Wuming basin belongs to south subtropical monsoon climate region. Annual average precipitation is 1,247 mm. Precipitation rates show large long-term seasonality, with maximum values in May to August of 63% of the total rainfall in a year. November to March is dry seasons, with only 16.5% of total rainfall in a year. 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evaporation is 1,300 mm. The relative humidity is 78% in a year. The annual average temperature is about 21.9 C. The temperature ranges from 13 to 35 C. July and August is the hottest month with temperatures frequently exceeding 35 C. Minimum temperature records in January with average of 13 C. The basin belongs to covered karst type. Varied kinds of stratum from Tertiary to Cambrian are outcrop, in which carbonate in carboniferous and Devonian extends large. Rainfall is the only supplement for groundwater. Karst depression, sinkhole and footcave are absent in the basin, so dispersed recharge is the main pattern. Alluvial fan from mountains could probably be the zone of surface water recharging toground water, but rarely concentrated recharge of river to groundwater happens in the basin. Wuming River is the drainage datum baseof surface water and ground water. Karst groundwater discharges to rivers usually with short length and small drainage area. There are 19 springs or underground rivers in the basin, among which Lingshui Spring is the biggest one. Deposited of siliceous rock with a thickness of 20 m between Paleozoic and Mesozoic and mudstone in low Triassic can not be good aquitard due to small thickness. The boundary of spring is difficult to determine. But some geological structures are an advantage for karst water collecting and formation of karst conduit. Water depth in the middle of catchment is less than 10 m, while in the east and west-north can be ranged from 10 to 30 m.3. Methods and MethodologyHydrogeological and environmental geological survey at a scale of 1:50,000 was done from 2010 to 2012. The hydrogeology conditions and relative environmental geological problems were detected in detail by multi methods, including surface investigation, geophysical prospecting, hydrogeology drilling, and tracer test and so on.Water discharge in important springs and other types of water were measured in rainy and dried seasons in order to calculate water resources quantity and evaluate the change of water flow. Water was sampled in large range and in more frequency. Previous data of 1976, 1977, and 1978 were collected in order to compare the change of water resources. An auto-monitoring station of hydrology and hydrochemistry was built in the outlet of Lingshui Spring. pH, Spec, water temperature and water level was recorded by data-logger. A training and communication course was held in Wuming County in order to show the latest research results to the local government and people, and give them some suggestions on how to protect and manage the karst water resources.4. Results and discussion4.1 Interpreting source of Lingshui spring by hydrogeological, chemical and isotopic methods Hydrogeological and environmental geological survey at a scale of 1: 50,000 was done from 2010 to 2012. The hydrogeology condition and relative environmental geological problems were detected in detail.Surface investigation found out the status of karst development, water point outcrop and their basic information. Environmental geological problems, such as drought, water pollutionand so on were also surveyed. Geophysical prospectingfound out five relative large scaled low apparent resistivity anomaly zones, which indicate the location of water concentrated runoff zone. Hydrogeology drilling exposedthe underground karst development. Tracer test determined the relationship of water interactionand water flow rate. In a word, hydrogeological background and relative socioeconomicand geo-environmental problems were clear by the survey. These were the premise of water protection and management in the basin. In order to study the relationship between groundwater, rainwater and surface water in the basin, 18O and H was analyzed in different seasons. The relationship between themis showed in Figure 1.Variation of 18O and D value in the basin has a characteristic of seasonal change and elevation effect. The isotopeanalysesshowed groundwater is all recharged by precipitation in the basin.Figure 1. Relation of 18O and H value in the basin. 1. rainfall; 2. river; 3. reservoir; 4. karst spring; 5. epikarst spring; 6. underground river, karst window, sinkhole; 7. well; 8. borehole; 9. spring in non-karst area Change of water resources including water quantity and quality. Beside the biggest spring Lingshui Spring in the basin as mentioned in the background, water discharge of 28 springs and underground rivers in the catchment were measured in order to compare the change of water flow with 1976. The results shows only two springs showing increased flow, 25 springs obviously decreased. The reducedpercentage ranges from 3% to 97%. Only one spring has no change. Water resources assessment showed the total discharge has greatly decreasedin the basin. The reasons for water discharge decrease were contributed to change of land use and land cover, differentannual precipitation and much stronger groundwater exploitation. Water samples were collected from 71 points including rivers, reservoirs, springs and wells in different seasons for water chemistry analysis.Variation of water chemistryin Lingshui Spring show NO3 -content has gradually risenat 2001, with a value of 3.90 mg/l, and NO2 -can be detected. From 2008, the average value of NO3 -was 6 mg/l, indicating the water quality had a trend of deterioration. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings238

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4.3. Public education In order to deliver information about the importance of karst groundwater, how groundwater flows, and how to protect karst groundwater supplies through regulations, brochures that serve as calendars were developed and distributed to Wuming government officials, members of Wuming county political consultative conference, local citizens, students, and others. A training and communication course was held in Wuming Countywith the title of Training and Communication on Understanding Groundwater, Protecting Groundwater in Wuming County. In order to learn about U.S. experiences, two American scientists with research interests focusing on national and international informal environmental education efforts related to anthropogenic karst disturbance, and water resources were invited to attend and present. Two presentations were given during the workshop. More than 200 people attended this training and communication workshop, including the vice head of county, director from Wuming county government, all members from the Wuming county political consultative conference, the Bureau of Water Resource, the Bureau of Environmental Protection, the Bureau of Forestry, the Bureau of Land and Resources, Bureau of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Bureau of Tourism, Wuming Water Company, representatives from local citizens, and graduate students from University.5. ConclusionKarst aquifers, where fractures or cavities permit rapid flow, tend to be more vulnerable than those where water flows slowly through porous rock. Karst aquifers usually have complex systems. Once polluted, they generally make cleanup difficult, expensive, and in some cases impossible. Groundwater movement and risk of pollution have known exactly based on detailed surveys and monitoring in some important springs or underground rivers in South of China. But sometimes they still can not escape from pollution when only depend on the scientists. An important spring in South of China was selected for pilot study on how to manage karst groundwater. Detail scientific research was done to find out the problems and countermeasures. Public education through training course and related material deliver for local government, residents, and studentshave been successfully conducted. According to this way local people know about knowledge of karst water, and now they are more caution before undertake activities which may threat water quality. Tracer test andgroundwater pollution accident wereexhibited by scientists in order to show the vulnerability of karst aquifers. These can be new methods for karst groundwater management and should be spread. More measures should be tried to convey to local people after science study in order to protect karst groundwater self-conscious.AcknowledgementsFinancial support was provided by Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (41102161, 41172231). We would like to thank the reviewers who read the first draft 36 water samples were evaluated according to method of ground water quality assessment. 28 water samples in 36 werein very good quality, accounting for 78% of the total. 5 water samples were in good status, 1 in relative bad and 2 in very bad level. So in general, groundwater was in good quality in the basin. Individual water was contaminated by industry, such as starch factory, agriculture activity and domestic waste water or solid stuff. According to multiple methods including GIS-based hydrochemistry and environmental isotope, tracer test, surface investigation and geophysical exploration, the total area of Lingshui catchment is draw out as about 697 km2. Basedon this, the protection area of Lingshui Spring was determined. 4.2. Tracer test to show vulnerability of karst aquifer Groundwater tracers can include both artificially introduced and naturally occurring substances (Todd2003). Groundwater tracing with artificial tracers involves adding a label to the groundwater that can be identified, if that same water is sampled at a different location. Natural tracing involves the use of naturally occurring components of a water sample to determine information about the source and age of the sample. The most commonly used natural tracers are isotopes and chemical compounds that originate in the atmosphere and become incorporated in the rainfall that recharges an aquifer(Fieldet al. 1995; FieldandNash 1997; Kss1998). 2 kg offluorescein sodiumwas injected to a sinkhole in north of Lingshui Spring with about 3km long distance. A flow-through field fluorometer was installed in the outlet of Lingshui Spring to receiptthe tracer. The result showed that the average flow velocity was 17 m/d in dried season. And it also showed between the injection and reception, the possibilityof karst main conduitexistence was small. Water usually flowedin network dissolution fissures. As it is mentioned below, during the training course, a fieldtrip was lead to a spring in Tang village to illustrate the vulnerability of the local karst aquifer, how the pollutants are transported in the extremely vulnerable karst areas, and the serious consequences of pollution. Villagers suddenly discovered that their household tap water was covered by a strong smelling layer of black oily substancesomeday. On the next day, the Tang village water plant stopped water supply, leaving more than 4,000 people without drinking water for over a month. After the accident, the county government set up a working group to identify causes for deteriorating water quality. The group found the pollution source was sewage effluent from a starch factory, which is about 2 km far away from the sinkhole. A sewage ditch of treatment plant from the factory was under construction. And when it came to the sinkhole, which is about 800 m far away from the spring, some sewage effluent leaked into the aquifer, resulting in water pollution. This contamination accident indicated pollution can be easily happen, especially when waste was improper disposedin the upstream, even people can not find connection directly between water points by naked eyes(Beddows2003; Gondweet al. 2010). Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings239

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of this paper for their constructive comments. Special thanks to Miss Noreen Zaman from University of Oxford for her great effort in improving the language of the paper.ReferencesBeddows PA, 2003. Cave hydrology of the Caribbean Yucatan coast. Assoc. for Mex. Cave Stud.. Bull. 11. Austin, TX, USA. Escolero OA, Marin LE, Steinich B, Pacheco J, 2002. Development of a protection strategy of karst limestone aquifers: The Merida Yucatan, Mexico case study. Water Resour. Manage. 16, 351. Field M, Nash S, 1997. Risk Assessment Methodology for Karst Aquifers: (1) Estimating Karst Conduit-flow Parameters, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 35, 75. Field M, Wilhelm R, Quinlan J, Aley T, 1995. An Assessment of the Potential Adverse properties of Fluorescent Dyes used for Groundwater Tracing, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 47, 1. Gondwe BN, Bauer-Gottwein P, Merediz-Alonso G, Fregoso A, Supper R, 2010. Groundwater resources management in Quintana Roo, Mexico: Problems, scientific tools and policy. In: Friedman, M.J. (Ed.): Global water issues. U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Information Programs (in press). Guo F, Yuan D, Qin Z, 2010. Groundwater Contamination in Karst Areas of Southwestern China and Recommended Countermeasures ACTA CARSOLOGICA 39/2, 389. Kacaroglu F, 1999. Review of groundwater pollution and protection in karst areas. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 113, 337. Kss W, 1998. Tracing Technique in Geohydrology, Balkema, Rotterdam, 581. Todd R, Kincaid, 2003. Groundwater Tracing in the Woodville Karst Plain Part I: An Overview of Groundwater Tracing, Journal of the Global Underwater Explorers, Vol. 4, No. 4, 31. Yuan D, 2003. Problems of geo-environment and eco-hydrology in karst area. Land resources in south China, 1, 22. Zokaites C, 2006.Project Underground. A natural Resource Education Guide. Third Edition. Project Underground. Inc. Zokaites, C., 2007: Mainstreaming karst education, or karst education for everyone.National Cave and Karst Management Symposium,25.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings240

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ICAVERNS: PROMOTING CAVE AND KARST UNDERSTANDING AND STEWARDSHIP VIA SMART DEVICE APPLICATIONSDianne Joop1and Michael Hernandez2 1Cave Stream, 807 Dennis Way, Carlsbad, New Mexico, United States, dianne@cavestream.com2Mykaelsoft, LLC, PO Box 3177, Carlsbad, New Mexico, United States, Karst landscapes form when acidic groundwater dissolves carbonate rocks that are at or near the earths surface. Karst landscape features develop both on and below the surface and are often described as looking otherworldly as well as breathtaking. Karst landscapes make up an estimated 12 percent of the earths surface with 20 percent of the global populace depending on karst groundwater resources. Yet few understand the importance or fragility of these resources. Karst environments and associated resources are fragile. Human interactions in karst areas make these resources highly susceptible to damage and environmental degradation. Worldwide, there are hundreds of parks or park-like attractions focusing on cave, spring, or sinkhole resources. Visitors to cave and karst attractions have a built-in curiosity about these places. Engaging this audience in cave and karst interpretive programming could greatly increase their knowledge of these systems. Paradoxically, the same attractions can also be responsible for promulgating cave and karst misconceptions. However, digital media can be very effective tools for increasing awareness and stewardship of cave and karst resources, especially when the media is developed for coviewing or joint media engagement. Smart device applications present several advantages over traditional interpretation media including, engaging audiences outside of the attractions boundaries, and presenting interpretational messages to visitors in their native language, maintaining content integrity. However, video and photography methods in cave environments present many challenges. Filming crews and gear requirements can cause irreparable damage to caves. This paper discusses the development of the iCaverns application, which was developed utilizing new green filming techniques as an educational and travel guide for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The iCaverns application makes cave resources at Carlsbad Caverns National Park available, via 5 hours of video and more than 2,000 photographs, to more than 400 million people, in 155 countries. As well as providing users to engage in cave and karst educational and interpretive media in 38 languages.1. IntroductionKarst landscapes are prevalent over most of the Earths surface. Worldwide millions of people depend on karst aquifers for drinking water. In many situations, the people living on karst have never heard the word, or do not understand how karst works. A lack of understanding of karst can increase the negative impacts on karst environments and its inhabitants. In fact sound management of kart areas require input and cooperation from land managers, planers, government officials, farmers, and local citizens (Guo 2011). Examples illustrating karst environmental concerns, issues, and impacts are broadly documented within the body of cave and karst science literature. Furthermore, the notions of the general publics lack of knowledge and the need to decrease this gap are widely accepted throughout the cave and karst community. Land managers acknowledge the important role education plays as a part of any natural resource protection plan, because of the difficulty people have in protecting something they do not understand (Guo 2011). Yet, there are very few examples in the literature identifying the general state of cave and karst education, common misconceptions in cave and karst related topics, or effective instructional delivery methodologies. However, an extensive body of knowledge exists within the realm of environmental education and interpretation. Utilizing effective interpretive methodologies, the iCaverns application (app) was developed as an educational travel guide for the cave and karst resources at Carlsbad Caverns National Park and World Heritage Site. The main educational goal for iCaverns is to inform users about the speleogenesis, unique environments, and impacts man has had on the cave and karst resources of Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The app gives access to these resources through photographic images. App users learn about the resources through interpretive tours led by a geologist. Users can also increase their knowledge through the educational portion of the app.Figure 1. Rattlesnake Spring supplies potable water to Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings241

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2. Cave and Karst Education TrendsKarst landscapes often have an exotic but beautiful appearance and thus, cave and karst features have become the feature attraction at many park-like locations around the globe. These park-like attractions draw in millions of visitors each year. The assumption is made that visitors to cave or karstfocused attractions have an interest in the resource. This built in interest primes the audience, making them more open and eager to learn about cave and karst resources. Therefore, cave and karst focused attractions are excellent venues to deliver cave and karst interpretation and education (North 2011). Indeed many of the cave or karst focused attractions have interpretive programs. Unfortunately, some of these programs have been responsible for passing forward missinformation about cave or karst resources (Kastning and Kastning 1999; North 2011). This same paradox exists when developing digital interpretive media. People purchasing cave or karst-centered media have an assumed interest in the subject. Because media products typically have a long shelf life, it is increasingly important to ensure the content be correct or in agreement with accepted scientific theories. Developing cave or karst focused for joint media engagement, like smart device apps would provide an effective interpretive experience for the whole family (Takeuchi and Stevens 2011). There are several advantages smart device apps have in comparison to traditional interpretation. Smart device apps engage the younger plugged-in generation as well as older generations. Apps bridge the generation gap, because they give generations the opportunity to experience them together. Apps put the resource in the pockets and hands of those interested in it, whereas traditional interpretation requires an onsite visit. Lastly, app developers have a higher level of control over the content. Both developers and endusers easily update apps, which makes content maintenance somewhat effortless and seamless.3. Conceptual PhaseThe iCaverns project was born from the developer, Michael Hernandez, conceiving the notion to put Carlsbad Cavern into peoples hand. The major conceptual theme for iCaverns is developing a comprehensive guide of Carlsbad Caverns National Park, which will entertain, and educate visitors. This app is intended to enhance visitor experience and provide virtual experiences for people that do not have the ability or means to visit the park. Users will have multiple choices available to move through the app. There is information provided about the town of Carlsbad, New Mexico as well as general information about Carlsbad Cavern National Park, an educational area, various animations, and nine virtual ranger guided tours. iCaverns is targeted for Apples smart device market, which reaches more than 450 million people in 155 countries (Monaghan2012)/38 Languages. The app will also be developed for Android devices; however, the two users vary greatly in expectations. The major themes driving the design and development for the iCaverns app are high quality, authentic, and engaging. All pieces for this application have been developed applying these qualities.4. Development PhaseQuality, authentic, and engaging are the driving principles for each portion of the apps development. 4.1. User Interface Hernandez developed the user interface focusing on the main principals of quality, elegance, and simplicity. The resulting interface is engaging, beautiful, and yet simple to navigate. This was accomplished by keeping the interface design, uncluttered. The users can navigate away from the main screen by dialing up the portion of the app they would like to visit. Each sub-interface also carries the simple and uncluttered look. The interface for the cave tours is a replica of cave maps, so users will know where they are in relation to the item being discussed. 4.2. Animations There are multiple animations on the iCaverns app, including one for modeling speleothem development and another modeling a Mexican Free-tailed bat in flight.Figure 2. Underground landscape along the Lower Cave trail in Carlsbad Cavern. Figure 3. Screenshot of Mexican Free-tailed bat animation. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings242

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The animations were developed using Pixar Studios. While the methods are proprietary, one of the designs did include input from bat specialists, as well as the use of video and photographs to build the bat within the app with a high level of authenticity and quality. Users can view every angle of the bat and observe muscle movement during flight. 4.3. Video Guided Tours The guided tours section of the iCaverns app is patterned after the tours offered at Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Dianne Joop a cave education and interpretation specialist and Mark Joop, a geologist and cave interpretation specialist, co-developed each of the nine tours around a central theme. With nearly five hours of video, the virtual ranger, Mark Joop, guides users through topics including, the geologic setting, speleogenesis, cave biota, historic uses, human impacts, and various historical figures of the park. Capturing high quality video in low-light situations is challenging, yet does not compare to capturing video in nolight settings. The iCaverns Director, Dianne Joop developed a green filmmaking technique for capturing video and stills underground with a minimal equipment and crew. The iCaverns photographer, Dianne Joop, worked within the boundaries of two photographic concepts, one taking photographs to support the video component and two capturing photographs to convey a story. Joop composed her shots to give users a sense of being in the caverns, traveling through passages, and making the discovery of the beauty that waits around the corner. Joop previewed photographs to small audiences to test the notion of people having the sense of being there. In all instances audience members affirmed this feeling. Lastly, both visual elements are implemented to allow for immediate updates, accommodating for new discoveries.5. SummaryThe iCaverns App is schedule to hit the market in March 2013. It is the most comprehensive travel guide/educational app currently available. The app will make cave resources at Carlsbad Caverns National Park available to more than 400 million people, in 155 countries. As well as providing users to engage in cave and karst educational and interpretive media in 38 languages.AcknowledgmentsWe would like to express, the success in producing this project was greatly enhanced by the unwavering support of Carlsbad Caverns National Park; Chief of Interpretation and Education, Marie Marek, Fee Program Manager, Paul Cox, and Supervisory Park Ranger, Pam Cox. As well we would like to thank Rolf Siegenthaler for his generous equipment donation.ReferencesFordDC,Williams PW2007. Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology.Wile: West Sussex, England, 2nded. Guo F, Jiang G, 2011. Karst Groundwater Managment through Science and Education. Open Journal of Geology, 1(3) 45. Kastning E H, Kastning KM, 1999. Misconceptions and caves and karst: common problems and educational solutions. Proceedings of the 1999 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium, Belingham, VA, 99. North LA, 2011. Informal Karst Education in the United States and Internationally. Graduate School Theses and Dissertations., 61. Monaghan C, 2012. Apple Press Release: Apple Launches iTunes Store in Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan & Nine Addition Countries in Asia Today. Apple library, pr/library/2012/06/26Apple-Launches-iTunes-Store-in-HongKong-Singapore-Taiwan-Nine-Additional-Countries-in-AsiaToday.html Takeuchi L, Stevens R, 2011. The New Coviewing: Designing for Learning through Joint Media Engagement. The Joan Ganz Cooney Centre at Sesame Workshop. New York, NY, 19. Figure 4. Photo example for iCaverns photography tour of Spider Cave. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings243

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PETITION FOR PROTECTION OF CAVE CONTENTSBrbel Vogel1, Friedhart Knolle2 1President, Verband der deutschen Hhlenund Karstforscher e.V., Grasslergasse 24, D-83486 Ramsau, Germany, vorsitz@vdhk.de2Editor, Verband der deutschen Hhlenund Karstforscher e.V., Grummetwiese 16, D-38640 Goslar, Germany, In 2010 a petition for a better protection of cave contents was addressed to the European Union by several speleological federations. The petition was supported by major nature protection NGOs and handed over to the EU Commissioner of Environment. Its aim was to stop the trade, import and export of cave contents. The European Union did not implement these demands but referred it to national legislation.1. IntroductionDue to growing tourism in the wild caves of Europe, the need for cave protection is constantly growing. One of the problems arising following touristic impacts is the damage and loss of cave contents. Therefore, in 2008 a written declaration on the protection of caves as a cultural, natural and environmental heritage lapsed in the European Parliament. To bring cave protection again into better effect, a petition to stop the trade of speleothems was born in 2010. Verband der deutschen Hhlenund Karstforscher e.V. (VdHK, German Speleological Federation) had the chance to accompany a group of German NGOs in a meeting with EU Commissioner of Environment Janez Poto nik. European Speleological Federation FSE supported the petition and emailed the first draft to its members. After an intensive discussion, the following petition was passed.2. Petition TextPetition to Stop Trade, Import and Export of Cave Contents Regarding Article 3 (b) and (l) of the Treaty establishing the European Community and the UNESCO Convention (concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage), we, the signatory organisations, petition to stop the trade, import and export of cave contents. Analogous to the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, there is an urgent need for a convention on the nonliving heritage of the world. This includes, among others, cave contents. Caves and karst areas are often transboundary regions, but the legal framework dealing with caves and cave protection varies greatly within the EU member states. The EU Habitats Directive mentions only bats but no other cave fauna. The EU Groundwater Directive does not take karst phenomena like high flow rates and low filtration capacity into account. With the ongoing climatic change and the expected water shortage in certain regions the importance of karst aquifers will increase even more. Up to now, there is still a profound lack of concern and protection for caves and karst in the European Community. Caves belong to the most fragile ecosystems in the world. They are also archives of geological history, evolution, climate and culture. To be meaningful, the protection of caves has to include the protection of cave contents otherwise it would only be the protection of the cover of a book without its pages. Cave contents include speleothems, sediments, fossils and archaeological findings. Speleothems are defined as any natural mineral formation or deposit occurring in natural caves, including but not limited to stalactites, stalagmites, helictites, gypsum flowers, flowstones, crystals, draperies or rimstones. Caves from which speleothems have been removed lose in value and beauty. This is seen in many showcaves and reduces the value of tourist regions of member states. Extracting and trading the unique formations of caves causes not only the loss of aesthetic and emotional value, but invaluable scientific information like palaeoclimatic data is lost as well.Figure 1. Speleothems in the Riesenberghhle, Lower Saxony, Germany. Photo Stefan Meyer. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings244

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Fossils and subfossils are often found in caves and their uncontrolled removal is not only a loss to scientific research but can also lead to significant damages of the cave and its content. Generally, all member states have laws dealing with archaeological discoveries. However, archaeological sites inside caves are usually not readily visible. Experts are needed to detect and evaluate sites prior to their uncovering. Even minimal changes in sensitive sections of a cave can lead to the total destruction of unique archaeological sites. Removal of speleothems, fossils, sediments and archaeological findings for scientific investigations must always be reduced to a minimum, in order to avoid an excessive depletion of the natural cave features. Decisions require careful considerations by specialist researchers and advice from experienced cave and karst experts. If research on a speleothem or fossil will likely result in the destruction of a sampling site, then the choice should be to abstain from the study. To ensure the protection of cave contents, the following demands have to be implemented: a) Speleothems or fragments of these (even if already broken), fossils, sediments or archaeological findings must not be extracted from caves, except for cases mentioned under c). b) Trade, import and export of cave content has to be prohibited. c) Scientific sampling has to be restricted to the absolutely necessary minimum. Scientific benefits have to be maximized through consultation with cave experts.3. SupportEvery speleological federation of Europe was asked to be involved. Many cavers contributed and the final version was signed by 25 national and 6 international organisations. Furthermore letters of support arrived from Paolo Forti, Full Professor of Geomorphology at the University of Bologna, Director of the Italian Institute of Speleology and Past President of the International Union of Speleology, and Dr. Jean Clottes Foix, President of the International Federation of Rock Art Organisations (IFRAO). International speleological organisations signed the declaration: the Commission on Cave Protection and the Commission on Volcanic Caves of the International Union of Speleology (UIS) and the International Show Caves Association (ISCA). The International Symposium on Subterranean Biology has boosted the petition, 54 participants from all over the world signed it.4. OutcomeAs Slovenian EU Commissioner Janez Potocnik was already aware about cave protection we had a good start. But other topics like the Soil Directive were discussed at that time and minimised our political impact. We gained support also from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and inside the European Commission. Although the petition was rejected, it was important to launch the campaign and the resulting discussions were fruitful.5. PerspectiveIn the United States of America the trade of speleothems is forbidden since 1988. Speleology should pay attention to current EU politics and intervene for cave topics. The FloraFauna-Habitats (FFH) directive/Natura 2000 as well as the Water Framework Directive are partly dealing with caves and karst. Therefore, also the EU Working Group C Groundwater could be used as a chance to set up cave protection in the process of legislation.AcknowledgmentsMany people helped a lot to set up the petition we thank every caver who had remarks on the text and helped us. Special thanks go to Stefan Nff, Basel, for the website work; Ioana Meleg, European Cave Protection Commission of the FSE, for support; Olivier Vidal, General Secretary FSE, Jean-Pierre Bartholeyns, UIS Adjunct Secretary, President of Karst and Cave Protection Department, and Deutscher Naturschutzring DNR for giving us the chance of the meeting in Figure 2. Human fossil bones, Bronze Age, Lichtensteinhhle (Rotkamphhle), Lower Saxony, Germany. Photo Landkreis Osterode am Harz. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings245

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CAVE AND KARST RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICEJohanna Kovarik USDA Forest Service Minerals and Geology Management Centralized National Operations, 740 Simms St. Golden CO 80401 USA, The United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (Forest Service) manages caves, karst systems, and associated resources on over 780,000 square kilometres of public land. The management of these resources is mandated by the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act (FCRPA) of 1988 and other federal acts, and is guided by the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) as well as the Forest Service Manual (FSM). The FCRPA provides for the designation and protection of caves as significant per definition in the statute. Under this United States law, land management agencies designate caves as significant based on biology, cultural resources, geologic/ mineralogic/paleontologic resources, recreational value, or educational or scientific value, or location in a specially designated area. The FCRPA and its implementing regulations at 36 CFR Part 290 Cave Resources Management provide the framework for management guidance in the FSM. Known caves and karst areas occur in over 100 National Forests and Grasslands, and over 2,200 significant caves have been identified to date, often with the assistance of partners such as the National Speleological Society and Cave Research Foundation. The goal of the Forest Service National Cave and Karst Program is to protect and maintain the biological, geologic/mineralogical/paleontological, hydrological, cultural, educational, scientific and recreational values of caves and karst resources. Management actions such as timber harvest, mining, grazing, herbicide application, and development of infrastructure and recreation sites on National Forest System lands can impact cave and karst resources. Additionally, such actions in karst areas may exacerbate hazardous conditions related to karst. As per the National Environmental Policy Act of 1972, Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements may require a section on geology and specifically on cave and karst systems where these resources occur in project areas. Additionally, the Forest Service Office of International Programs provides assistance to land managers abroad in areas of cave and karst management. This paper will outline the current status of cave and karst management in the Forest Service through an overview of cave and karst resources on National Forest System lands and highlight current management issues on individual national forests and regions.1. IntroductionThe United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (Forest Service) manages a wide variety of natural resources, including caves and karst, across 780,000 square kilometers of land in the 48 contiguous United States (U.S.), Alaska, and Puerto Rico. The Forest Service has a unique and separate mission from other U.S. land management agencies, one of multiple uses and conservation as opposed to preservation, and allows for activities such as timber harvest, mining, grazing, and recreation with the proper environmental considerations.When considering a management activity on National Forest System (NFS) lands, the agency must take into account the needs of many user groups, as well as the best available science in terms of environmental conservation. In cases of proposed environmental disturbance, this is accomplished through evaluation of projects and management strategies through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. The Federal Cave Resources Protection Act (FCRPA) of 1988 defines caves and mandates protection of caves designated as significant. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) guides management of caves on federal lands. The Forest Service Manual (FSM) guides cave management in sections relating to recreation, geology, and prohibitions. In addition, cave and karst resources are also protected through approximately 40 additional federal acts addressing items such as watershed, groundwater, and threatened and endangered species protection. In order to base management decisions on sufficient data, inventory of cave and karst resources is conducted by Forest Service field personnel and qualified volunteers through partnerships and memorandums of understanding (MOUs) with the National Speleological Society (NSS) and associated groups, Cave Research Foundation (CRF), and Geological Society of America (GSA). Areas with potential for cave and karst development are identified through field geologic mapping as well as work with remote sensing datasets. Once located in the field, caves are mapped and inventoried, and significant cave nomination forms are populated and approved by the proper authority. Data storage of cave and karst resources is highly sensitive, and significant cave locations are not subject to requests filed under the U.S. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) by the public, similar to federal archeological or heritage resources. These data are then utilized during the NEPA process to ensure consideration of land management action on cave and karst resources. Currently, cave and karst resource protection is carried out on a forest by forest and project by project basis depending on the type of project and the standards and guidelines incorporated into each forest plan. Future plans include standardization of cave and karst inventory and mapping, development of best practices and technical guides, unified national data storage, and increased cooperation with stakeholders. Finally, the Forest Service Office of International Programs offers assistance with cave and karst management in protected areas in other countries. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings246

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2. Cave and Karst Resources in the Forest ServiceNFS lands encompass a broad diversity of cave and karst resources across the 513,000 square kilometres (198,000 square miles) of potential cave and karst forming geologic units in the U.S. (Figure 1). Karst is formed by the dissolution of soluble carbonate bedrock such as limestone, dolostone, and marble. Caves are often classified by the parent material or speleogenic process, and are not only or always formed as a portion of the karst system. All types of caves such as volcanic, glacier, stream-cut, wave-cut, shelter, crevice, and framework, as well as solution, occur on NFS lands. Figure 1 reflects the different units and areas in which they may occur. The Forest Service is organized into nine regions, and within each region are individual forests and grasslands. In the eastern U.S., solution caves and karst systems occur in carbonate rock from Green Mountain and Finger Lakes National Forests in the northeastern states down the Appalachian chain through the Monongahela National Forest to the relatively young limestone in the Ocala National Forest in Florida. The longest underwater cave system, and thirteenth longest cave overall in the U.S. is hydrologically connected to springs on the Apalachicola National Forest. The Mark Twain National Forest in Missouri is underlain almost entirely by carbonate rock and includes approximately 600 caves. In the western U.S., a broad diversity of cave resources include sea and glacier caves on the Tongass and Chugach National Forests in Alaska; ice caves on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington; lava tubes on Deschutes and Umpqua National Forests; and hypogene solution caves on the Lincoln National Forest in New Mexico as several examples. As the Forest Service is working to inventory and document historic and current cave data, it is anticipated that the list of significant caves and resources within their passages will grow exponentially. This section highlights a selection of the caves and cave resources currently known on NFS lands. 2.1. Long and deep caves In the Southern Region, Omega Cave is currently the longest mapped cave known on NFS lands, the longest mapped cave in the state of Virginia, and the sixteenth longest cave in the U.S. at 47.07 kilometres (29.25 miles) (Gulden 2012). It is the tenth deepest cave in the U.S. with a vertical extent of 379 meters (1,243 feet), and the sixtysixth longest cave in the world (Gulden 2012). Exploration began in 1996 and 1997 in a non-Forest Service entrance called Blowing Hole and a Forest Service entrance called Lori Cori Canyon Cave. In November of 1998, exploration continued with the connection of these two entrances and pushing of further leads. This cave is located on the Washington and Jefferson National Forests inFigure 1. Forest Service caves and karst in the U.S. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings247

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Virginia. In the Eastern Region, Sloans Valley Cave is currently the twentieth longest cave in the U.S. at 36.3 kilometres (22.56 miles) of passage (Gulden 2012). Many of the entrances are privately owned, however one entrance is on NFS land, and a portion of this total length underlies the Daniel Boone National Forest. In the Northern Region, Virgil the Turtles Great House Cave is located in the Bob Marshall Wilderness on the Flathead National Forest in Montana, and is the fifth deepest cave in the U.S. at 423 meters (1,586 feet) (Gulden 2012). Also in this area on NFS land is Tickle Me Turtle Cave, which is the twenty-first deepest cave in the U.S., at 271 meters (890 feet) (Gulden 2012). In the Rocky Mountain Region, Columbine Crawl is the sixth deepest cave in the U.S. at 472.7 meters (1,551 feet) deep and 3,703 meters (2.3 miles) long (Gulden 2012). It is located in the Teton National Forest in Wyoming. The Uinta-WasatchCache National Forests in the Intermountain Region contain well-developed alpine karst areas which include Main Drain Cave, as well as Neffs Canyon Cave. Main Drain and Neffs Canyon are also on the deep caves list in the U.S., with Main Drain ranking eleventh at 374 meters (1,227 feet) and Neffs ranking thirteenth at 354.5 meters (1,163 feet) (Gulden 2012). An additional cave on NFS lands in this area is Nielsens Well, the twenty-second deepest cave in the U.S. at 268 meters (880 feet) (Gulden 2012). Down in the Southwestern Region, Three Fingers and Virgin Caves are on-going cave survey projects on the Lincoln National Forest in New Mexico. Virgin Cave is the thirty-sixth deepest cave in the U.S., and Three Fingers is the sixty-third deepest cave in the U.S (Gulden 2012). Both of these hypogene caves were discovered in the 1960s and 70s, and are currently undergoing remapping projects. In Pacific Northwest Region, Deadhorse Cave and Ape Cave, the two longest mapped lava tubes in North America are located on the Mt. St. Helens National Volcanic Monument in Washington State (Gulden 2012). Puffin Grotto is the ninth longest sea cave in the world at 287 meters (942 feet) in length, and is located in the Alaska Region on the Tongass National Forest (Gulden 2012). It is thought to have formed through mechanical wave action as well as dissolution of the Silurian-aged marble, and is uplifted to approximately 15 meters (50 feet) above current sea level. 2.2. Biology Forest Service caves in the eastern and western U.S. provide habitat for a wide range of life from all three domains: bacteria, archaea, and eucaryota. This ranges from several species of troglophiles (eutroglophile), trogloxenes (subtroglophile), troglobites (troglobiont), and stygobites such as bats, salamanders, spiders, crayfish, and loaches to biofilms commonly described as speleothems such as moonmilk. Additionally, cave and karst systems on NFS lands play a critical role in the overall biological productivity of an area, including the geochemistry of waters emanating from karst systems impacting the productivity of fish; and the development of karst features impacting vegetation productivity on the surface (Aley et al. 1993, Harding and Ford 1993, Bryant and Swanston 1998). Researchers have documented microbial communities in caves on NFS lands as part of a growing discovery of the role of bacteria and archaea in speleogenesis and speleothem formation. University researchers found microbial activity integral in pool finger precipitation in Hidden Cave, Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico as well as in development of subaqueous moonmilk in the form of cottonballs on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska (Curry et al. 2009, Melim et al. 2010). Federally endangered bat species found utilizing Forest Service caves include the Gray bat ( Myotis grisescens), Indiana Bat ( Myotis sodalis), the Ozark big-eared bat ( Corynorhinus townsendii ingens ) and the Virgninia bigeared bat ( Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus). Additional bat species found in Forest Service caves such as the Little brown bat ( Myotis lucifugus ), the Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus ), and the Tricolored bat ( Perimyotis subflavus) are not currently listed as threatened or endangered, but Forest Service caves provide important habitat as the population numbers of these bats are dropping due to White-nose Syndrome (WNS). The largest diversity and richness of troglobitic and stygobitic species is currently documented primarily in the eastern U.S., which is covered by the Eastern and Southern Regions (Culver et al. 2001). In the Southern Region, Blanchard Springs Caverns on the Ozark-St. Francis NF is second only to Tumbling Creek Cave in Missouri for the Ozark Plateaus ecoregion in biological richness in Arkansas with 96 total and 9 obligate species (Graening et al. 2003). In the Eastern Region, the Monongahela, Hoosier, Shawnee, and Mark Twain National Forests have designated many vertebrate and invertebrate cave species as Regional Forester Sensitive Species, such as the Marengo Cave ground beetle ( Pseudanophthalmus stricticollis ), the Carter Cave spider ( Nesticus carteri ), Eastern cave-loving funnel web spider ( Calymmaria cavicola ), Fountain cave springtail ( Pseudosinella fonsa ), and Dry Fork Valley cave pseudoscorpion ( Apochthonius pauscisinosus). Many of these species are found only in a handful of caves in the eastern U.S., and some of these species are rare and ound only in a single particular cave on NFS land. 2.3. Paleontology The Forest Service is working to collate information from the wide variety of paleontological studies conducted in caves on NFS lands. Researchers have conducted a great amount of work which is well documented in Forest Service caves across the western half of the country, from Alaska to California, through Nevada and into South Dakota. Samwel Cave and Potter Creek Cave on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest in the Pacific Southwest Region are significant fossil repositories, with 52 species excavated in Potter Creek Cave, and 21 of those species extinct (Merriam 1906). These 52 species include the, short-faced bear ( Arctotherium simum), shrub ox (Euceratherium collinum ), hores (Equus), mammoth, bison, and camelid (Payen and Taylor 1976). Faunal deposits in Samwel Cave included 45 mammal species, a portion of which were a large variety of Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings248

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rodents, which were utilized in a recent study assessing the impact of global warming on mammal populations (Faranec et al. 2007, Blois et al. 2010). In the Alaska Region, the Tongass National Forests caves are repositories for a large quantity of paleontological resources. Work in eighteen caves in this region by Heaton (2002) documented species of mammals not previously found in southeast Alaska, such as red fox (Vulpes vulpes ) and wolverine (Gulo gulo). Additionally Heaton found a 10,750 year old black bear skeleton ( Ursus americanus) and 12,295 year old brown bear (Ursus arctos) bones on Prince of Wales Island where currently only black bears are found (Heaton 2002). 2.4. Archeology Archeologists have conducted research in Forest Service caves for years, often with the initial discovery of artifacts occurring when volunteers from the NSS or CRF locate artifacts during cave surveys, such as the case of the 8,000year-old man from Hourglass Cave in region two (Mosch and Watson 1997). Archeologists unearthed one of the most significant discoveries for Forest Service cave archaeology in On Your Knees Cave on Prince of Wales Island in southeast Alaska after discovery and survey of the cave by the Tongass Cave Project of the NSS. In 1992, the 10,300 year-old remains of young man called Shuk Kaa (Man Ahead of Us in the native Tlingit language) were excavated and studied along with paleontological artifacts in a ground-breaking cooperative effort with the native Alaskan groups in southeast Alaska as well as with several universities (Fifield 2008). Results from genetic studies on the individuals remains contained significant implications regarding the settlement of the North American continent (Kemp et al. 2007). This discovery and the studies based upon the artifacts excavated from On Your Knees Cave were given wide press attention, including articles in National Geographic Magazine and Smithsonian. On the Ozark St Francis National Forests, 64 caves and 55 rock shelters were inventoried as prehistoric sites (Jurney and McCluskey 2012). Rock art panels were discovered in Gustafson/Wingard Cave, and are the, only known Native American art work in cave dark zones in Arkansas (Jurney 2009). The rock art panels included the only depiction of a bison currently known about in the state of Arkansas, as well as a centipede which is not common in the eastern U.S. (Jurney 2009). Archeologists also found artifacts in Gustafson/ Wingard Cave including Mississippian pottery shards and archaic dart points. In 1955, cavers discovered human remains in Blanchard Springs Caverns and later discoveries included torch remnants and other items which suggested that human use of the cave spanned 760 years, A.D. 225 (Wolfman 1974).3. Policy3.1. Federal Acts There are approximately 40 federal laws directly and indirectly impacting the many facets of cave and karst resource management, including the FCRPA, NEPA, the Organic Administration Act, Endangered Species Act (ESA), Paleontological Resources Preservation Act (PRPA), Archeological Resources Preservation Act (ARPA), and the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (WPFPA). These laws relate directly to the management planning and responsibilities of geology, archaeology, wildlife biology, and recreation in cave and karst resource management. 3.1.1. Federal Cave Resources Protection Act In 1988 the FCRPA was established in order to,secure, protect, and preserve significant caves on Federal lands for the perpetual use, enjoyment, and benefit of all people; and to foster increased cooperation and exchange of information between governmental authorities and those who utlize caves located on Federal lands for scientific, education, or recreational purposes.In the FCRPA caves are defined as,Any naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnected passages which occurs beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledgeand which is large enough to permit an individual to enter, whether or not the entrance is naturally formed or manmade. (1988).The FCRPA defined seven criteria by which caves could be designated as significant, including biology, cultural resources, geologic/mineralogic/paleontologic resources, recreational value, or educational or scientific value, or location in a specially designated area. The federal agencies were tasked with designating significant caves based on the seven criteria immediately following the establishment of the FCRPA, and given three years to complete this initial designation working with cave and karst stakeholders. This Act also mandated that locations of significant caves are not available to the public through Freedom of Information Act requests unless a specific request is made via one of the federal agencies or an educational or research institution. A list of prohibited acts relating to federal caves, as well as punishment for violating those prohibitions, is included. Prohibited acts include destruction, disturbance, alteration, removal, or sale of federal caves and associated resources. Today, any federal agency employee or member of the public may nominate a significant cave for designation based on this Act, and periodic updating of the significant caves list and protection of caves while under consideration is mandated. 3.2. Code of Federal Regulations In the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Title 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property, there are several sections which relate directly to Forest Service-specific cave resource management. CFR Part 290, Cave Resources Management, contains explicit direction for the Forest Service on cave resources including definitions, the nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves, confidentiality of cave information, and collection of information related to caves. CFR Part 261, Prohibitions, contains prohibitions against such things as occupying, having domestic animals, lighting fires, and discharging firearms underground. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings249

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3.3 Forest Service Manual The Forest Service Manual (FSM) contains program level guidance for cave and cave ecosystem management, and assigns roles for leadership and coordination. The sections relevant to cave and karst resources are chapters 2356 and 2880. Chapter 2356 outlines the cave management responsibilities of Recreation, Heritage, and Wilderness Resources, and Chapters 2880 describe the cave and cave ecosystem management responsibilities of Geologic Resources, Hazards, and Services. In section 2356, the FSM outlines the roles and responsibilities of Recreation, Heritage, and Volunteer Resources, including controlling cave use, establishing use limits, developing cave management plans in coordination with other resources, acquiring cave inventory data in order to consider human cave use impacts, and coordinating and developing cave interpretive and educational materials and alerting the public to cave hazards. In section 2880 of the FSM, the Forest Service manages geologic resources, and caves and karst resources are defined as geologic resources here.This section identifies the Director of Minerals and Geology as being responsible for sharing the lead responsibility for cave and cave ecosystem related management, specifically acting as the lead for all caves which are not designated for recreational use:Coordinate lead responsibility for cave and cave ecosystem management on National Forest System lands with the Washington Office Director, Recreation, Heritage, and Wilderness Resources. Forest Service Manual 2356 provides the direction for significant caves and karst features developed for recreational use; FSM 2880 provides direction for protection and management of non-recreational significant caves and their associated ecosystems.Forest Supervisors are tasked with making certain the caves under their jurisdiction are being evaluated for significance by a qualified geologist in accordance with the FCRPA of 1988, and CFR 36 290. Under FSM 2880, the Forest Service is required to collect and evaluate material to rate the potential for presence of caves and cave ecosystems, and to assess the quantity, quality, and vulnerability of groundwater dependent ecosystems (karst aquifers). For caves and cave ecosystems, the Forest Service is tasked with collecting information on existing caves from the caving community and tribes utilizing spatial data in order to depict a regional description of known caves (locations confidential). In order to designate geologic factors affecting resource allocations and presence or absence of caves, reconnaissance mapping of bedrock and surface geology should occur. The addition of inventorying the extent of known caves is added, and finally field surveys including mapping caves and karst areas/ features, dye tracing, and air flow studies are required in order to evaluate the extent of resources and sensitivity to human disturbance. All cave-related documents should be secured to protect cave locations. MGM According to FSM 2880, the Forest Service identifies management activities affecting caves, cave ecosystems, and karst environments and determines the effects of proposed activities on the hydrologic function and biological significance, safety, recreational opportunities, and cultural and paleontological resources of cave resources and ecosystems. The Forest Service additionally determine the need for protection of cave resources and ecosystems as critical wildlife or aquatic habitat. The Forest Service then then protect caves and cave ecosystems with the assistance of the scientific community and / or recreational caving groups in accordance with Federal law. The Forest Service protects and preserves significant caves by regulating or restricting use, as appropriate, and monitoring the condition of cave resources. Finally, the Forest Service also manages hazardous geologic conditions which includes the potential for flooding and sinkhole collapse in karst areas.4. Land ManagementAs mentioned in FSM section 2880, the Forest Service is tasked with identifying management activities impacting caves, cave ecosystems, and groundwater dependent ecosystems such as karst ecosystems. Where active management occurs on NFS lands, standards and guidelines written in forest plans provide mitigation measures as guided by the policy described above to protect significant caves and karst resources where appropriate. Examples exist in many national forest plans for standards and guidelines to manage the impact of timber harvest on cave resources. These examples include no-harvest buffers placed around significant caves and karst features and guidelines for building roads in karst areas. Studies on the Tongass National Forest in southeast Alaska established 30 meter (100 foot) buffers as the scientific standard for cave and karst resource protection; however the actual buffer diameter differs and on some forests in different ecosystems may be greater or less (Aley et al. 1993). If the appropriate official has designated caves found within planned mining areas to be significant, those caves are protected. However, caves not designated as significant cannot be protected as per the 1872 Mining Act once a U.S. citizen has placed a valid claim on an area where that cave is found. If caves are located during mining operation, they are documented; however the mining claimant has the right to continue operation including destruction of located caves. Recreation is also a managed activity on NFS lands. During surveys, caves that lack sensitive resources and are deemed safe for visitation are identified as possible recreation sites. The Forest Service contains quite a few show or commercial caves including Wonderland, Blanchard Springs Caverns, Minnetonka, and El Capitan Caves. These caves are managed by cave management plans drafted to protect all cave resources found within those caves, but are often run by outside entities with Forest Service guidance. Visits to these caves for visitors with no caving experience are led by Forest Service guides or contractors. Self-guided cave and karst educational trails and boardwalks also exist on NFS lands including: Big Ice Cave on the Custer National Forest, Ape Cave Interpretive Trail on the Mt. St. Helens National Volcanic Monument, Ice Caves Trail on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Beaver Falls Karst Trail on the Tongass National Forest, and the Leon Sinks area on the Apalachicola National Forest. These Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral2013 ICS Proceedings250

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include Forest Service-placed interpretive signs and structures, such as boardwalks, which educate visitors with information about cave and karst features and provide for the safety of visitors and protection of sensitive features. Finally, permitted recreation in cave systems is open to cavers of all skill levels on the Lincoln and Tonto National Forests. Current restrictions are in place such as decontamination due to White-nose Syndrome. Caves in the Eastern, Southern, and Rocky Mountain Regions are currently closed to recreational caving with exemptions for operating commercial caves. The Forest Service is managing the impacts of White-nose Syndrome (WNS) in the U.S. through blanket closures in the eastern and southern regions and blanket and targeted closures with exemptions for science and exploration in some of the western regions. Established national decontamination protocols are in place for cave entry regardless of the area. Detailed NEPA procedures are ongoing in Forest Service units across the U.S. including Categorical Exclusions (CEs) and Environmental Assessments (EAs) in order to further evaluate the impact of cave and mine closures due to WNS.5. Future Goals and ConclusionThe Forest Service is currently working to improve agency cave and karst management through targeting several specific management goals. Minerals and Geology Management (MGM) and Recreation, Lands, and Heritage are working together at the national level to identify roles and responsibilities for each respective department. The Forest Service has renewed MOUs with stakeholders such as the National Speleological Society (NSS) and the Cave Research Foundation (CRF). Tasks such as system-wide inventory of caves and identification and designation of significant caves, development of a corporate spatial database with protections for locational information, and establishment of best practices and technical field guides are identified as crucial.ReferencesAley T, Aley C, Elliot WR, Huntoon P, 1993. Karst and Cave Significance Assessment Ketchikan Area, Tongass National Forest, Alaska. Final Report. 79. Blois J, McGuire J, Hadly E, 2010. Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change. Nature 465(7299) 771. Bryant MD, Swanston DN, 1998. Coho Salmon populations in the Karst landscape of north Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. American Fisheries Society; 127, 425. Curry M, Boston PJ, Spilde M, Baichtal JF, Campbell AR, 2009. Cottonballs, a unique subaqeous moonmilk, and abudant subaerial moonmilk in Cataract Cave, Tongass National Forest, Alaska. International Journal of Speleology 38(2) 111. Culver DC, Master LL, Christman MC, Hobbs HH, 2001. Obligate Cave Fauna of the 48 Contiguous United States. Conservation Biology 14(2) 386. Feranec RS, Hadly EA, Bois JL, Barnosky AD, Paytan A, 2007. Radiocarbon dates from the pleistocene fossil deposits of Samwell Cave, Shasta County, California, USA. Radiocarbon 49(1) 117. Fifield TE, 2008. On Your Knees Cave and the Shuk Kaa Honor Ceremony, 1992. Beneath the Forest, 1(1) 7. Graening GO, Slay ME, Tinkle KK, 2003. Subterranean biodiversity of Akansas, Part I: Bioinventory and bioassessment of caves in the Sylamore Ranger District, Ozark National Forest, Arkansas. Journal of Arkansas Academy of Science, 57 44. Gulden B. 2012. NSS Geo2 Long and Deep Caves. Heaton, TH. 2002. Ice Age Paleontology of Southeast Alaska, University of South Dakota index.html Harding KA, Ford DC, 1993. Impacts of primary deforestation upon limestone slopes in northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Environmental Geology 21, 137. Jurney DM, McCluskey RS, 2012. Indiana bat environmental assessment Sylamore Ranger District, Baxter and Stone Counties, Arkansas. Ozark-St Francis National Forests, Heritage Resource Inventory Report Series 12-1-01-01, Russellville, Arkansas. Kemp BM, Malhi RS, McDonough J, Bolnick DA, Eshleman JA, Rickards O, Martinez-Labarga C, Johnson JR, Lorenz JG, Dixon EJ, Fifield TE, Heaton TH, Worl R, Smith DG, 2007. Genetic Analysis of early holocene skeletal remains from Alaska and its implications for the settlement of the Americas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 132 (4) 605. Melim LA, Shinglman, KM, Boston PJ, Northup DE, Spilde J, Queen, M, 2010. Evidence for Microbial Involvement in Pool Finger Precipitation, Hidden Cave, New Mexico. Geomicrobiology Journal, 18(3), 311. Mosch CJ, Watson PJ, 1997. An Ancient Rocky Mountain Caver. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 59(1) 10. Merriam JC, 1906. Recent Cave Explorations in California. American Anthropologist, 8(2) 221. Payen LA, Taylor RE, 1976. Man and Pleistocene fauna at Potter Creek Cave, California. The Journal of California Anthropology, 3(1) 51. Prather J, Briggler JT, 2001. Use of Small Caves by Anurans during a Drought Period in the Arkansas Ozarks. Journal of Herpetology, 35(4) 675. Wolfman D, 1975. Blanchard Springs Caverns Radiocarbon Dates. Arkansas Archaeological Society Field Notes 119, 7.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings251

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SOLVING KARST FLOODING IN LAS CRUCES, PETN, GUATEMALALewis Land1, 2, George Veni2 1New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, New Mexico 87801, USA, lland@nckri.org2National Cave and Karst Research Institute, 400-1 Cascades Avenue, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220, USA, Heavy rainfall in 2008 and 2010 resulted in severe flooding in the town of Las Cruces, Peten, Guatemala. Recent deforestation of the area draining into the town resulted in record high runoff. Previously, a cave in the middle of town had accepted all floodwaters but its capacity was exceeded causing the water to overflow into the community. Groundwater levels consequently rose causing additional flooding from overflowing wells. Flood levels averaged 1 m deep in the town. In early 2011, the National Cave and Karst Research Institute collaborated with Engineers Without Borders to relieve the flooding by means of a drainage channel to divert most floodwaters around the town and away from the cave. The proposed route needed evaluation for potential underlying caves that might collapse the channel and still result in flooding. Geophysical methods were initially planned but the logistics were not feasible. Instead, a series of 4-m deep test pits were dug and the geology carefully interpreted to evaluate the stability of the proposed route. This survey revealed the route extends through an area of relatively deeper soils where no caves or karstic disturbance of the soils was evident. Though there is no assurance that leakage through the channel floor and subsequent collapse will not occur, it is at least outside of the towns boundaries and the best solution available given the communitys limited resources. Reforestation of the watershed above the town, especially with sustainably harvestable plants, is the best long-term solution to their flooding problem.1. IntroductionLas Cruces is one of the largest towns in the department of Petn in northern Guatemala (Figure 1). Heavy rainfall associated with a hurricane in 2008 and a tropical depression in 2010 caused severe flooding, resulting in displacement of 7,000 residents. An Engineers Without Borders (EWB) team began investigations of the area to evaluate the potential for constructing a drainage channel around the north and west side of town to mitigate future flood events. However, they recognized the possibility for intersecting caves along that route that might complicate or defeat their efforts and asked the National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI) to assist with this humanitarian effort by evaluating the potential for underlying caves. EWB (2010) provided the data specific to the Las Cruces area described below in this report.2. Hydrogeologic settingPetn is bounded to the north and northwest by Mexico and to the east by Belize. The geology of northern Guatemala is relatively simple compared to the southern part of the country, which includes a transform boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates, with associated volcanism, metamorphism, and extensive structural deformation. By contrast, most of Petn is underlain by relatively undeformed shallow marine carbonate bedrock of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Thick limestone deposits and the humid tropical climate are responsible for the extensive karst topography of northern Guatemala. The Petn region has limited surface drainage relative to the rest of the country, typical of karst terrain. In the general vicinity of Las Cruces, a layer of unconsolidated non-carbonate sediment of variable thickness (zero to several meters) overlies limestone bedrock. In the immediate vicinity of the village, the elevation decreases from east to west, reflecting the distribution of bedrock. Extensive outcrops of limestone are exposed on the east side of town, particularly in the northeast quadrant. Within the populated area of Las Cruces, isolated exposures of limestone near the center of town reflect the irregular character of the sediment-bedrock interface. The subdued topography on the west side of Las Cruces coincides with very limited limestone outcrops. Figure 1. Map of Guatemala with location of Las Cruces.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings252

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There is abundant evidence for karstic conditions in the area. El Tragante, a small cave in the center of town, is formed in a limestone knoll with ~2 m of relief. The cave entrance is about 4 m in diameter, but the cave itself extends only about 8 m and narrows to a passage about 50 cm in diameter that is choked with trash. A smaller second entrance that does not receive significant natural drainage is present about 15 m west of the main entrance to the cave. Because of limited access, its connection to the main entrance is assumed but not known. In addition to El Tragante, a sinkhole approximately 25 m in diameter occurs on the north side of town. Las Cruces residents also report the existence of a second cave within the village limits that was filled recently to prevent access by children and animals. Detailed hydrologic information for the village of Las Cruces and surrounding area is almost non-existent. At this stage of investigation, only a general conceptual model is possible based on observations of local outcrops, wells, and test pit results from this study. The north half of Las Cruces has access to a municipal water supply, which pumps water from a 90 m deep well on the east side of town that is screened in limestone. In addition, many households either supplement their water supply with or rely exclusively on shallow domestic wells. Several homeowners reported that their wells sometimes went dry for part of the year. Most of the domestic wells observed were hand-dug, which may account for their concentration on the west side of town where bedrock is overlain by a blanket of sediment. Several of the test pits dug for this study on the west side of town encountered limited water flow (<5 liters/min) at 3 m below ground level. These observations are consistent with a conceptual model of a deeper limestone aquifer overlain by several meters of clay and silt. The clay/silt overburden contains perched aquifers of limited extent that provide water for small domestic wells. The municipal supply well draws water from the underlying limestone aquifer.3. Karst flooding and groundwater contaminationEl Tragante is located at the south end of a drainage ditch running from north to south through the center of town. The community of Las Cruces exploits its natural karstic drainage system to manage floodwater and stormwater runoff. Surface floodwater is conveyed via the ditch into the cave and transported downgradient through karstic conduits; it is assumed to discharge from El Oroyo, a spring located roughly 4 km to the south. Since about 1980, the 89-km2drainage basin flowing into Las Cruces has changed from a lowland jungle to deforested cattle ranches, corn fields, and papaya plantations (Figure 2). From 1990 to 2009, the area has experienced an average annual rainfall of 1,640 mm and until recently all drainage has flowed through El Tragante. However, progressive deforestation has increased the flood pulse into the cave and in 2008 and 2010 the cave overflowed during a hurricane and tropical depression, flooding much of the northern part of the town with up to 3m of water. Also, trash clogging the passage at the back of the cave inhibits its ability to efficiently transmit floodwater. Groundwater mounding also caused water to rise up to 0.6 m above the surface from wells to flood much of the southern part of the town. An estimated 7,000 residents were displaced and much property was damaged and destroyed. Repeated flooding is expected unless the drainage area is reforested and/or some of the runoff is diverted away from Las Cruces. The drainage ditch also receives much of the graywater drainage as well as unknown quantities of domestic sewage and animal waste from homes located along the canal. In addition, a sewage line has been inserted directly into El Tragantes probable second entrance (Figure 3). Water Figure 2. Drainage basin into Las Cruces (EWB, 2010). Figure 3. Sewage pipe into El Tragante; the cave entrance is 3 m deep. Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings253

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samples collected from all wells in Las Cruces showed moderate to high levels of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria, probably associated with the widespread use of pit latrines in the village as well as the discharge of graywater and sewage into the cave. Most residents rely on either bottled water or water from the municipal water distribution system. A sample collected from the municipal supply well had low levels of fecal coliform, in spite of the fact that raw sewage is being injected directly into the karstic aquifer beneath Las Cruces. The position of the municipal well upgradient from El Tragante may account for the relatively low level of contamination found in the well samples.4. Flood remediation channel: evalutionEngineers from EWB proposed excavation of a 5.2 km long channel that would capture the majority of floodwaters as they enter the north side of Las Cruces, and divert them via the channel west and then south of town (Figure 4). The channel would be approximately 5 m wide by 3 m deep and prone to intersecting a cave during excavation. It could also collapse at a later time by water in the channel piping soil into underlying cavities, which could shift the location of flooding by surface overflows and continue flooding by groundwater mounding. NCKRI geologists recommended conducting an electrical resistivity survey along the length of the proposed channel to identify any significant caves so EWB could reroute or design the channel accordingly. Logistical issues with transporting the resistivity equipment to Las Cruces prevented its use, so a second plan was developed to evaluate the stability of the channel route with the equipment that was available. Using a backhoe, 25 tests pits were dug at 150 m intervals along the proposed channels route to evaluate the near-surface geology and soil conditions. The pits had depths of 3.5 to 4 m (maximum depth dictated by the length of the backhoe arm), and assessments were made of sediment cover, depth to bedrock, and locations of soil piping, caves, and other karst features in the subsurface (Figure 5). Information from a recently-excavated cesspit was also included as part of the geologic investigation. A Garmin 76S handheld GPS receiver was used to collect location and elevation data at each station, accurate to within a few meters. Twenty-two of the 25 pits encountered only soil and dense clay. These pits represent about 90% of the total length of the survey. Two of the pits exposed weathered limestone bedrock 1.5 to 3.5 m below ground level, and one unearthed several large limestone boulders at ~3.5 m, suggesting proximity to bedrock. In addition, four pits in the southern portion of the survey encotered limited water flow.5. ConclusionsResults of the test pit survey, coupled with observations of the local geology, indicate the presence of an irregular bedrock surface overlain by one to several meters of clay and silt on the north and west sides of Las Cruces. Test pit and borehole data have inherent limitations when evaluating depth to bedrock in karst terrain. That said, it appears that limestone bedrock is probably greater than 4 meters deep over ~90 % of the length of the proposed channel. Nearsurface bedrock (<4 m) or limestone boulders indicating proximity to bedrock were encountered in three pits over a Figure 4. Proposed route of diversion channel around Las Cruces (lleuvia is Spanish for rain); the short channel in the northcentral part of town flows into El Tragante at its south end and they gray area to the north is the watershed for the channel (EWB, 2010). Figure 5. Backhoe excavating pit for geological examination.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings254

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distance of roughly 500 m, along which more difficult excavation conditions are anticipated. Although no caves or soil pipes were encountered in the test pits, caves are obviously present in the vicinity of Las Cruces. It is thus possible that leakage from the drainage channel into underlying caves or karst conduits may initiate sinkhole collapses. Ideally, the ditch should be lined to prevent or minimize leakage, but budget constraints for the community may not permit this. For a more permanent solution, the people of Las Cruces are encouraged to reforest the towns drainage area with trees and other plants that will reduce runoff while yielding economically valuable harvests. Alternatively, or in combination, the example of the towns ancient Maya ancestors should be followed by terracing the landscape to reduce runoff and soil erosion, which is a well-recognized environmental and economic problem for the region. While remediation of groundwater quality was not a part of this study, contamination of the karstic groundwater supply would be at least partially mitigated by removal of the sewage line into the second entrance into El Tragante. In addition, Las Cruces residents should stop discharging graywater and sewage into the existing canal, since that waste is transported directly into the limestone aquifer via El Tragante. Lastly, the installation of a debris rack, designed to keep trash from entering the cave and not restricting recharge, would reduce both flooding and groundwater contamination.ReferencesEngineers Without Borders. 2010. Flood assessment and mitigation design project: preliminary design report. Engineers Without Borders, Chicago, Illinois.Protection and Management of Karst, Education oral 2013 ICS Proceedings255