2013: Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Speleology, Czech Republic, Brno, July 21-28, 2013 Volume 2

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2013: Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Speleology, Czech Republic, Brno, July 21-28, 2013 Volume 2

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Title:
2013: Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Speleology, Czech Republic, Brno, July 21-28, 2013 Volume 2
Alternate Title:
International Congress of Speleology
Alternate Title:
ICS Proceedings
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Language:
English

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Conference Proceeding
serial ( sobekcm )

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General Note:
Produced by the Organizing Committee of the 16th International Congress of Speleology. Published by the Czech Speleological Society and the SPELEO2013 and in the co-operation with the International Union of SpeleologyEdited by Michal Filippi, Pavel Bosák Contents: Preface Session: Exploration And Cave TechniquesRecent Investigations In The Gálapagos Islands, Ecuador / Aaron Addison, Theofilos Toulkeridis, Steven Taylor, Glenn Osburn, Geoffery Hoese, Vicente Delgado -- Quartz Sandstone Caves On Table Mountains Of Venezuela / Marek Audy, Richard Bouda -- Northern Velebit Deep Caves / Darko BaksÌŒić, Dalibor Paar, Andrej Stroj, Damir Lacković -- Best-Practice Training Approaches For Mitigating Caving Hazards And Enhancing Cave Exploration Techniques For Small Groups Of Cavers / Aaron Bird, Melissa Sawa-- Caving In The Abode Of The Clouds - Meghalaya, North East India / Simon Brooks -- Cave Exploration In Iran / Simon Brooks -- Club Of Climbers As A Basis For Training Process Of Cavers / Anatoliy Bulychov, Tatyana Sorokina -- Explorations And Documentation On The Atepetaco Karst System (Hueytamalco, Puebla, Mexico) / Alberto Buzio, Federico Confortini, Claudio Cruz-García, Victor Cruz-García, Rosalia DaviÌ€, Jesus Domínguez-Navarro, Giovanni Gurrieri, Angelo Iemmolo, Diego Marsetti, Enrique Méndez Torres, Francesco Merisio, Giorgio Pannuzzo, Marzia Rossi, Sergio Santana-Muñoz, Marco Vattano -- Discovery And Exploration Of Evklidova PisÌŒcÌŒal, Julian Alps, Slovenia / Matthew D. Covington, Matic Di Batista -- Glacier Cave Expeditions 2012: Nepal And Svalbard / Matt Covington, Jason Gulley, David Ochel -- Speleological Expeditions To The Shan Plateau In Myanmar (Burma) / Joerg Dreybrodt, Imogen Furlong, Fleur Loveridge, Peter Talling -- Ten Years Of Exploration And Over 100 Km Of Caves Surveyed In Northern Laos / Joerg Dreybrodt, Michael Laumanns, Helmut Steiner -- Czech Discoveries In The Maganik Mts., Montenegro / ZdeneÌŒk DvorÌŒák, Vít Baldík -- Exploration Of The Chestnut Ridge Cave System Bath And Highland Counties, Virginia / Mike Ficco -- Caves Of Tongzi, Tudi, Jielong, Wulong County, Chongqing, China - Six Years And Counting / Mike Futrell, Mike Ficco, Erin Lynch -- The History And Current Status Of Exploration In Yantangping Cave System Of Wulong County, China / Stephen Gladieux -- Underwater Exploration Of The Bjurälven Valley Cave (Sweden) Under Extreme Winter Conditions / Dmitri Gorski, Nicklas Myrin, Bosse Lenander, Markus Nord, Mark Dougherty -- Grotta Del Bue Marino - Sardinia / Daniel HutnÌŒan -- Explorations In The Loferer Steinberge / Oliver Kube, Jochen Hartig, Renato SeroÌ‚dio -- The Longest Limestone Caves Of Israel / Boaz Langford, Amos Frumkin -- A General Assessment Of The Great Caves And The Karst Of Southeast Asia / Michael Laumanns, Liz Price -- The Longest Cave In Hungary / Szabolcs Leél-OÌ‹ssy -- Eu Proteus - Eu Project For Raising Awareness And Improving Effectiveness Of Cave Rescuing / Maks Merela, Darko BaksÌŒić -- On The Search For King Barbarossa In Untersberg / Ulrich Meyer -- K Oox Baal - 4Th Longest Underwater Cave Systém In The World / ZdeneÌŒk MotycÌŒka -- Geology And Deep Verticals: Case Study From Maganik Mts., Montenegro / JirÌŒí Otava, Vít Baldík -- KacÌŒna Jama (The Snake Cave) - DivacÌŒa, Slovenia / TomásÌŒ Roth, Karel Kocourek -- ImawariÌ€ Yeuta: A New Giant Cave System In The Quartz Sandstones Of The Auyan Tepui, Bolivar State, Venezuela / Francesco Sauro, Freddy Vergara, Antonio De Vivo, Jo De Waele -- Exploration Of High Altitude Caves In The Baisun-Tau Mountain Range, Uzbekistan / Evgeny Tsurikhin, Vadim Loginov, Francesco Sauro, Sebastian Breitenbach -- Kes Mountain Sinkhole (Kahramanmaras - Southeastern Turkey) / Ali Yamaç, Murat Eğrikavuk -- Premier Exploration Of The Caves Of Holy Mt. Athos, Greece / Alexey Zhalov, Magdalena Stamenova -- Exploration Of The Jasanka Cave In Banat, Romania / Vít Kaman, Petr Barák -- Cave Exploration Of The Belić Massif In The Prokletije Mountains (Montenegro) / Ditta Kicińska, Krzysztof Najdek -- Volcanic Caves And Petroglyphs Of Borluk Valley - Kars (Eastern Turkey) / Ali Yamaç -- Trapiá Cave: Exploration, Survey, Biology And Geospeleology Of The Biggest Cave Of Rio Grande Do Norte State / Leda A. Zogbi, Diego Bento, Francisco W. Cruz, Daniel S. Menin Session: Speleological Research And Activities In Artificial UndergroundThe Man-Made Underground Cavities Of North-West Russia / I.A. Agapov, Y.S. Lyakhnitsky, I.U. Hlebalin -- Gold Mines Of The 18Th Century: Past And Present / Iure Borges De Moura Aquino, Thiago Nogueira Lucon, Hernani Mota De Lima -- The Sugano Mines Of Orvieto (Italy): Aluminium From Volcanic Fire / Edoardo Bellocchi, Chemical Technician, Marco Morucci -- Workshops And Survey Results In The Chrima Cinp Project (Eu Programme Culture 2007-2013) / Carmela Crescenzi -- The Augustean Aqueduct In The Phlegraean Fields (Naples, Southern Italy) / Graziano W. Ferrari, Raffaella Lamagna -- Nero's Oven: Ten Surveys Are Not Enough / Graziano W. Ferrari, Raffaella Lamagna -- Research Prospects Of Old Mine Workings In The Ural Mountains / Alexey Gunko -- KungsträdgaÌŠrden, A Granitic Subway Station In Stockholm: Its Ecosystem And Speleothems / Magnus Ivarsson, Johannes E. K. Lundberg, Lena Norbäck Ivarsson, Therese Sallstedt, Manuela Scheuerer, Mats Wedin -- Unfinished Railway Tunnel And Bunker At GodovicÌŒ / Andrej Mihevc, AlesÌŒ Lajovic, Mateja Ferk, Jure TicÌŒar -- Recognition Of Instability Features In Artificial Cavities / Mario Parise -- Classification Of Artificial Cavities: A First Contribution By The Uis Commission / Mario Parise, Carla Galeazzi, Roberto Bixio, Martin Dixon -- An Overview Of The Geological And Morphological Constraints In The Excavation Of Artificial Cavities / Sossio Del Prete, Mario Parise -- The Ancient Mines Of Usseglio (Torino, Italy) Multi-Year Programme Of Recording, Study, Preservation And Cultural Development Of The Archaeological Mining Heritage In An Alpine Valley Maurizio Rossi, Anna Gattiglia, Daniele Castelli, Claudia Chiappino, Renato Nisbet, Luca Patria, Franca Porticelli, Giacomo Re Fiorentin, Piergiorgio Rossetti -- Safe Caves: The Distinctive Features Of Hideout Complexes In The Galilee In The Early Roman Period And Parallels In The Judean Lowlands (Shephelah) / Yinon Shivtiel -- Artificial Cavities Of Gaziantep (Southeastern Turkey) / Ali Yamaç, Murat Eğrikavuk -- Subterranean "Bell-Shaped" Quarries In The Judean Foothills, Israel / Boaz Zissu -- The Ethno-Cultural Features Of Man-Made Caves Carved In The Neogene Pyroclastic Formation Within The Armenian Highland And Neighboring Areas / Smbat Davtya -- Underground Mines In Moscow City / Yuri Dolotov. Session: Karst And Cave Survey, Mapping And Data Processing1000 And 1 Caves In "Lefka Ori" Massif, On Crete, Greece / Kostas Adamopoulos -- Maquiné Cave, Brazil - Over 170 Years Of Cave Mapping / Luciana Alt, Vitor Moura -- Statistical Evaluation Of Cave Location Precision Based On Cartographic Sources / Miha CÌŒekada -- Resurvey And Resource Inventory Of Three Fingers Cave, New Mexico, Usa / Andrea Croskrey, Jennifer Foote, Pat Kambesis -- Virginia Speleological Survey (Vss) Geospatial Database / Mike Futrell -- Lessons From Drafting Project Startup And Summary Of Exploration Advances In Fisher Ridge Cave System, Hart County, Kentucky, United States Of America / Stephen Gladieux -- Humpleu Cave (Romania): What's Up? / Philipp Häuselmann -- The Auriga Pda Freeware The Electronic Swiss Knife Of Cave Surveyors / Luc Le Blanc -- Quick 3D Cave Maps Using Cavewhere / Philip Schuchardt -- The Unified Database Of Speleological Objects Of The Czech Republic As Part Of Nature Conservancy Information System / Ivan Balák, Olga Suldovská -- Speleological Map Of The Kanin Massif / Miha CÌŒekada, Petra GostincÌŒar, Miha Staut -- Integrated Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning And Autonomous Drone Surface-Hotogrammetry At Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Malaysia / D.A. Mcfarlane, M. Buchroithner, J. Lundberg, C. Petters, W. Roberts, G. Van Rentergen -- Natural And Anthropogenic Factors Influencing The Karst Development In The Ne Athens Area, Greece / Papadopoulou-Vrynioti Kyriaki, Bathrellos George D., Skilodimou Hariklia D. -- The Spatial Distribution Of Karst Ecosystem Using Gis In Attica, Greece / Skilodimou Hariklia D., Bathrellos George D., Papadopoulou-Vrynioti Kyriaki -- Claude Chabert And The Mapping Of Ayvaini Cave - Turkey / Ali Yamaç -- Re-Mapping Of Insuyu Cave (Burdur - Western Turkey) / Ali Yamaç, Murat Eğrikavuk. Session: Modelling In Karst And Cave EnvironmentsMicrometeorology Of Mt Cronio Caves, Sicily / Giovanni Badino -- New Acquisition, 3D Modelling, And Data Use Methods: The Laser Scanning Survey Of Re Tiberio Cave / Erminio Paolo Canevese, Paolo Forti, Roberta Tedeschi -- A Theoretical Framework For Understanding The Relative Importance Of Chemical And Mechanical Erosion Processes In Cave Streams / Matthew D. Covington, Franci GabrovsÌŒek -- Evolution Of Conduit Networks In Transition From Pressurised To Free Surface Flow / Franci GabrovsÌŒek, Matija Perne -- Analytical Models To Describe The Effects Of Tracer Mixing Before And After Advection And Dispersion / Sid Jones -- Is The Helmholtz Resonator A Suitable Model For Prediction Of The Volumes Of Hidden Cave Spaces? / Marek Lang, JirÌŒí Faimon -- Anthropogenic Bias On Power-Law Distributions Of Cave Lengths / Stein-Erik Lauritzen, Rannveig Øvrevik Skoglund, Silviu Constantin, Fernando Gázquez, Johannes E.K. Lundberg, Andrej Mihevc, Christos Pennos, Rabbe Sjöberg -- Documenting Swiss Karst Aquifers Using Karsys Approach - Examples Of Recent Applications / Arnauld Malard, Pierre-Yves Jeannin, Jonathan Vouillamoz, Eric Weber -- Can Dripwater Hydrogeochemistry Help Us To Discover Hidden Upper-Lying Cave Floor? / Pavel Pracný, JirÌŒí Faimon -- Cave Explorations And Application Of Hydrological Model In RasÌŒpor Cave (Istria, Croatia) / Andrija Rubinić, Lovel Kukuljan, Ivan GlavasÌŒ, Josip Rubinić, Igor RuzÌŒić. -- Temperature And Kinetic Control Of Cave Geometry / Rannveig Øvrevik Skoglund, Stein-Erik Lauritzen Session: Cave Climate And Paleoclimate RecordAn Extended Late Pleistocene Record Of Water-Table Fluctuations In Devil's Hole, Nevada / Yuri Dublyansky, Christoph Spötl, Gina Moseley, R. Larry Edwards -- Review Of Paleoclimate Studies In Turkey: The Role Of Speleothem-Based Data / Gizem Erkan, C. Serdar Bayari -- Isotopes Of Gypsum Hydration Water In Selenite Crystals From The Caves Of The Naica Mine (Chihuahua, Mexico) / Fernando Gázquez, José-María Calaforra, David Hodell, Laura Sanna, Paolo Forti -- Forty Years Of Phreatic Overgrowths On Speleothems (Pos) Research In Coastal Caves Of Mallorca / Angel Ginés, Joaquín Ginés, Joan J. Fornós, Paola Tuccimei, Bogdan P. Onac, Francesco GraÌ€cia -- Air Co2 In Comblain-Au-Pont Cave (Belgium) Relationships With Soil Co2 And Open Air Meteorology / Jean Godissart, Camille Ek -- Climatic And Environmental Changes Between 130-230 Ka Recorded In An Alpine Stalagmite From Switzerland / Anamaria Häuselmann, Daniel Tabersky, Detlef Günther, Hai Cheng, Lawrence R. Edwards, Dominik Fleitmann -- Spurious Thermoluminescence In Speleothem: Implication For Paleoclimate / Chaoyong Hu, Qing Li, Jin Liao, Quanqing Yang -- Presentation Of A Water Injection System To Control The Growth Of Speleothems At The Milandre Test-Site, Ju, Switzerland / Pierre-Yves Jeannin, Philipp Häuselmann, Marc Lütscher, Denis Blant, Pierre-Xavier Meury -- High Resolution Temperature Sampling Of Cave Climate Variation As A Function Of Allogenic Recharge, Coldwater Cave, Iowa, Usa / Patricia Kambesis, John Lovaas, Michael J. Lace -- Percolation Into Dragon's Tooth Cave, Florida, Usa / Karina Khazmutdinova, Doron Nof -- Preliminary Results On Paleoclimate Research In Mecsek Mts, Hungary / Gabriella Koltai, Sándor Kele, Gergely Surányi, Beáta Muladi, Ilona Bárány-Kevei -- A Study Of Temperature Characteristics In The Shallow Karstic Velika Pasica Cave, Slovenia / Allen Wei Liu, Anton Brancelj -- Climatic Features Of Different Karst Caves In Hungary / B. Muladi, Z. Csépe, L. Mucsi, I. Puskás, G. Koltai, M. Bauer -- Holocene Paleoclimate Reconstruction Based On Stalagmite Studies From Lebanon / Fadi H. Nader, Hai Cheng, Rudy Swennen, Sophie Verheyden -- Physical Research In Croatia's Deepest Cave System: Lukina Jama-Trojama, Mt. Velebit / Dalibor Paar, Nenad Buzjak, Darko BaksÌŒić, Vanja Radolić -- Growth And Diagenetic History Of Aragonite-Calcite Speleothems, Implications For Environmental Studies / Christine Perrin, Laurent Prestimonaco, Guilhem Servelle, Romain Tilhac, Marion Maury, Patrick Cabrol -- Ultra- High Resolution Speleothem Records - How Far We Can Push The Time Resolution? / Yavor Shopov -- Variations Of Annual Karst Denudation Rates In The Last Two Millennia Obtained From Speleothem Records / Y. Shopov, D. Stoykova, L. Tsankov, U. Sauro, A. Borsato, F. Cucchi, P. Forti, L. Piccini, D. C. Ford, C. J. Yonge -- A Pronounced Extended Negative Temperature Gradient In The Pomeranzen Cave, Switzerland / Hans Stünzi -- Geomorphology Of Fossil Spring Mounds Near El Gedida Village, Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert Of Egypt / Magdy Tora -- Palaeoclimatic Investigation Using Cave Speleothes In Lime Decorated Lava Tube Caves On Jeju Island, South Korea / Kyung Sik Woo, Kyoung-Nam Jo, Hyoseon Ji, Seokwoo Hong, Sangheon Yi -- Possible Evidence Of The Stages Of Karst Development In The Pinega Region Of Northern European Russia / A. Ashepkova, V. Malkov, E. Shavrina, A. Semikolennykh -- The 5.3 Ka Bp Extreme/Weakening Event In The Asian Monsoon During The Middle Holocene; A Record In A Stalagmite From Wanxiang Cave, Western China Loess Plateau / Yijun Bai, Pingzhong Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang, Hai Cheng -- Isotope Analyses In Two Littoral Caves In Mallorca, Spain: Preliminary Results / Liana M. Boop, Jonathan G. Wynn, Bogdan P. Onac, Joan J. Fornós,Antoni Merino, Marta Rodríguez-Homar -- Radon Measurements In Austrian And Slovenian Caves With An Alphaguard Instrument / Christina Bonanati, Ingo Bauer, Stephan Kempe -- Element And Stable Isotope Aqueous Geochemistry From Baysun Tau, Uzbekistan - Tracing The Source Of The Dripwater / Sebastian F. M. Breitenbach, Ola Kwiecien, Francesco Sauro, Vadim Loginov, Yanbin Lu, Evgeny Tsurikhin, Antonina Votintseva -- Holocene Temperature Fluctuations In Central Europe Recorded In Stalagmite M6 From Milandre Cave, Switzerland / Anamaria Häuselmann, Adam Hasenfratz, Hai Cheng, Lawrence R. Edwards, Dominik Fleitmann -- A Multiproxy Approach To Reconstructing Paleoenvironmental Conditions From Speleothems In Barbados To Address Groundwater Vulnerability / Gilman Ouellette, Jr., Jason S. Polk -- Genetic Algorithms As Correlation Tools - Speleothems Stable Isotope Records As An Example / Jacek Pawlak, Helena Hercma -- Different Types Of Laminae In A Flowstone From La Cigalere Cave (Pyrenees, S. France) / Christine Perrin, Laurent Prestimonaco -- Climate Significances Of Speleothem 18O From Monsoonal China: Comparison And Verification Among Stalagmite, Instrumental And Historical Records / Liangcheng Tan, Yanjun Cai, Hai Cheng, Haiwei Zhang, Chuan-Chou Shen, R. Lawrence Edwards, Zhisheng An .
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K26-00115 ( USFLDC DOI )
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Description
Produced by the Organizing Committee of the 16th
International Congress of Speleology. Published by the Czech
Speleological Society and the SPELEO2013 and in the
co-operation with the International Union of
SpeleologyEdited by Michal Filippi, Pavel Bosak
Contents:
Preface
Session: Exploration And Cave TechniquesRecent
Investigations In The Galapagos Islands, Ecuador / Aaron
Addison, Theofilos Toulkeridis, Steven Taylor, Glenn Osburn,
Geoffery Hoese, Vicente Delgado --
Quartz Sandstone Caves On Table Mountains Of Venezuela /
Marek Audy, Richard Bouda --
Northern Velebit Deep Caves / Darko Baksic, Dalibor
Paar, Andrej Stroj, Damir Lackovic --
Best-Practice Training Approaches For Mitigating Caving
Hazards And Enhancing Cave Exploration Techniques For Small
Groups Of Cavers / Aaron Bird, Melissa Sawa--
Caving In The Abode Of The Clouds Meghalaya, North East
India / Simon Brooks --
Cave Exploration In Iran / Simon Brooks --
Club Of Climbers As A Basis For Training Process Of
Cavers / Anatoliy Bulychov, Tatyana Sorokina --
Explorations And Documentation On The Atepetaco Karst
System (Hueytamalco, Puebla, Mexico) / Alberto Buzio, Federico
Confortini, Claudio Cruz-Garcia, Victor Cruz-Garcia, Rosalia
Davi, Jesus Dominguez-Navarro, Giovanni Gurrieri, Angelo
Iemmolo, Diego Marsetti, Enrique Mendez Torres, Francesco
Merisio, Giorgio Pannuzzo, Marzia Rossi, Sergio Santana-Munoz,
Marco Vattano --
Discovery And Exploration Of Evklidova Piscal, Julian
Alps, Slovenia / Matthew D. Covington, Matic Di Batista --
Glacier Cave Expeditions 2012: Nepal And Svalbard / Matt
Covington, Jason Gulley, David Ochel --
Speleological Expeditions To The Shan Plateau In Myanmar
(Burma) / Joerg Dreybrodt, Imogen Furlong, Fleur Loveridge,
Peter Talling --
Ten Years Of Exploration And Over 100 Km Of Caves
Surveyed In Northern Laos / Joerg Dreybrodt, Michael Laumanns,
Helmut Steiner --
Czech Discoveries In The Maganik Mts., Montenegro /
Zdenek Dvorak, Vit Baldik --
Exploration Of The Chestnut Ridge Cave System Bath And
Highland Counties, Virginia / Mike Ficco --
Caves Of Tongzi, Tudi, Jielong, Wulong County, Chongqing,
China Six Years And Counting / Mike Futrell, Mike Ficco, Erin
Lynch --
The History And Current Status Of Exploration In
Yantangping Cave System Of Wulong County, China / Stephen
Gladieux --
Underwater Exploration Of The Bjuralven Valley Cave
(Sweden) Under Extreme Winter Conditions / Dmitri Gorski,
Nicklas Myrin, Bosse Lenander, Markus Nord, Mark Dougherty --
Grotta Del Bue Marino Sardinia / Daniel Hutnan --
Explorations In The Loferer Steinberge / Oliver Kube,
Jochen Hartig, Renato Serodio --
The Longest Limestone Caves Of Israel / Boaz Langford,
Amos Frumkin --
A General Assessment Of The Great Caves And The Karst Of
Southeast Asia / Michael Laumanns, Liz Price --
The Longest Cave In Hungary / Szabolcs Leel-Ossy --
Eu Proteus Eu Project For Raising Awareness And
Improving Effectiveness Of Cave Rescuing / Maks Merela, Darko
Baksic --
On The Search For King Barbarossa In Untersberg / Ulrich
Meyer --
K Oox Baal 4Th Longest Underwater Cave System In The
World / Zdenek Motycka --
Geology And Deep Verticals: Case Study From Maganik Mts.,
Montenegro / Jiri Otava, Vit Baldik --
Kacna Jama (The Snake Cave) Divaca, Slovenia /
Tomas Roth, Karel Kocourek --
Imawari Yeuta: A New Giant Cave System In The Quartz
Sandstones Of The Auyan Tepui, Bolivar State, Venezuela /
Francesco Sauro, Freddy Vergara, Antonio De Vivo, Jo De Waele
--
Exploration Of High Altitude Caves In The Baisun-Tau
Mountain Range, Uzbekistan / Evgeny Tsurikhin, Vadim Loginov,
Francesco Sauro, Sebastian Breitenbach --
Kes Mountain Sinkhole (Kahramanmaras Southeastern
Turkey) / Ali Yamac, Murat Egrikavuk --
Premier Exploration Of The Caves Of Holy Mt. Athos,
Greece / Alexey Zhalov, Magdalena Stamenova --
Exploration Of The Jasanka Cave In Banat, Romania / Vit
Kaman, Petr Barak --
Cave Exploration Of The Belic Massif In The Prokletije
Mountains (Montenegro) / Ditta Kicinska, Krzysztof Najdek --
Volcanic Caves And Petroglyphs Of Borluk Valley Kars
(Eastern Turkey) / Ali Yamac --
Trapia Cave: Exploration, Survey, Biology And
Geospeleology Of The Biggest Cave Of Rio Grande Do Norte State
/ Leda A. Zogbi, Diego Bento, Francisco W. Cruz, Daniel S.
Menin
Session: Speleological Research And Activities In Artificial
UndergroundThe Man-Made Underground Cavities Of North-West
Russia / I.A. Agapov, Y.S. Lyakhnitsky, I.U. Hlebalin --
Gold Mines Of The 18Th Century: Past And Present / Iure
Borges De Moura Aquino, Thiago Nogueira Lucon, Hernani Mota De
Lima --
The Sugano Mines Of Orvieto (Italy): Aluminium From
Volcanic Fire / Edoardo Bellocchi, Chemical Technician, Marco
Morucci --
Workshops And Survey Results In The Chrima Cinp Project
(Eu Programme Culture 2007-2013) / Carmela Crescenzi --
The Augustean Aqueduct In The Phlegraean Fields (Naples,
Southern Italy) / Graziano W. Ferrari, Raffaella Lamagna --
Nero's Oven: Ten Surveys Are Not Enough / Graziano W.
Ferrari, Raffaella Lamagna --
Research Prospects Of Old Mine Workings In The Ural
Mountains / Alexey Gunko --
Kungstradgarden, A Granitic Subway Station In
Stockholm: Its Ecosystem And Speleothems / Magnus Ivarsson,
Johannes E. K. Lundberg, Lena Norback Ivarsson, Therese
Sallstedt, Manuela Scheuerer, Mats Wedin --
Unfinished Railway Tunnel And Bunker At Godovic / Andrej
Mihevc, Ales Lajovic, Mateja Ferk, Jure Ticar --
Recognition Of Instability Features In Artificial
Cavities / Mario Parise --
Classification Of Artificial Cavities: A First
Contribution By The Uis Commission / Mario Parise, Carla
Galeazzi, Roberto Bixio, Martin Dixon --
An Overview Of The Geological And Morphological
Constraints In The Excavation Of Artificial Cavities / Sossio
Del Prete, Mario Parise --
The Ancient Mines Of Usseglio (Torino, Italy) Multi-Year
Programme Of Recording, Study, Preservation And Cultural
Development Of The Archaeological Mining Heritage In An Alpine
Valley Maurizio Rossi, Anna Gattiglia, Daniele Castelli,
Claudia Chiappino, Renato Nisbet, Luca Patria, Franca
Porticelli, Giacomo Re Fiorentin, Piergiorgio Rossetti --
Safe Caves: The Distinctive Features Of Hideout Complexes
In The Galilee In The Early Roman Period And Parallels In The
Judean Lowlands (Shephelah) / Yinon Shivtiel --
Artificial Cavities Of Gaziantep (Southeastern Turkey) /
Ali Yamac, Murat Egrikavuk --
Subterranean "Bell-Shaped" Quarries In The Judean
Foothills, Israel / Boaz Zissu --
The Ethno-Cultural Features Of Man-Made Caves Carved In
The Neogene Pyroclastic Formation Within The Armenian Highland
And Neighboring Areas / Smbat Davtya --
Underground Mines In Moscow City / Yuri Dolotov.
Session: Karst And Cave Survey, Mapping And Data
Processing1000 And 1 Caves In "Lefka Ori" Massif, On Crete,
Greece / Kostas Adamopoulos --
Maquine Cave, Brazil Over 170 Years Of Cave Mapping /
Luciana Alt, Vitor Moura --
Statistical Evaluation Of Cave Location Precision Based
On Cartographic Sources / Miha Cekada --
Resurvey And Resource Inventory Of Three Fingers Cave,
New Mexico, Usa / Andrea Croskrey, Jennifer Foote, Pat Kambesis
--
Virginia Speleological Survey (Vss) Geospatial Database /
Mike Futrell --
Lessons From Drafting Project Startup And Summary Of
Exploration Advances In Fisher Ridge Cave System, Hart County,
Kentucky, United States Of America / Stephen Gladieux --
Humpleu Cave (Romania): What's Up? / Philipp Hauselmann
--
The Auriga Pda Freeware The Electronic Swiss Knife Of
Cave Surveyors / Luc Le Blanc --
Quick 3D Cave Maps Using Cavewhere / Philip Schuchardt --
The Unified Database Of Speleological Objects Of The
Czech Republic As Part Of Nature Conservancy Information System
/ Ivan Balak, Olga Suldovska --
Speleological Map Of The Kanin Massif / Miha Cekada,
Petra Gostincar, Miha Staut --
Integrated Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning And
Autonomous Drone Surface-Hotogrammetry At Gomantong Caves,
Sabah, Malaysia / D.A. Mcfarlane, M. Buchroithner, J. Lundberg,
C. Petters, W. Roberts, G. Van Rentergen --
Natural And Anthropogenic Factors Influencing The Karst
Development In The Ne Athens Area, Greece /
Papadopoulou-Vrynioti Kyriaki, Bathrellos George D., Skilodimou
Hariklia D. --
The Spatial Distribution Of Karst Ecosystem Using Gis In
Attica, Greece / Skilodimou Hariklia D., Bathrellos George D.,
Papadopoulou-Vrynioti Kyriaki --
Claude Chabert And The Mapping Of Ayvaini Cave Turkey /
Ali Yamac --
Re-Mapping Of Insuyu Cave (Burdur Western Turkey) / Ali
Yamac, Murat Egrikavuk.
Session: Modelling In Karst And Cave
EnvironmentsMicrometeorology Of Mt Cronio Caves, Sicily /
Giovanni Badino --
New Acquisition, 3D Modelling, And Data Use Methods: The
Laser Scanning Survey Of Re Tiberio Cave / Erminio Paolo
Canevese, Paolo Forti, Roberta Tedeschi --
A Theoretical Framework For Understanding The Relative
Importance Of Chemical And Mechanical Erosion Processes In Cave
Streams / Matthew D. Covington, Franci Gabrovsek --
Evolution Of Conduit Networks In Transition From
Pressurised To Free Surface Flow / Franci Gabrovsek, Matija
Perne --
Analytical Models To Describe The Effects Of Tracer
Mixing Before And After Advection And Dispersion / Sid Jones --
Is The Helmholtz Resonator A Suitable Model For
Prediction Of The Volumes Of Hidden Cave Spaces? / Marek Lang,
Jiri Faimon --
Anthropogenic Bias On Power-Law Distributions Of Cave
Lengths / Stein-Erik Lauritzen, Rannveig vrevik Skoglund,
Silviu Constantin, Fernando Gazquez, Johannes E.K. Lundberg,
Andrej Mihevc, Christos Pennos, Rabbe Sjoberg --
Documenting Swiss Karst Aquifers Using Karsys Approach -
Examples Of Recent Applications / Arnauld Malard, Pierre-Yves
Jeannin, Jonathan Vouillamoz, Eric Weber --
Can Dripwater Hydrogeochemistry Help Us To Discover
Hidden Upper-Lying Cave Floor? / Pavel Pracny, Jiri Faimon
--
Cave Explorations And Application Of Hydrological Model
In Raspor Cave (Istria, Croatia) / Andrija Rubinic, Lovel
Kukuljan, Ivan Glavas, Josip Rubinic, Igor Ruzic. --
Temperature And Kinetic Control Of Cave Geometry /
Rannveig vrevik Skoglund, Stein-Erik Lauritzen
Session: Cave Climate And Paleoclimate RecordAn Extended
Late Pleistocene Record Of Water-Table Fluctuations In Devil's
Hole, Nevada / Yuri Dublyansky, Christoph Spotl, Gina Moseley,
R. Larry Edwards --
Review Of Paleoclimate Studies In Turkey: The Role Of
Speleothem-Based Data / Gizem Erkan, C. Serdar Bayari --
Isotopes Of Gypsum Hydration Water In Selenite Crystals
From The Caves Of The Naica Mine (Chihuahua, Mexico) / Fernando
Gazquez, Jose-Maria Calaforra, David Hodell, Laura Sanna,
Paolo Forti --
Forty Years Of Phreatic Overgrowths On Speleothems (Pos)
Research In Coastal Caves Of Mallorca / Angel Gines, Joaquin
Gines, Joan J. Fornos, Paola Tuccimei, Bogdan P. Onac,
Francesco Gracia --
Air Co2 In Comblain-Au-Pont Cave (Belgium) Relationships
With Soil Co2 And Open Air Meteorology / Jean Godissart,
Camille Ek --
Climatic And Environmental Changes Between 130-230 Ka
Recorded In An Alpine Stalagmite From Switzerland / Anamaria
Hauselmann, Daniel Tabersky, Detlef Gunther, Hai Cheng,
Lawrence R. Edwards, Dominik Fleitmann --
Spurious Thermoluminescence In Speleothem: Implication
For Paleoclimate / Chaoyong Hu, Qing Li, Jin Liao, Quanqing
Yang --
Presentation Of A Water Injection System To Control The
Growth Of Speleothems At The Milandre Test-Site, Ju,
Switzerland / Pierre-Yves Jeannin, Philipp Hauselmann, Marc
Lutscher, Denis Blant, Pierre-Xavier Meury --
High Resolution Temperature Sampling Of Cave Climate
Variation As A Function Of Allogenic Recharge, Coldwater Cave,
Iowa, Usa / Patricia Kambesis, John Lovaas, Michael J. Lace --
Percolation Into Dragon's Tooth Cave, Florida, Usa /
Karina Khazmutdinova, Doron Nof --
Preliminary Results On Paleoclimate Research In Mecsek
Mts, Hungary / Gabriella Koltai, Sandor Kele, Gergely
Suranyi, Beata Muladi, Ilona Barany-Kevei --
A Study Of Temperature Characteristics In The Shallow
Karstic Velika Pasica Cave, Slovenia / Allen Wei Liu, Anton
Brancelj --
Climatic Features Of Different Karst Caves In Hungary /
B. Muladi, Z. Csepe, L. Mucsi, I. Puskas, G. Koltai, M. Bauer
--
Holocene Paleoclimate Reconstruction Based On Stalagmite
Studies From Lebanon / Fadi H. Nader, Hai Cheng, Rudy Swennen,
Sophie Verheyden --
Physical Research In Croatia's Deepest Cave System:
Lukina Jama-Trojama, Mt. Velebit / Dalibor Paar, Nenad Buzjak,
Darko Baksic, Vanja Radolic --
Growth And Diagenetic History Of Aragonite-Calcite
Speleothems, Implications For Environmental Studies / Christine
Perrin, Laurent Prestimonaco, Guilhem Servelle, Romain Tilhac,
Marion Maury, Patrick Cabrol --
Ultra- High Resolution Speleothem Records How Far We
Can Push The Time Resolution? / Yavor Shopov --
Variations Of Annual Karst Denudation Rates In The Last
Two Millennia Obtained From Speleothem Records / Y. Shopov, D.
Stoykova, L. Tsankov, U. Sauro, A. Borsato, F. Cucchi, P.
Forti, L. Piccini, D. C. Ford, C. J. Yonge --
A Pronounced Extended Negative Temperature Gradient In
The Pomeranzen Cave, Switzerland / Hans Stunzi --
Geomorphology Of Fossil Spring Mounds Near El Gedida
Village, Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert Of Egypt / Magdy Tora --
Palaeoclimatic Investigation Using Cave Speleothes In
Lime Decorated Lava Tube Caves On Jeju Island, South Korea /
Kyung Sik Woo, Kyoung-Nam Jo, Hyoseon Ji, Seokwoo Hong,
Sangheon Yi --
Possible Evidence Of The Stages Of Karst Development In
The Pinega Region Of Northern European Russia / A. Ashepkova,
V. Malkov, E. Shavrina, A. Semikolennykh --
The 5.3 Ka Bp Extreme/Weakening Event In The Asian
Monsoon During The Middle Holocene; A Record In A Stalagmite
From Wanxiang Cave, Western China Loess Plateau / Yijun Bai,
Pingzhong Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang, Hai Cheng --
Isotope Analyses In Two Littoral Caves In Mallorca,
Spain: Preliminary Results / Liana M. Boop, Jonathan G. Wynn,
Bogdan P. Onac, Joan J. Fornos,Antoni Merino, Marta
Rodriguez-Homar --
Radon Measurements In Austrian And Slovenian Caves With
An Alphaguard Instrument / Christina Bonanati, Ingo Bauer,
Stephan Kempe --
Element And Stable Isotope Aqueous Geochemistry From
Baysun Tau, Uzbekistan Tracing The Source Of The Dripwater /
Sebastian F. M. Breitenbach, Ola Kwiecien, Francesco Sauro,
Vadim Loginov, Yanbin Lu, Evgeny Tsurikhin, Antonina Votintseva
--
Holocene Temperature Fluctuations In Central Europe
Recorded In Stalagmite M6 From Milandre Cave, Switzerland /
Anamaria Hauselmann, Adam Hasenfratz, Hai Cheng, Lawrence R.
Edwards, Dominik Fleitmann --
A Multiproxy Approach To Reconstructing
Paleoenvironmental Conditions From Speleothems In Barbados To
Address Groundwater Vulnerability / Gilman Ouellette, Jr.,
Jason S. Polk --
Genetic Algorithms As Correlation Tools Speleothems
Stable Isotope Records As An Example / Jacek Pawlak, Helena
Hercma --
Different Types Of Laminae In A Flowstone From La
Cigalere Cave (Pyrenees, S. France) / Christine Perrin, Laurent
Prestimonaco --
Climate Significances Of Speleothem 18O From Monsoonal
China: Comparison And Verification Among Stalagmite,
Instrumental And Historical Records / Liangcheng Tan, Yanjun
Cai, Hai Cheng, Haiwei Zhang, Chuan-Chou Shen, R. Lawrence
Edwards, Zhisheng An .



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VOLUME 2 Edited by Michal Filippi Pavel Bosk16thINTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGYProceedings

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2013ProceedingsVOLUME 2Edited by Michal Filippi Pavel BoskCzech Republic, Brno July 21 28, 201316thINTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY

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16thINTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY Czech Republic, Brno July 21 28, 2013Cover photos (some photos were adjusted/cropped) Top left A gallery along the Rio de los Venezuelanos in the Imawar Yeuta Cave system in quartz sandstones, Auyan Tepui, Venezuela. Photo V. Crobu. For details see the paper by Sauro et al. Top right The 15thsiphon of Ramo Nord in the Grotta del Bue Marino, Sardinia. Photo by R. Husk. For details see the paper by D. Hutan. Bottom left Using an Xbox Kinect equipment to survey a cave. Photo by J. Gulley. For details see the paper by Covington et al Bottom right Inclined workings of the Voskresenskyi Mine, Ural Mountains, Russia. Photo by A. Gunko. For details see the paper by A. Gunko. Produced by the Organizing Committee of the 16thInternational Congress of Speleology. Published by the Czech Speleological Society and the SPELEO2013 and in the co-operation with the International Union of Speleology. Design by M. Filippi and SAVIO, s.r.o. Layout by SAVIO, s.r.o. Printed in the Czech Republic by H.R.G. spol. s r.o. The contributions were not corrected from language point of view. Contributions express author(s) opinion. Recommended form of citation for this volume: Filippi M., Bosk P. (Eds), 2013. Proceedings of the 16thInternational Congress of Speleology, July 21, Brno. Volume 2, p. 507. Czech Speleological Society. Praha. VOLUME 2ProceedingsISBN 978-80-87857-08-3 2013 Czech Speleological Society, Praha, Czech Republic. Individual authors retain their copyrights. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any data storage or retrieval system without the express written permission of the copyright owner. All drawings and maps are used with permission of the authors. Unauthorized use is strictly prohibited. KATALOGIZACE V KNIZE NRODN KNIHOVNA R International Congress of Speleology (16. : Brno, esko) 16th International Congress of Speleology : Czech Republic, Brno July 21,2013 : proceedings. Volume 2 / edited by Michal Filippi, Pavel Bosk. -[Prague] : Czech Speleological Society and the SPELEO2013 and in the co-operation with the International Union of Speleology, 2013 ISBN 978-80-87857-08-3 (bro.) 551.44 551.435.8 519.86/.87 speleology karstology modeling and simulation proceedings of conferences speleologie karsologie modelovn a simulace sbornky konferenc 551 Geology, meteorology [7] 551 Geologie. Meteorologie. Klimatologie [7]

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Scientific CommitteeChairmanPavel Bosk (Czech Republic) Karst and PseudokarstVice-ChairmanMichal Filippi (Czech Republic) Karst and PseudokarstMembers Ji Adamovi (Czech Republic) Pseudokarst Philippe Audra (France) Speleogenesis Jean-Pierre Bartholeyns(France) Management and Protection Aaron Bird (USA) Exploration Didier Cailhol (France) Speleogenesis Matt Covington (USA) Modelling in Karst and Caves Robert Eavis (USA) Exploration Anette S. Engel (USA) Geomicrobiology Luk Faltejsek (Czech Republic) Biospeleology Derek Ford (Canada) Climate and Paleoclimate Franci Gabrovek (Slovenia) Modelling Mladen Garai(Croatia) Survey, Mapping and Data Processing Martin Golec (Czech Republic) Archeology and Paleontology Christiane Grebe(Germany) Management and Protection Nadja Zupan Hajna(Slovenia) Extraterrestrial Karst Ivan Horek (Czech Republic) Biospeleology Stephan Kempe (Germany) History Aleksander A. Klimchouk(Ukraine) Speleogenesis Ji Kyselk (Czech Republic) Exploration Peter Matthews (Australia) Survey, Mapping and Data Processing Iona Meleg (France) Management and Protection Mario Parise (Italy) Artificial Underground Bohdan P. Onac (USA) Mineralogy Yavor Shopov (Bulgaria) Climate and Paleoclimate The names of the Committee members are given along with their home countries and fields of research they represented as convenors.

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ContentsPreface 10Session: Exploration and Cave Techniques 1376RECENT INVESTIGATIONS IN THE GLAPAGOS ISLANDS, ECUADOR Aaron Addison, Theofilos Toulkeridis, Steven Taylor, Glenn Osburn, Geoffery Hoese, Vicente Delgado ........................15 QUARTZ SANDSTONE CAVES ON TABLE MOUNTAINS OF VENEZUELA Marek Audy, Richard Bouda ............................20 NORTHERN VELEBIT DEEP CAVES Darko Baki, Dalibor Paar, Andrej Stroj, Damir Lackovi ............................................24 BEST-PRACTICE TRAINING APPROACHES FOR MITIGATING CAVING HAZARDS AND ENHANCING CAVE EXPLORATION TECHNIQUES FOR SMALL GROUPS OF CAVERS Aaron Bird, Melissa Sawa ....................................30 CAVING IN THE ABODE OF THE CLOUDS MEGHALAYA, NORTH EAST INDIA Simon Brooks ..........................................36 CAVE EXPLORATION IN IRAN Simon Brooks ..............................................................................................................................................41 CAVE EXPLORATION IN PAKISTAN Simon Brooks ....................................................................................................................................46 CLUB OF CLIMBERS AS A BASIS FOR TRAINING PROCESS OF CAVERS Anatoliy Bulychov, Tatyana Sorokina ..............................................................................................................................................................49 EXPLORATIONS AND DOCUMENTATION ON THE ATEPETACO KARST SYSTEM (HUEYTAMALCO, PUEBLA, MEXICO) Alberto Buzio, Federico Confortini, Claudio Cruz-Garca, Victor Cruz-Garca, Rosalia Dav, Jesus Domnguez-Navarro, Giovanni Gurrieri, Angelo Iemmolo, Diego Marsetti, Enrique Mndez Torres, Francesco Merisio, Giorgio Pannuzzo, Marzia Rossi, Sergio Santana-Muoz, Marco Vattano ............................................52 DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION OF EVKLIDOVA PIAL, JULIAN ALPS, SLOVENIA Matthew D. Covington, Matic Di Batista ......................................................................................................................................................58 GLACIER CAVE EXPEDITIONS 2012: NEPAL AND SVALBARD Matt Covington, Jason Gulley, David Ochel ..................................................................................................................................................59 SPELEOLOGICAL EXPEDITIONS TO THE SHAN PLATEAU IN MYANMAR (BURMA) Joerg Dreybrodt, Imogen Furlong, Fleur Loveridge, Peter Talling ........................................................................................................62 TEN YEARS OF EXPLORATION AND OVER 100 KM OF CAVES SURVEYED IN NORTHERN LAOS Joerg Dreybrodt, Michael Laumanns, Helmut Steiner ..............................................................................................................................68 CZECH DISCOVERIES IN THE MAGANIK MTS., MONTENEGRO Zdenk Dvok, Vt Baldk ..................................................74 EXPLORATION OF THE CHESTNUT RIDGE CAVE SYSTEM BATH AND HIGHLAND COUNTIES, VIRGINIA Mike Ficco ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................78 CAVES OF TONGZI, TUDI, JIELONG, WULONG COUNTY, CHONGQING, CHINA SIX YEARS AND COUNTING Mike Futrell, Mike Ficco, Erin Lynch ................................................................................................................................................................84 THE HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF EXPLORATION IN YANTANGPING CAVE SYSTEM OF WULONG COUNTY, CHINA Stephen Gladieux ................................................................................................................................................................88 UNDERWATER EXPLORATION OF THE BJURLVEN VALLEY CAVE (SWEDEN) UNDER EXTREME WINTER CONDITIONS Dmitri Gorski, Nicklas Myrin, Bosse Lenander, Markus Nord, Mark Dougherty ............................................92 GROTTA DEL BUE MARINO SARDINIA Daniel Hutan ........................................................................................................................97 EXPLORATIONS IN THE LOFERER STEINBERGE Oliver Kube, Jochen Hartig, Renato Serdio ............................................102 THE LONGEST LIMESTONE CAVES OF ISRAEL Boaz Langford, Amos Frumkin ........................................................................105 A GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF THE GREAT CAVES AND THE KARST OF SOUTHEAST ASIA Michael Laumanns, Liz Price ............................................................................................................................................................................110 THE LONGEST CAVE IN HUNGARY Szabolcs Lel-ssy ......................................................................................................................116 EU PROTEUS EU PROJECT FOR RAISING AWARENESS AND IMPROVING EFFECTIVENESS OF CAVE RESCUING Maks Merela, Darko Baki ......................................................................................................................................................119 ON THE SEARCH FOR KING BARBAROSSA IN UNTERSBERG Ulrich Meyer ..............................................................................124 KOOX BAAL 4thLONGEST UNDERWATER CAVE SYSTM IN THE WORLD Zdenk Motyka ........................................130 2013 ICS Proceedings

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GEOLOGY AND DEEP VERTICALS: CASE STUDY FROM MAGANIK MTS., MONTENEGRO Ji Otava, Vt Baldk ..............................................................................................................................................................................................134 KANA JAMA (THE SNAKE CAVE) DIVAA, SLOVENIA Tom Roth, Karel Kocourek ........................................................137 IMAWAR YEUTA: A NEW GIANT CAVE SYSTEM IN THE QUARTZ SANDSTONES OF THE AUYAN TEPUI, BOLIVAR STATE, VENEZUELA Francesco Sauro, Freddy Vergara, Antonio De Vivo, Jo De Waele ....................................142 EXPLORATION OF HIGH ALTITUDE CAVES IN THE BAISUN-TAU MOUNTAIN RANGE, UZBEKISTAN Evgeny Tsurikhin, Vadim Loginov, Francesco Sauro, Sebastian Breitenbach ..............................................................................147 KES MOUNTAIN SINKHOLE (KAHRAMANMARAS SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY) Ali Yama, Murat Ebrikavuk ..............................................................................................................................................................................153 PREMIER EXPLORATION OF THE CAVES OF HOLY MT. ATHOS, GREECE Alexey Zhalov, Magdalena Stamenova ........................................................................................................................................................156 EXPLORATION OF THE JASANKA CAVE IN BANAT, ROMANIA Vt Kaman, Petr Bark ............................................................161 CAVE EXPLORATION OF THE BELI MASSIF IN THE PROKLETIJE MOUNTAINS (MONTENEGRO) Ditta Kicitska,Krzysztof Najdek ....................................................................................................................................................................165 VOLCANIC CAVES AND PETROGLYPHS OF BORLUK VALLEY KARS (EASTERN TURKEY) Ali Yama ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................168 TRAPI CAVE: EXPLORATION, SURVEY, BIOLOGY AND GEOSPELEOLOGY OF THE BIGGEST CAVE OF RIO GRANDE DO NORTE STATE Leda A. Zogbi, Diego Bento, Francisco W. Cruz, Daniel S. Menin ........................................170 Session:Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground 17770THE MAN-MADE UNDERGROUND CAVITIES OF NORTH-WEST RUSSIA I.A. Agapov, Y.S. Lyakhnitsky, I.U. Hlebalin ................................................................................................................................................179 GOLD MINES OF THE 18thCENTURY: PAST AND PRESENT Iure Borges de Moura Aquino, Thiago Nogueira Lucon, Hernani Mota de Lima ......................................................................185 THE SUGANO MINES OF ORVIETO (ITALY): ALUMINIUM FROM VOLCANIC FIRE Edoardo Bellocchi, Chemical Technician, Marco Morucci ..................................................................................................................190 WORKSHOPS AND SURVEY RESULTS IN THE CHRIMA CINP PROJECT (EU PROGRAMME CULTURE 200713) Carmela Crescenzi ................................................................................................................................................................................................194 THE AUGUSTEAN AQUEDUCT IN THE PHLEGRAEAN FIELDS (NAPLES, SOUTHERN ITALY) Graziano W. Ferrari, Raffaella Lamagna ......................................................................................................................................................200 NEROS OVEN: TEN SURVEYS ARE NOT ENOUGH Graziano W. Ferrari, Raffaella Lamagna ..............................................206 RESEARCH PROSPECTS OF OLD MINE WORKINGS IN THE URAL MOUNTAINS Alexey Gunko ......................................213 KUNGSTRDGRDEN, A GRANITIC SUBWAY STATION IN STOCKHOLM: ITS ECOSYSTEM AND SPELEOTHEMS Magnus Ivarsson, Johannes E. K. Lundberg, Lena Norbck Ivarsson, Therese Sallstedt, Manuela Scheuerer, Mats Wedin ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................217 UNFINISHED RAILWAY TUNNEL AND BUNKER AT GODOVI Andrej Mihevc, Ale Lajovic, Mateja Ferk, Jure Tiar ............................................................................................................................221 RECOGNITION OF INSTABILITY FEATURES IN ARTIFICIAL CAVITIES Mario Parise ................................................................224 CLASSIFICATION OF ARTIFICIAL CAVITIES: A FIRST CONTRIBUTION BY THE UIS COMMISSION Mario Parise, Carla Galeazzi, Roberto Bixio, Martin Dixon ................................................................................................................230 AN OVERVIEW OF THE GEOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS IN THE EXCAVATION OF ARTIFICIAL CAVITIES Sossio Del Prete, Mario Parise ..........................................................................................................................236 THE ANCIENT MINES OF USSEGLIO (TORINO, ITALY) MULTI-YEAR PROGRAMME OF RECORDING, STUDY, PRESERVATION AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MINING HERITAGE IN AN ALPINE VALLEY Maurizio Rossi, Anna Gattiglia, Daniele Castelli, Claudia Chiappino, Renato Nisbet, Luca Patria, Franca Porticelli, Giacomo Re Fiorentin, Piergiorgio Rossetti ..........................................................................................................242 SAFE CAVES: THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF HIDEOUT COMPLEXES IN THE GALILEE IN THE EARLY ROMAN PERIOD AND PARALLELS IN THE JUDEAN LOWLANDS (SHEPHELAH) Yinon Shivtiel ............................................................247 ARTIFICIAL CAVITIES OF GAZIANTEP (SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY) Ali Yama, Murat Ebrikavuk ......................................253 2013 ICS Proceedings

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SUBTERRANEAN BELL-SHAPED QUARRIES IN THE JUDEAN FOOTHILLS, ISRAEL Boaz Zissu ......................................257 THE ETHNO-CULTURAL FEATURES OF MAN-MADE CAVES CARVED IN THE NEOGENE PYROCLASTIC FORMATION WITHIN THE ARMENIAN HIGHLAND AND NEIGHBORING AREAS Smbat Davtyan ....................................263 UNDERGROUND MINES IN MOSCOW CITY Yuri Dolotov ..................................................................................................................265 Session: Karst and Cave Survey, Mapping and Data Processing 2711000 AND 1 CAVES IN LEFKA ORI MASSIF, ON CRETE, GREECE Kostas Adamopoulos ..................................................273 MAQUIN CAVE, BRAZIL OVER 170 YEARS OF CAVE MAPPING Luciana Alt, Vitor Moura ..............................................279 STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF CAVE LOCATION PRECISION BASED ON CARTOGRAPHIC SOURCES Miha nekada ............................................................................................................................................................................................................285 RESURVEY AND RESOURCE INVENTORY OF THREE FINGERS CAVE, NEW MEXICO, USA Andrea Croskrey, Jennifer Foote, Pat Kambesis ......................................................................................................................................290 VIRGINIA SPELEOLOGICAL SURVEY (VSS) GEOSPATIAL DATABASE Mike Futrell ....................................................................293 LESSONS FROM DRAFTING PROJECT STARTUP AND SUMMARY OF EXPLORATION ADVANCES IN FISHER RIDGE CAVE SYSTEM, HART COUNTY, KENTUCKY, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Stephen Gladieux ..................................................................................................................................................................................................294 HUMPLEU CAVE (ROMANIA): WHATS UP? Philipp Huselmann ....................................................................................................299 THE AURIGA PDA FREEWARE THE ELECTRONIC SWISS KNIFE OF CAVE SURVEYORS Luc Le Blanc ............................302 QUICK 3D CAVE MAPS USING CAVEWHERE Philip Schuchardt ....................................................................................................306 THE UNIFIED DATABASE OF SPELEOLOGICAL OBJECTS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AS PART OF NATURE CONSERVANCY INFORMATION SYSTEM Ivan Balk, Olga Suldovsk ..........................................................................................310 SPELEOLOGICAL MAP OF THE KANIN MASSIF Miha nekada, Petra Gostinar, Miha Staut ..............................................315 INTEGRATED THREE-DIMENSIONAL LASER SCANNING AND AUTONOMOUS DRONE SURFACE-HOTOGRAMMETRY AT GOMANTONG CAVES, SABAH, MALAYSIA D.A. McFarlane, M. Buchroithner, J. Lundberg, C. Petters, W. Roberts, G. Van Rentergen ..................................................317 NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE KARST DEVELOPMENT IN THE NE ATHENS AREA, GREECE Papadopoulou-Vrynioti Kyriaki, Bathrellos George D., Skilodimou Hariklia D. ........................................320 THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF KARST ECOSYSTEM USING GIS IN ATTICA, GREECE Skilodimou Hariklia D., Bathrellos George D., Papadopoulou-Vrynioti Kyriaki ..........................................................................326 CLAUDE CHABERT AND THE MAPPING OF AYVAINI CAVE TURKEY Ali Yama ....................................................................332 RE-MAPPING OF INSUYU CAVE (BURDUR WESTERN TURKEY) Ali Yama, Murat Ebrikavuk ........................................335 Session: Modelling in Karst and Cave Environments 33776MICROMETEOROLOGY OF MT CRONIO CAVES, SICILY Giovanni Badino ..................................................................................339 NEW ACQUISITION, 3D MODELLING, AND DATA USE METHODS: THE LASER SCANNING SURVEY OF RE TIBERIO CAVE Erminio Paolo Canevese, Paolo Forti, Roberta Tedeschi ........................................................................................................340 A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL EROSION PROCESSES IN CAVE STREAMS Matthew D. Covington, Franci Gabrovek ..................................................................................................................................................346 EVOLUTION OF CONDUIT NETWORKS IN TRANSITION FROM PRESSURISED TO FREE SURFACE FLOW Franci Gabrovek, Matija Perne ......................................................................................................................................................................347 ANALYTICAL MODELS TO DESCRIBE THE EFFECTS OF TRACER MIXING BEFORE AND AFTER ADVECTION ANDDISPERSION Sid Jones ............................................................................................................................................................................349 IS THE HELMHOLTZ RESONATOR A SUITABLE MODEL FOR PREDICTION OF THE VOLUMES OF HIDDEN CAVE SPACES? Marek Lang, Ji Faimon ..................................................................................................................................................................354 ANTHROPOGENIC BIAS ON POWER-LAW DISTRIBUTIONS OF CAVE LENGTHS Stein-Erik Lauritzen, Rannveig vrevik Skoglund, Silviu Constantin, Fernando Gzquez, Johannes E.K. Lundberg, Andrej Mihevc, Christos Pennos, Rabbe Sjberg ..................................................................................................................................358 2013 ICS Proceedings

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DOCUMENTING SWISS KARST AQUIFERS USING KARSYS APPROACH EXAMPLES OF RECENT APPLICATIONS Arnauld Malard, Pierre-Yves Jeannin, Jonathan Vouillamoz, Eric Weber ......................................................................................360 CAN DRIPWATER HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY HELP US TO DISCOVER HIDDEN UPPER-LYING CAVE FLOOR? Pavel Pracn, Ji Faimon ....................................................................................................................................................................................366 CAVE EXPLORATIONS AND APPLICATION OF HYDROLOGICAL MODEL IN RAPOR CAVE (ISTRIA, CROATIA) Andrija Rubini, Lovel Kukuljan, Iv an Glava, Josip Rubini, Igor Rui ........................................................................................369 TEMPERATURE AND KINETIC CONTROL OF CAVE GEOMETRY Rannveig vrevik Skoglund, Stein-Erik Lauritzen ....................................................................................................................................375 Session: Cave Climate and Paleoclimate Record 377AN EXTENDED LATE PLEISTOCENE RECORD OF WATER-TABLE FLUCTUATIONS IN DEVILS HOLE, NEVADA Yuri Dublyansky, Christoph Sptl, Gina Moseley, R. Larry Edwards ..............................................................................................379 REVIEW OF PALEOCLIMATE STUDIES IN TURKEY: THE ROLE OF SPELEOTHEM-BASED DATA Gizem Erkan, C. Serdar Bayari ........................................................................................................................................................................382 ISOTOPES OF GYPSUM HYDRATION WATER IN SELENITE CRYSTALS FROM THE CAVES OF THE NAICA MINE (CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO) Fernando Gzquez, Jos-Mara Calaforra, David Hodell, Laura Sanna, Paolo Forti ..............388 FORTY YEARS OF PHREATIC OVERGROWTHS ON SPELEOTHEMS (POS) RESEARCH IN COASTAL CAVES OF MALLORCA Angel Gins, Joaqun Gins, Joan J. Forns, Paola Tuccimei, Bogdan P. Onac, Francesco Grcia ..........394 AIR CO2IN COMBLAIN-AU-PONT CAVE (BELGIUM) RELATIONSHIPS WITH SOIL CO2AND OPEN AIR METEOROLOGY Jean Godissart, Camille Ek ..............................................................................................................................................400 CLIMATIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES BETWEEN 130-230 KA RECORDED IN AN ALPINE STALAGMITE FROM SWITZERLAND Anamaria Huselmann, Daniel Tabersky, Detlef Gnther, Hai Cheng, Lawrence R. Edwards, Dominik Fleitmann ................................................................................................................................................406 SPURIOUS THERMOLUMINESCENCE IN SPELEOTHEM: IMPLICATION FOR PALEOCLIMATE Chaoyong Hu, Qing Li, Jin Liao, Quanqing Yang ........................................................................................................................................407 PRESENTATION OF A WATER INJECTION SYSTEM TO CONTROL THE GROWTH OF SPELEOTHEMS AT THE MILANDRE TEST-SITE, JU, SWITZERLAND Pierre-Yves Jeannin, Philipp Huselmann, Marc Ltscher, Denis Blant, Pierre-Xavier Meury ..................................................................................................................................................................408 HIGH RESOLUTION TEMPERATURE SAMPLING OF CAVE CLIMATE VARIATION AS A FUNCTION OF ALLOGENIC RECHARGE, COLDWATER CAVE, IOWA, USA Patricia Kambesis, John Lovaas, Michael J. Lace ........................................413 PERCOLATION INTO DRAGONS TOOTH CAVE, FLORIDA, USA Karina Khazmutdinova, Doron Nof ..............................417 PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON PALEOCLIMATE RESEARCH IN MECSEK MTS, HUNGARY Gabriella Koltai, Sndor Kele, Gergely Surnyi, Beta Muladi, Ilona Brny-Kevei ................................................................423 A STUDY OF TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SHALLOW KARSTIC VELIKA PASICA CAVE, SLOVENIA Allen Wei Liu, Anton Brancelj ..........................................................................................................................................................................427 CLIMATIC FEATURES OF DIFFERENT KARST CAVES IN HUNGARY B. Muladi, Z. Cspe, L. Mucsi, I. Pusks, G. Koltai, M. Bauer ............................................................................................................432 HOLOCENE PALEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTION BASED ON STALAGMITE STUDIES FROM LEBANON Fadi H. Nader, Hai Cheng, Rudy Swennen, Sophie Verheyden ........................................................................................................438 PHYSICAL RESEARCH IN CROATIAS DEEPEST CAVE SYSTEM: LUKINA JAMA-TROJAMA, MT. VELEBIT Dalibor Paar, Nenad Buzjak, Darko Baki, Vanja Radoli ..................................................................................................................442 GROWTH AND DIAGENETIC HISTORY OF ARAGONITE-CALCITE SPELEOTHEMS, IMPLICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES Christine Perrin, Laurent Prestimonaco, Guilhem Servelle, Romain Tilhac, Marion Maury, Patrick Cabrol ..........................................................................................................................................................................447 ULTRAHIGH RESOLUTION SPELEOTHEM RECORDS HOW FAR WE CAN PUSH THE TIME RESOLUTION? Yavor Shopov ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................450 VARIATIONS OF ANNUAL KARST DENUDATION RATES IN THE LAST TWO MILLENNIA OBTAINED FROM SPELEOTHEM RECORDS Y. Shopov, D. Stoykova, L. Tsankov, U. Sauro, A. Borsato, F. Cucchi, P. Forti, L. Piccini, D. C. Ford, C. J. Yonge ....................................................................................................................................................................453 A PRONOUNCED EXTENDED NEGATIVE TEMPERATURE GRADIENT IN THE POMERANZEN CAVE, SWITZERLAND Hans Stnzi ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................458 2013 ICS Proceedings

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GEOMORPHOLOGY OF FOSSIL SPRING MOUNDS NEAR EL GEDIDA VILLAGE, DAKHLA OASIS, WESTERN DESERT OF EGYPT Magdy Torab ....................................................................................................................................................................464 PALAEOCLIMATIC INVESTIGATION USING CAVE SPELEOTHES IN LIME DECORATED LAVA TUBE CAVES ON JEJU ISLAND, SOUTH KOREA Kyung Sik Woo, Kyoung-nam Jo, Hyoseon Ji, Seokwoo Hong, Sangheon Yi ..........468 POSSIBLE EVIDENCE OF THE STAGES OF KARST DEVELOPMENT IN THE PINEGA REGION OF NORTHERN EUROPEAN RUSSIA A. Ashepkova, V. Malkov, E. Shavrina, A. Semikolennykh ........................................................................471 THE 5.3 KA BP EXTREME/WEAKENING EVENT IN THE ASIAN MONSOON DURING THE MIDDLE HOLOCENE; ARECORD IN A STALAGMITE FROM WANXIANG CAVE, WESTERN CHINA LOESS PLATEAU Yijun Bai, Pingzhong Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang, Hai Cheng ..........................................................................................................................................474 AQUEOUS ISOTOPE ANALYSES IN TWO LITTORAL CAVES IN MALLORCA, SPAIN: PRELIMINARY RESULTS Liana M. Boop, Jonathan G. Wynn, Bogdan P. Onac, Joan J. Forns,Antoni Merino, Marta Rodrguez-Homar ............475 RADON MEASUREMENTS IN AUSTRIAN AND SLOVENIAN CAVES WITH AN ALPHAGUARD INSTRUMENT Christina Bonanati, Ingo Bauer, Stephan Kempe ....................................................................................................................................479 ELEMENT AND STABLE ISOTOPE AQUEOUS GEOCHEMISTRY FROM BAYSUN TAU, UZBEKISTAN TRACING THE SOURCE OF THE DRIPWATER Sebastian F. M. Breitenbach, Ola Kwiecien, Francesco Sauro, Vadim Loginov, Yanbin Lu, Evgeny Tsurikhin, Antonina Votintseva ..................................................................................................................................485 HOLOCENE TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS IN CENTRAL EUROPE RECORDED IN STALAGMITE M6 FROM MILANDRE CAVE, SWITZERLAND Anamaria Huselmann, Adam Hasenfratz, Hai Cheng, Lawrence R. Edwards, Dominik Fleitmann ................................................................................................................................................................................................489 A MULTIPROXY APPROACH TO RECONSTRUCTING PALEOENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS FROM SPELEOTHEMS INBARBADOS TO ADDRESS GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY Gilman Ouellette, Jr., Jason S. Polk ................................................................................................................................................................490 GENETIC ALGORITHMS AS CORRELATION TOOLS SPELEOTHEMS STABLE ISOTOPE RECORDS AS AN EXAMPLE Jacek Pawlak, Helena Hercman ..........................................................................................................................................494 DIFFERENT TYPES OF LAMINAE IN A FLOWSTONE FROM LA CIGALERE CAVE (PYRENEES, S. FRANCE) Christine Perrin, Laurent Prestimonaco ......................................................................................................................................................495 CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCES OF SPELEOTHEM18O FROM MONSOONAL CHINA: COMPARISON AND VERIFICATION AMONG STALAGMITE, INSTRUMENTAL AND HISTORICAL RECORDS Liangcheng Tan, Yanjun Cai Hai Cheng, Haiwei Zhang Chuan-Chou Shen, R. Lawrence Edwards, Zhisheng An ......................................................................................498Partners, Sponsors 504 Authors Index 506 2013 ICS Proceedings

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Dear readers, the Proceedings volumes you are holding in your hands were issued within the 16thInternational Congress of Speleology (hereafter 16thICS) on July 21, 2013 in Brno, Czech Republic. Let us welcome you to its reading. In total, over 320 contributions (over 250 oral presentations and over 70 posters) by more than 750 authors have been received to be included within the Congress Proceedings. This represents over 2,300 received e-mails and a similar number of responses during the last 6 months, approximately 4,300 electronic files and over 1,450 printed pages of the text. To put it simply, really, really much interesting stuff concerned with cave and karst subject. The authors guidelines stipulated that the particular contributions should not exceed 6 pages of text and we were delighted to find that most authors prepared contributions close to this upper limit. Only very few contributions did not exceed one page of text. This illustrates a clear willingness of the cavers and karst scientist to share their discoveries and research conclusions. The presented contributions (abstracts/papers) stand for both oral and poster presentations as indicated in the headings. Contributions in each session are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the first author. All contributions were reviewed from the viewpoint of technical quality and scientific content by members of the scientific committee and invited reviewers. The authors had the opportunity to revise their papers in response to reviewers comments and we were pleased to see that the reviews have improved the clarity and readability of the contributions. However, profound improvement of the English language could not be arranged due to the shortage of time and insufficient human resources; the authors themselves are therefore responsible for the linguistic level of their contributions. Thirteen thematically different sessions and six special sessions were scheduled within the call for your contributions to cover the whole range of subjects to be discussed within the wide scope of the 16thICS. The low number of contributions for some of these detailed sessions necessitated their merging with others. As a result, eleven original and three joint sessions are presented within the Proceedings. The contributions were grouped into three separate volumes. The purpose of this arrangement was that each particular Volume is filled with a certain logical hierarchy of topics, and that related topics are presented together. It was also the intention that the content of each Volume is topically balanced and contains both generally interesting (popular) topics with rich photographic documentation and hardcore scientific topics dominated by tables and plots. Volume I starts with three plenary lectures representing three global topics related to 16thICS subject. Further it contains papers concerned with history of research (session History of Speleology and Karst Research), archeology and paleontology (sessions Archaeology and Paleontology in Caves), topics focused on management and preservation of caves and karst areas and other social-related aspects (sessions Protection and Management of Karst, Education; Karst and Caves: Social Aspects and Other Topics). In the last mentioned session you can also find a small part devoted to extraterrestrial karst. Volume I is ended by a relatively large portion of biology-oriented papers placed within the session Biospeleology, Geomicrobiology and Ecology. Volume II contains the traditionally heavily attended session Exploration and Cave Techniques and by the related session Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground. These exploration topics are, we believe, logically supplemented with contributions from the field of Karst and Cave Survey, Mapping and Data Processing. The content of the second Volume is completed with a somewhat more specialized session Modelling in Karst and Cave Environments and with session Cave Climate and Paleoclimate Record. The last mentioned session probably better fits to the end of Volume III, but it was placed into Volume II in order to reach balance in the extent of the individual volumes. Volume III also starts with traditional, heavily attended topics organized in two sessions: Karst and Caves in Carbonate Rocks, Salt and Gypsum and Karst and Caves in Other Rocks, Pseudokarst. These topics are supplemented by the related session Speleogenesis. This last volume of the Proceedings is ended by the study of cave minerals, included in a specific session Cave Minerals. It is clear already from the previous ICS meetings that the range of the published topics becomes wider and wider, including localities in the whole world but also owing to the access to high-quality spacecraft images from other planets. The range of the instrumental, analytical and software methods employed in cave and karst research is remarkable and shows that the topic of cave & karst exploration attracts an ever increasing number of researchers even from already established scientific disciplines. Let us also say a few words about the selection of the cover photos for the Proceedings volumes. The idea was to select such photos which would best represent all topics (especially those enjoying the highest interest) in each particular volume and be of high technical quality. Since we believe the cover page is a place for a serious presentation of the inner content, we made our selection from photos used in the presented papers. In one case the additional photo was requested to get a better representation of the topic. For our purpose, we decided to place several photos on the cover page of each volume. We hope that you enjoy them. We wish to take this opportunity to apologize for the all mistakes which might have possibly originated within the operations with different versions of the manuscripts and other related files and e-mails which passed through our computers. We believe that everybody find their interesting reading in the Proceedings and we wish that the whole publication (Volumes IIII) becomes a valuable record of the 16thmeeting of enthusiasts addicted to the fascination of the underground world.Preface10 2013 ICS Proceedings

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Finally we wish to thank all the authors for their contributions. Enormous thanks belong to the reviewers and especially convenors (members of the scientific committee) of the particular sessions for their time and effort in the improvement of the overall message of the texts. We also wish to thank Michal Molhanec who significantly helped with the on-line form for the contribution submission, to Ji Adamovi who repeatedly helped us with the improvement of our English, and to Jan Spruina, Zdenk Motyka, Jana Holubcov, and Renata Filippi who contributed to the preparation of the Proceedings. After the few introductory words, lets now enjoy the papers from localities all over the world, presenting all forms of activities in karst, caves and other related surface and subsurface environments! Michal Filippi and Pavel Bosk Proceedings editors11 2013 ICS Proceedings

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2013 ICS Proceedings Exploration and Cave TechniquesSession:13

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RECENT INVESTIGATIONS IN THE GLAPAGOS ISLANDS, ECUADORAaron Addison1, Theofilos Toulkeridis2, Steven Taylor3, Glenn Osburn1, Geoffery Hoese4, Vicente Delgado2 1Washington University in St. Louis CB 1169, St. Louis, MO, USA, aaddison@wustl.edu, osburn@wustl.edu2Escuela Politcnica del Ejrcito, Quito, Ecuador, ttoulkeridis@espe.edu.ec3Univeristy of Illinois, 1816 S. Oak St (MC-652), Champaign, IL, USA, sjtaylor@illinois.edu4Texas Speleological Survey, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA, geoff.hoese@gmail.com The Galpagos Islands are an archipelago of volcanic islands, created by a hot spot, some 1,000 km off the coast of Ecuador. Initial explorations of Besson (Besson et al. 1982) and also investigations led by the Museo de Ciencias Naturales (led by J. J. Hernandez), suggested that a systematic effort to document the caves of Glapagos was warranted. In 2006, Addison, Osburn and Toulkeridis conducted a successful reconnaissance trip to assess the potential for caves. Starting in 2010 yearly expeditions began to locate and document the lava tubes and magma chambers of Galapagos. These data are being used as a solid foundation for scientific investigation on these largely unknown enviornments. Efforts to date include the discovery and survey of Triple Volcn, the deepest known cave (conduit) in the islands at -101 m and documentation of numerous giant tortoise sites within lava tubes. Initial measurements of gas emissions in caves indicate an enormous natural rate of important greenhouse gases, some of which have been measured at untolerable levels for human health. Evaluations of biospeleology and paleontological potential are also being conducted. Fieldwork in 2010 revealed the presence of several undescribed cavernicoles on Isla Isabela, including a trobobiont ground beetle. In addition, varied microbial communities observed in the caves remain unstudied. Current efforts are focused on organization and field trip support for the Sixteenth International Symposium on Vulcanospeleolgy to be held in Glapagos in 2014.1. IntroductionThe Galpagos Islands are an archi-pelago of volcanic islands some 1,000 km off the western coast of Ecuador. The islands were first discovered by adrift Spaniards in 1535. Various attempts were made at colonizing the islands during the 1700s and 1800s. Accounts of these attempts and a good overall history of the islands can be found in Curse of the Giant Tortoise by Octavio Latorre. Charles Darwin made the islands famous in The Origin of the Species by documenting specialization of fauna on the various islands. While there is much known about the wildlife of the islands, only a handful of research projects have focused on the caves of the area. Within the limited attention given to the caves, only the French (Besson et al. 1982), and two expeditions by the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Tenerife (led by J. J. Hernandez) are of much significance in relation to exploration. The latter is well documented in their report published in the proceedings of the 6thInternational Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. In the spring of 2006, Bob Osburn and Aaron Addison participated in a Washington University field trip to the islands. While the main purpose of the field trip was to study the volcanoes of Galapagos, it became clear that we should use the trip to do a bit of field reconnaissance for the potential of lava tubes. During that trip we visited Cuevas de Bellavista, a>2 km segmented tube on the island of Santa Cruz. Bellavista (aka Cueva de Gallardo) turned out to be a 5 m wide 10 m tall rectangular tube with some small lava shelves and scattered lava formations. It was enough to convince us that we should return to Galapagos.2. Geography and geologyThe Galpagos Islands are a product of hot spot volcanic activity. A hot spot is a region of intense heat within the Earths mantle. Hot spot theory, states that there is a mantle plume of intense heat remaining relatively stationary, deforming the oceanic plate moving above it. These crusts or plates ride over the long-living hot spot and are occasionally perforated by the molten rock that rises from the earths mantle. The region of the upper mantle above the stationary plume is partically melted, and migrates to the surface as magma. The final result is a shield volcano protruding above the ocean. The most prominent and voluminous types of volcanoes are the shield volcanoes, as their profiles resemble that of a Roman warriors shield having a gently sloping, convex-upward landform. Such shield volcanoes can clearly be seen in the younger western islands of Isabela and Fernandina. These features are also locally referred to as inverted soup-bowls due to the morphological similarity. The shield volcanoes in the Galapagos consist largely of thin lava flows, with minor pyroclastic (mainly ash) layers. Their subaerial slopes generally range from 4 degrees, and are characterized by steep-walled summit calderas. Several also have pit craters that are similar to calderas in form but are much smaller scale. The gentle slopes are theFigure 1. 2010 Study Area. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings15

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The open conduit is situated in a small crater with the entrance being a quite unusual, and very dramatic spire rising some 8 m from the surrounding terrain. This terrain is made up of a 60 m wide crater of a cinder cone. The spire is situated on an elevated central part of the crater. Several pahoehoe flows, up to several meters long, are directed towards lower parts of the crater. The spire has numerous openings above the surrounding ground level, but access to the cave is via a small window at ground level. Accessing the inner, vertical and therefore deeper parts of the conduit required specialized equipment and techniques. Upon entry, there is a short 3 m drop to a ledge, leading immediately to a 15 m drop to the floor of the largest room in the conduit. This room appears to be a vacated magma chamber, measuring 15 m along a north/south axis and 10 m east/west. Several bones were observed scattered on the floor at this level, including a mostly intact tortoise shell. The open conduit continues down a 6 m drop to a small offset room along a fissure. Moving along the fissure result of the low lava viscosity, which characterizes those volcanoes having regularly high production rates that drive lavas quickly and long distances. The lava flows (pahoehoe and aa) commonly initiate their path from flank vents and fissures rather than from the summit. These flank vents are the result of the widening and/or subsidence of the volcano. Eruptions and lava flows occur also along collinear rift zones, which can extend very far from the summit. Eruptions are concentrated at the active rift zones. Above and close to these zones one encounters also ash cones, cinder cones and spatter cones. Some of which remain empty after their eruptive activity and represent ideal areas to study magma chambers and lava tubes of such volcanoes. Recent investigations of lava tubes and volcanic conduits have been focused on Santa Cruz and Sierra Negra volcanoes. The volcanically young but very active shield volcano Sierra Negra is 60 to 40 km wide, and with 7 to 10 km caldera, the largest and simultaneously the shallowest (elliptical) caldera of all volcanoes of the Galapagos. Although commonly related as fact, Sierra Negra does not have the second largest caldera in the world, but still ranks in top fifty largest shield volcano calderas on the planet. Eruptive centers and different lava fields have been subdivided into five distinctive age groups all being younger than 6,000 years old. These are alkaline to tholeiitic lava flows that erupted from east to northeast trending circumferentially and radial fissures situated on both sides of the summit caldera on the upper flanks and on the western and eastern lower flanks. The caldera itself has undergone several episodes of collapse, upheaval and deformation. Ten historic eruptions occurred and several have involved a frequently visited (by tourists) caldera rim fissure zone called Volcan Chico. These explosive phases of the past have given rise to frothy pumice, which was followed by the formation of agglutinate cones and voluminous lava flows. The last eruptive activity took place in end of October of 2005 and lasted a just seven days, after 26 years of silence. The most central island of the Galapagos (Santa Cruz) is a 1.3 Ma old large shield volcano with a high abundance of parasitic cones, large lava tubes and pit craters (e.g., Los Gemelos). The volcano is subdivided into two main units. The older unit is the platform unit, while lavas of the shield series represent the younger unit. The plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts bearing tholeiitic lavas of the platform series include faulted and uplifted parts that appear today as independent islands such as Baltra, Seymour and Las Plazas. The latter was formed evidently below the sea surface due to the almost entire composition and occurrence of pillow basalt. These older and therefore lower units show intercalations with marine carbonates with a precipitation depth of < 100 m. Based on their morphology and the lack of vegetation, the younger overlying lavas of the shield series appear to be as young as a few thousand years old. These lavas, which mainly flowed from the summit but also from the flank of the volcano, are composed of a range of different volcanics but mainly exhibiting olivine tholeiites and transitional alkali basalts besides some hawaiites. One of the most fundamental issues and questions in volcanology comprises the meticulous anatomy of a volcano, from the eruptive system starting at great depths up to the conduit and the final surface structure with the corresponding volcanic edifice. Scientific aspects of this subject can be gained by various direct and indirect methods such as the study of xenoliths, by tephrastratigraphy or the exhibition of eroded parts of extinct volcanoes in addition to the usually dangerous sampling of active lavaflows etc. Commonly, following eruptive activity, craters and conduits close or fill with crystallized material and are unavailable for direct observations. In this respect, based on a recent detailed mapping of different volcanic cavities of volcanoes above (active) shield volcanoes in the Glapagos Islands, two open vents of different depths have been mapped. The first vent is named The Pyramid and is located on the lower highlands of Santa Cruz Island (Figure 2).Figure 2. The Pyramid, a volcanic vent. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings16

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for 5 m south, a large splatter rim guards the final drop in the cave. This drop of 12 m is narrow and unstable in places. The floor of the terminus room is smooth pahoehoe, and the final observable magma level in this location. The second vent is situated along the main route between Puerto Villamil in Isabela Island and Sierra Negra caldera and is called Triple Volcn. (Figure 3) The surveyed horizontal extent of this spectacular and multi-colored open conduit has been of 205 m with a total depth of 101 m, making this the deepest so far documented conduit in the Galpagos. The steeply sloping entrance pit narrows to a small throat, and then drops free for 15 m to the floor below. The floor is a cinder mound scatter with debris (rocks, cinder, bones etc.). At the base of the slope, the passage drops an additional 10 m to a terminus. The cave has some small side passages, including an intersected small tube with aragonite, and patches of calcite. Numerous small caves have been also surveyed downslope from Triple Volcn, which indicates the continuation of the magmatic system of this vent. Similar to the Thrihnukagigur volcano in Iceland, it appears that Triple Volcn forms a rare exception where the magma in the chamber seems to have withdrawn, allowing a direct access to the walls of a previous shallow magma chamber. The magma in the chamber may have withdrawn or drained via lower elevation vents. Further focused mapping inside of such volcanic caves may also allow to understand complex geochemical and hydrothermal processes occurring underground, which are usually unobservable by the human senses, while a volcano is still active.Figure 3. Surveyed extent of Triple Volcn. 3. ExplorationOccasional exploration and use of the caves in Glapagos dates to the first visitation by whalers and pirates that first mention discovery of the archipelago. A French led team conducted the first serious exploration of the caves in 1982 as a part of a larger effort focused on the caves of Ecuador (Besson et al. 1982). Their expedition documentented several locally known tubes, pits and fissures, generally located in proximity to populated areas. This is understandable given their likely limited time available and the difficult logistics of moving from island to island and navigating the unforgiving terrain. J. J. Hernandez et al. report on just over fifty caves on five different islands. Thirty five of the reported caves are located on Santa Cruz island, while only five caves are reported on Isabela island. As with the French expedition, this appears to be largely attributable to the difficulty of transportation and logistics of locating caves on Isabela. Santa Cruz is also a more populated island, leading to greater local knowledge of cave locations. The first expedition in 2010 focused on the southern flank of Sierra Negra, the largest volcano in all of Glapagos. As with previous exploration expeditions, we relied heavily on local knowledge of caves and access routes to lava tubes. Although we attempted to arrange access to Parque Nacional Galpagos areas on the island, it became clear that this would not be possible during the expedition. Teams focused on privately held lands along the southern edge of the summit. Full details of the expedition are reported by Addison (2011). Significant discoveries included survey a reported pit, named Triple Volcan, located approximately 200 m below the summit of Sierra Negra. The owner of the pit had rigged a primitive handline and rope ladder in to the pit and reportedly led past (adventurous) tourists into the pit. The team determined the ladder to be unsafe and rigged a rope for exploration. The pit was determined to be a vacated magma chamber and led to a small side tube with a small area of secondary mineral deposits. The overall depth of the cave was surveyed at -101 m, the deepest known cave in the islands. (Figure 4) Another important discovery was of Caverna el Garancha Barral, a 450 m lava tube segment ~1.5 km to the east of Triple Volcan. Garancha Barral, is a segment of a braided tube system that has undergone several modifications from flows subsequent to the orginal tube formation. Giant tortoise remains documented in the cave. It is not possible that the tortoise entered using the modern day pit entrance, and indicates that at least one entrance able to accommodate giant tortoises previously existed. This discovery may yield new insight to age and range of toroises in areas where they are no longer found on the surface. In addition to the new discoveries, two known Park caves were surveyed, Cueva Sucre, and Tnel del Estero. Sucre is a 340 m long braided tube segment open to visitors on a self led trail within the National Park. Estero is located on the coast, literally in the surf. The tube is entered via a roof collapse on the beach and the tube extends <100 m in to the ocean. Unusal for cave exploration, it is possible to hear the surf impacting the outer shell of the tube while inside. Observations also revealed that water levels within the cave are tidal. Estero also represents a dark shallow and calm Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings17

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saltwater environment that could yield interesting biological discoveries. The 2011 expedition team returned to Isabela island to continue pushing leads, with permission to explore caves within the boundaries of Galapagos National Park. Additionally, we were able to work with Park guides familiar with Sierra Negra, and caves in the area. Several new caves were added to the database, including additional caves with giant tortoise remains in areas where tortoises are no longer found on the surface. Bad weather prohibited travel along the coast to investigate a new caving area, so teams relocated in mid expedition to begin working on Santa Cruz Island. Teams began the survey of Caverna La Llegada, a large tube segment high on the northern slope of Santa Cruz. Over 500 m were mapped in this stacked tube, where evidence of at least three different flows was observed along a common path. A second important discovery was The Pyramid a pit conduit described earlier in this paper.4. Science4.1. Volcanic gas measurements Geochemical and also isotopic gas investigation have been conducted since 2000 in the Galapagos, focused at well known and very particular (tourist) gas emission sites such as Volcan Chico and Minas Azufres at Sierra Negra volcano as well as at the sulfur area of Alcedo volcano (Goff et al. 2000). More recently, work has included a fumarole/plume and diffuse gas emission mapping of the Sierra Negra caldera at Isabela Island (Padron et al. 2012). Measurements of visible and diffuse gas emission were conducted in 2006 at the summit of Sierra Negra volcano, Glapagos, with the intent to better characterize degassing after the 2005 eruption (Padron et al. 2012). However, no previous work has been done in order to determine the gas levels of lava tubes and set a base line for various gases. Such as baseline would not only establish rates and concentrations of some specific gases, but also to understand whether the gases contribute (indirectly) to the greenhouse effect. Lastly, direct measurement and monitoring of such gases will be helpful to scientists and land managers reviewing concentrations representing any danger for the health of tourists, cavers and wildlife that may be using the caves. Measurements were performed in OctoberNovember of 2012 with a RAE-3000 instrument. Such insturmentation allows measurement of gases in the range of ppbs. Measurements in caves in Santa Cruz (Gallardos cave and Premicias) as well as in Isabela Island (Cave of Sucre and open gas emissions sites like Volcan Chico and Minas Azufrales) were taken every five seconds and averaged every minute. Typical observation times ranged from 20 minutes. The data obtained in our preliminary measurements were much higher than the data obtained in limestone caves in the Amazonian lowland (SeptemberNovember 2012). Limestone cave data determination reached ranges of 5 ppb for H2S and 500,400 ppb for NO2. Data for Santa Cruz island caves reached levels of around 460 and 830 ppb for H2S as well as 2,600 and 4,600 ppb for NO2respectively. Sucre Cave, a cave open to tourists, on Isabela Island reached higher values than other gas sites having up to 560 ppb for H2S and above 6,200 ppb for NO2. H2S and NO2are both highly toxic and even lethal with certain concentrations. Both gases are heavier than air, and tend to accumulate at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces such as lava tubes and magma chambers. Nonetheless, all data except the NO2data obtained in Sucre Cave are below any health risks. The data range obtained for NO2in the SucreFigure 4. Cinder mound in Triple Volcn. (Peter Sprouse). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings18

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Cave however is more than 1.5 times higher than the level, which will anesthetize the nose, thus creating a potential for overexposure. Levels six to seven times higher (measured in this location) would potentially decrease lung function and increase the risk of respiratory symptoms. 4.2. Biospeleology Biological studies in the islands extend back most famously to Darwins (1860) early observations of the unique flora and fauna. Indeed, Darwin noted the the flanks of the volcanic isalnds are studded by innumerable smaller orifices. Darwin also described steep walled pits and lava tubes with collapsed roofing. This is the extent to which he studied the caves and cave life. Some 220 years later, the only rigorous studies of the cave fauna of the Glapagos Islands was led by Stewart Peck (Peck 1990; Peck and Finston 1993; Peck and Peck 1986). Their work was focused on entrance areas of caves and did not extend in to the dark zone. The cave fauna of the Glapagos is relatively unusual, though similar situations exist in the Canary Islands and Hawaiian Islands (Juan et al. 2001; Peck 1990). Peck (1990) compared the eyeless terrestrial cryptozoans (ETCs) of Glapagos to both Hawaii and Canary islands. This analysis suggests that both the number of caves and ETCs within the Glapagos archipelago is only beginning to be revealed. Expeditions in 20101 have doubled the number of known caves on Isabela. While there are surely errors in any extrapolation, data suggest that numerous discoveries await in realm of biospeleology. 2013 expeditions will focus on biological inventories of known caves.5. Discussion and future workOur understanding of the caves of the Glapagos archepelego has only scratched the surface. Despite being a world famous location, little is known about the geography, geology, and biology of the caves thoughout the islands. Our efforts will continue to document the caves of Glapagos through primary exploration, geological and biological studies and support for scientists interested in understanding these unique cave resources. Expeditions in 2013 will continue exploration and science on Isabela, and Santa Cruz. Team members will also support fieldtrip activities for the Sixteenth International Symposium on Vulcanospeleolgy to be held in Glapagos in 2014.AcknowledgmentsExpedition support has been provided by a grant from the National Speleological Society, International Exploration Fund, Escuela Politcnica del Ejrcito, the Subterranean Ecology Institute, and individual expedition members. In addition, we wish to thank Parque Nacional Galpagos for their support and cooperation.ReferencesAddison A., 2011. Glapagos Caving the Equator, National Speleological Society News 69: 8. Besson JP, Lera, D, Valicourt, E. de, 1982. Ecuador 82 Expedition Speleologique De La S.S.P.P.O. Pages 69. Goff F, McMurtry GM, Counce D, Simac JA, Roldan-Manzo AR, Hilton DR, 2000. Contrasting hydrothermal activity at Sierra Negra and Alcedo volcanoes, Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador. Bull Volcanol 62: 34. Hernndez JJ, Izquierdo, Oromi P, 1991. Contribution to the vulcanospeleogy of the Glapagos Islands. Pages 204. 6thInternational Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. Padrn E, Hernndez PA, Prez NM, Toulkeridis T, Melin G, Barrancos J, Virgili G, Sumino H, Notsu K, 2012. Fumarole/plume and diffuse CO2emission from Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos archipelago. Bull. Of Volcanol., 74: 1509. Peck SB, 1990. Eyeless arthropods of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador: composition and origin of the cryptozoic fauna of a young, tropical, oceanic archipelago. Biotropica 22(4): 366. Peck SB, Finston TL, 1993. Galapagos Islands troglobites: the questions of tropical troglobites, parapatric distributions with eyed-sister-species, and their origin by parapatric speciation. Memoires de Biospieliologie, 20, 19. Peck SB, Peck J, 1986. Preliminary summary of the subterranean fauna of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Proceedings of the 9thInternational Congress of Speleology (Barcelona, Spain, August 1986) 2: 164. Taylor SJ, Addison A, Toulkeridis T, 2012. Biological potential of under-studied cave fauna of the Galapagos Islands. Revista Geoespacial 8: 13. Toulkeridis T, 2011. Volcanic Galpagos Volcanico. (bilingual Spanish-English). Ediecuatorial, Quito, Ecuador: 364. Gallardo G, Toulkeridis T, 2008. Volcanic Caves in Galapagos and other speleological attractions (bilingual Spanish-English). Geo-series #2 CGVG-USFQ: 56. Toulkeridis T, Addison A, Osburn GR, Hoese G, Beveridge A, Haley R, Taylor S, Ramon P, Ramon M, Toomey III RS, 2012. The Anatomy of Oceanic Volcanic Vents based on Volcanospeleology in the Galpagos. International Meeting on Island Volcano Risk Management, El Hierro, Spain.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings19

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QUARTZ SANDSTONE CAVES ON TABLE MOUNTAINS OF VENEZUELAMarek Audy1, Richard Bouda2 16 TOPAS, CSS, www.audy.speleo.cz, audy@speleo.cz2www.fotobouda.cz, info@fotobouda.cz The turning point in the discovery of sandstone caves occurred in 2002. Czech and Slovak members of hiking expedition visiting Roraima tepui in Venezuela discovered and explored first meters of the cave system called Crystal Eyes (Sistema Ojos de Cristal).In early 2004, a team led by Charles Brewer Carias discovered a massive sandstone karst spring on top of mesa Churi tepui in Masizo Chimant in Venezuelan state Boliviar. In the following years a team of international scientists has documented over 30 km of horizontal caves on this mesa. Caves Colibri, Muchimuk and Brewer were connected in 2009 into one cave system called Sistema Charles Brewer. The Czech team played very important role in 9 speleological expeditions into the Lost World. During expeditions the endemic cave fauna has been described, but several spider species are awaiting detailed research due to their significant contribution to the development of secondary opal fills, so called Spider stalactites created by capture of aerosol saturated solution of SiO2on cobweb fibers. Other unique secondary fillings are opal stromatolites. These white spherical bodies with a diameter up to one meter or the coatings on the wall are created by single-celled microorganisms.1. IntroductionExactly a hundred years ago, science fiction writer Arthur Conan Doyle introduced his famous novel The Lost World. He was probably inspired by lecture by Sir Everard im Thurn the first conqueror of the top of Roraima tepui plateau. The plot of Doyles novel has been placed on similar mesas (table mountains) in Guayana highlands. By the mid 20thcentury it was known that the world of the Mesozoic dinosaurs is only a fiction of the writer. Nevertheless thanks to the uniqueness of the habitat of endemic life it has been accepted even by the scientific community under the name Lost World. The Table Mountains of the Guyana highlands consist exclusively of quartz sandstone in places metamorphosed to quartzite. When we simplify the geological processes, we can say, that the sand was deposited 1.5 billion years ago in a shallow freshwater sea. Only roughly 65 million years ago the entire area of the Guayan shield was raised approx. 4 km above the sea level. There are several hypotheses about the formation process of the mountain. One of them is a collision of Earth with a smaller planet. The actual formation of the table mountains and pinnacles is then easily explained by erosion processes on which all geologists agree. The erosion process continues to this day.2. History of explorationThe cave in Guyana sandstone mountains was first time mentioned by the Jesuit missionary Filippo Salvatore Gilii in 1782. He placed the cave on the Carivirri today known as Autana. The first expedition to explore this cave was led by Charles Brewer Caras from Venezuela in 1971. The entrances can be seen in a perpendicular wall of rock towers thousand meters above the ground. The researchers were unloaded from a helicopter at the top of the mountain. The Cueva Autana, the name the researchers gave to the cave, was graded in terms of genesis in the category of river caves. Ten years later Brewer, was the first to descend into the worlds mightiest abysses Sima Mayor and Sima Menor on the mesaSarisariama. The diameter and depth of the bigger and deeper Sima Mayor exceeds 350 meters! Although he did not discover any further underground caves in either Sima Mayor or Sima Menor, in his book he published in great details the hypothesis about karst drainage of Sarisariama table mountain. In the following years, the Brazilian and Venezuelan cavers tried intensively to find another cave in the sandstone. Since the global onset of the Single-rope technique, speleoalpinists focused on crevice abyss. These tectonic faults are hundred meters deep and often stretch several kilometers along the full length of the mesas. Today we know that these tectonic fissures can actually cut through a large cave system, or even drain into it water out of part of the plateau. The probability of pinpointing the exact place where the source of horizontal cave river starts is very small. Speleologist is tied to rope not only figuratively but also physically. Movement or rather traverse on the bottom of tectonic fissures through rubble and boulders the size of small houses, also covered with dense vegetation, is at a distance virtually impossible. Yet in the brazilian abyss of the Gruta do Centenario in the Serra de Caraca mountains has been documented 4.7 km of such fissures into the depth of 481 m. This fissure abyss held the first place in charts in the world for the longest and deepest quartzite cave for 20 years. The turning point in the discovery of sandstone caves occurred in 2002. Czech and Slovak members of hiking expedition visiting Roraima tepui discovered and explored first meters of the cave system called Sistema Ojos de Cristal (Crystal Eyes). The following year members of the Czech and Slovak Speleological Society expedition measured several kilometers of tunnels in Ojos de Cristal cave system. In the immediate vicinity of the cave were discovered and documented additional underground locations.Cueva Gilberto, Cueva El Hotel Guacharo and Cueva Asfixiadora. In 2005, the Venezuelan Speleological Society continued in our work, added to our mentioned caves and extended the Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings20

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measured length of Ojos de Cristal cave up to 8.2 km. The system Ojos de Cristal cave became for a short period of time the longest cave in the world in the quartz sandstones. (In literature there was even mentioned length over 10 km. This error happened by misinterpreting the results of our and Venezuelan expeditions and especially by combining the measurements of all caves in Roraima tepui into one single number, which are not part of the Sistema Ojos de Cristal.) In early 2004, a team led by Charles Brewer Caras discovered a massive sandstone karst spring on top of mesa Chur tepui in Masizo Chimant in Venezuelan state Bolivar. In the following years a team of international scientists has documented over 30 km of horizontal caves on this mesa. Caves Colibri, Muchimuk and Brewer were connected in 2009 into one cave system called Sistema Charles Brewer. And so the primacy of the Ojos de Cristal was doubly defeated. During these expeditions the endemic cave fauna has been described: Grasshopper Hydrolutos breweri (Derka and Fedor 2010) and nearly blind beetle Dyscolus sp. (Moravec et al. In press). Several spider species are awaiting detailed research due to their significant contribution to the development of secondary opal fills, so called Spider stalactites created by capture of aerosol saturated solution of SiO2on cobweb fibers. Other unique secondary fillings are opal stromatolites. These white spherical bodies with a diameter up to one meter or the coatings on the wall are created by singlecelled microorganisms. By using the Th/Uh dating it was established that the age of stromatolite with the diameter of 10 cm is 408 thousand years (Lundberg et al. 2010).3. SummaryThe Czech team played very important part in 9 speleological expeditions into the Lost World. In the coming years members of the Czech Speleological Society are planning to continue the research of sandstone caves in Venezuela.Table 1.The longest quartzite caves of the world.Sistema MuchimukCueva Brever, Diablo, Colibr, Muchimuk Cueva Ojos de Cristal Gruta do Centenario Cueva Zuna Sistema Dal Cin-Maripak Gruta da Bocaina Sima Auyn-tepuy Noroeste Gruta das Bromlias Sima Aonda Superior Magnet cave Bats, Giants, Climbers System Krem DamSVCN Sociedad Venezolana de Cincias Naturales SS Czech Speleological Society SSS Slovak Speleological Society SVE Venezuelan Speleological Society SSI, Laventa Speleological Society Italiano SO PDS Croatian Speleological Federation ReferencesDerka T, Fedor P, 2010. Hydrolutos breweri sp. n., a new aquatic Lutosini species (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae ) from Churtepui (Chimant Massif, Venezuela). Zootaxa 2653: 51. Auckland. Lundberg J, Brewer-Carias Ch, McFarlane DA, 2010. Preliminary results from U-Th dating of glacial-interglacial deposition cycles in a silica speleothem from Venezuela. Quaternary Research 74(1): 113. Washington. Moravec J, Mlejnek R, Guerrero R, (In prep.). Dyscolus (Brewerites, subgen. nov.) audyi sp. nov., a new endogean Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalinae) from the Sistema Charles Brewer (Chur-tepui, Chimant Massif) in Venezuela. Zootaxa. Auckland. Figure 1. Map of caves on Chur tepui. Sistema de la AraaCueva Cortina, Araa, Eladio (Auchimp)17.8 km/ m 8.2 km/ 85 m 4.7 km/-481 m 3.5 km 3.5 km 3.2 km/-404 m 2.9 km/-370 m 2.7 km 2.1 km/-320 m 2.0 km 1.63 km 1.3 km 4 km/ m Venezuela Venezuela Brazil Venezuela Venezuela Brazil Venezuela Brazil Venezuela South Africa South Africa India Venezuela Chur tepui Roraima tepui Serra do Caraa Chur tepui Akopn tepui Serra do Caraa Auyn-tepuy Ibitipoca Auyn-tepui Northern Transvaal Cape Peninsula Meghalaya Chur tepui SVCN-SS-SSS-SOPDS (2009) SS-SSS, SVE (2009) Gruppo Bambu (2009) SVCN-SSS (2009) LAVENTA (2009) Gruppo Bambu (2005) SSI-SVE (1996) Augusto S. Auler (2002) SSI-SVE (1996) Martini J. (1990) Tim Truluck (1996) Tony Oldham SVCN-SS-SSS (2009)Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings21

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Figure 2. The river flowing through the vast spaces of the Sistema Charles Brewer has a variable flow. During the rainy season the water surface may rise in a few minutes to a few cubic meters per second. Figure 3. Ojos de Cristal cave was the first major river cave discovered in quartz sandstones in the world. The Czechs and Slov aks participated in this discovery.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings22

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Figure 4. Roraima tepui the mesas of Guyana highlands consist exclusively of quartz sandstone (photo by Charles Brewer Caras). Figure 5. The columns of strengthened parent rock are characteristic feature of sandstone caves. Cueva Eladio Chur tepui.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings23

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NORTHERN VELEBIT DEEP CAVESDarko Baki1, 5, Dalibor Paar2, 5, Andrej Stroj3, 5, Damir Lackovi4, 5 1Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb, Svetoimunska cesta 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, baksic@gmail.com2University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Bijeni ka 32, HR-10002 Zagreb, Croatia, dpaar@phy.hr3Croatian Geological Survey, Sachsova 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, andrej.stroj@hgi-cgs.hr4Croatian Natural History Museum, Demetrova 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, damir.lackovic@hpm.hr5Speleological Society Velebit, Radi eva 23, HR-10 000, Zagreb, Croatia,The Speleological Committee of the Croatian Mountaineering Association, Kozar eva 22, HR-10 000, Zagreb, Croatia Research of Northern Velebit started in the early 90s by Slovak cavers. From then on, each year at least one caving expedition is carried out in the Northern Velebit. In 22 years in the Northern Velebit area a total of 348 caves were explored of which three caves are deeper than 1,000 m, five caves are deeper than 500 m, nine caves deeper than 200 m, and 27 caves deeper than 100 meters. Other explored caves do not reach 100 m of depth. Most of cave entrances are located at an altitude between 1,400 to 1,600 m. Basic morphological features of Velebit caves are verticality and the incidence of major verticals. The biggest discovered verticals are located in Patkov gut (P553), Cave systemVelebita (P513), Meduza (P333) and in Cave system Lukina jama (P329). Five verticals are deeper than 200 m and 100 m verticals are quite common. The majority of Croatian caving associations participated in the cave research but the most of those expeditions were organized by the Speleological Committee of Croatian Mountaineering Association. During all these years of research an excellent international cooperation was formed with cavers from Slovakia, Hungary, Belgium, Polish, Lithuania, France, Italy, Switzerland, Great Britain, Slovenia, Spain, Bulgaria, USA and Serbia. In the last four years, there were four expeditions. In the summer of 2009 Lubuka jama was resurveyed and some new parts was explored. During summers of 2010 and 2011 Cave system Lukina jama was resurveyed and also some new parts was explored and in the summer 2012 in Cave system Velebita exploration were continued. Expedition leaders were Luka Mudronja and Ronald eleznjak. Results of these expeditions are presented in this article.1. IntroductionMount Velebit, with its 145 km in length, is the longest Croatian mountain (Figure 1). Its strike is NW-SE direction, and it spreads over three Croatian regions: Lika, Dalmacija and Hrvatsko primorje. Northern Velebit is a mountainous region between the Adriatic Sea and the Li ko-Gacko Polje. It begins at the saddle of Oltari in the north and spreads over to the saddle of Veliki Alan in the south with a length of 17 km and a maximum width of the massif of 30 km. The middle part of the massif reaches a height of almost 1,700 m (Mali Rajinac, 1,699 m). Despite being only several kilometres away from the sea, the area of Mount Velebit is influenced by the mountain climate. The mean annual precipitation in Northern Velebit is around 2,000 mm. In the highest parts of the massif, the snow cover remains on the ground for over 100 days in a year. The mean annual temperature is about 4 C. Velebit has always attracted people, not only with its valuable flora and fauna, but also with its natural beauty on the border between the mountains and the sea. Ever since the beginning of systematic speleological surveys in 1990, Velebit has constantly surprised cavers.2. Geology of Northern VelebitThe area of Northern Velebit is composed of lithostratigraphic units ranging from Middle Triassic to Paleogene Age (Mamui et al. 1969, Soka 1973, Veli et al. 1974). The Middle Triassic deposits are predominantly composed of limestone. Tuff and tuffite occur laterally in the uppermost part. The lower part of Upper Triassic is Figure 1. Mt. Velebit position.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings24

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characterized by the sequence of clastic rocks up to 200 m thick represented by shale and sandstones. Carbonate sedimentation proceeded with 250 m thick dolomite deposits. Due to a lower permeability as the consequence of lithological composition (clastic and dolomites), and structural position in the central part of an anticline structure, the Triassic sediments form the complex hydrogeological barrier of Mt. Velebit. The largest part of Northern Velebit is composed of Jurassic sediments, which have deposited continuously under almost identical conditions and which contain carbonate rocks only. Limestone prevails in the composition of deposits, but dolomites are also present. Generally, Jurassic sediments are very permeable units, but in some locations dolomite inhibits groundwater flows and acts as a relative barrier (the Apatian area) (Pavi i 1997). The thickness of Jurassic deposits is approximately 2,850 m. However, speleological explorations have revealed a more complex geology of Northern Velebit. For example, Lukina Jama contains deposits of carbonate breccias from -450 to -700 m and from -750 to -950 m. A similar situation occurs in Slova ka Jama as well. This poses a number of questions related to their stratigraphy and tectonic movements (Lackovi 1994, mida 1999). In the investigated area, the well permeable Cretaceous sediments have not greater importance. At a narrow belt along Adriatic coast they are represented by limstonedolomite alteration. In the Lika region on the side of Mt. Velebit (Lipovo polje) deposits are composed of limestones intercalated by dolomite and calcareous breccias. The significant part of the area concerned is covered by Jelar formation of Upper Paleogene age. Its origin is closely related on strong tectonic movements, which effected the area during that time (Bahun, 1974). In the hinterland (Lika) they are partially permeable but in the higher positions on Northern Velebit calcareous breccias are highly permeable. This can best be seen in the spectacular landscape of Hajduki and Roanski kukovi area ( Figure 3), as well as the numerous karstic phenomena and the deepest caves of Croatia among them. The thickness of calcareous breccias is up to 300 m (Kuhta and Baki 2001). The geological structure is the consequence of two main periods of tectonic activity. During the Tertiary tectonic cycle, which lasted from Eocene to the end of Miocene, compressive movements oriented NE-SW reached their cumulative maximum with orogenesis of the Dinarides. As the consequence of mentioned regional tangential stress, the deep nappa structures, folds and regional faults of Dinaric strike (NW-SI) have been formed. During the later, Neotectonic period, the main stress changed to N-S, resulting in further uplift and transpressive deformation of older structures, which were broken in the smaller structural units and tectonic blocks. On the basis of geology of the studied area and the basic tectonics involved, distinctive areas, structural units and Figure 2. General groundwater flow directions tested by tracing and according geological structure (Prelogovi 1989, Prelogovi et. al., 1998, Blakovi 1998, Veli and Veli 2009, Stroj, 2010) 1) Tertiary calcareous breccias; 2) Eocene flysch sediments; 3) Cretaceous carbonate rocks; 4) Jurrasic carbonate rocks; 5) Triassic carbonate and clastic rocks; 6) Paleozoic sediments; 7) Regional fault/fault zone; 8) Significant fault; 9) Anticlinale axis; 10) Sinclinale axis; 11) Regional significant spring zones; 12) Traced sinlholes; 13) Sinking area; 14) Hydrogeological watershed; 15) Groundwater flow direction; 16) Assumed groundwater flow direction; 17) Deep caves main orientation 18) Most important faults. Figure 3. Roanski kukovi on Northern Velebit. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings25

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The Lomska Duliba fault (3) is located on the northern boundary of the investigated area. The vertical displacement is estimated on 150 m. All mentioned faults have been very active during Neotectonic period. The vertical neotectonic movements were estimated on the basis of deformations of the Jelar formation, position of the Pliocene and Quaternary deposits, comparison with neighbouring areas and disposition and deformation of geomorphologic elements. In the area concerned, the summary amplitudes of these movements reach 1,600 m. Speleological exploration of deep caves on the Northern Velebit show a very deep vadose zone within the central part of the carbonate massif. Considerably higher underground water level in the sinking areas indicates a sudden fall of the water level in the east part of the massif. One of the reasons for this can be the hydrogeological function of active fault zones which might act as partial barriers for underground water flows. The active faults partially direct underground water flows parallel to their own strike (toward NNW) in the upstream area, but also dispersing and allowing the restrained flows to pass directly toward the Velebit channel at the same time (Figure 2). Another reason is sought in the process of retrograde karstification caused by uplifting of mountain massif, i.e. lowering of the erosion basis. Influence of active fault zones and advancement of the karstification process are not mutually exclusive, but probably act together. The karst areas upstream (Lika hinterland) and downstream (Velebit Mountain Massif) from the zone of sudden water level fall are hydraulically mutually separated, and can be analyzed as separate parts of the cascade system. This enables significantly different directions of underground flow within different parts of the system (Stroj, 2010). Mentioned tectonic activity, the emergence of concentrated flows of water which descend to the bottom of deep sinkholes in times of climate change and melting of glaciers. Tertiary carbonate breccia resistance to mechanical erosion enabled remarkable development and preservation of corrosion landforms (ledges), inside of which the entrances of the most important caves are situated. Smaller glaciers of the peak segments of the relief did not have enough ice mass and pronounced horizontal movement that would destroy karst morphology of the terrain below. Finally an important factor and is a very deep vadose zone within the carbonate massif. faults that influence the hydrogeology of the terrain and karstification processes development presented on Figure2. Numbers mark the most important faults that effected the development of numerous deep caves in the investigated area. The regional longitudinal reversal Velebit fault (1) located in the coastal area, on the surface manifested as 4 km wide faulting zone, represents the boundary between Dinaricum and Adriaticum megastructural units. The tangential movement is estimated on 6 km. The Bakovac fault (2) is very strong normal fault. The horizontal movements along it are not observed but the vertical displacement is estimated on about 1,500 m (Prelogovi 1989). After Blakovi (1998) this fault is reversal whitch means different hidrogeology interpretation. The fault interrupted extension of the Velebit complex barrier and significantly effected the hydrogeological relations in the area. In geomorphologic sense, the Bakovac fault represents the boundary between Middle and North Velebit. Figure 4. Cross section of Northern Velebit massif with profiles of deep pits. Big Halls are shown with numbers: 1 in Cave System Velebita 253,260 m3; 2 in Ledena jama 192,000 m3; 3 in Cave System Lukina jama 118,750 m3; 4 in Slova ka jama 72,000 m3.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings26

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3. Northern Velebit pitsResearch of Northern Velebit started in the early 90s by Slovak cavers, members of the Speleology Club of Comenius University. From then on, each year at least one caving expedition is carried out in the Northern Velebit. In 22 years in the Northern Velebit area a total of 348 caves were explored of which three caves are deeper than 1,000 m, five caves are deeper than 500 m, nine caves deeper than 200 m, and 27 caves deeper than 100 meters. Other explored caves do not reach 100 m of depth. Most of cave entrances are located at an altitude between 1,400 to 1,600 m. Basic morphological features of Velebit caves are verticality and the incidence of major verticals (Figure 4). The biggest discovered verticals are located in caves: Patkov gut (P553), Cave system Velebita (P513), Meduza (P333) and in Cave system Lukina jama Trojama (P329) (Baki 2006). Five verticals are deeper than 200 m and 100 m verticals are quite common. Vertical morphology of the pits is most distinct in the parts built of massive tertiary breccia that is why after entering the older stratified deposits, probably of Jurassic age, this morphology is partly alleviated. The reason is unbedded breccia, for which the karstification relates solely to systems of steep to vertical cracks. Great persistence and low incidence of cracks in the breccia favors the development of extremely deep and spacious verticals, which typically occur at the intersections of cracks. Concentrating of flows towards the most permeable parts of the rock mass mechanisms of epikarstic zone is the most important factor in the development of large underground vertical dimensions. Verticals formed that way are beneath the surface, without an external entrance (example is the large vertical in Cave system Velebita) and due to denudation of the surface ground external entrance for some pits was subsequently opened (Patkov gut). In older carbonate beds, under the influence of higher density discontinuity and slightly inclined layer surfaces, canals are generally somewhat less steep, with smaller pits and narrower meanders. It must be noted that the lower parts of these caves are also very vertical. Vertical morphology of caves in vadose zone of Northern Velebit massif indicates the abrupt rise of this terrain, whereby there was probably not enough time for the formation of significant horizontal phreatic and epiphreatic channel systems at different altitudes in the massif. Interesting phenomena are large halls (Figure 4 Velebita 253,260 m3, Ledena jama 192,000 m3, Lukina jama 118,750 m3) and smaller halls and fragments of the horizontal channels (Slova ka jama hall 72,000 m3), whose formation is associated with vadose flows within the massif, and are in the range from 494 to 563 m above the sea level, high above the present phreatic zone, but 13 to 82 m above Lika river sinkhole. Only the hall in Ledena jama is at slightly higher altitude between 924 and 957 m. These subterranean spaces are traces of the earlier stages of karstification, which were largely disintegrated and fragmented in more recent tectonic movements. Figure 5 shows plans and dominant directionFigure 5. Plans of Northern Velebit deep caves. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings27

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of channels of most significant caves in the Northern Velebit. According to the directions of channels dominant orientation discontinuity by which the karstification occurred can be well observed. Lukina jama and Lubuka jama channels (both located in Hajdu ki kukovi partially overlapping in plan) are dominantly oriented in NWSE direction, and subordinatly in NNWSSE and SSENNW. Slova ka jama (Roanski kukovi) formed to an equal extent by orientation systems NWSE and NNESSW and is less pronounced in NESW. Cave system Velebita (located in the westernmost part of Roanski kukovi) predominantly oriented in NNESSW direction and subordinately in WNWESE and NESW. In Meduza cave, also located in the western part of Roanski kukovi orientation of the channels are very similar to those in Velebita, with even more pronounced dominance of channel oriented in NNESSW direction. Directions of the channels are largely in line with structural features. From directions of channels increasing importance of discontinuity of orientation NNESSW is noticeable in the Northern Velebit in a westerly direction, probably as a consequence of approaching the zone of Velebit fault. At the direction of east, the greatest influence on the direction of development of karst channels are gradually taken over by discontinuities oriented in NWSE. In caves occurrence of snow and ice is relatively common. In 118 pits (34%) snow and ice was recorded. Usually if forms at the depth of 50 m and goes even up to a depth of over 500 m. The deepest recorded occurrence of snow and ice was in Patkov gut cave at a depth of -553 m and it was the snow and ice that fell mainly in the higher parts of the pit. Increased melting of snow and ice over the past 20-odd years was observed (opening passages in the depth). The majority of Croatian caving associations participated in the cave research of Northern Velebit but he most of those expeditions were organized by the Speleological Committee of Croatian Mountaineering Association. During all these years of research an excellent international cooperation was formed with cavers from Slovakia, Hungary, Belgium, Polish, Lithuania, France, Italy, Switzerland, Great Britain, Slovenia, Spain, Bulgaria, USA and Serbia.4. Resuls of new caving expeditionsIn the last four years, during summers, there were four expeditions: Lubuka jama 2009, Lukina jama 2010, Lukina jama 2011 and Velebita 2012. Expedition leaders were Luka Mudronja and Ronald eleznjak. Entrance to Lubuka jama was found on 11/09/2000 by Polish cavers from Bobry agan ans Gawra Grozow associations accompanied by cavers from SO PDS Velebit from Zagreb. During two expeditions they explored Lubuka jama to a depth of -521 m. Possibility of further progress and connection to the Cave system Lukina jama encouraged the organization of expedition 2009 to try to find a passage to the Cave system Lukina jama. Expedition in the Cave system Lukina jama was made for resurveying and because of the dive into a siphon at the bottom of the cave, while the expedition at Cave system Velebita was made to explore promising parts of the cave. 4.1. Expedition Lubuka jama 2009 During expedition to Lubuka jama in 2009 a new map of the cave was drafted M 1:500. According to the newly created map, depth of the pit is smaller and amounts to -508m and the length increased to 2,164 m. The most important finding of this expedition was, most likely, a new species of stigobiontne leech currently on DNA analysis. 4.2. Expeditions Lukina jama 2010 and Lukina jama 2011 A new map of Cave system Lukina jama from the entrance Trojama (Manual II) to the bottom of the cave was made. However, drawing of the Cave system Lukina jama from the entrance Lukina jama to the junction of Trojama could not be repeated because at 60 m of depth in Lukina jama an ice-snow cap prevented the passage. Newly determined depth of the Cave system Lukina jama is -1,421 m (poligon was made to a depth of -1,409 m). Length is 3,730 m and the volume is about 313,000 m3. By comparing the map of Lukin jama made in 1993 and 1994 with the one made in 2010 (Figure 6) it was concluded thet the maps differ for 0.94%. According to UIS Mapping Grades (Huselmann 2012) the mark would be UISv2 5-4-BF. Figure 6. Comparison of two surveys of Cave system Lukina jama from 1994 and 2010. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings28

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Junction of Vjetroviti channel with the bottom of the pit was proven. During 2010 expedition two dives were made in Congeria siphon at the bottom of Lukina jama. The first dive in the length of 135 m and depth 20 m were made by Ivica ukui and Robert Erhardt, and the second dive in length from 135 to 40 m depth was performed by Branko Jali On this occasion living specimens of cave bivalves (Congeria kusceri) were found in the siphon, which determined the second known populations of shellfish in Lika, and fourth in Croatia. Unexpected finding was so far the only known underground cave sponge Eunapius subterraneus (Bilandija et al. 2012; Bedek et al., 2012). There is significant biospeleological finding of one new springtails species Disparrhopalites sp. nov. provisionaly assigned to genus Parisotoma (ukovi and Luki 2012). During expeditions 2010 and 2011 scientific research of Cave system Lukina jama was conducted on 20 measuring points from the entrance to the bottom. Cave geology, microclimate parameters, radon concentration, water quality and dynamics were investigated. 4.3. Expedition Cave system Velebita 2011 The main goal of this expedition was to continue previous scientific research (Paar, 2008) of geological, physical, chemical and biological properties of the cave (scientific project Investigation of deep pits of North Velebit National park). There is significant biospeleological finding of one new springtails species of the genera Tritomurus (ukovi and Luki 2012). Cavers was continued in promising and open channels in Velebita vertical shafts, but they failed to go further. During the expedition, 43 new caves were found. Their exploration will continue in 2013.5. ConclusionCave research of Croatian deep caves spurred the development of the Croatian caving, scientific research, development of cave rescue and enabled international cooperation.AcknowledgmentsWe thank the Northern Velebit National Park for their cooperation and support in speleological research.ReferencesBahun S, 1974. Tektogeneza Velebita i postanak Jelar-naslaga. Geoloki vjesnik, 27, 35, Zagreb (in Croatian). Baki D, Paar D, 2006. Croatia and the Deep Caves of Northern Velebit. Alpine Karst, vol 2., ed. J. & T. Oliphant, 105, Cave books, Dayton, USA. Bedek J. et al. 2012: Fauna dubokih jama Sjevernog Velebita, Znanstveno-stru ni skup Posebne vrijednosti dubokog kra, Krasno (in Croatian). Bilandija H, Hmura D, Jali B, etkovi H, 2012. to molekule kau o spuvama i koljkaima iz Lukine jame? Primjena molekularno-geneti kih metoda u biospeleologiji, Znanstvenostruni skup Posebne vrijednosti dubokog kra, Krasno (in Croatian). Blakovi I, 1998. The Two Stages of Structural Formation of the Coastal Belt of the External Dinarides. Geol. Croat., 51/1, 75, Zagreb. ukovi T, Luki M, 2012. Nove svojte skokuna (Collembola ) u dubokim jamama Velebita, Znanstveno-stru ni skup Posebne vrijednosti dubokog kra, Krasno (in Croatian). Hauselmann Ph, 2012. UIS Mapping Grades, version 2, http://www.uisic.uis-speleo.org/UISmappingGrades.pdf Kuhta M, Baki D, 2001. Karstification Dynamics and Development of the Deep Caves on the North Velebit Mt. Croatia, 13thInternational Congress of Speleology, Brasil. Lackovi D, 1994. (Ne) povezanost geologije i speleologije primjer Lukine jame, Velebiten, br. 16, 31, Zagreb (in Croatian). Mamui P, Milan A, Korolija B, Borovi I, Majcen 1969. Osnovna geoloka karta, list Rab L 3314, 1:100,000. Institut za geoloka istraivanja, Zagreb, Savezni geoloki zavod, Beograd (in Croatian). Paar D, Ujevi M, Baki D, Lackovi D, op A, Radoli V, 2008. Physical and Chemical Research in Velebita pit (Croatia). Acta carsologica. 37, 2; 273. Pavi i A, 1997. Hydrogeological evaluation of water retaining properties of the Kosinj reservoir (Lika, Croatia). Geologia Croatica, 50/2, 289, Zagreb. Prelogovi E, 1989. Neotektonski pokreti u podrucju sjevernog Velebita i dijela Like. Geol. vjesnik 42, 133, Zagreb (in Croatian). Prelogovi E, Kuk V, Buljan R, 1998. The structural fabric and seismotectonic activity of Northern Velebit: Some new observations. RGN zbornik, 10, 39, Zagreb (in Croatian). Soka B, 1973. Geologija Velebita. Disertacija, Prirodoslovnomatemati ki fakultet, Zagreb (in Croatian). Stroj A, 2010. Underground water flows in the hinterland of the Velebit channel coastal karst springs, Doctoral thesis, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mining, geology and petroleum engineering. mida B. et al., 1999. Velebit Reporta z objavovania hlbokych priepasti-Chorvatska v rokah 1990, Slovenska Speleologicka Spolo nost, 118, Preov, Slova ka (In Slovak). Veli I, Bahun S, Soka B, Galovi I, 1974. Osnovna geoloka karta, list Oto ac L 3315, 1:100,000 i Tuma Institut za geoloka istraivanja, Zagreb, Savezni geoloki zavod, Beograd (in Croatian). Veli I, Veli J, 2009. Od morskih pli aka do planine. Geoloki vodi kroz Nacionalni park Sjeverni Velebit. JU NP Sjeverni Velebit, 140 (in Croatian).Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings29

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Individual interviews were conducted by email with eleven caving-skills training experts from Austria, United Kingdom, and United States (see Table 2). They were each asked ten questions related to caving-skills training, hazards in caves, and perceived impacts of training.BEST-PRACTICE TRAINING APPROACHES FOR MITIGATING CAVING HAZARDS AND ENHANCING CAVE EXPLORATION TECHNIQUES FOR SMALL GROUPS OF CAVERSAaron Bird1, 2and Melissa Sawa3 1Occupational Safety and Health Program, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, US, bird2@oakland.edu2Safety and Techniques Committee, National Speleological Society, Huntsville, AL, US2Occupational Safety and Health Program and Department of Psychology, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, US, mssawa@oakland.edu Close calls, a.k.a. near misses, were studied to identify environmental conditions and human behaviors associated with root cause hazards that could lead to mishaps during cave exploration. Subsequently, training approaches were examined to establish best practices that could be used to inform cave explorers about major caving hazards, thus helping to mitigate potential for hazards becoming undesired events. Online questionnaires were completed by an international audience of cave explorers to determine environmental conditions and human acts related to close call events experienced or observed during cave exploration. As reported by survey participants, close calls were associated with vertical exposure, rockfall, cave surface integrity, lack of attention, misestimation of the integrity of the cave surface, and physical exhaustion. Interviews were conducted with caving experts to ascertain perceptions of best-practice training techniques for optimizing training curriculum development in order to better inform cave explorers about cave hazards. Based on the findings of this study, a focused training technique is proposed for the audience of smaller group, less-experienced cave explorers to effectively inform and prepare them to overcome hazards in caving as well as to enhance their overall cave exploration experience.1. IntroductionCaving for recreational and scientific purposes is a very fulfilling and worthwhile endeavor. Many thousands of people safely visit caves each year to engage in scientific, physical, and personal exploration. However, for those who are not adequately prepared, great risk may be taken by entering a cave. Caving is known to be a dangerous activity. There have been numerous injuries and deaths in caves that could have been avoided had the individuals involved taken action to prepare for hazards associated with cave exploration. While it is impossible to address or prepare for every situation in a cave, it is fully possible, and a collective responsibility, to take whatever actions we can to avoid adverse situations and overcome hazards that could lead to injuries, illnesses, or deaths of individuals. Hazards in caves are known to include darkness, poor contact with surfaces, water, temperature, rock fall, and inattention. In addition to these, Sparrow (2009) includes biological hazards and Burger (2006) adds bad air. Both authors also discuss cave complexity as a hazard. However, hazards alone represent only the potential for what may occur. In reality, it is the combination of undesirable human acts and adverse environmental conditions that allow a hazard to become a mishap. Training is used to inform about hazards and to prepare for safe and effective exploration. Through training and education, cavers awareness of the hazards associated with caving increases, thereby reducing likelihood of injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. Training and education also can have the benefit of enhancing the experience of visiting the cave. Thus, through adequate preparation, the cave explorer will become knowledgeable of the hazardous cave environment and skillful in the traverse thereof, making the experience positive and beneficial.2. MethodsData were obtained through an online questionnaire available to cave explorers from May 2011 through January 2012. In addition, interviews were conducted with caving experts in February and March 2012. The online questionnaires consisted of sixteen questions designed to reveal information about the environmental conditions and human acts associated with close call events that occurred during cave exploration (see Table 1). The US-based National Speleological Society assisted with questionnaire distribution via emails to Society members. In addition, URLs linked to the questionnaire were posted on the Cave Chat (US) and UKCaving.com online discussion forums. It is likely that subsequent distribution of the questionnaire URLs occurred through personal and group emails.Table 1. Categories in close calls questionnaire. CategoryQuestions in category Characteristics of cave explorers involved in the close call3 Characteristics of the cave in which the close call event occurred4 Conditions present in cave when close call event occurred3 Human acts and behavior associated with close call event4 Specifics of close call event2 Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings30

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3. Results and discussionA total of 181 responses were received for the online questionnaire on close call events in cave exploration. Respondents were from the US (81%), UK (9%), Mexico (4%), Austria (1%), and Spain (1%). The remainders were individual responses from Afghanistan, Belize, Canada, New Zealand, and Ukraine. Among the respondents, 56% reported having had formal caving-skills training, 37% reported having informal caving-skills training, and the remainder reported having none. Responses revealed that vertical exposure, rock fall, and poor contact were the most prevalent environmental hazards leading to cavers experiencing a near-miss event. Responses also revealed lack of attention, overestimating quality of contact with the cave surface, and exhaustion as the three most prevalent human acts related to near-miss incidents in caves. The eleven caving skills experts interviewed for this study were asked to choose just one hazard of caving. Four of eleven selected falls and/or gravity, two indicated water, two selected hypothermia, two selected misestimation and lack of attention, and one selected rockfall. While it is not possible to directly compare near-miss events to mishaps resulting in injury or death, it is useful to look at the moreprevalent hazard occurrences in both categories. Among mishaps, falls occur most frequently in US caves (Keeler 2011). This corresponds with accidents at home and at work, where falls are also the highest prevalence mishap. The second most-prevalent mishap occurring in US caves involves equipment issues. Rockfall is next, followed by being trapped or stranded. Finishing the list for mishaps is being lost. For close calls, however, the list is somewhat different. Most prevalent among close calls is vertical issues, followed by rockfall, slippery surfaces or other poor contact conditions, water-related hazards, and being trapped or stranded. Tables 4a and 4b contain complete response information from the close calls portion of this study. The interviewed experts responded to a number of questions about caving-skills training. Of the responses, six of the eleven indicated that training would be more effective if it was conducted in the cave environment. Three believe it is most effective if first conducted on the surface then underground and two believe it is best conducted in a classroom setting. Questions were also asked about potential negative outcomes of caving-skills training. Six of eleven indicated that overconfidence could be a negative outcome, two reported that there would be no negative outcomes, and one each indicated poorly designed curriculum, inflexible training requirements, and increased impact on the cave environment.Table 3. Top five most prevalent mishaps and close calls in US cave exploration. Mishaps*Close calls FallsVertical Equipment issuesRockfall RockfallSlippery, poor contact Trapped/Stranded Water related Lost Trapped/Stranded *Keeler, R. (2011), American Caving Accidents. The interviewed experts were asked for their definitions of formal caving skills training. A majority indicated that formal training is equivalent to courses that are designed and structured. Others commented that passing of experience and knowledge in a structured way would also constitute formal training. Regardless of the nuances, all but one expert agreed that formal caving-skills training is effective for reducing the chance that cave explorers could be injured or killed while traversing caves. Patricia Kambesis, states, Trainingis the most proactive means for providing cavers with a toolbox of techniques, skills, mindset, and philosophy. Jansen Cardy suggests that training can reduce chances of mishap through teamwork because students are taught to communicate and work together to achieve a common goal. Christopher Binding states, formal training is a distillation of the experiences and techniques of many hundreds of person-years of caving knowledge (that) massively advances the trial-and-error approach. Lastly, George Plant adds that because formal training brings together people with experience and qualification, we can avoid making the same mistakes that others may have already made. Collectively, it is clear that those with extensive knowledge and experience of caves and caving value training. This outcome is consistent with research findings by Bird, Sawa, and Wiles (submitted, in review) in which over 90% of UK and US cavers (n = 133) responded to a questionnaire and indicated that both formal and informal training allows them to more safely explore caves. This research further established that informal caving-skills training is very prevalent, and appears to be effective. Philip Rykwalder notes, the injury/death rate among skilled cavers is low surprisingly low for the amount of risk we take and the number of trips that we go on weekly. Informal training may be likened to the mentor-apprentice model where growth in knowledge and skill occurs Table 2. Experts interviewed for this study. Name Organization Christian BergholdAustrian Speleological Association, AUT Christopher BindingAssociation of Caving Instructors, UK Jansen CardyNational Speleological Society, National Cave Rescue Commission, US John HarmanWest Virginia University Student Grotto, NSS, US Patricia KambesisInternational Projects, Cave Research Foundation, US Allen MaddoxPhiladelphia Grotto, NSS, US George PlantCarlton Lodge Outdoor Centre, ACI, UK Philip RykwalderCave Now, Inc, US Geary SchindelEdwards Aquifer Authority, US Gregory SpringerWest Virginia Association for Cave Studies, US George VeniNational Cave and Karst Research Institute, USExploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings31

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gradually over time, usually through on-site learning and practice. Many regard this approach as more desirable than formal training. Informal training is certainly more personable, as it is likely conducted in one-on-one settings or in small groups. Trainees may feel more comfortable in this learning environment and thus may receive guidance more readily, as well as more freely provide feedback about their current status, which the trainer can use to further enhance the learning experience. However, informal training is possibly conducted with fewer rigors than formal training, which means that important materials may not be covered in great enough detail or may be missed altogether. Informal training is further contrasted with formal training in the settings where learning occurs. Formal training is usually conducted in a designed environment, such as a classroom. Trainees are then walked through exercises in a controlled environment above ground and then guided through the exercises in a relatively controlled environment in the cave. While a large number of research participants have indicated that informal training is preferred and effective, one of the key upsides of formal skills training is that it can be delivered to larger groups of people. Furthermore, because it is a designed teaching approach, it will necessarily have established learning objectives, a means for delivering the curriculum, and metrics for measuring learning outcomes. However, there are downsides, as well. In particular, people who prefer to be taught in smaller groups or who have slower learning paces may have more difficulty retaining the delivered information in a structured environment. With informal, apprentice-style training, assuming a qualified and experienced mentor the learning and demonstration of outcomes usually happens at the students pace. It has been shown that a reflection period after introduction of new material helps to enhance learning (Bleakley 2000). With formal training, this may or may not occur, depending on the design of the curriculum. For informal training, this likely occurs naturally and may indeed be the reason why informal training appears to be so successful. Whether training is formal or informal, for most-effective teaching and learning, the training should be designed. Learning objectives should be established up front and from there different teaching approaches would be applied, as appropriate, to address the needed topics of instruction. Having structure, Geary Schindel states, is more effective because it allows you to cover more issues more quickly. In addition to the structure of the course, knowledge and skill of the instructors or mentors is also essential. John Harman suggests, the best way to learn is to do serious caving with people that have advanced skills and lots of experience. Thus, by combining some structure through the establishment of learning objectives with extensive knowledge and skill of highly experienced individuals, the training can be conducted more efficiently and the result can be more effective. Quality of instructors is paramount to successfully bring others to a high level of cave exploration functionality. Even so, on the receiving end, the learners capabilities to absorb information and understand concepts, techniques, tools, the cave environment, and their own behaviors in the cave areTable 4a. Hazardous conditions associated with close calls in cave exploration. Of the hazardous conditions listed below, which do you feel were associated with the close-call event (near miss) you experinced or observed? (Select all that apply.) Hazardous condition % Responses (n = 165) Vertical exposure 45.1 Rockfall or rock-shofting potential 36.1 Slippery or other poor contact conditions 29.9 Water, other than high or deep water 18.8 Tight cave passage 16.7 Temperature too high or too low 14.6 High or deep water 7.6 Bad air 4.9 Table 4b. Human acts associated with close calls in cave exploration. Of the human-related acts listed below, which do you feel were associated with the close-call event (near miss) you experienced or observed? (Select all that apply.) Human Acts % Responses (n = 111) Not paying attention 46.9 Did not check integrity of contact point 23.4 Became exhausted 16.2 Did not inspect equipment 14.4 Entered cave beyond current abilities 12.6 Tight cave passage 13.5 Chose incorrect clothing or footwear 12.6 Attempted movement (climb, squeeze, descent, etc.) beyond abilities12.6 Misestimated water depth 2.7 Inadequate lighting (batteries not charged, lack of backup lights)1.8 Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings32

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just as important. Previous research conducted by the authors revealed that cavers are generally of post-college ages and thus could be classified as adult learners. For most effective caving-skills training, it is especially important to develop strategies that cater to the needs of the adult caver. A preferred method of teaching adult learners is with hands-on learning which is a concept used quite frequently in informal, apprentice-mentor style for training because there is an opportunity for trainees to practice and receive constructive feedback (Olivero, Bane, Kopelman 1997) and reflect on their experiences (Bleakley 2000). Focusing on discovery learning optimizes adult-style learning. In this approach, the individuals are motivated to learn through their desire to understand in detail what they are learning (Knowles et al. 1998). George Veni shares, Using a cave [for training] also tends to create a better respect and appreciation for caves than Ive ever been able to relay in a classroom, and adds that caving conditions can be simulated on the surface, but do not simulate the psychological element found in the natural environment A plurality of experts interviewed for this work indicate that if a single learning environment must be chosen, it is to conduct training in the cave. It is known that adult-style discovery learning is best accomplished in the environment where the work will be conducted. Even so, a caution may be in order. Christopher Binding notes, trainees tend to be distracted from listening by being keen to get hands-on with the shiny bits of kit nearby. This comment emphasizes the importance of maintaining the learners attention before engaging in active components of the training. Several experts recommend that a combination of training locations, such as classroom followed by in-cave, hands-on training can be very effective. The structured classroom setting with few distractions will allow for clear delivery of instructions, which can then be followed by discovery learning shortly thereafter in the cave environment. This very model has been used by a number of organizations that routinely conduct training and education related to caves and caving, namely the Association of Caving Instructors, the Austrian Speleological Association, and the Hoffman Institute at Western Kentucky University. Schindel suggests that the classroom lecture may be better suited for facilitating discussion of hazards associated with caves in general, while in-cave training may work work well for hazards associated with the cave in which the learning is taking place. Gregory Springer adds that during in-cave exercises, instructors or mentors can point out specific hazards and correct mistakes as they see them. Allen Maddox states, For the novice, I like classroom type followed by in-cave activity Christian Berghold agrees, that exercises alone wont suffice, and adds, a combination of classroom lecturesand in-cave training in addition to dry, outside-the-cave exercises are best for delivery of content. Binding recommends that after information is delivered in a classroom-like environment, the hands-on experience in the cave will allow cavers to immediately define and apply specific dynamic examples with compelling relevance. He further makes the recommendation that training should be limited to small groups of a few people at a time, especially for single rope techniques. Based on outcomes of the expert interviews, several clear themes emerge: (1) training should be designed and conducted in a step-by-step manner, (2) training should be conducted by those with appropriate levels of knowledge and experience, (3) learning environments should be optimized for best retention of material, (4) curriculum should be specific for the hazards and topics being addressed, and (5) class sizes should be small. Further, based on literature research, (6) the learning styles and experience levels of the trainees should be assessed to determine best delivery of content for the audience being trained. It should be noted that the above numbered themes are areas where training bodies such as ACI, NCRC, ASA, etc. have for some time successfully applied best-practice caving-skills training approaches. These groups have curriculum development and review committees who vet content so that it is up-to-date and pertinent to the training being conducted. However, research by Bird, Sawa, and Wiles (submitted, in review), revealed that informal training conducted at the level of caving clubs and among individuals is very widespread and thus the benefits of the larger caving-skills training organizations may not be felt by many cavers and potential cavers. Further, a review of injury and fatality reports shows that lack of experience and lack of effective training are often causes for mishaps (Keeler 2011). Following from this, the tailored training approach presented here is focused toward smaller groups of less-experience cave explorers and incorporates guidance for developing checklists (Seifert 2009) in order to ensure that important aspects are covered. Table 5 proposes a number of questions that may be helpful in the initial design of the training curriculum. Answering the questions in Table 5 requires knowing the cave conditions and human actions that will be addressed through training, hence the importance of the mentor being knowledgable and experienced for the caves and caving regions for which training is being prepared. For novicelevel cave explorers, referencing the most prevalent caving hazards and close calls provides a good starting point. For example, Table 3 lists falls as a common mishap or close call in caves, so a primary training objective could be to successfully move through the cave without falling or stumbling. The learning objective in this case is for the trainees to develop balance and movement strategies that allow them to remain in control of their bodies as they move through the rocky, slippery, and otherwise uneven surfaces of the cave. After answers are established for the questionsQuestions Training goals established by mentor and trainees in concert? Mentor/Instructor knowledgable, skilled, and experienced for helping trainees to achieve goals? What are the trainees learning styles? What are the trainees experience levels? What are the learning objectives that flow from the overall training goals? What are the ideal/desired training locations? What specific teaching and learning tasks need to be accomplished to achieve learning objectives? How will trainees learning be measured? Table 5. Questions to consider for designing caving-skills training. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings33

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in Table 5, a more-specific form (Figure 1) can be used to clearly state the components of the training that will be conducted to address the particular hazard. Another example could be vertical issues, which is the first close call listed in Table 3. This hazard is significant as it could lead to serious injury or death. Figure 1 is a sample form completed for a training scenario to descend and ascend a 10-meter pit. It is important to establish measureable learning outcomes for which a clear evaluation can be made. For example, in the given scenario Mssr. Casteret evaluates Mr. Collins ability to identify and apply vertical caving equipment. The learning outcomes are as follows: list and describe equipment used for ascending and descending a 10 m pit; demonstrate ability to use ascending and descending equipment to safety rappel into and ascend out of a 10 m pit. At the bottom of the form, Mssr. Casteret provides feedback to Mr. Collins about actions he can improve upon. The form used in the example scenario is just one way of keeping track of small-group training learning objectives, learning outcomes, and feedback to trainees. Mentors and trainees are, of course, free to use whatever approach they would like for the specific training they are conducting. However, it is important to establish the goals, measure the outcomes, and provide feedback, regardless of which training design or record-keeping formats may be used. It has been mentioned previously in this paper that the classroom makes for an ideal distraction-free learning environment. However, an educational classroom is, of course, not necessarily required for small groups. Instead, classroom learning can take place in the living room of a participants home, in an office or a coffee shop, on a park bench, or any other comfortable environment, provided it is distraction free. Even the mountainside where the cave is located can be a classroom, although greater care may be needed to ensure the beautiful surroundings do not become distracting. On the receiving end, the students and trainees must practice what theyve learned. At the appropriate time, and before embarking on a challenging caving trip, the trainees should demonstrate their knowledge and skill to the more-experienced and higher-skilled mentors. This is the measure of learning achieved, i.e. of progress made. Direct measures of learning can include a range of options from written exams to physically demonstrating to the instructor or mentor that the student can accomplish the task at hand.Figure 1. Sample training form for preparing a caver descend and ascend a 10-meter pit.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings34

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4. ConclusionsRespondents to the online questionnaire indicated that the top five close call events in cave exploration included vertical, falls, rockfall, water hazards, and becoming trapped/stranded. Previously conducted research, reports from caving accidents, and review of the literature shows that the top five mishaps in cave exploration include falls, equipment issues, rockfall, becoming trapped/stranded, or becoming lost. While there are many more hazards in caving, preparing to overcome those listed here among mishaps and close calls will help intrepid cave explorers avoid most of the undesired situations that may be encountered during caving. Research on close calls shows that mishaps can be avoided if environmental conditions in caves are well understood and if detrimental acts can be avoided. Training, of some kind, is universally agreed to be essential for preparing cave explorers to overcome hazards and practice proper behaviors while caving. The panel of experts interviewed in this research indicate that designed training delivered by qualified and experienced cavers to small groups of people in optimized learning environments is most effective for preparing people to safely and conscientiously explore the cave environment. In particular, training should focus on human acts and environmental conditions that lead to mishaps. In addition to the primary hazards already listed above, human acts that should be prepared for include paying attention to surroundings, assessment of integrity of cave surface, physical fitness, and equipment inspection. Preparation should be made for in-cave environmental conditions including vertical exposure, rockfall or rock-shifting potential, slippery and poor-contact conditions, water, tight cave passages, temperature, and air quality. The hazards, human acts, and environmental conditions described in this paper are generalized to all cave exploration, whereas the specific ones that should be prepared for are dependent on the caves and regions where exploration will take place. Mentors, instructors, and/or curriculum designers will select topics appropriate to the conditions for which training is being designed. Further references are available to ensure proper techniques are being taught. In addition to the texts by Sparrow (2009) and Burger (2006), Alpine Caving Techniques (Marbach and Tourte 2002) and On Rope (Smith and Padgett 1997) provide excellent information for developing caving skills. The passing of information in a controlled, structured, and documented manner from those with more knowledge and experience to those who are developing their knowledge and skills will help to reduce injuries and illnesses, as well as to hopefully eliminate fatalities that occur in cave exploration. This process has the additional benefit of giving cave explorers greater ability to make the most of their underground exploration, thus enhancing the overall caving experience.AcknowledgmentsThe authors wish to acknowledge the eleven caving-skills experts who participated in the research interviews, the 181 cave explorers who participated in the online close-calls questionnaire, and the organizers of the 2013 International Congress of Speleology for providing a venue in which this research could be shared with the international caving community. The authors also acknowledge the Oakland University Insitutional Review Board for guidance and oversight in this research and the reviewers for their thoughtful comments. The authors wish to thank the NSS Safety and Techniques committee members for their ideas, feedback, and guidance over the past two years that this research has been conducted, and in particular Dr. Rane Curl for his continued guidance and long-standing commitment to safe caving, worldwide. Finally, the authors are grateful to Gary Bush and Bruce Smith for their reviews of this paper.ReferencesBird A, Sawa M, Wiles M, 2012. Perceptions and prevalence of caving-skills training in the United States and the United Kingdom. Manuscript submitted for publication. Bleakley A, 2000. Writing with invisible ink: Narrative, confessionalism, and reflective practice: Journal of Reflective Practice, 1(1), 11. Burger P, 2006. Cave Exploring: The definitive guide to caving technique, safety, gear, and trip leadership. Connecticut: Falcon, 49. Keeler R, 2011. American Caving Accidents 2009: NSS News, 69(10), 7. Knowles M, Holton E, Swanson R, 1998. The adult learner, Butterworth Heinemann. Marbach G, Tourte B, 2002. Alpine Caving Techniques, Speleo Projects, Allschwill, Switzerland. Olivero G, Bane K, Kopelman R, 1997. Executive Coaching as a Transfer of Training Tool: Effects on Productivity in a Public Agency: Public Personnel Management, 26(4), 461. Seifert P, 2009. Checklists and Safety Improvements. AORN Journal, 89(4), 653. Smith B, Padgett A, 1997. On Rope, National Speleological Society, Huntsville, AL. Sparrow A, 2009. The Complete Caving Manual Wiltshire: Crowood, 117.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings35

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CAVING IN THE ABODE OF THE CLOUDS MEGHALAYA, NORTH EAST INDIASimon Brooks C/o 11 Margery Close, Lodge Farm Chase, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, DE6 1GZ, UK Simonj.brooks@btopenworld.com Meghalaya in North East India is blessed with good limestone and a warm, wet climate that results in many fine caves. In the last 21 years 24 mostly multi-national expeditions have explored/partially explored 892 caves yielding over 398.6 kms of cave passage. The caves are found in a band of limestone/karst that runs along the southern fringe of the Meghalaya plateau. Exploration from 1992 to 1999 took place in many locations across Meghalaya and developed a productive collaborative partnership with local Indian cavers. From 2000 to 2009 the main focus of exploration was on the Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia Hills where over the years 157 kms of cave passage were explored. During this period the Krem Liat Prah Cave System, discovered in 2002, was extended, linked into other systems and eventually connected to Krem Labit Moolasngi and Krem Rubong in 2008 to create a cave system of 30.9 kms in length Indias longest cave and first cave system in the Indian Sub-continent to have in excess of 30 kms of passage. In 2009 the focus moved away from the Shnongrim Ridge to the Pala Range and the Kopili River Valley where exploration has remained until 2013. In this area some 53 kms of cave passage has been explored including the Krem Tyngheng Dieng Jem system that at 21.3 kms is currently Indias 3rdlongest cave. From 1999 onwards several of the expeditions have undertaken small scale Biospeleological investigations utilising skills and interest within the expedition team. In the last three years (2011 to 2013) this element has had a more substantial presence with more in-depth and systematic studies and recording taking place. This lecture gives an overview of the limestone and caves of Meghalaya, the exploration from 1992 to 2013 looking in more detail at the more recent 2012 and 2013 expeditions and the tensions between the economic exploitation of the limestone resource and cave conservation.1. IntroductionThe Caving in the Abode of the Clouds Project takes its name from the Sanskrit meaning of the word Meghalaya which literally translates to Abode of the Clouds. This is in recognition of the fact that, because of its geography, Meghalaya is often enveloped in cloud, which results in world record rainfall. This feature, added to a warm climate and extensive areas of limestone, has created many fine caves, making Meghalaya of great interest to the International Caving fraternity. In 1992, a small team of four European Cavers were able to visit Meghalaya and the Khasi, Jaintia and Garo hills, finding many caves and, more significantly, realising the huge caving potential of the region. In 1994, contact was made with Brian D. Kharpran Daly and Donbok Syiemlieh of the Shillong based Meghalaya Adventurers Association and since that time the systematic exploration of caves across Meghalaya has been undertaken as a partnership between Indian, European and American Cave Explorers. This productive collaboration is known as the Caving in the Abode of the Clouds Project. The State of Meghalaya lies between 25.47 degrees to 26.15 degrees of latitude north and between 89.45 degrees to 97.47 degrees of longitude east. It extends for about 300 kilometres in length from west to east and about 100 kilometres in width from north to south covering an area of 22,429 square kilometres. Meghalaya is composed of three ranges of hills, which have given their names to the three main tribes. The Khasi and Jaintia Hills of central and eastern Meghalaya present a panorama of a plateau of grasslands, hills and river valleys. The height of the plateau is generally between 1,500 metres and 2,000 metres above sea level. The southern edge of the plateau drops steeply to the plains of Bangladesh and is noted for its waterfalls and deep jungle clad north to south valleys. The Garo Hills to the west are lower in elevation, with an average height of 450 to 600 metres above sea level and are more deeply dissected. The limestone is found in a more or less continuous band that runs along the entire southern fringe of the state. This band of limestone is approximately 300 kms in length east to west and between 10 to 25 m in depth, north to south. Despite 25 expeditions being made to Meghalaya since 1992, significant areas of Limestone remain unexplored.2. Recent Cave Exploration1992 A small team of four European Cavers were able to visit Meghalaya and the Khasi, Jaintia and Garo hills, finding many caves and mapping just over 9 kms of new cave passage. In the Khasi Hills, Krem Mawmluh was explored and mapped for 3.7 kms becoming (November 1992) Indias longest cave and Krem Dam also in the Khasi Hills for 1.2 kms. In the Garo Hills, the well-known Krem Siju Dobhakol, partially explored by Kemp and Chopra from the Museum of Natural History in Calcutta in 1922 was extended from 1.2 kms to 2.9 kms. This initial expedition paved the way for access to Meghalaya and established that there was indeed considerable caving potential. 1994 Contact was made with Brian D. Kharpran Daly and Donbok Syiemlieh of the Shillong based Meghalaya Adventurers Association and visits the Khasi, Jaintia and Garo Hills by a small European Team of 8 cavers saw another 14 kms of cave passage explored and mapped. In the Khasi Hills, Krem Mawmluh was extended from Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings36

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3.7kms to 4.5 kms in length and Krem Dam from 1.2 kms to just over 2.0 kms becoming Indias longest cave formed in sandstone (March 1994). In the Garo Hills, Tetenkol was explored and mapped for 5.1 kms over taking Krem Mawmluh as Indias longest cave (February 1994). 1995 A small Multi-National Expedition (9 cavers, including 2 Indian cavers) visits the Khasi, Jaintia and Garo Hills and explores and maps 10+ kms of new cave passage. In the Jaintia Hills, the sizable Krem Pubon Lashing was explored for 1.7 kms and in the Lumshnong area (Jaintia Hills) Krem Kot Sati was explored and mapped for 2.6 kms and left very much ongoing. 1996 A small German/Indian expedition based itself at Lumshnong in the Jaintia Hills and explores and maps 9+ kms of new cave passage with Krem Um Lawan partially explored and mapped for 6.3 kms. 1997 A larger Multi-National Expedition (16 cavers, including 5 Indian cavers) returned to Lumshnong in the Jaintia Hills and explores and maps 25+ kms of new cave passage connecting Krem Kot Sati to Krem Um Lawan to create a 19.2 km long system becoming (February 1997) Indias longest cave. Just to the north of Lumshnong in the Musianglamare area Synrang Pamiang was explored and mapped for 1.7 kms. Krem Lymput in the Nongiri Area for 2.7 kms and Krem Pubon Lashing extended from 1.8 kms to 3.0 kms in length. 1998 A Multi-National Expedition (18 cavers, including 4 Indian cavers) visits the Khasi and Jaintia Hills explores and maps 26+ kms of new cave passage. At Nongiri in the East Khasi Hills, Krem Lymput was extended from 2.7 kms to 6.5 kms. In the Lunshnong Area Krem Kot Sati/Um Lawan was extended from 19.2 kms to 21.2 kms and Synrang Pamiang from 1.7 kms to 4.8 kms. In the Lukka Valley lying to the east of Lumnshnong, Pielkhlieng Pouk, a massive river cave was partially explored and mapped for 2.5 kms. 1999 A Multi-National expedition (17 cavers, including 4 Indian cavers) visits the Khasi and Jaintia Hills and explores and maps 27+ kms of new passage. In the Lumshnong Area (Jaintia Hills) the impressive river cave of Synrang Pamiang was extended from 6.2 kms to 14 kms to become Indias 2ndlongest cave (February 1998). In the Lukka Valley the even more impressive Pielkhlieng Pouk was connected to Seilkan Pouk to create a 9.7 kms long system to become (February 1999) Indias 3rdlongest cave. 1999 A small reconnaissance expedition by members of Wells Catheral School visits the Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia Hills and explores and maps 4+ kms of new cave passage. 2000 A Multi-National Expedition (14 cavers, including 4 Indian cavers) visits the Khasi Hills and the Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia Hills and explores and maps 20+ kms of new cave passage. Exploration and mapping on the Shnongrim Ridge includes Krem Mawshun at 3.3 kms in length, Krem Wah Ryngo at 3.3 kms, Um Sngad at 2.4 kms and Krem Shrieh with its massive 97 m deep shaft at 8.7 kms. The latter becoming (February 2000) Indias 4thlongest cave. 2001 A large Multi-National Expedition (26 cavers, including 4 Indian cavers) visits the Khasi Hills and the Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia Hills and explores and maps 35+ kms of new cave passage. At Borsora in the West Khasi Hills, Krem Khlieh Kherthang is explored and mapped for 2.8 kms and Ronga for 1.9 kms. On the Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia Hills, Krem Umthloo is explored and mapped for 12.4 kms becoming (February 2001) Indias 3rdlongest cave. In the same Area Krem Shynrong Labit is explored and mapped for 5.7 kms and Krem Risang for 4.5 kms. 2002 A large Multi-National Expedition 923 cavers, including 3 Indian cavers) visits the Khasi, Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia and Garo Hills explores and maps 22.5+kms of new cave passage. In the West Garo Hills (Asakree area) 5.5 kms are explored and mapped in a variety of caves. In the south Garo Hills 2.6 kms areFigure 1. Square Passage Siju Dhobakhol, Garo Hills. Figure 2. Key Hole passage, Krem Mawshun. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings37

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explored and mapped and on the Shnongrim Ridge (Jaintia Hills), the impressively proportioned Krem Liat Prah is explored and mapped for 5.9 kms. 2002 A small USA led Expedition (13 cavers, including 4Indian cavers) visits the Lum Lawpaw plateau near to Nongjri in the West Khasi Hills and explores and maps 6+kms of new cave passage. Krem Mawtynhiang is explored and mapped for 3.0 kms and remains as Indias longest Sandstone Cave. 2002 A small Italian/German Expedition (9 cavers, including Indian cavers) visits the South Garo Hills and in the Asakree area and explores and maps 2.7+ kms of new cave passage in Sang Kni Ikgilram, which remains the longest cave in the Asakree area. 2003 Large Multi-National Expedition (33 Cavers, including 9 Indian Cavers) based mainly on the Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia Hills, but with satellite teams visiting the West Khasi and Garo Hills, explore and map 25.7+ kms of new cave passage. On the Shnongrim Ridge Krem Liat Prah was extended from 5.9 kms to 8.3 kms in length and Krem Umthloo from 12.6 kms to 13.4 kms to become (March 2003) Indias 3rdlongest cave. The exploration team included a number of Biologists that undertook BioSpeleological investigations in some of the caves. 2004 Large Multi-National Expedition (24 Cavers, including 7 Indian Cavers) based on the Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia Hills explores and maps 17.1+ kms of new cave passage. Krem Liat Prah was extended from 8.4 kms to 14.6 kms taking it from Indias 6thlongest cave (February 2004) to Indias 2ndlongest. Krem Krang Wah (Tigers Mouth Cave) with its 93 m deep shaft entrance was explored for 2.2 kms and Krem Tyngheng in the nearby Samasi (Pala Range) area partially explored for 3.75 kms along fine river passage. 2005 Large Multi-National Expedition (28 cavers, including 6 Indian cavers) based largely on the Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia Hills and also visiting the West Khasi Hills explores and maps 19+ kms of new cave passage. On the Shnongrim Ridge Krem Liat Prah was linked to Krem Um Im to create a system of 15.9 kms in length, Indias 2ndlongest in 2005. In the adjacent Samasi Area (Pala Range) Krem Tyngheng was extended from 3.75 kms to 5.3 kms. 2006 Large Multi-National Expedition (28 Cavers, including 5 Indian Cavers) based on the Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia Hills explore and map 15.4 + kms of new cave passage. The 2006 expedition anticipated the completion of the exploration on the Shnongrim Ridge and in Samasi. However, it saw an existing cave system (Krem Liat Prah/Um Im) linked to (Krem Labit Khaidong) and extended to create a 22+ km system which at that time (February 2006) was Indias new longest cave. In the adjacent Samasi Area Krem Tyngheng was extended from 5.3 kms to 7.7 kms in length. During the course of the expedition yet more huge relic and river passage was explored, indicating the Shnongrim Ridge was far from finished. 2007 A large Multi-National Expedition (33 Cavers, including 3 Indian Cavers) based on the Shnongrim Ridge and the adjacent (Lukka) area in the Jaintia Hills explores 15.9+ kms of new cave passage. The Krem Liat Prah/Labit/Um Im System was extended from 22.2 to 25.2 kms in length, Pielklieng Pouk/Sielkan Pouk, a huge river cave, was extended from 10.4 to 12.4 kms in length and yet more cave systems on the Shnongrim Ridge were linked together. 2008 A large Multi-National Expedition (40 cavers, including 3 Indian cavers) based on the Shnongrim Ridge and visiting the nearby Pala Range in the Jaintia Hills explores 14 kms of new cave passage. The linking of the Liat Prah Cave System to Krem Labit (Moolasgni) via a 3m sump free dive and the connection of two other potholes plus the resurgence cave Krem Rubong into the system along with surveying of new side passages created a cave system of 30.9 kms in length. This firmly established this system as the longest cave known to date (May 2013) in the Indian Sub-continent and more significantly made it the first Indian Sub-continent cave to exceed 30 kms in length. The extension of Krem Tyngheng in the Samasi area from 9.8 kms to 12.9 kms in length, via some long swims, to make it (February 2008) Indian Sub-continents 5thlongest cave and the partial exploration and surveying of two other caves in the Kopili area; Krem Labbit Kseh at 0.9kms in length andKrem Bylliat at 0.6 kms in length. Krem Umthloo,was extended to 18.1 kms in length maintaining it as the 3rdlongest cave (March 2008) in the Indian Sub-Continent. The extension of several existing caves in the area including: Um Sngad River Sink, extended from 1.25 km to 2.15 km in length and ongoing; Krem Kdong Thlooextended from 1.18 km to 1.58 kms. Krem Synrang Ngapwas extended from 4.5 kms to 4.9 kms and Krem Mawshun from3.3 to 3.6 kms. Additionally the discovery and exploration of several new caves in a previously blank NE section of the Ridge near to the Liat Prah system including Krem Lumthymme at 1.1 km in length, that unfortunately failed to connect into the Liat Prah system. The discovery and exploration of two new caves on the south flank of the ridge, Krem Thapbalong Sim for 0.3 kms in length and ongoing and Krem Shyrong Shriehis 1.39 kms in length and on-going. In addition to the cave exploration, an International Conference entitled Discover Meghalaya The Caving Experience was held at the Pinewood Hotel in Shillong on the 22ndto the 23rdFebruary. The Government of Meghalaya TourismFigure 3. River passage in lower section of Krem Tyngheng/ Diengjem System. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings38

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Department and the MAA (Meghalaya Adventurers Association) hosted this with a significant input being made by the European team members. The conference was attended by some members of the expedition, the MAA and over 60 delegates drawn from the Meghalaya Government and its various departments along with representatives from the coal and limestone extraction industry and Adventure Travel Agencies from across India and Bangladesh. The aim of the conference was to raise awareness of the great cave resource within Meghalaya; highlight the threats to the caves posed by the recent increases in the limestone and coal extraction industries and try to identify a ways of addressing this issue; and to develop strategies to promote the use of caves for tourism and local economic development 2009 A large Multi-National Expedition (28 cavers, including 13 Indian cavers, 10 of which were from the Indian Navy) based on the Shnongrim Ridge in the Jaintia Hills explore and map 12.6 kms of new cave passage. In the SW end of the Shnongrim Ridge, Krem Thapbalong Sim (Humming Bird Cave) was connected to Krem Shyrong Shrieh (Monkey Skull Cave) to create a system of 5.48 kms in length. In the Kopili River Valley, Krem Labit Kseh was extended from 0.88 kms to 1.65 kms. Krem Tyngheng in the nearby Samasi (Pala Range) area was extended by 0.4kms to 12.8 kms in length. Exploration of several caves in the new Umkyrpong area saw Krem Dieng Jem (believed at this time to be the resurgence for the Krem Tyngheng) partially explored for 1.3 kms. 2009 was the last of the large Shnongrim Ridge camps that had become synonymous with the Caving in the Abode of the Clouds Project. In the period from 2000 to 2009 the Shnongrim Ridge had yielded 157kms of cave passage and become the area of Meghalaya (and the Indian Sub-continent) with the greatest concentration of known caves. 2010 A large Multi-National Expedition (35 cavers, including 9 cavers from the Indian Navy) based in the Umkyrpong/Kopili Area of the Jaintia Hills and at the start of the expedition a satellite camp in the West Khasi Hills explored and surveyed 25.1 kms of new cave passage. In the Mawsynram Area in the East Khasi Hills, Krem Mawphun was explored for 1.6 kms and Krem Lymbit for 0.8 kms along with several other smaller caves. At the main expedition area in the Umkyrpong/Kopili Area in the Jaintia Hills, Krem Dieng Jem was extended and connected to Krem Tyngheng to create a sink to resurgence system of 21.1 kms in length becoming (March 2010) Indias 3rdlongest cave and the third cave in the Indian Sub-continent to exceed 20 kms in length. Krem Labit Kseh in the Kopili River Valley was extended from 1.6 kms to 4.7 kms. New caves: Krem Man Krem was partially explored for 4.7 kms and Krem Shalong (Misty Cave) for 2.6 kms and both left ongoing. 2011 A Multi-National Expedition (22 cavers, including 3 Indian cavers) based in the Kopili/Pala Range Area in the Jaintia Hills explores and maps 10+ kms of new cave passage. The Krem Tyngheng/Dieng Jem system was extended to 21.2 kms maintaining it as Indias 3rdlongest cave (March 2011). Krem Shalong was extended from 2,61kms to 4.7 kms in length and a new cave Krem Labit Mynlin explored for 1.6 kms. In addition to the cave exploration there was significant bio-speleological investigation undertaken in some cave sites with a particular focus on bats this bat survey, undertaken by Manuel Ruedi of the Geneva Museum of Natural History, led to the detection of a species of Murina bat new to science. It was later named Murina Jaintiana to honour the tribe of the Jaintias who had given their warm and welcoming hospitality to the expedition for so many years. 2012 A large Multi-National Expedition (Two separate teams with a total of 25 cavers, including 3 Indian cavers) based in the Kopili/Larket Area in the Jaintia Hills and in the Mawsynram/Balat Area in the East Khasi Hills explores and maps 6.8+ kms and 6.1 kms of new cave passage respectively. In the Kseh/Larket Area the main focus of the exploration was in the new Krem Khung system where 5.1kms of very large passage was explored. In the Mawsynram/Balat Area Krem Mawphun was extended from 1.7 kms to 2.5 kms in length becoming Indias 2ndlongest known cave to be formed in Sandstone. In addition to the cave exploration in the Kopili/Larket area there was on-going bio-speleological investigation undertaken. 2013 A more modestly sized Multi-National Expedition (17 Cavers, including 2 Indian Cavers) based in the Kopili/Larket Area in the Jaintia Hills explores and maps 9.1+ kms of new cave passage. Krem Khung was extended from 5.1 kms to 7.3 kms in length to make it Indias 7thlongest cave and Krem Labit Kseh, on the banks of the Kopili river, was extended from 6.4 kms to 7.2 kms to make it Indias 9thlongest cave. Alongside the cave exploration the two associatedRomanian biologists, the expedition team biologist and their Indian counterpart from the Lady Keane College in Shillong that were part of the exploration team continued with the study the documentation of various cave fauna in the area. On return to Shillong members of the expedition and the Meghalaya Adventurers Association attended the inauguration of theBio-speleology Section of the Zoology Museum at Lady Keane College, Shillong, Meghalaya (India). The link between Lady Keane College, the Meghalaya Adventurers Association (MAA) and the Caving in the Abode of the Clouds Project will further enhance the study and understanding of the bio-speleology of Meghalaya. Building upon the bio-speleology investigations that have been part of many Caving in the Abode of the Clouds expeditions since the late 1990s.Figure 4. Krem Khung, main passage. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings39

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3. ConclusionAs a result of these explorations, the whereabouts of over 1,500 caves are known, of which 892 have been explored to yield almost 399 kilometres of surveyed cave passage, with much more still awaiting discovery. Much of the cave passage that has been explored to date is impressive river cave, deep shafts and large ancient relic passage. These features form cave systems equal in size and beauty to those found anywhere else in the world, thus putting Meghalaya firmly on the world-caving map as a significant Cave and Karst Region. In the achievement of the above the Caving in the Abode of the Clouds Project is indebted to the help and support it has received over the years from; the Meghalaya Adventurers Association, the Government of India Tourist Office (East and North East India) Kolkata; the Meghalaya State Tourism Department; Officials and Government Departments within Meghalaya; and, very importantly, the People of Meghalaya. Acknowledgement must also be given to the Ghar Parau Foundation, the Grampian Speleological Group, the Mount Everest Foundation of the UK and the NSS (USA) for their financial support at various times. However, the abundance of limestone and coal in Meghalaya makes the state not only of interest to the caving fraternity but also of interest to the commercial world, as limestone and coal are valuable economic resources. The initially small-scale extraction of limestone has in recent years been replaced by large commercial operations seeking to fuel economic growth in the region. To protect the environment, the unique landscape, the natural history and particularly the wonderful caves that are to be found within the Khasi, Jaintia and Garo Hills. It is vital that the limestone and coal is extracted in an environmentally sensitive and sustainable manner otherwise irreversible damage will be caused and these unique natural features will be lost forever.ReferencesBrooks SJ, Smart CM, 1995. Caving in the Abode of the Clouds The Caves and Karst of Meghalaya, North East India, Meghalaya 94 UK. (Report of the 1992 and 1994 Cave Exploration, Regional and Geological Information). Brooks SJ, Gebauer HD, 1998. Caving in the Abode of the Clouds Part II The Caves and Karst of Meghalaya, North East India. UK. (Report of the 1995, 1996 and 1997 Cave Explorations, Regional and Geological Information). Brooks SJ, 2000. India, Caving in the Abode of the Clouds 2000 Descent No 154 (June/July 2000) International News section. (Summary of expedition including photographs). Brooks SJ, 2001. Caving in the Abode of the Clouds Expedition 2001. International Caver 2001. 40. (Expedition report, maps, surveys and photographs). Brooks SJ, 2002.Summary of Exploration Caving in the Abode of the Clouds, Meghalaya, N.E. India 2002 International Caver 2002. 60. (Summary of exploration in 2002 with table listing the Indian Sub Continents 10 longest and 10 deepest caves). Brooks SJ, 2005. More Meghalaya underground Caving in the Abode of the Clouds 2005. Descent No 184 (June/July 2005) International News section. (Summary of expedition including photographs). Brooks SJ, Brown M, 2007. Caving in the Abode of the Clouds: Meghalaya, India 2007. BCRA Speleology No 9 April 2007 32. Densham C, 2010. Meghalayan Days Chris Densham offers a personal account of his involvement in the 2010 Caving in the Abode of the Clouds Expedition to the now classic caving country of the Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya in India. Descent No 214. June/July 2010, 31. Brooks SJ, 2012. Twenty Years in Meghalaya. Descent No 225 April/May 2012, 27. Arbenz Thomas, 2013. Cave Pearls of Meghalaya Vol.1 276 pages, ISBN 978-3-033-03637-6, June 2013 Detailled inventory of the Pala Range and Kopili Area, Jaintia Hills, including expedition reports, cave descriptions and surveys and numerous photographs. http://indiancaving.org.uk/wiki/doku.phpExploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings40

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CAVE EXPLORATION IN IRANSimon Brooks C/o 11 Margery Close, Lodge Farm Chase, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, DE6 1GZ UK, Simonj.brooks@btopenworld.com In the early 1970s Iran was one of the British overseas expedition areas of choice with Ghar Parau becoming the best known Iranian cave because it was the focus of two major UK Expeditions in 1971 and 1972 that were striving for a world depth record. Using the funding left over from these expeditions the Ghar Parau Foundation (GPF), a UK Overseas Expedition Granting body that has supported many UK overseas expeditions ever since, was set up, immortalising the cave name Ghar Parau in the UK. This paper gives and overview of the Karst and Cave in Iran and then describes the history of cave exploration by both Iranian and Foreign Cave Explorers. The paper then gives an overview on the multinational expeditions to Iran that took place in Oct/Nov 2006, October 2007, October/November 2008 and most recently in November/December 2011 that have offer training, explored and mapped caves alongside Iranian cavers in many areas across Iran. As well as touching on the exploration history of Ghar Parau (Irans deepest and most well-known cave) and reviewing the rapidly developing caving scene in Iran the paper provides an insight to this fantastic county and its people.1. Overview and early cave exploration in IranThe Islamic Republic of Iran has an area of 1,648,000 sqkms which is equivalent to 3 the size of France or 1/5 the size of the USA. Of this land 11% is Arable, 8% Forests, 47% Pasture and the remaining 34% Deserts and Mountains. Iran has a rich and complicated Geological structure with many natural resources. Limestone comprising of Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic and Mesozoic is present across many areas with the greatest concentrations being found in the Alborz Mountains in the North of Iran and the Zagros Mountains that run down the SW flank of Iran. Within this limestone many caves are to be found and to date there are in excess of 2,400 known caves in Iran. Iran is a very well developed country with a strong oil based economy. Tehran, Irans capital city is very modern and vibrant and the Iranian People generally enjoy a good standard of living that involves many cultural, social and sporting activities. Iran has a population of over 70 million people with around 70% of the population being under 30 years of age. Irans geographical spread and geology mean that within the country there is a great variety of landscapes. These range from sub-tropical forests in the north, further south and on the west, high mountain ranges and temperate areas, and huge deserts and semi-arid areas in the south. Systematic cave exploration began in Iran in 1945 when members of clubs such as the Damavand Club from Tehran and the Hamadan Mountaineers from Hamadad began visiting, exploring and mapping caves. Early pioneers included; Manocher Mehran, Marafat, Changiz Shelkli and Yousef Nejaei. In 1995 a publication Caves and Mountains of Iran listed over 250 caves. In the early 1970s Iran was a popular overseas expedition area with Ghar Parau becoming the Irans best known cave because it was the focus of two major UK Expeditions in 1971 and 1972 that were striving for a world depth record. Following this the cave became the namesake of the UK Overseas Expedition Granting body (the GPF) that has supported many UK overseas expeditions ever since. In 1974 a Polish Team reached the bottom of Ghar Parau where they confirmed that the cave had indeed finished. In 1973 Napier College Hydro-geological Expedition surveyed 1,700 m in Ghar Sarab near to Hamadan. In 1979 major political change in Iran made the country largely inaccessible for foreigners and exploration activities ceased until the mid 1990s. However, from 1976 through to 2003 numerous Iranian caving and mountaineering groups visited Ghar Parau with many reaching the bottom and some new passages and a second entrance being discovered. In 2004 a team from Kermanshah Mountaineering Club succeeded in getting a diver into the terminal sump which appeared to quickly close down and become impenetrable. In the mid 1990s a Czechoslovakian team began exploring the Salt Karst of Qesam Island in the far south of Iran where they discovered Namakdan 3 which has subsequently been extended to become the world longest Salt karst cave with a length of 6,580 m. Regular on-going return trips to this area have seen many more caves explored and mapped. In 2000 and 2001 a German-Iranian and then a GermanBritish-Iranian team explored and mapped Ghar Alisadr, Irans most popular show cave, yielding 11,400 m of passage. In 2003 a German-Swiss-Iranian team explored and mapped the majority of Katalehkhor another of Irans fine show caves that at 12,860 m is currently Irans longest known cave.2. Recent cave exploration in IranA return to Ghar Parau October/November 2006. In late October through to early November 2006 a team of 21 cavers lead by Yuri Evdokimov from Russia on a visit to Iran as part of the Parau 2006 Expedition. The team consisted of 19 cavers from various parts of Russia and Shary Ghazy an Iranian caver who then lived in Germany and Simon Brooks from the UK. The Russians were a strong and well-equipped team with good experience of deep caves at high altitude, including participants from the deep Krubera-Voronja Project. The main aim of the expedition was to reach the bottom of Ghar Parau, dive the terminal sump and climb avens etc in an attempt to extend (deepen) the cave, and, if time allowed, visit and extend Ghar Sarab in the Hamadan Area. Prior to joining the main team Simon Brooks and Shary Ghazy travelled down to Hamadan, meeting up with Yousef Nejaei from the Hamadan Mountaineers (Sina) Club. Two Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings41

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days were spent in the Hamadan Area visiting the Ghar Alisadr Show cave and Ghar Hizch (Hizch Cave, AKA Ghar Hezej) where in excess of 520 m of dry horizontal passage were mapped and photographed. The Russians had been travelled overland from Moscow in three very well laden vehicles and on the 29thOctober arrived in Kermanshah where they set up a base camp. Shary and Simon joined them, equipment was sorted, and the following day the team began the ascent to Ghar Parau. The weather in Kermanshah had been getting gradually worst, cold with heavy rain and low cloud enveloping the mountain tops. Laden with huge amounts of equipment packed into massive rucksacks the team set off up the mountain accompanied by Yousef Sornynia from the Kermanshah Mountaineering Club. Despite worsening weather, within two days, a forward camp was set up on the Kul-e-Parau Plateau (Altitude 3,100m) just 50 m from the entrance of Ghar Parau. The team then began rigging the entrance pitches. Progress was slow with pitches having to be re-bolted due to the excessive amounts of water entering the cave rendering the traditional (Those used by the 1971 and 1972 Expeditions and apparently still used in the more recent visit by Iranian teams) pitch hangs unsuitable. For the next few days the Russians pushed onwards deeper into Ghar Parau as the weather worsened, the temperature dropped to minus five and it began snowing heavily. At a depth of around -400 m the need to re-bolt/re-rig virtually every pitch and the weather conditions indicated to the Russians that they were quickly running out of time to reach the bottom of the cave, dive the sump and climb avens. Somewhat disappointed and frustrated they decided to cut their losses, de-rig Ghar Parau and turn their attention to the many other shafts/entrances on the plateau. Over 30 entrances a shafts were located, some explored, with one reaching a depth of -100 m. Meanwhile Simon Brooks and Shary Ghazy had descended from the plateau and arrived back in Hamadan on 3rdNovember 2006 only to find the expected trip to the new cave (Dodza Ghar/Smoking Cave) had been called off due to a disagreement over ownership of the cave. As an alternative a visit to Ghar Alisadr had been arranged to assist the Hamadan TV Company in making a documentary about the cave and about Yousef Nejaei who was one of the original explorers of the cave in the 1960s. The next day the Hamadan TV Crew went to Ghar Sarab where yet more filming was done. Ghar Sarab looking somewhat different than it had in 2001 as a recently constructed irrigation scheme taking water from the cave had succeeded in lowering the water table in Sarab by over two metres. On 5thNovember Simon returned to Tehran and then the UK. Shary, Yousef and the Russians made a trip into Ghar Sarab with the Hamadan TV Crew where they spent a further two days exploring and filming, concluding that there was a significant amount of un-surveyed and unexplored passage remaining. Iran 2007 Caving with the Damavand Club and the Hamadan Mountaineers. Between the 10thOctober to 28thOctober 2007 Simon Brooks (Orpheus Caving Club, UK) and Shary Ghazy (DAV Frankfurt Germany) returned to Iran and joined members of the Damavand Mountaineering Club in Tehran and the Hamadan Mountaineering Club in Hamadan on a small caving expedition. Building on the contacts made in 2006 the expedition had two aims; the first being to conducting more cave exploration in Iran and second being to support and train Iranian cavers to survey and record caves. The training element ran throughout the expedition and involved several aspects. These varied from lectures and training workshops delivered to audiences of Iranian cavers at the start, middle and end of the expedition. To back up the training session the Iranian Team members put their new skills into practice by actually surveying the caves that were being visited/explored during the expedition. At the end of the expedition a gift of a Compass, Clinometer, Tape and Survey Book were made to the Damavand Club, both as a thank you, and to enable the Damavand Cavers and caving members of the Hamadan Mountaineers to continue to practice and develop their surveying skills. For the first part of the 2007 expedition Simon and four members of the Damavand Club drove North of Tehran to the town of Chalus on the Southern Coast of the Caspian Sea where they spent three days visiting caves in this area. On the way to Chalus, about one and a half hours North of Tehran, Ghar Yakhmorad (Cave of the healing Ice) was visited and 295 m of passage surveyed. This cave is well known to the Iranian Cavers who use it as a site to introduce people into the sport of caving. In the winter the cave contains much ice and in the chambers in the lower parts of the cave this remains throughout the year as green coloured ice floors. Regretfully there was not time to complete the survey of this cave but on subsequent visits Damavand Club members have explored and surveyed it to over 700 m in length. In the Chalus area itself the excellent Danal Cave was explored. This fine resurgence cave was found to contain over two kilometres of excellent streamway, many side passages, one large chamber and one smaller but well decorated chamber. During the visit to the cave some new side passages were explored and many photographs taken. Returning to Tehran a visit was made to the 400 m long Ask Cave. This cave is again is well known to the Iranian Cavers as a beginners cave and for its spectacular entrance that looks squarely onto Damavand Peak, Irans highest mountain. After the visit to the Caspian Sea area, Simon returned to Tehran and then he and Shary travelled to the North West of Iran to the City of Mahabad where they were joined by four members of the Hamadan Mountaineering Club. Here accommodation and food was being provided by the management of Sahoolan Cave, another of Irans fine show caves, in return for accurately mapping the cave. Two days were spent mapping, fully exploring and photographing the cave that proved to be 771 m in length. It contained many fine lake chambers which where surveyed using the boats that take visitors through the cave. Leaving Mahabad the Hamadan Mountaineers went directly to Hamadan whilst Simon, Shary and Yousef Nejaei took a more leisurely two day cross country route in order to visit the Kraftu Caves and the Katalekhor Show Cave. The Kraftu Caves are well known as an important archaeological site with the caves multiple cliff entrances having been modified and adapted Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings42

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as homes in times past. However, what was not expected was that behind the many cliff entrances lies a large and very spectacular phreatic cave with many passages and large chambers. Ghar Katalekhor is both Irans longest cave at 12.8 kms in length and also a very beautiful and well visited Show Cave. Accompanied by a cave guide many of the main areas of the cave were visited and photographs taken. Arriving in the Hamadan Area a base was established in Sarab Village and four members of the Hamadan Mountaineering Club and one member of the Damavand Club (Tehran) joined Simon, Shary and Yousef. The plan was to re-survey the nearby Ghar Sarab where recent extraction of water for irrigation had dropped the cave water level revealing new passage in addition to those that had not been fully explored by the Napier College expedition in 1973. Over the period of the next five days two thirds of Ghar Sarab was re-surveyed along with a significant amount of new and uncharted passage, yielding around 2kms of surveyed passage, leaving the cave far from finished. Whilst in the Sarab Area, Shary and Simon, accompanied by a group of cavers from Hamadans Azad University, went to visit Dodza Ghar (Smoking Cave). Dodza Ghar proved to descend very steeply through boulders and down steeply inclined chambers to reach a large and beautiful lake chamber where the cave is likely to continue. 406 m of passage was surveyed with the cave reaching a depth of 154 m. (In 2011 another 400 + m was added to the cave by an Iranian team) Returning to Tehran the final two days of the expedition were spent visiting friends and caving contacts. Iran 2008 Exploration, Mapping and Training with the Damavand Club and the Hamadan Mountaineers. Between the 16thOctober to 2ndNovember 2008, Simon Brooks (Orpheus Caving Club, UK) returned to Iran and joined members of the Damavand Mountaineering Club in Tehran and the Hamadan Mountaineering Club in Hamadan to visit, explore and survey caves in the North and Central West of Iran. This visit built on the contacts made on visits to Iran in 2006 and 2007 and followed shortly after an International Speleological Expedition to Iran (ISEI-2008) that took place between 23rdSeptember and 6thOctober 2008. The objectives of this trip were to survey and explored Ghar-e-Danial (Danial Cave) in the Mazadaran Karst Area on the southern edge of the Caspian Sea and to complete the exploration and surveying of Ghar Sarab (Sarab Cave) that is in the Hamadan Province in Central West Iran. The second (and arguably the more important) objective was to explore caves in Iran with the Iranian cavers and continue the training and support of them in the skills of surveying and recording. Saturday 18thOctober saw the first day of surveying in Ghar-e-Danial where 274 m was surveyed in the entrance passages and into the large Talar-e-khoffash (Chamber of the Bats) that lies some 200 m into the cave. The following day another 300 m of cave passage was surveyed including the Talar-e-khoffashchamber. This large breakdown chamber (60 m by 110 m) rises steeply from the streamway over a mass of boulders which are descended on its far side to join the streamway again. By the end of the third day of surveying another 380 m of excellent river passage, cascades and streamway were surveyed from Talar-ekhoffash to just beyond the duck at Gozar-e-Javaanshaad. Gozar-e-Javaanshaad is a very significant point in Ghar-eDanial as it is the point where the cave was originally thought to end. However, a caver by the name of Ali Javaanshaad passed this obstacle many years ago to reveal a substantial amount of cave beyond. To an experienced caver the significance of what lies beyond this obstacle is all too apparent by the howling draught that greets you as you prepare to pass through this classic chin-in-the water duck. The following day another 364 m of yet more magnificent and varied stream passage was surveyed to reach the beautifully decorated Talar-e-Rizan (Rizan Chamber/Chamber of fallen blocks). Wednesday 22ndOctober saw a brilliant 11.5 hour long trip surveying from Talar-e-Rizan to the small chamber that marks the known end of the cave. This yielded another 833 m of surveyed passage, but due to shortage of time left several side passages un-surveyed. In four days Ghar-e-Danial hadFigure 1. Looking out of the entrance of Ask Cave. Figure 2. Talar-e-Rizan Chamber, Danal Cave. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings43

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yielded 2,158m of excellent passage and when the remaining side passages are surveyed is likely to be in excess of three kilometres in length. It is a superb, varied and spectacular river cave and more significantly is likely to be one of many in this part of Iran. On the morning of the 25thOctober Simon Brooks travelled down to Hamadan on the bus for the second part of the trip which was to continue the exploration and surveying of Ghar Sarab. Meeting up with a team consisting of; one member of the Damavand Club: six members from the Hamadan Mountaineers and a caver from Esfahan, the rest of the day was then spent in Hamadan meeting friends, discussing plans and making preparations for the on-going exploration and surveying of Ghar Sarab. The following morning the team left Hamadan and arrived in Sarab Village to establish a comfortable, albeit unusual, expedition base in the village Mosque. Over the period of the next five days the nearby Ghar Sarab was photographed, surveyed and extended adding 1,176 m of new passage to the cave taking it to 2,959 m in length. Surveying was done in two teams with Eshan Jabbar leading one and Simon Brooks the other and the Iranian team members putting the surveying skills they had acquired in 2007 into practice by surveying the cave. The Iranian team member quickly gained competence in cave surveying, proving they were fast, accurate and enthusiastic. On Thursday 30thOctober the team packed, tidied the Mosque and took a car back to Hamadan. Over the next two days Simon Brooks gave lectures and ran workshops on cave exploration, recording and surveying to group of caver in both Hamadan and Tehran. Before leaving Iran a set of surveying equipment consisting of a Suunto Compass and Clinometer, Tape and a Survey Book was given to both the Damavand Club and to the Hamadan Mountaineers. This was to say thank you and most importantly enable them to continue to practice and develop their surveying skills. Reports and surveys from Iran indicate that they are making good use of this equipment. During the course of the 2008 expedition 2,158 m was surveyed in Danial Cave (Ghar-e-Danial), 13.6 m in Ghar Danial Kuchik (Small Danial), 9 m in Ghar-e-estakhr Danial (Pool Danial) and 1,176 m in Ghar Sarab taking the latter to 2,959.8 m in length.3. 2001 Expedition to IranBetween 17thNovember and 3rdDecember 2011 Simon Brooks and Shary Ghazy returned to Iran where they visited numerous karst areas in the vicinity of Nisaboor, Mashad, Kerman, Esfahan and Hamadan, met Iranian caving groups and assisted them in exploring, recording and mapping caves. The first area visited was the Chah Nasar Area that lies to the south of Nishaboor in NW Iran. Here contact was made with a local caving groups and a small cave, Ghar Chah Nasar, was surveyed yielding a modest 62.8 m of passage with a vertical range of 20.8 m. To the north of Nishaboor a cave known as Ghar Shakh was explored, surveyed and photographed to yield 195.5 m of passage with a vertical range of 48.5 m. This cave situated near to the summit of a mountain contained 3 pitches and some very well decorated chambers. Travelling onward to the Mashad contact was made with local cavers and Ghar Kardeh that lies near to Kardeh Village to the north of Mashad visited. In this cave the team split into two groups that together surveyed 336m in Kardehs labyrinth of passages. Subsequently return visits by the Iranian teams have more than doubled its length. Leaving Mashad and traveling by bus to Berjand another caving contact was met and using his car the impressive Dasht-e-Lut (Irans largest desert area) was crossed to reach Kerman. Here contact was made with a local caving group and the following day the team drove to the town of Sirjan and then made a 1.5 hour desert crossing to reach Ghar Uta which had been found and partially explored by the group within the last year. Here the 33 m entrance pitch of the cave was descended, photographs taken and a small amount of surveying undertaken in the large dry breakdown chambers that form the bulk of the cave. Moving on from Kerman to Esfahan contact was made with a group of Esfahan cavers and a cave known as Ghar Kalaroud that lies some 1.5 hour drive north of Esfahan, near to the village of Kalaroud visited. Surveying over period of two days saw 521 m of passage surveyed in this fine cave. This cave has subsequently been extended by over a kilometre. In Hamadan contact was made with members of the Hamadan Mountianeers and another caver and a camp established in a house in the village of Sarab. From here Ghar Sarab was accessed and the remaining sections of the cave un-surveyed by the 2007 and 2008 visits were mapped taking Ghar Sarab to 3,250 m in length. Returning to Tehran a party to celebrate Mr Chengis Shelklis 84thBirthday andFigure 3. Formations in main chamber of Ghar Shakh. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings44

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60 years since the establishment of Iran first caving group was organised. This also served as a goodbye event for Simon and Shary.4. More recent explorationThe 2003 Iran Cave Directory (1stEdition Berliner Hohlenkundliche Berichte) listed 850 caves and around this time interest in caving and cave exploration by Iranian cavers started to increase. In 2011 the Iran Cavers and Speleologist Association (ICAS) was established and more importantly a plethora of small independent caving groups were becoming increasingly more active. The 3rdedition of the Iran Cave Directory (2012) listed over 2,000 caves with the actual number of known caves being in excess of 2,400. The rise in the number of small independent caving group and the availability of more cave related information and equipment has meant that caving is becoming a more popular activity in Iran. This is putting increasing pressure on some of Irans most accessible and popular caves which are being sullied by discarded rubbish consisting of bits of clothing, food and drink containers and most significantly kilometres of plastic string which many groups use to find their way in and out of the caves. To address this situation and to encourage groups to care for the caves one of the very positive spin-offs from ICAS has been the promotion of the Annual Iran Clean Caves Day, now in its 4thyear with the recent 2012 event taking place on 23rdSeptember. This was again very successful in all respects involving over 50 groups who removed rubbish and other discarded items from various caves all across Iran. In November 2012 the Naghshe Jahan Caving Club from Esfahan located and explored Ghar Do-Sar (Two Heads Cave). Descending and initial 19 m entrance shaft and a final 90 m pitch into a huge chamber. This was carefully surveyed and confirmed that with a length of 385 m and a width of 265 m giving a floor area of over 81,000 m sq. it is currently (May 2013) ranked as the worlds 4thlargest chamber. Both the quality of the survey and the photographs are testament to rapidly developing competence of the Iranian caving fraternity.AcknowledgementIn the above visit to Iran in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2011 proved to be excellent with some fine cave passage explored and surveyed and many new contacts made. Iran on all occasions proved fascinating, the scenery was beautiful and spectacular, the cities busy and modern and the Iranian people hospitable, welcoming and friendly. The links made with the cavers from the various clubs and groups has grown from strength to strength and the enthusiasm and energy of both the young and older members is impressive. The opportunity of spending time caving with the Iranian cavers and share skills and knowledge were possibly the most enjoyable and rewarding aspect of these trip.ReferencesArshadi S, Laumanns M, 2004. Speleological Project Ghar Katalekhor (Zanjan/Iran). Berliner Hohlenkundliche Berichte, Berlin. Brooks SJ, 2002. Take some more Tea (Exploration and surveying of Ghar Alisadr 2000 and 2001). Descent 165 April/May 2002. Brooks SJ, 2007. A Return to Ghar Parau, Descent 196 June/July 2007. Brooks SJ, 2007. Ghar Parau Revisited: Zargros Mountains, Iran 2006, Speleology 9 April 2007. Brooks SJ, 2008. Iran, Training and Exploration (2007), Descent 201 April/May 2008. Brooks SJ, 2008. Expedition Report: Iran 2007 (Report on the exploration in north, west and central-west Iran with the Damavand Club and Hamadan Mountaineers), BCRA Speleology 12, Summer 2008, 10. Brooks SJ, 2009. Expedition report; Iran. 2008, Speleology 13. May 2009, 24. Judson D, 1973. Ghar Parau, Hydrographical Expedition (Ghar Sarab) Iran 1973 (Final Report), Napier College of Commerce and Technology Edinburgh, 1973. Laumanns M, 2012. 3rdedition of the Iran Cave Directory. Berliner Hohlenkundliche Berichte, Berlin 2012. http://caving-in-iran.org/Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings45

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CAVE EXPLORATION IN PAKISTANSimon Brooks C/o 11 Margery Close, Lodge Farm Chase, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, DE6 1GZ, UK Simonj.brooks@btopenworld.com Pakistans rich and varied culture, sometimes-sensitive geo-political situation and variable infrastructure can make the search for caves within its extensive areas of limestone a challenging experience. With regular systematic cave exploration only taking place from 1990 onwards and most recently in April/May 2006. The 2006 Expedition saw a total of 14 caves explored and surveyed to yield 531 m of cave passage that took the total number of surveyed caves in Pakistan to 127 with a combined passage length of 6,230 m. This lecture gives an overview of the karst and caves in Pakistan and describes the exploration that has taken place within this fine country from 1990 to 2006.1. IntroductionPakistans rich and varied culture, sometimes-sensitive geopolitical situation and variable infrastructure can make the search for caves within its extensive areas of limestone a challenging experience. Pakistan, covering an area of 803,944 sq. kms, stretches from the Arabian Sea up to the high mountains of Central Asia. Much of the country is mountainous with the mountain belt stretching from the Karakorum Range in the north to the Sulaman Range in the south/south west of the country. Within this long chain of mountains are some significant areas of limestone and karst that ranges from Triassic through to Eocene in age. In the Karakorum Range in the very north of the country, between the villages of Passu and Sost, very hard and highly marbleised limestone have yielded some small caves, seldom more than a few tens of metres in length. The Chitral District also in the north has limestone but only a few very small caves. Immediately north of Islamabad are the limestone Margella Hills in which just over a dozen small single chamber caves have been found whilst to the north of Islamabad, between Muree and Abbottabad, is a large block of limestone that also contains some small caves. To the north and south of Peshawar lie the tribal areas of Karran and Waziristan, both of which contain extensive tracts of limestone and some caves. Small caves have been recorded in the Khyber limestone that form the walls infamous Khyber Pass. The largest areas of limestone and karst are found in the semi-arid state of Balochistan. This comprises of limestone surrounding the former hill station of Zairat, mountainous limestones surrounding the provincial capital of Quetta and the limestones of the Kalat Plateau further to the south. It is here the largest and deepest caves are to be found. Pir Ghaib Gharra situated in the Bolan pass being the longest with 1270 m of passage and Kach Gharra near to Zairat with a passage length of 353 m and a depth of -127 m. The latter at an elevation of over 2,200 m asl, near the top of limestone that is well in excess of 1,000 m thick give an indication of the depth potential that may exist in Pakistan.2. Cave exploration 1990 to 2006Much of the systematic cave exploration in Pakistan has been conducted from 1990 onwards by British Groups (Orpheus Caving Club, Derbyshire, UK) working in Partnership with Pakistani Cavers and Mountaineers based in Quetta (Brooks 2001). The first 1990 expedition was a reconnaissance that visited all the major karst areas in Pakistan and made some useful contacts with officials and groups in Pakistan. In the Karakorum Range in the very north of the country, between the villages of Passu and Sost, very hard and highly marbleised limestone have yielded some small caves, seldom more than a few tens of metres in length. In North West Frontier Province to the north of Peshawar the impressively sized Kashmir Ghara. In Balochistan the Pir Ghaib Ghara caves were located and explored for 90 m and the exploration of Bartozai Ghara begun.Figure 1. Siygazi Ghar, Balochistan, Pakistan. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings46

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This was followed by another expedition in 1991 when a small group of three British Cavers made contact with local Pakistani Cavers/Mountaineers from the Quetta based Chiltan Adventurers Association along with good contacts in the Tribal Areas of Balochistan in Western Pakistan. In North West Frontier Province several caves were explored in the Khyber Pass Area. In the Margella Hills to the North of Islamabad Mohra Muradu Cave was explored for 148 m. In Balochistan Pir Ghaib Ghara was extended from 90 m to 250 m, several small caves were explored in the Ziarat Area and Bartozai Ghar explored for 250 m. November 1994 saw a small team of three British cavers return to Balochistan and the Margella Hills to the North of Islamabad. These early expeditions had identified the main caving areas, which between them had yielded some 2.2 kms of cave passage divide between 43 separate caves. Significant discoveries in Balochistan on this trip the extension of Pir Ghaib Ghara No 1 its previous 1991 surveyed length of 250 m to 512 m and the exploration of Bartozai Ghara to 330 m in length. Whilst in the Margella Hills several small single chamber caves were explored none of which were more than 100 m in length. October/November 1997 three British and one German caver joined forces with members of the Quetta (Pakistan) based Chiltan Adventurers Association as part of the 5thPakistan Joint Mountaineering and Cave Exploration Expedition. Over a three week period 30 new caves were explored and Pakistans longest cave (Pir Ghaib Ghara No1) was extended from its previous 1994 surveyed length of 512 m to a significantly longer 1,270 m. This has firmly established it a both Pakistans longest cave and the first Pakistan cave to exceed 1 km in length November 2000 a team of five cavers from the UK (mostly from the Orpheus Caving Club, Derbyshire) joined with members of the Pakistan based Chiltan Adventures Association (Balochistan) to participate in what was described as the thPak-Britain Mountaineering and Cave Exploration Expedition 2000 during which the expedition explored over 20 new caves in the mountains of the tribal areas of Balochistan (Western Pakistan). Over the three weeks of the expedition over 1.7 kms of new passage was explored and surveyed. Significant finds of the expedition included the impressive Murghul Ghul Gharra (Cave of the Bats Shit) located in the Harnai District that with a large chamber measuring 40 m wide by 90 m long and 580 m of surveyed passage became Pakistans second longest cave. Other significant finds included Kach Gharra (Kach Cave) located on the Peil Ghar Mountain (Elephant Mountain) that contained a 35 m entrance pitch and an impressive 70 m second pitch. With 350 m of passage and a depth of 127 m it is Pakistans deepest cave to date. In October 2000 the Pakistan Cave Research Association was formed to further cave exploration and research in Pakistan. Based in Quetta this organisation has very close links with the department of Geology at the University of Balochistan and Geological Survey of Pakistan also based in Quetta. The most recent expedition in April/May 2006 saw a total of 14 caves explored and surveyed to yield 531 m of cave passage. Significant finds on this visit included Lamboor Cave situated in the Aghbaragh Mountains to the west of Quetta that is truly unique in Pakistan being the only known active resurgence cave that has been found to date. Although only having 48 m of passage the cave begins as a chest deep canal that opens into a chamber containing a waterslide and a short section of vadose streamway. North of the town of Sharigh that lies on the Southern side of the Ziarat (Khalifat) Mountain range two small dry caves were explored, Ghwa Ghara (Cow Cave) at 50 m in length and Sharigh Ghara (Sharigh Cave) at 34 m. At a location to the North of Sharigh two more caves were explored, Killi Parri Ghara (Cave) at 94 m in length of passage and many with fine formations and a second cave, Farishta WazzarFigure 2. Vadose Streamway, Lamboor Cave, Balochistan. Table 1. Pakistan Longest and Deepest Caves May 2013. Cave Name Location/State Surveyed Length Longest 1.Pir Ghaib GharaBalochistan1,270 m 2.Murghul Ghul GharaBalochistan580 m 3.Kach GharaBalochistan353 m 4.Bartozai GharaBalochistan330 m 5.Mohra Muradu GharaNorth West Frontier Province148 m Deepest 1.Kach GharaBalochistan127 m 2.Maraan Ghar GharaBalochistan52.2 m 3.Siyazgi GharBalochistan48.9 m 4.Shabaz Sah GharaBalochistan33 m 5.Thaan GharaBalochistan32.2 mExploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings47

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Ghara (Angles Wing Cave) began with an 11 m pitch and again had many fine formations, one of which provided inspiration for the caves name. In the Loralia Area six small caves were explored in the remote Draggi valley whilst near to Loralia itself Pathan Coat Ghara (Cave), AKA Shipana Ghara (Shepherds Cave) proved to be somewhat larger with 87 m of passage an impressive entrance and a good sized chamber. On the summit of the impressive Siygazi Ghar (Siygazi Mountain) Siygazi Mountain Siygazi Pot was explored and surveyed to yield 102 m of passage. At 2,470m altitude this is the highest known cave in Balochistan to date.3. SummaryTo date there are 127 recorded caves in Pakistan with a combined passage length of 6,230 m. The sometimessensitive geo-political situation and variable infrastructure will continue to make the search for caves within its extensive areas of limestone a challenging experience. However the positive collaboration that has been formed between the Orpheus Caving Club (UK) and the Pakistan based Chiltan Adventurers Association (Balochistan) and various government agencies is likely to lead to more discoveries and a better understanding of the Pakistan Karst and Caves.4. ReferencesBrooks SJ, 2001. Cave Exploration in Pakistan 1990 to 2000, B.C.R.A. Caves and Caving Spring/Summer 2001, 24. Brooks SJ, 2006. Expedition Report, Pakistan 2006, B.C.R.A. Speleology August 2006, 26. Brooks SJ, 2006. Training and exploration in joint Balochistan expedition. Descent 192 Oct/Nov 2006, 30.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings48

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CLUB OF CLIMBERS AS A BASIS FOR TRAINING PROCESS OF CAVERSAnatoliy Bulychov, Tatyana Sorokina Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 Russia, bull@ngs.ru Abstract. An exploration of Altai and Sayan (Russia) karst massifs by efforts of our Club was began in 1978 and has given a discovery of the most technically difficult cave in Siberia (Altaiskaya Cave, almost 3 km of a vertical section to climb up or descents) and the deepest one (Kektash Cave, -350 m), as well as a result in a significant contribution to the Big Oreshnaya Cave (totally about 50 km length), the longest in the world and complicated, various in structure labyrinth in conglomerates. All discoveries were possible to perform owe to a special climbing preparation and trainings on a base of the Club of climbers of Novosibirsk State University. For the exploration needs a geophysical prospecting method was elaborated to benchmark near surface cavities. ( ) 1978 ( 3 ) ( -350 ), ( 50 ), .1. IntroductionPeculiarity of caves in Siberia consists in a necessity of either free or aid rock climbing. Our Club members appeared to be one of the first in the world who had been practicing in 70than aid technique of sheer wall ascents inside caves (Bulychov 1999). To get to the large subhorizontal storeys discovered one has to climb up as high as 40 m hanging walls using a serious mountain skill.2. Geography and geologyAltaiskaya and Kektash caves are located in 15km to the north-west from village Kamlak on Seminsky range of mountainous Altai on the plateau Clean Swamps. Altitude of an entrance is 800 m; basis of erosion is 380 m.Rocks in caves are presented by dense limestone of low Cembriy of blue color. Abundant net of faults results in many leveled complicated system of galleries, passages, former ancient streamsand contemporary rivers. Big Oreshnaya Cave is located in 3 km to the east from village with the same name in Mansky region of East Sayan. Altitude of an entrance is 590 m; basis of erosion is 350 m. The cave is developed in brown-red conglomerates of Lower Ordovician with significantly contained limestone and dolomite pebbles filled in gravelites of quartz-calcitedolomite material. There are lots of lakes, streams with temporary or continuous water flow, several sumps, a number of gaps, shafts, huge faults, many places with beautiful draperies and stalactite cascades. Much clayeysand-aleurite material is located everywhere on a floor of cave passages and grottos (Tsykin 1985). There are no distinct storeys in the cave. Labyrinth is very intricate, tangled and too complex. A reason of rare karstification of conglomerates may be in a high porosity of rocks as well as a net of cracks and faults significantly developed ( 1990). Geomorphologic position of cave massif is favorable for penetration and movement of underground waters.3. PremiseOur Club was organized as a large group of scientific researches of Academic institutes of famous Academic town and students of well-known University who were infatuated in rock-climbing and cross-country skiing. We preferred to climb outdoor, so once found out caves in Siberia to be a perfect object to enjoy a long pitching climbs (one of the best training ground occurred to be Torgashinskaya Cave situated near the border of the city Krasnoyarsk). We noticed having a good climbing skill makes passing of a sportive route in a cave much faster.4. Training routineCycles of our training process are conditioned by local weather. In Siberia usually there is 6 months snow cover, so a year is commonly divided to a winter season and not winter one. Thats why we are fond of cross-country skiing as there is nothing to do else in a sense of moving activity but in turn, we live among marvellous forest and still can enjoy a transparent clean air, fir-trees, pines, cedars, lovely prepared ski treks. Skiing is incentive for endurance and stamina. So in winter all of us are going for race skiing at least 3 times a week, least 15 km every time, and 1 time a week is dedicated to indoor rock climbing (2 hours of pleasant training). In not winter season, contrary, only 1 time a week is devoted to a race cross-country running and 3 times (3 hours every) are disposed to outdoor rock climbing. Supplementary, every day morning and evening exercises (half of hour every) are certainly compulsory. The Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings49

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schedule of trainings is the same for any age of a Club member (no matter, 16 or 55 years old he/she is), intensity and loading are relevant to a rank of functional readiness (usually it depends on an age but not strictly correlated). If one is a sportsman it is mandatory to pass current medical reviews and a deep medical exam before every expedition. Regularity, permanency, execution of prescribed tasks of a coach appears to be an irrefutable statement of a training process. Determined daily regime (sleep, work, training, relax), nourishment (correct and balanced), neither harm habits nor badaddictions are also necessary to follow. As a rule we proceed mostly a free climbing either leading or top belay. But recently more aid climbing is demanded. In cave to ascend 40 m hanging face is mandatory to use a wide range of mountaineering technique such as storm climbing stairs, telescopic platform, cams, nuts, rock-fifi, rurks, sky hooks, pitons, bolts, etc. Experienced Club members are generally prepared to lead on rocks 6c+, 7a, A2/C2, to ascend in mountains V, TD.5. Geophysical methodTo benchmark emptinesses situated close to a surface (5 m depth) the seismic-electric effect method was elaborated (Bulychov 2000). The source of elastic waves is repeated blow of a heavy sledge-hammer. The working frequency is 200 Hz. The receiver consists of grounded electrodes and sensitive magnetic film. Compared with other methods the advantage of the treatment of a signal of reflected waves in terms of our method is that the signal is distinctly traced on a receiver in such field conditions (Sorokina and Bulychov 2000).6. ResultsOur climbing skill allowed us to make the first significant success in 1978 in Big Oreshnaya Cave. We overcame up the waterfall Adventure against a water flow and found spacious system of galleries with rare calcite flowers. In 1988 the author climbed up 70 m sheer wall with a help of Struchkov Igor and discovered three tremendous systems Strem-Lotos-Siberian. In 1994 the author climbed up 40 m hanging face above the bottom Sump with an assistance of Badazkov Dmitry and discovered the large system Overlake. The mentioned seismic-electric effect (Bulychov 2002) geophysical method used helped in Big Oreshnaya Cave to predict from a surface the system Zastrem that 1 year later, in 1993, was discovered by Shundeev Sergey. Some grottos of this system are located very close to a surface, in some places in 2.5 m. The most appreciable discoveries were made in Altaiskaya Cave in 1982, 1986. 1988, 1996, 2008, 2010, etc. This cave is outstanding for its high (40 m) sheer or hanging face ascents in order to get upper storeys from lower ones. Aid climbing, the most one, combines with free pitching. To make a complete sport route a strong group is demanded at least 10 days to spend inside the cave. Huge shafts climbed up are definitely memorable Giants (110 m), Birth day (170 m), named in memory of Olga (180 m), Tube (70 m), 4thSump (30 m), Sphinx (30 m), Red-White (25 m), Merry river (several 30 m), Old river (several 40 m), etc. In Kektash Cave in 1997 the final mud sump was overcame by upper gallery, as a result the deepest point in Siberia was achieved (-350 m).7. Ethics, philosophyA sense of caving (and any sport) is implied in our Club to gain bright colors of life, to be wise and wealthy (spiritually, of course not to context of money), to sustain a healthy way of life. Cruelty in usual sports can result in bruises, damaged joints, tendons, knuckles, broken bones. We suppose a cruelty (even meanness) in caving (and mountaineering) is believed to jeopardize mates or one by instigating to stamped to do insane brave exploits for vanity. A cost of a mistake made here can be a lost life. We advise our young members to never prevail upon themselves, no heroism but to be sober, prudent and to enjoy a training process and being on nature. In expedition one has to be courageous to retreat if ominous danger is evident or already foreseen. We appeal to overcome a route not due to a desperate audacity but according to a skill and experience that are being improved by regular and persistent trainings.8. ConclusionsWe have performed a school of cavers as far as our followers in face of young generation have continued our lifes work. They have discovered in Altaiskaya Cave by means of climbing up the new large system Through blackthorns to the stars, found out and explored the new large Kat-Shu Cave near the Teletskoye Lake (Shwarts 2012), investigated many other (not so large yet) caves. In general speleology and caving have a boundless potential to bring up young generation in harmony with a peace, to enhance a social cognition, self-perfecting, feeling a balance and serenity on nature and in daily life.AcknowledgmentsWe have been training a caving since 1978 and mountaineering since 1993 and during all the time are faithfully grateful to our fraternity, particularly to V. Sorokin, A. Lelyak, V. Shikhov, A. Zdanov, V. Chub, P. Minenkov, and Dm. Rogozin for a human support in life.ReferencesBoulytchov AA, 1999. Kektash the deeppest cave of Siberia and Big Oreshnaya the longest one. Stalactite, Bern, Switzerland, No 1, 47.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings50

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Boulytchov AA, 2002. Seismic-electric benchmarking of caves and underground water horizons. Proceedings of Electional /EM/Magnetics Case Histories, SEG 72, USA, 35. Boulytchov AA, 2000. Seismic-electric effect method on guided and reflected waves. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Journal of EGS, v.25, No 4, 333. Shwarts DB, 2012. Caves of Altai, http://www.nskdiggers.ru Sorokina TV, Boulytchov AA, 2001. Seismic-electric benchmarking of shallow subsurface horizons and dome cavities. Extended abstracts of EAGE, Netherlands, v.2, 133. Tsylin RA, 1985. Deposits and minerals of karst. Nauka, Novosibirsk (in Russian). Tsykin RA, 1990. Karst of Siberia. Krasnoyarsk State University, Krasnoyarsk (in Russian).Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings51

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EXPLORATIONS AND DOCUMENTATION ON THE ATEPETACO KARST SYSTEM (HUEYTAMALCO, PUEBLA, MEXICO)Alberto Buzio1, Federico Confortini2, Claudio Cruz-Garca3, Victor Cruz-Garca3, Rosalia Dav4, Jesus Domnguez-Navarro3, Giovanni Gurrieri5, Angelo Iemmolo5, Diego Marsetti6, Enrique Mndez Torres3, Francesco Merisio7, Giorgio Pannuzzo8, Marzia Rossi1, Sergio Santana-Muoz3, Marco Vattano4.9 1Gruppo Grotte Milano CAI Sem, Via Volta 22, 20121 Milano, Italy. bos958@gmail.com, marzia.rossi@fastwebmail.it2Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali di Bergamo, Piazza Cittadella 10, 24129 Bergamo, Italy. fconfortini@comune.bg.it3Unin de Rescate e Investigacin de Oquedades Naturales (URION), Mxico DF. ccg_boboli@yahoo.com.mx vintor_81@hotmail.com, jesusdominava@yahoo.com.mx, sergioespeleo@hotmail.com, vengati@hotmail.com4ANS Le Taddarite, Via Terrasanta 46, 90141 Palermo, Italy. rosi.davi79@gmail.com, marco.vattano@unipa.it5SpeleoClub Ibleo, Via Cairoli 41, Ragusa, Italy. angelo.iemmolo@tin.it6ECOGEO srl, Via F.lli Calvi 2, 24122 Bergamo, Italy. ecogeo@ecogeo.net7Speleo Club Orobico CAI Bergamo Sez. Antonio Locatelli, Via Pizzo della Presolan 15, 24125 Bergamo, Italy. speleopitufo@email.it8GS Bergamasco Le Nottole Castello della Marigolda,Via Marigolda 11/a, 24035 Curno, Italy. ipogeorge@email.it9Department of Earth and Sea Science, University of Palermo, Via Archirafi 22, 90123 Palermo, Italy marco.vattano@unipa.it Since 1998, ongoing exploration in the Hueytamalco area (State of Puebla, Mexico) was carried as a joint collaboration between Italian and Mexican cavers. The results of these activities are summarized in the following paper. In time, several caves have been explored, the biggest of which have been recognized as belonging to a single karst system, called Atepetaco karst system. At present the system reaches 12,100 m of total surveyed length and 222 m of depth. However the total length of the system could be further increased by finding new connections with other caves which shows hydrological connections to the main system and with new explorations. The caves referred to the Atepetaco karst system are carved in the San Pedro Fm. limestones of the Upper Jurassic, affected by orthogonal fracture systems and reverse low-angle faults. Topographic surveys, photographic and cinematographic documentation were collected during each expedition including geolithological and hydrological analyses in the area (15 km2). Preliminary archaeological and biological observations of the explored caves were also obtained. Some archaeological findings have been delivered to the University of Mexico City. Several conferences were organized for the public opinion in order to show the features of the different caves of this area, and to highlight the issues related to the vulnerability of karst aquifers.1. IntroductionIn this work, we intend to summarize the main results achieved during 5 speleological expeditions in Hueytamalco area, (State of Puebla, Mexico) occurred in 1998, 2002, 2008, 2010 and 2012, in the frame of a project called Tlloc. During these expeditions, thanks to the joint efforts of cavers from Sicily, Lombardy and Mexico, many cavities were discovered. These cavities were initially explored as independent caves but subsequently extensively connected to each other, allowing to delineate a single complex, named Atepetaco system. This system is 12,100 m long and 222 m high. In 1998, Resumidero de Miquizco was explored, discovering 3 entrances with a total length of 1.5 km. In 2002, the Cueva de Los Cochinos was also explored (500 m of total length). In 2008, the entrances of Cueva del Viento and Cueva de Mama Mia were discovered and during the exploration, the two caves were connected. The length of the system reached 5.5 km with 4 entrances (Iemmolo et al. 2008). In 2010 Cueva del Camarn (600 m), partially explored in 2002, was connected to Resumidero de Miquizco the system then reached 2.3 km with 5 entrances. The Resumidero de Miquizco and CuevasViento Mama Mia (up to 6.9 km) systems were only 25 m apart (Rossi et al. 2012). In 2012, the CuevasViento Mama Mia was connected to Miquizco system, by overcoming a landslide and a sump. Few days after, Cueva de Las Lagartijas up to 800 m long was connected to the same system (Rossi et al. 2012). The latest explorations allowed to better define the extensions and characteristics of the Atepetaco karst system. Surveys, photographic and cinematographic documentation were collected including the realization of geolithological and hydrological analyses of the area (15 km2). Preliminary archaeological and biological observations of the explored caves were also obtained. Some archaeological findings have been delivered to the University of Mexico City. In addition, a remarkable sensitization campaign of the public opinion (on issues related to the vulnerability of karst aquifers) was conducted. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings52

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Jurassic). This formation is composed of a sequence of dark grey calicilutites, blandly stratified in parallel beds, with an alternation of thin marly limestone layers, with lens and nodules of chert. Occasionally, it is possible to find in the sequence, layers rich in ammonoids, echinoids, bilvalves and corals. This formation, is generally sub-outcropping and visible along road trenches, (e.g., in the proximity of the Rancho Viejo sink cave). The complex of carbonatic rocks is eroded on the top showing a unconforbable contact with the above volcanic unit. The unit is located on the central part of the studied area dipping towards NE with average values between 5 and 10. The monoclinalic setting of the carbonatic rocks can be associated to the uplift of the East Cuenca Sierra Madre occurred during the Cenozoic. The youngest formation is formed of Cenozoic vulcanites mainly composed of andesitic tufa and breccias of the Andesita Teziutlan Fm. (Pliocene, TplA-TA in Fig. 1), and of ignimbrites with rhyolitc tufa of the Ignimbrita Xaltipan Fm. (Pleistocene, QpgtIg-TR in Fig. 1). The contact with the underlying units is erosional confirming the existence of a long phase of subaereal remodelling of the sedimentary sequence. Highly alterated pyroclastic deposits, with cineritic matrix and centimetric pomice, can in places overly the summit of the limestone relief with discontinuous and thin covers. These deposits can partly fill some entrances of the karst system. 2.1. Water analyses The water analyses (temperature, Ph, conductivity) were carried out during the surveys of the caves, along the resurgences located in the proximity of the Rio La Garita river. The temperature of the air circulating into the caves varies between 19 C, influencing the temperatures of the internal waters which vary from 18 in the deepest part of the caves to few degrees higher, closer to the surface. The Ph values vary from 6 in the proximity of the surface where2. Geographical and geological settingsThe site studied is located in the north-eastern zone of the Puebla State (Mexico) in the proximity of the village Atepataco, in the Municipality of Hueytamalco. The area is included between the UTM zone PT 0674000 0677000 E and UTM 14Q PT 2205000 2209000 N. It is part of the tectono-stratigrafic system of the Cuenca Sierra Madre Oriental of the Terreno Maya. Surface and underground explorations allowed to recognize the sequences of the outcropping and sub-outcropping litho-stratigraphic units (Confortini and Marsetti in press). The oldest unity of the stratigraphic sequence is the Cahuasas Fm (Middle Jurassic, JbjbLm-Cgp in Fig. 1) which irregularly outcrops in the investigated area. It is composed of non-karstifiable terrigenous rocks with fine and massivily bedded pinky-beige sandstones, with clasts of quartz. The sandstones gradually evolve into reddish marls with thin beds dipping towards NNE and average value of 15. The following unit, hosting the karst system, is composed of carbonatic rocks with two distinct comformable formations in gradual transiction. The lowest formation, San Pedro Fm, (Upper Jurassic, JkCz in Fig.1), is composed of a sequence of grey-beige compact layers of calcirudites with metric thickness.In some isolated cases, white biocalcirudites with gasteropods and broken coral fossils can be found in the San Pedro Fm. These corals are occasionally substituted by iron oxides. Decimetric nodules of grey or black chert can be found at the bottom of the sequence. The Atepetaco and Las Piedras villages are located on the tabular relief belonging to the San Pedro Fm. This relief is characterized by pinnacular karst. In the estearn sectors, in the proximity of the Rio La Garita river, the carbonatic outcrop is delimited by morphoselective scarps ten of meters high. The upper part of the unit, which is not indicated in the geological map because of the little extensions of the outcrops in the area, is part of the Pimienta Fm. (UpperFigure 1. Location and geological map of the investigated area (after SGM Servicio Geologico Mexicano). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings53

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the waters circulate around volcanic rocks overlying the carbonatic rocks, to a value of 7.5 in the subterranean waters of the deepest part of the caves and in correspondence of the resurgences. The electric conductivity changes from 30 mS for the superficial waters, to 50 mS in the deepest part of the cave, reaching a value of 170 mS in the resurgences. A decrease of the ph and conductivity values can be attributed to water inputs from the surface to the underground system circulating through the sink caves and/or dolines.3. History of the explorationsThe expeditions of the Tllocprject in the Puebla State (Mexico) started as a collaboration between cavers from Sicily (Speleo Club Ibleo, SCI) and Mexico City (group Union de Rescate e Investigacin en Oquedades Naturales, URION). In 1998, the area of Teziutlan (Puebla), in the municipality of Huyetamalco (Puebla) became of interest for the expeditions. In this area the entrances of two caves, the Cueva de Las Lagartijas and the Resumidero de Miquizco, were already known and the latter one, was already explored for a initial length of 1.5 km (see Table 1 for up to date total length and depth values of the explored caves). In 2002, new activities were organized along with continuing the expeditions into the already known caves. The caves of Cueva del Cocinero (190 m of total length L, -57 m of depth D) and Cueva de Los Cochinos (500 m L, -80 m D), were discovered and explored. Several new entrances were located among which the entrance of Cueva del Camarn (Pannuzzo et al. 2003). In 2008, two new caves were discovered, these caves were named Cueva del Viento e Cueva de Mama Mia in a short lapse of time these cave were connected reaching a total length of 5.5 km (Pannuzzo et al. 2008; Dominguez-Navarro et al. 2009). A continuous exploration activity was carried out in 2008, especially focussing on the Resumidero de Miquizco and on the Cueva de Los Cochinos (explored for a further kilometer in depth and reaching -80 m). Meanwhile three new small caves were discovered ( Huertas Tri, Cueva Gloria, Enchonada).In 2010, the new-born system, Cueva del Viento Cueva de Mama Mia reached 6.9 km of total lenght with 4 entrances. A distance of 25 m divides this system from the Resumidero de Miquizco which, thanks to the junction with the Cueva del Camarn and new explorations campaigns, reached a total of 2.5 km and 5 entrances. Surface search activities allowed to discovered new minor caves such as the Cueva de Victor the Cueva de la Pequea Agonia, the Embudo de Rancho Viejo In 2010, the Sotano del Sendero discovered in 2002, was explored again. Last expedition occurred in April 2012, when the exploration of the Embudo de RanchoViejo (-75 m D) and the Resumidero de Miquizco was completed with the latest being connected with the Viento Mama Mia system. In addition, the exploration of the Cueva de Las Lagartijas (L 800) was completed and connected to the above mentioned system. The connections of the different systems and caves allowed to delineate a new system called Atepetaco which reaches a total length of 12 km and depth of 200 m (Fig. 2; Tab. 1).4. Brief archaeological notesDuring one of the explorations (2010) of Tlloc project, several rock shelters were discovered in the surroundings of a river. Petroglyphs and paintings were founded inside the shelters. These archaeological discoveries were analyzed for the first time resulting of great interest for the studied area. During the last campaign (2012), a cave with entrance of large dimensions, named Cueva Don Alfredo was explored. In the interior remains of pottery, corresponding to pots and cajetes, were founded in proximity of the entrance. These potteries are associated to rituals, probably occurring inside the cave, intended as a prayer to the God Tlloc, for water and rain. It is nowadays known that these kind of rituals were a common practice in Mesoamerica. However no proofs of the occurrence of such activities in the Huyetamalco area were previously anywhere reported. The cultural group who inhabit these caves is still not known. The only evidence is that these findings can be attributed to periods previous to the Spanish conquest, between 1000 and 1500 A.D.5. The cavesThe Atapetaco karst system (Fig. 2) is located along a monocline blandly inclined towards nord-east in correspondence of the contact between the carbonatic rocks and the non-karstifiable substratum. This system was divided into three main sub systems of major caves spreading on two main levels and characterized by large rooms (Resumidero de Miquizco, Cueva de Mama Mia e Cueva del Viento ). Along with the main system, several minor caves have been explored and occasionally connected with other caves previously explored.Table 1.List of the explored caves with total length and depth indicated. The stars mark the caves referred to the Atepetaco system.Cave Length (m)Depth (m)Year of exploration Cueva de las Lagartijas *8001731998 Resumidero de Miquizco*2,1091201998 Cueva de las Cruces48132002 Cueva del Cocinero190672002 Cueva de Los Cochinos9831252002 Cueva del Camarn*672592002 Cueva del Viento*4,1921112008 Cueva de Mama Mia*4,103942008 Huertas Tri 62332008 Cueva Gloria 53132008 Enchonada 188292008 Cueva de Victor 2008 Cueva de la Pequea Agonia5762008 Sotano del Sendero173222008 Embudo de Rancho Viejo2501012010 Ojo Escondido 49362010 Embudito de Rancho Viejo32272010 Pozo Ostia 62422012 Cueva Don Alfredo363992012 Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings54

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5.1. Resumidero de Miquizco Il Resumidero de Miquizco is a sink cave located at the end of a blind valley which is characterized by a vertical wall 70 m long. This active cave is fed by a river with a capacity that, even in the dry seasons, reaches few hundred meters per second. The main branch of the cave shows a series of large breakdown rooms, one of which characterized by the presence of two twin shafts ( Sotanos de los Ojos), 70 m long from the surface (Fig. 3). The junction with the Cueva del Camarn is located in the eastern sector of the cave, while along the main branch and following the underground river, it is possible to reach the sump which is in connection with the Cueva de Mama. 5.2. Cueva del Viento The Cueva del Viento is located at the bottom of a rock scarp 20 meters high. The main passage is a gallery with large dimensions and the floor, along which a small stream of water flow, is covered with thick clay (Fig. 4). Figure 2. 3D view of the Atepetaco karst system. Figure 3. Resumidero de Miquizco. Large chamber in correspondence of the Sotanos de los Ojos (Photo M. Vattano). Figure 4. Cueva del Viento. Gallery showing an orthogonal fracturation system on the roof (Photo A. Corna). Below the gallery a more recent systems of branches are located showing a pattern strongly influenced by the fracture systems of the host rocks. These branches are active, with the waters coming from several secondary branches which often show a loop pattern. The secondary branches are connected with several cavities located upwards of the Viento portion as shown by the discovery of the junction between these branches and the Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings55

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Cueva de las Lagartijas and Resumidero de Miquizco Several small passages connect the lower active conduits to the upper inactive galleries. Between these galleries, the Pomice is characterized by a pond with floating pumice fragments and connected with the Asuncion shaft (50 m, connected with the external surface). Another gallery, called the Puzzone lake, feed the stream that converges towards the resurgences, and a sump which is presumably connected with another small resurgence located between the entrance of the Cueva de Mama Mia and the Cueva del Viento A gallery of large dimensions is located along the main passage (12 m long, 8 m high). This gallery is characterized by a roof showing a clear system of fracturation of the host rock (Fig. 4). At the end of this gallery it is possible to reach smaller passages among which, the one in connection with the Resumidero de Miquizco can be found. A large room, (Salon Pack, 30 m wide, 15 high and 70 m long) opened along the main passage, is in connection with the Cueva de Mama Mia. 5.3. Cueva de Mama Mia The Cueva de Mama Mia is the main resurgence of the Atepetaco system. The cave is characterized by imponent rooms created by waters flowing inside the caves, which in period of flood, reach considerable capacity. From the entrance, characterized by breakdown deposits, it is possible to walk through large galleries entirely carved by scallops. Contrary to the Cueva del Viento the main passage is active and located at lower altitude. Large inactive rooms and breakdown chambers are located, in the southern sector of the cave.Figure 5. Cueva de Mama Mia. Main active flooded gallery (Photo A. Corna). In the active passage towards the west, smaller passages and ponds with shrimps and small fishes coming from outside the cave, can be seen. This sector of the cave is characterized by large chambers until reaching a vertical jump which gives access to the water (Fig. 5). Here the passage is blocked by a breakdown which does not allow any further prosecution precluding the possibility of finding another connection with one of the branches of the Resumidero de Miquizco 5.4. Cueva de los Cochinos The entrance of the Cueva de los Cochinos opens on the side of the deepest zone of a collapsed doline. This entrance is characterized by a narrow passage which gives access to a shaft 33m deep (Pannuzzo et al. 2005). A gently dipping gallery is located at the base of the shaft. This gallery follows the same tectonic direction towards which the galleries of entire Atepetaco System inclined (NNW-SSE and NNE-SSW). From the base of the shaft it is possible to go upstream, and downstream into the cave. In both directions, a small underground river can be found. The upstream portion of cave is composed of a series of potholes and small climbs becoming impracticable, after about 100 meters from the base of the shaft. The downstream portion is longer and more complex and, as the upstream, characterized by small jumps and potholes. The initial part leads to a chamber with breakdown blocks which almost completely block the room. These chaotic deposits can be overcome only passing through small passages after which the gallery continues with its trend of short jumps and water flows. After a small passage, the cave changes its appearance and the gallery tends to go low and wide until reaching a 15 m deep shaft. After the shaft, greater amount of waters can be found in the rooms of the cave. These water flows can be bypassed following a path composed of a sequence of jumps followed by a chamber filled with breakdown deposits. After these deposits the galleries continues until it ends up narrowing. The water flows enter through a narrow slot in the proximity of which two small not practicable passages can be found. The total length of the cave reaches about 1,000 m with a depth of 80 m. The topographic surveys of the cave show that the Cueva de los Cochinos is connected to the Atepetaco system, with only a few meters missing to be connected with the Cueva del Viento in the Rio Negro branch. This part of the Atepetaco karst system is the closest to the scarp which constitutes the eastern boundary of the carbonatic outcrop. 5.5 Cueva de las Lagartijas Not far north from the Atepetaco village, a stream enters a small blind valley, forming the Cueva de las Lagartijas. The first part of the cave, about 165 m, was already explored in 1998, up to a narrow passage impossible to overcome. This portion of the cave is characterized by a slightly dipping gallery, interrupted by small vertical jumps of a few meters of depth. The gallery follows the stratigrapich bedding. The water flows modelled the gallery which nowadays show a section with width larger than the height. The eastern portion is also characterized by a short secondary branch in which the water still flows. During the 2012 explorations, the narrow passage that had stopped the previous exploration, was exceeded. After these passages the general patter of the caves follows a wide and low conduct even if occasional wider rooms can be found along the path. The cave is characterized by homogeneous forms until reaching a fissure between speleothems after which there is crossroads. After few meters, the section of the eastern branch of the cave becomes non practicable because of the significant narrowing of the section. The western branch instead continues with portions of different width, until a narrow horizontal passage called paso de los 60. Only petite cavers (those who weight less than 60 kg) were able to overcome the passage. This ends in an 8 m shaft, the only one in the cave that requires the use of ropes. From there Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings56

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forward, the dimensions of the gallery increase, because of the confluence of several water flows and thanks to tectonic discontinuities that have forced a vertical development of the rooms. The stream, flowing on an inclined plane, ends up in a striking waterfall and generates one of the most remarkable sector of the cave. Passing the waterfall, numerous speleothems (e.g., stalactites, columns, stalagmites and white flowstones) can be found (Fig. 6). The gallery leads to a last room where a narrow downward fracture is in communication with one of the branches of the Cueva del Viento The total depth is 173 m and the total surveyed length is 800 m. Several other secondary branches will be explored in future expeditions6. Discussion and ConclusionsYears of explorations enabled us to identify, although still in a non-definitive way, the structure and features of the Atepetaco karst system. This system is entirely developed in the limestones of the San Pedro Fm. (Upper Jurassic) with passages slightly inclined, and parallel to the main discontinuities of the host rock, (i.e. fracturation, bedding and low-angle reverse faults). The Atepetaco karst system reaches about 12 km of total surveyed length and about 200 m depth. It is composed of a series of sink caves located at different altitudes, which intersect, from SW to NE, the carbonatic relief, and form a complex network of active and inactive galleries. The evolution of the karst system, which represents an exposed karst system, led to the formation of multiple storey in response to the geomorphological evolution of the area. At present many galleries of the whole system, are inactive, while others are activated only during intense rainfall. The latter are responsible of the formation of a series of different heights waterfalls formed along the eastern scarp of the limestone outcrop. The pattern of the karst system, the in-depth knowledge acquired thanks to the explorations of the Tlloc, together with the analysis of the waters, allowed to classify the Atepetaco karst system as a system characterized by active galleries sized by the maximum flood and with a rapid circulation of waters. During the 2012 expedition, a paper was written in collaboration with some exponents of the local villages, and subsequently distributed to the municipal authorities and rest of the population. The text, aims not only to illustrate the caves of the karst system, but also suggests norms and behaviors to adopt to safeguard the caves when accessing them. For the protection of these environments, in order to minimize pollution of both surface and karst systems, the exploration team has also tried to organize campaigns of sensitization for the local population. The activities in the Atepetaco area have yet to be continued in order to complete the exploration of the secondary branches of several caves already known and also to connect different caves for which the connection is, at present, only hypothesized. These explorations will allow us to obtain a complete knowledge on the system, which will be used in future surveys in adjacent areas.AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thanks the following caving groups for their active participation to the explorations: Speleo Club Ibleo (RG), Gruppo Speleologico CAI Belpasso (CT), ANS Le Taddarite (PA), Speleo Club Orobico CAI Bergamo (BG), Gruppo Grotte Milano CAI Sem (MI), Gruppo Grotte CAI Busto Arsizio (VA), Gruppo Speleologico Prealpino (VA), Gruppo Speleologico Bergamasco Le Nottole (BG), il Gruppo Grotte I Tassi CAI Cassano dAdda (MI), Gruppo Speleologico Urion (Unin de Rescate e Investigacin en Oquedades Naturales), I.P.N. (Instituto Politecnico National, sezione speleologica, Ciudad de Mexico).ReferencesConfortini F, Marsetti D (in press). Note geologiche sul sistema carsico di Atepetaco (Hueytamalco, Puebla, Mexic). Riv. Mus. Civ. Sc. Nat. E. Caffi. Domnguez-Navarro J, et al., 2009. Tlloc 2008 Esploration Mexico Italia, Hueytamalco, Puebla, Mexico. Proceedings of 15thInternational Congress of Speleology. Vol. 3, Kerville, Texas, USA. 1793. Gerosa M, 1999: Que viva Mexic! Il Nottolario, n. 10, 36. Iemmolo A, Pannuzzo G, Virgillito S, 2008 Tlloc 2008 Messico (Puebla). Il Grottesco, 55, 126. Pannuzzo G, Gaiti R, Brugali D, 2008. Mexic! Tlloc 2008. Il Nottolario, 13, 36. Pannuzzo G, Iemmolo A, Sassi M, Virgillito S, 2003: Tlloc 2003: spedizione italo messicana. Speleologia, 49, 62. Pannuzzo G, Virgillito S, Iemmolo A, Sassi M, Mangiagalli C, 2005: Mexic: Tlloc 2003. Il Nottolario, 12, 36. Rossi M, Merisio F, Pannuzzo G,2012. Tlloc 2010 e 2012. Il Grottesco, 56, 11017. Servicio Geologico Mexicano, 2010. Carta Geologico-Minera, Altotonga E14B16, Veracruz y Puebla. http://www.sgm.gob.mx Figure 6. Cueva de las Lagartijas. Gallery characterized by white speleothems (Photo G. Gurrieri). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings57

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DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION OF EVKLIDOVA PI AL, JULIAN ALPS, SLOVENIAMatthew D. Covington1,2, Matic Di Batista2 1Department of Geosciences, University of Arkansas, Ozark Hall, Fayetteville, AR 72703, USA, mcoving@uark.edu2Drutvo za raziskovanje jam Ljubljana, Slovenia During the fall of 2010, we discovered a small blowing hole in the forests above the plateau Pokljuka in the Julian Alps of Slovenia. The air flow was impressive, but it appeared that a lot of work would be needed in order to make it human size. A little less than a year later, we returned to the site to try a bit of digging and see what we could find. On five diff erent days during fall of 2011 we returned to the blowing hole to dig. Most of the work simply required removal of loose rocks and debris that had likely filled the hole as a result of frost shatter. Our biggest challenge was that the unstable walls of debris were frequently collapsing back into the dig, requiring us to remove much more material than would otherwise be necessary. We were beginning to wonder whether the effort was sustainable, when on the fifth digging effort we made an initial breakthrough into a small chamber and a narrow meander passage beyond. The cave continued as a narrow meander with a few small free climbs for about 100 m before we reached the first pitch. From there, the cave began to descend rapidly, but at the bottom of every pit we found another narrow meander that we had to negotiate before reaching the next shaft. Over a few months of exploration, the cave reached a depth around 150 m, where it became more horizontal. Exploration beyond this point was initially quite challenging due to narrow passages, but eventually we found a way through to a nearly kilometer-long fossil meander passage that gradually descended into the mountain. Currently, the cave is 429 m deep and 1,731 m long, making it both the longest and deepest cave on Pokljuka. The current bottom of the cave is at a sump, and ongoing efforts are attempting to follow the airflow and find a bypass. Many side passages and upper levels remain unexplored. In addition to efforts in the main cave, time was spent searching for other caves in the area. In particular, the direction of airflow suggests that the main entrance is a lower entrance, and many possible cave entrances have been located on the plateau above the cave. The depth potential of the area is approximately 1,000 m. Figure 1.California Dreamin, the deepest pit in the cave. Photo by Matic Di Batista. Figure 2. West-east profile of the cave. Figure 3. Squeezing through narrow passages at -150 m.Photoby Matic Di Batista. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings58

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GLACIER CAVE EXPEDITIONS 2012: NEPAL AND SVALBARDMatt Covington1, Jason Gulley2, David Ochel3 1Department of Geosciences, University of Arkinsas, mcoving@uark.edu2Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, jdgulley@mtu.edu3do@ochel.net This exploration report combines a brief introduction to glacier caves and their relevance to glaciology with summaries of recent expeditions in the Arctic (Svalbard) and the Himalayas (Nepal). In the fall of 2012, as part of multi-year research efforts, team members undertook caving expeditions to caves in the glaciers of Svalbard and in the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu region in Nepal. A number of caves were explored and mapped. The main objective was to collect data to better understand the formation of such caves and how they relate to the glacial hydrologic system.1. BackgroundGlacier caves are formed by glacial melt water draining along fractures, into moulins, and along the beds of glaciers. Frictional heating within the water leads to melting of the ice, enlarging passages to form an efficient flow system. Glacier caves play an important role in determining the sliding speeds of glaciers, since they are one of the factors that control water pressure at the bed of the glacier. Large pulses of melt water can lead to water backing up within the system, building up large pressures beneath the glacier. These large water pressures can lead to faster glacial sliding. On the other hand, once glacier caves form an efficient flow system, melt water can be routed through the glacier without creating such high pressures, and glacial sliding rates will decrease. Therefore, understanding the patterns and timescales of glacier cave formation is important for predicting the response of earths glaciers to future climate change.2. Svalbard ExpeditionKen Mankoff, a PhD student from the University of California Santa Cruz, organized the expedition to Svalbard. Jason Gulley and Matt Covington assisted with the field work and logistics. The main objective of this expedition was to construct a 3D model of a cave system for later use in fluid flow simulations. The field site was Jaskinie Ptasiego Mozdka, a cave near the Polish Polar Research Station that reformsFigure 1. Sitting in front of a cave entrance on the debris-covered Ngozumpa glacier. Photo: David Ochel. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings59

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annually on the Fugle Glacier. In addition to a traditional cave survey, data was collected to construct 3D models of the cave using two different, recently developed techniques. One technique employed an Xbox Kinect as an inexpensive 3D scanner. This allows millimeter-resolution data to be collected and later stitched together into a single model. The second technique employed an algorithm called Structure-from-Motion, which combines large sets of photos using pattern recognition techniques and weaves them into a 3D model. Several thousand photos were taken in the cave for this purpose, and the technique produced stunning results.3. Nepal ExpeditionIn November 2012, Jason Gulley led an expedition to the debris-covered Ngozumpa Glacier in the Khumbu (Everest region) of Nepal. The objectives included: 1. Perform reconnaissance on the glacier to determine how recent expansion and deepening of supraglacial lakes had affected cave formation processes. Additionally, we sought to determine how many caves that had been mapped on previous expeditions in 2005, 2006 and 2009 had survived lake basin expansion. 2. Identification of a cave suitable to support the development of a roughness model for the calculation of water flow rates.Figure 2. Vertical cave entrance on the Fugle Glacier in Svalbard. Photo: Jason Gulley. Figure 3. Using an Xbox Kinect to survey a cave. Photo: Jason Gulley.The team of four cavers (Jason, David Ochel, Vickie Siegel, Pati Spellman) spent two weeks in the Sherpa village of Gokyo (4,790 m elevation), which offers easy access to the southern part of the glacier. About a dozen potential cave entrances were identified and checked during that time, leading to the exploration of four caves. One cave was confirmed to have been surveyed in 2009, and had experienced multiple modifications since then (development of a new passage, plugging of a previous entrance). Another cave, well decorated, is pending confirmation as to its existence in 2005 and 2006. Two new caves were found one insignificant in size, but well decorated; the other with more vertical development than had been previously experienced on the glaciers in the Solukhumbu district.Figure 4. In a cave on the Ngozumpa. Photo: Jason Gulley. In addition, the team assisted the non-profit organization GlacierWorks (http://www.glacierworks.org) in their video and photographic documentation of the scientific relevance of glacier caves. Videos and photos from the trip will be used to create educational material about research on Himalayan glaciers.AcknowledgmentsKlttermusen (http://www.klattermusen.se) provided both teams with superior salopettes and coats suitable for glacier caving. The expedition to Hornsund would not have been possible without the help and hospitality of the researchers at the Polish Polar Research Station and logistical and Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings60

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financial support from the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Funding for research in Svalbard was provided by the US National Science Foundation (EAR # 0946767 to Gulley) and a Svalbard Science Forum Arctic Field Grant (to Mankoff).ReferencesGulley JD, et al., 2009. Mechanisms of englacial conduit formation and their implications for subglacial recharge. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28(19). Gulley JD, et al., 2012. The effect of discrete recharge by moulins and heterogeneity in flow-path efficiency at glacier beds on subglacial hydrology. Journal of Glaciology, 58.211. Mankoff KD, Tess AR. The Kinect: A low-cost, high-resolution, short-range, 3D camera. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, In Press.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings61

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SPELEOLOGICAL EXPEDITIONS TO THE SHAN PLATEAU INMYANMAR (BURMA)Joerg Dreybrodt, Imogen Furlong, Fleur Loveridge, Peter Talling Myanmar Cave Documentation Project, Joerg_dreybrodt@yahoo.de,peter.talling@noc.ac.uk The extensive and virtually untouched karst of the Shan plateau is well known from literature. Access is very difficultdue to common regional unrest causingtravel restrictions in combination with a very limitedroad network. Few investigations have been carried outsince independence in 1948, notably those by Dunkley(1988), Mouret (1995), Bence (1998) and La Venta (2004). This series could be continued by four expeditions from 2010 within the Myanmar Cave Documentation Project in cooperationwith Myanmar authorities. Caving areas near Hopon, Ywangan and Pinlaung were visited confirming thepresence of larger river cave systems. In total 44 caves with anoverall lengthof 16.9kmwere documented and newlongest and deepest caves of the country discovered. These are Khau Khaung (Ywangan) with 2,355 m length and Mai Lone Kho (Pinlaung) with -160m depth.1. IntroductionOnly a few regions on Earth are more unknown than Myanmar with regard to their speleological potential. This is due to the long chosen international isolation of the country, the absence of local speleologists and the difficult access to the mostly remote karst areas. First knowledge about caves originates from British colonial times where caves were used for weekend outings. Kusch (1987) providesa very good summary based on literature from this period. A significant step was the discovery of prehistoric paintings and excavations in Pindaya (also Pindah-Lin) cave in 1960 by geologist U Khin Maung Kyaw. The first modern investigations were by small teams in reconnaissance style and took place from 1988onwards: Dunkley succeeded to use a window of opportunity for a five day visit (Dunkley 1989) before the country closed again. Mouret did intensive scouting while living in Yangon in 1995 and Bence followed up by a systematic expedition focusing on the Shan plateau (Bence 1998). Afterwards visits by bat researches from the Harrisoninstitute in the UK (Bates 2004) enhanced the knowledge about the extent of karst in Myanmar. These contacts were later used for two expeditions of the Italian La Venta team to the Shan plateau in 2004 an 2005, but these stopped afterwards since permission could not be regained. The findings of these groups were encouraging and indicated that Myanmar possesses potential for long and deep caves comparable to its neighboring countries. The slow opening up of Myanmar with the intention to promote tourism has created a favorable situation and lead to a first contact at the International Tourist Fair in Berlin in 2008. A personal introduction of a cave documentation project followed in September by J. Dreybrodt based on the experiences of the Northern Lao European Cave Project in the neighboring country Laos. This triggered the first speleological reece to Hpa-An in Kayin state project a few month later in January 2009. Afterwards several expeditions lead by the authors focused on to the largest karst area of Myanmar the Shan plateau.The MyanmarCave Documentation project was then formed in its current state to guaranteewell documented expedition results as base for future research activities of other groups and institutions. The tablebelowgives an overview of the ten longest caves of Myanmar. It shows that only few caves of significant length are known despite the addition of several new caves over the last years.Table 1. Longest caves of Myanmar with year of survey. Length (m) Location Cave No. Surveyed 2,355 Ywangan Khauk Khaung 1 2012 1,770 Taunggyi Mondowa Gu 2 1998 1,655 Hopon Hopon Spring Cave 3 2011 1,343 Hopon White water Buffalo and Tiger Cave 4 2010 975 Hopon Happy Monk Cave 5 2010 960 Kalaw Leikte Gu (active) 6 1998 900 Pinlaung Maung Nyunt Sinkhole 7 2005 859 Kutkai Naung See cave 2 8 2011 800 Hpa-An Sadan Gu 9 2009 (1995) 718 Hopon Barefoot Cave 10 2011 The objective of this article is tosummarize previous findings and report the results of speleological expeditions to the Shan Plateau from 2010. A geological overview is followed by descriptions of the major caving areas and conclusions with an outlook on the further caving potential.2. Geography and GeologyThe Shan Plateau, in the east of Myanmar, is approximately 600 500 km, and has the most extensive area of karst in the country (Fig.1). It consists of a complex series of mountain chains and plateaus with an average height of 900,200 m. It rises abruptly from the central Myanmar plain and comprises granite and gneiss with limestones, clays and alluvium covering the bedrock. The limestone, often called Plateau Limestone or the Shan Dolomite Group has a thickness of more than 2,000 m in places. It is mostly from the Carboniferous to Lower Triassic period, with some earlier Ordovician elements and has underlying Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings62

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for caves. Few roads cross the plateau, mainly linking major cities like Mandalay or Taunggyi with important MyanmarChina border crossings for intensive trade. These roads are only partially tarred and road works are common. Side roads are dust roads and travel speed can be very low; taking considerable time (measured in hours) for only few 10s of km. In addition overnight stays are permitted only in foreignerlicensed accommodation,which arescare in remote cavingregions and therefore special permits are required. The Shan region is divided in three administrative states: Northern Shan with the capital Lashio, Eastern Shan with Kentung and Southern Shan with Taunggyi. These are again divided in town ships that were historical ruled by local leaders called Saopha. This local hierarchical structure persists until today and large areas are self administered and restricted for foreigners. Accessible are the roads from Mandalay to Lashio and Taunggyi and the tourist area around Inle lake. Most of South and East Shan state areas require special permissions. The following sections give an overview of visited areas, their regional settings and presence of caves (Fig.3). These areas are: Kalaw, the most visited caving area Pinlaung, 40 km south of Kalaw in the same ridge (restricted). Nyaungshwe, east of the Inle lake Hopon, 25 km east of Taunggyi(restricted) Ywangan, north of the famous Pindaya caves (partial restricted) Lashio and Kutkai (restricted) 3.1. Kalaw The significance of the area comes from its relatively easy access for the first expeditions of Mouret, Bence and La Venta. Historically it is a well known British hill top town for escaping the hot summers in the plain. The town sits at 1300 m altitude on thenorthern end of a large limestone ridge with scenic hills and deep valleys in the south and west. Several small caves are located in easy reach of town and were the first visited (Leikte Gu ie.). They vary from fossil caves with conglomerate ceilings tosink holes with active streams. Several river caves were found mostly south and west of the town by the La Venta expeditions which require steep descents of about 400m down to the valleys (Fig.4). Due to the difficult access by road and trail the Figure 2.Karst landscape east of Taunggyi with N-S facing ridges visible on the horizon. Figure 1.Limestone area of Shan States in Myanmar.Devonian strata. Recently, a more detailed stratigraphic assessment has been made (Oo et al. 2002), which divides the carbonates into two main units: the Thitsipin Limestone Formation (with five main sub-facies) passing transitionally upwards into the Nwabangyi Dolomite Formation (with four sub-facies). The presence of these abundant carbonate beds has a major impact on the scenery in the Southern Shan States, leading to dramatic scarp and ridge scenery and with spectacular karstic features (Fig.2). It is characterised by a series of rounded ridges, NS oriented along the dominant structural trend, which separate different basins flowing southward. The ridges are made up mainly of carbonate rocks where a well-developed karst landscape occurs. The Shan plateau shows many of the typical geomorphic features of tropical countries. Topography is controlled mainly by lythology: where clastic rocks outcrop, the landscape consists of rounded hills, with a thick cover of soil, conversely, in the carbonate areas the relief displays abrupt ridges, conical hills and large closed depressions. The carbonates that form the Shan Plateau also form a natural geographic break between the elevated and cooler plateau states and the hotter lowlands to the east. The Salween river limits the area to the east though it is not proven if further areas of lime stone are present. British expeditions to the Myanmar border in Yunnan confirmed the presence of regional well developed lime stone areas with large river caves and Tiankengs (Talling 2012).3. Karst AreasAccess to the vast area of the Shan plateau is one of the limiting factors in obtaining an overview of the potential Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings63

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caves are not fully surveyed, mostly the entrances have been recorded and the first hundred metres checked.Figure 3. Geographical map of the Shan states. Visited caving areas are marked by black circles: 1 Kalaw, 2 Pinlaung, 3 Nyaungshwe, 4 Hopon, 5Ywangan, 6Lashio, 7 Kutkai. Figure 4. Hiking west of Kalaw down to the river cave Twin ii Gu. The next N-S facing ridge is clearly visible. Two caves were revisited near Pinwon12 km south east of Kalawclose to the rail way tracks in 2012.TheTwin iiGu fossiland river cave were surveyed to a length of 282 m and 490 m stoppingin a wide open river passagewith wind. A train ride confirmed the assumed further potential for caves especially near Sindaung stationabout 10 km south of Kalaw. 3.2. Pinlaung A large sinkhole was seen during thedomestic Yangon to Heho flight by the 2005 La Venta expedition. This seems to be the same sink hole already mentioned by Dunkley (1998)near Pinlaung. Itwas immediately visited by a subteam. Geologically the area is in the same N-Sridge as Kalaw. The city of Pinlaung is nestles nicelyin a karst valley and offers a convenient base for exploration(Fig. 5). It is known for its cold weatherat 1,400maltitude.Large river caves were found near the village of Phinton partially traversing one of theridges (TheShwe Cave). The main sinkhole is reached by few hours walk and the disappearanceof a major river confirmed. However the 50m pitch with a waterfall and porouswalls could not be descended and remains a challenge. The 2012 team focused on the immediate surroundings of Pinlaung. Six caves of a few hundred meterslengthwere surveyed. These are the caves 5 km north-westof town near the village Minbu: Nanpa Gu (322 m), Bilu Chaung Ye Hwut Gu(340 m) and Kyan Lin Gu(277m).The visit to the eastern hillswith acommunication station on top proved also successful. A large entranceof 40 m height and 80 m width was spottedfrom its topand visited (Fig.6). A large day lightchamber slopes down followed by two pitches until the cave ends in a lake at -160 m. With all side passagesMai Lone Kho Caveis545 m longand is nowthe deepest cave of Myanmar (Fig.7).SimilarlyZee Yauk cave is just close by along the same ridge with a depth of -110 m. The nearby village Hti Hwali has two other cave entrances with immediate pitches which were not descended. The whole area requires a more systematicinvestigation, including exploration of knownopen leads. 3.3. Nyaungshwe Nyaungshwe is the main touristtown on Inle lake. The caves are commonly known and used by monasteriesfor religious purposes. The area is on the border to the selfadministered restricted Pa-O area were other caves are mentionedby local guides. In 2012 six caves 10 km east of Nyaungshwe were surveyed with the longest being Hta Ein Gu (260 m) and Ye Htout (235 m). 3.4. Hopon The project became aware of this area by a travel related article in a domestic in-flight magazine. The impressive pictures of large well decoratedhalls triggered two expeditions in 2010 and 2011. It is the most systematic investigated and best documented region in the Shan states. The reason is a mystic cave called Tham Sam that is converted into a budddist shrine of the Pa-O tribe about 35 km east of Taunggyi near Hopon.Figure 5.View over Pinlaung towards the main lime stone ridges in the west. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings64

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Two areas are distinguished: a.) the Parpant area 8 km north east of Hopon and b.) the Htam Sam area15 km along the main road. The Parpant area is at 1,200 m on the plateau and consists of round shaped hills with fields in the plain (Fig. 8). The well decorated passages form through caves limited by the extension of the hill. The longest are White Water Buffalo and Tiger cave(1,343 m), Happy Monk Cave (975 m), Htam Kong Kiamg (654 m) and Hopon Spring Cave (1,655 m). Hopon Spring Cave is well known from its resurgence near the main road and public bathing and washing place. A larger portal of 30 m width and 10 m height opens up after a steep climb of 10 minutes. At the bottom of the entrance chamber is a river passage that has to be swum for 120 m until a dry water fallis reached. After a technical climb of 5 m the main passage of about 10 m widthwith strong wind is reached. It has a cascading active stream whichhad in January a discharge of 2.4 cbm/s. After about 1 km a surface shaft of 45mdepth connects. The passage becomes narrower and sumps after 600 m. Tham Sam cave is located in a valley close to the main road to Tachilek. It is made accessibleby a new side road directly in front of the entrance providing access to the Buddhist pilgrims who come to pray at the cave (Fig.9). The cave is surveyed to a length of 584 m until an artificial lake. The further passage is blocked by a brick wall and access is restricted (Fig. 10). It is said the cave continues beneath the mountain for few more hours. The floors and walls haveFigure 7.Map of Mai Lone Kho. Figure 6. Descending to the large entrance of Mai Lone Kho. Figure 8.Approaching the karst hills near Parpant. been extensively modified and levelled to accommodate BuddhaStatues and mystic animals. Nearby is beautiful decorated Kyauk Sa Gu (Stone Scripture Cave, 313 m) which has its name from sinter columnsappearing through a sky light like frozenstone slabs. Barefoot cave on the oppositeside of the valley is an active river cave of 718m length with two entrances. The resurging river enters into Tham Sam Caveafter a short distance.Figure 10: Map of Tham Sam with the end lake on the left. Figure 9.The entrance of Tham Sam in 2011.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings65

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3.5. Ywangan The Projectfirst visited this area when on route to Lashio from Taunggyi in 2011. Views from the expedition vehicle suggested the region was karstic, which was substantiated by subsequent geological research (Garson et al. 1976). As a result this became the main focus of an expedition in 2011/2012. Fifteen entrances were located during the trip, the highlight of which was Kyauk Khang (Fig.11), currently the longest known cave in the country at 2,355m. Ywangan is situated near a seasonal lake. This is reported to fill up following the rainy season but with a slight lag. This is interpreted to be a feature similar to the Irish term turlough, being a karstic seasonal lake. However, it is possible that there are superficial quaternary sediments in the fertile basin around Ywangan which complicate the local hydrogeology. Apart from the lake there are few surface water features. In a number of small caves a shallow local water table was encounteredwith the appearance of cave adapted fish species. These areasdo not appear to have extensive large cave passage development, although underlying rock iskarstic. The main cave explored during the expedition, Kyauk Khaung, is a river sink in the Thitsipin limestone. Strangely, the flow of water gradually reduces through the cave. It is also not known where the water from the cave resurges, although a closed basin of 5km to the north is one possibility. Kyauk Khaung contains extensive, large and well decorated fossil galleries (Fig.12). There are a number of locations at which the cave is ongoing. The majority of the other caves explored around Ywangan appear to be within the Ordovician Doktoye Limestone formation and are not so well developed.Figure 12.The map of Kyauk Khang cave. Figure 11.The entrance to Kyauk Khang cave. 3.6. Lashio The area around Lashio was briefly visited in 2011 and 2012. It takes considerably time to reach it and is one long day travel from Mandalay. In 2011 a significant resurgence cave called Htam Nam Lay was identified near the village of E-nai, approximately 15 km north and west of Lashio. Study of satellite photography suggests this river cave could be a through trip across one of the significant N-Strending limestone ridges. However, it was soon determined that access to Htam Nam Lay was practical only by motorbike, which given the limited time meant the cave could not be explored. The intention was to complete these tasks the following year. However, regional instability prevented a return inJanuary 2012. The 2012 team instead mapped a few caves immediately to the south of Lashio, some only 5km from the city centre.Three caves near the village of Khaung Ka are located in an isolated limestone hill and comprise complex interconnected passageways giving a high overall passage density. The maximum length of these three caves is 207 m. Less than 1km to the north a small river cave, Lim Nho was also mapped to 589 m length. However, there does not appear to be significant carbonate deposits in the areas immediately around the city. All the caves visited to the south of Lashio are of spiritual significance. 3.7. Kutkai In 2011 a reconnaissance was made in the area around the town of Kutkai. The small town is an important staging post on the trade route to the border with China at Muse. Access to the area is restricted and it was not possible to visit all the target areas around the town. The presence of carbonate rocks both to the north and southeast of the area was confirmed. Approximately 2km to the north of Kutcai is an area of closed depressions within low relief. Here Naung See 2 cave was mapped to 859 m in length. The cave isa complex mix of dry fossil galleries and small active streamways. The cave clearly contains a substantial volume Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings66

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of flood water in the monsoon period. Several kilometres further north a number of draughting entrances were located, however time and access restrictions prevented their exploration. 10 km to the south of Kutcai the limestone bedrock is of considerable depth, but appears to be formed into major river gorges rather than into caves.4. Conclusions and OutlookThe findings of the 2010 expedition teams confirm further the potential of the limestone plateau of the Shan States for large cave systems. Two new areas were systematically investigated resulting in the discovery of Khaug Kuang with a lengthof 2,355m in Ywangan and an interesting cave cluster near Hopon with river caves and the pilgrim cave Tham Sam. Other areas like Pinlaung and Kalaw were revisited and work from previous expeditions continued. Most significant discovery was Mai Lone Kho as deepest cave of Myanmar (-160 m). In total 44 caves were surveyed with a overall length of 16.9 km. These findings should not mislead to the impression that the Shan plateauis slowly understood for its presence of karst and caves. In contrary only a tiny area has been investigated. Access is the key for further exploration as areas are restricted, the road network limited and accommodationscare. The most comprehensive summary of caves in Myanmar is found in the BHB Vol. 39 after an intense literature research done by Laumanns (2010). A Shan edition is in preparation for release in 2013. The project is open for cooperation in order to provide a knowledge base for further interdisciplinaryresearch.Team overviewHopon 2010: F Loveridge, PRowsell, P Talling, I Furlong (co-ordinator) Hopon/Lashio2011: C Densham, J Dreybrodt, F Loveridge, P Rowsell, P Talling,I. Furlong(co-ordinator) Ywangan/Lashio2012: C Densham, T Guilford, L Hong, F Loveridge, L Maurice, P Talling (co-ordinator) Kalaw/Pinlaung 2012: J Dreybrodt (co-ordinator), U Etter, M Olliphant, N Pistole, A Romeo, H SteinerAcknowledgmentsWe appreciate the valuable logistic support of Phyoe Wai Yar Zar and the tireless efforts of our guide and translator Yan Niang. Special thanks to Ven. Ko Yin Lay (Hopon) for his hospitality and help.ReferencesBates JJ P et. al., A review of Rhinolopus from Myanmar, including three species to the country, 2004, Acta Chiropterologica 6(1), 23. BenceP, Guillot F,Maifret S,1999. Shan 98. Spelunca 74: 8. Bence P, GuillotF,Maifret S,Shan 98 expeditionreport,34, http://www.explos.org De Vivo A, Lo Mastro F, and Piccini L,2005. Namun: Caves of Eastern. Kur magazine, La Venta Esplorazioni Geografiche, 4, 7. Dreybrodt J, Loveridge F, 2012. Shan Plateau Expeditions, Descent No. 226, 15. Dunkley JR,Sefton M, Nichterlein D, Taylor J, 1989.Cave Science Vol. 16, No 3, 123. Garson MS, Amos BJ, Mitchell AHG, 1976. The geology of the area around Neyaungga and Ye-ngan, Southern Shan States, Burma. HMSO, London. Kusch H,1987. Unterirdische Kultsttten des Mon-Volkes in Burma und Thailand Hhlengebiete Sdostasiens XIII. Die Hhle 38 (3): 77. Laumanns M, 2010.Berliner Hoehlenkundliche Berichte, Karst and Caves of Myanmar, Vol. 39. MouretC,2005.Karst and caves of the Shan Plateau Myanmar, Proceedings of 14thInternational Congressof Speleology, O-20, Kalamos, Greece. Oo T, Hlaing T, Htay N, 2002. The Permian of Myanmar, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 20, 683. Waltham T, Eavis A, 2004. Caves in Myanmar. Cave and Karst Science 31 (1): 3. Talling P, expedition to Cangyuan,Lincang county in Yunnan/China, 2012. Thanegi M, 2009.Htam Sam Cave, Bagan Air Infllight Magazine Lotus, Vol. 5, Issue 3, 41. Project webpage: www.myanmarcaves.com Photos: C Densham, J. Dreybrodt, T. Guilford, A. Romeo, M. Olliphant, U. Etter.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings67

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TEN YEARS OF EXPLORATION AND OVER 100 KM OF CAVES SURVEYED IN NORTHERN LAOSJoerg Dreybrodt, Michael Laumanns, Helmut Steiner Northern Lao European Cave Project joerg_dreybrodt@yahoo.de, michael.laumanns@bmf.bund.de, helmut.steiner@hoehlenkataster-hessen.de The karst areas of northern Laos have beensystematically investigated by the Northern Lao-European Cave Project since 2002. Annual cave expeditions were conducted ineight regions offive different provinces. Theseregionshost a variety of karst landscapes ranging from highly karstified areas to tower karst and high altitude limestone plateaus. Major river caves of several km lengths were found including the Tham Chom Ong System in Oudomxay province. With a length of 17,150 m it is currently the 3rdlongest cave of Laos and 10thlongest in Southeast Asia. The total length of surveyed passage reached in 2012 was over 103 km with a total of 254 caves. The cooperation with authorities, villages and international development projects proved to be very useful and is one of the main reasons for a variety of research results in cave documentation, ecotourism development, paleoclimate studies and biospeleology.1. IntroductionThe Northern Lao-European Cave Project is an international group of speleologists with the mission of sustainable explorationanddocumentation of the major caving areas ofnorthern Laos. This isachieved by: inviting interested cavers to participate fruitful cooperation with the local authorities and international development projects including local villagers as scouts and guides maintaining good contacts withother active caving groups in Laos strictly publishing all results Apart from the famous tower karst of Vang Vieng, which is a domain of French colleagues and therefore not covered by this article, northern Laos for many years was a blank spot on the caving world map asmost speleological activities focused on the Khammouane karst in central Laos.However, in2000 a Dutch expedition achievedsome good discoveries in the Luang Prabang province with 7.4 km of passages surveyed in 16 caves (Eskes et al.2004). In February 2002 the German speleologist Joerg Dreybrodt travelled to Laos and visited Luang Prabang as well as the karst regions further north along the Nam Ou river. He visited some cavesat the shores of the Nam Ouupstream of Muang Ngoy village. Having established contact with David Eskes, the initiator of the Dutch expedition of 2000, he prepared for a lightweight expedition in 2002, accompanied by Michael Laumanns. Twelve easily accessible caves were surveyed.A follow-up expedition was conducted in 2003/04 reinforced by Helmut Steiner and Wolfgang Zillig.This was the start of annual caving expeditions to northern Laos with participantsfrom various countriesand a team continuously increasingin size. A major breakthrough wasthe 2005 expedition to Phou Khoun (Luang Prabang province) and Vieng Phouka (Luang Nam Tha province) wherethree longhorizontal caves of 2.6, 3.1 and 3.5 km respectively were surveyed within onlytendays. After thatthe average length of surveyed cave passage was typicallyabout 11 km during 15 expeditiondays. Table 1 shows the ten longest caves in northern Laos. Aclear trend showing the discoveryofa significant cave each year is apparent. The longest cave found so far is the Tham Chom Ong System (Oudomxay province) with a totallengthof 17,150 m. It is currentlythe 10thlongest cave in Southeast Asia and the 3rdlongest in Laos.Table1.The longest caves of northern Laos.No.Cave name LocationLengthExplored(m)1Tham Chom OngOudomxay17,15020091 2Tham Na ThongOudomxay5,0102010 3Tham Nam LongVieng Xai4,9812007 4Tham Nam LotSayabouli3,5602011 5Tham Nam Eng (resurgence)Vieng Poukha3,4602005 6Tham Nam Eng (fossile)Vieng Poukha3,1202005 7Tham NamVieng Xai3,0642007 8Tham Seua / Tham Nam LotPhou Khoun2,6502005 9Tham Pasat SystemVieng Poukha2,3322005 10Tham Doun MaiNong Khiaw2,0902012 This article providesan overview of the geo-settings,the visited areas, major caves and exploration resultsfrom northern Laos as well as biospeleological studies. Furthermorethe attitudeof the Lao people to their caves is presented. A conclusionand an outlook on the future activities of the Project concludethis article.2. Geo-settingsAccording to Kiernan (2009) little reliable broad-scale geological information is published, the most detailed work being commercially-confidentialmapping by overseas mining companies. In northern Laos much of the limestone is of Permian-Carboniferous age but Jurassic limestones occur locally around Luang Prabang. The total carbonate sequence may reach 5,000 m thick but noncarbonate interbeds are common in some areas. The regional situation is complex and the exact extensionsof the limestone areas are barely understood. The systematicsearchfor karst features ontopographical maps scaled1:100,000,available from the National Geographical Institute in Vientiane, has proven its usefulness with regard to the location of caves (Steiner, in print). Alsoliterature studies were invaluable. Laumanns (2010) provides the most comprehensive overview on the karst-related geo-settings of Laos. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings68

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3.1. Vieng Phoukaand Oudomxay Vieng Phouka and Oudomxay are located in the northeast of Laos on major roads connecting to the important ChinaLao border town Boten. The northwest region is highly karstified with the rivers incised into the limestone forming a landscape of valleys with small rivers and low mountains covered by a monsoon forest(Fig. 2). The Project becameaware of caves by development projects that promotedrural based ecotourism along the main tourist trail from the Thai border town of Houaysay3. Karst areas Fourmajor karst areas are distinguished(see Fig. 1): The northwest with Vieng Phouka (Luang Nam Tha province)and Oudomxayprovince; Three distinctive areas in Luang Prabang province, stretching from Nong Khiawto Phoukhoun; Vieng Xaiand Vieng Thongin Houaphan province; Sayabouli in the extremewest.Figure 1. Karst areas ofnorthern Laos covered by this article:1. Vieng Phouka, 2. Oudomxay,3.Nong Khiaw,4. Luang Prabang, 5. Phoukhoun, 6. Vieng Xai, 7. ViengThong, 8. Sayabouli. Figure 2. Typical karst hill between rice fields near Vieng Phouka. Figure 3. Map of the Nam Eng Caves. The active river cave and fossil cave are overlaying, but not connected to the ancient capital of Luang Prabang. Before that the area was not expected to have a significantpotential for caves, but now it hosts 5out of the10 longest caves of northern Laos. The caves near Vieng Phouka were mainly surveyed in 2005. Most important is Tham Nam Eng with two overlying systems of an active and a fossil level, 3,460 m and 3,120 m in length (Fig. 3). Both cave levels remained unconnected. The 3rdlongest system of the area is Tham Pasat 2,332 m in length. It consists of a through cave with a scenic sinkhole entrance and three upper fossil levels with separate entrances connecting via shafts to the active cave level. Threeexpeditionsin 2005, 2006and2012 extended Tham Pasat to its current length and discovered several other river cavesseveral hundreds of metres in length blocked by boulders or mud.Figure 4. Sinkhole entrance of Tham Pasat duringthe dry season. The highlight since the Project started in 2002 was the exploration of the Tham Chom Ong System.The provincial tourism office inOudomxay reported on itswebsitea large cave developed for ecotourism. No end of the cave hadbeen reachedby the local villagers. Acontact was made and the project was invited to survey the cavein 2009. It was found to stretch along a 4 km long mountain ridge with an undergroundriver and fossil passageswith dimensions Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings69

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20 m wideand 25 m high(Fig. 5 and 6). The cave isa through tripand the whole traverse takes 3.5 hours with an additional 1.5hours to return from the northernentrance to Chom Ongvillage. The cave river and the fossil levelare connected by steeppassagesand shafts in places. A large tectonic fault resulted in two huge overlaying chambers measuring 100 m by 30 m in length/width and a height of up to 50 meach. In only 5 days the system was surveyed to a length of 11.3 km. Atthe last day aconnection between the six known entrances was achieved.The cave system was extended until 2011 to its final length of 17,150 m (Fig. 7). Its southern section is now operated as ashow cave with LED spotlights and an information display. Visits with overnight stays can bearranged throughthe tourism office in Oudomxay. The speleogenesis ofThamChom Ong appears to be similar to many other caves in northern Laos, especially to those in the Vieng Phouka area, where a strongly developed karst was buried and subsequently uplifted showing many remnants of sediment infillings (breccia) and calcite floors. The latter also occursin Tham Na Thong, which is located a few kilometres further north. Tham Na Thong is a river cave with a straight passage (10m wideand25m high) 5 km in length.Figure 5. Michael pointing at the inconspicuous limestone ridge hosting the Tham Chom Ong System. Figure 6. Fossil passage of the Tham Chom Ong System close to the southern entrances. 3.2. Vieng Xaiand Vieng Thong The tower karst area of Vieng Xai in Houaphan province is well known for itshistorical significance as former headquartersof the ruling communist party (Pathet Lao) during the American Vietnam war(Fig. 8).Consequently, it was the subjectofintense air bombing from 1964, forcing about 23,000 people to leave their villages and use thesurrounding natural caves as shelters. The caves were enlarged, tunnels were dug, concrete ceilings inserted and caves were used as bank, bakery, hospital, garage, and even as a theatre(Kiernan 2012)(Fig. 9). Its remoteness in the extreme northeast of Laos and its secrecymade the area off limitstoforeigners for a long time until the government decided to develop the site as national monument (memorial caves). We succeeded in 2007 to be the first permitted to survey the caves. Beside the historical caves,underground river courses with huge and well-decorated cave passages werefound. Many of them are through caves where ariver enters a karst hill, resurges and enters the next karst ridge. Within three expeditions in 2007, 2008 and 2012 seventyfourcaves were surveyed with over 28.7 km of mapped passages. The region now holds the third and seventh longest cave of northern Laos (Tham Nam Long at 5 km, and Tham Nam at 3.1 km [Fig. 10]). The caves also attracted the media and a film documentary was produced for the French/German TV channel ARTE during the 2008 expedition highlighting a fascinating combination of karst landscape, cave exploration and war time history.Figure 7. Map of Tham Chom Ong System showing its final length of 17,150 m. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings70

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Further west in Houaphan province, the caving area north of Vieng Thong was visited three times, mainly during stopovers. This region belongs to the Nam Et Phou Louey National Park famous for its tiger preservation project with caves mentioned in a World Wildlife Society report. The area is also known from archeological excavations during colonial times in 1923 (Tham Hang) and more recent times. The road heading north to the Vietnam border was systematically checked and many caves were surveyed, the longest of which is Tham Thia Thong 1,360 m in length and well decorated. Vasile Ersek from Oxford University collected stalagmites for speleothem dating from this cave in order toreconstructthe Quaternary history of the Southeast Asian monsoon (Ersek 2011). Another surprising discovery was Tham Kokai (1,125 m long), featuring a main passage with its floor covered for hundreds of meters by dry rim stone basins filled with calcite pearls.Figure 10. Main passage in Tham Nam Long. Figure 8. Scenic tower karst near Vieng Xai. Figure 9. Theatre in Memorial Cave Tham Khamtay 3.3. Luang Prabang Luang Prabang province of northern Laos resembles a classical karst region. Early travellers reported on their findings from this area, mainly on Pak Ou cave near Luang Prabang city, famous for its thousands of ancient Buddha statues. The first full scale Dutch expedition confirmed good cave potential by mapping 7.4 km of cave passagesin the Nong Khiaw area alongthe Nam Ou river (e.g., Tham Pageo at 1.5 km). The impressive landscape has steep limestone cliffs covered by primary rain forest (Fig. 11). The depth potential is considerable with the elevation of the valley at about 360m whereas the mountains summit at 1,700 m. The same appliesfor the table mountains around Luang Prabang where karst ridges stretch over tens of kilometers in a NNE to SSE direction with sparsely populated plateaus. A three week expedition investigated the valleys and the mountains by long walks and overnight stays in villages. One cave of significant length was found on the plateau (Tham Loum, 1.6km). Most of the other caves are a few hundred meters long, with a depth not exceeding 60 m and they are of various formsincluding singlechambers, short fossil hill-top passages andmazelike systems near river level. The absence of any deep caves still lacks explanation. The longestcurrently known cave is Tham Doun Mai (Muang Ngoy, 2,090 m, Fig.12), which is the upstream section of 679 m long Tham Doun from which it is only separated by a ~60 m long undived sump. The 2ndlongest is the Tham Seua/Tham Nam Lot System (2.6 km long) near Phoukhoun, a village at the road junction of the highway 13 to Xieng Khouang province. Two other caves 1.2 and 1.3 km in length (Tham Dout and Tham Deu) are located not far towards the east. At the time of exploration in 2007,the area was a stronghold of rebels and was only accessible witha police escort. AlthoughLuang Prabangprovince seems to have limited potential for caves it is of great archeological interest. Since 2005 the Middle Mekong Archeological Project (MMAP) from Penn University (USA)has investigated cave entrances based on the published expedition book from 2005.Figure 11. Karst scenery along the Nam Ou river upstream from Nong Khiaw. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings71

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3.4. Sayabouli This area was only briefly visited in 2011. Like in Oudomxay the project co-operated with the provincial tourism departmentand a development aid project. The investigations took place around the villages of Ban Keo and Ban Nathang, about 40 km south of Sayabouli town. Within only 5 days about 9.5 km of new passages were mapped, including the 3,650 m long Tham Nam Lot a through cave with an underground stream and a long semifossil extension. The cave potential remains high and also concerns other districts like Khop and Paklai. Interestingly, the deepest cave of Thailand (Tham Pha Pueng, -367 m) borders the Khop district, whichindicatesdepth potential. Regrettably, permission for areturn visit to this province has not yet been granted.4. BiospeleogySurveys of the cave fauna have been an integral part of expeditions fromthe beginning, becausenothing on this topic was previously known. The principal elements are similar for all Laos caves. Cave crickets ( Diestrammena or closely related genera) of all sizes are found in almost any cave. They most probably feed on fungus growing on guano and other decaying organic material and constitute the main prey of various predators. Other common consumers of organic material and/or its fungi are millipedes and woodlice. Cockroaches occur mainly in caves with substantial guano buildup. A multitude of spiders,opiliones and various insects prey on these. Top predators are the longlegged centipede ( Thereuopoda longicornis) and the large huntsman spiders ( Heteropoda spp and Sinopoda spp.). Heteropoda show a distinct geographic pattern, the species found in the Northern Laos caves being H. simplex, while Vang Vieng and Khammouan caves harbour different species. The more cave adapted Sinopoda species are restricted to a single or a few caves. In Northern Laos six different species are found, all only recently described. They include Sinopoda tham from the Tham Chom Ong system and Sinopoda peet from therecently foundTham Doun Mai. To date,elevennew species have been described from specimens (see table 2for Northern Laos). Much of the collected material is still awaiting classification, thus offering theprospect of more exciting discoveries. Our inventory has to be regarded as being still superficial, and every future collection will greatly add to our understanding of the Lao cave fauna.Figure 12. Fossil passage of Tham Doun Mai featuring rimstone basins. Figure 13. Sinopoda tham, a new species of huntsman spider discovered in Tham Chom Ong. Table2.New species from caves of Northern Laos.Species and Tax. Province and Caves Spiders: Fam. Psechridae Psechrus ancoralis Bayer and Jger, 2010 Fam. Pholcidae Pholcus steineri Huber, 2011 Luang Namtha: Tham Nam Eng, Tham Pasat Thia 1&2; Luang Prabang: Tham Seua-Tham Nam Lot; Huaphan: Tham Mue; Oudomxai: Tham Na Thong Oudomxai: Tham Chom Ong, Tham Na Thong, Tham Mokfek Pholcus namou Huber, 2011 Luang Prabang: Tham Muay; Luang Namtha: Tham Roj Ru Pholcus namkhan Huber, 2011 Fam. Sparassidae Sinopoda steineri Jger, 2012 Luang Prabang: Tham Pha Man Luang Namtha: Tham Nam Eng Sinopoda tham Jger, 2012 Oudomxai: Tham Chom Ong, Tham Na Thong, Tham Mokfek; Luang Namtha: Oung Pra Ngiene; Luang Prabang: Tham Luang Sinopoda sitkao Jger, 2012 Luang Prabang: Tham Doun Mai Sinopoda taa Jger, 2012 Luang Prabang: Tham Nguen Sinopoda suang Jger, 2012 Huaphan: Tham Ho Neung Sinopoda peet Jger, 2012 Diplopoda, Fam. Sinocallipodidae Sinocallipus steineri Stoev and Enghoff, 2011 Huaphan: Tham Ma Liong Luang Prabang: Tham Gia Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings72

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5. Caves and CultureCaving in Laosinvolves gettingin touch withthelocal villages and experiencing a diversityof hill tribes and rural life. Caves are often known from fishing in the underground streams or catching bats at the cave entrances. The Hmong minority, who lives high up in the mountains, enter the caves and know them very well.The Khmu,who are peasants,usuallyknow the cave entrances but have a limited understanding of cave extensions.The impact of the American war is easily visible in the heavily bombed regions of Houphan, Xieng Khouang andLuang Prabang provinces. Villagers are very reluctant to disclose information since caves were used as shelters and hiding places. The locals believe in ghosts and bad spirits that influence life. Any visit tosuch a cave without the permission of the nearby village can have serious consequences for an expedition. Also unexploded ordnance (UXO) might bepresent and the villagers are the only ones who are aware of potential danger in the field.6. Conclusionand OutlookAfter ten consecutiveannual expeditions the Northern Lao European Cave Project has succeeded in developing an understanding of themajor karst areas and caves ofnorthern Laos. The total length of surveyed cave passage exceeded the 100 km mark in 2012 inover250 cavessurveyed, the longest of which is the Tham Chom Ong System with a lengthof 17.1 km, currentlythe 10thlongest cave of SE Asia. The karst areas are very diverse with morphologies ranging from highlykarstified shallow ridges covered by jungle to steep (almost alpine) limestone cliffs andclassical tower karst. The longest caves are river caves in shallow ridges partiallyresemblingthrough caves. A significant depth potential has not yet been realised despite limestone plateaus with over1,000 m of relief above the known karst springs. Co-operation with community-based developmentprojects proved to be very sustainableasthe knowledge gained by the extensivefield work and publication efforts of the project improvedthe development of ecotourism, stimulated archeological and paleoclimate studies as well as biodiversity capacity-building bytheidentification of cave fauna. Although most karst areas of northern Laos were at least partiallyinvestigated, the only major untouchedprovince is Xieng Khouang featuring significant karst in its eastern part. Future work will aimto understand the detailed extent of the karst areas and presence of caves. This will be achieved bysmall and flexibleexpedition teams. We are open to cooperation. If you wish to contribute to the project, please contact the authors.AcknowledgementsOur fully published results would nothave been possible without the support of the Lao people as well as 31cavers from 14different nations. We are also grateful to the provincial Lao tourism offices and international development organizationsthatassisted withpermissions and logistical support: the Dutch SNV, the German GiZ and the European UnionMicroprojects.We acknowledge furthermore the financial support of the European Speleological Federation (FSE)as well as the US National Speleological Society (NSS). Special thanks to Siegfried Moser and our reliable guides CheavMoua,Juu Moua and Hong Tong.ReferencesBayer S, Jger P. 2009. Heteropoda species from limestone caves in Laos (Araneae: Sparassidae: Heteropodinae). Zootaxa 2143: 1. Demeter F, 2009. Tam Hang Rockshelter: Preliminary Study of a Prehistoric Site in Northern Laos. Asian Perspectives, 48 (2), 291. Dreybrodt J, Laumanns, M (Eds), 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011. The unknown North of Laos (Part 1), Berliner Hhlenkundliche Berichte, 16/32/38/44, Berlin. Eskes D, Damen F (Eds), 2004. Amis Laos Caving Expedition 2000. Expedition Report, 104. Ersek V, Henderson, G, 2011. Holocene evolution of the monsoon in Southeast Asia, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 13, EGU General Assembly, Vienna. Kiernan K, 2009. Distribution and character of karst in the Lao PDR, Acta Carsologica, 38 (1), Ljubljana. Kiernan K,2012.Impacts of War on Geodiversity and Geoheritage: Case Studies of Karst Caves from Northern Laos. Geoheritageonline publ., DOI 10.107/S12371-012-0063-3, 23; Springer. Laumanns M, 2010. Laos. In: Laumanns M, Price L (Eds.). Atlas of the Great Caves and the Karst of Southeast Asia. Berliner Hhlenkundliche Berichte, 40, 103; Berlin. Laumanns M, 2012. Laos. Ten years and over 100 km. Descent, 227, 24, UK. The Middle Mekong Archaeological Project (MMAP) http://penn.museum/sites/mmap/ MouretC,2004. Asia, Southeast. In: Gunn, J. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science. 100; New York and London, Fitzroy Dearborn. Northern Lao European Cave Project, www.laoscaveproject.de Oudomxay Tourism Office, www.oudomxay.info Photographs displayed in this article: J. Dreybrodt, M. Oliphant, T. Redder, H. Steiner, W. Zillig. PriceL,2007. Hidden cave cities and river systems, Houaphan 2007. Speleology, 9, 26. Senckenberg world of biodiversity http://sesam.senckenberg.de/ page/index.htm Steiner H, (in print).Karst features and caving potential of the Lao P.D.R.Cave & Karst Science. Wuerzburger C. September 2008. Vorstossin die Unterwelt Die Hoehlen von Vieng Xai,ARTE TV Documentary (43 min), Germany/France.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings73

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CZECH DISCOVERIES IN THE MAGANIK MTS., MONTENEGROZdenk Dvok1, Vt Baldk2 1Zdenk Dvok, Bosonosk 17, CZ-62500 Brno, Czech Republic2Czech Geological Survey, Leitnerova 22, CZ-65869 Brno, Czech Republic, vit.baldik@geology.cz Caving Club Such leb Brno (Czech Speleological Society) operates in Montenegro since 1983. Earlier, we mainly explored in the Krivosinska area around Velji Hill near Boka Kotorska (Orjen Mts.). All discoveries and achievements were published in several articles in Speleoforum Memorial Volumes. The most important papers dealed with the Pema cave, Maglena jama and especially Goats hole (-662 m/1,700 m long), which is also our biggest discovery in this area. The prospect of deep mountain systems attracted us so much that we decided to explore further inland in the High Karst Zone, between the steep cliffs of Maganik Mts. near the town of Niksic, in the vicinity of canyon Mrtvice. This canyon cuts through the surrounding massif of Cretaceous limestones into the depth of more than 1 km and creates the potential of 1,000,800 m deep cave systems. Together with convenient structural pattern (more details in paper of Otava Baldk in this Proceedings) there were ideal conditions to start explorations in the untouched territory.1. Maganik ExplorationsThe first time that we visited the Katun (settlement) Maganik travelling on a bumpy mountain tarmac full of bends and twists was in 2009. Since then we organized there three-week long expeditions, undertaken in alpine style in small groups, during which we managed to discover several interesting places and objects. Even the transport of material to the base camp at 2,000 m a.s.l. was an interesting sport event.2. Nyx AbyssIn the case of this cave we have hit the jackpot. Nyx was the first entrance, which we decided to explore on Maganik during our first, very strenuous expedition and at the same time it was a unique find thanks to the discovery of 429 m deep vertical, which the cave hid (today approx 12thdeepest in the world). Its location is also exceptional in its own way because it is situated in the central area of Tresteni Hillin a maze of tens of meters deep karren, among which winds the only viable access path. Nyx was also surveyed in 2010 when we discovered its furthest ends. The entrance is the example of Light Hole Abyss 50 m deep and approximately as wide, which opens up between two limestone ridges running parallel to each other, whose bottom is covered with snow all year around. From the bottom continues 60 meters deep shaft in the shape of a star where descend must be done by means of a narrow projection which bypasses several collapses of mountain blocks and rocks, caught in the main gullet. After this follows another snow covered area, this time a gentle slope, leading the descend route away from the reach of the daylight. In the dark a window opens up into a parallel shaft, falling from the onset to the depth of 429 m and rising up to a place under one of the cracks in the vicinity of the input crater. The abyss is free of any breaks, ledges and significant changes of direction. The opening of the crack measuring 10 1 m slowly rounds off into a fissure, in the narrowest point 5 m wide but after 100 m slowly expanding up to 30 7 m. However pure fosiliferous light limestones change here into dark limestone with shale intrcalations. They appear tens of meters above the bottom, which causes repeated narrowing of the shaft and at the depth of 540 m closes up completely. Dark, less permeable limestone indicates one of local thrust zones which are visible at more places in deeper parts of cave systems of the area. Quite powerful meander drains an abundant shower of melted snow all the way to the next level, this time it is about 60 m deep Black abyss, wonderful, bell-shaped expanding well, which is unfortunately the last reflection of monumental space that is lost in time. Asset flows through very narrow cracks without drafts and older small meanders are descending only few meters. In these places we encountered for the very first time on Maganik another typical feature. It was fairly unusual decoration represented mainly by stalagmites, coatings and helictites in the shades ranging from orange, red, dark brown to black color, a dcor reminiscent of the old ore mines. The parallel branch into which we got by traversing several meters above the opening of Black abyss ended in a blind end and same thing happened with the Behind the window branch, turningat the shaft 429.The depth ofthe cave reached 622 m, the length of the polygon exceeds 1 km.3. Aither AbyssThe Aither abyss is one of the largest underground chambers in Montenegro. Although the entrance on the surface is only few meters wide, already 150 meters below the gullet the gap expands to 35 30 m. It is basically one cave descending directly from the entrance into the depth of 351 m in subhorizontal thick bedded pure limestone. The main shaft is followedby short sequel, created by one horizon and two parallel, approximately 30 m deep, shafts. Their bottoms are clogged with fine debris and draft, which is here fairly strong, disappears up the chimneys.4. Propast pod Medvedici AbyssThe abyss called Propast pod Medvedici is the second entrance, hiding on top of the mountain plateau called Tresteni vrch that is worth mentioning. Its discovery was preceded by an extended survey of deep labyrinth of Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings74

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fissures that this unusually developed karren fields offer. The gap is located in the vicinity of a doline that is surrounded on three sides by rocks.On the bottom of the doline can be found the second entrance nearly covered by rubble, merging more than 100 m bellow with the well known part of Propast pod Medvedici. The entrance was discovered in 2010 but we did not manage to organize the expedition until one year later. The abyss represents classical form known for this area based on subvertical joints cutting through subhorizontal thick bedded limestone. First tens of meters it respects the tectonics and does not reach larger width, but gradually expends and after connecting to the parallel gullet it becomes regular rim. In the depth of 200 m from the entrance it narrows to very narrow fissure without hopeful perspective.5. Iron deep AbyssOne of the many monotonous descends into an infinite number of sinks, cracks and pits eventually led us to the coveted target. When it seemed that the cone of snow will fill the entire bottom of the p 40, we found an opening the size of a door in the bend of the shaft, partially hidden by stump of a tree which was holding back a substantial part of the snow, piled at the bottom. It is hard to say whether the warm weather of the past winters caused that the other 40 m could be descended through caverns between the glacier and the rock wall to a short horizon, leading the path away from places that can be anytime covered by snow and ice. The second half of the expedition of the year 2011 was here. This year we were able to surpass the 500 m mark below surface and one year later the cave brought us to just over the magic kilometer depth. Pure, well permeable light grey limestone subhorizontally bedded and subvertically jointed is typical for the upper part of the system. It is followed by dark varieties of pelitic limestone in the lower parts and it determines the character of the cave, which transforms from wild vertical sequences into long horizons with almost no slope. Initially everything is taking place according to the well know scenario. The leading part falls swiftly, mainly thanks to the 200 meters deep stair-step shaft, all the way to the depth -350 m. It is already deep in the black-gray rock, through which squeezes a narrow meander. The black limestone suddenly widens out up to 80 m deep cascade, the enlargement is caused by an old tributary in the form of monumental chimney, which walls disappear in the dark. Next, there is again meander, adhering strictly to the flat bedding, only this time a little taller and in the upper storey easier to traverse. Upstream there were also found several horizontal sequels, intersecting younger vertical branches and surprising by richly decorated corridors in the length of several hundred meters (Fig. 3). In the depth of 500 m the cave again begins to gain momentum, the tectonics and composition of limestone changes and meanders interrupted here and there by small precipices start quickly gaining depth. In the depth of seven hundred meters below the surface the subvertical jointing can be seen again when the cave suddenly breaks into one hundred meter deep shaft. Thus we come to the end of the known area that encompasses steep cascades, with approximately 5 m wide and 37 m deep conduit at the end of which several inflows converge. Behind that the cave continues by inclined crevice, probably parallel with a fault. On the surface approximately one kilometer far from this point there is the canyon of Mrtvice River.Figure 1. Vertical of the Nyx system is cutting subhorizontal Cretaceous limestone beds. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings75

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Figure 2. Section of the Iron Deep System, Maganik, Montenegro. Accuracy of measures BCRA 4C.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings76

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6. Discussion and ConclusionsNowadays it is unclear whether the system is drained directly into the canyon of the Mrtvica River. Other possibility is the connection with the main resurgence of Jama, located several km downstream. For now the length of the Iron Deep system is three kilometers, and the depth 1,027 meters.Figure 3. Unusual color dripstone decoration in the Meander Kajcnk (see the section) 450 m below surface. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings77

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EXPLORATION OF THE CHESTNUT RIDGE CAVE SYSTEM BATH AND HIGHLAND COUNTIES, VIRGINIAMike Ficco Butler Cave Conservation Society, mficco@mindspring.com Chestnut Ridge, a small ridge straddling two synclinal valleys in Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia, has been the focus of concentrated cave exploration activities for more than 50 years. The geology and topography of the ridge combine to create body-size vadose canyon passages which typically follow the dip of the carbonate bedrock down to a large network of trunk passages. Bobcat Cave was the first of three major caves to be explored on Chestnut Ridge. Exploration of Bobcat spanned multiple decades, involving extensive digging before breaking into large trunk passage deep under the ridge. Eventually, Bobcat was connected to the more recently discovered Blarneystone Cave, thereby creating the 21 km Chestnut Ridge Cave System, then the deepest cave in Virginia. A third cave on the ridge, Burns Chestnut Ridge was also the site of a multi-decade digging effort of monumental intensity and duration, ultimately resulting in a breakthrough into several kilometers of large stream trunk, and surpassing the Chestnut Ridge system as Virginias deepest. Persistent digging in Blarneystones Ghost Hall resulted in the 2003 discovery of an additional 8 km. of new passage and the connection to Burns Chestnut Ridge, expanding the system to 33.6 km in length and 240 meters in depth.1. IntroductionHidden away amongst the ridges and valleys of the Southeastern United States is a karst area known as the Burnsville Cove. Situated near the boundary of Bath and Highland Counties in the State of Virginia, the Burnsville Cove has been the locus of systematic cave exploration and scientific study for more than half a century. Beginning with the exploration and survey of Breathing Cave in 1954 followed shortly thereafter by the discovery of Butler Cave in 1958 (Nicholson and Wefer 1982), cavers quickly realized that a vast cave system was likely to exist under the pastures and hardwood forest of the Cove. By the 1970s, more than 29 km of cave passage had been mapped, the majority of that being found in Breathing and Butler Caves (approx. 7 km and 18 km respectively) making them two of the longest known caves in Virginia. However approximately 3.5 km separated Butlers sumps (siphons) and the suspected resurgence along the Bull Pasture River Gorge to the Northeast, and attempts to find additional entrances to tap into the potential downstream portions of the system were largely unsuccessful. As it turns out, one of the elusive keys to the system was an obscure blowing entrance first reported in 1957, and located on the side of Chestnut Ridge; the exploration of the cave passages under and astride that ridge would consume the lives of three generations of cavers, and push the physical and psychological limits of all of those involved.2. Geographic and Geologic SettingChestnut Ridge is a small anticlinal ridge flanked by two synclinal valleys, oriented in a northeast-southwest direction and plunging slightly towards the northeast. Cumulatively, these features comprise the Burnsville Cove. The caves of Burnsville Cove are developed within Silurian and Devonian Age carbonate rocks with a total thickness of approximately 230 m (Hess and White 1982). This carbonate stratigraphy as found in the Burnsville Cove, typically includes multiple resistant beds of sandstone which appear to influence passage development, resulting in multi-layered passage profiles with passages sometimes perching on top of the resistant beds. Both surface and sub-surface drainage is predominantly towards the northeast, with the majority of flow ultimately discharging to the Bull Pasture River, primarily via several karst springs distributed along a 700 m reach of the River. The most significant of these springs are the Emory, Aqua and Cathedral springs. Dye tracing studies have demonstrated that discharge from Aqua spring primarily represents drainage from the syncline along the northwest side of Chestnut Ridge, while Cathedral Spring drains the southeastern syncline. The role that Emory spring plays within the context of Burnsville Cove hydrogeology is likely minimal due to the location of its catchment area, and the degree and character of karst development associated with Emory Spring is not well understood.Figure 1. Location of Chestnut Ridge and Related Features. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings78

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Discoveries to the north included highly decorated passages adorned with anthodites and various forms of gypsum, which up to that point had been largely absent from other Burnsville Cove caves. There was plenty of large rambling trunk passage being found, but an equal amount of less friendly breakdown, pits, and climbs were encountered as well. Perhaps the most exciting single discovery in Bobcat was the Burnsville Turnpike, an impressively large (44 m wide, 30 m tall) passage that stretched for more than 600 m before becoming choked in breakdown. The Turnpike was also notable in that it is developed within the Aqua drainage, while the majority of Bobcat is in the Cathedral drainage. The crossing of this drainage divide opened up the possibilities for Bobcat to connect with Butler Cave and other caves in the aqua drainage. Such a connection would create a monster of a system. By 1990, the rate of new discoveries in Bobcat had slackened, and caver motivation also ebbed to the point that exploration in the cave was unofficially suspended. However this did not represent an end to the interest in Chestnut Ridges underground secrets, just a shift of attention. 3.2. Blarneystone: Attention Shifted Bobcat had demonstrated that significant cave development existed under Chestnut Ridge, and that the small entrances and sinks that dot the Ridge could be the key to finding more. The Bobcat crew was motivated by that realization, and had begun searching for and digging open potential entrances. One of these candidates was a small shallow depression on the southeastern side of the ridge,3. Exploration3.1. Discovery of the Bobcat Entrance and Initial Exploration In 1957 Dave Nicholson discovered air blowing out of a small cleft in a rock outcrop near the top of the northwest side of Chestnut Ridge (Rosenfeld and Shifflett 1995). This opening was subsequently enlarged with a crowbar and approximately 300 m of passage was explored, most of it consisting of torturous muddy canyon ending in an impenetrable squeeze. The cave, then named Chestnut Ridge Blowing Cave, was mostly forgotten for the next 22 years until a group of young cavers from the Shenandoah Valley Grotto of the National Speleological Society (NSS) visited the cave and were intrigued by the strong air flow and the potential for a big cave under the ridge. This resurgence of interest in what was renamed Bobcat Cave thus kicked off the second wave of cave exploration in the Burnsville Cove, introducing cavers to the struggles of pushing Chestnut Ridges impossibly tight, muddy, entrance series which have become the stuff of legend. Using what was to become an integral tool in the exploration under Chestnut Ridge, the Shenandoah Valley Grotto (SVG) cavers blasted through the restriction that had stymied previous exploration and discovered a continuing sinuous canyon trending down-dip with a small trickle stream. The canyon, barely large enough to accommodate a wetsuit-clad caver lying on their side, was pushed through multiple restrictions, and soon became known as Cyanide Canyon due to its poisonous character. The down-dip passage was interrupted with many short (1 meter) climbable pitches and plunge pools as it headed down into the heart of the ridge. The wind blowing through Cyanide Canyon was one of the few things responsible for the sustained efforts in pushing the cave during the period of 1982 through 1983. That canyon, continuing ever deeper into the ridge, with so much air flow, had to be going somewhere exciting. Then, in July of 1983, it did! After approximately 500 m horizontally and 100 m in depth, the torturous entrance canyon intersected a major trunk passage. With renewed enthusiasm, a flurry of subsequent trips discovered a largely dry paleo level trunk passage developed along the strike (northeast-southwest trend). Passage dimensions were an order of magnitude larger than in cyanide canyon, and the drool of mud and water of Cyanide Canyon was replaced by dry clay, sand and gypsum crusts. In the southwestern direction, the cave became dissected with multiple pits and downward-trending passages ultimately leading to a sump at a depth of 220 m, thereby replacing Butler Cave (189 m) as the deepest in Virginia. Several small leads and digs remained in the southern end of the cave, but the real action was found going north, where the main trunk continued with numerous side leads and a steady draft of air. Around this time several additional cavers joined what to this point had been a very small group of SVG members exploring Bobcat. These newcomers were largely associated with the Butler Cave Conservation Society (BCCS) which had been mapping the caves in the Burnsville Cove for two decades. The prospects of exploring an exciting new discovery right in their backyard was more than enough incentive for them to endure Bobcats misery. With the cave breaking out in numerous directions and trip durations of 19+ hours becoming the norm, it was decided to establish an underground camp and push the cave via threeto five-day camp trips. While hauling camping equipment through the entrance series was brutal, once established, only food and other consumables had to be replenished. Between March 1984 and August 1990, approximately 14 kilometers of passage was mapped via 27 separate cave camps.Figure 2. Bobcat Cave, Sixth of July Room. Photo by Ron Simmons. 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approximately 1 km. southwest of the Bobcat entrance (and 15 m lower). On March 16, 1991, after just two hours of digging the bottom fell out of the hole being dug in that inconspicuous sink, thus opening the next chapter in the exploration of Chestnut Ridges subsurface. The new entrance, named Blarneystone because it was opened on St. Patricks Day, consisted of a narrow 10m vertical rift whose sloping floor led to a series of short rope pitches separated by a narrow muddy canyon. A strong breeze blew through the passage and a small stream flowed along the floor. The seasoned veterans of Bobcat exploration were unsurprised when at the bottom of the entrance pitches, the passage morphed into a torturous, slimy canyon cutting diagonally down and across the dip towards the northeast. The character of this canyon mirrored that of Cyanide Canyon, and thus soon became known as Strychnine Canyon for its similarly poisonous nature. Several trips during the spring and summer of 1991 pushed Strychnine Canyon, with its plethora of short awkward downclimbs and tight squeezes, for a distance of approx. 300 m and to a depth of 120 m. Then in July of 1991, a bolt traverse over a 10 m pitch, subsequently dubbed Artzs Attic, dropped the explorers into a 30 m wide trunk passage; Ghost Hall.Figure 3. Mike Kistler and the Ghost in Ghost Hall. Photo by Nevin Davis. Ghost Hall, so named because of a ghostly solitary stalagmite perched in middle of the passage, stretched out along strike for almost 200 m, mostly as 30 m 20 m borehole. Survey data indicated that Ghost Hall was aligned with the southern end of Bobcats paleo trunk (called The South Lead) and the two passages were developed at the same elevation. Surely the passages were related, but would they connect? Pushing the northeast end of Ghost Hall led to spectacularly decorated passages festooned with gypsum/aragonite chandeliers, anthodites and stal., and a continuation of large trunk passage (Over Forty Passage). However this continued for only 300 m before the trunk degenerated into a complex area of sediment filled passages, infeeding stream canyons, and vertical shafts. While more than a kilometer of cave was mapped in this area, with the airflow disappearing into this maze of passages, it became obvious that a connection to Bobcat was not going to be easy. The southern end of Ghost Hall became truncated by a large flowstone-infused breakdown collapse. However an inconspicuous streamway (the Black Diamond Crawl) was intersected in this collapse area, leading to approximately 2 km of interconnected passages. These discoveries included Moon River to the west, and Beyond the Pearly Gates and Slop Hollow to the east. These latter two passages continued down-dip to the deepest point in the cave at 181 m below the entrance. By the summer of 1994, Blarneystone had expanded to more than 5.5 km in length. While many leads remained, including an intriguing air-blowing dig above the breakdown collapse at the south end of Ghost Hall, the Burnsville cavers turned their attention back to the north where their old friend Bobcat lurked just 53 m away. Over the course of several trips in July and August of 1994, the southern end of Bobcat and the northern end of Blarneystone were pushed hard. Teams working simultaneously from both caves first established an air connection through the use of smoke bombs, followed by a voice connection though the sediment-choked passages. Then on August 20, 1994 a frenzy of digging, spurred on by increasingly clear voices from each side, led to one of those rare events that all cavers relish. Bobcat and Blarneystone had become one; the 21 km long Chestnut Ridge Cave System was born! 3.3. Burns Marion Smith, a well known caver from the American Southeast, has referred to a number of Chestnut Ridge cavers as ultra horror specialists, a reference to the severe conditions endured while pushing the caves under Chestnut Ridge. There is one cave in particular that provides a litmus test for separating the ultra horror specialists from the more common hardcore exploration cavers. That cave is called Burns Chestnut Ridge, more affectionately known simply as Burns. Situated near the crest of Chestnut Ridge, approximately 2.4 km southwest and 15 m above the Bobcat entrance, Burns is yet another obscure entrance that happens to blow a steady gale of wind on cold winter days. The cave was first discovered by Ike Nicholson in the 1950s (Shifflett 2003). Exploration at that time found approximately 60 m of narrow canyon passage, and several short rope pitches, ending at a point where the small stream flowed into passage too small to follow. The 1960s saw a renewed interest in the cave as a group of Duke University cavers pushed the cave for another 100 m through the liberal use of explosives (Shifflett 2003). The sinuous narrow canyon passage they were following continued down and across the limestones dip towards the southeast. However by the early 1970s, the Duke group, worn down by the caves unrelenting obstacles, lost motivation and abandoned their efforts. About that time Nevin Davis, one of the founding members of the BCCS, continued the pushing of Burns as his pet project. He discovered a bypass to the pinch that had stopped the Duke team, and over the next three years methodically blasted Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings80

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through successive restrictions in the wet, contorted stream canyon. Finding companions for these trips was difficult, as most refused to return for a second round of the beatings that the cave doled out to those brazen enough to enter. Travel time from the pushing front to the entrance, a mere 250 m distance, was typically between two and three hours; much of that being spent thrutching along while lying prone in a muddy stream. There was a hiatus in Burns activity during the latter half of the 1970s, brought on by a dishearteningly narrow bedrock slot through which the caves stream (and air) flowed. However several SVG cavers, who would later be instrumental in the exploration of Bobcat, provided an infusion of energy to the project. Enlargement of the narrow bedrock slot, subsequently named the Bone Crusher, proceeded over the course of multiple trips; ultimately breaking out into a small mud-filled room. Unfortunately, celebration was premature as the cave continued to present serious obstacles. Subsequent trips during the early 1980s successfully dug and blasted through the Mud Room and the Second Mud Crawl, stopping at yet another narrow bedrock slot. By 1984 the exploration of Bobcat was in full swing, therefore Burns and its funhouse of horrors received little attention for the rest of the decade. By the time 1990 rolled around, the wounds inflicted by Burns had healed, and another surge of pushing activity was launched. The vertical bedrock slot at the end of the Second Mud Crawl was widened, and the passage ahead enlarged to walking dimensions and dropped down a 10 m pitch. Below, a narrow canyon continued, larger than before, but the obstacles kept coming. Additional pinches were encountered and passed, and with each one, the passage ahead seemed to let up just a bit, suggesting that the cave was finally going to break open. Then in June of 1995 it did. A blast opened up the top of a 10 m pitch (Dead Cousins Pit) into decidedly larger, flowstone covered passage. More than 30 years of digging, hammering and groveling had finally paid off! Beyond Dead Cousins Pit, the cave steadily lost elevation as it trended down dip to the southeast, and dropped down several short pitches. After approximately 200 m the cave turned northeast along strike and the character changed to a multi-level trunk with an active stream canyon developed below an upper level paleo-trunk. Additional water was picked up as infeeders came in from the sides. TheFigure 4. Ben Schwartz in the Burns Entrance Series. Photo by Mike Ficco. downstream streamway roared on for another 600 m of exciting streamway, to a sump at a depth of 225 m below the entrance. However a daring freeclimb accessed an upper level sump bypass leading to more than 1 km of continuing paleo-level trunk with multiple side leads. By the end of 1995, Burns had replaced Bobcat as the deepest cave in Virginia. Another exciting discovery was made in June 1996. A side passage, a large hydraulic lift tube near the northeastern end of the paleo-trunk, was pushed down a slope of sand and gravel towards the southeast. After a few tens of meters the lift tube intersected a large stream, the Cathedral River, which drains the entire valley on the southeastern side of Chestnut Ridge. This was the first time cavers had encountered the main flow of the underground Cathedral River and the excitement was palpable; this discovery could be the key to tens of kilometers of passage in the up-stream portions of the Cathedral Drainage. Alas, despite all of the positive thoughts and wishes, an up-stream sump of the river was encountered immediately around the corner. Downstream, approximately 400 m of nice 6 m wide canyon was mapped to a low-airspace near sump, extending the depth of the cave to 240 m. Pushing beyond the near sump would be risky, and with no detectable airflow, the potential for continuing was low. The cave was shutting down and the remaining leads did not look great, particularly when considering the brutal 5 hour travel time to get to the leads. Several additional trips followed in an attempt to make something go, with little success. The last of these occurred during the summer of 1998, which involved a tricky aid climb into a side passage off of the paleo-level trunk. The climb, referred to as the Pot Metal Piton Climb led to a drippy intersection of narrow canyons and a low stream crawl. A hint of air flow was detected, but further exploration was halted by exhaustion and the late hour. That was 15 years ago, and it seemed unlikely that Burns, then 3.8 km in length, would connect to the Chestnut Ridge System. A large empty space on the map and considerable lateral offset separated the two caves, and promising leads were scarce. The fact that no one has been back to visit Burns defining landmarks such as the Bone Crusher, the Mud Crawls and Dead Cousins Pit, might suggest that the story of Burns exploration is over. Not quite. 3.4. Upper Ghost Hall and the Airblower During the exploration of Blarneystones Ghost Hall, an obscure drain was found atop the flowstone-covered breakdown at the southern end of Ghost Hall. The fist-sized hole was unremarkable except for the strong draft that blew from it. Intermittent efforts to enlarge and follow this drain, dubbed The Airblower, occurred throughout the 1990s with limited success. The flowstone-cemented breakdown resisted the effects of blasting, and diggers were forced to work in wet, difficult conditions. Then in 2001, a more sustained campaign of digging was launched. The use of improved technologies such as lithium battery-powered drills enabled more efficient, precision excavation of rock. 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draft, a passage was mined down through the cemented breakdown in a corkscrew fashion. In October 2003 after excavating nearly 23 vertical meters, the breakdown choke yielded and the blackness of virgin borehole stretched out into the distance. A flurry of exploration followed. A paleo-level trunk, likely a continuation of Ghost Hall, headed off to the southeast for 200 m before branching off in multiple directions. Anthodites adorned the walls and ceiling of the 15 m wide passage, and pits opened in the floor. One of these pits led the way down to a massive lower level trunk running northeast-southwest, 50 m below Anthodite Alley. This breakdown-floored passage, called Boulder Dash, continued southwest for close to 400 m to a muddy sump, located tantalizingly close to the downstream terminus of Burns. To the northeast, Boulder Dash morphed into a network of large phreatic tubes with steeply sloping, gravel-floored lift tubes and multiple sumps. It was later determined that Boulder Dash, and its northern extension The Butler Quarters, function as a flood overflow route for the Cathedral River, with floodwaters rising nearly 25 vertical meters before flowing to the sumps in The Butler Quarters. Additional breakouts of new exploration occurred in other areas beyond the Airblower, including an area southeast of Boulder Dash where a significant streamway (the Pigeon Tooth River) and a tall dome complex were found. However perhaps the most significant discovery of this most recent period of Chestnut Ridge exploration was a small muddy dig found along a shelf near ceiling level near the southern end of Boulder Dash. Named Opportunity Knocks, this blowing lead was excavated over the course of several trips before taking off on a meandering route towards the southwest. Consisting of a mix of low crawling and vertical thrutching, all while thoroughly saturated in mud, the route called the Outer Limits, was unpleasantly reminiscent of a certain deep cave less than a km to the southwest (i.e. Burns). For a good reason too, because on December 3, 2005, after 748 m, a muddy low-airspace pool was pushed at the end of Outer Limits, and a connection was made to the top of Burns Pot Metal Piton Climb. Burns was now part of the Chestnut Ridge Cave System! All told, more than 8 km of passage has been mapped beyond the Airblower dig, and the Systems length stands at 33.6 km. Leads remain in several areas, including one near the Burns connection that has potential to bypass the Burns upstream sump thereby accessing the many kilometers of theorized cave passage of the upper Cathedral drainage. However the remoteness of some of these leads presents a daunting challenge; travel time from the end of Outer Limits to the Blarneystone entrance is more than 8 hours.Figure 5. Map of the Chestnut Ridge Cave System.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings82

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3.5. Continued Exploration and Future Potential Exploration continues under and around Chestnut Ridge. Recent discoveries in Bobcat such as the Stomping Borehole have inspired a renewed interest in the cave. New caves have been found such as By the Road Cave (BTR) which is strategically located in the Cathedral drainage presenting the exciting potential for a bypass to the upstream sump in Burns. If such a bypass is found, it is reasonable to predict that 20 additional kilometers of cave passage could be found. Recent efforts to reopen a cave known as Robins Rift could also lead to breakthroughs into the Cathedral drainage. Other new and ongoing projects are too numerous to describe, however based on past history, the system will continue to grow. Diving of the Aqua and Cathedral springs has revealed that these resurgences are fed by conduits at significant depth, making underwater exploration impractical using current technologies.4. SummaryThe exploration of the Chestnut Ridge System has spanned a period of 60 years, resulting in the third longest and second deepest cave in Virginia (33.6 km and 240 m respectively). The success that the tightly-knit Burnsville Cove cavers have had in pushing the system is a testament to persistence, a systematic approach, and a high pain tolerance. Attempts to connect the Chestnut Ridge System to Butler Cave and to extend the System into the upper Cathedral drainage have so far been unsuccessful. However through the use of continuously evolving digging and prospecting techniques, its not unreasonable to predict that a 60+ kilometer system may one day be found under the Burnsville Cove.AcknowledgmentsThe author wishes to thank the members of the Butler Cave Conservation Society, particularly Nevin Davis, Gregg Clemmer, and Tommy Shifflett, for providing data, historical references, and stories around the campfire. I would also like to thank Dr. William B White for providing access to portions of an unpublished manuscript for a book on the Burnsville Cove, which is currently being prepared for publication by the BCCS.ReferencesHess JW and White WB., 1982. Geomorphology of Burnsville Cove and the geology of the Butler Cave Sinking Creek system. Burnsville Cove Synposium. Adobe Press, Albuquerque, NM. Nicholson IK and Wefer FW, 1982. Exploration and mapping of the Sinking Creek system. Burnsville Cove Synposium. Adobe Press, Albuquerque, NM. Rosenfeld JR and Shifflett TE, 1995. Caves of Burnsville Cove, Virginia. Underground in the Appalachians: A Guidebook for the 1995 NSS Convention. National Speleological Society, Huntsville, AL. Shifflett TE, 2003. Burns Cave. NSS News, July 2003. National Speleological Society, Huntsville, AL.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings83

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CAVES OF TONGZI, TUDI, JIELONG, WULONG COUNTY, CHONGQING, CHINA SIX YEARS AND COUNTINGMike Futrell1, Mike Ficco2, Erin Lynch3 1456 Thistle Ln, Christiansburg VA 24073 USA, karstmap@hotmail.com28140 Cumberland Gap Rd, New Castle VA 24127 USA, mficco@mindspring.com3Tongzi Centre for Karstand Cave Exploration, Wulong, Chongqing, China, speleology.erin@gmail.com Between 2007 and 2012 expeditions of the Hong Meigui Cave Exploration Society have explored the karst and caves near the towns of Tongzi, Tudi, and Jielong, in Wulong County, Chongqing, China. As of Spring 2012, 57 km of cave passage has been documented and numerous additional caves, karst features, and springs have been identified. The caves are located in the watersheds just west of the UNESCO South China Karst World Heritage sites that contains the Houping Cave System which has over 125 km of related caves in addition to five classic tiankengs. Most effort has been focused on the Quankou Dong (Spring Mouth Cave) System. Of particular note is Cloud Ladder Hall which is believed to be the sixth largest room in the world by floor area and third by volume. Cloud Ladder Hall likely represents a proto-tiankeng, that is, in near geologic time it will join the ranks of the giant open air tiankengs. The Tongzi System has seen less work but has significant development. The watershed consists of four elongated north south trending dolines, the longest of which is 11 km long and over 500 meters deep. These flow into a mountainous plateau which itself contains some very large sinkholes. The resurgence entrance is 116 meters tall, 25 meters wide, and the resurgence flows about 3.5 cubic meters in the dry season. After the 2012 expedition the length of unconnected caves in the lower system totaled 35.0 km and the deepest vertical extent is greater than 450 m. The Tongzi group in an adjacent watershed contains the un-connected Shanghetaowan (Walnut Bend) and Lao Chang Dong (Old Factory Cave). Shanghetaowan is 8,489 m long and 471 m deep and has potential for much more. The uniqueness and scale of the watersheds imply much more cave exists than has been found to date.1. IntroductionThe project was first envisioned in 2004 while searching the then newish Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) terrain models for an interesting area to make a cave project. These public domain models were subsequently incorporated by the virtual worlds of the internet like Google Earth and others. The Tongzi area was adopted by the Hong Meigui group as a perfect extension of the regional projects near one of the UNESCO South China Karst World Heritage sites. Yearly expeditions were begun in 2007 and run during the relatively dry season of March when the snow has mostly stopped falling and the spring rains have not yet arrived. Parts of the system are very susceptible to flash flooding and it is believed that many of the caves are only approachable during the driest times of the year.2. Geographic SettingThe study area is dominated by steep terrain ranging from 500 to 1,500 m a.s.l. developed in thickly bedded Cambrian and Ordovician limestones. Surface drainage is dominated by four large parallel blind valleys with sinking streams contributing to the underground hydrologic network. The area is quite rural with roads only recently reaching some of the villages. Expedition life has been characterized by the warm hospitality of remote villagers. The area thus far investigated can be viewed as three groups: the Quankou System, the Headwater Dolines, and in a separate watershed the Tongzi area caves.3. Quankou Dong Hydrologic SystemMost of the known Quankou Dong System lies under the Ranjaigou elevated valley that extends east-west along the bottom of four large dolines. The resurgence flows about 3.5 cumecs in the dry season and may represent most of the water sinking in the dolines. There are currently 4 unconnected parts of the greater system that contain the main streamway. These are: Quankou (4 entrances), Wudi (3 entrances), Shengkongba (1 entrance), and Yingjaiwan (3 entrances). Adding in a few smaller caves there are 35 km of passage known in the immediate area of the Quankou System. 3.1. Quankou Dong Quankou Dong (Spring Mouth Cave) is the main resurgence entrance. It was first visited in 2007 after the analysis of SRTM terrain models implied this should be our top target area. The 116m tall entrance passage quickly forks. To the west is a very large canyon that carries most of the water. To the north large up-trending passage continues through to Gaiping Doline. Both sides have tremendous airflow. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings84

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The western Wet Side or Ron Simmons Streamway is characterized by deep rapid water, sporting waterfall climbs, and beautiful large passage that continues for 1.4 km to a sump. To the north the Dry Side passage requires 6 short rigged climbs that are the floor of a huge paleo trunk. The airflow is so strong the team filmed a video of flying a kite in the main trunk. A set of side passages lead to a higher paleo segment know as Ultrabore. Farther up the main passage is very flashy infeeder and Cloud Ladder Hall, one of the largest rooms in the world. Beyond the main passage continues to the 80 m high Er Long Dong (Two Dragon Cave) entrance at the bottom of Gaiping Doline. Half way along this last segment a series of side passages develop westward and ultimately reach a grouping of smaller paleo entrances also in the bottom of Gaiping Doline. The primary route under the ridge between the two main entrances is just over 3 km. In the east end of Ranjaigou valley are the other two entrances to Quankou. On the south side is Xiniu Dong which almost immediately drops a 170m pitch to a large trunk that soon drops pitches of 10 m and 30 m to drop into the high stream passage of the wet side. Directly across the valley to the north is Zhaishi Dong. Here a sizable uptrending trunk narrows into a climbing canyon that is best done with several traverse lines. A series of short climbs, one rigged, opens onto a balcony high in the wall of Cloud Ladder Hall. After a rebelay at -22 m a free hang rappel is made into the middle of the room for a total pitch of 244 m. This astounding triple connection was made in 2010, and Xiniu was joined in 2012. This group is 16.0 km long and 430+ vertical. Of additional interest is a tight muddy shaft series dubbed Jet Stream Cave on the ridge directly above Cloud Ladder Hall. Despite tremendous airflow the cave ends in tight rifts and drains. The bottom at a depth of 111m must be close to breaking into the unseen ceiling of Cloud Ladder Hall. A connection would increase the cave depth to about 550 m. 3.2. Wudi Dong, Tianshengyan, and Liuqianwujian Wudi Dong, Tianshengyan, and Liuqianwujian form the next cave group. Wudi is almost a karst window in theFigure 1. Regional Overview. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings85

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bottom of a very large steep sinkhole about 1.5 km long and 100 m deep. A large passage at the bottom quickly intersects the stream. A short way to the east is a sump that is very close to the upstream sump in Quankou. To the west is deep water in very tall canyon. After 2.2 km and several waterfall climbs the upstream sump is encountered. There are several side passages at this lower level. Tianshengyan is up the hill on the south side of the valley, past Wudi. It is dry mazy, and contains old saltpeter workings. Just down the hill is the small entrance of Liuqianwujian where a pit is immediately encountered. Several more pits follow and the cave develops at a mid-level underneath Tianshengyan. A series of pits connect both caves to the lower passage in Wudi. This group is 10.8 km long and 228 m deep. 3.3. Shengkongba The entrance to Shengkongba (a place name) is a large obvious wet weather insurgence in a long shallow sink near the west end of Ranjaigou valley. The main passage quickly chokes in cobbles and organic debris, but a side passage leads to a maze of crawls and short pitches of 7, 6, 9, 10, 8 m. Then the 6thpitch of 34 m finally intersects base level where a large trunk leads to the active stream way. Unfortunately only 170 m of the stream is traversable as it sumps up and down stream. Shengkongba is 2 km long and 118 m deep and a number of leads remain. 3.4. Yingjiawan The last cave in the valley is Yingjiawan. An active stream from the non-carbonates to the west flows into a prominent entrance in a shallow sink. The stream immediately spills over a 12 m pit and enters large borehole steeply trending down. Several obscure climbs and incoming passages are passed before the passage levels out in an oval wind tunnel. After several hundred meters the main stream passage is encountered. Unfortunately it sumps up and downstream in short order while the air is lost in a complex of infeeders. Near the entrance are two other entrances, one which drops a very nice 82 m pitch after a short canyon section. This group is 3.9 km long and 169 m vertical. Sitting above Yingjiawan, but not yet connected, is Shizikou Dong. This horizontal complex has four entrances and is 1.6 km long and 60 m of vertical extent. 3.5. Cloud Ladder Hall Cloud Ladder Hall is the tallest of the worlds very large rooms. It sits under the ridge, on the high-water flow path, between the lower end of Gaiping Doline and the Quankou resurgence. This flow accounts for the removal of collapse rock as the ceiling continues to stope upwards. Several waterfalls enter the room from very high indicating active development. Passage in Zhaishi Dong intersect the walls of Cloud Ladder Hall at a point 244 meters above the floor, yet the ceiling can still not be seen at this point. Jet Stream Cave located directly above the room further indicates extensive shaft development between the ceiling and the surface which is estimated to be less than 100 meters. Due to these features Cloud Ladder Hall is considered a prototiankeng a chamber in the final stages of transition into a tiankeng. The floor area is 51,000 square meters, and the volume is estimated to be as much as 5.8 million cubic meters, ranking it sixth and third respectively in the world.Figure 2. Quankou Cave System and Location of Cloud Ladder Hall. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings86

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4. The DolinesPerhaps the 4 dolines north of Quankou all feed into one big system. Thus far relatively little cave exploration has been conducted despite large sinking streams in each. In the western and largest, the fourth or Gaiping Doline, is the Er Long entrance to Quankou, and a massive insurgence, Erlongkong (length 177 m, -20 m). Local people tell stories of more caves. In the third doline from the east, some work was done in 2007. The entrance to Jiugoubashui Dong (553 m, -87 m) is formed where the dolines stream plummets over a 57 m pitch into a large open air shaft. At the bottom a large passage diminishes to a choke rather unexpectedly. On the east hillside two beautifully decorated caves were partially explored, Xiniu Dong (846 m, -56 m), and Sancha Dong, (1,391 m, -74 m). The team has not yet explored the second doline where the town of Jielong is located, nor the first doline. In the hills a little closer to Tongzi, two paleo trunk segments are next to the road, Wantangsui (520 m, -15 m) and Wantangda (421 m, -15 m), as well as numerous other small caves and unexplored entrances. The teams impression is that a great deal of significant cave will be found in the valleys, ridges, and plateaus along the big dolines.5. Tongzi Area Caves5.1. Tongzi System The system is located down the ridges southwest of the Houping System along similar structural lineaments and begins inside the Town of Tongzi. The most prominent entrance, Shanghetaowan Dong (Upper Walnut Bend Cave), is a classic karst window which serves as the town dump. Upstream of this point several dendritic passages lead to additional pit entrances. Downstream a large passage continues, passing a short breakdown choke, and intersecting the infeeder of Leng Dong after about 1 km. Leng Dong (Cold Cave) is the preferred entrance for the lower cave and accesses a continuation of the stream canyon after a complicated 12 m pitch avoiding a waterfall and plunge pool. After a couple kilometers of winding passage a sump is encountered. Near the sump an infeeder was followed for 1.3 km with many leads left unexplored. The Tongzi System is 8,489 m long and 471 m deep. Unfortunately the cave is horribly fouled with trash which has severely dampened interest in further exploration. 5.2 Lao Chang Dong Lao Chang Dong is a 3,146 m long and 98 m deep cave complex that is about 1.5 km southwest and downstream of Shanghetaowan, and possibly containing the same stream. Old saltpeter mining vats, trails, and artifacts are in abundance, giving the cave its name. Many leads remain to be explored and more entrances have been seen farther down the mountain. 5.3 Other Caves Numerous other smaller caves also have been found and documented in the general area. Despite some of them being prominently visible in the mountainsides, they have thus far been found to be relatively small.6. ConclusionsThe cave systems of the Tongzi, Tudi, and Jielong townships are significant in size, extent, hydrology, and geomorphological development. The team believes a great deal more cave exists in this area and the finest discoveries are yet to come.AcknowledgmentsMany thanks go to all the people and organizations that have supported Hong Meiguis efforts and made all this possible: National Speleological Society for their exploration grants; Ghar Parau Foundation; Andy Eavis, Pangjie and the Peoples Government of Wulong, Chongqing; The numerous local officials and townspeople who have made our visits enjoyable.ReferencesASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) 2009. NASA (US), METI (Japan). http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gdem.asp NASA 2003. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/ Schwartz B, 2012. A Large Cave Chamber in Quankou Dong, Northern Wulong County, China: A Proto-Tiankeng on the Chamber-Tiankeng Continuum. Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA (unpublished data). UNESCO 2007. South China Karst. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/ Figure 3. Cloud Ladder Hall. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings87

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THE HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF EXPLORATION IN YANTANGPING CAVE SYSTEM OF WULONG COUNTY, CHINAStephen Gladieux Detroit Urban Grotto of the National Speleological Society, 204 Washington St., Chelsea, MI 48118 stephen.gladieux@gmail.com Hong Meigui Cave Exploration Society, Cave and Karst Research Center Tonzi City, Chongqing, China The Hong Meigui Cave Exploration Society (HMG) is an organization with wide international membership which is devoted to exploring and characterizing Chinas many caves. Its main area of focus is Wulong County, Chongqing Province. Its permanent base of operation is in the town of Tongzi. HMGs main function is to facilitate the organization of expeditions by providing a presence on the ground in China yearlong. There are many logistical challenges that expeditions must overcome when working in developing countries; Additionally, China poses its own unique legal challenges that classify many forms of cartography as infringing on state secrets. Yantangping cave (HMG logging code 48H-H12-127-yantangping) is located in the Houping area of Wulong County, China. It lies just outside the buffer zone of the San Wang Dong (SWD)/Er Wang Dong (EWD) UNESCO World Heritage site. It is considered a significant cave by HMG members because of location, depth, difficulty and potential for new discoveries. It has a total vertical extent of 491 m and a surveyed length of 1,210 m. Significant passages have been discovered in SWD and EWD that extend out of the UNESCO protected area and far into the UNESCO buffer zone, thus indicating that both the protected and buffer zones should be expanded; however, the likely interconnectivity of the Yantangping System demonstrates the enormous extent to which these zones need redefining. Until recently Yantangping was never the primary focus of an expedition, but due to the length and difficulty of exploration trips it is inefficient to explore as a tertiary objective; the first full scale expedition focusing on Yantangping is scheduled for Chinese New Year 2014.1. IntroductionYantangping Cave System (YTP) is located north of the town of Tongzi in Wulong County, China. Expedition participants typically arrive in Chongqing via domestic flights; from there it is a 2 hour bus ride to Wulong City followed by a three hour bread van to the town of Tongzi. Despite the fact that Tongzi has an estimated population of 200,000 people, its infrastructure is similar to that of a town of 500 people in North America. YTP is situated on the east side of Yantangping Valley on a steep hillside at an elevation of approximately 1,340 m above mean sea level. The entrance is accessed via foot path by a 90 minute hike. This path repeatedly crosses a streambed which is dry most of the year. There is a small reservoir farther up the valley than the entrance from which the local community pipes much of its drinking water. Weather in this region of China is relatively stable with four seasons and a clearly defined wet season. Average monthly temperatures in the town of Tongzi range from -10 C to 40 C. Unlike the province capitol, Chongqing City, the air quality in Tongzi can be good.2. GeologyYantangping Valley runs from the northwest toward the southeast. It separates the Houping watershed from the Gai Ping Doline and associated Quankou Cave System. It shares a large section of ridge with the San Wang Dong Cave System (SWD) and is formed in Ordovician limey dolomite and other Ordovician carbonates. Although a full characterization of the area has not been finished, scattered field work indicates a 3 dip toward SWD. In-cave observations show large variation in the rock quality and composition; members vary from easy to hand drill to so hard and siliceous that drill bits spark. Several dye traces have been done in the area using fluorescent dye dumped at the entrance to YTP. However, numerous dye receptors were lost because of high flow at the bugging locations and no dye was indicated. This is potentially due to the high flow at the springs relative to the low volume of water flow in the cave. More dye traces are planned for the future. The YTP Valley walls are very steep and covered with heavy brush making climbing them extremely difficult. The ridge in which YTP is developed is forested with small conifers as well as heavy deciduous brush; it has not been fully explored and there is no complete catalogue of surface karst features. It is likely that there are additional entrances located on the ridge top as there is rumor in the village of large pits. There is a total possible increase of 250 m of vertical extent by adding an entrance on the ridge top directly above the current entrance. Satellite imagery shows several shadows on the ridge that could possibly be pits; however, their existence has not been confirmed.3. General DescriptionThe nature of cave passage varies greatly with depth this is the most intriguing aspect of the system secondary to possible connection to SWD. There is a strong, perennial draft at the entrance and a very slight inflow of water from the surface drainage at that point on the valley wall. The upper most section of the cave has very few side passages Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings88

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and is typically joint-controlled: significant pits alternate with narrow rifts down to -194 m. It is in this section of the cave that the most difficult challenges to exploration are encountered. There is one notable non-joint controlled crawlway in the upper section. It is a low volume passage with a flowing stream and grapefruit sized cobbles. This is the one part of the cave discovered to date in which a flooding event could be deadly; however, the current entrance configuration makes it highly unlikely that large amounts of rain water would ingress at that point. There are several significant obstacles in the upper section of the system: a long, cobbled, wet crawlway; a chest compressing rift; a floorless, wall less traverse to a pitch head, a chest compress on rope; and numerous long pitches sprinkling water. At -261 m a 30 m long section of especially challenging rift is encountered. This passage is the single most difficult to traverse and was dubbed Riff Raff during exploration. If not for the valiant efforts of Tommy Shifflet exploration would have gone no further. This section of rift is not quite chest compressing in width and not tall enough in height to travel upright. It is slightly tilted from vertical and the less than vertical wall is perfectly smooth and mudded whereas the overhanging wall is forested with snagging protrusions. Additionally, the cross section narrows toward the bottom so that bags and bodies get wedged; there is no floor to use for support. In the last few meters of this passage it drops down to the floor and requires crawling on ones side in 15 cm of water to progress. The second section of the cave consists of voluminous and deep vertical spaces. Beyond Riff Raff the streamway cascades down into a large cross section. The water falls 20 m and lands just to the west of an underground watershed. At this intersection the cave gains volume without a clear explanation for why. Comfortable walking passage goes in both directions, and both directions slope downward. The water flows a short distance westward before falling into a significant vertical space. This space extends upward and downward. It takes a stone over 3 seconds freefalling to make contact with something and Figure 1. Regional overview of selected caves in northern Wulong County showing the relative location of Yantangping Cave to Sa n Wang Dong and Er Wang Dong. Image courtesy of Mike Futrell.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings89

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then rattles foe an additional few seconds. This estimates the drop to be over 100 m. The vertical space has the look and feel of a massive cross canyon extending in two directions rather than a simple pit or migrating shaft. It has not been explored to date. To the east there is 90 m of gently descending, dry walking passage which is terminated by another large vertical space. This large pit has several adjacent pits which are connected at a mid-level but do not appear to reconnect below. Enormous alcoves are visible on the far side of the pit and appear to have significant in feeding passages. This pit is approximately 27 m in diameter. Below the initial pit the passage turns a corner and continues downward via another large pit with windows, a canyon, and another pit at which point a sloping ceiling becomes visible. A few short drops and one more pit complete the journey to the only established camp site in the cave at -401 m. The ceiling is an obvious bedding plane tilted at approximately 30. Camp is situated in the first of 3 adjacent pits. From here there are numerous passages extending in several directions with mostly horizontal travel. This area is considered the third section of the cave in that the nature of passage is different from the previous two sections. The most notable passage in this area is the Downward Spirals passage which intersects a fault and follows it downward; it doubles back under itself many times as it gains depth. It is in this area that the hardest rock is encountered. Eventually, Downward Spirals reaches the lowest point in the cave to date after 100 m of rope from camp. While most of the passages in YTP are wet, many of the passages after camp are very dry and at least one area has large amounts of gypsum. One exception is the terminal room of Downward Spirals which is 20 m tall and has a cracked mud floor. There is a strong draft coming from a too-tight bedrock squeeze some meters off the floor.4. History of ExplorationModern exploration in YTP began with the entrance being logged by HMG in 2007 after a team was led to the entrance by a local villager. It is unlikely that there was significant exploration before this point because, while the entrance is horizontal, ropes are needed immediately for a 30 m pitch. The first survey to penetrate beyond the first pitch was conducted by Duncan Collis and Mike Ficco in April 2007. Survey trips were routinely added on to the beginning or end of other expeditions. As exploration continued and trips became longer it became more and more unfeasible to rerig the cave and proceed to survey on a single trip, even with the practice of leaving derigged ropes in the cave. Soon it became necessary to spend a day rerigging, and then a second day surveying and derigging. The majority of exploration trips were limited by the amount of rope the team could carry. No hammer drills have been taken beyond Riff Raff thus on numerous trips the number of self-driven bolts that could be set were the limiting factor. All exploration was done on extended, single day push trips until December 2010. By this point travel to the pushing front with equipment required 8 hours. Duncan Collis, Rob Garret and the present author established the only in-cave camp to date. The team hauled a tackle sack of hardware to rerig to the pushing front and 3 tackle sacks of camping gear. They rerigged to the watershed and left the gear. The following day the team returned with 3 additional tackle sacks of camping gear and rope; they pushed onward rigging into the unknown and hoping to encounter a reasonable location to make camp. After several new pitches and exploration of junctions it was late into the night. Camp was set at the first possible location, which proved to be an uncomfortable camp. The current YTP camp has just enough room for 3 hammocks, two of which suffer scattered drips of water. The floor beneath camp is sticky mud. The water source is a 27 m drip which is collected in a Darren drum and allowed to sit overnight so the sediment can settle. The drip collection is a scant meter away from the toilet. Due to the infrequent nature of trips it was decided that human waste, both liquid and solid, could be left in the drain of this small pit and would have sufficient time to wash down stream. Only after fully exploring this area and near the conclusion of the camp trip was it realized that the toilet drain does not merely reconnect to another lead below, but is a lead that needs exploration. In addition to the toilet lead one other lead was left coming off of camp. This second lead was drafting at the top of a small pitch where exploration was ended. All passages explored to date in YTP have been surveyed in keeping with the HMG policy of no scooping. All ropes save the first are left in-cave but all hangers and maillons are removed after exploration. Rigging thus far has been done using 8 mm wedge anchors above Riff Raff and 12 mm Spit self-drive drop-in anchors thereafter. Petzl aluminum alloy twist, and bend hangers, as well as amarrage supple hangers are used. Excluding the first rope, the cave is rigged using 9 mm and 8 mm diameter ropes.5. Connection to San Wang DongThere is currently a separation of 1,670 m horizontally and 0m vertically between the closest known passages in YTP and SWD. SWD is developed at a lower elevation and to the east of YTP; there are currently going climbing leads in the farthest west passages of SWD. Based on the passage density in neighboring areas it is reasonable to believe that there is a connection to SWD. With the impending connection of SWD and EWD this connection would make a system with total length of at least 128 km and a vertical extent of 1,160 m. The current YTP entrance would be the highest point in the system. Recent explorations in SWD have discovered several large diameter passages each over 1 km in length; it is not impossible that a single day of survey could result in a connection.6. Future ExpeditionsIt is inefficient to further exploration in YTP via single day trips thus necessitating dedicated expeditions. The first of these is planned for Chinese New Year 2014. The primary objective will be to finish exploration of the dry side of the Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings90

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watershed in the first week and then push into the wet branch. Additionally, it may be possible to find a bypass to Riff Raff, which is a tertiary objective. Exploration is planned to be done on 5 day rotating, hot bedded camp trips. There are already several hundred meters of rope in the dry branch which can be used there and then subsequently in the wet branch. The expedition will take several hundred additional meters of rope as well as a hammer drill to use beyond Riff Raff.AcknowledgmentsExploration in YTP would not be where it is today without the persistence and drive of Duncan Collis and the continued support of the Hong Meigui Cave Exploration Societys Chair, Erin Lynch. Thanks are due to Mike Futrell for preparation of the North Wulong regional map. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings91

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UNDERWATER EXPLORATION OF THE BJURLVEN VALLEY CAVE (SWEDEN) UNDER EXTREME WINTER CONDITIONSDmitri Gorski, Nicklas Myrin, Bosse Lenander, Markus Nord, Mark Dougherty Swedish Speleological Federation (SSF) www.expeditionbjuralven.se The underwater cave in Bjurlven valley in the Swedish county of Jmtland was discovered in 1979. An attempt to dive into the cave was made in 1997, but the system was deemed undivable due to very high (up to 20 knots) water flow. However, in the early 2000-s, a group of Swedish cave divers determined that favourable conditions in the cave system can occur and proved that it can be dived in early spring when ice covers the entrance and the flow is moderate. The exploration in Bjurlven thus began. The first Expedition Bjurlven was carried out in 2007, and since then divers have visited the harsh winter landscape every year in March. The documented, explored and mapped cave system now measures more then 700 meters; the deepest part is at around 20 meters. The tight and narrow passages as well as extreme water temperatures (down to 0 C and lower) require the use of special diving techniques and equipment, some of which has been developed specifically for this project. Through cooperation with the local community, Expedition Bjurlven gained a special place in the lives of the local residents and authorities. The expedition was included in a recent European Union regional development project From Outer Space to the Inner of The Earth and a documentary about the Bjurlven valley by Kurt Skog was released in the spring of 2012. Through joint efforts of the expedition members and the local community, Bjurlven is now the longest underwater cave in Sweden. Research within hydrology, geology and biology is carried out in cooperation with universities and new results come forward every year.1. IntroductionDoes cave diving in the middle of Swedish winter only steps away from the Polar circle sound crazy to you? With temperatures down to minus 25 C, a thick layer of ice covers every waterhole. To get to the cave, a lengthy trip on a snowmobile has to be undertaken first. And yet, this year is the seventh year that a group of Swedish cave divers and researchers organize an expedition to the Dolinsjn cave in Bjurlven valley. Overcoming the difficulties, fighting the weather, the expedition continues to add newly explored sections of the cave to the Dolinsjn system. Join the explorers on their quest described in this paper, and you will understand why the cave calls for them again and again every year!Figure 1. Bjurlven valley cave is full of hidden beauty; small tight tunnels open up into big vaults further inside. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings92

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amazing! Residents of the nearby Blsjn village make a large effort each year by preparing the scooter tracks which span approximately 6 kilometers from the nearby road to the cave entrance. The expedition members live in an old village school and have access to warm food and sauna after exhausting days in the field. Everybody, from housewives to the local village business owners, is involved in making expeditions to Bjurlven a success! 2.2. Cooperation with the authorities Bjurlven valley lies within a nature reserve. This means that special permits are required to be able to for example operate snowmobiles in the area. Due to the many years of fruitful cooperation with the local authorities, the paperwork is seldom a problem and the expedition receives all kind of support from the county of Jmtland. As a payback, a lot of publicity is created around the Bjurlven valley and the unique tourism destination it is. Expedition to Bjurlven has been subject to a lot of attention from the media, from local radio stations and newspapers to large national media houses. 2.3. Diving techniques and equipment Due to the small size of the cave, the technique called sidemount diving has to be used. While normally divers carry the tanks on their backs, in side-mount diving they are carried along the sides which gives a very low and streamlined profile. Equipped like that, the divers are able to enter the cave. Each diver carries three large 12 liter tanks (most of the air supply is reserved for emergency). The third cylinder is mounted on the chest and can be removed when passing obstacles. To be able to withstand the freezing cold for several hours at a time, thick undergarments, double hoods, dry gloves and electrical heating are used. Divers must not disturb the fragile environment in the cave and this is why many hours are spent each year practicing diving trim and buoyancy, an art of swimming in the cave without disturbing its walls, floor or ceiling. 2.4. Underwater cave mapping The goal of many of the dives is to explore the cave system and produce a map of it. The cave is mapped using Some caves are big and roomy; you could almost drive a truck though their passages if they were dry. Diving there is pleasant and effortless; you simply glide through the tunnels and enjoy the scenery hovering above the floor. There are plenty of such caves in Mexico, France or Florida. Some caves are exotic and unusual, like the Tank cave in Australia och the Molnar Janos cave in Budapest. Some caves are cold Plura River cave in Norway or Ordinskaya cave in Russia are good examples. A few caves are tight and nasty, almost trying to catch and trap you everywhere you go. Now imagine the cold and the tight confined spaces combined together; to move somewhere you often have to squeeze through passages that can barely accomodate a diver, the water temperature so low that you stop feeling your fingertips in dry gloves only a couple of minutes into the dive. And what can be more exotic than cave diving in the middle of arctic landscape far away from the entire civilisation? The cave in the Bjurlven Valley is amazingly beautiful though low passages open up into vertical cracks, everywhere there are evidences of extremly high water flow during the summer months. Passages are eroded into streamlined channels; walls are covers in thousands of ripples and facets. Limestone is hard and loose rocks on the bottom are shaped into sleek purposeful shapes. All small objects and loose rock are washed away by the current which in the summer months can reach up to 20 knots. This is the main reason for the expedition to be orginized during winter, when the water flow is virtually zero and the entrance pool is covered by more than a meter of ice. Another reason is the remote location of the cave. During summer, the only access to the cave is by foot through more than five kilometers of forest and marsh. No terrain vehicles are allowed since the whole area is a nature reserve. During winter, however, the expedition is granted permission to use snowmobiles and the logistics become much simpler. Small vegetation is covered by deep snow and the bare trees are not an obstacle when snowmobile trails are prepared.2. Materials and methods2.1. Support from the local community Diving expeditions to such a remote location would never be possible without the support of the local community. The support for expeditions to Bjurlven has always beenFigure 2.The first task each year is to clean the diving site from all the snow, drill a hole in the thick ice and establish a base camp. Figure 3.The entrance to the cave is low and treacherous, first hundred meters are basically one long restriction. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings93

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volumetric measuring techniques each 2.5 meters the divers measure distances from the guideline to the walls, the ceiling and the floor using a measuring tape. This information is later fed into a computer programme CaveX that generates a three-dimensional image of the mapped cave passages. 2.5. Tracing of the divers in the cave By putting an electromagnetic tag on a diver, a pulsating magnetic field can be detected on the surface with a radio location device. The radio location and communication device, M-85, is developed, built and described by Bo Lenander, SM5CJW, member of CREG (Lenander 1987). M-85 is a 32768 Hz 1.5W DSB transceiver with a 420 mm circular tuned loop antenna. The tag is a 33 kHz transmitter with a horizontal 300 mm single turn tuned loop antenna. While the tag is under water, its water sensor activates the transmission of short 33 kHz bursts with 2 Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF). That can be heard as an audio tone signal in the M-85 receiver. The R6/AA battery and electronics are put in a 125 mm long watertight Al-tube. Total tag weight is 100 g. The device can be seen in the figure below. 2.6. Biological research Biological research in the 2011 expedition focused on carrying out an inventory of the species tolypella canadensis, a rare and endangered charophyte. This species was announced in 1973 (Sawa 1973) and has only been observed in relatively few sites in the Arctic-alpine region (Langangen 1999). Research into the question was initiated after initial findings from our expedition in 2010 when the species was informally observed to be growing in the area. Possible sites where the species was likely to grow (pools with a soft sandy bottom) were investigated under the direction of Markus Nord. A diver wearing a mask and snorkel searched each site carefuly.3. Results and discussionThere are very few fun dives on the Bjurlven expeditions. Although this is not completely true since all dives there are extremely exciting. But there is a mission for each and one of them. Every diver, entering the water, has a task to do, be it digging at a remote stone choke to see if a connection can be made or laying new line and mapping new passages. Each dive usually starts with a briefing with the surface manager and safety diver on duty. After clearing the dive plan and discussing the mission, it is time to kit up with sidemount tanks and jump into the hole in the ice on top of the Dolinsjn, a small lake at the entrance of the cave system. The visibility there is usually rather poor and a thick blue guideline leads under a ledge to finally disappear in a tight horizontal crevice. The floor is loose gravel and sometimes, an effort of some digging must be made at the beginning of the dive to make it through with the stomach in the gravel and the back against the cave ceiling. Inside, the cave opens up. Suddenly the visibility clears and amazing view comes into sight sleek tunnels polished by water for thousands of years, disappear into the darkness. There is not much silt since most of it is carried away by summer flow even small stones are not that common in some cave passages.Figure 4. Radio location device on the left and electromagnetic tag on the right. Figure 5. Further inside, the cave opens up and sometimes divers swim through big vaults where multiple passages coverge. Figure 6. Throusands of small facets on the cave walls are formed by the summer flows; using their shape and size it is actually possible to calculate the volume of water passing through the cave. Up to date, the longest penetration in Dolinsjn cave is some 250 meters. This does not sound like a lot, but considering the environment it is a lengthy distance to swim. Several tight restrictions block the way and have to be negotiated, sometimes taking off some of the tanks. Safety bottles, placed every 20 meters, help to reduce the risks but are a big job to place out at the beginning of each expedition. Although each dive is a mission, there is a lot of time to admire the cave. The tasks are usually at the end Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings94

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of the line and thus, there is a lot of time to look around on the way in and out. 3.1. Cave exploration and mapping Three-dimensional cave map, created by the divers, can give a lot of valuable information. It can be clearly seen which passages come close to each other and the divers then attempt to make a connection between them. So far, over 700 meters of cave have been mapped. The map also allows performing calculations of the cave volume which then, if the flow of water is known, can be used to calculate the amount of water passing through the cave each year. Flowmeters have been placed out in the cave for this purpose. Hydrological and geological research can be performed using the data obtained. For example, the age of the cave can be estimated if facets and ripples on cave passage walls are measured and the amount of water flowing by each year is known. The flow conditions also help to learn more about the melting of the ice in the mountains upstream from Bjurlven. 3.2. Tracing of the divers in the cave The operating range of this equipment is up to 50 m and it is possible to measure how deep under the surface the diver is by use of standard methods. In an urban area, where the electromagnetic noise level is high, the practical operating range will be reduced. The electromagnetic noise in the Bjurlven area is very low. It is important to avoid the use of digital cameras and LED-lights within 1 m from the receiving loop antenna as those devices can give a high noise level. With the described equipment we were able to follow the divers in the cave below the snowy mountain and that gave the dive master helpful information both for safety reasons and for timing of planned dive operations. The footprints/tracks in the snow, after the divers have been followed, showed the horisontal projection of the cave, a scale 1:1 cave map. In the future it would be useful to have a 2-way communication with the diver. Questions are given from the surface and the diver can answer yes/no with a single tone burst. The operating range of the electromagnetic equipment is highly dependent on the transmitter power as the operation is within the near field of the loop antenna (inverse cube law). For further use of this tracing method the transmitter power of the tag must be much higher than at the moment. 3.3. Biological research Three sites were investigated: From the main resurgence cave (RT90: X7202791, Y1419988) to the bridge over the river. Outside of resurgence is where initial observations of the charophytes were made during the previous year. The bottom structure of the river is stones and coarse gravel with some limestone. However, no traces of the species were found in 2011. No other areas with a sandy bottom were discovered. Along the course of the river from the resurgence at Semigrottan(RT90: X7202522, Y 1419184) to the main sinkhole are two areas with a soft sandy bottom: Pooled water where the river turns through 180 degrees at RT90: X7202458, Y1419292 and a large pool 25m downstream of Semigrottan at RT90: X7202522, Y1419196. No traces of the species were found. The third area is around Dolinsjn (RT90: X 7202434, Y 1418696). In the north-east basin (where diving takes place) charophytes were found, but it was determined that they were not the species tolypella canadensis The south west edge of the doline has a soft sand bottom whereas the east has a bottom of mainly rounded gravel. Thus although charophytes were observed during the 2011 expedition the species tolypella canadensis remained elusive and no positive identifications were made. 3.4. Equipment development Expeditions to Bjurlven are perfect for evaluating the performance of existing diving equipment in extreme environment. Also, new equipment is manufactured and tested specifically for the expedition, most often by the divers themselves. One examples of such equipment is the regulator heating systems. Extreme temperatures in the Dolinsjn cave make regulators malfunction. Normally, a freezing would lead to a freeflow which is fairly simple to handle the worst thing that can happen is so-called valveFigure 7. Total mapped length of the cave by 2011 was approximately 700 meters. Figure 8. Winter landscape of the Jmtland county is an impressive sight in itself! It is not a coincedence that the area is a national park. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings95

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breathing when the tank valve is feathered at each breath. While probably a source of a lot of stress for a novice diver, such procedure is fairly easy to use if proper trained. Tank valve with the freeflowing regulator is closed and the diver has to open it a little bit to take each breath; this way very little gas is wasted and the diver can head home in relative safety. The problem, experienced on many occasions in Bjurlven has been that regulators do not freeflow upon freezing they simply stop giving gas. The flow of gas becomes smaller and smaller and after a minute or so just stops completely. This happens due to build-up of ice inside the regulators and it is a rather frightening experience. There is simply nothing to breathe. Of course, double and triple systems help but those might freeze just as easily, especially if the breathing is a bit on the heavy side due to some stress. Special heating sleeves were manufactured to attempt dealing with this risk. Fitted on the heat exchangers on the second stages, the plan was that they reduced the risk of freezing simply by heating the regulator in an efficient manner. It is too early to say if this method was a success, but it can be concluded that none of the regulators, fitted with the heating sleeves, froze while there were multiple freezings of regulators without the heating system during the last expedition in 2011. To collect more statistically reliable data, this equipment will be used in future expeditions and hopefully, at the end, help to reduce accidents connected to second-stage freezing.4. Conclusions and summaryMost of the passages explored and mapped so far end in an intersection where two or three new tunnels reach out into the darkness, around each corner there is most often not a dead end but pleny of new passages to explore. With it`s 700 meters, Dolinsjn cave is today the longest underwater cave system in Sweden. Since there are so many new leads, the system gets significantly longer each year.AcknowledgmentsWe would like to thank all our sponsors for making Expedition Bjurlven possible! Especially the main sponsors, technology company GELAB and diving equipment manufacturer SI TECH, are acknowledged. Support from the local population, the Swedish Speleological Federation (SSF) and local authorities has been a prerequisit for successful expeditions through the years. Finally, we would like to express our gratidude to everyone who have perticipated in the expedition since 2007, striving to our common goal of making the Bjurlven Valley known to the world.ReferencesLangangen A, 1999. Flere opplysninger om utbredelsen og kologien til kransalgen Tolypella canadensis Sawa (Additional information on the distribution and ecoloy of the charophyte Tolypella canadensis). Polarflokken 23: 15 (in Norwegian). Lenander B, 1987.Cave Radio M-85. Speleonics #7, pages 1, 8. Sawa T, 1973. Two new species of Tolypella (Characeae) from North America. Journal of Phycology 9: 472. Figure 9. The temperatures, both topside and in the water, are so extreme that diving regulators need to be submerged at all times to prevent them from freezing. Figure 10. Extreme cold puts pressure on both the equipment and the divers. Figure 11. Every expedition is a teamwork and a celebration of team spirit in cave exploration! Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings96

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exploration of the caves will progresses further. At the beginning of the 70-ies of the last century came to Sardinia Jochen Hasenmayer. Little guy with tremendous vitality. Discoverer, explorer, innovator. Second of August 1972 he plunged for the first time into a siphon at the end of Terminale Ramo Sud (South branch). September 1, 1977 he surpassed (on the third attempt) 630 meters long and 32 meters deep sump. After that he swam through two short sumps Apnea 1 and 2, and discovered nearly 1.5 kilometers of dry tunnels and sumps Owest, which we later named Hasenmayers question mark. In the seventies Jochen as well dived in Ramo Nord. During several attempts based on the information by Axel Mahler he came all the way to the sump, which is in the last overall map marked as cave called Siphone Nord Grande. Hasenmayers memory sketch from 1972 shows that this admirable man has been diving in Ramo di Mezzo. This branch of the Bue Marino cave has been rediscovered only in 2005. Stainless steel wire used instead of guide lines by the Austrian ended a mile from the entrance to the cave. At that time that has been truly remarkable performance.3. The inscription at the end of the caveSumps Bue Marino enticed other speleodivers. Between 1981 and 1982 the French Speleologists Crouquet, Hilaire, Granier and Eric Le Guen went through the sump Terminale. In the turn before sump Apnea 2 they found sump Terminus, interrupted by dry sandy stretches. They got to a distance of 600 meters.GROTTA DEL BUE MARINO SARDINIADaniel Hutan ZO 1-10 Speleoaquanaut, Ledask 433/9, 147 00 Prague 4, Czech Republic, hutnan.dan@gmail.com In 1986 happened a small miracle. During totality when the travel to the west world has been nearly impossible small group of Czech speleodivers from Speleoaquanaut club found themselves in the small spa town of Bad Urach in West Germany. Jochen Hasenmayer has held a lecture there for the guest of the spa about his recent discoveries in the cave Blautopf. Unfortunately the Czech divers were unable to get permission to dive in the cave but the meeting with Jochen has opened the way to Italian island of Sardinia. The diving in this picturesque place called Hasenmayer during a meeting with the Czech group after a lecture as one of the most beautiful in Europe. It has been 25 years since the exploration vehicle Avia with Czech speleodivers first came to the mountains of Supramonte in the Golfo di Orosei.1. Bue MarinoYou can find here one of the most beautiful cave system of Sardinia. The full name of the entrance of the cave, which is known for several centuries, is the Grotta del Bue Marino. It is derived from the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus), that is in Sardinia called Bue Marino sea ox. Seal colonies have appeared in the cave till the early 70-ies of the last century. Grand entrance portal of the cave must have been noticed by fishermen that sailed boats along the coast. Forms in the shape of human figures carved on the walls date back to 6 8 thousand years ago. Probably even early man used the cave, that provided protection from the weather, and when the sea level was a few meters lower, fresh running water. Some inscriptions in the upper part of the portal are from the late 19thcentury. Systematic discovery and mapping Bue Marino started to happen from 50s of the twentieth century. The greatest credit for the survey of the dry parts of the cave system goes to teams of cavers from Sassari and Dorgali.2. Waiting for aqualungRising of the seas ten thousand years ago caused secondary flooding of the monumental corridors. Sumps created an obstacle that was for dry cavers unsolvable problem. The two at the time known branches of Bue Marino cave Ramo Sud and Nord were waiting for a time when aqualung will let speleodivers penetrate sumps and theFigure 1. Entrance to the cave (Photo Radoslav Husak). Figure 2. Public parts (Photo Radoslav Husak). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings97

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We discovered their guiding cord in 2010 in a small trap at the very end Ramo Sud. It is called The French 2. Here, according to a memory sketch a diver got 20 meters away, and 8 meters deep. The French group left cave inscriptions at three locations, which marked the reached positions.Figure 3.Lakes of Ramo Sud (Photo Karol Kyska). Figure 4. 15thsiphon of Ramo Nord (Photo Radoslav Husak). 4. The era of CzechoslovakiaThe first Czech expedition to Sardinia in 1987 examined the inland caves of mountains Monte Alba and Supramonte, also coastal springs on the west coast. Systematic cavediving exploration of Bue Marino by Czech speloedivers began in 1989. Cavers gradually penetrated new parts of The Ramo Nord and mapped it in detail. They overcome 530 meters long and 30 meters deep sump Nord Grande after which they advanced into three corridors of several kilometers. In 1993 Lubos Benysek, Milan Slezak and David Netusil swam along with their Italian colleagues Leo Fancello and Roberto Loru again through siphon Terminale in Ramo Sud. They got to where they were before Hasenmayer and the French. They were forced to return, just before the end of the southern branch by lack of light sources. After this joint Czech-Italian venture there now were three memory drafts of space behind sump Terminal. It was time to map this part of the cave in detail. It happend in 1998 and it was done by a couple Hutnan Hota. During the seven hours that they spent behind the sump they made mapped documentation to the end of Ramo Sud. But still there remained some unknown places. The Czech pair was unable to localize the mysterious Hasenmayers sump Owest and both french sumps.5. New MillenniumThe activity of the Czech speleodivers in Bue Marino increased with the advent of the new millennium. In the years between 2001, 10 expeditions took place under the leadership of Daniel Hutnan. Their goal was to map out the whole cave again and move on to the unexplored parts of the cave system. Ramo Nord (Northern Branch), also known as Czechoslovakia, was gradually supplemented by new discoveries. In 1993 Slezak and Benysek reached a total length of 8 km in this tree. Eighteen years after their exploration, these two end parts were extended by further discoveries with the prospect to continue. The detailed mapping of Ramo Nord lasted three years. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings98

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In 2005 speleodivers encountered guiding cord stretched by Thorsten Wlde. This cord led into the hallway discovered and surveyed by Hasenmayer in 1972. We gave her name Ramo di Mezzo (Middle branch). In the years 2006, 2007 and 2011 here Radek Husak and Jan Zilina gradually reached the underwater distance of 4,000 meters. Group of Czech speleodivers also discovered 700 meters of dry passages that begin in turn at 2,650 meters of Ramo di Mezzo. Cooperation with Italian colleagues Leo Fancello and Roberto Loru led to completion of missing parts of the cave into the central map. Leo provided all the documents from mapping all the dry parts of Ramo Sud as well as Ramo Nord. Also he found in his archive some old memory sketches done by Hasenmayer and French speleodivers from 1981 and 1982. In cooperation with the Italian group and with the help of beacons we were able to pinpoint the exact location of the end of Ramo Sud and in addition to discover one of the passages that is closest to the valley Codula di Luna. The distance to the surface at this spot is 22 meters. Daniel Hutnan overcame with his colleagues sump Terminale six time in total. Here they gradually discovered Figure 5. Map of Bue Marino with the latest discoveries.Figure 6. Penetration through siphon of Ramo Nord (Photo Radoslav Husak). and mapped 1,500 meters of passages. With his son Martin, Mira Manhart and Martin Hones Daniel discovered mysterious places which were not clear from memory sketches. The French sumps could be then studied and mapped in detail. They also found the entrance into the never explored Hasenmayers sump Owest (Hasenmayers question mark).6. Gigantic systemIn view of the position of cave systems in the valley Codula di Luna, it is clear that in the past it was single large system, running the length of tens of kilometers. Deeply cut valley separates the present cave, located in the right part of the valley (Su Palu Su Spiria, Carcaragone, Su Molente, Cala Luna), from 21 km long Bue Marino. Overcoming the valley below ground was a dream that would open the way to the creation of the longest cave system in Italy.7. Sump MartinThe desire to swim underneath the valley became a reality in October 2012. Trinity of Daniel and Martin Hutnan together with Martin Hones has found at the very end of Ramo Sud new sump. It was located near so called French2. Mapping of the final passages of the cave delayed Daniel Hutnan together with Martin Hones. In the meantime Martin Hutnan crawled through all possible cracks cover with fine sediment. In between some rocks he found a passage ending at a little pond. They called it the sump Martin. After short preparation Daniel Hutnan submerged himself in the sump. Since the end of the cavern is at the edge of the valley, there was little chance of finding passages that were wide enough to get through. The bigger was Dans surprise when the passage under water continued further south. After about 80 meters the sump ended in a pond 105 meters. After removing diving bottles Daniel continued further through wide dry corridor covered by decorations. This ended after 330 meters in a narrower Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings99

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Figure 7. Dry passages of Ramo Sud (Karol Kyska). Figure 8. Final parts of Ramo Sud under the valley. Figure 9. Cave systems in the valley Codula di Luna.sinter corridor with sump. The whole discovery is 400 meters long and in general is directed south perpendicular to the valley. Entering the measured data into the map after returning proved that this was historically first successful underground pass under the valley Codula di Luna. Thanks to this discovery the door is open for creation of the longest cave system not only in Sardinia but also in the whole Italy. By combining all known caves in the right and left side of the valley the final length can be 70 km. On discoveries in the cave of Grotta del Bue Marino participated more than 50 cavers from Czech and Sovak Republic. Thanks goes to not only to the local speleological groups from Dorgali and Sassari. We want especially say thank you to those who helped with obtaining permits to work in this beautiful cave and provided historical records and personal assistance: Leo, Maria, Roberto, Mario, Gianpaulo, Fabio.Referencesma M, 1990. Sardegna 89. Speleofrum 1990, IX: 23. Hovorka J, Benek L, 1991. Sardegna 90 Grotta del Bue Marino. Speleofrum 91, X: 8. Slezk M, 1992. Sardegna 91. Speleofrum 1992, XI: 7. Slezk M, 1994. Sardegna 93 Grotta del Bue Marino. Speleofrum 1994, XIII: 70. Novk M, 2004. Sardinie 2003. Speleofrum 2004, XXIII: 49. Hut an D, 2007. Sardinie 2006. Speleofrum 2007, XXVI: 53. Hut an D, ermk J. J, Hovorka J, Grotta del Bue Marino velk plny, velk objevy. Speleofrum 2008, XXVII: 94.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings100

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History of exploration Grotta del Bue Marino (Leo Fancello, Daniel Hut an). Ramo Sud DateName Location/Activity Cave lenght since 1950Dorgali dry parts from entrance ? 1987Sassari, Dorgali draving dry parts 2,960 m 2. 8. 1972J. Hasenmayer Sifone Terminale 270 m 3,230 m 23. 7. 1974J. Hasenmayer Sifone Terminale 550 m 3,270 m 1. 9. 1977J. Hasenmayer Sifone Terminale 630 m, Apnea1, Apnea2 4,590 m 5. 9. 1981Chouquet, P. Penez Sifone Terminale 550 m 4,590 m 14. 9. 1981P. Penez, Chouquet, Hilaire, Granier Sifone Terminale, Gallerie Sable, Salle Blocs4,790 m 16. 8. 1982E. Le Guen, P. Penez Gros Golets, Sif. Terminus 640 m, Sif. F2-20 m5,510 m 30. 10. 1993Benek, Slezak, Netusil, Fancello, LoruSalle Blocs 5,510 m 30. 11. 1998D. Hut an, M. Hota survey dry parts after Sifone Terminale 5,510 m 5. 12. 2007D. Hut an, M. Hut an, M. Manhart, M. Megelaradar 5,560 m 9. 10. 2010D. Hut an, M. Hut an, M. Manhart, M. Honesradar, survey 5,590 m 10. 10. 2011D. Hut an, M. Hones, K. Kyska, P. StrnadSif. Terminus 800 m, dry parts 200 m 6,590 m 7. 10. 2012D. Hut an, M. Hut an, K. Kyska, M. Hones, O. Novk, R. Teichmann Sif. Terminus 200 m, sif. before Apnoe1 60 m6,800 m 10. 10. 2012D. Hut an, M. Hut an, M. Hones Sif. Martin 80 m + dry parts after 330 m 7,210 m Ramo Nord DateName Location/Activity Cave lenght 7. 8. 1972J. Hasenmayer Lago Smeraldo-Lago Nero, 520 m 520 m 14. 8. 1972J. Hasenmayer Lago Nero-Lago Barbara, 160 m 680 m 10. 8. 1973J. Hasenmayer Lago Barbara-Sifone Finale 73, 2,150 m 1. 9. 1977J. Hasenmayer Sifone Finale 73-Sifone Nord Grande 3,350 m 1990Czech 10 divers draving parts in front of Sifone Nord Grande3,350 m 1991M. Slezak, S. Bilek, L. Fancello second floor after 700 m, 300 m 3,650 m 1992Czech 7 divers Sifone Nord Grande-520 m, dry parts after-800 m4,520 m 1993Czech 7 divers parts after Sifone Nord Grande, 2,230 m 6,750 m 2005Czech 16 divers draving parts from entrance to 700 m 6,750 m 2006Czech 11 divers draving parts behind Sifone Nord Grande, chemical analysis, 100 m news 6,850 m 2007Czech 11 divers draving Sifone Nord Grande, 100 m news 6,950 m 1987Sassari, Dorgali, CSS draving dry parts from entrance-1,340 m 8,290 m 2005CSS dry parts after 700 m-250 m 8,540 m Ramo di Mezzo DateName Location/Activity Cave lenght 1972J. Hasenmayer Lago Smeraldo-1,030 m 1,030 m 2005Thorsten Waelde Lago Smeraldo-750 m 1,030 m 2005D. Hut an, R. Husak, K. Svobodov survey, mapping 1,500 m 2005R. Husak, K. Svobodov survey, mapping 2,400 m 2007R. Husak, J. Zilina survey, mapping 4,750 m 9. 10. 2011R. Husak, J. Zilina survey, mapping 4,850 m 11. 10. 2011R. Husak, D. Hut an, R. Teichmann, P. Strnaddry parts after 2,600 m, 700 m 5,550 m Total 21,300 m Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings101

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EXPLORATIONS IN THE LOFERER STEINBERGEOliver Kube, Jochen Hartig, Renato Serdio DAV Hhlengruppe Frankfurt/Main, Germany; renato.serodio@gmail.com The Loferer Schacht is currently the deepest and longest cave in the Loferer Steinberge. Characterised by a 600 m deep vertical segment that leads into a fossil, mostly horizontal area, this cave develops in the upper Dachstein limestone levels, under which an insoluble dolomite base exists. Given the limestones inclination and other indicators such as wind and water systems within the cave, it is presumed that the cavity progresses deeper toward the valley. Further exploratory work is required to confirm this hypothesis.1. IntroductionThe Loferer Schacht (Cat.-Nr. 1323/42) was discovered in 1983 by a team of Polish speleologists from the KKTJ Cracow, who had been systematically exploring and mapping the region of the Loferer Steinberge. The KKTJ surveyed the western branch of this cave between 1983 and 1984. The DAV Hhlengruppe Frankfurt/Main undertook a re-surveying of the western branch down to a maximum depth of -665 m between 1990 and 1991, arriving at the same dead-end first reached by the Polish. During derigging in 1992 a connection to the eastern branch was discovered at -106 m: the Frankfurter System. Exploration in this branch continued, leading to the discovery of a fossil, horizontal segment of the cave between 1999 and 2000. The deepest point surveyed, named Hades (-796.67 m), was reached in 2004, as was the current exploration lead, Sekt oder Selters (-730 m). Here strong wind blows into an area of blocks, still too narrow for passage. Currently, the surveyed length comprises 10,449 m, extending between +9 m and -796 m measured relative to the main entrance (Hartig 2008). Loferer Schachts three known entrances are found roughly 200 m to northwest of the saddle of the Kleine Wehrgrube, between the Reifhorn and the Hochsenhorn, at a height of 2,200 m. The entrances are usually blocked with ice until August. An entrance in the SW face of the Reifhorn, especially in the area of the Weittal and Hafenloch, is presumed. Surface explorations in these regions, in 2005 and 2008, provided an approximation up to m from charted sections of the cave. Nevertheless, an entrance in this region is yet to be found. The Northern Calcareous Alps, in which the Loferer Steinberge are included, are characterised by the existence of high-altitude karst plateaus and by the presence of large horizontal cave levels, known as Riesenhhlen, between the altitudes of 1,600 m and 1,800 m. The Loferer Steinberge, in which the eponymous Schacht is located, are composed of a ca. 1,000 m thick, soluble Dachstein limestone cap, under which an equally thick layer of dolomite stone is found (Fig. 1). Due to the latters low dissolution potential, speleogenesis is sparse, and thus the maximum potential depth is indeed around 1,000 m. The interface between these layers can actually be reached at the lowest point of the known extension of the cave (ca. 1,400 m NN). The slope assumed by the layers, directed to north and northeast (k 2008), implies the possibility of achieving greater depths should karstification have continued within the Dachstein cap.Figure 1. Geological profile SWNE (Reinl 1993). The higher-located and vertical segment of the Loferer Schacht comprises a number of active pits, collecting rain and thaw water from the surface, and displays characteristic erosion surfaces. During progression into the cave, it is evident that both dissolution and erosion of the rock, as well as tectonic processes and collapse, were responsible for the character of this cave. The horizontal section, reached at about -600 m, is markedly different from the vertical passages so far, and it is thought to have developed earlier. Of particular interest are the large, horizontal passages, where flowstone can be found at a number of places. While numerous stalactites of up to 30 cm are known, only three stalagmites were observed to date. Cauliflower and other immersion formations, as well as ground coatings, are also observed at specific locations and mark a supposed waterline (Hartig 2012). Development of the passages along layer interfaces and faults can be easily discerned in the lower, horizontal part described above. As an example, the large corridor called Minas Tirith follows accurately the inclination of the limestone layers (Fig. 2). This passage is still characterised by large, finely polished slickenside surfaces, which are also found frequently throughout the carve. Conglomerate structures have been observed at a single site, corresponding with the lowest point in the cave. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings102

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creek in the southwestern segment of the cave, with water flow correlating directly to rainfall at the surface. The creek collected in the still passable Zick-Zack-meander will later join a second creek, to form the Schweigender Flu, which can be followed until its disappearance into an unpassable pit. Again, this waterline has not been found at lower levels (Kube 2012). Rain events at the surface also cause significant amounts of water to flow through the Nic Moc Diry region; this water is appears to become dammed in a siphon at -620 m. This creek has not been found at lower levels. It is assumed that water collected in the main horizontal passages is flowing in an active level much lower than the currently known fossil passages. It is unclear whether, upon reaching the dolomite layers, this water maintains the general orientation of the upper levels, or flows in a different direction. It is further not known whether water flowing in the active vertical pits actually reaches the horizontal level already surveyed (Kube 2012).3. Temperature and wind systemsTemperature and wind measurements were carried out with automatic means placed inside the cave for the duration of a year (Fig. 3). The automatic measuring instruments were developed specifically for deployment in the Loferer Schacht and are able to record the temperature at 15 minute intervals. Analysis of data recorded with two instruments, resp. at the depths of -60 m and -585 m, as well as of relevant weather stations at the surface, could show that two distinct wind systems persist in the cave, corresponding to the vertical and horizontal sections, respectively. In particular, the temperature variations as recorded by the two separate instruments are distinct and relate, among others, to the existence of snow covers in the openings feeding the system; the degree of blockage was especially apparent in wind measurement data (Hartig 2006).4. FaunaBats and insects have been sighted inside the cave, though to this date no living specimens of the former could be spotted. The first bat skeleton was observed in 1995 at a depth of ca. -300 m, probably consisting of an exemplar of Myotis brandti. A second specimen was discovered in 20022. HydrologyWith a poorly developed soil and epikarst zone in the recharge area, mostly above the treeline, the surface around Loferer Schacht is characterised by the presence of perennial snowfields and ice plugs in karst depressions. The residence time of water here is in the order of half a year to several decades, and melting during the summer season can contribute greatly to the recharge. Virtually all charted sections of the cave are located in the unsaturated (vadose) zone, in the sub-zone of free-draining percolation. Water transport through the large vertical extent found in the Loferer Schacht is extremely rapid, with effects of heavy rain at the surface reaching a depth of 600 m within 5 minutes. The roughly horizontal passages in the Frankfurter system are mostly inactive today, and are thought to have developed under a different hydrological regime at an earlier point in time. The morphology of these corridors suggests their formation under at least partly phreatic conditions. Observations in this section of the cave also indicate that the position of the whole mountain block might have changed since the formers formation. Based on evaluation of the geological structure and water flow direction within the cave system, it can be presumed that the Loferer Schacht system is drained to the east or northeast, into either the Maria-Kirchental or the LofererHochtal. Direct drainage into the Saalach or Haselbach valleys are also likely. Nevertheless, water composition and temperature at these locations indicates that the water being discharged may not be entirely related to the Loferer Schacht system (k 2008). A number of distinct water lines collect in the Frankfurter system to form a creek, which becomes particularly evident at -530 m, in the Stolichnaja. In the cascades that follow, dangerous conditions can occur during heavy rainfall. The creek then disappears through blocks on the ground at -580 m, after which it cannot be followed. No resurgence at lower sections of the surveyed cave could be found. From this point onwards, water is still available in small volumes at scattered locations, in particular pits conveying water from above. Of interest is the fact that the current exploration head, at Minas Tirith, is absolutely dry. Water percolating from the region around the Reifhorns western face is thought to be responsible for the occurrence of a Figure 2. Loferer Schacht in profile (SW-NE). Figure 3. Anemometer/Datalogger in Loferer Schacht. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings103

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at a depth of -285 m, and a further deposit of bones was observed at a depth of 630 m. In the horizontal part of the cave bones and dessicated corpses were found in a several stretches both in the southern and northern branches, as were what appear to be guano deposits. These findings could not, nevertheless, provide any further pointer to a lower entrance to the cave, which is supposed to lie to the southwest. Note that the known entrances at 2,200 m are usually closed until august, and lie rather far from the treeline (Kube 2012). Insects were observed in areas designated for bivouacs and likely carried by the speleologists or in their supplies. Nevertheless, fly maggots and specimens of Speleolepta leptogaster collected in the horizontal section of the cave, specifically in the area designated Frankenloch, are strong indicators of an entrance in the southwest of this section (Hartig 2008).5. Current state of explorationWith the systematic surveying of the lowest part of the cave, the number of possible continuation points has reduced from year to year. After several tours in the southwest extreme, known to be the closest to the surface, proved unfruitful, work in this end was abandoned to pursue a possible continuation at a site where copious amounts of wind are registered. This current exploration lead, or Sekt oder Selters, is located in a branch of high geological interest, where several converging diaclases have created large open volumes and the resulting chaos presents considerable challenges to the interpretation of the cave. Blocks currently prevent further exploration.6. Related cavitiesTo date there are no cavities known which could be directly related to the Loferer Schacht system. A notable exception could be the Kreuzhhle, which is located on the opposite side of the Reifhorn and is accessible through an entrance at 2,175 m. According to survey results, both cavities could be separated by 300 m at their closest point (Kube 2012).7. Further remarksThe Expedition to Loferer Schacht was the recipient of a European Speleological Federation grant in 2012, within the framework of the Eurospeleo Projects.AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank: the European Speleological Federation for the support granted in the framework of the Eurospeleo Projects; the DAV Sektion Frankfurt am Main, for the long and reliable material support; the Landesregierung Salzburger Land, Abteilung Naturschutz; the BF, sterreichische Bundesforste AG; Ms. K. Filzer and her team at the von-Schmidt-ZabierowHtte; Mr. F. Ziegler, for letting us borrow the extremely useful CaveLink.ReferencesHartig J, 2006. Temperaturmessung um Loferer Schacht. Online: http://caverender.de/temperatur/temperatur.htm Hartig (Ed.), 2008. 25 Jahre Hhlenforschung in den Loferer Steinbergen (sterreich). Frankfurt, Germany. Kube O, 2012. Loferer Schacht: Beschreibung. Frankfurt, Germany. Kube O, 2012. Kreuzhhle: Beschreibung. Frankfurt, Germany. k K, 2008. Feasibility of karst hydrological research in the Loferer Schacht area, Loferer Steinberge, Austria. Prague, Czech Rep.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings104

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THE LONGEST LIMESTONE CAVES OF ISRAELBoaz Langford, Amos Frumkin Cave Research Center (CRC), Geography Department, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, boazlangford@gmail.com, msamos@mscc.huji.ac.il Despite Israels small size and relative aridity, the country has thousands of caves in several rock types, spread out from Mt. Hermon in the north to Eilat in the south. The most common ones are hypogenic karst caves in limestone. Here we update the list of Israel longest limestone caves, originally published in 1983. The main changes since then result from the discovery of new long caves, as well as the development in caving and survey techniques. For example, the 150 m long southern part of the Abud Cave (western Shomron) was discovered by enlarging a tight squeeze. The newly discovered passages and chambers contained important archeological finds dated to the Chalcolithic and Bronze age. A new survey (by Boaz Langford and Mika Ulman in 2010) extended Arak Nasane Cave (eastern Shomron) from 310 to 1,150 m. Such developments led the Cave Research Center to re-survey the long limestone caves of Israel. After two years of intensive survey, it is now possible to present the updated list. Eight of the ten presently listed caves were unknown to us on 1983. The Judean and Samarian Desert continues to be the leading area in the number of caves. On 1983 only one limestone cave was known to be longer than half a kilometre, while today all 10 caves are longer than half a kilometer.1. GeneralDespite Israels small size, it boasts of thousands of caves, in several types of rocks and spread out from the Gulf of Eilat in the south to Mt. Hermon in the north(Frumkin et al., 1998). Most common caves are karstic, formed mostly in limestone. In addition, over 100 caves are known in the salt rock of Mt. Sedom diapir (Frumkin 1994). Among these is Malham Cave, over 6 kilometers long, making it the longest cave in Israel and one of the longest salt caves in the world. Other caves in Mt. Sedom, such as Sedom, Dorban and Zchuchit cave are hundreds of meters to kms long. Here we present the longest limestone caves in Israel, without referring to the salt caves that have and will be referred to separately.2. The longest caves of IsraelIn 1983, several years after the establishment of the Cave Research Center, the list of the longest caves in Israel was presented in Niqrot Zurim, Israel journal for cave research. The list was updated in 1986 (Frumkin 1986a) and was also discussed in international literature (e.g., Frumkin 2001). Since then, there have been many changes in the list. The main changes result from the discovery of new long caves, as well as the development in the caving techniques in Israel. In particular, new techniques have allowed us to reach remote areas within caves. For example, a new branch was discovered in Tzavoa Cave in the Kidod hills. Three hours of tight crawl were needed to reach the 150 m long new branch. It contains a series of chambers where a human skull as found, apparently brought by striped hyenas. Improvements in cave survey techniques, such as the recent use of laser disto and digital inclinometer promotes better measurement and higher accuracy. Pushing the remote parts of Arak NasaneCave (eastern Samaria) has extended its length from 310 m, measured by the the Cave Research Center in 1980 (Frumkin 1981) to 1,150 m as measured by Boaz Langford and Mika Ulman in 2010. These developments led the Cave Research Center to fully survey the long limestone caves of Israel. Thirty years after the first list was published and after two years of intensive work, the new list is presented here. Note that ine of the ten longest limestone caves are located in the central range of Israel, and only one is in the Galilee (Yana Cave). Most of the long caves are hypogenic mazes in origin (Frumkin and Fischhendler, 2005; Klimchouk 2007). One (Yana Cave) is a collapsed chamber cave. Another one (HaUmah Cave) is a vadose river cave.3. Description of the cavesBelow are details regarding the longest limestone caves of Israel. 3.1. Haritun Cave The Haritun cave was and still is the longest limestone cave in Israel. A small part of the cave was already surveyed by the PEF (Conder and Kitchener 1883) and also by Strobel (1967). A comprehensive compass and a tape polygon of the cave was measured by Gideon Mann and volunteers of the Society for the Protection of Nature between 1969 and 1971. The Cave Research Center began its research of the Nahal Tekoa caves between 1983 and 1985 (Frumkin 1986B) and re-mapped Haritun Cave (directed by Ahikam Amihai and Shmulik Avidan) the between 2006 and 2008. The new map was based on the polygon of Mann, to which the features of the walls were added. Selected profiles were also added. The cave is within the Late Cretaceous Shivta Formation, Judea Group.The cave is a rectilinear network maze of passages, with occasional chambers. The main direction of most passages is north-south (approximately) Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings105

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and the secondary direction is east-west. The passages developed mostly in one level but in some places there are 2 levels. The measured length is 3,450 m and the cave area is 4,600 m2. The cave is constrained within a relatively limited rectangle, with an area of 30,000 m2. The cave has 3 entrances close to one another on the western cliff of Nahal Tekoa canyon, 540 m above sea level. No morphogenticic connection was found between the entrances and the canyon: it seems that the canyon breached the cave randomly. The morphology of the cave (e.g., feeders, cupolas, maze) indicates a hypogenic origin. 3.2. Ayalon Cave Ayalon Cave is an isolated hypogenic cave developed in in late Cretaceous limestone (Bina Formation, Judea Group). The entrance of the cave was created by quarrying at the Nesher Quarry in Ramle and was found by Israel Naaman in a cave exploration conducted by the Cave Research Center in 2006. The cave is 2,700 m long, constrained within a rectangle of 100 140 m. The cave is a network maze with two main levels, connected through vertical shafts. The upper level is a complex network of passages characterized by narrow passages with rounded or elliptic cross section. The lower level has wider passages with three large chambers. The largest chamber is on the northwestern side of the lower level, at the lowest point in the cave. This hall extends below the regional watertable, forming a fluctuating body of water. In this body of water, as well as in the dry parts of the cave, seven endemic invertebrate troglobite species were found, within a unique ecosystem (Naaman 2011). 3.3. Sela Cave Sela Cave (Judean Desert) was discovered in 1991. Archeological excavation revealed finds from the Bar Kockba revolt period, including a coin called Sela after which the cave was named (Amit and Eshel 1991). Followingthe cave discovery, 600 m of passages and chambers were mapped by the Cave Research Center. In a recent visit to the cave, we managed to reach a high, hardlyThe longest limestone caves in Israel 1983 The longest limestone caves in Israel 2012 Name Overall length Name Overall length 1 Haritun 4,000 Haritun 3,450 2**A'rak Na'sane 500 Ayalon 2,700 3Hagay (El-Gai) 500 Sela' 1,200 4 A'lma 400 A'rak Na'sane 1,150 5 Ornit 300 Kanaim 846 6 Haeigrot 270 Makuch 832 7 Bereniki 250 Yana 808 8 Hameraglim 250 ***Hauma 800 9 Sarah 200 Yogev 788 10 A'tarot 200 Tzavoa' 700 accessible window that had not been explored before. This window led to a new area in the cave that doubled its length. Sela Cave origin is hypogenic, and it formed in late Creataceous limestone of Shivta Formation (Frumkin 1999). The cave has three entrances leading to a network of passages developed along fractures mainly in the northwestern direction. At several locations the passages expand forming four central chambers. 3.4. Arak Nasane Cave Arak Nasane Cave is in Wadi Ed-Daliyeh, eastern Shomron. On 1962, bedouins from the Taamra tribe looked for archeological items in this cave and nearby caves. Following their initial finds, the American School for the Study of the East organized two excavation seasons, in the course of which the Arak A-Nasane Cave was initially excavated (Lapp P. W. and Lapp N.L. 1974). On 1980 the Cave Research Center sketched an initial map of the cave whose measured length was then 310 m. On 2010 the cave was re-surveyed and its overall length was found to be 1,150 m. The cave has a large entrance located few m above Wadi Ed-Daliyeh streambed. The cave contains complex sub-horizontal passages with a simple network structure. The main guiding fractures and associated passages trend northwest-southeast. The eastern part of the cave is dominated by a large chamber whose length amounts to a third of the overall length of the cave. It is interesting to note that in the caves passages and its outer parts, there are regionally common insectivore bats of the species Rhinopoma hardwickei while in the large hall and the inner parts of the cave there are rare bats of the species Asellia tridens. 3.5. Kanaim Cave Kanaim Cave (northern Negev) was found on 1960, during the archeological survey of the Judean Desert. Following a report of Giora Ilani, the cave was examined by the Cave Research Center on 1984. After examining the cave, it was surveyed on several occasions and the mapping was completed on 2003. Its overall length is 846 m.Table 1. The length of the longest limestone cave in Israel as published in the past and according to new discoveries *This number has been estimated based on schematic measurements according to the old map of the cave. **This number is an estimate. ***The work in the hauma cave is currently continuing. The number stated in the table is the length of the cave as known today.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings106

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The cave entrance is via a small vertical shaft, where the cave was breached by an entrenching wadi. The cave contains a complex series of sub-horizontal passages on one level. The cave passages formed mainly along fractures in the north-south direction. In the southwestern area of the cave calcite speleothem developed under previous wet conditions. In the inner area of the cave there are also gypsum deposits developed on the walls and the ceiling of the cave. 3.6. Makuch Cave Makuch Cave was discovered in the Binyamin Deserton 1984 during a regional cave survey by the Cave Research Center (Frumkin 1988). Following its discovery, it was artly mapped by Anan Zeidner and Yehuda Miron and its measured length was 520 m. The mapping was complex, mainly due to a large amount of cave ticks. In 2006 Ahikam Amihai and Matan Avital returned to the cave, measured additional 300 m and located a second entrance leading to a new northern area. We completed the mapping of the cave on 2011, with an overall length of 832 m. The cave has two entrances in the Wadi Mackuh canyon escarpment. The cave has a complex network of passages. The passages are usually inclined according to the local bedding dip. 3.7. Yana Cave Locaed at the edge of Ramat Shtula (Western Galilee), Yana Cave was discovered in the 1960s (?) by a team of the Society for the Protection of Nature, who explored only the entrance hall. In 2006 the cave was surveyed again by the Cave Research Center, led by Vladimir Boslov. The full mapping of the cave showed a length of 808 m and a depth of 62 m. The Yana cave developed by phreatic dissolution and collapse, in late Cenomanian limestone (Sakhnin Formation). The cave has a major phreatic chamber with dditionallower-levels voids. Following regional uplift, vadose processes began, including speleothem deposition, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Stoping of the main chamber formed a dome-like structure. Its distal lower parts lead currently to a complex series of extended rooms and passages, on lower levels. 3.8. Hauma Cave Hauma Cave is a vadose stream cave in west Jerusalem. The cave was discovered in 2010 during the excavation of a shaft in a project of the Israel railay, 75 m below surface. Since its discovery, 800 m were mapped by the Cave Research Center, of which 627 m are in the central channel, and the rest are domepit-like vertical shafts. The mapping of Hauma Cave is ongoing. Hauma Cave is an actively flowing vadose canyon, following the regional dip to the southeast. The canyon formed in late Cretaceous limestone and chalk (Kefar Shaul Formation). The flow of water fluctuates seasonally. Within the meandering cave one waterfall shaft and several vadose domepit shafts were encountered. The surveyed part ends at a sump. 3.9. Yogev Cave Yogev Cave (eastern Shomron) was found in Wadi EdDaliyeh canyon on 1994 by Yogev Karasenty. Mapped by the Cave Research Center, its overall length is 788 m. The cave is hypogenic, formed in limestone of the late Cretaceous Bina Formation. The small cave entrance is hidden at the southern escarpment of the Wadi Ed-Daliyeh canyon. The cave consists of inclined two dimensional network of passages and halls. The cave developed along fracrures, and the passages are inclined, following the regional dip. Few active speleothems were observed, mainly cave corals and flowstone. 3.10. Tzavoa Cave Tzavoa Cave, at the upper Zohar hills (northern Negev) was discovered on 1977 by Giora Ilani who found an impressive concentration of animal bones in the cave, brought by striped hyenas. The activity of large mammals in the cave attracted cave ticks throughout the cave, even in areas difficult to access. The cave was mapped by the Cave Research Center on 2011 with a length of 700 m. The cave is hypogenic, formed in limestone of the late Cretaceous Shivra Formation. The cave has two entrances at the bottom of a low cliff, close to a small wadi bed. The cave comprises a maze of chambers and passages developed into a complex structure, mostly along northwest-southeast trending fractures. In the southern part of the cave is a large concentration of calcite speleothems including stalagmites, stalactites, columns, pool deposits and flowstones. They formed mainly during the wetter climate of last glacial period, indicated by U-Th dates (Vaks et al., 2006).4. SummaryNine of the ten caves in the list are isolated caves ( sensu Frumkin and Fischhendler, 2005). Eight of the ten caves were unknown to us on 1983. These caves replaced caves from the original list that are now ranked lower in length. The Judea and Samaria Desert (including the Miditerranean-desert border zone) remains the area with the most large caves. For hydrogeologic spects of this distribution see Frumkin and Fischhendler (2005), Frumkin (1991). In 1983 only one limestone cave longer than half a kilometer was known in Israel. Today all ten largest caves are longer than half a kilometer. The lised caves define the southernmost long limestone caves close to the edge of the Sahao-Arabian desert belt in the Levant.AcknowledgmentsWe thank Vladimir Boslov, Mika Ulman, Nevo Fishbein, Shmulik Avidan, Israel Naaman, Ahikam Amihai, Dan Shtriech and all volunteers who assisted in surveying the caves. We also thank Yigal Sela, Eitan Alumi, Dan Perry, Yoav Sagi and Mordechai Avrahami for the initial data that led us to the Yana cave. Finally, we thank Michal Kidron Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings107

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and Miri Shmida from the Center for Computational Geography at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem for final drowing of the maps. ReferencesAmit D, Eshel H, 1991. A Tetradrachm of Bar Kokhba from a Cave in Nahal Hever. Israel Numismatic Journal 11, 33. Conder CR, Kitchener H.H, 1883. The survey of Western Palestine. Palestine Exploration Fund 3, London, 375. Frumkin A, 1986a. List of Largest Natural Caves in Israel,Niqrot Zurim 13, 7, Hebrew. Frumkin A, 1986b. Speleogenesis of the Nachal Teqoa Caves, Niqrot Zurim 13, 33, Hebrew. Frumkin A, 1981. Karstic network caves in eastern Samaria, Niqrot Zurim 4, 44, Hebrew. Frumkin A, 1984. Mapping Caves, Niqrot Zurim 10, 113, Hebrew. Frumkin A, 1999. The geomorphology of Sela Cave, Israel, Niqrot Zurim 20, 23, Hebrew. Frumkin A, 1991. Upper Nahal Makuch Caves, Niqrot Zurim 14, 68, Hebrew. Frumkin A, 1991. Development of phreatic caves in Eastern Samaria, in: The annual meeting of Samaria research studies: Ariel, The College of Judea and Samaria, 24. Hebrew. Frumkin A, 2001. Karst and caves of Israel, in: Juberthie, C. and Decu, V., eds., Encyclopaedia Biospeleologica: Moulis, Socit de Biospologie, v. 3, 1840. Frumkin A, Shimron AE, Miron Y, 1998, Karst morphology across a steep climatic gradient, southern Mount Hermon, Israel: Zeitschrift fr Geomorphologie Supplementband, v. 109, 23. Frumkin A, 1994. Morphology and development of salt caves: NSS Bulletin, v. 56, 82. Frumkin A, Fischhendler I, 2005. Morphometry and distribution of isolated caves as a guide for phreatic and confined paleohydrological conditions. Geomorphology, 67, 457. Klimchouk A, 2007. Hypogene speleogenesis: Hydrological and morphogenetic perspective, Special Paper. National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Carlsbad, 106. Lapp PW, Lapp NL, 1974. Discoveries in the Wadi Ed-Daliyeh. American Schools of Oriental Research, 41. Naaman I, 2011. The karst system and the ecology of Ayalon Cave, Israel, Thesis for the Degree of Master of Science. June 2011, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Hebrew. Strobel VA, 1967. Die Charitonhhle in der Wste Juda. Zeitschrift Deutsehen Palstina-Vereins, 83, 46. Vaks A, Bar-Matthews M, Ayalon A, Matthews A, Frumkin A, Dayan U, Halicz L, Almogi-Labin A, Schilman B, 2006. Paleoclimate and location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the SaharoArabian Desert as revealed by speleothems from the northern Negev Desert, Israel: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 249, 384. Figure 2. Typical profiles of the largest limestone caves of Israel. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings108

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Figure 1. Maps of the largest limestone caves of Israel. Levels are not indicated.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings109

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A GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF THE GREAT CAVES AND THE KARST OF SOUTHEAST ASIAMichael Laumanns1, Liz Price2 1michael.laumanns@bmf.bund.de2lizprice@hotmail.com Karst is a widespread and important phenomenon in Southeast Asia covering about 215,000 km2of the mainland part of Southeast Asia and approximately 230,000 km2of the surface of the Southeast Asian islands. These karsts belong to the most varied and spectacular on Earth. Information on cave research however is very scattered and often inaccessible. This article is an excerpt of the Atlas of the Great Caves and the Karst of Southeast Asia (Laumanns et al. 2010) (www.speleoberlin.de).1. IntroductionIn 2010 Southeast Asia had the 10thlongest cave in the world (Clearwater System, Malaysia) at 175,664 m, the largest cave passage on Earth ( Hang Son Doong, Vietnam) with a 4.5 km long passage of 100 m in diameter, at places even 200 150 m, and the largest known underground chamber (Sarawak Chamber in Lubang Nasib Bagus, Malaysia, 12,000,000 m3). Although our knowledge on the karst and caves of Southeast Asia has witnessed a stunning increase since about 1970, there is still a severe lack of credible speleometric data, which makes it evidently clear that much work remains to be done on further exploration as well as on confirming doubtful data. No attempt has been made so far to compile and assess the complete portfolio of Southeast Asian karst and cave occurrences. Consequently, the authors of this article have compiled speleological information on Southeast Asia during a two-year long exercise, which has resulted in the release of a very detailed Atlas of the Great Caves and the Karst of Southeast Asia (Laumanns et al. 2010). If not indicated otherwise all statements presented below were taken from this atlas. Most limestone deposition on the mainland of Southeast Asia has taken place in the Upper Paleozoic (with the Permian and Carboniferous being the most important). Some Jurassic, Liassic (Thailand, Laos), Ordovician (Thailand, Laos) and even Cambrian (Laos, Vietnam) limestone occurs, too. The Indosinian orogeny, which has affected most of mainland Southeast Asia, occurred in the Middle Triassic (about 230 mya) resulting in a general uplift and a subsequent erosion episode, including karstification (Indosinian karstification). A second phase of regional uplift began in the Palaeocene about 65 mya, mainly caused by the Himalayan orogeny and the opening of the South China Sea. This period represents the second major phase of karstification as the carbonate deposits all over mainland Southeast Asia became exposed to weathering (Cenozoic karstfication). The long-lasting uplift caused a relative deepening of the base level and has led to extensive planation surfaces, large and deep poljes, tower karst as well as fengcong karst. Due to tectonic subsidence several coastal karst areas have been inundated by the sea, e.g., the islands of the Andaman Sea, the Ang Thong Islands in the Gulf of Thailand, and Ha Long Bay in Vietnam. The Southeast Asian islands have a complex tectonic setting due to interactions between the Philippines, Pacific, IndianAustralian and Eurasian plates. The area can be distinguished into an older, stable region comprising the Asian mainland, the Proto-Indosinia block and Borneo, which abuts a younger, very unstable region affected by neotectonism, abundant earthquakes and volcanism. There is no extensive karst known in the small state of Brunei Darussalam as well as in Singapore.2. CambodiaCambodias karst areas are mainly located in the south around Kampong Trach and Kampot as well as in the northwest around Battambang. A possible and most likely promising third karst area north of Stung Treng has not yet been investigated. In both areas of southern Cambodia and near Battambang, the partly dolomitic limestone of Upper Permian age appears as isolated hills and mountain massifs that overlook the flat alluvial plain. These hills have elevations of up to a few hundred metres and are called phnom in Cambodia. Our knowledge of Cambodian caves is mainly based on a German expedition to Kampot/Kampong Trach in 1995/96 and a German-British project, which was carried out in 2008 in the Battambang area. The 1995/96 project yielded 37 caves with a total of 11.6 km of passages, including the currently longest cave of Cambodia ( Roung Dei Ho-Roung Thom Ken at 1,806 m). The 2008 project yielded 65 registered caves, 55 of which were visited and 42 were mapped according to international standards. A total of 4,239 metres of cave passages was surveyed in 2008. Generally speaking, Cambodia has only small karst areas and thus a limited speleological potential. However, the known caves are comparatively well documented and published. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings110

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3. IndonesiaThe landscape of Indonesia developed in the Pleistocene during which Indonesia formed a land bridge between the Southeast Asian mainland and Australia. The islands were formed by a rise of the sea level after the last glacial period. This makes the southern Indonesian islands an interesting area to study hominid migration to Australia. The southern arc of the Indonesian islands was formed by a subduction of the eastern plate of the Indian Ocean and Australian plate under the Sunda shelf, which represents the southeasternmost edge of the Eurasian plate. This subduction zone is associated with a strong Cenozic volcanism. The northeast peninsula of Sulawesi (Celebes) and the Halmahera islands also have strong volcanism caused by a collision zone of the Eurasian Plate with the Philippine Mobile Belt. Only the Borneo block, northcentral Sumatra and Timor as well as Irian Jaya, and the Buru and Seram islands have remained stable and expose older rocks. The Sunda and Banda volcanic arcs form the base of a discontinuous karst which consists of Mesozoic and Tertiary carbonates. The stratigraphy of the western part of Indonesia is relatively young, ranging in age from Paleogene to Quarternary. Eastern Indonesia has older stratigraphy compared to the western part. Stratigraphy ranges from Triassic to Tertiary. Early karst exploration on the Indonesian islands was done by the Dutch. The easily accessible tropical karst of Gunung Sewu (Java) has attracted many scientists since 1910. The same applies to the Maros karst in SW Sulawesi. Many caves on Bali and Sulawesi were described by Kusch between 1979. In 1979 the Indonesian Speleo Club (Specavina) was formed by Robby Ko, who established the Indonesian Federation of Speleology (FINSPAC) in 1983. Expedition-style speleological exploration of Indonesia was started on Sumatra in 1977 by a Spanish team (GESM Barcelona). Much knowledge on the karst of Indonesia was gathered by French teams, notably the Association Pyrenenne de Splologie (APS), who started exploration in the Maros karst of Sulawesi in 1985 and returned to Indonesia almost on an annual basis until 2002. They released excellent reports with many detailed cave surveys and in-depth biospeleological data. Furthermore, since 1982, many British, Australian, Italian, French, Belgian, Dutch and American teams explored Indonesian karst and caves. The longest caves known in Indonesia are Luwang Jaran (Java, Gunung Sewu) at 18,200 m, Gua Salukkan Kallang (Sulawesi Selatan, Maros, Kappang) at 12,263 m, Gua Tanette (Sulawesi Selatan, Maros, Kappang) at 9,692 m, and Gua Barat-Gua Purat (Java, Karangbolong) at 9,600 m. Ninety-four caves in Indonesia currently have a length equal of or exceeding 1 km. The deepest cave known is Goa Hatu Saka (Seram island), which is -388 m deep. Seventyfive Indonesian caves have a depth of 100 m or more. Speleological documentation of Indonesian caves is comparatively good. Most of the foreign expeditions have produced comprehensive reports. However, publications are numerous and scattered. Important reports are only available through specialised libraries or the explorers. Many reports are out of print.Figure 1. Overview map of Southeast Asia and its geotectonic context (according to Hall 2002, completed). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings111

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4. LaosThe topography over much of Laos is very rugged. The tectonic movements have strongly affected the limestone sequences. The main tectonic fractures run from N to S and from NE to SW. The carbonates are heavily deformed, often showing a steep dip, and are partly recrystallised and metamorphized. Most limestone deposition has taken place in the Upper Paleozoic (with the Permian and Carboniferous being the most important). Some Jurassic, Liassic, Devonian, Ordovician and even Cambrian limestone occurs, too. The carbonates are generally overlain by reddish continental formations from Trias to Cretaceous (sandstone, clay, clayey arenite) which have buried a paleokarst. In some cases the palaeokarst rejuvenated due to new exposure linked to strong Cenozoic erosion. The Permian limestone is discontinuously exposed between the Nam Ou River and the Myanmar border. Near Luang Prabang, the Permian limestone is extensively exposed and extends to Vang Vieng further south. In the Plain of Jars, in the Xien Khouang and the Ban Ban areas limestone of Permian age is exposed. In the Bolikhamsay and Khammouane provinces Permian limestone is widely exposed and forms the well-known Khammouane karst. Some Jurassic limestone layers have been identified in the area between Paklay and Luang Prabang in northern Laos. Ordovician limestone occurs in the Luang Namtha province. Foreign cave exploration in Laos began as early as 1867 during the French colonial time. Since the retreat of the French Laos was closed to foreigners. Almost immediately after the re-opening in 1990 the country again attracted foreign speleologists. Claude Mouret, was the first to organise an expedition in 1991, which was focused on the Khammouane karst. In 2010 a total of over 170 km of cave passages were explored here, including outstanding caves like Tham Nam Hin Boun (over 7.5 km long), Tham Nam Non, Tham Houay Sai-Tham Koun Dn (over 27,000 m), and Tham Thn-Tham Houey Sam Boun (13,309 m). Many of these caves are through caves and contain long massive underground river passages. In 2010, a French-Romanian diving team was able to link Tham Nam Non to its sinkhole cave Tham Song Dang, creating the longest cave in Laos at over 30 km. Italian and Canadian/US cavers also occasionally contributed to our knowledge of Laos caves. The karsts of Vang Vieng and Kasi area half-way between Vientiane and Luang Prabang in the southern part of northern Laos were first visited by British cavers before French speleologists took over in 1998 and conducted a row of successful expeditions. Forty four caves were explored up till 2003 with the longest cave currently known being Tham Hong Y (7,715 m). In 2000 a Dutch group conducted an expedition to Luang Prabang province, yielding many discoveries. The Dutch were followed by German cavers who founded the Northern Lao-European Cave Project and conducted annual international expeditions to northern Laos. Currently, the longest cave in northern Laos is the Tham Chom Ong System (Oudomxay) at 17,150 m of length. Over 100 km of passages from 254 caves are currently known from northern Laos. Only the expeditions that went to northern Laos have fully published all their results according to international standards. A comprehensive publication on the Khammouane karst is lacking. Consequently, the stand of cave documentation in Laos is currently unsatisfactory.5. MalaysiaMalaysia is divided into the Peninsular or West Malaysia, and East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. The limestones vary in age throughout the country. In the peninsula, they range from Ordovician through the Carboniferous and Permian to the Upper Triassic. Most occur within the Permian. Whereas in East Malaysia the rocks are much younger, from the Miocene period. In west Sarawak the limestones are of Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous age, and mainly of Tertiary age in east Sarawak and Sabah. There are roughly 510 limestone outcrops in Peninsular Malaysia, most of which are not very extensive. Gua Tempurung in Perak is the peninsulas longest cave at 4.8 km. The Gunung Lanno karst was the subject of an Austrian/English/German expedition in 2001 with Gua Puncak Lanno (1,584 m) being the longest cave surveyed. Peninsular Malaysia cannot boast of any speleological world records unlike Mulu in Sarawak. Sarawak Chamber in Lubang Nasib Bagus is the worlds largest underground chamber. Clearwater Cave at 175,665 m is the longest in Southeast Asia, and currently 10thlongest in the world. Other long caves from Mulu are the Benarat-Moon-Cobweb System (50,669 m), the Terikan System (32,573 m) and the Bridge-Cloud-Cobra System (15,506 m), which is also the deepest cave of Malaysia with a difference of level of 473m. All these caves are situated in the Gunung Mulu National Park and were explored since 1977/78 by British expeditions. The current surveyed length of caves in Mulu is 345 km. Gunung Buda adjoins Mulu and has around 50 caves, mostly explored by American expeditions mainly in 1995 and 1997, and 2000. The total cave survey is 83.6 km. Longest caves are the Green Cathedral Cave System (26,382 m long), and Snail Shell Cave (11,636 m). Except of Mulu/Gunung Buda there was no systematic cave exploration so far in northern Borneo, neither in Sabah nor in the Bau area. Overall, speleological exploration in Malaysia has to be regarded as at the top-end of international standards with regard to the caves of the Mulu and Buda National Parks. This is definitely not the case for the karst areas in Sarawak, Sabah and on Peninsular Malaysia.6. MyanmarThe main limestone areas are the Shan Plateau in east Myanmar and the southern strip adjoining the Andaman coast. The Shan Plateau is a complex series of mountain chains and plateaus rising abruptly from the central Myanmar plain. 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2,000 m in places. It is mostly from the Carboniferous to Lower Triassic period, with some earlier Ordovician elements. In the north it is more brecciated, whereas in the south it is more compact and has cavernous development. Further east, outcrops of Permian limestones are known. The Indosinian orogeny in the Late Triassic and the Cenozoic Himalaya orogeny are responsible for a strong uplift and associated erosion causing strong incision of the rivers. Late right-lateral north-south trending normal faults affect the plateau. The Plateau is dissected by a series of deep gorges such as Gokteik, and those of the Thanlwin (Salween) River and its tributaries towards the east. The most famous cave is Pindaya Cave which contains 8,000 Buddha statues. Further north, there are scattered outcrops of the marbles and limestones of the Mogok Series. In the Kayah State (south of Shan State) are many cave systems, especially around Loikaw and Demawso. In the north of Myanmar, there are outcrops of limestone of PermoCarboniferous age in the Mytkyina District of Kachin State. Northwest of Yangon is the Nay Bu Taung area of limestone in the Rakhine State. There are some caves. Other small areas of limestone include the Bhamo region in Kachin State, Gangaw region of Magway State. There are Tertiary limestones in Ayeyarwady Division. In the Hpa An (Kayin State) and Mawlamyine (Mon State) areas the strata is Upper Carboniferous and Permian, overlain by reef limestones from the Triassic period. The Moulmein Limestones are highly jointed, sometimes in several directions. The Permian Moulmein Limestone is a continuation of the limestone-dolomite sequence extending from the Shan State south through Kayah and Kayin States into Tanintharyi and is similar to the Phuket Group and the Ratburi limestone of peninsular Thailand. The upper part of this limestone has been considered Permo-Carboniferous in age. Most of the hills are isolated towers, some more than 400 m high, running NW-SE. There is also ridge karst. There is an excess of 40 major caves in 23 groups in the Mawlamyine area. Outcrops of Permian Limestone also occur in the Tenasserim Range but little is known about these deposits. The Andaman coastal area covers the southern part of Mon and Kayin States along with Tanintharyi Division and includes the more than 900 islands of the Mergui Archipelago. There are isolated outcrops of coarsely crystalline thick limestone. These islands have hongs, some are accessible at low tide. Speleological exploration in Myanmar started as early as 1826 in the areas of Hpa An and Mawlamyine. Since independence in 1948 and the subsequent military rule, Myanmar did not welcome foreigners. Consequently, little speleological work has been done. In 1998 a French group from Socit Splo de lArige-Pays dOlmes went to the Shan State. They surveyed some of the longest cave known in Myanmar (Mondowa Guh, 1,170 m long, and Leikte Guh, 960 m), and published a valuable list of the 32 caves. The Italian La Venta group went twice to the Shan Plateau area in 2004 and 2005. In total the Italians registered 30 caves and mapped 4.2 km of passages. In 2009 the Northern Lao-European Cave Project explored caves in the Hpa An and Mawlamyine areas in the southern Kayin and Mon states. They visited 14 caves and surveyed 12 of them, yielding 3.8 km in 5 days. The longest cave surveyed was Saddan Gu (800 m). This expedition prepared the contacts also used by a 2010 British expedition to the Taunggyi/Hopong area (Shan State). The expedition e.g., surveyed Htam Sam, a large cavenear Hopong. Since then annual exploration projects have been conducted by the Myanmar Cave Documentation Project comprising an international team led by J.Dreybrodt and a British group. Publication of these recent results is in progress in the Berliner hhlenkundliche Berichte, www.speleoberlin.de). Everything available on the speleology of Myanmar was compiled in a comprehensive monographic publication (Laumanns 2010). Consequently, the access to speleological data on Myanmar can be regarded as reasonably good.7. PhilippinesAbout 17 tectonic micro-plates form the so-called Philippine Mobile Belt of the Philippine archipelago, which is a complex and highly active collision zone where the Eurasian Plate is steeply subducting under the Philippine Mobile Belt. Consequently, the archipelago is a tectonically highly active and rapidly deforming region, characterized by strike-slip faulting and multiple volcanic arcs. Relatively young karst areas, ranging from Cretaceous to Tertiary in age, with the Miocene carbonates predominant, are numerous covering about 10% of the land surface of the country, but only some karst areas on Samar, Mindanao, Cebu and Bohol exceed 100 km2. Most of the carbonates are scattered in the central ridges orientated north-south (Mindanao and Luzon) or NE-SW (Calamian islands and Palawan). Many foreign cavers who have broadened our knowledge of the Philippine caves co-operated with local mountaineers and outdoor clubs. The year 2001 saw the Philippine Caving Society founded. Exploration of the Philippine karst started with two excursions in 1820 and 1830 when the Frenchman Paul Proust de la Gironire and Hamilton Lindsay from Great Britain visited San Mateo Cave, which is now known as Montalban Cave Systematic speleological explorations began in 1979 by French cavers in the Sagada karst (Luzon). In 1980 French speleologist Claude Mouret explored caves on Luzon, Mindoro, Leyte, Samar, Bohol and Cebu islands but later focused on Luzon also accommodating Italian cavers on his expeditions. This was followed by Japanese speleologists in 1982 and 1983 (Samar and Cebu). Since then, many other expeditions targeted karst areas on the Philippine islands, e.g., British, Spanish, Dutch/Belgian, Japanese, Slovenian, and German. The Italian La Venta group focused on Palawan where they extended the longest cave of the Philippines, Saint Paul Cave also called Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, to its 2012 length of 32,000 m. In the same area La Venta also surveyed the currently deepest cave of the Philippines, Nagbituka 1 (-270 m). Later French expeditions focused on Samar island, where they surveyed Lungib Can-Yawa (11,700 m long), the currently 3rdlongest cave of the Philippines. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings113

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Generally speaking, the speleological literature on the Philippines is incomplete and difficult to access because of the language of the publications. Some important results were not published at all. Thus, the Philippines belong to the SE Asian countries where improvement with regard to cave data is expected.8. ThailandKarst covers 18% of Thailands surface. On the western edge of the Khorat Plateau (northeast Thailand) there is tower karst in Loei and Nong Bua Lamphu and some areas of cockpit karst in Khon Kaen and Chaiyaphum. There is some sandstone pseudokarst, too. Tower karst and isolated limestone hills can be found in Sukhothai, Phetchabun, Uthai Thani, Nakhon Sawan, Lopburi and Saraburi. The longest known cave in Thailand is located at the edge of the plain in Phitsanulok ( Tham Phra Wang Daeng, 13,844 m long). Karst is scattered along the length of the Thai peninsula from Phetchaburi in the north to Yala on the Malaysian border. There are areas of mountain karst and some long stream caves in Surat Thani, Phang Nga, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Phatthalung. However, this region is known for its spectacular tower karst, including karst islands (e.g., Phang Nga bay). The Thai limestones are a wide variety of ages from Ordovician through to Middle Jurassic. The youngest limestones found are of Middle-Lower Jurassic age. They are distributed down the western side of the country and have been found locally in Mae Hong Son and Kanchanaburi while in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas of Tak they are more massive and form large hills. Near Umphang some large stream caves have been found in the Jurassic limestone. Triassic limestone is known in many areas from the peninsula to northern and eastern Thailand. Triassic limestones have been identified from Phattalung, Phetchabun, Uthai Thani and in Nan. The most widespread limestone is Permian. Lower and Middle Permian limetones are widely distributed. Permian limestones have been confirmed from Loei and Khon Kaen, Phetchabun, Lampang, Saraburi and Nakhon Ratchasima, Mae Hong Son and Surat. Carboniferous limestones are less widespread. They have been found in eastern Thailand, central Thailand near Noen Maprang, Phitsanulok and Chon Daen, Phetchabun, in Loei, Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Kanchanaburi and the southern part of Peninsular Thailand. Limestones from the Devonian are less important, but are widespread being found in Loei, in western Thailand from Chiang Mai to Satun, from the Mae Ping National Park, Lamphun and in the Thong Pha Phum National Park, Kanchanaburi. The oldest limestones found in Thailand are Ordovician. These limestones are widespread in the western part of the country from Mae Hong Son down to the Malay border. Between 1973 and 1978 the Austrian caver Heinrich Kusch published reports with descriptions, some surveys and a list of 94 caves. The first expedition-like speleological project was carried out by Catalan cavers in 1978 who located 34 caves in 12 provinces. At the start of the 1980s only seven caves were known to be over 500 m long, and no known caves were deeper than 100 m. By 1990 there were 22 caves over 1 km in length and 13 deeper than 100 m. This intense phase of foreign expeditions began in 1983 with a series of Australian expeditions as well as French projects carried out by the Association Pyrenn de Splologie (APS). Many American, Polish, and French groups also visited Thailand. The first British expedition was carried out in 1988 and together with Australian projects most of the long and deep caves we know today from Thailand were explored by Anglophone cavers: Tham Phra Wang Daeng, Tham Mae Lana (12,720 m), Tham Yai Nam Nao (10,442 m), Tham Nam Lang (8,550 m),and Tham Takobi (7,346 m). The deepest cave in Thailand was only recently explored by a British team to -367 m of depth ( Tham Pha Phueng). Near Krabi, the Vauclusian spring of Tham Sra Kaeo was dived to a depth of -240 m, representing the 2nddeepest cave of Thailand. The presence of Dean Smart in a professional position in Thailand triggered a very productive phase of cave exploration. More recently, Martin Ellis from the UK moved to Thailand and assiduously created an incredible website on Thai caves with all available cave surveys, and also published a stunning cave catalogue in a series of publications including over 3,700 caves. Although Thailand still awaits the foundation of a national speleological organisation the country is definitely the most well-documented in Southeast Asia with regard to its cave-related data.9. Timor Leste (East Timor)The oldest limestones in East Timor date to the Permian, which represents the oldest sedimentary rocks known so far from Timor, mainly consisting of shale, siltstone, sandstone and locally, limestone and marl. The Cribas Limestone has a thickness of about 500 metres. Other limestones are from the Triassic through to the Tertiary. The Post-Pliocene Baucau Limestone consists of massive white coral-reef limestone well developed around Baucau town. A continuous outcrop occurs along the north coast. In the southern foothills, the Baucau Limestone also crops out in scattered hills. The limestone occurs as coral-reef, calcarenite and a greywacke-pebbly sandstone facies. Caves of East Timor have not been well documented, most of the work having been done by archaeologists, e.g., from the Australian National University, e.g., Lene Hara Cave near Tutuala and Jerimalai rock shelter on the eastern tip of the island.10. VietnamCarbonate rocks cover almost 20% of the Vietnamese territory. Most carbonates crop out in the mountainous parts of northern Vietnam, where the deepest cave known is situated ( Cong Nuoc, -600 m), currently also the deepest cave of SE Asia. The largest continuous carbonate zone stretches over 300 km in north-west Vietnam from the Chinese border at Phong to the coastline of Ha Trung including Son La. In the central part of the country the famous karst of Phong Nha-Ke Bang is located. The 1,100m thick carbonate sequence is mainly middle Carboniferous to lower Permian. Devonian and some Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings114

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Visean carbonates are also present. The longest caves currently known in Vietnam occur in the Phong Nha karst. Most caves are horizontal and drain huge underground streams. The spectacular drowned Permian karst plain of Ha Long Bay at the Gulf of Tonkin (Bac Bo Gulf) is probably the most renowned Vietnamese karst area. The Carboniferous and Permian limestones reach from Haiphong to the Chinese border. The ensemble of rocky islands forms one of the most beautiful and famous coastlines on Earth. A small tower karst area of isolated hills formed by Permian limestone can be found in the area of Ha Tien-Hon Chong in the extreme southwest of Vietnam at the coast and the border with Cambodia. A remnant tower karst consisting of five limestone mountains (Marble Mountains) also occurs 8 km southeast of Da Nang. Carbonates were deposited over the widest possible time span, from Archean to recent reefs. Thin-bedded, impure Precambrian and early Paleozoic limestone is less suited for karstification contrary to the very pure PermoCarboniferous and Triassic limestone, which reach a considerable thickness of 1,000,000 m. Neotectonic uplift and subsequent erosion has exposed these limestones over several thousands of metres, allowing rapid development of vertical karst features. Similar to Laos, early cave exploration took place during the French colonial period. Foreign speleological exploration began in 1990 with two BritishVietnamese expeditions to the Phong Nha, Quang Binh and Ke Bang Massif in central Vietnam. In later years the British explorers extended their working area also to northern Vietnam. The team maintains an excellent website with reports on their expeditions (www.vietnamcaves.com) and a list of the longest/deepest caves of Vietnam. The first Belgian-Vietnamese project to Son La (northern Vietnam) took place in 1993 and also extended in later years to many other karst areas in northern Vietnam. Both projects are still ongoing and the most continuous sources of speleological data from the country. Many other occasional expeditions visited Vietnam, notably Franco-Italian, French, Italian, Polish, Bulgarian, and Australian expeditions, as well recent German-British projects to Ha Tien and Da Nang in south Vietnam. In 2009 an enormously large 4.5 km long cave passage of 100 m in diameter (at places even 200 150 m) was found by the British explorers in Hang Son Doong, exceeding the dimensions of the reportedly largest cave passage on Earth known so far from Deer Cave (Mulu, Sarawak, Malaysia). The longest caves of Vietnam are: Hang Khe Rhy (Phong Nha-Ke Bang, 18,902 m long), Hang Vom (Phong Nha-Ke Bang, 15,310 m), Hang Phong Nha (8,821 m), and Hang Co Ban (~8,500 m). Speleological documentation on Vietnam is well developed, although published data are often only available from private expedition reports and the www.ReferencesHall R, 2002. Cenozoic geological and plate tectonic evolution of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: computer-based reconstructions, model and animations. Journ. Asian Earth Sciences, 20, 353. Laumanns M (Ed.), 2010. Karst and Caves of Myanmar. Berliner Hhlenkundliche Berichte, 39, 130, Berlin. Laumanns M, Price L (Eds.), 2010. Atlas of the Great Caves and the Karst of Southeast Asia. Berliner Hhlenkundliche Berichte, 40, 176, Berlin.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings115

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THE LONGEST CAVE IN HUNGARYSzabolcs Lelssy Institute of General and Applied Geology, Etvs Lornd Tudomnyegyetem, Budapes, Pzmny Pter stny 1/C, Hungary, losz@geology.elte.hu Within the city boundaries of Budapest, on the Buda side of the Danube, in the side of the 300 m high hills, quarries were opened in the 19thcentury in order to extract the 40-million-year-old shallow sea limestone. In 1904, several hypogene caves opened during the quarrying works, such as the entrances to the Pl-vlgyi, Harcsaszj and Hideglyuk caves. The last two only led into caves 100 m long, but soon the Pl-vlgyi was explored to a length of 1 km. In the 1930s, in the quarry across the road, the first couple of hundred metres of the Mtys-hegyi cave were discovered. In 1948, most of the inner passages of the cave were found, so the Mtys-hegyi cae became 2.5 km long (today it has reached a length of 5 km). In 1980, continuation of the Pl-vlgyi cave was found, and thanks to constant exploratory work, its length has reached 14 km The exploration of the Hideglyuk and the Harcsaszj caves was resumed in 2006, with findings in the former in 2009 and new passages in the latter in 2008 these caves are now 4 km long each. During the year 2010 two connections were made between these two caves, and in 2011, the connection between the Pl-vlgyi, the Mtys-hegyi and the Hideglyuk-Harcsaszj caves was found, making this c. 30 km long cave system Hungarys longest. The previous longest cave was the Baradla-Domica system of Aggtelek with 26 km, which is an active cave and a UNESCO World Heritage site.1. IntroductionWeve known for nearly a hundred years, since the time of Ottokr Kadic, that Budapest is the capital of caves, even though in Kadics time, there were far less caves underneath the city were known than today. Back then only a couple of caves had been explored, totalling a few kilometres in length. Today we can enter eight caves, each of which are longer than 2 km, all underneath the city, and we have records of about 200 additional shorter caves. And, since December 2011, the longest cave in Hungary can be found underneath Budapest. How did we get here? If I had to summarise the answer in one sentence: through hard work spanning several centuries. The best example for this is the Pl-vlgyi (Plvalley) system, which reached a length of 29 km last year. In contrast, our second-longest cave, the Baradla-system near Aggtelek-Jsvaf which is a UNESCO World Heritage site, is only c. 26 km long including a section underneath Slovakia.2. The beginnings of exploring: the Pl-vlgyi caveThe first sections of the Pl-vlgyi system were explored in the first years of the 20thcentury. Back then, protection of natural heritage was nearly non-existent, and no one worried about extracting parts of a cave system together with the limestone in the quarry in the upper Pl-valley As the quarry works dug deeper, more and more caverns were found. These were the ends of passages of a connected system. Some of these passages werent small either: the Harcsaszj-cave (whose entrance is the highest up) was soon discovered to be at least 320 metres long, and the Hideglyuk-cave was explored to the 170 metres mark. A further smaller caves were also registered. In 1904, the entrance of the Pl-vlgyi cave was discovered here, in the Holzspach-quarry. The Pl-vlgyi is the longest section of the system even today. The first entry into the cave was achieved through widening the crack between two layers of rock and was done by Jnos Bagyura (the teenage son of the quarry guard) and Kornl Pl Scholtz, mountaineer and cave explorer. Soon they were joined by Kroly Jordn and Imre Gbor Bekey, and together this team made important discoveries in 1906 and 1910. Thanks to their efforts, by the end of WW1, the length of the cave had reached 1 km. In 1927, the first 400 metres of the cave were fitted with electric lighting for the first GermanHungarian Cave Conference, and by the s, the cave was open to the public on weekdays as well. In the meantime, due to development of the city and the high demand for limestone, quarrying started just opposite the Holzspach-quarry on the other side of the Szpvlgyi road at the bottom of the Mtys-hegy (Mtys-hill). On the lower levels again multiple caves were found. The Upper-cave and T zolt-branch were often visited by cavers in the s, and during WW2, the cave length grew to nearly 400 metres due to capping. During the capping, other caves were found, such as the Futura-cave with its length of 80 metres.3. Finding the Mtys-hegyi caveThis small cave proved to be vital for todays giant cave system: in March 1948, Bla Mohos crawled into virgin cave from the end of the Futura by clearing out a 2 m long, 1m wide tunnel. He found what we know today as the Mtyshegyi-cave: in remembrance of the Hungarian revolution of 1848, they named the newly found section Centenris-passage. risok tja (Giants Way), Nvtelenfolyos (No Name Passage), and Sznhz-terem (Theatre Chamber) were found shortly afterwards, and explorers reached the karst water level, with a permanent lake 92 metres below the entrance. (In 1959, cavers swam across this lake but found only a couple of metres of passage on the other side). Soon enough, the Mtyshegyi-cave became Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings116

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2.5 km long. The members of the Red Meteor Caving Club (known today as Meteor Caving Club) were constantly exploring the ends of the cave and after smaller findings, they found a larger passage (Meteor-branch) in 1962. Later, in 1965, the students of the Toldy Secondary School found a passage that they named after their school. Members of Meteor found the Termszetbart-szakasz (Nature-Lovers passage), so the length of the cave was extended step-bystep. Of course these passages existed previously, but they were not known. This is due to a peculiar feature of the caves of Buda (which are thermal-karst caves): large chambers and wide passages are often connected by tiny squeezes, and these small passages are often filled with rubble due to rockfalls. Water draining into the cave brings some marl from the levels above the system, and as a result, the scree is hardened so much that even the most experienced cave explorer has difficulty noticing that this solid wall used to be open cave passage! Finding these passages can be aided by tectonics measurements, and also by watching out for cave draft: air can flow through such tiny cracks that one cant even see through with head-torches. Cavers sweaty from digging will appreciate the draft, but it is also indicated by the light of a candle, or God forbid cigarette smoke The reason this wind exists is the difference between the temperature on the surface and the constant temperature of the caves (which is equal to the yearly average temperature of the area), and as a result, the difference in the density of the air. The direction of the air flow is the opposite in winter and summer.4. Connecting the Pl-vlgyi and Mtys-hegyi cavesThese examinations were done in the Pl-vlgyi cave by members of the Kinizsi Cave Exploration Group, who were working in the cave after WW2. They were led by Jnos Palnkai, but found only smaller passages: by the end of the s, the total length of the Pl-vlgyi was only 1,200 metres At the same time, the length of the Harcsaszjcave and the Hideglyuk-cave remained the same, although in 1964 Csaba Laufer and his team did manage to connect the Harcsaszj and Bagyura-cave, which was directly below the Harcsa. The long awaited breakthrough happened in 1980, when Attila Kiss and Jzsef Kurucz found the 400 metre-long December-passage behind the Pl-vlgyis Sznhzchamber. Their team, called the Imre Bekey Cave Exploration Group, was formed within the Hungarian Karst and Cave Research Society (Magyar Karszt-s Barlangkutat Trsulat, MKBT). With Attila Kiss and Katalin Takcsn Bolner as leaders, they found new passages year by year a good habit that they still have to this day (though since 2011, the leader of explorations is Attila Tth). In 1981 they found the Trkpsz-passage (Cartographer-passage), in 1982 they found the Negyedik Negyed (Fourth Quarter), 1987 the Dli-passage (Southern passage), 1989 marked the year the Szpvlgyi-passage was found (which ended very close to the Mtyshegyi-cave). In 1992 the boulder choke of K2 was explored and in 1994, after widening a long and torturous squeeze (the Goffri [Waffle], where the caver is the filling), they reached the 3 km long Jubileum-passage, which even today remains the caves most well-decorated and pretty section. In the following year, smaller successes followed (the side passage of the Delfin-passage and the Fodros-passage), so by the year 2000, the length of the Pl-vlgyi cave reached 13.5 km. This meant that the biggest dream of Budas cave explorers had now become a possibility: to find a connection between the Pl-vlgyi and the Mtyshegyi caves. But this connection could not be made without parallel exploratory work being carried out in the Mtyshegyi cave. For example, members of the Acheron Caving Club found the Trn-termi passage (Throne Room passage) and Mikulsbranch (Santa Claus branch). After several smaller findings, in 2001, explorers finally made the connection from the Plvlgyi cave to the Termszetbart-branch of the Mtyshegyi, making the total length of the system over 19 km!5. Resuming work in the Hideglyuk and Harcsaszj cavesIn the new millennium, findings became rare in the Plvlgyi cave, despite the constant work. However, in 2005, the exploration of the tighter passages of the Hideglyuk cave began, but remained unsuccessful for four years, despite the labours of the Jzsef Szab Caving Club and their lead explorer, Andrs Nagy, who spent most of their weekends working in the cave. In 2007, intense exploration of the Harcsaszj-cave began, with Attila Nyerges leading the members of the Barit Caving Club. In 2008, after nearly twenty days of digging, a team of cavers led by Domokos Gergely Nagy and Lnrd Szab reached the rear passages of the cave which were well-decorated with promising muddy chokes. Heading in a northwesterly direction, along the main fault lines, the cavers soon found over 3 km of passage! During autumn next year, explorers reached a breakthrough in the Hideglyuk-cave as well: squeezing through the tight Guillotine-choke, they found a well-decorated passage with boulder chokes and huge chambers. Soon the length of this cave exceeded 3.5 km as well. The caving community was informed of the findings in these two caves week-by-week, and on the 6thof March 2010, the connection between the Harcsaszj and Hideglyuk caves was finally made! From this point onwards, all the Buda cave explorers dreamt of connecting the two big systems: the Plvlgyi-Mtyshegyi system with the Hideglyuk-Harcsaszj. Surveys of the caves were compared and it seemed that there were at least 25 metres between the closest points of the two systems, and no sign of a through passage6. The connection is madeIt was around this time that members of the Bekey Club thought about trying work in the narrow Nyomdsz-prs (Printers Press) section, which points towards the 100 metres long Kis-Hideglyuk (Small-Hideglyuk) cave, which had already been connected with the Harcsaszj-Bagyura system. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings117

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In the autumn of 2011, members of the Barit Club organised a big exploration camp in the Plvlgyi quarry for a long weekend, with 100+ participants. Multiple shifts of cavers worked in the Nyomdsz-prs (and at endpoints of other caves), but progress was slow: towards the end, over 20 people were passing buckets of mud that had filled up the passages. Success didnt seem close at hand However, at the end of November, starting from a spherical niche on the surface, cavers found a new smaller cave between the Kis-Hideglyuk and the Nyomdsz-prs. This cave was named Meta-cave, and from the open ends of its passages, it was easy to reach the Kis-Hideglyuk, the Plvlgyi cave, and into one of the side passages by the Nyomdsz-prs. This way, the connection was made on the 11thof December and the Pl-vlgyi cave system was created! (Cavers often call the system Szpvlgyi-system as well). Even since the connection was made, some new passages have been found in the Mtys-hegyi cave (in a previously unsurveyed section): so the total length of the system is now 29 km! Those who have never participated in expeditions cant even imagine the tension and expectations involved in this kind of work, and what unbelievable joy it is to find wonders never before seen by the human eye! Its worth it to work for these moments, often for years and years. But for great findings, we also need luck: not all diligent cave explorers get to experience the euphoria of finding virgin passage in the same way that not all athletes who train for years will get to win an Olympic gold.7. Formations of the Pl-vlgyi cave systemThe Pl-vlgyi cave contains many interesting and beautiful formations. The prettiest ones are the sheets of calcite hidden away in the Jubileum passage, these were formed on the surface of the warm water of an underground lake. These sheets formed cones (the highest of which can reach 2 metres) and the cave pearls that cover the whole formation. This cave contains the highest amount of calcite sheets among all the Buda caves! There are deposits of this material above each other, with a difference of 3 metres, which has a scientific significance: examining these can help determine the age of the cave and the movement of the karstic water. Only in this cave can we find folias, which is the line of calcite on the side walls, marking the water levels. Also, many baryte chrystals can be found in the cave. These calcite veins were deposited here from the liquids flowing in the cracks before the cave itself was formed. In some places (like the Gipszes [Gypsum] branch), we can marvel at little developing gypsum chrystals. The solution forms and spherical niches are also very pretty (for example in the Hossz-folyos [Long passage]). In the ceiling of many a passage we can see a 0.5 m wide zone of flint which mark the presence of warm water solutions passing through the cave and transforming the original rock. Many stunning dripstone formations can be found in the cave in the following passages: II-es vgny, Schnvinszky-terem, Ezst utca. The Mtys-hegyi cave is poorer in formations, but as there are less mineral aggregates on the walls, the solution forms can be studied better (for example: Fldtani Intzet chamber). We can see fossils in many a passage (Nagyterem, Nvtelen-folyos): the shell of seashells and sea-urchins is more pure calcium-carbonate than the slightly clayey rock, so these petrified shells are more resistant to solvents, so the stand out from the wall. We can see flint zones here as well, and the passages actually reach the level of karstic water. A while ago in there were beautiful gypsum formations in the passages (like the Sznhz-chamber), and while unfortunately these have been destroyed, in the newly found passages we can still marvel at these beautiful formations. The Harcsaszj and Hideglyuk caves are very rich in formations, but the detailed mineralogical examination of these caves has not yet happened.8. SummaryTo summarise: the Pl-vlgyi system is Hungarys longest, most scientifically interesting and most beautiful cave system. Its speciality is that it is right underneath the streets and houses of the capital city, which could possibly threaten the integrity of the cave and the buildings above.AcknowledgmentsI am grateful to all the explorers of the Pl-vlgyi cave system in the past 100 years, but in particular to the members of the Bekey Cave Exploration group and its leaders, Attila Kiss, Katalin Takcsn Bolner and Attila Tth. I would also like to thank the Jzsef Szab Cave Exploration group, led by Andrs Nagy, who worked in the Hideglyuk cave, and to Domonkos Gergely Nagy, Attila Nyerges, and Lnrd Szab, who are the leaders of the Baryte Caving Club and have done valuable work in the Harcsaszj cave. I am also grateful to Eszter Kalczkai for her help with translating this article. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings118

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EU PROTEUS EU PROJECT FOR RAISING AWARENESS AND IMPROVING EFFECTIVENESS OF CAVE RESCUINGMaks Merela1, 2, Darko Baki3, 4 1Speleological Association of Slovenia; Cave Rescue Service, Lepi pot 6, p.p.2544, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia2University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical faculty, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Rozna dolina VIII/34, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, maks.merela@bf.uni-lj.si3Croatian Mountain Rescue Service, Cave Rescue Commission, Kozarceva 22, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia4Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb, Svetoimunska cesta 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, baksic@gmail.com Almost half of the territory of Slovenia and more than half of that of Croatia is karst. Owing to the work of active and well-organised speleologists there are almost 20,000 known and registered caves in both Slovenia and Croatia. These numerous and impressive cave systems result in a high frequency of touristic visits and spurs on further speleological research. In the event of an accident rescue operations are performed in Slovenia by the Slovenian Cave Rescue Service (SCRS) while in Croatia by the Croatian Mountain Rescue Service Cave Rescue Commission (CMRS-CRC), both are now also active in international cave rescue. An important milestone in this field is the setting up of an international mechanism for the education of cave rescuers i.e. the Cave Rescue Training (CRT) programme and the implementation of the European EU Proteus project that brings together Slovenian and Croatian cave rescuers. This paper describes the project and its main activities concerning reviewing the existing legislation on cave exploration, accident prevention, and cave rescue training. The EU Proteus project presents a model study of two cave rescue organisations (the SCRS and the CMRS-CRC) both of which are run and implemented by volunteers. The project contributes to an overall improvement in standards, greater capacity and efficiency of rescue operations, and the international integration of cave rescue services.1. IntroductionLimestone and dolomite bedrock, covering 43% of the land surface of Slovenia and 52% of Croatia (over 70% if submarine areas are included), enables the formation of the karst phenomena where amongst its natural features caves stand out for their exceptionality. Of the 20,000 registered Slovenian and Croatian karst caves only 0.1% are designated and equipped as touristic caves and even these to a limited degree. For example in the world-famous Postojna Cave, only 3.2 km of the explored 20.5 km of passages are made accessible to tourists. It is a fact that a considerable part of the underground world is represented by more or less vertical pits that are especially notable in the Alpine karst. These areas that are interesting for tourism and are frequently visited can hide potentially dangerous caves. In the Slovenian Kanin massif with a surface area of 8 km2, more than 300 caves are known; while in an area of similar size in Northern Velebit, Croatia, there are 348 caves. It is worth mentioning that worldwide, there are 96 known caves deeper than 1,000 meters (Gulden 2012) located in 17 countries and of these, 9 are located in Slovenia and Croatia. An important characteristic of the Slovenian and Croatian caves is their verticality. In this area, the largest verticals in the world can be found: Vrtiglavica (-643 m), Patkov gut (-553 m), and Velebita (-513 m), which implies the use of special rescue techniques. In addition, the problem of rescue from natural springs has to be mentioned e.g., Crveno jezero lake (-281m), Una spring (-205 m), Divje jezero lake (-160 m), Sinjac lake (-155 m), and the Kolpa/Kupa spring (-154 m). Therefore, the subterranean world is only accessible to qualified speleologists (skilled cavers knowledgeable and practiced in vertical caving) as well as professional visitors to the karst terrain (researchers, foresters) who are able to explore its secrets safely and successfully due to their knowledge, special technical equipment and physical preparedness. While performing such activities, they face potentially serious or even fatal injuries due to numerous objective hazards and possible subjective errors. However, in most danger are those who find themselves in caves unintentionally, due to either a slide or a fall from the surface. These typically include mountaineers, skiers, hunters, hikers and excursionists, both native and foreign. Records show that there have been a considerable number of such accidents in the past.2. Dangers in caves and cave rescueAs a rule, a high percentage of caving accidents involve non-cavers, with a remark that rescuing cavers stands out in terms of duration and difficulty of rescue. So far, the longest and most difficult rescue operation in Slovenia occurred in 1990 when cave rescuers from Slovenia and Italy rescued an injured caver from the rnelsko brezno pit. The rescue started at a depth of 1,200 meters and lasted for 10 days. In Croatia, the longest and most difficult cave rescue operation occurred in 2012 in Kita Ga eina at a depth of 483 m. The operation involved 114 rescuers from 16 CMRS stations. The time required, from reporting the accident to the extraction of the caver, took more than 26 hours. All together, when the last rescuer exited, it amounted to 36:23 hours. Members of Slovenian CRS were also on standby to join this rescue operation in case of a prolonged period of rescue. The Corpo Nazionale Soccorso Alpino e Speleologico (CNSAS) from Italy and the Alliance of speleological organizations in Serbia also offered their help. Karst terrain in Europe covers large areas (approximately 30%) which are not equally explored. A high percentage of karst is typical of Greece, Spain and countries of South East Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings119

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Europe including Slovenia and Croatia. According to the World Declaration on Cave Rescue Organisation, individual countries have to elaborate their rescue plans and provide for the organisation of cave rescue. This project was initiated because of the desire to explore the largely undiscovered, unexplored, and unpredictable underground environment. Karst caves are exceptionally dynamic and diverse, the exploration of which requires a significant amount of knowledge and expertise from potential visitors. Currently, there are many caves in Slovenia and Croatia that are dangerous to visitors and consequentially to rescuers because they are either unknown or unexplored and hence have not been assessed in terms of risk. In general it is impossible to prevent the public from searching, researching and visiting caves; but unfortunately, such visits can results in accidents. The socalled urban underground should also be mentioned here (industrial shafts, sewage system, abandoned underground mining, industrial and military systems) with the exception of active mines. However these require confined space permit entries and differ with respect to rescue and extraction procedures from those of cave rescue. In general, cave rescue is difficult and due to the environment (enclosed, limited, dark, cold, humid cavities) specific to the cave in question and will require specialized skills. A rescue in a horizontal cave is not the same as a rescue in a stair-step shaft, a rescue in the high mountains is different from a rescue in the lowlands and rescue operations in water caves with rivers are still different, not to mention the obstacles imposed by waterfalls, siphons, ice caves, labyrinths, narrow passages, and areas full of mud. The air in caves is cold and humid. Air temperature typically varies between 0 and to over 14 C, while in ice caves it is below freezing. Humidity is close to 100%. In case of an injury where the injured person is left unable to move, the body cools rapidly and soon enters the vicious circle of hypothermia. Among the many risk factors, hypothermia of an injured person is often the more critical than their injuries. When rescuing an injured person from a cave, the required amount of time is usually several times longer than the time needed for an individual descent. In the case of a major accident, rescue can take several days. Cave rescue in Slovenia is performed by the Slovenian Cave Rescue Service (SCRS) with the Speleological Association of Slovenia as the responsible body. It operates directly under the auspices of the Administration of the Republic of Slovenia for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief (hereinafter referred to as ACPDR). In Croatia, cave rescue service is organised under the Croatian Mountain Rescue Service as a Cave-Rescue Commission (CMRS-CRC). Within Europe, there is a lack of organised networking and cooperation between speleological organisations which is necessary for the exchange of knowledge and expertise. A possible solution would be to establish an expert rescue unit at the EU level.3. MethodsThe qualification of cave rescuers is an important factor in any cave rescue service and decidedly affects the success of rescuing injured persons from caves. The Cave Rescue Service of Slovenia, together with ACPDR and partners from South-eastern Europe (Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania), have developed the Cave Rescue Training (CRT) Programme to provide rescuers with a basic knowledge of cave rescue (Merela 2010; Straar and Ili 2010). The programme was performed for the fifth year under the Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Initiative for SouthEastern Europe (DPPI) organization and focuses on specific procedures and the organization of rescue teams involved in accidents or drills. Cave rescuers are trained to deal with cave conditions (abysses, meanders, rivers, etc.) and special rescue techniques. The aim of the programme is to achieve, in a rational way, a satisfactory level of qualification of speleologists in different countries, providing them with the ability to react rationally and uniformly and to provide effective assistance in the case of accidents or other extraordinary events. This programme provides the basic skills for cave rescue, but is insufficient for advanced training and the training of cave rescue instructors. An upgrade of the successfully implemented CRT Programme is the European project EU Proteus (Figure1). EU Proteus with its full title Raising Awareness and Improving Effectiveness of Cave Rescuing within Community Civil Protection Mechanism is a 24 month long project (2012 and 2013) and is the first large European cave rescue project (http://www.eu-proteus.eu). The project is supported directly by the EuropeanCommission Directorate General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Civil Protection Prevention, Preparedness and Disaster Risk Reduction Unit Office.Figure 1. The Logo for the EU Proteus project is shown above. EU Proteus aims towards the better organisation of cave rescue in Slovenia and Croatia by analysing the current situation, preparation of common standards and studying the conditions that exist in other organisations from Participating States. This goal is to enhance the awareness and preparedness of cavers and to improve the preparedness and effectiveness of cave rescuers (emergency response).4. Results and discussion4.1. Main project Tasks Several tasks were defined and proposed in order to achieve a safer caving and a significant improvement of the cave Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings120

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The training exercise began with a step-by-step instruction of the key elements of cave rescue manoeuvres. Initially, the instructors kept to the principle of working in small groups and organised several workshops near the crag wall. Later, the exercise involved combined rescue manoeuvres (Figure 3). A demonstration was also given on the proper use of the Petzl Nest cave rescue stretcher (Figure 4). This represents the state-of-the art in stretchers for use in cave rescue. For the rescuers it is important that they are acquainted on how to position the casualty correctly on the stretcher. It must be noted, that this procedure should be performed under medical supervision. By the end of the exercise and after several rescue manoeuvres the transport of the casualty on the stretcher was accomplished. rescue service in Slovenia and Croatia. The main goal was to improve cross-border cooperation between rescuers as well as raising the level of preparedness for cave related emergencies. A series of joint thematic workshops helped in drafting and establishing general rules, standards and rescue techniques and the criteria for setting-up and equipping preventive bivouacs in caves to assist in a rescue. All of these were verified by organising practical exercises. An expert team was put together to prepare and draft a training programme for instructors and the general and specialised parts of the programme including the curriculum and a catalogue of the necessary skills. The next step involved establishing a joint commission for technical issues such as checking and comparing the various caving equipment used by Slovenian and Croatian cavers. Based on these findings, the commission will prepare standards obligatory for cave rescue and recommendations for other cavers. An important outcome of this initial preparation was the translation of the Cave Rescue Manual from French into the Slovene language. A priority was the implementation of joint rescue exercises to improve the knowledge of cave rescuers. In the first year of the projects duration, Slovenian and Croatian cave rescuers were involved in five joint rescue training events (http://www.eu-proteus.eu; www.hgss-kshgss.com). 4.2. International cave rescue training for instructors (CRT) 2012 The International Cave Rescue Training 2012 (CRT 2012) event was the EU Proteus projects most important action in 2012. CRT 2012 took place between the 16thto 23rdSeptember in Seana, Slovenia. Forty participants from 10 countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Slovenia and Turkey attended the exercise. The participants were made up of 28 trainees and 12 Cave Rescue Instructors (two from the French SSFSplo-Secours Franais). The trainees were made up of skilled cave rescuers, cavers and non cavers, including firemen and mountain rescuers. Based on past experiences of organising this kind of event, we divided the trainees in two groups: basic level and advanced level cave rescue training (Figure 2).Figure 2. Participants are shown performing a climbing skills test. Figure 3. Participants perform the complex combination of various rescue manoeuvres. Figure 4. Cave rescuers demonstrate how to work with the specially designed Nest cave rescue stretcher .Demonstratinghow to systematically review and evaluate the physical condition of casualty was also emphasised (Figure 5). An uncomfortable and inhospitable cave environment requires special procedures for a systematic assessment of the casualty. Another important issue is how to deal with hypothermia and frostbite in the case of a very cold cave environment. After successfully completing the outdoor training sessions, several rescue exercises were performed underground. Prior to the final exercise the organisers had visited and selected Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings121

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several caves with different polygon configurations (i.e. vertical and horizontal caves). The rescuers were divided into groups working in different parts of the cave. Vertical pits were equipped for vertical transport using counterweight systems (Figure 6) while hard passable areas were rigged for transport via Tyrolean lines. For communication purposes a cave telephone (VOX system) was installed.Figure 5. A medical doctor demonstrates how to evaluate the state of an injured person. Figure 6. The rescuers are shown transporting the casualty in the cave. At the end of the training, the trainees performed a final rescue exercise in the Najdena Cave. The Najdena cave is a complex cave with vertical pits, long difficult passages, mud and a water siphon. The exercise was designed to bring together international cave rescuers: members of the Slovenian Cave Rescue Service, Slovenian Cave Rescue divers and members of the Croatian Mountain Rescue Service (Cave-Rescue Commission). The number of participants was 63. A telephone line had been installed during previous training exercises (1.4 km) and the 30 m long and 6 m deep siphon had been secured with a safety line. The telephone had also extended to the far side of the siphon. Because of the importance of this international rescue exercise, the event was strictly controlled by the members of the Slovenian Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief, the President of Speleological Association of Slovenia, the Head of Slovenian Cave Rescue Service and by the main inspector of the Inspectorate for Protection against Natural and Other Disasters. Cave rescue is a difficult activity and any rescue attempt from behind a siphon is extremely hazardous. Furthermore, any rescue exercise must be precisely planned in advance. This was the first cave rescue exercise where the team worked with actual cave rescue divers whose role it was to dive to the far side of the siphon, place the casualty in the stretcher and then transport them safely back. The international team of trained rescuers received the casualty from the siphon (water temperature: 8 C) and immediately installed a special body heating device to prevent hypothermia (Figure 7). The whole operation lasted for approximately 10 hours. The cave rescue training exercise managed toattractup to 40participantsfrom 10 European countries. Caverescue trainingwasacknowledged to have been a successon the grounds of the knowledgereceivedby the participants. Of course the main purpose ofCRT (2012) was thatthe participants would then disseminate this knowledge within their ownorganisations.During the eight day training event we fulfilled our plan of 80 hours of intensive lectures, short demonstrations, and practical work in smaller caves in readiness for the final full-scale rescue exercise. An important result ofall our effortswas the greatpublicity for the EU Proteus projectand for EU visibility. Ultimately, we performeda successfulfinalrescue practicefor which wereceivedthe highest ratingby a team of independent evaluators. 4.3. European Cave Rescue Association (ECRA) Both the SCRS and the CMRS-CRCsupport the organization of the new European Cave Rescue Association (ECRA). On May 12thin Castelnuovo Carfagnana, Italy, seven national cave rescue organizations from Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia came together to establish the European Cave Rescue Association. The goals of the ECRA are the following: promote the exchange knowledge and expertise in the field of cave rescue, facilitate cooperation and support between members, advance and improve cave rescue knowledge and the capabilities of member organizations, provide information and statistics on cave rescue incidents, exchange knowledge and experience concerning the best practice in cave rescue between cave rescue organizations, caving organizations, manufacturers of caving equipment and other interested bodies, conduct research with a view to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of cave rescue and conduct such ancillary activity as the ECRA shall think appropriate to better achieve these goals.Figure 7. The casualty is shown being transported from the 30 m long siphon.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings122

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5. ConclusionsCave rescue in Slovenia and Croatia is run by volunteers whose goal is to design and develop a cave rescue module and to start a procedure for the registration of a multinational cave rescue module for rescue operations in cave related emergencies. The expected outcomes of this project was that, by using the cave rescue organisations of both Slovenia and Croatia as a case study, we would perform a risk assessment on cave related issues followed by a unique train the trainers programme and to set standards for visiting caves, researching caves and cave rescue together with medical issues. The overall findings of this project will be used as the basis for modifying existing regulations concerning speleological research with the added intention of adopting them into a Community Mechanism for Participating States. The beneficiaries will not just be Slovenian and Croatian cavers but also those from others countries since many (several hundred per year) come to explore our magnificent cave systems. Finally, it is important to emphasize that both countries and the public in general benefit from a wellregulated system that allows for an effective response in the case of emergency.AcknowledgmentsEU Proteus project is co-financed by the European Union under EuropeanCommission Directorate General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Civil Protection Prevention, Preparedness and Disaster Risk Reduction Unit Office. We would also like to thank the Administration of the Republic of Slovenia for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief for their universal support.ReferencesGulden B, 2012: Worlds deepest caves,http://www.caverbob.com/ wdeep.htm Merela M, 2011. Participation of the Cave Rescue Service of Slovenia in International Trainings in 2010. Ujma, 25, 288. Straar AS, Ili U, 2010. International cave rescue training in Macedonia. Jamar, 3 (2), 6.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings123

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ON THE SEARCH FOR KING BARBAROSSA IN UNTERSBERGUlrich Meyer Turnweg 29, 3013 Bern, Switzerland, ulrich.meyer@aiub.unibe.ch In recent years important discoveries in Untersberg mountain near Salzburg were made. The length of long known Kolowrathhle (AT) was extended to 38 km and the karst water table was reached in four different passages at a total depth of more than 1,100 m. Many leads with strong wind hold the promise of further discoveries. On the German side of the high plateau a new cave called Riesending was found in 2002, to date explored to a length of 18 km, through which a huge collector could be reached at a depth of 900 m. After a long detour the trunk passage turns into the direction of Frstenbrunn, where the main resurgence of the mountain is located, still nearly 3 km away but only 200 m below the horizontal passages in Riesending Riesending also gets close to the lower reaches of Klingertalschacht which is part of the 12 km long, complex maze of Windlcher (AT), and lately a new wave of exploration was triggered in this cave. A connection of the three major caves of Untersberg would result in a huge system of at least 70 km length.1. IntroductionUntersberg mountain is located in the Northern Limestone Alps, close to Berchtesgaden and Salzburg (Fig. 1). The border between Austria and Germany runs over its high plateau, which culminates in Berchtesgadener Hochthron (1,973 m). For more than 100 years cavers frequent its steep slopes and barren limestone pavement. Most of the plateau and parts of the slopes, all together close to 15 km, are drained by Frstenbrunner Quellhhle where the water emerges from a deep sump. Beneath Salzburger Hochthron (1,853 m) extents the massive labyrinth of Kolowrathhle at more than 38 km total length the main cave of the mountain. The distance from the lower reaches of Kolowrathhle to Frstenbrunner Quellhhle is little more than 1 km, a connection of the water tables in the two caves is proven, but a way through is unlikely to be found due to the long and deep sumps separating the two caves. The second well known cave complex on the northern flanks of the mountain is Windlcher. With 12 km length and accessible by 12 different entrances it connects the three cirques Schosstal, Klingertal and Wasserfalltal. Via Klingertalschacht it drains in the direction of the central plateau, but the distance to the resurgence at Frstenbrunn is still about 3 km. The stream sinks into large boulders at the floor of the final chamber and to date all attempts to find a continuation at this low level failed. New discoveries at a fossil level have raised new hopes and exploration is just gaining momentum again. The entrance to the third big cave of the mountain is located on the high plateau, close to Berchtesgadener Hochthron. Riesending is a rather recent discovery, being explored for only 11 years. In this short time it has grown to over 18 km in length and more than 1,000 m in depth and the potential for further discoveries is still great. The distance from the entrance to the resurgence is, at nearly 5 km, the greatest of all three portrayed caves. Nevertheless, Riesending provides the key for the understanding of the speleogenesis and hydrology of Untersberg mountain. The trunk passage found at 900 m depth seems to be the old collector of most of the plateau. Now fossil it cuts through the mountain with huge dimensions and at a constant elevation of 870 m above sea level. Several sumps areFigure 1. Caves of Untersberg presented in this article, recent discoveries in black lines (map inlay Google, map data GeoBasis-DE/BKG). reached in fissures and shafts 100 m to 150 m below the old stream way. Observations with pressure gauges indicate, that these belong to hanging water tables. New discoveries in Riesending and Kolowrathhle raise the hope to one day connect both caves. Each year a number of week long expeditions take place, organized by small, but dedicated teams from the Verein fr Hhlenkunde in Salzburg (AT) and the ARGE Bad Cannstatt (D). Due to the massive difficulties in the exploration of the caves, the great depth, long distances and technically very challenging terrain it will not be a fast success. Legend knows, that in the heart of the mountain old king Barbarossa sits in his throne room, bored to death, and waits for some unwary cavers. We are up to meet him. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings124

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2. Windlcher (1339/31)The main entrance to Windlcher is located at an elevation of 1,300 m in the steep northern slopes of the mountain below the alp Klingeralm. The cave was first visited by Fugger in 1875 and explored to a length of 400 m by Urbanek and Abel in 1934. The following year Czoernig discovered Klingertalschacht which was surveyed by Abel to a depth of 60 m in 1947. It was quiet around the caves until in 1975 in a big breakthrough in Windlcher a fossil trunk passage was found and the length rapidly grow to 2.5 km. In 1982 a restriction was opened, giving way to Palstinahalle from where a connection to Klingertalschacht was found, which meanwhile had been explored to a length of 2 km and a depth of 322 m by cavers from Belgium. The total length of the cave system thereby rose to 6 km. In 1989 Holvan started a complete resurvey of the cave, in the course of which another 3.5 km of passages were added. In 1995 the Belgians struck again, connecting the deep shaft Supernova to the final chamber in Klingertalschacht (Klappacher 1996). A way around the breakdown blockage in the final chamber could not be found. The last achievement of that period was the connection to Sttzinger Schacht in 1996, bringing the total length of the system to 11.3 km. With the end of the resurvey campaign and the Belgians shifting their focus to another cave farther away in Sulzenkar, it became quiet around Windlcher, despite a number of strongly drafting leads. Only when Riesending was getting close to the final chamber of Klingertalschacht (700 m as the bat flies), a new team from Salzburg revisited the cave and found upper levels that show great promise to circumvent the blockage in the final chamber. The passages in Windlcher may be separated into three different levels. The trunk passage Hauptgang close to the main entrance and the surrounding labyrinths lay at an elevation of 1,300 m. They are characterized by breakdown. A lower level is found in Palstinahalle and its continuation Palstinagang another trunk passage at 1,200 m elevation that runs parallel to the upper one. The end of this massive, 20 m wide tunnel is actually marked by a deep shaft that has not yet been descended. The lowest level of the cave is reached Klingertalschacht at an elevation of 1,000 m. It contains a stream and ends in a massive chamber, where several big shafts enter the system, more or less directly from the surface 400 m above. Hauptgang and Palstinagang both follow south trending joints and slowly rise, following the dip of the bedding planes, at an angle of about 15. The labyrinths mainly follow southwest-northeast and southeast-nordwest trending fissures. Klingertalschacht is also developed in a southeast trending joint. The stream at its bottom, whose head waters are not yet fully explored, may be followed through a number of deep lakes to the final chamber, where it sinks into boulders. The final chamber is reached more easily by fossil upper level passages, or directly by the Supernova entrance through a number of deep shafts and narrow meanders. All known entrances to Windlcher exhale during summer, the uppermost entrances to the cave system are not yet found.3. Kolowrathhle (1339/1)Kolowrathhle is a mazy cave of massive proportions, that developed under phreatic conditions. Two main levels can be distinguished, the upper one at elevations between 1,400 m and 1,600 m, the lower one between 1,000 m and 1,200 m. Both levels are connected by vadose canyons, some of which are still active. They continue below the lower level until at an elevation of 700 m they submerge into the karst water table. The cave is situated in the northeastern part of the plateau, below the summits of Salzburger Hochthron and Geiereck. The main entrance at an elevation of 1,370 m at the foot of the east face of Untersberg has been know for centuries. It became a tourist attraction in the 19thcentury and people used its massive entrance chamber for summer ice skating. Fugger based his theories on ice caves on observations in Kolowrathhle and nearby Schellenberger Eishhle But the ice started to melt after enlarging the entrance for ease of access and nowadays only small relics remain. The breakthrough into the main cave was not achieved through this entrance, but when the nearby Gamslcher were connected to Kolowrathhle. The entrance to Gamslcher high in the cliff of Dopplerwand became accessible after the Dopplersteig was built in 1876, but only in 1979 a shaft at the end of the known cave was descended and the large passage Rundstollen discovered. Via Rundstollen the Broadway was found and finally a high aven in Kolowrathhle was reached and the explorers abseiled into the large ice chamber and left via the main entrance. After this connection the length totaled 2.5 km.Figure 2. The maze like passages at the lower level of Kolowrathhle are bone dry (Dirk Peinelt). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings125

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Following Rundstollen and its continuation Prachtstollen further into the mountain, a breakdown stopped the explorers. It was opened in 1982 and gave way into the dark aven Zwentendorf. Descending the following shafts the trunk passage of the upper level was found and baptised Mainstream. To the south it led to the high aven Walkerpfeiler that was climbed in the same year. Its continuation, the 20 m wide Champs Elysees, ends in the Louvre in a massive breakdown. With this impressive discoveries the total length of Kolowrathhle made a big jump to 5.6 km. From Zwentendorf a passage leading to the north led to the deep shaft Kalkar, where a traverse gave access to Erpelcanyon and its little stream. Through this canyon the upper level of the cave is left and in 1984 the breakdown chamber Hot Spot was discovered. The length meanwhile reached 10.2 km. From Hot Spot two ways led on. Down the shafts Karato Prak the lower level of the cave was entered and the mazes of Dackel mit Hut and Tonplattenlabyrinth explored. Not far from the base of the shaft Onan der Barbar exploration was halted in 1986 by the lack of rope at another small drop and not continued until more than 20 years later. The last trip of this very successful phase of big discoveries took place in 1989 to Hungerkluft a passage forking from Hot Spot to the north and ending (to this day) at a deep shaft. This is the closest point to the resurgence Frstenbrunner Quellhhle, the distance is still more than 1 km. The length of Kolowrathhle remained stable at 16 km for the coming 15 years (Klappacher and Mais 1975, Klappacher 1996). Not far from Salzburger Hochthron the strongly drafting entrance to Salzburger Schacht is located at an elevation of 1,800 m on the high plateau. It was discovered in 1923 and explored to a depth of 170 m by Abel and companions in 1935, making it the deepest cave of the region at that time. In the 1970s a continuation was discovered and with the new single rope technique explored down to a depth of 400 m. There large galleries and a stream were discovered. To the north the gallery ends in a huge breakdown in Allendehalle close to the Louvre in Kolowrathhle. Downstream the Via Belgica was followed to a muddy sump at a depth of 600 m. An inlet to Via Belgica which rises from a constricted sump, drains the lower reaches of Schellenberger Eishhle A connection of the two caves could not yet been forced, in spite of a strongly drafting but very narrow side passage close to the sump. In 1982 Brunntalschacht, a shorter and much easier entrance to the main passages of Salzburger Schacht, was discovered, but nevertheless exploration came to a stand still at a total length of 6 km (Klappacher and Mais 1975; Klappacher 1996). It was quiet around both caves, until in 2002 Georg Zagler entered the scene and together with some indestructible companions and a lot of chiseling forced a connection from the Champs Elysees in Kolowrathhle to Salzburger Schacht. Further passages were found climbing Walkerpfeiler to heights not yet heard of. By the end of 2005 the length of the combined system reached 25 km (Zehentner et al. 2006). Not yet satisfied they pushed on into the depths of the cave. To safely explore the lowest reaches, a new and avalanche proof entrance to the cave in winter was needed. This goal was achieved in 2007 after a long and arduous dig in one of the dolines close to Zeppezauer Haus. In the following winter season exploration continued from a new bivouac near the base of Onan der Barbar. The first great success was the exploration of the canyon Alien 1 and its continuation Kugelcanyon to a big sump at a depth of 1,119 m below the entrance to Salzburger Schacht, high point of the system. In the summer of 2008 mazy passages close to the new bivouac were explored, culminating in the discovery of Krabbelsprint-Labyrinth where a powerful draft chilled the exhausted cavers to the bone. The wind gets lost in Phantom der Oper, the surface of Brunntal only about 100 m away, but no new entrance to these remote parts of the cave could be found to date. Beyond the labyrinth a large passage Wadi continues in southerly direction. The whole region of the cave is very dry and later was baptized Wste (Fig. 2). A variety of gypsum crystals is abundant. In the winter season 2009/10 a big shaft Elefantenschacht was reached, already at a distance of 4 h from the bivouac (Zehentner 2010). To keep exploration efficient a shortcut through the labyrinth was searched and eventually found in the fabulous canyon Auf dnnem Eis where a thin layer of flowstone separates the passage into an upper and a lower level that were only connected artificially after careful survey of a very long deviation. Now the way was open to erect a new bivouac Baumhaus on a balcony of Elefantenschacht near the only pool of water for miles. In winter 2011 a steeply descending passage below Elefantenschacht was explored down to several sumps at the level of the karst water table, where a powerful stream was met at the contact to the underlying dolomite in the huge and chaotic chamber Kartoffelkeller. But the origin of the wind was found in another passage, quasi the backdoor of Baumhaus. A beautiful phreatic passage Idhrin Eden gives access to the enormous shaft Mordor, filled with the spray of an impressive waterfall, most probably the headwaters of the stream found in Kartoffelkeller Below Mordor the steeply descending passage sumps in Orktrnke, again at the level of the karst water table.Figure 3. Phreatic passage and sump close to the actual end of Kolowrathhle (Wolfgang Zillig). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings126

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The stream rises from a beautiful sump (Fig. 3) that can be avoided by climbing up and down 100 m in a rift. Beyond the rift the stream is met again, but exploration was halted in a high aven with a waterfall. The level of the horizontal passages beyond Baumhaus corresponds to the level of the trunk passage in Riesending, but the distance between the two caves is still about 1.2 km. The latest news from Kolowrathhle report of a new but horrible bivouac at the very end of the cave, to aid the artificial climb up the aven. Exploration continues at full speed, but with an effort of nearly two days necessary to reach the final dome the rate of success has slowed down somewhat.4. Riesending (1339/336)The entrance to Riesending is situated in the southern part of the high plateau, close to Berchtesgadener Hochthron, at an elevation of 1,840 m. It was found in 1996 by members of the ARGE Bad Cannstatt, and is extensively explored since 2002. A series of massive shafts drop down to a first horizontal level at -400 m, narrow canyons and further shafts lead on to a lower level at -870 m, that was reached in 2005. The main stream of the cave sinks into a narrow sump at a depth of -987 m, nearly 5 km away from the resurgence in Frstenbrunn, but only 170 m above the karst water table found in Frstenbrunner Quellhhle and Kolowrathhle In the following years exploration was focused on a huge fossil trunk passage at -870 m, that follows a dominant joint and in a straight line led 1.5 km to the northwest below the central plateau, without gaining further depth. Finally the joint is left and the passage turns to the northeast in direction of the resurgence, still 4 km away. Along the way only one major inlet, Schner Canyon, now also fossil, is met, but more inlets are assumed to enter the trunk passage high up at ceiling level, which mostly is out of sight. Before the passage starts trending towards the resurgence, a number of shafts Sechs Schchte have to be traversed. One of these shafts breaks through into a lower level of the cave, also with huge dimensions and a strong draft, that is completely blocked by silt at a depth of 1,058 m (Meyer and Matthalm 2009). Beyond the shafts the deep lake Reitertrnke (Fig. 4) blocks the main passage, which has to be crossed on a rubber dinghy. Shortly after the lake a side passage connects to the massive shaft Monsterschacht which most time of the year is impassable due to a powerful waterfall. The waterfall may be avoided by Nebelschacht which joins Monsterschacht further down and finally leads to a little sump at -1,059 m. At this depth a hanging water table seems to exist under this part of the mountain. Monsterschacht surely is a much younger cave than the trunk passage of Riesending and only intersects Riesending by chance. It is probably connected to another deep shaft Eisblser (today sealed by an ice plug) in the middle of the plateau near Mitterberg. The distance to the low point of Eisblser is about 400 m. After the turn towards the resurgence the main passage changes its character. The bleak area of the Maulwurfstunnel a now dry sump, is passed. At one point the gravel fill had to be dug out for close to 10 m to enable human passage. Shortly after the dig the main passage forks. An upper level Wundergang contains a nicely bedded sediment fill (gravel and silt), but after a short distance is plugged. It can be avoided by a lower passage that joins the far end of Wundergang again in a big chamber full of wet mud. In this chamber another passage forks of, the steeply ascending and strongly drafting Fratzengang (not yet fully explored). The main continuation drops down to an old sump area Auenland, where dark sediments attest frequent flooding, and a powerful stream Auenbach is met. It rises from a sump and after a short distance tumbles down into a narrow canyon, that has been explored to -990 m and still continues. It offers a nice prospect for reaching a new deep point but is only accessible in very dry conditions. Auenland is left via Wachturm, a 80 m high aven that had to be climbed with the help of a power drill. The logical continuation of the main passage forks off halfway up the climb and immediately drops down to a sump. Luckily at the far side of Wachturm another big passage Westzubringer could be reached, which leads to a canyon inlet and to an huge trunk passage. Their origins are not yet explored, but may be connected in one way or another with the complex of Windlcher. The trunk passage also has a continuation in the general direction of the resurgence that was baptized Kristallgang due to large quantities of beautiful frostwork. It ascends another 100 m, before passing a now dry sump, a side passage to a shaft and finally continuing with much smaller dimensions (Fig. 6) for 300 m to some small shafts, through which Wassergang is reached. Wassergang contains a stream and enters the cave from the west, so when first found in 201 1 it was assumed to be the continuation of Klingertalschacht beyond the final chamber (700 m away and only 50 m higher than W assergang). But exploration in 2012 revealed that the origin of the stream is found in several small inlets and the huge passage continues dry for a short while, until it drops down to a sump. Since it corresponds in height very well with the sumping passage near Wachturm, it may as well be the continuation of the main passage of Riesending (after a detour to the west). However, after a short way the downward continuation ofFigure 4. A deep lake in the main passage of Riesending is crossed on a small rubber dinghy (Wolfgang Zillig). 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Figure 6. Close to Wassergang the size of the passage shrinks to a low ellipse, which was formed by corrosion of a fossilized layer of algae (Wolfgang Zillig).Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings128

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Wassergang drops down into a wet and sporting canyon which obviously leaves the level of fossil trunk passages, that had lead the explorers through half of Untersberg. But Riesending did surprise its explorers one more time, when in 2012 a little shaft forking off Kristallgang was dropped and a barely passable hole was forced to another huge tunnel, which in essence runs in parallel to Kristallgang. Descending the tunnel in the general direction of Auenland, the upper end of Wachturm was reached and hence a long loop closed. In the opposite direction a low crawl with more delicate frostwork had to be passed, until the passage started descending and finally opened out into a huge space with a very complicated shape, after the first shock called Krake. A number of inlets enter through high avens and the floor is perforated by large and black abysses. Dropping the least intimidating of the holes, the canyon continuing from Wassergang was reached and another big loop closed. The canyon was explored to a depth of 990 m and still continues, but like the canyon in Auenland requires dry conditions for further exploration. It was also tried to follow upper level passages above the canyon, but in many places the lack of a floor renders this undertaking rather difficult. The distance to the high aven at the farthest end of Kolowrathhle is about 1.2 km, the level of the passages corresponds very well and at both places a strong draft lures the explorers onward. But at close to two days approach to Krake the effort for further exploration is not a whit smaller than in Kolowrathhle and success will neither be won fast nor easily.5. Frstenbrunner Quellhhle (1339/10)The main resurgence of Untersberg and thereby of all the caves presented so far is found at an elevation of 600 m at the northern flanks of the mountain close to Frstenbrunn. The mean flow of the resurgence is 750 l/s, during snow melt or after heavy rain a max. discharge of about 15 m/s may be reached. The way into the mountain is blocked by a 40 m long sump and by a strong gate (since 1875 the resurgence supplies Salzburg with drinking water). In 1976 a second entrance was found (now also gated) and the cave explored to its present length. The main passage is a big tunnel with a small canyon at its floor, cut by the stream. Close to the main exit of the resurgence the stream sinks into the sump, and only a short distance into the cave it rises from another sump (once dived by Hasenmayer to a short stream passage and more sumps). These sumps may be circumvented by arduous crawls to a higher level of the cave, where at an elevation of 700 m an abundantly decorated passage leads to a final sump. Water level in this sump is known to vary by more than 40 m but the sump was never found dry (Klappacher 1996). Recent observations confirmed, that at normal flow the water level corresponds to the one of the sumps in Kolowrathhle, nearly 2 km away. This fact and the depth reached in Riesending and even further away at the far end of the plateau in Fledermauscanyon prove the thesis of a nearly homogeneous water table through most of Untersberg. A connection of Frstenbrunner Qeullhhle to Kolowrathhle seems unlikely due to the long and probably quite deep dive necessary.5. Summary and OutlookLooking at the recent discoveries in Riesending and Kolowrathhle and lately also in Windlcher a connection of all three caves to a system at least 70 km long and more than 1,150 m deep seems possible. The horizontal distance between Riesending and Windlcher is 700 m, between Riesending and Kolowrathhle still 1.2 km, but the elevation of the corresponding end points matches well. A hydrological connection is very likely and is proven between Kolowrathhle and the resurgence Frstenbrunner Quellhhle but the connecting sumps will probably never be conquered. All hopes lay in the continuation of the fossil passages overlaying the active canyons at the known endpoints of all three major caves. The way to reach these points consists of more than 5 km of strenuous and often very technical passage at depths of 900 m in Riesending and Kolowrathhle, limiting exploration to week long expeditions. But cooperation is very good and the teams are still highly motivated to scale all difficulties and one day shake hands in the throne room of King Barbarossa, deep down the very heart of Untersberg.ReferencesKlappacher W, Mais K, 1975. Salzburger Hhlenbuch Band 1, Landesverein fr Hhlenkunde in Salzburg. Klappacher W, 1996. Salzburger Hhlenbuch Band 6, Landesverein fr Hhlenkunde in Salzburg. Meyer U, Matthalm T, 2009. Die Riesending-Schachthhle im Untersberg, Die Hhle 60. Zehentner G, Zagler G, Klappacher W, 2006. Das GamslcherKolowrat-Salzburgerschacht-System (1339/1), Die Hhle 57. Zehentner G, 2010. Das Gamslcher-Kolowrat-Hhlensystem (1339/1) am Salzburger Untersberg, Forschungsergebnisse 2006, Die Hhle 61. Figure 6. Close to Wassergang the size of the passage shrinks to a low ellipse, which was formed by corrosion of a fossilized layer of algae (Wolfgang Zillig). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings129

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KOOX BAAL 4THLONGEST UNDERWATER CAVE SYSTEM IN THE WORLDZdenk Motyka Czech Speleological Society, Olsova 1, Brno 637 00, Czech Republic, z.motycka@mediform.cz In February 2006, members of the Czech Speleological Society started with the exploration of Koox Baal, 3,5 km long underwater cave system in the Chemuyil area on the Riviera Maya part of the eastern coast of Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. These expeditions discovered, explored and surveyed 17 km of new passages until the end of 2008. (Proceedings of 15thICS, Kerville, USA). Since 2009 they have discovered another 40 km of new passages and connected this cave system with Tux Kupaxa underwater cave system, so the total length of Koox Baal is now 75,140 m! It is the 4thlongest underwater cave system in the world, but thanks to the fact that all discovered parts were immediately mapped, it is the longest completely surveyed and mapped underwater cave system in the world!1. Resurvey of Tux KupaxaThe main goal of the expedition in 2009 was detailed exploration and remapping of the Tux Kupaxa cave system, which is located near the south end of the Koox Baal. Cenote Tux Kupaxa was discovered in 1998 by Gunnar Wagner and Robbie Schmittner, but unfortunately from this expedition there isnt any preserved information with regards to the length of the cave nor a map. Another cenote located near, was the Sac Xiquin, which was soon connected to the Tux Kupaxa and fully mapped. In the space of one month, 12,828 meters of corridor was mapped and 2017 meters of new space was discovered. The cave of Tux Kupaxa with the length of 15,138 meters became the eighth longest underwater cave system in the Yucatan (Fig. 1).2. Huge tunnels in Balam TsalIn 2010 two more expeditions took place. First from January 26thuntil February 16th, 2010 and the second from November 16thuntil November 30th, 2010. The first expedition, thanks to a forest fire which the previous year destroyed a large part of the jungle, was discovered ten new cenotes in the area located south of the well known Koox Baal cave. Our attention was at first directed to an easily accessible cenote, located approximately 200 meters from the road, which begins as an expansive dry cave, where we have found the remains of charred palm leaves from the first visitors. Due to the similarity to the banana leaves weFigure 1. Main passage of Tux Kupaxa Cave. Foto by Radoslav Husak. Figure 2. Large tunnel under the cenote of Balam Tsal, Koox Baal Cave System.Foto by Radoslav Husak. named the cave Haa Kak (Banana candle). The first two groups are gradually discovering 2 km of corridors and diving in another of the new cenotes Muk Wakal. The third group is initially trying their luck in a beautiful, large cenote, but when they failed to find the continuation of the input dome, they carry their equipment to a further positioned smaller cenote located directly next to the path. They named it Kot Be (Under the path) and here they gradually discovered 1,5 km of passages. In the following week we were able to connect the two above mentioned caves to the known cave system Koox Baal. In the meantime together with our colleague and friend Robert Schmittner, (respected researcher of the worlds second longest cave system Sac Actun), we have discovered additional 1,5 km of space in the cenote located the furthest away from all the new ones Sac Xib (White man) and this we are again able to connect with Koox Baal. Since the biggest one of the 10 new found cenotes containing a big lake did not lead to the desired continuation, we are also turning our attention to the remote but beautiful complex of three cenotes with several lakes and long stretches of dry parts. Thanks to the number of jaguars paw prints left in the dust we have decided to call it the Balam Tsal (Jaguars paw). Already the first dives brought discoveries of unexpectedly large halls with beautiful dripstone sceneries and connection of new cave to canote Kot Be, thus Balam Tsal also became part of the Koox Baal. We have spent the entire final week of the expedition gradually discovering and surveying additional kilometers of Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings130

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3. ConnectionIn 2011 two expeditions took place. First from February 1stuntil February 23rdand second from November 28thuntil December 10th.They brought extensive discoveries of new spaces and the coveted connection of the two neighboring cave systems. The first pair turned their attention to the parts that have been discovered in fall 2010 with a clear objective to find the connection between Koox Baal and Tux Kupaxa, because according to the map they are located within 20 meters of each other! Alternately they are trying their luck from both sides, finding over 1 km of new passages, but the connection to link them in the maze of narrow channels and manholes cannot be found. The second group started their exploration in Cenote Kot Be, where in the northwest direction can be found many undiscovered branches and gradually they discover this years first hundred meters of new passages. The third pair headed to cenote Balam Tsal, where last year was discovered massive corridor of nearly 4 kilometers and where many questions were unanswered and continuations opened. During the first three dives they find more than 500 m of corridors on the western side. However the character of the corridors is becoming that of tumbled domes that are necessary to swim over or around and unfortunately it is not always successful. The same character is known from virtually all tunnels that are heading west, which suggests the possibility of extensive fracture zone that lays in the direction of NW-SE along large part of the cave. For that reason further exploration in this direction has a little value. In the course of the second week the first pair continues with extreme dives on the edge of human abilities in order to achieve the connection between Koox Baal and Tux Kupaxa. Alternately they dive from cenote Muk Wakal, Tres Estrelas and Side Mount and stretch through many other straits, unfortunately without success. The second group completed survey of the northwestern part under cenote Kot Be and moved to join the third group at cenote Balam Tsal. Together they explore and map all unexplored branches from the main corridor. In total they add to the length of the cave additional 2 km of passages, mainly flat channels, which is in general the shape of local caves, but in places with rich sinter decoration. The last week of the expedition, the first pair resigned on finding the link and focused all their efforts on the southernmost part of the Koox Baal cave system, where we left off a year ago on the doorstep of new unknown tunnels and domes (Fig. 3). Considerable distance from the entrance now requires the use of underwater scooters and additional tanks. From the last point reached in 2010 massive corridors continue in almost an identical profile for another 500 m, here we were forced to stop the exploration due to the time restrain. The same length was also reached by a significant left branch, where we also did not reach its end. The most interesting thing about these newly discovered passages is their general direction, leading SW to SSW, which is very unusual. Additional half kilometer of passages was discovered in various branches and parallel corridors. Several dives were also devoted to the exploration of a significant corridor that extended out towards the well known corridors of Tux Kupaxa cave and where nearly 300 meters of passages were discovered. The exploration ended in a narrow but high meandering corridor that eventually went into a crack. Due to the complicated access we did not continue in the exploration of this corridor. As it later turned out this passage was significant for further exploration. During the three week expedition we discovered and mapped 7 km of new space and the length of the Koox Baal reached 36,634 m! Also the second expedition tried to find the connection between the systems of Koox Bal and Tux Kupaxa. In three corridors and giant domes. It is not unusual for the width extending in places to 20 meters or more, and the height reaching up to 8 meters. In Balam Tsal we discovered the total of 3,6 km, bringing the total length of Koox Baal system to 28,6 km (Fig. 2). The second expedition that happened in fall was undertaken as a miniexpedition of two members and their main goal was to find connection between the Koox Baal cave system and the Tux Kupaxa cenote located nearby. The pair began with a detailed survey of the parts discovered during the spring between Kot Be and Muk Wakal and they were able to penetrate through a set of low crawl spaces to the west, into a larger continuation. In a course of 13 dives, lasting approximately 3 hours each, they discovered and mapped 2,3 km of new space, bringing the total length of the Koox Baal to more than 30 km and reached the total of 30,933 m. Although the new discovered passages are pointing towards the Tux Kupaxa cave system the connection between the cave systems was not yet found.Figure 3. Richly decorated passage in Koox Baal. Foto by Radoslav Husak. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings131

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new cenotes Tan Ich (Glasses), Numya (Passion) a Sac Ktu Cha they gradually discovered and mapped 1,460 m, in some places large and beautifully decorated corridors, but mostly again small narrow channels and manholes, in which they tried to find the connection during the 12 days (Fig. 4). On December 9thwe connected 19,850 meters long Tux Kupaxa cave and 36,741 meters long Koox Baal cave into one cave system! So the 4thlongest underwater cave system in the world was created with the total length of 52,591 meters!4. Discovery in Chun Che ChenIn 2012 were traditionally organized two expeditions. First from February 8thuntil March 3rdand second from November 24thuntil December 9th. East of the cave system Koox Baal was 1,300 m long cave located in cenote Chun Che Chen. As in the case of Tux Kupaxa, the Chun Che Cen was first discovered by team of explorers Gunnar Wagner and Robbie Schmittner in 1998. Due to the lack of maps of the cave we decided to measure again the entire polygon and draw a map of the area. Another reason for mapping of the entire area of the polygon again was that its premises were located less than 100 meters from the end of Koox Baal. During mapping we found extensive sequences in several different parts of the cave. Three large tunnels in the newly discovered section lead north and within we gradually discover 5 km of new, very rugged and diverse space! Great halls alternate with narrow restrictions, austere rock tunnels with chambers richly adorned by sinter decorations. During the following week after several dives in extreme straits we finally managed to connect the Chen Chun Che to Koox Baal, thanks to which the length of Koox Baal exceeded 60 km! The remaining time of the expedition was devoted to continuation of exploration in the southern and southwestern parts, first discovered in 2010, where still are great passages undiscovered even after the discoveries in 2011. The only complication is the great distance from the entrance and therefore limited time for survey due to the transportation of large quantities of bottles. In spite of that during five dives we discover additional 2 km of new huge tunnels and the length of Koox Baal reaches 64,600 m! At the end of the expedition we organize several trips into the jungle with the goal of finding new entrance, which would Figure 4. Passing through narrow passage in Tux Kupaxa Cave System. Foto by Radoslav Husak.facilitate an easier access to the southernmost part. After few days we find a great cenote with several lakes and after the first dive in one of them, we reach without a problem Koox Baal. We decided to call this cenote Shaman EK, according to the sign on the corner of the property. The second expedition started the survey in the cenote Shaman Ek, from where it is closest to the southeast part of the cave. This cenote is accessible using only very badly maintained road that is more than 3 km long, which greatly prolonged the transport of diving materials. Initially, it was possible to continue the exploration through large tunnels, which meant first kilometers of discoveries. Unfortunately the tunnels abruptly ended and we had to continue systematic survey of all branches. The idea of easy continuation south was quickly reduced to slow crawl through narrow passages. The same way ended the attempts on the north side. The only direction, in which the corridors were free to continue, was west to a distance of one and a half kilometer from cenote Shaman Ek. In the end, during the two weeks we were able to discover another 9 kilometers and two new cenotes. The total length of all the underwater parts of the cave is 73,600 m. Together with some dry parts the total length of the Koox Baal system is 75,140 m! (Fig. 5).5. SummaryKoox Baal is the longest completely mapped and drawn up underwater cave system in the world. The other three longer underwater cave systems are polygon measured but only partially mapped.Between 2009 and 2012 Czech Speleological Society organized seven expeditions to the Koox Baal and follow people participated: Miroslav Dvo ek, Petr Chmel, Martin Hone, Radek Husk, Daniel Hut an, Martin Hut an, Radek Jan ar, Michal Megela, Zden k Moty ka, Jan Sirotek, Kamila Svobodov, and Karol Kyka.AcknowledgmentsSpecial thanks to QRSS Bil Philips and Jim Coke for their support and Robbie Schmittner, Nadia Berni, David Sieff for their friendship and help.ReferencesMoty ka Z, 2004. Phenomenon of underwater caves of Riviera Maya, Mexico Abstracts 3rd. NSK. Brno. Motyka Z, 2007. Xibalba 2006 SPELEOFORUM 2007, Brno. Motyka Z, 2008. Xibalba 2007 SPELEOFORUM 2008, Brno. Motyka Z, 2009. Xibalba 2008 SPELEOFORUM 2009, Brno. Hutan D, 2010. Mexico Following the footsteps of mastodon SPELEOFORUM 2010 Brno. Motyka Z, Hutan D, 2010. Xilbalba 2010 Koox Baal Cave System is 30 km long! Moty ka Z, 2012. Xilbaba 2011 Koox Baal is the 4thlongest underwater cave system in the world SPELEOFORUM 2012 Brno.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings132

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Figure 5.Complete map of Koox Baal as of December 9, 2012. Explored and surveyed by members of Czech Speleological Society, Slovak Speleological Society and Quintana Roo Speleological Survey. Darker lines represent passages known until 2008. The light er lines present new discoveries since 2009. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings133

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GEOLOGY AND DEEP VERTICALS: CASE STUDY FROM MAGANIK MTS., MONTENEGROJi Otava, Vt Baldk Czech Geological Survey, Leitnerova 22, CZ-658 69 Brno, Czech Republic, jiri.otava@geology.cz The formation of deepest karst vertical shafts in the world has been probably controlled by similar geological factors. Universal factors include convenient lithology and hydrological or precipitation potential. The study from Maganik Mts. shows substantial difference between the density of deep vertical shafts at the area of flat, subhorizontal beds and the area of duplexes, folds and faults. The first area displays dense network of deep vertical shafts the depth of which is controlled by thickness of flat bedded limestones and by subvertical joint sets. When the vertical shafts bottomed at calciturbidites with shale rhythmic interbeds, the shape of cave quickly changed to meanders and lower vertical steps. 1. IntroductionThe topic of the paper is as we hope universal for karst areas all around the world. The area of study seems to be favourable for understanding the processes and circumstances especially because of excellent visibility and absence of confusing younger sedimentary cover. The surface and underground observations and documentations continue at the area for several years and every season brings new pieces of knowledge and discoveries.2. Geography and geologyMaganik Mountains at Montenegro belongs to one of most famous karst areas of Dinarides, the High Karst. It is situated less than 100 km NE from Boka Kotorska, Adriatic Sea in close eastern vicinity of Niki town (Fig. 1). The terrain of the High Karst Zone is built up of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonates several km thick. Reverse faults and thrusting cause even higher thickness. High Karst is characterised by all surface occurrences and all processes characteristic for holokarst. Maganik itself is about 20 km long and 10 km wide mountain range situated in the central part of Montenegro. It is surrounded and drained byrivers Zeta in the south and Mrtvica and Moraca in the north. The Maganik massiv streches generally in the NNW-ESE direction and orographically it is separated form Moracka Planina in the north and Prekornica mountain in the south. The eastern part of Maganik Mts. is built of shallow water platform Upper Cretaceous carbonates (Pajovi 1999). It is an area of great potential for vertical systems. The precipitation mostly exceeds 3,000 mm per year, the highest parts of the limestone massif is rising over 2,000 m a.s.l. and the resurgences are situated around altitudes of 300 m a.s.l.3.Tectonic overviewThe area of interest is just several square kilometers, nevertheless there is substantial difference between its NE and SW parts (see Fig. 2 and Fig. 4). The NE part represents a slightly dipping table mountain of Treteni vrh, which is considered from the structural viewpoint as a parautochonous part of the area. On the other side the SW part of the section, the massif of Mededi vrh, is in its upper part undoubtedly allochtonous block divided from Treteni vrh by a duplex (thrust) fault (Fig. 2). Figure 1. Location map (width 30 km) of the explored area.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings134

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Figure 3. Left: Rose diagramm of subvertical joint system at the terrritory of Treteni vrh parautochtonous subhorizontal limes tones. Data plotted on Lambert lower hemisphere, SW Statect version 2012, courtesy of Ji Rez; right: Aerial Google view of Treteni vrh joint pattern. The width of lower side is 1,500 m. Figure 2. A view to SW from Treteni Vrh to Mededi Vrh: Flat bedded limestones in the front (A) and folded and faulted duplex of Mededi Vrh at the horizon (B) contrast between conditions for vertical shafts evolution. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings135

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There is a more detailed contribution on the speleological exloration activities during the season 2012 inside the Proceedings. The most interesting of it is the prolongation of the Pahl Abyss (see NE part of the Fig. 4) over 1,000 m contemporary name Iron Deep, total depth 1,027 m.4. Discussion and ConclusionsComparison of density of deep vertical shafts between the thrust of Mededi vrh and the table mountain of Treteni vrh, Maganik Mt. Montenegro, resulted strongly in favour of flat-bedded para-autochtonous limestones of Treteni vrh. It is explained by favourable lithology and by favourable structural conditions. Similar lithotectonic pattern was described earlier e.g., in Palmer (2007). System of subvertical joints (see Fig. 3) controlled the origin of many vertical one step shafts. The 429 m step in the Abyss of Nyx and 351 m deep step in the Abyss of Aither belong to the deepest shafts in Europe (Dvo k 2011). The conclusion for explorative speleology is thus quite clear: Generally good conditions for the origin of deep caves include high precipitations, pure limestone, high difference of altitudes between ponors and resurgences. The structural circumstances are often complicated and changing within the system.Figure 4. Geological sketch cross section with position of vertical shafts (courtesy of Z. Dvo k and P. slavsk).Explanation: 1 para-autochtonous Cretaceous calciturbidites (interbedding of limestone and shale); 2 para-autochtonous Upper Cretaceous thic k bedded limestone; 3 allochtonous limestone of the Mededi vrh Thrust. The finds of deep vertical steps are most hopeful in subhorizontal thick bedded pure limestones with subvertical system of jointing (Fig. 3). Shafts in limestones of such tectonic pattern are prone to cut the whole thickness in one step. There are many examples among well known shafts, e.g., Provatina, Vrtiglavica, etc. On the other side the change of favourable lithology downwards, e.g., presence of thin bedded marly limestones, calciturbidites, shale intercalations, thrust zones and planes results in substantial change. The cave morphology characterized by meanders, subhorizontal passages, narrows and lower steps are controlled by different mechanical properties and rate of dissolution of the bedrock.AcknowledgmentsOur thanks belong to members of Such leb Caving club, Czech Speleological Society, and all participants of Maganik expeditions and to friendly local farmers in Maganik. Preparation of this paper was supported by the project No. 321100 of the Czech Geological Survey.ReferencesDvo k Z, 2011. The Nyx and Aither Abysses. Speleofrum, Volume 30, 82. Czech Spelological Society, Praha. Pajovi M, 1999. Metallogenic map of Montenegro 1:200,000. The Institute for geological Explorations of Montenegro, Podgorica. Palmer AN, 2007. Cave Geology, 454.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings136

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KANA JAMA (THE SNAKE CAVE) DIVA A, SLOVENIATom Roth1, Karel Kocourek2 1Czech Speleological Society, speleoclub 6-19 Plnivy, Jnokova 12, CZ-643 00 Brno, Czech Republic, tom.roth@centrum.cz2Czech Speleological Society, speleoclub 3-02 Jesky i Plze Systematic research of water cave system Reka (SLO) Timavo (IT) in the Classic Karst of Southern Europe.1. Kana Jama research 2004We came to the region of Classic Karst in 2004, when our speleoclub Plnivy initiated a co-operation with the local speleoclub Gregor iberna from Diva a. Our interest aimed to Ka na Jama, which was a 12.75 km long cave system flowed through by the Reka River. This river sinks in a UNESCOs World Natural Heritage cave kocjanske Jame, which is famous for its 2 km long, gigantic underground canyon. The Reka River disappears here in a terminal siphon and after 0.75 km reappears again in Ka na Jama where it forms a complex labyrinth of corridors and galleries. Ka na Jama is the last cave of the system, where long galleries formed by the river are known. Other abysses leading from the surface to the active river level are located 6 km far away, but they reach only short parts of the active Reka River delimited by complicated siphons. After the first easy visits to Ka na Jama, we decided to organize an expedition with help of other clubs from the Czech Speleological Society (CSS) aimed at the outflow section of the cave flood draining corridor. In summer 2005, during a one week event we passed almost through the whole section, but we stopped above a 12 m deep pit, 350 m from the terminal siphon in Cimermanov Rov. We turned back because of a difficult progress and a lack of rigging material. As a conclusion, we found this part of the cave very interesting for research, but also very dangerous because of risk of fast flooding. In 2006 we tried to find upper entrance to these outflow parts from surface localities, but with no interesting results. In 2007 we came back to Ka na Jama into the Zahodni Rov (Western Corridor) branch, which was approximately 450 m long, and had been known from the end of the 19thcentury. In the opposite direction to Zahodni Rov, there is Vzhodni Rov (Eastern Corriodor), which leads to main continuation of the cave with the Reka River active flow. The length disproportion between the two corridors was the reason, why we attacked a roof formed by fallen boulders in the remote parts of Zahodni Rov. We went through a place with periodic draught, and this place brought us to an unexpected discovery of two big domes with very high ceiling. Their length is about 100 m. Above the second dome, we climbed up a 45 m high canyon-like chimney, where we discovered a great horizontal level full of wonderful decoration, called Clean Area, which ends up in the distance of 100 m by a sinter and mud plug. At the right wall of this corridor a deep shaft was located. We descended there to the depth of 75 m. The bottom with many draining clefts was marked by frequent floods. A corridor in the lowest point leads to a small dome with a siphon. In summer 2008 it was dived through by Ivo Zruba. Behind the short siphon we passed through a draining corridor that led approximately 200 m from the P75 shaft. On this occasion we discovered other inflows from an unknown part of the cave system but of a small cross-section. This place is located about 20 m above the active river level but it is very complicated to reach this terminal point. The research of this area has been stopped in 2009. We named this place Plnivsk Rov. The most remarkable result of year 2008 is a discovery of a 200 m long Plze sk Rov (Pilsner Corridor), because it brought in new knowledge about a hydrological situation in Kana Jama. This corridor is situated almost under the entrance abyss and it ends up by cave-in. At the end of Plze sk Rov we got to the 400 m straight line distance from the terminal siphon where the active flow of the Reka River is vanishing in a gigantic underground cave-in.Figure 1. Entrance hall, photo by Borut Lozej. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings137

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Perhaps there is the most hopeful chance of discovery of further continuation of the active Reka River here. From 2008 on, we started to cooperate with other members of CSS and hungarian cavers from Papp Ferenc caving club and FTSK from Budapest in our research of Ka na jama. Also other foreign cavers have been joining our summer expeditions. 1.1. International expedition Ka na jama Reka exploration2009 concluded with a great success. Czech, Moravian and Hungarian speleologists succeeded to discover a prolongation of the flood draining corridor. Two experienced cavedivers, Jan En ev and Pavel ha, managed to achieve this discovery behind the terminal siphon of Cimermanov Rov (Cimermans Corridor), the remotest and the worst accessible part of the cave system. On July 6, 2009 the divers set off from this point for the historically first exploration of the final siphon, despite these places had been known since 1972. Each diver was equipped with 4 independent air containers with 24 litres/ 300 bar of total volume. They returned after three and a half hour. Behind the siphon they discovered a gigantic corridor with average width of 15 m and height of about 30 m. They advanced almost 700 m. The divers turned round in the point where the bottom of the corridor was covered by rocky blocks (approximately size of a bus). They turned in a 20 m wide and 30 m high corridor. We named the discovery Rov za Zrcalom (Corridor behind the mirror). The second week of the expedition the team spent time with retransporting of all the stuff. There were little summer storms which increased the underground Reka River flow rate from 2 to 14 cubic meter per second and the water level rose by approximately 3 m. We used our safety fixed ropes for a retreat. 1.2. International Expedition Ka na Jama Reka Exploration 2010 successfully tested some few world innovations in caving equipment. Among them it was a DistoX digital survey set which can greatly speed up the surveying process. Two devices for wireless communication between underground and surface stations (Heyphone and Cavelink) made the key part in achieving a significantly higher safety standard during the Ka na Jama exploration. Finally the most effective was Cavelink that is a special sophisticated device aimed at short message communication even in very difficult surface and underground conditions. It can use multiple frequencies for its operation, and this was the best solution for us in an environment, where a lot of high voltage overhead lines is present on the surface. The main aim of the expedition was to continue in the exploration of the recently discovered Rov za Zrcalom, where we found another 330 m of passages that led to a siphon. Over 1,000 m of gigantic underground space was surveyed and photographic documentation of dominant features was made as well. In Rov lovekih Ribic (Corridor of Protei) located near the entrance abyss, diver Jan En ev documented the second inflow siphon was documented by means of diving technique to the distance of 370 m from the entry point of the dive. This amazing distance exceeded the previous achievements by 200 m. Maximum depth of 20 m was reached in the terminal section. Figure 2. Plnivsk rov Clean Area, photo by Petr Polk. Figure 3. Rov za zrcalom, photo by Petr Polk. 1.3. International Expedition Ka na Jama Reka Exploration2011 with over fifty participants carried out diving through the second siphon, at that time the known end of Rov za Zrcalom. On Thursday, August 4, the principal diver, Jan En ev plunged into the so far unexplored water. Two hours later he was back with 340 m of line unreeled but without contact with free surface. Maximum dive depth was about 22 m and the most distant point showed signs of decreasing depth. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings138

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The discovered corridor passes to the third siphon. Jan dived again and the siphon turned out to be 90 m long and 10 m deep. Next free cavity is 115 m long, 13 m wide, 22 m high and its flat bottom is formed from gravel. It ends up in a 25 m long lake with the fourth siphon. With respect to remoteness of this point, Jan didnt proceed to any further and returned back to the rest of the company. Overall length of the newly discovered passages is 768 m and its general direction leads to the vicinity of Povir village. In addition to the main effort, a documentary was filmed and some side branches of the cave system were surveyed with digital set and Pocket Topo software. Also a chimney above Lojzov Podor that was climbed up +120 m during the two previous expeditions was de-rigged, because it didnt lead to a prospective terrain. During winter expedition of the beginning of 2012, our diver Jan En ev made an incredible diving attempt was taken in the middle parts of Ka na jama, called Okretnica. Here a small brook disappears to an unknown siphon. The diver found there another free continuation after the first On Sunday, August 7, he dived again with full dive bottles and after 415 m of underwater passage with bad visibility he emerged in a spacious dome. This cavity is 150 m long, 30 m wide and 12 m high with corrosive ceiling and with a pool along almost whole right wall. After a plot of survey polygon was made, it was evident that because of bad visibility the diver made some unnecessary turns and the real length of the second siphon is about 325 m.Figure 4. Rov za zrcalom 2. siphon, photo by Petr Polk. Figure 5. Diver Jan En ev, photo by Petr Polk. 15 m long siphon with a final 2 m deep jump into the next lake with water level of second siphon. Here he also made an exploration. He turned back in small flooded corridor filed by a cave-in and trees. Completely he discovered about 70 m. 1.4. International expedition Ka na Jama Reka Exploration2012 wasnt interested in seriously orienteddiving in the end parts of Kana Jama, but the main aim was to climb up a chimney above Slabeto lake (close to Cimermanov Rov). There we felt a possibility of finding some upper level and then continuation to the surface. Unfortunately we got just to the height of 90 m above water level and here we were stopped by a sinter formation which closed further continuation. Another window and a few interesting chimneys above Slabeto lake were left for the next time. Our international team mapped the active outflow corridor Ozki Rov, which terminates by a cave-in. For the first time, we visited parts around Saturn abyss and did a digital mapping of Hojkerjeva Dvorana. On the surface, we dug a promisingly looking breathing spot called Vitkuv Dihalnik. At the end of 2012 we were here in the depth of around 10 m. Luckily, we were present at the place just while the Ka na Jama system was being flooded up, and we observed very strong draught here that continued for 2 hours. This filled us with a hope that this digging would lead to the lowest level of the system and could be eventually used as a short cut for a transport of the diving stuff. We will see how lucky we will be there! For 2013 we plan a detailed research of Hojkerjeva Dvorana and, if a dry weather permits, also the Ozki Rov outflow corridor.2. Kana Jama official length:18891,900 m (first descent, Zahodni Rov and Vzhodni Rov) 19728,600 m (Reka River, outflow section up to Cimermanov Rov) 199712,750 m (section from behind Ogabno Jezero siphon Novi Deli to the intake siphon) 200713,250 m Plnivsk Rov +500 m 200813,750 m Plnivsk Rov +300 m, Plze sk Rov +200 m 200914,450 m Rov za Zrcalom +700 m 201015,100 m Rov za Zrcalom +330 m, 2ndsiphon lovekih Ribic +200 m, chimney in Lojzov Podor +120 m 201116,068 m Povirski Rov +768 m, intake siphon and continuation + min. 200 m (Slovenian team) Total length of Kana Jama is over 16 km (2012). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings139

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3. Credits also:To all participants from the Czech Speleological Society for their contribution to the expedition. It wouldnt be feasible without that. Thanks to our Hungary and Slovenian caver friends for cooperation! Many thanks to the Gregor iberna local club for offering a refuge, lending a material, for a help with the realization and for an opportunity to carry out a research in their home territory. If you would like to make an earnest expedition to Ka na Jama, please contact the local club at: http://www.divaskajama.info/kontakt_os.htmFigure 6. Rov desetih jezer, photo by Jind ich Dvoek. Figure 7. Active Reka River, photo by Jind ich Dvoek. Figure 8. Vzhodni rov, photo by Csaba Egri.4. GlossaryRov = Corridor Podor = Cave-in Dvorana = Dome Dihalnik = Breathing spot Exploration and Cave Techniques oral2013 ICS Proceedings140

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Figure 9. Map of actual known cavespace of Ka na jama system. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings141

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IMAWAR YEUTA: A NEW GIANT CAVE SYSTEM IN THE QUARTZ SANDSTONES OF THE AUYAN TEPUI, BOLIVAR STATE, VENEZUELAFrancesco Sauro1,2, Freddy Vergara1,3, Antonio De Vivo1, Jo De Waele1,2 1Associazione di Esplorazioni Geografiche la Venta, Via Priamo Tron 35/F, 31030, Treviso2Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Bologna University, Via Zamboni 67, 40126 Bologna, cescosauro@gmail.com3Teraphosa Exploring Team, Puerto Ordaz, Venezuela In February 2013 a new huge cave system in quartz-sandstones has been discovered in the eastern sector of the Auyan Tepui, Venezuela by an Italian-Venezuelan team (La Venta Esplorazioni Geografiche and Teraphosa Exploring Team). In twelve days of exploration over 15 km of passages were surveyed and other 4 km were explored. The system has nine entrances and hosts three rivers giving rise to three resurgences. The cave passages belong to two levels, an active one in which the rivers flow with a general and gradual WNW trend, and a inactive level located from 4 to 20 metres higher with a N-S direction. The active levels are lithologically controlled whith typical pillars, potholes and wide and rounded bedrock channels with very scarce sediment fill. The inactive level instead hosts large quantities of secondary minerals, mainly sulphates-phosphates, and very nice and rare opal and silica speleothems. Flowing, drip and standing waters have been analysed in situ for their Si content and many morphological observations have been carried out in order to try and understand the speleogenesis of such large quartzite caves. Further geological, mineralogical, geomicrobiological and biological studies are required in this exceptionally interesting quartzite cave.1. IntroductionAbout twenty years ago cavers and karst scientists believed that speleogenesis of caves in the quartz-sandstones of the tepui mountains (Bolivar State, Venezuela) was related to exceptional conditions and only of local importance. In the 80s and 90s the exploration of deep and wide shafts called simas was explained as the result of arenisation processes along open fractures close to the high cliffs surrounding the plateaus. In these decades the researches didnt investigate the inner sectors of the plateus believed to be less promising for the discovery of caves. Since 2000, instead, several horizontal cave systems have been explored and obviously this required to rediscuss the speleogenesis of quartzite caves (Aubrecht et al. 2011; Aubrecht et al. 2013; Sauro et al. 2013). After the exploration of kilometre long caves in the Roraima and Chimantha massifs (Galn et al. 2004; Sauro 2009; Brewer Caras and Audy 2011), in April 2013 a new giant cave, named Imawar Yeuta (the Cave where the Gods live in Pemon Kamarakoto indian language) was discovered by an Italian-Venezuelan expedition on the Auyan Tepui in the Canaima National Park. This exploration suggests that well developed and extensive underground drainage systems probably occur below the surface of most of the tepuis in the Gran Sabana area. Speleological investigations in the quartz-sandstone mountains of Venezuela and Brazil seems to be only at the beginning. This article shows the main results of the expedition Auyan Tepui 2013 and the scientific researches planned for the future.2. Geographical and geological settingsThe Auyan Tepui is one of the largest table mountains of the Gran Sabana area (700 km2, Fig. 1), well known for the presence of the Angel Falls, considered the highest waterfall in the world (975 m). The Gran Sabana is a vaste geographical region located in northern South America, between Venezuela and Brazil, crossed by several tributaries of Rio Caron, which in turn flows into the Orinoco River. The Auyan Tepui has the shape of a large table mountaindelimited by vertical to overhanging walls, often more than 1,000 m high.In plan view it looks like a triangle pointing to the south. In the inner part the Canyon del Diablo separates the northwestern sector from the north-eastern one, while the southern part is a continuous plateau reaching its highest elevation at 2,450 m asl.Figure 1. The Auyan Tepuy from a Landsate image. The bounding box represent the North-Eastern sector of the tepui. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings142

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From a geological point of view the Gran Sabana is part of the Guyana Shield. The igneous and ultra-metamorphic rocks in the northern portion of the shield (Imataca-Bolivar Province, after Gonzlez de Juana et al. 1980) have an age of 3.5 Ga. The silico-clastic rocks (Roraima Group) belong to the continental-to-pericontinental environment of the Roraima-Canaima Province (Reid 1974). The age of this arenaceous group can be inferred only on the basis of the absolute dating of the granitic basement (2.3.8 Ga) and of the basaltic dykes and sills that cross the upper formation of the Roraima Group (1.4.8 Ga) (Briceo and Schubert 1990; Santos et al. 2003). The Roraima Group was also intruded by Mesozoic diabases (Hawkes 1966; Teggin et al. 1985). These form thin NE-trending dykes with ages around 200 Ma. A slight metamorphism, with quartz-pyrophyllite paragenesis in the more pelitic beds, is the result of the lithostatic load of almost 3-km-thick sediments now eroded (Urbani et al. 1977).3. Brief history of speleological explorations in the Auyan TepuiThe presence of caves in the Auyan Tepui is reported already during one of the first ascensions of the mountain, the expedition of Felix Cardona Puig and the italian geologist Alfonso Vinci in December of 1946 (Vinci, 1957). The cave explored and described by Vinci was never found again (Merlak, 2010). The first speleological expedition, with helicopter support, was realized in 1983 by the Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologa, with the main aim to explore the Sima Aonda (Fig. 1), previously known thanks to aerial surveys in the NW sector of the massif. With its 362 m of depth this collapse was considered the world deepest quartzite cave until 1993, even if it consists of an elongated depression and not a true shaft. Most of the expeditions carried out in the years after were basically concentrated in this area where the SVE explored several other deep simas, such as the Sima Auyantepuy Norte and the Sima Aonda Este 2. In 1992 an Italian expedition organized by four caving clubs (CAI SEM Milano, Castellanza, Laveno and Cividale del Friuli) works on the upper Aonda platform and explores several caves summing up to 1,700 m of development. The same year La Venta carries out a first aerial recognition in the Aonda area in order to organize a future expedition. The year after a big expedition organized by La Venta works in three different areas of the same western sector: in Camp Aonda, the team descends Sima Aonda and explores the active horizontal system at its bottom (Ali Primera Cave) and other deep shafts of the platform; in Camp 1, slightly NE, Sima Churun (Sima Auyantepuy Norte 2) is explored, and in Camp 2, moved further W, Sima Auyantepuy Noroeste is discovered, becoming the deepest and longest quartzite cave in the world at that time (3 km, -370). In 1996 La Venta organizes another expedition in the Aonda area, exploring several other simas and connecting Sima del Bloque to Ali Primera, realizing a cave system 352 m deep and about 2 km long. In 2010 a short prospection to the south-western plateau allowed to find and explore the Cueva Guacamaya (1.1 km), the first horizontal cave found in the Auyan Tepui, presenting peculiar morphologies similar to those described in the cave systems of the Chimantha massif. Before the expedition of April 2013 a total of about 10 km of cave passages were explored on Auyan Tepui, but exclusively in the western part of the massif. The southern and eastern sectors were completely unknown from a speleological point of view.4. The expedition Auyan Tepui 2013The joint Italian-Venezuelan expedition on Auyan Tepui took place in March 2013. The expedition was organized by La Venta Esplorazioni Geografiche together with the Teraphosa Exploring Team from Puerto Ordaz city. Ten cavers (7 from Italy and 3 from Venezuela) and two park rangers from InParques took part to the expedition. The main aim was to explore the southern and eastern sector of the mountain, with several unknown entrances located during previous flights by the helicopter pilot Raul Arias. The expedition was based in Kavak and a helicopter supported the installation of the exploration camps on the plateau. A total of 12 days of exploration activity was carried out on the mountain. A first group reached an entrance which opens on the eastern wall of the mountain, suspended nearly a thousand metres above the surrounding plain. Unfortunately the impressive opening revealed only a short gallery about sixty meters length. The same day another group descended a big collapse, named Sima del Viento (Fig. 2), apparently close to the bottom. After several hours of research, finally a narrow passage in between big boulders led to an impressive active gallery. In the days after a new camp was installed on the border of the collapse, allowing a continuous work of exploration, survey, documentation and scientific researches. After only four days about 5 km were surveyed, following two main rivers (Fig. 3). The exploration led quickly to two further entrances, named Mundo Perdido and Grieta de Los Guacharos. In the meantime the structure of the cave suggested the presence of another river to the north-west, in direction of a giant collapse doline. The supposed river was finally reached from inside the system through a labyrinthic network of fossil galleries. An undergroundFigure 2. The large collapse of Sima del Viento represent the main entrance of the Imawar Yeuta Cave. Photo by F. Sauro. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings143

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camp of three days permitted to survey about 10.5 km of new galleries, with huge rooms (the biggest 270 metres long and 150 metres wide), complex labyrinths and other three new entrances. Finally the total surveyed length reaches 15,450 metres, thanks to the use of the Polish CaveSniper instrument (www.caveexplorer.eu). About other 4 kilometres were explored but not surveyed because of lack of time. Imawar Yeuta represents one of the worlds longest quartzite caves explored until now, consisting in a unique cave not divided by valleys, collapses or grietas. The structure of the cave is quite complex but the main hydrological routes draining the plateau are already well clear (Fig. 4). Only the network of no more active branches needs to be better explored and documented. The expedition recovered all the wastes produced and also all the faeces from the cave and the surface of the tepui to avoid microbial contamination. The exploration was carried out using always the same trail to limit our impact on the vegetation going to the cave and on the fragile cave floor, in particular in the fossil branches.5. The cave Imawar YeutaThe new cave consists of three hydrologically independent collectors (Fig. 5), two of which coming from the big sinkhole of Sima del Viento, while the other one derives from the catchment area of a large collapse doline to the north, about five hundred metres wide, and of a nearby smaller sinkhole. Here a stream falls into the cave with a waterfall about 90 metres high. During our explorations, carried out during a particularly dry period, the first two streams had a minimum discharge of about 20 l/s, while the main river reaches a minimum of 100 l/s. From the signs left by water on the walls it is clear that this last river can probably reach several cubic metres per second during floods. The direction of drainage is in general from ESE to WNW following the dip of the sandstone beds. A labyrinth network of inactive galleries, developed along an evident bed, interconnects the different rivers. This open bed can reach impressive width (more than 300 metres in some sectors) creating huge environments where the ceiling is supported only by random pillars. This situation causes large collapse zones with chaos of fallen boulders. In some cases the fossil galleries show palaeo-phreatic rounded morphologies and are in general almost perpendicular to the actual vadose drainage. One of the most impressive peculiarities of the cave is the presence of widespread crystallizations of gypsum, opal, and other secondary minerals (probably alunite, sanjuanite and rossiantonite). The gypsum occurs in form of acicular crystals, flower-like forms, crusts and desert roses covering thousands of square metres of the cave floor. Also deposits of iron hydroxides are present, in form of stalagmites up to 5 metres high, flowstones, rimstone dams, and coralloids. Anemolites, helictites and stalactites and other speleothems of opal and amorphous silica are present (Figs 6). These formations are extremely fragile and the explorationdocumentation of the cave must be carried out with double flagged trails in order to avoid unnecessary damages.6. Researches and scientific interestsOne of the main objectives of the 2013 expedition to Auyan Tepui was scientific research, especially concerning speleogenesis on quartzite caves, in the framework of a PhD thesis by one of the authors (FS). InParques granted us the autorisation to carry out chemical analyses on waters, and to make geomorphological observations at the surface and inside the discovered caves. Water samples have been taken in underground streams, of drip waters, in still-standing pools and lakes, and of surface waters. The very low contents of Si and SiO2 in the sampled waters required quick in situ measurements (UNESCO-WHO 1978; Mecchia and Piccini, 1999; Piccini and Mecchia, 2009) with an Aquaquant 114410 Silicon by Merck, able to analyse in a concentration rangeof 0.01.25 mg/l, with an error lower than 20%. Analyses were carried out within 24 hours from sampling. Samples with a higher concentration of Si were analysed by dilution with distilled water. Temperature, pH, and electric conductivity (EC) were measured by a HI 991300 Hannah Instruments field portable instrument. Figure 3. Gallery along the Rio de los Venezuelanos. Photo V. Crobu. Figure 4. Preliminary sketch of the cave plan obtained using the Cave Sniper instrument.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings144

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Running waters have a pH ranging between 3.1 and 5.9. Still standing waters in cave pools and lakes can reach neutrality and high SiO2values 7 mg L-1. The highest SiO2content was documented for an about one hundred cubic metres pool of standing water with a value of 8.6 mg/l. This confirms that running waters (streams) are always undersaturated with respect to Si because of their fast passage through the system while percolation waters are generally much higher in content confirming that a dissolution process in fractures and cave walls is effective. These results support the arenisation model of speleogenesis in quartz-sandstone (Martini 2000; Sauro et al. 2013), even though also processes of hydrolysis and laterisation are possible where sandstones also contain silicates as suggested by Aubrecht et al. (2011). For morphological and speleogenetic studies we measured size and bearings of over 100 pillars in the cave, together with fractures and bedding planes in order to check the theory of pillar flow proposed by Aubrecht et al. (2011). The results of these studies will be presented soon. Further researches are planned for the near future also regarding the secondary minerals deposits present in the cave.7. ConclusionsImawar Yeuta represents one of the largest cave systems in quartz sandstone in the world. The discovery of this cave demonstrates that speleogenesis is widespread in the tepuis of the Gran Sabana region suggesting that many other cave systems are waiting to be discovered and documented. The scientific interest of these caves is very high, ranging from the processes of weathering that lead to the cave formation, to the exceptional secondary minerals, speleothems, cave fauna and geomicrobiological interactions. In particular this last topic will certainly need more attention in the future in order to better understand all the processes interacting in the weathering and secondary mineral deposition processes. For this reason La Venta is going to organize a new expedition to this cave, hoping to achieve all the permissions from the Venezuelan Ministery of Environment for geological, biological and geomicrobiological sampling, involving Venezuelan cavers and scientists interested in this project. The fragility of this cave will require a protocol of protection similar to those applied in many other caves in the world (for example Lechuguilla Cave), where the visits must be carried out only for documentation and scientific purposes, following restricted trails and recovering all artificial and human waste in order to minimize the impact.AcknowledgementsThe following persons took part in the expedition: Virgilio Abreu, Raul Arias, Alfredo Brunetti, Carla Corongiu, Vittorio Crobu, Antonio De Vivo, Jo De Waele, Fulvio Iorio, David Izquierdo, Jesus Lira, Francesco Sauro, Freddy Vergara, Jesus Vergara, and the helicopter pilot Julio Testaferro.Figure 5. Sixty meter wide gallery along the Collector de Noroeste. Photo V. Crobu. Figure 6. Coralloids of amorphous silica growing on the cave floor. Photo V. Crobu. Figure 7. Rounded silica speleothems in the ceiling of the inactive network. Photo V. Crobu. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings145

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The expedition was possible thanks to the permission for speleological explorations granted by the Director General Sectorial of InParques Ing. Carlos Cova and by the sponsors Geotec SPA, Raul Helicopteros and by the following technical partners, Dolomite, Intermatica, Ferrino, Amphibious, De Walt, Allemano Metrology, Chelab, Scurion, GTLine, New Foods, Bialetti, MountainHouse. A big thanks to Ortensia Berti and to the community of Kavak, to Felipe Campisi and his Robinson, to Karina Ratzevicius of Raul Helicopteros, to the Hotel Gran Sabana and to Elements Adventure for the logistic support. The following institutions gave their patronage: Ambassador of the Republic Bolivarian of Venezuela in Italy Julian Isaias Rodriguez Diaz, Foundation Dolomiti Unesco, Italian Speleological Society, Central Commission for Speleology of CAI, CONI Veneto, Italian Institute of Speleology.ReferencesAubrecht R, Lnczos T, Gregor M, Schlgl J, mda B, BrewerCaras Ch, Vlcek L, 2011. Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst? Geomorphology, 132, 351. Aubrecht R, Lnczos T, Gregor M, Schlgl J, mda B, BrewerCaras Ch, Vlcek L, 2013. Reply to the Comment on Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?. Geomorphology (DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.11.017). Ayub S, 2006. Geology and geomorphology aspects of the deepest quartzite cave in the world. Proceedings of the 10thInternational Symposium on Pseudokarst, Gorizia, 94. Brewer-Caras C, Audy M, 2011. Entraas del mundo perdido. Charles Brewer-Caras (Ed.), Caracas, 290. Briceo HO, Schubert C, 1990. Geomorphology of the Gran Sabana, Guyana Shield, Southeastern Venezuela. Geomorphology, 3, 125. Galn C, Herrera FF, Carreo R, 2004. Geomorfologa e hidrologa del Sistema Roraima Sur, Venezuela, la mayor cavidad del mundo en cuarcitas: 10,8 km. Boletin Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologia 38, 2. Gonzlez de Juana C, Picard X, Iturralde JM,1980. Geologa de Venezuela y de sus cuencas petrolfera. Edic. Foninvs, Caracas. Hawkes DD, 1966. Differentiation of the Tumatumari-Kopinang Dolerite Intrusion, British Guiana. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 77(10), 1131158. Martini JEJ, 2000. Dissolution of quartz and silicate minerals. In: Klimchouk AB, Ford DC, Palmer AN, Dreybrodt W (Eds.), Speleogenesis-Evolution of karst aquifers. National Speleological Society, Huntsville, 452. Mecchia M, Piccini L, 1999. Hydrogeology and SiO2geochemistry of the Aonda Cave system (Auyantepui, Bolivar, Venezuela). Boletin Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologia 33, 11. Merlak E, 2010. Ipotesi di una prima esplorazione da parte di un europeo di una cavit sotterranea di un tepuy della formazione geologica del Roraima (Venezuela stato del Bolivr). Progressione, 57 (1), 172. Piccini L, Mecchia M, 2009. Solution weathering rate and origin of karst landforms and caves in the quartzite of Auyan-tepui (Gran Sabana, Venezuela). Geomorphology, 106, 15. Reid AR, 1974. Stratigraphy of the type area of the Roraima Group, Venezue la. Bolletin de Geologia, Venezuela, Pub. Especial, 6, 343. Sauro F, 2009. Mondi Perduti, sugli altopiani quarzitici del Venezuela, Speleologia 61, 38. Sauro F, Piccini L, Mecchia M, De Waele J, 2013. Comment on Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst? by R. Aubrecht, T. Lnczos, M. Gregor, J. Schlgl, B. Smda, P. Lisck, Ch. Brewer-Caras, L. Vlcek. Geomorphology 132, 351. Geomorphology (DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph. 2012.11.015). UNESCO WHO. 1978. Water quality surveys. Studies and reports in hydrology 23. 350. Urbani F, Talukdar S, Szczerban E, Colve P, 1977. Metamorfismo de las rocas del Grupo Roraima. Edo. Bolvar y Territorio Federal Amazonas. Memorias V Congreso Geologico Venezolano, Caracas, 623. Vinci A, 1956. Diamanti. Publisher Leonardo da Vinci, 397.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings146

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EXPLORATION OF HIGH ALTITUDE CAVES IN THE BAISUN-TAU MOUNTAIN RANGE, UZBEKISTANEvgeny Tsurikhin1, Vadim Loginov1, Francesco Sauro2,3, Sebastian Breitenbach4 1Ekaterinburg Speleological Club, Ekaterinburg, Russia2Associazione di Esplorazioni Geografiche la Venta, Via Priamo Tron 35/F, 31030, Treviso3Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Bologna University, Via Zamboni 67, 40126 Bologna, cescosauro@gmail.com4ETH Zurich, Geological Institute, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland In the late Eighties some Russian, Italian and British expeditions started the detailed exploration of the Baysun-Tau region, a series of parallel limestone ranges showing karst features in an high altitude desert environment, with cave entrances between 3,000 and 3,900 m a.s.l. The exploration came to a halt soon because of the breaking up of the Soviet Union and related border contentions between Uzbekistan and Tagikistan. Over the past five years, the improvement of the political situation in Uzbekistan and the possibility to get permits for exploration in this remote area has lead the Ekaterinburg Speleological Club, with the support of La Venta Geographic Explorations, to inaugurate a new season of expeditions. In two years, 2011, new and extensive branches were explored in the cave systems Festivalnaya (-625 m, 16 km; entrance at 3,500 m a.s.l.), Dark Star (-610 m, 7 km; entrance at 3,640 a.s.l.), with more than 11 km of new passages surveyed. Dark Star, renamed as Central Karst System of Hodja Gur Gur Ata, in particular shows a great potential to become one of the deepest caves of Central Asia, reaching now over 600 metres of depth but with a potential of 2,400 metres between the entrance and the resurgence of Machai. In 2011 also Ulugh Begh Cave was reached again, twenty years after its first and unique exploration, discovering a new entrance at almost 3,800 m a.s.l. Additional to explorational works, Chinese, Russian, and Swiss scientists harvested the first samples for climatic studies in 2012. The Baysun Tau limestone ranges show exceptional potential not only for exploration and connection of the caves, but also for future scientific research on paleo-climate and the paleo-geographic evolution of the area.1. IntroductionThe great central Asian limestone ranges are among the most exciting frontiers of speleological exploration in high altitude environment. After a long and successful period of expeditions in the 80s, the complex political changes in this area related to the breaking up of the Soviet Union in 1991 hindered the speleological investigation for more than fifteen years. After a prospective return expedition in the Hodja Gur Gur Ata in 2010, the Ekaterinburg Speleological Club, in cooperation with La Venta Geographical Explorations, has organized two new expeditions in 2011 and 2012, focused mainly on Festivalnaya Cave (-625 m, 16 km; entrance at 3,500 m a.s.l.), Dark Star Cave (-610 m, 7 km; entrance at 3,640 a.s.l.), and Ulugh Begh Cave (-240 m, 2 km; entrance at 3,750 m a.s.l.). These last exploration campaigns have demonstrated the impressive potential of the area, with entrances at more than 3,700 m a.s.l, and the karst base level inferred to be at 1,400 m a.s.l. (Machai Springs).2. Geographical and geological description of Baisun-TauThe region is located within the boundary of Baisun-Tau and Surkhan-Tau, the southwestern spurs of Gissar Range, in the Surkhandarinskii region, Uzbekistan (Fig. 1). The Baisun-Tau mountain range stretches 50 km from southwest to north-east. Absolute altitudes of its sub-ridges are 3,500,900 m. Baisun-Tau consists of two main mountain chains, Ketmen Chapty and Hodja Gur Gur Ata. SurkhanTau mountain range is parallel to Baisun-Tau, is situated 15 km to the south-east, and reaches its highest summit at Chulbair (3,812 m). Both Ketmen Chapty and Hodja Gur Gur Ata are formed by Mesozoic deposits with two different types of karstifiable strata. The upper one consists of a Cretaceous sulphate rock with sandstone and clay bands, while the lower strata are represented by upper Jurassic limestones. Both Ketmen Chapty and Hodja Gur Gur Ata are monoclines dipping 10 C to the NW (Fig. 2). Hence, north-west slopes are gently descending and plateau-like, while south-east slopes are steep with walls up to 400 metres high at the top (Fig. 3). In Hodja Gur Gur Ata, cave entrances are located on the wall at different heights and represent paleo-phreatic and vadose cavities cut by tectonic and erosion processes. Cave Figure 1. Central Asia and location of Baisun Tau mountain range. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings147

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entrances are situated in an altitude range between 3,200 and 3,800 m a.s.l.. A hypothesis of origin of these cave systems is described here. Initially, rocks of Hodja Gur Gur Ata formed an anticline with faulting sub-parallel to its axis (Baisun thrust). Water was able to reach significant depths and formed paleo-phreatic galleries at the bottom of the limestone through zones of tectonic weakness and interstrata pathways. At the same time, active formation of sinkholes and shafts took place at the upper ridge of the anticline. These shafts continue downwards as inclined passages and canyons controlled by bedding planes. An increase of total groundwater discharge and glacial erosion processes lead to the opening of parallel fold axis valleys and finally to the wall formation which started to degrade as a result of physical weathering. Increasing weathering of the wall exposed sinkholes and cave passages as entrances. Groundwater discharge from Baisun-Tau occurs through the springs along the Machai Valley, where the river Machai crosses Jurassic limestones. The biggest spring, with a flow rate of 1 m3/s, is located at the altitude of 1,400 m a.s.l.. The altitude difference between the highest cave entrances and the springs is more than 2.4 km.3. History of explorationExploration of the southwestern chains of Gissar Range by Sverdlovsk Speleological Club (SSC) started in the 80s of past century. During many different expeditions at Ketmen Chapty, Uralskaya cave named after Zenkov was explored. A series of shafts (300 m depth) and a horizontal passage ending in a first sump were explored in this cave in 1981. Following expeditions until 1984 passed 2 sumps and reached a depth of 565 m. Exploration of Hodja Gur Gur Ata started in 1984 when an expedition led by Victor Dianov attempted the excavation of some sinkholes on the plateau of Ketmen Chapty. During this expedition two speleologists from Sverdlovsk Sergei Matrenin and Igor Lavrov made a prospective trip to Hodja Gur Gur Ata (Fig. 3) in search of new caves. This first scouting was a great success as several large caves (Berloga, Yubileinaya, Sifonnaya) were found along the wall nearby the Katta-Tash summit. Festivalnaya cave, the largest cave on Baisun-Tau, was found during the following expedition led by Aleksandr Babanin in 1985. Exploration of Festivalnaya cave, which later became Festivalnaya-Ledopadnaya Cave System, continued until 1990 with 12.5 km of explored passages up to a depth of 625 m (Fig. 4). Exploration of that cave system was a result of joint efforts of speleologists from many cities of the Urals (Ekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Magnitogorsk, Perm, Berezniki, Kizel, Gubakxa ets.) as well as from Moscow and St. Petersburg (Sapozhnikov and Matrenin 1989; Vishnevskii et al. 1989). Speleologists from Italy and England also visited the cave and gave an important contribution in scientific researches and explorations (Bernabei et al. 1990). Many other cave entrances on the main wall (35 km long) were clearly visible from the distance, but it was impossible to reach them without climbing equipment. In 1986, a small group led by Aleksandr Babanin walked along the base of the wall until the Babagui summit (3,921 m) and tied the new cave entrances to survey points R-10, R-19 and R-21. In 1988, a team from Izhevsk reached these entrances and surveyed 1,600 m of passages in Isetskaya cave (R-10), 450 m in R-19 and 100 m in R-21. Unfortunately, the plans of these last two caves were lost. The main entrance of Dark Star cave was reached in 1990 by the English expedition Aspex with a 3 day long climb on the wall (Vale 1991; Vale and Wallis 1991). The cave entrance, 60 m high and 7 m long, is located at the height of 160 m from the bottom of the wall. Cave temperature varied between 0 to -5 C. Cave walls were covered with large ice crystals and many frozen lakes were found. More than 2 km of passages were surveyed to a depth of 100 m. The cave ended at a T-junction (TChamber) with several ascending passages and a large shaft, unexplored due to lack of equipment. In 1991 the English expedition Aspex attempted to continue the exploration of Dark Star but was stopped by a large amount of water from melting ice (Gregory 1992). At the same time, nearby Ulug-Begh Cave was explored by an Italian team (Badino et al. 1992). This is one of the highest entrances in the wall at 3,750 m a.s.l. with a depth of 240 m and length of 1,700 m. In 1985, speleologists from the Ural started the exploration of Boy-Bulok Cave on the nearby Surkhan-Tau mountain range. Fourteen expeditions to Boy-Bulok were organized, also in cooperation with Italian cavers. Finally the cave reached 1,415 m of total depth, which made it the deepest in Central Asia (Bernabei and De Vivo 1992). From the early 90s to 2006, Baisun-Tau and Surkhan-Tau were inaccessible for explorers due to the complex political situation in the region. In 2007, a new expedition to BoyBulok cave showed the possibility to re-start the explorations in this region. Figure 2. Geologic section of Sariikya, Hodja Gur Gur Ata and Chul Bair monoclines.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings148

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In 2010 a new prospective expedition to Hodja Gur Gur Ata was made with the following results: 1) new easier routes to the wall and plateau were found; 2) new sources of fresh water for the base camp were identified; 3) new equipment and technology were tested and 4) promising directions for future work in Festivalnaya cave were established. This prospecting expedition was the premise of the two main expeditions of 2011 and 2012.4. The expedition Baisun-Tau 2011The joint Russian-Italian expedition on Baisun-Tau mountain range took place in August 2011. The expedition was organized by the Ekaterinburg Speleological Club (former Sverdlovsk Speleological Club) with the assistance of the Ural Speleological Association and the technical consultancy of La Venta Esplorazioni Geografiche. Twentytwo members from Russia and Italy participated to the expedition. The following issues have to be taken into account for the organization of an expedition in this area: 1) The caves are situated in a border area between Uzbekistan and Tagikistan, where special and frequently changed rules for registration of foreign visitors are applied; 2) The logistics are really complex because cave entrances are located on the wall at an altitude of more than 3,600m above sea level and it is not possible to use helicopter to reach the cave area, therefore the transport of all the equipment has to be done with donkeys and on foot. 3) The expedition was made possible thanks to the assistance of several old friends from Tashkent, Baisun and Kishlak (village) Dyuibolo. Exploration and documentation works in the expedition were carried out by 3 different groups. The first group, called Bottom and second group called Big Grot were based in two different underground camps in Festivalnaya System. A third group, called Plateau, was based near the Ulug-Begh and Dark Star caves and carried out researches for new entrances and attempted to reach Dark Star cave. The Bottom group, during an underground camp of ten days, reached the bottom of the cave and searched for possible unexplored passages. In addition they explored the higher part of Down with the CPSU Branch, from passage Baiba to the bottom of the cave and some southeastern branches near the Clay City. The deepest point of the cave was explored in 1990, but very few works were carried out there, as the expeditions in 1998 and 2010 were unable to reach that part of the cave because of technical problems. Primary tasks of Big Grot group were climbing to reach some windows in the Big Grot Hall, and search for new passages in the upper branch Salavatskii kosmos. This part of the cave (more than 2 km of passages) was discovered by Ural cavers in pre-expedition of 2010 after a climb in the Big Grot Hall. The hope was to find new passages leading deep down into the massif, as all searches at the cave bottom were fruitless. The Plateau group had the task to reach Dark Star and Ulug-Begh caves and search for further continuations, but also explore and survey new cave entrances on the plateau near Festinalnaya-Ledopadnaya cave system and carry out a topographic survey and exploration of caves discovered, but not yet explored, by Krasnoyarsk speleologists in 1996 due to lack of equipment. This team was supposed to camp on the high plateau between Ulug-Begh and Dark Star and to carry on simultaneous works in both caves. The Asian climate forced this team to change plans. A hot spring and an early summer in 2011 led to a complete lack of snow and therefore water on the plateau. For this reason it was impossible to camp there. While groups in the Festivalnaya were working according to plans, the Plateau group was forced to camp under the Dark Star entrance near the only source of fresh water nearby. As a result, Plateau group changed plans and focused exclusively on explorations in Dark Star. Here the explorations pushed further than the last room explored by the British cavers in 1989 and led to the connection with R-21 cave and with a new entrance on the wall, Red Wine. But the most important result was the exploration of a new series of giant galleries descending to a sump at 300 metres of depth. The 2011 expedition ended confirming the great potential of Dark Star and Festivalnaya System, while Ulugh Begh wasnt reached because of the very dry conditions of the high plateau.5. The expedition Baisun-Tau 2012Thanks to the promising results obtained the previous year, in 2012 the Ekaterinburg Speleological Club, again with the support of the Urals Speleological Association, launched the most prominent expedition on the Hodja Gur Gur Ata mountain range over the last decade. Twenty-nine cavers from many Russian cities took part in the expedition, together with Italian, Spanish, British and Chinese cavers sponsored by La Venta Geographical Explorations. The expedition had a long list of tasks most of which were fulfilled. The Hodja Gur Gur Ata wall was reached very fast due to a new convenient ascending route and a large number of donkeys for the transportation of the equipment. Such fast ascension led to some troubles with acclimatization among the members of the expedition. The place of Oasis base camp (3,200 m a.s.l.) was covered by a major spring mudslide, but this inconvenience was soon forgotten in theFigure 3. The 450 meters high Hodja Gur Gur Ata wall, rope line to Dark Star Entrance. (photo A. Romeo/La Venta). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings149

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light of a new problem: half of the ropes hidden in the Festivalnaya cave at the end of last year expedition had been stolen. Therefore, an unscheduled trip was made in the Caucasian Gallery of Festivalnaya cave to recover some old ropes from the shafts. Two people descended also to Baisun to bring 200 metres of spare rope, a courtesy of Sebastian Breitenbach. There were 3 main directions of work in 2012: to continue the exploration in the new sector of Dark Star in order to by-pass the siphon; to reach Ulugh Begh cave and re-open its exploration; to continue the exploration in the upper part of Festivalnaya System. In addition to the exploration works, samples and data for paleoclimate researches were collected by scientists from Switzerland (Sebastian Breitenbach) and China (Yan Bin). Samples of water, snow and ice were taken from underground and surface sites, while temperature and humidity data loggers were set in Tonnelnaya cave. In Dark Star System the survey has reached -610 m with the exploration over -650 m and the cave continues downward with a series of shafts. In Festivalnaya many new branches were explored with a great potential for future explorations. The entrance of Ulugh Begh, 350 metres up on the wall, was reached again after twenty one years of break. A new easier entrance to this cave was found leading to a new sector of narrow meander. In the last days all the ropes were used in the different caves and the exploration stopped only because of lack of equipment. Almost all cavers were involved in surveying, with up to 5 teams working at the same time. Finally the 2012 expedition surveyed more than 6 km of passages, most of them in very challenging conditions (ice and cold wind). Most of the surveys were carried out by girls. Ten girls participated in the expedition in 2012, more than a third of the group.6. The new explorations6.1. Dark Star-Central Karst System of Hodja Gur Gur Ata Dark Star was first explored in 1990 by the English expedition ASPEX for more than two kilometres of huge galleries to an unexplored shaft. In 1991 the english cavers tried to carry on the exploration but they were forced to halt due to changing climatic conditions and melting of ice floors forming impassable lakes. Then the cave was abandoned for twenty-one years. In 2011, more than 400 metres of ropes and three days of works were necessary to reach from above the main entrance of Dark Star. Fortunately the first scouting inside the cave revealed that the lakes that had stopped the English team in 1991 were frozen allowing a fast walk to the last known room (T Room). After the new shaft of about 25 metres, a 10 metre wall was climbed leading to a new big gallery characterized by strong wind. Finally the cave turns to the south connecting with the big entrance of R-21 (Izhevskaya), a cave on the wall explored in 1988 by the Izhevsky Team whose survey was lost. This new entrance, situated only one hundred metres high on the wall allows a faster and easier way to the deepest part of the cave than from the main entrance of Dark Star. One other new entrance to the system, the Red Wine cave, was found exploring a 700 m long meander named Passakalosky. But the most important discovery was achieved through a fifteen metres climb above the T Chamber leading to 1.5 km of new giant galleries explored to a sump located atFigure 4. Plan view of the Western Karst System of Hodja Gur Gur Ata (Festivalnaja-Ledopadnaja). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings150

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a total depth of 300 metres. A very impressive big room, the Polnolunie Hall, characterized by peculiar formations and giant crystals of ice, was found (Fig. 6). The 2011 expedition ended with many other unexplored branches in this sector of the cave. The winter 2011 was characterised by the largest amount of snow over the last 50 years, and therefore the cave climate was strongly influenced. During the 2012 expedition the first trips to the cave discovered a large amount of snow at the entrance and all the frozen lakes were turned into pools of mushy ice. All works in the old part of Dark Star were impossible. Luckily, the new entrance (R-21) discovered in 2011 enabled to access the deepest sector of the cave. In this expedition the work in the cave was focused on one of the lateral branches discovered in 2011 at -240 m. An underground camp was set not far from the new part of the cave and accommodated 3 cavers working in shifts. A series of small shafts was explored leading to a big chamber with two passages. One of them was called Corallite meander and represents an alternation of narrow passages, small shafts and squeezes with the walls thickly covered with calcitic coralloides. Corallite passage leads into a big gallery crossed by a stream (2 L/s). The downstream ends in an unpassable squeeze only 10 cm high swallowing the main stream at the depth of 540 m. Also other parallel passages and galleries were explored and surveyed, and in particular a new easier route, bypassing Corallite meander, was found. In the last days of the expedition, an exploration of the upper part of the meander near Gothic chamber at -450 m, led to a new huge paleo-phreatic sector of the cave. The last descent of the 2012 expedition reached the depth of 610 m and stopped above a deep shaft lacking ropes and time. The connection with new entrances and the presence of a huge network of fossil and active branches suggest to consider Dark Star as part of a more complex system: the Central Karst System of Hodja Gur Gur Ata. Until now 7128 m of passages were surveyed, with 6 entrances (Dark Star, Capricorn One, Red Dwarf, Cancro, Red Wine, R21Izhevskaya) but much more is expected along the unexplored branches of the cave. 6.2. Festivalnaya-Ledopadnaya Western Karst System of Hodja Gur Gur Ata In 2011 the bottom of Festivalnaya Cave, at -625 m of depth, was again reached twenty years after its first exploration and confirmed to be impassable. Nevertheless new discoveries were carried out, most of which in the upper paleo-phreatic levels of this system. The exploration of the Clay City branches led to a new meander with a huge chamber at the end where one other passage continues upwards. Other new branches were discovered in the upper part of Salavatskii Kosmos Branch. One of the passages ended in a huge chamber named Everest. Another passage goes over Yubileinaya Cave. During the 2011 expedition more than 2 km of new passages were explored, 1.3 km of which were surveyed. The exploration in Salavatskii Kosmos continued in 2012 and, in particular, in the meander Enigma discovered the year before. The underground base camp was relocated from the Room of Urals Cavers to the lake nearby Enigma in order to save time and energy. Several shafts from 10 to 45 metres were explored but most of these were dead ends. However, one of them led to an impressive chamber of more than 6,000 square metres. The most promising branch was found not far from Enigma at the end of the expedition and was not completely explored. During this expedition the work in the cave was complicated by the large amount of water. As a result, in 2012, a group of 8 cavers explored and surveyed more than 2 km of new passages (Fig. 4). Now Festivalnaya-Ledopadnaya reaches 16 km and -625 m.Figure 5. Plan view of the Central Karst System of Hodja Gur Gur Ata (Dark Star). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings151

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6.3. Ulugh Begh Ulugh Begh is one of the highest complex caves in the world, at 3,750 m a.s.l. The entrance was reached in 1991 by Italian cavers thanks to helicopter transport on the top of the wall of Hodja Gur Gur Ata. It was hard to believe in 2010 that it would be possible to live and work on the top of the plateau without using helicopter. Unexpectedly, this goal was achieved in 2012. Thanks to the logistic support of all the cavers of the expedition, a camp for 8 people was set up on the plateau. Ulugh Begh cave was reached after more than 20-years break. The progress into the cave was hampered by cold weather and wind at the surface camp and an ice plug at the cave entrance which took three days to break through. The main branch of the cave didnt yield anything new, but one of the lateral passages led to a new entrance on the wall. This new entrance was more easily accessible than the main one. From here some new narrow meanders have been explored and the cave continues with an unexplored passage characterised by strong air flow.7. ConclusionsThe most remote part of the system Dark Star is only 1 km apart from Isetskaya cave and only 1.5 km apart from Ledopadnaya cave which is a part of Festivalnaya system. Connection of the two cave systems seems to be only a matter of time. Furthermore Festivalnaya-Ledopadnaya has a real chance to be connected in the future with Yubileinaya, Berloga and Uchitelskaya caves as they overlap on the plan. In two expeditions (2011), a total of 11.5 km of new surveys were achieved, confirming the great potential of the area. Hodja Gur Gur Ata and, in general, the mountain chains of Central Asia could become among the most promising frontiers of cave exploration in high mountain environment in the next years. This region is situated in a really hot political zone, between Uzbekistan, Tagikistan, Turkmenistan and Afganistan. If this situation will remain stable and favorable for caving expeditions it is probable that really deep (more than 2 thousand) and extended caves (tens of kilometres) will be explored here in the near future. Exploration of the region will continue in summer 2013. Central Asia is waitingAcknowledgementsSpecial thanks to Alexandr Plastinin for financial support and our friends from Salavat Cave Club for equipment. Intermatica for the satellite phone communication. Ural Airlines for discount of luggage fees and Asia Adventures for organization. But most of all Sadyk and our friends from Djibala for their support in Uzbekistan.ReferencesBadino G, Bernabei T, De Vivo A, 1991. Nel segno del Grande Principe. Speleologia, 26, 4. Bernabei T, Giulivo I, Mecchia M, Piccini L, 1990. CCCP: una spedizione allombra della Perestrojka. Speleologia, 22, 9. Bernabei T, De Vivo A, 1991. Grotte e storie dellAsia Centrale. Centro editoriale Veneto, 320. Gregory A, 1992. The frozen world of Dark Star. The International Caver Magazine, 2, 26. Vishnevskii A S, Valuiskii V A, Sapozhnikov V A, 1989. Results of caves exploration in Central Asia by Sverdlovsk Speleological Club. Proceedings of the conference Questions of Urals Speleology. Perm, 1989. Sapozhnikov V A, Matrenin S A, 1989. Caves of southwestern spurs of Gissar Range. Proceedings of the conference Questions of Urals Speleology. Perm, 1989. Tsurikhin E, Loginov V, Sauro F, 2012. Baisun-Tau 2011, La reprise des expditions en Asie Centrale. Spelunca, 125, 23. Vale P, 1991. The Dark Star. Descent, 99, 28. Vale P, Wallis R, 1991. Aspex Caves and Caving, 52, 20. Figure 6. Walls covered by ice crystals in the Full Moon Room in Dark Star (photo A. Romeo/La Venta). Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings152

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KES MOUNTAIN SINKHOLE (KAHRAMANMARAS SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY)Ali Yama, Murat Erikavuk OBRUK Cave Research Group; Acikhava Apt. 16/7, Nisantasi, Istanbul, Turkeyinfo@obruk.org As OBRUK Cave Research Group, weve been exploring Kes Mountain Sinkhole since four years. The sinkhole is 65 km north of Kahramanmara in southeastern Turkey, high on the mountains at the east of Tekir Village. It is believed that the waters that enter the underground aquifer from that cave, which is at 1,900 meters of altitude, pass through the Yesilgoz Doline, at 900 meters altitude. Total distance between the doline and sinkhole is roughly 4,000 meters. During the first expedition in 2009, our team dived in Yesilgoz and found the underwater entrance of the cave. In addition, we explored Kes Mountain Sinkhole for the first time. By 2010, it was understood that the pit which begins at -175 meters continues as a single drop of 170 m. Moreover, at that point the caves structural formation has an immense alteration; suddenly the huge galleries of the cave changed to a very narrow and endlessly long and deep fault fissure. By July 2011, after OBRUKs third exploration at Ke Mountain Sinkhole, the total depth of the cave reached to -650 meters, being fifth deepest cave of Turkey. Finally, by July 2012 we had reached a siphon at -728 meters. Unfortunately, connection with Yesilgoz resurge couldnt be proved. So, a dye test, not only at Kes Sinkhole, but also in 3 different sinkholes in the same area is planned for next year.1. IntroductionKes Mountain Sinkhole is located at an altitude of about 1,800 meters on Ke Mountain, near Tekir Village, 65 km north of Kahramanmara city, southeastern Turkey. As OBRUK Cave Research Group, we had been informed about the sinkhole by the Middle East Technical University Cave Diving Group (MADAG). During their reconnaissance dives to Yesilgoz Doline in the same area at 2008, villagers informed them that the water which springs from the bottom of that doline comes from a sinkhole on the top of the mountain. Cave divers found two separate entrances at the bottom of that resurgence, roughly at 40 meters deep. But, unfortunately they were not able to penetrate due to the tightness of vertical passage. Our exploration began at Kes Mountain Sinkhole the next year. In July 2009, with a small team of 6 cavers we found the entrance of the sinkhole, descended and surveyed down to -175 meters. After the first and second descents, Kes Mountain Sinkhole continues with an extraordinarily wide main gallery and high ceilings. In certain parts, the width of the gallery reaches 20 meters and the height is more than 30 meters. Although Kes Mountain Sinkhole is an underground aquifer of not one, but two small rivers, this main entrance is almost dry during the summer season and those dimensions are extremely large even for the largest and deepest sinkholes of Turkey. A very limited amount of water was trickling into the main gallery from small branches at a depth of -125 meters, beyond which point, there was a small but constant stream. At -175 meters, the geological formation of the cave suddenly changed. At that point the width of the main gallery narrowed down to 5 meters, with a seemingly infinite drop. In addition to the depth, it was impossible to see the ceiling and forward of the gallery. The water bed was apparently dropping straight into a huge fault plane. During the second years trip, after descending to -300 meters we still hadnt reached the bottom of that pit. July 2011 marked the explorations third year. Spending 15 days with a stronger team of 20 cavers, we first reached the Figure 1. Kes Mountain Sinkhole, Yesilgoz Doline and the area in general.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings153

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bottom of that large pit and set up an underground camp at -345 meters. A two-wire phone connection from that point to the surface camp was also established. At Day 10 of the exploration, members of OBRUK Cave Research Group reached -650 meters. Cave was still continuing with a cascade of small descents. As we had done previously, nearly 1,000 meters of rope and telephone lines were packed and left in suitable places of the cave for next years exploration. By July 2012, our fourth year began in Kes Mountain Sinkhole. 18 members of OBRUK, in addition to 8 Lebanese and 2 Iranian cavers, explored the cave for 15 days. Around -650 meters depth, geological formation of the cave changed again and it became obvious that Kes Sinkhole will not join with Yesilgoz resurge. Sinkhole; which began with large passages, slowly changed to small, narrow maeanders and descending as spiral passages, rather than covering the distance towards Yesilgoz Doline. Though, for the first time till this depth, we had contacted with a continuous water flow, compared to the doline it still has little water. And, after few more small descends, the sinkhole ended with a small lake and a siphon at -728 meters.Figure 2. Kes Mountain Sinkhole. 2. GeologyAt least five different geological formations can be observed around Tekir Village. These are mostly deep sea sediments and they were in a continuous action within the tectonic movements and overthrust foldings of surrounding area. The area, which lies completely in an orogenic phase, has two main structural differences from east to west. Although all are mostly limestones, there are huge age differences between those formations. East and southeast part of Tekir village is mostly a single formation. This geological unity, which also includes Ye ilgoz Doline and Dongel caves, is mostly light colored, reefal limestone with corals and foraminifera. There are two different opinions about the period of that formation; either Middle or Upper Miocene. Within the north east of that unity lies Kes Mountain Formation. It covers the whole area from Kes Mountain towards Kaman Mountain, to the north; with mostly dark gray or gray, re-crystallized and sometimes dolomitizated limestones dated as Permian.3. Comments on ExplorationLimestones of Taurus Mountains at southern Turkey has some very deep caves and it is obvious that, in the future, many deeper caves will also be explored in those mountain ranges. The five deepest caves of Turkey for the time being are: Peynirlikonu Sinkhole (Iel)-1,429 m Kuzgun Sinkhole (Nigde)-1,400 m Cukurpinar Sinkhole (Iel)-1,196 m Kuyukule Sinkhole (Isparta)-832 m Kes Mountain Sinkhole (K. Maras)-728 m But, apart from being the fifth deepest, Kes Mountain Sinkhole has some different aspects among others. First of all, it is the easternmost cave on that list. Even if we do not consider the first five, but the first ten deepest caves of Turkey, it is still the easternmost of them all. Secondly, it is the first deep cave of Kahramanmaras, which has a limestone area of more than 5,000 km2, mostly within the altitudes of 1,800,500 meters. Apart from its natural beauty, we strongly believe that this area has an enormous cave potential.4. Kes Mountain Sinkhole Yesilgoz Doline ConnectionThe rumor that the water which sinks at Kes Mountain Sinkhole resurges from Yesilgoz Doline was the main reason of our exploration in that sinkhole. All the villagers told us that 24 hours after it begins raining at Kes Mountain, the water of the doline becomes muddy, even though its not raining in the lower parts. Also, it is said that during May and April one can hear the sound of running water under the ground at the farmed fields above Yesilgoz Doline. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings154

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But, after four years of exploration, we are still far from proving that connection. Entrance of Ke Mountain Sinkhole is at 1,900 meters altitude and Ye ilgoz Doline is at 900 meters. Apart from that 1,000 meters of depth difference, horizontal distance between the two caves is around 4 km. But after descending nearly 70% of that total estimated depth at Kes Mountain Sinkhole, its horizontal extension is still not more than 300 meters. Also, the amount of water resurgence from Yesilgoz Doline and the amount of water flow at the deepest parts of sinkhole are incomparably different. When water output is 6 m3at the doline, the water flow in the sinkhole is not more than 0.5 m3. But, numerous other sinkholes and karstic aquifers around the vicinity of Kes Mountain Sinkhole and Yesilgoz Doline are the evidences of a huge underground water system. So, the water which springs from that doline can be sinking to underground elsewhere. Next year a comprehensive dye test will be carried not only at Kes Sinkhole but, within the 3 additional sinkholes of the same area.ReferencesBeyazpirin M, 2005. Keypez Ni an t Domuzdere Kitiz Dolaynn Jeolojisi, ukurova University, Ph D Thesis. Dizer A, 1991. Kuzey Kahramanmara ta Langiyen Serravaliyen Katlar n n Biyostratigrafisi, A. Acar Geology Symposium, ukurova University, Adana. Edikli C, 2005. Tekir ay Havzas n n Fiziki Co rafyas St mam University Ph D Thesis. Gl M, 2000. Kahramanmara Yresinin Jeolojisi, Hacettepe University Ph D Thesis. Gl M, et al, 2000. Alac k Formasyonunun Kahramanmara Havzas indeki Tektono-stratigrafik Konumu, stanbul University Geology Magazine, no. 18, 2. Ymn ZU, K l AM, 2002. Kamanda ile Camdere Ky Aras n n Stratigrafisi, Cumhuriyet University Geology Magazine, no.19, 2.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings155

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PREMIER EXPLORATION OF THE CAVES OF HOLY MT. ATHOS, GREECEAlexey Zhalov, Magdalena Stamenova Speleo Club Helictit Sofia, Bulgaria azhalov@gmail.com,m_stamenova65@yahoo.co.uk The article presents the results of the exploration under the project Exploration of the caves of Mount Athos as integral part of the world natural, cultural and historical heritage under the patronage of Euro Speleo Projects European Federation of Speleology. During two expeditions carried out in 2011 and 2012, the international team of cavers form Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Turkey explored 90 caves with total length 792 m. The caves can be divided into three main categories caves associated with the lives of Saints, cave chapels, caves-cells, usual and sea caves and artificial caves (water catchments and reservoirs.1. IntroductionThe Mount Athos (Greece, Halkidiki Peninsula) occupies an area of 2,886 sq. km in the Northern Greece. The area presents a terrain of different forms. There is a mildly wavy row of hills in the central part of the peninsula with gradually increasing altitude (between 450 and 990 m, before climbing to an altitude of 2,033 m the summit of Mount Athos) to the southeast. The relief consists of deep, steep traverse gullies alternating with steeper folds. The area belongs to the Serbo-Macedonian Massif, a large basement massif within the Internal Hellenides. The south-east part of the Mount Athos peninsula is built by fine-grained banded biotite gneisses and magmatites. The southern tip of the peninsula, which also comprises Mount Athos itself, is built by limestone, marble and low-grade metamorphic rocks with thickness of 2,000 m. The northern part and most of the western shore of the Mount Athos peninsula are composed of highly deformed rocks, belonging to a tectonic melange, named the Athos-Volvi-Suture Zone. The rocktypes in this melange range from metasediments, marbles and gneisses to amphibolites, eclogites and peridotites. In the north part of peninsula there is an area 11 km long and average 2 km wide covered by Triassic recrystallized limestones-marbles (Kockel and Mollat 1978; Himmerkus et al. 2011) (Fig. 1). Mount Athos or Agion Oros (The Holly Mountain) is a place dedicated to monasticism, to austere asketism and deep contemplation. Among the greenery and the impassable gorges, perched in the most unexpected positions, are situated the monumental walls of 20 monasteries and numerous huts, where hermits spend theirs days in solitude and contemplation.2. Study of the information for the karst and cave in AthosThe review of the assessable information for the caves in Athos Peninsula and the state of their exploration made in 2010, shows that some of them are described as places, related with religious practices (hermits and cells) and information for karst and cave explorations (including maps) did not exist. In 1988 Mt. Athos was recognised by the World Heritage Convention as a mixed site for both culture and nature. In addition, on the basis of the criteria of the Habitats Directive, the entire Athos peninsula has been incorporated into the EU Natura 2000 Network. Because of inexplicable reasons the caves of Athos did not exist in the documents as a factor of the environment, cultural and historical sites. They are not declared as natural habitats! That is why the international team of cave explorers decided to organise a long term project under the patronage of ESP of European Speleological Federation for complex speleological and karstological exploration of Mount Athos, named Exploration of the caves of Mount Athos as an integral part of the world natural, cultural and historical heritage. The General Aims of the project are: Location and survey of all known caves; Discovering and exploration and surveying of new caves; Carrying out of geological, geomorphological and climatological cave studies;Figure 1. Geological map of Athos Peninsula (after Kockeland Mollat 1978) with the explored areas and number of caves in it. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings156

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Many of the explored caves are used by monks as storage places or for religious purposes. We can divide them by the kind of use as follows: 1. Natural caves in which there were no traces of permanent human use.3. General data for project studies up to dateThe first stage of the project was held from 15 July 2011. The project team consisted of Zhalov A. Head, V. Gyorev (Bulgaria), L. Makrostergios, J. Lazaridis, I. Agapov, S. Kaminski (Russia), D. Tomic (Serbia), T. Tuluchan (Romania). During the expedition were surveyed the areas of the monasteries Zograf, Kostamonit, Dohiyar, St.Xenophont, Dionysius, St.Pavlou, St. Grigoriou and Pantocrator and skete communities Kafrsokalivion, Little St.Anna, St. Anna and New Skete. During the event were identified and mapped 42 underground sites ( able 1) with a total length of 356.20 m. Among them is the longest sea cave near the harbor of the monastery Kostamonit (56.40 m; Fig. 2) (Agapov t al. 2011; Zhalov et al 2011; Zhalov et al. 2012). The second stage of the international project took place from 1 to 12 September 2012. The team was composed by Zhalov A. Head, V. Gyorev, Zh.Vlaykov (Bulgaria), L. Makrostergios, J. Oykonomidis, T. Komaditis and M.Karidas (Greece), I. Agapov, S. Kaminski (Russia), A.Yamac (Turkey). There were surveyed the areas of the monasteries, Dohiyar, Xenophontos. The explorations in the vicinity of sketes Kafrsokalivion, Little St.Anna, St. Anna, St. Nilosand Nea Skite were continued in more detailed manner. During the expedition were identified and mapped about 48 underground siteswith a total length 435.84 m. ( able2) Parallel was collected oral and photo information to other cave objects, which will be the subject of future studies. Other 9 objects were only visited and sketched among which is probably the longest cave in Athos for the moment. There were localized, but not explored 2 more caves, one of which probably is so called The Big Cave of Athos. According to the existing data, the cave is over 150 m long. Its entrance is 50 m wide and around 80 m in high. The explored caves can be divided into three main categories caves associated with the lives of Saints (St. Kozma, St. Pimen Zografski; St. Maksim; St. Gerasim, St. Nile), cave chapels (St. Dionysius and Mitrofan), cavescells, usual and sea caves and artificial caves (water catchments and reservoirs).The total number of the explored underground cavites under the project up to date is around 90 with total length of 792.04 m.4. Brief characteristic of the explored cavesMost of the explored karst caves had tectonic-corrosive origin. Their study shows that they are initially tectonic caves enlarged by the corrosion of infiltrate atmospheric waters. They have not big morphometric indexes (length, depth) and some of them could be recognized as niches. Some of the caves had tectonic origin. Most of them are developed in non-karst rocks as amphibolites alternating with plagioclase gneiss or green schists (Caves close Monastery Pantocrator, St. Pavlou, Skete St. Anna [DanilosCave, St. Maxim]). They are characterized by narrow fissure, enlarged by the tectonic movements as a consequence of endogenic processes. Collapsing or boulder caves are formed in the limestone by natural processes such as collapsing and dilatation movement of slope modeling. The typical collapsing caves are these close to Skete Kavsokalivya. As sea caves we can determinate the cavities which are located in the contemporary erosion network of the seashore on the sea level, or in the slope at a different altitude (~ 0.5 to ~ 10 m a.s.l.). All caves are formed in karstificated rocks (Fig. 3). The caves in surroundings of Nea Skete are developed in greyish-white and bluish-grey Triassic recrystallized limestones-marbles, but those who are located on the sea level are formed in compact limestones and the rest are in conglomerates. Coastal caves between the ports of Xenophont and Dohiyar monastery are developed in marbles. The sea caves can be classify under genetic point as corrosion abrasive (Seal Cave, Great Sea Cave (Kostamonit), Cristal Cave, The Cave with 4 entrances, The Cave Lokum), due to the rest which are more complex polygenetic origin (probably suffusion corrosion). If necessary to analyze the sea caves from morphometric point of view, we can conclude that these ones, located at the sea level and developed in compact rocks, are the longest among all explored caves, but the caves in conglomerates have bigger volume.Figure 2. The Sea Cave Kostamonit harbour.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings157

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2. Drainage galleries and underground conduits. Caves, carved in the rock (possibly in the course of natural caves small fissure type) for water collection or delivery to a monastery or hermitage. The length of such cavities varies from few meters to 21.6 m. 3. Rock cut storage tanks (cisterns). 4. Small natural caves, grottoes and niches used for the practice of prayer (as a rule, these caves can accommodate only single person.) Have small artificial transformation: planning and opening the cavity masonry (from cleared volume) without a solution for weather protection, equipped with a sitting place, shelf icons, etc. These caves are located near the surface of cells. 5. Hermits cell, which occupy caves, niches or grottos with volume bigger than caves considered in 4. The entrance of the caves is barred by stone or wooden wall with windows and doorways. The length of such caves can reach 5 m or more. Such cells may be composed of several rooms (ground and surface), which can be used for the practice of prayer, housing, for economic purposes. In some cases, in combination with cells, they can be equipped with a water storage tank (Fig. 4).Figure 3.The St. Ana Cave St. Ana Skete. 6. Cave chapels, dedicated to the memory of the saint, who lived in it. As a rule, in some cases, they are equipped of natural caves used in solitary practice (see section 4) or cells (see section 5). Such cavities in some cases may have a wall of masonry with a doorway (St. Kozma; St. Pimen Zografski; St. Maksim; St. Gerasim; St. Grigoriou; St. Pavlos). The decoration inside the chapel looks like a small temple. The length of such caves is from 3 to 20 m. 7. Chapel, equipped with a cave or grotto (usually along the path between the monasteries; Fig. 3).The length of such cavities may be up to 5 m. It should be pointed, that the present study of caves in the Athos Peninsula still covers a much lesser area from the whole region, covered with karst rocks. More detailed study of this area could positively lead to discovery of many new different karst and non karst objects. That is why the further exploration will continued while as the explorers discover and study all caves in that sacred and unknown place.ReferencesAgapov I, Giorev V, Kaminskiy S, Zhalov A. 2011. Caves of the Afon Holy Hill (Greece). Krytkiye itogi po rezultatam mezhdunarodnoy speleoekspedicii v iulie 2011 goda. Peshcherskiye cerkvi i monastyry Bizantii i Rusi, Saransk, 33 (in Russian). Himmerkus F, P. Zachariadis, T. Reischmann, D. Kostopoulos. 2011. The basement of the Mount Athos peninsula, northern Greece: insights from geochemistry and zircon ages. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch), Springer-Verlag. Kockel F, Mollat H. 1978. Geological Map of Greece, 1:50,000 scale Peninsula of Athos sheet (Vathopedion Monastery), Department of Geological maps I.G.M.R. Zhalov A, Agapov I, Kaminski S, Gyorev V. 2011. International project The caves of Holly Mountain Athos-Greece (Preliminary report). Comunicaciones VIII Simposio Europeo de Exploraciones Marbella 2011, Mlaga., 50. Zhalov A, Gyourev V, Stamenova M, Stoichkov. 2012. The caves in the vicinity of the Bulgarian Monastery St. Georgi Zograf Holly Mt. Ahtos, Greece, Proceedings of First Balkan Symposium of Speleology, Eskishehir (in print). Figure 4. Complex of cave and 2 nishes-Nea Skete. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings158

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NoName Locality/ Monastery/SketeLength (m)Depth 1Cave Pantokratoros 4.00 2Cave St. Ilia 15.00 3Cave (water conduit) Source of the Mother of GodSt. Ilia 20.40 +1.0 4 ave of St. Maksimu and Kafrsokalivion Kafrsokalivion 6.00 5 Cave Katounakion 4.00 6 Cave (cell) Danailo 6.50 -2.0 7 Cave Danailo 3.00 8 Cave(water conduit) St. Anna 4.20 9 Cave Complex (2 caves) cell Nea Skete 5.00, 3.50 10 Cave (cell) Nea Skete 4.00 11Nishe (cell) Nea Skete 2.85 12Grotto (cell) Nea Skete 2.30 13Cave (cell of Sacred Trinity) Pavlos 7.55 +0.8 14Cave (cell) Pavlos 1.50 15Cave (sea cave) Pavlos 20.00 +4.0 16Cave(water conduit) Complex 2 caves Pavlos 21.60, 5.00 -0.85, +1.5 17 ave of St. Pavlos (one complex with cave 16) Pavlos 3.00 18 Cave (sea cave) complex 2 caves Pavlos 41.40, 2.36 19 Cave (water conduit) Dionysius 14.00 20 Cave (cell) Dionysius 3.80 21 Cave (sea cave) Dionysius 2.50 22 Cave (sea cave) and 2 sea grotto Dionysius 6.60, 10.00, 8.00 23 ave of St. Grigoriou Grigoriou 5.7 24Cave (water conduit) Grigoriou 11.15 +1.2 25 Cave (water conduit) Grigoriou 5.50 26 Sea cave Neo Roda 7.00 27 Cave of St. Kousma Zograf 20.23 28 Cave of St. Naum Zograf 2.80 29 Cave 12 Apostles Zograf 9.60 30 ave of St. Gerrasim St.Anna 3.90 -1.20 31 Cave of St.Anna 5.17 +2.40 32 Cave Kostamonitou 56.40 -1.20 33 Cave Kostamonitou 7.40 34 Cave Kostamonitou 19.48 +1.80 35 Cave Nea Skete 13.00 +1.40 36 Complex (cave and 2 nishes) Nea Skete 7.86, 1.90, 3.05 37Quanat Pantokratoras 20 38Artificial well Pantokratoras 15.5 39Group of three littoral caves Pantokratoros 6.5 5.5 1.5 40Shelter Cave (boulder cave) Pantokratoros 1 41Cave Georgios (cell) Pantokratoros 3 42Cave(spring) Pantokratoros 3 356.20 Table 1. List of the caves explored during the 1ststage.Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings159

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No Name Locality/Monastery/Skete Length (m) Depth 1 Water Catchment St.Anna 2.6 2 Cave St.Anna 6.2 +2 3 Cistern St.Anna 3.2 1.7 -1 4 Cave St.Anna 3 5 Niche Little St.Anna 2 6Niche Little St.Anna 7 7 Cave ChurchSt.Dionysius LittleSt.Anna 18.5 8 Cave Illarion the Georgian IpatievskieCells 11 +1.5 9 Cave rhondrik IpatievskieCells 4.7 10 Niche Danailo 3 11 Cave Karaulya 3 12 Cave chapel Karaulya 46 6 13 Niche Karaulya 3 14 Cave&Cistern Karaulya 6.2 15 Grotto Temple Christmas Karaulya 16Cave Karaulya 17Sea Cave1 Nea Skete 3.9 18Sea Cave2 Nea Skete 3.5 19Cave with the well Little St.Anna 17.1 20Cave behind the house Little St.AnnaDanailo 9.85 21Davids Cave Little St.Anna 9.36 22Cave St.Anna 8.22 23Cave 26 monks Stavros 1.2 24Cave close to skete Stavros 6.7 25Niche Stavros 1.0 26 ctonik Cave Stavros 6.70 -6.0 27 The bigSea Cave Nea Skete 34 28 The SealCave Nea Skete 7.40 29 The BigSea Cave Nea Skete 11.56 30 Cristal Cave Dohiyar 18.50 31 The Cave with 4 entrances Dohiyar 25.26 32 Cave Nea Skete 20.12 33 Cave Lukum Dohyar Kostamonit 10.57 34Tunell St.Anna 10 35Niche St.Anna 3 36Niche St.Anna 2 37Skete Josef Hisiahast St.Anna 15 38NicheJosef Hisiahast St.Anna 3,2 39Niche St.Anna 1,85 40Niche+ well Agiasma St.Anna 2,80 41Niche St.Anna 2,5 42Cave St.Anna 8 4 43 ctonik Cave Kavsokalivya 12,35 44 ctonik Cave Kavsokalivya 15 -8 45 ctonik Cave Kavsokalivya 14 -4 46 Niche Kavsokalivya 12 47 The Cave of St.Nillus St.Nilus 12 48 Cave St.Nilus 11 Total length: 435.82 Table 2.List of the caves explored during the 2ndstage. Exploration and Cave Techniques oral 2013 ICS Proceedings160

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We continued our research in fall 2009. This time of the year is the most suitable for a survey of the area due to the low water levels. The sump was very short and easy to overcome. This was followed by a dry corridor with a vertical passage 5 meters high with a waterfall. This passage was also conquered. The following elongation was finished at the next sump but the diving attempt here was not successful. Other diving attempts were done in 2010 with tube in order to reduce the water level but due to the high levels of water we decided not to continue that year. In the fall of 2011 the water levels were favourable. The second sump was overcome thanks to a pump. On the other side of the sump we discovered 40 m of new interesting corridor and were again stopped by third sump. The thirdEXPLORATION OF THE JASANKA CAVE IN BANAT, ROMANIAVt Kaman1, Petr Bark2 1Czech Speleological Society, ZO 6-25 Pust leb, kaman.v@seznam.cz2Czech Speleological Society, ZO 6-22 Devon, pbaro@seznam.cz From 2008 to 2012 the members of Czech and Slovak Speleological Society discovered and explored new cave called Jasanka. This cave is more than 2 kilometres long and thanks to several expeditions it became the longest cave in Muntii Locvei Mountains, Romania. The exploration isnt finished, because in this location there are still places with possibility of additional progress. 1. IntroductionOur first expedition into Romanian Banat happened in 2006. Since the first expedition we were focused on the speleological research in the surrounding area of the Czech villages especially Svat Helena in Muntii Locvei mountains. Our fellow countrymen lived in this region since 1823 because of the job opportunities found in the woodworking industry. The total number of the Czech villages was 8 Sv. Albta, Sv. Helena, Bgr, Rovensko, umice, Eibenthal, Gernik and Frauvzn, but the first and last mentioned ceased to exist because of the short supply of water. This region is situated close to river Donau which creates natural borderline with Serbia.2. The geology of the regionThe region of interest belongs to the west part of the SouthCarpathian horseshoe. In general, this region is considered part of Alpine-Carpathian belt which creasing began in Cretaceous period as result of subduction of the African plate under European tectonic plate and subsequent collision of the continental crust. The karst plateau itself, on which the village of Svat Helena is located, is created by Cretaceous limestone.3. Our first speleological activities in BanatThe main goal of the first expedition was a survey and discovery of the water source in the karst region near Svat Helena because during the summer months there is short supply of water. Later we turned our attention to regions located further from the above mentioned village into the catchment area of Bazinul Liuborajdea, Bazinul Dunareii and Bazinul Bosneag. Interesting places and caves with potential of the unknown underground were localized by GPS coordinates and became part of a list of the most promising localities, which could yield an access into the draining system of local karst plateau. High on this list figured an outflow with travertine cascade above the Kav valley. Local inhabitants called this place Jasanovka it means in dialect soft stone. We found this place very interesting, because the large mass of travertine had to be created by calcareous water.4. Jasanka CaveWe started to remove the debris covering the beginning of the travertine cascade in fall of 2008. We were rewarded two days later by discovering a winding corridor that was on average 2 meters high, 0.8 meters wide and 80 meters long and ended at a sump. In places this corridor had standing water up to 1 m deep. We believed that there was continuation of the cave behind the sump. Sediments on the bottom of the cave that were at first muddy changed at the sump to gravel. We decided to call this cave Jasanka according to the popular name of the place by local inhabitants (Fig. 1).Figure 1. Passing through the first sump in the Jasanka Cave. Photo by Zden k Moty ka. Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings161

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sump was conquered in the fall of the following year with the help of second sump. The new passages after the sump were evidently greater and longer and they often lacked sediments (Fig. 2).Figure 2. Main corridor in Jasanka Cave. Photo by Zden k Motyka. During the three expeditions in 2011 new corridors with character of meanders in length of 1,200 m were explored. The result of the follow-up expeditions in 2012 was the discovery of 600 m long corridor with nice decoration (Figs. 3, 4, and 5). Thanks to the information from expeditions in 2011 and 2012 we know that Jasanka cave is the draining system of the Dealu Coroneanti plateau. In the cave itself three levels with rising altitude were explored. These levels signalized gradual descent of the water flow. The oldest level has very nice decoration and character of an old meander. Lower meandering corridor is the longest with rare decorations, probably with often active water flow. The lowest part creates small passages with erratic character. Really interesting point is the geological structure of the cave. The corridors are created in the compact benched limestone with subhorizontal bedding. Subhorizontal character is respected by pieces of black silicate. There are three possible variants of genesis of this rock closed in limestone of cretaceous age. Silicate can be product of acid volcanism (in surroundings of the region there are known positions of calcareous dacites and rhyolites), product of hydrotermal activity on the seabed or chemical dissolve of cases containing SiO2(sponges, radiloarites).5. ConclusionsThese expeditions were result of cooperation between the caving clubs of the Czech Speleological Society (Pust leb, Jihomorask kras, Tinovsk kras, Devon) and the Slovak Speleological Society ( achtice).ReferencesKaman V, 2010. Banat 2009 Speleoforum Vol. 29. Kaman V, Barak P, 2012. Banat 2011 Speleoforum Vol. 31. Figure 3. Richly decorated upper part of Jasanka Cave. Photo by Zdenk Moty ka. Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings162

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Figure 4. Map of the Jasanka Cave. Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings163

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Figure 5. The most beautiful part of the Jasanka Cave. Photo by Zden k Moty ka. Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings164

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CAVE EXPLORATION OF THE BELI MASSIF IN THE PROKLETIJE MOUNTAINS (MONTENEGRO)Ditta Kici ska1, Krzysztof Najdek2 1Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Makw Polnych 16, 61-606 Pozna Poland2Wielkopolski Klub Taternictwa Jaskiniowego, os. Przyja ni 14/114, 61-688 Pozna, Poland The Prokletije Mountains are located in the southern part of the Montenegro. These are the highest peaks in the Dinarides, where denivelation between them and the bottom of valleys reaches 1,000 m. The selected carbonate massifs have been explored regularly by Polish and Serbian speleologists since 2006. The expeditions have discovered 50 caves, among these the Grnicza Cave was explored to -515 m. The Prokletije Mountains (also known as the Albanian Alps or Bjeskt e Namuna) are the southernmost part of the Dinarides (Fig. 1). The highest peak of the Prokletije Mts., and also of the Dinarides, is Jezerski Vrh/Maja Jezerce Mount (2,694 m a.s.l.) situated in Albania (Muli 2009). Geologically, this region belongs to the High Karst unit. It is composed of Mesozoic limestones and dolomites (Karda 1978). Glacial and karst forms predominate in the morphology of this area. Cviji (1913) was first who described glaciations of the Prokletije Mts.: U-shaped and hanging valleys, moraines and cirques occur here in a great number. The exploration has been conducted near Gusinje, a little town situated in the Lju a Valley. Two mouths of big glacial Figure 1. The Beli Massif (Photo: Mariusz Woniak). Figure 2. Map of the Beli Massif showing discovered caves. Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings165

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The Beli Massif is located at the boundary between Montenegro and Albania. The highest peak of this massif (and of the Montenegro too) is Maja Kolata (2,534 m a.s.l.). The Beli Massif is surrounding by U-shape valleys: Ropojana in Montenegro (Fig. 4) and Valbona in Albania. During the period of 2006 to 2012 took place 8 exploratory expeditions, organized by Polish and Serbian speleologist (Wielkopolski Klub Taternictwa Jaskiniowego and Speleoklub wi tokrzyski from Poland, and Akademski Speleosko-Alpinisticki Klub from Serbia) in the Prokletije Mts. The exploration was performed in Plo e, Volunica and Zastan Grbajski (in the Grbaja Valley) and the Beli Massif (in the Ropojana and Zarunica valleys). Among discovered caves the longest and the deepest are: Jaskinia Grnicza 03 013 (depth of -516 m, length of 1,218 m) (Fig. 5) Jaskinia Lodowa 03 110 (depth of -451 m, length of 1,956 m) (Fig. 6) Jaskinia Nibyczarna-Jaskinia Babina Sisa 03 015-03 131 (depth of -236 m, length of 1,611 m) valleys: Ropojana (Fig. 2) and Grbaja occur in this area. Carbonate massifs surrounding these valleys are drained by two big springs: Alipani Izvori and Savino Oko (Fig. 3). The Savino Oko spring is discharging the Beli Massif. Two groups from Poland dived in this spring and descended to 96 m deep (Kur 2008).Figure 3. Savino Oko Spring (Photo: Ditta Kici ska). Figure 4. The Ropojana Valley (Photo: Krzysztof Najdek). Jaskinia Gigant 03 113 (depth of -296 m, length of 1,635m) Jaskinia w Trzech Kopcach 03 142 (depth of 141 m, length of 456 m) Jaskinia Entuzjastyczna 03 147 (depth of -107 m, length of 543 m) Jaskinia do Savino Oko 03 006 (depth of -256 m, length of 588) Jaskinia ezka-Jaskinia Kolektor 03 311 (depth of -236m, length of 1,011 m) The expeditions have already surveyed ca. 50 caves. Every year speleologists check several dozen entrances on surface, but most of them are terminated with blocks, snowy plugs or narrow places. During exploration some caves were connected into bigger systems as the Nibyczarna and Babina Sisa caves or the ezka and the Kolektor (Kici ska and Najdek 2007; Najdek 2007, 2008; Najdek and Kasza 2008; Biega a et al. 2009; Kasza et al. 2010a, b; Kici ska et al. 2011).Figure 5. Jaskinia Grnicza (Photo: Zbigniew Tabaczy ski). The caves of Prokletije Mts. developed on tectonic discontinuities or along bedding planes. Vertical invasion vadose passages (Grnicza, Lodowa, W Trzech Kopcach caves) predominate in most caves. In some caves, short horizontal passages (Gigant, Nibyczarna-Babina Sisa) occur as well, except of ardak in the Greben Massif which wwas known before. Generally, the Prokletije caves are poor in speleothems; more frequent was found in the horizontal part of the Gigant and ardak caves (stalagmites, stalactites, moonmilk and other). Exploration and Cave Techniques poster2013 ICS Proceedings166

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The exploration and scientific activities is conducted in agreement with the Speleological Society of Montenegro and the National Parks of the Montenegro. All result of exploration are on the website: www.prokletije.pl.ReferencesBiega a N, Kici ska D, Najdek K, 2009. Prokletije (Bjeskhet e Namuna) 2006. In: Gradzi ski M., Kici ska D, Szelerewicz M, 2009 (Eds). Polish Caving 2005 (Published on the occasion of the 15thInternational Speleological Congress). Caving Commision of Polish Mountaineering Association, 44. Wyd. Firma Rysunkowa Szelerewicz, Krakw, 20. Cviji J, 1913. Ledeno doba u Prokletije i okolnim planinama. Glasnik Srpskie Akad. Kraljevske, XCL, XCIII. Kasza A, Kici ska D, Najdek K, 2010a. Jaskinie i zjawiska krasowe w grach Prokletije. Mat. 44. Symp. Speleologicznego, Wis a 2010, 46. Kasza A, Kici ska D, Najdek K, Tabaczy ski Z, 2010b. Prokletije Beli 2009. Jaskinie, Krakw, 2, 59. Karda R, 1978. Zjawiska krasowe w okolicach Gusinje (gry Prokletije, Jugos awia). Kras i speleologia, 2, 11014. Kici ska D, Najdek K., 2007. Prokletije gry przekl te. Jaskinie, 1, 46, 20. Kici ska D, Najdek K, Filipiak M, 2011. Prokletije 20101. Taternik, 2, 40. Kur J, 2008. Eksploracja w Jaskini Savino oko 26-30.10.08. http://www.hotdive.com/news,117,more.html Najdek K, 2007. Prokletije Bjeskhet e Namuna 2007. Taternik, 3, 50. Najdek K, 2008. Prokletije Bjeskhet e Namuna 2008. Taternik, 3, 46. Najdek K, Kasza A, 2008. Prokletije Bjeshket e Namuna 2008. Jaskinie 3, 52, 21. Muli R, 2009. Plavsko-Gusinjske Prokletije, etrdeset planinarskih staza. Planinarsko drutvo Karanfili, Gusinje 2009, 1. Figure 6. Jaskinia Lodowa (Photo: Mariusz Wo niak). Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings167

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VOLCANIC CAVES AND PETROGLYPHS OF BORLUK VALLEY KARS (EASTERN TURKEY)Ali Yama OBRUK Cave Research Group; Acikhava Apt. 16/7, Nisantasi, Istanbul, Turkey,info@obruk.org Borluk Valley which continues 6 kilometers towards the east of Magaracik Village of Kars had long been known by its petroglyphs, rather than its caves. However, in 1942 in some caves of that valley, an archaeological survey had been carried out by Prof. Kl Kkten and some prehistoric findings had been documented. According to microliths and scrapers that he had found in the caves around Azat and Magaracik villages, Mr. Kokten claims in his article that those caves were all Paleolithic settlements. In this poster presentation, Borluk Valley of Kars, which has an archaeological and cultural importance, will be explained in details, in addition to the caves that were explored. Magaracik Cave, which Prof. Kokten searched 70 years ago and wrote about the importance of findings in detail but had not indicated the exact location, was also found, measured and mapped. In this poster presentation, those caves and their volcanic formations will be explained. Also, the need for preservation of that area will be emphasized with some interesting examples of petroglyphs. Prof. Kilic Kokten made the first scientific research in Borluk Valley in 1942. He published an article where he drew attention to the caves of the region and gave information about the prehistoric materials found in the area. When he went to the region two years after his first research, he made an excavation of a drilling at the entrance of Magaracik Cave and by looking at the finds he wrote that this cave was most probably a Palaeolithic settlement. Nobody had ever went to the mentioned Magaracik Cave nor had anybody known of its exact location. Another research study made in this valley is by Prof. Oktay Belli. About 200 rock pictures were found out during his recent visits to the area. We found five caves and one church carved into rocks during our exploration at the valley. None of them were ever researched nor published before, other than Magaracik Cave. Today we know that there are very few caves that are composed of andesite and ignimbrite in Turkey. So, these five volcanic caves are of great importance. About 3 kilometers to the southeast of Borluk Valley there is a church carved into the rocks which was named Scarlet Church by the villagers. It is far from all the settlements in the midst of a deserted place. In spite of the long time elapsed and the damage that men have given, some embroidery can still be seen in the dome and on the walls. During the same exploration, a detailed measured drawing of this structure, which was never investigated nor published, is made.Figure 2. Plan of Scarlet Church. VOLCANIC CAVES AND PETROGLYPHS OF BORLUK VALLEY KARS (EASTERN TURKEY)1. IntroductionBorluk Valley was formed as the result of thousands of years of Borluk Stream erosion which starts 18 km southeast of Kars traverses Magaracik and Azat villages. The stream mingles into Kars Stream at a point a little more north-west, close to Karacaoren Village.Figure 1. Location map of Borluk Valley, Kars.Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings168

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2. Geology of the AreaIt is estimated that the most forceful stage of volcanic activity lived in this region is about 6 million years ago. This stage is charactarized by widespread rhyolitic dacitic pyroclastic products and interval lava additives on the surface. It is thought that this material has been driven to the surface from different volcanoes by Sub-Plinia and Plinia high-energy explosions rather than by flow. It is observed that there is ignimbrite and obsidian besides pumice/ash rubble spread over large areas on the surface. Domes and massive lava sequences were formed in southern Kars by ascending of andesitic lava to the surface again 5 million years ago. Volcanic activity has been active, especially in western Kars, and has caused the formation of plateaus in the region mostly in this period. Volcanics of Khorasan, which are widely located in northern Khorasan, were formed 4.1 million years ago. Where as, Aladag volcano was formed 3.5 million years ago, which is more to the eastern region. However, the basaltic and andesitic lava flows observed in a large area from north to south of Kars Kagizman continued, until the last eruptions occurred 3 million years ago.3. Petroglyphs of Borluk ValleySome of the human and animal figures drawn on rock surface, which were done with scraping and pounding techniques, have been erased by natural circumstances or mostly were damaged by people. A large part of the animal figures are mountain goats, deer and the wild boar. In addition, the figures of a small number of wild cattles are also available. The most drawing congested part of the valley is Azatkoy vicinity. On the other hand, some of the rock paintings here were too pale and ravaged that they could not be seen if not shown to us by our guide. From the village to the south, in the Tasocagi region, there are many rock drawings. Prof. Oktay Belli has determined the presence of a total of 186 petroglyphs in the valley. In the andesite under rock shelter pictures of non-existing varieties of deer, wild cattle, wild boar, mountain goat, mountain sheep along with a variety of kinds of animals that cannot be percieved precisely and figures of the Mother Goddess, hunter shooting an arrow to animals, drawn using scraping the rock surface and line-pounding emphasis techniques, can be seen. More than two thirds of these hunting animals are wild sheeps and goats.ReferencesBelli O, 2007. Kars Blgesinde Ke fedilen Tarih ncesi Dneme Ait Kayast Resimleri, Kars 2. Kent Kurultay stanbul, 30. Keskin M, 1998. Erzurum Kars Platosunun arp ma Kkenli Volkanizmas MTA Dergisi no. 120, Ankara, pp. 135. Kokten K, 1948. Kars'n Tarih ncesi, Turk Tarih Kongresi III 1943, Ankara, 194. Kokten K, 1975. Kars evresinde Dip Tarih Ara t rmalar ve Yaz l kaya Resimleri, Atatrk Konferanslar 5, Ankara, 95. Figure 3. A group of petroglyphs in Borluk Valley. Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings169

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TRAPI CAVE: EXPLORATION, SURVEY, BIOLOGY AND GEOSPELEOLOGY OF THE BIGGEST CAVE OF RIO GRANDE DO NORTE STATELeda A. Zogbi1, Diego Bento2, Francisco W. Cruz, Daniel S. Menin4 1Meandros Espeleo Clube, So Paulo, SP, Brazil, ledazog@gmail.com2Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservao de Cavernas, Base Avanada Compartilhada no RN, Natal, RN, Brazil, diego.bento@icmbio.gov.br Instituto de Ceocincias da Universidade de So Paulo, Rua do Lago, 562, CEP 05508-080, So Paulo-SP, Brazil, cbill@usp.br4Meandros Espeleo Clube, So Paulo, Brazil, danielmenin@gmail.com Abstract. Rio Grande do Norte is a state in northeastern Brazil that has a very peculiar karst, characterized by karst pavements (lapis) and small caves. This karstic area is located on west side of Rio Grande do Norte, near to Ceara state. In September of 2003, a team from the National Center for Research and Conservation of Caves (CECAV-RN) located the entry of a new cave in the valley of the River Apodi, one of the main drainages in the region, near to Felipe Guerra. Since then, several technical and scientific expeditions were organized for the study of this cave called Gruta do Trapi, the most important cave occurrence in the region. This article describes some of these studies carried out in the cave, the historical aspects of the first cave surveys and the scientific results obtained so far. The cave is mostly consisted by a single meandering conduit that is a tributary of the Apodi river. The main difficulties encountered during first expeditions were a syphon in a norrow passage during the rainy season and the anomalously hot temperatures of 34 C (93.2 F) on average with week air vertilation, since there is no other entrance. In the biological aspect, collections were made in an area that is approximately of the cave, resulting in a list of 47 morpho-species. In the geological aspect, some active stalagmites has been collected, and should provide data of unprecedented record of climate changes in the region over the past three thousand years.The Trapi Cave development reached 2,300 m, becoming the longest cave in Rio Grande do Norte. Rsum. Rio Grande do Norte est un tat du nord-est du Brsil qui possde un karst trs particulier, caractris par de grands champs de lapis et des petites grottes. Cette rgion karstique est situe louest de Rio Grande do Norte, prs de ltat Cear. En Septembre 2003, une quipe du Centre National pour la Recherche et la Conservation des Grottes (CECAVRN) a trouv lentre dune nouvelle grotte dans la valle de la rivire Apodi, lun des principaux bassin drainage de la rgion proche de Felipe Guerra. Depuis lors, plusieurs expditions scientifiques et techniques ont t organises pour ltude de cette grotte appele Gruta do Trapi, la plus importante cavit de toute la rgion. Cet article dcrit quelques tudes ralises dans la grotte, les aspects historiques des premires explorations et les rsultats scientifiques obtenus jusqu prsent. La grotte se dveloppe pratiquement dans un seul conduit en mandre qui est un affluent de la rivire Apodi. Les principales difficults rencontres dans les premires exptitions sont un passage bas qui siphonne pendant la saison des pluies, et la chaleur touffante, en moyenne 34 C (93,2 F) sans courants dair, car il ny a pas dautres entres. Par rapport aux tudes biologiques, des collections ont t recueuillies dans une zone qui est denviron de la grotte, aboutissant une liste de 47 morpho-espces. Au niveau de la gologie, des stalagmites actives ont t prleves et doivent fournir de nouvelles donnes sur les changements climatiques dans la rgion au cours des trois derniers millnaires. La grotte Trapia a atteint un dveloppement de 2,300 m, devenant ainsi la plus longue grotte de Rio Grande do Norte.1. IntroductionThe Advanced Base from the National Center for Research and Conservation of Caves of Rio Grande do Norte CECAV-RN operates throughout the Northeast region of Brazil, with the exception of Bahia State. In this region, the caves did not stand out for its development and, so far, only one had surpassed 2 km: the Ubajara cave, in Cear state. Since 2002 the CECAV-RN has been conducting surveys over the exposed karst pavements areas where the potential speleological findings is higher in the Rio Grande do Norte State within a area larger than 100 km2, where 462 new caves were discovered. Trapi cave has been located with help of local people guidance in September 2003. However, the exploration only began almost three years later, in mid2006, because its cave entrance, a vertical gallerie of 18 metres was occupied by a huge hive of aggressive types of bees. During this expedition, the CECAV-RN team preliminarily explored 620 meters of the cave, limited to the passages that reached by the floods. The team returned to the cave in January 2007, together with Vladir Quintiliano (RN Caving Club) and the Professor Francisco Cruz from University of So Paulo, to support new exploration and geological research activities. During this last operation ran up the conduit over the Northern Cave, until a moment in which they feel that the CO2concentration was too high, forcing the return of the team. Despite the difficulties such as beehives, flooded conduits, breathing problems, the possibilitity for potential new discoveries in cave Trapi fascinated everyone on the team and motivated further missions. Exploration and Cave Techniques poster2013 ICS Proceedings170

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pictures taken by the mapping team, that the cave is densily ornamented with speleothems. We had to wait until 19 September 2009 to return to the cave. Meanwhile, the team CECAV has been there several times to check the water level, but it still high. In one of the attempts they not even entered the shafted entrance, because the bees were nervous and they retreated before being attacked. This time we had monitored the temperature that changed dramatically from 29 degrees celcius by the entrance to 34 degrees after passing throught the sifon Thus, these high temperatures and saturated relative humidity made the climate during exploration very unconfortable. We advanced slowly to the point where we had ended up surveying the last time: we really needed time to adapt ourselves to this unbearable heat. Once again, the team worked well despite of internal climate. The main passage was mostly a long, meandering gallery with minor straight passages of 5 m wide and 3 m high in avarage. We found an active stalagmite with more than 1.2 m high and decided to call this snippet Chicos Paradise, in tribute to our friend Francisco Cruz, who certainly would be very happy with this new discovery. We also found an avenue beautiful, straight, with a flat profile and several yellow round runoff on the roof, which we call the The Suns Avenue because the runoff seemed true suns ceiling. We found many megafauna bones, some quite large fixed in the rock, in a room we call Hall of Bones. At the end of this stage, the cave reached 2,100 m. By our calculations there were still some 500 m to reach the Apodi river therefore a new assault would be needed before the rainy season. On November 7, 2009, the same team got together again for a new assault. It took about an hour and a half to reach from the entrance to the point where we had stopped the topography. We began to map the cave, but the task was not easy: huge fallen blocks covered by a layer of slippery mud hindered progress in the cave. The uncomfortable feelings given by the humidity increased after every step forward. We were evolving at the limit of risk, and luckily we had brought a rope we use to help each other in the most exposed, since there was no possibility of tying the rope anywhere.2. History of mappingIn january 2009, during a caving meeting in Brasilia, Jocy Cruz, head of CECAV, invited Leda Zogbi and the team Meandros Speleo Club to explore and survey a newly discovered cave in Rio Grande do Norte. On February 14, 2009, the Meandros team, composed by Leda Zogbi, Daniel Menin, and the bio-speleologists Renata Andrade and Marcelo Kramer went to Mossor to join the CECAV-RN staff people, composed by Jocy Cruz, the biospeleologist Diego Bento, Iatagan Mendes de Freitas and Darcy dos Santos.To reach the cave, the path is not easy: after leaving the main road, you take an unpaved road crossing the lagedos (flagstones fields). The region is quite arid, with a predominance of lapis endless fields, shrub and thorny.The entrance of the cave is located 30 meters from where the car is parked. It is a sinkhole with a pit in the center. At the entrance, we saw the bees signaled by CECAV team. We anchor the rope and descend into the abyss which is 18 m deep. After a tight passage at the entrance of the gulf, the descent is beautiful, accomplished between large runoff. Then reached the riverbed underground-dry this season the main conduit of the cave. The cave is developed by conduits that move in curves, the floor is sand. We passed a low ceiling and arrive in a large room with many speleothems, rare for this region, as gypsum flowers. After two days of hard work, the topography reached 1,225 m line tape, and the cave could already be considered the largest cave of Rio Grande do Norte, passing Furna Feia cave (766 m). After plotting the the mapped galleries on regional map we found that the cave was clearly heading to Rio Apodi, and there was still a significant distance between the end of the topography and the river, indicating a possible continuity of cave. Our desire was to return soon to finish the exploration, but we had to wait the demise of rainy season in order to avoid eventual cave floods. Still, there was another attempt in March 2009, with the participation of Daniel Menin and Francisco Cruz, who was very interested in using speleothems for paleoclimate studies. He knew from Figure 1. Lapias Fields of Felipe Guerra region. Figure 2. Large fossile fixed in the rock.Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings171

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After many efforts, we apparently reached the end of the cave, which is an accumulation of large fallen blocks covered with mud and many organic wastes, like a great natural drain. We let a fixed base on a rock at the bottom, so that if someday someone could overcome the collapse, they could connect the topography. The cave reached 2,300 m and became the largest cave in the Rio Grande do Norte State. The final map was impressive. The cave is developed almost by a single conduit, meandering off toward the river Apodi. There is only one bifurcation that develops into a much narrower conduit, shortly after the siphon. On the map, you can see that the cave is still relatively distant river Apodi. We suggest to friends CECAV-RN they seek from the opposite side, near Rio Apodi, the resurgence of this cave. By the dimensions of the conduits and the volume of water that must pass through the cave during the rainy season, it is likely that upwelling is great, and we can go the other way, rising from the river to the collapse. Despite the difficulties mainly related to the heat and humidity of the cave leading cavers to their physical and psychological limits, exploring the Cave Trapi was an extraordinary adventure.Figure 3. Trapi Cave map. Figure 4. Satelite image with the survey line and Apodi River. 3. BiospeleologyThe biological characterization of Trapi Cave was part of a larger project that included collections of invertebrates (in two campaigns, one at the end of the dry season and another at the end of the rainy season) in 24 wells of the western RN (municipalities Barana, Mossoro, Governor Dix-Sept Rosado, Felipe Guerra and Apodi), and data collected in 23 other caves in the same area, coordinated by Professor. Dr. Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira (Drops), UFLA (Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais State). This project resulted in the dissertation of Diego Bento. The two sampling campaigns performed on 06/01/2010 (end of dry season) and 08/04/2010 (end of rainy season), were limited to those portions before the siphon (about 25 % of the cave). Collected in the area, the available trophic resources were: leaves, wood waste, animal carcasses accidental regurgitation pellets of owls (mostly near the entrance, however leaf litter and wood are oftenly delivered by rain water coming into the cave), organic matter carried by colonies of social insects (ants and termites), feces of other vertebrates (frogs and gias) and patches of guano bats ( Diphylla ecaudata), the latter being the only resource widely distributed in the observed area. As might be expected, the spatial distribution of population did not occur at random, but strongly dependent on the availability of resources on site. Other species such as Endecou s sp. (Ensifera: Phalangopsidae) Heterophrynus sp. (Amblypygi: Phrinidae) and Loxosceles sp. (Araneae: Sicariidae) were widely distributed throughout the length of the sampled area. Although it was not the object of the study, were also observed vertebrates present in the cavity. Among the mammals the only vampire bat Diphylla ecaudata was observed (a small rodent, moc Kerodon rupestris, dead probably due to the fall in the abyss of entry was also observed), with small groups (usually fewer than ten individuals) and stains guano spread across the entire length Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings172

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sampled. Among birds, only the church owl ( Tyto alba ) was observed (local food pellets and regurgitation, inclusive), between reptiles only a green snake (unidentified) and between amphibians frogs (Ranidae), gias (Leptodactylidae) and frogs cururu (Bufonidae), the latter being found in areas far from the entrance. There were large differences between the invertebrate communities observed in two campaigns: At the end of the dry season were observed 603 individuals from at least 28 different taxa, while at the end of the rainy season were 1,699 individuals of at least 42 taxa (Table 1). Therefore, there was a significant increase in species richness and abundance in virtually all populations, which is probably a result of increased seasonal availability of resources imported from the external environment. These results were also expected in view of the dependency on imported ecosystem cave resources and, likewise, similar responses are well documented in the literature for the surface invertebrates, particularly with strong rainfall seasonality within dry dry forests environments called caatinga. The list of species of Trapi Cave has 47 morphospecies and is the regions average (for a total of 47 caves surveyed, the average wealth observed was 44.21 19.76 species per well, and the cave of Crotes also in Felipe Guerra, with 101 species is the richest). Regarding troglobite species (exclusively cave), we found an earthworm (Annelida: Oligochaeta) and a collembola (Collembola: Entomobryomorpha), both in puddles of water dripping with patches of guano Diphylla the dome of the animals. Although the number of troglobitic species is not considered high (the cave of Troglobites also in Felipe Guerra, have so far 11 species troglobite and caves are common in the region with more than two species troglomorphic), these species were not found in any other cave and are probably new to science, having been sent to taxonomists for formal description. Another aspect worth mentioning is the abundance of two of the most venomous spiders in Brazil, Sicarius tropicus and Loxosceles sp. (Both family Sicariidae). Sicarius tropicus were observed mainly near the entrance, but Loxosceles sp. (Brown spider) were observed throughout the sampled length of the cave, being particularly abundant in the north hall just inside the entrance (where the gypsum flowers) but also frequent throughout the Southern portion of conduit.Table 1.Taxa of species found in the cave Trapi, Felipe Guerra. / RN, and population abundances in the two campaigns (end of dry season and late rainy season).1st2ndMorphospecies CollectionCollection 06/01/201004/08/2010 Acari Argasidae Ornithodoros sp1 7 14 Laelapidae sp1 12 0 Melicharidae Proctolaelaps sp10 72 Macronyssidae sp1 0 80 Sarcoptiforme sp1 0 14 Sarcoptiforme sp2 0 1 Sarcoptiforme sp3 0 1 Acaridae sp1 0 2 Anoetidae sp1 0 9 Amblypygi Phrinidae Heterophrynus sp. 8 21 Charinidae Charinus sp. 3 3 Araneae Ctenidae sp1 0 4 Gnaphosidae sp1 1 0 Pholcidae Mesabolivar sp. 3 7 Pholcidae Metagonia sp. 11 20 Salticidae sp1 0 1 Salticidae sp2 2 2 Scytodidae Scytodes sp. 9 37 Sicariidae Loxosceles sp. 35 125 Sicariidae Sicarius tropicus 65 9 Theraphosidae sp1 1 2 Theridiidae Theridion sp 9 61 Opiliones Gonyleptidae sp1 0 2 Pseudoscorpiones Garypidae sp1 0 11 Schizomida Hubardiidae Rowlandius spn. 10 2 Diplopoda Polydesmida-Chelodesmidae sp13 0 Isopoda Isopoda sp1 0 1 Armadiliidae sp1 6 96 Plathyarthridae Trichorhina sp.9 117 Collembola Collembola (entomobryomorpha) sp.2 37 Paronellidae Campylothorax sp.375419 Blattodea Blattodea sp1 0 14 Coleoptera Carabidae sp1 0 1 Carabidae sp2 1 0 Carabidae sp3 1 0 Nitidulidae sp1 0 1 Tenebrionidae Zoophobas sp. 3 1 Ensifera Ensifera sp1 0 2 Phalangopsidae Endecous sp. 56 157 Hymenoptera Formicidae Myrmicinae 1* 1* Acromyrmex sp. Isoptera Termitidae Nasutitermitinae 1* 1* Nasutitermes corniger Colony (accounted as an individual) Figure 5. Earthworm with troglomorphic features. Highlighted lines correspond to troglomorphic taxa. Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings173

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These spider occurences need caution especially because is necessary go crawling during exploration by the spelunkers to creep forward. Although accidents with these spiders in caves are relatively rare, such aspects should be taken into consideration in any work on cave Trapi. It should be noticed, again, that only about of the cave was biologically sampled, thereby, surveys in the areas after the siphon will be necessary. Now, with the addition of biological data, besides the remarkable dimensions in length, area and volume and the presence of rare speleothems in the region, we can affirm that the cave is also an essential habitat for species of rare and endemic troglobitic fauna. More than ever, there are many attributes to define the Cave Trapi as the jewel of Rio Grande do Nortes caves.4. Paleoclimate studies in the area of Felipe Guerra-RNStudies of the past climate variations in the Rio Grande do Norte has been performed since 2004, using stalagmites from Rainha cave which is located nearby Trapi cave. The previous paleoclimate record is based on speleothem Isotope records dated by using U/Th geochnology technique of the last 26 thousand years (Cruz et al. 2009). The most of dated speleothems stopped growing at about 4 thousand years ago which is consistent with the aridity trend and the establishment of semi-arid climate in the region suggested by higher values of oxygen isotope ratios in the record. The goal of this new study on Trapi cave stalagmites is to understand the higher frequence climate variability in the region during the last three thousand years. This study can give new insights into the origin of intense droughts episodes tha has impacted human occupation since the first settements of immigrants in the region 400 years ago until today. Samples were studied in America. The results were very interesting because it showed that almost all speleothems stopped graduating four thousand years ago, which indicates establishment of semi-arid climate in the region since then. In fact, the climate became drier in the northeast for the past four thousand years while in much of Brazil became increasingly humid. The paleoclimate data from the caves of the RN became central to discussion of the origin of climatic contrasts on the South American continent. Working with a stalagmite of Furna Feia, also from Rio Grande do Norte, we had surprising results about the climate based on the variation of chemical composition over the past 3,700 years and completed a climate record of the last 26,000 years that was published in Nature Geoscience in 2009. However, this sample was an only child and this variability in chemical composition had to be tested in other samples to see if they really correspond. We needed more samples. The first time we went to Trapi cave was looking for a sample that was actively growing in the cave, something that had failed to find in Rainha cave. In the first trip, time was short, and only visited the starting areas of the cave. After the exploration and surveying expedition performed by of CECAV-RN and Meandros teams, we were informed that they had found active speleothems, but it tooks several visits to the cave until we could cross the siphon and reach the room where the stalagmites were. I had particular interest in knowing that such conduct from Chicos Paradise. Really that place is something quite unusual for the region as a cave high concentration of large candle shape stalagmites. In fact, we could find adequate active stalagmites that are already precisely dated and have been studied by a graduate student at University of Sao Paulo, under supervision of Prof. Cruz. These new speleothem records will soon provide precious informations on regional climate variability.AcknowledgmentsWe would like to specially thank CECAV-RN staff for the constant support during expeditions (Jocy Cruz, Iatagan Freitas, Darcy Santos and Campos Uilson); we would also like to thank all cavers who attended the topography of the cave (Renata Andrade, Marcelo Kramer, Walter Cortez and Jocy Cruz): the topography performed in extreme temperatures, as we endure this cave, can be quite difficult. Francisco Cruz is also very grateful for Vladir Quintiliano and Fabio Simas for great assistance in the field.1st2ndMorphospecies CollectionCollection 06/01/201004/08/2010 Lepidoptera Lepidoptera sp1 6 6 Tineidae sp1 0 3 Psocoptera Psyllipsocidae Psyllipsocus sp.21183 Thysanura Nicoletiinae sp1 068 Oligochaeta Oligochaeta sp1 337 Gastropoda Streptaxidae-Streptaxis sp. 6 6 Figure 6. Amblypygi Heterophrynus sp with juveniles on the abdomen. Highlighted lines correspond to troglomorphic taxa.Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings174

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ReferencesCruz FW, Vuille M, Burns SJ, Wang X, Cheng H, Werner M, Edwards RL, Karmann I, Auler A, Nguyen H, 2009. Orbitally driven east-west anti-phasing of South American precipitation. Nature Geoscience, v.2, 210.Exploration and Cave Techniques poster 2013 ICS Proceedings175

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THE MAN-MADE UNDERGROUND CAVITIES OF NORTH-WEST RUSSIAI. A. Agapov1, Y. S. Lyakhnitsky2, I. U. Hlebalin3 1Russian Geographical Society. Karstology and Speleology Commission., Saint-Petersburg, Russia, agapov_ilya@mail.ru2Russian Geographical Society. Karstology and Speleology Commission, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, yuri_lyahnitsky@vsegei.ru3Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, hlebalin@bk.ru In this article we consider the largest, interesting and meaningful man-made underground structures of North-Western Russia, which are located on the territory of Leningrad and Pskov Regions and the Republic of Karelia. These are: Sablinskaya, Staroladozhsky man-made caves, Petrovskaya underground quarry, cult caves Svyataya (The Saint cave) and Dolozhskaya, Taitsky sluice-way (Leningrad Region), underground complex of the Pskovo-Pechersky Dormition Monastery (Pskov Region), mine workings of Ruskeala and Rogoselga fields(Republic of Karelia). This review does not include fortifications and modern existing fields.1. IntroductionThe North-Western region of Russia is located at the junction of two major tectonic units the Baltic Shield and the Russian Platform. The Baltic Shield is composed mainly of Upper Archean and Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks. This region is characterized by minerals as iron, copper and tin ores, marble and granite. The majority of the Republic of Karelia territory is situated on the Baltic Shield, which determines the features of the history of mining here, as also a large number of old mine workings. The territory to the south of the Baltic Shield is composed of rocks of the sedimentary cover of the Russian plate. In its structure, Lower Cambrian Lower Carboniferous sedimentary rocks predominate, represented by sandstones, shales and limestones. In this region numerous underground mine workings are present (Figure 1), which have been subdivided based upoin the types of minerals (Dolotov 2010). These mines were created for: 1 Ore (iron, copper), 2 Fossil fuel, 3 Building material, 4 Raw materials for the glass industry. Among the underground architectural structures the following stand out: 1 residential, 2 manufacturing, 3 protective (fortification), 4 transport, 5 cult sites. The mining has received active development in this region since the XVIII century. Various ores (iron, copper, etc.) were mined in mines by underground method. The mines were used to extract fossil fuels (oil shale), in underground stone-pits limestone and marble (for building purposes), sandstone (for glass industry). Part of the mine workings were carried out for mineral exploration. In this region there are various types of architectural underground structures. The most common are underground structures of entertainment character in park ensembles, which were built from the XVIII century (grotto). During the war time natural caves could be used as a temporary shelter by the population. Underground structures for manufacturing are rare. Most common are the protective (fortification) underground structures. From the Middle Ages, various underground cavities were built in castles: hiding-places (siege wells to provide water in the case of siege), mine galleries, passages for messages within the fortress walls. However, nowadays they are destroyed or inaccessible for a visit. During the XIXXX centuries many facilities were built for military purposes: hideouts, communication trenches, fire positions, missile silos, warehouses. Other types of structures are also quite common in the area. Basically they are underground hydraulic engineering constructions: sluice-ways, sewers, drainage structures. Complex systems have been preserved in manor-parks property, which were constructed in the XVIII century. Underground cult structures are interesting enough, that are known from the XVXVII centuries and are related to the Eastern Christian tradition (the Orthodox Church). There are the following types of sites: cave monasteries, cave temples, caves of hermits, burial structures, natural pseudokarst caves with revered holy springs. For these purposes man-made underground structures were constructed and also natural caves were used, mainly in sandstones. The arches of natural caves sometimes were strengthened by stonework, and cavity volume was increased by mining penetration method (Agapov 2012).2. Leningrad RegionThe mining in the Leningrad region in pre-Petrine Period was weakly developed. Mine workings were preserved, which were created in the XIX early XX centuries on deposits of Cambrian quartz sandstone of the Ladoga and upper Sablinskaya formations. The largest deposit Sablinskoye, is located 40 km to the SW from St. Petersburg, at the Leningrad Region. Layers of this deposit contain 95 to 99% of quartz and could be used for the manufacturing of glass without enrichment. In Sablino 15mines are known, the largest of which the Levoberezhnaya (Fig. 2), has a length of 5,500 m (Lyakhnitsky 1990; Dolotov and Sokhin 2001). Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings179

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The deposit was worked by room-and-pillar method with free clearing space. The mines in the Sablinskiy field are horizontal, but because of breakdown from vaultss, their ceiling reaches heights up to 7 m. The height of adits and drifts reach about 2 meters, chamber height are 3 m, with a capacity of productive layer of sandstone of 3 m. The largest landslide halls reach in length some 20 m. Due to a collapse in the domes of the cavities, Ordovician limestones were exposed, thus starting the karst processes. Landslide processes have revealed the narrow slotted cavities in the limestones that arch the mine workings,which were formed under the influence of the glacier. In the Levoberezhnaya Cave were formed three lakes and a stream. In the Sablinskie caves 8 species of bats hybernate during the winter. The complex inspection of the underground cavities was carried out in the last century (Lyakhnitsky 2006). The Levoberezhnaya Cave was equipped for underground excursion routes. The work included the fixing of unstable areas, concreting of heads of inputs, regulation of the hydrological and microclimatic regimes, laying of the excursion trails, etc. On the surface a number of tour routes was also developed. Now it is one of the most valuable of the environmental and excursion centers the Museum of Geology and Mining. In fact this is the first geopark in Russia. The Cambrian quartz sandstone deposits StaroLadogskoye and Rebrovskoe are located at the east of the Leningrad region. The method of processing and the geometry of the mine workings are similar to the Sablinskiy deposit. The largest mine in StaroLadogskoye deposit has a length of about 6,000 m, by the topographical survey of the Speleology section of the Mining Institute, that was made in 1968. (Dolotov and Sokhin 2001). The largest mine in the Rebrovsky deposit is about 507 m long. Mining workings of Staraya Ladoga deposit are the largest reserve for wintering bats in northern Russia. The minings for the extraction of Devonian quartz sandstone are located in the south-western districts of the Leningrad region. The major areas of minings are the surrounding of Borshevo Village and uninhabited Korpovo Village. They were worked out mainly at the beginning of XX century by the room-and-pillar method with free clearing space. From minings in Cambrian sandstones they are distinguished by the highest section of adits and drifts, Figure 1. The overview map with the location of underground structures. Compiled by I. Agapov. Based on the 2013 Yahoo map. Legend:1 Pskovo-Pechersky Monastery; 2 Izborsk Fortress; 3 Pskov City; 4 Dolozhskaya Cave 5 Posolotino Novye Pechora Cave; 6 mines near of Korpovo Village; 7 mines near of Borshevo Village; 8 Svyataya Cave; 9 underground passage from the Gatchina Palace; 10 Petrovskaya Cave; 11 Taitsky sluice-way; 12 Levoberezhnaya Cave; 13 mines near Apraksino; 14 Quartz sandstone deposit StaroLadogskoye; 15 Rebrovskoe Quartz sandstone deposit; 16 Dvuglazka Marble Mine; 17 mines near Pitkranta City; 18 Rogoselga Mine; 19 Nadezhda Mine. Figure 2. Levoberezhnaya Cave. Topographical survey by Y.S.Lyakhnitsky, 1990.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings180

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which are up to 6 m high, whilst width is up to 5 m, which is associated with a greater capacity of the productive strata. The largest cave in the vicinity of Borschovo Village has a length of about 560 m, whilst in the vicinity of Korpovo Village the longest cave is about 400 m. The main building material is a limestone,which was extracted since the first half of the XIX century through the first half of the XX century in underground mine workings in the Leningrad region. It was quarried on theIzhora Plateau near the villages of Telezi and Aropakkuzi from the layers of Llanvirnian tier. It was produced at more than 20 working sites, typically reaching in cross section from 5 to 3 m in height. The largest quarry is near the village Telezi, it is the Petrovskaya stone-pit. The entrance was long ago closed by a collapse. In 1980 it was found by members of the Leningrad Spelestologycal Party (Miroshnichenko 1992). Galleries and drifts in the Petrovskaya stone quarry have a total length of 360 m, they are located on two levels, with the altitude difference between the highest and the lowest marks of the floor level of the mine being about 5metres. The width of adits and drifts is up to 6 m, the height is up to 4 m. An engineering and geological survey of the stone quarry showed that it is extremely dangerous because of the possibility of falls and collapses. The archs of the mine in many places is composed not from Ordovician limestones but from the overlying Quaternary moraines. In order to preserve this unique monument of the history of mining, it is necessary to strengthen the arches of the mine and cleaning it from garbage, left by the unorganized visitors. Near the station Apraksino, on the banks of the Nazia River was mined the limestone of the Arenigian stage of the Lower Ordovician. It was extracted through the method of developing room-and-pillar, with partial backfilling of the cleaning space. The galleries have a length up to 70 m. Adits and drifts are rectangular in cross section, high up to 2 m, and wide up to 4 m. In the Leningrad region all types of architectural underground structures are known. The most common are a variety of underground fortification structures, built from the XIX to the early XX century. These are various types of forts and fortresses, that, however, will not be treated in this article. Only one available underground passage of the XVIII century is known today, leading from the Gatchina Palace to the grotto Echo on the Silver Lake. Now it is used for excursions. The length of the passage is about 120 m In the suburbs of St. Petersburg drainage systems of the XVIII to the early XX centuries are present, built under the citys parks of Pushkin, Pavlovsk, Gatchina, Krasnoye Selo. The largest-scale hydrotechnical structure is the Taitsky sluice-way, created in 1772 for the supplying of Tsarskoye Selo (Miroshnichenko 1992). The total length of the sluice-way is about 15 km. About 7 km of the way are in the form of so-called Mine gallery, traversed by in limestone at a depth of about 17 m. Along the route of the gallery has been made 59 mines for excavation. The water flowed from the Taitskie Springs. By 1905 the using of the sluice-way was stopped, and it went into decline. For religious purposes mainly caves of natural erosion and suffusion in the Devonian sandstones were used. Their veneration is associated to the springs, which are considered as curative. Most of these caves are located in the area to the South-West of the Leningrad region. Some of them have been enlarged by man, and represent therefore nowadays a combination of natural and man-made cavities. The biggest one is the Svyataya Cave, showing a total length of about 130 m. This is a unique system of pseudokarst cavities, formed by suffusion and erosion processes, associated with underground streams in non-karst red Devonian sandstone, in the beautiful cliffs of a small stream a tributary of the Oredezh River. It starts out from the spacious picturesque grotto with a height of up to 5 meters. The spring water, flowing out of the cave until the middle of the XX century, was considered curative and was revered by locals residents. Subsequently, because of its pollution, its worship was stopped. Now the Svyataya Cave is mostly used as a tourist site (Lyakhnitsky 2006; Agapov 2008). The second longest (only about 21 m long) is the Dolozhskaya Cave, known since the XVIII century. According to legend, nearby the cave an appearance of the Virgin had occurred. Inside the cave there is a healing spring. This natural pseudokarst cave in the Devonian sandstone was also in this case enlarged by man. At the beginning of XX century at the entrance to the cave, the terraneous Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin was built, which was destroyed later on, during the middle of the XX century. Out of the temple, by the covered gallery, the passage to the cave was built. Now the cave is widely used by people for religious purposes. Once a year a religious procession goes to the cave (Agapov 2008).3. The Republic of KareliaIn Karelia the mining industry, as a matter of fact, did not exist during the pre-Petrine Period. Evidences of use of underground mining before the XVIII century, except for Ruskeala, have not been found up to today. The iron ore was mined in Karelia in several deposits, located in the North Ladoga, and the copper ore in deposits located near the Ladoga and Onega Lakes. The largest area of mining of ore minerals is in the vicinity of the city Pitkranta where deposits of copper, iron and tin were worked out. Most of the deposits in this area are of the skarn type. The deposits around Pitkranta were used from 1810 to 1940. Different methods of mining were used with free clearing space. Most mines have a vertical or inclined shafts, extending to a depth of 270 m from the ground surface. From the shaft, galleries head off at different levels. To this date, the vast majority of mines were flooded and are only available for study with the use of diving equipment. Very little is known about the morphology of these mines due to bad availability of the information. In the Tulamozerskiy district a very interesting hematite deposit is situated at Rogoselga. It was used from 1870 to the 1900s. Its underground mines (Fig. 3) are relatively well preserved. After a short entrance gallery (about 18 m), a long haulage drift begins, in the ceiling of which are two huge sloping flattened cavities of a waste vein-shaped Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings181

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hematite body. In their upper part they have an access to the surface by the through-boreholes. Thanks to this exits, all the way down to the horizontal drift, it is illuminated by natural light. In the worked space rotten wooden chock are preserved. In the bottom part of the second ramp there are two small pillars, which are still supporting the arches above. The 30-m deadlock transport drift is at the western drift. The total length of the horizontal galleries of the mine is about 200 m. The look of these old mines is very impressive: it is shined by a weak daylight, and covered in some places with moss and lichens. Not far from the mine there are the picturesque ruins of the Tulomozerskiy ironsmelting factory. The mine and factory ruins can be beautiful excursion sites, such as a museum of history of mining. Figure 4. Dvuglazka Marble Quarry. Yuri Lyakhnitsky, Igor Khlebalin, Oleg Minnikov 2010.Figure 3. Schematic plan of mining by hematite field Rogoselga. Yuri Lyakhnitsky, with supporting KRPOSR Kolos (Karelian Republic Public Organization of Speleology Researches). 2007. The legend: 1 host rocks, 2 surface, 3 entrance gallery, 4 haulage drift, 5 ramp the worked space on the steep slopes of the hematite vein-shaped body, 6 small lakes, 7 pillars, 8 wooden chock, 9 trench on the surface, traversed by ore body, 10 through-boreholes.Most copper mines, typically small in size, are located near Onega Lake. The most famous the horizontal mine Nadezhda functioned since the beginning of the XVIII century to 1750 (Miroshnichenko and Khlebalin 2011). Its adits and galleries cover on an area of 52 30 m. In the mine chalcopyrite, chalcocite and oxide copper were extracted. Karelia is extremely rich in various construction cladding and ornamental stones, so there are widespread quarries for their extraction. Large amounts of granite and marble were especially extracted. The largest deposit of marble Ruskeala is located in the Northern Ladoga area, at 40 km from Sortavala city, near the border with Finland. This is the ancient Novgorod territory, but the village Ruysselka was firstly mentioned at Nikolsko-Serdobolsky Pogost in the Census Book of Korelsky County (Swedish) in 1590. The first information about its use is related to the XVII century. In 1766 in Ruskeala the pilot production of blocks of Proterozoic gray marble began for the construction of St. Petersburg. In 1817, Auguste Montferrand visited Ruskeala and chose the varieties of marble for the construction of St. Isaacs Cathedral. The Ruskeala marble was also used for the construction of the Marble Palace and other buildings and obelisks in St. Petersburg. Later the marble was quarried for lime burning. During the long years of work at the deposit, it resulted in several quarries and an extensive network of underground workings. It consists of three vertical shaft sinking, connected by galleries and drifts with large chambers, rooms, located on three levels. After completion of the work, the two lower levels of workings and, in part, the upper level, were flooded. The deepest drift of mine, no. 3, is at a depth of 38 m below the level of flooding and the shaft extends to a depth of 66 m. The largest flooded quarry has a length of about 370 m and a width of 15 by 105 m. The depth of the quarry to the flood level ranges from 6.4 to 24.4 m, and even up to 25 m to the flooded floor. It was called the Marble Canyon. Nearby is another picturesque flooded Monferranovskiy quarry and a beautiful lake. Now on the base of the deposit, the mountain park Ruskeala. is present. It is one of the most valued geological heritage sites in north-west Russia. In the primary equipping of the tourist route around the quarry an excursion trail and a pier with promenade boats were constructed. The underground space of the deposit galleries and large cameras halls are not used yet. The largest hall has a length of about 115 m and a width reaching a maximum of 55 m (Figs. 4 and 5). The arch of the hall rests on 8 massive columns. The height of the hall over the water is about 8 m, up to 12 m. including the depth of the flooded part. To create the underground route it is planning to use at least two galleries and this huge room. By combining underground and surface routes, a beautiful Geopark can be created, which will become one of the best in Europe (Lyakhnitsky 2006).4. Pskov RegionIn the Pskov region the underground mining is weakly developed. In the area the quarries are spread for the extraction of building materials and for the construction of fortresses and cities. However, the production was produced mainly by the ground mining method along the sides of the river valleys. Underground mining of stone was private and fragmented. The length of the underground quarries do not exceed an average of 10 m. Cases of alabaster underground mining in the XIX century are known. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings182

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Alabaster mining was conducted in the winter. In the spring such minings are often flooded with water, and subjected to likely collapses of rocks. In the region there are various architectural underground structures. The largest is the cult and household underground complex of Pskovo-Pechersky Dormition Monasteryof the XV century (Agapov 2011). It is one of the largest Orthodox cave monasteries of Russia. This is the only monastery in the history of Russia that at any time since its founding has never been closed. It is constantly in use and developed over more than 600 years. The underground complex (Fig. 6) consists of several cavities: an underground necropolis, cave church, cave cells. The total length of the passages of the underground necropolis is 177 m. About 10,000 people are buried there. It is a system of galleries with burial chambers that have been cut in the Devonian sandstone. The necropolis is used as intended to this day. The cave Temple, the Assumption Cathedral, evolved during the XVXVIII centuries. Restorers opened in 1971 frescoes of the XVI century in the altar of the temple. The temple has length of 18 m and is 20 m deep. The arches of the church are resting on 10 massive pillars of sandstone, overlaid with brick. The temple has a terrestrial facade, in which five windows are made. The cave monastery cells, where hermits lived, emerged during the expansion of natural erosion and suffusion caves by monks. The length of the cells ranges from 4.5 to 13 m. On the monastery grounds underground structures for household purposes are known: cellars and subterranean reservoirs, in which the Kamenetz brook is running, flowing through the monastery. Apparently there were also tunnels for military use, as a monastery in the past performed the function of a fortress. In the Pskov region several cult caves of natural origin are present. These erosion-suffusion caves were formed in sandstone and were later expanded by man. In the northwest of the Pskov region in one of these caves, in the XVI century people from the Pskovo-Pechersky Dormition Monasteryfounded a new monastery, Posolotino Novye Pechori. The monastery was abolished in the XVIII century. The length of the cave is about 21 m. The arches of the cave were strengthened by brickwork. Over the Figure 6. Plan of cult underground complex of the PskovoPechersky Dormition Monastery. Computer processing I.Agapov. 2013. The scheme is based on the plans from the archives of the Institute Spetsproektrestavratsiya (Special Project of Restoration): Mikhail Semenov 1966. Drawing by Mikhailov S.P. 1977, Semenov M.I., Mikhailov S.P. 1975. Drawing by Mikhailov SP. Legend: 1 entrance to the Assumption Cathedral of the XVXVIII centuries. 2 entrance to the underground necropolis of the XV XXI centuries. (Bogom Sdanniya Pesheri), 3 the rise to the second (upper) layer in the Church of the Protection, of the XVIII century, 4 the Church of the Resurrection, 5 the old common cemetery before 1700, 6 new common cemetery after 1700. Figure 5. The longitudinal section (section A-A) through the Hall of Columns in the underground marble quarry Dvuglazka (Dvugla zka marble quarry) in Ruskeala (flooded volume is darkened). Yuri Lyakhnitsky, 2010. Legend: 1 the host rock, 2 water, 3 ice (in winter).masonry one burial chamber was built. At the cave entrance, a bell tower with cell (destroyed in XX century) was built. Inside the cave there is a healing water spring. The medieval fortresses of the Pskov region were equipped with a variety of underground fortifications, the so-called hiding-places. These are underground passages, intended to deliver water during a siege. For the most part they have not been preserved. They are most probably in the fortresses Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings183

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of Pskov and Izborsk. In Izborsk the beginning of the course has been preserved. In the fortress of Pskov underground tunnels were built within the city walls. Also mine galleries are known, built to fight during the siege. In the city of Pskov some famous historical drainage and sewerage underground facilities can be found (for example, the tunnel from the Pogankiny Chambers with a length of about 400 m), which have not survived. In the PskovoPechersky Dormition Monasterya brook is enclosed in the underground channel.5. ConclusionsIn the north-west of Russia a large variety of underground cavities of different origin and use is present. Some of these cavities are enlarged pseudokarst structures of natural origin. Many of them are wonderful excursion locations, on basis of which nature protection and museum centers could be planned and organized. We are being prepared for inclusion of new sites in the register of monuments of a natural and geological heritage. Work of the members of our committee of Karstology and Speleology of the Russian Geographical Society seeks to study, preserve and promote of these interesting objects and to the organization of this basis and educational tourism. Some of these sites are already equipped for the regulated tour use. Unfortunately, up today this was only made possible at the Sablinskiy natural monument and at the Ruskeala marble deposits. These works are ongoing. To achieve better results, for saving the other monuments financial help from the state or sponsors is needed. For more than 600 years the Pskovo-Pechersky Dormition Monasteryhad been in use one of the main shrines of Russia. Our Commission is doing its utmost to the study, the discovery of new caves, their conservation and wise thought out using on the basis of scientifically based standards and professional projects.ReferencesAgapov IA, 2008. Pochitaemie pesheri na territorii SanktPeterburgskoy eparhii. Sankt-Peterburgskie Eparhialnie vedomosti. Sankt-Peterburg. 2008. Iss. 35, 123. Agapov IA, 2011. O vozmozhnom proishozhdenii pesher PskovoPecherskogo monastirya. Hristianstvo v regionah mira (hristianskaya archaika) / ed. M.F. Albedil M. ., Y.Y. Shevchenko; Russian Academy of Sciences. Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. SPb.: Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie, 2011. Iss. 3. 375.: fig. 237. Agapov IA, 2012. Natural caves of the North-West of Russia. The use of caves in human culture. Proceedings of the 13th National Congress of Speleology. 29thSept.1stOkt. 2012 Muotathal, Schweiz Speleodiversity 63. Dolotov YA, 2010. Tipologiya speleologicheskih objectov. Speleologiya i spelestologiya: razvitie i vzaimodeistvie nauk. Materiali mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-practicheskoy konferencii. Naberezhnie Chelni, 2010, 236. Dolotov YA, Sohin MJ, 2001. The Problems of Spelestology. Pesheri. Iss. 27. Perm: Perm State University, 2001. Miroshnichenko PO, 1992. Legenda o LSP. Gatchina, 1992. Miroshnichenko PO, Khlebalin I. Y., 2011. Nadezhda mine (Kondopozhsky district of the Repablic of Karelia). Speleologiya i spelestologiya: razvitie i vzaimodeistvie nauk. Materiali mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-practicheskoy konferencii. Naberezhnie Chelni, 2011. Lyakhnitsky YS, 2006.Sudba rossiyskih pesher geologicheskih pamyatnikov prirodi. RAN. Priroda 11. 2006. Pasport pesher Pskovo-Pecherskogo monastirya, 1977. Archiv Pskovskogo filiala instituta Spetsproektrestavratsiya. Pasport Uspenskogo sobora Pskovo-Pecherskogo monastirya, 1977. Archiv Pskovskogo filiala instituta Spetsproektrestavratsiya.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings184

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GOLD MINES OF THE 18THCENTURY: PAST AND PRESENTIure Borges de Moura Aquino1, Thiago Nogueira Lucon2, Hernani Mota de Lima3 1Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, iurebmaquino@gmail.com2Sociedade Excursionista Espeleolgica, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, thiago_lucon@hotmail.com3Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Departamento de Engenharia de Minas, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, hernani.lima@ufop.br In Ouro Preto, the gold extraction was started in alluviums and terraces, later interesting slopes rock masses, through underground mining. This mining left its marks, which are visible in the surroundings and inside the city. The discovery of gold in 1711 boosted the socio-economic life in Brazil, especially in Minas Gerais State, creating a new center of production and consumption. However, the fast population growth generated serious supply crisis in which the miners could not find food to buy. From the second half of the 17thcentury, with the gold decline, the Portuguese Royal Family came to Brazil, and a policy of attention to the mines was started, sending a specialist to observe the mistakes of the miners and to study and implement methods which could increase the production again. At first, the exploration was limited to the alluvial deposits, looking for the auriferous gravel. As the time passed, associated to the impoverishment of the alluvial deposits, the exploration of other kinds of deposits began, and new extraction techniques appeared, in which the workers opened galleries and tunnels following the layers with gold in all directions. At the slightest sign of impoverishment of these layers, the miners abandoned that workplace and opened another mine. This lack of technical knowledge accounted for the existence of several mines with varied extensions. The total number of mines opened during the gold cycle in Ouro Preto is not known, with some estimates ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 mine openings. Nowadays, many mines have inaccessible and/or hidden entrances. Some are still used as touristic attraction and/or as source of water collection for urban supply. The Sociedade Excursionista e Espeleolgica (SEE; Excursion and Speleological Society) develops projects together with the Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP) and the local communities. The projects include hikes and visits to the places with remains of mining activities, aiming to locate and identify these remains, besides raising awareness of the local population about the importance of their preservation and also intending to recover some of the history of a time which was essential for the development of the country.1. IntroductionIt is not possible to define who was responsible for discovering gold in Brazil, and where and when the gold rush started. Some researchers report about a mulatto from Taubat City who found gold in Tripu Stream, in Ouro Preto. However, in the last decade of the 17thcentury, hundreds of alluvial gold deposits were found in the rivers and streams in the surroundings of the mining cities of Ouro Preto, Mariana, Sabar and Caet, thus starting the gold rush in Brazil. The search for the metal also had a great impact on the life of the colony and the metropolis itself. Thousands of people from all over the country moved to Minas Gerais in search of wealth. In Portugal, it is estimated that around 750 thousand people migrated to Brazil. Although the numbers seem exaggerated, it is known that it was large enough for the Portuguese Crown to restrict the coming of the Portuguese to Brazil, in 1720. The gold cycle meant the colonization and definitive settlement of a vast region inside the colony, changing deeply the standard of land occupation and the economic activity of Brazil-Portugal and of the world. It marked the beginning of the demographic, economic and political hegemony of the Central-South region of Brazil, represented by the transference of the colony capital from Salvador (BA) to Rio de Janeiro (RJ) in 1763. In Ouro Preto, the gold extraction started in the alluviual and terrace deposits, and later affected the slopes, generally through the wash down of deposits and more friable rocks, finally reching the rock masses through underground mining. Mining activities were developed for over a century in the place where today lie the cities of Ouro Preto and Mariana (Domingues et al. 2006). These activities left marks still today visible in Ouro Preto Range (Fig. 1). In the surroundings and inside the urban area of Ouro Preto there are several records of the gold extraction. They are cut mountains, aqueducts which cross the slopes to carry water for the wash down of gold deposits, and huge reservoirs called mundeus, intended to collect the auriferous mud that came down from the mountains and underground galleries. This work focuses on the underground galleries which besides having a little of the history of the early days of mining in Brazil, are part of the touristic routes of the city. They have extensions ranging from just a few meters to hundreds of meters, and have been object of study due to their historical and touristic importance and need of preservation.2. Characterization of the physical environmentGeologically the city of Ouro Preto is located in the south part of Quadriltero Ferrfero, in a large regional structure known as Anticlinal de Mariana. Ouro Preto is located in the south corner of this structure. Ouro Preto grew in a large valley limited by the mountains of Ouro Preto Range in the north and Itacolomi in the south, where the Funil Stream runs. The local morphology is characterized by high Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings185

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During the first half of the 18thcentury, the development of the captaincy of Minas Gerais and the wealth generated for the Crown made Ouro Preto, then called Vila Rica, capital of the province and one of the largest populated centers in the interior of Brazil. According to Ferrand (1894, reedited in 1998), in 1750, a period that can be considered the heyday of gold extraction in the region, there were around 80,000 workers extracting gold in Ouro Preto. In the second half of the 18thcentury the gold production started to decline due to the precarious techniques and lack of investment in technology. At that time, the Portuguese Crown was only focused in charging taxes on the gold production named Quinto do Ouro (Fifth of Gold 20% of the production). When Napoleon invaded Portugal, the Portuguese Crown sought out for refuge in Brazil and a new policy of attention to the mines was started. With the arrival of Baron Von Ezchwege in 1811, a new era in the history of gold mining in the country began.4. Formation of minesRight after the discovery of gold, the extraction works were limited to the alluvial deposits in the riverbeds. The prospectors, faiscadores as they were called, searched for the gold gravel, revolving the riverbeds using small tin, sometimes wooden, plates to separate the visible gold with their hands. Later, slaves from Africa, who knew better mining techniques, led to an increase in the gold production. mountains of linear development, plain areas of different altitudes and long valleys. Approximately 40 % of the area shows slopes traits between 20% to 45% and only 30% with gradients between 5 % and 20%. Steep zones are common in all urban area (Gomes et al. 1998). The traces of the relief, rugged with very steep slopes and deep valleys show a clear dependence on the local geology. The main element of the landscape in the urban area is the Ouro Preto Range, the north limit of the urban area and watershed of two large regional hydrographic basins, the Rio das Velhas and Rio Doce Ouro Preto is on the headwaters of this last river. The altitudes are around 1,400 meters a.s.l. at the highest parts of the city, with Itacolomi Peak, the highest point of the region, at 1,760 m a.s.l. The bedrock consists of metasediments of PaleoProterozoic age phyllite, quartzite, schist, and iron formations deeply affected by tectonics. The regional structure is oriented in East West direction, having the general dip layers to south, in the order of 30, at the south corner of the structure, and has similar values, dipping to north in the north corner of it. There is a common occurrence on the top of the slope of the hills, the superficial cover of lateritic crust, usually called canga. These materials, of Tertiary Quaternary age, are products of supergenic alteration in tropical climates. The soils, when occurring, are thick, on the order of centimeters, except for some larger spots of colluvial material. The lithology feature, besides marked metamorphic exfoliation, planar discontinuities (faults and cracks), which deeply influence the geotechnical behavior (Sobreira and Fonseca 2001).3. Historical context of the gold cycle in BrazilWith the Portuguese arrival in Brazil in 1500, an intense campaign in search for gold, silver and precious stones was started. However, the settlements were concentrated on the coast. Due to the mountainous relief, existence of a dense forest and several tribes of fierce and even some anthropophagic native indians, the colonization of the interior of the country seemed impossible. But, from the mid-17thcentury, the residents of the Province of So Vicente (So Paulo State nowadays), started the incursions to the interior of Brazil, looking for indians as slaves and for gold. These incursions were called bandeiras (flags) since they carried a flag of the King of Portugal as a passport for the conquest of the country and as an authorization to search for gold in the name of the Crown (Eschwege 1883, reedited in 1979). It is in this context that gold was discovered in Brazi (Figure 2) and the colonization of the interior of the country developed, culminating on the foundation of Minas Gerais State, from the cities of Ouro Preto, Mariana, Sabar, Caet, among others, which were nothing more than gold-rich regions. The gold cycle in Brazil represented the largest surge in the production of this metal at the time in the world history. This production remained unparalleled until the great discoveries in California (USA) in 1848, Australia in 1851, and especially the discoveries of Witwatersrand, Transvaal, South Africa in 1886. The gold extracted here between 1700 and 1770 was equivalent to the whole production in the rest of America, from the discovery until 1850, or yet, to half of the world production in the 16th, 17thand 18thcenturies. Figure 1. View of Ouro Preto Range. Figure 2. Historical photo of mining.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings186

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The workers opened galleries and tunnels following the layers with gold in all directions. At the slightest sign of disappearance of this layer, they abandoned the works and opened another mine. The tunnels and saloons opened by these workers varied from mine to mine but usually the tunnels were 1 meter wide by 1.8 meter high and the saloons had an average area of 30 m2. This clearly demonstrates the low geological knowledge of the miners who did not observe the dip direction of the mineralized layers. This generated, in some mines, saloons of considerable dimensions (saloons with areas of up to 120m2), because when removing material with unknown dip, the miners had to widen the galleries to look for the correct angle. Depending on the country rock, some mines could present stability problems such as landslides or loose blocks, but the mines rearely have these problems. This lack of technical knowledge accounted for the existence of several mines with varied extensions. The largest are over 400 meters long on average, with some mines over 1,000 meters long of development. The total number of mines opened during the gold cycle in Ouro Preto is unknown, and it is difficult to quantify them today, due to the growth of the city that makes it difficult to access many of the entrances. However, Lacourt (1937) surveyed 2,350 mines or mine entrances in the Ouro Preto Range. Nowadays many mines have their entrances inaccessible and/or hidden for several reasons.5. Current use of the mines and activities developed by SEEThe Sociedade Excursionista Espeleolgica (SEE), known for its research activities in different karstic environments, With the impoverishment depletion of alluvial deposits, the miners were forced to mine colluviums along the Ouro Preto Range, and built several aqueducts to carry water to wash down the rich deposits. The last stage of technological evolution of gold mining was the development of underground mines. The underground mines were open, usually, in the middle of banded iron formations (BIF) (Figure 3), locally known as itabirite and in some points in quartzite and phyllite. In general, they followed the several layers of quartz rich in gold, although, the banded iron formations also had some gold. also develops activities in these galleries. In this context, the old gold mines, characterized as artificial underground cavities, make excellent sites to train speleological techniques and to conduct researches in the diverse areas that involve speleology. This study presents the works carried out by the SEE, which include the use of old underground gold mines of Ouro Preto City to train the speleologists in the mapping techniques and activities from the scientific and broad points of view of the works focusing on the preservation of old mines and their cultural importance as a memorial of the gold cycle in Minas Gerais. Almost after 200 years of opening, some mines have become touristic attractions and/or as source for water supply (although the consumption of water from mines have been restricted by public administration due to high arsenic content). The mines dedicated to tourism (Figure 4) have artificial light among other modifications inside, in order to be more pleasant for the tourists.The guided tours describe the mining techniques employed, present a historical view of the activity through the years, and tell, in many cases, a little of the local folklore and legends involving the gold rush. Naturally, there are water infiltrations in the mines that locally are so intense that to generate a great water flow inside the mines. Other mines reached the groundwater and after the end of the activities were partially flooded forming large water reservoirs. In January, 2012, intense rain caused several landslides in the slopes in Ouro Preto. In one of these landslides, a flooded mine used for water supply in the 18thcentury was rediscovered. The entrance of this mine is covered with bricks dating back to the beginning of the 20thcentury, and there is a pipeline that still supplies the main water reservoir of one of the main neighborhoods of Ouro Preto. SEE performs activities of research and training of speleological techniques with its members in the old gold mines in Ouro Preto. The main activity is the prospection and mapping of the mines. Some mines present magnetic interference due to the iron formations where they were excavated. This interference prevents us from using the compass, thus it is necessary the use and improvement of mapping techniques without a compass. Figure 3. Entrance of a mine open in the iron formation. Figure 4. Mine used for tourism by the owner of the area.An interesting aspect in the mines is the presence of pseudo-speleothems formed from the dripping and leakage of water containing iron oxides, manganese oxides, clays and sand (Figure 5). The mixture of these substances gives rise to stalactites, stalagmites, draperies and microSpeleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings187

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SEE has recently carried out a project together with the community of Veloso Hill in Ouro Preto. In this work, trails were made along the ruins and mines in the area for the community. The project had many visits to many structures remaining from the 18thcentury mining specially the aqueducts, water reservoirs, mundus, abandoned buildings and mines. These works involved the location and positioning of these structures, followed by the mapping of the mines with greater cultural and historical expression. Five mines were mapped in total. One of the mines selected for mapping, called Mina Felipe dos Santos, has many levels, with the first being used for touristic visits. The mine is also used for water harvesting. (Figure 6) shows the volume of water that overflows from one opening that serves as access to a higher level of the mine. The mapping works have not been concluded in this mine. So far, 400 meters of galleries have been mapped and it is estimated that there are more than 1,000 meters left to conclude the work. Another mine studied in this project is called Mina do Du. In this mine, the mapping was concluded unveiling a linear development of 290 meters (Figure 7). This mine has a well which leads to a lower level (nowadays flooded). In this well it is possible to see a wooden ladder that connects the levels. However, because of safety reasons and lack of equipment, the lower level was not explored.6. ConclusionsThe several remains of mining, including the underground mines, are part of the tourist routes of the city of Ouro Preto and are an important landmark in the gold rush history in Brazil. The objective of this work was to introduce and spread the works of SEE on speleological mapping, besides providing its members with an important field for training. rimstones. They are delicate structures, which fall apart to the slightest contact because they lack a cement substance such as calcium carbonate. Their color varies in tones of red, yellow, gray and even blue when there the presence of arsenic. The environment within the mines is very similar to that of a natural cave, with little or no light, constant temperature, presence of water and energetic support. Many mines are today the habitat of bats, crickets, moths, and opiliones. SEE seeks yet in these works to draw the attention for the importance of preservation of the old gold mines in Ouro Preto given its historical importance, and nowadays, as a source of income for the local residents as touristic attractions. Moreover, the knowledge and mapping of these mines enabled the identification of old water reservoirs still in use. This has drawn the attention of the authorities due to the high content of arsenic in these waters, making them inadequate for consumption. The authorities and institutions responsible for ensuring the preservation of this heritage should implement measures of preservation and awareness raising about the importance to preserve these monuments and to encourage controlled visits in these places in order to spread the knowledge and the spirit of preservation of the Brazilian historical and cultural heritage. Figure 5. Speleothems being formed inside a mine. Figure 7. Map of Mina do Du. Figure 6. Waterfall from a higher level in Mina Felipe dos Santos. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings188

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Lima HM, Crispi M, Cavalcanti JA, 1995. Mapeamento das antigas minas de Ouro Preto: Subsdios para implantao de stios histricos. Encontro Luso-Brasileiro de Reabilitao Urbana dos Stios Histricos. Lisboa, Portugal. Lima Jr, 1957. Vila Rica de Ouro Preto, Sntese histrica e descritiva. Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Pohl JE, 1976. Viagem no interior do Brasil. Trad. Milton Amado e Eugnio Amado. Belo Horizont, Brazil. Rugendas JM, 1976. O Brasil de Rugendas. Belo Horizonte,Brazil. Saint-Hilarire A, 1975. Viagem pelas provncias do Rio de Janeiro e Minas. Trad. Vivaldi Moreira. Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Sobreira FG, Domingues AL, Tavares RB, Lima HM, 2009 Acervo arqueolgico relacionado antiga minerao do ouro em Ouro Preto. Report. A Estrada Real e a transferncia da corte portuguesa. Rio de Janeiro, 141. Tavares RB, 2006. Atividades extrativas minerais na bacia do Alto Ribeiro do Carmo: da descoberta do ouro aos dias atuais. MsC. Thesis, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil 2006. Vasconcelos D, 1974. Histria antiga das Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brasil, 15.ReferencesBoxer CR, 1963. A Idade do Ouro do Brasil, Editora Nacional, So Paulo, Brazil. Cavalcanti JA, Crispi M, Lima HM, 1996. Ocupao urbana em reas de minerao do perodo colonial, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais: Impactos fsicos e scio-culturais. XXXIX Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 364. Domingues AL, 2006.Cadastro do acervo arqueolgico relacionado antiga minerao do ouro em Ouro Preto e Mariana. Relatrio de Iniciao Cientfica, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientfico e Tecnolgico. Ouro Preto, Brazil. Eschwege WL,1833. Pluto brasiliensis. Cia Editora Nacional, So Paulo, Brasil. Ferrand P, 1887. Ouro Preto e as minas de ouro.Report, Revista de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 261. Holanda SB, 1985.A minerao: antecedentes luso-brasileiro. Histria Geral da Civilizao Brasileira. So Paulo, Brazil, 228. Lima HM, Miranda JF, 1996. Os 300 Anos da Atividade Garimpeira na Regio de Ouro Preto e Mariana, Minas Gerais. Report, Revista da Escola de Engenharia da UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 12.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings189

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The tunnel named Sugano 1 deeps horizontally in the rock bank for a lenght of 142 meters; the rock is phonolitic tephra with big leucite crystals. Along the tunnel there are two couples of recesses, opening at the opposite sides of the tunnel axis. On the vault there are two shafts heading upwards, the smallest halfway along the tunnel, and a deeper one at the end, the walls of which were populated of hundreds of bats hanging upside down. These bats were recognized as Miniopteris Scheibersii (Fig. 1).THE SUGANO MINES OF ORVIETO (ITALY): ALUMINIUM FROM VOLCANIC FIREEdoardo Bellocchi1, Chemical Technician1 Marco Morucci2 1Club Speleologico Proteo, Vicenza, senalpha@gmail.com2Archaeologist, Gruppo Archeologico Alfina, Castelgiorgio, marcomorucci60@gmail.com A speleo-minerary research discovered two mines in the Orvieto district, in Central Italy, where was extracted a leucite rich ore, a mineral formerly used to obtain alumina, an intermediate in the aluminium industry. The mining works started in the early 30s, and reached the peak in the mid-thirties till 1937, when the veconomic conditions imposed the abandonment of the exploitation. For the processing of this specific mineral G.A. Blanc developed an acid treatment. Blanc was an italian scientist known to the scientific community for his studies in ethnology, but almost unknown for his important researches in the mining industry and radioactive elements, in fact he was for two years a collaborator of the Curies in their laboratory in Paris. Here is given a short description of the site and the mineral, and a few aspects of the alumina extraction are represented with the process registered by Blanc. Eventually, the results of a series of radioactivity measures of the leucitic ore, a phonolytic tephra, are presented. Some aspects have dealt with a short text demands here, and will be developed in a further research text.IntroductionThe aim of this work is the description of a leucite mine, located a few kilometers west of Orvieto, Central Italy, at about two hours drive north of Rome. The geological substrate is volcanic, typical of the Volsinian system, at the edge between the above-mentioned volcanoes and the low sea sediments of a Quaternary Thyrrenian gulf. The Volsinian was a system whose activity spans from 600,000 to about 100,000 years ago, consisting of several eruption centres, mostly explosive, whose products are alkaline and very rich in potassium, consisting mainly in tephra. The volcanic events underwent four phases, the second one of which is responsible of the calderic collapse that formed the basin of Bolsena lake, the biggest european volcanic lake (Varekamp 1980). During the eruptions that formed the rocks of these ores, the calderas depression were not formed yet, and in the place of the lake, there were several volcanoes erupting clouds of ashes and lapilli.DescriptionThe mining site consists of two galleries named Sugano 1 and 2, respectively 142 and 76 metres long, the storage squares and the washing plant with hoppers, where raw material was crushed and enriched. In the area there are hydraulic tunnels of etruscan age, over 20 centuries ol; one of these was restored and kept in working conditions during the Middle Age, by monks of the nearby monastery of Holy Trinity. Nowadays they are still functioning and serving drinkable water to several households around the place. There is a third tunnel, named Saggio Sorgente, formerly a mine changed in use when a burst opened a crack from which water is still plentifully leaking, thus opening a spring. The end of the mine presents a layer of red sandy flint rising gradually. We think this could be a fossil seashore of a Thyrrenian gulf in the Ionian (780,000,000 years ago), Figure 1. Miniopteris Schreibersii bats by the end of Sugano 1 tunnel.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings190

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The crystallization of sanidine from the melt and partial trasformation of leucite into sanidine itself is called peritectic reaction and the point of the diagram at which this happens is called peritectic point a triple point in which very particular conditions occur and a slight variation of a single parameter changes completely the composition of the solid and the melt. Bowen studied this equilibrium and elaborated the state diagram bearing his name. A study of the Bowen diagram goes far beyond the scope of our research; lets say that leucite-sanidine is not the only peritectic system known in volcanic geochemistry, another peritectic is the system forsterite-enstatite. the chrono-stratigraphic stage corresponding to the Middle Pleistocene, a period in which the vast Thyrrenian basin, filled with the sediments originated from the dismantle of the newly formed Appenine chain, emerged from the sea and became mainland (Del Monaco et al. 2005) The other mine, Sugano 2, turns of 45 to deep inside the bank some metres after the entrance. With its 76 metres, it is shorter than Sugano 1, and at the end its floor is made of a layer of thin ashes and pyroclastic flow debris. This tunnel has one recess and two shafts, the first at 2/3 of the lenght, and the other one at the end. On the end-wall the bore of a big drill is clearly visible. In this gallery too there are big leucite crystals on the walls and the vault. The third tunnel is a test in order to open a new mining work, it was interruped when an explosion broke the stone wall confinating a water vein, that broke through as soon as the way outside opened. So a spring was opened and nowadays water is still flowing thorugh it. This tunnel is 27 metres long, and has two wide recesses some metres before the end, witnessing the mining origin of the tunnel, later turned to a spring. At the end wall there are beautiful white crystals of leucite contrasting with the black tephra rock, and with the colours highlighted by the water.What is leucite?In this section we provide some information about the ore and the historical context of the mines object of the study. The mineral is leucite, a tectosilicate feldspathoid of the tetragonal system corresponding to the formula KAlSi2O6(Fig. 2). This mineral occurs in the unsaturated potassium rich alkaline lavas of the Roman Magmatic District. The probable place of emission was not a real crater, but a narrow long volcanic vent located a few kilometers SW of these mines. The flowing direction was likely towards NE, because at that time (430,000 years ago) there was not yet the caldera depression occupied by the Bolsena lake, the largest european volcanic lake,was not yet formed and in its place there were several craters, with very unstable slopes. The presence of blocks of scoriae in the tephra is an indication of the proximity of the emitting vent. The abundance of so many crystals of leucite, some of which over 1 cm large, uniformly distributed in a tephra matrix, means that the crystallization process of leucite took place in the orto-magmatic phase, before the open air discharge. Leucite crystallization process starts at about 1,600 C, enriching progressively in silica the molten residue, so when the magma is emitted consists of a twophase system solid/melt in which, at lower temperatures, several more phases crystallize in lower amounts. The more leucite leaves the molten phase, the more the liquid residue is rich in silica; this process reaches a level in which the concentration of silica allows the crystallization of a new mineral: sanidine, KAlSi3O8, high temperature potassium feldspar. The crystallization of sanidine consumes the rest of the silica still present in the liquid phase and eventually a part of it in the leucite molecule, according to the equilibrium: Figure 2. White leucite crystals clearly visible in a slab of rock in Sugano 2 tunnel.KAlSi2O6+ SiO2= KAlSi3O8Leucite Silica SanidineAutarchy and mining in Italy in the 1930sAfter the invasion of Abyssinia in 1935 the Society of Nations declared trade embargoes towards Italy at the time ruled by Mussolini, so, to overcome the increasing demand of minerals for the fast growing industry, the italian mining industry reached a peak never seen before. The italian industry at the time required increasing quantities of aluminium, whose main mineral is bauxite, a reddish earthy oxide present in laterite layers. Another exploitable mineral is leucite. Indeed, in these mines they extracted leucite ore.Blanc and AluminaThe difference between bauxite and leucite for alumina extraction is not merely formal. Bauxite is extracted from open air mines while leucite is extracted in underground mines. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings191

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Bauxite is worked by caterpillars, due to his nature of earthy silicate oxide seldom mixed with iron, while leucite is worked with dinamite, being crystals in a hard rocky ore. Metal aluminium is obtained in two stages: a first chemical stage in which alumina is obtained, Al2O3, and a second electrochemical stage, in which alumina is processed in particular cells with melted criolite Na3AlF6with graphite electrodes, the Hall-Heroult process. Metal aluminium is not obtainable by fusion and reduction like other metals, but only by electrochemical way. Much has been discussed about the bauxite alumina alkaline process, the Bayer method, but not quite the same occurred about the leucite acid process, that is the Blanc method. Nowadays this process belongs to industrial archaeology, but it represented a milestone in the industrial chemistry of the 30s. Blanc submitted his project of alumina production from leucite at the National Congress of Industrial Chemistry of Milan in 1924 (Blanc 1924). The raw ore, made of a dark lava rich in leucite crystals, was transferred to the crushing plant, close to the mining site, and then to the hoppers. The ore was not crushed to a fine powder, but rather to small gravel, and this is exactly what we found by the plant; the reason of this is described in the text reported in bibliography: Blanc in his experiments found out that treating a fine powder of leucite with hydrocloric acid resulted in a colloidal dispersion that coul not be filtered (Blanc 1924). The method developed is exposed in detail in the aforementioned text of 1924 reported in bibliography. When is treated with concentrated hydrocloric acid, leucite dissolves in it very exothermically, and the products are ionic aluminium Al3+and potassium K+in the acidic medium and finely dispersed colloidal silica SiO2. Due to the colloidal nature, silica could not be taken away from the acidic solution, impairing further treatments for alumina isolation. This happens because leucite in fine powder releases silica hydrosol; Blanc discovered that when leucite in gravel grains is treated with recirculating concentrated hydrocloric acid, silica generates a gel at the bottom of the tank, thus making alumina and potassium in acidic media more easily removable. The enrichment of the mineral from the ore was reached through magnetic separators, being the raw material attracted by magnetic fields while leucite is not a magnetic mineral. Blanc developed this method after his experience as a chemist in the Curies laboratory in Paris. At the time (about 1920) it was well known that some kinds of lava (basaltic mainly) could be magnetized applying a magnetic field, and they gained memory of the induced magnetization. Blanc served two years at the Curies, where he determined the constant decay of thorium. Radioactivity was not the only field of interest of the Curies, since also magnetism was another interest for them. Marie discovered that a ferromagnetic mineral loses his magnetic properties above a typical temperature, named Curie Temperature after her. Then Blanc came back to Italy and developed further studies about magnetism posing the bases to a very useful method of geochronology: Paleomagnetism. Blanc realized that magnetic vectors line up with the Earths pole in the interval between two temperatures: the Curie Temperature (about 600 C) above which vectors are completely disorganized, and the Blocking Temperature (about 150 C) below which vectors have fixed positions. In this interval lava solidifies, and this is the gangue of the leucite ore. During the solidification process it acquires ferromagnetic properties as the vectors align with the Earths Poles direction while the process was going on, 430.000 years ago in our leucites, according to the dating given by Evernden and Curtis in 1965.RadioactivityIn these mines there is a pretty high level of radioactivity background, concentrated in the gangue. This is a common feature in several minig sites in the estern area of the Bolsena lake, object in the 70s of mineral exploration for uranium ore in old marcasite mines at NE of Viterbo. When spending time inside these mines, we had to wear gas masks to prevent alpha rays inhalation, but no filter can prevent beta and gamma rays. The Geiger counter registers a total radioactivity emission in air of about 2,5 microGray per hour, a level about 30 times over the normal background. We tested the surface emission of rock samples just outside the mines using a military instrument especially designed for measuring solid matter, equipped with a lead shielded probe not of Geiger type, that can reveal particles only from the bottom, thus excluding the cosmic radiation component of the background. Such instrument is able to discriminate and count separately alpha, beta and gamma rays. We found a surprinsingly high level in beta rays. We think that Radon 222 is not the only responsible for such level, but there is the presence of Uranium and Thorium widespread in the rock, as suggested in a previous research in a hydraulic tunnel nearby performed by nuclear track detectors LR115 type (Bellocchi et al. 2009).AcknowledgementsWe wish to thank some people that somehow, even indirectly, took part to this project: Antonello Baccelloni, Emanuele Ioppolo, Giancarlo Gec Marchetto. A special thank to Prof. Paolo Mietto, in the 50thanniversary of the foundation of our speleologic group. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings192

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ReferencesBellocchi E, Marchetto G, Morucci M, 2009. The Trischi Ancient Spring: Water In The Land Of Fire Proc. Int. Congress of Speleology, Kerrville, TX. Blanc GA, 1924. Lutilizzazione integrale della leucite come fonte di allumina, potassa e silice. Proc. Nat. Congress of Industrial Chemistry, Milan, 13 April 1924. Blanc GA, 1925.Giornale di Chimica Industriale ed Applicata. Societ di Chimica Industriale, Milan, VII, 3. Blanc GA, 1927. La Leucite, Materia Prima Italiana. Proc. Ital. Society for the Progress of Sciences, XVI meeting, Perugia, november 1927, 165. Del Monaco G, Falconi F, Margottini C, Spizzichino D, Corradini A, 2005. Linee Guida per la Salvaguardia dei Beni Culturali dai Rischi Naturali: il Consolidamento della Rupe e delle Pendici di Civita di Bagnoregio, Indagini Pregresse e Proposte di Intervento, Parte 1, Sez. 2.1, Inquadramento Geologico Generale, Case Study 7. ENEA, Rome. Varekamp JC, 1980. The Geology of the Volsinian Area, Lazio, Italy. Bull. Volc., 83, 487.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings193

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Carmela Crescenzi Dipartimento di Architetturav-dsp, UniFi,Via San Niccol 93, 50125 Firenze, Italia The activities carried out under the project activity of Crhima-cinp, an acronym standing for Cultural Rupestrian Heritage in circum Mediterranean Area. Common Identity-New Perspective is described in this paper. It has been financed with funds from the Culture Programme 2007, Budget 2010, Strand 1.1 Multi-annual cooperation projects, Strand 1.2.1 Cooperation measures. The project responds to the unitary purpose of the invitation Culture 2007: contribute to enhancement of a cultural area shared by Europeans, the development of cooperation between the creators, operators, and cultural institutions of the countries participating in the Programme. The activities have promoted a new interest in the rediscovery of the rupestrian villages that characterize many countries of Europe and of the Mediterranean, populated until the last century, memory of layers tangible and intangible of great interest that is likely to be permanently compromised or destroyed. The project increased the exchange of information between the various Mediterranean countries by producing monographic studies on different sites, publishing new studies of little-known areas, and contributing with new materials at the scientific deepening of topics and at the dissemination of information. The report summarizes the experiences of the workshops carried out in some centers chosen as the site of the work, (Massafra in Italy, Saumur in France, Santorini in Greece and Ortahisar in Turkey). The work summarizes the major activities in the area with drawings and photographs that illustrate the differences and similarities of rupestrian settlements of each region under study.1. Introduction1.1. CRHIMA-cinp project Theme of the project is the Rupestrian Heritage, a distinctive feature of the Mediterranean landscape. The works show how the rupestrian culture is widespread an across the Mediterranean area, a heritage developed over time with environmental, architectural and artistic emergencies that are known only to scholars and enthusiasts of the subject, still though without having an overall picture of this cultural event. The project, with the various activities organized, presents a synthetic framework of the influences and events that have contributed to the diffusion of the phenomenon and the arts that characterize it. It favored a greater awareness about the extension of the different features present in the sites chosen as study areas. It also encouraged interdisciplinary knowledge, which contributes to the understanding of a complex heritage, lasted over time, responding to practical needs, spiritual and contingent of everyday life for many people. The project supported the transnational mobility of cultural operators who, through their activities, have strengthened the knowledge of the known territories and focused the attention of the authorities and the local population on the value of the indigenous patrimony, often not fully known. New operators educated to the respect for cultural diversity that enriches the regions of the same country or of countries of the Union were also formed. The partnership CRHIMA-cinp project. Project Coordinator: (coordinator): (IT) Universit Di Firenze Department of Architecture dsp Project manager Prof. Carmela Crescenzi. Project co-organiser (co-organiser): (EL) Dep of Energy Physics National, NKUA Project manager: Prof. Assimakopoulou Margarita (ES) Dep. De Expresin Grfica Arquitectnica, UPV Project manager: Prof George Llopis; (FR) Dep. of Sciences Humaines and Department of Science and Techniques for Architecture ENSAP La Villette Project manager: Prof Edith Crescenzi; (IT) Archeogruppo E. Jacovelli onlus Project manager: Avv. Giulio Mastrangelo; (TR) Kadir Has University Of Istanbul Virtu Art Faculty Project manager:WORKSHOPS AND SURVEY RESULTS IN THE CHRIMA CINP PROJECT (EU PROGRAMME CULTURE 2007) Figure 1. Palagianello. Troglodyte village.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings194

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Prof. Mehemet Alper.Additional partners (IT): Centro Studi Sotterranei Genova, Museo del Territorio di Palagianello e Centro Unesco di Firenze Onlus. 1.2.Rupestrian culture Man has excavated structures in the rocks from the Anatolian highlands to the Egyptian deserts, from the Balkans to Italy, from France to Spain. In this anthropological and ethnographic context, the cave is the common house of Mediterranean cultures. Medieval caves rupestrian houses and churches massively characterize the landscape of the plateau of Cappadocia in Turkey, several regions of Spain, Greece and the Loire Valley in France, and many other places in the Mediterranean area and in other regions the world. All these settlements are the micro cells of the wider Mediterranean rupestrian habitats that encompasses diversity but also many common aspects. The rupestrian civil structures were considered an expression of inferior classes, since UNESCO included Cappadocia (Turkey) and the rupestrian districts of the city of Matera (Italy), in the World Heritage list. From that moment, the valley of the Loire and other centers, have considerably increased scientific studies on the rupestrian structures and the preservation of monuments and environmental contexts. The cultural unity of rupestrian settlements was, in some cases, damaged or destroyed, but their relevance as open air eco-museums has never been underestimated, despite anthropogenic deterioration caused by weather conditions. Recently, the attention was focused on urban settlements, on the typologies and on subterranean shelters. These structures are certainly less monumental than churches, but they are more numerous and more ancient.2. Geography and geologyThe geology of the five examined sites has geologic and morphologic characteristics which allowed the excavation of rocks to create spaces for daily activities. These places developed mainly because of volcanic eruptions, which deposited soft materials (as tuffs) that could be excavated with rudimental tools. This was the case, for instance, for Turkey and Greece. In Cappadocia, Turkey, volcanic eruptions formed plateaus. The water and wind erosion created the characteristic valleys of the area. Santorini, in Greece, is constituted by a crater, which was destroyed by a prehistoric earthquake. Later, it has been eroded by external agents and then covered by the sea. The building activity has always been based on the different rocks of the island. The different mechanical and chemical characteristics of the rocks offered different solutions. In Italy and France, on the other hand, the bedrock is represented by different types of limestone rocks, from calcarenite deposits (Italy) to chalk (France). The water and wind erosion in the area of Massafra, Palagianello and Mottola (Italy) have eroded the calcarenite on the Ionian coast, creating ravines. Many rupestrian settlements were realized in these ravines. The geological constitution of the cliffs in the Loire Valley, France, has been influenced by the typical chalk of Turonian age. The Lower Turonian chalk is the most typical, whilst the Upper Turonian has a greater content in sands.3. Troglodyte SettlementsThe man has always responded, according to historical periods, with built form to its security, defense and spiritual needs. The original rock shelter and natural cavities were transformed into dwellings functional to daily life. The provisions of natural shelters were transformed with additional excavations or expanded with the construction of spaces extended outward. He decorated the caves with wall art (graffiti, paint dry, frescoes, etc.), satisfying the need to tell great, superhuman and mystical events. The adaptation of the needs is expressed by simple interventions in the natural setting to create a troglodyte site included: the natural caves are enriched by a hearth; the rock shelters are protected by a wall, in cracks between rocks are built homes, a village situated protection and backed by a natural wall. Cave builders were able to combine different solutions, adapting and improving technical construction and different materials to the natural features of the sites. 3.1. Hollowing out settlements The realizations of the underground volumes are obtained by subtraction of materials. There are two methods of excavation: 1. Horizontal excavation in the sides of valleys and cliffs: there are rupestrian dwellings. 2. Vertical excavation in the plateau, originating hypogean settlements. Figure 2. Geological materials of studied areas. Figure 3. France, carrire de falun.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings195

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Each of these solutions confirm the versatility of the troglodytic architecture to the geological, climatic and anthropogenic settings. 3.2. Typology of troglodytes settlements: 1. Rocky villages in terraces or on the wall It is the most common settlement system. The number of households is variable and takes full advantage of the valley slopes. These architectures are usually carried out with particular attention to insolation during the different seasons. Important achievements of this kind are in the complex linear in France in dwellings carved into the cliffs of the Loire Valley; in Spain, in the many buildings that characterize Andalusia; in Turkey where one example is the village of Zelve or the valley of Selime; in Puglia with the villages in the ravines of Massafra and Ginosa; in the districts of Caveoso and Barisano at Matera, Basilicata; in the villages of Santorini Votonos and Finikia. 2. Villages on the surface They are found in Cappadocia; these villages are carved into the cones, called fairy chimneys, pyramids of rock (tuff, silt or volcanic boulders), showing a caprock consisting of a more compact slab of the same material, which protects the underlying rock from erosion. The rock cones are distributed in a natural setting that reproduces, in fact, the villages structure. These villages, having the buildings excavated in rock blocks, are considered surface settlements. 3. Hipogean villages The residential units are organized around wells drilled vertically and called courts or patios or vicinanza. The courts are connected to each other trough underground passages or at the surface. Common areas of aggregation and distribution to homes and their annexes, the courts regulate the entry of sun, light and heat, and ensure, with fireplaces, the ventilation. Typical of settlements in North Africa, the emblematic example is the village of Matmata, Tunisia. The court system or neighborhood was imported in Massafra in the fifth century. In the Comuniad of Valencia is known the settlement of Paterna; in Turkey an exemple of these structures is the Gm ler Monastery, in the province of Ni de; finally, in Santorini, there are small groups of villages on the plateau of Oia. 4. Underground villages. In some cases, the imperatives of defense led to totally conceal the urban structure. The communication with the outside are limited to few accesses and outlets required for ventilation. The cities of Derinkuyu and Kaymakli (Turkey), on several levels, are representative of this undergroundvillages. In France it is known the city of Naours.4. DocumentationThe heterogeneity of the public to involve requires different tools for the graphic and multimedia description, to understand bot It is the most common settlement system. The number of households is variable and takes full advantage of the valley slopes employing his good orientation. h the continuity of living in a cave, and representation of the architecture and the environment. The representation, in all its modalities, is one of the most useful tools for the documentation of monuments already ruined by the passing of time and that are destined to destroy. The acceleration of degradation is clear: in the environments of the monastery of Hallach (Hortahisar Cappadocia), in a few years, there has been a loss of quality of the drawings (Fig. 5) and the integrity of the rock appears heavily compromised. In 2007 the village of Zelve was accessible, while in 2010 it was closed to the public. Failing to safeguard and restore the abundance of cave sites, any form of documentation, even if only photographic or aimed at a simple survey, it would be desirable in order not to lose the memory of the legacy left to us over the centuries. It is nowadays possible to use softwares to recreate the three-dimensional reality of the caves, in order to let people appreciate the environmental and architectural features with sure effect and involvement. Furthermore, the softwares, with the data processing, are able to produce models from which the site can be quantitatively measured and analyzed. The same places require several readings and the main instrument for this documentation is represented by photographs. It is necessary that the photos are shot in peculiar ways, according to the used software. Therefore, Figure 4. Wall village, Bocairent, Valencia, Spain. Figure 5. Ortahisar, Villages on the surface.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings196

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the effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition must be supported and integrated with the data processing, in order to effectively produce integrate geometric information, attribute of matter, excavation techniques, state of decay, etc. Further, the difficulties in classification and processing of the amount of data that may contribute to the knowledge of the sites have not to be underestimated. The major activities carried out within the CHRIMA-cinp consisted in analysis of different rupestrian sites. Through experience, different operating modes and methodological approaches have been tested, aimed at identifying the most proper conceptual data collection plan, and the related cartographic products. The critical analysis of the project results, conducted with basic documentation, has tested the critical importance of a fast survey to obtain satisfactory results to document the rupestrian heritage. 4.1. Methods and data survey of some heritage. 4.1.1. Traditional survey. Surveying in France contributed to collection of data at Bourg-Neuf, Saumurois. 4.1.2. Speditive survey. The experiment carried out on Hallac highlighted some issues about facing cameras like as daylight factor, definition and dept of field and the quality of metric reading of homologous points. It is highlighted the need, in critical location such as the aisles of building basilican Allac, of a traditional topographic survey (closed profile of plan or section) and sufficient measures for the development of the third dimension. In Allach (2010) metric measurements in the courtyard of the church, in the hall with a dome and in the basilica were carried out, together with the photographic survey for the construction of a tridimensional model and a panoramic view. The textual description of the court highlighted the architectural features, revealing decorative elements that cannot be appreciated in the short time of the survey. Figure 6. Bourg-Neuf, plan. Bourg-Neuf is a town in the municipality of Dampierre-sur-Loire. Its origin dates back to the fifteenth century, when the ligerians dug dwellings into the tufa creating a small village away by the floods of the Loire. More and more modest families inhabited these houses until the 60s of the twentieth century, finally abandoning them for newer and more comfortable spaces. The village of Bourg-Neuf develops along the winding path of Rue Haute located half way up the cliff. At the entrance of the village, the Rue Haute divides into two paths that serve all the houses in the village and is part of the old mining tunnels of tuff, serving other houses and gardens overlooking the valley. Sixteen of the private homes in Bourg-Neuf have real possibilities for restructuring despite the decay: one has already been renovated and upgraded to holiday home, two are in the process of restructuring, the remaining thirteen are abandoned. The houses are troglodytic and partly semi-troglodytic. Bourg-Neuf differs from the typical wall troglodytic settlements of the area: it has the characteristics of rock settlements but has some of the characteristics of the underground settlements, such as underground galleries opening into courts. All homes have at least one fireplace, some have a potager or a bread oven; all have a small green space; some of them consist of a single large compartment, other have multiple rooms and levels. Figure 7. Hallac Monastery, the top. Hallac Monastery is located to the north-northeast of the Ortahisar village, in the area between the road connecting Nevshehir to Urgup and Yolu and that connecting Ortahisar to Nevshehir. The complex has an open courtyard on the south side (Pic. 2) on which seven rooms open on the ground floor and others on a second level. The court has partially oxidized pink and cream walls and it is cut into a spur limited by a crown of brown cones.The original core was probably a closed court, accessed by a narrow passage on the SE edge; the southern front was probably closed by small cones eroded by time. The original ground level of the courtyard is covered by a 1.5 m pile of debris. Today, the court disengages four entrances: at north there is a three-room complex, which is located at the bottom (no. 2, 3, 4), while at the top there are openings of unvisited rooms. A church is located at east with an inscribed cross plan church with a funerary narthex; on the eastern side, at the top, there are entrances to the house of the monks, which were successively used as pigeon house (no. 7); at west, there are an inscribed cross plan large square room (no. 5) and a second room, probably used as kitchen (no. 6). Figure 8. Hallac Monastery, the front-section. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings197

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The photogrammetric survey was also applied to the Chapel of S. Pietro and Paolo in Balkan monastery (Ortahisar Turkey). Despite the photographic documentation was heterogeneous and not aimed at the photogrammetric restitution, it was possible to obtain relevant data to an understanding of its architecture. The same technique was applied to survey of some caves in the territory of Casabona in Calabria (Italy). Casabona has three rupestrian villages. The first is Valle Cupa, located in the ravine of the Malolacco valley, and contains about 250 rupestrian environment developed along linear terraces with an extensive network of trails. Then, there is the site of Timpa Tallarico and the Rione Croce with 80 caves; in the site of Montagna Piana, moreover, there is a village with 15 caves. The cave with spirals presents in Valle cupa is very interesting: spirals, concentric circles and moon are carved into the sandstone. 4.1.3.3D scanner survey. Different architectures, religious and civil, have been object of 3D survey in Spain and Italy (Massafra and Ginosa).Figure 10. The San Marco ravines, 3DS architectures and hosting environment survey. The San Marco Ravine is north of Massafra, and originates near the Masseria Pantaleo. It is on the east side of the old town, dividing it in two parts. It is part of the town, and is named after the rupestrian church of San Marco. In the past it was called (the Greek word paradeisos means garden), because Paradise cliffs and terraces are covered with blooming spontaneous vegetation, gardens, orange gardens. The suggestive view from the Ponte Vecchio shows terraces, cliffs, caves and cactuses. Many of these caves were inhabited in the Middle Age; were important crypts are San Marco, the Candelora and Santa Marina. Other important caves are the Hegumens house and the anonymous crypt in Vico III Canali, used as an oil mill until few decades ago. The ravine is surmounted by the severe and majestic Castle from the 16thcentury (but founded before), with a square plan, three cylindrical towers and one octangular tower.4.1.4. Virtual Tour 360 photos Different architectures, religious and civil, and the hosting environment have been object of these analysis in Turkey and Italy.5. AnnotationsIn Cappadocia, from surveys made in some places with rupestrian sites in terraces like Ortahisar, the structural decay of the sites has accelerated with the change of the population during the first half of the twentieth century. The conservative wisdom and culture of land hard rock has been lost; the necessity to build on the surface prevailed though lacked the technical bases of support for good land management. The voussoirs for new homes quarried from the rock on which he was edified: emptying of the rock, and the overhead of the underlying structures are contributing factors of the collapse. Figure 9. Chapel of S. Pietro and Paolo in Balkan monastery. Figure 12. Ginosa, top the ravine. Figure 13. Gravina di Trovanza, environment virtual tour In Massafra, was detected the little gravina of Trovanza, in Mastropaolo area. Some caves were part of the settlement, on two levels, used as residence and outbuildings; one of the caves has a rectangular plan and it has one wall entirely covered by small square niches arranged in parallel rows (dovecot/herbarium). The common interpretation describes it as a room for the conservation of medicinal herbs, hence the popular name of pharmacy. Faced with this cave is a small rupestrian church with a rectangular plan (about 4.60 x 3.20 m, height 2.30 m) and a single orthogonal basis (2.75 x 1.20 m) to the east, with an altar against the wall. There are some frescos (in fair condition). The canal system is well conserved. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings198

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These collapses were further favored by lack in water management that, taking advantage of the network of collection and distribution, found new paths seeping into the rock, thus causing erosion. In many countries, the lack of a network of wastewater collection, together with the excavation for the restoration of some houses, continues to heavily contribute to the collapses. The villages were abandoned in the wall, and the lack of care led to the loss of many settlements of considerable architectural value. Presumably, the same phenomena have occurred in previous eras in rupestrian sites of the different states; negligence over the time and the ignorance of the value of cultural and environmental rupestrian heritage contributed to the loss of the cultural heritage of living in a cave. In various countries restoration and environmental rehabilitation are ongoing for cultural needs or, more often, for economic interests related to tourism activity. For instance, significant interventions are occurring at Saumoirs and Matera. However, in several sites it is not yet clear the bioarchitectonical value of the rock; therefore, the rock is coated with plastic and anti-perspirants fabrics and then laid in plaster supported by wire mesh. In other countries, the exposed rock is an aesthetic value required by tourists, but is completely ignored the need for ventilation systems for the health of the environment and of the same rock.6. Results of the project Chrima-cinpThe activities of the partnership were intense and continuous; the specific activities of the partners are published in the: The rupestrian settlements in the circum-Mediterranean area, published by DAdsp, typ. Il David, Florence, September 2012. isbn: 978-88-96080-09-2. The texts discuss: historical and cultural features; studies of some settlements with unpublished drawings of the architectural emergencies; thematic studies on the rupestrian culture. CD documentary Journey through the rupestrian cultures. The CD contains a video presenting the three territories of the Workshop: Puglia, Santorini and Cappadocia; 3D virtual video of the rupestrian environments with architectural and landscape values in Cappadocia and Puglia. It collects photographic material representing the qualities of the territories: rupestrian settlements, humanized villages, architectural emergencies; moments of socialization and activities of Crhima-CINP. CD Music for bagpipes in the Mediterranean Area, with sounds and music of the Mediterranean area; Web site www.rupestrianmed.eu. The site is an important data source that promotes the activities of the CrhimaCINP project, collects drawings and papers developed during its activities, as also the data from the censuses that have been carried out or are still in progress. The results of the project activities, including the works on the rupestrian heritage by the participating students, are published in: Days of Study on the Jonica Earth. Rupestrian habitat in the Mediterranean. From archeology to new practices for its protectionand recovery Massafra 29 October 2010. Antonio Dellisanti publisher, May 2012. isbn: 978-8889220-92-4 Days of Study on the Jonica Earth. Rupestrian habitat in the Mediterranean. From archeology to new practices for its protection and recovery. Massafra AprilMay 2011 published by DAdsp, typ. Il David, Florence, June 2012. isbn: 978-88-96080-06-1. Crhima Cultural Rupestrian Heritage in the CircumMediterranean Area, Conference Firenze 21 Giugno 2012, Abstracts, published by DAdsp, typ. Il David, Firenze June 2012. isbn: 978-88-96080-07-8. Exbition: Massafra 2010, Massafra 2011, Ortahisar 2011, Mustafapasha 2011. Final exibition: Firenze 2012, Sorano 2012. Rupestrian Landscapes and Settlements Chrima Cinp Project Workshops and Survey Results. published by DAdsp, typ. Il David, Florence September 2012. isbn: 978-88-96080-08-5.The volume contains descriptive graphic papers of the Crhima-CINP project; general information about the rupestrian sites of the partner countries; general information about the rupestrian territories and emergencies.CreditsFigure 6. http://www.pixelistes.com// souterraine-t24158.html Figure 6. Bourg-Neuf, plan by Giovanni M.Vampa, Nicola Pacini. Excerpt from the thesis: Studi e riqualificazione della Loira troglodita. Il bourg-neuf: La Loire a velo elemento di riqualificazione. Relatore : Carmela Crescenzi, Correlatore: Bernard Tobie. Laureandi: Giovanni M.Vampa, Nicola Pacini. Figure 9. Chapel of S. Pietro and Paolo in Balkan monastery Fotogrammetry Survey by Simone Beneventi, UniFI. Figure 10 M. Manganaro, A. Altadonna, G. Martello, A. Nastasi, N. Siragusa. DiSIA. UniME. Figure 14. Restoration of a cave. Finikia Oa.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings199

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THE AUGUSTEAN AQUEDUCT IN THE PHLEGRAEAN FIELDS (NAPLES, SOUTHERN ITALY)Graziano W. Ferrari1, Raffaella Lamagna2 1via Vignati 18, I-20161, Milano, Italy, gwferrari@gwferrari.it2via Cisterna dellOlio 5, I-80134, Napoli, Italy, raffaella.lamagna@unina.it Romans built the 96 km long Campanian Augustean Aqueduct to bring fresh water from Southern Italy mountain springs to the densely populated areas of Puteoli and Baiae in the Phlegraean Fields. In the XVI and XIX centuries the ancient aqueduct was investigated in order to restore it to bring water to Naples, with no result. The section after Naples was never seriously investigated. From 2010 we are performing researches about underground hydraulic systems in the Phlegraean Fields. The paper reports about several findings in the area. Up to now, only few hundred meters of aqueduct are documented, out of more than 22 km. However, the little information gained already contributes to the comprehension of a very important ancient settlement area.1. IntroductionThe Phlegraean Fields are an active volcanic caldera, composed by several craters in an area of about 65 Km in the surroundings of the town of Naples (Campania, southern Italy). Presently, the volcanic activity is limited to fumaroles and thermal springs but in 1538 a new crater erupted and destroyed a large area. Main eruptions are dated at 39/35 ky b.p. and 15 ky b.p., while several minor volcanoes erupted in pre-historical times (Rosi and Sbrana 1987; Orsi et al. 1999; Fedele et al. 2011; Scarpati et al. 2012). The area is affected by bradiseismic effects: a longperiod raising and lowering of the land, related to variations in the underlying magmatic chamber. In Roman times the land was at higher elevation than today, so many coastal structures, villas, palaces and harbour plants are presently underwater. In ancient times the presence of safe harbours, thermal springs and a temperate and fertile land raised attention by Greeks and Romans. In the last years of the first century B. C. the area was fully exploited with leisure establishments, fisheries, storehouses and with the Navy harbour plants. Many caves were opened in Roman times, as tunnels, aqueducts, water tanks, hot water catchments, steam tubes to warm spas. A major drawback in the Phlegraean Fields was its lack of fresh water. The volcanic land produced just thermal salt springs. In order to support a growing population and the demanding military and commercial fleets, the Romans designed a long aqueduct, tapping important springs in the calcareous Appennines. The aqueduct course was largely underground. Side branches reached the ancient cities of Pompeii, Nola, Atella The main branch skirted Neapolis (the present Naples) and reached the important commercial harbour of Puteoli (today Pozzuoli), the Portus Julius Navy harbour, the wealthy settlement of Baia and the Misenus harbour, after leaving a side branch to the ancient Greek city of Cuma. Total length was about 96 km (De Feo and Napoli 2007). The ancient aqueduct ceased functioning at an undetermined date in the Middle Age. In the XVI century, the city of Naples required more water to support its growing population, so the Spanish viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo appointed the Neapolitan architect Pietro Antonio Lettieri with the task to investigate the ancient aqueduct in order to restore it. Lettieri research lasted four years but the restoration effort proved too large. We are just left with a hand written relation (Lettieri, ab. 1560) describing the course from the springs to Naples, with some hints about the course after Naples in the Phlegraean Fields. The same happened between 1840 and 1880, when architect Felice Abate performed a similar research (Abate 1864). Finally, in 1885 a modern aqueduct was completed, tapping the same sources as the Roman aqueduct.2. Aqueduct explorations in the Phlegraean FieldsSince the restoration of the Phlegraean Fields section held no special interest, the ancient aqueduct was neglected in the area. Even the dating was uncertain. In 1938 a celebration stone was found at the springs, which attributes the aqueduct to Augustus (Sgobbo 1938). Finally, in the XX century second half a wall inscription was found in a tunnel at Scalandrone, between Pozzuoli and Baia, bearing a date corresponding to 10 A.D. for the opening of a water catchment from the Augustean Aqueduct (Camodeca 1997). Very few bibliographic references to aqueduct sections in the Phlegraean Fields were found. We began research on the aqueduct in 2010, with the support of the Special Superintendency for Archaeological Heritage of Naples and Pompeii and of the Phlegraean Fields Regional Park. The following sections will report briefly about the first results of these studies. Sections are reported in flowing progression, from Naples to the aqueduct end in Miseno (Fig. 1). The ongoing research aims at providing a small contribution to the Italian map of ancient underground aqueducts (Parise et al. 1999).2.1. Crypta Neapolitana The Crypta Neapolitana is a 709 m long tunnel which in Roman times connected Puteoli with Neapolis. The aqueduct runs parallel to the Crypta, few meters deep within its north wall (Amato et al. 2002). The Crypta pavement Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings200

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was lowered several times, mainly on the Naples side; presently, the elevation of the Naples entrance is 34 m a.s.l. The entrance toward Pozzuoli opens in a place called Fuorigrotta; its elevation is 45.5 m a.s.l. The Crypta pavement raises from Naples to Fuorigrotta. On the contrary, the aqueduct slopes slightly from Naples to Fuorigrotta, beginning at an elevation of 39.5 m a.s.l. This means that at the Naples entrance the aqueduct opens at about 4.5 m above the present pavement, while at the Fuorigrotta entrance it is supposed to run 6 to 7 meters below the pavement. On the Naples side, four entrances open on the Crypta wall, reachable with a ladder. In 2012 we were able to explore and survey a 120 m-long section of the aqueduct. Its crosssection is rectangular with a vaulted roof. The width is about 0.7 m and the heigth is about 1.8 m, but the aqueduct is partly filled with a variable thickness of fine tuff sand (mean heigth about 1 m), so explorers are required to crawl. The hydraulic plaster is intact; its height reaches the point in which the walls join the vault (vault impost). The usual calcareous deposit lines the hydraulic plaster. The exploration ended where a big wall collapse exposed the aqueduct, revealing interesting details about the building techniques, which are presently under investigation by archaeologists. A further section of the aqueduct is visible after the wall collapse, to be reached in the near future with a long ladder. However, large parts of the Crypta central section were affected by wall collapses, so the aqueduct could be inaccessible or destroyed in this section. In the Fuorigrotta entrance some cubicles are present on the north wall. They are filled with rubble; just the second one was only partly filled, revealing a descending shaft. We dug out some rubbish and nearly three meters of rubble to reach the bottom, 6.5 m below the Crypta pavement. A passage similar to an aqueduct specus was revealed, 0.8 m wide and 2.2 m high, but no hydraulic plaster is present. The passage top is not vaulted but angled. However, just the angled mark in the tuff is visible. Evidently, the terra-cotta tiles usually employed in angled vaults were removed. Both the entrance windows in the Naples side and the cubicles in the Fuorigrotta side are roughly evenly spaced. Distances range from 36 to 41 meters. The lesser value is very near to one Roman actus, corresponding to 120 Roman feet, that is 35.6 meters. The windows and the shafts Figure 1. The Phlegraean Fields. In black: the explored sections. Figure 2. Crypta neapolitana: the aqueduct at a junction between two digging teams.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings201

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road under a plain within the boundaries of a school in construction. We examined both the entrances, and found that both structure and dimensions are the same as in the Crypta Neapolitana The only difference is in the enclosing terrain: solid tuff in the Crypta, volcanic sand and soil in via Vecchia Agnano. The former entrance is choked by fine sand and debris after three meters; the latter one is choked after 6 meters. Here again we started a digging operation. 400 meters north-west, past a small ridge, the remnants of the Roman Agnano baths stand. They were an ancient spa exploiting hot natural steam from underground. Here in 2012 we explored some sloping passages which operated over La Pietra. Exploration revealed a 175 m-long aqueduct section with two side branches, for a 279 m overall cave development (Fig. 4). The two side branches are a horizontal unplastered service tunnel and a modern tunnel sloping down, probably related to a nearby railway tunnel. The first half of the cave was mined in a soft and altered rock, while the second half opens in a hard tuff. The hydraulic duct shows different building characteristics: the first half is lined with tuff masonry up to the vault impost (about 1.35 m); the hydraulic plaster is applied over the masonry, while the vault is just lined with a thin layer of plaster over the encasing tuff. In the second half, the hydraulic plaster is applied directly on the rock walls. The cave was half filled by tuff dust and sand. The first half was cleared up, possibly to allow the recent mining of the sloping down branch. Exploration in the second half requires to proceed on all fours. Both the aqueduct and the service branch end with earth fillings, near to the surface. Graffiti letters are present at four sites on the vault plaster; they were probably length measurements. As far as natural sciences are concerned, the cave hosts a small bat colony. Very interesting depositional phenomena are present on the hydraulic plaster, such as extruded cave flowers. Furthermore, a luckily inactive volcanic gas fumarole is present in a side branch. A detailed description of the cave is reported by Ferrari and Lamagna (2012). evidently acted as digging and inspection entrances. In the Naples side section slight misalignments of the specus are evident nearly halfway between two consecutive windows. They were the connection points between the excavation teams working in opposite directions from consecutive entrances (Fig. 2). Lettieri and later researchers report that at Fuorigrotta a side branch ran from the Crypta to Nisida island. Sgobbo (1938) claims to have traveled into long sections of this branch, but unfortunately he left no entrance position, description or survey. 2.2. Agnano Past improvements in via Vecchia Agnano, an old road between Fuorigrotta and Bagnoli in the Municipality of Naples, cut the aqueduct. Presently, the specus emerges from the north-east under a hillside at about 2 meters above the road and continues in south-western direction across the as steam catchments and a 140 m-long aqueduct branch running to the south-east toward via Vecchia Agnano. It was evidently a side branch bringing fresh water to the baths. The passage is cut into volcanic ashes; the vault collapsed, so it is quite difficult to determine the geometry of the aqueduct and the hydraulic plaster height. In two places, water seepage, possibly from the modern aqueduct, produced white calcareous courtains (Fig. 3) and pisolites. A small bat colony dwells in the passage. 2.3. La Pietra La Pietra is a coastal area in the Municipality of Pozzuoli. It owes the name (meaning the rock) to a hard volcanic rock reef in the sea. Land ridges are composed by several layers of tuffs, with different hardness. The Augustean Aqueduct was reported in nearby trachyte caves. At the beginning of 2012 we identified a cave entrance on the cliff Figure 3. Agnano: the masonry lining was partly removed; calcareous water seepage decorates the passage. Figure 4.La Pietra. White: the cave; dashed black: inferred upstream aqueduct; dotted black: the destroyed downstream aqueduct; solid black: railway tunnel.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings202

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2.5. Grotta di Cocceio Lucius Cocceius Auctus was a renowned imperial architect in Augustean time (Strabo, V, 4, 5). His name is related to several important and ambitious projects in the Phlegraean Fields. Cocceius Cave is the name of a 920 m-long tunnel connecting Lake Avernus to Cuma. The reported length is comprehensive of sections where the original vault collapsed. In the north side of Cocceius Cave an aqueduct is reported. It was first identified and explored in 1844 (Scherillo 1844) when a peasant was lowered down a 11 m deep shaft to reach an aqueduct. Caputo (2004) reports about the aqueduct and stresses the similar topography of tunnel and parallel aqueduct between Cocceius Cave and Crypta Neapolitana A common development plan can be easily inferred, so Cocceius could reasonably be the actual designer of the tunnels and the aqueduct system. The specus parallel to Cocceius Cave is probably the beginning of an Augustean Aqueduct side branch to Cuma. Caputo (2004) reports also about a settling and distribution plant (castellum aquae) just at the Cuma entrance of Cocceius Cave. However, we have not examined this branch yet, because Cocceius Cave hosts two bat species in the Red List, so its access is strictly regulated. are present, one of them being the present-days entrance. A small square opening, 1 m-wide and 1.5 m-high, stands on the left tunnel wall. Just above the opening, an inscription is engraved on the tuff wall, celebrating the inauguration of the opening as an haustus (passage intended as a water catchment) connected to the Augustean aqueduct (Fig. 6). The date of the event is reported as December 30th, 10 A.D (Camodeca 1997). So, on December 30th, 2010 we celebrated the bimillennial birthday of the haustus. Thanks to the cooperation between A.R.I.N. (Naples water resources company) and the Special Archaeological Superintendency of Naples and Pompei, an event was organized in order to celebrate the tunnel and the inscription at the same time. The birthday celebration summed up with a monumental cake inspired to Roman and modern aqueducts. Three days later, on January 2nd, 2011, we succeeded in digging the filling in the haustus, to reveal a 0.5 m-high hydraulic plaster lining and a 53 m-long aqueduct section, partly filled by tuff sand and lapilli. The aqueduct elevation is 34 m a.s.l. Researches need to be continued. A detailed 2.4. Pozzuoli Amphitheater The Flavian Amphitheater in Pozzuoli is a large arena, the third largest in Italy. Its speleological interest lies in the nicely preserved underground level, with rooms for services, wild animals, gladiators and so on. A 70 m-long tunnel connects this underground level to an aqueduct running north-east of the Amphitheater (Fig. 5), placed at an elevation of 35 m a.s.l. The specus was filled with dried tuff mud for three quarters. A 83 m-long section was cleared in 1951 to reveal a rectangular cross-section with vaulted roof, 0.6 m wide and 1.5 to 1.7 m high. The hydraulic plaster reaches the vault impost, to suggest that the section belongs to the main Augustean Aqueduct branch. The northwestern part is still filled up to the vault impost. In 2011 we crawled into a vaulted space 0.6 m wide and 0.4 m high, to explore a 80 m-long aqueduct section. Two square inspection shafts were found, each lined with reused marble stones. The passage continues, but forced ventilation is needed to further proceed in safety. 2.6. Scalandrone A little known roman tunnel is placed in the municipality of Bacoli (Naples, Italy), in an area historically called Scalandrone. The tunnel was designed as an underground road communication over an impervious cliff slope. Originally it was about 200 m-long, but at present only 75m can be explored, due to dust fillings. The cross-section is rectangular, with a vaulted roof and no masonry or plaster. It is 2.5 m wide and 3.5 m high. Five inclined light shafts Figure 5. Pozzuoli Amphitheater. In black: the explored section. Figure 6. Scalandrone: the Haustus and the superposed inscription.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings203

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4. ConclusionsFew hundred meters of aqueduct have been explored so far, out of an expected development of more than 22 km in the Phlegraean Fields. Interesting data have been collected, but more researches are needed. Some other potential entrances are known from literature and research on the field could bring some new exploration. However, long and demanding digging operations in narrow places are required to proceed. A general idea of the whole aqueduct course is already defined. Present data show that the underground structures resisted eruptions and earthquakes;only human abuses succeeded in destroying sections of the aqueduct. A strong concerted action is needed in order to explore the yet unknown sections, preserve them and exploit their cultural heritage value. description of the cave is reported by Ferrari and Lamagna (2011). 2.7. Baia Archaeological Park The Baia Archaeological Park is a large area completely built in Roman times as a thermal establishment. Several underground sources of hot water and steam were exploited by the thermal plants. Three large vaulted domes stand in the area; they were calidaria (hot rooms). Fresh water was provided by the Augustean Aqueduct and by long rows of water tanks holding rain water. The area is open to tourists and it is managed by the Special Superintendency for Archaeological Heritages of Naples and Pompeii, local office of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage. In 2010 we began investigating underground cavities in the Park, both thermal and hydraulic. Just outside the Park entrance, the public road enters a trench in the ridge. The trench cut the ancient aqueduct. An entrance closed by a wall shows on the north wall, at about 5 m over the road. In the south wall, a similar entrance is covered by a steel cliffcontainment wire-net. This entrance is choked by dust after 2 meters. Some 230 meters south, within the Park, an 18 m-long passage leads to an underground vaulted room lined with opus reticulatum masonry, 7 m-wide, 4 m-long and 3 mhigh. In the middle of the room, a section of the aqueduct runs. It is completely enclosed in masonry; just a small door allows access to the specus. As usual, the aqueduct is partly filled with dust and rubble. We succeeded to explore about 25 m south and 5 m north. The hydraulic plaster is only 0.5 m-high. Careful digging is needed. 2.8. Fondi di Baia Fondi di Baia are two small twin craters (diameter 500 m). Vineyards grow on the inner slopes. A cave entrance is visible at about 30 m a.s.l. of elevation in a small artificial cliff in the north crater (north-western side). In 2010 we performed a rope descent to reach the entrance (Fig. 7). We were able to explore just 16 m of cave, which opens in a whitish coarse volcanic deposit. The cave is a straight passage 1 m-wide and 1.3 m-high with rough walls and roof, and no plaster. The cave turns left and ends abruptly on a small masonry wall built with tuff stones. The cave shows no trace of an aqueduct, but both location and elevation are coherent with the expected position of the Augustean Aqueduct. More than 2 km of unknown aqueduct separate this site from the renowned Piscina Mirabilis, a large water tank designed to provide fresh water from the Augustean Aqueduct to the Roman Navy at anchor in the Miseno harbour. It could store 12,700 cubic meters of water (De Feo et al. 2009). The water intake is still visible 10 meters high in the monument wall.3. DiscussionThe little information gained so far shows good uniformity. The general cross-section is rectangular with vaulted roof, usually 0.64 m-wide and 1.5 to 1.8 m-high. A fine hydraulic plaster is nearly always well preserved; its height is about 1.3 m between Naples and Pozzuoli and 0.5 m between Pozzuoli and Miseno. However, the available data are not sufficient to make a rule, and further observations are needed. About the encasing ground, there are four cases. In solid tuff rocks the hydraulic plaster is directly lined over the walls, usually with a thin plain plaster on the vault (Crypta, La Pietra, Scalandrone). In less coherent volcanic rocks, the bottom part of the walls is lined with tuff masonry which bears the hydraulic plaster, while the vault plaster is lined on the bare rock (La Pietra, Agnano). In little coherent volcanic deposits (lapilli, pumices) a full masonry tube was employed (Agnano, Baia). Finally, in soil or earth the full tube was built in a trench and covered (Agnano). Up to now, the measured elevations are coherent with a progressive sloping of the aqueduct. However, data are too few and inaccurate to provide a reliable dip. Figure 7. Fondi di Baia: rope descent to reach the entrance.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings204

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AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to the Special Superintendency for Archaeological Heritage of Naples and Pompeii, especially to the Heads of the local offices at Baia (Ms. Miniero and Mr. Talamo), Naples (Mr. Vecchio) and Pozzuoli (Ms. Gialanella) and their staff. The Phlegraean Fields Regional Park (Past-Presidents Mr. Escalona and Mr. Giuliani) enthusiastically supported our researches. The Municipality of Naples, Direction for Cultural Heritage (Ms. Dello Russo) and the Province of Naples, School Building Offices (Mr. Parravicini) allowed access to the areas they manage. Similarly, the owners of the business premises called Tonga (La Pietra, Pozzuoli) and Villa Espero (Scalandrone, Pozzuoli-Bacoli) authorized access to their areas and the Neapolitan Archaeological Group (President Mr. Giglio) supported us in the ancient Agnano Thermal area. Mr. Martinelli, Mr. Schiano di Cola and Mr. Wenner showed us some underground sites in the Baia Archeological Park, while the members of the Aquae Ductae Association (Mr. Luca Ciardiello, Mr. Uberto Potenza, Mr. Ugo Potenza) supported us in the explorations at La Pietra. Last but not least, we are indebted with the caving friends which shared emotions and digging dust with us: Berardino, Elena, Ivana, Norma, Rossana, Rosario.ReferencesAbate F, 1864. Studi sullacquidotto Claudio e progetto per fornire dacqua potabile la citt di Napoli. Stamperia del Giornale, Napoli. Amato L, Evangelista A, Nicotera MV, Viggiani C, 2002. The Crypta Neapolitana; a Roman tunnel of the early imperial age. Proceedings of Archi2000: Paris, 10/09/2001. Camodeca G, 1997. Una ignorata galleria stradale det augustea fra Lucrinum e Baiae e la pi antica iscrizione di un curator aquae augustae (10 d.C.). Atti del Convegno: Gli studiosi dei Campi Flegrei rendono omaggio a Raimondo Annecchino, Pozzuoli, 1997, 289. Caputo P, 2004. La Grotta di Cocceio a Cuma: nuovi dati da ricerche e saggi di scavo. In: Quilici L, Quilici Gigli S, (eds.). Viabilit e insediamenti nellItalia antica. LErma di Breitschneider, Roma, 309. De Feo G, De Gisi S, Malvano C, De Biase O, 2009. The greatest water reservoirs in theancient Roman world and the Piscina Mirabilis in Misenum. Proceedings International Water Association Specialty Conference, 2ndInternational Symposium on Water and wastewater technologies in ancient civilizations, Bari, 28 May 2009. De Feo G, Napoli RMA, 2007. Historical development of the Augustan aqueduct in Southern Italy: twenty centuries of works from Serino to Naples. Water, Science and Technology: Water Supply, 7 (1), 131. Fedele L, Insinga D, Calvert AT, Morra V, Perrotta A, Scarpati C, 2011. 40Ar/39Ar dating of tuff vents in the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy): toward a new chronostratigraphic reconstruction of the Holocene volcanic activity. Bulletin of Volcanology, 73: 1323. DOI: 10.1007/S00445-011-0478-8. Ferrari G, Lamagna R, 2011. Il bimillenario dellacquedotto augusteo di Serino. Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia, Trieste, 2 giugno 2011(in press). Ferrari G, Lamagna R, 2012. Aqua Augusta Campani. Speco a La Pietra (Pozzuoli). Opera Ipogea, 1, 31. Lettieri PA, ab. 1560. Si descrive il corso dellacqua che da Serino arrivava sino a Baja. Manuscript in the Naples National Library (MS.Branc.III.C1). Orsi G, Civetta L, Del Gaudio C, de VitaS, Di Vito MA, Isaia R, Petrazzuoli SM, RicciardiGPRiccoC, 1999. Short-term ground deformations and seismicity in the resurgent Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy): an example of active block-resurgence in a densely populated area. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 91 (2): 415. DOI: 10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00050-5. Parise M, Bixio R, Burri E, Caloi V, Del Prete S, Galeazzi C, Germani C, Guglia P, Meneghini M, Sammarco M, 2009. The map of ancient underground aqueducts: a nation-wide project by the Italian Speleological Society. Proceedings 15thInternational Congress of Speleology, Kerrville (Texas, USA), 19 July 2009, vol. 3, 2027. Rosi M, Sbrana A, 1987. Phlegraean Fields. CNR. Quaderni della Ricerca Scientifica 114-9, 1. Scarpati C, Perrotta A, Lepore S, Calvert A, 2012. Eruptive history of Neapolitan volcanoes: constraints from 40Ar-39Ar dating. Geological Magazine, available on CJO2012. DOI: 10.1017/S0016756812000854. Scherillo G, 1844. Dellaria di Baja a tempo dei Romani e di una meravigliosa spelonca nuovamente scoperta nelle vicinanze di Cuma. Discorsi due. Reale Tipografia Militare, Napoli. Sgobbo I, 1938. Lacquedotto romano della Campania: Fontis Augustei Aquaeductus. Notizie degli Scavi di Antichit, 75.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings205

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NEROS OVEN: TEN SURVEYS ARE NOT ENOUGHGraziano W. Ferrari1, Raffaella Lamagna2 1via Vignati 18, I-20161, Milano, Italy, gwferrari@gwferrari.it2via Cisterna dellOlio 5, I-80134, Napoli, Italy, raffaella.lamagna@unina.it Neros Oven is an artificial cave placed in the Municipality of Bacoli (Naples, Southern Italy). A small network of passages leads to an underground pool of hot water. The passages were dug in Roman times as a sweater: hot steam was used to cure several ailments. The place was highly renowned also in medieval to modern times; wealthy foreigners in the Grand Tour to Rome and Naples were shown the passages and the hot water. The first printed survey of a cave (1546) is a rough plan sketch of Neros Oven passages. Subsequently, several researchers tried to cope with the internal temperature and steam to produce a graphic representation of the cave. The paper reports about the ten known surveys produced between 1546 and 2000 and the information they provide to modern speleological and archaeological research. Some information about the present state of the cave are presented. A modern cave survey has not been produced yet, since the outer rooms are used as a private dwelling. Author rerum naturae curiosus indagator montem intrat (Theodoricus aus Nieheim, 1532).1. IntroductionNeros Oven is a 400 m long maze of small tunnels. It opens in the Phlegraean Fields, 16 km west of the center of Naples, Italy, in the Municipality of Bacoli (Fig. 1). The Phlegraean Fields are an active volcanic area. Catastrophic eruptions occurred 39/35 ky b.p. and 15 ky b.p., while several minor volcanoes erupted in pre-historical times and again in 1538 (Rosi and Sbrana 1987). Presently, the volcanic activity is limited to fumaroles and thermal springs as the one which is present within Neros Oven. The area is affected by the characteristic bradiseismic effect: a long-period raising and lowering of the land, related to variations in the underlying magmatic chamber. In Roman times the land was at higher elevation than today, so many coastal structures, villas, palaces and harbour plants are presently underwater. The mild climate, the fertile land and the safe harbours raised attention by Greeks and Romans. Furthermore, the area was blessed by several thermal springs. In the Augustean period (end of the 1stcentury b. C.) the area was fully exploited with leisure establishments, fisheries, storehouses and harbour plants. Many caves were opened in Roman times, as tunnels, aqueducts, water tanks, hot water catchments, steam tubes to warm thermal establishments. Among ancient writers, Cassius Dio, Celsus, Martialis, Plinius the Elder and Vitruvius report about sweating places at Baia, employing natural steam sources from underground.2. The caveNeros Oven is the most important establishment in the area. It bores through Punta Epitaffio, a small tuff headland over the sea. Ancient ruins are still visible on the top and the cliffs; a medieval tradition reportedly attributes them to a luxurious villa which belonged to emperor Nero. He attempted his mother murder in the nearby sea waters. The actual place name is Tritoli, maybe a corruption of cryptulae (Latin term for small caves). Neros Oven is called also Tritoli Sweater, as opposed to Tritoli Bath, an underground bathing room placed on the beach at the roots of Punta Epitaffio. Tritoli Sweater opens on the cliff; in medieval times it was reached from the sea, through 43 steps. Therapeutic use of the place continued after Roman times. In the XV century Tritoli was the hottest establishment in an area where more than 40 baths were reported. The site was shown to foreign visitors. A local peasant stripped, entered the hot passages and brought back a buckle of nearly boiling water. Some eggs were dropped in it and they were quickly cooked. Some visitors tried to enter the hot passages following the guide. Usually they had to retreat; few succeeded in reaching the hot pool with great effort, due to the air temperature which reached 50 to 60C. In the XIX century water temperature was frequently measured at more than 80 C; in 1975 it reached 92 C, just after a period of increased volcanic activity in the Phlegraean Fields. On May, 8th, 2010 we measured temperature at 65 C. Presently the cave is composed of three parts: the so-called Grotta di Baia, the outer rooms and the inner passages. The Grotta di Baia is a 70 m long tunnel, parallel to the cliff, with several windows and six underground rooms aligned along the tunnel internal side. It was opened by order of viceroy Pedro Antonio de Aragn (1666) to allow road communication through Punta Epitaffio cliffs. The rooms were used as resting places for patients after exposition to the Sweater steam. The outer rooms are five vaulted caves aligned along the cliff, just out Figure 1. The Phlegraean Fields.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings206

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the northern entrance of Grotta di Baia. They too were resting places, but their origin is obscure. Theodoricus aus Nieheim, a German historian, visited the place in 1404 and reported (1532) about large rooms dug in the rock. The inner passages are a set of small horizontal tunnels, with a rectangular section about 0,8 m wide and 1,7 m high. The rightmost passage slopes down as a stairway to a pool of hot water covered with salt crystals. The air temperature reaches 40 C. The outer rooms are inhabited by the descendants of a family which found shelter from World War II bombing on Pozzuoli. We had the chance to enter the inner passages but once, so we were unable to produce a modern survey.3. The surveysThe caving historian Trevor Shaw (1992, p. 13) states that the earliest printed cave survey belongs to the Tritoli Sweater. The exceptional interest of the place raised attention by several scholars, antiquarians and researchers, and up to ten different surveys were produced in the past. 3.1. 1546 In 1538 a new volcano erupted in the area, less than 1,5 km distant from the Tritoli Sweater. The accident prompted attention by European scholars. Georg Fabricius (1516), a German historian and archaeologist, visited the area in 1543. In his travel report (Fabricius, 1547) he composed a poetical description of the Sweater. In 1546 Georg Agricola, also author of the renowned De Re Metallica published a collation of booklets in latin about subterranean matters. Information about the Sweater was provided by an unnamed inhabitant of Pozzuoli to Georg Fabricius who transmitted it to Agricola. The cave development was reported as a largely overestimated three miles length. Information was accompanied by a plan sketch woodcut of the cave (Agricola 1546, p. 146) with several captions. The cave is represented as a single entrance passage which splits in three. The rightmost one leads to a boiling spring. The woodcut was reprinted in several subsequent editions, also in an Italian translation (1550, Fig. 2). The survey and its captions are described by Cigna and Middleton (2005). 3.2. 1558 The 1546 plan sketch was evidently a low quality one. A reprint of Agricola work contains a wonderful woodcut (Agricola 1558, p. 142, Fig. 3) which represents a pictorial view of Punta Epitaffio with a ship arriving at the foot of the 43 steps stairway and a cut-away view of the Sweater, called Sudatorium Magnum (most important sweater). This woodcut too was published in Cigna and Middleton (2005).Figure 3. Nero's Oven survey n. 2 (Agricola 1558). Figure 2. Nero's Oven survey n. 1 in the italian version (Agricola 1550). Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings207

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3.3. 1687 Antonio Bulifon was a French learned publisher, with plants in Naples and Pozzuoli. He realized that the Agricola plan was incorrect, so he decided to produce a more accurate one together with a detailed description. On June, 24th, 1687 he entered the Sweater with a local guide. A copper engraving was first published in the 1688 edition of a Pozzuoli guidebook by Pompeo Sarnelli (pl. 7) and in a reprint in 1691 (Fig. 4). The survey is a plan representing some of the outer rooms as separate resting places for women, men and priests. At the time, the cave was actively employed for therapeutic use by a hospital in Naples. The inner passages are represented as two main branches connected by a gated passage. The right branch splits in two and contains the hot spring. The left branch splits in five and contains a shaft. The total development is estimated at slightly more than half a mile. No scale is shown, but partial lengths of several passages are reported, expressed in paces. Bulifon reports also that one of his employees recovered from blindness thanks to the Sweater hot steam. This survey was reprinted several times; Cigna and Middleton (2005) report a 1818 reprint by Panvini. 3.4. 1697 Bulifon produced a slightly different and more accurate version of the survey to be published in a detailed Sweater description (Bulifon 1697). The same copper engraving appeared in further editions of Sarnelli guidebooks (1697, Fig. 5; 1702; 1709). Perhaps the original copper was worn out, so a new one was needed. Both the outer rooms and theFigure 4. Nero's Oven survey n. 3 (Sarnelli 1691). Figure 5. Nero's Oven survey n. 4 (Sarnelli 1697). Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings208

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inner passages layout are more realistic; all passages are provided with length in paces. It seems that Bulifon decided to re-entered the Sweater in order to improve the first version of his plan. 3.5. 1753 Jerome Charles Bellicard, a French architect, published a research about Herculaneum and other antiquities in the neighbourhood of Naples. The book was produced in English and appeared in 1753. Further editions were published in French or in English in 1754, 1755, 1757 and they bear also the name of the designer Cochin. Only the plan of the Sweater entrance room is represented, together with the very beginning of the hot inner passages. However, beside the entrance room, an undescribed spiral staircase is represented (Bellicard 1753, pl. 37). No scale is shown. It is worth noting that in the 1757 (Fig. 6) edition the plate is flipped in the vertical sense, producing a more realistic representation on the place. 3.6. 1830 In 1817, canon Andrea De Jorio, a renowned Neapolitan archaeologist, published a tourist handbook on antiquities in Pozzuoli and its neighbourhood. The first edition, as well as a second (1822), mention Neros Ovens but no graphical representation is enclosed. In the third edition (1830) a separate atlas of plates was printed. It contains a survey of Tritoli Sweater (Fig. 7) with a plan of the outer rooms and the inner passages. A longitudinal section of the rooms and the main passage to the hot spring is enclosed. It is the only section ever published of the Sweater. The survey was produced by Friedrich Heller, a German archaeologist, and the scale is in French toises, which corresponded exactly to 2 meters at that time, due to a Napoleonic measurement units reform.Figure 7. Nero's Oven survey n. 6 (De Jorio 1830). Figure 6. Nero's Oven survey n. 5 (Cochin and Bellicard 1757). The plan is inaccurate: passages are tree-like and not straight as in reality. The connection between the two main branches is missing and a three-lobed passage termination is in the wrong place. However, both the plan and the section show a round room at the end of the main passage. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings209

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In 1843, Constantin James, a French physician, reported the hot pool as divided in three basins, with an estimated depth of about 0.5 m (James 1844). Presently, the land is lower, so the hot water pool raised up the stairway. This means that a real room could be present at the end of the passage. On the other hand, we should note that James observations were performed amidst hot vapours, with an air temperature of 50 C and with heart pulse higher than 150. 3.7. 1869 William Jervis compiled a multi-volume guide to Italian mineral waters. In the southern Italy volume, he added a chapter on natural sweaters. Neros Oven was described and surveyed (Jervis 1876, pp. 180). The water temperature was 86 C. A plate reports the survey; it is a very accurate plan, with the outer rooms, the Baia Tunnel, the main passages and the side passages (Fig. 8). The scale is in meters. 3.8. 1957 The geologist Renato Sinno performed a geologic and petrologic research on Punta Epitaffio area. He entered the site and sampled the salt deposits. A plan survey was published, limited to the main passages, as far as the hot pool (Sinno 1957). No scale is provided. 3.9. 1975 Cavers from the Naples Alpine Club explored the cave. They measured air temperature and moisture at severalFigure 8. Nero's Oven survey n. 7 (Jervis 1876). places and sampled water, in which a thermophilic bacterium was found. Water temperature was 92 C, while the maximum air temperature was 58 C. A survey was produced, limited to the main passages, as far as the hot pool; the plan only was published, but the picture reports also the clinometer data (Abbruzzese Saccardi 1976). The scale is in meters. 3.10. 1999 Finally, Greg Middleton, an Australian caver, visited the place in 1999. He was aware that the cave owned the oldest printed survey and he aimed at producing a modern one. Unfortunately, he was forbidden to enter the hot passages; he was just able to produce a few photos and a grade 1 plan sketch of the visited parts (Middleton 2000). A further library research induced Cigna and Middleton (2005) to produce a paper in which four of the above mentioned survey (n. 1, 2, 3 in the Panvini 1818 version, 9) are discussed. The present paper is a natural follow-up of their work.4. DiscussionThe ten produced surveys had very different objectives, so results are quite divergent. Oddly enough, no. 1 and no. 10 are both grade 1 sketches, conditioned by the little information available. No. 5 is simply an architectonic documentation of the initial room. Its value relies on the elusive spiral staircase. No. 8 and no. 9 were oriented to specific studies on the hot pool branch. This means we have no recent information on the other branches. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings210

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No. 2 derives directly from no. 1. Its value is in the pionieristic pseudo-3D view of Punta Epitaffio, with the cave cross-cut. Nos. 3, 4, 6 and 7 are the most complete and detailed surveys. Their comparison shows the following information: errors and imprecisions are clearly related to the very demanding survey conditions. Honor should be paid to these surveyors of the past. The general situation of the inner passages shows very little changes in the last four centuries. Survey no. 6 seems to show that in the first half of the XIX century a terminal room was reachable. The point deserves further investigation, but this means some sort of hot underwater exploration, possibly with a video probe or a temperature-resistant ROV in the hot spring (Fig. 9). Another interesting point to note is the wide international research interest in Neros Oven: in the past five centuries, scores of scholars and researchers from France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy and even Australia converged to perform researches on the place.5. ConclusionsNeros Oven is evidently a very special place. It shows several scientific and cultural fields of relevance: archaeological, historical, geologic, geochemical, volcanologic, petrologic, hydrologic, biologic. Speleology aims at gathering past information and providing reliable, complete and detailed information about the place, to be employed by researchers in sectorial studies. Neros Oven deserves a multi-disciplinary research project; the first step should be the production of a modern, complete and reliable survey, within the limits imposed by local environmental conditions. Luckily, present time low volcanic activity produces a less demanding environment with respect to the near past.AcknowledgmentsWe wish to thank Silvana, Leonardo and Luigi, who inhabit into this extraordinary place. They preserve memories of it and they allowed us to begin its studies. Many real and virtual libraries helped in providing old and recent books and publications. The list is too long; the main providers were: Naples National Library, Pozzuoli Diocesan Library, www.archive.org, Google Books. We are also grateful to Arrigo Cigna, for his invaluable support and suggestions about historical and scientific relevance of Neros Oven.ReferencesAbbruzzese Saccardi A, 1976. Note biologiche nella grotta Stufe di Nerone (Napoli). Annuario Speleologico 1974 della Sezione del CAI di Napoli, 3. Figure 9. The hot spring (photo by G. Ferrari). Libri III. Petreius, Norimbergae. Agricola G, 1546. De ortu & causis subterraneorum Lib. V. De natura eorum quae effluunt ex terra Lib. IIII. De natura fossilium Lib. X. De veteribus & novis metallis Lib. II. Bermannus, sive De re metallica Dialogus. Interpretatio Germanica vocum rei metallicae, addito Indice foecundissimo. Froben, Basel. Bellicard, JC, 1753. Observations upon the antiquities of the town of Herculaneum, discovered at the foot of Mount Vesuvius: with some reflections on the painting and sculpture of the ancients: and a short description of the antiquities in the neighbourhood of Naples. Wilson & Durham, London. Bulifon A, 1697. Descrizione e piante de Sudatorj di Tritoli in Pozzuoli. In: Bulifon A, Lettere memorabili, istoriche, politiche ed erudite. Raccolta seconda. Pozzuoli, 125. Cigna A, Middleton GJ, 2005. The Stufe di Nerone (Neros Oven): an ancient artificial cave near Naples (Italy). Proceedings of the XIV International Congress of Speleology, Athens, 21 August 2005, 459. Cochin CN, Bellicard JC, 1757. Observations sur les antiquits dHerculanum; avec quelques rflexions sur la peinture & la sculpture des anciens; & une courte description de plusieurs antiquits des environs de Naples. Jombert, Paris. De Jorio A, 1830. Guida di Pozzuoli e contorni. Stamperia francese, Napoli. 3rded., pp. 128 + 9 plates. Fabricius G, 1547. Georgii Fabricii Chemnicensis itinerum Liber unus Oporinum, Basileae. James C, 1844. Voyage scientifique a Naples avec M. Magendie Dusillion, Paris. Jervis WP, 1876. Guida alle acque minerali dItalia. Provincie meridionali. Loescher, Torino. Middleton GJ, 2000. An attempt to resurvey the Stufe di Nerone. Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 44 (8), 263. Rosi M, Sbrana A, 1987. Phlegraean Fields. CNR. Quaderni della Ricerca Scientifica 114-9, 1. Sarnelli P, 1688.Guida de forestieri, curiosi di vedere, e considerare le cose notabili di Pozzoli, Baja, Miseno, Cuma, ed altri luoghi convicini. Bulifon, Napoli. Other eds.: 1691, 1697, 1702, 1709. Shaw TR, 1992. History of cave science. Sydney Speleological Society, 2nded., Sydney. Sinno R, 1957. Studio geologico e petrografico della zona Via Scalandrone Punta dellEpitaffio (Lucrino). Rendiconti dellAccademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, serie IV, 24, 122.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings211

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Theodericus aus Nieheim, 1532. De schismate omnium longissimo perniciosissimoque, quod in ecclesia Rhomana inter Vrbanum Papam, & Clementem Antipapam, eorumque successores, per XXXIX. annos, scilicet ab anno Christi 1379. usque ad Concilium Constantiense uiguit atque durauit, libri III. Petreius, Norimbergae.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings212

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RESEARCH PROSPECTS OF OLD MINE WORKINGS IN THE URAL MOUNTAINSAlexey Gunko Russian geographic society, Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia, gunko.a@mail.ru Mine development in the Ural Mountains (Russia) started 4 thousand years B.C. In the XVIIXVIIIthcenturies commercial mining began. A lot of mines and adits have been retained till now. These mining old relics are of great interest not only for speleologist, but also for historians, biologists and geologists. On the Western and Eastern slopes of the Urals copper, iron, gold, asbest, sulphur pyrite, alabaster, coal were extracted. The depth of some excavations reached 300 m and the area of some mine fields reached 500 km. The total number of developed underground mines of the Urals at the beginning of the XIXthcentury exceeded 15 thousand. Speleologists are only at the very beginning of investigation of this rich region in artificial caves.1. IntroductionThe Urals are a mountain range that reaches a height of 1,895 m asl, located in Russia 1,100 km east of Moscow. The Ural Mountains stretch from the north to the south for 2,000 km, forming the boundary between Europe and Asia. Mining crafts of the Ural Mountains find their origin a long time ago. According to A.A. Shtukenberg copper sandstones of the Pre Ural area and the Western slopes of the Urals already were a source of raw materials for the local population since 4 thousand years B.C. (Shtukenberg 1901). Intense activity of the first miners in prospection and mine-working already caused the discovery of practically all the most significant deposits of copper of the Ural by the beginning of the industrial revolution. Such ancient mine-workings received the collective name of chudsky mines by the Russian population. Chudy refers to the name of the tribes that occupied the Urals in earlier times. From the beginning of the XVIIthcentury a new age in the development of the Ural mineral deposits started. Expeditions financed by Moscow actively investigated the western slopes of Northern and Central Ural Mountains. In 1628 iron ore was found near the river Nitsa, and in 1635 the Kunzhursky field of iron ores near the river Yayva and the Grigoryevsky field of copper ores near Solikamsk were discovered. In 1631 the so-called Nitsinsky plant started its work becoming the first Russian iron industry. By 1633 at the Grigoryevsky mountain the first copper enterprise of Ural was founded, and in 1640 the Russias first Pyskorsky state copper-melting plant was erected near the river Kamgorka, attached to the Pyskorosky monastery. Quite often ancient works were an indication of the presence of ores, and their discovery often lead to the development of detailed researches. For example, in 1702 the Ural settlers led by Sergey Babin found chudsky mines near the river Polevaya and opened the well-known Gumeshevsky copper field. Later, during excavations in the Gumeshevsky mine, ancient mines over 20 m in depth, the remains of timbering, and also numerous labor tools such as mining picks, copper hammers, leather bags for ore transport, were discovered. A wooden shovel was found in Sergiyevsky mine at a depth of 32 m. The XVIIIXIXthcenturies were marked by a rapid development of ore deposits that were explored thoroughly, and tens of foundries were erected across all Urals. Besides production of metals, an important share in mining was represented by non metallic ore deposits. By the end of the XIXthcentury the Ural mountain enterprises mined copper, iron, gold, asbest, sulphur pyrite, alabaster, coal and so forth (Fig. 1). Mineral resources of the Urals attracted public and private investments. The mining industries inherited many European traditions and, although with a certain delay, started to use advanced technologies. Innovations allowed extracting minerals in complex hydrogeological conditions and underground production was pushed deeper and deeper. In the early XXthcentury many deposits were exhausted or found unprofitable, and most mines were slowly forgotten.2. Geography of minesThe total number of underground mines of the Urals developed in the beginning of XIXthcentury exceeds 15 thousand. Details of the exact location, size and morphology of most of them is poor or irretrievably lost. Archival and published sources, as well as current research in general, can provide an enormous amount of documentation on mine works in the Urals thousands of miles of underground spaces. In the XXthcentury a rediscovery of the mines was attempted. Coverage of objects was quite small. Often only facilities near settlements and highways were inspected. Basically the entrances of the mines and tunnels, and dams and ditches were described. Thus most of the workings and their real dimension and morphology remain unexplored. 2.1. Cisurals Cisurals is the marginal part of the East European Plain, adjacent to the western slope of the Ural Mountains, within the river basin of the Kama and Pechora. The main minerals derived here up to the XIXthcentury were copper ores. They are confined to sandstones of Permian age. Thousands of copper mines spread from the city of Orenburg in the south to the northern borders of Perm region. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings213

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of Orenburg cover an area of approximately 500 km This is one of the worlds oldest mining complexes, consisting of hundreds of large mines and tunnels, developed in the IVthcentury B.C., and active until the end of the XIXthcentury. In Tatarstan, the study revealed dumps and large and complex workings connecting the two river valleys located at a distance of about 5 km. Here, several galleries A strip of copper sandstones passes through Kirov region and the Republics of Tatarstan, Udmurtia and Bashkortostan. Mining works have a depth of 5 m. Their size and shape are quite diverse from a few meters straight exploration adits and shafts, up to hundreds and thousands of meters of multi-level systems. Minings near the village Kargaly north Figure 1. Map of location of mine workings (XVIXIX cent.) in the Ural Mountains.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings214

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and a chain of more than 40 mines stretch between the rivers Arbashi and Ucha. The largest of the copper mines hosted in sandstones is Sarmanovskiy, located 220 km south-east of the city of Kazan. We studied this mine in 1998 for a length of 2.1 km (Gunko 2008). It has several layers of well-preserved sections of the arched galleries. According to some literature sources, captured Swedes participated in its development at the beginning of the XVIIIthcentury (Rychkov 1770) In the east of Kirov region in the upper reaches of the rivers Vyatka and Kama, and in the south of the area on the left bank of the Vyatka was being developed iron ore. Mining works were produced by small mines and sloping tunnels. There are numerous gaps and wells, the study of which is complicated by the remoteness of the villages. 2.2. The western slopes of the Urals This territory includes the eastern part of the Perm Territory, the Republic of Bashkortostan and a part of Orenburg region. Iron mines are widespread in this region. They were developed in Perm region, in the upper reaches of the river Vishera, and in the middle parts of the rivers Vijay and Koiva (river basin Chusovaya). The deepest mines in this area are Isakovsky (-70 m), Koyvinsky (-90 m), and Kurtymsky (-128 m). Active mining of iron ore was carried out in the basin of the rivers Belaya and Inzer in Bashkortostan. Partially developed underground chromite ore was exploited near the village Sarayu on the river Vijay in Perm region. At the end of the XIXthcentury this area was the worlds largest supplier of chromite. There are numerous mine workings, the entrances to which are located in the walls of the pits and valleys. Since 1796 coal was mined underground in Perm region. In the river basins Usva, Kosva and Yaiva are located numerous workings. In 1892 there were 22 mines and tunnels here. In the XXthcentury many mines have continued to work at great depths. Older mine works are present on the mountain Krestovay near the town of Gubaha. 2.3. Central and eastern slopes of the Urals This territory includes Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions, the eastern part of the Republic of Bashkortostan and Orenburg region. Exploitation of copper was carried out throughout the whole easten slope of the Urals. The preserved copper mines in the northern part of Sverdlovsk region are of great interest. In 2007 north of Severouralsk a group of researchers led by M.V. Tsyganko found and opened the entrance to the mine Voskresensky (XVIII XIXthcenturies). Several mine galleries are well preserved here (Fig. 2), still containing several miner tools: mining picks, fragments of drag harrows, sump pans and lamps were assembled. There are great prospects for further exploration of the mine. Thousands of mines surround the towns of Severouralsk, Krasnoturinsk (Fig. 3), Nizhny Tagil and Yekaterinburg. These are mine workings of copper, iron, chromium, silver, etc. The deepest mine goes down to 300 meters below surface. The famous Rudyansky Copper mine on the river Rudyanka near Nizhny Tagil had 10 mines with a depth of 300 m spread over an area of about 520 670 m. The famous Turinskie mines reaches depths in Frolovskiy 230m, Rashetovsky 210 m, and Vasilevsky 160 m. Increasing urbanization has englobed these mine adits in the suburbs, and the mines are now located in the cities. Large excavations of copper and iron are located near the towns of Zlatoust, Miass, and Magnitogorsk (Chelyabinsk region).3. ConclusionsSince the end of the XXthand the beginning of the XXIstcentury with the development of scientific disciplines such as spelestology and industrial archaeology, underground mine workings are seen as unique objects monuments and mining technologies that have survived to the present day.Figure 2. Inclined workings of Voskresensky mine. Figure 3. Mining shaft of chrome ore to the east of the town Krasnoturyinsk. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings215

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Artifacts representative of past mining periods are often preserved inside ancient mine workings: tools, personal items of miners, elements of mine ventilation, lighting, and many others. Collapse, flooding, secondary mineralization, settling of living organisms: all this leads to the formation of a special underground landscape, the fragility of which is similar to that of the natural karst landscapes. However, some of the old mine workings are a problem for the development of cities in the Urals. A number of large Ural settlements were built close to or around the XVIII XIXthcentury ore deposit exploitations. Later, population growth has led to urban development in the mining areas. Public safety issues related to, first of all, the construction in such territories, began to emerge as early as the 1960s. As in Perm entire districts of the city are in danger. In the town of Berezovsky, the lack of historical data and the haphazard urbanization over old mine workings led to subsidence and deformation phenonema of the built structures. The town Krasnoturinsk central residential area was built right on the mine field. Several houses were located right on the mouth of the mine. A possible solution of a number of geo-ecological problems associated with mining, is based on prevention. It should be based on the collection and analysis of historical information, as well as targeted research and speleological and geophysical methods. Speleologists are only at the very beginning of investigation of this region rich in the artificial caves. It is a well established location and to date only 10% of the old mines of the Ural Mountains have been investigated.ReferencesGunko AA, 2008. The exploration of the old copper mines of XVIIXIX centuries in Tatarstan Peshchery (Caves), 31, 74 (in Russian). Shtukenberg AA, 1901 Learning materials of the Bronze Age of the Eastern part of Russia part XVII-4, The Information of the Society of Archaeology History and Ethnography at Kazan University, Kazan, Russia, 165 (in Russian). Rychkov NP, 1770 The Captain Rychkovs Register of his travellings about Russia in 1769 years. St. Petersburg, Russia, 53 (in Russian).Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings216

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KUNGSTRDGRDEN, A GRANITIC SUBWAY STATION INSTOCKHOLM: ITS ECOSYSTEM AND SPELEOTHEMSMagnus Ivarsson1, Johannes E. K. Lundberg1, Lena Norbck Ivarsson2, Therese Sallstedt1,3, Manuela Scheuerer4, Mats Wedin1 1Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden, magnus.ivarsson@nrm.se, johannes.lundberg@nrm.se, therese.sallstedt@nrm.se, mats.wedin@nrm.se2Institutionen fr Biologisk Grundutbildning, Svante Arrheniusv. 20C, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden, lena_ivarsson@hotmail.com3Biologisk Institut, Syddansk Universitet, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark4Carl-Rieder-Weg 6, AT-6130 Schwaz, Austria, manuela.scheuerer@gmail.com At a depth of 30 m, Kungstrdgrdens subway station is the deepest station in Stockholm. It is also one of the few with easily accessible walls that are not covered in concrete, but where the Stockholm granite is exposed. On the granite wall a simple but complete and unique ecosystem has developed since the station was constructed in the mid-1970s. The constant artificial light is a unique energy source in this subsurface environment and enables the occurrence of microbial communities dependent on photosynthesis with the primary producers being cyanobacteria, several species of diatoms as well as the bryophyte Eucladium verticillatum not known from other locations in Stockholm. Top predator is the spider Lessertia dentichelis, with its only known population in Sweden. Closely associated with the ecosystem are secondary mineral precipitations forming flowstone, coralloids and small stalactites. The most common mineral is calcium carbonate, but there are also sodium sulfate depositions. A significant proportion of the mineralisations has been mediated by the present microorganisms, especially fungi. Characteristic for the microbial communities on the granite wall is that they appear to give rise to local geochemical conditions that influence microbial diversity, mineral precipitation and mineral dissolution, such as diatom ooze with calcium carbonates or a fungal cyanobacterial community that might be responsible for speleothem formation.1. IntroductionIn most environments, lampenflora is considered as detrimental. This is not the case in the Kungstrdgrden subway station in Stockholm, Sweden (Figure 1). As in most of the subway stations in town, Kungstrdgrden subway station has an artistic decoration. At Kungstrdgrden, the artist Ulrik Samuelson wanted to infer a sense of a (romantic) granite cave, leaving most of the bedrock in the station exposed and decorating with mascarons from the 17-century palace Makals (De la Gardies Palace) that was situated close to the place where the subway station is today, until it was destroyed by fire in 1825. The artist also introduced some plants associated with a romantic view of caves, in particular ivy ( Hedera helix) that is planted near the entrance to the platform. The station was finished in 1977 as the end station of the newest subway line in the Stockholm Metro system (the Blue Line), and was opened for use on October 30ththe same year. The platform is one of the deepest in Stockholm, located approximately 34 m underground and 29 m under sea level. The station is entirely constructed in about 1.8 Ga old granite (Ivarsson and Johansson 1995) (thus the artists granite cave). As in caves, there are rich secondary mineralizations (speleothems), forming various flowstones and coralloids (but only a few very small stalactites). Earlier studies on granite speleothems (Vidal Roman et al. 2010) have revealed a diversity in speleothem forming minerals (in particular opal-A and pigotite, but not calcite) and a close association with various microorganisms. In the station there is also a small ecosystem first noticed in the early 1980s when the first and so far only population in Sweden of the small spider Lessertia dentichelis (Linyphiidae) was discovered in the station (Kronstedt 1992). It is obvious that the ecosystem to a large extent is driven by the energy from the lights on the platform. This prompted our recently commenced research in this artificial cave, this time with focus on the speleothems, but using a systems approach, trying to survey the station from minerals to top-predator.2. Material and MethodsWe sampled the speleothems in several places along the platform, making sure not to handle the specimens with ungloved hands. The specimens were transferred to freezerFigure 1. Kungstrdgrdens subway station, located more than 30 m below the surface in central Stockholm, Sweden. A large part of the wall is covered with the moss Eucladium verticillatum There are also several distinct biofilms and speleothems. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings217

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(-20 C) within two hours from the sampling, and stored at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, until later investigation. It was noted that the flowstones were exclusively formed where water was seeping out of the granite. In these places there was also a higher biological diversity, and we collected specimens of animals, moss and biofilms (brown algae mats and calcareous slam). The animals were stored in alcohol (70% Et-OH), while the moss was dried, and the biofilm samples transferred to freezer. In some places we observed a slightly discolored (yellowish) salt precipitation. This, too, was sampled for later analysis. The animals and the moss were determined by experts at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, where voucher specimens are stored. Speleothems and the salt were analysed using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectometry (EDS). Diatoms were sampled from the walls of the station, using a common spoon and spatula. Samples were cleaned in 30% H2O2and 10% HCl and then mounted using Naphrax for light microscopy analyses (using a Leitz orthoplan light microscope at 1,000 and oil immersion), and dried directly onto the stub for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses. The samples were analyzed with the aim of identifying everything to species level by one of us (LNI). Additionally, 400 valves were counted in each sample to estimate the relative abundance of species.3. ResultsEven if our investigation of the subway station has only recently started, we have some noteworthy results. We observed several individuals of the spider Lessertia dentichelis (Simon), including egg sacks. Crane flies (Diptera: Tipuloidea) collected were determined to Tipula lateralis Meigen (Tipulidae), and the moss to Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bruch and Schimp. The crane fly larvae collected could not be identified to species (Figure2), but it is likely that they are T. lateralis. Of diatoms, 12 species have so far been identified. For an overview of the biodiversity in the station, as known today (including previous reports), see Table 1. The speleothems consist mainly or entirely of calcite. Characteristic for the speleothems are the close associations with biology including cyanobacteria, fungal mycelia and diatoms. Especially fungi appear to play an important role in the formation of speleothems. It is possible to follow a gradual increase of calcite precipitation from nonmineralized fungal mycelia to well-defined speleothems with less presence of active fungal colonies (Figure 3). In between these opposites are various stages of calcite precipitation with direct precipitation on the fungal hyphae as a first stage, successively forming more and more elaborate calcite precipitates in between the hyphae until large parts of the mycelia is completely mineralized. Whether fungi precipitate calcite directly as a result of their metabolism or if calcite is precipitated indirectly as a response to favorable geochemical conditions in the vicinity of fungi is not yet concluded. Furthermore, cyanobacteria have been observed to live in close association with the fungal communities. Results from DNA analyses of both fungi and cyanobacteria are pending. The EDS analysis of the salt showed that it is composed mainly of Na, S and O, thus tentatively determined as a sodium sulfate salt.4. DiscussionThe ecosystem at Kungstrdgrden subway station seems to be more or less self-sufficient, driven by the energy from the fluorescent lamps used for lightening the station, and water from the bedrock. The autotrophs in this system have been identified as cyanobacteria (in close association with heterotrophic fungi), diatoms, and the moss Eucladium verticillatum This moss is a common component of lampenflora in many caves (Mulec 2012). In these the presence of the moss is unwanted, but the population in Kungstrdgrden subway station is the only known from the Stockholm area and an important component in the ecosystem. The moss is tufa-forming, and normally grows on limestone; the presence here on a granite wall was thus not expected. However, at a closer examination, it was clear that all individuals were growing on speleothems and not directly on the wall. E. verticillatum is commonly associated with tufa deposits (e.g., Pentacost 1987), but it is not known if the moss contributes in any way to the formation of the speleothem. The diatom flora of Kungstrdgrden subway station (Figure 2) is dominated by aerophilous taxa. Diadesmis perpusilla (Grunow) Mann and Diadesmis contenta (Grunow) Mann are species often found in caves and they are both characteristic of environments with low light availability. Other species found were e.g., Pinnularia appendiculata (Agardh) Cleve, Diploneis ovalis (Hilse) Cleve, Amphora normannii Rabenhorst, Cymbella laevis Naegeli, Nitzschia sinuata (Smith) Grunow, Nitzschia amphibia Grunow and Caloneis cf. aerophila Bock. Caloneis aerophila is a rare species, to our knowledge not previously reported from Sweden. In addition, a small Caloneis species was found, which might represent a yet undescribed species. All diatom species found were pennate diatoms with at least one raphe. This indicates the importance of being able to move around on the substrate. The results show a clear biogeography in the metro station. The species composition of the calcareous slam was not the same as of the brown algae mat. It is likely that the diatoms found in the calcareous slam in some way contribute to the making of this specialized habitat. The top-predator in Kungstrdgrden subway station has been identified as the small spider Lessertia dentichelis (Kronstedt 1992). It seems to have a viable and stable population on the walls of the platform, mostly found in close association with the moss where the nets and egg sacs can easily be spotted. Due to the small size, it is more difficult to observe the adults. The population at the subway station is the only known in Sweden (Kronstedt 1992), but it is possible that it has been overlooked. Kronstedt (1992) reported a microfauna living among the moss, consisting of nematods, annelids, harpacticids, and collembols (Table 1). It is likely that the spider feeds on the collembols and the harpacticids, and that they in turn lives on the diatoms, fungi Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings218

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and cyanobacteria, as well as decomposing parts of the moss. We attempt to follow up on Kronstedts inventory, trying to identify more components of the microfauna and their roles in the ecosystem. In the background, but as an integral part in the local environment, are the speleothems (Figure 3). We expected the usual granite speleothem forming minerals (Vidal Roman et al. 2010); instead we could only identify calcite from the samples. The source of the calcium is not yet identified. The bedrock is granite, but the ceiling is covered in concrete and would be the obvious source. However, most of the speleothems form only some distance below the ceiling, without visible contact with the concrete, and the impression is that the seeping water is the source of the calcium. Granites contain only a fraction of Ca compared to mafic rocks and the groundwater in the Stockholm usually contains small amounts of Ca: 4dH (grad deutscher Hrte) where 1dH correspond to 10 mg CaO/1 litre of water. This can vary locally, especially in the nearby Stockholm archipelago with measured values of 7dH. In such areas Ca precipitations in washing machines, saucepans and pipes can be a problem. Perhaps the degree of CaO is high enough to precipitate speleothems on the granitic walls of the subway station Kungstrdgrden, at least with support of microorganisms.AcknowledgementWe want to thank AB Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (SL) for permission to survey the station and its fascinating environment; especially Glsm Kaya at SL must be thanked for support and assistance during the project. Thanks also to Lars Hedens and Yngve Brodin, both at the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), who determined the moss and the crane fly, respectively, and to Mario Parise, National Research Council of Italy, for valuable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. The ESEM/EDS analyses were done at Stockholm University; in particular we would like to thank Marianne Ahlbom at the Department of Geological Sciences for assistance during the ESEM. Some of the light microscopy analyses of the diatomes were done at the Paleobotany department at NRM, and we would like to thank Prof. ElseMarie Friis and Dr. Christian Pott for help with the microscopy. At NRM we had much help from Veneta Belivanova and Yvonne Arremo with the SEM, many thanks to both of you!Taxon Reference Remark Mammalia: Hominidae Homo sapiens Linnaeus This Investigation (TI) temporarily in high density, not stationary; adults and juvenils Arachnidae: Linyphiidae Lessertia dentichelis (Simon) Kronstedt 1992, TI several individuals, including egg sacs Insecta: Diptera: Tipulidae Tipula lateralis Meigen TI several adults, numerous larvae Collembola: Hypogastruridae Hypogastrura purpurescens (Lubbock) Kronstedt 1992 Collembola: Isotomidae Proisotoma minuta (Tullberg) Kronstedt 1992 Crustacea: Copepoda Harpacticidae Kronstedt 1992 Nematoda Kronstedt 1992 Annelida Kronstedt 1992, TI Plantae: Bryophyta: Pottiaceae Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bruch & TI Schimp locally abundant on sinter Heterokontophyta: Bacillariophyceae Amphora normannii Rabenhorst TI Caloneis cf. aerophila Bock TI first record for Sweden? Caloneis cf. bacillum (Grunow) Cleve TI Caloneis sp. TI new species? Cymbella laevis Naegeli TI Diadesmis contenta (Grunow) Mann TI low light environments Diadesmis perpusilla (Grunow) Mann TI low light environments Diploneis ovalis (Hilse) Cleve TI Navicula sp. TI Nitzschia amphibia Grunow TI Nitzshia sinuata (Smith) Grunow TI Pinnularia appendiculata (Agardh) Cleve TI Fungi TI Cyanobacteria TI Table 1.Organisms identified from Kungstrdgrden subway station, Stockholm, Sweden.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings219

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ReferencesIvarsson C, Johansson 1995. U-Pb zircon dating of Stockholm granite at Frescati. Geologiska Freningens Frhandlingar 117, 67. Kronstedt T, 1992. Lessertia dentichelis : en fr Sverige ny dvrgspindel i Stockholms tunnelbana. Fauna och Flora 87, 49. Mulec J, 2012. Lampenflora. In: WB White and DC Culver (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Caves. Academic Press, Amsterdam, 451. Pentacost A, 1987. Some observations on the growth rates of mosses associated with tufa and the interpretation of some postglacial bryoliths. Journal of Bryology 14, 543. Vidal Roman JR, Sanjurjo Snchez J, Vaqueiro M, Fernndez Mosquera D, 2010. Speleothems of granite caves. Communicaes Geolgicas 97, 71. Figure 2. Some of the species from the diatom flora of Kungstrdgrden subway station, Stockholm, Sweden. A: Diadesmis contenta (Grunow) Mann. B: Diadesmis perpusilla (Grunow) Mann. C: Caloneis sp. D: Amphora normannii Rabenhorst. E: Caloneis cf. aerophila Bock. F: Nitzschia sinuata (Smith) Grunow. Figure 3. Microphotographs and ESEM images showing gradual increase (from left to right) of calcite precipitation on fungal hyp hae with the final result of speleothem formation. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings220

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When the war ended in year 1918, the newly established border between Yugoslavia and Italy cut through the area and there was no need to continue building the railway. Among the unfinished structures along the line was a tunnel near the village of Godovi Because of its position in Italy near the new border, part of the tunnel was converted into a bunker after 1931. It was part of the Alpine Wall, the system of fortifications created by the Fascist regime to protect Italys borders.UNFINISHED RAILWAY TUNNEL AND BUNKER AT GODOVI Andrej Mihevc1, Ale Lajovic2, Mateja Ferk2, Jure Tiar3 1Jamarsko drutvo Logatec, Gri 10, SI-1310 Logatec, Slovenia,mihevc@zrc-sazu.si2Jamarsko drutvo elezni ar, Ilirska 11, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, ales.lajovic@gmail.com, mateja.ferk@zrc-sazu.si3Jamarski klub Breice, Mala dolina 9, SI-8261Jesenice na Dolenjskem, Slovenia, jure.ticar@gmail.com To enable better supply of the front line during the First World War, the military command started to build a standardgauge railway line from the main line at Logatec. The project began in April 1917 but in October the front line was pushed far to the west. The railway was no longer needed, so all work stopped and most structures remained unfinished. After the war, the new border between Italy and Yugoslavia passed close to the unfinished tunnel. Part of the tunnel was transformed into a bunker, one of many within the system of fortifications known as the Alpine Wall. After the Second World War the border moved away and both tunnel and bunker were forgotten and overgrown by forest. Apart from its unusual history, the structure is notable because work on it was halted in mid-construction, with the result that all stages of construction of the tunnel are well preserved.1. IntroductionDuring the First World War, following the Italian attack on Austria-Hungary, the Isonzo front line formed in the western part of what is now Slovenia. To enable better supply of the front line, the military command ordered the special Imperial and Royal Railway Regiment to build a standard-gauge railway line to rni Vrh, beginning at the junction with the main railroad at Logatec. The project began in April 1917, but after the Battle of Caporetto in October of that year the front line was pushed west to the river Piave, with the result that the railway was no longer needed. All work on the railway was stopped and the line and most structures remained unfinished and abandoned in the middle of the forest. After the Second World War the border moved west and both the tunnel and bunker were forgotten and overgrown by forest. Apart from its unusual history, the structure is notable because work on it was halted mid-construction, with the result that all stages of construction of the tunnel are well preserved.2. The tunnelThe plans, including the longitudinal section and ground plan, were drawn up in April 1917 by J. Kolmann (Kolmann 1917). Construction work started at about the same time. The main workforce consisted of prisoners of war, mostly Russians. Work proceeded simultaneously along the entire length of the railway, and in the autumn, when work was abandoned, many sections of the railway were already finished. Completed structures included a tunnel in Logatec, which was later filled with waste, and a tunnel close to the village of Godovi that is today used as road tunnel (Frelih 1999).Figure 1. Position of the tunnel. Figure 2. Southern entrance showing the pioneer tunnel (lower aperture) and crown (upper aperture). Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings221

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Above it, the tunnel crown was excavated. The crown section is connected to the pioneer tunnel by several vertical shafts through which the excavated rock was poured into the small wagons below for removal. Timber supports and wooden loading structures were placed at intervals. Once the crown was excavated, scaffolding was erected and the crown was lined with concrete. When this was done, the The tunnel was built in well-karstified limestone. This has resulted in drip points at several places in the tunnel and drainage of the water into the karst through the tunnel floor (Lajovic and Mihevc 2010). The tunnel also cuts through several natural caverns, one of which is still preserved for a length of 10 m and is entered in the Cave Register of Slovenia. Because the work stopped before the tunnel was finished, nearly all phases of excavation and construction have been preserved. More work was completed at the north end of the tunnel: about half of this section was fully or partly concreted and, according to locals, the tunnel portal was also finished. The southern end remained at the earlier stages (digging of two tunnels, excavation of the crown, erection of scaffolding for the purposes of cementing). The unfinished tunnel (south entrance: 45 56 58 N 14 4 48.4 E) lies about 2 km west of the village of Godovi The tunnel is constructed through karstified Cretaceous limestone below a rough, rocky karst surface with numerous dolines. A number of caves are known in the vicinity and one natural cavity was encountered by the tunnel. According to the building plan, the tunnel was 388 m long. The north entrance was at 613 m above sea level, and the southern at 618 m. The incline of the railway was 13. The thickness of the rock above the tunnel ceiling is for the most part around 15 m, with a maximum thickness of 26 m. There is also one doline above the tunnel, where the ceiling is only about 10 m thick. Digging of the tunnel began from both ends simultaneously, and at three different heights. At the height of the tunnel floor, a small pioneer tunnel was dug to transport excavated rock. It is about 2 m high and 2 m wide. A narrow-gauge railway track ran through it. was only completed in the northern part of the tunnel. The height of the tunnel is 6.5 m and the width is 4.6 m.Figure 3. The unfinished crown of the tunnel. The section in the background has already been lined with concrete. Figure 4. View of the pioneer tunnel and crown section and a section of nearly finished tunnel. Figure 5. Shematic cross section through the tunnel. All building phases and the bunker are preserved.After the war, when the Treaty of Rapallo fixed the new borders, the tunnel found itself about 3 km inside Italian territory. After 1931 the Italian army started to build a tunnel builders dug down and began to shape the main tunnel, all the time using the pioneer tunnel. The scaffolding and cementing of the walls was done in sections. The invert Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings222

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It seems that the bunker was not completely finished when Italy attacked Yugoslavia in 1941 and the Second World War started in the area. It was not used during the war. After the war, the national border moved to the west and both the bunker and the tunnel were abandoned and forgotten in the forest. The tunnel was looted by the inhabitants of the area, who carried off all usable items and mined the concrete in order to extract the steel for building purposes. bunker in the northern part of the tunnel. The bunker is a concrete cube, with a staircase and a shaft leading to a surface outpost covered by a steel cupola. Access to the bunker is through the tunnel from the south or via the staircase from the surface. There are toilets in the bunker and a sewage pipeline that drains it. To hide the bunker, the northern tunnel portal was filled with rubble and camouflaged.3. ConclusionThe tunnel and the bunker are witnesses to the turbulent times of the first half of the 20thcentury, including wars and border changes. The unfinished tunnel also reveals interesting phases of tunnel building and helps illustrate the knowledge and techniques that were developed and used in the 19thcentury.Figure 6. Bunker in the finished part of the tunnel. Figure 7. Steel cupola on top of the bunker. Below it, the northern portal of the tunnel is filled with rubble and hidden. ReferencesFrelih M, 1999. Gradnja eleznike proge Logatec rni vrh za vojako oskrbo Soke fronte med 1. svetovno vojno. In: M Frelih, J Jure, K Rustja, N Jenko (Eds.).eleznica na Logakem. Osnovna ola talcev Logatec, 35. Kolmann J, 1917. Normalspurbahn Unter Loitsch Schwarzenberg. Langenprofil Trassenfuhrung uber Godovi won Km.+200 bis Bhf. Podjesenom. 1. Lajovic A, Mihevc A, 2010. Unfinished railway tunnel and bunker at Godovi = Nezavren eljezni ki tunel i bunker u Godovi u. In: M Garai (Ed.). Saeci radova. Hrvatski speleoloki savez, Zagreb, 67. Lajovic A. Pozabljen elezniki tunel v Godovi u. Bilten JK, 26, 55, Ljubljana.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings223

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2. Natural vs. artificial cavesThe issue of instability is of interest for both natural and artificial caves, and as such a number of studies have been published over the years in the speleological scientific literature in the attempt to describe and model the process (Davies 1951; White and White 1969; Palmer 1991; White 2005). However, the direct link existing between many artificial cavities and the environment at present used by man for his activities make artificial cavities of particular interest, since these are generally the type of underground voids creating problems, and causing economic losses and damage, to the society. The recent cases of a sequence of collapse sinkholes at Guatemala City in 2006 and 2010 is straightforward at this regard (Hermosilla 2012). With this, it is not our intention at all to diminish the relevance of instability observations carried out in naturalRECOGNITION OF INSTABILITY FEATURES IN ARTIFICIAL CAVITIESMario Parise National Research Council, Institute of Research for the Hydrogeological Protection, Via Amendola 122-I, 70126, Bari, Italy, m.parise@ba.irpi.cnr.it Instability features may be observed in underground settings, including both natural and artificial caves. Recognition, mapping and documentation of such elements is of crucial importance to understand the likely evolution of the caves in terms of instability, and to evaluate the possibility of a direct involvement of the built-up areas above. Many towns and important communication routes are located in Italy above caves, which makes knowledge of the instability conditions an absolute priority for civil protection issues and land management. The role of cavers in the identification of instability features has been rarely taken into account, and always considered as a minor, often unnecessary, element in the stability assessment. Nevertheless, cavers are the only eyes underground, and have the opportunity to document what is really occurring. The present article aims at pointing out this crucial role of cavers, and illustrates some of the most common instability features in underground settings, both related to already occurred failures and to incipient signs of deformations. The issue is dealt with focusing on artificial caves, since these have been in the last decades at the origin of several proble ms in many towns and rural areas of southern Italy.1. IntroductionCavers carry out an activity that is often lowly considered, or thought of in negative terms because of the breaking news reporting accidents involving difficult and high-cost rescue operations. Nevertheless, caving has a very important value: cavers are the only people having the possibility, due to their technical skills and ability to move in a subterranean environment, to explore and document the underground world in safety. Documentation, in particular, is extremely important, since it provides all those people that are in charge of decisions (local authorities, land use planners, etc.) but never will directly enter a cave, the necessary material (maps, photographs, videos) to make their own choices. Even more than for natural caves, the matter becomes of extreme importance for artificial cavities, since these are more frequently located below or in the proximities of inhabited areas or infrastructures. As a consequence, any problem occurring within the underground setting may have direct, sometimes catastrophic, consequences, on the builtup areas above (Waltham and Swift 2004; Parise and Gunn 2007; De Waele et al. 2011; Parise 2012). Starting from these considerations, the present article intends to point out the importance of cave surveying, mapping and documentation, with particular regard to all those elements related to instability processes that can be observed in natural and artificial caves (Andrejchuk and Klimchouk 2002; Palmer 2007). Being well aware that instability phenomena are rarely sudden, but in most of the cases they are preceded by deformations, it comes out that having the possibility to collect direct observations about the precursory signs of failures may result in the possibility to understand what is going on underground, predict the likely evolution toward the ground surface, and plan interventions to reduce the hazard, or at least to mitigate the risk to people and society. The present article will illustrate both features related to already occurred instability, and incipient signs of deformations. The combined analysis of these elements might be useful, together with the necessary geotechnical data about the involved materials, to determine the most suitable geological model for instability evolution at the specific site. It is our firm opinion that such documentation is crucial for understanding the instability problems, but, at the same time, cannot be considered the only scientific material on which to base a practical mitigating action.Figure 1. Massive fall from the vault in a calcarenite quarry. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings224

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caves. Some of the most common processes of cave evolution, for instance, derive from progressive failures in the rock mass constituting the roof of the cave, until reaching the ground surface, and thus originating collapse sinkholes (Tharp 1995; Klimchouk and Andrejchuk 2002; Delle Rose et al. 2004; Canakci 2007; Waltham and Lu 2007; Parise 2008). Observing and documenting features related to such processes is of crucial importance, for both the understanding of the cave evolution, and the likely consequences this may have in terms of risk as well. But the focus will be in this article essentially on artificial caves, since these are those that have produced the greatest alarm and worrying in many regions of southern Italy during the last 15 years, due to a number of sinkholes that had to be recorded in Apulia, Campania and Sicily (Parise and Fiore 2011).3. Mapping instability featuresDue to the geological and morphological setting, many regions of southern Italy presented features such as to allow man since historical times to excavate and use several types of the local rocks for building purposes, and to create underground voids for different uses (Del Prete and Parise 2013). As a consequence, wide areas are characterized by the presence of a huge number of man-made cavities, that have to be added to the natural caves, present in the same regions because of karst processes. As concerns Apulia, the most extensive systems, and the most dangerous in terms of instability, are represented by underground quarries, located at variable depths in a high number of towns, even below urban areas (Parise 2010). The working activity stopped in most of these quarries few decades ago, and since that time many sinkholes have been recorded, due to upward propagation of failures occurring within the underground sites (Parise 2012). Evolution of instability processes in underground caves is generally dependent upon internal factors, such as the low mechanical strength of soft rocks (Andriani and Walsh 2006), or external natural and/or anthropogenic factors that can modify the boundary conditions, the loading, or the physical and mechanical properties of involved materials. Changes in loading can be, for instance, represented by construction of buildings or infrastructures above the ground surface, that can modify the stress state around the cave, the destruction of pillars within underground rooms with consequent increase in the cave span, as well as seismic loading conditions or man-made vibrations due to traffic, construction works, etc. Changes in the boundary conditions may be represented by the variation of the wetting conditions within the cave due to large incomes of water inside the cave, to condensation processes, and to water percolation from the ground surface. These processes generally promote weathering processes of the rock mass and of the joints leading to a gradual reduction of the corresponding mechanical strength, as also observed in many cases of slope instabilities worldwide (Fookes and Hawkins 1998; Zupan Hajna 2003; see also Calcaterra and Parise 2010, and references therein). Underground caves can be involved in instability processes affecting the whole overburden, or simply by local failures that may induce a progressive increase in the height of the cave up to eventually reaching a critical configuration which later on can develop towards the complete collapse. The failures or instability mechanisms observed in many caves of southern Italy may be described by grouping them into two main categories (Diederichs and Kaiser 1999a, 1999b; Hatzor et al. 2002; Ghabezloo and Pouya 2006): failures within continuous media (intact rock mass or highly jointed rock mass), and failures within discontinuous media (anisotropic rock mass with specific joint sets). Whilst the first category characterizes soft rock masses such as calcarenites, chalk, and evaporites, the second one relates to stratified and fissured limestone rock masses affected by karst.Figure 2. Examples of detachments from the vault of natural caves. In the following we describe the main mechanisms of failure that can be observed in caves: Falls from the vault, developing the formation of a single or double arch. This type of failure can be generated by a reduction of the rock strength in the cave roof due to wetting or additional loading. The strength of the rock forming the roof reduced down to the maximum stresses existing in the area, leading to the development of the first fractures. These new joints may propagate through the roof, leading to a complete or local failure mechanism (Fig. 1). This process has also been observed in natural caves, where is characterized by the failure of the central part of the roof and the consequent collapse of blocks from the same area which is followed by failure of the remaining ledges along the sidewalls (Lollino et al. 2004; Lollino and Parise 2005; Parise and Trisciuzzi 2007). The resulting shape in the roof is generally circular, but it may have one or more rectilinear sides, due to control exerted by tectonic discontinuities. Further evolution may lead to upward stoping, with size of the failure decreasing toward the ground surface (Fig. 2). Falls from the vault, due to lack of support from previously existing pillars. This type of fall is actually an induced failure, since it occurs with the same mechanism as above, but generated by failure of one or more pillars, so that the roof span becomes too long to be sustained by the rock strength (Hutchinson et al. 2002; Fraldi and Guarracino 2009; Ferrero et al. 2010). Failures from the pillar corners. This type of failure is generated by local accumulation of compressive stress too high with respect to the rock strength (Fig. 3). Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings225

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Lateral failures along sliding surfaces parallel to the walls. This mechanism is generated by the low confinement of the rock mass along the vertical boundaries of the cave, which leads to the development of fractures parallel to the direction of the maximum compressional stress (Fig. 4). This process generally is not directly at the origin of a sinkhole, but may work in producing the progressive enlargement of the cave until it reaches a critical configuration which then leads to general failure.4. Upcoming instabilities: the incipient signs of deformationsFailures in underground caves do not occur without warning, and measures of the effects produced by the processes active in deforming the rock mass can be generally observed before major displacement occurs (Liu et al. 2000). This has also been documented for slope failures (DElia et al. 1998; Senfaute et al. 2003), and is at the origin of the design and implementation of alert system for landslides. As concerns underground caves, the main problem lies in the possibility to observe and recognize such phenomena. Further, it has to be noted that scarce attention has been given in the scientific literature to the issue of precursory signs, as pointed out by Szwedzicki (2000). Many studies have documented that the structural damage in the rock mass, eventually leading to collapse, requires a long time, and generally occurs through gradual progression in time, intensity, and appearance of recorded precursors. These latter, in the early stages of deformation, may consist of surface cracking, crack opening, shear movement along planes of weakness or vertical and horizontal displacement (Kowalski 1991; Parise and Lollino 2011). Further evolution of the process may lead to ground surface subsidence and the occurrence of localized signs of stress within the underground caves, in the form of floor heaving and roof lowering. In some cases, the last hours before the final collapse have been accompanied by rock noises and falls in the ground. In the following we describe the main evidence of deformations that can be observed in caves: Cave walls. Localized swelling can be observed along the walls as a result of pressure by the rock mass close to the cave boundaries (Fig. 5). It may be noticed as aligned bulging and slight deformation, which as a whole bound the sector prone to failure. Locally, the increasing deformation results in outward protrusion of wedges, or, eventually, in a continuous fracture bounding the mass detached or proneFigure 3. Failure at the upper corner of the pillar. Figure 5. Incipient signs of instability: localized swellings (above, and lower left), and wedges protruding from walls (lower right). Figure 4. Lateral failures from the wall in a calcarenite quarry. Note the development of linear sliding surfaces. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings226

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to be detached. All of this generally precedes occurrence of local failures in the wall, with sliding surfaces parallel to the wall itself. Pillar corners. Regardless of the size of pillars, different stages of deformation may be observed at the corners of pillars: the first are en echelon cracks (Fig. 6), from incipient to a few mm in aperture, similar to those observed at the flanks of active landslides as precursory sign of the exposure of the sliding surface at the ground (Fleming and Johnson 1989; Parise 2003). Progression in the deformation brings to developing a well-defined fracture, thus preparing the upcoming detachment, which may occur at the base or at the top of the pillar, or along its entire height. When the vertical stress becomes unsustainable for a pillar, open cracks may develop, even along pre-existing discontinuities, and a network of crossed fractures may be formed (Fig. 7). Vault. Precursory evidence of failure appear in the vault as long and continuous cracks, locally opened a few mm, and often ending in an already occurred fall (mostly located at the crossing between two discontinuity systems; Fig. 8). Massive falls from the vaults may determine the formation of a single arch covering the whole span of the cave, or of a doube arch in the case a more resistant spur in the rock mass subdivides the detached area (Fig. 9). On the basis of the data so far collected, no clear relationship has been ascertained between shape and size of the passage and the development of a single or double arch.Figure 6. Examples of cracks developing at the pillar corners. Figure 8. Fall from the vault, occurred at the intersection between two discontinuities. Figure 7. Cracks crossing a pillar, along primary (clinostratification, dipping to the right in the picture) and secondary (open cracks) discontinuities. Figure 9. Double (above) and single (below) arches produced by failures at the vault. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings227

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5. ConclusionsThere are of course several topics that have not been dealt with in the present article. First of all, the type of failures depends also upon type and characteristics of rocks. In this sense, there are great differences among hard rocks as limestones, and soft rocks as calcarenite, and in turn between carbonates and evaporites, which respond to stresses with more plastic behavior (Iovine et al. 2010; Fig.10). All these should be properly taken into account for evaluating the stability conditions of underground voids, and the likely evolution to sinkhole occurrence. Nevertheless, aimed at an audience of cavers, the focus was here dedicated to direct observations in caves, that are considered a precious, and very difficult to obtain, element in the evaluation of the hazard related to failures occurring in underground settings.AcknowledgmentsWithout mentioning any name, I am indebted to many cavers for having been my companions during long surveys underground. While I was looking at strange and unfriendly features they had the patience to wait, asking some of the most difficult questions I had to answer in my geologist experience; at the same time, they were crucial for allowing me the possibility to make observations in safety, and develop some thoughts about the topic here dealt with. Without these people, the present article would never have seen the light.ReferencesAndrejchuk V, Klimchouk A, 2002. Mechanisms of karst breakdown formation in the gypsum karst of the Fore-Ural regions, Russia (from observations in the Kungurskaja Cave). Int. J. Speleol., 31 (1/4), 8914. Andriani GF, Walsh N, 2006. Physical properties and textural parameters of calcarenitic rocks: qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Eng. Geol., 67, 5. Calcaterra D, Parise M (Eds.), 2010. Weathering as a predisposing factor to slope movements. Geol. Soc. London, Eng. Geol. Sp. Publ. 23, 233. Canakci H, 2007. Collapse of caves at shallow depth in Gaziantep city center, Turkey: a case study. Eng. Geol., 53, 915. Davies WE, 1951. Mechanics of cave breakdown. Nat. Speleol. Soc. Bull., 13, 36. DElia B, Picarelli L, Leroueil S, Vaunat J, 1998. Geotechnical characterisation of slope movements in structurally complex clay soils and stiff jointed clays. Riv. Ital. Geotecnica, 32 (3), 5. Delle Rose M, Federico A, Parise M, 2004. Sinkhole genesis and evolution in Apulia, and their interrelations with the anthropogenic environment. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 4, 747. Del Prete S, Parise M, 2013. Breakdown mechanisms in gypsum caves of southern Italy, and the related effects at the surface. Proc. 16thInt. Congr. Speleology, Brno (Czech Republic). De Waele J, Gutierrez F, Parise M, Plan L, 2011. Geomorphology and natural hazards in karst areas: a review. Geomorphology, 134 (1), 1. Diederichs MS, Kaiser PK, 1999a. Stability of large excavations in laminated hard rock masses: the voussoir analogue revisited. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 36, 9717. Diederichs MS, Kaiser PK, 1999b. Tensile strength and abutment relaxation as failure control mechanisms in underground excavations. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 36, 69. Ferrero AM, Segalini A, Giani GP, 2010. Stability analysis of historic underground quarries. Comput. Geotech., 37, 476. Fookes PG, Hawkins AB, 1988. Limestone weathering: its engineering significance and a proposed classification scheme. Quart. J. Eng. Geol., 21, 7. Fleming RW, JohnsonAM, 1989. Structures associated with strike-slip faults that bound landslide elements. Eng. Geol., 27, 3914. Fraldi M, Guarracino F, 2009. Limit analysis of collapse mechanisms in cavities and tunnels according to the HoekBrown failure criterion. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 46, 665. Ghabezloo S, Pouya A, 2006. Numerical modeling of the effect of weathering on the progressive failure of underground limestone mines. In: A Van Cotthem, R Charlier, JF Thimus and JP Tshibangu (Eds.). Eurock 2006 Multyphysics coupling and long term behavior in rock mechanics. Taylor and Francis, London, 233. Hatzor YH, Talesncik M, Tsesarksky M, 2002. Continuous and discontinuous stability analysis of the bell-shaped caverns at Bet Guvrin, Israel. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 39, 867. Hermosilla RG, 2012. The Guatemala City sinkhole collapses. Carbonates and Evaporites, 27 (2), 103. Hutchinson DJ, Phillips C, Cascante G, 2002. Risk considerations for crown pillar stability assessment for mine closure planning. Geotech. Geol. Eng., 20, 41. Iovine G, Parise M, Trocino A, 2010. Breakdown mechanisms in gypsum caves of southern Italy, and the related effects at the surface. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, 54 (suppl. 2), 153. Klimchouk A, Andrejchuk V, 2002. Karst breakdown mechanisms from observation in the gypsum caves of the Western Ukraine: implications for subsidence hazard assessment. Int. J. Speleol., 31 (1/4), 55. Kowalski WC, 1991. Engineering geological aspects of different types of karst corrosion and fracture generation in karst masses. Bull. Int. Ass. Eng. Geologists, 44, 35. Liu D, Wang S, Li L, 2000. Investigation of fracture behavior during rock mass failure. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 37, 489. Lollino P, Parise M, 2005. The process of upward loosening of the roof of a karst cavern in a stratified limestone mass. Geophysical Research Abstract, 7, 07424. Lollino P, Parise M, Reina A, 2004. Numerical analysis of the behavior of a karst cavern at Castellana-Grotte, Italy. Proc. 1stInt. UDEC/3DEC Symp., Bochum, 29 September 1 October 2004, 49. Palmer AN, 1991. Origin and morphology of limestone caves. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 101, 1. Palmer AN, 2007. Cave geology. Cave Books. Parise M, 2003. Observation of surface features on an active landslide, and implications for understanding its history of movement. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 3 (6), 569.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings228

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Parise M, 2008. Rock failures in karst. In: Z Cheng, J Zhang, Z Li, F Wu and K Ho (Eds.). Landslides and Engineered Slopes. Proc. 10thInt. Symp. on Landslides, Xian (China), June 30 July 4, 1, 275. Parise M, 2010. The impacts of quarrying in the Apulian karst. In: F Carrasco, JW La Moreaux, JJ Duran Valsero and B Andreo (Eds.). Advances in research in karst media. Springer, 441. Parise M, 2012. A present risk from past activities: sinkhole occurrence above underground quarries. Carbonates and Evaporites, 27 (2), 10918. Parise M, Fiore A, 2011. Chronology of sinkhole events in Apulia, Italy. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 13, 3225. Parise M, Lollino P, 2011. A preliminary analysis of failure mechanisms in karst and man-made underground caves in Southern Italy. Geomorphology, 134 (1), 132. Parise M, Gunn J, (Eds.), 2007. Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas: Recognition, Analysis and Mitigation. Geol. Soc. London, Special Publications, 279, 202. Parise M, Trisciuzzi MA, 2007. Geomechanical characterization of carbonate rock masses in underground karst systems: a case study from Castellana-Grotte (Italy). In: A Tyc and K Stefaniak (Eds.). Karst and Cryokarst. Studies of the Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, 45, 227. Senfaute G, Merrien-Soukatchoff V, Morel J, Gourry JC, 2003. Microseismic monitoring applied to prediction of chalk cliff collapses and contribution of numerical modeling. In: L Picarelli (Ed.). Int. Conf. Fast Slope Movements, Naples, 463. Swedzicki T, 2001. Geotechnical precursors to large-scale ground collapse in mines. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 38, 957. Tharp TM, 1995. Mechanics of upward propagation of covercollapse sinkholes. Eng. Geol., 52, 23. Waltham T, Lu Z, 2007. Natural and anthropogenic rock collapse over open caves. In: M Parise and J Gunn (Eds.). Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas: recognition, analysis and mitigation. Geol. Soc. London, sp. Publ. 279, 13. Waltham AC, Swift GM, 2004. Bearing capacity of rock over mined cavities in Nottingham. Eng. Geol., 75, 15. White EL, 2005. Breakdown. In: DC Culver and WB White (Eds.). Encyclopedia of caves. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 56. White EL, White WB, 1969. Processes of cavern breakdown. Bull. Natl. Speleol. Soc., 31 (4), 83. Zupan Hajna N, 2003. Incomplete solution: weathering of cave walls and the production, transport and deposition of carbonate fines. Carsologica, Postojna-Ljubljana, 167. Figure 10. Plastic and fragile deformations in evaporite rocks of a gypsum cave of Calabria.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings229

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CLASSIFICATION OF ARTIFICIAL CAVITIES: A FIRST CONTRIBUTION BY THE UIS COMMISSIONMario Parise1,2, Carla Galeazzi1,3, Roberto Bixio1,4, Martin Dixon1,5 1UIS Commission on Artificial Cavities2CNR, Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, Bari, Italy; m.parise@ba.irpi.cnr.it3Egeria Centro Ricerche Sotterranee, Rome, Italy4Centro Studi Sotterranei, Genova, Italy5Subterranea Britannica, United Kingdom The article representes a contribution by the Commission on Artificial Cavities of the Union Internationale de Speleologie (UIS) aimed at defining a general classification of artificial cavities. The amount and variety of cavities realized underground by man is extremely high, and cover with variable peculiarities many areas of the world. Nevertheless, it is important to perform an attempt in classifying such great variety, through a classification comprising at least the main categories of observed situations. Starting from the work carried out in past years by the Italian Speleological Society, it is here presented a classification of artificial cavities based upon time and modality of realization, and organized through a typological tree where seven main categories are defined, each one of them in turn subdivided into sub-types. We hope that, referring in the next future to this classification, it will be possible to better organize and describe the works and researches on artificial cavities, and compare the situations present in different areas of the world.1. IntroductionIn several occasions, attempts have been made to develop a classification of artificial cavities, as a common base to describe the underground cavities produced by mans activities over time, and to share the related knowledge and great amount of researches done, that embrace many different fields of science (from geology and geomorphology, to archaeology, anthropology, history, and so on). In the past, more than one classification has been proposed. In most of the cases, the main drawback of these attempts relied in their strong dependence on the country of provenance of the authors (with, in turn, a stronger attention paid upon the most typical cavities of that country). In very few occasions the proposed classifications derived from the work of an international group where different countries were effectively represented. Nevertheless, some attempts have been done to put together international teams, with outcomes such as the lexicon of terms dealing with underground works presented at the International Symposium on Underground Quarries in Naples (Capuano et al. 1991). In Italy, a strong effort was produced during the last decades to put together the cavers and researchers interested in the topic of artificial cavities, by creating a dedicated Commission within the framework of the Italian Speleological Society (SSI). The Commission started its works in 1981, focusing on the issues of producing a preliminary classification of artificial cavities and, at the same time, preparing a form to be filled for inclusion of each artificial cave in the Italian register, managed by the SSI Commission itself (for further details, see www.ssi.speleo.it). In the years, many meetings and discussions were the object of the matter, until in the late 1990s a preliminary classification was proposed. Following the last International Congress of Speleology, held in Kerrville (Texas, USA) in 2009, and the re-start of the activity of the new UIS Commission on Artificial Cavities, the issue of producing a general classification of artificial cavities became again matter of discussion. At this aim, a specific workshop was organized in May 2011, and held in Turin (Italy), with the outcomes presented in a special issue of the journal Opera Ipogea, published by SSI (Parise 2013). On that occasion, starting from the Italian classification, some adjustments were produced, both in the organization of the structure, and as linguistic improvements; further, inclusion of new typologies was also considered, which brought to the present classification, that will be described in detail in the following sections, and is illustrated in the flow chart of Figure 1.2. Definition of artificial caveArtificial cavities are defined as underground works of historical and anthropological interest, realized by man or positively readjusted for his needs. Thus, artificial cavities include both man-made works (excavated, built underground or turned into underground structures by stratigraphic overlap) and natural caves, when these latter are readjusted to human needs in significant parts. To provide some examples to this regard, the natural caves used as shelters in the Alps during the First World War, and the hermitages in natural shelters can be mentioned. Size, development and frequency of artificial cavities at a given place are directly dependent upon the hardness of the rock, and, as a consequence, easiness of excavation. The characteristics of the cavities present in a given urban area are also closely related to the peculiarities of the site itself, and to its evolution and transformation as well. In many cases artificial cavities go back to a historical period of which there is no longer evidence at the surface. Therefore, cavities are often the only evidence left of pre-existing territorial organisations and of a lifestyle wiped out by the present urban development, owing to new and different needs developed in the course of time. Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings230

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The main reasons at the origin of the realization of artificial cavities in different epochs were the need to: obtain water and/or minerals; exploit the natural thermal properties of underground sites to survive in adverse weather conditions (Givoni and Katz 1985); overcome the shortage of timber for building and/or heating; bury the dead; find conditions of ascetic isolation; defend against raids, persecution, war; hide from justice; exploit the economy and/or ease of excavation of some types of rock compared to other construction techniques; take advantage of the shape of some rocky hills; obtain free areas for productive activities.2. Classification of artificial cavitiesThe main criteria at the origin of the present classification of artificial cavities have to be found in the need to characterize each man-made cave in terms of age of realization, technique of construction, and use of the cavity itself. As concerns the first issue above (that is, age of realization), it has to be noted that artificial cavities have been constructed for over thousands of years without interruptions since the remote past to the present days. Even our modern civilisation is still colonising the subsoil with a variety of works, that include but are not limited to: subways, car parks, road tunnels, shopping centres, scientific laboratories, military works, mines, etc. To provide an indication about age, following the standards in use in Italy the underground facilities can be distinguished as follows (lettering is the reference used in the Italian Register of Artificial Cavities): a = prehistoric b = protohistoric c = pre-Roman d = Roman kingdom / Republican e = Roman Imperial f = Late Antiquity (Sunset of the Roman Empire) g = high-Medieval (until about 1000) h = middle-late Middle Ages i = Renaissance (approximately, 1400) l = Modern Ages (until the French Revolution) m = XIX century n = XX century and later Apart from age, other elements have to be identified. These include: the technique of construction; the function (or purpose); the shape and development of the underground structure; the spatial correlation with the surrounding environment; the temporal correlation with the general historical events on a general, regional and local scale. Figure 1. Typological tree for the classification of artificial cavities.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings231

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3. CategoriesTaking into consideration the construction technique, several situations can be considered: cavities dug in the subsoil; cavities constructed in the subsoil; cavities obtained by re-covering; anomalous artificial cavities; mixed artificial cavities; natural caves modified by men. Cavities dug in the subsoil. These are underground structures in the strict sense: rooms obtained by removing stone materials (rocks) under the surface level, or inside rocky hills, or carved close to the surface of the cliff faces, canyons, ravines (for example, troglodytic structures). Cavities constructed in the subsoil. Excavation in trenches is realised with an open air excavation, followed by coating of the walls and construction of the vault. Excavation in gallery is realised by removing the rock entirely underground. The walls are then coated with different masonry techniques. Re-covered cavities. Human activity in urban areas often produces the covering, natural or artificial, of structures originally located on the surface. Anomalous artificial cavities. These structures are built on the surface, but with characteristics similar to those underground (for example, some military bunkers). Mixed artificial cavities They are the result of the digging to reach, extend or alter natural caves. Caves with anthropogenic interventions. Natural caves that have undergone limited human interventions. They represent the boundary between the natural caves and those of artificial origin (anthropogenic). In general, they are of limited extent.4. TypesAccording to the function for which an artificial cavity was, or is still, used, it can be classified in a specific type. The variety of underground artificial structures is very large. Consequently, the classification is organised like a tree, based on seven main types, in turn divided into sub-types (Fig. 1). The use is made easy by alphanumeric codes. Often different uses overlap in time; thus, a single site may have multiple classifications representing different periods in its life. 4.1. Type A Hydraulic underground works A.1 Water level control, drainage-ways Tunnels dug for the reclamation of marshlands and to stabilise the level of lakes (emissaries) and reservoirs (Judson and Kahani 1963; Castellani and Dragoni 1991, 1997; Caloi and Castellani 1991; Galeazzi et al. 2012). A.2 Underground stream interception structures Tunnels and galleries designed to capture underground water veins or dripping waters (Sadaf Yazdi and Labbaf Khaneiki 2010). The work of interception can consist either of a simple duct cut into the rock, or of a complex system integrated with building works. A.3 Underground water ducts: aqueducts Galleries and tunnels to carry water from the stream interceptions or other body of water to the users (Ashby 1935; Hodge 1992; Bodon et al. 1994; Parise et al. 2009). Deviations into galleries of water courses can allow the construction of bridges: the so-called Ponti Terra or Ponti Sodi (Etruscan technique). A.4 Cisterns, water reservoirs Underground spaces to store water, usually completed with waterproofing of the walls (Fig. 2). Figure 2. Cistern at Albano (Italy). Photo: G. Marchesi.A.5 Wells Vertical shaft to reach the water table and carry water to the surface. Those located within other underground structures are considered an integral part thereof. A.6 Hydraulic distribution works Tanks or other underground rooms in which one or more ducts converge and from which other ducts go out to distribute water to the users ( castellum aquae ). A.7 Sewer Tunnels or galleries for the discharge of grey or black waters produced by human settlements and industrial facilities. A.8 Ship, boat canals Canals built for passage of ships or boats (Fig. 3). They are found mainly in central Europe and the United Kingdom. A.9 Ice wells, snow-houses Deposits and/or manufacture of ice in the subsoil. Both natural cavities and artificial cavities were used for ice conservation, and use during the dry seasons. A.10 Tunnels or ducts with unknown function This sub-type include those traces of ducts that are identified as water works, but which specific function is not known with certainty. 4.2. Type B Hypogean civilian dwellings B.1 Permanent dwellings The sub-type comprises long term settlements, cave dwellings, and underground houses (i.e. Bixio 2012). Most cavities of this type have nowadays been abandoned. However, the historic Sassi of Matera (Southern Italy) are recovering thanks to recent, extensive renovation works. In Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings232

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China public buildings and private houses are still being digged into the rocks, and are inhabited by about thirty million people. In antiquity some sites have achieved the size and organisation of real urban hypogean areas, often complemented by brickworks (Golany 1988). B.2 Temporary shelters Seasonal settlements, shelters for shepherds during the transhumance, hiding-places of bandits, places of temporary detention. B.3 Underground plants, factories Rope-makers caves, oil mills, factories, working places no longer in use (Fig. 4). Military factories are classified D.1. B.4 Warehouses, stores, cellars Storage for farming equipment, wine cellars, storage for fruits and vegetables. If military, they are classified in D.5. B.5 Underground silos Cavities general accessed from above, carved into the rock and carefully closed by a stone to guarantee the preservation of food from animals or humidity. Sometimes they are bellshaped. B.6 Stables for any kind of animals Shelters for animals of any size: horses, chickens, other birds (except pigeons, see B7, and bees, see B8). B.7 Pigeon-houses Dovecote or pigeon-house are synonyms to indicate rocky structure used for the housing of pigeons, doves or similar birds (Fig. 5). B.8 Apiaries This sub-type has been recently included, following the proposal by Bixio and De Pascale (2013). Rock apiaries are widespread in many countries of the Mediterranean Basin. B.8 Any other kind of civilian settlements It is difficult to establish a complete list of all the types of settlements. Unusual or not understood works can be included here. 4.3. Type C Religioust structures, veneration works C.1 Nymphaeum, Mithraea, temples, sacred wells, shrines, monasteries, churches and chapels, etc. This category includes the main structures built for religious purposes (Rodley 2010; Fig. 6). In case they contain many burials, they are also classified in C.2. Conversely, if in a catacomb there are clear traces of the altar the site is also classified as type C.1. Figure 3. Canal at Cotswold (England). Photo: J. Orbons. Figure 4. Oil mill factory at Zelve (Turkey). Photo: R. Bixio. Figure 5. Pigeon-house at An (Turkey). Photo: R. Bixio.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings233

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4.5. Type E Mining works These structures can reach huge depths and development (Craddock 1980). E.1 Aggregate quarries Quarries of sandstone, pozzolana, limestone blocks, building stone or ornamental. The structures of this type which are no longer active, frequently have been or are still employed for other uses: cultivation, refugee, sport, tourism, scientific purposes, etc. E.2 Metal mines Mines of copper, iron, tin, lead, gold, etc. E.3 Mines and quarries of other materials (non-metallic) Underground quarries of flint, alum, sulphur, coal, sand for glass, ochre, salt, etc. E.4 Non-specific mining surveys Traces of excavation activities aimed at the identification of mineral deposits. They are typically exploratory tunnels of limited size. E.5 Underground spaces to grow vegetables In these spaces plant products are grown, typically mushrooms and vegetables. 4.6. Type F Transit underground works F.1 Tunnels for vehicles, pedestrian or horses Galleries at least a couple of metres wide, used in the past for the transit of carriages, wagons, horses. F.2 Transit works, not military The function is the same as F.1, but the dimensions are such as to not allow the transit of wagons and large animals. Only for pedestrian use: tunnels related to villas, castles, monasteries, tunnels to escape, and so on. They certainly do not include military works. F.3 Railway tunnels, tramways or funicular (out of use) Although fairly recent, many are already out of use. They include mine tunnels intended solely for haulage purposes and not for mining. C.2 Burial Places Crypts, chamber tombs, complex systems such as funerary columbaria, catacombs, and necropolis. 4.4. Type D Military and war works D.1 Defensive works Underground fortifications and linked works. D.2 Galleries and connecting passages Military structures for the transit of soldiers and arms; tunnels with military purposes, dating back to a number of different age and in many countries worldwide (Triolet and Triolet 2011). D.3 Mine and countermine tunnels Military tunnels and trenches with a specific role. Mine galleries: tunnels dug by the attackers to reach and undermine the foundations of the walls or defences of the defenders, or dug by the defenders to reach and undermine the artillery of the enemy (Fig. 7). Countermine galleries: tunnels dug by the defenders to intercept the mined tunnels and prevent the attack. D.4 Firing stations Rifles, machine guns, cannons and weapons of earlier periods, such as crossbows. In the First and Second World Wars many defensive structures were built underground: some of them were very large (like the Maginot Line, the Siegfried, the Metaxas etc.), whilst many others were isolated sites where the guns and other weapons were located. D.5 Deposits Underground military stores of ammunition, food or other commodities. It is not always easy to determine the intended use of some of these facilities. D.6 Sheltered accommodation for soldiers Shelters from the bombing, dormitories, military command posts. D.7 War shelters for civilians Underground places where the civilian population sought refuge during raids, invasion, shelling, and (particularly) air bombing. They can consist of a single room or develop for many hundred metres. Figure 6. Church at Kizil Cukur (Turkey). Photo: M. Traverso. Figure 7. Bastione Verde tunnel at Torino (Italy). Photo: F. Milla.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings234

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ReferencesAshby T, 1935. The aqueducts of ancient Rome. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Bixio R (Ed.), 2012. Cappadocia. Records of the underground sites. British Archaeological Reports, S2413, Oxford. Bixio R, De Pascale A, 2013. A new type of rocky work: the apiaries. Opera Ipogea, 1. Bodon G, Riera I, Zanovello P, 1994. Utilitas necessaria (sistemi idraulici nellItalia romana). Progetto Quarta Dimensione, Grafiche Falletti, Milano. Caloi V, Castellani V, 1991. Note on the ancient emissary of lake Nemi. Proc. 3rdInt. Symposium on Underground Quarries, Naples, 10 July 1991, 206. Capuano E, Orbons J, Beamon S, Sowan P, Morlo H, Silvertant J, De Block G, Luccio F, 1991. Lexicon of words concerning the subterranealogy. Proc. 3rdInt. Symposium on Underground Quarries, Naples, 10 July 1991, 292. Castellani V, Dragoni W, 1991. Italian tunnels in antiquity. Tunnels & Tunneling, 23 (3), 55. Castellani V, Dragoni W, 1997. Ancient tunnels: from roman outlets back to early greek civilization. Proc. 12thInt. Congr. Speleology, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, 3. Craddock PT (Ed.), 1980. Scientific studies in early mining and extractive metallurgy. British Museum, occasional paper 20. Galeazzi C, Germani C, Parise M, 2012. Gli antichi emissari artificiali dei bacini endoreici. Opera Ipogea, 1,3. Givoni B, Katz L, 1985. Earth temperatures and underground buildings. Energy & Buildings, 8, 15. Golany GS, 1988. Earth shelter dwellings in Tunisia. Associated University Press, USA. Hodge AT, 1992. Roman aqueducts and water supply. London. Judson S, Kahane A, 1963. Underground drainageways in southern Etruria and northern Latium. Papers of the British School at Rome, 31, 74. Parise M (Ed.), 2013. Proceedings of the Workshop Classification of typologies of artificial cavities in the world. Opera Ipogea, 1. Parise M, Bixio R, Burri E, Caloi V, Del Prete S, Galeazzi C, Germani C, Guglia P, Meneghini M, Sammarco M, 2009. The map of ancient underground aqueducts: a nation-wide project by the Italian Speleological Society. Proceedings 15thInternational Congress of Speleology, Kerrville (Texas, USA), 19 July 2009, 3, 2027. Rodley L, 2010. Cave monasteries of Byzantine Cappadocia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Triolet J, Triolet L, 2011. La guerre souterraine. Perrin, Paris. Semsar Yazdi AA, Labbaf Khaneiki M, 2010. Veins of desert. Iran Water Resources Management Organization.F.4 Non-hydraulic wells, shafts etc. The wells created for the access, the inspection, or the maintenance of artificial cavities (Fig. 8), today no longer in use because of occlusions or other reasons. 4.7. Type G Other works This final and generic category is intended to include all those underground works that do not directly belong to one of the before mentioned types. For instance, the wells that are not part of other undergrounds structures with unknown function (ventilation wells, light wells, cavities for technical spaces, passages, wells for alignment) find space in this typology.5. ConclusionsThe classification here presented, derived from that defined by the Italian Commission, and with further work by the UIS Commission, is not exhaustive, but can represent a starting point for further work and discussion by other scholars interested in artificial cavities. We hope it may be widely used, as it is mostly aimed at facilitating the discussion among researchers, and at stimulating other cavers and scientists interested in artificial cavities.AcknowledgmentsWe are deeply indebted to many people that in the past years have worked and discussed with us about the need to classifying artificial cavities: among them, we would like here to mention Vittoria Caloi, Giulio Cappa, Vittorio Castellani, Carlo Germani, Joep Orbons, Jerome and Laurent Triolet. Figure 8. Well at M. Loreto (Italy). Photo: R. Bixio.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings235

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE GEOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS IN THE EXCAVATION OF ARTIFICIAL CAVITIESSossio Del Prete1, Mario Parise2 1 Geologist, Campania Speleological Federation, Naples, Italy, dpsossio@gmail.com2National Research Council, IRPI, Via Amendola 122-I, m.parise@ba.irpi.cnr.it The habit of man to excavate artificial cavities began a very long time ago. Mans efforts were initially moved by the need to have a safe place to live, to control the surrounding territory, to collect and transport water, to exploit the natural resources. For all these purposes, he had to face a number of geological and morphological constraints that, depending on site characteristics, guided, favored or complicated the excavation. Therefore, all the phases in the life of an artificial cavity, from the original idea, to planning and realization, up to its later evolution and possible conservation, depend in some ways on geology and morphology. Lithology of hosting rock is the first aspect to consider: the rock mass must allow hand excavation but, at the same time, it should present physical-mechanical characteristics such to support the newlyformed cavity. The geological and structural setting, including the main faults and the discontinuity systems in the rock mass, have to be particularly taken into account. Choice of the site where to locate an artificial cavity is also dictated by morphology, the morphological factors being, in turn, strictly related to land management and control. When safety reasons were considered to be the main priority, for instance, those sites that apparently were extremely difficult to excavate and to settle in were chosen. Morphology is also strictly related to slope instability. Several rock settlements situated at the borders of deep valleys and ravines are directly involved in mass movements, due to natural evolution of the slopes and to open cracks produced by the tensional release in the unsupported rock mass. Inside the artificial cavities, in turn, problems of instability may be observed. Locally, these may become so significant to compromise the overall stability of the structure. Slope instability processes deserve a greater attention from cavers and scientists, since their effects might be extremely dangerous for people visiting and working in artificial cavities, and for the cultural heritage therein contained as well. Availability of water resources is a further factor that controlled during historical times the choice of sites for settlements and towns. As a consequence, the hydrogeology plays a crucial role for artificial cavities, and particularly for those works intended to collect and transport water to settlers and inhabitants. Aqueducts, tunnels, fountains are, for the reasons above, very important to study in the context of the geological and hydrogeological setting, considering at the same time the social and historical aspects of the community that designed and realized them. The present contribution is an attempt in categorizing the aforementioned factors that play a role in the realization of artificial cavities. The topic is very wide, covering several interrelated disciplines and field of research, and should deserve to be treated with much greater detail and thoroughness. Our goal is therefore to stimulate with this article cavers and interested scientists in carrying out studies about the crucial role that geology and morphology have in the development of artificial cavities1. IntroductionArtificial cavities have been realized in many different parts of the world, in different epochs and for a variety of purposes. Whatever the sites, and the purpose of the excavation, man had to face a number of natural constraints in order to properly realize the cavity, and to assure its stability for a given time. The local landforms, as well as the processes active in changing it, had to be well known, in order to avoid dangerous situations, eventually resulting in partial or total destruction of the cavity, or in catastrophic failures during its excavation. In turn, the morphological features are related to geology at the site (Fig. 1), and to the hydrologic regime. All of these elements played a very important role in the choice of the sites where to dig the cave, and had to be considered in combination with other factors such as the strategic location and the control of the surrounding territory. Over time, a great variety of people and culture had developed remarkable capabilities to adapt to even extreme environments, and to subtract rocks from the original landscape in order to create a place to be used as shelter, house, storage site, etc. There are in fact many reasons that brought different cultures to develop subtractive techniques and technologies: among the main ones, we recall here war (with both the goals of offense and defense), religion, economical and social reasons. In any case, the development of real underground cities was strongly influenced by geographical, climate and geological aspects. As concerns the geological setting, many factors have to be taken into account in the realization of artificial caves and underground settlements. Their importance may vary as a Figure 1. The flank of one of the many gravine-type valleys at Ginosa di Puglia, showing a number of artificial cavities located following the several flat surfaces degrading toward the valley thalweg.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings236

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function of the use of the artificial cave and the intended benefits. Generally, the presence of the so-called weak rocks (that is, materials easy to excavate, but at the same time with technical properties such to use them for construction) granted for underground quarries, from where building stones were extracted for troglodyte and religious settlements. Location and development of mines for the extraction of metal bearing rocks was, on the other hand, conditioned by the deposit and the strength of the mineral vein (Fig. 2), as well as by the industrial technologies available at the time of the mine activity. Moving to other typologies of artificial cavities, such as hydraulic and military works, it has to be noted that during the realization of aqueducts (Ashby 1935; Bodon et al. 1994) or military corridors (Gherlizza and Radacich 2005), the difficulties of excavating more resistant rocks (for instance, hard carbonate rocks as limestones) were less important than the goal (that is, to bring water to a civil or military settlement). In these cases, the morphological factors greatly affected the choice of the path, and the development of the work as well. The greater difficulties encountered during the excavation because of the lithologic characteristics were generally balanced out by the realization of cavities with a reduced section, though with an important spatial development. In the case of communication routes and roads, the need to overcome morphological obstacles led to the realization of tunnels. Ancient Etruscan and Romans were masters in building narrow tunnels, where a single file of wagons and horses could pass (see Vitruvio, De Architectura). Big underground cavities, on the other hand, and in particular cisterns and quarries, changed frequently destination, turning into manufactories, bomb shelters, underground deposits, cemeteries, etc.2. Lithology and technical propertiesThe use of an underground cavity in time is strongly affected by the mechanic characteristics of the rock mass, which in turn controls the more proper excavation section. The latter has to play a primary role for self-bearing vaults, thus allowing the safe use of the cavity. Searching the rocks with the best characteristics (Fig. 3) was the first step to fulfill in order to have the possibility to realize a long-lasting cavity. Volcanic rocks present generally good mechanical properties, and have often been used in antiquity as sites for developing human settlements. The variety of volcanic rocks, in turn, showing quite different strength and physical properties, was another important factor that made possible, in a limited territory, to look for rocks to be used in different situations and for different purposes. For instance, volcanic rocks are associated to the Quaternary volcanic activity along the Tyrrhenian coastlines of central-southern Italy in Tuscany, Latium, and Campania. These territories had volcanic deposits consisting of a limited lava layer, with extended tephra (the so-called pozzolana) and pyroclastic rocks (tuffs of different varieties, such as piperno in the Campanian area). Those are classified as weak rocks, but they are suitable building materials with good physical and mechanical properties, easily workable and acting as good heat insulators (AAVV 1967). Further, the great amount of available material made them the most common building and ornamental materials in the Greek and Roman periods (Zevi 1994; Piciocchi and Piciocchi 2005), as many monuments still testify. Another type of rocks that used to be excavated is represented by sedimentary rocks, in particular the variously cemented and porous calcarenites of Pliocene Pleistocene age (Fig. 4); in many cases, these rocks are of biogenic origin, showing many fragments of Bryozoans, Echinids, Crustacea and Mollusks. Calcarenite rocks also played a primary role in the subtractive architecture, representing the main available material in those regions of Italy without presence of volcanic rocks (Apulia, and sectors of Basilicata and Sicily). These rocks are improperly known as calcareous tuffs, due to similarities in fabric and appearance with volcanic tuffs; with these latter, they also share the characteristic of having suitable physical and mechanical properties, are easy to be excavated and sufficiently porous (Andriani and Walsh 2002, 2003). Other lithotypes are easy to be excavated, and can selfsustain vaults. Thus, the presence of volcanic tuffs, sandstones and calcarenites, when combined with availability of water and the proper morphological setting, possibly with sub-vertical walls granting good strategic Figure 2. The bauxite level interbedded in the Mesozoic limestone sequence controls location and development of mines. Figure 3. Artificial cavities in a coastal area of southern Italy: note that all the caves open at the same level, characterized by easy-to be worked rock, and overlain by a stiffer layer, that constitutes the roof of the cave.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings237

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defense, represented the first element for the choice of the sites where to locate a settlement. When considering other types of artificial cavity, however, the things are quite different. As concerns mines, for instance, the fundamental geological element required to be known is the stratigraphic and structural setting, that determines the presence of a mineral vein along a particular direction. Underground mines had to definitely follow this strike, once determined. This is evident especially in prehistoric caves, where technological limits brought to narrow galleries in compact rocks. The flint mines of Defensola (5500 B.C.) in Gargano (Galiberti 2005; Tarantini 2007) are characterized by sub-horizontal excavations of a few calcareous layers in passages 60 cmhigh, quite low but sufficient to extract flint stones. The copper mine in Monte Loreto (3500 B.C.) has a copper vein in a fracture wide from 0.4 to 1 m (Bixio et al. 1999). In underground mines, stability problems may arise when a passage develops through different materials (Fig. 5) with very different mechanical characteristic (Bieniawski 1979). At the contact between the different rocks it may be necessary to cover and/or sustain the walls and vaults, or to reduce the section of the gallery (Del Prete and Di Crescenzo 2008). In some cases, this may also happen in the same lithology, due to the presence of water veins, draining fractures, or frequent discontinuities which cause a high degree of fracturing in the rock mass.3. Water: its availability, hydrology and hydrogeologyWater availability is a crucial factor for establishing any human settlement, as it granted solutions for drinking and sanitary needs. It was therefore necessary to have a good knowledge of the basic hydrological features of a given territory to decide where to settle and how to manage the water collection, transport and storage (Parise et al. 2009; Parise 2011). For this reason, very long channels were generally realized by carving the rocks, which branched in underground tunnels and cisterns as they reached the settlement. Ancient aqueducts were exclusively open air; the choice of the springs to tap, and the path of the aqueduct as well, were conditioned by the difference in elevation between the source and the final destination (Castellani 1999). This granted the right water load for public and private fountains. An interesting example can be drawn from the town of Naples, when during the Spanish vice Realm, at the end of the 17thcentury, human settlements in the hilly quarters had to withdraw waters from wells, because ancient aqueducts had not the necessary water loads (Fiengo 1990). The subterranean hydrogeological circulation plays a primary role for the realization, the stability and the preservation of an underground work (Delle Rose et al. 2006). The groundwater circulation is an important conditioning aspect during the realization and the fruition of the work. It is a function of primary and secondary permeability of each rock formation. In case of lithoid rocks, the presence of draining or plugging fractures can create serious risks of flooding and make impossible the actual fruition of the cave. In other situations (i.e. mines), deepening the excavation may result in intercepting the water table (Fig. 6), with the evident necessity of lowering it by pumping out waters; if this solution is not economically convenient, works will be abandoned. If, on the other hand, the richness or interest of the deposit brings to lower the piezometric surface, once the extraction activity ends the underground works will be totally submerged (as at the Naica caves, in Mexico; Lang 1995). In addition to aqueducts, that have always been considered as one of the most typical engineering works characterizing past civilizations, control of the lake levels and reclaiming of marsh lands are other important hydraulic works. The possibility of restoring unhealthy, marsh lands has always been a determining aspect for the realization of drainage tunnels, as at the Lakes of Nemi (Castellani et al. 2003), Albano (Castellani and Dragoni 1991, 1997; Caloi et al. 2012), and Fucino (Burri 1987; 2005). There are many geological and structural factors that affect the distribution of springs and their discharge, depending on the subterranean groundwater catchment. Their quality is important for capturing and transporting waters through aqueducts. If walls and the bottom of these works are not covered, after years of abandonment they can be remodeled by water erosion. Thus, very particular speleogenetic features can be observed, where the formation of a natural cavity in rocks is due to mechanical Figure 4. An artificial cavity in calcarenite rock, strongly controlled by a tectonic disconituity. Figure 5. Lithotypes with different technical properties can influence the stability, size and morphology of the cavity.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings238

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5. From beneath the Earth: the endogenous factorsVolcanic eruptions deposit tuff and pyroclastic material: this is one of the main influences of endogenous strengths, as it is the generating event of one of the most suitable rock layer of hypogeal works. Another interesting and risky endogenous aspect, which is associated to mines and especially to carbon mines, is the presence of gas (also known as grisou), which is difficult to localize and has caused so many deaths in different times. Similar problems can rise during the excavation of tunnels in clay formations, if they are rich of organic substances. Locally, hypogea in volcanic areas can intercept the uprising of endogenous gas: a very famous example is the Cave of the Dog in Agnano (Baldi 2001). As concerns endogenous factors, there is also the influence of fossil fumaroles (degassing pipes) on the lithotechnique characteristics of tuff formations, since degassing can occur when the pyroclastic falls cool down. This may bring to removal of the fine matrix, leaving rough incoherent elements. These fumaroles are sub-vertical and irregularly shaped. Their grain size is similar to melted gravel deposits, which has very different load characteristics from the tuff layers. Bradyseism is also associated to internal dynamics of the Earth, and it may affect the use of an artificial hypogeum in time. The artificial cavities on the coasts of a volcanic area may be under sea level because of negative movements of the Earths crust. Thus, they may be confused with natural cavities, which were generated by the sea erosion. In the Phlegraean Fields of Campania, many ancient Greek and Roman villages are now under the sea level. The same happened to some tunnels from the Greek era near Castel dellOvo in Naples (Cilek et al. 1992), to the cave called Spuntatore or Varule, in the island of Ischia (Buchner 1943), and to many others cavities (Simeone et al. 2008; Ferrari and Lamagna 2011) which in 2000 years has sunk some meters under the sea level.6. How long will the cavity last? The stability of subterranean worksArtificial cavities are often abandoned, but the necessary precautions about their preservation are rarely taken. For erosion, which is induced by the pre-existence of an abandoned artificial cavity.4. Morphology: the need to integrate the natural landscapeThe erosion and degradation processes that model the landscape have a primary role in the definition of rupestrian structures and subterranean works and in their preservation in time. Earth pyramids, butte, mesa, plateau are morphologies produced by the action of weathering (physical disintegration and chemical alteration), of gravity (landslides) and of water erosion; for this same reasons, they are destined to decay. The same process that generated particularly suitable morphologies can destroy the rupestrian settlements, sometimes very quickly, as in the case of landslides (Fig. 7). They may also generate accumulations that are more suitable than the original morphology to the development of rupestrian architecture. A tuff cliff can collapse, and this bring in turn to underground rooms to open air, but a further evolution of the process may lead to a total loss of the hypogeal heritage. Some collapses due to landslides produce big tuff blocks (thousands of cubic metres) that can produce the realization of another particular rupestrian settlement. To provide an example, green tuff blocks in the island of Ischia island detached from the tuff ridge of Mount Epomeo: they were excavated to realize different rupestrian structures, including multi-stories habitations (DArbitrio and Ziviello 1991; Mele and Del Prete 1998). The stone blocks were used in their original morphology without plaster, leaving the rude tuff surface covered with lichens and altered by the erosion of rain and wind. This helped the adaptation of the structures to the environment in search of a defensive mimesis. Some areas are characterized by frequent thermal variations of freeze/thaw cycles: in these areas physical disintegration due to constant heating and freezing occur, whose effects are gradually evident in time. The level of porosity and the kind of fissuring characterize the attitude of rocks to suffer these processes, leading to the crumbling of the rock in small blocks or flakes (exfoliation). The effect of exfoliation in the Valley of Meskendir (Cappadocia, Turkey) on the walls of draining tunnels contributed to remodeling the original sections during thousands of years (Bertucci et al. 1995). Figure 6. A passage flooded by water in a lignite mine. Figure 7. Rock failures in a gravina at Massafra (Apulia), threatening several artificial cavities.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings239

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this reason many cavities suffer of instability problems, also creating a risk for the above territory. The closure of the original entrances may aggravate the situation, as well as the loss of memory and information about the spatial distributions of the hypogea is at the origin of an increase in the related risk. The more frequent failures in cavities are detachments of blocks or slabs (up to dozens square meters) from the vaults (Fig. 8) and/or from the pillars (Parise 2013). These partial collapses are frequently sudden and without premonition, and may occur even hundreds of years after the excavation. The instability of slopes where cavities are present, due to the thinning of pillars is particularly risky when they endanger archaeological sites, as in many gravine-type valleys in Apulia and Basilicata. In many cases, the external walls of cavities partially collapsed (Bertucci et al. 1995; Bixio et al. 2002; Pecorella et al. 2004; Parise 2007, 2012), and the stability of many cavities is seriously compromised by open cracks in pillars and vaults. With the exception of the above mentioned situations, the general effect of collapses is localized to the underground cavity and its nearby areas, with moderate damage to people and things; even so, the alteration of the static conditions can be extremely dangerous and originate a general collapse, with severe consequences on the structures at the ground surface. These situations occur in areas where the intense subterranean excavation has caused slow subsidence or sinkholes (anthropogenic sinkhole). Such a phenomenon has been observed in several quarrying areas of Apulia (Bruno and Cherubini 2005; Parise and Lollino 2011; Parise 2012), where the intensive extraction of local calcarenite and of overhanging clay has caused serious instability in the last decades. Similar situations occur in the urban area of Naples and the surrounding plain (AAVV 1967; Evangelista 1991; Evangelista et al. 1980). The discontinuities within a hypogeum can be of different nature: they can be pre-existing and strictly connected to the genesis of the rock formation (such as syngenetic fractures in a tuff formation, which can be caused by rapid cooling of melted deposits); others can be successive, due to the tensional redistribution after the excavation, to tectonic vicissitude that involved the formation and to tensional releases in correspondence of sub-vertical cliffs. The discontinuities in a rock mass work as sites of stress concentration and activate a progressive long-term reduction of the material resistance. Knowledge of the effective stability conditions of a cavity (for instance, the study of the fissured vaults) and of the possible causes of collapse is necessary for a correct evaluation of the risks in subterranean failures. The study on stability conditions is indispensable to set the priorities to plan consolidating works, while the analysis of the possible causes of collapse help to choose the most suitable techniques for the monitoring of the failures.7. ConclusionsInfluence of geological and geomorphological features on the realization of subterranean works is a complex and wide topic. Generally, the roles of the various factors can be examined singularly, but they overlap and act together in combinations that depend also on environmental factors (geography and climate) and on time. For instance, mechanical erosion of running waters and thermal fractures contribute to the remodeling of the section in a draining gallery. Techniques of subterranean excavation are conditioned by geomechanical and/or hydrogeological aspects, which affect times and future usability of the works. Underground water influences the realization and the use of a subterranean structure. A settlement or a warehouse can be used only if they were realized in well draining rocks, which granted for suitable humidity levels. An economical interest can suggest the drainage of a great quantity of water in mine works or in the construction of an important road. The overlapping endogenous (resurfacing of fluids at high temperatures) and structural (such as draining or filled tectonic structures) factors can complicate the realization of underground works, with repercussions on times of realization and costs. It is generally evident that the study of geological aspects supplies for important indications about the socio-economic aspects that brought populations and cultures to realize and use subterranean structures.ReferencesAAVV, 1967. Il sottosuolo di Napoli. Municipality of Naples, 466. Andriani GF, Walsh N, 2003. Fabric, porosity and permeability of calcarenites from Apulia (SE Italy) used as building and ornamental stones. Bull. Eng. Geol. and Environ., 62, 77. Andriani GF, Walsh N, 2002. Physical properties and textural parameters of calcarenitic rocks: qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Engineering Geology, 67 (1), 5. Figure 8. Slab detachment from the vault in lacustrine deposits of a lignite mine.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings240

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Ashby T, 1935. The Aqueducts of Ancient Rome. Claredon Press, Oxford. Baldi A, 2001. La Grotta del Cane ad Agnano. Studi etnoantropologici e sociologici, 29, 36. Bertucci G, Bixio R, Traverso M, 1995. Le Citt sotterranee della Cappadocia. Opera Ipogea, 1, 1. Bieniawski ZT, 1979. The geomechanics classification in rock engineering applications. Proc. 4thInt. Congr. Rock Mechanics, Montreux. Bixio R, Saj S, Traverso M, 1999. Indagine in una miniera preistorica della Liguria orientale. Opera Ipogea, 1, 47. Bixio R, Castellani V, Succhiarelli C (Eds.), 2002. Cappadocia le Citt sotterranee. Ist. Poligr. Zecca Stato, Roma, 319. Bodon G, Riera I, Zanovello P, 1994. Utilitas necessaria. Progetto Quarta dimensione, Grafiche Folletti, Milano. Bruno G, Cherubini C, 2005. Subsidence induced by the instability of weak rock underground quarries in Apulia. Giornale di Geologia Applicata, 1, 33. Buchner P, 1943. Formazione e sviluppo dellisola dIschia. Natura, 34, 39. Burri E, 1987. Lake Fucino (Abruzzi Central Italy): ancient and recent drainage of a karstic lake. Proc. Int. Symp. Human Influence in Karst, Ljubljana, 19. Burri E, 2005. Il Fucino e il suo collettore sotterraneo. Opera Ipogea, 1, 56. Caloi V, Galeazzi C, Germani C, 2012. Gli emissari maggiori dei Colli Albani. Opera Ipogea, 1, 29. Castellani V, 1999. La civilt dellacqua. Editorial Service System, Roma, 256. Castellani V, Dragoni W, 1991. Italian tunnels in antiquity. Tunnels & Tunneling, 23 (3), 55. Castellani V, Dragoni W, 1997. Ancient tunnels: from roman outlets back to early greek civilization. Proc. 12thInt. Congr. Speleology, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, 3. Castellani V, Caloi V, Dobosz T, Galeazzi C, Galeazzi S, Germani C, 2003. Lemissario del Lago di Nemi. Indagine topograficostrutturale. Opera Ipogea, 2/3, 2. Cilek V, Sutta V, Wgner J, 1991. Under-sea tunnels in the vicinity of Castel dellOvo in Naples. Proc. III Int. Symp. on Underground Quarries, Napoli, 10 June 1991, 173. DArbitrio N, Ziviello L, 1991. Ischia. Larchitettura rupestre delle case di pietra. Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 142. Del Prete S, Di Crescenzo G, 2008. Zonizzazione geomeccanica di gallerie minerarie abbandonate: il caso di studio della miniera di Fontana Tasso (Monti del Matese, Campania). Opera Ipogea, 1/2, 89. Delle Rose M, Giuri F, Guastella P, Parise M, Sammarco M, 2006. Aspetti archeologici e condizioni geologico-morfologiche degli antichi acquedotti pugliesi. Lesempio dellacquedotto del Triglio nellarea tarantina. Opera Ipogea, 1, 33. Evangelista A, 1991. Cavit e dissesti nel sottosuolo dellarea napoletana. Proc. Conv. Rischi naturali ed impatto antropico nellarea metropolitana napoletana, Acta Neapolitana, Guida Editori, 195. Evangelista A, Lapegna U, Pellegrino A, 1980. Problemi geotecnici nella citt di Napoli per la presenza di cavit nella formazione del tufo. Proc. XIV Nat. Congr. Geotechnique, Firenze, 163. Ferrari G, Lamagna R, 2011. La grotta del Lazzaretto (Napoli). Opera Ipogea, 1/2, 61. Fiengo G, 1990. Lacquedotto di Carmignano e lo sviluppo di Napoli in et barocca. Olshki, Firenze, 239. Galiberti A (Ed.), 2005. Defensola. Una miniera di selce di 7000 anni fa. Protagon, Siena. Gherlizza F, Radacich M, 2005. Grotte della Grande Guerra. Club Alpinistico Triestino Gruppo Grotte, Trieste, 352. Lang JR, 1995. A geological evaluation of the Naica deposit, Chihuahua, Mexico. Int. Rep., Compaia Fresnillo, 109. Mele R, Del Prete S, 1998. Fenomeni di instabilit dei versanti in Tufo Verde del Monte Epomeo (isola dIschia Campania). Boll. Soc. Geol. It., 117 (1), 9312. Parise M, 2007. Pericolosit geomorfologica in ambiente carsico: le gravine dellarco ionico tarantino. Atti e Memorie Commissione Grotte E. Boegan, 41, 81. Parise M, 2011. Managing water resources in the karst of southern Italy: an historical survey. Proc. H2Karst, 9thConf. on Limestone Hydrogeology, Besanon, 383. Parise M, 2012. A present risk from past activities: sinkhole occurrence above underground quarries. Carbonates and Evaporites, 27 (2), 10918. Parise M, 2013. Recognition of instability features in artificial cavities. Proc. 16thInt. Congr. Speleology, Brno (Czech Republic). Parise M, Lollino P, 2011. A preliminary analysis of failure mechanisms in karst and man-made underground caves in Southern Italy. Geomorphology, 134 (1), 132. Parise M, Bixio R, Burri E, Caloi V, Del Prete S, Galeazzi C, Germani C, Guglia P, Meneghini M, Sammarco M, 2009. The map of ancient underground aqueducts: a nation-wide project by the Italian Speleological Society. Proc. 15thInt. Congr. Spel., Kerrville (Texas, USA), 19 July 2009, 3, 2027. Pecorella G, Federico A, Parise M, Buzzacchino A, Lollino P, 2004. Condizioni di stabilit di complessi rupestri nella Gravina Madonna della Scala a Massafra (Taranto, Puglia). Grotte e dintorni, 8, 3. Piciocchi A, Piciocchi C, 2005. Le cavit artificiali della Piana Campana. In: N Russo, S Del Prete, I Giulivo and A Santo (Eds.). Grotte e speleologia della Campania. Sellino, Avellino, 175. Simeone M, Masucci P, Villani G, Pagliarani A, Nigro F, 2008. Le Grotte di Trentaremi e le altre cavit costiere dellArea Marina Protetta Parco Sommerso di Gaiola (Golfo di Napoli): aspetti geoarcheologici ed ecologici. Opera Ipogea, 1/2, 307. Tarantini M, 2007. Le miniere preistoriche di selce del Gargano (5.500.500 a.C.). Grotte e dintorni, 12, 9910. Zevi F (Ed.), 1994. Neapolis. Guida Editore, Naples, 300.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings241

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THE ANCIENT MINES OF USSEGLIO (TORINO, ITALY) MULTI-YEAR PROGRAMME OF RECORDING, STUDY, PRESERVATION AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MINING HERITAGE IN AN ALPINE VALLEYMaurizio Rossi1, Anna Gattiglia1, Daniele Castelli2, Claudia Chiappino3, Renato Nisbet4, Luca Patria5, Franca Porticelli6, Giacomo Re Fiorentin7, Piergiorgio Rossetti2 1Civic Alpine Museum Arnaldo Tazzetti,Usseglio (Torino),museocivicoalpinousseglio@antropologiaalpina.it2Departmentof Earth Sciences, Torino University, daniele.castelli@unito.it; piergiorgio.rossetti@unito.it3Artificial Cavities Commission of SSI National Mining Engineer Association, Torino, c.chiappino@7srl.eu4Archaeobotany Laboratory, Venezia University Ca Foscari, renisbet@tin.it5Alpine Culture Research Centre, Exilles (Torino), temaranata@gmail.com6National University Library, Torino, franca.porticelli@beniculturali.it7ARPA Piemonte, Tematic Department of Geology and Instability, Torino, giacrefi@arpa.piemonte.it The programme started in 2001 and developed a large set of operations in order to create a geo-topographic and historicalenvironmental database, to rebuild the chronology (relative and absolute) of mining works in the Punta Corna complex (high Arns and Servn valleys) and the extractive activities effects on the Usseglio economy and more broadly on Lanzo Valleys economy. The main part of the operations has been conducted directly by the Civic Alpine Museum staff, but in some aspects (such as deciphering medieval documents, mineralogy, petrography, GNSS surveys, aerial photography, restoration of the steel archaeo-mining finds, and so on), a strict co-operation with university teachers and other specialists or qualified technical figures was requested and realized. This open and multi-disciplinary approach will guarantee, also into the future, the best exploration and knowledge of this enormous heritage. According to the experience of the senior archaeologists (responsible to the Civic Alpine Museum), a group of underground experts mining engineers and speleologists specialized in artificial cavities will carry out explorations and surveys, to collect precious information connected to the external records.1. Topography and GeologyThe Punta Corna mountain mining complex is located on the left side of the Arns stream valley (western Po basin), spreading from 2,250 to 2,900 m a.s.l. (main peaks attain 2,930 up to 3,108 m a.s.l.), between Rossa Lake (hydroelectric storage near French border, 2,718 m a.s.l.) westwards and Torre dOvarda mountain group (3,075 m a.s.l.) eastwards. The siderite and Co-Fe-Ni arsenides mineralisations belong to a trending system of post-metamorphic hydrothermal veins, mainly within the metabasites of the Piemonte Zone. These veins formed because of the circulation of hydrothermal fluids along extensional structures linked to brittle deformation events which affected the rocks at the end of the Alpine orogenesis. The mining complex is protected by the institution of a 10 km area, wherein the mineral collection and the removal of man-made objects are totally forbidden.2. Aerial reconnaissance and field survey of archaic minesAerial reconnaissance and field survey point out a strip of some kilometres long, up to 10 m wide and 12 m deep, open air trenches, issued from archaic iron ores mining; their order of magnitude is equal to todays industrial plants, like roads, hydroelectric power plants or dams. These trenches are associated with pits, ditches, descending galleries (often intentionally back-filled after the end of the exploitation), sinkholes, undermined boulders, spoil banks, remnants of little rough-stone half-buried buildings and also walls, used for terracing, ore crushing and picking, sheltering gallery entrances and closing natural rockshelters.3. Technical features of archaic exploitationThe exploitation was focused on iron hydroxides (limonite, goethite), resulting from siderite decay. The fragmentation was strictly limited to mineralised veins, particularly in upper and softer levels; it halted when reaching inner and harder levels of massive, un-weathered iron carbonates (siderite). No drill holes and only rare tool marks are visible on the trench sidewalls. Miners used steel hand tools, occasionally found near the trenches during field survey.4. Present look of trenchesToday, iron ores are seldom visible in the open air, because they have been nearly completely removed by the exploiters. Trenches are partly occupied by unremoved Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings242

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boulders and panels of the embedding rock, so their bottom is presently unattainable; nevertheless, they seem sometimes to be connected to descending gallery entrances in lower levels. Sidewalls are generally stable; widespread spoil banks run along the ditches.5. Present look of pits, ditches and sink-holesAll these features are excavated under main boulders, which shelter the access to veins; they are circular, oval or funnelshaped, placed above buried veins, flanked by little, moundshaped spoil banks, obstructed by post-functional collapses Figure 1. Trenches R1-201 and R1-202 (left); iron hydroxides and embedding rock panels in trench T1-202 (right). Figure 2. Vertical section and photographic view of a typical archaic plant.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings243

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or back-filled after the end of the exploitation. Underground, rough-stone walls, slabs and stairs are preserved for few metres. In general, the structures are well preserved in comparison with their working time, because of scarce post-functional colluvium.6. Pre-blasting miningGunpowder use in mining activities begins in the 17thcentury: the first statements in the Duchy of Savoy date from 1671, in the Duchy of Milan from 1665. The organization of a pre-blasting mining exploitation, possibly similar to the Usseglio examples, can be observed in the polyptych by Hans Hesse (1522) for the altar of mine workers in the Church of St. Anne at Annaberg-Buchholz (Herzgebirge, Sachsen, Germany).7. ChronologyThe dating of archaic exploitation to the middle ages is based on archaeological finds, particularly steel tools (12th 14thcentury) and pottery (11ththcentury), and on historical documents, referring to mining activity, cast iron, steel and silver production, and ore thefts, in the years 1264 (already carrying on previous contracts), 1316, 1318, 1333, 1335, 1402, 1438, and 1515.8. The age of cobaltSince 1753, after a long period of scarce production, a new chapter begins, because of the discovery of cobalt ores, exploited by Counts Rebuffo di Traves alongside copper and silver (cobalt-iron-nickel arsenides with tetrahedrites). Two maps, dating to 1758, mark the exact positions and directions of several veins. In 1758, a building named Casere, much larger than medieval ones, was built at an altitude of 2,625 m a.s.l. near Veil Lake to house the workers.9. A proto-industrial perspectiveThe exploitation is no longer opencast mining, but moves mainly underground, with several multi-level grids, sometimes intercepting former works, in an incoming proto-industrial perspective. Two new buildings are constructed before 1815, at 2,374 and 2,439 m a.s.l. respectively. Both are recorded in a mine section dating to 1823, near the entrance of crosscuts.10. Paper maps and material realityEven today, veins, galleries, spoil banks and buildings reported by mine sections and maps can be identified in the field. However, galleries and stopes are mostly inaccessible, because of landslides, or dangerous, because of the collapse of timbering. Documents reveal to us that sometimes miners lived in very hard conditions: the Dwelling of Workers ( Abitatione de Lauoranti), recorded by a map, in 1758, at the foot of St. Mary Mine (Caua di S. Maria), was a walled prehistory-like rock-shelter, still used occasionally in the 1920s by the last prospectors.11. Protecting the entrancesTo reach the deposit bed, that was hidden by a thick layer of debris, miners built some long galleries into such sediments, protected by side walls and roofed by roughstone slabs. One of the most impressive linked a dwelling to the real lower entrance of a mine, that was cut in hard rock: in that way, miners avoided blockages of the entrance by landslides or by avalanches and avoided long removal works in spring, when restarting the exploitation after the Figure 3. Ruins of a modern dwelling, linked to an underground grid by a gallery, built into the debris (left); an example of a subterranean vein (right).Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings244

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winter inactivity (documents inform us that the season lasted no more than four to six months).12. Observing the veinsVeins can be observed underground, where the exploitation stopped: they show a series of parallel, almost vertical bands, with a lot of gangue.13. The cobalt factoryThe Usseglio built-up area still hosts the Cobalt Factory at 1,290 m a.s.l. in Crot hamlet, built in 1755 according to a plant model imported from Saxony and Bohemia by S.B. Nicolis di Robilant (1724), general inspector of the mines of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1752). The dressed ore that was produced by this plant was exported to Wrttemberg (55 tons up to 1756). The original look of the building is recorded by maps and drawings dating to the period 1823.14. From factory to hotelThe factory was then enlarged and modified, in 1896 becoming one of the earlier hotels devoted to the rising mountain tourism, with the evocative appellation Albergo Miniere (Mines Hotel). Today it is a stop on the external itinerary of the Civic Alpine Museum.15. Working plan 2013Following the Museum programmes, in order to increase and to develop our knowledge of the territory, in summer 2013 a lot of new studies are going to start: recording and topography of archaic mines located in the area, in safe conditions; underground survey of mining, according to speleological/ archaeological standards; multidisciplinary study of cavities and associated evidence (mineralogical, mining, wildlife, archaeobotanic, etc.).16. In conclusionOne of the statutory aims of the Civic Alpine Museum of Usseglio, entirely volunteer-conducted, is the systematic recording and cultural development of the historic heritage of sciences and techniques. The Museums researchers, with the decisive aid of several colleagues of other institutions, are carrying out a full survey of archaeological mining structures in relationship to geological, technological, historical and iconographic data. The state of preservation of this heritage is remarkably good, as the area is geologically stable, vegetation is almost absent, mining has been suddenly abandoned and no subsequent activities but pastoral farming have taken place. Several sites are accessible to the public in summer and at the beginning of autumn, as the Museum organizes workshops including guided tours in the Punta Corna protected area. Figure 4. Not just a local market: international routes from Usseglio to European destinations.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings245

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ReferencesRossi M, Gattiglia A (ed.), 2011. Terre rosse, pietre verdi e blu cobalto. Miniere a Usseglio. Prima raccolta di studi. Usseglio Torino: Museo Civico Alpino Arnaldo Tazzetti Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, A4, 236 pages, 18 authors, broadly illustrated.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings246

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SAFE CAVES: THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF HIDEOUT COMPLEXES IN THE GALILEE IN THE EARLY ROMAN PERIOD AND PARALLELS IN THE JUDEAN LOWLANDS (SHEPHELAH)Yinon Shivtiel Zefat Academic College; Cave Research Unit, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Moshav Kahal, 12387 Hevel Corazim, Israel, yinon1950@gmail.com Two types of subterranean chambers found in the Galilee natural caves at the tops of cliffs (cliffside shelters) and rock-cut hideout complexes shed light on Jewish defense methods there in the Hellenistic and Early Roman periods. The plans of 65 caves that may have served as hideout complexes are sketched, presented, and compared with hideout complexes in Judea. The subterranean complexes are divided into six categories: 1. Simple hideout complexes crudely hewn, with dark, narrow passages. 2. Elaborate hideout complexes hewn with great care and attractively finished and smoothed. 3. Hideout complexes hewn out of rock-cut subterranean chambers that had been used as storage facilities for agricultural products, cisterns, olive presses, or ritual baths. 4. Hideout complexes hewn out of burial caves. 5. Escape crawlways. These are rare, but Josephus describes one used during the siege of Jotapata during the Great Revolt to bring in goods and news. 6. Subterranean cavities that should not be identified as hideout complexes. This category includes cavities that some scholars have thought were hideouts but in my opinion are not because they lack the features of hideouts.1. IntroductionFrom the standpoint of archaeological and historical research, the caves in the Galilee (northern Israel) are less well known than those in the Judean Desert in central Israel and in the rest of Judea (Weiss 2007). Studies and surveys have been conducted in the Judean Desert ever since the discovery of the first Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947. The caves there have been surveyed systematically, and the finds shed light on many details about the late Second Temple period and Great Revolt (2ndc. BCEstc. CE) and the Bar Kokhba Revolt (2ndc. CE) (Yadin 1957/58, 1963, 1971; Bar-Adon 1980; Eshel and Amit 1998; Eshel and Zissu 2001; Porat et al. 2003/04, 2005/06; Eshel et al. 2005/06; Eshel and Porat 2009). Gradually, a particular pattern of natural karst caves containing networks of crawlways and chambers was discerned in the Judean Desert; because Jews fled to them especially in the Early Roman period (63 BCE CE), they were termed refuge caves. These caves are located in the steep cliffs of large riverbeds that descend from the Judean Desert toward the fault scarp near the Dead Sea (Eshel and Amit 1998).1Another type of cave used as a hideout, known as a hideout complex, is also found in Judea. These complexes were hewn out of the ground adjacent to towns and homes. Hideout complexes in Judea were first defined by David Alon in 1978 (Kloner 1984), and have since been studied extensively (Kloner et al. 1982; Kloner and Tepper 1987; Zissu 2001; Kloner and Zissu 2005). In this paper I discuss hideout complexes in northern Israel because a great deal of information has accumulated on the subject since the studies of Aviam (1983), Tepper and Shahar (1987), and Shahar (2003). In addition, I will propose a categorization and characterization of the hideout complexes based on well-defined criteria, and I will consider whether they are comparable with those in the Judean lowlands and Judean Hills. Hideout complexes in the Galilee were discovered back in the 1960s, but at that time no historical importance was attributed to them. To the best of our knowledge, Antiquities Department inspector Netanel Tefilinsky was the first to report the existence of subterranean crawlways (Aviam 1983; Tefilinsky 1983). In 1974, Dan Bahat excavated a hideout complex at Horbat Hazon. Although at first he thought it was an aqueduct, in 1983 he published the pit and tunnel that he had excavated as a hideout (Bahat 1974, 1983). In the 1980s Michael Even-Esh, who had surveyed hideout complexes in the Hebron Hills, conducted a survey of hideout complexes at Khirbet Ruma and Beit Netofa in the Galilee. The elaborate hideout at Khirbet Ruma was first studied and mapped by a team from the Hebrew University, and a salvage excavation was carried out there, headed by Arieh Rochman. At the same time, Tepper and Shahar surveyed and mapped it as part of a preliminary survey of Galilean hideout complexes (Cohen 1983; Rochman 1985/86; Tepper and Shahar 1987d). The Beit Netofa hideout was mapped by Amos Frumkin (Eshel 1983). In 1983 Aviam published an article about the five Galilean hideout complexes known at the time, discussing their dating and the connection between these caves and the revolts against Rome (Aviam 1983). In the 1980s and 1990s, workers from the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) reported the discovery of hideout complexes throughout the Galilee,2four of which at Ibillin, Migdal Haemeq, Khirbet Ruma, and el-Khirbe have since been excavated (Rochman 1985/86; Shalem 1995; Muqari 1998/99; Alexandre 2003). Recently, salvage excavations at Kafr Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings247

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Galilee villages in anticipation of bad times; the finds indicate that some of them date from the late Second Temple period. It seems, then, that these complexes were created in preparation for the Great Revolt. 2. Elaborate hideout complexes: These complexes, hewn with great care and attractively finished and smoothed, resemble hideouts at Horbat Gaada, Horbat Beit Loya, and Rasm er-Rusum in the Judean lowlands (Tepper and Shahar 1987a, 1987b; Kloner and Zoran 1987). The elaborate hideout complexes investigated in the Judean lowlands have been dated to the time of the Bar Kokhba Revolt, and the 24 surveyed in the Galilee may also have been hewn in the second century CE. 3. Hideout complexes hewn out of rock-cut subterranean chambers that had been used as storage facilities for agricultural produce, cisterns, olive presses, or ritual baths: These chambers were closed, cool, and rainproof, and it was relatively simple to convert them into hideouts. Similar hideout complexes have been found in the Judean lowlands at Ahuzat Hazan and Horbat Shem Tov, among other places (Avni et al. 1987; Tepper and Shahar 1987c). In the Galilee, most hideout complexes of this type have been found in subterranean chambers originally hewn to serve as cisterns Kanna uncovered a hideout complex beneath the ruins of a structure from the Early Roman period (Alexandre 2008). In a paper published in 2003, Shahar listed approximately 20 hideout complexes in the Galilee and argued that they should be dated to the time of the Bar Kokhba Revolt (Shahar 2003). In 2008, Kloner, Zissu, and Shahar stated that 27 hideout complexes had been found in the Galilee. Based on the finds at Jotapata (Yodfat) and Kafr Kanna, they asserted that hideout complexes were first hewn in the Galilee even before the Great Revolt and were probably used in various periods (Kloner et al. 2008).2. Recent Research on Hideout ComplexesIn the present paper, I report on 35 sites in the Galilee at which 65 hideout complexes have been found (Fig. 1). The presentation of the new data constitutes a significant update of the scope of the hideout phenomenon in the Galilee. For the purpose of reexamining the hideouts, the subterranean chambers were documented according to the rules of speleology. In this study the hideout complexes previously discovered in the Galilee have been redocumented and remapped (since in some cases data were omitted from the surveys), and new hideout complexes have been documented and mapped following a careful examination of their crawlways and chambers. Because the mapping encoutered technical problems, I do not have complete plans of all the caves. Nevertheless, I was able to survey the hideout complexes thoroughly and identify them according to the categories below. The following sites and subterranean cavities in the Galilee have been identified as hideout complexes:3Gush Halav (three complexes); Meroth (two complexes); Qiyyuma; Nabratein (Nevoraya); Iyei Mearot Hatzor Hagelilit (ten complexes); Mt. Hazon; Hukok (two complexes); Mimlah (two complexes); Ravid; Illabun; Mistah; Jotapata (two complexes); Ibillin (five complexes); Beit Netofa; Lubiya; El-Khirbe (two complexes); Ruma; Kafr Kanna (six complexes); Turan (two complexes); Ilaniya; Khirbet Bessum; Jebel Qat; Shikhin; Sepphoris (two complexes); Horbat Bina; Horbat Tiria; Nazareth; Horbat Devora (Khirbet Dabbura) (two complexes); Beit Shearim; Migdal Haemeq; Horbat Riv; Shunem (Sulam); Horbat Bolek (Buleiq); Horbat Nurit (Nuris); Tel Amal tunnel; Nahal Amal crawlways. Additional sites that have been described as hideout complexes are located in private areas and are inaccesible. These are therefore not included on the map of hideout complexes in the Galilee.4One exception is Yafa, where Gurin reported seeing two subterranean hideout complexes near the Orthodox Mission building in 1870; in them were three stories of rock-cut rooms entered via round openings. One of the complexes, he noted, contained a cache of 200 coins of Roman emperors (Gurin 1880). But because the area is now densely built up, no evidence remains of the hideouts. Like the hideout complexes in the Judean lowlands, those in the Galilee can be divided into six main categories:51. Simple hideout complexes: Subterranean chambers hewn roughly for hiding purposes, without attractive finishing. These small hideouts resemble the Judean ones discovered by Kloner at an unnamed site and by Zissu at Horbat Ethri, as well as the one beneath the synagogue at Susya (Chamber 8); all of these complexes are from the Second Temple period (Kloner 1987b; Zissu 2001; Kloner and Zissu 2005). The openings and crawlways were smoothed hastily, and effort was clearly put into making it as hard as possible for uninvited guests to get in. Turns are not necessarily at right angles, and there is nothing systematic about the way the different levels of the caves were hewn. In these dark, narrow complexes, one has to crawl to get anywhere. Twenty-one such complexes were hewn in Figure 1. Map showing location of the sites mentioned in the text.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings248

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or storage facilities; a minority are in chambers used as olive presses (e.g., at el-Khirbe and Ilaniya). In 19 of them I found narrow crawlways, some of them nicely finished and others simple, leading to additional rock-cut chambers. Most of these hideout complexes were designed to incorporate preexisting cisterns or ritual baths, such as at Meroth and Sepphoris. In some places, certain installations were rendered unusable when the narrow crawlways were added. Similar cases are documented in the Judean lowlands, e.g., at Horbat Loya, Horbat Midras, and Khirbet el-Aqed (Kloner 1987a, c; Tepper and Shahar 1987a). In a few cases, such as the complex at Horbat Mistah and one at Sepphoris, the openings of the crawlways were hewn a few meters above the floor of a cistern, and water continued to be stored up to the height of the openings. The fact that only the water could be seen from above provided camouflage. This phenomenon is found at Khirbet el-Aqed in the Judean lowlands, at Horbat Naqiq, and at the Nahal Yattir site (Gichon 1982; Zissu 2001). Presumably, in a time of emergency, when the Galileans realized that hideout complexes could save lives, they decided to do without the subterranean facilities and hewed crawlways in them. 4. Hideout complexes hewn out of burial caves: Such complexes are extremely rare in Judea as well; they are found there only at Horbat Burgin (Khirbet Umm Burj) and Horbat Benaya (Kloner and Zissu 2005). Three of the six burial caves turned into hideouts in the Galilee were located within the village of Iyei Mearot. The other three were outside or on the outskirts of villages. 5. Escape crawlways: This type of subterranean cavity is rare in both Judea and the Galilee; consequently, it is hard to know how and to what extent they were used. The only written document in our possession that may describe the use of an escape crawlway in the Second Temple period is by Josephus, who recounts how the besieged people of Jotapata in the Great Revolt used a narrow, hidden crevice as a crawlway for transporting commodities and bringing news (Josephus 1956). The escape crawlway at Gush Halav had a specific purpose: to serve as a hidden route to a spring and a hidden exit from the village. In contrast, Gichon (1982) has suggested, based on Cassius Dios description of the Bar Kokhba Revolt, that the rebels during that war used the hideout complexes and escape crawlways in two stages and for two different purposes: at first the hideout complexes served as bases for surprise attacks and ambushes, whereas later the rebels used the crawlways to escape from walled towns. As an example of such dual-use complexes, Gichon points to Khirbet el-Aqed, which was surrounded by a wall. Gush Halav was also walled, and dual use may have been made of the escape crawlway there as well (Gichon 1982). Another escape system is found at the Nahal Yattir site, where two crawlways were hewn: one leading to a cistern so that water could be drawn secretly, and the other leading out of town, to the slope of Nahal Yattir (Zissu 2001). 6. Subterranean cavities that should not be identified as hideout complexes : This category includes subterranean cavities that Tepper and Shahar believe were hideouts, but in my opinion were not. Those at Jebel Qat, at Illabun, in the Nahal Amal crawlways, and in the Tel Amal tunnel do not have features of hideout complexes. Although the Jebel Qat complex belongs to the bloc of towns around Sepphoris, it lacks the central feature of a hideout a crawlway, or at least a narrow, relatively inaccessible passage. It is a rock-cut cistern from whose floor a natural cave is accessible. The tunnels at Illabun, described by Tefilinsky, were up to 60 m deep (Tepper and Shahar 1987d), not a depth typical of hideout complexes. The crawlway entrances that Tepper and Shahar found at Tel Amal and Nahal Amal are far from the ruins of the ancient villages, whereas a salient characteristic of hideout complexes is their location beneath a village. The Tel Amal tunnel and the Nahal Amal crawlways were evidently used for transporting water and may have been also used as escape crawlways. In any case, we have no basis for dating them to the Early Roman period, and they were not located within Jewish localities.3. DiscussionGiven the similarities between the hideout complexes in the Galilee and those in the Judean lowlands, some scholars have dated the Galilean ones to the Bar Kokhba Revolt (Gichon 1982; Tepper and Shahar 1987d; Shahar 2003). It is very hard to date the complexes since they incorporate chambers that antedate the crawlways and contain signs of later activity. Moreover, ceramic objects and other items got into most of the complexes in various periods and antiquities thieves broke in before the complexes were studied scientifically. In this study ceramic finds are not used to date the hideout complexes on the assumption that they originate in later disturbances. Recently it became clear that some of the small, simple hideouts in the Judean lowlands were hewn before the Great Revolt. Therefore, some of the hideouts in the Galilee may also have been hewn before or during the Great Revolt.6About a third of the hideout complexes in the Galilee, 21 in all, are of the simple type. The finds in the hideout on the lower slope of Jotapata and in the hideout in Area W at Kafr Kanna attest clearly that these complexes were hewn during the Great Revolt (Alexandre 2008). Additional unsophisticated hideout complexes in the Galilee, such as those at Meroth, Gush Halav, Turan, Horbat Nurit, and Horbat Devora, may have been hewn in the late Second Temple period; the nature of these complexes may reinforce the suggestion that they were hewn in a hurry during the Great Revolt. On the other hand, some of the Galilean hideout complexes may have been hewn in preparation for the Bar Kokhba Revolt. Because most of the hideouts in the Judean lowlands were used by the Jews during the Bar Kokhba Revolt, we cannot rule out the possibility that some Jews in the Galilee prepared for the revolt in the same way (Shahar 2001). Presumably, some of the Jews who had been in hideouts in the Judean lowlands at the end of the Bar Kokhba Revolt survived and fled to the Galilee (see Samet 1985/86). Historical sources indicate that some of the Judean population moved to the Galilee following the Bar Kokhba Revolt; this is apparently reflected in a list of the 24 priestly shifts (Safrai 1980/81).7Indeed, an inscription discovered in Tiberias refers to a Jewish family from Horsha in southern Judea who moved to the Galilee Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings249

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(Stepansky 1999). This migration may also explain the hewing of hideout complexes in the Galilee: refugees from Judea brought with them knowledge that had helped them survive in Judea, so in the Galilee, too, they turned storage cellars and burial caves into hideout complexes. The large concentration of caves in Iyei Mearot that were used for various purposes may be indicative of this. The scholars who hypothesized that the Galilean hideout complexes were hewn during the Bar Kokhba Revolt saw them as preparations for the revolt, even if the Galilee did not ultimately take part in the fighting. This hypothesis was based on similarity in plans and hewing methods to the complexes discovered in the Judean lowlands, even though no finds have come to light that support this dating (Kloner 1987d; Tepper and Shahar 1987d; Shahar 2003). Mor rejects this hypothesis, claiming that if the Galileans had been preparing for the revolt, they would presumably have taken part in it (Mor 1991). Dickstein notes that the hideout complexes are not unique to the Bar Kokhba Revolt in terms of either place or time, and they should not be viewed as an element of Bar Kokhbas tactical conception (Dickstein 1995/96). Interesting evidence about hideout complexes is presented by Josephus (1956), who uses two different terms for rockcut chambers: He refers to the people of Jotapata seeking refuge in subterranean vaults and caverns. In this phrase Josephus draws a distinction between s (subterranean vaults) and s(natural caverns).8Thus, there were both hideout complexes and natural caves in Jotapata. Based on the new information presented in this paper on the Galilean hideout complexes and their distribution, we see that the subject is worth discussing, and that the hideouts are evidence of fear of the Roman government at various times, not only of preparations for the Bar Kokhba Revolt. Hence, presumably, the simple hideout complexes were hewn during the Great Revolt, whereas the smoother, elaborate ones, such as those at Ibillin, Khirbet Ruma, and Khirbet Khueha (Kafr Kanna), are from the second century CE although we do not know yet whether they were created in preparation for the Bar Kokhba Revolt or hewn by Judean refugees who knew they could save lives. The relatively large number of hideout complexes hewn out of cisterns which rendered them unusable as cisterns seems to indicate that the Galilean Jews were in such distress in the Early Roman period that they valued places to hide over water sources.4. ConclusionsSeveral conclusions can be drawn regarding the Galilean hideout complexes. Those at Ibillin, Khirbet Ruma, Khirbet Khueha, and Iyei Mearot (Complex 54) have all the typical features of elaborate hideout complexes in Judea. In the other complexes surveyed in the Galilee, the outstanding features of the elaborate Judean complexes were not found. In contrast, the Galilean hideouts seem to have unique features of their own: (1) In many cases hideouts were hewn out of older facilities, causing the cessation of activity of those facilities. (2) Most of the crawlways in the Galilean hideout complexes were hewn roughly without attractive finishing. (3) The crawlways in the Galilean hideouts are neither winding nor particularly long and do not have sharp angles. The two types of hiding places found in both Judea and the Galilee refuge caves/cliffside shelters (Eshel and Amit 1998; Shivtiel 2008) and hideout complexes are indicative of a highly motivated Jewish population with impressive organizational ability. In some cases we can compare the preparation of the hideout complexes in the Galilee to activity in Judea between the two revolts: subterranean complexes were hewn and hiding places were prepared, sometimes eliminating important subterranean facilities such as cisterns, storehouses, and even tombs. These activities were motivated by increased concern for personal safety and attest to the distress of the Jews of the Galilee. We cannot date the hewing of the Galilean hideout complexes with precision. Presumably, some date from as early as the Second Temple period (with the hewing activity intensifying during the Great Revolt); others were hewn before the Bar Kokhba Revolt, and still others afterwards. It is incorrect to date all the hideout complexes discovered in Judea to the time of the Bar Kokhba Revolt; the number of Judean hideout complexes shown to have been hewn in the late Second Temple period, on the eve of the Great Revolt, is growing. It seems that the Jews of the Galilee prepared subterranean chambers for refuge and hiding at times when they sensed a real physical threat to their lives from the Roman authorities, and this occurred frequently during the Early Roman period in Palestine.ReferencesAlexandre, Y, 2003. Lubya maarav. Hadashot Arkheologiyot, 115, 27 (in Hebrew). Alexandre, Y, 2008. The archaeological evidence of the Great Revolt at Karm er-Ras (Kfar Kanna) in the Lower Galilee. In: Guri-Rimon 2008, 73. Aviam M, 1983. Terumatan shel maarkhot ha-mistor ba-galil leheker maarkhot ha-mistor. Nikrot Tsurim, 7, 53 (in Hebrew). Aviam M, 2004. Jews, pagans and Christians in the Galilee. Univ. of Rochester Press, Rochester. Avni G, GudovitchS, Mintzker Y, Kloner A, 1987. Ha-maarekhet ha-tat-karkait be-ahuzat hazan. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, pp. 115(in Hebrew). Bahat D, 1974. A roof tile of the Legio VI Ferrata and pottery vessels from Horvat Hazon. Israel Exploration Journal, 24, 160. Bahat D, 1983. Har hazon maarekhet mistor. Nikrot Tsurim, 7, 29 (in Hebrew). Bar-Adon P, 1980. The Cave of the Treasure: The finds from the caves in Nahal Mishmar, trans. I Pommerantz. Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem. Cohen A, 1983. Maarkhot ha-mistor be-horbat ruma ba-galil. Nikrot Tsurim, 7, 37 (in Hebrew). Dickstein P, 1995/96. Ha-hebet ha-tsevai veha-beinleumi shel mered bar-kokhva part 2: Mearot ha-mistor vehamahalakhim ha-tsevaiyim shel ha-mered. Ha-uma, 124, 1 (in Hebrew).Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings250

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Eshel H, 1983. Maarekhet mistor be-horbat beit netofa. Nikrot Tsurim, 7, 51 (in Hebrew). Eshel H, Amit D, 1998. Mearot ha-miflat mi-tekufat mered barkokhva. Israel Exploration Society and College of Judea and Samaria, Tel Aviv (in Hebrew). Eshel H, Barukhi Y, Porat R, 2005/06. Ketaim mi-megila mikrait mi-tekufat mered bar-kokhva, she-nimtseu be-nahal arugot. Mehkerei Yehuda ve-Shomron, 15, 101 (in Hebrew). Eshel H, Porat R, 2009. Mearot ha-miflat mi-tekufat mered barkokhva vol. 2. Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem (in Hebrew). Eshel H, Zissu B (Eds.), 2001. Hiddushim be-heker mered bar kokhva: Proc. 21stAnnual Conf. Martin (Szusz) Dept. of Land of Israel Studies. Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel (in Hebrew). Gichon M, 1982. Ha-hebet ha-tsevai shel mered bar-kokhva al pi heker maarkhot ha-mistor. Cathedra, 26, 30 (in Hebrew). Gurin V, 1880. Description gographique, historique et archologique de la Palestine part 3: Galile. Imprimerie Impriale, Paris (in French). Guri-Rimon O (Ed.), 2008. Ha-mered ha-gadol ba-galil (catalog). Hecht Museum, Haifa. Josephus, 1926. Life of Josephus, trans. H St J Thackeray. Loeb Classical Library. William Heinemann, London; G. P. Putnams Sons, New York. Josephus, 1956. The Jewish War, books 1, trans. H St J Thackeray. Loeb Classical Library. William Heinemann, London; Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. Josephus, 1957. Jewish Antiquities, books 12, trans. R Marcus. Loeb Classical Library. William Heinemann, London; Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. Kloner A, 1984. Maarkhot mistor mi-yemei bar-kokhva ba- darom: maarekhet 20 be-horbat midras. In: A Oppenheimer and U Rappaport (Eds.). Mered bar kokhva: mehkarim hadashim. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, Jerusalem (in Hebrew). Kloner A, 1987a. Ha-mistor be-midras. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, pp. 137 (in Hebrew). Kloner A, 1987b. Horba le-lo shem. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, pp. 11314 (in Hebrew). Kloner A, 1987c. Mistorim nosafim bi-shefelat Yehuda. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, pp. 237 (in Hebrew). Kloner A, 1987d. Tiarukh maarkhot-ha-mistor. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, pp. 361 (in Hebrew). Kloner A, Oppenheimer A, Gichon M, Yadin Y, 1982. Maarkhot ha-mistor bi-shefelat yehuda mi-yemei bar-kokhva? Cathedra, 26, 3 (in Hebrew). Kloner A, Tepper Y (Eds.), 1987. Maarkhot ha-mistor bi-shefelat yehuda. Hakibbutz Hameuchad, Tel Aviv; Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem (in Hebrew). Kloner A, Zissu B, 2005. Maarkhot ha-mistor be-erets yehuda: idkun arkheologi ve-geografi shel histarut milhemet mered bar-kokhva. In: M Mor, J. Pastor, Y Ronen, and Y Ashkenazi (Eds.). Le-uriel: mehkarim be-toledot yisrael ba-et ha-atika mugashim le-uriel rappaport. Zalman Shazar Center, Jerusalem, pp. 125 (in Hebrew). Kloner A, Zissu B, Shahar Y, 2008. Milhemet ha-hurban ba-galil ve-tofaat maarkhot ha-mistor be-erets yisrael. In: Guri-Rimon 2008, pp. 91 (in Hebrew). Kloner A, Zoran Y, 1987. Ha-mistor be-rasm er-rusum. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, pp. 217 (in Hebrew). Mor M, 1991. Mered bar-kokhva: otsmato ve-hekefo. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, Jerusalem (in Hebrew). Muqari A, 1998/99. Ibillin. Hadashot Arkheologiyot, 109, 24 (in Hebrew). Oppenheimer A, 1982. Maarkhot ha-mistor bi-shefelat yehuda leor ha-mekorot. Cathedra, 26, 24 (in Hebrew). Porat R, Eshel H, Frumkin A, 2003/04. Mimtsaim hadashim mitekufat bar-kokhva me-arba mearot bein wadi murabbaat leein-gedi. Mehkerei Yehuda ve-Shomron, 13, 7916 (in Hebrew). Porat R, Eshel H, Frumkin A, 2005/06. Mearot miflat mi-tekufat mered bar-kokhva bi-metsukei nahal arugot. Mehkerei Yehuda ve-Shomron, 15, 107 (in Hebrew). Rochman A, 1985/86. Ha-hafirot be-maarekhet ha-mistor behorbat ruma. Nikrot Tsurim, 11, 32 (in Hebrew). Safrai Z, 1980/81. Pirkei galil: bi-tekufat ha-mishna veha-talmud. Midreshet Shorashim, Maalot, Israel (in Hebrew). Safrai Z, Lynn M, 1988. Ha-mivne ha-kalkali shel geva. In: B. Mazar (Ed.). Geva: tagliyot arkheologiyot be-tel abu-shusha, mishmar ha-emek. Hakibbutz Hameuchad, Tel Aviv; Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem, pp. 120 (in Hebrew). Samet E, 1985/86. Ha-mahbo(a) edut min ha-mishna, ha-tosefta veha-talmud le-kiyuman shel maarkhot ha-mistor. Nikrot Tsurim, 13, 9 (in Hebrew). Shahar Y, 2001. Maarkhot ha-mistor ba-galil ha-mimtsa, prisato ha-geografit u-mashmauto ha-historit. In: Eshel and Zissu 2001, 91 (in Hebrew). Shahar Y, 2003. The underground hideouts in Galilee and their historical meaning. In: P Schfer (Ed.). The Bar Kokhba War reconsidered. Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen, 217. Shalem D, 1995. Migdal ha-emek. Hadashot Arkheologiyot, 103, 31 (in Hebrew). Shivtiel Y, 2008. Cliff settlements, shelters and refuge caves in the Galilee. In: S Bar (Ed.). In the hill-country and in the Shephelah and in the Arabah (Joshua 12,8): studies and researches presented to Adam Zertal in the thirtieth anniversary of the Manasseh hill-country survey. Ariel, Jerusalem, 223. Shivtiel Y, 2009. Mikletei metsukim u-maarkhot mistor: hayishuv ha-yehudi ba-galil ba-tekufa ha-romit ha-keduma al semakh mehkar halalim tat-karkaiyim. Ph.D. Thesis, Bar-Ilan University. Ramat Gan, Israel(in Hebrew). Shivtiel Y, 2011. Mikletei metsukim be-erets ha-galil vehamakbilim lahem be-erets binyamin zehut tipologit ve-zika historit. In: A Tavger, Z Amar, and M Billig (Eds.). Be-maave ha-har: mehkerei har efrayim u-vinyamin. Midreshet Harei Gofna, Ariel, 45(in Hebrew). Stepansky Y, 1999. Ketovet yeshivat geon yaakov mi-gush halav: or hadash al yehudei ha-galil ha-elyon bi-yemei ha-beinayim. Cathedra, 93, 67 (in Hebrew). Tefilinsky N, 1983. Minharot atikot le-yad illabun. Nikrot Tsurim, 7, 49 (in Hebrew). Tepper Y, 1987. Hakirat maarkhot ha-mistor. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, 37 (in Hebrew). Tepper Y, Shahar Y, 1987a. Ha-mistor be-gaada. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, 104 (in Hebrew). Tepper Y, Shahar Y, 1987b. Ha-mistor be-loya. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, 131 (in Hebrew).Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings251

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Tepper Y, Shahar Y, 1987c. Ha-mistor be-shem tov. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, 226 (in Hebrew). Tepper Y, Shahar Y, 1987d. Ha-mistorim ha-tat-karkaiyim bagalil. In: Kloner and Tepper 1987, 279 (in Hebrew). Urbach E (Ed.), 2002. Mi-yehuda la-galil. In: Me-olamam shel hakhamim: kovets mehkarim. Magnes, Jerusalem, 330 (in Hebrew). Weiss Z, 2007. Ha-galil ba-mea ha-rishona li-sefirat ha-notsrim: penei ha-yishuv be-yamav shel yosefus le-or ha-mimtsa haarkheologi. In: Josephus, Hayyei yosef, trans. D. Schwartz. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, Jerusalem, 15(in Hebrew). Yadin Y, 1957/58. Ha-megilot ha-genuzot mi-midbar Yehuda. Schocken, Jerusalem (in Hebrew). Yadin Y, 1963. The finds from the Bar Kokhba period in the Cave of Letters. Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem. Yadin Y, 1971. Bar-Kokhba: The rediscovery of the legendary hero of the second Jewish revolt against Rome. Random House, New York. Yadin Y, 1982. Hearot le-inyan maarkhot ha-mistor be-shitat halehima shel bar-kokhva ve-al hebetim shonim shel ha-teudot ha-ketuvot. Cathedra, 26, 43 (in Hebrew). Zissu B, 2001. Ha-yishuv ha-kafri be-harei u-shefelat yehuda mishalhei tekufat ha-bayit ha-sheni ad le-dikkui mered barkokhva. Ph.D. Thesis, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Jerusalem, Israel (in Hebrew). Zissu, B, Ganor A, 2001/02. Horbat ethri: kefar yehudi mi-tekufat ha-bayit ha-sheni bi-shefelat Yehuda. Qadmoniot, 123, 18 (in Hebrew).1On refuge caves in the Galilee (known as cliffside shelters), see Shivtiel 2009, 2011.2For a summary of the data, see Aviam 2004.3Some of the sites on this list lack certain characteristics of hideouts; below I explain why I am not convinced that they are hideouts.4Since this article was written, more hideouts have been discovered at Ayelet Hashahar, Hukok, Sepphoris, Yafa, Kabul, Illabun, Lubiya (Golani Junction), and Horbat Bata (Karmiel), but these have not been documented or published.5On the similar categories and other ways of categorizing the hideout complexes, see Tepper 1987; Zissu 2001.6On simple hideouts from the early first century CE, see Zissu and Ganor 2001/02; Kloner and Zissu 2005. Yadin, Oppenheimer, Foerster, and Aviam noted that the Galilean hideouts may have been created in preparation for the Great Revolt; see Aviam 1983; Oppenheimer 1982; Yadin 1982.7On the ties between Judea and the Galilee, see also Urbach 2002.8He is consistent in this terminology elsewhere as well. See, e.g., Josephus 1956, I: 304, 307, 3101; II: 573; III: 336; Josephus 1957, XIV: 415, 420; Josephus 1926, 188;I am grateful to Prof. Bezalel Bar-Kochva for making me aware of this.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings252

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ARTIFICIAL CAVITIES OF GAZIANTEP (SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY)Ali Yama, Murat Erikavuk OBRUK Cave Research Group; Acikhava Apt. 16/7, Nisantasi, Istanbul, Turkey, info@obruk.org After the Hagia Sophia and Topkapi Palace of Istanbul (Turkey) underground structures project that we carried out in 2008 as OBRUK Cave Research Group, we began to prepare Gaziantep Underground Structures Inventory offered us by Gaziantep Municipality and CEKUL Foundation in November 2011. The aim of this project was to research, document, survey and making an inventory of the entire underground structure heritage which is within the borders of Gaziantep city and disappearing day by day because of the new constructions. It has been long known that Gaziantep, possessing a continuous inhabitancy since 3000 BC, has hundreds of underground structures which were carved in sandy limestone. Some of those underground structures were used as storage facilities or cisterns, while some others are as yarn ateliers today. Furthermore, despite forming a huge and complex system, underground water structures whose small part can be researched due to destructions are another important phase of that project. This study will provide an assessment of the underground structures, aimed at protecting this cultural heritage. Additionally, it is known that some of the caves dug mostly in soft limestone may collapse. This inventory study will be a reference for the future for preventing such potential hazards. The abovementioned project is basically aimed at detecting, measuring, mapping and studying all underground structures in the old settlement area of Gaziantep, with an Autocad program. Thereby, the relation between all the underground and aboveground structures would not be lost. As a result of the studies carried up to date, 48 artificial caves and water structures have been explored and mapped. The project is planned to be completed by the end of 2013.1. IntroductionAs OBRUK Cave Research Group, we have carried out surveying and mapping of Hagia Sophia and Topkap Palace underground galleries and chambers at Istanbul during the years 2008, headed by Dr. igdem Aygun. It can be accepted as a milestone that those structures, having great historical importance and heritage, have been researched by expert cavers without producing any harm through using Single Rope Techniques. Within the scope of this project, 32 underground cisterns have been measured and mapped in the Historical Peninsula of Istanbul, and a total length of 2,000 m of tunnels has been explored and measured. After this project and another study carried out in Hasankeyfs underground structures in March 2010, a project was offered to our group for the exploration of underground structures at Gaziantep (Fig. 1). The basics of the project and how to apply it were planned during the following meetings. After signing the protocol between Gaziantep Municipality and CEKUL Foundation, the studies were launched in the city.2. Execution of the Project At the beginning of the study, a main zone was selected in the city. This study zone was indicated by Gaziantep Municipality and CEKUL Foundation together. In the first stage; all underground structures in the main zone, which had been already known, were detected and underground studies started. In the second stage, all detected underground structures were measured and processed into the main city plan. Water structures, on the other hand, were searched for level and directions besides architectural measurements are processed into a surface map accordingly, by taking surface related points as reference. The local people were constantly communicated and all notifications were taken into consideration. As a result of the whole information, the first detected fields were crossed and various studies in different regions were carried out. During the study, plans, features and photographs of each underground structure were recorded as the separate tags. Structures and tunnels were processed into the map. The project is coordinated by OBRUK Cave Research Groups architect-cavers.3. Geology of GaziantepThe geological units near and around Gaziantep can be classified in three groups: 3.1. Gaziantep Formation This unit comprises limestone and chalk. The places where the most typical outcrops are seen are Gaziantep and its surrounding area. It is mixed with F rat Formation in the region. Although it is mostly consisting of soft rocks as argillaceous limestone and chalk limestone, thicker layered massive limestones can also be found. Argillaceous limestones comprise whitish, grey and yellow, loose and thin-middle layered and chalky levels. The unit is dated as Upper EoceneMiddle Eocene (MTA 1997). 3.2. Frat Formation This formation crops out in discordance with Gaziantep Formation. The formation starts with a thick layered limestone with cream, white and yellow in the lower part Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings253

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Various water tunnels ( livas ) likewise the ones in Gaziantep War Museum Cave, Ttn Han Cave, Fethullah Mosque Kastel and mer Ersoy Culture Centre are all connected to the same underground water system. On the other hand, it was also found that many shafts searched during the project are also connected to those water tunnels. For example, there are two different tunnel connections in the depths of a 44 m deep well of the American Hospital. and goes on with more fossiliferous limestone above. In the upper formation, it comprises thick layered limestone. Limestones are generally fractured, and the fractures are filled by calcite. F rat Formation is of Miocene age. 3.3. Yavuzeli Basalt This Middle-Upper Miocene formation can be found in the south of Gaziantep. It generally comprises lava flow, which is dark brown to dark gray and blackish. Despite its large outcrop area, it presents thickness ranging between 10 m and 50 m.4. TectonicsThe East Anatolian Fault, one of the most important faults in Turkey, extending from 50 km north of Gaziantep to the west, and the Dead Sea Rift, which is below this fault from the south to the north, still resume their activities in Turkey. These main faults and all the minor faults between them are active. It is known that, as a consequence of the strong earthquakes in 1526, 1760 and 1822, most of the buildings in Gaziantep were destroyed (Ambraseys and Finkel 1995).5. Artificial Underground Structures of Gaziantep48 artificial cavities which were detected in Gaziantep up to now can be classified into 2 groups. The first group is the underground water structures which were widely used in the past. There are numerous water resources around the plateau where Gaziantep is located. Despite all these resources, there is no water table under the city. Therefore, long tunnels were dug a long time ago in order to bring water to Gaziantep. To date, some 700 m of the total tunnel length have been explored and several shafts have been investigated. These tunnels, which are for miles and called livas locally (Fig.2), are very similar to the ancient qanat or karez which were initially realized 2000 years ago in Iran and can today be seen in many countries like Morocco, Algeria, Egypt and China (Wessels 2000; Castellani 2001). The tunnels of Gaziantep some of which are longer than 7 kilometres carried the water from the springs to the town. There are numerous shafts (or wells) opened from the surface to these tunnels. Unfortunately, the modern settlements in Gaziantep seem to have destroyed most of these shafts and wells. Apart from these shafts; other underground structures peculiar to Gaziantep are represented by washing pools which are connected to the surface with stairs, and by public places with small baths and lavatories. These public water areas, locally called kastel, were mostly built near the mosques. Although there were at least 15 kastels until 50 years ago, only 5 examples remain today (am1982). Nevertheless, the remaining structures give an idea about the impressive architecture of these interesting underground features. Among these structures, Pisirici (Fig. 3) is one of the oldest, together with an underground mosque built in 1283. The livas bringing water to this structure cannot be precisely followed due to subsidence in the area. Among the other kastels, only Ahmet Celebi Kastel, with a slight change, fits for purpose. The remaining 3 kastels; hsan Bey, Kozluca and Nadir Bey, are unprotected and have been the victims of wrong modifications. Figure 2. A typical livas under Gaziantep (photo: AE Keskin). Figure 1. Project area.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings254

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Additionally, the soft limestones of Gaziantep are particularly suitable for digging tunnels and other underground structures. Nearly all of the old houses have an underlying cave used as storage (anak and Gll 2004). The stones coming out as a result of the excavation were used in the construction of the upper structure. Though most of the caves explored and mapped up to now belong to this group, there are some extraordinarily large structures which were excavated as quarries and then used as yarn or ceramic factories. For6. Future of Artificial Cavities in GaziantepGaziantep is probably the richest region in terms of historical underground structures of Turkey after Cappadocia. Most of the structures that we surveyed during this project either continue to be used for their original purpose or have a new function as a cafe or restaurant. Yeni Han and Tutun Han caves are beautiful examples of those underground structures which are used as cafes today. Traditional yarn manufacturers still continue to work in some caves. It will be a preferable application that this branch of business, having an ancient tradition, would maintain its activities in the same places after the restoration of their caves. Furthermore, Gaziantep Municipality is looking forward at the end of this project, to have useful information about the future usage of the empty Akbulut Cave, Copper Market Cave or Cemetery Caves. as a yarn manufacture and barn previously. It can be considered as the largest known artificial cavity of Turkey. The unique example different from the two groups of underground structures mentioned above, is represented by the tunnels located under the Castle of Gaziantep. These tunnels, with a total lenght of 280 m, reach the cisterns at the bottom. Age of the tunnels is unknown, but archaeological researches are continuing at the castle. Figure 3. Pisirici Kastel (photo AE Keskin). Figure 4. Plan of Copper Market Cave. Figure 5. Plan of Cemetery Caves of Gaziantep. Figure 6. Cemetery Cave A5 Main Gallery (photo AE Keskin).example; Akbulut Cave, used as an underground ceramic factory for a long time, covers a total area of 9,500 m2and is one of the largest artificial cavities of Turkey. On the other hand, Uzumcu, Iplikci and Sulu caves are still being used as yarn ateliers. As to mention Cemetery Caves (Figs. 5 and 6), it is a gigantic system located under the modern cemetery of Gaziantep, a total area of more than 60,000 m2, with 14 entries and used Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings255

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On the other hand, some protected parts of the underground water systems, namely livas and kastel will be restored and open to public. Our main purpose is to protect the available underground structures of Gaziantep and transfer them to the next generations.ReferencesAmbraseys NN, Finkel CF, 1995. The Seismicity of Turkey, Istanbul. Bircan AE, 2007. Stability Analysis of Caves in Gaziantep Region, Gaziantep University, PhD Thesis, Gaziantep. Castellani V, 2001. Acqua, acquedotti e qanat, Opera Ipogea 2, 25 am N, 1982. Gaziantepte Kastel Ad Verilen Su Tesisleri (Waterworks called Kastel in Gaziantep), Milletleraras Trkoloji Kongresi (International Turkology Congress), stanbul. am N, 2006. Trk Kltr Varl klar Envanteri: Gaziantep (The Inventory of Turkish Cultural Proporties: Gaziantep), Ankara. anak H, 2007. Collapse of Caves at Shallow Depth in Gaziantep City Center, Turkey: A Case Study, Environmental Geology, Volume 53 (4), 915, Heidelberg. anak H, Gll H, 2004. Gaziantep l Merkezindeki Ma aralar n Geoteknik A dan Bir n De erlendirmesi, Zemin Mekani i ve Temel Mhendisli i 10. UlusalKongresi (PreEvaluation of Caves in Gaziantep Geotechnically,The 10thNational Congress for the Soil Mechanics and Basic Engineering), stanbul, 232. Marangoz L, 2005. Correlation of Geotechnical Properties of Limestone with Ultrasonic Velocity in Gaziantep Region Gaziantep University, PhD Thesis. MTA (General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration), 1997. Geological Map of The Gaziantep-K24 Quadrangle, Ankara. Wessels K, 2000. Renovating Qanats in a changing world, a case study in Syria. International Syposuim on Qanats, Yazd, Iran.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings256

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SUBTERRANEAN BELL-SHAPED QUARRIES IN THE JUDEAN FOOTHILLS, ISRAELBoaz Zissu Department of Land of Israel and Archaeology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel, bzissu@gmail.com The paper focuses on bell-shaped underground quarries, which were rock-cut in the soft limestone of the Judean Foothills during the Late Roman, Byzantine and especially the Early Islamic periods. These large and imposing artificial caves, typical to this region, located south-west of Jerusalem, were first described by scholars and explorers who visited the area in the 19thcentury. They were extremely impressed by the caves and suggested various theories regarding their function: cistern, granaries, dwellings, stables and underground churches. The phenomenon was discussed in a pioneering study, undertaken more than fifty years ago by Y. Ben-Arieh (1962) who explained the function of the subterranean caves as quarries, used for the extraction of the local chalky limestone. In the largest cave-clusters, around Beth Govrin, where the regions biggest quarries operated, scholars estimate that their total number is over 800. Others estimate their total number in the region as being about 3,000. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the phenomenon according to new archaeological and speleological surveys. The current study focuses, among other issues, on the method of quarrying and on a re-examination of the chronology of the phenomenon, the carving methods, and the use and reuse of the caves.1. IntroductionThroughout ancient Israel, and especially in the Judean Foothills subterranean chambers were cut in the bedrock as part of the economic and physical infrastructure of towns and villages. The hewing technique was refined in the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Early Islamic periods. This paper focuses on the phenomenon of bell-shaped underground quarries, which were rock-cut in the soft limestone of the Judean Foothills from the Late Roman to the Byzantine and especially the Early Islamic period. These large and imposing artificial caves, typical to this region, located south-west of Jerusalem, were first described by scholars and explorers who visited the area in the 19thcentury. The visitors were extremely impressed by the caves and suggested various theories regarding their function: cistern, granaries, dwellings, stables and underground churches (Robinson 1841: 352; 395; Gurin 1868: 104; Conder and Kitchener 1883: 264 293; Smith 1900: 239; Bliss and Macalister 1902: 188). The phenomenon was discussed in a pioneering study, undertaken more than fifty years ago by Ben-Arieh (1962) who explained the function of the subterranean caves as quarries, for the extraction of the local chalky limestone. In the largest cave-clusters, around Beth Govrin, where the regions biggest quarries operated, we estimate that their total number is over 800 (Kloner 1996: 50). Y. Dagan estimated their total number in the region as being about 3000 (Dagan 1982: 35) but this number probably includes other types of caves as well. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the phenomenon according to new archaeological and speleological surveys. The current study focuses, among other issues, on the method of quarrying and on a reexamination of the chronology of the phenomenon, the carving methods, the use and reuse of the caves.2. The Geology of the Judean FoothillsThe Judean Foothills are characterized by layers of soft limestone and chalky rocks from the Senonian, Paleocene and Eocene periods. The prevailing bedrock is the soft, chalky limestone of the Maresha detail of the Tzora Formation, dating to the Eocene, of a 30 m thickness. This white, relatively soft and homogenous rock (locally known as kirton) is protected from erosion by a crust of harder limestone, of up to 3 m thickness ( nari). This fissured layer is harder, non-homogeneous, and has a tendency to collapse relatively easy (Kloner 2003). Throughout the region thousands of underground chambers were cut during various periods. Throughout the relatively easy process of cutting the chalky limestone, a large variety of artificial subterranean chambers was created. In addition, through the quarrying process, good quality blocks of building material were produced (Oren 1965; Kloner and Zissu 2009). The caves typical to this region served as quarries, silos, water cisterns, columbaria, oil presses, stables, cult rooms, hiding systems and burial caves (Bliss and Macalister 1902; Dagan 1982). The bell-shaped caves are just one of these types of underground chambers. When the stone-cutters planned to create an extensive quarrying site, they avoided damage to already existing sites and caves. Locations where underground quarrying had not yet taken place were preferred. The location of bell-shaped caves was chosen by carvers who knew how to identify geologically the chalky limestone deposits suitable for quarrying good quality material. Most of the bell-shaped caves were quarried in high-quality Maresha detail kirton and only a few of them were cut in lower quality kirton, like Adollam and Beth Govrin. It is also apparent that the carvers chose the appropriate topography for quarrying a cave: slope or spurs were typically preferred. At most bell-shaped caves sites, the method of quarrying was rather similar and there are common defining outlines Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings257

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limestone was extracted as blocks detached from the walls of the cave by narrow and deep channels (Fig. 1). The 30 cm-high blocks of kirton were transported and used as building material elsewhere. When these blocks are used for external walls they require a thick coating of plaster as protection from the elements. The straightening and finishing of the cave walls was done by removing limestone chips, apparently burned in kilns and used as a raw material in the manufacture of lime and cement. This characteristic bell-shaped plan was in our opinion a development and enlargement of an earlier, smaller form of subterranean installation the typical bottle-shaped silo In some cases, the typical bell-shape was lost. Changes in the angle of quarrying were made by the stone-cutters due to the appearance of cracks and fear of collapsing. Sometimes, a side opening would have been created because of natural collapse or artificial quarrying that allowed additional entry. The dimension of caves that functioned as a single quarry is smaller than of those which are part of a cluster of bellshaped caves. The average depth of a cave is about 5 m. and the diameter of its bottom is about 4 m. The reason for the smaller size caves appears to be the limited ability to extract the quarried material from the caves and the mobility of the cutters. to the whole phenomenon. The geological characteristics of the region, which combined an upper harder crust and a deeper soft but compact chalk was well known to the stonecutters in antiquity. The first stage of creating a bellshaped cave was to cut a rounded opening in the upper limestone crust. From the opening a vertical shaft led through the hard limestone layer to the soft chalk below. The shafts were similar in size and their purpose was the penetration of the relatively hard nari crust. The average diameter of the top opening is between 0.8.2 m. The depth of the vertical shaft varies from two to four meters, according to the width of the crust. In some caves the round shape of the top opening was not kept, for a number of reasons, as quarrying into an already existing, earlier artificial cavity (e.g., at Kh. el-Ein: Zissu 2005) or the quality and specific features of local bedrock. A reason for the cylindrical shape of the shaft not being kept in certain cases, may derive from difficulties experienced by the stone-cutters trying to penetrate into the nari. Upon reaching the soft limestone layer, the carvers started widening out the cave downwards and laterally in a circular shape. That method of quarrying gave the caves their typical bell-like shape, which created a large but relatively stable underground cavity.3. The Quarrying MethodThe underground quarrying was carried out using carving tools, as pick-axes, hammers, chisels and crowbars, under natural lighting entering the cavity from the upper shaft, and enhanced, when needed, by oil-lamps. The quarrying operation has left well-marked traces, which appear as parallel rows of oblique chisel marks on the walls. The found in Judea from the Iron Age, (e.g., the winery at Giveon: Pritchard 1964) throughout the Hellenistic and Early Roman periods (certain installations at Horvat Burgin: Zissu and Ganor 2008; and at Horvat Ethri: Zissu and Ganor 2009). Figure 1. Bell-shaped cave at Horvat Burgin. Note the chiselmarks and the negatives of blocks extracted (B. Zissu). Figure 2. Typical cluster of large bell-shaped caves at Luzit (Deir Dubban); (B. Zissu). Figure 3. Smaller sized bell-shaped cave at Horvat Sgafim (B. Zissu).Certain clusters of bell-shaped caves, especially in the area of Bet Guvrin and Deir Duban Luzit, exceed these dimensions. The caves in such groups are characteristically larger in size (Figs. 2, 4 and 5). Their average depth ranges from 10 meters and the diameter of their bottom ranges from 6 to 12 m. Few caves are much deeper up to 20 meters (Kloner 1996). Usually the caves in these clusters were quarried adjacently and were joined to one another in Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral2013 ICS Proceedings258

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the course of carving. This was as a result of the cave walls collapsing naturally, an act initiated by the stone-cutters or a combination of both (Figs. 4 and 5). The caves were connected by a variety of horizontal or oblique tunnels, aimed to allow easy passage of workers, blocks and other carved material and perhaps even pack mules between the cavities to the surface level (Fig. 6). Staircases were cut into the depth of the wall in some caves. This particular type of staircase is entirely different from the staircases installed in the Hellenistic period Maresha type cisterns and quarries, found in the same region. The Maresha type bell-shaped caves have typical steps with parapets, spiralling along their inner walls (Kloner 2005). The staircases have no common characteristics and they were created during the digging of the bell, out of mobility considerations. Quarried into the bottom part of the wall in some of the caves are various niches, hooks for hanging sacks, and devices for holding animals. These features were made when bell-shaped cave quarrying was at its peak, or alternatively when the caves were connected to one another. Some of the installations were probably added after the main quarrying activity. Quarrying the bell-shaped caves created large underground spaces. A substantial number of the caves were later converted for a variety of uses. After the quarrying was completed, the underground quarries were transformed into animal pens, columbaria installations some of them of a large scale (Fig. 7). In few caves, agricultural installations such as oil presses were installed. A very small part of the caves were converted into water cisterns. Other caves were used by squatters for residence. Figure 4. Plan of cluster of large sized bell-shaped caves at Bet Govrin (after Kloner 1989/90: 66). Figure 5. Section of cluster of large sized bell-shaped caves at Bet Govrin (after Kloner 1996: 53).Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings259

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Excluding the Maresha-type caves, which belong to the Hellenistic period, the findings show that the bell shaped caves phenomenon post-dates the Second Jewish Revolt against the Romans (The Bar Kokhba Revolt 132 CE). The stratigraphic relation of the bell-shaped caves to adjacent caves shows that the caves cut into and damaged earlier underground facilities, which were probably cut and used by the local population, living in the area prior to the Bar Kokhba revolt, e.g., hiding systems, burial caves (from the Hellenistic, Early Roman and Byzantine periods near Bet Govrin and at Horvat Segafim (Kloner 1989/90), agricultural facilities etc. (Kloner and Zissu 2009; Zissu and Ganor 2008). In certain cases, inscriptions and crosses cut or painted on the upper, now inaccessible part of caves walls point to a clear Byzantine date (4thto 7thc. CE; e.g., at Tel Lavnin: Zissu 1999 at Luzit-see Figs. 8 and 9). These crosses and Greek inscriptions were incised by the cutters when the cave was still in a shallow phase (Dagan 1982).4. Chronology of bell-shaped cavesDating the quarrying operations is somewhat difficult due to very few mentions in the written sources and few findings relating to the period the caves were used. A re-evaluation of the bell-shaped caves chronology is desirable by using various features such as crosses, inscriptions and incisions left on the cave walls and the relative stratigraphy of bell shaped caves and adjacent rock-cut caves and installations. In other cases the crosses, carved or incised on the upper part of the cave walls, are accompanied by Arab (Kufic) and Greek graffiti and inscriptions (as in Fig. 10), which support the dating of the bell-shaped caves to the Late Byzantine/ Early Islamic period (7thto 11th c. CE; Dagan 1982: 38). Some oil-lamps and pottery vessels found in situ in caves east of Beth Govrin belong to the initial cutting activity and point to a similar Late-Byzantine Early Islamic dating (Frumkin and Kloner 1989; Kloner and Frumkin 1989). The Muslim geographer Al-Muqaddasi mentioned in his book (from 985 CE), the marble quarries of the Bayt Jibrin district referring most probably to the bell-shaped caves discussed here. The traveller Nassiri Khosrau visited Figure 6. Bell-shaped cave at Horvat Burgin. Nos. 1, 2 mark tunnels, cut in the walls in order to extract the quarried material horizontally (B. Zissu). Figure 7. Bell-shaped cave at Luzit-Deir Dubban converted into columbarium installation (B. Zissu). Figure 9. Greek inscription, incised on upper part of bell-shaped cave at Luzit-Deir Dubban the inscription reads: Holy Isidore, help Stephanos. We assume Isidore was a local saint (B. Zissu). Figure 8. Cross incised on wall of Bell-shaped cave at Luzit-Deir Dubban note the greek letters IC/XC/A/W which stand for the christian formula: Iesous Christ, Alpha Omega, (Jesus Christ, beginning and end; photo A. Graicer).Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings260

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5. SummaryFrom the above mentioned data it is apparent that there are clear typological characteristics of the bell-shaped quarries phenomenon. The scattered caves resemble in their characteristics the impressive cluster of over 800 caves, situated near Beth Govrin, where the areas biggest quarries operated (Kloner 1996; 1993). In our opinion, the main purpose of the subterraneous quarries was the extraction of blocks of stone. The lime was apparently only a by-product of this industry. The rock scars and block remains apparent on the walls and on the floor of many caves testify to this purpose. The mixed Greek and Arab (Kufic) inscriptions, found on the upper part of the walls of some caves testify to the cultural process of the assimilation of the Arabic culture. Following the Arab conquest of the country in 634 CE, during the 7thto 10thcenturies, the Arabic language gradually became the language of Christians, Jews and Samaritans. In summary, the re-examination of the findings enable us to suggest the start of the large-scale underground bell-shaped quarries phenomenon to the Late Roman Byzantine period (4ththcenturies CE). It appears that the peak of this process occurred during the late Byzantine and Early-Islamic periods, during the 7thto 10thcenturies CE. In order to fully understan additional aspects of the phenomenon, one needs to examine other components of the landscape of the Judean Foothills and their link to the geographical distribution of bell-shaped caves, as settlements, road network and limestone kilns (Ben-Arieh 1962: 58; Dagan 1982: 35; Dagan 2006: 16**; the region in the year 1035 and referred to the same phenomenon (Dagan 1982: 38 and references therein). Few graffiti were made by hermits, squatters or visitors during or after the Early Islamic period (e.g., at Horvat Burgin: Tchekhanovets 2010). Kloner 1993: 200). This examination is beyond the scope of the present paper. The outstanding phenomenon of the bell-shaped quarries awaits further study.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to Yair Zoran, Alon Klein, Elinor Rahel Hajaj, Abraham and Nili Graicer, for their assistance in the field. The article was prepared with the support of the Krauthammer and Moskovitz Cathedra at Bar Ilan University.ReferencesBen-Arieh Y, 1962. Caves and Ruins in the Beth Govrin Area, IEJ 12, 47. Bliss FJ, Macalister RAS, 1902. Excavations in Palestine 1898 1900. Palestine Exploration Fund, London. Conder CR, Kitchener HH, 1883. The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography and Archaeology, Vol. III, Palestine Exploration Fund, London. Dagan Y, 1982. The Judean Shephelah A Collection of Essays. The Kibbutz Movement-Tel Aviv (in Hebrew). Dagan Y, 2006. Map of Amazya (109). Israel Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem. Frumkin A, Kloner A, 1989. A Survey of Bell Caves at Beit Govrin, Niqrot Zurim, 15, 146 (in Hebrew). Gurin V, 1868. Description Gographique, Historique et Archologique de la Palestine, Premire Partie, Jude: Tome Troisime. Oriental Press Paris and Amsterdam. Kloner A, 1993. Beth Guvrin. in: E Stern (Ed.). NEAEHL I. IES and Carta, Jerusalem, 195. Kloner A, 1996. Maresha. Israel Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem. Kloner A, 2003. Introduction. In: A Kloner, Maresha Excavations Final Report I: Subterranean Complexes 21, 44, 70 [Israel Antiquities Authority Reports 17], Israel Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem, 1. Kloner A, 2005. Water Cisterns in Idumaea, Judaea and Nabatea in the Hellenistic and Early Roman Periods, in: I Riera (Ed.). Binos Actus Lumina II. Sarzana. 129. Kloner A, Frumkin A, 1989. The Water Tunnels Cave System at Beit Govrin, Niqrot Zurim 15, 119 (in Hebrew). Kloner A, Zissu B, 2003.Hiding Complexes in Judaea: An Archaeological and Geographical Update on the Area of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. In: P Schfer (Ed.). The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome, Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism 100, Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen. 181. Kloner A, Zissu B, 2009. Underground Hiding Complexes in Israel and the Bar Kokhba Revolt. Opera Ipogea 1/2009, 9. Oren E, 1965. The Caves of the Palestinian Shephelah, Archaeology 1965, 218. Pritchard JB, 1964. Winery, Defenses, and Soundings at Gibeon. University Museum, Philadelphia. Robinson E, 1841. Biblical Researches in Palestine and in the Adjacent Regions, II. Murray, London. Figure 10. Kufic inscription, incised on wall of bell-shaped cave at Luzit-Deir Dubban the inscription reads: O Allah, forgive Habibs sin (photo by A. Graicer; Sharon 1997: 365; no. 7).Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings261

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Sharon M, 1997. The Arabic Inscriptions of Dayr Dubban. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 7 (3), 355. Smith GA, 1900. The Historical Geography of the Holy Land. Hodder and Stoughton, London. Tchekhanovets Y, 2010. De Profundis Georgian Anchorites in Horvat Burgin. In: D Amit, O Peleg-Barkat and GD Stiebel (Eds.). New Studies in the Archaeology of Jerusalem and its Region 4, Israel Antiquities Authority and Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 186 (in Hebrew) Zissu B, 1999. Daniel in the Lions Den (?) at Tel Lavnin, Judaean Shephelah. Revue Biblique, 106, 563. Zissu B, 2005. A Burial Cave with a Greek Inscription and Graffiti at Khirbat el-Ein, Judean Shephelah. Atiqot, 50, 27. Zissu B, Ganor A, 2008. Survey and Excavations at Horbat Burgin in the Judean Shephela: Burial Caves, Hiding Complexes and Installations of the Second Temple and Byzantine Periods. Atiqot, 58, 15 (in Hebrew). Zissu B, Ganor A, 2009. Horvat Ethri A Jewish Village from the Second Temple Period and the Bar Kokhba Revolt in the Judean Foothills. Journal of Jewish Studies, LX, 90.Speleological Research and Activities in Artificial Underground oral 2013 ICS Proceedings262

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THE ETHNO-CULTURAL FEATURES OF MAN-MADE CAVES CARVED IN THE NEOGENE PYROCLASTIC FORMATION WITHIN THE ARMENIAN HIGHLAND AND NEIGHBORING AREASSmbat Davtyan Armenian Speleological Centre, srdavtyan@mail.ru Pyroclastic rocks of the Neogene Period with numerous dugout cave dwellings are widely spread in the Armenian Highland, Iranian and Anatolian plateaus. There are different types of structures in the cave dwellings (rooms for living, churches, monasteries, tombs, household and auxiliary structures, underground paths), which have been created in the Middle Ages by Armenians, Georgians, Byzantines. The same type of rock-cave culture had been developed in the same geological unit by different ethnic formations located hundreds of kilometers far from each other.1. IntroductionPyroclastic rocks of the Neogene age are commonly spread over the Armenian