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Acta carsologica

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Acta carsologica
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Acta Carsologica
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Krasoslovni zbornik
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Inštitut za raziskovanje krasa (Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti)
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Geology ( local )
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Vol. 32, no. 2 (2003)

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University of South Florida Library
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K26-00148 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.148 ( USFLDC Handle )
5209 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0583-6050 ( ISSN )
8894944 ( OCLC )

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Contribution Of Ivan Gams To The Development Of Slovene Karst Terminology / Jurij Kunaver ( .pdf )

A Little Contribution To The Karst Terminology : Special Or Aberrant Cases Of Poljes? / Jean Nicod ( .pdf )

Dolines And Sinkholes: Aspects Of Evolution And Problems Of Classification / Ugo Sauro ( .pdf )

The Use Of Structural Geological Terms And Their Importance For Karst Caves / Stanka Å ebela ( .pdf )

Folk Karst Terminology From Apulia (Southern Italy) / Mario Parise - Antonio Federico - Marco Delle Rose - Mariangela Sammarco ( .pdf )

Observations On Historical Terminology: Grotte And Höhle In German Texts / Brigitta Mader ( .pdf )

Comparison Of French And Slovene Karstic And Speleological Terminology / Berta Mrak ( .pdf )

French Terminology Of Speleological Forms / Jacques Choppy ( .pdf )

Geomorphology Of Karst Depressions: Polje Or Uvala - A Case Study Of Lucki Dol / Martina Frelih ( .pdf )

Formation Of The Cerknišcica And The Flooding Of Cerkniško Polje / France Šušteršic - Simona Šušteršic ( .pdf )

Relation Between Karst And Fluviokarst Relief On The Slunj Plateau (Croatia) / Neven Bocic ( .pdf )

Cryptokarst: A Case-Study Of The Quaternary Landforms Of Southern Apulia (Southern Italy) / Antonella Marsico - Gianluca Selleri - Giuseppe Mastronuzzi - Paolo Sanso - Nicola Walsh ( .pdf )

Landuse And Land Cover Change In The Lunan Stone Forest, China / Chuanrong Zhang - Michael Day - Weidong Li ( .pdf )

Human Impact On Karst Terrains, With Special Regard To Sylviculture In Hungary / Ilona Bárány-Kevei ( .pdf )

The Case Study On Soil Fauna Diversity In Different Ecological System In Shilin National Park, Yunnan, China / C. Xiang - L. Song - P. Zhang - G. Pan ( .pdf )

Effects Of The Tectonic Movements On The Karstification In Anatolia, Turkey / Ibrahim Atalay ( .pdf )

Review Of Turkish Karst With Emphasis On Tectonic And Paleogeographic Controls / Mehmet Ekmekci ( .pdf )

The Protection Of Karst Aquifers: The Example Of The Bistrica Karst Spring (Sw Slovenia) / Gregor Kovacic ( .pdf )

Propagation Of A Floodwave In Karst During Artificially Generated Recession - Case Study Of Banjica Spring (Bela Palanka, Eastern Serbia) / Milena Zlokolica-Mandic - Jelena Calic-Ljubojevic ( .pdf )

Karst Springs Of Alashtar, Iran / Reza Mohamad Ahmadipour ( .pdf )

Geophysical Characteristics Of Epikarst: Case Studies From Zagros Mts. (Iran) And The Koneprusy Region (Czech Republic) / Pavel Bosák - Vojtech Beneš ( .pdf )

Overview Of The Karst Occurences In Northern Cyprus / Mehmet Necdet ( .pdf )

Archduke Ludwig Salvator and Leptodirus Hohenwarti From Postojnska Jama / Brigitta Mader ( .pdf )

Hallerstein And Chinese Karst / Stanislav Južnic ( .pdf )

Karst Aquifers Vulnerability Or Sensitivity? / Gregor Kovacic - Nataša Ravbar ( .pdf )


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195EFFECTS OF THE TECTONIC MOVEMENTS ON THE KARSTIFICATION IN ANATOLIA, TURKEY UINKI TEKTONSKIH PREMIKANJ NA ZAKRASEVANJE V ANATOLIJI, TURIJAIBRAHIM ATALAY11 Department of Geography, Buca Faculty of Education, Dokuz Eylul University, 35150 Buca, IzmirTurkey, e.mail: ibrahim.atalay@deu.edu.tr Prejeto / received: 15. 7. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/216196-203LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.02

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)196Abstract UDC: 551.44:551.24(560) Ibrahim Atalay: Effects of the tectonic movements on the karstification in Anatolia, Turkey Turkey has several types of karstic land-forms containing lapies (karren), caves, dolines, uvalas and poljes. Karstification is related also to the tectonic movements. Well-developed karstic features such as wide poljes, ground water and cave system are widespread in/on the Mesozoic comprehensive limestone in the Taurus Mountains. Karstification begun to develop towards the end of the Mesozoic by the uplift movements of the Taurus Mountains in general. Some large poljes were occupied by the Neogene lakes in which lime and clay accumulated. The fresh water lakes such as Lake Beyehir and Egirdir are found in the tectonic-karstic depressions. Underground river systems are found between the Lake Region (western Taurus) and Mediterranean coast. These river systems have been shifted towards the deeper parts of the limestone as the result of the progress of karstification and the vertical uplift of the Taurus Mountains (upper Tertiary, Early Quaternary). Caves formed as the result of vertical tectonic movements. These movements caused the lowering of the base level. So the karstification process have shifted from the upper level to deeper parts of the Taurus. Key words: karstification, karstic land-forms, Anatolia. Izvleek UDK: 551.44:551.24(560) Ibrahim Atalay: Uinki tektonskih premikanj na zakrasevanje v Anatoliji, Turija V Turiji so razvite razline kraške oblike, škraplje, jame, vrtae, uvale in polja. Zakrasevanje je odvisno tudi od tektonskih premikanj. Dobro razvite kraške oblike, kot velika polja, podzemeljski tokovi in jamski sistemi, so na široko razviti v mezozojskih apnencih v gorovju Taurus. Z dvigom Taurusa konec mezozoika se je na splošno prielo zakrasevanje. V nekaterih velikih poljih so bila v neogenu jezera, v katerih sta se odlagala apnenec in glina. Sladkovodna jezera, kot Beyehir in Egirdir, so v tektonsko-kraških depresijah. Sistemi podzemeljskih rek so med jezersko regijo (zahodni Taurus) in sredozemsko obalo. Ti sistemi so se spustili v globlje dele apnenevega masiva zaradi napredovanja zakrasevanja in dviga Taurusa (zgornji terciar, spodnji kvartar). Jame so nastale kot rezultat teh navpinih tektonskih premikov, zaradi katerih se je zniala erozijska baza. In tako se je proces zakrasevanja prestavil iz višjih v globlje dele Taurusa. Kljune besede: zakrasevanje, kraške oblike, Anatolija.

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197INTRODUCTIONKarstic areas cover especially the middle and western part of the Taurus Mountain and also occur in the southern parts both of Central Anatolia, the southeastern Anatolian region. and other part of Anatolia (Fig. 1). Karstification and karstic landforms are generally different size and types due to the limestone composition, climate, altitude and geomorphologic evolution (Erinc 1960; Atalay 1987a). In this article the karstification process and main karstic landforms will briefly be explained in terms of tectonic movements.TECTONIC MOVEMENTS AND GEOMORPHIC EVOLUTIONVertical tectonic movements are mainly responsible for karstification and karstic landforms. Indeed most of the formation of deep and large karstic depressions, especially poljes are related to the vertical tectonic movement. That is, large poljes are found within the tectonic basins and/or corridors (Fig. 2). The development of karstification and karstic landforms in the western part of the Taurus mountains can be summarized according to geological periods. Mesozoic: The present-day Taurus mountain range areas were occupied by Tethys ocean in which mostly limey material accumulated during the Mesozoic. Towards the end of the Mesozoic, the Taurus range system had started to uplift as the result of the subduction of the Africa plates trough the Mediterranean basin. After most of the Taurus mountain areas had emerged from the sea, karstification process commenced to develop (Fig. 3A). Tertiary: Karstification process continued during the Eocene and Oligocene except for some subsidence areas. For example, some subsidence areas which are found in the southern part of Fig. 1: Principal karstic regions of Turkey (Atalay, 1996).Ibrahim Atalay: Effects of the tectonic movements on the karstification in Anatolia, Turkey

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)198Teke peninsula in the W part of the Taurus Mountains were occupied by a shallow Eocene sea (Atalay 1987a; 1987b). During the Oligocene, the paroxysm phase of the Alpine orogeny occurred so pre-Oligocene outcrops got folded and some limestones were crystallized. During the Miocene, most of the Taurus mountains were subjected to vertical tectonic movements which are named post-Alpine movements, as in many part of Anatolia. As the result of these vertical movements, tectonic grabens were formed along the fault zones most of which were occupied by the shallow sea and lake. Indeed, the grabens such as Bucak, Beysehir-Seydisehir, Acipayam, etc. were occupied by the lakes in the western part of the Taurus Mountains. In some lake basins the deposits lignite formed. The middle part of the Taurus Mountains was occupied by the Mediterranean Sea in which limly material containing sand and clay were deposited as the result of subsidence events (Atalay 1987a; 1987b; 1988; 1989; 1996). Fig. 2: A) Beginning of the karstification process towards the end of the Mesozoic era, B) Develop and rejuvenation of the karstification process with the uplift of the Taurus Mountains.

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199Fig. 3: A) First stages of karstification towards the end of the Mesozoic, B) The formation of tectonic graben by the vertical tectonic movement occurred during the Neogene, C) Increase of karstification process, the formation of cave systems which are found at a different vertical level.Ibrahim Atalay: Effects of the tectonic movements on the karstification in Anatolia, Turkey

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)200Towards the end of the Tertiary, the Taurus mountain range had been completely uplifted. The uplift of the Taurus mountains has caused an increase of karstification because of the fact that the base level of the karstic land lowered. Thus water draining off the uplifted areas has begun to dissolve limestone along the crack system and fault lines (Fig. 2, 3B and 3C). The ground water system and caves began to develop. The main poljes have formed, especially along the weak zone fitting fault lines. For this reason main poljes appearing within the grabens such as Bucak, Seki, Celtikci and Sugla formed (Aygen 1984, Guldali 1970; 1973; 1976; Guldali & Nazik 1984). The lakes occupying the old poljes have caused the increase of the intense dissolution especially along the weak zone. Thus sinkholes located in the karstic depression have been converted into the ground water system. Some rivers draining off the karstic land shifted and captured towards downward as the result of the uplift of the Taurus. One can see misfit valley and wind gaps in the Fig. 4: A) Initial formation of the Ballica Cave, B) Development of this cave with the lowering of the base level after the formation of Tokat Graben.

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201Fig. 5: The formation of the karstic sources along the valley as the shifting of ground water in the southern part of the Lake Van Taurus. In addition to these, there are 3 cave systems developed in the vertical direction within the Upper Craterous limestones in the southern part of the Lake Sugla Polje area. The caves and dried up or wind gaps are found toward the Sugla poljes. The misfit valley indicates that the river was flowing into the Lake Sugla. On the other hand, the surface drainage shifted towards the ground river system as the result of the uplift of the Taurus mountains and so the upper cave systems which are found upper part of this area, remained hanging situation while the lower one continued to develop (Guldali & Nazik, 1984). Numerous caves which are found in the different altitude appear between on the coastal belt of Mediterranean Sea and Lake region (Aygen 1984) (Fig. 3). Another prominent cave system is seen in the western part of the Tokat city, in the northern part of Anatolia. The formation of the Ballica Cave, which is located on the southern slopes of Tokat graben, is related to the vertical tectonic movements. Initially the karstification process had commenced in the Paleozoic limestones which are found as a big lens within the Paleozoic schists. A ground water course has started to develop along the fault line cutting the Paleozoic limestones after the Tokat graben had been formed by the vertical movement. Thus the base level of the river course has lowered in the graben area. With the karstification has rejuvenated the ground river which has continued to enlarge. Shortly the formation of the Tokat Graben led to the lowering of the base level and so the Ballica Cave system has developed (Fig. 4). Another example is also seen in the southern part of Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia. With the uplift of the Taurus Mountains the surface drainage system has shifted deeper. Best examples can be given in the Ihtiyarsahap Mountains, in the southern part of the Lake Van. Here some ground courses feeding from the poljes have been shifted towards the deeper part as the result of the uplift of the mountains. The ground drainages may have continued towards the Lake Van, have been captured and diverted towards the deep valleys. For example, the karstic springs appearing through the Catak and Bahcesaray valley may be related to the diversion of the ground water discharge. The springs along the above mentioned valley feed from the sinkholes within the poljesIbrahim Atalay: Effects of the tectonic movements on the karstification in Anatolia, Turkey

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)202which are found on the upper part of the mountains (Fig. 5). In addition to these, some doline areas have collapsed as the result of dissolve of limestone with the uplift of the Taurus Mountains. The best examples are given in the vicinity of Silifke on the coastal belt of the Mediterranean Sea. In these areas cylindrical dolines or karstic pits called Cennet and Cehennem are found. These sinkholes and caves containing stalagmites and stalactites follow the old dried up valley. The cauldron and some karstic features which are seen along the valley in the SE Anatolia are mostly related to the lowering of the base level of streams (Bilgin 1963). Uplifting movements have led to the formation of bauxite deposits which are found in the western the Taurus Mountains because the remained clay components as the result of the intense karstification accumulated within the karstic hole. It can be clearly said that the rich karstic features and the poljes have been formed as the result of vertical tectonic movements.RESULTSThe Taurus Mountains having rich karstic formation and forms are mostly related to the results of the successive karstification processes. 1. Most of the poljes are located in the tectonic grabens which were formed post-Alpine vertical tectonic movements. The uplift of the Taurus Mountains has caused the increase of karstification proceses. Different cave systems in the vertical direction testify this. 2. Majority of caves having ground river and ponds occur along the axis bend extending between Antalya-the Mediterranean Sea and the Lake Egirdir. Main fault lines extending south-north direction led to increase of the dissolution process.REFERENCESATALAY, I, 1973, Some observation on the karstification and soil formation in the Taurus Mountains (Turkish, summary in English): Bull. of Geomorphology, 5: 135-151. ATALAY, I. 1987a, Introduction to Geomorphology of Turkey (in Turkish). Ege University, Faculty of Letters Pub. Nu: 9, 454 pages, Izmir. ATALAY, I. 1987b, The ecological conditions of the natural occurrence areas of cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) and regioning of seed transfer of cedar in Turkey. General Dir. of Forest Pub Nu.: 661/63, Ankara, 167 pages. ATALAY, I. 1988, Karstification and the ecology of the karstic land in the Taurus Mountains (Summary in English), Bull. of Geomorphology, 16: 1-8. ATALAY, I. 1989, Soil formation of the karstic lands of the Taurus Mountain (in Turkish). Papers of 10th Soil Science Union, Pub Nu. 5: 18.1-3. ATALAY, I. 1991, Soil formation in the karstic land in Turkey. Proceedings of the International First Regional Conference of Geomorphology, Special Issue, 19, Bulletin of Geomorphology, 19: 139-144. ATALAY, I., 1995, Pedogenesis and ecology of karstic lands in Turkey. Acta Carsologica, XXIV: 53-67. ATALAY, I., 1996, Karstification and karstic landforms in Turkey. Karren Landforms (Ed. J. J.

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203Fornos and A. Gines). Universidad de les Balears, Spain: 325-334. AYGEN, T. 1984, Turkish Caves. Pub. of Turkish Turing and Otomobile Society, Istanbul. BILGIN, T. 1963, The formation of some karstic forms with relating to slope evolution on the plateau areas western part of Gaziantep (in Turkish). Review of Geog. Inst. of Istanbul. 13:164-170. ERINC, S., 1960, Karstic features in the Konya region and inner part of the Taurus Mountains. Review of Turkish Geog. Society, 20: 83-106. GLDALI, N. 1970, Karstmorphologische Studien im Gebiet des Poljesystem von Kestel (Westlicher the Taurus, Turkei). Tubingen Geog. Studien, 40. GLDALI, N. 1973, Seydisehir and Akseki bauxite deposits and their relation to paleokarst phonemenina in the Tauruss Mountains. Cong. of the Earth Sci. on Occassion the 50th An. of Turkish Rep.,: 391-408. GDALI, N. 1976, Akseki poljes. The formation and evolution of intermontane plain in the karstic lands of the Taurus Mountains (in Turkish). Geol Bull. of Turkish Soc. 19 (2):143148. GLDALI, N. and NAZIK, L.1984, The karstic evolution of Tinaztepe cave system and its immediate surroundings. Bull. of Geomorhology, 13: 107-114. NAZIK, L. and GULDALI, N. 1985: Incesu caves system (Taskale-Karaman): Geomorphologic evolution and economic possibilities. Bull. of Geomorphology, 13: 47-52. NAZIK, L., 1986, Karst geomorphology and examine of karstic parameters of near of the Lake Beysehir (in Turkish). Bull. of Geomorphology, 14: 65-78.Ibrahim Atalay: Effects of the tectonic movements on the karstification in Anatolia, Turkey



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137RELATION BETWEEN KARST AND FLUVIOKARST RELIEF ON THE SLUNJ PLATEAU (CROATIA) ODNOS MED KRAŠKIM IN FLUVIOKRAŠKIM RELIEFOM, PRIMER SLUNJSKE URAVNAVENEVEN BOI 11 Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Maruliev trg 19/II, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia Speleological society Karlovac, Kaieva 1, 47 000 Karlovac, Croatia e-mail: nbocic@geog.pmf.hr Prejeto / received: 27. 8. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/211137-146LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)138Abstract UDC: 551.44(497.5) Neven Boi: Relation between Karst and Fluviokarst Relief on the Slunj Plateau (Croatia) The Slunj plateau is part of the shallow Kordun karst. It extends from the westernmost part of river Una towards the northwest to the confluence of the Slunjica and Korana, at an average height of 300 350 m of above sea level. It is 40 km long, and averages about 10 km wide. A larger part of the plateau of Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate rocks has characteristics of e karst relief with numerous dolines. On the smaller part of the Paleozoic and Tertiary clastic sediments and Triassic dolomites, a surface fluvial network has been developed. The water streams emerging on that basis regularly disappear underground on contact with permeable rocks. During geomorphological evolution of this terrain the area which is being drained on the surface was reduced, and the traces were left in the form of blind and dry (fossil) valleys. The water streams moved from the surface to underground where they formed the underground channels, i. e. speleological objects. This work analyses the correlation between the formation processes of (today fossil) valleys and cave channels on three examples: 1) Cave system Matešieva Popovaka cave, 2) Ponor pod Kremenom cave and Barieve cave, 3) Cave system Variakova Panjkova cave. Key words: karst geomorphology, fluviokarst, contact karst, caves, Slunj plateau, Croatia. Izvleek UDK: 551.44(497.5) Neven Boi: Odnos med kraškim in fluviokraškim reliefom, primer Slunjske uravnave Slunjska uravnava je del kordunskega krasa. Ta se razteza v nad. viš. 300-350 m, od najdlje proti zahodu segajoega dela doline Une do sotoja Slunjice in Korane. Dolga je 40 in povpreno 10 km široka. Veji del te uravnave, zgrajene iz jurskih in krednih karbonatnih kamnin, ima znailnosti kraškega reliefa s številnimi vrtaami. Na manjšem delu, ki ga gradijo paleozojski in terciarni klastini sedimenti in triasni dolomiti, je razvita površinska rena mrea. Vodotoki, ki so na tej podlagi, na stiku s prepustnimi kamninami izginejo v podzemlje. Tekom geomorfološkega razvoja tega ozemlja se je površinsko odmakano površje zmanjševalo, sledovi tega pa so ostali v obliki slepih in suhih (fosilnih) dolin. Vodni tokovi so se s površja prestavili v podzemlje, kjer so izdolbli podzemeljske kanale, to je speleološke objekte. Delo analizira odnos med procesi, s pomojo katerih so nastale (danes fosilne) doline in jamski rovi na treh primerih: 1. jamski sistem Matešieva – Popovaka jama, 2. Ponor pod Kremenom in Barieve jame, 3. jamski sistem Variakova – Panjkova jama. Kljune besede: geomorfologija krasa, fluviokras, kontaktni kras, Slunjska uravnava, Hrvaška.

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139INTRODUCTIONThe Slunj plateau is a part of the shallow Dinaric karst (Herak et al. 1969) in Croatia (Fig.1), i.e. of its eastern part called the Kordun karst. It spreads from the furthest western flow of the Una River towards the north-west, where the Slunjica flows into the Korana River at an average height of 300-350 above sea level, is 40 km long, and, on average, 10 km wide. North east of Slunj plateau is the zone (approximately SE-NW) representing the transition between Dinaric Karst and Peripanonian non-karst region. It is the meeting belt of two megageomorphological regions (Dinaric and Panonian regions in Croatia; Bognar 2001) or more precisely the subgeomorphological regions of Slunj plateau with the dominating characteristic of the karst relief and Cetingrad hills with fluviodenudational relief characteristics. The present geological characteristics are the result of the complex evolution of the area through the geological past (Korolija et al. 1979; Korolija et al. 1981). Specially important were the intensive processes of thrusts from the north east in the Eocene period. The tectonic structure feels the consequences of the influence of the nappe of Petrova Gora in the north east. At the same time it is a tectonic border of the structural complexes Dinaric and Supradinaric (Herak 1986). Most of the Slunj plateau area is made of carbonate rocks from the Cretaceous, which are mostly limestone. In the north and central part of the plateau there are also Jurassic carbonate rocks. Among the middle and upper-Jurassic carbonates there are mostly limestone, and among the lower-Jurassic carbonates dolomites are dominant. The smaller part of the researched area is built of Paleozoic and Tertiary clastites and Triassic dolomites. Most parts of the Slunj plateau made of limestone rocks have all the typical characteristics of karst relief, with numerous dolines. In areas made of clastites and dolomites, a surface water network was developed, i.e. fluviodenudational relief type. Waterflows which were created on such a ground all sink underground in contact with permeable rocks. During the geomorphological evolution of the terrain, due to the karstification process, the area of surface drainage was reduced, and its traces in the relief remain in the form of dry (fossil) valleys. Waterflows moved from the surface underground, where they formed underground channels, i.e. speleological objects. This study focuses on the connection between the forming processes of the (now fossil) valleys and the cave channels. In this area there are many known caving structures, and for the purpose of developing the topic, three examples are used: the system Matešieva Popovaka cave and its surrounding relief; caves in the Grabovac valley and its surrounding relief, and the system Variakova-Panjkova cave and its surrounding relief. The system Matešieva-Popovaka cave was, according to data available, known to cavers since 1959, when members of the Speleological section of Mountaineering club Dubovac of Karlovac explored it. After them the system was visited and explored by other Croatian caving societies (V elebit, eljezniar, and Sutjeska from Zagreb). In 1967 Sreko Boievi visited the system and took photographs of it. The cavers public did not have any map of the cave available, so the members of the SO PD Dubovac reinitiated a systematic exploration and surveying of it in 1997. The length of the channels surveyed was 1041 meters (Jelini 1998). Members of the SD Karlovac explored other side channels in 2000 so the entire length of the system reached 1246 meters. The system Variakova-Panjkova cave is mentioned in references as Panjkov ponor Kršlje and Muškina Panjkova cave. The first known entrance into it for scientific purposes had been done by A. Langhoffer in 1912 (Garaši 1984). A systematic caving exploration of the system was done since 1983 by two teams, independently and at the same time, DISKF and SONeven Boi: Relation between Karst and Fluviokarst Relief on the Slunj Plateau (Croatia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)140PDS Velebit from Zagreb. Therefore, two sets of data are available about its length: 9352 meters, according to SO PDSV (epelak 1985) and 12385 meters, according to DISKF (Garaši 1991). Geological explorations in this system were conducted by Garaši (1984, 1991a, 1991b, 1995, 1997), Jukica & Grgi (1984) and Jukica & Kovaevi (1984). The three caves in Grabovac valley were found, explored and surveyed by the members of Speleological society Karlovac in 2000 and 2001 (Baurin et al. 2001), and in 2002 Boi explored its morphogenesis.CAVE SYSTEM MATEŠIEVA POPOVAKA CAVE AND THE SURROUNDING RELIEFThis system (Fig. 2 and 5) is located in the north-west edge of Slunj Plateau. Surface water flow is formed in several valleys on the hill named Kremenita glava (Flint Stone Head), 458 meters high, made of Permian sandstone (Korolija et al, 1979; Korolija et al. 1981). At the fault contact with limestone and dolostone of the upper Jurassic, some streams sink underground, while the main flow, Popovac, flows on the surface north-westward, towards the fault contact between limestone and dolostone of the upper Jurassic and the limestone of the lower Cretaceous, and sinks there. The valley of the Popovac stream is about 30 meters wide and is in the shape of a blind valley; here, the entrance to the cave system Matešieva cave is located. The cave system is developed in limestone of the lower Cretaceous. It is a cave system with 3 entrances, 1,246 meters long. The main channel spreads from the entrance into Matešieva cave to the entrance into Popovaka cave (in the Korana river canyon) and is 640 meters long. The entrance to Matešieva cave functions as a periodical ponor (several decades ago it was a permanent ponor), and Popovaka cave functions as a spring (Jelini 1998). The main passage is 5-10 meters wide and up to 15 meters high in the first 2/3 of the length; while in the final third of the main channel dimensions of section-plane decrease. In the central part of the cave there is a fossil channel (7-8 meters above the active one), about 80 meters long, filled with speleothems. The permanent water flow comes through a siphon at about 200 meters from the entrance into Matešieva cave. From the end of the blind valley of the Popovac stream, there is a fossil (dry) valley, spreading about 400 meters N-NW to the Korana river canyon. It is the remnant of the surface flowing away of the Popovac stream before karstification and the formation of the Matešieva Popovaka cave system. Cave water passages (younger than the fossil part of the valley) spread almost entirely under the fossil part of the valley, which indicates that they were probably predisposed by the same tectonic subvertical fault line, with orientation 150 330. Fig. 1: Location of Slunj plateau.

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141Fig. 2: Cave system Matešieva Popovaka cave and its surrounding relief (see fig. 5 for legend; cave channels after Jelini 1998). Fig. 3: Cave system Variakova Panjkova cave and its surrounding relief (see fig. 5 for legend; cave channels after Garši 1991). Fig. 5: Legend for fig. 2, 3 and 4.Neven Boi: Relation between Karst and Fluviokarst Relief on the Slunj Plateau (Croatia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)142Fig. 4: Caves in the Grabovac valley and its surrounding relief (see fig. 5 for legend; cave channels after Baurin et al. 2001).

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143CAVE SYSTEM VARIAKOVA PANJKOVA CAVE AND THE SURROUNDING RELIEFCave system Variakova Panjkova cave (Fig. 3 and 5) is located in the central part of the Slunj plateau. On the impermeable ground made out of impermeable Miocene layers (Korolija et al. 1979; Korolija et al. 1981), there are two major water flows, Perlinac stream (flowing eastward) and Kršlja stream (flowing northward). These layers lie in a transgressive contact on the carbonate layers from the Cretaceous (Korolija et al. 1979; Korolija et al. 1981). In the zone of contact, the streams Perlinac and Kršlja sink underground and their flows continue underground through the cave system Muškinja Panjkova cave (epelak 1985; Garaši 1984). It is the second longest cave system in Croatia, over 12,385 meters long (Garaši 1991 b). The underground passages of this system were developed in the limestone of the lower and upper Cretaceous. By tracing underground water flows it was determined that water appears in the springs on the left side of the Korana river canyon, north-east of the ponors (Garaši 1997). Behind the Perlinac ponor (entrance into Panjkova cave), we can see in the relief the possible spreading of the fossil valley towards the entrance into Variakova cave, where it was connected with the valley of the Kršlja stream. It created the shape of the letter “Z”, around 1,800 meters long and supposedly 50 meters wide. From the ponor of the Kršlja stream (where the entrance into Variakova cave is, functioning as a periodical ponor; Jukica & Kovaevi 1984) it continues to the Korana river canyon as a dry valley Krivodol (around 4.7 km long and up to 50 meters wide). In spite of multiple elbow-shaped turnings, it generally spreads north-eastward. The dry valley Krivodol is a trace in the relief of the surface flowing away of the Kršlja stream (it is possible that the Perlinac stream flowed into Kršlja on the surface, somewhere in the area of the entrance into Variakova cave). The cave system has a complex morphology (with elements of networking storey and system types), at places of anastomotic or maze morphology. The water passages of Panjkova and Variakova caves converge underground, where water flows come together, but downstream, passages branch out again under the influence of the fault which lies almost perpendicular to the flowing away direction (Garaši 1984). Besides creating conditions for cave genesis by lowering local erosion basis, neotectonics had a huge influence on the genesis: the uplifting of Mašvina hill north of the system (Garaši 1984), the subsidence of the area of the present valleys of Perlinac and Kršlja streams, and different movements of other tectonic blocks in the area.CAVES IN GRABOVAC VALLEY (PONOR POD KREMENOM, GORNJA AND DONJA BARIEVA CAVE) AND THE SURROUNDING RELIEFThis area is about 4 km east of Slunj at the north part of Slunj plateau. The Grabovac valley area is built of Mesozoic carbonates, Cretaceous and Paleocene flysch and Miocene marls, clay and sandstone. Flysch sediments lie on carbonates in transgressive contact. Miocene clastic sediments lie over the older sediments in transgressive contact. The Grabovac stream flows from the north to the south through the valley which is about 50 m deeper than the surrounding area (Fig. 4 and 5). Partially the Grabovac stream flows underground. It sinks about 1000 m before it flows into the Korana and later springs again about 325 m in the south. This part of the valley is dry (fossil). Ponor pod Kremenom is the biggest cave in the Grabovc valley. Main channel generally extends from the north to the south under the dry part of the valley but it forks at severalNeven Boi: Relation between Karst and Fluviokarst Relief on the Slunj Plateau (Croatia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)144points. The underground part of the Grabovac stream flows through its channels. It represents a typical anastomotic morphology. The total length of the channels in Ponor pod Kremenom is 1019 m. In the south of the dry part of the valley are two caves. Gornja Barieva cave spreads towards the north and the total length of the cave channels is 260 m. It is supposed that it is an old (fossil) spring. Donja Barieva cave is a simple object 26 m long. It is supposed to be connected with the main channel in Ponor pod Kremenom. The cave periodically functions as a spring. The formation of these caves is connected to the underground flow of the Grabovac stream. Morphological characteristics of these caves are the result of the influence of allogenic water flow (the Grabovac stream) where the cave channels conduit water which sinks at the end of the active part of the valley. Morphological characteristics of outside relief indicate that the Grabovac stream flew on the surface to the stream mouth into the Korana river. Subsequently due to combined influences of the lowering of the erosion basis and uplifting of the part of Grabovac valley the stream started to sink and a part of the valley become dry. CONCLUSIONThe main exogenous processes which create the relief of the Slunj plateau are of the karstic, fluviokarstic and fluviodenudating kind. The greatest part of this area is made up of carbonate rocks, dominated by the karst process (Ford & Williams 1994); in areas built of impermeable rocks, fluviodenudational processes dominate, while in the area of contact between carbonate and non-carbonate rocks, fluviokarst is developed (Gams 1986). The areas of contacts between carbonate and non-carbonate rocks are on faults and transgressive. In the transgressive contacts, because of denudation, the area of non-carbonate rocks decreases, and carbonates at the bottom are revealed, thus increasing the area affected by processes of karst and fluviokarst. Before the process of karstification, the exogenous modeling of the area was fluviodenudational kind, and the drainage was on the surface. High level of erosion basis and mostly gentle inclination of slopes did not permit deep carving of valleys and canyons or the underground sinking of the water flows. The water flows created on impermeable ground are of allogenic kind in toward the surrounding areas made of carbonate rocks. The fractures in these rocks were not widened enough to allow the free flowing of the underground waters. The tectonic fractures and bedding-planes in the rocks beneath valleys were widened by means of corrosion to dimensions sufficient for turbulent water flows. During further developments of the relief, through the entrenching of the river Korana canyon, the local erosion basis was lowered and the hydraulic gradient was increased. The conditions for allogenic water flows sinking underground were created, and the main phase of the speleogenesis began (Palmer 2001). Because of widening of cave channels and lowering of erosional basis ratio of erosion in speleogenetic process increase. The underground flowing away was no longer conditioned by the incline of the slopes as on surface; the role of the fractures and bedding-planes in directing the flows was increased. In the underground breaking through, the water seeks the most favorable options, thus making the flow changeable, which results in anastomotic morphology and elbow-shaped turnings of cave passages (Palmer 2001). Neotectonic activities have a huge influence on the morphogenesis of the cave passages, which is distinctly obvious in Variakova Panjkova cave system ( the uplifting of Mašvina hill, the downthrow of the active parts of valleys).

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145With such development of the relief, the lowest parts of a valley became dry, i.e. fossil valleys as traces of the former surface flows. Parts of valleys which retain their active function re-shape themselves into blind valleys. Although these processes are conditioned by the contact of permeable and impermeable ground, the sinking underground does not always happen at the point of contact itself, but also further downstream, where it was tectonically predisposed. With time, a more intense karstification occurs, followed by the retreating movements of the ponors and the atrophy of the function of the oldest ponors (today, water sinks underground in the Matešieva cave only during maximum water level, and in Muškinja only during extremely high level every couple of years). As consequences of these changes, in geomorphological sense, we can observe few parts of geomorphological – hydrological system in contact karst conditions of Slunj plateau: -impermeable area of fluviodenudational relief on which the water flow forms witch creating its own valley, and a possible continuation of that valley in carbonate rocks in the shape of a blind valley -the ponors area with several generations of sinkholes (younger ones are further upstream) speleological objects (caves) formed by the corrosion-erosion processes of the underground flow, which can have several levels of passages, as a consequence of the lowering of local erosion basis and neotectonic raising -dry (fossil) valleys as the remains of the past surface flowing away, with different degrees of karstificationREFERENCESBaurin, ., Balaš, Z., Boi, N., Cvitanovi, H. & Dubravi, V., 2001: Maps of Ponor pod Kremenom cave and Baris caves near Slunj. Archive of Speleological society Karlovac, unpublished Bognar, A., 2001: Geomorfološka regionalizacija Hrvatske. Acta Geographica Croatica Vol. 34, 7-29, Geografski odsjek PMF, Zagreb epelak, M., 1986: Špiljski sustav Panjkov ponor Kršlje. Speleolog, vol. XXX-XXXI, 21-27, Speleološki odsjek PD eljezniar, Zagreb Ford, D. & Williams, P., 1994: Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology. Chapman and Hall, London Gams, I., 1986: Kontaktni fliviokras. Acta Carsologica 14 -15, str. 71-87, IZRC-SAZU, Ljubljana Garaši, M., 1984: Neotektonske aktivnosti kao jedan od uzroka geneze i morfologije jednog od najveih spiljskih sistema u Hrvatskoj. 9. jugosl. speleološki kongres, Zbornik radova, SDH, 457-465, Karlovac Garaši, M., 1991a: Morphological and Hidrogeological Classification of the Speleological Structures (caves and pits) in the Croatian Karst Area. Geološki vjesnik 44, 289 -300, IGI, Zagreb Garaši, M., 1991b: Karstifikacija spiljskog kanala iza Zelelnog sifona i njegova hidrogeološka uloga u spiljskom sustavu muškinje i Panjkove spilje na Kordunu. Spelaeologia Croatica, Vol 2., 5-14, Zagreb Garaši, M., 1995: Speleogeneza u okviru hidrogeologije krša i procesa karstifikacije. 1. Hrvatski geološki kongres, Zbornik radova, 177-182, Zagreb Garaši, M.,1997: Karst Water Tracing in Some of the Speleological Features (caves and pits) in Dinaric Karst Area in Croatia. Tracer Hydrology, pp.229-236, Balkema, Rotterdam.Neven Boi: Relation between Karst and Fluviokarst Relief on the Slunj Plateau (Croatia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)146Herak, M., Bahun, S., & Magdaleni, A., 1969: Pozitivni i negativni utjecaji na razvoj krša u Hrvatskoj. Krš Jugoslavije 6, JAZU, 45-71, Zagreb Herak, M., 1986: A New Concept of Geotectonics of the Dinarides. Acta geologica, vol.16/1, 142, Zagreb Jelini, I., 1998: Sustav Matešieva spilja Popovaka spilja. Speleo’zin 8/9, 3-5, Speleološko društvo Karlovac, Karlovac Jukica, T. & Grgi, S., 1984: Komparacija mjerenih tektonskih elemenata u speleološkim objektima i na površini iznad njih. 9. jugosl. speleološki kongres, Zbornik radova, SDH, 443-445, Karlovac Jukica, T. & Kovaevi, T., 1984: Prirodne podzemne akumulacije pitke vode i njihova zaštita u spiljskim kanalima plitkog krša. 9. jugosl. speleološki kongres, Zbornik radova, SDH, 110-130, Karlovac Korolija, B., ivaljevi T. & Šimuni, An., 1979: Osnovna geološka karta 1: 100000 list Slunj. Savezni geološki zavod, Beograd Korolija, B., ivaljevi T. & Šimuni, An., 1981: Tuma Osnovne geološke karte 1: 100000 za list Slunj. Institut za geološka istraivanja, Zagreb Palmer, A. N., 2001: Dynamics of Cave Development by Allogenic Water. Acta Carsologica Vol. 30, 13-32, IZRC-SAZU, LjubljanaACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI want to thank: Ivan Zagoda and Zlatko Balaš for their help in creating graphic appendix; Dr Mladen Garaši for his help in gathering data and useful suggestions for the development of this paper, and Tamara Trkulja for translation into English. A special thanks to all fellow cavers (known and unknown) who have spent a lot of time underground and retrieved a lot of data used in this study.



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255GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EPIKARST: CASE STUDIES FROM ZAGROS MTS. (IRAN) AND THE KONPRUSY REGION (CZECH REPUBLIC) GEOFIZIKALNE ZNAILNOSTI EPIKRASA: PRIMERJALNA ŠTUDIJA GOROVJA ZAGROS (IRAN) IN PODROJE KONPRUSY (EŠKA REPUBLIKA)PAVEL BOSK1 & VOJTCH BENEŠ2Prejeto / received: 15. 7. 20031Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rozvojov 135, 165 02 Praha 6, Czech Republic, e-mail: bosak@gli.cas.cz2G-Impuls Ltd., Pstavn 24, 170 00 Praha 7, Czech RepublicACTA CARSOLOGICA32/221254-267LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)256Abstract UDC: 551.44(55+437.1) Pavel Bosk & Vojtch Beneš: Geophysical characteristics of epikarst: case studies from Zagros Mts. (Iran) and the Konprusy region (Czech Republic) Characteristics of epikarst zone were studied by geophysical methods, especially refraction seismics, combined with electrical resistivity and gravimetry measurements. Applied methods were equal in both regions, so comparable results were obtained. The interpreted seismic boundaries follow the basal plane of epikarst ( s.l. ) and limit the epikarst zone from the geophysical point of view, i.e. zone with comparably low seismic velocities (mostly 1,000 to 3,000 m.s-1). The thickness of epikarst in the Czech Karst the Konprusy Devonian is from 5 to about 60 m. The epikarst in Zagros Mts. reached up to 180 m (Cretaceous lmst.). The differences of character and vertical extent of epikarst zone depend on entirely different geological structure and geomorphological setting (relief) and evolution of both sites, which established different conditions for the release of residual stress in the limestone massifs. Key words: epikarst, refraction seismics, Zagros Mts., Konprusy Devonian, Islamic Republic of Iran, Czech Republic. Izvleek UDK: 551.44(55+437.1) Pavel Bosak & Vojtch Beneš: Geofizikalne znailnosti epikrasa: primerjalna študija gorovja Zagros (Iran) in podroje Konprusy (eška republika) Znailnosti epikraške cone so bile preuevane s pomojo geofizinih metod, posebej s pomojo refrakcijske seizmike, kombinirane z elektrino upornostjo in gravimetrijskimi meritvami. Enake metode so bile uporabljane na obeh podrojih, kar omogoa primerljive izsledke. Interpretirane seizmine meje sledijo bazno ploskev epikrasa in z geofizinega stališa omejujejo epikraško cono, to je cono s primerljivimi nizkimi seizminimi hitrostmi (najbolj pogosto 1 000 do 3 000 m s-1). Na eškem, na devonskem podroju Konprusy, je debelina epikraške cone 5 do 60 m. Epikras v gorovju Zagors pa dosega debelino 180 m (kredni apnenci). Razlike v znaaju in debelini epikraške cone so v celoti odvisne od geološke zgradbe in geomorfoloških danosti (reliefa) ter od razvoja obeh podroij, v emer je vzrok razlinih monosti sprošanja nekdanjih pritiskov v apniških pogorjih. Kljune besede: epikras, refrakcijska seizmika, Zagros, devonski Konprusy, Iran, eška.

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257INTRODUCTIONThe application of a complex of geophysical methods for geological exploration reasons on two geomorphologically different places offers the possibility of mutual comparison. The Iranian site, Mollasadra Dam site project, is situated in very young geomorphological setting, where the youngest phase of the Zagros orogeny has been continuing since Miocene (Nowroozi 1972; Bosk et al. 1998) producing typical high mountain morphology with substantial altitude differences. On the other hand, the Konprusy region is situated on a stable and intensively planated epi-Variscan platform with only minor neotectonic movements since the principal (Variscan) orogeny and low altitude differences ( cf Bosk 1997b). The complex of geophysical exploration methods included refraction seismics, gravimetry and microgravimetry, electric resistivity and electric vertical sounding. Refraction seismic measurements along regional profiles offered both the adequate depth penetration and the best view of physical properties of a nearsurface layer of limestones (epikarst s.l. ).CASE STUDY 1 – MOLLASADRA DAMThe site is located in south-central Iran about 120 km NNW of city of Shiraz and 8 km S of Sedeh village (coordinates: about 3,391,000/601,500 and 3,389,000/604,500; Fig. 1). Geophysical measurements were carried out to detect geological structure for the construction of water power station. The station was planned to utilise hydraulic head resulting from a dam on the eastern side of a mountain and the power station located deeply on plains at the western foot of the mountain. The mountain ridge should be crossed by a tunnel. Geography and geology The highest summit of the anticlinal mountain ridge is at 3160 m a.s.l. The explored site at about 2050 to 2250 m a.s.l. is entrenched by a deep canyon-like valley to gorge with very steep slopes. The mountain range represents brachyanticline elongated in a Zagros trend (NW-SE) plunging towards the NW under the cover of coarse clastic Bakhtyari Formation (Pliocene-Pleitocene) and Quaternary alluvial and deluvial deposits filling the synclinal structures. The anticline core is built of complex alternation of limestones and marls belonging to Cretaceous Bangestan Group (Albian to Campanian). Compact limestones of varied lithology dominate in the core of the anticline with up to 5 m thick beds (about 80 % of the section). Clayey limestones form interlayers in compact limestones 0.1 to 0.2 m thick (about 15 %). Flanks of anticlines contain also marsltone interlayers with the maximum thickness of 1 m (5 %). The section can be compared with Sarvak, Surgah and Ilam Formations ( cf Huber 1977; Setudehnia 1977). Sarvak Formation is known as feature-forming rock unit (Huber 1977; Bosk et al. 1998). Except of summit part of studied sections, limestones are covered by Quaternary unconsolidated sediments (various types of gravels) and also by some lithified conglomerates. The NW plunge of the anticline has an anticlinorium character with some smaller anticlines of the NNW-SSE direction. The prevalent structural lines have NNW-SSE trend, oblique to main fold axis trend. The W-E trending faults and fissures predispose some morphological features (e.g., the erosional cut of the canyon).Pavel Bosk & Vojtch Beneš: Geophysical characteristics of epikarst: case studies from Zagros Mts. (Iran) and...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)258Method of seismic measurement The refraction seismic measurements along up to 1,000 m long profiles followed the axis of the planned tunnel. The seismic waves were induced by blasting. The distance of geophones was 20 m. The 48 channel apparatus (OYO Seis 1600) was used. The data were processed by the t0method (Hagivars method). The output is represented by cross sections with refraction boundaries and graphs of limit seismic velocities. Description of typical cross sections Cross section No. 1 (Fig. 2) was situated at the southern margin of a canyon. There are one to two seismic boundaries. The shallow one can be interpreted only in places. It represents the thickness of Quaternary cover. The seismic velocities within the cover are 500 to 1,000 m.s-1. The second boundary can be interpreted as limit of karstification in limestones. The average thickness of that layer is 81 m, the maximum one up to 176 m. Seismic velocities of karstified limestones is from 2,000 up to 4,000 m.s-1. Limestones with weak karstification show velocities over 4,000 m.s1. The highest seismic velocity over 7,600 m.s-1 is typical for compact lithologies without traces of subaerial alterations. Fig. 1: Location of the Mollasadra Dam site (frame) and simplified geological map (modified after Huber 1977). 1. Triassic (Khanet Kat Fm.), 2. Jurassic (Hith-Shurmeh Fm.), 3. Cretaceous (undifferentiated), 4. Paleogene (Pabdeh-Gurpi Fm.), 5. Pliocene (Bakhtyari Fm.), 6. Quaternary (undifferentiated, with alluvial cones), 7. axis of anticline, 8. axis of syncline, 9. boundaries of lithological (lithostratigraphic) units, 10. faults.

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259Cross section No. 3 (Fig. 3) was situated at the northern margin of the canyon. There are up to 3 refraction boundaries. The upper one represents the limit of Quaternary deposits (velocity of 500 to 2,000 m.s-1 indicating local cemented conglomerates). The middle boundary represents the limit of intensively karstified zone with increased proportion of clayey limestones (velocities from 2,000 to 3,500 m.s-1). The deepest boundary corresponds to the lower limit of karstification (velocities mostly over 3,000 to 4,500 m.s-1). The average thickness of karstified zone is about 75 m, the maximum thickness reaches 135 m. Limestones with relatively low degree of fissuration show velocities over 5,000 m.s-1 up to 8,100 m.s-1. The average value of porosity of karstified limestone has been calculated as 20 %.CASE STUDY 2 – KONPRUSY AREAThe site is located in central Bohemia about 30 km SW of the capital, Prague, (Fig. 4) in the SW part of the well-known geological structure of Barrandian. The geophysical exploration was carried out for revaluation of geological reserves of limestone on the Konprusy deposit with the special aim to detect the extent, depth and character of karstification and of karst fills. Fig. 2: Mollasadra Dam site, cross section No 1, summary of reflection seismics, (500-2500 to 2500-7000 – seismic velocities in m.s-1).Pavel Bosk & Vojtch Beneš: Geophysical characteristics of epikarst: case studies from Zagros Mts. (Iran) and...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)260Geography and geology The Konprusy region is situated in the southwestern closure of the Siluro-Devonian core of the Barrandian (Prague) Basin between villages of Konprusy, Suchomasty, Vinaice and Many (Fig. 4). The highest summit, Zlat k Hill, reaches 475 m a.s.l., while the lowest point is at 278 m a.s.l. (outflow of the Suchomastsk Creek). The region, known also as the Konprusy Devonian, is typical by special, shallow marine evolution of Lower Devonian (Pragian to Givetian) formations ( cf. Chlup et al. 1998). The prevailing part of the Lower Devonian sequence is built by massive grainstones to rudstones and, in the upper part, by reefal (bryozoan-stromatoporoid) limestones belonging to Konprusy Limestones (Pragian) with the thickness up to 350 m. They are underlain directly by Kotz Limestones (fine-grained grainstones with intercalation of marsltones and fine-grained siliciclastic often with densely packed chert nodules; about 60 m, Lochkovian). Below them, the Pdol Formation (Pdol, Silurian, max. 50 m) also contains limestones with shaly intercalations. In the present geological configuration, the Konprusy Limestones are overlain only partly in a narrow strip along the northern tectonic boundary of the Konprusy Devonian by the Suchomasty Limestones (grainstones, 20 m, uppermost Zlchovian to Dalejan), Acanthopygae Limestones (grainstones, 20 m, Eifelian) and by siliciclastics of the Srbsko Formation in small denudation Fig. 3: Mollasadra Dam site, cross section No 1, summary of reflection seismics, (500-2500 to 2500-7000 – seismic velocities in m.s-1).

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261relics (Givetian; cf. Chlup et al. 1998; Fig. 4). Konprusy Limestones are well lithified, structurally homogeneous and brittle. They are folded into the system of open synclines and squeezed anticlines, often with overthrusts, which probably multiply the original thickness of massive limestones. The region is highly dissected by faults and fissure systems. Thick calcite veins of the N-S trend cut the whole area (Clek, Dobeš & k 1994). The Lower Devonian sequences form irregularly ovate synclinal basin-like structure isolated by underlying Silurian formations and tectonics from other occurrences of limestones. The NNE limit of the Konprusy Devonian is formed by the major line of the Okov Overthrust. Numerous remains of Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) siliciclastics in karst forms (e.g., Kukla 1956; Clek, Tipkov & Kvaek 1992) indicate that the region was completely covered by Upper Cretaceous platform cover, now completely eroded (Zelenka 1981). Quaternary deposits of relatively low thickness are represented by alluvial and deluvial deposits, rarely by remains of travertines. Method of seismic measurement The refraction seismic measurements with the length over 700 m are commented only, to be comparable with the Iranian site, nevertheless numerous shorter profiles were measured in a grid of 10 x 10 m on area of about 62 ha (Brta, Hrubeš & Beneš 1996). The seismic vawes were Fig. 4: Location of the Konprusy site and simplified geological map (without Cenozic cover; completed and modified after Klein et al. 1989) 1. Srbsko Formation, Acanthopygae and Suchomasty Limestones, 2. Konprusy limestones, 3. Kots Limestones, 4. Pdol Formation, 5. faults, 6. calcite veins, 7. area of complex geophysical survey.Pavel Bosk & Vojtch Beneš: Geophysical characteristics of epikarst: case studies from Zagros Mts. (Iran) and...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)262induced by blasting. The distance of geophones was 15 m. The 48 channel apparatus (OYO Seis 1600) was used. The data were processed by the t0 method (Hagivars method). The output is represented by cross sections with refraction boundaries and graphs of limit seismic velocities. General results of geophysical measurements The main seismic boundary is situated at depths of 5 to 60 m below the surface on most of cross sections. The boundary indicates a plane dividing environments with somewhat different physical and rock mechanic properties expressed by different seismic velocities. In areas where both Bouguer gravity anomalies and electric resistivity values are high, the seismic boundary is located in shallow depths, principally not deeper than 10-20 m. In areas characterised by some degree of mass deficit and low resistivity values, the depth of seismic boundary substantially increases following not only tectonic lines, but also zones with higher degree of karstification and karst depressions. In such places, the seismic boundary is situated up to 60 m below the surface. It means, that the interpreted seismic boundary follows the basal plane of epikarst ( s.l. ) and limits the epikarst zone from the geophysical point of view. The comparison of gravimetry and refraction seismics can also help to distinguish the intensity of karstification in depths. Gravimetry models on a number of profiles indicate deep karstification Fig. 5: Konprusy site, cross section No. 50 (N-S), summary of reflection seismics, seismic velocities (upper graph) and interpretation of seismic boundary (lower graph).

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263over 70 m up to 95 m, while seismic boundaries are situated at about 40 m. The seismic boundary then represents limit depth of intensive karstification with less karstified rocks below this limit. Along dominant number of geophysical profiles, there was identified a good agreement of resistivity and seismic measurements. On some shorter profiles, two seismic boundaries were interpreted. The upper one is situated not deeper than 25 m below the surface and the lower one lies at 30-70 m below the surface. This boundary can express zone with different proportion of inhomogeneities caused both by different degree of karstification and/or density of tectonic lines. Description of typical cross sections Cross section No. 50 (N-S). One seismic boundary was interpreted. It represents the zone of karstification with mean seismic velocity of 1,000 to 2,500 m.s-1. Relatively undisturbed limestones, except for local faults and karst depression, show velocities over 4,000 m.s-1. The maximum detected velocity reached 7,500 m.s-1. The average thickness of karstified zone is 18.5 m and maximum depth reaches 40 m, the minimum depths is less than 5 m! Cross section No. 102 (W-E). One seismic boundary was interpreted. It represents the zone of Fig. 6: Konprusy site, cross section No. 102 (W-E), summary of reflection seismics, seismic velocities (upper graph) and interpretation of seismic boundary (lower graph).Pavel Bosk & Vojtch Beneš: Geophysical characteristics of epikarst: case studies from Zagros Mts. (Iran) and...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)264karstification with mean seismic velocity of 1,000 to 2,500 m.s-1. Relatively undisturbed limestones, except for local faults and karst depression, show velocities over 4,000 m.s-1. The maximum detected velocity reached 7,300 m.s-1. The average thickness of karstified zone is 30 m and maximum depth reaches 52 m. The average value of porosity of karstified limestone has been calculated to about 18 %.DISCUSSIONBoth sites differ substantially by geological and geomorphological positions. This fact strongly influences the physical properties of rocks in nearsurface karstified – epikarst – zone. Porosity The intensity of karstification in both sites expressed as calculated porosity of 20 % for Mollasadra site and 18 % for Konprusy area is comparable. Nevertheless the volume of preserved primary porosity of various kinds differs substantially. The Cretaceous limestone sequences (wackestones to packstones) of the Mollasadra site underwent only medium stage of diagenesis with preserved primary porosity both of interand intraparticle type ( sensu Moore 2001). Some parts of the sequence were reported to have chalky character (Huber 1977; Setudehnia 1977). The karstification products are represented by karren systems and corroded bedding planes continuing to the depth into network of small vugs and corroded fissures with some larger cavities (diameter of about 1 m). On the contrary, Lower Devonian Konprusy limestones (mostly grainstones) are highly lithified and cemented with dominant syntaxial overgrowths and porosity of only 2.01 %, which is mostly secondary in nature (Bosk et al. 2001). Karstification in nearsurface zone is characterised by minor karren development (shallow subcutaneous karren), karstified fissures, sometimes with sediment fill, small karst channels (mostly up to 0.5 m in diameter), rare sinkhole-like forms and extensive karst depression with sedimentary fill – results of uppermost Cretaceous to Miocene (?) hydrothermal karstification (Bosk 1998, 2000, 2001). The karstification products are sharply limited in the respect to the host rock. Vertical character of epikarst The intensity of karstification on Mollasadra site decreases with the depth only gradually. On the Konprusy site, the gradient is expressive, except of principal fault lines/fissured zones. The feature is clearly caused by completely different geological and lithological structure on both sites. The Mollasadra site is situated in squeezed asymmetric anticline with steeply dipping flanks. Geophysical measurements detected numerous normal faults parallel to slightly oblique to anticline axis, corresponding to older geological maps from the area (Huber 1977). Such faults, especially in upper part of anticlinal flanks, have sinking tendency along dip angle of flanks caused by a relaxation after main tectonic stress (Jaroš in Bosk et al. 1998). More, interbed slips resulting from geometry of fold formation can play also a substantial role in origin of weakened zones in the massif. Water can penetrate limestone sequences along such inhomogeneities more easily and into more substantial depths. Figures 2 and 3 illustrate well the anticlinal geology with reliefforming massive limestones in the centre and less resistant lithologies with clayey/marly

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265intercalations combined with faults in anticline flanks. The evolution of the karstified nearsurface zone can be linked here with gradual continuous uplift during more or less single orogenic phase. The geological structure of the Konprusy site on the other hand, is characterised by shallow synclinal structure with strata dip from 2 to max. 15o. The limestone massif is lithologically relatively uniform, with no different interbeds. The syncline is highly dissected by faults and fissure zones, with dominant N-S and WNW-ESE trends, and also abundant lines of NW-SE and NE-SW trends. The N-S trends are followed by several zones of thick hydrothermal calcite veins (Variscan and ?Tertiary in age), commonly 1-5 m thick. The W-E trends are followed by several generations of neptunic dykes (Pragian to Givetian age), which are commonly polycyclic and up to 20 m thick. Both calcite veins and neptunic dykes represent the zones of preferential routes for deep circulation of meteoric waters (Clek, k & Dobeš 1994). The substantial depth of karstification was proved by geophysics and boreholes especially on intersection of main fault/ fissure lines/zones where ovate karst depression as deep as 85 m also developed (Bosk 2000) and karstification reached deeply to underlying formations (Brta, Hrubec & Beneš 1996). The limestone massif was intensively affected also by penetration of hydrothermal solutions along principal structural zones (Bosk 1998, 2001) causing intergranular corrosion (granular disaggregation of Duyski & Kubicz 1971) of grainstones up to loose residuum composed of individual allochems (Clek, Bosk & Bednov 1995) well visible in boreholes and on quarry walls. The evolution of relief in the Konprusy area was complex, polygenetic and polycyclic (Bosk 1997a) starting with regression of Upper Cretaceous sea and denudation of thick siliciclastic cover of Cenomanian to Santonian age. There are developed several planation surfaces (Paleogene) and series of terraces (early Miocene to Pleistocene) indicating the start of entrenchment of valley network as early as during Paleogene (Bosk 1997a). The youngest phase of backward erosion linked with late Pleistocene terraces is relatively weak and dominantly follows tectonic lines (Lysenko 1987). Each phase contributed to the evolution of epikarst with the respect to present paleoenvironmental conditions. The long and complex evolution of epikarst could cause very uneven basal plane of the zone expressed on Figures 5 and 6 as seismic boundaries. Both figures indicate no relation to present-day morphology. Direct geological observations in open quarries indicate, that the epikarst zone can be completely missing on gentle slopes covered by slope deposits (scree). This means, that erosional processes on slopes can contribute to the diminution of epikarst thickness. Vertical extent of epikarst The vertical extent of epikarst zone indicated by geophysical methods differs on both sites. On the Mollasadra site, the epikarst reaches the depth of 176 m, while on Konprusy site its thickness is only 60 m., i.e. approx. one third. The reason was described above, i.e. completely different geological structure of both sites, especially strata dips, and morphology. The character of Mollasadra site results from location within young mountains typical by substantial altitude differences in anticlinal mountain ridge (more than 1,000 m). There are expressive deep disrupted zones resulting from relaxation of tectonic stress after distinct and young orogenic phase. The Konprusy site with old orogenic history followed by intensive platform evolution (planation predominated, cf Bosk 1997b) has only slight total vertical difference (about 180 m).Pavel Bosk & Vojtch Beneš: Geophysical characteristics of epikarst: case studies from Zagros Mts. (Iran) and...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)266Therefore, the zone of release of residual stress in the rocky massif is also relatively shallow. This fact influences the density of fine fissures and their vertical extent in nearsurface zone. The diminution in density of fissures with the depth is well observable on more than 150 m high walls of open quarries.CONCLUSIONSThe complex of geophysical methods based especially on refraction seismics with complementary electrical resistivity, electrical sounding and gravimetry represents a useful tool for detection of nearsurface zone in limestone areas. The zone is characterised by low seismic velocities ranging from commonly 1,000 to 2,500 m.s-1, max. up to 4,000 m.s-1. Such zone is limited by seismic boundary on which the seismic velocities rapidly grow over 4,000 m.s-1. The interpreted seismic boundaries follow the basal plane of epikarst ( s.l. ) and limit the epikarst zone from the view of its physical properties. Two completely different geological settings were studied. The Mollasadra site in Islamic Republic of Iran is situated in a young orogenic belt (Zagros Mts.) composed of anticline mountain ranges with distinct altitude differences. Less diagenetically mature Upper Cretaceous limestones contain some clayey to marly intercalations. The epikarst zone detected by geophysics is up to nearly 180 m deep following steep strata dip and longitudinal steep normal faults. The Konprusy site in the Czech Republic is situated on consolidated epi-Variscan platform. Lower Devonian limestones are highly lithified, forming a flat syncline. Altitude differences are low. Epikarst zone is 5 to 60 m deep. It seems that the thickness of geophysically defined epikarst zone depends on relief, which influences also release of relict tectonic stress in nearsurface zone, lithology of rocks, and volume of porosity reflecting intensity of lithification (diagenesis) and later geomorphic processes.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWe thank representatives of the Velkolom ertovy schody, a.s. and eskomoravsk cement, a.s. (Heidelberger Cement Group) for permission to utilise data obtained during the geological exploration of the Konprusy site. The study was compiled within the Research Plan of the Institute of Geology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (No. CEZ Z 03-013-912). Figures were digitised and partly redrawn by Mrs. Jana Rajlichov (Inst. Geol. AS CR).REFERENCESBrta J., Hrubec J. & Beneš V., 1996: Results of geophysical measurements (in Czech). MS, Final report, G-Impuls Ltd.: 1-56. Praha. Bosk P., 1997a: Notes to the morphology of broader vicinity of Konprusy village (Czech Karst, Czech Republic; in Czech). esk kras (Beroun), 23: 19-32. Bosk P., 1997b: Paleokarst of the Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic: an overwiev and synthesis. International Journal of Speleology, 24, 1-4 (1995): 3-39. Bosk P., 1998: The evolution of karst and caves in the Konprusy region (Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic), Part II: Hydrothermal paleokarst. Acta Carsologica, 27/2, 3: 41-61. Ljubljana.

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267Bosk P., 2000: The evolution of karst and caves in the Konprusy region (Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic), part III: Collapse structures. Acta Carsologica, 29/2, 2: 35-50. Ljubljana. Bosk P., 2001: Hydrothermal speleogenesis in the Koneprusy area (Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic). Proceedings, 13th International Speleological Congress, 4th Speleological Congress of Latin America and the Carribean, 26th Brazilian Congress of Speleology, Brasilia, July 15-22, 2001: 120. Bosk P., Jaroš J., Spudil J., Sulovsk P. & Vclavek V., 1998: Salt Plugs in the Eastern Zagros, Iran: Results of Regional Geological Reconnaisance. Geolines (Praha), 7: 1-178. Bosk P., Slavk L., Hladil J., Trkov J. & ivor R., 2001: Report on research for the Velkolom ertovy schody a.s. (geological part) in 2000. MS, Institute of Geology AS CR: 1-69. Praha. Chlup I., Havlek V., K J., Kukal Z. & Štorch P. (Eds.), 1998: Palaeozoic of the Barrandian (Cambrian-Devonian). Vydavatelstv eskho geologickho stavu: 1-181. Praha. Clek V., Bosk P. & Bednov J., 1995: Intergranular corrosion, infiltrational kaolinization and epigenetically reddened limestones of the Bohemian Karst, and their influence on karst morphology. Studia Carsologica, 6: 131-150. Brno. Clek V., Dobeš P. & k K., 1994: Formation conditions of calcite veins in the quarry “V Kozle (Hostim I, Alkazar)” in the Bohemian Karst. – Journal Czech geological Society, 39, 4: 313-318. Clek V., k K. & Dobeš P., 1994: Hydrothermal process and karst in Czechia (in Czech). Speleo (Praha), 17: 26-30. Clek V., Tipkov J. & Kvaek Z., 1992: New finds of Cretaceous rocks in the Konprusy area and the Petrboks stage of the Koukolov hora (in Czech). esk kras (Beroun), 17: 3539. Duyski S. & Kubicz A., 1971: Recrystallized and disaggregated limestones in the Triassic of Silesia. Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 41: 521-530. Huber H., 1977: Geological Map of Iran Sheet No. 5 South-Central Iran. National Iranian Oil Company. Tehran. Klein V. et al., 1989: Geological map 1:25,000, sheet Krlv Dvr. stedn stav geologick. Praha. Kukla J., 1956: Cretaceous sediments in Konprusy near Beroun (in Czech). – asopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1, 1: 24-30. Praha. Lysenko V., 1987: Utilisation of remote sensing on example of the Konprusy area (in Czech). esk kras (Beroun), 13: 29-35. Moore C.H., 2001: Carbonate Reservoirs. Porosity Evolution and Diagenesis in a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework. Developments in Sedimentology, 55: 1444. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Nowroozi A.A., 1972: Focal mechanism of earthquakes in Persia, Turkey, West Pakistan, and Afghanistan and plate tectonics of the Middle East. Bulletin Seismological Society America, 62, 3: 823-850. Setudehnia A.O., 1977: Stratigraphic lexicon of Iran, Part II, South-west Iran. 2nd Ed. (reprint). Geological Survey Iran, Report, 18: 285-376. Teheran. Zelenka P., 1981: Occurrences of Upper Cretaceous sediments at the territory of the Bohemian Karst (in Czech). esk kras (Beroun), 6:29-35.Pavel Bosk & Vojtch Beneš: Geophysical characteristics of epikarst: case studies from Zagros Mts. (Iran) and...



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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)102FRENCH TERMINOLOGY OF SPELEOLOGICAL FORMS FRANCOSKA TERMINOLOGIJA SPELEOLOŠKIH OBLIKJACQUES CHOPPY182, rue de Vaugirard, 75015 PARIS, FRANCE COBISS: 1.21THE DESCRIPTION OF FORMS AND CAVESThe aim of terminology of speleological forms is to describe these forms, and a cave is an assembly of forms. In France, terms of common language were first used, such as entre ( entrance ), draperie ( drapery , curtain ), etc. and a few terms of scientific origin such as stalagmite Then speleologists realized that it was possible to describe forms by their geometry Thus such terms as cne d’boulis ( talus cone ) or tube were used. When the geometry is detailed, the description is more precise: the information is better when we know that there is a ceiling channel above the tube or that a stalagmite is presented as a hollow stalagmite . Often a group of identical forms can be identified in a limited zone, whereas there are no such forms in other parts of the cave. This is often the case with potholes or soda straws for instance. This type of observation improves the quality of description. There is also what can be presented as associated forms : Certain speleological forms are associated with one another: a sinkhole corresponds to a resurgence; a stalactite corresponds to a stalagmite. A group and the zone of the cave where it can be observed are also associated forms. Other speleological forms are associated with a geological form: a contact sinkhole between two rocks of different solubility, dip tube, stalactites aligned along a crack. Other forms are associated with a geographical form: a flowing cave opening at the level of a surface stream, deposit of rounded pebbles in a surface stream sinkhole. There are also genetic terms; the most used being phreatic and vadose . These terms are useful for the interpretation of forms, but they are quite dangerous for the description of forms: if a passage is presented as vadose , one does not know what are the forms justifying the word for the author. And if a tube is almost always presented as phreatic , most of them have never been permanently filled with water, and some of them have never been filled with water. Genetic terms are deceptive. They must be avoided when forms are described.FROM DESCRIPTION TO INTERPRETATIONA process is a chemical, physical or biological action governing the creation of speleological forms. Conversely certain forms can be considered as specific to one process. When the description is more detailed, the form is more likely to be considered as specific to one of the karst processes. But for some forms, although they have a precise name, we have just seen that it would be

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103unwise to consider them as specific. And if a group has necessarily a cause, associated forms may be fortuitous. Nevertheless by observing specific forms, at least in one zone of the cave, one can discover phases of cave formation and/or sedimentation. Even in a rapid visit, as of a show cave, it is possible to detect a few of these stages. Sedimentological stratigraphy indicates the successive deposit phases. For the cave formation stages, only a few rare forms are specific to their succession. Once it is admitted that the history of a cave is composed of a sequence of such phases, and then it is necessary to establish their chronology and to understand why they have followed one another.



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105GEOMORPHOLOGY OF KARST DEPRESSIONS: POLJE OR UVALA A CASE STUDY OF LUKI DOL GEOMORFOLOGIJA KRAŠKIH DEPRESIJ: POLJE ALI UVALA, NA PRIMERU LUKEGA DOLAMARTINA FRELIH11Kocenova ulica 11, 1111 Ljubljana, SLOVENIA, E-mail: martinafrelih@hotmail.com Prejeto / received: 13. 6. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/29105-119LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)106Abstract UDC: 551.44(497.4) Martina Frelih: Geomorphology of karst depressions: polje or uvala a case study of Luki dol Luki dol is a small depression, mentioned in the scarce literature about the karst of Dolenjsko and about the wider area between the Basin of Grosuplje and the valley of river Krka. It has been characterised very differently regarding the karstic form. So it has been named uvala, dry valley, blind valley and also karst polje. Among many definitions of karst polje the author has chosen the one stated by Gams. Although it is sometimes difficult to make a clear difference between uvala and karst polje, has the author made a conclusion, based on the geological, geomorphological and hydrological characteristics which were compared with definition of Gams, that Luki dol is a small karst polje in the piezometric level. Key words : karstology, karst polje, geomorphology, Slovenia, Karst of Dolenjsko, Luki dol. Izvleek UDC: 551.44(497.4) Martina Frelih: Geomorfologija kraških depresij: polje ali uvala, na primeru Lukega dola Luki dol je manjša depresija, vekrat le omenjena v literaturi o Dolenjskem krasu in obmoju med Grosupeljsko kotlino in dolino Krke. Avtorji to kraško površinsko obliko razlino poimenujejo. Luki dol je imenovan uvala, suha dolina, slepa dolina in kraško polje. Med definicijami kraškega polja se je avtorica odloila za Gamsovo. eprav ni lahko jasno doloiti ali gre za uvalo ali kraško polje, je avtorica na osnovi geoloških, geomorfoloških in hidroloških znailnosti Lukega dola, ki jih je primerjala z Gamsovo definicijo, ugotovila, da gre v primeru Lukega dola za kraško polje v višini piezometra. Kljune besede: krasoslovje, kraško polje, geomorfologija, Slovenija, Dolenjski kras, Luki dol.

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107INTRODUCTIONLuki dol is a karst depression situated in the northern part of Dolenjsko region, which covers the southern part of Slovenia. It is named after the settlement Lue. Dol means a valley, doline, hollow. The karst of Dolenjsko is not researched as well as the Classical karst. In the scarce literature, where Luki dol is mostly only mentioned, it is characterised differently regarding the karstic form. Possible karstic forms are uvala (Gams 1987), blind valley (Ferbear 1993), dry valley, dry valley with uvala in the bottom (both Melik 1928, 1931, 1955, 1959) and karst polje (Meze 1981 and Kranjc 1990). In this literature there no more accurate explanations stated, that would explain the characterisation of Luki dol as one of the mentioned karstic forms. Despite of the definitions it is in some cases difficult to clearly distinguish between uvala, karst polje and blind valley, as they are all relatively big karst depressions and have similar characteristics which can be present in all these forms. One of these cases is Luki dol. The definitions used in this article are mostly from the Slovene Karst Terminology of Gams. There were geological, geomorphological and hydrological characteristics of Luki dol studied, and the discussion about the form of Luki dol is based on that.ABOUT THE RESEARCHED AREALuki dol is situated in the central part of Slovenia, in the northern part of the karst of Dolenjsko. This is karst that comprises the area between Ljubljansko barje (Ljubljana moor), Posavsko hribovje (Posavje hills), river Sava, Krško hribovje (Hills of Krško), Roško višavje (Heights of Rog), Dobrepolje and valley of elimeljšica stream. In the narrower gemorphological view Luki dol belongs to the western part of the region Dolenjsko podolje. It is a transitional area between Posavsko hribovje in the north, where mostly fluvial relief prevails and the calcareous plateau of Suha krajina (Dry land) in the south. For this area the interchanging of surface water and underground running of water is characteristic. To the north west is the Grosupeljska kotlina, basin of Grosuplje. Posavsko hribovje is the catchment area of the streams that run over the basin of Grosuplje. In its south eastern part several valleys were formed. One of these valleys to which all waters from basin of Grosuplje run, is Radensko polje. This is a karst polje, which is situated west of Luki dol and has the same orientation southwest-northeast. Its floor is covered with thick layers of clay, and limestone can be seen only in the estavelles that are characteristic for this polje. It has underground connections to Luki dol. Between Luki dol and Radensko polje is a higher ridge called Luko sleme (Ridge of Lue). The highest parts are 550 m a.s.l. North of Luki dol is alnsko-Loška uvala, where many short sinking streams run. East of Luki dol is Kriška planota with Višnjanska gora (stretching) from 400 to 600 m a.s.l. More to the east the relief sweeps down to the valley of Muljava, that connects Dolenjsko podolje (the Valley of Dolenjsko) and Valley of Krka. Luki dol is therefore situated in the catchment area of the Krka river, 2 km north of the springs. Its bottom lies at the average altitude of 315 m a.s.l. It is 3 km long and approximately 0,5 km wide. The depression of Luki dol has a longer axis in the direction northwest southeast, the so called dinaric direction, and its bottom covers an area of 1.6 km2. The lowest point of the polje is 294 m a.s.l. (in the south eastern part in doline Globonjak), and the highest point is on the top of the Višnjanska gora hill in the eastern side at 630 m a.s.l.Martina Frelih: Geomorphology of karst depressions: polje or uvala a case study of Luki dol

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)108On the western side it borders on the ridge of Lue, on the eastern side on the already mentioned ridge of Višnjanska gora. Lower bordering areas are Poljane in the north and Prestrana in the south. They are lower areas of the circumference of the depression of Luki dol. Poljane is 25-30 m above the bottom of the dol and Prestrana 100 m. Both are a kind of passes, Poljane towards north to the depression of alna (polje) and Prestrana towards south to the valley of Krka river. In Prestrana pass, which is also a plateau, about 1 km from the southeastern edge of Luki dol, there are two relatively big collapse dolines Velika (Big) and Mala (Small) Prestrana. They are close together, only 50 m apart. Velika Prestrana collapse doline is bigger volume is about 880.330 m3and deeper (from the highest to the lowest point is about 85 m). Its surrounding slopes are not very steep, that is why it is presumed to be older. The steepest is the northern wall with the inclination of 38. This collapse doline also has much more vegetation than the Mala Prestrana, which measures 606.468 m3. From the highest to the lowest point of this collapse doline is 73 m. Also in this one the northern wall with 73 inclination is the steepest. Occasionally there is a periodic stream of river Radenšica springing in Luka jama on the north western side of the bottom of the polje and running over the bottom of Luki dol in the streambed. In the northern part, where the village spreads, the streambed was ameliorated (deepened). These ameliorations of the streambed were performed in the years of 1930-1937. Within the ameliorations in the 19th century also two swallow holes were enlarged and consolidated. Radenšica flows mainly in the winter times after long periods of rain. The waters that spring as Radenšica in the cave Luka jama come from Radensko polje. To there the surface waters come from the basin of Grosuplje as Grosupeljšica and through underground connections from the Dobrepolje as sinking river Rašica, that springs in Radensko polje as Šica. Grosupeljšica sinks in the swallow holes in the northern part of Radensko polje and in the time of floods, the waters run also in the southern part of the polje. Šica and Dobravka sink in the cave Zatona jama. From Zatona jama to Luka jama is 1 km in air distance. The whole area is the catchment area of the river Krka. In the normal conditions, the waters from Radensko polje run underground directly towards the springs of Krka. Water tracing has also been done and the tracer needed two days to come from the sinks of Rašica to Radensko polje and nine days to springs of Krka (Novak, 1981).GEOLOGICAL, GEOMORPHOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LUKI DOLLuki dol is formed in Jurassic oolitic limestone, along the fault called fault of Lue. This fault is parallel to the fault of uemberk, that runs along the eastern side of Luki dol and is of regional importance (Buser 1974). They are both oriented in the direction southeast northwest. The straight eastern slope, which runs along the Fault of uemberk indicates the tectonic origin of the slope if not the whole basin of Luki dol. There are two kinds of Jurassic limestone in Luki dol in the western side there are grey and thick oolitic limestone with insertions of dolomite and on the eastern side there are only grey and thick oolitic limestone without dolomite (Buser 1974). The bottom of Luki dol is covered with alluvial deposits the depth of which are unknown, but it is certain that they are thinner in the south eastern part, where the bedrock comes to the surface and also the swallow holes and sinkholes are more frequent. Luki dol has a relatively flat bottom. There are some small local depressions, river terraces

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109and the streambed present, but the flatness is greater in the northern part, where the land is used for fields. The southern part is much more diverse with swallow holes, meandering natural streambed, dolines and one collapse. It is gently inclined from the northern part, where it is at the height of 325 m a.s.l. towards south eastern part, where it reaches the height of 310 m a.s.l. The inclination is 8,5‰. The slopes rise from the bottom. The steepest is on the south eastern side with maximum inclination 34 and rocky edge. On the eastern side the slope is very straight in the dinaric orientation and it has inclination between 16 to 22. The western slope has inclination between 10 and 16. The northern slope has the smallest inclination (4 to 10) (Frelih 2001). There are two caves present in Luki dol. They are both on the border of alluvial bottom and slope, where bedrock comes to the surface. In the north western side is cave Luka jama. It is a water cave in two levels. The entrance of this cave is in the height of 315 m a.s.l., in the same height as the bottom. It has a relatively big entrance chamber that branches into two galleries. In both galleries the water level oscillates. In the gallery leading towards north is a shaft that is always filled with water. Here the deepest point has been set, which is 12 m below the edge of the shaft. The water was never below this point, even in the driest parts of the year (Frelih 2001). In the observation time also two diving attempts were made and they showed the depth of the shaft at least 40 meters. The difference in the height between the entrance and the lowest point of the cave that is not permanently under water is 26 m in the dry period. There were 171 meters of passages measured. The other cave is Štupnikova lisiina, situated in the south eastern side at a height of 320 m a.s.l. It consists of two chambers and is twenty meters long and two meters deep. It is a dry, horizontal cave. The bottom is covered with mud, and there is more sinter than in the cave Luka jama, as it is a dry cave. Luki dol has a karstic inflow and karstic outflow. Through the cave Luka jama on the north western side the waters flow in and then over the bottom of Luki dol as a periodical river Radenšica. The cave is mostly dry, but occasionally it gets flooded, so the river is a seasonal event occurring mostly in the winter time. In the southern part of the bottom the natural streambed is meandering and ends in the south eastern part of the bottom, where the frequency of swallow holes is higher. In the time of high waters the south eastern part of Luki dol, that is also the lowest, gets flooded and a small lake appears. In the observations made in November 2000, the lake measured about 22 000 m2 (Frelih 2001). The lake holds for a few days, depending on the water conditions and the amount of precipitation. In the cave, in the entrance of the cave, in the streambed in front of the entrance, sediments that originate from the river basin of Rašica are present. Rašica sinks in swallow holes near village Ponikve five km in air distance from Luki dol (Habi 1988). These waters first come to Radensko polje, sink there and come to the surface in Luki dol at the time of high waters. Based on the sediments found in the cave, also first predictions of underground water connections were made in order to ameliorate the karst poljes of Dolenjsko, to avoid flooding (Hrasky 1887). In the cave Luka jama the water oscillates according to the amount of rainfall and water conditions in Radensko polje, that lies higher (325 m a.s.l.) and is one kilometre away. When the water is flooding the neighbouring Radensko polje, the water in Luka jama starts to rise, and if the rain continues, it rises so high that is starts to run out of the cave. Based on observations made in the spring cave of Luka jama and in the enlarged swallow holes, we can conclude that the water is running under the surface when it is not flooding. In dryMartina Frelih: Geomorphology of karst depressions: polje or uvala a case study of Luki dol

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111 Fig. 1: The position of Luki dol Slika 1: Poloaj Lukega dola. Fig. 2: Geological profile of Luki dol. Slika 2: Geološki prerez Lukega dola.Martina Frelih: Geomorphology of karst depressions: polje or uvala a case study of Luki dol

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)112Fig. 3: Photo of Luki dol, showing the flatness of the bottom. Slika 3: Fotografija dna Lukega dola. Fig. 4: The river Radenšica springing in the cave Luka jama. Slika 4: Izvir Radenšice v Luki jami.

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113conditions, in summer time, when the amount of the precipitation is smaller, the waters run 28-30 m under the surface of the bottom of Luki dol. That is in the level of 288 m a.s.l. When the floods come, the water level in the cave starts to rise. The bottoms of both enlarged swallow holes are nowadays filled with mud and trash and not passable. According to the older inhabitants of the village Lue that own land in the southern part, until 50 years ago they were able to collect water and to cool their drinks in the water in the enlarged swallow hole in the southern part, during mowing of grass. At that time it was possible to pass the bottom of the enlarged swallow hole. Its upper edge is at the height 301 m and it is 1520 m deep, therefore the bottom is at the height of 286-280m a.s.l. That is 10 m higher than the spring of river Krka in the cave Krška jama to which the waters from Radensko polje and very likely also from Luki dol, run.DISCUSSIONIn the literature Luki dol is characterised differently regarding the karstic form. In opinion of Melik it is a dry valley, with an uvala in the bottom (1931, 1951). According to Gams it is an uvala (1987), Meze (1981) and Kranjc (1990) mention it as a karst polje and Ferbear (1993) discusses it as a blind valley. For none of these characterisations any explanation was given, except from Melik for the dry valley. These are all surface forms, that all have in common a great basin, karstic drainage and steep slopes. Therefore in some cases it is difficult to celarly define the karstic form. One of these cases is Luki dol. The south eastern part of Luki dol has a shape of a blind valley, ending with steep slopes. Under the slopes are the swallow holes and sinkholes, where the water sinks or even stagnates for short periods in the time of floods. Blind valley usually develops on contact between carbonate and non-carbonate rock. It is a river valley, which ends blindly. There are no non-carbonate rocks present in the vicinity of Luki dol (except the alluvial deposits in the bottom). The nearest noncarbonate rock is in the northern fringe of Basin of Grosuplje – 15 km away and in the hills of Posavje (Posavsko hribovje) 30 km away. It could function as a blind valley in the past, when the waters from the hills of Posavje were running towards the south in Pliocene, but that is only a presumption (Ferbear 1993). Blind valleys are open in the upstream side, where the non-karstic rocks are and end in karst. As Luki dol has a higher circumference on all sides, it cannot be a blind valley. By another opinion is Luki dol a part of a dry valley. Dry valley is a valley formed by a river in the past. At the present it is empty, dry and in some cases water runs through it. It is open at both ends. In the case of Luki dol the river Krka, when running towards north in Pliocene would be able to form it, so the valley would start in the area of the pass Prestrana and would run over Luki dol and Poljane. Later the bed of the valley would sink and the today’s depression Luki dol would be formed (Melik 1931). Today’s knowledge of the decantation of the waters in the Dolenjsko area gives idea that in Pliocene the waters were running towards south or east and not towards north (Kranjc 1981). Besides there were no sediments found that could show traces of a stream running in any direction (Frelih 2001). By opinion of Gams Luki dol is an uvala (1984), Kranjc (1991) and Meze (1981) argue, that it is a polje. Uvala is bowl shaped, smaller than polje and bigger than doline, with an uneven bottom, that is covered with dolines (Gams 1973). According to Cviji is uvala genetically anMartina Frelih: Geomorphology of karst depressions: polje or uvala a case study of Luki dol

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)114intermediate stage between a karst polje and a doline. Already he concluded that it is difficult to clearly differ between uvala and polje (Cviji 1895). There are many definitions of karst polje (Sweeting 1972; Gams 1973; Jennings 1985; Panoš 2001;Lehmann 1960). They all have in common some basic characteristics: large (the largest) closed depression, higher surroundings with steep hills descending to the flat-levelled bottom, karstic inflow, sinking river, floods, selective corrosion and influence of tectonics (Gams 1978). The author chose the following definition stated by Gams “polje is a depression in the karst area with the uninterrupted higher rim and at least 0,5 1 km wide flat bottom; in its typical form the depression has steep slopes and there is a surface water course on its bottom which disappears underground within the depression itself” (Gams 1973). From the number of definitions it is obvious that the polje as geomorphological feature is very diverse and therefore it is difficult to state a universal definition that would hold everywhere in the world. There are 34 types of poljes indicated in the Terminology of Panoš (2001). The diversity of poljes is reflected also in the diversity of the criteria by which poljes can be classified. These points of view may be as follows (by Gams 1973): 1)the structural geological aspect (graben polje, anticlinal polje, synclinal polje, horst polje); 2)hydrology: surface-inlet and sink-outlet polje, spring-inlet and sink-outlet polje, periodically inundated polje, lake polje, crypto-depressional polje, polje in the piezometric level (Vorfluter polje); 3)shape (form): bowl-like polje, kettle-like polje, elongated polje, valley-like polje, blindvalleylike polje, uvala-like polje, karst-valley-like polje; 4)the position in the surrounding landscape: plateau polje, piedmont polje; 5)origin: tectonic polje, tectonically preconditioned polje, erosional polje, corrosional polje, polygenetic polje 6)climate: Mediterranean polje (Nicod 1967), tropical polje, subartic polje; 7)the relationship to impermeable and semipermeable sediments which control the hydrology: marginal polje (Lehman 1960), overflow polje, peripheral polje; 8)age of alluviation or basin: Quaternary polje, glacial polje, periglacial polje; 9)homogeneity: homogene polje, heterogene polje, compound polje; 10)with regard to economic use: water-storage polje. From these different aspects Gams suggests five types of morphological-hydrological poljes: border polje, overflow polje, peripheral polje, piedmont polje and polje in the piezometric level (Gams 1973, 1974). Border polje is formed at the contact of permeable and impermeable rocks that drain into the polje. An overflow polje has either a belt or the whole bottom built of impermeable or semipermeable sediments, which act as a barrier for underground water rising at one side and sinking at another side of the bottom. In the peripheral poljes the impermeable sediments have a central or nearly central position in the polje and they are drained in all directions toward the bordering limestone and ponors. A piedmont polje is situated at the footslope of a mountain, which has under a Pleistocene glacial or periglacial climate provided more alluvium. The polje in the piezometric level has an inundated bottom at high water. The piezometric level is sustained by a river or sea, many kilometres away from the polje (Gams 1973, 1974). Luki dol is a relatively small depression in comparison to the polje of Planina or Cerknica, or the biggest polje in Slovenia the polje of Koevje. The bottom of the polje of Koevje measures 50-100 km2 (Gams 1974). Luki dol measures in volume 223 millions of m3, is almost 3 km long, in average 0,5 km wide and the bottom covers 1,6 km2.

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115To distinguish between polje, blind valley, karst valley and doline with flat bottom, the limiting value of 400 m for the width of the bottom has been suggested (Gams 1978). According to this constrain, Luki dol could be an uvala, due to its size. The bottom measures 1,6 km2 and the width of the bottom on the narrowest part is 250 m. But the widest part measures 700 m, the average width is therefore 500 m. The word dol means in Slovene a smaller basin, that corresponds to the basin like uvala. Uvala is a serb-croatian term. It was introduced to Slovene karst terminology. Due to the name and the size Luki dol could be an uvala. More important than size are the flatness of the bottom and other characteristics of the polje. The decisive factor in determining the difference between a doline and a karst polje is the flat alluvial bottom in the case of the latter (Gams 1973). Typical for an uvala is the uneven bottom, which often contains dolines, whereas the flat ground at the bottom is typical for a polje. The flat bottom however is normally the result of the deposition (loam, sand and gravel). On such a terrain also larger plots of arable land appear from which the name polje (Slavic origin) is derived (Gams 1973). The deposits hinder the sinking of the running water into the karst interior. The bottom of Luki dol is relatively flat and is a result of a deposition. It is more flat in the northern part, where it is also cultivated. In the southern part, the natural streambed is meandering, making the relief of the bottom more diverse including the sinkholes and one collapse. Calculations have showed inclinations between 0 and 4o. The cross sections over Luki dol show a flat line in the bottom part; it was deposited and it is cultivated therefore is Luki dol a polje. Other characteristics of polje as unbroken higher rim, karstic inflow and outflow, steep slopes descending towards the bottom, formation in karstic rock and tectonic origin are present also in Luki dol and are not disputable. The slopes of Luki dol are descending at different gradients. At least on one side in the south the slope is rising steeply (34) to the higher rim. This rim is unbroken, 50 m to 100 m above the bottom and makes Luki dol an enclosed depression. Through the cave Luka jama has Luki dol a karstic inflow. The stream Radenšica is periodical sinking river and can cause flooding. The water has a karstic outflow through the sink holes in the streambed and the enlarged sink holes. In the dry period the water runs underground towards the springs of Krka Due to the straight-running eastern slope, which runs along the fault, and the fault of Lue, running under the bottom, we can presume a tectonic origin of the depression, that is oriented in the same direction as the faults. It is situated in the Jurassic limestones – calcareous rocks.CONCLUSIONSLuki dol is a small karst polje. It is polje due to following geological, geomorphological and hydrological features: built in karstic rock Jurassic limestones, tectonic origin, higher enclosing rim, steep slopes at least on one side (the southern part of Luki dol), relatively flat alluvial bottom, sinking river and karstic inflow and outflow. The narrowest part of the bottom measures only 250 m, and according to the definition (Gams 1973) it should be at least 400 m wide. Because of the size and the relative flatness of the bottom is Luki dol a disputable case and that explains different opinions in terms of karstic form. But the size is not the decisive factor, more important are other, qualitative, characteristics of polje, which are present in the basin of Luki dol. Based on the studied geological, geomorphological and hydrological features, I can conclude, that Luki dol is a small karst polje in the piezometric level.Martina Frelih: Geomorphology of karst depressions: polje or uvala a case study of Luki dol

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)116REFERENCESBuser, S., 1974: Osnovna geološka karta 1:100 000. Tolma lista Ribnica L33-76.-Zvezni geološki zavod, 60 p., Beograd Cviji, J., 1893: Das Karstphnomen. Versuch einer morphologischen Monographie.Geographische Abhandlungen, B.5, H.3, 113 p.,Wien Ferbear, P ., 1993: Geomorfološki oris alnsko-Loške uvale in Lukega dola z geomorfološko karto: seminarska naloga.Filozofska fakulteta, Oddelek za geografijo, 37 p., Ljubljana Frelih, M., 2001: Geomorfološka študija Lukega dola. Prispevek k poznavanju dolenjskega krasa: diplomsko delo, Filozofska fakulteta, 118 p., Ljubljana Gams, I., 1973: Slovenska kraška terminologija.Katedra za fizino geografijo Oddelka za geografijo, Filozofska fakulteta, 77 p., Ljubljana Gams, I., 1974: Kras: zgodovinski, naravoslovni in geografski oris.Slovenska matica, 359 p., Ljubljana Gams, I., 1978: The polje: the problems of its definition. With special regard to the Dinaric karst.Zeitschrift fr Geomorphologie, 22, 2, p. 170-181, Berlin Gams, I., 1987: Razvoj reliefa na zahodnem Dolenjskem (s posebnim ozirom na poplave).Geografski zbornik, 26, p. 63-93, Ljubljana Gams, I., 1998: Geografija Slovenije.Slovenska matica, p. 63, Ljubljana Habi, P., 1988: Tektonska pogojenost kraškega reliefa zahodne Suhe krajine.-Acta carsologica, 17, p. 33-64, Ljubljana Hrasky, V., 1887: Spezieller technischer Bericht ber Forschungsarbeiten behufs Entwsserung des Rana Thales, p. 1-8 Jenings, J. N., 1985: Karst Geomorphology.Basil Blackwell, 293 p, New York Kranjc, A., 1981: Prispevek k poznavanju krasa v Ribniški Mali gori.Acta carsologica, 9, p.2785, Ljubljana Kranjc, A., 1990: Dolenjski kraški svet.Dolenjska zaloba, 240 p., Novo mesto Lehman, H., 1960: La terminologie classique du karst sous l’aspect critique de la morphologie climatique moderne.Revue de Gographie de Lyon, No.1, XXXV Melik, A., 1928: Pliocensko poreje Ljubljanice.Geografski vestnik, 1-4, p. 69-88, Ljubljana Melik, A., 1931: Hidrografski in morfološki razvoj na srednjem Dolenjskem.Geografski vestnik, 7, p. 66-100, Ljubljana Melik, A., 1955: Kraška polja Slovenije v pleistocenu.-Dela Inštituta za geografijo SAZU, 3, p. 1165, Ljubljana Melik, A, 1959: Posavska Slovenija.Slovenska matica, p. 240-258, Ljubljana, Meze, D., 1981: Poplavna podroja v Grosupeljski kotlini.Geografski zbornik, 20, p. 35-93, Ljubljana Nicod, J., 1967: Poljes kartiques de Provence, comparaison avec les poljes dinariques.-tudes et Travaux de “Mediterrane”, 8 Novak, D., 1981: Od kod prihaja voda k izvirom Krke. Proteus, 43, 3, p. 9-10, Ljubljana Panoš, V., 2001: Karsologick a speleologick terminologie.-Knin centrum, p. 352, ilina, Perko, D. & Oroen Adami, M. (gl. ur), 1998: Slovenija-pokrajine in ljudje.Zaloba Mladinska knjiga, p. 462-463, Ljubljana Sweeting, M., M., 1972: Karst landforms.The McMillan Press, 362 p. London

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117GEOMORFOLOGIJA KRAŠKIH DEPRESIJ: POLJE ALI UVALA, NA PRIMERU LUKEGA DOLAPovzetekLuki dol je kraška depresija, ki se nahaja med Grosupeljsko kotlino, Posavskim hribovjem in izviri Krke ter je del Dolenjskega krasa. Kras med Grosupeljsko kotlino in izviri Krke je še slabo raziskan, na kar kae maloštevilna litratura. V tej literaturi je Luki dol samo omenjen z enim ali dvema stavkoma. Opredeljen je zelo razlino kot suha dolina (Melik 1931,1951), slepa dolina (Ferbear 1993), uvala (Gams 1987) ali kraško polje (Kranjc 1990). Preuene so bile geološke, geomorfološke in hidrološke lastnosti Lukega dola, na osnovi katerih je bilo mono doloiti za kakšno obliko gre. Lei na prehodnem obmoju med Posavskim hribovjem na severu, kjer prevladuje normalen relief in kraško Suho krajino na jugu. Severozahodno od Lukega dola je Grosupeljsko polje, kamor se stekajo vode z jugozahodnega dela Posavskega hribovja. Na junem obrobju Grosupeljskega polja se nahaja ve vzporednih dolin. Najzahodnejša je Radensko polje. To je kraško polje, katerega dno je pokrito z naplavino, kamninska podlaga pride na dan samo v estavelah, ki so znailne za to polje. Podzemno je povezano z Lukim dolom, je višje od Lukega dola, loi pa ju Luko sleme, katerega najvišji deli segajo do 550 m. Severno od Lukega dola je alnskoLoška uvala, kjer tee ve manjših potokov, ki ponikajo. Verjetno te vode teejo tudi pod Lukim dolom proti izvirom Krke. Na vzhodu omejuje Luki dol Kriška planota. Juno in severno stran Lukega dola omejujeta nija predela-prevala: na severu Poljane in na jugu Prestrana. Povprena nadmorska višina Lukega dola je 315 m, dolg je 3 km in širok v povpreju 0,5 km, dno pa pokriva površino 1,6 km2. Lei v dinarski smeri severozahod-jugovzhod (SZ-JV) (Frelih 2001). Luki dol je nastal v jurskih oolitnih apnencih ob Lukem prelomu, ki je vzporeden vejemu uemberškemu prelomu. Zadnji poteka vzhodno od Lukega dola in je regionalnega pomena. Oba potekata v dinarski smeri, se pravi SZ-JV (Buser 1974). Ravno vzhodno poboje, ki poteka ob uemberškem prelomu, nakazuje na tektonski nastanek poboja, e ne tudi Lukega dola (Frelih 2001). Dno Lukega dola je pokrito za aluvijalnimi nanosi, katerih globina je neznana, vendar pa je oitno, da so tanjši na jugovzhodnem delu, kjer prihaja kamninska podlaga na površje. Relativno ravno dno je tudi rahlo nagnjeno od severnega proti jugovzhodnemu delu. Na severni strani, ki je bolj uravnana in obdelana, dosega višine do 325 m n.v. na juni, ki je porašena z gozdom in meandrira naravna struga, pa 310 m. Z dna se dvigajo razlino strma poboja. Najstrmejše je na jugovzhodu (35). Vzhodno ravno poboje ima naklon med 16 in 22, zahodno med 10 in 16, severno je najbolj polono (med 4 in 10). Na obravnavanem obmoju se nahajata tudi dve jami. V severozahodnem poboju je Luka jama, skozi katero obasno pritee voda kot Radenšica v Luki dol. To je vodna jama v dveh nadstropjih. Vhod je na višini dna-315 m. Ima vejo vhodno dvorano, ki se razveja v dva veja rova. V obeh rovih voda niha. V severnem rovu je brezno, ki je stalno napolnjeno z vodo. Najnija toka suhih delov jame je bila izmerjena v tem breznu, 12 m pod vrhom brezna. Tudi v sušnih poletnih mesecih je voda ostala na tem nivoju. Višinska razlika med to toko in vhodom je 26 m, izmerjenih je bilo 171 m rovov. Druga jama je Štupnikova lisiina, ki se nahaja na jugovzhodnem robu v višini 320 m.

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)118Sestavljena je iz dveh prostorov, ki sta skupaj dolga 20 m. Je suha, horizontalna jama, v njej pa je najti ve sige kot v Luki jami. Luki dol ima kraški dotok in kraški odtok. Voda v Luki dol priteka predvsem sezonsko v zimskem asu skozi Luko jamo in tee naprej po strugi, ki se vije preko polja proti JV delu polja kot reka Radenšica. Voda, odvisno od vodnega stanja, lahko ponika e prej v strugi, ob višjih vodah pa tee proti JV delu in tam zastaja, tako da se ustvari majhno jezero, ki po nekaj dneh odvisno od hidroloških razmer odtee v poiralnike. Struga je v severni polovici polja, kjer je naselje, tudi regulirana-umetno poglobljena. Ostali del struge pa je naraven. V izvirni Luki jami nivo vode niha, tako se ob priblievanju poplav dvigne in po koncu zopet spusti. Opazovanja tega nihanja v jami in v katavotronih ter poplav so pokazala, da se voda ob sušnih mesecih pretaka 28 do 30 m pod površjem (Frelih 2001). Na podlagi sedimentov v jami in na vhodu jame ter v strugi so bile e zgodaj predvidene povezave s sosednjim Radenskim poljem, kjer so enaki sedimenti v Zatoni jami. Ti sedimenti izvirajo iz poreja Rašice, ki ponika pri Ponikvah na Dobrepolju, pride na dan na Radenskem polju, ter tam zopet ponikne. Ob normalnem stanju tee proti izvirom Krke, ob poplavah pa pritee v Luki dol. V jugovzhodnem delu Lukega dola se iznad poiralnikov, kjer voda ob poplavah zastaja, dviga strmo poboje a obliki amfiteatra, kar daje Lukemu dolu videz slepe doline oziroma njen slep zakljuek. Slepe doline nastajajo na stiku kraške in nekraške kamnine kot oblika kontaktnega krasa in so odprte proti nekraškemu delu, od koder vode pritekajo. Na stiku kraške in nekraške kamnine ponikajo in z materialom, ki ga nosijo s seboj izdolbejo veje ali manjše jame. Luki dol se nahaja v apnencih, ki so kraška kamnina. Dno je pokrito z aluvijalno naplavino v katero je vrezana struga, kar pomeni, da je zmona drati vodo. Najblije nekraške kamnine so oddaljene nekaj kilometrov na obrobju Grosupeljskega polja, v Posavskem hribovju na severu in v Velikolašanskem podolju na zahodu. Vode iz teh predelov pritekajo v Luki dol, vendar ne površinsko, marve podzemsko. Slepe doline so odprte v stran proti toku, kjer so nekarbonatne kamnine in se konajo v krasu, Luki dol pa ima višji kraški obod na vseh straneh in ne more biti slepa dolina. Morda je imel to funkcijo v pliocenu, ko naj bi reke s Posavskega hribovja tekle proti jugu. Zaradi znianih delov oboda na severni in juni strani si lahko Luki dol predstavljamo kot dolino, kateri se je dno ugreznilo. Po mnenju A. Melika (1931, 1957) je ta dolina nastala ob pretakanju vod proti severu. Na to sklepa po razlikah v višini, saj je juni preval Prestrana višji kot severni Poljane. Drugih dokazov za nekdanji tok reke proti severu ni. Poleg tega je to v nasprotju s kasnejšimi spoznanji, ki predlagajo odtok vode na Dolenjskem proti vzhodu Krki in jugu (Frelih 2001). Uvala je skledasta vdolbina, navadno manjša od kraškega polja in veja od vrtae, z neravnim, obiajno z vrtaami razlenjenim dnom (Gams 1973). Glede na to definicijo bi Luki dol lahko bil uvala. Za kraško polje obstaja veliko definicij (Sweeting 1972; Gams 1973; Jenings 1985; Lehman 1960; Panoš 2001), vse pa imajo skupne naslednje znailnosti: velika zaprta kotanja, višji obod s katerega se spušajo poboja proti ravnemu dnu, kraški dotok, ponikalnica, poplave, vpliv tektonike (Gams 1978). Glede na te splošne znailnosti bi lahko Luki dol bil tudi kraško polje. Število definicij kae na to, da je kraško polje zelo raznolika oblika in je zato teko izdelati definicijo, ki bi veljala na vsem kraškem površju. Zaradi jasnosti smo izbrali definicijo I. Gamsa: “Kraško polje je kotanja v kraškem ozemlju s sklenjeno višjim obodom in ravnim dnom, ki je,

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119Martina Frelih: Geomorphology of karst depressions: polje or uvala a case study of Luki dolako je v ostalih pogledih tipino, vsaj do 1 km široko. Ima strm obod in površinski vodni tok, ki na polju ponika“ (1973). Luki dol je razmeroma majhna depresija v primerjavi s Planinskim, Cerkniškim ali Koevskim poljem, saj njegovo dno pokriva okoli 1,6 km2. Da bi laje loili kraška polja, uvale in kraške doline je bila predlagana mejna vrednost širine 400 m (Gams 1978). Luki dol meri na najojem delu 250 m, na najširšem pa 700 m, tako je v povreju širok 500 m. Glede na velikost in tudi ime dol je Luki dol uvala. Dol pomeni manjšo kotanjo, podobno uvali (Gams 1998). Vendar pa uvala ni slovenski izraz, ampak je bila prenešena iz srbo-hrvašine. Osnovna razlika med kraškim poljem in uvalo je v izravnanosti dna. Uvala ima tipino neravno vrtaasto dno, polje pa ravno, kar je posledica naplavljanja. Veinoma je tudi obdelano. Luki dol ima relativno ravno dno. V severnem delu je bolj uravnano in so na njem tudi njive, juni del pa je porašen z gozdom in bolj razlenjen (Frelih 2001). Prisotne pa so druge geološke, geomorfološke in hidrološke znailnosti ki so nesporne in znailne za kraško polje: nastanek v kraški kamnini jurski apnanci, tektonska zasnova, višji sklenjen obod, strma poboja vsaj na eni strani (jugovzhodno poboje), relativno ravno aluvijalno dno, ponikalnica ter kraški dotok in odtok. Zaradi velikosti in relativne izravnanosti dna je Luki dol sporen primer, kar pojasnuje tudi razlina mnenja glede oblike. Vendar pa velikost nima odloilnega pomena, temve so za prepoznavanje polj pomembnejše druge kvalitativne znailnosti polja, ki jih Luki dol ima. Na podlagi preuenih geoloških, geomorfoloških in hidroloških znailnostih lahko zakljuimo, da je Luki dol malo kraško polje v višini peizometra. Na to sklepam na osnovi meritev nihanja gladine v Luki jami, opazovanja poplav in primerjav stanj z razporeditvijo padavin in pretoki Krke, Rašice in Grosupeljšice.



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3071 University of Primorska, Faculty of Humanities Koper, Department of Geography, Glagoljaška 8, SI6000 Koper, Slovenia, e-mail: gregor .kovacic@fhs-kp.si2 Karst Research Institute, ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, SI-6230 Postojna, Slovenia e-mail: natasa.ravbar@zrc-sazu.si Prejeto / received: 26. 8. 2003KARST AQUIFERS VULNERABILITY OR SENSITIVITY? RANLJIVOST ALI OBUTLJIVOST KRAŠKIH VODONOSNIKOV?GREGOR KOVAI1, NATAŠA RAVBAR2ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/226307-314LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.04

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)308Abstract UDC: 551.44:556.3 Gregor Kovai & Nataša Ravbar: Karst aquifers vulnerability or sensitivity? The concept of karst aquifer vulnerability mapping is commonly used for the determination of water protection zones and planning of land use in the background of the captured karst sources and wells. Several different methodologies for karst aquifer vulnerability mapping exist and the examination of scientific literature shows considerable variations in the definition of the term vulnerability. The authors suggest the distinction between the terms vulnerability and sensitivity of karst aquifers, since the former includes more information, which are required for efficient protection. The interpretation of the applied terms is founded on the conceptual background of the environmental vulnerability studies, which are declared with the Slovene 1993 Environmental Protection Act. Key words: karst hydrology, karst terminology, protection of karst aquifers, self-cleaning capacity. Izvleek UDK: 551.44:556.3 Gregor Kovai & Nataša Ravbar: Ranljivost ali obutljivost kraških vodonosnikov? Za doloitev vodovarstvenih obmoij ter za nartovanje rabe prostora v zaledju zajetih kraških izvirov in vrtin se praviloma uporablja koncept kartiranja ranljivosti kraških vodonosnikov. Obstaja ve med seboj razlinih metodologij kartiranja ranljivosti kraških vodonosnikov in pregled znanstvene literature kae na doloene razlike v definiciji pojma ranljivosti. Avtorja predlagata razlikovanje med pojmoma ranljivost in obutljivost kraških vodonosnikov, saj prvi vsebuje ve informacij, ki jih potrebujemo za primerno varovanje. Pri razlagi pojmov se avtorja opirata na konceptualna izhodiša študij ranljivosti okolja, ki so v Sloveniji opredeljene z Zakonom o varstvu okolja iz leta 1993. Kljune besede: kraška hidrologija, kraška terminologija, varstvo kraških vodonosnikov, samoistilne sposobnosti.

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309INTRODUCTIONThe concept of estimation of karst aquifer vulnerability is relatively young. According to the literature, in the early seventies of the last century the first aquifer vulnerability estimations were introduced and some researches were applied. Since then several other methods have been presented. Nevertheless, different professions still have diverse comprehension and interpretation about the term vulnerability For this reason divergence and misunderstanding still appear and the unique definition of the term is not agreed yet. In Slovenia the Environment protection Act, which was passed in the year 1993, requires Environmental vulnerability studies. Article 52 of the act specified the making of Environmental vulnerability studies, which are a direct response to the recommendations for sustainable development that were ratified by all the signers of Agenda 21. According to the methodological scheme of the environmental vulnerability study, devised under the instruction of a research team of geographers, it is necessary to assess the recovery and neutralizing or self-cleaning capacity of the environment and its components as well as of the extent and degree of the past anthropogenic interventions which have already reduced the environmental carrying capacity and consequently limited further interventions (Špes et al. 2002). The group of researchers from Biotechnical Faculty (University of Ljubljana) has made similar studies on the Environmental vulnerability studies in Slovenia (Maruši 1996). Although estimation of vulnerability / sensitivity of karst aquifers is principally for land use planning in karst, previous research while estimating karst aquifer vulnerability only considered natural characteristic, while the extent and degree of the past human interventions has not been considered at all. The methodological scheme of the environmental vulnerability studies could be easily applied in karst groundwater vulnerability mapping, but it is necessary to distinguish between the terms sensitivity and vulnerability .DISCUSSIONExamination of existing vulnerability mapping methodologies and descriptions of vulnerability in the scientific literature shows considerable variation in the definition and the usage of the vulnerability concept. Up to now there has been no generally accepted definition and methodology for the construction of vulnerability maps. The concept of karst aquifer vulnerability to contamination has different meanings for different researchers. Some view it as an intrinsic characteristic of soils and other parts of natural environment. Others find that vulnerability depends on the properties of individual contaminants or contaminant groups, but is independent of specific land use or management practices. Still others associate vulnerability with a specific set of human activities on the land surface. Because of the variations in the definitions, the term vulnerability should be clearly defined. Some authors have attempted to avoid the term vulnerability altogether and have substituted terms such as sensitivity (Gogu & Dassargues 2001; COST 65 1995). According to the Environmental vulnerability studies, the term natural sensitivity of the environment and its components was applied. In the sense of establishing an efficient protection of highly sensitive karst aquifers we suggest to apply the term natural sensitivity of karst aquifers to pollution in the concept of karst source and resource vulnerability mapping. Regarding the Environmental protection Act, the natural sensitivity should be defined as the assessment of self-Gregor Kovai & Nataša Ravbar: Karst aquifers vulnerability or sensitivity?

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)310Fig. 1: The concept of karst aquifer vulnerability and karst aquifer sensitivity. Sl. 1: Koncept ranljivosti in obutljivosti kraških vodonosnikov.

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311cleaning capacity of the karst environment, based on the assessment of protection function of the overlying layers and other parameters, which defines the self-purification capacity of karst aquifers (concentration of flow, karst network development, precipitation regime, etc.). The self-cleaning capacity of the karst aquifers is the intrinsic characteristic of karst environment, which determines the ability of the karst environment to reduce negative influences of contamination and to reestablish the equilibrium of the environment. It takes into account the geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of the area and the intrinsic recovery and neutralizing capacities of the karst system, but is independent of the nature of the contaminant and the contaminant scenario. The synonym is the term intrinsic vulnerability, which defines the geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of an aquifer, without consideration of the attributes and behavior of particular contaminants (Vrba & Zaporozec 1994; COST Action 620 2002). The measurements of physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the captured karst sources and pumping wells show that the karst groundwater is already polluted to some degree. This indicates that in some karst areas the degree of the environmental anthropogenic impacts has already exceeded the natural self-cleaning capacity of karst aquifers. Therefore the term vulnerability of karst aquifers should be applied, describing both the natural sensitivity and the degree of the past human interventions, which have already reduced the natural recovery and neutralizing capacity of karst waters. It is important to apply the extent and degree of the past anthropogenic interventions in the concept of karst aquifer vulnerability assessment in order not to lose important information, since the response of the karst environment on the certain future human intervention could depend on the existent contamination in a great extent. Water protection zones and regimes should be established on the basis of aquifer sensitivity assessment while the land use management in the highly sensitive karst environment should be based on the karst aquifer vulnerability and not sensitivity assessment, since the former is a much more complex indicator and includes, beside, the assessment of carrying capacity, also the information on actual hazards that already contaminate karst groundwater. By applying the karst aquifer vulnerability assessment as discussed above in the concept of the protecting of the karst aquifers fewer mistakes in land use management are to be expected (e.g. placing of potential hazards in the karst areas of high vulnerability).CONCLUSIONIn order to summarize these ideas, we recommend the usage of the following definitions of the terms karst aquifer sensitivity and karst aquifer vulnerability in the field of protection zoning and land use managing in karst environments. Karst aquifer sensitivity is a term, which should be used to describe the self-cleaning capacity of the karst aquifers, based on the assessment of protection function of the overlying layers and other parameters, which defines the self-purification capacity of karst aquifers (concentration of flow, karst network development, precipitation regime, etc.). It takes into account the geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of the area and the intrinsic recovery and neutralizing capacities of the karst system, but is independent of the nature of the contaminant and the contaminant scenario.Gregor Kovai & Nataša Ravbar: Karst aquifers vulnerability or sensitivity?

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)312Karst aquifer vulnerability is a term, which should be used to describe both the karst aquifer sensitivity and the degree of the past human interventions, which have already reduced the natural self-cleaning capacity of karst waters. Karst aquifers are, due to their specific structure, particularly susceptible to pollution. Hence the protection of karst groundwater, which forms an important drinking water resource in many countries around the world and specially in Europe, is becoming an essential part of environmental management. Since the karst areas are often very large it is thus impossible to demand the maximum protection for the entire hydrogeological background of the source or the pumping well. This leads to the concept of groundwater vulnerability mapping, where different degrees of vulnerability (sensitivity) are symbolized by different colours. Such maps are a practical tool for land use management and protection zoning. Karst aquifer vulnerability includes more information about both the natural characteristics of karst aquifers and human impacts in comparison with the term karst aquifer sensitivity. This is the reason why planning of the future development in the certain karst environment should be based on karst aquifer vulnerability assessment.REFERENCESCOST action 620, 2002: Final Report of Working Group 1 (Intrinsic Vulnerability) 2nd Draft.Compiled by Nico Goldscheider, 76 p., (unpublished). COST action 65, 1995: Hydrogeological aspects of groundwater protection in karstic areas. Final report.European Commission, Report EUR 16574 EN, Directorat-General: Science, Research and Development, 446 p., Brssel, Luxemburg. Environment protection Act. 1993: Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, 32, 1750-1769. Gogu, R. C. & A. Dassargues, 2001: Intrinsic vulnerability maps of a karstic aquifer as obtained by five different assessment techniques: comparison and comments. 7th Conference on Limestone Hydrology and Fissured Media, 161-166. Besanon Maruši, I., 1996: Študija ranljivosti okolja. Pojasnjevalno besedilo pripravljeno za delavnico in dodelavo modelov ranljivosti v septembru 1996.Biotehniška fakulteta, Inštitut za krajinsko arhitekturo, 8 p., Ljubljana, Špes, M., Cigale, D., Lampi, B., Natek, K., Plut, D. & A. Smrekar, 2002: Študija ranljivosti okolja. (Metodologija in aplikacija). Geographica Slovenica 35, 1-2. Zaloba ZRC. Ljubljana, 150 p. Vrba, J. & A. Zaporozec, 1994: Guidebook on mapping groundwater vulnerability. International association of hydrogeologists. Verlag Hienz Heise.Vol. 16, 131 p., Hannover.

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313RANLJIVOST ALI OBUTLJIVOST KRAŠKIH VODONOSNIKOV? PovzetekKraški vodonosniki so zaradi svoje specifine zgradbe posebno obutljivi na onesnaevanje. Varovanje kraške podtalnice, ki predstavlja pomemben vir pitne vode v številnih dravah sveta, še posebej v Evropi, pa pri nartovanju rabe tal na krasu stopa vedno bolj v ospredje. Kraška obmoja so obiajno zelo obsena, zato je maksimalno zašito za celotno zaledje posameznih kraških izvirov in vrtin nemogoe zahtevati in izvajati. To vodi h konceptu kartiranja ranljivosti kraških vodonosnikov, kjer so razline stopnje ranljivosti / obutljivosti krasa na onesnaenje simbolino prikazane z razlinimi barvami. Karte ranljivosti tako predstavljajo podlago za doloevanje vodovarstvenih pasov ter nartovanje rabe prostora na krasu. Toda termin ranljivost kraške podtalnice si posamezni raziskovalci razlino razlagajo, zato ta strokovni izraz še ni jasno opredeljen. Ravno tako še nimamo splošno uveljavljene metodologije za izdelavo kart ranljivosti. Ranljivost nekateri pojmujejo kot odraz bistvenih geoloških in hidrogeoloških znailnosti obmoja, drugi pa vkljuujejo tudi rabo tal v zaledju vodnih virov in njeno nartovanje. Nekateri avtorji menijo, da je ranljivost vodonosnikov odvisna od lastnosti in obnašanja posameznih onesnaeval oziroma skupine onesnaeval v kraškem sistemu in je v tem smislu neodvisna od rabe prostora v zaledju. Zaradi razlinih razlag je potrebno termin ranljivost natanneje opredeliti. Namen tega prispevka je osvetliti razlike med obutljivostjo in ranljivostjo kraških vodonosnikov. Podlago za razpravo o pomenu obeh terminov predstavlja Zakon o varstvu okolja iz leta 1993. Z njim je Slovenija predvidela izdelavo študij ranljivosti okolja, ki pomenijo neposreden odgovor na priporoila o sonaravnem razvoju, ki so jih potrdile vse drave podpisnice Agende 21. Metodologija za zakonsko opredeljene študije ranljivosti okolja, ki jo je izdelala geografska raziskovalna skupina, predvideva oceno naravne regeneracijske in nevtralizacijske oziroma samoistilne sposobnosti okolja in njegovih sestavin, kakor tudi obseg in stopnjo dosedanjih loveških posegov, ki e zmanjšujejo njihovo nosilnost in s tem tudi omejujejo nadaljnje posege (Špes s sodelavci 2002). Dejstvo je, da je potrebno razlikovati med pojmoma obutljivost in ranljivost kraških vodonosnikov in natanneje zakoliiti njun pomen. Kvalitetna osnova za terminološko nedoreenost in hkrati podlaga za koncept kartiranja ranljivosti kraških vodonosnikov je lahko metodološka zasnova študije ranljivosti okolja. Strokovni izraz obutljivost kraških vodonosnikov je doloen kot ocena samoistilnih sposobnosti kraškega okolja, ki temelji na oceni varovalne funkcije zašitnih pokrovov in ostalih kazalcev, ki vplivajo na samoistilno sposobnost kraških vodonosnikov (koncentracija toka, razvitost kraškega sistema, padavinski reim, itd.). Obutljivost upošteva geološke, hidrološke in hidrogeološke znailnosti kraškega sistema in njegove naravne nevtralizacijske in regeneracijske sposobnosti, vendar je neodvisna od lastnosti in obnašanja posameznih onesnaeval. Sinonim za obutljivost je pojem notranja ranljivost (intrinsic vulnerability), ki ga je vpeljala skupina raziskovalcev v projektu COST Action 620. Fizikalno kemijske in mikrobiološke analize zajetih kraških izvirov in rpalnih vrtin kaejo, da je kraška podtalnica do doloene mere e onesnaena. To pomeni, da je ponekod obremenjevanje e preseglo naravne samoistilne sposobnosti kraških vodonosnikov. Predlagamo, da se pojem ranljivost kraških vodonosnikov uporablja za oznaevanje lastnosti kraških vodonosnikov, kiGregor Kovai & Nataša Ravbar: Karst aquifers vulnerability or sensitivity?

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)314odraa tako obutljivost, kakor tudi e doseeno stopnjo dosedanjih loveških vplivov, ki e zmanjšujejo naravne regeneracijske in nevtralizacijske sposobnosti kraških voda. Izdelovanje vodovarstvnih con v zaledju zajetih kraških izvirov in vrtin ter pripadajoih reimov varovanja bi moralo temeljiti na oceni obutljivosti kraških vodonosnikov. Nartovanje rabe tal na kraških obmojih pa mora sloneti na oceni ranljivosti kraških vodonosnikov, saj ranljivost poleg informacij o samoistilnih sposobnosti kraških voda vsebuje tudi podatke o e doseeni stopnji onesnaenja. Tak koncept varovanja koliinsko bogatih zalog razmeroma visoko kakovostne pitne vode iz kraških vodonosnikov, se zdi zelo smiseln, saj prepreuje postavitev potencialnih obasnih in stalnih onesnaevalcev kraške podtalnice v obmoja, kjer obremenjevanje e presega naravne samoistilne sposobnosti in se kae z onesnaenjem v zajetjih.



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219THE PROTECTION OF KARST AQUIFERS: THE EXAMPLE OF THE BISTRICA KARST SPRING (SW SLOVENIA) VAROVANJE KRAŠKIH VODONOSNIKOV: PRIMER KRAŠKEGA IZVIRA BISTRICE (JZ SLOVENIJA)GREGOR KOVAI 11 University of Primorska, Faculty of humanities Koper, Department of geography, Glagoljaška 8, SI-6000 KOPER, SLOVENIJA, e-mail: gregor .kovacic@fhs-kp.si Prejeto / received: 10. 6. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/218219-234LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)220Abstract UDC: 551.44:556.3(497-14) Gregor Kovai: The Protection of Karst Aquifers: the Example of the Bistrica Karst Spring (SW Slovenia) Karst springs are important drinking water sources both in Slovenia and elsewhere in the world. Due to their specific structure, karst aquifers are in most cases highly vulnerable to pollution. Through the example of the Bistrica karst spring, the author highlights the problems of karst groundwater protection and presents the main shortcomings and weaknesses of the relevant legislation in force and of established practices in the field of the protection of karst aquifers in Slovenia. Despite relatively favourable conditions for water protection (scarce population, less intensive agricultural activities etc.) as compared with karst areas elsewhere in the world, many important karst springs in Slovenia are improperly protected. Water protection regimes are often established inappropriately and control over the implementation of protective measures is inefficient. Key words: Karst hydrology, Snenik plateau, water protection zone, Waters Act. Izvleek UDK: 551.44:556.3(497-14) Gregor Kovai: Varovanje kraških vodonosnikov: primer kraškega izvira Bistrice (JZ Slovenija) Kraški izviri predstavljajo pomemben vir pitne vode tako v Sloveniji kot v svetu. Zaradi specifine zgradbe so kraški vodonosniki v veini zelo obutljivi na onesnaenje. Avtor na primeru kraškega izvira Bistrica izpostavi problematiko varovanja kraške podtalnice ter predstavi glavne pomanjkljivosti ter slabosti sedanje zakonodaje in uveljavljene prakse na podroju varovanja kraških vodonosnikov v Sloveniji. Kljub relativno ugodnim razmeram za varovanje (redka poseljenost, manj intenzivno kmetijstvo,…) v primerjavi s kraškimi obmoji drugod po svetu je veliko pomembnih kraških izvirov slabo zavarovanih. V odovarstveni reimi so najvekrat slabo definirani, nadzor nad izvajanjem zašitnih ukrepov pa neuinkovit. Kljune besede: Kraška hidrologija, Sneniška planota, vodovarstvena cona, Zakon o vodah.

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221INTRODUCTIONOver wide areas, especially in karst regions, groundwater from karst aquifers forms the only available drinking water resource. About one quarter of the global population is supplied by karst waters (Goldscheider 2002), while in some European Alpine countries karst water contributes up to 50% of the total drinking water supply and 43% in the case of Slovenia (Breko Grubar & Plut 2001). Karst aquifers are characterized by low self-cleaning capacity (natural remediation and neutralizing) and are particularly vulnerable to pollution. Each karst system is unique and has its individual characteristics. The structure of karst aquifers is highly heterogeneous and anisotropic. It can be considered as a network of conduits of high permeability surrounded by a large volume of low permeability rock, where seepage water percolates only through the net of tiny solutional widened fractures and bedding planes. Karst groundwater is recharged by both diffuse infiltration and concentrated point recharge via sinking streams and dolines. The layers above the groundwater surface (topsoil, subsoil, non-karstic bedrock) provide some protection, but due to their frequent absence a fair amount of the recharge and consequently contaminants infiltrate directly into the karst network, where they are transported rapidly through karstic conduits over large distances towards karst springs or wells without effective attenuation of contaminant concentration (Htzl 1996). Due to high flow velocities and consequently a short residence time there is only short time available for efficient emergency action in the event of pollution. On the other hand, some types of contamination can be more easily remedied due to a shorter residence time, however taking into account the fact that each karst system is unique and responds to a specific contaminant in a different way (Doerfliger et al. 1999; COST action 65 1995). Since the attenuation of contaminants does not work effectively in karst aquifers, careful land-use planning is essential. Protection zones delineated in the catchment areas of karst springs and wells result in land-use restrictions and conflicts, regardless of the fact that karst areas, especially high karst plateaus, are usually sparsely populated. Different regulations on the protection of karst groundwater resources have been adopted to avoid overexploitation and prevent pollution, but they are often inadequate and usually not supervised. The example of the Bistrica karst spring illustrates some problems of water management in the area of the uninhabited Snenik plateau (NW Dinarids), where sufficient protection zones have not yet been set up and water protection regulations have not been implemented properly.KARST GROUNDWATER PROTECTION WITHIN THE SLOVENE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORKIn all European countries groundwater is considered as a finite, natural resource of great value and should be managed and protected on a sustainable basis. The European Water Framework Directive (2000) establishes a strategic framework for Community action in the field of water policy. The Directive demands sustainable water use based on the long-term protection of water resources, progressively reducing the existing pollution of groundwater and preventing its further pollution. The Directive aims primarily at protecting resources, i.e. the total groundwater body, whereas the current practice refers mostly to sources, i.e. the captured springs or wells (Htzl 2002). The idea of groundwater vulnerability assessment is indirectly included in the Directive and the initial characterization of all groundwater bodies and the extent to which they are at risk isGregor Kovai: The Protection of Karst Aquifers: the Example of the Bistrica Karst Spring (SW Slovenia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)222obligatory (Goldscheider 2002; Directive 2000/60/EC). Accordingly, these requirements also apply to naturally extremely sensitive and vulnerable karst aquifers. Basic legislative provisions concerning groundwater protection policy in Slovenia and consequently the protection of karst aquifers are part of the new Waters Act, proclaimed in July 2002. Pursuant to Articles 74 to 76 of the Act, the government and its institutions are responsible to establish water protection areas and regimes and to ensure the implementation of the provisions in each protection zone (Waters Act 2002). Since the new Waters Act has been in force only for a relatively short period, no regulation acts have yet been adopted to standardize the methodology and rules for defining the water protection zones of groundwater resources intended for human consumption. According to the old Waters Act of 1981 and its amendments adopted during the following decades, the delineation of water protection zones fell within the responsibility of local communities, which, however, led to confusion. Different approaches and methodologies for the determination of water protection areas consequently resulted in non-comparable water protection areas and regimes for different water resources or sources. This is rather problematic for land-use planning and land management decisions, such as the building of motorways across regionally heterogeneous areas with different water protection zones (Prestor 2002). In the last years, three different methodologies for the determination of water protection zones have been in use in Slovenia (Breznik 1976; Rismal 1993; Petauer & Veseli 1997). A common characteristic of all three approaches is the transfer time of a contaminant from the point of injection to the target (a spring or a pumping well), which defines different water protection zones. All three methodologies include the division of the hydrological background of drinking water resources into at least three basic protection zones. However, they differ markedly in their method for determining the extent of individual protection zones (Prestor 2002). This situation in the field of groundwater resources protection in Slovenia is unfavourable for several reasons. A common problem of determining different protection zones is related to knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics of a specific aquifer, especially in heterogeneous karst areas. Groundwater protection zones in Slovene karst regions are often not established on a solid hydrogeological basis. Consequently, differences in approaches between different methodologies are usually less important for the determination of water protection areas in karst than those arising from the assessment of the natural sensitivity and vulnerability of karst aquifers using one and the same methodology but based on different knowledge about the hydrogeological conditions of catchment areas (Prestor 2002). In most cases, protection zones delineated in the background of karst springs are based only on available information on the geological structure, though sufficient tracer tests, whereby underground flow velocities are measured, are needed for the adequate validation of already established water protection zones. Due to the special characteristics of Slovene karst regions and the absence of sufficient data, the important parameters for intrinsic vulnerability assessment of karst aquifers, such as the function of the protective cover and karst network development, are generally not taken into consideration. This means that such protection zones are often insufficient and may be ineffective as a result. Since the protection of drinking water resources was in the past the responsibility of local communities, as provided by the old Waters Act (1981), adequate protection was hindered by administrative borders between these communities. The Riana karst springs, which are tapped for the water supply of the Slovene coastal region, are an excellent example. Most of the second water protection zones of the

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223abovementioned springs are situated on the territory of the neighbouring municipalities and hence not protected. According to the new Waters Act (2002) such and similar cases will be regulated through instructions issued by the government. Unregulated conditions in the field of water protection management in Slovenia and increasing conflicts between land use and demands for karst groundwater protection of, especially among different neighbouring communities, often lead to a situation where there are no water protection areas and regulations established. It must be stressed that even in cases where water protection zones and regimes are established the implementation of regulations is frequently not effective. There is practically no control over potential and actual polluters of karst groundwater. Thus many important karst springs tapped for water supply are still not protected in Slovenia.THE STUDY AREA: THE BISTRICA KARST SPRINGIntroduction In spite of its relatively low discharge, the Bistrica karst spring (Fig. 1) is one of the most important drinking water resources in southwestern Slovenia. The spring is tapped for the water supply of the major part of the Municipality of Ilirska Bistrica, a few villages in the neighbouring Municipality of Hrpelje – Kozina and a part of the territory of the Republic of Croatia in the hinterland of the Gulf of Quarnero. In total, about 15,000 people are supplied from this spring. The significance of the spring is increased by the fact that there is no other drinking water resource available which can be used in the event of contamination. The spring is a permanent source of the hydrogeological unit of several karst springs of the river Bistrica situated along the western margin of the Snenik karst plateau at the contact with impermeable flysch of the Reka valley in the vicinity of the town of Ilirska Bistrica. Hydrological characteristics of the spring and its background The hydrogeological background of the spring stretches over the high karst of the Snenik plateau. Deeply karstified Cretaceous and Jurassic limestones, dolomites and dolomite-limestone breccias of good and medium permeability prevail (Šiki et al. 1972; Šiki & Pleniar 1975). The detailed geological structure of the background is shown in Fig. 3. T ectonically, the Snenik plateau is part of the Snenik thrust sheet and belongs to the northwestern Dinarids (Placer 1981). The central part of the plateau lies at an average elevation of 1,000 to 1,400 m; the highest peak is Snenik (1796 m). The plateau karst surface is characterised by conical-shaped hills, deep dolines of various shapes, size and morphogenesis, deep shafts and typical glacio-karstic depressions filled with glacial debris from the last Glacial when the mountain of Snenik was ice-capped and some small slope glaciers were active (Šifrer 1959). In addition to running towards the Bistrica karst springs, the autochthonous precipitation water which percolates into the deep karst aquifer of the Snenik plateau runs towards other karst springs in its margin. The underground watershed between several karst springs and also between the Adriatic and Black Sea basins is found in the area of the plateau. Although the local erosion base of the Reka valley, which drains karst springs in the western margin of the plateau, is among the lowest (400 m), the majority of abundant precipitation runs towards the catchment area of the rivers Ljubljanica (555 m) and Rijeina (350 m). The latter is captured for the water supply of the city of Rijeka and the neighbouring settlementsGregor Kovai: The Protection of Karst Aquifers: the Example of the Bistrica Karst Spring (SW Slovenia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)224in the hinterland of the Gulf of Quarnero, Croatia (Kovai 2003). The Bistrica karst springs constitute a system of several periodical and permanent karst sources situated at an altitude of 420 to 470 m at the contact of Cretaceous limestones and Eocene flysch. During the dry period they have a discharge of only about 140 l/s at the gauging station. However, after a long period of heavy rains they achieve a discharge of more than 30 m3/s. Water tapped for supply reduces the volume of the total discharge at the gauging station by approximately 100 l/s, regardless of the season. Of all karst springs in the area the Bistrica karst spring is the most abundant. During the dry period this spring has a discharge of only 200 l/s and is exploited to the maximum, but it never dries out. Owing to this, it has been captured for water supply since the beginning of the 20th century. The outflow capacity of the spring is limited, which increases the discharge of the periodical and higher situated springs after heavy rains (Fig. 2). The time distribution of the mean monthly discharges at the Ilirska Bistrica gauging station and of the mean monthly precipitation at the Ilirska Bistrica precipitation station is shown in Fig. 4. The first maximum corresponds to the largest quantity of precipitation in the catchment area in November. The second maximum in April is the result of snow melting in spring, but the figures hardly exceed the average. The lowest mean discharges occur in July and August and the second minimum in February. Higher discharges are typical for the colder part of the year (HMZ 1999; Kovai 2003). Fig. 4: The Bistrica monthly mean discharges (period 1958-98) at the gauging station Ilirska Bistrica and monthly mean precipitation (period 1961-90) at the precipitation station Ilirska Bistrica (HMZ 1999; Zupani 1995). Sl. 4: Povpreni meseni pretoki Bistrice v obdobju med 1958-98 na vodomerni postaji Ilirska Bistrica in povprene mesene padavine v obdobju 1961-90 na padavinski postaji Ilirska Bistrica (HMZ 1999; Zupani 1995).

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225The estimated mean annual discharge of the karst springs is about 1.85 m3/s (Kovai 2003). The annual amount of precipitation at the Ilirska Bistrica precipitation station, situated approximately 1 km to the north of the Bistrica karst spring, is in total 1569 mm (Kolbezen & Pristov 1998). Due to an orographic barrier, precipitation in the central parts of the Snenik plateau is rather abundant and the peaks of the mountains reach approximately 3000 mm (Gomance 2738 mm, Mašun 2041 mm) (Zupani 1995). According to the simplified equation of water balance, from which it can be assumed that the changes in water reserves in an average year are negligible, and given the interpolated values of the mean annual precipitation (1800 mm) and evapotranspiration (620 mm) in the background, it can be assessed that the size of the catchment area of the springs is approximately 50 km2. It must be stressed that this number is only an estimate based on calculations made by Kolobezen & Pristov (1998), which means that further hydrological investigations for more accurate assessment of the extent and the boundaries of the catchment area are needed. Intrinsic vulnerability and the definition of protection zones The concept of the intrinsic vulnerability assessment of karst groundwater is based on the assumption that the physical environment provides some natural protection to groundwater against human impacts, and therefore takes into account the geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of an area in question (COST Action 620 2002). The natural sensitivity of karst aquifers to pollution is rather high. The protective function of the different layers between the land surface (the point of release of contaminants) and the groundwater is of great importance for the intrinsic attenuation capacity of aquifers. There are considerable differences among the various types of karst environment and in many cases the function of the protective cover is rather insignificant because of soil and subsoil deficiency and the presence of a well-developed zone of epikarst where flow concentration, as a dominant process, increases the intrinsic vulnerability of the karst system. Since the catchment area of the Bistrica karst spring has not been studied in detail until now, the aim of this section is not to present a complete intrinsic vulnerability assessment based on accurate data on underground flow velocities, the depth of specific overlaying layers, the development of the karstic network etc., but rather to reveal some basic geomorphological and geological characteristics of the Snenik plateau which indirectly indicate the characteristics of the upper layers of the aquifer and consequently its self-cleaning capacity and susceptibility to pollution. The intensive karstification of the catchment area is evidenced by the systems of various dolines and ouvalas, of which some are more than 150 m deep. The traces of glaciation are preserved in the highest parts of the plateau (Šifrer 1959). On higher elevations the dolines and ouvalas are filled with periglacial and glacial debris and on some spots small moraines can be found as well. These locations are less sensitive to pollution as intergranular porosity offers some protection for the karst aquifer. Some fluvio-glacial geomorphological features, probably originating from the cool periods of the Pleistocene, are preserved on some locations within the catchment area, such as small longitudinal valley-like depressions with dolines filled with well sorted, finegrained carbonate rubble and erosion channels on steep slopes, but there is no surface runoff at the present time. Intensive karstification and poor soil cover on the limestones enable the precipitation water to drain underground quickly by concentrated recharge via dolines, shafts and vast karrenfields, which are better expressed in fractured and broken fault zones. Consequently,Gregor Kovai: The Protection of Karst Aquifers: the Example of the Bistrica Karst Spring (SW Slovenia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)226the protective cover of the overlaying layers is completely bypassed and such locations are naturally more sensitive and particularly exposed to pollution. On several locations runnels and karren on bare rocky relief appear. Generally, the intrinsic vulnerability of the Bistrica karst spring catchment area is relatively high due to the absence of overlying layers on the one hand and the presence of well-developed fracture and broken fault zones expressed by karrenfields, systems of deep dolines and shafts, on the other. In order to establish more adequate source or resource intrinsic vulnerability maps, detailed mapping and further investigations regarding karst network development, especially tracer tests of the area, are needed. The concept of intrinsic vulnerability assessment was, to some extent, used for the delineation of the protection zones by Petauer et al. in 2002, as elaborated in the expert groundwork documentation for the protection of the Bistrica karst spring. The intrinsic vulnerability maps contained in the abovementioned documentation distinguish between five different categories of intrinsic vulnerability regarding karst areas within the catchment area of the Bistrica karst spring. These categories are mostly based on the hydrogeological characteristics of different karst rock types. The concept includes source intrinsic vulnerability mapping instead of resource mapping. Therefore the transfer time of a possible contaminant from the point of release to the source (potential intervention time) is the most important factor for the determination of different source intrinsic vulnerability categories and consequently different water protection zones. The function of the protective cover, however, is not taken into consideration, except in cases of noticeable differences in the geological structure. For example, areas covered with thicker layers of alluvial and glaciofluvial deposits are considered less vulnerable than the rest of the catchment area. According to Petauer et al. (2002) the water protection zones of the Bistrica karst spring extend over approximately 90 km2. Due to insufficient knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics of the plateau, the margin of the catchment area of the spring in question has been set far inside the eastern part of the Snenik plateau, where there are obvious geological modifications in the fault zone. Although the extent of the protection zones is slightly overestimated, it is rational in terms of water protection with the aim of preventing any inconsiderate human activities in the environment which could affect the quality of groundwater. It must be stressed that the delineation of water protection zones has been carried out on the basis of general hydrogeological data, such as the mean annual discharge of the spring, the geological structure of the catchment area and the basic geomorphologic features typical of different stages of the development of the karst surface. The water protection zones of the source have not been validated through tracer tests. Description of hazards and source protection Due to its geological, geomorphological and consequently climate conditions the Snenik karst plateau is most inconvenient for agriculture and for this reason uninhabited. The plateau is densely wooded with mixed fir/beech forests; on higher elevations and in deep karst dolines spruce trees appear also. In the deepest karst dolines belts of dwarf pines and mountainous meadows without trees can be found. The former are typical on the slopes of the mountain Snenik and some other summits in its vicinity. Sustainable forest management has a tradition of several hundred years and the traditional industry in the vicinity of the plateau is based on wood exploitation. On lower elevations the former vast pastures are becoming increasingly overgrown with pine forests. Today, only a few of them are still used, mostly for sheep pasturing. In terms of karst water

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227Fig. 1: Pocket valley of the Bistrica karst spring (Photo: G. Kovai). Sl. 1: Zatrepna dolina kraškega izvira Bistrica (Foto: G. Kovai). Fig. 2: Sušec karst spring (at high discharge) is a periodical spring of the Bistrica karst springs system (Photo: G. Kovai). Sl. 2: Kraški izvir Sušec (ob visoki vodi) je obasen izvir v sistemu kraških izvirov Bistrice (Foto: G. Kovai).Gregor Kovai: The Protection of Karst Aquifers: the Example of the Bistrica Karst Spring (SW Slovenia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)228Fig. 5: Trapshooting ground in the background of the Bistrica spring (Photo: G. Kovai). Sl. 5: Trap-športno streliše v zaledju izvira Bistrica (Foto: G. Kovai). protection such low agriculture activity is relatively favourable, however a number of other examples can be given to illustrate the conflicts of interest between other human activities taking place in the catchment area and the protection of karst water tapped for water supply. The locations of hazards are shown in Fig. 3. A trapshooting ground situated only 700 m from the spring is the most serious hazard for drinking water (Fig. 5). Estimates show that the concentration of lead (the element with which cartridges used for trapshooting are filled) in the soil is rather high. According to the Decree on the input of dangerous substances and plant nutritients into the soil of 1996, as few as 150 bullets fired would be enough to reach the annual maximum permissible quantities of lead entered into the soil on an active shooting ground. However, in the case of this trapshooting ground this number is far exceeded each year. While percolating through the thin layer of soil, the infiltrating precipitation water becomes, to some extent, contaminated with lead, which is a result of weak acids. The earlier physical-chemical examinations of the spring water showed a concentration of lead which was still within the maximum permissible values. According to analyses carried out later, however, a slight increase in the values of lead is recorded and the trend is not encouraging. In June 2002 the concentration of lead at the capture reached the value of 4 g/l (the maximum permissible value for drinkalble water is 10 g/l) (Kovai 2003). It is impossible to determine the total quantity of lead in the soil cover. No analyses of the soil have been carried out so far in

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229Fig. 3: Geological map of the Bistrica karst spring background and its potential pollutants (after Šiki et al. 1972; Petauer et al. 2002; Kovai 2003) Legend: Slope rubble (Holocene), 2. Alluvial sediments (Holocene), 3. Glaciofluvial deposits (Pleistocene), 4. Flysch rocks: shales, marlstones, sandstones, calcarenites, breccias and conglomerates, 5. Light grey and grey limestones, grey brown and black limestones and marly limestones (Peleogene), 6. Light grey and white crystalline limestones (Upper Cretaceous), 7. Exchanging of light coloured limestones and dolomites (Upper Cretaceous), 8. Light coloured limestones (Upper and Lower Cretaceous), 9. Dolomite-limestone breccia (Upper and Lower Cretaceous), 10. Limestone and dolomite (Lower Cretaceous), 11. Light grey and dark grey limestone (Upper Jurassic), 12. Light grey and dark grey limestone (Upper Jurassic) 13. Bistrica karst spring, 14. Suppositional underground water flow towards the other karst springs, 15. Suggested water-protecting area of the Bistrica karst spring, 16. Gauging station Ilirska Bistrica,17. Precipitation station Ilirska Bistrica, 18. Quarry, 19. Trapshooting ground. Sl. 3: Geološka zgradba hidrografskega zaledja kraškega izvira Bistrica in njegovi potencialni onesnaevalci (prirejeno po: Šiki et al, 1972; Petauer et al. 2002; Kovai, 2003) Legenda: 1. Poboni gruš (holocen), 2. Aluvialni nanosi (holocen), 3. Glaciofluvialni sedimenti (pleistocen), 4. Flišni sedimenti: menjavanje glinovcev, laporovcev, pešenjaka, kalkarenitov, bre in konglomeratov (eocen), 5. Svetlosivi in sivi ter sivorjavi do rni apnenci do lapornati apnenci (paleogen), 6. Svetlosivi in beli prekristalizirani apnenci (zg. kreda), 7. Menjavanje plasti svetlih apnencev in dolomitov (zg. kreda), 8. Svetli apnenci (sp. in zg. kreda), 9. Dolomitno apnena brea (sp. in zg. kreda), 10. Apnenec in dolomit (sp. kreda) 11. Svetlosiv apnenec (zg jura), 12. Svetlosiv in temnosiv apnenec (zg. jura), 13. Kraški izvir Bistrica, 14. Domnevni podzemeljski dotok vode v druge kraške izvire, 15. Predlagana meja vodovarstvenega obmoja kraškega izvira Bistrica, 16. Vodomerna postaja Ilirska Bistrica, 17. Padavinska postaja Ilirska Bistrica, 18. Kamnolom, 19. Trap-športno streliše.Gregor Kovai: The Protection of Karst Aquifers: the Example of the Bistrica Karst Spring (SW Slovenia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)230order to study the behaviour of lead as a specific contaminant and to examine the intrinsic processes of the soil for its possible physical attenuation. The closure of the trapshooting ground and the remediation of the contaminated surface and the soil cover are necessary to ensure quality drinking water also in the future. The exploitation of limestone quarries is also a possible source of pollution. Although the lower quarry, located only 200 m from the capture, is no longer in operation, it is still used for inappropriate oil storage and several other unsuitable activities which increase the potential risk of pollution. Chemical analyses of the water captured from the spring show sporadically increased values of mineral oils, which are likely to result from inappropriate limestone exploitation in the past which did not meet water protection standards. In June 2002 the quantity of mineral oils in the spring water reached the maximum permissible value for drinkable water, which is 10 g/l (Kovai 2003). The remediation of the lower quarry is therefore essential for a long-term protection of drinking water. Activities carried out in the still operating upper limestone quarry should also comply with water protection standards. Located in the area of the Snenik plateau is Svišaki, a tourist resort with a restaurant and some 90 weekend houses. Although it is situated in the central part of the plateau, it should be considered a potential source of pollution because the eastern boundary of the catchment area has not yet been precisely delineated. In addition, the inadequate sewerage infrastructure represents a possible threat to underground water quality. Apart from pollution from construction, sports, tourism and forestry activities the Bistrica karst spring is also endangered by traffic. The local road connecting Ilirska Bistrica with Svišaki runs right above the capture and is not built according to water protection standards. The influence of traffic on the quality of the spring water is negligible, however in the case of an accident the contaminants would reach the spring very quickly, making efficient emergency action impossible. The microbiological quality of the spring is satisfactory and generally meets drinking water quality standards even without previous treatment at the drinking water treatment plant situated right after the capture site (Kovai 2003). Similarly, as in the case of other karst springs, an increase in microbial content can be observed after heavy rains following a longer dry period. In accordance with the Waters Act of 1981, in 1985 the Municipality of Ilirska Bistrica has enacted an Ordinance on the delineation of water protection zones and the adoption of measures for the protection of drinking water resources. Pursuant to the Ordinance, individual water protection zones with their respective regimes have been established on the basis of surface distances from the source in the direction of the underground flow. Since no adequate hydrogeological investigations of the Bistrica spring aquifer have been carried out, the length and width of specific protection zones are based on an arbitrarily determined underground flow direction. In a highly heterogeneous and anisotropic karst environment with evident concentration of flow via points of fast infiltration, water protection zones delineated in this way are groundless and useless. Nevertheless, this Ordinance is the only legal instrument in force regarding the protection of drinking water in the Municipality of Ilirska Bistrica and thus also the protection of the background of the Bistrica karst spring. In comparison with newer methodologies used for the determination of water protection zones, the measures provided for by the Ordinance are inappropriate and too mild. However, no water protection measures have been carried out so far. Expert groundwork regarding the protection of the Bistrica karst spring was carried out by Juren & Krivic in 1989.

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231However, due to conflicts of interests no decree based on this groundwork has been passed. In 2002 a new proposal for the protection of all drinking water resources in the Municipality of Ilirska Bistrica was presented by Petauer et al. However, in line with the new Waters Act of 2002 the proposal was not accepted by the local government. One of the most important drinking water resources in SW Slovenia thus remains practically unprotected.CONCLUSIONGroundwater protection is gaining more and more importance in karst areas throughout the world as well as in Europe. Karst aquifers are often involved in water and land-use planning conflicts because of their high natural sensibility to pollution. Fundamental legislative provisions concerning groundwater protection policy in Europe are laid down in the European Water Framework Directive (2000). The Directive is obligatory for all European countries, including Slovenia, whose Waters Act of 2002 is based on it. In Slovenia, karst groundwater is often considered as an abundant high-quality drinking water resource despite the fact that it is extremely vulnerable to pollution. Its protection in land-use management is often neglected and is not seen as an important issue although the first signs of contamination have already been recorded and some karst springs initially intended for water supply are now inappropriate for human consumption. Obvious offenders of water protection measures are usually not prosecuted because of inefficient inspection. The wide areas of karst regions in Slovenia are either uninhabited or scarcely populated with almost no agricultural activities or only with traditional ones. High karst plateaus recharge most of the important karst springs. Increasing population pressures on the karst areas of Slovenia demand careful land-use planning from decision makers, with special regard to the protection of quality drinking water resources. The catchment areas of particular karst springs are often very large and watersheds are often difficult to determine and are also variable in time, dependent on the respective hydrogeological conditions. In practice, it is impossible to demand maximum protection for entire karst aquifers as the resulting land-use restrictions would not be acceptable in most cases, though some methodologies for groundwater protection are aimed at protecting the entire water body. According to such logic, almost 43% of the Slovene territory would be protected, which is, however, not appropriate. It is essential to protect at least those areas which are particularly vulnerable to pollution, however further investigations and studies are needed to provide more adequate information on the hydrogeological characteristics of karst aquifers. Based on such information karst water source or resource vulnerability maps can be established and used as a practical and applicable tool for land-use planning and protection zoning. The example of the Bistrica karst spring, presented in this paper, shows that even in uninhabited karst areas some serious potential polluters can be found which constitute a threat to the quality of drinking water. Compared with more densely populated and industrialized karst regions around Europe with more intensive agricultural activities, such uninhabited areas are more appropriate for water protection. Nevertheless, they are still not protected because of the conflicts of interests between land-use and water protection, though it would not take much effort to provide sufficient protection of karst water.Gregor Kovai: The Protection of Karst Aquifers: the Example of the Bistrica Karst Spring (SW Slovenia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)232ACKNOWLEDGMENTS-to Metka Petri for her constructive comments. -to Primo Kovai for language editing. -to Jure Hajna for his help with cartography.REFERENCESBreko Grubar, V. & D. Plut, 2001: Kakovost virov pitne vode v Sloveniji. Ujma, 14-15, 238244, Ljubljana. Breznik, M., 1976: Metodologija zašite podzemne pitne vode ter doloitve varstvenih obmoij in pasov. Regionalni prostorski plan RS 3/4. Zasnove uporabe prostora. Vodno gospodarstvo Ljubljana, Zavod SRS za drubeno planiranje, 176 p. COST action 65, 1995: Hydrogeological aspects of groundwater protection in karstic areas. Final report. European Commission, Report EUR 16574 EN, Directorat-General: Science, Research and Development, 446 p., Brssel, Luxemburg. COST action 620, 2002: Final Report of Working Group 1 (Intrinsic Vulnerability)2nd Draft. Compiled by Nico Goldscheider, 76 p., (unpublished). Decree on the input of dangerous substances and plant nutritients into the soil. 1996: Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, 68, 5769-5737. Doerfliger, N., Jeannin, P.Y. & F. Zwahlen, 1999: Water vulnerability assessment in karst environments: a new method of defining protection areas using a multi-attribute approach and GIS tools (EPIK method). Environmental Geology, 39 (2), 165-176. EUROPEAN WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE, 2000: Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities, L 327, 72 p. Goldscheider, N., 2002: Hydrogeology and vulnerability of karst systems – examples from the Northern Alps and Swabian Alb. – PhD Thesis. University of Karlsruhe, Faculty for Bioand Geoscience, 236 p., Karlsruhe. Hidrometeorološki zavod RS, 1999: MOP, Agencija RS za okolje, interni podatki. Htzl, H., 1996: Grundwassershutz in Karstgebieten. Grundwasser, 1, 5-11, Hannover. Htzl, H., 2002: Groundwater Protection and the European Water Framework Directive. Pangeo Austria Earth sciences in Austria, sterreichische Geologische Gesellschaft & Institut fr Geologie und Palontologie, Universitt Salzburg, 77-79, Salzburg. Juren, A. & P. Krivic 1989: Strokovne podlage za zavarovanje vodnih virov in vodnih zalog kot osnova za sprejem odloka za zašito vodnega vira Bistrice (Ilirska Bistrica). Geološki zavod Ljubljana, TOZD geologija, geotehnika in geofizika, 8 p., Ljubljana. Kolbezen, M. & J. Pristov, 1998: Površinski vodotoki in vodna bilanca Slovenije.MOPHidrometeorološki zavod Republike Slovenije, 98 p., Ljubljana. Kovai, G., 2003: Kraški izviri Bistrice (JZ Slovenija). Annales, Series historia naturalis, Koper (in press). Odlok o doloitvi varstvenih pasov in ukrepov za zavarovanje vodnih virov, obina Ilirska Bistrica. 1985: Uradne objave. Primorske novice. 39, 29, 5.4.1985, 118-119. Petauer, D. & Juren, A. & Štucin, P. & S. Ilovar, 2002: Strokovne podlage za zašito vodnih virov

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233obine Ilirska Bistrica. GEOOKO & GeoSi, 66 p., Ljubljana. Petauer, D. & Veseli, M., 1997: Metodologija doloevanja zašitenih obmoij podzemnih voda. Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor, 13 p., Ljubljana Placer, L., 1981: Geološka zgradba jugozahodne Slovenije. Geologija, 24/1, 27-60, Ljubljana. Prestor, J., 2002: Problematika doloanja varstvenih pasov in razporeditve ukrepov za zašito vodnih virov. – Zbornik seminarjev Varstvo in kvaliteta pitne vode, Inštitut za sanitarno inenirstvo, 69-77. Rismal, M., 1993: Zašita podtalnice – Strokovno navodilo za izdelavo normativnih aktov za zavarovanje kakovosti podtalnice. FAGG, Ljubljana. Šifrer, M., 1959: Obseg pleistocenske poledenitve na Notranjskem Sneniku.Geografski zbornik, 5, 27-83, Ljubljana. Šiki, D. & Pleniar, M. & M. Šparica, 1972: Osnovna geološka karta SFRJ 1:100.000, list Ilirska Bistrica. Zvezni geološki zavod Beograd, Beograd. Šiki, D. & M. Pleniar, 1975: Osnovna geološka karta Jugoslavije. Tolma za list Ilirska Bistrica. Zvezni geološki zavod Beograd, 51 p., Beograd. Waters act. 1981: Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, 38, 2308-2320. Waters act. 2002: Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, 67, 7648-7680. Zupani, B., 1995: Klimatogeografija Slovenije, Padavine 1961-1990. MOPHidrometeorološki zavod Republike Slovenije, 366 p., Ljubljana.VAROVANJE KRAŠKIH VODONOSNIKOV: PRIMER KRAŠKEGA IZVIRA BISTRICE (JZ SLOVENIJA) PovzetekV številnih obmojih sveta, podzemna voda iz kraških vodonosnikov predstavlja edini vir pitne vode. Dele oskrbe s pitno vodo iz kraških izvirov in vrtin v nekaterih alpskih dravah dosega 50 %, v primeru Slovenije pa znaša 43 %. Zaradi nizkih samoistilnih sposobnosti so kraški vodonosniki izjemno obutljivi na onesnaenje. Hidrografska zaledja posameznih kraških izvirov so zelo obsena, zato je smiselno varovati predvsem tista obmoja, ki so najbolj obutljiva na onesnaenje zaradi loveških dejavnosti. Podroje varovanja kakovosti in zalog podzemne vode v Evropi doloa Direktiva 2000/60/ES Evropskega parlamenta in sveta. Osnovno zakonodajo s podroja varovanja kraške podtalnice v Sloveniji doloa Zakon o vodah, sprejet leta 2002. Zakon predpisuje, da vodovarstvene pasove in reim varovanja posameznih virov pitne vode doloi vlada, vendar podzakonski akti, ki bi urejali omenjeno podroje še niso sprejeti. Varovanje virov pitne vode je bilo glede na prejšnji Zakon o vodah iz leta 1981 v rokah lokalnih skupnosti, kar se še danes odraa v neurejenih razmerah na podroju varovanja kraške podtalnice. Kljub izredni obutljivosti na onesnaevanje se kraški izviri v Sloveniji najvekrat smatrajo kot neomejen kakovosten vir pitne vode, zato je njihovo varovanje pri nartovanju lovekovih aktivnosti v zaledju vekrat spregledano. Glavni vzroki neprimerneGregor Kovai: The Protection of Karst Aquifers: the Example of the Bistrica Karst Spring (SW Slovenia)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)234zašite zaenkrat še kakovostne pitne vode iz kraških vodonosnikov v Sloveniji so nezadostno poznavanje hidrogeoloških znailnosti kraških vodonosnikov, neurejene zakonske razmere na podroju varovanja pitne vode, navzkrije interesov med posameznimi uporabniki prostora, neizvajanje varstvenega reima in neuinkovit nadzor nad potencialnimi in dejanskimi onesnaevalci ter odsotnost primerne metodologije doloanja kart obutljivosti in ranljivosti kraških vodonosnikov, ki so dobra podlaga za izdelavo ustreznih vodovarstvenih obmoij in primerno varovanje kraških voda tudi v prihodnosti. Primer kraškega izvira Bistrica kae, da lahko naletimo na resne potencialne onesnaevalce kraške vode tudi na neposeljenih visokih kraških planotah. Te so v primerjavi z bolj gosto naseljenimi kraškimi obmoji drugod po Evropi izjemno ugodna obmoja z vidika varovanja pitne vode. Kraški izvir Bistrica je stalen izvir v sistemu kraških izvirov Bistrice in je zajet za oskrbo s pitno vodo. Hidrografsko zaledje izvira oznauje globoki kras Sneniške planote z dobro propustnostjo, zgrajen preteno v apnencih, dolomitih ter apnenasto dolomitnih breah kredne in jurske starosti (Sl. 3). Napajalno zaledje izvira je relativno dobro omejeno samo s kraškim robom na zahodnem delu planote, medtem ko je meja proti vzhodnemu robu Sneniške planote nejasna. Pokrajinska obutljivost napajalnega zaledja kraškega izvira Bistrica je z izjemo nekaj manjših obmoij pokritih s fluvioglacialnim materialom, relativno visoka. Odsotnost zašitnih pokrovov in navzonost dobro razvitih razpoklinskih in porušenih prelomnih con, izraenih s polji globokih škrapelj, sistemi globokih vrta, kotliev in brezen, omogoata hitro odtekanje padavinske vode v notranjost, kar zmanjšuje monost e tako omejenega naravnega išenja. Kraški izvir Bistrica je ogroen zaradi športne, gradbeniške, turistine in gozdarske dejavnosti ter z njimi povezanega prometa v ojem in širšem zaledju. Prisotnost onesnaenja se e kae v analizah pitne vode iz zajetja, kot sta denimo poveana vsebnost svinca in obasno poveanje prisotnosti mineralnih olj, vendar so vse vrednosti znotraj dovoljenih mejnih koliin. Kraški izvir Bistrica je zavarovan s z obinskim odlokom, ki ni izdelan na podlagi hidrogeoloških raziskav zaledja. Reim varovanja je preblago definiran in se ne izvaja. Strokovne podlage za sprejetje odloka o zavarovanju omenjenega izvira so bile izdelane e dvakrat, vendar odlok do danes še ni bil sprejet, z novo zakonodajo pa je pristojnost varovanja virov pitne vode prešla v roke drave. Tako ostaja eden izmed pomembnejših kraških izvirov JZ Slovenije praktino nezavarovan.



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175HUMAN IMPACT ON HUNGARIAN KARST TERRAINS, WITH SPECIAL REGARD TO SYLVICULTURE VPLIV LOVEKA NA KRAS, S POUDARKOM NA IZKORIŠANJU GOZDA NA MADŽARSKEMILONA BRNY-KEVEI 11 University of Szeged, Department of Climatology and Landscape Ecology, 6722, Szeged,Egyetem u.2. Hungary, e-mail: keveibar@earth.geo.u-szeged.hu Prejeto / received: 17. 7. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/214175-185LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)176Summary UDC: 551.44:504.03:630(439) Ilona Brny-Kevei: Human impact on karst terrains, with special regard to sylviculture in Hungary This study represents the changes of Hungarian karst terrains due to human impacts paying special attention to sylviculture. The functioning of the karst geo-ecosystem is considerably determined by the climate-soilvegetation system, which will influence the dynamism of karst development. Most of the Hungarian karst terrains are the scene of sylviculture. The planting of non-adequate forest associations resulted the alteration of climate and soils, which resulted in a change of the intensity of karst corrosion. This paper focuses on the change of sylviculture in the Aggtelek National Park, a World Heritage site, and makes suggestions for optimal land use. Key words: karst landscape changes, human impact on karst, sylviculture on karst. Izvleek UDK: 551.44:504.03:630(439) Ilona Brny-Kevei: Vpliv loveka na kras, s poudarkom na izkorišanju gozda na Madarskem V sestavku so predstavljene spremembe, nastale na madŽarskem krasu kot posledica lovekove dejavnosti, posebno izkorišanja gozda. Delovanje geo-ekosistema na krasu je v veliki meri odvisno od odnosov podnebje – prst – rastje, kar vpliva na hitrost razvoja krasa. Veina krasa na MadŽarskem je vkljuenega v gospodarjenje z gozdovi. Sajenje neustreznih gozdnih sestojev ima lahko kot posledico spreminjanje klime in prsti, kar vodi k spremembam intenzivnosti korozije. Prispevek obravnava spremembe gospodarjenja z gozdom v narodnem parku Aggtelek, ki je na seznamu svetovne naravne dedišine, in predlaga ustreznejšo rabo tal. Kljune besede: sprememba kraškega površja, vpliv loveka na kras, gozdarjenje na krasu, Aggtelek, MadŽarska.

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177INTRODUCTIONThe karst regions of Hungary are situated in the Transdanubian and Northern Mountain Ranges (Fig.1). Only smaller patches of isolated karsts are found in the southern parts of the Transdanubian Mountains. 1.5% of the area of Hungary, in regions of Triassic limestones and dolomites, is affected by karstification. Parts of the Bakony, Vrtes, Buda and the Mecsek andVillnyi Mountains are nature conservation areas. The karst regions of Aggtelek and Bkk Mountains are National Parks. Tectonic movements have been intensive in the Transdanubian Mountains, forming a series of horsts and grabens. In Northern Hungary, less faulted and characteristic karst features also developed, the karsts of the Mecsek Mountains and Villny Hills being of the same type as the karst of Aggtelek and Bkk. Intensive karstification has occurred on several occasions in different geological periods. Thus, both fossil and recent karst features occur on Hungarian karsts. During the latest phase of karstification, landscape transformation in the karst environment started with the appearance of early humans. In the Middle and Upper Pleistocene prehistoric man used caves in Hungary. Early man gathered firewood from the karsts, thus the deforestation of karst regions began. Later human activity modified karst formation by agriculture on the one hand and by industry on the other. Agricultural activity was intensive in Aggtelek and Villny Mountains at the turn of the century. For this reason soil erosion was so widespread that rock solution decreased. At the same time the microclimate and vegetation were also modified. With industrialisation and the beginning of mining, the undesired ground waters were pumped out. Consequently, karstic aquifer levels sank in the Transdanubian Mountain Range. Fig. 1: Location of the Hungarian karsts.Ilona Brny-Kevei: Human impact on karst terrains, with special regard to sylviculture in Hungary

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)178PROBLEMKarst terrains have been cultivated in Hungary for hundreds of years. The impact of cultivation can be followed in the development of the surface and subsurface karst formations. The karstic terrains of Hungary can be found in mountaneous and hilly areas; therefore, their usability has strong connections to sylviculture. Before the time when the largest clearances occurred, the ecological balance soon recovered after natural disasters. Nowadays, when human activity significantly changes the impacts of the environment from different directions, the sustainable sylviculture, as woodland cultivation, consciously preserves the natural conditions of an area. In some of my previous studies, I have already introduced the model which summarises the connections of the karst ecological system (Kevei-Brny 1998a, 1998b). Associated with this model, I study those factors and processes, which are relevant from the point of all the processes of the landscape changes in any karstic environment. The system of climate-soil-vegetation has crucial importance from point of view of karst dynamism. The changes of these factors influence the intensity and tendency of the landscape change processes. This paper focuses on the change of sylviculture in the Aggtelek National Park, a World Heritage site, and gives suggestions for optimal sylviculture.METHODSThe digital terrain model was created under ArcView using 1:10 000 scale topographical maps, and it gave the basis of the altitude, exposure and slope angle values. The forest plots are the smallest planning units in practice, which could be displayed as polygons with certain data in dBASE format: forest climate, genetic and physical soil type, depth of soil. The resulted values were classified and encoded. The place values of the codes gave the value of different characteristics therefore, all of them could be described by numbers. The sum of these numbers on a given point reflects the characteristics of the habitat and the related association. The map of result was created by overlaying, and the qualification of a certain site could be given in any resolution.DISCUSSIONTen years after the establishment of the Aggtelek National Park in 1985, its caves and caverns were declared to be the part of the World Heritage in 1995. This means that the protection of the area was further enhanced. The retaining of the subsurface geomorphological forms requires strict protection at any rate; therefore, the utilisation of the surface areas is regulated. As the major part of the Aggtelek karst terrains is open karst, covered with soils the use of both the immediate karst surface and the adjoining non-karst terrain influence the condition of the karst-system. 77% of the National Park is covered with forests, so this branch of agriculture operates also in accordance with the rules of the sustainable sylviculture. The mosaic quality of the landscape structure was formed by the natural land use In this type of land use the earlier dominance of sylviculture, based on small communities, was replaced by grassing and tilling arable land on the less good karst soils. Until the establishing of the National Park, forests were felled for timber at high rates later they were geminated. On the clearings grassland was developed; and, therefore, hay production dominated.

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179Where the forest clearance was followed by the reafforestation of the former natural or quasinatural grasslands or by forest renewal the biodiversity of the given karst area is reduced ( Table 1 .). Table 1. Biodiversity of the different species, in the Aggtelek area Deciduous-forestSpeciesSpeciesPine-forestSpeciesSpecies of treesgraminaceoustreesgraminaceous Beech forest with hornbeam16 84 Pinus nigra forest1 19 Oak forest with hornbeam18 133 Picea excelsa forest1-2 16 Turkey oak forest26 203 Pinus silvestris forest1-3 21 The repeated forest clearances and the plantation of non-native species changed the ecological processes of the karst system. Especially the exotic pine forests altered the soils: they became more acidic; therefore the intensity of corrosion became different (Table.2). Fig. 2: Forest climate types in Aggtelek National Park .Ilona Brny-Kevei: Human impact on karst terrains, with special regard to sylviculture in Hungary

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)180Fig. 3: Native condition of forests in Aggtelek National Park. Fig. 4: Elevations in Aggtelek National Park.

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181Fig. 5: Slope exposure in Aggtelek National Park. Fig.6: Slope categories in Aggtelek National Park.Ilona Brny-Kevei: Human impact on karst terrains, with special regard to sylviculture in Hungary

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)182Fig. 7: Soil types in Aggtelek National Park. Fig. 8: Soil texture in Aggtelek National Park.

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183Fig. 10: Forest patches in satisfactory condition and patches suggested to be changed in Aggtelek National Park. Fig. 9: Soil depth in Aggtelek National Park.Ilona Brny-Kevei: Human impact on karst terrains, with special regard to sylviculture in Hungary

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)184Table 2. Grouping of the pH values of the soil samples in areas with different vegetation cover in the Aggtelek Karst in 1998 /No. of samples in percentage %/ (Brny-Kevei – Goldie – Hoyk – Zseni, 2000): PH Sum (%) Oak forestGrasslandPine forestArable land Strong acid (<4,5)2 (3,3 %)2 (2,57 %)000 Acid (4,5-5,5) 26 (42,6 %)20 (57,1 %) 2 (11,1 %) 4 (100 %) 0 Weak acid (5,5-6,8)16 (26,2 %)6 (17,1%) 10 (55,6 %) 00 Neutral (6,8-7,2)7 (11,5 %)4 (11,4 %)3 (16,7 %)00 Weak neutral (7,2-8,5)10 (16,4 %)3 (8,6 %)3 (16,3 %90 4 (100 %) Summ 61 (100 %)35 (100 %)18 (%)4 (100%)4 (100 %)COMPUTER ASSISTED FOREST OPTIMIZATIONApplying detailed forestry data we created a thematic map series: maps of forest climate (Fig.2 of forest (Fig.3.), maps of altitude (Fig.4.), exposure (Fig. 5), slope (Fig. 6.) and soil maps with genetic (Fig.7) and physical soil type (Fig.8) and depth of tilth (Fig. 9). Using the above mentioned maps we could relate potential wood association to each selected habitat under ArcView. The digital map of these potential forests is the basis of further calculations and measurements, as far as each forest plot has certain characteristics. The resulting map was created by overlaying of above mentioned maps, and the qualification of a certain site could be given in any resolution (Fig.10). The resulted map shows that on most of the territory it is not necessary to change the presentday woods. On the sites which are in a very poor, satisfactory or average conditions the woodtype should be changed according to their landscape-ecological values. Mostly new mixed beech forests, hornbeam-beech or hornbeam-oak woods should be planted. The resulting map shows all those places, where changes are necessary, but of course with field work the probable mistakes should be checked.CONCLUSION Forestry had always played an important role on the functioning of karstecological system on the karst terrains, and probably it will in the future as well. The study represents the potential forest changes due to human impact on the example of Aggtelek National Park in Hungary. The computer-based analysis pointed on those sites where the forest type should be changed to reconstruct natural conditions. Based on the ecological needs, we have determine d those wood types which should be optimal on the given site. The method could be used on any other karst terrains, and in practice optimal land-use maps could be created in landscape planning.

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185REFERENCESBrny-Kevei, I. (1998a): Geoecological system of karsts. Acta Carsologica. Krasoslovni Zbornik, XXVII/1. Ljubljana. pp. 13-25. Brny-Kevei, I (1998b).: The geo-ecology of three Hungarian karsts. Cave und Karst Science. Transaction of the British Cave Research Association. Vol. 25. Num. 3. December. 113117. Botos, Cs. (1999): An ecologically based, computer assisted, forest rehabilitation project in the Aggtelek National Park, Hungary. in.: Essays in the ecology and conservation of karst. (Ed.: Brny-Kevei,I.-Gunn,J.) pp.47-53.Ilona Brny-Kevei: Human impact on karst terrains, with special regard to sylviculture in Hungary



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299HALLERSTEIN AND CHINESE KARST HALLERSTEIN IN KITAJSKI KRASSTANISLAV JUNI1Prejeto / received: 2. 5. 20031 Fara 2, 1336 Vas, Slovenia. E-mail: juznic@hotmail.comACTA CARSOLOGICA32/225299-306LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)300Abstract UDC: 551.44:528.94(510) Stanislav Juni: Hallerstein and Chinese Karst The life and work of the Carniolan scientist Augutin Hallerstein was described. Hallersteins maps of the Chinese karst areas were discussed. The data about his travels through the karst regions were presented. Key words: Hallerstein, Jesuits, Carniola, China, karst, maps. Izvleek UDK:551.44:528.94(510) Stanislav Juni: Hallerstein in kitajski kras Opisali smo delo kranjskega znanstvenika Avgutina Hallersteina. Obravnavali smo Hallersteinove zemljevide kitajskih krakih obmoij. Zbrali smo podatke o njegovih potovanjih po kitajskem krasu. Kljune besede: Hallerstein, jezuiti, Kranjska, Kitajska, kras, zemljevidi.

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301INTRODUCTIONOn August 28, 2003, three centuries passed from the birth of Avgutin Hallerstein (17031774) in Ljubljana. He finished his lower and upper studies at the Jesuit college Ljubljana and competed his mathematical learning in Vienna and in Portugal. Hallersteins abilities in geometry were developed in collaboration with the Viennese rector Johann Baptist Thullner, (1668-1747), former professor of mathematics in Ljubljana. Thullners Geometry of 1711 was one of the best Jesuit works ever published. Hallerstein was among the first Europeans to draw the maps of the Chinese karst regions. On January 21, 2003, the post of Slovenia issued the stamp to honor the 300th anniversary of Hallersteins birth. On August 28, 2003, the memorial tablet was unveiled at Hallersteins family castle in Menge.NORTH OF THE GREAT WALLThe mapmaking was the Jesuit fashion of Hallersteins time. Mattheo Ricci (1552-1610) draw the first map of China for Europeans. Xu Xiake (1587-1641) posthumously published the very first systematic research of the Chinese Karst in 1642 (Ravbar 2003, 249). Martin Martini (1614-1661) published the collection of the China maps in 1655. He described the famous iron chain bridge An-Lan over the karst river in the province of Guizhou. In his time, the province was called Kouei-tcheou and Koey-tscheou (Hallerstein 1780, 292, 378). Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680) republished Martinis description and other letters of the Chinese missionaries. In the fourth part of his book Kircher described the Chinese mountains, waters, vegetables, mammals, birds, fishes, snakes, stones, and minerals. Among Kirchers collaborators was the Chinese missionary Johann Gruber (1623-1680) who traveled for three years before he returned to Rome in 1664. Between 1689 and 1698, the astronomer and geographer Jean Franois Gerbillon (1654-1717) accompanied the Chinese emperor to Tatary for eight times. In 1692, he finished the map of the Great Tatary in the northern China. On emperors order, Joachim Bouvet (1656-1730) and Jean Baptiste Rgis mapped the Great Wall. In June 1708, the Jesuits Pierre Jartoux (1669-1720), Ehrenwert Xaver Fridelli (1673-1739), Cardoso, de Tartre, Joseph Marie Anne de Moyriac de Mailla (1669-1748), Roman Hinderer, Rgis, and the augustinian Bonjour began to draw the maps of the lands near the border of Korea. For seven years, Fridelli traveled through the empire and issued the map of the whole empire with Mongolia and Manchuria up to the Russian border. The Jesuit Jean Baptiste Du Halde (1674-1743) published the Jesuit maps of China compiled by the best geographer of his time Jean Baptiste Bourguignon dAnville (1687-1782). DAnvilles redaction became the foundation of the modern maps of China. Hallerstein continued the mapping of China. In 1738, he draw his first map of Macao. In 1748, Hallerstein and his assistant Felix de Rocha (1713-1781) made the relief map of the province of Mu-lan, today Mulan Paddock on the north side of the easternmost end of the Great Wall in Hebei province. Mulan Weichang was build already in 1681. Nine years later, the emperor defeated the Mongol rebels at a battlefield situated just 15 km south of Mulan Hunting Ground. The emperor hunted in Mu-lan every third autumn and urgently needed the accurate map with the description of his chase. At the hinting time, the emperor stayed for three or even five months in those places beyond the Great Wall. The Chengde Mountain Resort of Hebei Province used toStanislav Juni: Hallerstein and Chinese Karst

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)302be the largest summer resort of the Qing Dynasty. In 1749, Hallerstein and his collaborators carried on the topographic and horographic mapping of Mu-lan, the Tatar land on the northern side of the Great Wall. Besides mapping in modern sense of the world they described the waters, climate, soil, vegetable, and animal world of the area. In between, Rocha performed some astronomical observations. Hallerstein described the uninhabited lands called Har-zin and Oguiot to his brother Baron Vajkard Hallerstein (1706-1780) in Brussels. All area was one continued chain and labyrinth of mountains and valleys, without inhabitants, but full of wild animals, as red deer, wild boars, bears, and tigers. The soldiers guarded all passages of the valleys, and nobody was allowed to pass through them (Pray 1781, 28; Hallerstein 1753, 322). Rocha and Hallerstein mapped the area one degree wide and one degree long between 41,5oand 42,5o of north latitude. On the west, they reached the meridian of Beijing. The Chinese used that meridian as the first one for geography and astronomy. They mapped the north part of the modern province of Hebei with the characteristic karst of the moderate warm, half dry climate. They marked the most suitable hinting areas. The emperor was very pleased. Upon Hallersteins return the emperor gave him a most gracious reception, and asked many questions concerning the mapped country. At the same time, Hallersteins Italian friend Giuseppe Castiglione (1687-1766) painted his famous Mulan Hunt. Hallerstein was the first Carniolan researcher of the Chinese karst. On November 28, 1749, he reported about his observation of Mu-lan karst to his brother Vajkard. On September 18, 1750, he sent the similar, somewhat longer description to Mortimer of the Royal Society. Hallerstein was not able to send them the copies of the maps jet, because the drawing was not accurate enough. Later, his horographical maps were published in Chinese language in Beijing on 120 pages (Bernard 1960, 379). In April 1755, his French friend Antoine Gaubil (1689-1759) sent to the Royal Society several maps of the Chinese lands, probably with Hallersteins map included (mitek 1995, 113). The northwest corner of Hallersteins map was on the border of the modern Inner Mongolia (Nei Monggol) near the town Doulun. On the northeast, Hallerstein mapped the area up to the modern province of Liaoning well known for its oil slates that extends up to the Korean border to the east. Hallersteins map was a square with a side four foot long. Therefore he used the approximate ratio 1 : 90.000. In 1744, Ivan Dizma Florjani de Grienfeld (1691-after 1757) published the comparable map of Hallersteins native Carniola in the approximate ratio 1 : 111.000. Mu-lan in the Hebei Province should not be confused with over ten degrees southern Mulan in the northern part of the County Huangpi near the suburbs of the town Wuhan in Hubei Province, the home of the legendary Chinese girl warrior Mu-lan. Hallersteins Mu-lan is today preserved as one of the few natural grassland resorts. A part of Mulan Hounting Ground is included in Saihanba National Forest Park with forest covering over three quarters of all area. The park entertains eightyone families of higher plants, eleven families of animals and twenty-seven families of birds. The modern Hebei Province has three geological parks: the Baishi (White Stone) Mountain in Laiyuan, Liujiang of Qinhuangdao, and Tiansheng (Heaven-made) Bridge of Fuping. On north, the White Stone covers 60 square km with the only marble rock forest, ten water falls (Shipu), and Juma River. The Liujiang Park is situated 280 km away from Beijing and covers 186 square km with the mysterious Xuanyang cave. In that area the Chinese began conducting their first geological survey after Hallersteins mapping. The Heaven-made Bridge is located about 25 km west of Fuping and covers an area of 32 square km. The bridge sits above the 112-meter high waterfall, which is formed by metamorphic rock.

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303SOUTH OF THE GREAT WALLHallerstein also knew very well the karst region between south of Beijing very well. He traveled through it after his arrival and four more times later on the diplomatic duty. Table 1: Hallersteins voyages south of Beijing DateDirection of the travelPurpose of the trip 1. 3. 1739 13. 6. 1739Macao-BeijingTaking over the job at the court 25. 10. 13. 12. 1752BeijingMacaoCame to meet the Portuguese delegates 20. 12. 1752 1. 5. 1753Macao-BeijingSuiting diplomats 8. 6. 6. 10. 1753BeijingMacaoSuiting diplomats 9. 10. 1753 21. 10. 1753Macao-BeijingReturning to the court In 1752, the emperor ordered the local authorities to help Hallersteins land transport and river navigation. He had many delays because of the huge suite. On August 15, 1752, the Portuguese ambassador Francisco Xavier Pacheco Lampayo arrived to Macao with the presents for the emperor. He replaced the former ambassador Metllo de Souza, who was took the duty in 1727. The suite numbered 71 people and they traveled to Beijing for four months. Hallersteins journeys with smaller groups were certainly much faster. The travelers had troubles with the ground obstacles, high prices, accidents and illness on the numerous meanders they had to travel through. The four successive trips took away all Hallersteins powers and he had to rest for few months. After his return to Beijing his friend was curious, how he suddenly grew so old. He traversed 5000 km in a year, and he found the old fashioned Chinese ceremonies especially tiresome. Most of the time he journeyed through the karst regions. On December 25, 1752, Hallerstein, Tatar mandarin Shu, and diplomats arrived from Macao to Canton. On April 20, 1753 they arrived to Chi-Hoa. Not far north from Macao he traveled through the tropic and subtropic karst in the provinces of Hunan and Hubei, described by Xu Xiake more than hundred years before. Hallerstein and his companions continued north through the karst of the moderate warm half dry climate in the provinces of Henan and Hebei (Ravbar 2002, 191-192). They returned from the Beijing back to Macao in the company of the mandarin Hay Fig. 1: The front page of Prays edition of Hallersteins letters to his brother, containing description of Chinese karst (on pages 28-29). Stanislav Juni: Hallerstein and Chinese Karst

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)304(Peyrefitte 1991, 54, 57). In October, Hallerstein finished his diplomatic mission. On October 21, 1753, he described the travel events to his brother. He mailed the letter from the camp between Im-te-hien and Haochen-sub in Guangdong Province, which he called Quan-tum (Pray 1781, 30-31). In March 1756, Rocha, Jos dEspinha (1722-1788), Ho Kuo Tsung ( 1766), and Mingantu (1712-1764) mapped the recently conquered northwest land of Xinjiang Uygur (Sinkiang). In 1761, Hallerstein and Benoist repaired the maps and gave them as the birthday present to the emperor Qianlong (Semans 1987, 180-181). Hallersteins maps were later included in the China map in the ratio 1 : 1.500.000 (Needham & Ling 1959, 3: 586). At advanced age, Hallersten was not very willing to travel to the remote lands any more. But he was still very active geographer. He measured the distance between meridians of Beijing and Petersburg and presented to the Europeans the very first accurate census and yearly increment of the Chinese. Fig. 2: Hallersteins letter to the secretary of the Royal Society Cromwell Mortimer ( 1752) mailed on September 19, 1750 with the description of his mapping of the karst region in 1749 on page 2 (The Archive of the Royal Society of London). Fig. 3: December 19, 1751 protocol of the Royal Society meeting with notes on the reading Hallersteins letter about the mapping of the Mu-lan, page 11 (The Archive of the Royal Society of London).

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305CONCLUSIONThe Jesuits were very skilled in mapping. Hallerstein probably followed the example of his uncle Inocenc Volbenk Anton Franc Erberg (1694-1766) who mapped Paraguay in 1727. Hallerstein was the most famous among the early visitors of the Chinese karst. He had the opportunity to compare the Far East karst with the domestic one he admired during his September 1735 travel to Trieste, when he saw Carniola for the very last time. He preceded the contemporary Slovene researchers of the Chinese karst.REFERENCESdAnville, J. B. B., 1737: Nouvel Atlas de la Chine Paris. Bernard, H., 1960: Les Adaptations chinoises douvrages europens: Deuxieme Partie (1689 1799). Monumenta Serica. 19: 349-383. Fig. 4: Hallersteins report to the Royal Society about the mapping of China regions and especially on his and Rochas research on the bottom of the page (Hallerstein 1753, 321). Fig. 5: Hallersteins numbering, the very first Chinese census published in Europe. French publisher rebaptized our scientist into Allerstain (Hallerstein 1780, 292).Stanislav Juni: Hallerstein and Chinese Karst

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)306Du Halde, J. B., 1735: Description gographique, historique, chronologique, politique et physique de lempire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise. P.G. Lemercier, Paris. Hallerstein, A., 1753: A Letter from Reverend Father Augustin Hallerstein, of the Society of Jesus, President of the astronomical College at Pekin in China, to Dr. Mortimer, Sec. R.S. Dated Pekin, Sept. 18, N.S. 1750, Translated from the Latin by Tho. Stack, M.D. and F.R.S. Phil.Trans. 1751-1752. 47: 319-323. Hallerstein, A., 1780: Dnombrement Des Habitants de la Chine, traduit du chinois, par le seu. P. Allerstain, Prsident du Tribunal des Mathmatiques. Mmoires, concernant lhistoire, les sciences, les arts, les moeurs, les usages etc. des Chinois, par les missionnaires de Pekin. Paris: Nyon. 6: 292, 374-380. Kircher, A., 1667: China monumentis, qua Sacris qua profanis, nec non (variis) naturae et artis spectaculis, aliarumque rerum memorabilium argumentis illustrata Varesi, Rome. Martini, M., 1655: Novus Atlas Sinensis. Joan Bleau, Amsterdam. Needham, J., Wang Ling, 1959: Science and Civilization in China Vol. 3. Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography, Cartography, Geology, Seismology and Mineralogy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Peyrefitte, A., 1991: Un choc de cultures. La vision Chinois Fayam, Paris. Pray, G., 1781: Imposturae CCXVIII in dissertatione r. p. Benedicti Cetto, Clerici Regularis e Scholis Piis de Sinensium imposturis detectae et convulsae. Accedunt Epistolae anecdotae r. p. Avgustini e comitibus Hallerstein ex China scriptae Typis Regiae Universitatis, Budae. Ravbar, N., 2002: Kitajska kraka terminologija. Acta carsologica. 31/2: 189-208. Ravbar, N., 2003: The Earliest Chinese Karstologist Xu Xiake. Acta carsologica. 32/1: 243-254. Semans, C.A., 1987: Mapping the Unknown. Jesuit Cartography in China, 1583-1773 Berkeley, Doktorska Disertacija. mitek, Z., 1995: Sreevanja z druganostjo, slovenska izkustva eksotike Didakta, Radovljica.HALLERSTEIN IN KITAJSKI KRASPovzetek Hallerstein spada med najpomembneje kranjske znanstvenike 18. stoletja. Nedvomno je med vsemi dosegel najviji poloaj, saj je bil skoraj trideset let predsednik astronomskega urada v Pekingu. Med njegove dolnosti je spadalo tudi kartografiranje posameznih provinc ter prevajanje ob obisku portugalskih odposlancev. Tako je slubeno prepotoval tevilne kitajske krake pokrajine. O njih je poroal v pismih bratu in tajniku kraljeve drube v Londonu. Njegova poroila so v Londonu visoko cenili in objavljali, podobno kot pol stoletja prej poroila o krakih pojavih v Cerknikem jezeru drugega kranjskega barona Valvasorja. Hallerstein je zemljevide in opise kitajskih deel brez vejih zadrkov s strani kitajskih oblasti poiljal znanstvenikom v Evropo. Njegovi zemljevidi so bili vkljueni v pozneja kitajska dela.



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19CONTRIBUTION OF IVAN GAMS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SLOVENE KARST TERMINOLOGY PRISPEVEK IVANA GAMSA K RAZVOJU SLOVENSKE KRAŠKE TERMINOLOGIJEJURIJ KUNAVER11 Jurij Kunaver, Ph. D., Full Prof., Hubadova 16, 1113 Ljubljana, Slovenija Prejeto / received: 4. 9. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/2219-28LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)20Summary UDC: 551.44:929 Gams. I. Jurij Kunaver: Contribution of Ivan Gams to the development of slovene karst terminology The stage of the scientific terminology is by all means one of the indicators of the development of the scientific branch, to which it belongs. Therefore the publishing of the Slovene karst terminology in 1973 was an important event for further development of Slovene karstology. Still more, the efforts for a comparative national karst terminologies of former common state Yugoslavia were successfully achieved in publishing the Serbian and Croatian karst terminology also, a year later. In fact, the former Association of the geographical societies of Yugoslavia decided to give full support to its subcommission in preparing the project Karst terminology of the Yugoslave nations and to a joint Yugoslave symposium on Karst terminology, held in Ljubljana from 22-23th October 1971, both guided and organised by prof. Ivan Gams, who was also the original initiator of this idea. All this efforts were newertheless combined and connected with the international work of that time to find most appropriate terms and definitions for the karst phenomena and to make them comparable in terms of national terminologies. Ivan Gams was therefore not only a most important promoter of the Slovene karst terminology and one of the leading persons of the scientific karstology in the time concerned but was due to his global ideas also one of the central persons in the international karstology. Key words: Ivan Gams, karstology, terminology, Slovenia. Izvleek UDK: 551.44:929 Gams. I. Jurij Kunaver: Prispevek Ivana Gamsa k razvoju slovenske kraške terminologije Razvitost znanstvene terminologije je eden od pomembnih kazalcev stanja v posamezni znanstveni veji. Zato je pomenila izdaja Slovenske kraške terminologije leta 1973 pomembno dejanje in prelomnico v slovenskem krasoslovju. Leto pozneje sta izšli tudi podobni terminologiji v srbskem in hrvaškem jeziku, vse to pa je bila posledica odlo itve takratne Zveze geografskih organizacij Jugoslavije o jugoslovanskem znanstvenem simpoziju o kraški terminologiji, ki je bil v Ljubljani od 22.-23. oktobra 1971. Za vsem tem je stal prof. Ivan Gams, ki je bil ne samo pobudnik ampak tudi izvajalec te akcije. A tudi po njegovi pobudi so se slovenski krasoslovci v tem pogledu prebudili e deset let prej, leta 1962, ko je bil v okviru Geografskega društva Slovenije prvi posvet na to temo. Za etki samostojne slovenske krasoslovne terminologije segajo celo v drugo polovico 19. stoletja, ko so bili s prvim vodnikom o Postojnski jami avtorja Coste (1863), pisanim v slovenš ini, postavljeni njeni prvi znanstveni temelji. Ivan Gams pa je skupaj s sodelavci pred tridesetimi leti z izdajo sodobno zasnovane Slovenske kraške terminologije, opremljene s tujejezi nimi sopomenkami, omogo il njen enakopraven mednarodni polo aj ob boku drugih terminologij, s tem pa prispeval tudi k narodni in znanstveni samozavesti. Kljune besede: Ivan Gams, krasoslovje, terminologija, Slovenija.

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21Terminology is the key tool of every branch of science, its indispensable and essential companion and therefore the basis of the scientific language and understanding. It is the common denominator, accepted by scientists, although with compromises, and at the same time it can be the subject of animated discussions. Terminology is the touchstone of scientific power and intellectual innovativeness of individuals and the whole branch of science. In the proceedings on “the science of terminology” (Pedagogical Institute of the University of Ljubljana, 1984) one can read: “Every field of science has to determine the subject it treats and discusses, the methodologies it uses, as well as the symbolically, semantically and informationally pure terminology. Terminology is therefore an indicator of development, structure, integrational and communicational skills of the branch of science, as well as of the economical and social development and progress. Terminology thus reflects the subjects, the problems, the evolution and the values of a certain branch of science” (Pedi ek, 1984, 5-6, 13). In the proceedings, the physicist Strnad explains his notion of terminology with the two ways to terminology: “The first way is the natural way to terminology in school through textbooks, the other one leads through dictionaries and glossaries. Short and independent explanations are typical of the latter, although they might not always be professionally irreproachable. In this case compromises are inevitable. The experts of the branch should have the final say, however, they sometimes lack the feeling for the needs of glossaries or dictionaries. When so, the linguists are required” (Strnad, 1984, 144). From our own experience we could add the third possible way, the scientific way, which tests the existing terms and suggests new ones. This could be a short summary of the essence, importance and problems of every scientific terminology. In my paper I would like to explain the circumstances of making the Slovene karst terminology, as I participated in this process, which I find a significant phase in the Slovene karstology. This was the time when not only Slovenian and former Yugoslavian, but also experts from other countries realized they needed more accurate and thorough terms and definitions in their field of explorations. In our country, as well as in other European countries, some basic explorations of particular types and areas of the Karst region were made at that time, and along with discovering new characteristics of the Karst, new terms and definitions were introduced. I went through this myself while introducing terminology for mountain karst phenomena, for instance tiny corrosional shapes, and I always used to come across the rest of the karst terminology. Without hesitating we can make a reconstruction of some past facts and events, and illuminate the role of Prof. Ivan Gams, the most active and deserving person for our own terminology for karstology. This terminology has put us alongside bigger and more developed nations. Although the Slovene karst terminology had a national character, it already included elements of the former mentioned skills of communication and comparison, partly because of the very extensive project (according to the number of participating individuals and organizations), as well as because of the previously collected equivalent terms in English, French, Croatian, Serbian and Macedonian.Jurij Kunaver: Contribution of Ivan Gams to the development of slovene karst terminology

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)22THE SITUATION BEFORE THE APPEARANCE OF THE SLOVENE KARST TERMINOLOGYThe efforts to create a thorough karst terminology are presented mostly in Slovene, Croatian and Serbian terminologies, published one after another in early seventies as a result of a wellorganized joint activity, initiated and led by Ivan Gams. The first efforts, however, started a decade earlier, in 1962, when The Geographical and Geological Society of Slovenia organized a conference on these themes (published in Geografski vestnik, 1962, 115-137). Ivan Gams was one of the initiators again, and he gathered even more experts than a decade later. We could say that the first systematic and quite thorough collection of Slovene karst terms, the basis for further scientific work, was established then, and later it was only completed and re-formed. Gams stated that the Slovene karst terminology, too, was a result of “the historical development of the branch” and that the Slovenes started creating it relatively late. It was characteristic of those days, that we were trying to introduce the term vrta a, instead of kraška dolina, which was mostly used before. We began to distinguish more precisely the terms like ponor, ponikva and po iralnik (Gams, 1962, 115). A more detailed survey on the Alpine karst forms and terms for them was introduced (Kunaver, 1963, 123-129). Two years later the committee for terminology at the Society of Cave Explorations of Slovenia discussed the problems of the karst terminology, and a year later the Speleological section of PD Ž elezni ar followed them (Novak, 1974, 147). If we want this review to be complete, we must not forget to mention the very beginning of gathering the Slovene karst terms in the second half of 19th century, when terms like siga for sinter (Cigale, 1860, taken from Croatian) and kapnik for a dripstone appeared in the first Slovene guidebook about the Postojna Cave (Costa, 1863). This guidebook introduced some new terms and can be considered the very first Slovene written terminology about the Karst explorations, and its author Costa “the founder of the Slovene speleological terminology” (Habe, 1974, 111; Kranjc, 1980, 85-87). The term “kapnik” was accepted sooner than “siga”, due to the influence of German authors (Hohenwart, Schmidl, Zippe), hence the more frequent use of the “kapniške tvorbe” compared to the “sigove tvorbe”, as stated by I. Gams (1980, 89-90). According to Habe, along with the Slovene guidebooks about the Postojna caves from 19th century the biggest contribution to introducing Slovene terms in the field of physical geography and karstology was given by Janez Jesenko from Trieste, with his textbooks Ob i zemljepis (General Geography) (1873) and Prirodoznanski zemljepis (Physical Geography) (1874), a fact that is not widely known. In October 1969 the committee for scientific researches at the Association of Geographical Institutions of Yugoslavia decided to include a Yugoslav symposium on the karst terminology and typology of the Karst region in their long-term interests. In spring 1970 the committee entrusted the organization of the symposium to the Department of Physical Geography at the Department of Geography at the Faculty of Arts in Ljubljana, where the idea for it first came from. The symposium took place the next autumn, 21-22nd October 1971. There were four main papers delivered at the symposium on karst terminologies in the former Yugoslav republics, followed by four co-reports, which came from Slovenia. That proves that most aspirations for the karst terminology in this part of Europe have come from Slovenia. One of the reasons was the organization of 4th International Speleological Congress, which brought valuable international connections and initiatives; the other reason was probably the fact that many individual experts had done explorations of separate types

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23of the Karst before, like the Alpine karst, the karst of depressions or koliševke, karst valleys, big cave systems in Notranjska region, waters of the Slovene karst and many others. Scientific explorations of the Slovene karst and terminology went in three ways: within the Dept. of Physical Geography at the Department of Geography at the Faculty of Arts in Ljubljana, at the Karst Research Institute at the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts in Postojna, and within the Geological Institute of Slovenia. Beside these there were unprofessional institutions for cave explorations of that time, like the Chair of Quaternary Research, the Slovene Caving Society and the Society of Cave Exploration in Ljubljana, mentioned in Terminology. Professional contacts among those institutions were not very intense in the sense of joint projects or other scientific work; therefore one could feel some rivalry, competition and distrust among them. Creating terminology of a branch has always been a prestige task. The leader of the action, however, realized how important it was to join all the eminent experts of the branch. The complete action, which started in 1970 at the Chair of Physical Geography by making a list of terms and dividing it among different institutions, was meant as a collective work. However, the organizers were not very successful in this, as some institutions had conflicting interests, refusing to be second fiddle. In the final phase of preparing the terminology the group had only three members, although there are five other names on the cover of the publication, representatives of the then institutions of the karst explorations. Nevertheless Terminology got a national character and importance and it reflected the position of karstology in our country.HOW WE WORKEDI would like to say some words about how we worked. The most effective method, besides collecting written and oral comments, led by Prof. Gams, was team or collective creating of definitions and checking their adequateness. Ivan Gams, Darko Radinja and myself were members of the editorial board, which had to decide upon the final definition. We simply wrote the definition on the blackboard and kept improving it until we were all satisfied or ready to accept a compromise. Most of those who participated in the process were content with this kind of work, except for those who could not or did not want to cooperate. Despite of some differences in our opinions we managed to earn mutual confidence and respect. Today I would recommend such kind of teamwork to anyone who wants to start a project like this, supported by computers, of course.RESPONSES TO THE PUBLISHING OF TERMINOLOGYAs Gams wrote in The Short History …. the symposium initiated “the more active work in forming karst terminology also with other Yugoslav nations and defined the guidelines of their work” (Gams, 1973c, 34). Most of the critics of the Terminology realized that “what was done then, was not the final version, yet it helped and supported the scientific reference books” (Novak, 197, 147), according to Šušterši it was “an indicator or expositor of the situation at that moment”. He was very critical about the Terminology, saying that “Terminology does not consider the local folk’s terminology enough” (he cites Badjura), and beside this “some terms are a direct translation of German terms”. Šušterši thought that the authors did not follow “the tradition of Slovene speleology enough … and thus impoverished the language” (Šušterši 1974, 148). Perhaps theJurij Kunaver: Contribution of Ivan Gams to the development of slovene karst terminology

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)24critic overlooked another purpose of Terminology, namely, that it was not only meant for Slovene, but also for foreign readers. Therefore considering folk terminology would not make sense and is not so much used in other fields. Unfortunately Badjura did not provide proper terms for tiny corrosional forms. In the editorial to Gavrilovi ’s Serbian Karst Terminology we can read that “looking for new terms among folk expressions might be disputable, because they usually name only the basic or biggest relief forms” (Gavrilovi 1974, 15). If we want to find out how the Slovene karst terminology has changed, as F. Šušterši predicted, and point out the open questions, we can state the following. According to Šušterši (oral communication) the discrepancy between certain terms and the genesis of the phenomenon which it represents, has become bigger. After him too many terms rely on their genesis, as it can change after some time. Therefore the correctness of such terms is disputable. He mentions an example of “udornice”, which are proved to be of a different origin than understood from the term. Šušterši still prefers the term “dolina” to “vrta a”. One can conclude that creating appropriate terminology for a wide range of users is a very demanding task, never absolutely finished and never satisfactory for everyone. Often it is about different expert opinions and starting points, different understanding of the same thing, which is absolutely legitimate and normal. But sometimes it is also about different attraction to the same words and their meanings, as well as about a subjective attitude towards their authors. A typical example is the term “vrta a”, the majority agreed upon, but some experts still argue about it. I believe it is better to finish terminology as quickly as possible, and not to wait for too long, regardless of possible inexactness. This was also Prof. Gams’s main principle, which I still find correct. Each terminology, based on expert opinions and suggestions, reflects its time and offers a starting point for the future, exposed to critics, of course. If the critics have cogent arguments, the term can be changed, otherwise better not, irrespective of its original meaning. Some branches prefer to use borrowed expressions and replacing them with new ones can cause serious inconveniences. We do not argue for the intangibility of terminology, but for its practical value. Irrespective of how thorough a collection of non-published terms can be, it does not have any practical value.EFFORTS FOR KARST TERMINOLOGIES OUTSIDE SLOVENIAI am going to mention only some terminologies, published after World War II. We have to bear in mind that every textbook represents a collection of karstology terms, thus terminologies were of greater importance at the times, when there were few textbooks available. The Russian terminology is one of the latest terminologies, published in 1991, including more than 2500 terms. Tendencies to collect as many terms as possible and offer them to the experts to use and complete them began first after World War II. Among others there was a well known report by G. Chabot (1956), Rapport sur le vocabulaire karstique, Report of the Commission on Karst Phenomena, IGU, Rio de Janeiro, followed by Vergleichendes Vokabulr fr den Formenschatz des Karstes, prepared by Herbert Lehmann, for the collection Geographisches Taschenbuch in 1958/59. The next terminology was Spelologisches Fachwrterbuch, edited by Hubert Trimmel, published in 1965, also as a publication of 3rd International Speleological Congress (1961, Vienna, Obertraun, Salzburg), which consisted of 750 terms. The International Committee for Karst Terminology

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25was most active at the time of Slovene biggest endeavours in this field. In autumn 1971 a conference was organized in Obertraun in Salzkammergut, led by Max Fink. The result of the conference was among others the unpublished report Multilingual glossary of karst and speleological terminology (Fink 1973), ISU, Subcommission on Karst terminology. The conference was of great importance for us, young researchers in that time, because we were able to present the Slovene point of view and experiences in creating proper terminology, we got acquainted with renowned scientists, and were able to do some fieldwork and learn about Alpine karst phenomena. It became clear to us that bigger nations and languages have no absolute priorities or privilege over smaller nations in suggesting scientific terms, so every nation has the same possibilities to contribute to the science. We should also mention the efforts to put the terms “kotli ” and “konta” into the international terminology, in which we at least partly succeeded (Kunaver, 1973, 68). The term “kotli ” is mentioned in works of M. M. Sweeting, D. Ford, in the Anglo-American reference books, in Panoš Karstological and Speleological Terminology (2001, over 1850 terms) and elsewhere; “konta”, however, can be found in the Russian terminology. It is to be regretted that the Slovene karstology, except for caving, deals much more with the Dinaric than Alpine karst. There are fewer scientific explorations and therefore less support for the Alpine karst, also in introducing Slovene terms of this area abroad. During the process of creating the terminology it was sometimes very difficult to achieve equal evaluation of certain Alpine or microkarst terms, and therefore many terms were not put in the terminology, because of some “subjective criteria, which still deny the existence of certain phenomena … e.g. microcorrosional …in the Slovene karst terminology”, and they are still waiting to be accepted (Kunaver, 1973, 69). Nevertheless, these terms finally found their place in the Slovene karst terminology, not on the list of terms, however, but in a separate paper, later used as groundwork for further discussions and debates. We must not forget to mention here the founders of small corrosional and Alpine karst phenomena system, especially O. Lehmann, F. Bauer, K. Haserodt and A. Bgli. We would not like this part of Slovene karst terminology to stand aside and depend on very few interested individuals. In spite of many international connections it has been left behind, partly while explorers of the Alpine karst have been more interested in the karst underground phenomena in the last few decades than in its surface. Most work on the internationally applicable terminology of the Alpine karst was done by Alfred Bgli, among others with his short paper Die wichtigsten Karrenformen der Kalkalpen, published in 1978 in Ljubljana. He compared most suitable terms in German, English and French, but he did not or could not consider Slovene terms (Bgli, 1978, 14-49). The list of successes, at least indirectly influenced by Ivan Gams, his vision and his organizational skills, includes also the Serbian and Croatian terminologies. They were both published a year later than the Slovene one. In 1974 Dušan Gavrilovi edited the Serbian version, which contained about 400 terms; the Croatian, however, included 551 terms and was edited by Josip Rogli In our report on the Serbian terminology in 1974 we mentioned that it contained fewer terms, but the explanations were richer than in the Slovene terminology (515 terms). Rogli ’s terminology had even more extensive explanations (Kunaver, 1974, 152-153). Let me summarize some statements of both editors, which have influenced the further development of karstology and its terminology in certain environments, or are still in use today. Gavrilovi found that the development of karstology in Serbia stagnated after Cviji He cited J. Cviji : “It has not been done enough about general geographical terminology and especially about karstology terminology, furthermore, some authors have given certain terms completely oppositeJurij Kunaver: Contribution of Ivan Gams to the development of slovene karst terminology

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)26meanings.” This was said to be true at the time of publishing their terminology (Gavrilovi 1974, 13). Gavrilovi argues about the origin of the terms “polje”, “vrta a”, “estavela”, “bogaz”, about some hydrological terms, the use of the general name “kras”, “karst” or “krš”, about “siga” and other old and new karst terms. He also mentions inaccurate definitions of some terms of local importance (“muzga”, “ ebelj”, “zvekara”, “bezdan”, etc.), which do not correspond to scientific terminology, although used in textbooks. Gavrilovi pointed out the need for more explicit and precise scientific and public critics in this field (Gavrilovi 1974, 15-16). From Rogli ’s report one can understand that there are still many little known folk expressions and names in Croatia, which could be of greater use in scientific work. The karstology terminology reflects the fact, that national heritage was not yet investigated thoroughly in that time. Rogli found the terms too dependent on translations from foreign languages, especially from German. He was obviously not satisfied with the Croatian version of karst terminology, so he tried to stimulate further scientific work. He pointed out the inaccurate genetic terms, while their background might be too hypothetical (Rogli 1974, 3-4).CONCLUSIONThe development of sciences with a history and tradition of many centuries seems to be obvious. However, for a small nation, which fought for its national, cultural and political independence and recognition for many centuries, aspirations for its own science went together with many strains and struggles, optimism and belief in its own creativity. All the efforts to get national terminologies, in our case of the karst, in a way represent the invincible wish for life, success and equal cooperation with other nations. We could say that we were often helped by the nature of our country, especially the karst, which contributed a lot to our national and scientific awareness, with the help of the Slovene karst terminology by Ivan Gams, too. The story does not end here. We hope it will be continued in further chapters, as predicted by the new generations of researchers. They, and perhaps we, too, might find the existent terminological frames too tight soon. This is called evolution, and this is how it should be.REFERENCES:Bgli, A. 1978: Die wichtigsten Karrenformen der Kalkalpen. Karst processes and relevant landforms. International Speleological Union, Commission on Karst denudation. Department of Geography, Philosophical Faculty, University of Ljubljana. Ljubljana, 141-149. Chabot, G., 1956: Rapport sur le vocabulaire karstique. Report of the Commission on Karst Phenomena, IGU, Rio de Janeiro. Fink, M. H., 1973: Multilingual glossary of karst and speleological terminology. ISU, Subcommission on Karstterminology. Project. Gams, I, 1962 a: Kraška terminologija. Uvodna pojasnila. Geografski vestnik, 34, 1962, 115-116. Gams, I, 1962 b: Terminologija ve jih kraških oblik. Geografski vestnik, 34, 1962, Ljubljana, 116-122. Gams, I. & J., Kunaver & D., Radinja, 1973 a: Slovenska kraška terminologija. Katedra za fizi no geografijo oddelka za geografijo FF, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 76 p. Gams, I. 1973 b: Na ela, po katerih je sestavljena ta terminologija. Slovenska kraška terminologija.

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27Katedra za fizi no geografijo oddelka za geografijo FF, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 3233. Gams, I. 1973 c: Kratek historiat nastanka te terminologije. Slovenska kraška terminologija. Katedra za fizi no geografijo oddelka za geografijo FF, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 34-35. Gams, I. 1973 d: Razvoj slovenskih besed kras in dolina v mednarodna termina do konca 19. stoletja. Slovenska kraška terminologija. Katedra za fizi no geografijo oddelka za geografijo FF, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 39-54. Gams, I. 1973 e: Terminologija tipov kraških polj Slovenska kraška terminologija. Katedra za fizi no geografijo oddelka za geografijo FF, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 55-67. Gams, I., 1980: Sigove tvorbe-kapniki-Kras-kras. Prispevka k slovenskemu kraškemu imenoslovju. GV 52, 1980, Ljubljana, 89-92. Gavrilovi D., 1974: Srpska kraška terminologija. Kraška terminologija jugoslovenskih naroda, knjiga II. Savez geografskih institucija Jugoslavije, Beograd, 73 p. Habe, F., 1972: Mednarodna delovna konferenca za kraško terminologijo, 12.-17. Sept. 1971, Obertraun, Avstrija. Naše jame 13 (1971), Ljubljana, 130-131. Habe, F., 1974: Nekaj o za etkih slovenskega speleološkega izrazoslovja. Naše jame 15 (1973), Ljubljana, 111-115. Jenko, F., 1962: Kraško izrazoslovje v hidrologiji in hidrotehniki. Geografski vestnik, 34, 1962, Ljubljana, 132-133. Kranjc, A., 1980: Siga. Prispevek k slovenskemu kraškemu imenoslovju. GV 52, 1980, Ljubljana, 85-88. Kunaver, J., 1962: Terminologija visokogorskih kraških oblik. Geografski vestnik, 34, 1962, Ljubljana, 123-129. Kunaver, J., 1973: O razvoju slovenske terminologija za mikroreliefne kraške oblike (nekaj misli in predlogov ob primeru visokogorskega krasa). V: Gams, I., J., Kunaver, D., Radinja, 1973. Slovenska kraška terminologija. Katedra za fizi no geografijo oddelka za geografijo FF, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 68-76. Kunaver, J., 1974: Gavrilovi Dušan, Srpska kraška terminologija. Geografski vestnik, 46, 1974, Ljubljana, 152-153. Novak, D., 1962: Kraške oblike z vodno funkcijo. Geografski vestnik, 34, 1962, Ljubljana, 129130. Novak, D., 1974: Slovenska kraška terminologija. Geografski vestnik, 46, 1974, Ljubljana, 147. Panoš, V., 2001: Karsologick a speleologick terminologie. Vkladov slovnk s ekvivalenty ve slovenštin a jednacch jazycch mezinrodn speleologick unie (UNESCO) (angli tina, francouzština, italština, nm ina, ruština, španlština). Kni ne centrum, Ž ilina, 352 p. Pedi ek, F., 1984 a: Predgovor. Terminologija v znanosti. Prispevki k teoriji. Zbornik. Pedagoški inštitut pri univerzi Edvarda Kardelja v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 5-7. Pedi ek, F., 1984 b: Uvod v vprašanje. Terminologija v znanosti. Prispevki k teoriji. Zbornik. Pedagoški inštitut pri univerzi Edvarda Kardelja v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 13-15. Rogli J. & V. Birga, 1974: Prilog hrvatskoj krškoj terminologiji. Krš Jugoslavije, 9/1, Zagreb, 72 p. Savnik, R., 1962: Poimenovanje kraških jam. Geografski vestnik, 34, 1962, Ljubljana, 133-135. Strnad, J., 1984: O fizikalni terminologiji. Terminologija v znanosti. Prispevki k teoriji. Zbornik. Pedagoški inštitut pri univerzi Edvarda Kardelja v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 143-145.Jurij Kunaver: Contribution of Ivan Gams to the development of slovene karst terminology

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)28Šušterši F., 1974: Slovenska kraška terminologija. Geografski vestnik, 46, 1974, Ljubljana 148150. Timofeev, D.,A.& V. N. Dubljanskij, T., Z., Kiknadze, 1991: Terminologija karsta. Materiali po geomorfologi eskoj terminologiji. Nauka, Moskva, 260 p. Trimmel, H., 1965: Spellogisches Fachwrterbuch (Fachwrterbuch des Karstund Hhlenkunde). In Verbindung mit einer Arbeitsgemeinchaft des Landesvereines fur Hhlenkunde in Wien und Niedersterreich. Herausgegeben vom Landesvereines fur Hhlenkunde in Wien und Niedersterreich, Wien, 109 p.



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289ARCHDUKE LUDWIG SALVATOR AND LEPTODIRUS HOHENWARTI FROM POSTOJNSKA JAMA(CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE ENTOMOLOGICAL INTEREST AND COLLECTIONS OF THE AUSTRIAN ARCHDUKE LUDWIG SALVATOR)NADVOJVODA LUDVIK SALVATOR IN LEPTODIRUS HOHENWARTI IZ POSTOJNSKE JAME(O ZANIMANJU ZA ENTOMOLOGIJO IN O ZBIRKAH AVSTRIJSKEGA NADVOJVODE LUDVIKA SALVATORJA) BRIGITTA MADER1Prejeto / received: 10. 3. 20031Kriehubergasse 25/11 AT-1050 WIEN, AUSTRIAACTA CARSOLOGICA32/224289-298LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)290Abstract UDC: 551.44(091):595.7 Brigitta Mader: Archduke Ludwig Salvator and Leptodirus Hohenwarti from Postojnska jama The author presents a historic preparation of a Leptodirus hohenwarti Schmidt recently found in the house of Eugenio Sforza (1820-1894) in Toscana.Because of the fact that Sforza has been the tutor and equerry of the Austrian Archduke and natural scientist Ludwig Salvator (1847-1915) a connection is presumed between Ludwig Salvator’s natural history collections and the Leptodirus -specimen, which was in the author’s opinion acquired in Postojna in 1863 on the occasion of Ludwig Salvator’s first visit to the caves, accompagnied by Eugenio Sforza. Key words: Leptodirus Hohenwarti Schmidt, speleobiology, history of speleology, Ludwig Salvator, Eugenio Sforza, L.W.Schaufuss, L.Ganglbauer, F.v. Hohenwart, F.J. Schmidt, Postojna. Izvleek UDK: 551.44(091):595.7 Brigitta Mader: Nadvojvoda Ludvik Salvator in Leptodirus hohenwarti iz Postojnske jame (O zanimanju za entomologijo in o zbirkah avstrijskega nadvojvode Ludvika Salvatorja) Avtor predstavi zgodovinski preparat hroška Leptodirus hohenwarti Schmidt ki je bil nedavno najden v hiši Evgenija Sforze (1820-1894) v Toskani. Dejstvo, da je bil Sforza tutor in spremljevalec avstrijskega nadvojvode in naravoslovca Ludvika Salvatorja (1847-1915), navaja avtorico na domnevo, da je ta drobnovratnik v zvezi z njegovimi naravoslovnimi zbirkami. Hroška naj bi Ludvik Salvator domnevno dobil v Postojni 1863, ko je v spremstvu Evgenija Sforze prvi obiskal Postojnsko jamo. Kljune besede: Leptodirus hohenwarti Schmidt, speleobiologija, zgodovina speleologije, Ludvik Salvator, Evgenij Sforza, L. W. Schaufuss, L. Ganglbauer, F. v. Hohenwart, F. J. Schmidt, Postojna.

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291In 1869 there was issued in Praha a little book of about 30 pages with the German title Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Coleopteren-Fauna der Balearen It was the third printed work of the Austrian Archduke and natural scientist Ludwig Salvator (1847-1915) and represented the first approuch to the then nearly unknown Coleoptera fauna of the Balearic-Islands. Two years before, in 1867 when Ludwig Salvator stayed for several months on the Balearic islands doing topographic and statistic researches for his monography about those islands, he made use of the occasion and dedicated himself also to his beloved studies of natural history passing a lot of time collecting zealously various “products of nature”. “Specially rich was my entomological spoil of Coleoptera” is Ludwig Salvator explaining in the preface to his Coleoptera book the reason why he decided to determine, describe and publish the entomological material of the Balearic islands (Ludwig Salvator 1869, 3). Ludwig charged the well known German entomologist Ludwig Wilhelm Schaufuss (18331890) to do the determination. Schaufuss was an excellent expert of the Spanish Coleoptera, which he had studied in various journeys since 1866. He had already done a monograph about the Scydmaeniden in Central and South America, which opened him not only the LeopoldinoCarolinische Academie but brought him also a high Brasilian decoration (Nekrolog Schaufuss 1891, 215). And is was Schaufuss too, who was so passione in natural sciences and art, that he personally founded and financed the Museum Ludwig Salvator2 opened in 1876 in Ober Blasewitz near Dresden. On the basis of the material collected on the Balearics by Ludwig Salvator, and also partly by himself, Schaufuss prepared a detailed catalogue of 332 Coleoptera-species, of which 16 were new ones. Ludwig Salvator published this catalogue under the title Beitrag zur Kenntnis der ColeopterenFauna der Balearen (Fig.1) when he was 21 years old. He had already a lot of experience in natural history studies, but first of all he got a good basis for scientific work, studying with the best professors of the University in Praha, like the botanist Vincenz Franz Kostelecky, the zoologist Friedrich Stein and the mineralogist Victor Zepharovich (Mader 2002, 30). As a prince of the Toscana branch of the Habsburg-Lorraine imperial family, Ludwig Salvator was born and grew up in an athmosphere intensly influenced by the tradition of the FrenchGerman enlightenment, which was brought to Florence by Franz Stephan of Lorraine3, the first Austrian Grand Duke in Toscana succeeding the extinct Medici dynasty. Official promotion and support of science, as well as personal occupation with natural sciences was always characteristic of the Austrian Toscana branch (Mader 2002). So Ludwig Salvator’s early inclination to the natural sciences and to museum collections has to be considered as very late after-effect of the enlightement. Already in his childhood, passed in Florence, he had his own collections of minerals in the Pitti palace and of stuffed exotic animals in the Villa Palmieri. And once grown up, Ludwig Salvator was deeply convinced of the useful effect of the diffusion of knowledge and scientific results on the prosperity of mankind and for this reason he dedicated his life and financial resources to the sciences. Besides of his own expeditions and studies he supported various researches of other scientists and invited specialists as he had alredy with Schaufuss to collaborate in his own works (Mader 2002, 34). One of them was the Austrian entomologist Ludwig Ganglbauer (18561912), who became famous for his systematic works and his handbook about the centraleuropean coleoptera, published in Vienna from 1892 to 1904, is still used. Ganglbauer determined in 1894 the insects which Ludwig Salvator had collected on the Columbretes islands during his researchesBrigitta Mader: Archduke Ludwig Salvator and Leptodirus Hohenwarti from Postojnska jama

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)292and preparations for his book about this little group of rocky volcanic islands situated near the Spanish coast near Valencia. But Ludwig Salvator’s entomological interest was not strictly limited in the sense of so as to complete the descriptions of little known or nearly unknown islands and regions in his books. It finds expression also in his private nature collections. In all his residences including his steamyacht Nixe his prefered study on the high seashe kept various natural scientific, ethnografical and archaeological material, which he had personally collected or acquired on his innumerable journeys in the Mediterranean but also overseas. The most excellent collections he had in his castle of Brandeis near Praha. There were butterflies, beetles, insects, shells and also archaeological findings. But unfortunately there is nothing conserved. A lot of the material has been lost and only a few pieces seem to have found a new location in the Czech national museum in Praha and perhaps also in some regional museal collections.4 No better at all is the situation in Ludwig’s other residences. The contents of his houses in Zindis near Trieste and in San Stefano near Alexandria is completly lost, and in his houses on Mallorca only poor remains are kept, specially concerning the nature collections. So the preparation of a beetle, recently found by the author when preparing for the first Ludwig Salvator exhibition in Austria seems quite important. In the house of Ludwig Salvator’s tutor and later equerry Eugenio Sforza (Fig.2), in Montignoso in Toscana there was previously unnoticed among books and papers a preparation of a beetle fixed on an octagonal glassplate (diameter 7 cm) and covered with a vaulted glass (diameter 4 cm). (Fig.3). Although the present members of the Sforza family do not remember the provenance of this beetle preparation, they are quite sure that it once belonged to Eugenio Sforza. Sforza (1820-1894) in fact had studied natural sciences and was so ambitious that he participated at the 5th Congress of Italian scientists in Lucca (1843) at the age of only 23. Because of his excellent reputation and successful work as assistent at the Imperial e Reggio Liceo in Lucca, the Grand Duke Leopold II took him in 1854 to his court in Florence. There he became tutor of Leopold’s 7 year old son Ludwig Salvator. From then on Sforza accompagnied Ludwig on official and private functions until his death in 1894: first as teacher and later as equerry, but always as inseperable and paternal (Mader 2002, 27). The identification of the beetle, done by Dr. Schnmann of the Natural History Museum in Wien was an affermation and surprise in the same time! The little about 7mm long, light brown shiny animal with “a long and narrow prothorax, long appendags and a pseudoFig.1: Beitrag zur Coleopteren-Fauna. Ludwig Salvator.

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293Brigitta Mader: Archduke Ludwig Salvator and Leptodirus Hohenwarti from Postojnska jamaFig.2: Eugenio Sforza (privat collection). Fig.3: the Montignoso preparation (photo: B. Mader). Fig.4: Illyrisches Blatt. Fig.5: Leptodirus 1854.

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)294physogstric abdomen,” as described in the Encyclopaedia Biospeleologica (Sket 1994, 829) is without any doubt an exampler of the classic Leptodirus hohenwarti Schmidt living in the cave systems of the Postojna area and which was the first troglobitic beetle known to science. Leptodirus had first been found in September 1831 on Kalvarija in the Postojna cave by Luka e, a cave light-keeper and the discoverer of the new parts of the Postojna cave in 1818. e gave the beetle to Count Franz von Hohenwart (1771-1844), a man of great merit in the scientific and cultural development of the province of Krain. Hohenwart in 1830 wrote the Wegweiser fr die Wanderer in den berhmten Adelsberger und Kronprinz Ferdinands-Grotte bey Adelsberg in Krain and in the same year saw his long cherished idea to found a Landesmuseum for Krain becoming a reality. This was formally opened in Ljubljana on 4 October 1831 on the name-day of Emperor Franz I., who acquired for the new museum the famous mineral collection of Baron Zois at request of his fomer “schoolfellow” Hohenwart (Allg. Deutsche Biographie, 1880, 700 ). Hohenwart had been a curious fact in this context educated at the court of the Grand Duke of Toscana in Firenze from 1782!5For a long time Hohenwart was considered the actual discoverer of this “rare product of nature”, as the Leptodirus was mentioned by Ferdinand J. Schmidt, who was the first to be occupied in systematic researches on cave fauna. And it was in fact Schmidt to whom Hohenwart gave the Fig.7: The guidebook Beschreibung der berhmten Adelsberger Grotte in Krain Mit einer Einleitung und einem Situationsplan der Grotte. Adelberg 1863 Ludwig Salvator got. Fig.6: Ludwig Salvator at the age when he visited the Postojna caves in 1863 (privat collection).

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295new found beetle for further determination. Ferdinand Josef Schmidt (1791-1878) made the first scientifical description of the new discovered cave-beetle in the “Illyrisches Blatt” (Fig.4) in 1832 and gave also a name to it. Because of its narrow neck and head and in honour of Hohenwart it got the scientific name Leptodirus Hochenwartii as well as the Slovene denomination Drobnovratnik and the German one Enghalskfer correspondent to “slender-neck” in English. The actual name is Leptodirus hohenwarti Schmidt The first and only specimen of the Leptodirus found in this occasion did not survive and, although Schmidt promised to pay 25 florins to the cave personal for each new found Leptodirus, all attempts to find some other representatives of the new species were unsuccessful (Schiner 1854, 257). Only 14 years later another Leptodirus was found by Kiesewetter and Schidte in the Postojna Cave at exactly the same place as the first one. But the Danish natural scientist J.C. Schidte did not know about Schmidt’s first description of the Leptodirus and therefore he did another one and also gave a new name Stagobius troglodytes to the cave beetle (Pretner 1968, 71, 77) From this time on the researches continued succesfully. Prince Richard zu Kevenhller was so lucky as even to find 20! (Schiner 1854, 257). In 1854 there was published a very good and exact drawing of the Leptodirus Hohenwarti Schmidt as one representantive of the “Insecten Fauna” (Taf.15) in Adolf Schmidl’s Die Grotte und Hhle von Adelsberg, Lueg, Planina und Laas, printed on the expence of the Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (Fig 5). At the end of the 19th century the Leptodirus then always cited as Leptoderus has already found in Otto Hamann’s E uropische Hhlenfauna published in Jena in 1896, as well as in Ludwig Ganglbauer’s Die Kfer Mitteleuropas issued in Vienna from 1892 to 1904, under the family “ Silphidae ” (Hamann 1896, 101; Ganglbauer 1899, 81). At the beginning of the 20th century the Leptodirus was also found in caves in the surroundings of Trieste, in Istria and in Dalmacia. Although the French entmologist R. Jeannel (1910) was, because of the slimmer form of those specimens, speaking about a newly dicovered species, Mllner (1906, 1926-27), Schatzmayer (1911) and Bachofen (1912) did not agree with his opinion, considering the recently found animals a local variety or subspecies of the Leptodirus hohenwarti Schmidt, called Leptoderus hohenwarti reticulatus. But those discussions do not concern the Leptodirus -preparation provenient from Eugenio Sforza’s house, which is without any doubt the “original” form of Leptodirus Hohenwarti Schmidt and endemic in the cave-systems of the Postojna region. And it is also the endemic fact that brings us straight ahead back to Ludwig Salvator. As the author recently demonstrated (Mader 2003), Ludwig Salvator visited the caves of Postojna on 20 August 1863. On this date we do not find his name in the visitors’ book of Postojna, but we do find Sforza’s signature, and we know also from a letter Sforza wrote to Grand Duke Leopold II. on the 8 of August 1863 in Venice, that a stop in Postojna was planned on the way back to Praha and Brandeis6, because of Ludwig’s expressed wish to visit the “interesting caves” (Fig.6). So it seems very probable that the 15 year old Ludwig got or bought in this occasion an exemplar of the Leptodirus as he probably also got the guidebook Beschreibung der berhmten Adelsberger Grotte in Krain Mit einer Einleitung und einem Situationsplan der Grotte. Adelberg 1863. (Fig.7) which is still existing in the conserved material of the Archduke’s library from theBrigitta Mader: Archduke Ludwig Salvator and Leptodirus Hohenwarti from Postojnska jama

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)296castle of Brandeis. Obviously the Leptodirus was at that time sold to tourists as souvenirs like artificial imitations are now sold. Because of the non-official character of the visit, the Leptodirus was certainly not a present to Ludwig as a member of the imperial family. Naturally we do not know if the Montignoso specimen is one Ludwig got or another one that Sforza might have acquired for himself or as a souvenir for somebody of his family. In any case the entomological department of the National Museum in Praha does not have a Leptodirus coming from Brandeis, where Ludwig most probably brought and kept his souvenir from Postojna, because he had no other residence at that time. But however, it seems useless to make further presumptions. In any way the “history” of the forgotten beetle in Sforza’s library in Toscana forgotten beetle has been cleared up and this tiny cave inhabitant has refound its identification. The Leptodirus of Montignoso represents an important link and testimony, not only for Ludwig Salvator research and the reconstruction of his natural history collections, but in the same time also for the history of speleolobiology, speleology and the caves of Postojna.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe author thanks very much M. Kranjc, Postojna and K. Mais, Wien (bibliographic indications); Dr. Schnmann, Wien (determination); J. Jelinek, Praha (collection-research); A. Colli, Trieste (digital material); C. Giunti, Montignoso (photografic material); T. R. Shaw, Bath Postojna (linguistic supervision) and last but not least to Mrs. Julia Sforza, Montignoso for her friendly availability ( Leptodirus -preparation).REFERENCESAljani, M., 1991: Kova (Faber ferrarius) iz Siske. Ob 200-letnici rojstva Ferdinanda Schmidta. in: Proteus 54 (1991-1992), p.58-64. Aljani, M., 1998: Postojnska Jama Zibelka speleobiologije. in: Postojnska Jama nova spoznanja. Postojna, p.9-12. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 1880: Bd. 12, Leipzig, p. 697-700 (Hohenwart, Franz Josef Hannibal). Bachofen, A., 1912: Untersuchungen ber den “Leptoderus Hohenwarti” Schmidt. in: Bolletino della Societ Adriatica di Science Naturali in Trieste, XXVI/II, p. 27-31. Ganglbauer, L., 1899: Die Kfer von Mitteleuropa. Die Kfer der sterreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie, Deutschlands, der Schweiz, sowie des franzsischen und italienischen Alpengebietes. III.Bd. Familienreihe Staphylinoidea II. Theil. Familienreihe Clavicorna. Wien, p.81 Hamann, O., 1896: Europische Hhlenfauna. Eine Darstellung der in den Hhlen Europas lebenden Tierwelt mit besonderer Bercksichtigung der Hhlenfauna Krains. Jena, p. 101. Hohenwart, F.v., 1830: Wegweiser fr die Wanderer in den berhmten Adelsberger und Kronprinz Ferdinands-Grotte bey Adelsberg in Krain. Als Erklrung der von Herrn Aloys Schaffenrath, k.k. Kreis-Ingenieur in Adelsberg, gezeichneten Ansichten dieser Grotte. Wien. Jeannel, R., 1910: Leptodirus grouvellei. in: Bulletin de la Socit Entomologique de France 2, p. 29.

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297Ludwig Salvator, 1869: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Coleopteren-Fauna der Balearen p. 3, Prag. Ludwig Salvator, 1869-1884: Die Balearen in Wort und Bild geschildert. 7 Bde. Leipzig Ludwig Salvator, 1895: Columbretes. Prag. Mader, B., 2002: “ Man wird sich nie in diesem groen Buche der Natur sattlesen...” Erzherzog Ludwig Salvator. Ein Leben fr die Wissenschaft 1847-1915. Catalogue to the exhibition in the Vienna State Archiv, December 2002-March 2003. Wien. Mader, B., 2003 a: L’arciduca austriaco Lodovico Salvatore ed il Club Touristi Triestini. in: Akten des 6. intern. Symposions fr Historische Spelologie und Karstforschung ALCADI 2002. Grz 2003. (in press). Mader, B., 2003 b: I “Toscani” degli Asburgo-Lorena e le scienze naturali. in: Akten des 6. intern.Symposions fr Historische Spelologie und Karstforschung ALCADI 2002. Grz 2003. (in press). Mller, G., 1906: Nuovi coleotteri cavernicoli del Litorale. in: Il Tourista XI/1-4. p. 12-15. Mller, G., 1926-27: Nuove osservazioni su alcuni coleotteri cavernicoli del Carso Triestino e Istriano. in: Bolletino della Societ Adriatica di Science Naturali in Trieste, XXIX. p.144148. Nekrolog Schaufuss, 1891: Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift XXXVI (1891) 1., p.213-217. Berlin 1892. sterreichisches Biographisches Lexikon, 1957: Bd.1, Graz-Kln, p.401 (Ganglbauer) sterreichisches Biographisches Lexikon, 1994: Bd.10, Wien, p.254f. (Schmidt Ferdinand Jozef) Pretner, E., 1968: Živalstvo Postojnske jame. in: 150 let Postojnske jame 18181968. Postojna. p.59-78. (72) Reitter, E., 1886: Beitrag zur Systematik der Grotten-Silphiden.in: Wiener entomologische Zeitung 5, p. 313f. Schaufuss, L.W., 1866: Monographie der Scydmaeniden Centralund Sdamerika’s. Dresden. Schatzmayr, A., 1911: Una nuova forma del Leptoderus Hohenwarti. in: Bolletino della Societ Adriatica di Science Naturali in Trieste, XXV/III. p.63-65. Schiner, J.R., 1854: Fauna der Adelsberger-, Luegerund Magdalenen-Grotte. in: Schmidl, A., 1854: Die Grotten und Hhlen von Adelsberg, Lueg, Planina und Laas. Wien, p.231-272 and Tafelteil 15, Insecten-Fauna. Schidte, J.C., 1848: Undersgelser over den underjordiske Faun i Hulerne i Krain og Istrien. Overs. ov. Danske Vidensk. Selskabs Forh., Kjobenhavn, p.57-81. Schmidl, A., 1854: Die Grotte und Hhle von Adelsberg, Lueg, Planina und Laas. Wien, p.9f. Sket, B., 1994: “Yugoslavia” (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia) in: Encyclopaedia Biospeleologica (diteurs Juberthie Ch., Decu V.), Tome I, Bucarest, p.825-834. Vornatscher, J., 1979: sterreichs lebende Hhlenwelt in der Forschung. in: Hhlenforschung in sterreich. Verffentlichungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum Wien. N.F. 17, p. 64, (Abb.34). 1863: (no author cited) Beschreibung der berhmten Adelsberger Grotte in Krain Mit einer Einleitung und einem Situationsplan der Grotte. Adelberg 1863.Brigitta Mader: Archduke Ludwig Salvator and Leptodirus Hohenwarti from Postojnska jama

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)298Notes2 The Museum Ludwig Salvator was first of all a natural history museum, but had also a department for art and a very good library. It was dedicated to scholars and young people to enable them to develope their knowlegde on practical material.3 Franz Stephan, Duke of Lorrain (1708-1765), husband of Maria Theresia and later roman-german emperor Franz I. (1745).4 The author is reconstructing Ludwig SalvatorÂ’s natural history and archeological collections.5 His uncle, Sigismund Anton G.Hohenwart was tutor of the later emperor Franz I.(II.), son of Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo at the court of Florence. (Allg. Deutsche Biographie, 1880, 698).6 The Arch Duke Leopold II. left with his family Florence and the Toscana in 1859 for political reasons and went to live in Boemia where he the family had propertys and Leopold acquired the castle of Brandeis.



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83OBSERVATIONS ON HISTORICAL TERMINOLOGY: GROTTE AND HHLE IN GERMAN TEXTS POGLED V ZGODOVINO TERMINOLOGIJE: GROTTE IN HHLE V NEMŠKIH BESEDILIHBRIGITTA MADER11Kriehubergasse 25/11 AT-1050 WIEN (Austria) Via Cordaroli, 26 I-34135 TRIESTE (Italia) Prejeto / received: 2. 10. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/2783-90LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)84Abstract UDC: 551.44:001.4 Brigitta Mader: Observations on historical terminology: Grotte and Hhle in German texts. The author treats the historical terminology for caves (Grotte, Hhle) used by German speaking authors and explorers in the Austro-Hungarian period with special emphasis on the etymology of the terms Grotte and Hhle, coming to the conclusion that those terms do not indicate a difference either from the speleological point of view or the linguistic one. The contemporary use of Grotte and Hhle in the Austro-Hungarian period is determined by linguistic conditions and influence of the Italian (bilingual or even trilingual situation) in the classical Karst region. Key words: karst terminology, Grotte, Hhle, Kras. Izvle ek UDC: 551.44:001.4 Brigitta Mader: Pogled v zgodovino terminologije: Grotte in Hhle v nemških besedilih Avtor govori o zgodovini terminologije za jame (Grotte, Hhle), ki so jo uporabljali nemško govore i pisci in raziskovalci v avstrogrskem asu, s posebnim poudarkom na etimologiji izrazov Grotte in Hhle Sklene, da ni razlike med njima, ne s speleološkega in ne z jezikoslovnega vidika. So asna raba obeh izrazov v omenjenem obdobju je bila odvisna od jezikovnih okoliš in in vpliva italijanš ine (dvojezi no ali celo trojezi no okolje) na klasi nem Krasu. Klju ne besede: kraška terminologija, Grotte, Hhle, Kras.

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85In 1912 we find an announcement for the caves of Postojna, mentioned in the German language as Adelsberger Grotte (Fig.1) Having a look at various German written traveller’s guides published in the 19th century, the word Grotte is very frequent and used not only for cave-names but also as German term indicating a cave. So we have: Riesengrotte bei Opcina Triest (Fig.2), Kleinhuslergrotte, Kronprinz Rudolf-Grotte, Grotte von Corgnale and also Tropfsteingrotte, Grottenfest, Grotteneingang, Grotten des Karsts, Grottenwelt etc. (Fig.3). But we also find Grotten und Hhlen von St. Canzian ( Tominzgrotte, Schmidlgrotte, Rekahhle ...) and in the description of the Adelsberger Grotte some of the parts of the cave system are denominated Hhle For example: Poikhhle together with Ferdinandsgrotte, Erzherzog Johann Grotte, Alte Grotte, Lwengreif-Grotte And we find also Hhlen von Luegg, Hhlenschlo von Luegg. So there is the question: does there exist any difference between Grotte and Hhle ? And if there is a difference, in what does it consist? Are there two different meanings, two different types of caves? There is obviously a question which was treated already in the 19th century, as we can see in the work of Adolf Schmidl, Wegweiser in die Adelberger Grotte und die benachbarten Hhlen des Karst nach neuen Untersuchungen in den Jahren 1850-1852. published in Vienna in 1853. Giving in the introduction a general explanation of the Karst and Karstphenomena, Schmidl tries also to define Grotte and Hhle on the basis of two different characteristics: water and stalactites. In his opinion Hhlen are long subterranean water channels. On the contrary Grotten are no longer occupied by running water. They are probably channels of former rivers, which have now a deeper course. In the Grotten we find only some pools of water. Hhlen usualy do not have stalactites and if only a few. Grotten do have a lot of stalactites (Schmidl1853). This is a definition which is not accepted at all by the modern speleologists. In the speleological dictionary published in 1965 in Vienna the denomination Grotte for a cave with particularly rich stalactite decorations is considered as “inadmissible”. Kyrle proposed to use the term Grotte only for artificial caves and considered the historical distinction of Hhle and Grotte as “senseless” (Trimmel 1965 following Kyrle 1923). The geological dictionary, published for the first time in 1957 in Stuttgart, gives a less strict interpretation for the term Grotte which might be a natural as well as an artificial cave Grotte is used sometimes as a synonym for Hhle and sometimes Grotte indicates also a vaulted cave without much depth. Hhle is defined by the geological dictionary as a “natural subterrenean stone-hollow filled in part or entirely with gas, liquid or solid material” (Murawski 1983). Following this interpretation is the encyclopedic handbook to the prehistory of Europe ( Enzyklopdisches Handbuch zur Urund Frhgeschichte Europas ) citing only the catchword Hhle. In this handbook special attention is paid to the karst caves. The formation of sinterforms or stalactites is mentioned as one of the “autoctone components” of Karst-caves (Filip 1966). Kyrle’s definition of Grotte specially in the modern German, as designation for an artificial cave is mainly based on the fact that artificial cave constructions usualy built and used as a romantic element in Mannerism garden architecture are very often decorated with stalactites (Trimmel 1965).Brigitta Mader: Observations on historical terminology: Grotte and Hhle in German texts.

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)86 In Hbner and Zinken’s Curienses und Reales Natur-Kunst-Berg-Gewerck und Handlungslexikon published in Leipzig in 1762, we find a similar definition of Grotte as a subterranean construction and imitation of natural caves in pleasure gardens to obtain an area with cool air (Waldner 1940/41). For this reason Grotte became also a term indicating an artificial rock cave, which in most cases has also a fountain (Wrterbuch Architektur 1996). Concerning the contrast between natural formation and artificial construction, the German dictionary gives less strict definitions for Grotte and Hhle : Grotte is a rock cave of little depth, but might be also an artificial construction in garden architecture. Hhle is a natural hollow in stone or in a tree with a relative small access (Wahrig 1985). The Allgemeine Realencyclopdie oder Conversationslexikon fr alle Stnde published in Regensburg (1869) mentions Grotte as a natural as well as an artificial cave and indicates the mythological signification of Grotte as „ symbol of the world and of the secret action of nature and their deities“, for example: Pascht, Mithras, Kalypso, Eileithya-Artemis and the Nymphs, who all found adoration in caves in ancient times. Nympheums caves specially dedicated to the Nymphs were in the period of Mannerism rebuilt as elements of garden architecture. So, for getting a clearer idea about the signification of Hhle and Grotte it seems necessary to have a look to the etymology of those words. Hhle is an abstract from the adjectiv “hohl” (hollow) to the Oldand -Middle high German “hol” in the meaning of “hollow, cave, concav, hole, aperture” coming from the Germanic *hula (Kluge 1989). Grotte significates “rock cave” and was taken in the 15th century from the Italian into the German language (Kluge 1989). The etymology of the Fig. 1: Historical poster “Adelsberger-Grotte”.

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87 Fig. 2: Historical poster “Riesengrotte bei Trieste”.Brigitta Mader: Observations on historical terminology: Grotte and Hhle in German texts. Italian “grotta” goes back to the late latin “crupta, crypta”, a Grecism from architecture-terminology, which indicated “every covered and subterranaen locality”. This context has been conserved in the meaning of “grotta” as subterranean room used as pantry or larder of an inn, but the main signification linguistically evidenced already at the beginning of the 14th century is “a natural cave usualy in limestone rock formed by water” (Cortelazzo, Zolli 1884). In modern Italian “Grotta” is still in use. In some alpine idioms “grotta” indicates not only Hhle ( cave) but also a rocky area and also “Karrenfelder” (Hubschmid 1951).Interesting also is the form “grotto” used in Tuscany, because we find the same word also in historical descriptions of caves in the English language (Shaw 2000). In modern German Hhle is the corresponding term for the Italian “grotta”. Grotte is nowadays no more used for caves. But having a look at historical German texts we note that the term Grotte is the more frequent the further back we go. Valvasor for example regularly uses Grotte and not only for the “berhmte Grotte von Adelsberg” but also for other caves, mentioning for example the “ Grotten in the 5th part of Carniola in the Uka mountain system in Istria” (1689). Besides of Grotte Valvasor also uses the terms Hle and Speluncke Spelunca we find even earlier in Italian texts (M.Nicolo di Gozze in 1585; Malez 1984). In Italian “spelonca” indicates “a big wide, huge and profound cave” (Cortelazzo 1988); in German it is used in figurative sense of “zwielichtige Gaststtte” “obscure inn” (Kluge 1989). But Valvasor used “Speluncke” not in the German meaning but as synonym for Hhle ; he also uses Grotte as a synonym for Hhle So, the terminological question about the meaning of Hhle and Grotte does not seem anymore a speleological problem, but

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)88rather a linguistic one. A conclusion which is determined first by the etymology of the Italian word “grotta” as “a natural cave usualy in limestone formed by water” and second by the fact, that all linguistic forms and cave-names made with Grotte in the German language chiefly concern the classical and Dalmatian Karst regions, which are very influenced by the Italian language. Beyond it are those areas which just in the period of the beginning of intense cave explorations were under the Austro-Hungarian dominion. Specially the Austrian German language has for historical-political reasons a very rich vocabulary with romance origins. The linguistic interpretation of Grotte:Hhle as synonyms finds also support in the works of Karl L. Moser, who is apart from cave names formed with Grotte consequently using only Hhle, allthough he is mainly treating Karst caves in the sourroundings of Trieste (Moser 1899). Moser came from Teschen in the Austrian part of Slesia, studied in Vienna and did not grow up in a bior even trilingual situation as occurs in the Austrian littoral or in Dalmatia. The synonym hypothesis is also confirmed by two bilingual persons : Carlo Marchesetti, botanist, prehistorian and director of the Trieste Natural history Museum, and Ludwig Salvator, Austrian Archduke and natural scientist with much cave experience, but mostly known for having invited Edouard Alfred Martel to explore the caves of Mallorca (Mader 1994). Marchesetti uses Hhle when writing in German and grotta when writing in Italian. Ludwig Salvator also uses grotta in Italian, but in his German descriptions of caves he uses Hhle and G rotte as synonyms, because he wanted to avoid for stylistic reasons repeating the same word several times (Mader 1994, 1998, 2001; Ludwig Salvator 1897, 1904). Fig. 3: Historical tourist-guide: Illustrirter Fhrer durch Triest und Umgebung. Hartleben’s Illustrirter Fhrer Nr.10, III.Auflage, Wien-Pest-Leipzig 1892, p.82-83.

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89Parallel to the continuing development of speleology and speleological archeology, also done in other regions and European countries, the term Hhle became more and more dominant in the German language and in German written scientific texts. So, for example, Moritz Hoernes uses only Hhle in his work Die Urgeschichte des Menschen (1896) and in the same way Gundacker Graf Count Wurmbrandt speaks only about Hhlen in his chapter about the prehistoric period in Istria in the sterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild. (1891) In conclusion we consider the contemporary use of Hhle and Grotte in German-written historical texsts as a linguistic phenomenon which is a result of specific conditions caused by the historical-political situation and linguistic influence of the Italian, but does not have any signification concerning type or form of caves.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe author thanks very much Karl Mais of the Vienna Natural history Museum for providing speleological bibliographic material and Trevor R. Shaw of the Karst Research Institute (Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts) in Postojna for the linguistic correction of the paper.REFERENCESBach, A., 1953: Deutsche Namenkunde II, Die deutschen Ortsnamen 1. p.256, Heidelberg Cortelazzo, M., Zolli, P., 1984: Dizionario etimologico della lingua Italiana. 2/D-H. p.524; 1988: 5/S-Z. p.124f. Bologna Doria, M., 1985: Note di speleonomastica Carsica. Studi linguistici e filologici per Carlo Alberto Mastrelli. p. 153, Pisa Filip, J., 1966: Enzyklopdisches Handbuch zur Urund Frhgeschichte Europas. Band I (AK). p.493, Stuttgart-Berlin-Kln-Mainz Hoernes, M., 1896: Die Urgeschichte des Menschen.Wien-Pest-Leipzig Hubschmid, J., 1951: Alpenwrter romanischen und vorromanischen Ursprungs. p.17, Bern Kluge, F., 1989: Etymologisches Wrterbuch der deutschen Sprache.p.280,313,683, BerlinNew York Kyrle, G., 1923: Grundri der theoretischen Spelologie. p.12, Wien Lexer, M., 1972: Matthias Lexers Mittelhochdeutsches Taschenwrterbuch. p.91, Stuttgart Ludwig Salvator, 1897: Die Balearen-Geschildert in Wort und Bild. 1-2.Wrzburg-Leipzig; 1898: Alboran. Prag; 1904: Zante. Specieller Theil. Prag.(here are only a few selected works citated) Mader, B., 1994: E. A. Martel in Briefen an Carlo Marchesetti und Erzherzog Ludwig Salvator. Acta Carsologica 23. p. 178 190, Postojna Mader, B., 1998: “Mi creda sempre suo aff. A. Luigi Salvatore ecc.” LArciduca Lodovico Salvatore e la sua presenza a Trieste, quale risulta dalla sua corrispondenza con Carlo de Marchesetti. Annales Annals for Istran and Mediterranean Studies, series historia et sociologia. 14. p.141-164, Koper Mader, B., 2001: Karst and Caves in the works of the Austrian Archduke and natural scientist Ludwig Salvator. I. The Region of Quarnero (Kvarner). Acta Carsologica 30/1.p.156179, PostojnaBrigitta Mader: Observations on historical terminology: Grotte and Hhle in German texts.

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)90Malez, M., 1984: Povijest speleoloških istraivanja u Hrvatskoj in: Deveti Jugoslavenski Speleološki Kongres 1984. Zbornik predavanja. p.73-102, Zagreb Moser, K.L., 1899: Der Karst und seine Hhlen.Triest Murawski, H., 1983: Geologisches Wrterbuch. p.89, 95, Stuttgart (dtv) Realencyklopdie, Allgemeine, oder Conversationslexikon fr alle Stnde. 1869: 7.Bd. Regensburg (catchword: Grotte) Schmidl, A., 1853: Wegweiser in die Adelberger Grotte und die benachbarten Hhlen des Karst nach neuen Untersuchungen in den Jahren 1850-1852. p.XII, Wien Shaw, T.R., 2000: Foreign Travellers in the Slovene Karst 1537-1900. Ljubljana Trimmel, H., 1965: Spelologisches Fachwrterbuch. p.30,Wien Valvasor, J.W., 1689: Die Ehre des Herzogthums Krain. I-IV. Laibach-Nrnberg Wahrig, G., 1985: dtv Wrterbuch der deutschen Sprache. p.367, 419, Mnchen Waldner, F., 1940/41: Die Hhlennamen in den deutschen Alpen. Mitteilungen der Hhlenund Karstforschung. p.136, Berlin Wrterbuch der Architektur, Kleines., 1996, p.57, Stuttgart (Reclam) Wurmbrandt, G., 1891: Zur Vorgeschichte Istriens: Die prhistorische Zeit. in: Die sterreichischungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild. p.125-128, Wien



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147CRYPTOKARST: A CASE-STUDY OF THE QUATERNARY LANDFORMS OF SOUTHERN APULIA (SOUTHERN ITALY) CRYPTOKARST (SKRITI KRAS): PRIMER KVARTARNIH OBLIK V JUNI APULIJI (JUNA ITALIJA)ANTONELLA MARSICO1, GIANLUCA SELLERI1 GIUSEPPE MASTRONUZZI2, PAOLO SANS3 & NICOLA WALSH21Dottorato in Geomorfologia e Dinamica Ambientale, Dipartimento di Geologia e Geofisica, Universit di Bari (Italy); antomarsi@geo.uniba.it; gianluca.selleri@tin.it2Dipartimento di Geologia e Geofisica, Universit di Bari (Italy); e-mail: g.mastrozz@geo.uniba.it; n.walsh@geo.uniba.it3Osservatorio di Chimica, Fisica e Geologia ambientali, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universit di Lecce (Italy); e-mail: paolo.sanso@unile.it Prejeto / received: 22. 9. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/212147-159LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)148Abstract UDC: 551.44(450) Antonella Marsico & Gianluca Selleri & Giuseppe Mastronuzzi & Paolo Sans & Nicola Walsh: Cryptokarst: a case-study of the Quaternary landforms of southern Apulia (southern Italy) Cryptokarst is a karst developed beneath a permeable and not karstifiable formation by percolating waters. The permeable rock acts as a storage of water which feeds slow seepage and infiltration enhancing the alteration of bedrock. The resulting forms consist of depressions, filled by the covering sediments, and pinnacles. The sinking of the permeable cover can produce depressions on the topographic surface. Erosion of the cover exposes a landscape characterised by pinnacles, ruinforms and dolines. In the Apulia region, cryptocorrosion surfaces are characterized by solution pipes 4-5 meters deep and with variable width (from a few centimeters to about one meter). Pipes walls are covered by a brownish carbonate crust, from a centimeter to more than 10 centimeters thick. The continental sands are only found in these depressions. The cryptocorrosion process took place late in the Middle Pleistocene on Quaternary marine abrasion terraces covered by no-carbonate sandy-silty continental deposits. The process stopped before the Last Interglacial age in response of an abrupt climatic change that induces a calcium carbonate precipitation and the formation of a carbonate crust. Key words : Apulia, cryptokarst, solution pipes. Izvleek UDK: 551.44(450) Antonella Marsico & Gianluca Selleri & Giuseppe Mastronuzzi & Paolo Sans & Nicola Walsh: Cryptokarst (skriti kras): primer kvar tarnih oblik v juni Apuliji (juna Italija) Skriti kras (cryptokarst) je kras, razvit pod prepustnim, vendar netopnim pokrovom. Nastane zaradi vode, ki prenika skozi krovne plasti. V krovnih plasteh se zbira voda, se poasi preceja skoznje in razjeda matino kamnino. Zaradi tega nastanejo depresije, zapolnjene s pokrovnim sedimentom, in kraki stebri. Zaradi posedanja prepustnega pokrova, nastanejo na povrju ulegnine. e erozija odtsrani krovnino, se razgali relief, za katerega so znailni kraki stebri, razvalinasti relief in vrtae. Kljune besede: Apulija, skriti kras, "solution pipes".

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149INTRODUCTIONIn this paper, the first results about Quaternary cryptocorrosion forms occurring in the Apulia region (southern Italy) are reported. In particular, the research focus on forms developed on PlioPleistocene porous soft-rocks. Formerly, Nicod (1976) and Fabre & Nicod (1986) indicated some cryptocorrosion surfaces developed on the Mesozoic limestone in this region. Along the Adriatic coastal area and in the central part of Salento, some grike-like forms (Jennings, 1987) and solution pipes (Jennings, 1987), both filled with reddish sands and silts, are formed on these rocks. Apulian pipes have been described by several authors (Maxia, 1950; Blanc & Cardini, 1961; Rudnicki, 1980; Parenzan, 1983; Delle Rose & Parise, 2003). The pipes developed on Pliocene calcarenites at Roca have been interpreted as fossilized trunk casts by Blanc & Cardini (1961). According to Delle Rose & Parise (2003) these pipes formed by solution pans deepening or karst hole enlargement; the filling accumulated later. Similar pipes developed on the lower Pleistocene calcarenites along the Villanova coast have been interpreted as singenetic forms produced by the groundwater downflow to the sea (Rudnicki, 1980). Till now, the pipes have been neither interpreted as cryptocorrosion forms nor ascribed to a single morphogenetic phase. Research about the geological and geomorphological context of pipe areas, pipe filling and the cover under which cryptocorrosion surfaces developed, has been carried out.CRYPTOKARSTCryptokarst landforms develop by dissolution of the carbonate bedrock beneath a permeable and not karstifiable cover (Fig. 1). The permeable rock allows slow infiltration and it can hold perched groundwater which feeds seepage. The resulting forms consist of depressions, pipes, pinnacles, ruinforms, crypto-kluftkarren, rundkarren (Fabre & Nicod, 1982). Along their walls a layer is formed which is constituted by insoluble residues originated by carbonate bedrock dissolution (Bonte, 1963). During the cryptokarst evolution, the sinking of the permeable cover due to the dissolution of bedrock can produce a number of closed depressions on the topographical surface which can be partly filled by palustrine and alluvial sediments. Moreover, silico-alluminous mineralization can occur in the cryptokarst pockets (De Putter et al., 2002). In literature different importance is given to the presence of perched groundwater, to seepage chemical characters, to the role of the vegetation (i.e. Fabre & Nicod, 1986; Nicod, 1992; Walsh & Morawiecka-Zacharz, 2001). In particular, root exudates and root respiration help solutional deepening in small and medium-sized features like pipes (Jennings, 1987). On the other hand, according to Quinif (1998; 1999) this type of corrosion develops when water seepage is forced to infiltrate slowly along joints of the carbonate bedrock as a result of stress distribution. In this case, dissolution acts exclusively on the bedrock top surface since solutions rapidly saturate.APULIAN GEOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL SETTINGApulia is the emerged part of a plate stretched between the Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea, constituting the foreland of both Apenninic and Dinaric orogens (Fig.2). It comprises a Variscan basement covered by Permian terrigenous sediments overlaid by Upper Triassic evaporitic deposits. These deposits are covered by a 3-5 km thick Giurassic-Cretaceous carbonate sequence whichA. Marsico & G. Selleri & G. Mastronuzzi & P. Sans & N. Walsh: Cryptokarst: a case-study of the Quaternary...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)150widely outcrops on the Gargano promontory, on the Murge plateau and on the Serre Salentine. The carbonate rocks are overlaid by thin transgressive calcareous and marly-calcareous deposits of Tertiary and Lower Pleistocene age. During the Middle and Upper Pleistocene, terrigenous and carbonate marine terraced deposits ( Depositi Marini Terrazzati ) formed during several cycles produced by the superimposition of glacioeustatic sea level changes to the general uplift of the region (Ciaranfi et al., 1998). The Apulia landscape is characterized by marine and complex karst landforms. Karst formed over the Mesozoic, Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene carbonate rocks in response of several morphogenetic phases. These karst phases took place in different climatic and structural contexts and produced surfaces with different morphological features. Marine landforms are represented by a staircase of marine terraces produced along the coastal area during the Middle and Upper Pleistocene.APULIAN PIPESThe cryptokarstic landforms recognised in the Apulia region are sub-vertical cylinders filled by reddish silt and sands (Photo 1). Jennings (1987) called these cryptokarstic landforms solution pipes. Nevertheless, according to their morphology, these landforms are known in literature with different terms: karst funnels, karst sinks, karst chimneys, karst shafts, geological organs (Walsh & Morawiecka-Zacharz, 2001) or sand pipes. Similar features due to completely different karstic processes have been frequently found in calcareous aeolianites in many parts of the world (Gardner, 1983; McKee & Ward, 1983). The Apulian pipes have been observed only in the Plio-Pleistocene porous soft calcarenites where these have been covered by a silicoclastic deposit. However, solution pipes mark out only some specific areas of Salento peninsula, specifically along the southern Adriatic coast and in the inland area.GEOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CONTEXTSolution pipes developed in soft rocks with different litho-stratigraphical characteristics. In the area between Torre Pozzelle and Torre Specchiolla, at the foot of Murge plateau, and in the central part of the Salento, they are in the Calcarenite di Gravina Formation whereas along the northern Adriatic coast of Salento they are in the Sabbie di Uggiano la Chiesa Formation. The Calcarenite di Gravina Formation is constituted of whitish-yellowish litho-bioclastic stratified calcarenites of medium and coarse size. In the Salento peninsula these calcarenites are locally clino-stratified. The calcarenites are formed by whole shells or fragments of marine organisms, lithoclasts of Meso-Cenozoic limestones and biochemical carbonate sedimentation products (Iannone & Pieri, 1979). The calcarenites are composed mostly of carbonate (>95%) with an insoluble residue consisting mainly of clay minerals (kaolinite, illite, chlorite, smectite and halloysite) and negligible quartz, felspars, gibbsite, goethite (Andriani & Walsh, 2003). The laboratory tests assess that porosity ranges between 40% and 47% and the hydraulic conductivity ( K ) is about 6 x 10-57 x 10-5 m/s for the coarse calcarenite and it is 3 x 10-5 m/s for the medium calcarenite (Andriani & Walsh, 2003). The Sabbie di Uggiano la Chiesa Form ation is constituted of a sequence of calcareous marls and fine marly calcarenites. The upper part of the sequence is constituted of fine calcarenites with variable cementation degree. In situ tests assess that porosity and hydraulic conductivity (K ranges between

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151Fig. 1: Crypptokarst landforms result from the dissolution of the top of the limestone under a permeable cover; the deepening of the forms provokes the deformation of the sediments. In the cover, depressions can store palustrine and alluvial sediment. a: carbonate bedrock; b: insoluble residues of the carbonate bedrock dissolution; c: marine sands; d: continental sands; e: palustrine deposits. Fig. 2: Geographical position and schematic geological map of Puglia. a: Apenninic Units; b: Foredeep Units; c: Apulian Foreland Units; d: Plio-pleistocenic cover Units; e: limit of apenninic fault.A. Marsico & G. Selleri & G. Mastronuzzi & P. Sans & N. Walsh: Cryptokarst: a case-study of the Quaternary...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)152Fig. 3: Reconstruction of the morphogenetic phases sequence responsible for the development and fossilization of solution pipes. a: Plio-pleistocenic calcarenites; b: Last Interglacial calcarenites; c: sandy clayey silt; d: silty clayey sands; e: carbonate crust and carbonate nodules; f: gastropods; g: man-splinted flint.

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1536*10-4 and 8*10-6 m/s) of this unit are lower than Calcarenite di Gravina formation values so that it can storage perched groundwaters. Near Roca, recent geophysical surveys highlight that the rock body is characterized by a remarkable porosity, irregularly distributed (pers. comm. G. Leucci). The cryptocorrosion processes acted on Middle Pleistocene marine abrasion terraces which are covered by colluvial deposits. This cover (Photo 2) is preserved at Torre Santa Sabina beneath brownish bioclastic calcarenites, most likely referable to the Last Interglacial period (Mastronuzzi & Sans, 2002). The colluvial deposit is constituted of sandy clayey silt or silty clayey sands of reddish colour, up to 1.5 meter thick. In the coarse fraction, the silty and sandy portions are constituted almost exclusively of sub-spherical and well rounded quartz grains, showing the surface covered by thin layer of reddish oxides. The finer fraction is composed of subangular grains with smoothed edges and reddish or dark rounded oxides aggregates. The other silicates are accessories and these are concentrated in the finer fraction. Several pyroxenes with a well preserved crystal habit can be found. Among the opaque grains, ferromagnetic minerals are frequent. The carbonate fraction is almost exclusively constituted of fragments of continental gastropods shells scattered in the sediment or grouped in discontinuous and thin layers at different height in the succession. More frequently, lenses and thin layers of sands with well rounded pebbles (grain size 2 mm 15 mm) of cherts or, subordinately, limestones are present in the lower part. The sediment has an irregular cementation at the contact with the underlying calcarenites. The sediment probably originated by erosion, transportation and deposition of soils developed on terrigenous deposits of the older parts of the Depositi Marini Terrazzati cycle (Middle Pleistocene in age). This sandysilty deposit is mostly constituted by silico-clastic minerals like quartz, feldspar and heavy minerals; among these magnetite is present (De Marco, 1982). Probably the colluvial deposit formed not before the Middle Palaeolithic Age. In fact, a mansplinted flint has been found in the colluvial deposit and in this area the human frequentation is well documented since the Middle Palaeolithic Age (Coppola, 1983).SHAPE AND SIZE OF SOLUTION PIPESThe shapes of pipes are quite similar although the bedrock shows unhomogeneous textural and lithological characteristics. The pipes are nearly cylindrical and concave-bottomed; some of them are coalescent (Photo 3, Photo 4). The cross section changes from circular to slightly elliptical and the diameter from a few centimeters to around 1.5 m, decreasing in depth. In some pipes the diameter increases at the bedding planes. The maximum depth is about 4 m, but some forms are a few decimetres deep in which the fill has been completely removed. No morphological relationship exists between the mean diameter on the surface and the depth of pipes observed. Pipe distribution is not homogeneous: they are grouped in many forms of any sizes, separated by large areas where the pipes are almost absent. In the test site, pipe distribution and geometry are not affected by frequency, geometry and position of the joints.PIPE FILLSPipes are filled of sandy silty clay or clayey sandy silt. The silty and sandy fractions are constituted almost exclusively by spherical and well rounded grains of quartz. In the finest portionA. Marsico & G. Selleri & G. Mastronuzzi & P. Sans & N. Walsh: Cryptokarst: a case-study of the Quaternary...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)154quartz grains with smoothed edges are present. The carbonate fraction is nearly absent. Pyroxenes, often showing a well preserved crystal habit, can be recognized at Torre Santa Sabina and at Torre Specchiolla localities. Grains of ferromagnetic minerals are frequent among the opaque minerals. Manganese oxide patinas have been found in the Roca pipes filling. The clay rate increases toward the pipe bottom. The pipe filling shows the same textural and mineralogical characteristics of the colluvium fossilized beneath the Last Integlacial calcarenites at Torre Santa Sabina. Pipe surface is covered by a brownish carbonate crust, from a centimetres to more than 10 centimetres thick (Photo 3, Photo 4). The crust is made up of whitish-reddish, micritic and sparitic laminae with variable clayey minerals contents (Delle Rose & Parise, 2003). Brownish carbonate nodules of different size are frequently present inside pipes, near the walls and at the bottom. This crust also covers the Plio-Pleistocene calcarenitic bedrock; it is discontinuous because it has been partially eroded, but it can be observed filling joints and bedding planes near the bedrock surface. In Tab.1 the 14C age of a crust sample taken at Torre Santa Sabina is shown. It confirms a very old age, too old to be dated by 14C analyses. SampleMaterial13Cpdb ( )18O ( )Uncalibrated Age(years BP) TSS25 Carbonate crust-10.82-4.8132633 +/1570 Table 1 Radiocarbon age determination performed on Torre Santa Sabina carbonate crust. At Torre Santa Sabina, root traces have been recognized inside the carbonate crust which covers pipes (Photo 5). They are vertical, tubular and twisted calcitic concretions, 2-5 mm thick and with convex endings. The tubes are made up by cryptocrystalline calcite and they have concentric structure in cross section. These data allow us to suppose that the calcium carbonate has not gradually replaced the vegetable structures but that it precipitated in the void originated by roots degradation.THE ORIGIN OF THE PIPESThe lithostratigraphical, morphological, palaeoethnological and geochronological data collected at Torre Santa Sabina allow the morphogenetic phases sequence responsible for the development and fossilization of solution pipes to be reconstructed (Fig. 3). The Torre Santa Sabina model could be extended to other sites of Apulian Adriatic coast even if some differences occur in function of the local characteristics. This sequence developed since the Middle Pleistocene. During the Middle-Upper Pleistocene the superimposition of glacioeustatic sea level changes to the general uplift of the region produced along the Apulian coast the formation of staircase marine terraces. Marine terraces have been overlaid by colluvial sediments which result from the erosion of soil developed on higher surfaces. Pedogenesis was very intense since the colluvial sediment is almost exclusively made up by quartz grains and reddish oxides. The colluvium shows different textural characteristics and permeability as a result of variability, in time and in space, in sediment transportation and deposition processes. Based on the lithostratigraphical and palaeoethnological data we can suppose that colluvial cover accumulated during the final part of middle Pleistocene, probably linked to fast passage from biostasis to rhexistasis conditions (phase A and B).

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155Photo 1: A view of Torre Santa Sabina dissolution pipes partly covered by Holocenic continental sands. Photo 2: A viev of the cover fossilized by calcarenites probably in the Last Interglacial age at Torre Santa Sabina.A. Marsico & G. Selleri & G. Mastronuzzi & P. Sans & N. Walsh: Cryptokarst: a case-study of the Quaternary...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)156Photo 3: A view of a pipe with complex shape produced by coalescence (Roca). Photo 4: A view of Torre Specchiolla dissolution pipe; in particular the carbonate crust which mantles the pipes is visible.

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157 Photo 5: A root trace in the carbonate crust which mantles the Torre Santa Sabina pipes. The cover accumulated on an abrasion platform shaped on Plio-Pleistocene weak calcarenites crossed by different joint sets with irregular trends. The cover surface was colonized by plants. It promoted cryptocorrosion process and the development of solution pipes which cluster in the areas with greater cover permeability (phase C). The process of cryptocorrosion probably stopped in response of an abrupt climatic change that induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate; the formation of a carbonate crust took place at the contact between the cover and the bedrock. Many traces of roots, of the plants that colonized the colluvial cover, have been preserved in this way (phase D). During the last interglacial period the colluvium has been fossilized by the beach calcarenitic deposits (phase E). It has been exposed during the Holocene by sea action which partially eroded the cryptokarst surface.DISCUSSIONThe solution pipes shaped on the Plio-Pleistocene calcarenites recognized along the Adriatic coast of southern Apulia have been the subject of different genetic interpretations (Blanc & Cardini, 1961; Rudnicki, 1980; Delle Rose & Parise, 2003). However, the new data collated suggest a different model for pipes and related landscape evolution. The development of cryptosolution landforms during the Quaternary in Apulia region has been promoted by a number of climatic and tectonic factors. These landforms developed on the flat top surface of marine terraces. Some examples of erosion surfaces affected by cryposolution forms have reported (Quinif et alii,1997; Morawiecka & Walsh, 1997), even if the influence of pre-solution morphology has not been investigated. In the Apulia case study, the flatness and the horizontality of marine terraces top surfaces allow the accumulation of silico-clastic colluvial cover. The flatness of the colluvial cover surface and its small thickness promoted the infiltration of surficial waters through the cover and in the underlying bedrock. The colluvial cover shows about the same characteristics throughout the southern Apulia region since it is produced by the erosion, transportation and deposition of soils developed during a period of intense pedogenesis occurred in the Middle Pleistocene. The colluvial cover accumulated during the upper part of Middle Pleistocene (as indicated by the Middle Palaeolithic age flint found in the deposit at Torre Santa Sabina locality) most likely inA. Marsico & G. Selleri & G. Mastronuzzi & P. Sans & N. Walsh: Cryptokarst: a case-study of the Quaternary...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)158response to semi-arid climatic conditions. Cryptosolution forms developed subsequentely, during a new phase marked by humid climatic conditions. Root traces found in the carbonate crust which mantles pipes at Torre Santa Sabina indicated the presence of a vegetation cover during this phase. Vegetation can help pipes deepen by increasing water aggressivity through root activity which enhances the deepening of small size forms (Jennings, 1987). The distribution of pipes, which are grouped and separated by large areas where they are absent, is most likely influenced by the variability of the colluvium permeability. The areas of bedrock covered by a colluvium with low permeability area sheltered from water seepage and dissolution processes. On the other hand, cryptocorrosion is enhanced in the areas marked by a cover with high permeability. Cryptocorrosion processes stopped most likely in response to a climatic change which induced calcium carbonate precipitation and the development of the carbonate crust which has fossilized the cryptokarst surface. Cryptocorrosion processes have been effective only in the soft porous Plio-Pleistocene rocks, most likely because of their low permeability. Moreover, the infiltration of surficial water was impeded through joints since these do not affect the development of pipes. This could be due to the sealing of joints produced by calcium carbonate precipitation before the starting of cryptocorrosion processes. However, a low grade of permeability in the bedrock due to joints can be determined also by the tectonics which induce local compressive and distensive fields of stress. This condition influences directly groundwater circuit and the dissolution process of bedrock (Quinif, 1998). The absence of cryptokarst forms in other areas marked by soft Plio-Pleistocene rocks outcroppings and by no-carbonate colluvial covers could suggest a complex tectonic behaviour of southern Apulia during the Middle Pleistocene. Acknowledgement We would like to thank Prof. F. Macchia, for rhizoliths analysis, Prof. D. Coppola for palethnological study on a man flint shard, Prof. A. Gines for the bibliographic indications, Dott. G. Leucci for geophysical data. A very special thank to J. Nicod, for the critical review of the manuscript and his useful suggestions.REFERENCESAndriani, G.F. & Walsh, N. (2003): Fabric, porosity and water permeability of calcarenites from Apulia (SE Italy) used as building and ornamental stone Bull. Eng. Geol. Env., 62, 77-84. Blanc, A. C. & Cardini, L. (1961): Saggi nei pozzetti di erosione del tufo di Roca Vecchia (Lecce). Quaternaria, 5, 306-308. Ciaranfi, N., Pieri, P. & Ricchetti, G. 1992: Note alla carta geologica delle Murge e del Salento (Puglia centro-meridionale). Mem. Soc. Geol. It., 106, 449-460. Coppola, D. (1983): Le origini di Ostuni. Testimonianze archeologiche degli avvicendamenti culturali. Arti grafiche pugliesi, 336. De Marco, A. (1982): Ricerche mineralogiche sui depositi quaternari di San Vito dei Normanni e di Latiano (Brindisi): applicazioni cronostratigrafiche. Rend. Soc. It. Min. Petrol. 38 (2),

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159857-869. De Putter, Th. & Andr L.& Bernard A.& Dupuis Ch.& Gjedwab J. & Nicaise D. & Perruchot A. (2002): Trace elements (Th, U, Pb, REE) behaviour in a cryptokarstic halloysite and kaolinite deposit from Southern Belgium: importance of accessory mineral formation for radioactive pollutant trapping. Applied Geochemistry, 17, 1313-1328. Delle Rose M. & Parise, M. (2003): Pozzetti carsici e processi geomorfologici a Roca Vecchia. Grotte e Dintorni, 5, 35-48. Fabre, G. & Nicod, J. (1982): Modalit et rle de la corrosion crypto-karstique dans les karst mditerranen et tropicaux. Z. Geomorph. N. F., 26 (2), 209-224. Iannone, A. & Pieri, P. (1979): Considerazioni critiche sui Tufi Calcarei delle Murge Nuovi dati litostratigrafici e paleoambientali. Geogr. Fis. Dinam. Quat., 21, 33-58. Jennings, J.N. (1987): Karst Geomorphology. Basil Blackwell Ltd. Oxford, 293. Mastronuzzi, G. & Sans, P. (2002): The last interglacial deposits. Workshop on Late Quaternary sea level changes and coastal zone evolution, Ostuni (Br) 30-31/05/2002, Field Guide, 2123. Maxia, C. (1950): Particolari aspetti erosivi e concrezionari nel tufo calcareo quaternario di Roca Vecchia (Terra dOtranto). Contributi di Scienze Geologiche, La Ricerca Scientifica, CNR, Roma. Morawiecka, I. & Walsh, P. (1997): A study of solution pipes preserved in the Miocene limestones (Staszw, Poljska). Acta Carsologica, 26 (2), 337-350. Nicod, J. (1976): Corrosion du type crypto-karstique dans les karsts Mditerranens. Karst Processes and Relevant Landforms (ed. I. Gams), Department of Geography, Ljubjlana University, 71-80 Nicod, J. (1992): Le karst sous coverture (sableuse, argileuse et/ou dtritique) en France, daprs les travaux rcents. Quadernos de seccion. Historia, 20, 165-185. Parenzan, P. (1983): Puglia marittina. Congedo ed., Galatina, 1, 403. Quinif, Y. (1998): Dissipation dnergie et adaptabilit dans les systmes karstiques. Karstologia, 31, 1-11. Quinif, Y. (1999): Fantmisation, cryptoalteration et alteration sur roche nue: le triptyque de la karstification. Colloque europenne Karst 99, 159-164. Quinif Y. & Baele J. M.& Charlet J. M. & De Putter, T. & Dupuis C. & Rorive, A.& Vandycke S. (1987): A la recherche du karst perdu des craies du bassin de Mons (Belgique). Ann. Soc. Gol. du Nord, T.5 (2me srie), 361-371. Rudnicki, J. (1980): Karst in coastal areas development of karst processes in the zone of mixing of fresh and saline water (with special reference to Apulia, southern Italy). Stud. Geol. Polon., 65. Wyd. Geol. Wasszawa. Walsh, P., Morawiecka-Zacharz, I. (2001): A dissolution pipe paleokarst of mid-Pleistocene age preserved in Miocene limestones near Staszw, Poland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 174, 327-350.A. Marsico & G. Selleri & G. Mastronuzzi & P. Sans & N. Walsh: Cryptokarst: a case-study of the Quaternary...



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205 REVIEW OF TURKISH KARST WITH EMPHASIS ON TECTONIC AND PALEOGEOGRAPHIC CONTROLS PREGLED KRASA V TURIJI S POUDARKOM NA TEKTONIKI IN PALEOGEOGRAFIJIMEHMET EKMEKCI 11International Research & Application Center For Karst Water Resources, Hacettepe University, Beytepe 06532 Ankara Turkey Prejeto / received: 1. 8. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/217205-218LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.02

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)206Abstract UDC: 551.44:551.24(560) Mehmet Ekmekci: Review of Turkish karst with emphasis on tectonic and paleogeographic controls This paper re-evaluates the karst phenomenon in Turkey basing on the controlling factors such as, the source of energy gradient, lithostratigraphy, type of erosion base and climate. Two major karst types described are a) evolutionary karst which implies continuous karstification but at different stage of maturation and b)rejuvenated karst which is formed by reactivating a formerly developed and subsequently ceased karst structure either by an uplift and/or a drastic decline of erosion base. Description of karst types considering both morphology and hydrogeology revealed that distribution of specific karst types is compatible with the neotectonic evolution of Turkey. Karst in all provinces except the Black Sea and Western Anatolian regions, is developed under the effect of the energy gradient provided by uplift. Different rates of uplift created different sub-types of karst. The climate effect was evaluated as a secondary factor for it has a role of shaping/re-shaping the karst forms rather than controlling the physical and chemical processes. Key Words: karst, neotectonics, paleogeography, evolutionary karst, rejuvenated karst, Turkey. Izvleek UDK: 551.44:551.24(560) M. Ekmekci: Pregled krasa v Turiji s poudarkom na tektoniki in paleogeografiji Prispevek ocenjuje kraške pojave v Turiji na podlagi dejavnikov, kot so energija gradienta, litostratigrafija, vrsta erozijske osnove in podnebje. Opisani sta dve najpomembnejši vrsti krasa: a) razvojna vrsta krasa, ki vkljuuje neprekinjeno zakrasevanje v razlinih stopnjah razvoja in b) pomlajeni kras, ko se je zaradi tektonskega dviga in/ali monega spusta erozijske osnove ponovno sproilo zakrasevanje v sicer e razvitem krasu, kjer pa je bil ta proces prekinjen. Opis vrst krasa, ob upoštevanju tako morfologije kot hidrologije, odkriva, da se razporeditev posameznih vrst krasa ujema z neotektonskim razvojem turškega ozemlja. Razen v rnomorski provinci in v zahodni Anatoliji, se je kras v vseh provincah razvijal pod vplivom energije gradienta zaradi dviga. Razlini dvigi so vzrok razlinim podvrstam krasa. Vpliv podnebja je obravnavan kot drugotni dejavnik, saj je to pomembnejše za oblikovanje/preoblikovanje kraških oblik kot pa za same fizikalne in kemijske procese. Kljune besede: kras, neotektonika, paleogeografija, razvojni kras, pomlajeni kras, Turija.

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207INTRODUCTIONTurkey is located in the Middle-East and regarded as a natural bridge connecting Europe to Asia (Fig. 1), having one of her legs in Europe (Thrace) and the other in Asia (Anatolia), with a total surface area of 780532 km2. The eastern part of the country forms the high plateaus with an average altitude of about 2000 m. At the western part low plains dominate, while Central Anatolia forms the closed basin type plateau with an altitude of 1000 m. asl. with a very complex geological settings including all types of lithostratigraphical and structural elements. Fig. 1: Location of Turkey in Europe.Mehmet Ekmekci: Review of Turkish karst with emphasis on tectonic and paleogeographic controls

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)208This paper reviews the karst types in Turkey and to exhibit the compatibility between karst development and neotectonic and coeval paleogeographical evolution of the country. According to engr et. al. (1985), Turkey is located at “the western part of the tectonic escape system caused by post–collisional convergence of the Arabian Platform and Asia” and Early Miocene is taken as the starting point of the neotectonics in Turkey. According to the authors, the Serravallian period which is dated to about 12 Ma is the beginning of a drastic change in the tectonics of Turkey. Since then, “the tectonics of Turkey has been dominated by the westward escape of an Anatolian block (scholle) mainly along the North and East Anatolian strike–slip faults (NAF and EAF respectively as shown in Fig. 2). The authors explain the neotectonic evolution and the coeval paleogeographic development in five stages the first three of which correspond to Miocene while the last two Pliocene and Pleistocene-Present periods (Fig. 3).FACTORS CONTROLLING KARST IN TURKEYAmong of great variety of factors controlling the karst phenomenon tectonics, petrography, source of energy gradient and the type of the erosion base are the major ones. Although climate is among the controlling factors, in Turkey, the geodynamics seems to dominate the climatic effects and makes it less pronounced almost throughout the country. However, the available data on the climatic effects are certainly incomplete to draw a conclusion in this regard. Five factors were considered to control the major part karst processes: Fig. 2: Neotectonic Provinces of Turkey. Tips of Arrows Indicate the Direction of Movement. Their Size is Roughly Proportional to the Magnitude. (from engr et. al., 1985. with permission).

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209Fig. 3: Tectonic Evolution and Coeval Paleogeographic Development of Turkey (adapted from engr et.al., 1985. With permission).Mehmet Ekmekci: Review of Turkish karst with emphasis on tectonic and paleogeographic controls

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)210Lithology: Petrography, diagenesis and thickness are parameters considered in defining the lithology as a factor controlling karstification. Petrography implies here the origin of the rock weather detritic with impurities, organic or chemical. Thickness is an important parameter that controls the karst process. However, thickness also reveals hints as to karst evolution when evaluated with other controlling parameters. Tectonics: The tectonic effect was considered on the basis of the tectonic provinces defined by engr et. all. (1985). Uplift–submergence and contraction–extension are the parameters used in assessing the tectonic effect on karst. Source of Energy Gradient : This factor includes implicitly the tectonic and the climatic effects. However, the karst types and their distribution in Turkey require a closer look to the source of energy gradient. Uplift, eustatic sea level changes, interior lake level fluctuations and river incision were considered to cause energy gradient that initiates and enhances karst development. Erosion Base: Type of erosion base as a controlling factor may be the sea level, interior lake level, major river beds or an underlying impervious unit.OUTLINES OF TURKISH KARSTWhen all factors that control karst processes are considered together, two major types of karst can be defined in Turkey: a) Evolutionary karst which implies continuous karstification but at different stage of maturation, and b) Rejuvenated karst formed by reactivating a formerly developed and subsequently ceased karst structures either by an uplift and/or a drastic decline of erosion base. The major part of karst areas in Turkey are represented by evolutionary karst but with a great variety of sub-types depending on which controlling factor dominates the process. However, the author prefers to describe different karst types encountered in the country instead of defining subtypes, for the sake of simplicity and unambiguous explanation. Evolutionary karst includes all types of karst from juvenile to relict and indicates that karstification processes have been effective without interruption, since the exposure of carbonate rocks to atmospheric conditions. Temporal variation in the intensity of karstification however is controlled by the rate of changes primarily in the energy gradient, climatic conditions and erosion base. Rejuvenated karst features are common in certain parts of Turkey. This type of karst is distinguished where younger karst features are developed within older but interrupted karst (paleokarst). Interruption in karstification is due to inundation by mainly fresh water. Although inundation is closely related to the climatic changes, tectonic evolution and the coeval paleogeographic development controlled the areas inundated by fresh waters. Description of karst according to the controlling factors is outlined below. The karst map produced based on this scheme is given in Fig. 4. Karst in Western Taurides (WTP) In the region that extends between the Aegean sea in the west and the Aksu thrust in the east, called as the Western Taurids, the karstifiable rocks are composed of mainly dense, massive recrystallized limestone of Mesozoic age. Although the major part is covered by the authocthonous carbonates, allocthonous blocks of

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211Fig 4: Provinces of Different Karst Types in Turkey (see text for explanation).Mehmet Ekmekci: Review of Turkish karst with emphasis on tectonic and paleogeographic controls

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)212limestone within different nappes cover significant areas in the region. The size of the allocthonous carbonate rock masses ranges from some hundred meters to more than several kilometers, while the size of authocthonous units generally is over one kilometer. According to the paleogeographical evolution, the carbonate rocks became exposed to atmospheric conditions since Late Miocene. Development of karst in the western Taurides therefore, might have started in Late Miocene. The carbonate rocks were not inundated by marine or fresh water which reveal that karstification has not been interrupted since then (see Fig. 3). Today, the carbonate rock masses have reached an elevation of more than 3500 m. above the present sea level. Apparently, uplift has played the major role in providing a source of energy gradient that drove karstification processes until Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. The sea level was the regional erosion base for the authocthonous carbonate rocks, although impervious units that surround allochthonous limestone blocks mark the local erosion base. Owing to the rapid uplift, low content of impurities and large thickness, karst developed vertically to produce large scale features such as shafts, vertical to subvertical caves, sinkholes, ponors etc. However, the present appearance of karst in Western Taurides in general is somewhat different from the karst developed until Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. This is because the region tectonically became under the influence of the West Anatolian Extensional regime due to the westerly escape of the Anatolian Scholle since Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (Fig. 3.e). This tectonic movement is resulted in a regional subsidence in Western Anatolia. The continuing subsidence had some major geomorphological and hydrogeological consequences. Together with the sea-level fluctuations, submergence of the formerly well-developed karst in the coastal area is resulted in formation of coastal and submarine springs, large karst depressions (poljes, uvalas, dolines) inundated by brackish waters. The dominating well-developed subsurface drainage suggests that the karst in this region is at its mature stage and can be regarded as holokarst In the east of the transition zone (see Fig. 2), the uplift is still continuing and has not been interrupted neither by change in tectonic regime nor by submergence by extensive water masses since Late Miocene. Therefore, karst in this region is still under intensive development that produces huge scale subterranean features such as underground rivers connected to large scale poljes and karstic lakes. Climatic changes and the consequent sea-level fluctuations had secondary and/or local effects and the tectonic movements had the major role in karst development in the Western Taurides. Karst in Central Taurides (CTP) Unlike the Western Taurides, lithological units of Miocene age cover large areas in the Central Taurids. This is because the uplift level is not as high as it is in the Western and the Eastern Taurids which suggests that erosion had not been effective enough to remove the Miocene aged units. In addition to lithological diversity, the neo-tectonic evolution had different effects in different parts of the Central Taurids. As a consequence, two types of karst can be described within the Central Taurids on the basis of both origin and evolution. When the mapped karst types are evaluated together with the geodynamic evolution, it can be observed that the occurrence of different karst types is consistent with the tectonic setting. In order to perceive this consistency, the boundary of the Central Taurides is re-defined to include also the eastern area, and the thrust zone in the east (EAF) (see Fig. 2). The karst massive in the west section and the karst massive in the east section are mainly

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213composed of rocks older than Miocene. The central part is mainly covered by limestone of Miocene age and exhibit different types of karst. It is clear that the western and eastern sections where the Miocene units are eroded had been under the effect of the rapid uplift due to NE-SW contraction. Whereas extensional tectonics affected the central part. Therefore the uplift rate was slower in the central part. Karst in central part (CTP-C) is developed in the Miocene biocalcarenitic limestone with relatively high content of impurity. Although the uplift provided the major source for energy gradient, the sea level fluctuations enhanced karstification. Therefore, the effect of climate is pronounced in karst development in this part of the province. In the meantime, the sea level in the south and the inland pluvial lakes in the north controlled the erosion base in general. Karstification encroached also into the underlying carbonate rocks that have been karstified before Miocene period. The combined effect of the uplift and sea level drop during glacial periods induced this encroachment whereby the formerly developed (paleo) karstic channels hosted the post-Miocene flow to enhance karstification. The deepest cave explored in Turkey so far (Peynirlik sinkhole: 1370 m) is located in this province (http://www.bumak.boun.edu.tr). In addition coastal and submarine springs occurred subsequent to the rise of sea level during interglacial periods. Extensive features characterize karst in the Miocene limestones. Doline fields, uvalas and poljes are common whereas caves developed in this limestone are rather horizontal. However, when connected to the underlying karstic rocks, cavities may expand to form deep systems. On the contrary, the western and eastern section of the Central Taurides (CTP-B) are characterized by the lack of extensive Miocene lithologies. This is also because these sections were not completely invaded by marine waters. Some patches of Miocene aged lithologies are of terrestrial character in general and they overlie the formerly karstified rocks of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age. Although the effect of uplift may be regarded as the principal source of energy gradient for postMiocene karstification, there are several indications that karst developed during the paleo-tectonic (pre-Miocene) era in these sections. It is important to note that the major ores of paleokarst origin (boxite, lead) take place in the western and eastern sections of the Central Taurides (CTP-B). Morphologically, the karst in these section is very similar to that in the area between Aksu thrust and Krkkavak fault in the Western Taurides. The only crucial difference is the existence of mineral ores related to paleokarst. In the eastern section (Aladag), rejuvenation of paleokarst can be traced in areas covered by Miocene aged terrestrial karstifiable deposits. Morphology of the juvenile karst of the Miocene deposits is shaped to a large extent by the combined effect of the rejuvenation and glacial processes. Deeply incised river beds such as the Manavgat river in the west and the Seyhan and Ceyhan Rivers in the east form the erosion base. Incision most probably has taken place in Plio-Quaternary. The modern karst flow which must be hosted by some paleo karstic channels is directed to these river beds. Karst in Southeast Anatolia (Border Folds Province-BFP) The area that is geographically defined as the ‘Southeast Anatolia Region’ fits well with the tectonically defined ‘Border Folds Province’. Located at the border zone between the colliding plates (Arabian Platform moving toward the Anatolian Plate in the north), the tectonic contraction is pronounced in the province in the form of generally E-W extending folds and normal faults perpendicular to folding. From the tectonic evolution, it is evident that the province is under theMehmet Ekmekci: Review of Turkish karst with emphasis on tectonic and paleogeographic controls

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)214effect of a general uplift. However, the paleogeographical development indicates that the region was under marine influence until Late Miocene (see Fig. 3.c). The erosive phase has been effective since then to remove the younger units so that lithological units of Paleogene age are exposed to terrestrial conditions initiating karst processes. The carbonate rocks of Paleogene age are authocthonous, moderately thick-thick (up to 500 m.) chalky, cherty at upper levels and dolomitic at lower levels.The source of energy gradient for karstification is provided by both uplift and sea-level changes. Tectonically, the region is defined within the East Anatolian Contractional Province (engr et. al., 1985) which implies that it has been under compression. Compressive tectonic regime must have slowed down karstification except the areas that had experienced extensional compressional tectonics (e.g. Akcakale graben). Development of karst in Southeastern Anatolia was controlled by the major rivers (Euphrates and Tigris) incised as a consequence of the uplift. Impervious units underlying the carbonate rocks mark the erosion base where they are shallower. However, the riverbed of Euphrates and Tigris are the main erosion base for the area. Therefore major springs issue either in the river bed or along normal faults forming the grabens. Owing to the compressive tectonic regime and the lithological characteristics of the Paleogene aged carbonate rocks, karst has been developed laterally rather than vertically. That is, extensive karst features such as dolines and uvalas are more common than deep caves and ponors. Where the impervious units are shallow, the erosion base is remained above the major river beds and these karstic features are captured by the surface drainage. Therefore, it is common to see karst in final stage (without subsurface drainage) neighbouring juvenile, mature karst in this province. Karst in Eastern Anatolia (EACP) The geographical Eastern Anatolia region can be subdivided into two sub-regions of distinct karst types. When dissimilar karsts are illustrated on a map, the subdivision is consistent with the tectonic map. As depicted in Fig. 2, the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) intersect in East Anatolia making an angle whose apex is toward east. It is possible to postulate that the neotectonic regime prevailed in a different way for the inside and outside areas of the angle. The outside area extending from the apex to the Iranian border in the east is defined as the East Anatolian Contractional Province. On the other hand, the area inside the angle is characterized by a transition from contraction to a fairly steady regime that characterizes the Central Anatolian ‘Ova’ Province, (engr et. al., 1985). East Anatolian Contractional Province EACP: Since Miocene period Eastern Anatolia has been uplifted from contemporary sea level up to the present elevation of about 3000 m. under the strong effect of the collision of the Arab plate. A major contraction has caused the metamorphic basement and the overlying Mesozoic units to uplift in the region. However, because this compression was accompanied by intensive volcanism during Miocene, lithological units of the metamorphic massifs were covered to a large extent by volcanic rocks and/or volcano-sedimentary deposits. Where not covered, the metamorphic massifs containing large areas of marbles exhibit typical marble karst as the common type with smooth topography lacking lateral karst features such as extensive dolines, uvalas or poljes, but instead with sinkholes and caves developed along the contact between marble and impervious metamorphic units. Therefore, stripe karst is also common. The transition zone is re-defined in the sense of karst type as the Transition Province (EAP-

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215T). The rocks that exhibit karst in this province are mainly authocthonous carbonates of Mesozoic age. Large part of the province was invaded by marine waters in Early Miocene. The uplift has started in Middle Miocene and the whole province became a terrestrial environment since Late Miocene. The paleogeographic development that was closely related to tectonic evolution indicates that the energy gradient provided by uplift for physical and/or chemical erosion was not as high as it is in the East Anatolian Contractional Province. Volcanic activity was not as extensive as it was in the East Anatolian Contractional Province either. Therefore, the carbonate rocks of Mesozoic age has not been completely eroded or covered by younger deposits. The terrestrial conditions initiated karstification in Middle Miocene at areas at elevations moderately above the contemporary sea level. The uplift has been relatively slow particularly at the northern section of the Transition Province where the evaporitic deposits of Oligocene Early Miocene have not been completely eroded. Gypsum karst, is therefore extensive in the area (GKP). Unlike the contractional province, in the transition province the karstic rocks are the Mesozoic carbonate rocks. It is evident from the tectonic and coeval paleogeographic evolution of the region that at the initiation phase of karstification, the erosion base was the sea level until Late Miocene. During Late Miocene the region has been uplifted and converted into completely terrestrial conditions. In Pliocene, the area continued to rise which strongly enhanced karstification. Development of subsurface drainage must have been started in Late Miocene and expanded during Pliocene. Drainage was directed toward the Mediterranean Sea and to the large lakes of Central Anatolia until Quaternary when the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers entrenched their bed within deep valleys. In Pleistocene, the erosion base turned out to be these major rivers and subsequently the subsurface drainage was diverted to these river beds. Karst in Central Anatolian Province (CAP) Central Anatolia can be divided into two subregions of distinct karst types (see Fig. 4). The northern and southern parts of the region exhibit remarkably different characteristics of karst both in terms of morphology and hydrology. The southern part is characteristic with its extensive cover of Miocene units. The northern part on the contrary, is lacking extensive cover and the preMiocene lithologies occupy large areas in the region with some limited cover of Pliocene terrestrial sediments. The appearance of karst is controlled to a great extent, by these characteristics in the region. In Early Miocene, Central Anatolia was elevated above the contemporary sea level up to 2000 meters (see Fig. 3.a). This means that carbonate rocks of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age were effectively under karstification processes throughout the region. These conditions prevailed for the region until Late Miocene when a drastic change occurred between the northern and southern part of Central Anatolia. During Late Miocene, the southern part was flooded by tremendous amounts of fresh waters that formed the large Central Anatolian Pluvial Lakes. This flooding soaked the formerly developed karst. The effect of flooding gradually diminished northward. The most northern part, including the Sakarya River Basin, continued to expose to atmospheric conditions if not partly covered by terrestrial sediments. As an essential consequence, karst processes ceased in the southern part while the carbonate rocks in the northern part continued to karstify. In the northern part (CAP-E), the impervious units became shallower as the steady(?) uplift continued. By the end of Pliocene, karst in carbonate rock masses was well developed. Similarly, the carbonates within the metamorphic units were subjected to karst processes where exposed toMehmet Ekmekci: Review of Turkish karst with emphasis on tectonic and paleogeographic controls

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)216surface conditions. Due to the westerly escape of the Anatolian Scholle after intersection of the NAF and EAF, a transition zone between the Agean Graben system in the west and the tectonically weak Central Anatolian ‘Ova’ Regime in the east was developed. This tectonic regime sliced up the northern region during Pleistocene which was resulted in drastic changes of drainage. Another consequence linked to this tectonic regime was the dissection of large carbonate rocks that were formerly karstified into smaller pieces. The modern appearance of karst in the northern part of the Central Anatolian Province can be defined as ‘dissected-relict’ karst. The source for energy gradient since Pleistocene is the change of the Black Sea level. The northern region is drained mainly by the Sakarya River which is discharging into the Black sea. The impervious units underlying the carbonate rocks of Mesozoic age form the erosion base together with the Sakarya riverbed. On the other hand karst development in marbles within the metamorphic basement continue. Closer to the southern part, some of the formerly karstified carbonate rocks of Mesozoic age are covered by Pliocene sediments. As the uplift continue, these paleo-karstic features are revealed. All these features suggest that the karst is evolutionary in the northern part and karst of carbonate rocks of Mesozoic age is at its final stage. As for the southern part (CAP-R), the advancing collision of the Levantine Ocean from the south and southwest, the Taurides continued to uplift rapidly particularly since Late Miocene. Situated adjacent to the Taurides, the southern part of Central Anatolian Province is affected thoroughly by the rapid uplift since Pleistocene. The continuous upward movement also affected the paleokarstic features by rising them to re-gain energy and involve in the hydrologic cycle again after long period of cessation. In areas where the Pleistocene tectonics faulted and fractured the Neogene overburden, the energy gained by rising caused rejuvenation of the buried karst. Two different landscapes were derived as a consequence: Multiphase karst and the ‘Obruk’ karst. Multiphase karst implies that karst developed at different periods are distinguishable in the rock masses of Mesozoic age. Development of a younger doline within a paleo-polje or paleo-doline is an example for the multiphase karst encountered in the southern part of Central Anatolian Province. The Obruk karst is generally encountered on the the Neogene deposits that cover the paleokarstic openings. The ‘Obruks’a karstic feature similar to cenotesare developed by sudden collapse. They may or may not contain groundwater and they may be in various size and depth. Although the Neogene deposits are mainly composed of limestone, collapses also seem to take place within the silty-sandy sediments. Obruks that were developed directly within the Neogene limestones generally contain groundwater whereas, those developed within the silty-sandy sediments are dry. This suggests that paleokarstic rocks underlying the Neogene karst aquifer have an essential role in Obruk development. Although the collapse occurs in the Neogene limestone, it is governed by the rise of the paleokarstic rocks producing a suffosion-like effect. Based on all these observations, it is possible to conclude that there is a northward transition from ‘re-juvenated karst’ to ‘evolutionary karst’ in the Central Anatolian Province (CAP-R). Karst in the Northern Province (NTP) The Northern Province covers the east-west extending Black Sea coast belt bordered by NAF from the south (see Fig. 4). Paleogeographically this province has never been invaded by marine waters since Early Miocene (see Fig. 3). Similarly, limnic and/or fluvial sediments are also lacking except in the central part of the Thrace peninsula (NTP-T). However, because this province is weakly active, and the energy gradient was controlled mainly by the Black sea level changes, the

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217uplift is limited to the lesser east-west shortening which caused a much lower rate of erosion compared to other provinces. Accordingly, outcrops of carbonate rocks of Mesozoic age exist especially along the interior part of the province. Carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age crop out over a smaller area particularly in the western part of the province. Karst of this province is of similar character to the ‘classical karst’. Features such as dolines, poljes, caves, springs are common, but limited to the areal extension of the outcrops. Based on this paleogeographic evolution, evidently, no significant interruption of karst processes has been recorded in the province. However, karstification was controlled by the Black Sea level changes and therefore the effect of climatic changes is well pronounced in the province. The western end of the province is characterized by carbonate rocks of Paleogene age overlying the units of the metamorphic basement. Karst developed in the carbonate rocks of Eocene age is controlled by the shallow impervious metamorphic units. The present appearance of karst in Paleogene rocks exhibits a typical example for the final stage of karst as the subsurface drainage is converted into surface drainage. Morphologically, the extensive karst features such as dolines and poljes are captured by recent streams and rivers. Karst in the Aegean Region (WEP) The Aegean region occupies the western part of Anatolia (see Fig. 4). This part of Anatolia has been the highland until the westerly escape of the Anatolian scholle started in Pleistocene. Therefore, major part of the lithologies covering the metamorphic Menderes Massif that form the basement were completely eroded in the central part. Nevertheless, at the periphery of the massif, outcrops of carbonate rocks of Mesozoic age still exist. These rock masses, together with the marbles of the metamorphic massif build up the karst in this province. Based on the paleogeographic evolution, karstification must have been developed during the paleotectonic era but interrupted during Middle Miocene to Pliocene by sedimentary basins (see Fig. 3).CONCLUDING REMARKSThe review of Turkish karst outlined herein this paper is based on the inquiry on the principle underlying the distribution of different types of karst described by their morphologic and hydrologic characteristics. Mapping different types of karst revealed that the distribution was compatible with the tectonic map of the territory. Study of this map demonstrated that the processes that controlled karstification were closely related with the tectonic evolution and the coeval paleogeographic development of the country. Two major types of karst were described on the basis of this evolution: the evolutionary karst and the rejuvenated karst although evolutionary karst include several sub-types. Evolutionary karst implies that karst processes are continuous whereas the rejuvenated karst indicates an interruption in karstification. However, it was concluded that providing an insight on evolution of karst and the factors controlled karstification is much more useful than describing sub-types of karst. In this context, the territory is divided into seven main provinces to reconstruct the evolution of karst. Each province has its own tectonic and paleogeographic history and therefore, the development of karst has been specific to that province. The complexity in tectonic evolution is reflected in development of karst particularly in the Taurus mountain range. It is not possible to consider the karst in Taurus range under one single class. This is not because of the lithological variety but because of the differences in type and magnitude of tectonicMehmet Ekmekci: Review of Turkish karst with emphasis on tectonic and paleogeographic controls

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)218effects. Both evolutionary and rejuvenated karst types exist in the Taurus range. The western part of the Taurus range is under the effect of regional submergence. The formerly developed non-mantled karst, is being invaded by marine waters. As a consequence, the former vadose zone is becoming phreatic giving rise to occurrence of submarine karst features. Central Taurus region is more complex in terms of karst types. The eastern and western border sections of the Central Taurus region is characterized by rapid uplift, whereas the central part is under the effect of a slower uplift. Therefore, in central part of the region, juvenile, evolutionary karst is common while at the border sections are characterized by paleokarst and rejuvenated karst. Eastern Anatolia has been submerged by marine waters until Middle Miocene. The uplift of Eastern Anatolia caused the exposure of older lithologic units, some of which karstified. The continuous uplift also caused erosion of the units covering the metamorphic basement which also contain marbles. Therefore, apart from limestone karst, marble karst is also common in the Eastern Anatolian region. Westward escape of the Anatolian scholle following the intersection of the Northern Anatolian Fault and the Eastern Anatolian Fault, lessen the rate of uplift and therefore the rate of erosion. Southeastern Anatolia is the border folds province which has been under a compressional tectonic regime since Early Miocene. However, the uplift is slower and karst is developed in limestones of Paleogene age. Capture of karst depressions by the tributaries of Euphrates and Tigris rivers which incised their beds suggests that the erosion base in this region is controlled by the main drainage systems. The weakly active Central Anatolian province exhibits the best examples of rejuvenated karst. However, evolutionary karst also exists in areas that are not covered by Miocene deposits. In these areas karst has almost completed its evolution. The impervious units are very shallow, and the carbonate rock masses are dissected by the drainage network. This is the reason of having relict karst in the northern and northwestern part of the Central Anatolian Province. Similarly, the Balck Sea region is tectonically weakly active but the karst is evolutionary and controlled mainly by the Black Sea level changes. Finally, it is essential to note that this scheme requires refinement by more local studies on karst description and reconstruction of karst evolution. Studies towards this sort of substantiation should be planned under an overall project including dating cave deposits and other quantitative data collection on paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic records.REFERENCEErol, O., 1981, Neotectonic and Geomorphological Evolution of Turkey, Zeitschrift fr Geomorphologie, Neue Folge, Supplement Band 30. Eroskay S.O., And Gunay, G., 1979, Tecto-genetic Classification and Hydrogeological Properties of the Karst Regions in Turkey., Proc. Of. Int. Sem. On Karst Hydrogeology-Antalya Turkey Herak, M., 1977, Tecto-genetic Approach to the Classification of Karst Terrains. KRS Jugoslavie, 9/3, Yugoslavia Ketin I., 1966, Tectonic Units of Anatolia, MTA Publications No. 66, Ankara (in Turkish) zgl N., 1983, Stratigraphy and Tectonic Evolution of Central Taurides. In Proc. of Int. sym. on Geology of the Taurus Belt, (eds: Tekeli O. & Gncolu M.C.) 26-29 Sept. Ankara-Turkey. engr A.M.C., Grr, N. and arolu, F., 1985, Strike-Slip Faulting and Related Basin Formation in Zones of Tectonic Escape: Turkey as a Case Study, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Minberalogists Special Publication No. 37.



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235PROPAGATION OF A FLOODWAVE IN KARST DURING ARTIFICIALLY GENERATED RECESSION CASE STUDY OF BANJICA SPRING (BELA PALANKA, EASTERN SERBIA) POPLAVNI VAL NA KRASU OB UMETNO POVZROENI RECESIJI – PRIMER IZVIRA BANJICE (BELA PALANKA, VZHODNA SRBIJA)MILENA ZLOKOLICA-MANDI1,3 & JELENA ALI-LJUBOJEVI2,3Prejeto / received: 22. 8. 20031 Geozavod HIG, Karadjordjeva 48, 11000 Beograd, Serbia and Montenegro; e-mail: zis@beotel.yu2 Geographic Institute “Jovan Cviji”, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Djure Jakšia 9, 11000 Beograd, Serbia and Montenegro; e-mail: jcal@sezampro.yu3 Student Speleologic and Alpinistic Club (ASAK), Studentski trg 16, 11000 Beograd, Serbia and MontenegroACTA CARSOLOGICA32/219235-243LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)236Abstract UDC: 556.36(497.11) Milena Zlokolica-Mandi & Jelena ali-Ljubojevi: Propagation of a floodwave in karst during artificially generated recession case study of Banjica spring (Bela Palanka, Eastern Serbia ) During hydrogeological research in the area of the north-eastern foothills of Mt. Suva Planina in Eastern Serbia, a borehole of 100 m of depth was drilled in the vicinity of a lukewarm spring, Banjica. The borehole had an artesian discharge, which caused artificially generated recession in the adjoining spring Banjica. During this hydrodynamical test, great quantities of precipitation occured in the hinterland of the spring, having the effect of a floodwave. The presence of two types of karst is obvious in the field – confined karst and covered karst. The hydrogeological response to the floodwave during artificially generated recession proved the presence of deep-seated karst also. This can be detected by comparative analysis of the hydrograph of the Banjica spring and the graph of pressures in the borehole. In this way, not only the presence, but also the characteristics of the karst can be proved (e.g. dimensions and types of karst conduits, relative age of karst, size and extension of the aquifer, etc.). Key words: karst hydrogeology, hydrodynamical test, floodwave, artificial recession, types of karst, Eastern Serbia. Izvleek UDK: 556.36(497.11) MilenaZlokolica-Mandi & Jelena ali-Ljubojevi Poplavni val na krasu ob umetno povzroeni recesiji – primer izvira Banjice (Bela Palanka, Vzhodna Srbija) V sklopu hidrogeoloških raziskav severovzhodnega vznoja Suve planine v Vzhodni Srbiji, je bila v bliini toplega izvira napravljena 100 m globoka vrtina. Dotok v vrtino je bil arteški, kar je povzroilo umetno recesijo v izviru Banjici. Tekom tega hidrodinaminega poizkusa je bilo v zaledju izvira veliko padavin, ki so povzroile poplavni val. Na terenu je mogoe jasno razloiti dva tipa krasa: ujeti in pokriti kras. Hidrogeološka reakcija na omenjeni poplavni val med umetno povzroeno recesijo dokazuje tudi obstoj globokega krasa. To je bilo mogoe odkriti s pomojo primerjave hidrograma Banjice in krivulje pritiska v vrtini. Na ta nain ni potrjen le obstoj krasa, ampak tudi njegove znailnosti (npr. velikost in tipi kraških prevodnikov, relativna starost, velikost in obseg vodonosnika, itd.). Kljune besede: hidrogeologija krasa, hidrodinamini preizkus, poplavni val, umetna recesija, tipi krasa, Vzhodna Srbija.

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237LOCATION AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESEARCH AREAThe research area is situated in the south-western part of the Carpatho-Balkanides in Eastern Serbia. Relief and hydrogeological characteristics of the area result entirely from the geological composition and tectonic pattern. The most conspicuous element of the relief is Mt. Suva Planina (with the highest peak Trem, 1810 m a.s.l.), the central part of which is a karstified levelled surface at an average elevation of 1300-1500 m. That is a gentle anticline, with the core composed of clastic sediments of Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian (D, C, P). The next in that sequence are Mesozoic carbonates, with a small presence of clastites at the beginning of transgression. Dominant carbonates are thickto thin-bedded limestones, which were continually deposited from Malmian to Aptian (J3 3-K1 4). Presence of dolomites and marls is minimal. On the eastern rim of the anticline, there is the Koritnica basin, with clastic sediments of the Oligocene, and Cretaceous limestones in the base. The thickness of Oligocene sediments is directly dependent on the amount of tectonic movements along diagonal faults, and on erosion, but does not exceed 300 m. The eastern rim of this structural unit is a regional dislocation, which extends to the north across the Danube River to Romania, while to the south it extends to Bulgaria. To the east from the dislocation, there is a geostructural unit called Šljivoviki Vrh, in which Barremian-Aptian (K1 3-4) thickto thin-bedded limestones were deposited over Palaeozoic and Mesozoic clastites. According to the previous notions, the Banjica spring was attributed to this unit. At the northern contact, there are Miocene and Pliocene (M, Pl) marls, clays and sands (Fig.1).HYDROGEOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE AREAA clearly outlined hydrogeological function of base, lateral and covering aquicludes, as well as the situation of the collector of groundwater, direct the formation of a wide front of underground accumulation along the Oligocene sediments, with the function of covering aquiclude (confining formation; Fig.1). The groundwater accumulation formed in that way discharges through overflow karst springs Mokra and Divljana. Discharges of karst springs (0,1>Q<1 m3/s) are directly dependent on elevations of contact. The collector function of limestones (below the Oligocene sediments as a covering aquiclude) was unknown up to now and was proven during the research and interpretation of data for the spring Banjica. This reveals the possibility of taking additional quantities of groundwater – instead of former 5-7 l/s, quantities could increase up to 25 l/s.OUTFLOW FROM THE DRAINAGE AREAThe only surface stream of this area is the Koritnica River, formed by the Koritnica spring. Along its flow towards the Nišava River, the Koritnica receives tributary waters of the karst springs Divljana and Mokra (Mt. Suva Planina), while in the town Bela Palanka, it receives water of the karst spring Vrelo (area of Šljivoviki Vrh). It was proven by hydrogeological measurements that there is no diffuse emergence or sinking of waters in the river bed. Discharge measurements on the karst springs (Koritnica, Divljana, Mokra and Vrelo) showed the relation Qmin:Qmax 1:10, in extreme 1:30 during one hydrological cycle, while for the spring Banjica, this relation does not exceed 1:1,5. The discharge curves of the karst springs show relatively fast propagationM. Zlokolica-Mandi & J. ali-Ljubojevi: Propagation of a floodwave in karst during artificially generated...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)238Fig.1: Basin of Bela Palanka, with the surrounding terrain – schematic hydrogeological map and hydrogeological profile (according to ubrilovi 1969, 1992; modifications by Zlokolica-Mandi 2001).

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239Fig.2: Hydrograms of karst spring Mokra, and the Banjica spring .M. Zlokolica-Mandi & J. ali-Ljubojevi: Propagation of a floodwave in karst during artificially generated...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)240Fig.3: Relations between spring and borehole discharges, pressure in the borehole, and precipitation, during the hydrodynamical test.

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241Fig.4: Calculation of hydrogeological parameters for the Banjica spring. of precipitation waters (up to 15 days) and insignificant impact of precipitation on discharges in the vegetation period of a year, so that maximum 30% of precipitation drains through the karst springs (Fig.2). As opposed to the karst springs, the spring Banjica, in the natural outflow regime, minimal and maximal discharges were not recorded, but only a gradual increase or decrease of discharge, with minimal oscillations during the year. Fig.2 shows typical hydrograms of the karst spring Mokra and of the spring Banjica.COURSE AND RESULTS OF RESEARCHOn the locality of Banjica spring, at the distance of about 20 m from the natural spring, a 100 m deep borehole was made, which showed the presence of limestones starting from 23rd meter and further down. Three intervals of significant water input were registered in the limestone sequence, so the borehole gave in total 60 l/s of water, with artesian discharge, followed by the decline of capacity of the spring. After the borehole was closed, the pressure of about 0.5 bar was registered, as well as the initial capacity of the spring (about 5 l/s). During the hydrodynamical test, with the borehole capacity of 25 l/s (limited by a top valve), changes of spring discharge were registered, in accordance with the changes of pressure in the borehole (Fig. 3). The borehole was opened for 65 days, which caused the effect of recession at the spring. In the same period, on both the borehole and the spring, propagation of precipitation was registered (with the characteristics of a ‘floodwave’), and lasted 44 days, which is not a characteristic of this spring in natural conditions of outflow (Fig. 2). Synchronic reactions of the spring and the borehole undoubtedly prove that their waters originate from the same aquifer. Opening of the borehole led to lowering of the groundwater level, which enabled an additional feeding of the aquifer by precipitation waters. It was not possible to recognize this phenomena on the spring hydrogram in natural conditions. Factors which influence the durationM. Zlokolica-Mandi & J. ali-Ljubojevi: Propagation of a floodwave in karst during artificially generated...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)242Fig.5: Calculation of hydrogeological parameters for the borehole. of propagation of a floodwave are, besides the dimensions of the conduits (maximization) and their mutual connections, also the shape, size and distance of the drainage area, as well as the inclination of the impermeable basis, i.e. hydraulic gradient. The shapes of spring and borehole hydrograms (during the outflow) point to the aquifer of relatively homogeneous characteristics, and to smooth feeding. Discharge of the borehole point to the aquifer of much greater dimensions than it was previously thought. The hydrogram excludes the possibility that the drainage area belongs to the zone of Šljivoviki Vrh. On the contrary, it favours deep siphonal circulation beneath the covering aquiclude of Oligocene sediments.

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243By graphical/analytical processing of data (Fig. 4, Fig. 5), the parametres of settings were calculated: coefficient of discharge (a) and coefficient of transmissivity (T), which mutually correspond and point to the conduits of cm-dm dimensions (Zlokolica 1989). These dimensions of karst conduits were confirmed by the drilling as well. The slight difference in the obtained values of coefficients of discharge between Banjica spring (as=0,020) and the borehole (ab=0,013), with the great differences of discharges (Qs=5 l/s and Qb=25,6 l/s) point to the system of developed and connected conduits of homogeneous, although small dimensions, which host great quantities of groundwater.CONCLUSIONSDue to the specific situation within the hydrogeological structure, as well as to the quantities of waters that flow out through the borehole and the Banjica spring, and to calculated parametres of the setting and duration of the floodwave, it has been undoubtedly proven that: -the drainage area of the Banjica spring belongs to Mt.Suva Planina, and not to Šljivoviki Vrh; -there is circulation of groundwater below the covering aquiclude and below the level of local erosional basis (which altogether point to covered and deep-seated karst) Temperatures of waters are in favour of this – on springs Banjica and Mokra, the water temperature is 16-19C, while on the other springs it does not exceed 12C. Higher temperature is most probably caused by igneous intrusions which follow the regional dislocation in the Koritnica valley, although their existence was not confirmed in the vicinity of the springs. Specific hydrogeological settings of the Banjica spring – the existence of three aquicludes (base, lateral and covering) – have hidden its karstic characteristics, and have contributed to its non-karstic regime. However, artificial generation of recession revealed the karst characteristics, thanks to enforced emptying of the karst aquifer through the borehole. Although these hydrogeological settings are very favourable for horizontal and vertical development of karst, there is still no notion about any cave of traversable size in the whole area, apart from several small pits (not more than 100 m deep) at the high karst levelled surface on Mt.Suva Planina.REFERENCESubrilovi, P., 1969: Hidrogeološke odlike sliva June Morave.Fond strune dokumentacije, Geozavod, Beograd. ubrilovi, P., 1992: Godišnji izveštaj o hidrogeološkim istraivanjima u Beloj Palanci tokom 1991.Fond strune dokumentacije, Geozavod, Beograd. Zlokolica, M., 1989: Proticaji karstnih vrela i dimenzije karstnih kanala veliine koje se mogu porediti.Naš krš, 26/27, 83-88, Sarajevo. Zlokolica-Mandi, M., 2001: Elaborat o rezervama podzemnih voda Banjice kod Bele Palanke.Fond strune dokumentacije, Geozavod, Beograd.M. Zlokolica-Mandi & J. ali-Ljubojevi: Propagation of a floodwave in karst during artificially generated...



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91PRIMERJAVA FRANCOSKE IN SLOVENSKE KRAKE IN SPELEOLOKE TERMINOLOGIJE COMPARISON OF FRENCH AND SLOVENE KARSTIC AND SPELEOLOGICAL TERMINOLOGYBERTA MRAK1Prejeto / received: 10. 3. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/2891-103LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.041 D Rona dolina, Cesta 27. aprila 31, Blok 14, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenija

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)92Abstract UDC: 551.44:001.4 Berta Mrak: Comparison of French and Slovene Karstic and Speleological Terminology The article compares karstic terminology of the two world Karst forces Slovenia and France, whose scientists have been collaborating for a very long time. From the etymological point of view, the comparison shows that the two vocabularies exerted mutual influence on each other, which in turn brought about several errors when new terms were being adapted. The article also describes some differences in terminology and deviations in the typology of more specific terms, as well as points out great similarity between general terms. The comparison also deals with different lexical abundance of the two terminologies, and concludes with a presentation of some karstic phenomena unique in both countries. Key words: karstology, speleology, terminology, France, Slovenia. Izvleek UDK: 551.44:001.4 Berta Mrak: Primerjava francoske in slovenske krake in speleoloke terminologije Prispevek primerja krako terminologijo dveh krakih velesil Slovenije in Francije, katerih strokovnjaki e dolgo asa zgledno sodelujejo. Ob primerjanju krakih in speleolokih izrazov ene in druge terminologije se z etimolokega vidika pokaejo reciproni vplivi in nekatere zmote pri prevzemanju terminov, doloene razlike pri poimenovanju oziroma odstopanja pri delitvi bolj specifinih izrazov ter nekaj ve podobnosti pri tipologiji bolj splonih terminov. Primerjava govori tudi o razlikah v bogatosti besedi in se zakljui s nekaterimi svojevrstnimi krakimi pojavi v obeh dravah. Kljune besede: krasoslovje, speleologija, terminologija, Francija, Slovenija.

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93UVODTako za Slovenijo kot za Francijo lahko trdimo, da sta kraki velesili. Kraka pokrajina predstavlja v Franciji priblino tretjino ozemlja, v Sloveniji pa so se kraki pojavi izoblikovali na priblino polovici celotnega povrja. Krasoslovni vedi sta v obeh dravah zelo plodoviti, kraka terminologija bogato razvita, strokovnjaki obeh pa e dalj asa zgledno sodelujejo. Prva raziskovanja in odkrivanja krakih pojavov so bila na apnenasti planoti Kras med Trakim zalivom in Vipavsko dolino. Pokrajinsko ime je kmalu postalo mednarodni pojem za tovrstni tip pokrajine. Med raziskovalci, ki so se prvi sreali s krakimi pojavi pri nas, so bili tudi francoski strokovnjaki. Baltazar Hacquet, ki je med leti 1766 in 1787 ivel na Kranjskem, je v svoji knjigi Oryctographia Carniolica zapisal, da ne najdemo "krakih" pojavov samo na planoti Kras, ampak tudi drugje. Konec 19. stoletja so bili izrednega pomena obiski francoskega speleologa E.A.Martela, saj je frankofono javnost seznanil z naim Krasom in z njegovimi jamami. S svojimi raziskovanji je pripomogel, da je bila Postojnska jama priznana kot najdalja v Evropi in omogoil, da je svet zvedel za postojnsko jamarsko drutvo Anthron. Opozoril je na obsena e neraziskana obmoja dinarskega krasa (Kranjc, 1998). Danes so francosko-slovenske okrogle mize, seminarji in sreanja pogoste oblike sodelovanja, zato je smiselno spregovoriti tudi nekaj besed o terminologiji. Kraki in speleoloki izrazi ene in druge terminologije so bili primerjani z vidika etimolokih vplivov in s strani tipologij, tako specifinih kot bolj splonih krakih pojavov. Iskane so bile tudi razlike in podobnosti v bogatosti besedi in posebnosti rezervirane za obravnavani kraki in speleoloki terminologiji. Ob tem je potrebno spomniti, da se izrazoslovje konstantno spreminja, dopolnjuje in da ostaja pri nekaterih pojavih e veliko nereenih vpraanj, nedoreenih stvari in razhajanj v rabi.METODOLOGIJANa mednarodnem sreanju speleologov v Avstriji je bil leta 1971 sprejet predlog o izdaji slovarjev krake terminologije s im bolj natannimi definicijami krakih pojavov v dravah, kjer je krasoslovje najbolj razvito. Tako je v Sloveniji pod Gamsovim vodstvom izla Slovenska kraka terminologija, v Franciji pa Gzov Lxiques des termes franais de splologie physique et de karstologie. Pri delu sem se poleg zgoraj omenjenih terminolokih slovarjev oprla tudi na Fnlonov Vocabulaire franais des phnomnes karstiques, UNESCO-ov Glossary and multilingual equivalents of karst terms in Panoev noveji terminoloki slovar Karsologick a speleologick terminologie. Primerjavo sem dopolnila z raznimi slovenskimi in francoskimi prispevki, ki zadevajo problematiko terminologije, in terenskim delim.PREVZETI KRAKI IZRAZI IN NASTALE ZMOTEOb primerjanju krakih in speleolokih izrazov slovenske in francoske terminologije lahko z etimolokega vidika govorimo o recipronih vplivih in nekaterih nastalih zmotah pri prevzemanju terminov v domae izrazoslovje. Zaradi skromnega obsega etimolokih slovarjev in leksikonov je teko z gotovostjo doloiti izvor posameznih izrazov, e posebej ker gre za strokovne izraze, rezervirane za posamezno stroko, poleg tega so si nekateri viri medseboj neenotni. Potrebno je upotevati e naelo indirektne etimologije, kar pomeni, da je prenos doloenega izraza priel v rabo preko tretjega jezika, v naem primeru zaradi politine situacije v preteklosti verjetnoBerta Mrak: Primerjava francoske in slovenske krake in speleoloke terminologije

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)94najpogosteje preko nemine. Izbrani primeri priajo, da je bil velik del krakih izrazov obeh terminologij prevzet v domai besednjak kot tujka ali izposojenka prve so deloma, druge pa popolnoma prilagojene jeziku. Med prvimi izrazi slovenskega oziroma slovanskem izvora, ki jih je prevzel tudi francoski kraki pojmovnik, so zagotovo lokalni izrazi za prvi odkrite tovrstne krake pojave na obmoju med Trakim zalivom in V ipavsko dolino. Tak primer je termin jama s katero se oznauje podzemeljsko votlino in je po Panou srbskohrvakega in slovenskega izvora. Po Fnlonu naj bi bil termin le redko v rabi, saj za isti pojav raje uporabljajo francoske izraze kot so cavit caverne ali grotte Naslednji izraz slovenskega izvora je dolina oziroma doline v francoini in pomeni ljudski izraz za vrtao. Zanj lahko sklepamo da je bil slovenski termin sprejet v francosko literaturo prek nemkega jezika (doline), saj je bil za asa Habsburke monarhije, katerega del je bilo tudi slovensko ozemlje, uradni jezik nemina. Termin ponor je po Panou slovenskega oziroma srbskohrvakega porekla, francoska terminologija uporablja tudi izraz perte Razhajanja v pomenu bodo izpostavljena v nadaljevanju. Za kraki izraz kamenica Pano pravi, da je slovenskega izvora, Fnlon trdi, da je srbskohrvakega, v mednarodno rabo pa naj bi ga vpeljal Rogli. Slovenski krasoslovci za tovrstne skalne vdolbinice pogosteje uporabljajo izraz kavnica. Pri izrazu v francoini je prilo z namenom ohranitve lokalne izgovorjave do manjih rkovnih sprememb, in sicer se c pie z tz kamenitza Enako velja tudi za krake izraze kot so polje ki se v francoskem jeziku pie z akcentom polj pri teminih hum in uvala se pred rko u vrine rka o houm ouvala v nasprotnem primeru bi se obe besedi izgovorili z zveneim u-jem. Polje je po Panou slovenskega in srbohrvatskega izvora, hum in uvala pa srbohrvatskega. Termin hum, ki v kraki literaturi pomeni osamljen korozijsko-erozijsko-denudacijski osamelec vijega reliefa, zlasti na dnu krakega polja, je po Fnlonu v mednarodno literaturo vpeljal Cviji. Med prevzete izraze bi lahko pripisali tudi termin orgues gologiques oziroma geoloke orgle katerega naj bi ravno tako vpeljal Cviji in je grkega izvora (Fnlon,1968). Slovenska kraka terminologija sicer opozarja, da lahko zasledimo neenotna poimenovanja. Na koncu naj omenim e izraz kras ki se je v tuji literaturi zaradi takratne politine situacije uveljavil kot nemki izraz karst asovno gledano ga je Francija prevzela okrog leta 1892, deset let kasneje pa naj bi zaeli uporabljati tudi pridevniki izraz karstique oziroma kraki Tudi v slovenski kraki literaturi zasledimo krake termine, za katere bi lahko trdili, da so bili posredno ali neposredno sprejeti iz francoske terminologije. Za poimenovanje pol-jame je prela v rabo beseda abri ki je bila najverjetneje vpeljana iz francoskega izraza abri-sous-roche (zavetjepod-skalo). Povsem verjetno je, da je bil v rabo sprejet preko nemkega jezika, saj ga nemka terminologija ravno tako pozna in uporablja. Bolj dobrodoel bi bil domai izraz podvis, ki ga predlaga e Savnik. Naslednji termin je e znana estavela oziroma estavelle ki je postala tudi primer zmotne rabe. Ker je bilo takih primerov ve, bodo podrobneje predstavljeni v nadaljevanju. Termin cavernement (lat.caverna iz cavus votel) je prvi vpeljal Bernard Gze leta 1965, s katerim pojmuje dele, ki ga predstavljajo votline v krakem masivu. Slovenska kraka terminologija je Gzov termin prevzela kot tujko kavernoznost in ga istoveti z votlikavostjo medtem ko uteri in Knez v lanku Prispevek k slovenskemu speleolokemu pojmovniku govorita o kraki poroznosti. Gze izraza cavosit in porosit ne istoveti s cavernement Podobno bi lahko sklepali izraz eksentrine tvorbe pod katerim razumemo poevne kapnike, katerih oblika ni pogojena z gravitacijo. Francoski izraz za tovrstno obliko kapnika je excentrique Gre za besedo iz leta 1375, ki pomeni izsreden in izhaja iz srednjeveke latinine, v krasoslovni pojmovnik jo

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95Slika 1: Izvir Fontaine de Vaucluse. Slika 2: Izvir Estabel, (foto B.Mrak).Berta Mrak: Primerjava francoske in slovenske krake in speleoloke terminologije

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)96Slika 3: Primer kanjona reke Vis z meandrom v departmaju lHrault na jugu Francije(foto B.Mrak). Slika 4: Primer sigovih ponvic iz jame Grottes de Thouzons (foto B.Mrak).

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97je prvi vpeljal B.Gze leta 1957. Enako velja za sifon ali siphon v francoini, ki je bil sprejet iz latinske besede sipho leta 1546 in oznauje odsek rova, kjer sega skalni strop v vodo. Francoska literatura uporablja tudi izraz vote mouillante. Naslednji zanimiv izraz je caverne, (lat. cavus), s katerim francoski in tudi drugi tuji krasoslovci oznaujejo podzemeljsko votlino, slovenski pa s prevzetim terminom kaverna poimenujejo umetno jamo, ki je bila najpogosteje narejena v vojake namene. Mono je, da je slovenski izraz priel v rabo tudi iz drugih romanskih jezikov. Podobne ugotovitve bi lahko potegnili tudi za izraz korozija ali corrosion v francoskem jeziku, ki izhaja iz latinskega glagola corodo. Kamnina dolomit pa je dobila ime po po francoskem geologu Deodat de Dolomieu iz 18.stol, ki je leta 1784 odkril to apnencu podobno kamnino. V slovenini z isto besedo oznaujemo tudi mineral, medtem ko francoski strokovnjaki poimenujejo kamnino z dolomie, mineral pa z dolomit Vpeljava tujih terminov v domao terminologijo zahteva veliko natannosti in doslednosti, saj v nasprotnem primeru lahko pride do napane interpretacije, semantinih odstopanj in s tem do zgreene rabe. V naem primeru najdemo kar nekaj izrazov, ki niso bili pravilno sprejeti v domai pojmovnik. Na prvem mestu velja izpostaviti kraki izraz estavela pod katerim razumemo kraki vodni objekt z dvojno funkcijo ob naraajoi vodi izvira, ob upadajoi ima vlogo poiralnika. Termin, ki je bil s takim pomenom preneen tudi v Slovensko krako terminologijo, ni pravilen, saj izvir Estabel v Languedocu nikoli ni deloval v zgoraj navedeni obliki. V domai regiji je poznan kot izvir z dokaj visoko temperaturo (22C) in je od zaetka prejnjega stoletja izviral oziroma bruhal vodo samo osemkrat. Nazadnje leta 1996, ko je bil njegov pretok med 350 in 500 l/s (Estabel,1978). O izvoru imena obstajajo razline razlage: lahko bi izhajalo iz oksitanskega nareja, saj estervelh pomeni vrtinec ali pa naj bi pomenilo, da se nahaja zraven hleva (LEstabel,1996,Geze,1978). Krasoslovna veda potrebuje tudi tovrsten termin, zato francoski krasoslovci predlagajo uporabo imena inversac oziroma inversak ali perte-emergence Ime so izbrali po izviru Inversac, pri katerem gre dejansko za izmenino izviranje in poniranje in se nahaja nedale stran od Estabel (Gze,1978). Problematika obeh terminov je bila znana e pred tremi desetletji in kljub temu, da se je izraz estavela udomail v nai miselnosti, mislim, da se vse pogosteje zasledimo tudi termin inversak. Naslednji tak izraz je termin ponor s katerim slovenski krasoslovci imenujejo vejo (vodoravno) odprtino, v katero voda ponika lahko reka, potok. Tudi v francoski kraki terminologiji najdemo zgoraj omenjeni izraz, vendar so pri interpretiranju nastala doloena odstopanja. V Fnlonovem slovarju Vocabulaire des phnomnes karstique iz leta 1968 lahko preberemo, da je ponor brezno ali jama, ki se nahaja na dnu polja, vrtae ali uvale in poira vodo s povrja oziroma lahko tudi bruha podzemeljsko vodo. Je torej odprtina z dvojno funkcijo. Na napano interpretacijo je kasneje opozoril B.Gze in leta 1971 v svojem slovarju Lxique des termes franais de splologie physique et de karstologie navedel izraz ponor kot perte localis se pravi lokaliziran ponor. UNESCO-FAO slovar iz leta 1972 med francoskimi izrazi e navaja ponor kot sinonim za jamo, med novejo literaturo pa se e pogosteje uporablja ponor v svojem pravem pomenu, kot na primer v Cornelieujevem slovarju iz leta 1985 ali vskriptah Camilla Eka iz leta 1987. Zgolj zaradi preglavic, ki jih imajo francoski krasoslovci pri doloevanju teh pojavov, bi omenila e termine polje uvala in dolina. Problematina je predvsem uvala, saj naj bi se po velikosti nahajala nekje med vrtao in poljem in so tako strokovnjaki velikokrat v dilemi, ali gre za uvalo ali za majhno polje ali za veliko vrtao. Poleg tega menijo, da je (po Cvijiu) uvalaBerta Mrak: Primerjava francoske in slovenske krake in speleoloke terminologije

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)98nastala zgolj z zdruitvijo dveh ali ve vrta. Bistvena znailnost uvale je razgibano dno, ki je ali pa ne razlenjeno z vrtaami, in strme stene. SKT loi posebej med vrtaasto in dolasto uvalo.PODOBNOSTI IN RAZHAJANJAObe terminologiji lahko primerjamo tudi z vidika tipologij, ki jih poznata za posamezne krake pojave. Natanno razdelano tipologijo pri obeh izrazoslovjih najdemo predvsem pri splonih krakih pojavih kot so kras, polje, vrtaa in kraplje. Seveda obstajajo doloene neenakosti za obe stroki kvejemu dopolnilne, vendar bodo na tem mestu zaradi preobsenosti predstavljene zgolj najbolj oitne. Za termin polje ima slovenska kraka terminologija izdelano natannejo klasifikacijo razlinih tipov, opirajo se na naslednje kriterije: geotektonika, oblika in lega v pokrajini, razmerje med neprepustnimi in prepustnimi kamninami, genetski in klimatski principi. V sklopu teh razlikuje preko 40 tipov polj. Pri delitvi samega krasa je sicer Gzova razpredelnica kriterijev veliko bolj strukturirana, a zato obseg slovenskih terminov ne zaostaja za ustreznimi francoskimi. Podobno velja tudi za vrtae. Za kraplje francoski krasoslovci uporabljajo izraz lapiez ki je osnovni termin za veliko veino mikroreliefnih oblik. Obe stroki se opirata na Boglijevo tipologijo. Sem lahko uvrstimo e posebnost francoske terminologije pri poimenovanju izvira ( source ali mergence ). Loijo namre med krakim izvirom, katerega voda prej e ni poniknila poimenujejo ga z exsurgenc e, in med ponovnim izvirom ponornice, kateremu pravijo rsurgence. Prvi izraz je delo E. Fornierja, drugega je leta 1887 prvi uporabil Martel. Doloeni pojavi so posebej razdelani samo pri eni izmed obeh terminologij. Pri francoski kraki terminologiji so taki kraki pojavi naslednji: hum ali houm je osamljen korozijsko-erozacijsko-denudacijski ostanek vijega reliefa, ki ga najpogosteje najdemo na dnu krakega polja. Glede na obliko francoska literatura loi: pyramides : hum v obliki piramide, -formes lances: visok in tanek hum, hum sommet plat, tour, tourelle, turm: hum z ravnim vrhom (v obliko stolpa), -mogote : hum z zaobljenim vrhom (George, 1970). e se hum izoblikuje ob stiku oziroma krianju dveh vrta nastanejo naslednje oblike: -hum en pitons kegel, mogote je vrsta huma, pogosta za tropski kras in ima obliko ozkega in koniastega stoca, -hum degrs je hum, ki ima poboja v obliki stopnia, -hum artes je hum z divergentnimi grebeni (Joly,1997). hodnik je po Slovenski kraki terminologiji dokaj enakomerno irok in visok rov, po katerem je hoja sorazmerno omogoena. Slovenska kraka literatura pozna tudi termin galerija, za katerega pa navaja, da je neenotno poimenovan in pogosto pomeni isto kot hodnik. Ustrezajo francoski izraz bi bil galerie loijo pa: diaclase : premortni, navpini hodnik, za katerega domnevajo, da je nastal zaradi raziritve diaklaze (razpoke) pod vplivom delovanja vode, tunnel : je hodnik pravilnega profila, podoben povrinskemu tunelu, passage : gre za kratek hodnik, ki povezuje dva pomembneja elementa jame. Sem bi lahko pripisali zvezni rov, ki povezuje dve ali ve dvoran ali pasaa, ki tudi povezuje veje jamske prostore. couloir, boyou : je hodnik manjega odseka,

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99diverticule : oznauje kraji hodnik, ki je pripet na veji hodnik in se kona kot slepi rov. Lahko bi rekli, da gre za slepi rov. labyrinth : labirint galerij oziroma blodnjak. *Za slovenske krasoslovce je kotlica okroglasta vdolbina gladkih sten s premerom nekaj centimetrov ali decimetrov, ko jo najdemo v stropu, na dnu ali na steni jame. V Slovenski kraki terminologiji je za francoski izraz naveden termin marmite invers Francoska kraka terminologija za vdolbine, ki se nahajajo na stropu podzemeljske jame uporablja termin coupole Lahko je decimetrskih ali celo metrskih velikosti. Posebna oblika so coupoles embotes pri katerih se sekundarna vdolbina nahaja v primarni. Med francoskimi krasoslovci lahko naletimo na navajanje terminov marmite invers in marmite de pression kot sinonima, vendar B. Gze odsvetuje tako uporabo. Fnlon odsvetuje samo uporabo termina marmite de pression Za vdolbino cilindrine oblike, ki nastane v strugi bodisi povrinskega bodisi podzemeljskega toka in je decimetrskih do metrskih velikosti, FKT navaja izraza marmite ali marmite de gant. Navaja e en termin cupule ki po opisu najbolj ustreza kotlici, saj se lahko nahaja kjerkoli v jami in je centimetrskih dimenzij. *Podobno velja tudi za lisiino ali troiture. Za rov, ki povezuje podzemeljske prostore, loi Gze tri podtipe: chatire kjer gre za prehod, ki je v preseku okrogel, laminoir ki je irok in nizek prehod, in diaclase troite kjer je rov ozek in visok. Za slovensko terminologijo v tem sklopu lahko izpostavimo pojave, kot sta korozija za katero so v rabi naslednji podtipi: biogena, aluvialna, podtalna, robna, ploskovna, pospeena, linearna korozija in korozija meanice, in kavnica, pri kateri loimo obalno, podtalno, odprto in predrto. Za izraz jama loi slovenska kraka terminologija celo paleto jam po nastanku, razvitosti rovov ipd., kot so na primer vodna, suha, izvirna, ponorna, morska, abrazijska, aragonitna, erozijska, korozijska, mrtva, kristalna, podorna, tektonska, rena, tunelska jama itd. Francoska literatura je ob tem veliko bolj skromna. Ob listanju slovarjev ene in druge krake velesile pade v oi bogatost besedia pri francoski kraki terminologiji, saj naletimo na izredno veliko tevilo pojavov, ki nosijo po dve imeni, kot recimo tuf calcaire in tuf de source (lehnjak), valle aveugle in valle ferme (slepa dolina), recule in bout du monde (zatrepna dolina) ali mondmilch in lait de lune (jamsko mleko) in e veliko takih primerov. Sicer so vasih tudi manja pomenska odstopanja kot na primer pri rseau karstique in systme karstique vasih pa gre pri teh terminih tudi za narene izraze. Bogatost francoskega besedia nasploh in krakega v tem primeru utemeljujejo naslednji primeri krakih pojavov, ko nosijo po ve imen, nekateri tudi po pet: -kanjon: canyon karstique, canon, gorge, defil (za povrinske) in canyon souterrain (za pozemeljskega), -brezno: avaloir, abme, gouffre, puits naturel, ponor (!), -kraki jarek: corridor karstique, couloir carstique, rue de rocher (bogaz), -podzemeljska bifurkacija: diffluence souterraine, delta souterraine, confluence, -kotlica: coupole, marmite, marmite de gant ... V slovenski kraki terminologiji so redki primeri, ko ima pojav dvoje ali ve imen. Taka sta na primer lehnjak ki mu pravijo tudi lehkovec ali maek, in prenikajoa voda ki jo lahko poimenujemo tudi pronicajoa voda. 5 imen navaja Slovenska kraka terminologija samo za kraki izvir ki v doloenem asovnem razmaku naraa in upada ter lahko obdobno tudi presiha: zaganjalka, minutnik, presihajoi izvir, interminentni izvir in periodini izvir. Za vejo udornicoBerta Mrak: Primerjava francoske in slovenske krake in speleoloke terminologije

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)100ali brezno s irokim skalnatim vhodom, kjer se zadrujejo golobi, navaja SKT tri ljudska imena: golobinka, golobina in golobnjaa. Izvir sladke ali braktine vode pod morsko gladino ali gladino plime ima prav tako tri imena: brojnica, vrulja in podmorski izvor. Redki so obratni primeri, ko eno ime velja za dva razlina pojava. Francoski krasoslovci imajo termin gour s katerim poimenujejo tako sigovo ponvico in jezerce nastalo v njej, kot tudi globoko jezerce, nastalo na primer ob vznoju slapa. Ob tem ga vekrat uporabljajo vzporedno s tipom voklikega izvira. Francoski krasoslovci so domiljiji prepustili prosto pot tudi pri podzemeljskih oblikah, e posebno pri pojavih, ki nastanejo iz sige: dents de cochon pravijo majhnim kalcitnim tvorbam, ki so tanke in podolgovate oblike in spominjajo na praije zobe, stalaktite, ki so tanki, majhni in rahlo izboeni poimenujejo s stalactites en pis de vache ker spominjajo na sesek od vimena. Tudi stalagmiti nosijo imena po obliki, na katero spominjajo, na primer stalagmite en pile dassiettes (stalagmit kot kup kronikov), stalagmite en pomme de pin (stalagmit, igar oblika spominja na smrekov stor) ali pa stalagmite grandes feuilles (stalagmite v obliki velikih listov). Na koncu e nekaj krakih pojavov, rezerviranih za posamezno terminologijo. Calanque, izpeljan iz provalsaline calanca igar praindoevropski koren pomeni kal, chaux oziroma kamen, apnenec in daje ime enkratni pokrajini ob obali med Marseillem in Cassisom na jugu Francije. Po Fnlonu gre za doline ob obali, ki so bile zalite z morsko vodo bodisi zaradi transgresije bodisi zaradi zruitve stropov predhodnih jam ali pa zaradi delovanja obeh dejavnikov skupaj. Slovenska obala esa takega al ne premore. Naslednji zgled je source vauclusienne pri katerem gre za izvir Fontaine de Vaucluse podzemeljske reke Sorgue v Provansi. Izraz je leta 1858 vpeljal v rabo Fournet in je rezerviran zgolj za krake izvire, katerih podzemeljski rov ali sifon je dvigajo se proti povrju in za loveka prehoden samo z ustrezno potapljako opremo s pripravami za dihanje (Fnlon,1968). Izvir ima velik pretok, ki lahko zelo variira med 4 in 150 m3/s. Slovenska kraka terminologija uporablja izraz vaukluki izvir, vendar menim, da bi bil z vidika fonetine izgovorjave primerneji izraz vokliki izvir (slika t. 4). V stareji francoski literaturi ni bilo zaslediti ustreznega francoskega izraza za slovensko kolievko ali koleevko ki je po Gamsu ve deset metrov globoka in iroka kotanja, navadno s skalnimi, prepadnimi stenami in vidnim, veidel skalnim dnom.ZAKLJUEKPrimerjava krakih izrazov slovenske in francoske terminologije je z etimolokega vidika pokazala vzajemne vplive, razlike pri poimenovanju in delitvi bolj svojevrstnih terminov, podobnosti pri bolj splonih terminih ter izpostavila nekatere posebnosti. Poznavanje strokovne krake terminologije v obeh obravnavanih jezikih je potrebno tako pri mednarodnih sodelovanjih kot za prevajanje strokovnih tekstov, saj je s tem omogoeno dopolnjevanje vedenja o krasu ter nemoten in predvsem pravilen pretok novosti. lanek poskua izpostaviti nekatera odstopanja v poimenovanjih in razlike v tipologijah z namenom e boljega medsebojnega (spo)razumevanja. tevilo prevzetih terminov obeh terminologij je zgovoren izraz o tesnem medsebojnem vplivu strok, vendar nas hkrati napano prevzeti izrazi opozarjajo na hude posledice pri nezadostni pazljivosti sprejemanja tujih terminov v domae izrazoslovje.

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101VIRI IN LITERATURASous la dir. Ambert, P., 1996: LEstabel (Cabrires Hrault) sa source son patrimoine gologique et humain, Atlier Graphique Saint-Jean, Albi, 16 str. Cornelieu, P.,1985: Microglossaire de stygologie. Theoretical and applied karstology, 2, 24-45 str., Bucharest. Ek, C:, 1987: Les phnomnes karstiques. Notes de cours. Universit de Lige.France Fnelon, P., 1968: Vocabulaire franais des phnomnes karstiques, Mmoires et documents du CNRS, volume ,4 Paris, 13-68 str. Gams, I., 1973: Slovenska kraka terminologija. Zveza geog. Inst. Jugoslavije, knjiga I, Ljubljana, 76 str. Gams, I., 1962: Kraka terminologija. GV, 34, Ljubljana., str. 115122. George, P., 1970: Dictionnaire de la gographie. P.U.F., Paris, 448 str. Gze, B., 1973: Lexique des termes franais de splologie physique et de karstologie. Annales de Splologie, 28, 1-20 str. Gze, B., 1971: Problmes de terminologie splologique. Spelunca, 11, 28-30 str. Gze, B., 1987: Les msaventures des sources de lestavelle et de linversac en Languedoc mditerranen. International Journal of Speleology, 16, Trieste, 101-109 str. Joly, F., 1997: Glossaire de gomorphologie. Masson Armand Colin Editeurs, Paris, 185-197 str. Kranjc, A., 1998: Martelov pomen za speleologijo na Slovenskem. Kras, 25, 36-38 str. UNESCO FAO, 1972: Glossary and multilingual equivalents of karst terms. Firts preliminary edition. UNESCO, Paris, SC/WS/440. Pano, V., 2001: Karsologick a speleologick terminologie, Knin centrum, ilina, 352 str. Savnik, R., 1962: Poimenovanje krakih jam, GV, 34, Ljubljana, str.133-135. uteri,F. & Knez, M., 1995: Prispevek k slovenskemu speleolokemu pojmovniku, Nae jame, 37, 153-169 str., Ljubljana. Snoj, M., 1997: Slovenski etimoloki slovar. Zaloba MK, 900 str., Ljubljana. Veliki slovar tujk, 2002, Cankarjeva zaloba, Ljubljana, 1303 str. Le dictionnaire etymologique, Laroussse, 2001. Le dictionnaire historique de la langue franaise, Le Robert, 1992, Paris.Berta Mrak: Primerjava francoske in slovenske krake in speleoloke terminologije



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269OVERVIEW OF THE KARST OCCURENCES IN NORTHERN CYPRUS PREGLED KRAŠKIH POJAVOV NA SEVERNEM CIPRUMEHMED NECDET 11Mehmet NECDET, Geology and Mines Department, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Prejeto / received: 2. 9. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/222269-276LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.02

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)270Abstract UDC: 551.44(564.3) Mehmet Necdet: Overview of the karst occurences in northern Cyprus Cyprus is at the easternmost part of the Mediterranean and is in the intersected zone bezween Eurasia, Africa and Arabic Plates. Karstification occurs as travertines or caves in Northern Cyprus in formation of different ages. Those formations are the dolomitic limestones of Kyrenia (Girne) Range of Jurassic – Upper Cretaceous; Gypsum Deposits of Messinian ages. Travertine terraces (Quaternary) are seen as characteristic at the northern edge of the Kyrenia Range. Secondary limestones of Holocene age were deposited on the older sediments and seen with some sort of karst features over the island. Karstic occurrences are seen as different size of open or sealed caves and the sinkholes in those formations mentioned above. Key words: karst, Holocene karst, travertine, Kyrenia, Northern Cyprus. Izvleek UDK: 551.44(564.3) Mehmet Necdet: Pregled kraških pojavov na severnem Cipru Ciper je v skrajnem vzhodnem delu Sredozemlja, na stiišu evrazijske, afriške in arabske ploše. Kraški pojavi severnega Cipra so predvsem lehnjaki in jame v razlino starih kamninah. To so dolomitni apnenci pogorja Kyrenia (Girne) jurske-zgornjekredne starosti in usedline anhidrita mesinijske starosti. Znailnost severnega roba Kyrenije so kvartarne lehnjakove terase. Po vsem otoku so kraški pojavi v sekundarnih apnencih holocenske starosti, odloenih na starejše usedline. Kraški pojavi v teh kamninah so razlino veliki odprti ali zamašeni jamski vhodi in vrtae oziroma grezi. Kljune besede: kras, holocenski kras, lehnjak, Kyrenia, severni Ciper.

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271KARST FEATURESCyprus is the third biggest island in the Mediterranean Sea and located in the semi-arid climate belt. The karst features in Northern Cyprus are seen in the landforms which are given below (Fig. 1): -Kyrenia Range Limestones -Tufa Terraces -Gypsum The main limestones of the Kyrenia Range are; Dhikomo (Dikmen) Marble [thinly bedded limestone is the oldest limestone group of Triassic age]; Sykhari (Kaynakky) Dolomite [Jurassic age highly tectonized, intensely brecciated dark grey colour formation]; Hilarion Formation [Most of this limestone has been recrystallised to marble or semi-marble; Also in some places it is partly dolomitic and may then be easily mistaken for Kaynakky ( Sykhari) dolomite. The age of this formation is Jurassic] and Kantara Limestones [Permian age massif limestone which occurs as olistoliths in the eastern part of the Range] ( Dreghorn, 1978; Baroz,1979 ). The vegetation cover on the two flanks shows a marked contrast, the northern slopes being well clothed with pine and cypress forests whilst the southern slopes bear garrigue and maquis scrub down to the semi-arid plains of the Mesaoria.The emplacement of the main limestones was due to gravity sliding from the Taurids (Dreghorn,1978). Fig. 1Mehmet Necdet: Overview of the karst occurences in northern Cyprus

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)272KARSTIC FEATURES IN KYRENIA RANGE Intermontane Plains Intermontane Plains in Kyrenia Range are orginated as a structural feature due to the tectonic uplift of the island. The intermontane plains are evolved into flat-floored depressions through to the differential erosion of soft Lapta Rocks enclosed between thrust masses of Hard Mountain Limestones. Polje Hilarion Limestone bears a few poljes which occur as elongated depression intermontane valleys above 400 m altitude. The most elongated polje is an enclosed high plain on the southern side of Pentadaktylos (Beparmak) Crest. The extent from east to west is 1.9 km and the average width is 300 m. Dolinas In the Hilarion Limestone group, a series of small rhomboidal plains each less then 500 m width; small and fairly flat oval plain about the size of a football field. A few of them have no exit channel. These dolinas are all interconnected and may be the remains of an ancient transverse drainage system.The floors of the poljes and dolinas bear terra rossa soils, thinly laminated silts and secondary limestones. The poljes and dolinas are clues of the “tectonic windows”. The surface erosion has almost ceased but the solution processes still continue (Dreghorn, 1978). Fig. 2

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273Mehmet Necdet: Overview of the karst occurences in northern CyprusPhoto 1: Stalactites and stalagmites in travertine at Ciklos site northern flank of the Kyrenia Range. Photo 2: A general view from the travertine at Ciklos site.

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)274Photo 3: An inside view from the Incirli cave. Photo 4: A view from the sinkhole northeast of Cihangir village.

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275Tufa Terraces Tufa terraces occur in the western and central portions on the northern flanks of the Range.Their origin is the evaporation of the high carbonate content spring water which were active during the pluvial periods of the Pleistocene. They must have been formed during periods of high rainfall.(Photo 1 and photo 2). The thickest one is about 30 m, structureless with hollows and caves with petrified vegetation. Caves There are no large underground systems and so far as is known none has great depth. They occur at the contact of the Mountain Limestones with the beds of the Lapta chalks and younger units.They can be classed as tectonic caves with shallow depth and usually associated with fossil springs. The groundwater movement is the minor aspect for the cave occurence. All the known caves are fossil ones, having no present flow of water, because of their height above the existing water level.GYPSUM KARSTThere is 150 km long belt occuring as separate bodies of gypsum deposits in Northern Cyprus.The age of these gypsum deposits are late Messinian. Selenitic and fine grained laminated gypsum facies are seen as dominant. The best known gypsum cave is in the eastern extension of North Cyprus. “Incirli Maara”, west of Altinova village, occurs on the southern limb of a syncline and is entered from an entrance at the east. The axis of this cave is almost east – west.The length is almost 250 m with 5 – 10 m width and 4 – 7 m height. (Photo 3). Sinkhole Problems in Gypsum Deposits The dissolution and tectonic processes are the main factors affecting the sinkholes in the burried gypsum deposits. These sinkholes are seen in the rural areas almost 30 km north-east (between Minareliky and Cihangir villages; Photo 4) and 20 km southeast of Nicosia (Akincilar village). The sinkhole at the most eastern part of the island occurs at an active fault south-east of Beyarmudu village.CONCLUSIONPaleokarst started its development during the presumed pluvial periods of the Late Pleistocene and then continued at a much slower rate under the more recent semiarid conditions. The existing karst formations are well developed on the Mesozoic Limestones of Kyrenia Range, due to solution through in the fissures directly related to tectonic stress. The repeated tectonic movements have prevented the development of large subsurface drainage systems in the Kyrenia Range limestones. The predominance of almost vertical structures have been noted as another key element. Sinkholes occur in the rural areas due to pumping from the gypsum aquifers for irrigation. This process is accelerating the dissolution of the gypsiferous lithology between extraction andMehmet Necdet: Overview of the karst occurences in northern Cyprus

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)276replenishment periods as well. Another issue is the surface water which flows along the fault system, resulting in dissolution of gypsum and carbonate at depth, and subsequent surface collapse after intense rainfall like the Beyarmudu sinkhole phenomena.REFERENCESBaroz, F., 1979. Etude gologique dans le pentadaktilos et la Mesaoria. 365 p, Ph.D Thesis, University of Nancy. Dreghorn, W., 1978. Landforms in the Girne Range, Northern Cyprus, MTA Enstitusu Yayinlari, No: 172, 220 s., Ankara.



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29A LITTLE CONTRIBUTION TO THE KARST TERMINOLOGY: SPECIAL OR ABERRANT CASES OF POLJES? PRISPEVEK H KRAŠKI TERMINOLOGIJI: PRIMER KRAŠKEGA POLJA – POSEBNOST ALI ZMOTA?JEAN NICOD11 Jean NICOD, Old Emeritus Professor, Institut de Gographie, Aix en Provence, Florida 1, 35 Av. du 24 Avril 1915, F 13 012 MARSEILLE, France Prejeto / received: 15. 8. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/2329-39LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)30Abstract UDC: 551.44:001.4 Jean Nicod: A little contribution to the karst terminology : special or aberrant cases of poljes? A usual definition of polje states that it is “great closed karst basin with flat bottom, karstic drainage and steep peripheral slopes”. But the Dinaric karst shows a wide range of poljes. The article discusses the main criteria of polje definition and the different degrees of evolution of the polje are emphasised. The essentials are gathered in the table with new tentatives on classification of poljes and comparing the Dinaric karst with other Mediterranean and Alpine countries. Key words: karst terminology, polje, Dinaric karst, Alpine karst, Mediterranean. Izvle ek UDK: 551.44:001.4 Jean Nicod: Prispevek h kraški terminologiji: primer kraškega polja – posebnost ali zmota? Obi ajna definicija kraškega polja je velika zaprta kraška depresija z ravnim dnom, kraškim odtokom in strmimi pobo ji. Toda na dinarskem krasu je cela vrsta razli nih kraških polj. V prispevku so navedeni glavni kriteriji za razvrš anje polj ter posebej poudarjeno vprašanje razli ne stopnje v razvoju kraškega polja. Vsebina je zbrana in povzeta v preglednici, ki obenem ponuja nove rešitve pri razvrš anju kraških polj ter podaja primerjavo med dinarskim krasom ter krasom v drugih sredozemskih in alpskih de elah. Klju ne besede: kraška terminologija, kraško polje, dinarski kras, alpski kras, Sredozemlje.

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31According to the usual definition a polje is defined as a great karst closed basin, with flat bottom, karstic drainage and steep peripheral slopes (GAMS 1974, 1978). But the Dinaric karst shows a wide range of poljes, some fully in carbonatic terrains, other partly in impervious rocks or border poljes (ROGLI 1972, 1974) and peripheral poljes (GAMS 1978).In addition, some typical poljes are studied in the Mediterranean countries by recent authors. As part of the structural and morphoclimatic classification, we are looking to the evolution of poljes, in relation with neotectonic stress, the activity of hydrology, changes of water-table level, and the degree of karstic evolution, particularly marked by the forms of the bottom and the peripheral slopes.MAIN CRITERIA ON KARST POLJES DEFINITION The poljes are no elementary form, and cannot be defined by one and two criteria, but on the contrary by various conditions and processes on the whole of the karstic geosystem. There are distinguished : 1The topography : generally an elongated closed basin (except some semiand open poljes...). 2The structural conditions : contact by fault, fault field, anticlinal, synclinal, overthrust etc...; possible impervious areas (border & peripheral poljes ) ; -possible aquiclude or aquitard (the latter frequently in dolomitic areas, example of the faultline poljes in the karst of El Hammam, Middle Atlas, MARTIN 1981). 3The part of active tectonics particularly the play of the transverse fault, and the general overstretching, factors of the development of the groundwater network. In some large poljes, the hydrogeological working is in relation to the neotectonic activity, particularly with the distensional and/or transcurrent faults : classical examples of Minde (Portugal), Cerknica (Slovenia), El Yammon (Lebanon)…. 4The morphoclimatic heritage Most poljes are formed pre-Pleistocene, developed initially in conditions of tropical karst. They are filled by various deposits according to morphoclimatic episodes : morainic, (the classical example of the Campo Imperatore in Abruzzo), cryoclasts, or loam (from the ferralitic soils of the near slopes, or transferred by a tributary stream as the Trebišnjica in the Popovo polje). In some cases, allogenic siliceous deposits can fill the polje bottom and play a main part in the processes of crypto-corrosion : in the typical example of polje of Zafarraya (Betic Ranges,) alluvia originated from the weathered schists of the Sierra Tejeda compose the main cover on the bottom (LHNAFF, 1968). In and near the volcanic countries, as San Gregorio polje, Campania; Alte Murge (SAURO, 1991) and karst of Azrou, Middle-Atlas, the ashes and lapillis contribute to the same processes. 5Recent and present hydrology. The functional poljes have an active hydrology : -inflow by springs or tributaries; -meandering stream in bottom ; -outflow by ponors ; -the most typical are in piezometric level possible working of estavelles ; -overflow by excess of inflow/possible outflow and obstruction of the ponors,Jean Nicod: A little contribution to the karst terminology : special or aberrant cases of poljes?

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)32Fig.1: Compared cross-sections of four tectonic poljes (NICOD 1996)a-Zaffaraya (Betic ranges) from LHNAFF, 1968 : lc-Lias limestones, ld-Lias dolomites, nc-marly lower Cretaceous, f-main overthrust, SM-Miocene planation. b-Cuges (Provence) in NICOD (1967) : jc-Jurassic limestones, jd-Jurassic dolomites, nc-Lower-Cretaceous limestones, c-Upper-cretaceous series. c-Cerknica (Notranjsko, Slovenia), eastern part, from GOSPODARI & HABI 1978 : t-Trias dolomites, jc-Jurassic limestones, jd-Jurassic dolomites, ncLower-Cretaceous limestones, dtranscurrent fault (active Idrija lineament). d-Yammoun (near the Beqaa, Lebanon), from BESANON, 1968 : c1-marly Aptian, c2-Cenomanian limestones, br-tectonic breccia, d-active transcurrent fault (branch of the W fault system of the rift valley).

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33 -or in some case by the play of estavelles. -seasonal lakes and marshes, some permanent lakes,particularly in coastal area, according to the sea-level. So the tough problem of the Vrgorac drain (near the Neretva delta) results from the little gradient to the sea-level (BONACCI, 1992). The hydrology conditions contribute to the solution rate, particularly in the calcareous bottom of the basin : the denudation rate is generally high in the active poljes. 6The geomorphological features. The incipient poljes are mainly fluvial forms, above all proceeding of the fluvial erosion processes in impervious layers (particularly in the border poljes). The more characteristic forms in the functional poljes are : -the embayements of border, in keeping of the ponors and estavelles (and suffosion and collapse processes) ; -the residual hills (= hums ) ; -the corrosion levels, terraced according to the sucessive deepening of the polje bottom. The process of the crypto-corrosion is very active in the actual polje bottom under the alluvial or colluvial deposits. The old (and occasionally in steps) rocky corrosion-plains and rock-fans result mainly from this process in the past ( cf. ROGLI 1972, DUFAURE 1984, NICOD 1992). Table I gives an attempt at polje classification in connection with the combination of these various main criteria. Only the typical functional poljes can give the whole of these criteria (e.g. : polje of Cerknica).THE DIFFERENT DEGREES OF EVOLUTION: SOME PROBLEMS.1 Many poljes are in incipient stage : -blind valley, in contact karst; some piedmont poljes may proceed from this form; -uvala in extension, some structural poljes Some poljes may proceed from connection of uvalas, as the Llanos de Libar , synclinal polje in the Serrania de Grazalema, Betic ranges (DELANNOY 1997) ; -structural basin, from erosion, excavated in only impervious rocks of the bottom ; examples of the poljs of Caille and Caussols in the subalpine range of the Alpes Maritimes. The development of these forms arises mainly from the fluvial erosion from the ponor in the synclinal trough, and the episodic overflow depends only from the blocking of this ponor. -recent filled graben, with peripheral slopes constituted by fault scarp, as the polje of Cinquemiglia in Abruzzo (DEMANGEOT 1965) ; cf. the south side of Cuges (Provence) ; -valley or graben blocked by scoriae cone and lava flow : example of the Rug (or Roudj), adjacent to the Ghor rift valley, in Syria (BESANON & GEYER 1995). 2The problem of base-level in the active poljes. Two main problems are to discern : -the base level in the polje is controled by the hydrogeologic conditions in the karst unit below, and its fluctuations are a function of the seasonal climatic events ; -near the coast, the base-level depends mainly on the sea-level. This distinction has played an important part in the polje evolution during the Pleistocene inJean Nicod: A little contribution to the karst terminology : special or aberrant cases of poljes?

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)34relation to the morphoclimatic events and the variations of the sea-level. In combination with the general karstic aquifers, the groundwater of the alluvia may play important part in the polje evolution. Let us quote as examples : -in the Lassithi, high tectonic polje of Crete, the important groundwater in the alluvia is supported by the aquiclude constituted by an old clayey karstic formation ; like the case of Campo Imperatore, in Gran Sasso dÂ’Italia massif, that show a rich hydrologic network and little lakes in keeping with its thick morainic cover; -the semi-poljes of Mislina and Hutovo blato, near the lower Neretva valley, partly in lakes, has been blocked from the Holocene deltaic filling. 3 The open and paleopoljes In contrast with these active forms, in the Mediterranean karsts, many poljes are only inherited forms : -open poljes, partly drained by an permanent or intermittent stream ; -paleo-poljes or fossil poljes. Fig. 2: The structural polje of Minde and the open polje of Alvados (Estramadura, Portugal). Map from the documents of M.L. RODRIGUES 1995, FERREIRA et al. 1988, & J.A. CRISPIM,1993, 1995, in NICOD, 1996, fig.1.Keys: 1-faults, 2tectonic limit of the Infra-lias sandstones (triassic diapir), transcurrent fault, 3-tectonic scarp, 4id. of overthrust on the Tage basin, 5-structural scarp, 6-gentle slope, 7-canyon, old corrosion level, 8-uvala, karstic basin, 9-polje contour, 10-lacustrine bottom, terra-rossa, 11-periglacial cone and deposit, 12-spring, seasonal lake, 13-ponor, cave, 14-permanent, temporary stream, water-tracing. Abbreviations : Al-Almonda spring, Av-tracing Olhos de Aviela main spring, CPChao das Pias, MVMoinhos Velhos cave, VMVila Morena spring.

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35References 1MIHEVC 1994 ; 2DEMANGEOT 1965 ; 3JULIAN-NICOD 1986/89 ; 4BESANON-GEYER 1995 ; 5 GAMS 1974/78 ; 6HERAK 1972, ROGLI 1974 ; 7LHNAFF 1968 ; 9-MARTIN 1981 ; 10-CRISPIM 1995, NICOD 1996 ; 11BESANON 1968 ; 12GOSPODARI -HABI 1978, KRANJC 1985 ; 13ROGLI 1974 ; 14HERAK, 1972, BONACCI 1992 ; 15id. + MILANOVI 1979 ; 16HABI 1991 ; 17JULIAN-NICOD 1989 ; 18AMBERT 1990, BRUXELLES 2001 ; 19NICOD 1998.Tabl. 1: New tentative classification of some classical karst poljes, with comparison between Dinaric Karst and other Mediterranean and alpine countries. Jean Nicod: A little contribution to the karst terminology : special or aberrant cases of poljes?

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)36These old forms proceed generally from a long evolution, largely pre-Pleistocene. a) The open polje (or rather better opened after evolution as closed basin ?). They may have hydrogeological features, as the poljes in piezometric level : Example: the Upper Pivka valley, with the two variable-level lakes with the fluctuations of the water-table, and inherited corrosion surface and some hums (HABI 1991). The open polje of Alvados, near that classical one of Minde (Portugal), and on the same transverse fault, has only some inherited forms (CRISPIM 1995, NICOD 1996). b)The paleo-poljes. Hydrology : -Generally, the paleo-poljes arise from the canyon cut and drastic lowering of the piezometric level, more often correlated to the regional uplift. They have only a residual hydrographic network (example of Grand Plan de Canjuers, near the Great Canyon of Verdon, in Subalpine Ranges in Provence). Their hydrological working is episodic (the surface runoff occurs only Fig.3: The structural polje of Minde (Middle Portugal).A-Sketch from the documents of M.L. RODRIGUES 1995, FERREIRA et al., 1988, & J.A. CRISPIM,1993, 1995, in NICOD, 1996, fig.2. Keys: l4-5-Upper-Lias limestones J1Bajocian massive limestones, J2-Bathonian limestones, gl-scree (grzes lites cone), p pÂ’-ponors, s-Poio estavelle, MV-Monhos Velhos cave. B-Fault system of NE slope of polje of Minde (from CRISPIM, 1995, fig.66). R-Synthetic fault (Riedel), RÂ’-antithetic fault.

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37from heavy rain). An other example is the paleo-polje of Elsarr, in the Arbailles Massif (Western Pyrenes), raised up the Bidouze recule and its spring, according to the mountain uplift (VANARA 2000). -However, in the dolomitic areas, the play of aquitards may give ephemeral lakes, as in the Causses of Larzac, by heavy rain. Likewise, but in limestones, on the high plateau of At Abdi (> 2300 m, in the Central High Atlas), the little poljes, though disconnected from the main aquiclude can offer some daias (ephemeral lakes), in spring with the snow melting (PERRITAZ 1995/96). Paleeogeomorphology : The paleo-poljes preserve some characteristic forms, particularly the hums and the corrosion levels. The bottom changes with the crypto-corrosion in the contact of fersiallitic soils and and siliceous residues A good example is the little polje of lÂ’Hospitalet, in the Causse of Larzac : the three successive levels have proceeded from this process under the siliceous deposits, mainly flint clay ( cf. BRUXELLES 2001/2002). The crypto-corrosion gave back again possible the development of the old rock-fans and Rundkarren fields as those of the Grand Plan de Canjuers. The paleo-poljes may been filled by deposits coming from the weathering on the slopes, according to morphoclimatic processes, particularly in periglacial phases. Now, the bottom changes slowly with the corrosion in the contact of fersiallitic soils that give back again possible the development of Rundkarren and dolines development from the suffosion processes.BIBLIOGRAPHYAMBERT P., 1990 LÂ’volution gomorphologique des Grands Causses mridionaux depuis le Nogene ; Z. Geomorph. N.F ., Suppl. Bd. 77, p.1-24. BESANON J., 1968 Le polj de Yammoun; Hannon Beyrouth,, III, p.1-62. BESANON J. et GEYER P. 1995 Le Rg (Syrie du N) ; SYRIA (Paris) LXXII, 3-4, p.307-354 + 3 cartes h.t. BLANC A., 1958 Rpertoire des tudes sur le relief karstique en Yougoslavie depuis J. Cviji ; Mm. et Doc. CNRS Paris, VI p 135-227. BONACCI O., 1992Karst Hydrology...; Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 184 p. BRUXELLES L., 2001 Reconstitution morphologique du Causse du Larzac, rle des formations superficielles dans la morphogenese karstique ; Karstologia, 38, p.25-40. CRISPIM J.A., 1995 Dinamica carsica e implicaoes ambiantais nas depressoes de Alvados e Minde ; Th. Dept. Geologia, Lisboa, 394 p. DELANNOY J. J., 1997 Recherches gomorphologiques sur les massifs karstiques du Vercors et de la transversale de Ronda (Andalousie). Les apports morphologiques. Th. Grenoble 1, 678 p. DEMANGEOT J., 1965Gomorphologie des Abruzzes adriatiques, Memoires et Documents du CNRS, Paris. DUFAURE J.J., 1984 Models quaternaires et ensembles lithologiques, in La mobilit des paysages mditerranens ; Rev. gog. Pyrnes et SO, Toulouse, Trav. II, chap. VIII.Jean Nicod: A little contribution to the karst terminology : special or aberrant cases of poljes?

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)38FORD D. & WILLIAMS P., 1989 Karst Geomorphology & Hydrology, Unwin Hyman, London, 601 p. GAMS I., 1974 Kras ; Slovenska Matica, Ljubljana, 359 p. GAMS I., 1978 The polje : The problem of definition ; Z. Geomorph. N.F ., 22-2, p.170-181. GOSPODARI R. & HABI P., 1978 Karst phenomena of Cerkniško polje, Acta carsologica Ljubljana, VIII-1, 156 p. GLDALI N., 1970 Karstmorphologische Studien im Gebiet des Poljesystem von Kestel (W Taurus, Turkey) ; Tbinger geog. Studien 104 p. HABI P., 1991 Geomorphologic classification of NW Dinaric Karst ; Acta carsologica XX, p.135-164 HERAK M., 1972 Karst of Yugoslavia ; in HERAK & STRINGFIELD Karst, important karst regions of Northern Hemisphere Elsevier, Amsterdam, chap.2 JULIAN M. et NICOD J., 1986 La rgion karstique Audibergue-Mons ; Z. Geomorph. N.F. Suppl. Bd. 59, p.1-25. JULIAN M. et NICOD J., 1989 Les karsts des Alpes du Sud et de la Provence ; Z. Geomorph. N.F. Suppl. Bd. 75, p.1-48. KRANJC A., 1985The lake of Cerknica and its flood ; Geografski zbornik, Ljubljana, XXV-2, p. 75-123. LEHMANN H., 1959 Studien ber Poljen in den venezianischen Voralpen und in Hochapennin ; Erdkunde Bonn, Bd. XIII, p.258-289. LHNAFF R., 1968 Le polj de Zafarraya (Province de Grenade) ; Mlanges de la Casa Velazquez Madrid, IV, p.5-25 + carte h.t. MARTIN J., 1981 Le Moyen-Atlas Central, tude gomorphologique ; Service gologique du Maroc (Rabat) 445 p. + cartes h.t. (sp. Causse d’El -Hammam). MIHEVC A., 1994 Brkini contact karst ; Acta carsologica XXIII, p.99-108. NICOD J., 1967 Les poljs karstiques de Provence, comparaison avec les poljs dinariques ; Mditerrane, Etudes et Travaux I, p. 53-75. NICOD J., 1978Les eaux et l’amnagement des poljs du karst dinarique ; Mditerrane 12,p.85 103. NICOD J. ,1992 Formes d’aplanissement et de rgularisation des versants dans les roches carbonates...; T binger geog. Studien 109, p.1-22. NICOD J., 1996 Le polj de Minde (Portugal central) type de polj tectonique ; Rev. Analyse Spatiale Quantitative et Applique Nice, n 38/39, P.143-151. NICOD J., 1998 Palomorphologies et morphogense rcente/actuelle sur les massifs au N du Grand Canyon du Verdon ; Etudes de Gog. physique, Suppl Travaux n XXVI, p.17-30 +carte h.t. PERRITAZ L., 1995 Contribution l’tude gomorphologique et et hydrogologique d’un karst perch en domaine mditerranen : le plateau des At Abdi (Haut Atlas) ; Th. Fribourg (CH), 178 p. + cartes h.t. PERRITAZ L., 1996 – Le karst en vagues des At Abdi (Haut Atlas central) ; Karstologia 28-2, p. 1-12. ROGLI J. 1972 Historical review of geomorphic concepts, in HERAK & STRINGFIELD Karst, important karst regions of Northern Hemisphere , Elsevier, Amsterdam, chap.1.

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39ROGLI J., 1974 Les caractres spcifiques du karst dinarique; Mm. et Doc. CNRS, Phnomenes karstique II p.269-278. SAURO U., 2001 Aspects of contact karst in the Venetian Fore-Alps ; Acta carsologica 30-2, p. 89-102. SWEETING M.M, 1972 Karst landforms, Macmillan, London, 362 p. (chap. 10). VANARA N., 2000 Le karst des Arbailles; Karstologia 36, p. 23-42.Jean Nicod: A little contribution to the karst terminology : special or aberrant cases of poljes?



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65KARST TERMINOLOGY IN APULIA (SOUTHERN ITALY) LJUDSKA KRAŠKA TERMINOLOGIJA IZ APULIJE (JU Ž NA ITALIJA)MARIO PARISE (1, 2) & ANTONIO FEDERICO (3)& MARCO DELLE ROSE (1, 4) & MARIANGELA SAMMARCO (4, 5)(1) CNR-IRPI, Bari, Italy(2) Gruppo Puglia Grotte, Castellana-Grotte (Bari), Italy(3) Politecnico di Bari, II Facolt di Ingegneria, Taranto, Italy(4) Gruppo Speleologico Neretino, Nard (Lecce), Italy (5) Universit di Lecce, Dipartimento di Beni Culturali, Italy Corresponding author: Mario Parise, CNR-IRPI, c/o Istituto di Geologia Applicata e Geotecnica, Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari – Italy, cerimp06@area.ba.cnr .it Prejeto / received: 8. 9. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/2665-82LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)66Abstract UDC: 551.44:001.4 Mario Parise & Antonio Federico & Marco Delle Rose & Mariangela Sammarco: Folk karst terminology from Apulia (Southern Italy) Apulia region, in southern Italy, is one of the classical karst areas of the Italian peninsula, being underlain for most of its extension by intensely karstified carbonate rocks. The landscape presents essentially landforms of karstic origin, which have been the object of specific studies for a long time. The three main geographical sub-regions into which Apulia is generally divided (from north to south, the Gargano Promontory, the Murge plateau, and the Salento peninsula) have been characterized in the past centuries by complex and different social and historical events. These resulted in the development, from a linguistical point of view, of very distinct dialects in different parts of Apulia. The terms used to describe the karst landforms, both at the surface and underground, had subsequently been, and still are, extremely variable throughout the region. This paper illustrates some terms used in Apulia to designate and describe the main geomorphological manifestations of the karst landscape. An attempt is made to analyze the terms on the basis of: i) geographical distribution; ii) etymology, with reference to the local dialects; iii) morphological features and genesis of described landforms. Some cases of misuse of terms in the Apulian karst, even in recent times, are also pointed out. Key words: karst, terminology, lama gravina etymology, Apulia. Izvle ek UDK: 551.44:001.4 Mario Parise & Antonio Federico & Marco Delle Rose & Mariangela Sammarco: Ljudska kraška terminologija iz Apulije (ju na Italija) Apulija v ju ni Italiji je eno izmed klasi nih kraških ozemelj italijanskega polotoka, saj je prete no na mo no zakraselih karbonatnih kamninah. Površinske oblike so predvsem kraškega nastanka in e dolgo asa predmet posebnih raziskav. Tri glavne podregije, na katere je obi ajno razdeljena Apulija (od severa proti jugu: polotok Gargano, planota Murge in polotok Salento), so bile v preteklosti podvr ene kompleksnim in mo no razli nim dru benim in zgodovinskim dogajanjem. Zaradi tega so nastala v raznih delih Apulije, z jezikoslovnega glediš a zelo razli na, nare ja. Zaradi tega so izrazi, ki jih ljudje v Apuliji uporabljajo za ozna evanje kraških oblik, tako površinskih kot podzemeljskih, izredno razli ni. Te izraze so uporabljali nekdaj, a jih tudi še danes. V prispevku so predstavljeni nekateri teh izrazov, uporabljanih za ozna evanje najpomembnejših kraških oblik. Te izraze skuša avtor analizirati na podlagi geografske razprostranjenosti, etimologije z oziroma na krajevna nare ja in oblike ter nastanka opisanih pojavov. Opozorjeno je tudi na današnje primere napa ne rabe takih izrazov na krasu v Apuliji. Klju ne besede: kras, terminologija, lama, gravina, etimologija, Apulija, Italija.

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67INTRODUCTIONThe use of an internationally accepted terminology is crucial for the correct diffusion of scientific information and data in any field of research. The most complete understanding between scientists and researchers and the sharing of experiences carried out in different countries are possible only if mutual comprehension is fully accomplished. As regards karst terminology, in spite of the several attempts aimed at its standardization, the use of different terms to describe the same features, or the misuse of some terms, has still to be registered both at a national and international level. This is a frequent source of likely confusion and misunderstandings in karst and speleological publications. The situation is furtherly complicated in the Mediterranean basin, where for historical reasons the present language inherited terms from the many idioms and dialects spoken in the past during different dominations. As a consequence, a great number of terms, differing from area to area also within a single region, exists, and handling them is not always an easy task. This paper examines some terms in the karst of Apulia, in southern Italy, in an attempt to highlight the relationships between local language and history of this region of the Mediterranean area, and to clarify some common misusages of karst terminology. Apulia can be geographically described as formed by three distinct sectors (Fig. 1): the Gargano Promontory to the north, the Murge plateau in the central part, and the Salento Peninsula to the south. It is one of the classical karst areas of Italy, being characterized for much of its extension by carbonate rocks of the Apulian carbonate platform, which acted as the foreland during the building up of the Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. Development of karst processes produced a dense network of cavities and conduits which characterize large portions of Apulia. The landscape is typically low-relief karst, very rich in natural cavities. As many of these cavities have been occupied by man at different times, their conservation is a very important aspect in the preservation of the historical heritage of this sector of southern Italy.HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDDifferently from other regions in the southern part of the Italian peninsula, the Greek settlements in Apulia were limited to Taranto, the colony of Sparta facing the Ionian Sea, and the surrounding areas. The great part of Apulia was not directly affected by the phase of Greek colonization (Magna Graecia) that concerned southern Italy and Sicily starting from the half of VIII century B.C. By that period, the cultural and ethnic setting of Apulia looks fully unitary, characterized by the presence of the Iapyges the indigenous population which was in this area since XI century B.C., and particularly spread in the region during the early Iron Age (IX-VIII centuries B.C.). As for the origins of the Iapygian people, two different literary traditions are reported: the first assigns them Hellenic origins, telling about a mythical coming of Aegean people from Crete (Herodotus; Strabo); the second one, the most supported indeed, considers them Illyrians coming from the opposite side of the Adriatic Sea (De Juliis, 1988, and references therein). As a matter of fact, the archaeological evidence documents a decisive cultural contribution from Illyria (along the Dalmatian coast) in the second half of the XII century B.C., during the last phase of the Bronze Age. After an incubation period, during which endogenous and external elements join, the new, original Iapygian culture, arises.M. Parise, A. Federico & M. Delle Rose & M. Sammarco: Folk karst terminology from Apulia (Southern Italy)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)68The land occupied by the Iapyges was the Iapygia or Iapudia a denomination later on transformed by the Sanniti in Apudia and eventually in Apulia the name most common from the IV century B.C. and made official in the Augustan period (De Juliis, 1988). From the VIII century B.C., within the even cultural situation, characterized by the so-called “Iapygian Protogeometric”, a diversifying process starts, which will bring three sub-regional cultures and, consequently, the creation of three principal ethnical groups which differentiate one from the others also for the territorial distribution (Fig. 2): the Dauni lived in the northern part of the region, that is the Gargano Promontory and the area of transition toward the southern Apennines of Italy, the so-called Subappennino Dauno. In central Apulia, the Peuceti were in the area which can be geographically described as the Murge plateau; more toward the south, the area around Brindisi and the Salento Peninsula were occupied by the Messapi the name given by the Greeks, which, according to one of the proposed interpretations, indicates the population “set between two seas” (Adriatic and Ionian). Within this articulated historical and cultural framework, it is also possible to identify in Apulia significant differences in terms of linguistics and epigraphy. Still today, the dialects that are typical of the Subappennino Dauno and, more in general, of the Foggia province, have many elements in common with those of the inner Apennines of southern Italy. The language in the Bari area is very different, and the changes are still stronger in Salento, where the language is related to the branch known as Calabrian-Apulian-Sicilian dialect (Parlangli, 1953). Regarding this matter, it is worth remembering that the Salento Peninsula, which Greeks and Romans identified as Messapa represented in the past a wide and linguistically homogeneous area well defined at least since the VI century B.C. The Messapian language is still today confirmed by the discovery of almost 400 inscriptions and derives partly from the Laconic alphabet used in the territory of Taranto. Even now, the linguistic situation is characterized by the presence of linguistic islands, where peculiar languages have been preserved. The most significant is the so-called Greca Salentina where a dialect strictly related to the Greek language ( griko ) is spoken still today. As shown in Fig. 3, originally this dialect was widespread in wide areas of central Salento, and during the XIV-XV centuries it almost extended from the Ionian to the Adriatic coast, along a line connecting Gallipoli and Otranto. Today, it is much less limited, being restricted to an area which includes about ten villages. The origin of this ancient linguistic tradition remains uncertain, and someone reputes it an heritage of the Byzantine control. It seems, indeed, more likely that it concerns a phenomenon of progressive isolation which involved the most ancient greek-speaking populations of Magna Graecia The persistence of the griko dialect is well evidenced by several names of localities in the area. Among these, it is worth remembering here the locality Poesia which also gave name to the karst system of Grotte della Poesia (Pagliara, 1987), two caves located along the Adriatic coast of Salento (see Fig. 3 for location). According to the more qualified interpretation, the name poesia derives from the griko word posa with its deriving terms poisa and puesa These terms are slightly modified transliterati ons of the greek (beverage, drink), deriving from the verb, which means to drink. In the dialect of Calimera (one of the villages of Greca Salentina ), posa means drinkable water, and should therefore imply the presence of a spring of fresh water within the cave system. Today, no spring is visible in the caves, but this could result from changes in the local hydrogeological setting (Delle Rose and Parise, 2003).

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69Fig. 1: Geological sketch of Apulia, showing the main geographical localities cited in the text. Explanation: 1) recent clastic cover (Pliocene – Pleistocene); 2) bioclastic carbonate rocks (Paleogene) and calcarenites (Miocene); 3) carbonate platform rocks (Upper Jurassic – Cretaceous); 4) scarp and basin chert-carbonate rocks (Upper Jurassic – Cretaceous). Fig. 2: Distribution of Apulian populations in the VI century B.C. (modified after Baldacci, 1962). M. Parise, A. Federico & M. Delle Rose & M. Sammarco: Folk karst terminology from Apulia (Southern Italy)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)70Fig. 3: Map of Greca Salentina (modified after Rohlfs, 1974). The dark square on the Adriatic coast south of San Foca marks the location of the Grotte della Poesia karst system. The complex historical and linguistic framework above outlined strongly controlled the evolution of local languages and dialects in Apulia. As a consequence, the terms used to describe landforms and morphological features of the apulian karst are extremely variable throughout the region.

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71TERMINOLOGY OF THE APULIAN KARSTPrevious studies Among the studies which have been dedicated in the past to terminology of karst phenomena in Italy, it is worth mentioning the work by Anelli (1959), who listed and provided explanation for a number of terms used to describe surface and underground features related to karst processes. Even though Professor Anelli was at that time Director of the Castellana Grotte, and lived in Apulia since several years, in his work only a few Apulian terms were included and briefly described; the national coverage of the work, in practice, did not allow a specific and thorough analysis of Apulian terms. At a regional level, the most complete study so far available regarding Apulia is that by Elba (1969): this is a simple list of many terms, for which a very short explanation is provided, with, in some cases, indications on the geographical area of use of the term itself. To examine karst terminology in Apulia, a multi-disciplinary approach is presented here, even though limited to the analysis of a few terms. This approach is, in our opinion, extremely useful to gain insight about the genesis of the processes that have worked to produce the karst features, and to understand better the evolution of the karst landscape in recent times. At this aim, each term is examined, considering the etymology, the morphological features it describes, and their genesis as well, and, if available, the historical documentation from different sources. In addition, a particular focus is given to the territorial distribution of the terms, which, as outlined above, appears to be strictly related to the linguistical evolution of Apulia. Lama and gravina Karst valleys are among the most widespread and typical landforms of Apulia. They are generally described with terms such as lama, gravina, canale, the latter being restricted to the southernmost part of Salento, at the very tip of the region. As an example of the relationships existing between morphology and etymology of the terms, lama and gravina are examined here. Lama and the variations laima and lme in the provinces of Brindisi and Taranto, respectively (Rohlfs, 1976), indicate slightly incised valleys where the waters flow during and after heavy rainstorms. They are not very deep, and present a flat bottom, with a gradual connection with the adjoining slopes (Fig. 4). The term derives from the rare latin lama which, although used by Horace (Cortellazzo and Zolli, 1983), has an obscure root. It means pond, swamp, and is therefore related to the presence of water at the ground surface. Within the lame terre rosse and other residual deposits fill the valley bottom; in the past, lame represented the only place where it was possible to cultivate land (Colamonico, 1917c), in contrast with the surrounding bare karst and rocky slopes. Lame were thus a sort of oasis where to perform agricultural practice, resulting in a territory characterized by narrow strips or circular plots of cultivated land. In the last decades, however, the original karst landscape of Apulia is strongly changing because of the introduction of new agricultural practices such as stone clearing, which is performed today through intense use of machinery, and not as in the past by hand, when the resulting detritus was used to build dry walls or collected in piles, locally known as specchie The result is that lame are progressively being removed from the landscape (Parise and Pascali, 2003), and intense phases of erosion on the occasion of concentrated rainfall events may occur.M. Parise, A. Federico & M. Delle Rose & M. Sammarco: Folk karst terminology from Apulia (Southern Italy)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)72Gravina, on the other hand, is a landform much deeper than lama It is a deep and narrow canyon incised in carbonate rocks (Fig. 5), with the bottom usually flat, which appears to be dry except when a river flows, after heavy rainstorms. The word, with the variations cravina in the Taranto area (Rohlfs, 1976) and gramina in Calabria (Battisti and Alessio, 1975), derives from the pre-Latin term grava which means pit or hole, as well as from the messapian term graba, meaning erosion of a river bank (Rohlfs, 1976). Note the relation of both roots with the German and English terms graben and grave meaning dig. The majority of gravine is concentrated along the Ionian arc near Taranto, to connect the present coastal plain to the Murge plateau. Due to the vertical walls at the flanks of gravine these are often affected by slope instabilities, most of which occur as rock falls and topples (Fig. 6). Many of these phenomena damage or threaten the remains of the “rupestrian civilization” that developed in Apulia and Lucania in medieval time (Fonseca, 1980). Genesis of lame and gravine is still today an object of discussion among geologists and karst scientists: the oldest ideas considered both the landforms as related to erosional activity, with the term lama used to describe the valleys on the Adriatic side of Apulia, while gravina characterized those of the Ionian side (De Giorgi, 1884; Segre, 1947). This concept has been recently re-adopted by other authors (e.g. Mastronuzzi and Sans, 2002). On the other hand, Colamonico (1953) and Palagiano (1965) were among the first to point out the different morphology of lame and gravine ascribing the latter to development of vertical erosional processes in the less resistent Plio-Pleistocene deposits, in contrast with the hard Cretaceous limestone, where vertical deepening resulted much more difficult, and the valley tended to enlarge laterally, creating the typical lama Actually, many gravine are incised in both the Plio-Pleistocene calcarenites and the Cretaceous limestone: this is the main element which relates their origin to superimposition ( sensu Bates and Jackson, 1987), in consequence of the recent uplift of the area. Different rates of uplifting occurred between the Ionian and the Adriatic side of Apulia, and have to be related to the location of these zones within the Apulian foreland during the phases of building up of the Apenninic Chain, and to the different tilting (Doglioni et al., 1994). This had as consequence the greater development of gravine along the Ionian coastline, where higher rates of uplift, ranging from 0.21-0.27 mm/yr, have been calculated based on facies analysis of deposits located along the coast north of Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Belluomini et al., 2002). However, small-size gravine up to 20 m deep, and which often terminate as lame in their final part, are also locally present at sites of the Adriatic coast. In addition to the above recalled differences in depth and width of the two types of karst valleys, further geological elements are worth mentioning: in the gravine -type valleys, some evidence is present which directly derives from the action of fluvial processes. Namely, this is the meandering pattern of many gravine and the presence of remains of terraced alluvial deposits at various heights along their flanks (one of the most typical situations can be observed at Gravina Triglio, some 10 km north of Taranto). All these morphological and geological elements are indicative of a quite different origin of lame and gravine : the first type of valley developed mainly as erosional valley into the hard Cretaceous limestone, where lateral enlargement of the valley could be favoured opposite to vertical deepening. Gravine on the other hand, initially developed through vertical incision into the weak Plio-Pleistocene calcarenites, and then kept deepening, once in the Cretaceous limestone, by

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73superimposition. Both types of valleys were probably controlled in their development by the main structural discontinuities in the rock mass, although their successive evolution significantly differed, leading eventually to two distinct landforms. As regards gravine there has also to be taken into account the possibility of the rapid deepening of an initial valley, due to local humid microclimate which may greatly enhance the solution of carbonate rocks (Badino, 1995). Based upon the above elements, we do not consider other processes, namely sapping (Baker, 1990; Dunne, 1990), as the “leading role process in the genesis of these valleys” as recently proposed by Mastronuzzi and Sans (2002). If active in the development of gravine sapping could have played a minor and local role in the terminal portion of the valley, toward the sea (as shown in the model of coastal karst caves speleogenesis by Delle Rose and Parise, 2003), while the leading one had to be played by overland flow and fluvial incision, as evidenced by the aforementioned alluvial deposits and fluvial landforms. In conclusion, many differences exist between lama and gravina from a morphological, geological, and structural point of view. These differences are well highlighted by the etymology of the terms, with lama which is related to surficial presence and/or flowing of water, and gravina that, on the other hand, is clearly associated to the idea of depth. Describing these very distinct landforms simply as karst valleys is therefore, in our opinion, a possible source of misunderstanding and confusion, especially for readers unfamiliar with the Apulian karst. Grave and related terms Strictly related to gravina are other terms used in the Apulian karst, such as grava, grave, gravinelle, graviglione They derive from the same root of gravina and refer, again, to deep landforms of the ground surface: grave is used in Apulia to indicate a vertical shaft or abyss, generally produced by rock falls from the vault of an original karst cave. In other Italian regions, the same term has different meaning: for example, in Veneto (northeastern Italy) grava is used to describe gravelly soil, beach, from the vulgar Latin grava – of Celtic origin – meaning sand, gravel, gravelly beach (Battaglia, 1961-2003; cf. also with the French grve which means shingle, pebbly river-bed, and with the English term gravel along with its corresponding Spanish grava ). With the meaning diffuse in Apulia, on the other hand, grave is an abyss more deep than wide, which usually presents a pile of fallen blocks at its base. Many Apulian caves, generally characterized by depth greater than 30-40 meters, or single and deep caverns, are named grave The most famous example is the Grave di Castellana, the about 60 m deep entrance to the complex karst system of Castellana Grotte, which is the longest cave in Apulia with its 3125 meters of length, a part of which is exploited as show cave (Anelli, 1954). Another famous grave in Apulia is the Grave di Campolato in the Gargano Promontory, the deepest cave in the region with its depth of over 300 meters (Orofino, 1969). While the term grave is widespread for caves and caverns, it is not used for surface landforms. To our knowledge, it is always related to the presence of karst caves. Directly from grave the terms gravinelle, graviglione and gravaglione come (Colamonico, 1917a, 1919b). Again at Castellana Grotte, two narrow shafts, 40 m deep, are called gravinelle to distinguish them from the already known and more important Grave aforementioned. Gravinelle are located at the lowest part of town, which has been site in the past of several events of flooding,M. Parise, A. Federico & M. Delle Rose & M. Sammarco: Folk karst terminology from Apulia (Southern Italy)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)74even with casualties, as during the tragic flood of 1896; at the beginning of the last century, hydraulic engineering works were done at the site, by using also the Gravinelle to allow the rapid drainage of water underground on the occasion of intense rainstorms (Parise, 2003). Gravaglione (or ravaglione ) has a slightly different meaning, since it indicates a swallet, generally located at the deepest zone of dolines or karst valleys, where water can infiltrate underground. The presence of underground caves is not always documented, since the surface deposits transported by the water might have clogged the entrance to caves or conduits below. In any case, the term gravaglione also refers always to connection with the underground infiltration of water. One of the most famous gravaglione in the south-eastern Murge is the swallet of the largest polje in the area, which is known as Canale di Pirro (Parise, 1999). Pulo The term pulo is widespread in northwestern Murge, inland from Bari, while it is not widespread in southern Apulia. There are some variations of the term, including pulicchio, puro pure (Colamonico, 1919a). Its root is uncertain. A Germanic root – as for the old French pol which means marsh, mud (cf. the English pool and the German pfuhl ) – is not very likely; more probably the term is a Mediterranean relict, perhaps similar to the Greek which means gate, narrow entrance (Battisti and Alessio, 1975), while its plural form is also used as narrow gorge. It seems therefore that pulo could derive from this root, to designate depressions and/or entrance to caves. Actually, at the base of some pulo there are swallets and cave entrances. The term pulo generally describes large dolines produced by karst processes: for most of them, a clear origin through fall of the vault of an underground cave can be invoked, but in other cases the origin is less straightforward. The most famous sites with this name are Pulo di Altamura a wide doline in the Murge plateau, and Pulo di Molfetta few kilometers to the Adriatic coastline north of Bari. Notwithstanding the assonance between pulo and the slavonic term polje, the latter well known in karst terminology to designate close depressions with flat bottom developed on karst rocks (Cviji, 1893; Gams, 1978), to our knowledge none of the landscapes described as pulo in Apulia may be directly related to polje features. Pulo on the other hand, is also locally used to describe other karst landforms. Around Ruvo di Puglia, for example, the term indicates the steepest sectors of two karst valleys (Pulo di Modesti and Pulo della Cavallerizza), that join and form a single lama (Colamonico, 1919-20). Maximum depth of the valleys ranges from 20 to 40 meters. Gurgo, vurgo,vora Gurgo (and the related local variations: vurgo, vurgh, vurgl, gurg, gurgh, gurio, jurio ) derives from the Latin gurgus, a variation of gurges which means whirlpool, and is used in the Murge plateau to indicate a karst depression or basin. From the semantic point of view, the term refers to infiltration of water underground after heavy rainfalls: the water accumulates at the base of the depression and is drained in a time ranging from minutes to hours. The site of drainage is often characterized by development of whirlpools. Apart from the hydrologic process of formation, the resulting landscape at the ground surface consists of a doline whose base is generally flat, or filled with fallen material (Colamonico, 1917b, 1920). The walls are vertical or steeply inclined, and often present small caves, which generally

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75Fig. 4: A lama in the inner Murge plateau. Note the soils and terre rosse which outline the development of the karst landform. Fig. 5: View of the Gravina Madonna della Scala at Massafra, in the Taranto province. Note the vertical walls of the valley, which strongly contrast with the flat landscape of the lama shown in Fig. 4.M. Parise, A. Federico & M. Delle Rose & M. Sammarco: Folk karst terminology from Apulia (Southern Italy)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)76Fig. 6: Rock fall blocks (marked with white arrows) along the flank of a gravina Note the high number of caves which were inhabited in medieval age, at the time of the so-called “rupestrian civilization”. Fig. 7: The Gurgo di Andria one of the largest collapse dolines in the Bari province.

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77follow the bedding in the carbonate rock. Colamonico (1919c), in his work on the Gurgo di Andria one of the largest collapse dolines in the Bari province (Fig. 7), points out to the usage since medieval times of the term gurgo in this sector of Apulia to indicate wide pieces of land cultivated with olive trees (Morea, 1892). This testifies to the fact that the term was used to describe large basins or dolines, rich of alluvial and colluvial deposits at the bottom. Cultivation was thus possible at the site, in contrast with the surrounding areas, which at the time were characterized by woods and Mediterranean bush. At the same root could probably be related the term vora even though a second and more likely origin lets it derive from the Latin vorago and the late Latin vora both from vorre which means to devour, to swallow. Vora is used in Salento to indicate a swallow-hole, an abyss (Battisti and Alessio, 1975; Duro, 1986; De Mauro, 1999), generally the vertical entrance to cave, in a way similar to the usage of grave in northern and central Apulia. Local variants of the term are ra, riu, vla, and vjuru (Rohlfs, 1976). 3.6. viso viso comes directly from the Greek ,, which means abyss. It indicates deep shafts or, more generally, the entrance to vertical caves. With this sense, it is mostly used in the Salento peninsula, especially in its central part, where the name is particularly widespread (Delle Rose et al., 2001). It has to be said, on the other hand, that the same term is also used informally in a limited sector of southern Apulia (north-eastern Salento) to indicate morphologic depressions such as spunnulate (see below), partly filled by deposits, and where the calcareous bedrock rarely outcrops. These morphologies result in the presence of palustrian environments when filled by water. Several variations of the term viso ( visu, pisu, usu) can also be found (Rohlfs, 1976). Some are diffuse in other regions of southern Italy, but the meaning can be different to that in Apulia. On the other hand, further terms exist in Apulia with the meaning of abyss. An example is fu which indicates an abyss with a small opening, and is used in the south-eastern part of the Lecce province. Fu derives from the greek = abyss (Rohlfs, 1976). A second example, widespread in the Lecce province, is scunfunnu which derives from the combination of the Latin terms sine (without) and fundus (bottom). 3.7. Spunnulate A dialectal term whose usage is strictly restricted to a specific area of Apulia (namely, the Salento Peninsula) is spunnulate or, in other versions, spundulate, or spundurate The terms have the same root as spunnriu i.e. they derive from the dialectal verb spunnare or spundare which means to break, to sink. Spunnulate consist in fact of wide, not deep, sinkholes (Fig. 8) developed in carbonate rocks mainly of Quaternary age, related to the presence of underground karst cavities. At the surface, rock falls occurring below may produce sinks in the ground, in some cases reaching the surficial water table and creating small lakes or ponds. Spunnulate are widespread along the coastlines of Salento, and their coalescence and evolution (in a way similar to the process of formation of uvala) led in some cases to development of swamp areas. In the southern part of Apulia, the extent of these phenomena, which are strongly favoured by hyperkarst processes (enhanced solution ofM. Parise, A. Federico & M. Delle Rose & M. Sammarco: Folk karst terminology from Apulia (Southern Italy)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)78carbonate rocks due to mixing of fresh groundwater with sea water), is such to justify the concept of karst subsidence (Delle Rose and Federico, 2002; Delle Rose and Parise, in press). The Italian form of the verb to sink is sprofondare ; from this, the term sprofondi derives, which is also used in Latium to designate dolines or depressions partly filled by alluvial deposits or detritus (Anelli, 1959). 3.8. Capovento, ientalora The term capovento has several variations, depending on the different areas of Apulia: capuvintu and capujntu in the Taranto area capijntu in the Lecce province, and capajntu at Brindisi. All these terms indicate a site where water is drained in karst terrains, and which is characterized by breath of wind (wind = vento ). They have probably an endoclimatic origin to indicate the air coming out from a cave, or subterranean entrance (blow hole or wind hole of Cigna and Railton, 1978). The occurrence of breathing of wind coming from holes and fissures in the rocks is generally recognized as a clue for the presence of an underground cave, and as a good reason to perform an attempt to explore it (Badino, 1995). On the other hand, it has to be noted that, even though the origin of the term is clearly related to air circulation, not all of the existing capovento actually present a blowing wind. A similar term, where again the wind is referred to, is intalra local term in the province of Lecce which indicates an abyss, a place where water is swallowed. The term is identical to ventarla which means hole or also opening in the wall of a stall (Rohlfs, 1976). 3.9. Cupa The term cupa derives probably from the Latin word cpa (barrel, bowl) or from the greek (cavity). It has two possible explanations: the first indicates a depression, a doline-like feature in the landscape. In this sense, cupa could describe the overall shape of a doline. This meaning is particularly widespread in Salento, where the name cupa is common, specially in an area south-west of Lecce (Costantini, 1997). Nearby, at the archaeological site of Cavallino, the name cupa indicates a slight morphological depression which has been interpreted as used during the Messapian age for the drainage of water and as water supply system (DÂ’Andria, 1996). On the other hand, in the Italian language the adjective cupo (and the female form cupa ) means primarily deep, dark, with scarce light, which well fits the subterraneous environment. Actually, some caves in Apulia are named after this term; for example, Voragine la Cupa at Castellana-Grotte, and Grave la Cupa and Grotta Cupina at Martina Franca. The word cupa could therefore have a double origin, indicating a morphological feature (bowl doline), or the dark environment within a karst cave.4. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVESA correct use of the terminology is mandatory for a good diffusion of information related to karst, and its evolution, even with respect to the human impact on karst territories. At the same time, terms deriving from local languages and dialects have not to be disregarded or abandoned, since they often provide useful information, even from a simple etymologycal analysis. The complexity of the karst environment, and the inter-relations with man and the anthropogenic

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79activities during the past centuries, and still more today, make particularly suitable a multidisciplinary approach to the study of karst landforms and their evolution. In this sense, the combined and integrated work of professionals with different expertise (geologists, archaeologists, linguists, etc.) may provide interesting results, at least in areas such as the Mediterranean basin where there is a huge historical documentation going back to thousands of years from now. A sample of terms of the Apulian karst has been described in this paper. Many other terms, variable from area to area, could have been added, but a selection had to be chosen here for the sake of brevity. One of the main results from our study is a possible subdivision of the karst landforms examined in this paper on the basis of different criteria, and namely: morphology (gravina, grave, viso, cupa) hydrogeology (vurgo) hypogean climate (capovento, ientalora) genesis (spunnulata) Some of the terms, however, encompasse two or more of these categories, since they can have more than a single origin or etymological root. The approach here presented could be better defined and extended to the many other terms of the Apulian karst, to build a more precise framework of the relationships between karst morphology, language, history and human presence in Apulia. During this study, in addition, it was noticed that the name of many localities in Apulia is strongly related to the presence of water, and/or to peculiar karst phenomena. Since in many cases the anthropogenic activities carried out in the last centuries have strongly changed the original morphology and landforms, investigating these names represents a precious clue to identify old features, today lost, in this karst landscape. In turn, this represents an incentive toward more detailed studies on the toponymy and etymology of terms and localities in the apulian karst. Fig. 8: A spunnulata in the Upper Pleistocene calcarenites of Salento, with evidence of the surficial water table. Acknowledgments: This study has been carried out with funds from GNDCI, U.O. no. 2.36, contract CNR no. 03.00036.GN42M. Parise, A. Federico & M. Delle Rose & M. Sammarco: Folk karst terminology from Apulia (Southern Italy)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)80REFERENCESAnelli, F., 1954: Castellana. Arcano mondo sotterraneo in Terra di Bari. – Comune di CastellanaGrotte, 1992 reprint, 11th ed., p. 176, Castellana-Grotte. Anelli, F., 1959: Nomenclatura italiana dei fenomeni carsici. – Le Grotte d’Italia, ser. 3, 2, 5-36, Castellana-Grotte. Badino, G., 1995: Fisica del clima sotterraneo. – Memorie dell’Istituto Italiano di Speleologia, 7, ser. II, p. 137, Bologna. Baker, V.R., 1990: Spring sapping and valley network development. – In Higgins, C.G. & D.R. Coates, (Eds.): Groundwater geomorphology. – Geological Society of America spec. paper 252, 235-265, Boulder. Baldacci, O., 1962: Puglia. – UTET, Torino. Bates, R.L. & J.A. Jackson, 1987: Glossary of geology. – American Geological Institute, 3rdedition, p. 788, Alexandria, Virginia. Battaglia, S., 1961-2003: Grande dizionario della lingua italiana. – UTET, Torino. Battisti, C. & G. Alessio, 1975: Dizionario etimologico italiano. – G. Barbera ed., Firenze. Belluomini, G., M. Caldara, C. Casini, M. Cerasoli, L. Manfra, G. Mastronuzzi, G. Palmentola, P. Sans, P. Tuccimei & P.L. Vesica, 2002: The age of Late Pleistocene shorelines and tectonic activity of Taranto area, Southern Italy. – Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 525-547. Cigna, A.A. & C.L. Railton, 1978: Glossario speleologico italiano-inglese e inglese-italiano. – Le Grotte d’Italia, VII (4), 215-236, Bologna. Colamonico, C., 1917a: Le conche carsiche di Castellana in Terra di Bari. – Boll. Reale Soc. Geogr. It., fasc. 9-12, 1-39, Roma. Colamonico, C., 1917b: Il bacino carsico di “Gurio Lamanna” nelle Murge Alte. – Mondo Sotterraneo, a. 13, 1-6, 18-22, Udine. Colamonico, C., 1917c: Il Pulo di Altamura. – Mondo Sotterraneo, a. 13, 1-14, Udine. Colamonico, C., 1919a: Il pulicchio di Toritto e la genesi dei puli nel barese. – Boll. Reale Soc. Geogr. It., fasc. 9-12, 578-595, Roma. Colamonico, C., 1919b: Di alcune voragini pugliesi dette “grave”. – Riv. Geogr. It., a. 26, 3-8, Firenze. Colamonico, C., 1919c: Il “Gurgo” di Andria. – Boll. Reale Soc. Geogr. It., fasc. 3-4, 225-229, Roma. Colamonico, C., 1919-20: I cos detti “puli” di Ruvo. – Mondo Sotterraneo, a. 15-16, 1-7, Udine. Colamonico, C., 1920: Di una zona carsica detta “vurgo” in Terra di Bari. – Rend. R. Accad. Sc. Fis. Mat., ser. 3, 26, 1-5, Napoli. Colamonico, C., 1953: Lame e gravine in Puglia. – Le Vie d’Italia, 11, 704, Milano. Cortellazzo, M. & P. Zolli, 1983: Dizionario etimologico della lingua italiana. – Zanichelli, Bologna. Costantini, A., 1997: Architettura e paesaggio rurale nell’area della cupa. – Ed. Salentina, Galatina. Cviji J., 1893: Das karstphnomen. – Geogr. Abh. Von A. Penck, 5, 215-319, Wien. D’Andria, F., 1996: Gnatia Lymphis Iratis Exstructa. L’acqua negli insediamenti della Messapia. – In Uomo, acqua e paesaggio. “L’Erma” di Bretschmeider, 269-279, Napoli. De Giorgi, C., 1884: Cenni di geografia fisica della Provincia di Lecce. – Tip. Ed. Salentina, Lecce. De Juliis, E., 1988: Gli Iapigi. – Longanesi & C., p. 210, Milano. Delle Rose, M. & A. Federico, 2002: Karstic phenomena and environmental hazards in the Salento

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81coastal plains (southern Italy). – Proc. 9th Congr. Int. Ass. Eng. Geol., 1297-1305, Durban, South Africa. Delle Rose, M. & M. Parise, 2003: Il condizionamento di fattori geologico-strutturali e idrogeologici nella speleogenesi di grotte costiere del Salento. – Proc. XIX Nat. Congr. Speleology, 2736, Bologna. Delle Rose, M. & M. Parise, in press: Karst subsidence in south-central Apulia, Italy. International Journal of Speleology. Delle Rose, M., M. Parise, G. Proietto & M. Tartarelli, 2001: L’viso Neviera (Pu 196) a Sogliano Cavour (provincia di Lecce). – Puglia Grotte, boll. Gruppo Puglia Grotte, 35-42, CastellanaGrotte. De Mauro, T., 1999 : Grande dizionario della lingua italiana. – UTET, Torino. Doglioni, C., F. Mongelli & P. Pieri, 1994: The Puglia uplift (SE Italy): an anomaly in the foreland of the apenninic subduction due to buckling of thick continental lithosfere. – Tectonics, 13 (V), 1309-1321. Dunne, T., 1990: Hydrology, mechanics, and geomorphic implications of erosion by subsurface flow. – In Higgins, C.G. & D.R. Coates, (Eds.): Groundwater geomorphology. – Geological Society of America spec. paper 252, 1-28, Boulder. Duro, A., 1986: Vocabolario della lingua italiana. – Ist. Encicl. Ital., Roma. Elba, V., 1969: Terminologia dei fenomeni carsici in Puglia. – Speleologia Emiliana, 7, 1-8, Bologna. Fonseca, C.D., 1980: La Civilt rupestre in Puglia. – In La Puglia fra Bisanzio e l’Occidente. 37116, Milano. Gams, I., 1978: The polje: the problem of definition. – Zeitschrift fr Geomorphologie, 22, 170181, Berlin. Herodot: Historiae. – VII, 169-171. Horace: Epistulae. – I, 13, 10. Mastronuzzi, G. & P. Sans, 2002: Pleistocene sea-level changes, sapping processes and development of valley networks in the Apulia region (southern Italy). – Geomorphology, 46, 19-34. Morea, D., 1892: Il Chartularium del Monastero di S. Benedetto di Conversano. – 1, Montecassino. Orofino, F., 1969: Le grotte pi profonde della Puglia. – L’Alabastro, suppl., 5 (4), 1-23, CastellanaGrotte. Pagliara, C., 1987: La Grotta Poesia di Roca (Melendugno-Lecce). Note preliminari. – Annali Scuola Normale Pisa, 17, 267-328. Palagiano, C., 1965: Sulle lame e gravine della Puglia. – Annali Fac. Econ. Comm., n.s., 21, 357386, Bari. Parise, M., 1999: Morfologia carsica epigea nel territorio di Castellana-Grotte. – Itinerari Speleologici, 8, 53-68, Martina Franca. Parise, M., 2003: Flood history in the karst environment of Castellana-Grotte (Apulia, southern Italy). – Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 4. Parise, M. & V. Pascali, 2003: Surface and subsurface environmental degradation in the karst of Apulia (southern Italy). – Environmental Geology, 44, 247-256. Parlangli, O., 1953: Sui dialetti romanzi e romanici del Salento. – Mem. Ist. Lomb. Sc. Lett., 25 (3), Milano.M. Parise, A. Federico & M. Delle Rose & M. Sammarco: Folk karst terminology from Apulia (Southern Italy)

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)82Rohlfs, G., 1974: Scavi linguistici nella Magna Grecia. – Congedo ed., p. 301, Galatina. Rohlfs, G., 1976: Vocabolario dei dialetti salentini (Terra d’Otranto), I-III. – Congedo ed., Galatina. Segre, A.G., 1947: Aspetti antropici del fenomeno carsico nell’Italia peninsulare. – Memorie di Geografia Antropica, CNR, Roma. Strabon: Geographic. – VI 3, 5-6.



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245KARST SPRINGS OF ALASHTAR, IRAN KRAŠKI IZVIRI ALAŠTAR, IRANMOHAMAD REZA AHMADIPOUR 11Associated Professor, Department of Geology, Lorestan University, Iran. Fax: +98661-22782, Email: ahmadipour_mr@yahoo.com Prejeto / received: 8. 7. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/220244-254LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)246Abstract UDC: 556.3(55) Mohamad Reza Ahmadipour: Karst Springs of Alashtar, Iran Alashtar area is situated in the western part of Iran. The Jurassic Cretaceous dolomitic limestone covers most of the area. There are 5 karstic springs named as Amir, Chenare, Zaz, Honam and Papi. All the springs except the Papi emerge from the Jurassic-Cretaceous limestone.The Papi Spring discharges at the contact of the Jurassic-Cretaceous and the Marly limestone of Eocene age. The springs show variation of discharge during the different periods. Faults and the lineaments are the main avenues for the emergence of the springs. The springs are responsible for the rivers in the plain. The fractures are classified as thrust and normal faults. The faults are mostly formed at the junction of the surrounding carbonate rocks which give a graben structure to the plain. The springs have an important role in recharging the plain. It is due to the fractures and the springs that the plain aquifer has a high potential of water. The discharge of some of the wells is more than 60 l/s.The discharge of the springs varies considerably during the year. Out of these, the Amir Chenare and Honam springs are considered as permanent springs. The annual discharge of the springs is 111 MCM. The hydrochemical analyses of the springs show that all of them are of carbonate type. Key words: karst hydrology, karst spring, Alashtar, Iran. Izvleek UDK: 556.3(55) Mohamad Reza Ahmadipour: Kraški izviri Alaštar, Iran Podroje Alaštar je v zahodnem delu Irana. Veji del ozemlja je iz jursko-krednih dolomitov in apnencev. Tam je pet kraških izvirov: Amir, enare, Zaz, Honam in Papi. Vsi izviri, razen Papija, so v jursko-krednih apnencih. Izvir Papi je na stiku jursko-krednih apnencev z lapornatimi apnenci eocenske starosti. Glavne ile, ki dovajajo vodo izvirom, so prelomi in tektonske linije. Ti izviri so razlog, da po ravnini teejo reke. Prelome lahko razdelimo v narive in normalne prelome. Prelomi se naješe javljajo na stiku apnencev z ravnino, v emer je vzrok, da ima ta strukturo tektonskega jarka. Izviri igrajo veliko vlogo pri napajanju ravnine. Zaradi prelomov in izvirov ima ravninski vodonosnik veliko vode. Tako dajejo nekatere vrtine preko 60 l vode v sekundi. Pretoki izvirov se preko leta precej spreminjajo. Vseeno uvršajo izvire Amir, enare in Honam med stalne izvire. Skupna letna koliina vode je 111 milijonov m3. Hidrokemine analize kaejo, da so vsi izviri karbonatnega tipa. Kljune besede: hidrologija krasa, kraški izvir, Alaštar, Iran.

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247INTRODUCTIONThe area under study with mean annual rainfall of 500 mm is situated in the Zagros Zone, north of the Lorestan province (west of Iran). The catchment area is a 745 square kilometers.GEOLOGYMost of the area consists of carbonate rocks of the Jurassic-Cretaceous dolomitic limestone and the malry limestone of Eocene. The JaurassicCretaceous rocks (Jk) cover most of the area. Due to the development of the fractures and the joints, karstic springs have emerged. The marly limestone lies unconformably on the Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks and acts as an impervious formation at the outlet of the plain .The general geology and liniaments and a view of the jurassic – cretaceous limeston (North west) of the area are shown in figures 1, 2 and 3.WATER RESOURCESWater resources of the area include rivers ,wells, karstic springs and Qanats. The most important river in the area is the Kahman river that receives most of its flow from the Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks in the northern part. The river passes through the plain and has an important role in recharging the groundwater aquifer. The mean annual discharge of the river is 118 million m3.The Kahman river and the Honam river (south-west) of the area, at the outlet of the plain join each other and constitute the Du-ab river.The total annual discharge of the river is 236 million m3. Fig. 1: General geology and the location of the springs.Mohamad Reza Ahmadipour: Karst Springs of Alashtar, Iran

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)248Fig. 3: A view of Jurassic-Cretaceous limestone (North West). Fig. 2: Faults and lineaments of the area.

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249Fig. 4: A view of Zaz spring. Fig.5: A view of Honam spring.Mohamad Reza Ahmadipour: Karst Springs of Alashtar, Iran

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)250Fig. 6: The recession coefficients and the volume of the springs. Fig. 7: A view of Qanat.

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251Fig.8: Piper Digram of the karstic springs. Fig. 9: Relation of Oxygen-18 and Deuetrium of the Karstic springs of the study area.Mohamad Reza Ahmadipour: Karst Springs of Alashtar, Iran

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)252WELLSThe alluvial deposits mostly consists of cobble, sand and clay. The thickness of the deposits varies between 25 and 150 meters. There are 210 wells with discharge from 20 to 65 liters per second. The total discharge of the wells is 38.5 million m3/y. The direction of groundwater flow is northwest to southeast.KARSTIC SPRINGSIn the area under study there are 5 karstic springs named as Chenareh, Amir, Zaz Honam and Papi that emerge along the faults and the joints. The faults can be classified as thrust and normal ones. The situation of the springs are shown in figure 1. The Chenareh, Amir and Zaz springs emerge from the Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks.ZAZ SPRINGThe spring shows high variation of discharge. At times when there is low precipitation the spring becomes completely dry. Figure 4 shows view of the spring. The maximum disharge is 4.7 m3/s. The main source of the spring has a doline shape with a depth of about 3 meters.CHENAREH SPRINGThe spring is situated in the north-west of the area. The maximum discharge is 0.67 m3/s.AMIR SPRINGThe spring is situated in thr northern part of the plain and discharges from the J-C limestone. The maximum discharge is 0.8 m3/s.HONAM SPRINGThis spring emerges from the marly limestone of Eocene age in the eastern part of the area The Honam river receive its water from this spring.The maximum discharge of the spring is 0.8 m3/s. Figure 5 shows the location of the spring.PAPI SPRINGThe spring emerges from the marly limestone near the south of the plain.The maximum discharge is 0.25 m3/s.RECESSION CURVE OF THE KARSTIC SPRINGSThe recession curve of the springs show that the springs have different recession coefficients with different flow regimes. Figure 6 shows the recession coefficients set. On the basis of the curves, the Honam and Amir Springs have one type of flow regime.

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253QANATSThere are two qanats in the north west of the area which are recharged by the Jurassic Cretaceous limestone. The total discharge of the qanats is 1.58 million m3/y. Figure 7 shows a view of one of them.HYDROCHEMICAL STUDYInorder to specify the type of the water samples, the Piper diagram has been drawn (Figure 8). The figure shows that the water samples of the karstic springs are of calcium bicarbonate type.ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPESThe analyses of the water samples of the karstic springs for oxygen-18 and Deuterium was carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA), Vienna in 1993. Unfortunately due to the lack of financial support, the analyses of the environmental isotopes was not carried out for a long duration. Based on the relation of Oxygen-18 and Deuetrium, the samples can be classified into two groups with different recharge areas. The higher concentration of Oxygen-18 and Deuetrium of the springs indicate that these springs are recharged at a lower elevation than the other springs. The relation is shown in figure 9. In this figure, water samples of Shiraz (South west of the Iran) have been correlated with the karstic springs (west of Iran).CONCLUSION-The development of the fractures and the joints are the main avenue for the springs. -The type of the water is of calcium bicabonate. -Study of the recession curve coefficients indicate that the springs have different flow regimes -The higher concentration of oxygen-18 and Deuetrium of the springs of Honam and Papi indicate that these springs are recharged at a lower elevation than the others.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe author thanks Professor Gunnay for his fruitful guidance. He also wishes to thank Mr. B. Ebrahimi for helping in drawing the figures.Mohamad Reza Ahmadipour: Karst Springs of Alashtar, Iran

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)254REFERENCESAhmadipour, M., 1993; Hydrogeological investigations of Alashtar Basin (West of Iran). Hem, M., 1970: Study and interpretation of chemical charactristics of natural water USGS., Water supply paper no.1430 Ahmadipour, M., 1999: Karst terraines in Iran examples from Lorestan. Acta Carsologica 28/2, 213-224. Ahmadipour, M. & B. Ebrahimi, 2000; Groundwater modeling of Alashtar plain. Kss, Werner, 1998: Tracing Technique in Geohydrology.Updated translation of Geohydrologische Markierungstechnik, 1992, XV + 1-581, Rotterdam/Brookfield Davis G. H., 1996: Structural geology of rocks and regions.



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41DOLINES AND SINKHOLES: ASPECTS OF EVOLUTION AND PROBLEMS OF CLASSIFICATION DOLINE IN SINKHOLE Z VIDIKA RAZVOJA IN TE ÂŽ AVE S KLASIFIKACIJOUGO SAURO11Universit degli studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Geografia, Via del Santo 26, 35123 Padova, Italia Prejeto / received: 26. 9. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/2441-52LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)42Abstract UDC: 551.44 Ugo Sauro: Dolines and sinkholes: Aspects of evolution and problems of classification The doline is the most representative landform of the karst surface. The name derives from the word dolina, a Slav term indicating any depression in the topographical surface. For nearly a century, this name acquired widespread use and a well defined meaning in the international literature; as a result it is not possible to substitute it with another term such as “vrta a” or “kraška dolina”, for example, as proposed by some authors (Gams, 1973, 1974). The use of sinkhole as a synonym for doline in the American literature has also created some ambiguity, because sinkhole is mostly applied in the sense of collapse doline or of cover doline. From the detailed studies of the dolines of different karst areas, it is possible to infer that the structure and the genesis of this form may be complex (Sauro, in press – a – and b). The most correct way to define a doline is to add an adjective indicating a peculiar attribute. The most significant attributes are those linked to both the morphogenetical mechanism and the hydrological structure. On the basis of these attributes it is possible to distinguish several categories and types of dolines. Most importantly to understand a doline it is necessary to be able to reconstruct its history even if that may be complex, as some dolines formed by specific processes may later further evolve through different processes. Key words: doline, karst landforms classification, karst morphodynamics. Izvle ek UDK: 551.44 Ugo Sauro: Doline in sinkhole z vidika razvoja in te ave s klasifikacijo Doline, mednarodni izraz za vrta o, je najbolj razširjena površinska oblika na krasu. Ime izhaja iz slovanske besede dolina, ki pomeni depresijo v topografskem površju. V skoraj 100 letih se je izraz razširil in danes ima v mednarodni literaturi dobro dolo en pomen. Zaradi tega ga ni mogo e zamenjati s kakim drugim izrazom, npr. vrta a ali "kraška dolina" kot predlagajo nekateri avtorji (Gams 1973, 1974). Uporaba izraza sinkhole kot sinonima za doline v ameriški literaturi vodi v asih do podvajanj, saj se izraz sinkhole uporablja predvsem za udorno ali pokrito vrta o. Na podlagi podrobnega preu evanja vrta na razli nih kraških ozemljih je mogo e trditi, da je vrta a lahko tako po strukturi kot po nastanku, kompleksna oblika (Sauro in print, a in b). Vrta o lahko najpravilneje opredelimo tako, da dodamo pridevnik, ki pojasnjuje posebnosti. Najpomembnejši pridevniki so tisti, ki so vezani tako na morfogenetske mehanizme kot na hidrološke posebnosti. Na podlagi teh pridevnikov je mogo e razlikovati ve kategorij in tipov vrta Za razumevanje vrta e je najbolj pomembna rekonstrukcija njenega razvoja, pa etudi je ta kompleksen. Klju ne besede: vrta a, klasifikacija kraških oblik, kraška morfodinamika.

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43THE DOLINE: THE MOST REPRESENTATIVE KARST FORMThe morphological type called “dolina” (engl.: doline) in the international scientific literature is surely the most common, typical and representative landform of the karst landscapes. In the monograph by Ford and Williams, this type is considered as the “diagnostic karst landform”. Prof. Gams devoted particular attention to this type of form (1973, 1974, 2000). Ivan Gams, in its “Slovene Karst Terminology”, emphasises how the word “dolina” is commonly used in the Slav countries to cover a very wide meaning; to indicate any depression in the landscape, both open and closed hollows, like river valleys and karst poljes. For this reason, Gams suggests a more specific name for the karst dolina such as the Serbian word “vrta a”, or the new unambiguous word “kra š ka dolina”. In the international scientific literature the terms “doline” and “sinkhole” are both utilised in a very wide sense to indicate medium-sized closed depressions, normally not holding water, in karst areas. Anyway, while the word “doline” is used mostly in Europe with a mainly “morphographic” significance, the term sinkhole is utilised mainly in North America with a predominantly “morphogenetic” meaning. Now, it is not possible to substitute the term dolina (engl.: doline), that is already widely affirmed, with a new one. The mental picture of the word doline is a subcircular bowl or funnel-like depression. That of “sinkhole” is a form which has originated through a gradual or sudden lowering of a portion of the topographical surface. In particular, in engineering geology, a sinkhole is a steep-side closed depression resulting from a sudden collapse downward of the hard rock or of the soft material on the surface. These two different ways of naming closed karst forms often cause ambiguity.THE BASES FOR A CLASSIFICATION OF THE DOLINESProbably the most correct way to define a form is to associate a term bearing a morphographical meaning such as “doline”, with an adjective characterising a peculiar aspect of the “doline” in question. It is possible to consider the dolines from different points of view for example: 1.the form referred to an object (bowl, funnel, pit), or to a geometrical shape (hemispheric, conical, cylindrical), or to the plan form (polygonal, star shaped, irregular, etc.), 2.the size (small, medium, large), 3.the genesis (by accelerated corrosion, by collapse, etc.), 4.the hydrological structure, 5.the functionality 6.the lithology and the tectonics While the first two criteria are not significant to characterise the karst depressions and to distinguish them from other closed depressions in different geomorphological environments, the third criterion allows the distinction between the main categories of dolines (Fig. 1), and in particular:Ugo Sauro: Dolines and sinkholes: Aspects of evolution and problems of classification

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)44Fig. 1: The main categories of dolines. The anthropogenic dolines are not represented. Cave Stalagmites Cave fillings Soluble rocks COLLAPSE DOLINE SUBSIDENCE DOLINE COVER DOLINE INTERSECTIO N DOLINESoluble rocks Cover material Soluble rocks Sandstone Soluble rocks Limestone Limestone Limestone Limestone Concentrated drainage Infiltration and percolation Subsoil karrenACCELERATED SOLUTION DOLINE

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45Fig. 2: The two most known types of accelerated corrosion dolines. A“normal”, dolines, or “accelerated corrosion” dolines, Bcollapse dolines, Csubsidence dolines, Dcover dolines, Eintersection dolines, Fanthropogenic dolines. Between the category of the normal solution dolines, the forth criterion provides the possibility of distinguishing some main types and in particular: A1. drawdown doline, A2. point recharge doline, A3. inception doline, A4. underprinting doline. Between these types, it is possible to recognise sub-types according to points 5 and 6. For example, it is possible to distinguish very active dolines from inactive or relict dolines, “chalk type” dolines from “massive limestone type” dolines, fault line dolines from dolines developed along not displaced fractures, inception dolines determined by cherty lenses from inception dolines determined by the contact of different types of limestones, etc… While types A1 and A2 are already well defined (Ford & Williams, 1989) and generally accepted (Fig. 2), the type A3 is a new one (Fig. 3), firstly described in the Encyclopedia of Caves, awaiting publication now (Sauro, in press a). An “inception doline” results from the focusing of the vertical drainage of a hanging aquifer, hosted in a soluble rock and marked by a diffuse conductivity, through a vent in an impermeable layer situatedUgo Sauro: Dolines and sinkholes: Aspects of evolution and problems of classificationSUBSOIL KARREN CAPILLARY BARRIER INFILTRATION AND PERCOLATION CONCENTRATED DRAINAGE SUBSOIL KARREN CAPILLARY BARRIERINFILTRATION AND PERCOLATION CONCENTRATED DRAINAGE COMMON" ACCELERATED CORRSION DOLINE OR "DRAWDOWN DOLINE POINT RECHARGE DOLINE

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)46just below the bottom of the doline, or through a gap in a different rock formation lying below and showing a lower storage capacity. The concept of inception has been previously introduced for the speleogenesis phenomena (Lowe, 2000) and later utilised by some authors with slightly different meanings. An inception doline starts to form suddenly when the epikarst meets with a pre-existing peculiar structure (lithological and/or tectonic, but not simple fractures or bedding planes), able to focus the drainage and to determine a lowering by accelerated corrosion of the surface above, and, often, the speleogenesis of a vertical pipe below. So, the “inception” is an event in which the hydro-structural conditions of the epikarst suddenly change at a specific point, influenced by litho-structural factors. The root of the term inception is the latin word “incipere”, which means “to begin”, and this type of “normal” doline differs from the others because the forms are characterised by a starting of the hydrological and morphogenetical processes leading to the development of the form which is better defined in space and in time. Typical examples of inception dolines are those developing in the Monti Lessini (Venetian Prealps), just above the contact between the rock formations of Biancone (a chalk type limestone of the lower and middle Cretaceous) and of Rosso Ammonitico of the middle and upper Jurassic (a micritic, massive limestone, crossed by widely spaced fractures) (Fig. 4) (Sauro, 1973, 1974). An underprinting doline is a special type of normal doline, influenced by peculiar structures in the soluble rock found in its location and development, induced by the structure, topography and hydrogeological behaviour of an underlying insoluble buried rock, such as a weathered and fractured granite below a karstifiable rock. This type of doline has been described in a karst developed in the eolianitic rocks of Australia by Twidale and Bourne (2000). In this sense, also Fig. 3: The inception doline, a peculiar type of accelerated corrosion doline, sketched in two sub-types: a) drainage focused by a cherty lens, b) drainage focused according to a change of the lithology of the limestones. a INFILTRATION AND PERCOLATION SUBSOIL KARREN CAPILLARY BARRIER CONCENTRATED DRAINAGE b INFILTRATION AND PERCOLATION SUBSOIL KARREN CAPILLARY BARRIER CONCENTRATED DRAINAGE LESS FRACTURED LIMESTONES CHERTY LEVEL OR LESS PERMEABLE LENS INCEPTION DOLINES

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47the Cenotes of the area of Merida in Yucatan, disposed in correspondence to the outer ring of a deeply buried meteoric impact crater (structure of Chicxulub), could be considered as underprinting dolines. The category of collapse dolines comprehends many forms which are different in type and size and originate from the collapse of the roof of a cave. Amongst these, there are the so called “karst windows”, wide openings between the subterranean world and the outside environment. The subsidence dolines are closed depressions which originate from the settling down of a surface area of an insoluble rock such as a sandstone, following the mass wasting by solution of an underlying soluble rock. The cover dolines (also called “alluvial dolines”) form as a consequence of the “absorption” of unconsolidated clastic sediments inside solution cavities which developed in an underlying soluble rock. The intersection doline forms following the intersection of empty or filled caves by the topographical surface and evolves by the weathering and hydrological processes triggered by such an event. Seen from the prospective of a speleologist, these forms may be called “unroofed caves”, or “roofless caves” (Mihevc, 2001). Fig. 4: A typical inception doline developing just above the contact between the rock units Biancone and Rosso Ammonitico (below) in the Monti Lessini (Venetian Prealps, Italy).Ugo Sauro: Dolines and sinkholes: Aspects of evolution and problems of classification

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)48Fig. 5: Craters of bombs of the first World War partly evolving as dolines. These craters represent peculiar types of anthropogenic dolines. Fig. 6: A line of small, “seismic dolines” induced by an earthquake along a fault reactivated by the seismic shook. The topographical surface is faulted. The dolines are near the Duca degli Abruzzi mountain hut in the Gran Sasso Mountain Group (Gran Sasso d’Italia).

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49Fig. 7: Model of evolution of an isolated drawdown doline in the Monti Lessini (Venetian Prealps), near Bosco Chiesanuova. According with the model this doline originated firstly as a collapse doline and after evolved as a drawdown doline. The model explains the presence of this doline in its peculiar morphotectonic settings. A problem is how to classify such a doline which is a special inherited form starting from a different lithological and evolutionary settings. Ugo Sauro: Dolines and sinkholes: Aspects of evolution and problems of classification cave Biancone(marly and cherty, thickly bedded limestone)Rosso Ammonitico(micritic massive limestone)collapse doline Gruppo di San Vigilio Limestones(oolitic and biosparitic limestones)PRESENT DAY SITUATION drawdown doline "EARLY" SITUATION INTERMEDIATE SITUATION phantom cave

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)50Criterion six allows us to distinguish the dolines on the basis of the lithology. So it is possible to speak of salt dolines, gypsum dolines, limestone dolines, dolostone dolines, lithological contact dolines (for example some dolines developed at the contact point between a limestone and a not soluble rock, such as a basalt). In some peculiar geological and climatic environments it is also possible to find dolines in very low soluble rocks, such as quarzitic sandstones. In the Guiana shield of the Orinoco basin (Venzuela), quarzitic sandstone-dolines exist, which mostly originated from the collapse phenomena of caves which developed over a very long time span (tens of millions of years) in the same rock. The table shows the most common types of dolines which develop in different groups of rocks: LIMESTONES most commonalso present DRAWDOWNPOINT RECHARGE COLLAPSEINCEPTION INTERSECTION GYPSUM AND SALT most commonalso present POINT RECHARGEDRAWDOWN COLLAPSE INCEPTION INTERSECTION The dolines may be also distinguished on the basis of the climatic environment where they form. So, there are the tropical dolines with a star or polygonal plan shape and the middle latitude dolines mostly with a circular plan shape. Peculiar types of dolines are the cenotes, or “water table dolines” which are typical of some tropical areas, and the blue holes or “submarine” dolines. If the distinction is based on the closed shape and/or on the functionality of the form, some anthropic and anthropogenic forms may also be considered as dolines. Worth noting amongst these, are the bomb craters and some quarries. In the Venetian Prealps more than 50% of the First World War bomb craters in some areas now behave like true drawdown dolines (Fig. 5), also because of the strongly fractured rock (Celi, 1991). Some old quarries are now also evolving as dolines. Between the anthropogenic dolines many cover dolines are triggered both by the lowering of the water table connected with the exploitation of the karst aquifers and by mining activities. A relatively uncommon category of dolines is represented by the “seismic dolines”. Along some faults activated during recent earthquakes, it is possible to observe funnel like “dolines”, originating as a result of seismic movements, which when they develop in soluble rocks, evolve later as true karst dolines. Some of the dolines in the mountains of the Abruzzo (Central Italy) could have started or have been triggered by “seismic shocks” (a line of small dolines of this type is visible near the mountain hut Duca degli Abruzzi in the Gran Sasso Mountain Group: Fig. 6).

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51CONCLUSIVE REMARKS ON THE PROBLEMS OF NOMENCLATUREIf there are so many criteria in the definition of a doline, it is a problem to establish what is the priority or most correct way to define the form. If we decided to consider all the criteria, we should prepare a special data base, to be compiled as an “identity card” for each doline. We should insert not only the morphometrical data into this data base, but also the “structure” of the complex landform (included the buried part), the category, the type, the hosting rock, the climatic environment, etc. But, this operation, even if complex and not always easily carried out, sometimes results as inadequate to fully understand the landform. The following example helps to understand some of the problems in providing the definition of a doline. In the Monti Lessini (Venetian Prealps), near Bosco Chiesanuova, inside a mostly fluviokarstic relief there is a medium sized doline. The doline is just uphill of Contrada Gherte, inside a slope made up of oolitic and biosparitic limestones of the formation “Gruppo di San Vigilio Limestones”, where it is difficult to find dolines, except just below the lithological contact between the Rosso Ammonitico (the rock formation above) and the Gruppo di San Vigilio Limestones. Normally, the dolines present just below the lithological contact evolved from collapse dolines which developed in the Rosso Ammonitico itself by the breakdown of the roof of a cave. This type of cave forms below the Rosso Ammonitico or, secondarily, in connection with inception dolines which develops just above the Rosso Ammonitico, in the lower Biancone. So, on the basis of the evolution models for the karst features in the high Monti Lessini, verified by many geomorphological settings (Sauro, 1973, 1974), this doline, probably, started to evolve as a collapse doline, and continues to survive, even if the initial conditions have changed ((Fig. 7). Now the doline is functioning as a drawdown doline, but in its earlier life it was a collapse doline. Which, therefore, is the best name to give it? Is it more important to consider the present day hydro-structural condition or the way it originated? The beginning probably occurred a very long time ago (probably during pre-Quaternary times, if we consider the thickness of rock wasted away as the result of the chemical denudation after the collapsing of the cave roof formed of Rosso Ammonitico). In this case, I believe that it is more correct to consider the present day situation, but, anyway, without the formulation of an evolutionary model it is also difficult to understand such a form. This example helps us understand how complex the history of a doline can be and how problematic the definition of a form with a simple attribute may be, alongside the name. As always nature is much more complex than our schemes and models, and the karst environment represents a very good benchmark to try to improve our understanding.*NOTE Research carried out inside the following research programs: 60% 2002 and 2003: Geosistemi carsici italiani e del Mediterraneo: dinamica, risorse e storia evolutiva.Ugo Sauro: Dolines and sinkholes: Aspects of evolution and problems of classification

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)52LITERATUREBeck, B. F. (1984) Sinkholes: their geology, engineering and environmental impact. (A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam). Celi, M. (1991) The impact of bombs of World War I on limestone slopes of Monte Grappa Proc. Intern. Conf. on Environmental Changes in Karst Areas IGU-UIS, Quaderni del Dip. Geogr. Univ. Padova, 13, 279-287. Ford, D., Williams, P.W. (1989) Karst geomorphology and hydrology. Unwin Hyman, London, 601pp. Gams, I. (1973) Slovene karst terminology. Zveza Geografskih Institucij Jugoslavije, Knjiga 1, Ljubljana, 78 pp. Gams, I. (1974) Kra s Izdala Slovenska matica, Ljubljana, pp. 360. Gams, I. (2000) Doline morphogenetical processes from global and local viewpoi nts. Acta Carsologica, 29/2, pp. 123-138. Lowe, D. J. (2000) Role of stratigraphic elements in speleogenesis; the speleoinception concept In: Klimchouk, A., Ford, D.C., Palmer, A. N., Dreybrodt, W. (editors ) Speleogenesis evolution of karst aquifers. National Speleological Society 65-76. Mihevc, A. (2001) The speleogensis of the Diva a Karst (in Slovene). Zalo ba ZRC, ZRC SAZU, Ljubljana, v. 27, 180 pp. Sauro, U. (1973) Il Paesaggio degli alti Lessini. Studio geomorfologico. Museo Civico Storia Naturale di Verona, Mem. f. s. 6, 161 pp. Sauro, U. (1974) Aspetti dell’evoluzione carsica legata a particolari condizioni litologiche e tettoniche negli Alti Lessini Boll. Soc. Geol. It., 93, 945-969. Sauro, U. (in press -a) Closed depressions in karst areas In: “The Encyclopedia of Caves”, Elsevier. Sauro, U. (in press -b) The dolina: emblematic and problematic karst landform. In Physical Geography facing new Challenges. Proc. of the Symposium in honour for Prof. I. Gams. Academy of Sciences and University of Ljubljana (in press). Twidale, C.R. and J.A. Bourne (2000) Dolines of the Pleistocene dune calcarenite terrain of western Eyre Peninsula, South Australia: a reflection of underprinting? Geomorphology 33, pp. 89–105.



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53THE USE OF STRUCTURAL GEOLOGICAL TERMS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE FOR KARST CAVES UPORABA STRUKTURNO GEOLOŠKIH IZRAZOV IN NJIHOV POMEN ZA KRAŠKE JAMESTANKA ŠEBELA1Prejeto / received: 25. 8. 20031 Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, SI-6230 Postojna, Slovenia, sebela@zrc-sazu.siACTA CARSOLOGICA32/2553-64LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)54Abstract UDC: 551.44:001.4 Stanka Šebela: The use of structural geological terms and their importance for karst caves Structural geological studies on karst areas operate with the same structural geological terms as on other geological regions. But because of special geomorphologic terms characterized for karst areas, some structural geological elements, which are in a special way connected with particular karst forms, are used as a special terms, different from those used on non-karstic areas. For Slovene karst we need to divide two most important structural elements that are important for development of cave passages, bedding planes and tectonic structures. And between bedding planes the ones that are tectonically disrupted are very favorable for development of initial cave passages. In the longest Slovene karst caves as Postojnska jama caves, Predjama and Škocjanske jame caves interbedded movements, thrusting and folding deformations, and tectonically broken zones (fissured, broken and crushed zones) are very favorable for initial, and also for older and younger stages of passage development. Key words: structural geological terms, karst caves, Slovenia. Izvle ek UDK: 551.44:001.4 Stanka Šebela: Uporaba strukturno geoloških izrazov in njihov pomen za kraške jame Strukturno geološke raziskave na kraških terenih zajemajo enake strukturno geološke izraze kot na drugih geoloških terenih. Ker pa imamo na krasu opravka s posebnimi geomorfološkimi izrazi, se nekateri strukturno geološki elementi, ki so na poseben na in povezani z dolo enimi kraškimi oblikami, uporabljajo kot posebni termini, ki so razli ni od terminov v uporabi na nekraških terenih. Na slovenskem krasu lahko lo imo dva najpomembnejša strukturna elementa, ki sta pomembna za razvoj jamskih rovov, in sicer lezike in tektonske strukture. Med lezikami so za razvoj inicialnih rovov posebno ugodne tektonsko deformirane lezike. V najdaljših slovenskih jamah, kot so Postojnska, Predjama in Škocjanske jame so za razvoj rovov v inicialnih, kot tudi v starejših in mlajših obdobjih zelo ugodni medplastni zmiki, deformacije narivanja in gubanja ter tektonsko pretrte cone (razpoklinske, porušene in zdrobljene). Klju ne besede: strukturno geološki izrazi, kraške jame, Slovenija.

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55INTRODUCTIONGeological structure is one of the keys for understanding the development and formation of karst areas. Structural geological studies on karst areas operate with the same structural geological terms as on other geological regions. But because of special geomorphological terms characterised for karst areas, some structural geological elements, which are in a special way connected with particular karst forms, are used as a special terms, different from those used on non-karstic areas. We need to divide: bedding planes (tectonically disrupted) tectonic structures (faults, thrusting and folding deformations, tectonically broken zones).TECTONICALLY DISRUPTED BEDDING PLANESOn numerous limestone beds in Postojnska jama cave system it was possible to determine tectonic striae which give an indication of interbedded movements (Table 1) which occurred during the formation of the Postojna anticline (Gospodari 1965 and 1976). Some bedding planes have double striation what shows there have been two tectonic processes: the older one having folded the strata, and younger faulting where horizontal movements of the blocks were formed (Gospodari 1964). ar & Gospodari (1984) mentioned Lower Cretaceous limestone beds with striation on the bedplanes The importance of bedding planes emphasised by interbedded movements was determined in Postojnska jama cave system (Šebela 1998). In the same study (Šebela 1998) we used the terms: interbedded movements deformed bedding bedding planes broken by interbedded movements and s lipped bedding planes. The expression moved bedding planes was used in 1998 by ar & Šebela. Fig. 1: Cross-section showing imbricate structure between roof and floor thrusts. The dotted line shows the displacement of one horizon (from Farris Lapidus 1990). Slika 1: Pre ni profil prekritih struktur med zgornjim in spodnjim narivom. rtkane linije ka ejo premike enega horizonta (iz Farris Lapidus 1990). Stanka Šebela: The use of structural geological terms and their importance for karst caves

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)56Table 1: Terms used for tectonically disrupted bedding planes. Tabela 1: Uporaba izrazov za tektonsko deformirane lezike. THE AUTHOR YEAR TERM IN ENGLISHTERM IN SLOVENE Gospodari 1964bedding planes have doublelezike imajo striationdvojne raze 1965 and 1976interbedded movementsmedplastni zdrsi Davies1960bedding plane openingsodprtine ob lezikah Ford & Ewers1978dif ferential slippingdiferencialni zdrs Placer1982interbedded movementsmedplastni premiki ar & Gospodari 1984limestone beds with striationskladi apnenca on the bedplanesz drsinami ob lezikah ar & Šebela1998moved bedding planeszdrsne lezike Šebela1998bedding planes emphasisedlezike poudarjene z by interbedded movementsmedplastnimi zdrsi interbedded movementsmedplastni zdrsi so deformed beddingdeformirali plastnatost bedding planes broken bylezike deformirane z interbedded movementsmedplastnimi zdrsi slipped bedding planeszdrsne lezike Knez1998interbedded slidesmedplastni zdrsi formative bedding-planenosilna lezika Fowler & Winsor1997 bedding slip planeoblezi na zdrsna ploskev interlayer slipmedplastni zdrs Cooke & Pollard1997frictional slip alongfrikcijski zdrs vzdol bedding planeslezik Nio et al.1998Bed-parallel slipzdrs vzporeden lezikam Koehn & Passchier 2000bedding-parallel slip zdrs vzporeden lezikam In 1998 Knez stated that cave passages or their fragments and other traces of the underground karstification do not appear scattered at random on the walls of the Velika dolina in Škocjanske jame caves but are obviously gathered along small number of so called formative bedding-planes A f ormative bedding-plane is defined as the bedding-plane where the early stage of speleogenesis started, generally up to the point of breakthrough from laminar to turbulent flow. At such beddingplanes the primary cave channels formed. Formative bedding-planes differ from others because the rock along these bedding-planes is typically damaged, indicating an interbedded slipping. In any bedded limestone formation there are a great many bedding planes but only a small proportion are utilized during cave formation. Very often these display some clear feature that explains their preferential selection, such as a shale parting, a discontinuous chert filling, or slickensiding and minor brecciation indicative of differential slipping (Ford & Ewers 1978, Renault 1967, Waltham 1971). Within stress zone fractures and bedding plane openings afford routes along which solution occurs (Davies 1960).

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57TECTONIC STRUCTURESBetween tectonic structures important for the formation of cave passages we need to divide: thrusting (duplex, thrust faults) folding (folds) faulting (tectonically broken zones, reverse and normal faults, strike-slip faults). Duplex (Figure 1) is a series of imbricate thrust wedges bounded by a lower floor or sole thrust and an upper roof thrust. The individual imbricate units, which are lens-like in form and bounded on all sides by faults, are called horses (Farris Lapidus 1990). Imbricate structure or imbrication is a tectonic structure in which a series of lesser thrust faults that overlap, and are nearly parallel, are all oriented in the same direction, which is towards the source of stress (Farris Lapidus 1990). Duplex is a stack of thrust-bounded rock slices, bounded by a roof thrust and a floor thrust, formed through continued thrusting along the floor thrust with successive collapse of thrust ramps ( www .schottishgeology .com/glossary .html). In Stara Jama (Postojnska jama cave) the bedding is strongly tectonically deformed (Figure 2). In some places bedding planes are opened, inside them we can observe a 0,5 cm thick layer of secondary sparitic calcite veins. At the time of folding some bedding planes were deformed with interbedded movements. Interbedded movements can cross from one bedding plane to another. All bedding planes are not tectonically deformed, but in Stara Jama such bedding planes prevail ( ar & Šebela 1998). In fact we have the example of a small scale duplex. Fig.2: Duplex in Stara jama, Postojnska jama cave (photo by. S. Šebela). Slika 2: Duplex v Stari jami, Postojnska jama (foto S. Šebela).Stanka Šebela: The use of structural geological terms and their importance for karst caves

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)58In structural geological literature we find many examples of duplex forms. The la Cagalire duplex (Averbuch et al. 1992, Laumonier et al. 1995, Frizon de Lamotte et al. 1997) is a well exposed hectometric scale structure situated at the front of the Lagrase fold (NE Pyrenees, France). It is made up of 4 sheets of Eocene limestone (Figure 3) sandwiched between a floor thrust which is the upper flat of the Lagrasse ramp related fold and a roof thrust flooring its allochtonous forelimb. The la Cagaliere duplex has been built between the folding and the out of sequence thrusting perhaps during the change in the tectonic transport direction (Frizon de Lamotte et al. 1997). Even if the la Cagaliere duplex is a big scale duplex the mechanism of the formation could be compared with small scale duplex in Stara jama. The best example of folding deformations in Postojnska jama caves is so-called Postojna anticline (Gospodari 1976, Šebela 1998). Detailed structural-lithological mapping of karst surface ( ar 1982, ar & Gospodari 1984 and 1988) and karst underground (Gospodari 1976, Šebela & ar 1991, Šebela 1998) opened the discoussion about the need for new structural geological terms for karst. Gospodari (1976) mostly used widely prevalent structural geological terms and used them for karst areas. ar (1982) was the first one to determine new division for tectonically broken zones on karst. Maja Kranjc from Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU (Postojna, Slovenia) translated them into English. In his papers Placer (1981, 1982) described the characterictics of exterior and inner fault zone (Table 2). He mentioned fissured zone but did not introduce it into karst. Fig. 3: La Cagaliere duplex, NE Pyrenees, France ( http://www .u-cer gy .fr/r ech/labo/equipes/tecto/Equipe/Christine_page_web/tt99.htm). Slika 3: La Cagaliere duplex, SV Pireneji, Francija ( http://www .u-cer gy .fr/r ech/labo/equipes/tecto/Equipe/Christine_page_web/tt99.htm).

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59Table 2 Terms used for tectonically broken zones in carbonate rocks. Tabela 2 Uporaba izrazov za tektonsko pretrte cone v karbonatnih kamninah. THE AUTHOR YEAR TERM IN ENGLISHTERM IN SLOVENE ar1982griked fissured zoneškrapasta razpoklinska cona tectonic claytektonska glina milonitemilonit tectonic flour and grittektonska moka in zdrob tectonic brecciatektonska bre a ar &1982fissured zonerazpoklinska cona Gospodari 1984 and 1988weak fissured zonešibka razpoklinska cona strong fissured zonemo na razpoklinska cona broken zoneporušena cona crushed zonezdrobljena cona Placer1981 and 1982exterior fault zonezunanja prelomna cona inner fault zonenotranja prelomna cona fissured zonerazpoklinska cona Fig. 4: Geological cross-section of Velika gora collapse chamber. 1-collapse blocks, 2-Upper Cretaceous limestone with interbedded slips, 3-fault zone with vertical movement, 4-weak and strong fault with strike direction, 5-fissured zone. Slika 4: Geološki profil podorne dvorane Velika gora. 1-podorni bloki, 2-Zg. kredni apnenci z medplastnimi zdrsi, 3-prelomna cona z vertikalnim premikom, 4-šibka in mo na prelomna cona s smerjo vpada, 5-razpoklinska cona. Stanka Šebela: The use of structural geological terms and their importance for karst caves

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)60Gospodari (1976) was the first who performed detailed geological mapping of karst surface and underground in Slovenia. In the 1970s and early 1980s detailed structural geological mapping (1:5.000) of Planina polje ponor area was performed by ar (1982). Tectonic conditions were studied in detail and described on the base of the tectonical map. The structures were defined on the base of deformed rock and space orientation ( ar & Gospodari 1984). Regarding the tectonic fracturing of carbonate rocks we can distinguish three zone species: Fractured zone is practically impermeable, caracterized by tectonic clay tectonic breccia and milonite “flour” and “grit” Partly and well permeable are collapsed zones, while fissured zones present an excellent permeable region thus in limestones as dolomites ( ar 1982). Tectonically fractured zones have been divided by ar (1982) into three subdivisions: fissured zone (least fractured, stratification still visible) broken (more fractured, rock often occurs as blocks, may be physically displaced, stratification not visible crushed zone (most fractured, stratification has been destroyed, tectonic breccia often present). Translation by Aldwel in Knez et al. 1995. The formation of Velika gora collapse chamber in Postojnska jama cave (Šebela 1995) is connected with the possition and reactivation of a reverse fault situated on the NE edge of the collapse chamber. The fault was probably reactivated during the speleological history of the cave and thus the formation of the collapse chamber depends on the fault activity. Fig. 5: The NE edge of Velika gora collapse chamber is formed along a reverse fault (ph. J. Hajna). Slika 5: SV rob podorne dvorane Velika gora se je oblikoval ob reverznem prelomu (foto J. Hajna).

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61CONCLUSIONSBy detailed structural-lithological mapping of principal Slovene karst caves (Postojnska jama caves, Predjama and Škocjanske jame caves) it was determined that: interbedded slips thrusting deformations folding deformations and tectonically broken zones (fissured, broken and crushed zones) are very favorable for initial and also for older and younger stages of passage development. Even though in Slovenian karst areas the expressions such as interbedded slips and interbedded movements are mostly used, some authors working with structural geology use different terms. Fowler & Winsor (1997) are describing interlayer slip that strongly influences the characteristics of fold growth. Bedding slip planes were identified as those showing: (1) bedding-parallel laminated veins or veins with consistently inclined fibres; and/or (2) striated (usually slick-ensided) bedding surfaces. Bedding slip planes and associated slip-striated laminated quartz veins developed during flexural-slip folding (Fowler & Winsor 1997). Frictional slip along bedding planes contributes to fault-related folding of layered rocks. Slip along bedding planes contributes to and is evidence of folding. This so-called flexural slip is manifest either as shear failure (e.g. distributed deformation in shales between stronger sandstone or carbonate units) or as frictional sliding on bedding interfaces between similar lithologies. Deformation mechanisms associated with flexural-slip folding may include frictional slip and/or joint development within flexed beds. Flexural-slip folding is a major component of the deformational process near faults within contractional and extensional tectonic regimes (Cooke & Pollard 1997). Co-seismic slip along bedding planes observed within actively deforming folds (Yeats 1986) confirms the contribution of this mechanism to folding during earthquakes. Nio, Philip & Chery (1998) use the expression bed-parallel slip and Koehn & Passchier (2000) bedding-parallel slip. For understanding the formation of karst features as grikes, karren, dolines, collapse dolines ar (1982) and ar & Gospodari (1984 and 1988) made an important step forward by division of tectonically fractured zones. Recently the structural bases for shaping of dolines was introduced by ar (2001).REFERENCESAverbuch, O., Frizon de Lamotte, D. And Kissel, C., 1992: Magnetic fabric as a structural indicator of the deformation path within a fold-thrust structure: a test case from the Corbi res (NE Pyrenees, France).Journal of Structural Geology, v. 14, 461-474. Cooke M. L. & Pollard, D. D., 1997: Bedding-plane slip in initial stages of fault-related folding.Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 19, Nos 3-4, 567-581. ar, J., 1982: Geološka zgradba po iralnega obrobja Planinskega polja (Geological setting of the Planina polje ponor area).Acta carsologica X (1981), 75-105, Ljubljana. ar, J. & Gospodari R., 1984: O geologiji krasa med Postojno, Planino in Cerknico (About geology of karst among Postojna, Planina and Cerknica).Acta carsologica XII (1983), 91-106, Ljubljana.Stanka Šebela: The use of structural geological terms and their importance for karst caves

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)62 ar, J. & Gospodari R., 1988: Geološka zgradba in nekatere hidrološke zna ilnosti bruhalnika Lijaka (Geological setting and some hydrological properties of Lijak effluent).Acta carsologica XVII, 13-32, Ljubljana. ar, J. & Šebela, S.,1998: Bedding planes, moved bedding planes, connective fissures and horizontal cave passages (Examples from Postojnska jama cave).Acta carsologica XXVII/2, 75-95, Ljubljana. ar, J., 2001: Structural bases for shaping of dolines.Acta carsologica 30/2, 239-256, Ljubljana. Davies W. E., 1960: Origin of caves in Folded Limestone.NSS Bulletin, vol. 22, part 1, 5-18. Farris Lapidus D., 1990: Collins dictionary of geology.-565 p., London and Glasgow. Ford D. C. & Ewers, R.O., 1978: The development of limestone cave system in the dimensions of length and depth.Can. J.Earth Sci., 15, 1783-1798. Fowler, T.J. & Winsor, C.N., 1997: Characteristics and occurrence of bedding-parallel slip surface and laminated veins in chevron folds from the Bendigo-Castlemaine goldfields: implications for flexural-slip folding.Journal of Structural geology, Vol. 19, No. 6, 799-815. Frizon de Lamotte, D., Mercier, E., Dupr la Tour, A., Robion, P. & Averbuch, O., 1997: Cinmatique du plissement et dformation interne des roches. L’exemple du pli de Lagrasse.C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 324, srie II a, 592-598. Gospodari R., 1964: Sledovi tektonskih premikov iz ledene dobe v Postojnski jami (Traces of the tectonic movements in the glacial period in the Postojna cave).Naše jame 5 (1963), 5-11, Ljubljana. Gospodari R., 1965: Tektonika ozemlja med Pivško kotlino in Planinskim poljem ter njen pomen za sistem Postojnskih jam.179 pp. Postojna, unpublished report. Gospodari R., 1976: Razvoj jam med Pivško kotlino in Planinskim poljem v kvartarju (The Quaternary Caves Development Between the Pivka Bassin and Polje of Planina).Acta carsologica 7, 8-135, Ljubljana. http://www .u-cer gy .fr/rech/labo/equipes/tecto/Equipe/Christine_page_web/tt99.htm Knez, M., Kogovšek, J., Kranjc, A., Mihevc, A., Šebela, S. & Zupan Hajna N., 1995. National report for Slovenia. In: COST action 65: hydrogeological aspects of groundwater protection in karstic areas: final report.Luxembourg: European commission, 247-260, Brussels, Luxembourg. Knez, M., 1998: The influence of bedding-planes on the development of karst caves (A study of Velika dolina at Škocjanske jame caves, Slovenia).Carbonates and Evaporites, vol. 13, number 2, 121-131. Koehn, D. & Passchier, C. W., 2000: Shear sense indicators in striped bedding-veins.Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 22, No. 8, 1141-1151. Laumonier, B., Marignac, C. And Gasquet, D., 1995: Cinmatique d’un front de chevauchement: l’avant-pays de la nappe des Corbiere aux environs de Lagrasse (Aude, France).C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 321, srie II a, 1195-1201. Nio, F., Philip. H. & Chery, J., 1998: The role of bed-parallel slip in the formation of blind thrust faults.Journal of Structural geology, Vol. 20, No. 5, 503-516. Placer, L., 1981: Geološka zgradba jugozahodne Slovenije (Geologic structure of southwestern Slovenia).Geologija 24/1, 27-60, Ljubljana. Placer. L., 1982: Tektonski razvoj idrijskega rudiš a (Structural history of the Idrija mercury deposit).Geologija 25/1, 7-94, Ljubljana.

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63Renault, P., 1967: Le probleme de la Splogense. Annales de splologie, 22, 5-21, 209267. Šebela, S. & ar, J., 1991: Geological setting of collapsed chambers in Vzhodni rov in Predjama cave.Acta carsologica 20, 205-222, Ljubljana. Šebela, S., 1995: Geološke osnove oblikovanja najve je podorne dvorane v Postojnski jami-Velike gore.Annales 7/95, 111-116, Koper. Šebela, S., 1998: Tectonic structure of Postojnska jama cave system.Zalo ba ZRC 18, 112 pp., Ljubljana. Waltham, A.C., 1971: Controlling factors in the development of caves. Transactions of the Cave Research Group of Great Britain, 13, 73-80. www .schottishgeology .com/glossary .html Yeats, R.S., 1986: Active faults related to folding.In Studies in Geophysics ed. Wallace R.E., 63-79, National Academic Press, Washington, DC.UPORABA STRUKTURNO GEOLOŠKIH IZRAZOV IN NJIHOV POMEN ZA KRAŠKE JAME PovzetekRazumevanje geološke zgradbe je eden od klju nih elementov razumevanja razvoja in oblikovanja kraških terenov. Strukturno geološke raziskave na kraških terenih zajemajo enake strukturno geološke izraze kot na drugih geoloških terenih. Ker pa imamo na krasu opravka s posebnimi geomorfološkimi izrazi, se nekateri strukturno geološki elementi, ki so na poseben na in povezani z dolo enimi kraškimi oblikami, uporabljajo kot posebni termini, ki so razli ni od terminov v uporabi na nekraških terenih. Na slovenskem krasu lahko lo imo dva najpomembnejša strukturna elementa, ki sta pomembna za razvoj jamskih rovov, in sicer: lezike (tektonsko deformirane) in tektonske strukture (prelomi, deformacije narivanja in gubanja, tektonsko pretrte cone (razpoklinske, porušene in zdrobljene)). V Tabeli 1 so zbrani podatki o uporabi izrazov za tektonsko deformirane lezike. V Postojnski jami je medplastne zdrse prvi omenjal Gospodari (1965, 1976). V 90-ih letih smo uporabljali izraze kot: zdrsne lezike, lezike poudarjene z medplastnimi zdrsi, medplastni zdrsi so deformirali plastnatost in lezike deformirane z medplastnimi zdrsi ( ar & Šebela 1998, Šebela 1998). Dejstvo je, da so medplastni zdrsi povezani z razvojem Postojnske antiklinale (Gospodari 1976, Šebela 1998). Na primeru študije Velike doline v Škocjanskih jamah je Knez (1998) vpeljal izraz nosilna lezika V Tabeli 2 so predstavljeni izrazi, ki se uporabljajo za tektonsko pretrte cone v karbonatnih kamninah. V Stari jami v Postojnski jami (Slika 3) najdemo mo no tektonizirane lezike. V primerjavi z duplexom la Cagalire (Slika 4) (Averbuch et al., 1992; Laumonier et al., 1995; Frizon de Lamotte et al., 1997) lahko tudi v Stari jami govorimo o duplexu manjših dimenzij. Oblikovanje duplexa (Slika 2) je povezano z narivanjem in gubanjem.

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)64Podorna dvorana Velika gora v Postojnski jami (Slika 4 in 5) se je oblikovala ob dinarsko usmerjenem reverznem prelomu. Reaktiviranje prelomne cone in odnašanje podornega materijala je ustvarjalo pogoje za oblikovanje podorne dvorane (Šebela, 1995). V letih 1982 ( ar) ter 1984 in 1988 ( ar & Gospodari) je bila vpeljana klasifikacija tektonsko pretrtih con na: razpoklinsko, porušeno in zdrobljeno cono V letu 2001 je ar svojo klasifikacijo uporabil tudi za razlago strukturnih osnov oblikovanja vrta. V najdaljših slovenskih jamah, kot so Postojnska, Predjama in Škocjanske jame so za razvoj rovov v inicialnih, kot tudi v starejših in mlajših obdobjih zelo ugodni medplastni zmiki, deformacije narivanja in gubanja ter tektonsko pretrte cone (razpoklinske, porušene in zdrobljene).



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121FORMATION OF THE CERKNIŠICA AND THE FLOODING OF CERKNIŠKO POLJE NASTANEK CERKNIŠICE IN POPLAVLJENJE CERKNIŠKEGA POLJAFRANCE ŠUŠTERŠI1 & SIMONA ŠUŠTERŠI21France Šušterši, University of Ljubljana, Dept. of Geology, Aškereva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; e-mail: france.sustersic@ntfgeo.uni-lj.si2Simona Šušterši, Laze 22, SI-1370 Logatec, Slovenia; e-mail: simona_sustersic@hotmail.com Prejeto / received: 17. 4. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/210121-136LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)122Abstract UDC: 551.44:556.166 France Šušterši & Simona Šušterši: Formation of the Cerknišica and the flooding of Cerkniško polje Detailed study of the upper Cerknišica’s catchment and its sediments in Cerkniško polje revealed that the river turned this direction in the middle Wrm, while in the more remote past, the input to Cerkniško polje (and to the caves) was completely karstic. Its alluvial fan cut the main vertical ponors, and deflected the main polje outflow westwards, indirectly into Planinsko polje. Consequently, recent hydrogeological conditions in Planinska jama are a direct consequence of development in Cerkniško polje. Key words: karst of Slovenia, Cerkniško polje, polje, Notranjski kras, flooding of poljes. Izvleek UDK: 551.44:556.166 France Šušterši & Simona Šušterši: Nastanek Cerknišice in poplavljenje Cerkniškega polja Podrobna raziskava gornjega poreja Cerknišice in njenih sedimentov v Cerkniškem polju je pokazala, da se je reica v kotanjo polja pretoila šele srednjem Wrmu, medtem ko je bil dotok v Cerkniško polje (in ponorne jame) dotlej popolnoma kraški. Njen vršaj je odrezal severne ponore in preusmeril glavni dotok s polja proti zahodu, posredno na Planinsko polje. Zato so današnje hidrološke razmere v Planinski jami neposredna posledica dogajanj na Cerkniškem polju. Kljune besede: kras Slovenije, Cerkniško polje, kraško polje, Notranjski kras, poplavljanje kraških polj.

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123INTRODUCTIONIn earlier papers concerning the Late Quaternary dynamics of Planinska jama (Šušterši et al 2002-a, 2002-b) we stated that, among other catastrophic events, inrush of the Rak into the Eastern Branch in Wrm II changed the situation the most radically. New quantities of water reversed the preexisting flow direction in the Eastern Branch and joined the Pivka to form the Unica river, followed by redirection of the outflow into the Northern Branch. This paper sets out to discuss the wider circumstances of why at some specific moment general circumstances in the hydrological backgroundof the Eastern Branch changed so radically. Today the Rak at the lower water level is true, integral, and not increased continuation of the Cerknišica. (Gams, 1966, 15). Thus, it appears that the roots of the development of Planinska jama must be sought in Cerkniško polje2. Most of its tributaries are karstic; i.e. they emerge from karstic springs on the polje border, only the Cerknišica River provides the only significant nonkarstic input less table than purely karstic springs.ACTIVE DRAINAGE OF CERKNIŠKO POLJEAt present Cerkniško polje drains into vertical ponors and cave ponors. Vertical ponors are narrow and tight, evidently immature and unmodified openings in the rock beneath the alluvial cover. If the present, artificially constrained, Cerknišica did not flow into the artificially modified Karlovice Cave, all of the lower waters would disappear into vertical ponors on the extreme southern margin of the alluvial cone lobe. Complex water tracing experiments revealed relatively rapid (7.4cm s-1) underground flow between the Vodonos (vertical) ponor and the Ljubljanica springs (Fig.1), confirming that highly transmissive karst channels lie between (Gospodari & Habi, 1976). So, any significant obstacles must occur only at the beginning of the route, and this can be explained because the vertical ponors merely provide shortcuts to a partly reactivated Loško system (See Fig.1 and the following text!). Newly developed sinks in the Cerknišica alluvial cone indicate that fluvial sediment has buried a previously active ponor area. This is most clearly evident at the toe of the cone were recent sapping is so intense that local inhabitants must permanently backfill the holes. This implies that the present (post-Wrm) situation is unstable, and the sinking river is re-establishing its former conditions. Presently the proportion of water that disappears into particular types of ponors is related directly to the absolute amount available and the nature of the actual contribution. Gospodari & Habi (o.c., 120) estimated the present total capacity of all of the vertical ponors as being larger than 6m3s-1, whereas the capacity of the cave ponors exceeds 20m3s-1 (o.c., 124). Consequently, it can be concluded that, when the lake is full and all of the ponors are active, an average of 20% of the total outflow passes directly to the Ljubljanica springs at Vrhnika. Meanwhile, the other 80% turns towards North-west and, further, to the Eastern Branch of Planinska jama. Cave ponor openings are ranged along the precipitous, extreme northwestern embayment of Cerkniško polje. After crossing the alluvial cone the river flows over the flat, loamy sediment in the extreme north-western corner of the polje for about 1km, and disappears into the main (Karlovice3) ponor caves. Gams (1966) demonstrated that this cave collects water from a wide area, and Šušterši et al. (2001) offered a structural explanation. This ponor system is here termedFrance Šušterši & Simona Šušterši: Nastanek Cerknišice in poplavljenje Cerkniškega polja

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)124the Karlovice4 system (Fig.1). The system continues directly to Zelške jame, which is the main inflow cave in the Rakov Škocjan Valley. Most visitors’ first impressions are that the main channels are epiphreatic, whereas other explored channels, i.e. older, fragmentary, passages up to about 60m above the present water table, are mostly phreatic. This becomes especially clear within the entrance part of Zelške jame, where there are several phreatic jumps in close proximity. On the other hand, even in untamed parts of the cave the piles of pebbles are insignificant. This means that water sinking at present may be capable of transporting minor quantities of alluvial load originating in the cone, or even in more remote upper parts of the catchment area, but the total input of mechanical load into the underground is minimal. However, study of Profile 5 of Pleniar (1953) reveals that the compact cone does not extend as far as the cave ponors. During flood flow the river may bring some pebbles into the cave, but the abrasive effect is probably modest, compared to what could be achieved if the cave opening were in contact with, the compact alluvial cone. In the past the distance between the toe of the cone and the cave was much larger, and the erosional effect of the mechanical load was correspondingly smaller. Knowledge of land drainage and reclamation during the past few centuries (Gams, o.c., 9-11) raises the additional question of what the “natural conditions” were like. Early authors particularly emphasised the human-induced deepening of the main entrance for a few metres5. Reconstructions of the earlier riverbeds (Gospodari & Habi, 1979, Fig.18), before the river was artificially controlled, offers more direct information. It appears that none of the recognised former main stream routes flowed into the cave ponors before human intervention. So, the statements above, that despite being permanently exposed to in-filling vertical ponors are more “attractive” than cave ponors in the longer term and, if undisturbed, they could divert more water than presently, gains added validity. Consequently, addressing the questions of the real former importance of the Karlovice system and which agent led to its reactivation by the polje outflow (the present Rak), becomes unavoidable.ABANDONED CAVE SYSTEMS AT THE NORTHERN PART OF CERKNIŠKO POLJEThe Cerknišica enters the polje basin through a canyon-like valley, named Kurja dolina by the local people (Fig.1). After leaving the valley the river crosses its own alluvial cone, which covers the northeastern part of the polje. A canyon on its own is a short-lived, transitional feature of a drastically rejuvenated fluvial system. In contrast, most of the upper Cerknišica catchment area appears to be a relatively well equilibrated fluvio-denudational surface, adapted to a base level of about 610m around the village of Begunje (S. Šušterši, 2002-a, 38), This is about 40m higher than the present main stream elevation at Begunje. Modern incision within the upper Cerknišica basin, triggered by reversal of the Cerknišica into Cerkniško polje, and consequently driven by a lowering of the outlet by about 40m, has influenced only the main tributaries, to form deep, narrow valleys (S. Šušterši, 2002-b). Reversal of the river flow was confirmed long ago. Early authors (A. Melik, 1928; J. Rus, 1925; see F. Šušterši 1996, 256) assumed that the river once flowed on the surface through the present Ravnik lowland towards the present Logaško polje. Since the time of these pioneer

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125Fig 1.: Locations, mentioned in the text Sl. 1: Lokacije, omenjene v besediluFrance Šušterši & Simona Šušterši: Nastanek Cerknišice in poplavljenje Cerkniškega polja

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)126Fig. 2: Characteristic elevations between Begunje and Cerknica. Sl. 2: Znailne višine med Begunjami in Cerknico. investigations, the river that existed before the reversal has been termed the Begunjšica, because it did not flow through the present town of Cerknica, which gave the modern river its name. Based on detailed geomorphological study of the area of reversal, S. Šušterši (2002-b, 160) demonstrated that the reversal was a relatively rapid, catastrophic, event. Searching for the reasons for the deflection, she noted that the Cerknišica’s characteristic sediments are not preserved at elevations above 610m (o.c., 159). On the other hand, her reconstruction of the former slopes of Mt Slivnica, where the Kurja dolina is incised (Fig.2; see also o.c., 158, Fig.2), revealed that the surface stream could not have exited there. The lowest crossing point on the ridge that divides Ravnik from the lowered tract where the karst poljes of south-central Slovenia are located, is still 15m higher6 than the vertical extent of the Begunjšica sediments.

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127Such a situation cannot be explained as simple overspill. Pleniar’s (1953, 116) proposed that deflection of the Begunjšica should be the result of headward erosion of an erosional gully, similar to those in the neighbouring Mt. Slivnica’s dolomite slopes. S. Šušterši (2002-a, 83) analysed their geometry and general setting, and concluded that Pleniar’s view is untenable. So, there exists neither material nor indirect evidence that the deflection of the Begunjšica was a surficial event. On the other hand, within the slopes of Kurja dolina, S. Šušterši found a number of unroofed caves, filled with laminated quartz sandstone, “basal fill” (see F. Šušterši, 2002, 74-75, Fig.4; F. Šušterši, 1998) and massive flowstone. Conglomerates that are characteristic of the Begunjšica infilled unroofed caves in Ravnik (o.c.), are absent. So, S. Šušterši (2002-a, 81) concluded that there is no objection to the statement that the Begunjšica/Cerknišica river first entered the polje basin underground, reactivating an old, inherited, cave system, that had been completely filled with sediments much earlier. In the following discussion this idea is pursued as a working hypothesis although positive material proof has not yet been found. This cave system is termed the Brezje system (Fig.1). Consideration of the precise timing of its formation is postponed to the future. During systematic mapping of unroofed caves in the central part of Ravnik, about 10km northwest of the present Cerknišica, F. Šušterši (1998) revealed an abandoned, completely infilled7 cave system. This system, where the Begunjšica was perhaps just the last to appear, is called the Ravnik system (Fig.1) in the present text. The involvement of the Begunjšica/Cerknišica is testified by the presence of dolomite conglomerate, identical lithologically to the present Cerknišica sedimentary load, at the top of the sediment fill. The contemporary stream direction is unambiguous, being confirmed by the presence and relationships of admixed local rock pebbles in the conglomerate (F. Šušterši, 2002, 74). Another indicator of location of a cave system that is currently completely inaccessible to cavers, is a cluster of collapse dolines a few kilometres north of Cerknica. Unfortunately, they do not share a common local name that could be used when matching them to the cave system that obviously exists below, which is here termed the Loško system (Fig.1). Although cave sediments have already been identified in this area, more concrete data about the caves in this area have yet to be found. The dolines are large and relatively mature, in the sense that the slopes are relatively gentle and the perpendicular walls have disappeared (F. Šušterši, 1973). Slope processes have affected their slopes relatively uniformly, regardless of the depression volumes. No one displays any significant active foci of scree removal. This indicates that the formative (enlargement) processes ceased simultaneously and that the cave system was abandoned abruptly. Even without a profound investigation their existence and location could hardly be explained in any other way than them being related to a once-important but currently virtually abandoned drain, from the extreme northern embayment of Cerkniško polje (Loško embayment) (Fig.1). Minor recent subsidences in the floors of some dolines indicate that, after a time gap, underground flow is resuming. This system was formerly fed by ponors that are presently choked – termed for convenience the northern ponors (Fig.1) which might have once accept large quantities of. At this stage water sank in the Loško embayment a blind valley-like extension of the Cerkniško polje, presently separated from the main polje basin by the Cerknišica alluvial cone.France Šušterši & Simona Šušterši: Nastanek Cerknišice in poplavljenje Cerkniškega polja

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)128WRMIAN DEVELOPMENT IN CERKNIŠKO POLJEThe first material data about development in the Cerkniško polje basin were published by Pleniar (1953) and later complemented by Gospodari & Habi (1979). Šercelj (1974, 237) was much more direct; when summarising his findings on the profile of the "lacustrine-chalk8" located at Nova ponikva, he wrote (translated by F.Š., without regard to the original English Summary): “Our analyses carried out so far have given firm data about the Pleistocene history of the Cerkniško jezero9. The Wrmian lake is certainly younger than the Cerknišica’s alluvial cone. It appeared approximately at the middle of the Wrm (i.e. about 50ka ago), and it stretched eastwards from Goriica. “Lacustrine-chalk” deposited there preserved palaeovegetational and palaeoclimatological records of this time. Compared to the entire area of the basin the lake’s size was insignificant, but this was the only true lake proven up to this time. It did not survive until the subsequent (Paudorf) interstadial, which began about 20ka ago. … So, it may be assumed that the Wrmian lake existed between 50ka and 30ka BP, but possibly not for the whole of this 20ka period.” Details that make the information more exact appear somewhat earlier in the text (o.c., 237): “At the top of the diagram … the transition to steppe conditions, at any rate to more open land vegetation.” … “One may conclude that a stronger climatic change occurred … transition to the continental climate.” … “But in general the forest was sparse and heliotrophic species prevailed. Subarctic vegetation, characterised by Selaginella selaginoides ... grew on the neighbouring mountains. After the Brrup interstadial, approximately in the middle of Wrm (i.e. about 50ka BP and later); such circumstances are also known in other parts of Slovenia.” “… The cone, which included organic matter, choked the vertical ponors … and formed a dam, behind which the lake appeared. Within this cone, R. Gospodari … found a layer of sediment similar to lacustrine chalk. On the basis of its pollen content I placed it within the period at the end of the Brrup interstadial, i.e. somewhat older than the described profile of the lacustrine chalk (viz. at Nova ponikva, F. Š.) In the second layer of the same alluvial cone he found pieces of plant remnants10. According to the dating at in Groeningen (GrN-6317) they should be 55ka old. Older sediments than middle Wrmian have not yet been discovered.” Šercelj established that formation of the Cerknišica alluvial cone took place in Wrm II, and the first relatively permanent lake in the polje basin appeared as a direct consequence. Additionally, Pleniar (1953, 115) had indirectly excluded the earlier existence of the cone. If it had existed earlier, the river would have deposited its characteristic sediments, including dolomite and bauxite pebbles plus chert gravel. Whereas the main body of the carbonate material would have dissolved by now concentrations of relatively insoluble bauxite and chert would remain. However, they appear for the first time within the actual alluvial cone of the Cerknišica (Pleniar11, 1953, 115). Evidently, inrush of the Begunjšica/Cerknišica into the polje basin and deflection of the polje main outflow towards Karlovice cave, and further, towards Planinsko polje, went hand in hand (Fig. 3). The question arises, whether the former event sufficed to trigger off the latter one. By combining data from Žibrik & Piinin (1973, 5) and Gospodari & Habi (1979, 103)12, the following yearly averages of inflow into the polje basin are obtained: T ABLE 1. Average annual discharges of the Cerkniško polje tributaries Cerknišica1.23m3s-18.54% Other tributaries13.17m3s-191.46% Total14.40m3s-1100.00%

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129Fig 3.: Change in the Cerkniško polje main outflow direction after the alluvial cone forrmation. Sl. 3: Sprememba v smeri glavnega odtoka Cerkniškega polja po nastanku cerkniškega vršaja.France Šušterši & Simona Šušterši: Nastanek Cerknišice in poplavljenje Cerkniškega polja

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)130An increased input of the Cerknišica alone (1.23m3s-1; less than 10% of the total) would have no significant direct influence on water quantities in the polje, which existing ponors could accommodate without any major problem. Its influence upon the development of downstream caves would be equally unimportant. The Cerknišica catchment being predominantly non-karstic, the river was able to transport large amounts of mechanical load at times when general circumstances allowed massive gravel production, i.e. during the Wrm II and III cold periods. Gravel deposition in the alluvial cone was so massive that it cut off, and eventually completely eliminated, the entire northern ponor area. Consecutively, it deflected perhaps most of the polje outflow into the cave ponors This indicates that the change in the outflow from the Cerkniško polje, in the direction of Planinsko polje, was due not just to the increased water quantity that entered the polje, but was due predominantly to redirection of the main flow from one ponor group to another. Augmented flow (perhaps from close to zero to an annual mean of nearly 15m3s-1) into Karlovice and beyond, through the Rakov Škocjan valley towards Planinska jama, would increase the input into Planinska jama from the southeast dramatically. Even if the Malni spring at Planinsko polje were capable of transmitting some more water than before, the rest of the underground flow (the present Rak) would push the Pivka (average yearly discharge 4.84m3s-1; Žibrik et al ., 1976, 49, Tab.2) away form the Eastern Branch and readily brought about the present hydrological situation in the cave. Alluvial cone formation undoubtedly commenced at the beginning of the cold period, as is testified by the spruce cone dating (Gospodari & Habi, 1979, 43), and by the characteristic appearance of the alluvial gravel itself. This does not negate the view of the timing of the incipient spill over. If the river had found its way into the polje on the surface, it would perhaps be impossible to guess whether this happened during the time of intense gravel production (cold period) or not. However, assuming that the process began as a reactivation of an earlier cave system, it appears more likely to have happened during a warmer period when the river was relatively mechanical load free. Inundation by relatively sediment free water would undoubtedly initiate the washing out of choked channels and, in the course of time, it would increase their transmissivity, opening the way for the gravel transport that was to follow. One final issue that cannot be ignored is the question of the underlying reason for the overspilling. Accepting the evidence that before Wrm II the Begunjšica/Cerknišica did not flow in its present direction, and the judgement that the deflection was underground, the full question becomes: “What lowered the underground gradient so drastically, so that the Begunjšica was captured, and why didn’t it happen earlier?” This cannot be explained by currently known exogenic activity in the polje basin and in adjacent areas.CONCLUSIONSIn the more remote past, the input to Cerkniško polje (and to the caves) was completely karstic. At this time the polje was less inundated, or at best reached the same extent as presently. Present conditions were established after diversion of the Begunjšica/Cerknišica into the polje basin.

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131Formation of the relatively permanent lake reflects unstable relationships during the transition from the earlier to the present conditions. This activity terminated the functioning of the Loško system and triggered the involvement of the Karlovice system The inundation was more a consequence of the formation of the alluvial cone than related to the increased inflow. After breakthrough, large amounts of cryoclastic gravel reached Cerkniško polje at almost the exact location of the main ponors, causing the water to go directly to the Vrhnika springs. There is a strong likelihood that the diversion was started by reactivation of an older cave system ( Brezje system ), choked by sediments, lying between the surficial stream of the Begunjšica and the polje basin. Present hydrogeological conditions in Planinska jama are a direct consequence of developments in Cerkniško polje. Relatively insignificant geological events may trigger the reactivation of early “frozen” cave systems that were previously filled with sediments. Presently regular annual floods at Cerkniško and Planinsko poljes are a result of non-karstic interference with the system. Acknowledgement We thank David Lowe for his efforts in “smoothing” the English translation.France Šušterši & Simona Šušterši: Nastanek Cerknišice in poplavljenje Cerkniškega polja

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)132REFERENCESBuser, S., 1965: Geological structure of the Ljubljana moor with special regard to its southern borderland (Summary13). Geologija, 8, 34-57, Ljubljana. Ford, D. C., Williams, P.W., 1989: Karst geomorphology and hydrology. Unwin Hyman, 1 601, London. Gams, I., 1965: On the Quarternary geomorphogenesis of the area among the karst poljes of Postojna, Planina and Cerknica (Summary). Geografski vestnik 37, 61-101, Ljubljana. Gams, I., 1966: On the hydrology of the territory among the poljes of Postojna, Planina and Cerknica (Summary). Acta carsologica, 4, 5-54, Ljubljana. Gospodari, R., 1970: Speleological investigations of the Cerknica cave system (Summary). Acta carsologica, 5, 109-169, Ljubljana. Gospodari, R. & P. Habi, 1976, Underground water tracing. Institute for the Karst Research SAZU, Postojna, 1-309, Postojna. Gospodari, R. & P. Habi, 1979: Karst phenomena of Cerkniško polje (Summary). Acta carsologica, 8 7-162, Ljubljana. Jenko, F., 1959: Recherches rcentes sur les cours d’eau souterrains du karst Slovne (Resum). Acta carsologica, 2 209-227, Ljubljana. Pleniar, M., 1953: Contribution to the geology of Cerkniško polje (Summary). Geologija, 1, 111119, Ljubljana. Šercelj, A., 1974: Paleovegetational investigations of the sediments of Cerkniško jezero (Lake of Cerknica) (Summary). Acta carsologica, 6, 233-241, Ljubljana. Šušterši, F., 1973: On the problems of collapse dolinas and allied forms of high Notranjsko (Southcentral Slovenia) (Summary). Geografski vestnik, 45, 71-86, Ljubljana. Šušterši, F., 1996: Poljes and caves of Notranjska. Acta carsologica, 25, 251-289, Ljubljana. Šušterši, F., 1998: Interaction between tha cave system and the lowering karst surface. Case study: Laški Ravnik. Acta carsologica, 27 (2), 115-138, Ljubljana. Šušterši, F., 2000: Are collapse dolines formed only by collapse? Acta carsologica, 29, 213-230, Ljubljana. Šušterši, F., 2000-a: Speleogenesis in the Ljubljanica river drainage basin, Slovenia. In: A.B. Klimchouk, D.C.Ford, A.N. Palmer, W. Dreybrodt (Eds.): Speleogenesis Evolution of Karst Aquifers. National speleological society, 397-406, Huntsville. Šušterši, F., 2002: Where does underground Ljubljanica flow? Materials and geoenvironment (RMZ), 49, 1, 61-84, Ljubljana. Šušterši, F., ar, J., & Šebela, S., 2001: Collector channels and deflector faults (Summary). Naše jame, 43, 8-22, Ljubljana. Šušterši, F., S.Šušterši & U.Stepišnik, 2002-a: Consequences of the late Pleistocene redirection of the Cerknišica river for the neighbouring karst. In: Gabrovšek, F. (ed): Evolution of karst: from prekarst to cessation. Carsologica, ZaloŽba ZRC, 283-298, Ljubljana. Šušterši, F., S.Šušterši & U.Stepišnik, 2002-b: Late Quarternary dynamics of Planinska jama (Summary). Naše jame, 44, 25-54, Ljubljana. Šušterši, S., 2002-a: Geographical characteristics and development of the Cerknišica catchment area. (in Slovenian). Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Ljubljana, FF, Dept. of

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133geography, 1-96, Ljubljana. Šušterši, S., 2002-b: Two phase development of the upper Cerknišica basin. Acta carsologica, 31 (3), 155-164, Ljubljana. Žalec, P., V rhovec, T., Mihailovski, M., Zwlf, D., Drole, F., 1997: Cave system Zelške jameKarlovica (in Slovenian). Naše jame, 39, 87-94, Ljubljana. Žibrik, K., Lewicki, F. & Piinin, A., 1976: Hydrologic investigations. In: Gospodari, R. & P. Habi, Underground water tracing. Institute for the Karst Research SAZU, Postojna, 4355, Postojna. Opomba Slovenskemu bralcu prirejena inaica tega besedila bo s privoljenjem uredništva objavljena v reviji Naše jame, 45, 2003. Notes:1Only data directly connected to the narrower topic are provided. More exhaustive information can be found in works by Gospodari & Habi (1979), F. Šušterši (1996, 2000). The newest data on the subject have been presented by S. Šušterši, 2002, and F. Šušterši et al., 2002-a, 2002-b.2Within the context of the present paper the modern Rak merely presents an intermediate component of the route currently followed by the river from Cerkniško polje to Planinska jama. When speaking about the influence of developments in Cerkniško polje upon Planinska jama in the following text, further references to the role of the Rak and of the Rakov Škocjan valley are omitted, as being self-evident.3As this situation resulted from extensive human intervention in the middle of the 18th century (Gospodari & Habi, 1979, Fig.18, Appendix), is considered no further.4Gospodari (1970) called it the Cerknica system. This terminology is equivocal, for the same name would be better applied to the cave system termed the Brezje system in this paper.5This includes not only the excavation of an artificial river channel in the loamy polje floor, but also enlargement of the ponor cave corridors, widening of narrows by blasting, removal of collapsed boulders, construction of drystone walls and driving of short tunnels (Gospodari in Habi 1979, 52). In parallel, other (minor) ponor caves, such as Mala Karlovica and Narte, were adapted in the same way.6Although, due to the lack of precise data, we avoid exact numbers in this paper, one must not ignore permanent surface lowering due to chemical denudation. In colder periods, however, it is enhanced due to mechanical weathering of the rock, especially of dolomite.7It appears that the lower parts of the system are filled with “laminated quartz sandstone”, whereas the upper parts contain “basal fill”. Later, the latter deposit has partly been washed out and replaced by conglomerate and flowstone, but not at a clearly expressed elevation. Unlike surface stream courses, underground streams in the phreatic zone are not bound strictly to characteristic levels, and the stratigraphical principle of superposition may hold true only coincidentally.8 Direct translation of a local name for lake sediment composed of precipitated calcium carbonate.9 In the local dialect the basin of the Cerkniško polje is named “jezero” = “lake”.France Šušterši & Simona Šušterši: Nastanek Cerknišice in poplavljenje Cerkniškega polja

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)13410 From Gospodari & Habi (1979, 43) it follows that a spruce cone was dated.11Due to relatively large admixture of iron, Pleniar (o. c.) termed it “oolite iron ore”. Buser (1965, 39) refers 53.25% to 59.93% of Al2O3, and 15.74% to 17.27% of Fe2O3 12The relative difficulty of obtaining absolute data primarily reflects the difficult and unstable field measurements, so that the authors prefer to give only the data of particular observations. Consequently, the final result must be treated with some reservation, though the basic proportions remain relatively constant between different observers.13The titles of summaries/abstracts (if they exist) are given just to show the foreign reader the contents of the original texts, which are, however, considered in the whole.

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135France Šušterši & Simona Šušterši: Nastanek Cerknišice in poplavljenje Cerkniškega polja

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)136



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187THE CASE STUDY ON SOIL FAUNA DIVERSITY IN DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM IN SHILIN NATIONAL PARK, YUNNAN, CHINA PRIMER PREUEVANJA RAZNOVRSTNOSTI TALNE FAVNE V RAZLINIH EKOLOŠKIH SESTAVIH V NARODNEM PARKU SHILIN (YUNNAN, KITAJSKA)XIANG CHANGGUO1 & SONG LINHUA2 & ZHANG PINGJIU1& PAN GENXING11Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P.R. China2Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P.R. China Prejeto / received: 18. 6. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/215187-194LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)188Abstract UDC: 574:551.44(510) Xiang C. & Song L. & Zhang P. & Pan G.: The case study on soil fauna diversity in different ecological system in Shilin national park, Yunnan, China A preliminary study of the distribution and diversity of soil fauna in a sequence of ecosystem degradation in the Shilin National Park, Yunnan, China has been made. The degraded ecologic system includes 5 types of vegetation cover: (1) natural bush; (2) human planted cypress forest; (3)natural grass; (4)secondary grass and (5) bared red earth. A quadrate of 1m1m in each eco-tessera was sampled for soil fauna collection. The animals were obtained either by picking up or by heat-removing. The soil fauna were dominated by Acarina, Collembola, Nematode, Coleoptera,and Opistopora in these soils. However, Erchytraeidae, Araneida, Lepidoptera and Diptera were also common groups. The diversity index H turned to be less than 1.5, drastically decreasing with the vegetation degradation trend. In the karst soils, Parholaspidae was one of the most populous among the mites. The biomass of Trhypochthoniidae and Ologamasidae was very concentrated in the natural bush ecosystem, showing high sensitivity of mites to vegetation degradation. The biomass ratio of Acarina to Collembola in the studied soils ranged from 0.70 to 1.50, which was in great discrepancy to the results reported of the natural soils at similar latitude. The small soil fauna biomass and less diversity indicated that the studied soil was in a state of deterioration of soil fauna habitats and, in turn, the soil ecosystem health. The results also evidenced that the soil fauna in the karst soil was definitely vulnerable as regarded to the sustainable development of the Shilin Park. Keywords: Stone Forest; karst soils; fauna diversity; vegetation cover; ecosystem degradation. Izvleek UDC: 574:551.44(510) Xiang C. & Song L. & Zhang P. & Pan G.: Primer preuevanja raznovrstnosti talne favne v razlinih ekoloških sestavih v narodnem parku Shilin (Yunnan, Kitajska) Predhodno sta bili preuevani razporeditev in raznovrstnost talne favne v vrsti degradiranih ekosistemov v narodnem parku Shilin. Ti ekosistemi vkljuujejo pet tipov rastlinskega pokrova: 1. naravno grmiše, 2. umetno nasajen cipresov gozd, 3. naravni travnik, 4. drugotni travnik, 5. golo rdeo prst. Na vsakem izmed njih je bila talna favna nabrana s kvadrata velikosti 1 krat 1 m. Živali so bile nabrane rono ali pa izloene s pomojo segrevanja. V talni favni so prevladovale acarina, collembola, nematoda, coleoptera in opistopora Toda razmeroma pogoste so bile tudi skupine enchytraeidae, araneida, lepidoptera in diptera Indeks raznovrstnosti H je manjši od 1,5 in se mono zniŽuje vzporedno z degradacijo rastlinstva. V kraških prsteh so med najpogostejšimi parholaspidae. Biomasa trhypochthoniidae in ologamasidae je najbolj zgošena v naravnem grmišu in kaŽe veliko obutljivost teh skupin na degradacijo rastlinstva. Razmerje biomase acarina v primerjavi s collembola je v razponu 0.7 do 1.5, kar je veliko odstopanje od podatkov za naravne prsti podobnih geografskih širin, znanih iz literature. Majhna biomasa talne favne in manjša raznovrstnost kaŽeta, da se habitati v preuevanih prsteh slabšajo in se torej slabša tudi zdravje celega ekosistema. Izsledki tudi kaŽejo na ranljivost talne favne v prsteh z vidika sonaravnega razvoja parka Shilin. Kljune besede: kraška prst, biodiverziteta, rastlinski pokrov, degradacija ekosistema, Shilin, Yunnan, Kitajska.

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189The relationship between soil fauna diversity and ecological system has been broadly noted and researched by many scientists ( Griffiths et al., 2001; Filip, 2002; Mikola et al., 2002) Soil fauna are the main consumers and decomposers of organic matters in the soil. Lal (1988) recognized that the soil fauna affected the soil property in the tropical ecosystem. Five years later the variations of the soil fauna groups in the ecosystem degradation and recovery processes were clearly understood (Curry & Good, 1992). Bauble et al. (1997) pointed out that soil large animals could be the biomarker of the soil environmental change. In recent years more researchers show that the number and diversity of the earthworm groups can be used as the biomarker of the ecosystem health, which responds immediately to the soil environmental pollution and ecosystem degradations. The studies showed that carbon transportation produced by the organisms was the basic characteristics in the epi-karst zone (Pan & Cao, 1999; Cao & Yuan & Pan, 2001), so the living and activity of soil animals is very important for the form and transformation of the soil organic matter. The fragile and stability of the karst ecosystem can be explained by the function of the soil fauna diversity as well as the soil carbon transformation effect on the karstification. The karst areas are the main fragile ecology system area, the karst ecology system in Southwest China has been seriously degraded and the environment is getting worse and worse; it even appeared rocky desertification ( Song, 1999; Yuan, 2000; ). Many researches have focused on the soil microbial biomass and its dynamics in the karst areas. But there is little knowledge about the structure and change of the soil animal group in the karst area. This paper deals with the relationship between the soil fauna diversity and karst ecosystem and the soil fauna as the index of the karst ecosystem changes in the Shilin National Park.BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF STUDIED AREA AND RESEARCH METHODSThe studied area was chosen in the Naigu Scenic spot of Shilin National Park at the altitude of 1820m. It belongs to the subtropical monsoon climate with a mean annual precipitation of 970 mm and temperature 15.6!. The shilin (stone forest) karst landscape develops in the Lower Permian limestone. The shilin landscape has been created by subsoil solution and subaerial solution in the long term (Liang & Song, 2000). The natural vegetation in the area is bush; the steady plant community is fitted to the ecosystem with much stone and little soil. Since the scenic spot was opened for visitors in 1991 the original vegetation was partly reformed including replanting of some species of tree and grass, and some farmland has been retired. The soil is mainly calcareous eluvial soil resulted from limestone weathering, which suffered unfair erosion in the ecosystem degradation. There are 5 representative ecosystems in Naigu Spot according to the vegetation: 1.Natural bush with 120~150cm high and area covered nearly 100%; 2.Cypress with 20 years old, 5~6m high, 2.5m row spacing, 1.5m tree spacing, covered 100%. 3.Natural grass with much couch grass, 80~100cm high, 70~100% covered. 4.Secondary grass with sparse couch, 60~80cm high, less than 70% covered. 5.Bared red earth with sparse couch. The standard sampled plot with acreage of 1m1m was established randomly in each ecosystem. In every plot the soil was sampled from 0~10cm, 10~20cm, 20~30cm and 30~40cm below soil surface. The macroscopic soil fauna were collected by hand and identified visually; little or micro soil fauna were gathered by the method of Tullgren (dry funnel) and Baormaun (wet funnel) and identified by microscope. The inactive larva and protozoan were not determined by these methods. The taxonomy and statistics of the gathered soil fauna were mainly dependent on the methods brought forward by Yin et al. (1992, 2000).Xiang C. & Song L. & Zhang P. & Pan G.: The case study on soil fauna diversity in different ecological system ...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)190RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe composition and number of the soil fauna community of in the Stone Forest 935 samples of animals were obtained. They belong to the 28 species: Arthropoda such as Insecta, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Symplyla; Annelida, such as Oligochaeta, Hiradinea; Nemata, such as Nematoda; Rotatoria, such as Rotatoria; Turbellaria, such as Turbellaria (Table 1). The dominant communities of the soil fauna are Acarina, Collembola, Nematoda, Coleoptera and Opistopora, Table 1. The species and amounts of the soil fauna in the various ecosystem in the Forest Stone Park Species natural bush cypress high grass scarcebaredtotalpercentage grasssoil individualsof total samples(%)Acarina11757246621022.46 Collembola5840279413814.76 Nematoda3538258210811.55 Enchytraeidae64110121.28 Opistopora14026143018319.57 Hymenoptera92951262.78 Coleoptera217982511512.30 Araneida942301373.96 Lepidoptera86130181.93 Diptera74510171.82 Diplura3140080.86 Symphyla3032080.86 Orthoptera2040060.64 Scolopendromorpha2130060.64 Geophilomorpha2011040.43 Protura3100040.43 Isoptera1030040.43 Isopoda4000040.43 Rotatoria0321060.64 Hemiptera5000050.53 Diplopoda3100040.43 Thysanoptera0200020.21 Turbellaria1100020.21 Palpigradi0010010.11 Blattaria0020020.21 Dermaptera2000020.21 Opiliones1000010.11 Pseudoscorpionida1000010.11 Hirudinea1000010.11 Biomass (individuals/m2)4442701604219935100.00 Percentage of total samples47.4928.8817.114.492.03100.00

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191the common community includes Traeidae, Hymenoptera, Araneae, Lepidoptera and Diptere, others are scarce community. The number of the soil fauna is similar to the well protected forest at the same latitude, but there is difference among the number of dominant community of the sampled soil. The biomass of the forest soil fauna at the same latitude is higher with the individuals density of 1000 per square meter. The large scale soil fauna decreased obviously when the individual density is below 200 per square meter, which means the biomass of soil fauna tends to decrease because of the vegetation degradation and human disturbance. Effect of various vegetation and soil depth on structure and number of soil fauna There are significant effects of various vegetation on the structure and number of soil fauna in the Shilin area. The individual number of the soil fauna in the natural bush amounts 47.6% of the total number and 89.3% of all species in the studied area. While the individual number and species in the soil without vegetation covers are 2.1% of the totals. The biomass of soil fauna is strongly affected by the vegetation degradation. The dominant communities of soil fauna changes with the variation of vegetation. The dominant communities are Acarina and Opistopora in the natural bush soil, but are Collembola and Nematoda in the soil under the planted cypress. The gross biomass of soil fauna decreased sharply with the destruction of vegetation as well as with the soil depth. There are abundant soil fauna at the 40cm depth in the soil of natural bush, however only few soil fauna at the 40cm depth in the cypress and grass soil. Wang et al. (1999) described that the gross soil fauna biomass and their distribution in the different depth are relation to the depth of A layer and the content of organic materials (OMC) in the ecosystem degradation despite the fauna epi-accumulative is very clear in the forest of Hengshan Mountain. The A layer is 20 cm down in the soil of natural bush but only about 10cm in the cypress or grassland soil. The A layer with little soil fauna number and community is very thin in the bared red soil. The OMC in the A layers are 44.4g/kg, 25.0g/kg, 20.97g/kg and 19.48/kg in the natural bush, secondary cypress, natural grass and secondary grass, respectively. There is a logarithmic positive correlation between the density of the gross soil fauna and OMC in the A layer. The decrease of soil fauna biomass under the various vegetation conditions is caused by the degradation of the vegetation resulting in the reduction of organic matter inputting into the soil. In this case, the smaller food and nutrients supply restrict the soil fauna development. Table 2. Distribution of the soil fauna in soil depth under different vegetation total individualstotal communities Soil depth (cm)0-1010-2020-3030-400-1010-2020-3030-40 natural bush3071091911161633 secondary cypress184749115411 Original grass107310115431 Secondary grass25162010510 Bared soil155006200 The distribution of the Acarina and Collembola Acarina and Collembola are the common dominant community. As Acarina is very sensitive to delicate environmental change, it is often employed to indicate the evolution of the environment (Yin & Zhang et al, 2000; Yin & Yang 1992).Xiang C. & Song L. & Zhang P. & Pan G.: The case study on soil fauna diversity in different ecological system ...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)192The ratio values of the individual numbers of the Acarina and Collembola are decreased with the increase of heat energy. In the ecosystem of natural forest to the south of Changjiang River, the ratio values are less than 0.55. The results show that most Acarina cannot live well and even disappear in the condition of vegetation degradation. The ratio values under the different vegetation covers are between 0.3 and 1.5 (Table 3). Table 3. The density of the acarina and collembola in the sampled soil (individuals/m2) Speciesnaturalcypresshigh grasssparse grassbared earth Trhypochthoniidae202not detectednot detected2 Bdellidae2014not detectednot detectednot detected Gustaviidae1662no detectedno detected Ologamasidae7not detectednot detectednot detectednot detected Veigaiidae11not detectednot detected2not detected Stigamaeidae14105not detectednot detected Phthiracaridae1512not detectednot detectednot detected Acaridae312no detectedno detected2 Lohmanniidaenot detectednot detected132not detected Parholaspidae11 1422 Total107572466 Isotoma301712not detectednot detected Onychiurus15not detected252 Cryptopygus1311not detectednot detected1 Sphaeridianot detected12not detected11 Hypogastruranot detectednot detected133not detected total68402794 Acarina/Collembola1.61.4 0.90.71.5 Table 3 shows Acarina, Trhyprochthonisdae and Ologamasidae are the most sensitive to the ecosystem changes, Painolaspidae is much adaptive to various vegetation. Onychiurus in the Collembola cannot live in the soil covered by cypress. The biodiversity of the soil fauna The soil fauna abundance index (D), diversity index (H) and uniformity (J) can be calculated by the following equation: D = (s-1)/lnN Here s is the gross number of community and N is the gross number of individuals. H = s IPi Pi1lnIn which Pi = Ni / N where N is the gross quantity of individuals and Ni is the amount of the individuals of i community.

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193J = max H HHere H is the diversity index and Hmax is the maxium biodiversity index. The results are showed in Table 4. Table 4. Change of soil fauna diversity under the various vegetation indexnatural bushcypresstall grasssparse grassbared earth total communities251619126 total individuals4442701604219 abundance (D)3.942.683.552.941.70 biodiversity (H)1.340.930.720.240.11 uniformity (J)0.2120.2250.1350.1880.290 The study results gave all the community amounts under the degradated vegetation as less than 20, except that under natural bush, which accords with the results of the sub-tropical ecosystem (Yin & Yang et al, 1992; Liao & Li & Huang 1997). The soil faunal biodiversity index H is 1.34 under natural bush but 0.11 under bared red earth. Under natural bush the indexes of abundance, diversity and uniformity are higher than those under other vegetation, but the uniformity under bared red earth is obviously higher than that under other vegetation, that might be caused by the structure of soil fauna rather simplified. These results showed that under the natural vegetation the abundance and diversity of the soil fauna is higher and that under the seriously degraded bared earth is lower, but the uniformity higher with the vulnerable soil fauna ecosystem.CONCLUSIONThe Acarina, Collembola, Nematoda, Coleoptera and Opistopora are the dominant communities, Onchytraeidae, Opiliones lepido, Diptera are the normal community; others are the scarce community. Painolaspidae is adaptive in any environmental vegetation. Gross biomass amounts of community and the index of biodiversity in the soil of natural bush are much higher than those in the soil of other degraded vegetation, which show that the natural bush is the ecological screen protecting the soil fauna from deterioration. The gross biomass of soil fauna is less than those in the forest of the same latitude and the diversity of soil fauna decreased sharply in the various degraded vegetation, which indicate the deterioration of the soil ecosystem.REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHYBauble B M, Schmidt O.1997: Can the abundance or activity of soil macrofauna be used to indicate the biological health of soils? In: Panthers C(ed.). Biological Indicators of Soil Health. CAB International, 265-295 Cao J.H., Yuan D.X., Pan G.X. 2001: Preliminary study on biological action in karst dynamic system. Earth Science Frontiers, 8 (1):203-209Xiang C. & Song L. & Zhang P. & Pan G.: The case study on soil fauna diversity in different ecological system ...

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)194Curry J. P., Good. J. A., 1992: Soil fauna degradation and restoration. In: Lal, R. and Stewart, B. A. (ed) Soil Restoration. In: Lal R, Stewart B A(eds.), Advances in Soil Science, Vol 17, Michigan: Springer-Verlag, 171-203 Filip Z.. International Approach to Assessing Soil Quality by Ecologically-related Biological Parameters. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2002: 88: 169-174. Griffiths B.S., Ritz K., Wheatley R., Kuan H.L., Boag B., Christensen S., Ekelund F., Sorensen S.J., Muller S., Bloem J., 2001: An Examination of the Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function Relationship in Arable Soil Microbial Communities. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 33: 1713-1722. Lal R., 1988: Effects of macrofauna on soil properties in tropical ecosystems. Agric. Ecosystems Environ, 24(1-3):101-116 Liang Fuyuan, Song Linhua, Wang Fuchang, Zheng Bingyuan, Zhang Liping, 2000: The case stuffy of subsoil solution features and soil CO2 concentration in Stone Forest Region, Lunan, Yunnan, China. Carsologica Sinica, 19 (2): 180-187. Liao C.H., Li J.X., Huang H.T., 1997: Soil animal community diversity in the forest of southern subtropical region, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 17 (5): 549-555 Mikola, M., Basrdgett, R. D., Hedlund K., 2002. Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and soil decomposer food webs. (not published, oral communication) Pan G. X., Cao J. H., 1999: Karstification in epikarst zone: the earth surface ecosystem process taking soil as a mediumcase of the Yaji karst experiment site, Guilin. Carsologica Sinica, 18 (4): 287-296 Research Group of Stone Forest, 1997: Study of Karst of Stone Forest in Lunan County, Yunnan, China[M] Science and Technology Press, Kunming, Yunnan Scott-Fordsmand J. J., Weeks J. M. Biomarkers in Earthworms, 2000: Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 165:117-159 Song Linhua, Sustainable development of agriculture in karst areas, South China, 1999: International Journal of Speleology. 28 B (1/4): 139-148. Spurgeon D. J., Hopkin S. P. Seasonal variation in the abundance, biomass and biodiversity in soils contaminated with metal emissions from a primary smelting works, 1999: Journal of Applied Ecology, 36: 173-183 Sumner M. E. (Editor-in-chief). Handbook of Soil Science, 2000: Section C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. Boca RatonLondonNew York-Washington D C, C45-C85 Wang Z. Z., Zhang Y. M. The community structure of soil animals in forest of Hengshan Mountain. Acta Geographica Sinica, 1999,6(2):205-213 Yin W. Y., Yang F. C., Wang Z. Z. et al., 1992: Subtropical Soil Animals of China. Science Press, Beijing, China, 225-331 Yin W. Y., Zhang R. Z., Wang S.Z., et al., 2000: Soil Animals of China. Science Press, Beijing, China, 81-85 Yuan Daoxian. Rock desertification in the subtropical karst of South China, 2000: World Correlation of Karst Ecosystem Newsletter (Project 448), 41-52 This research project was financed from the National Natural Science Foundation (No. 499972087 and 90202017) and Shilin research Foundation.



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161LANDUSE AND LAND COVER CHANGE IN THE LUNAN STONE FOREST, CHINA UPORABA POVRŠJA IN SPREMEMBE RASTLINSKEGA POKROVA V LUNANSKEM KAMNITEM GOZDU, KITAJSKACHUANRONG ZHANG & MICHAEL DAY & WEIDONG LI1Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, USA. E-mail: czhang@uwm.edu mickday@uwm.edu weidong6616@yahoo.com Prejeto / received: 4. 7. 2003ACTA CARSOLOGICA32/213161-174LJUBLJANA 2003COBISS: 1.01

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)162Abstract UDC: 551.44:504.03(510) Chuanrong Zhang & Michael Day & Weidong Li: Landuse and Land Cover Change in the Lunan Stone Forest, China The Lunan Stone Forest is the World’s premier pinnacle karst landscape, with attendant scientific and cultural importance. Ecologically fragile, it is also a major tourist attraction, currently receiving over 1.5million visitors each year. Conservation efforts have been undermined by conflicting economic priorities, and landscape degradation threatens the very foundation of the national park. Assessment of the current land cover in the 35km2 core of the Stone Forest and an analysis of land cover change since 1974 in the 7km2Major Stone Forest reveal the extent of recent landscape change. Exposed pinnacle karst covers 52% of the 35km2 study area, and about half of this is vegetated. Land use is dominated by agriculture, particularly in the valleys, but much of the shilin is devegetated and about six percent of the area is now built-up. Within the 7km2 Major Stone Forest the built-up area increased from 0.15ha in 1974 to 38.68ha by 2001, and during that same period road length increased by 95%, accompanied by a 3% decrease in surface water area. Between 1980 and 2001, annual visitor numbers increased from 139,000 to 1,500,000 – a ten-fold increase. The need to reconcile economic development and landscape conservation involves both short-term versus long-term benefit and also the conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Key words: karst conservation, human impact, shilin, Lunan, China. Izvleek UDK: 551.44:504.03(510) Chuanrong Zhang & Michael Day & Weidong Li: Uporaba površja in spremembe rastlinskega pokrova v lunanskem Kamnitem gozdu, Kitajska Lunanski Kamniti gozd (Šilin) je najboljši primer takega tipa kraške pokrajine na svetu, ustreznega znanstvenega in kulturnega pomena. Kljub ekološki krhkosti je to ena najvejih turistinih privlanosti, ki jo letno obiše preko 1.5 milijona turistov. Njegovo ohranjanje spodkopavajo nasprotujoe si gospodarske prednosti in degradacija površja ogroa sam obstoj narodnega parka. Ugotavljanje sedanjega rastlinskega pokrova v 35 km2 velikem osrednjem delu Kamnitega gozda in analiza sprememb tega pokrova od leta 1974 dalje v 7 km2 obsegajoem Malem Kamnitem gozdu kaejo na obseg sprememb v pokrajini. Goli kraški stebri obsegajo 52 % preuevanega ozemlja v obsegu 35 km2 in okoli polovica ga je poraslega. V izrabi površja prevladuje poljedelstvo, predvsem v dolinah, toda velik del šilina je ogolelega, okoli 6 % površine pa je pozidane. Na obmoju 7 km2 Velikega Kamnitega gozda se je pozidana površina poveala z 0.5 ha leta 1974 na 38.68 ha leta 2001. V istem asu se je dolina cest poveala za 95 %, medtem ko so se vodne površine zmanjšale za 3 %. Med 1980 in 2001 se je letni obisk poveal s 139 000 na 1 500 000 – desetkratni porast. Potreba po uskladitvi ekonomskega razvoja in ohranjanja pokrajine vsebuje primerjavo kratkoronega z daljnoronim dobikom in tudi z ohranjanjem naravne in kulturne dedišine. Kljune besede: ohranjanje krasa, vpliv loveka, šilin, Lunan, Kitajska.

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163INTRODUCTIONThe Stone Forest Landscape The Lunan Stone Forest, or “Shilin” of Yunnan Province (Fig. 1) is one China’s most unique landscapes, with a national and international reputation. With a total area of 350km2 it is China’s premier pinnacle karst landscape and the most extensive such landscape in the world (Song, 1986). Not only is it a very significant karst landscape, but also it is a landscape of cultural and ecological importance, as well as a major tourist attraction, which currently attracts over 1.5million visitors each year. From the perspective of karst science, the Lunan Stone Forest is unrivalled for two principal reasons. First, it preserves and displays much greater evolutionary complexity than other pinnacle karst landscapes and, second, it contains a wider array of karren morphologies than anywhere else (Song, 1997). Other international pinnacle karst landscapes, such as the pinnacles of Gunong Mulu, the assegai karst of Palawan, the arte and pinnacle karst of Mount Kaijende, New Guinea, the tsingy of Madagascar and the karst of Chillagoe in North Queensland, do not have the same complex geological history, nor the variety of pinnacle shapes needles, fins, flutes, ruiniform blocks, emergent stone teeth representing different stages of evolution (Waltham, 1984; Geng et al, 1987). The Stone Forest landscape has a complex geomorphologic character, with steep slopes, thin soils, a shallow epikarst aquifer and restricted vegetation cover, and it is inherently very fragile, with considerable Fig. 1: The Lunan Stone Forest landscape.Chuanrong Zhang & Michael Day & Weidong Li: Landuse and Land Cover Change in the Lunan Stone Forest, China

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)164hydrological and ecosystem sensitivity (Yuan et al. 1991; Huntoon, 1992, 1993). Human population density is high (1205 persons/km2) and there is limited farmland, leading to forest denudation and soil erosion. Rapid urban growth and increasing tourism also place serious pressure on local resources, including water supplies (Day, 1997; Kranjc and Liu 2001). Adoption by the Chinese government of economic reform policies has lead to the accelerated construction of factories and infrastructure, increasing demand for construction materials and producing air and water pollution. In response to the increasing human pressure, conservation measures have been enacted to protect the karst environment, particularly the flora, wildlife, soils, water and cultural resources, all of which have scientific, aesthetic and economic significance (Day, 1997). The “Shilin”, or Stone Forest is a karst landscape dominated by “megakarren” – particularly large forms of what are more usually smaller features that form by dissolution of exposed carbonate rock surfaces. Shilin is a “forest” of intensively corroded limestone pinnacles commonly exceeding ten meters high. Yuan (1988) defined it as “a complex landscape consisting of dense rock spires having a variety of shapes separated by numerous dissolution-widened fractures.” The surfaces of the spires and the walls of the intervening pits are often vertically fluted, and they themselves contain an array of smaller karren features. The spires commonly attain 20m in height, with the largest reaching 50m. The Lunan Shilin is the best-known stone forest landscape in Yunnan, although there are others in that province and also in Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan and Sichuan (Kranjc and Liu 2001). Fig. 2: Location of the Lunan Stone Forest (after Huang & Liu, 1998).

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165The Lunan Stone Forest is located about 90 km southeast of Kunming, the provincial capital, in the plateau karstic lake area (Lin, 1997) of eastern Yunnan at about 24o30’N and 103o20’E (Fig. 2). At an elevation of 1750m above sea level, it experiences a subtropical monsoon climate with a mean annual temperature of 16.3oC and 963mm of precipitation per year (Zhang, 1984). The climate is generally equable, and is often likened to year-round spring (Zhang et al, 1997). The soil is relatively poor, and stony land is common. The vegetation is composed dominantly of broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous forest (Zhang et al, 1997 ).CURRENT CONSERVATION ISSUES IN THE STONE FORESTThe Lunan Stone Forest has been studied, exploited and, to some extent, protected since the visit of the provincial governor in 1931 (Kranjc and Liu 2001) with conservation measures being implemented incrementally as scientific studies have underlined its significance. The Chinese government has acknowledged the scientific value of Stone Forest landscape, and has recognized that its conservation will be beneficial to the local economy and culture. The Shilin was made a national park in 1982, with a “Protection Zone” extending over 350 km2. As a means of implementing protective measures in the Stone Forest, the national government in 1984 established three zones that were to be accorded different levels of protection. The Administrative Bureau of Shilin National Park was set up in 1988 and, under the auspices of the National Ministry of Construction, the government began to prepare for an application to inscribe the Lunan Shilin on the UNESCO World Natural Heritage list. An International Symposium to further this goal occurred in 1995 (Song et al 1997). Although some measures have been taken to protect the Shilin landscape, several fundamental problems still exist, among which one is paramount. The problem is that the local government accords greater priority to economic development than to landscape conservation and protection, despite the long-term economic significance of the latter. Natural resources, including the fabric of the Stone Forest itself, are exploited, in part to encourage tourism, without regard for the degradation that will ultimately destroy the attraction of the landscape.RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY The objective of this research is to quantify existing land covers and to determine how the core Stone Forest landscape has changed over recent decades. This may help the local government and residents to understand the scope of resource exploitation, recognize that protection is necessary, and identify what is necessary to effectively protect the landscape. The methodology combines GIS and remote sensing techniques to quantify current land use and land cover status in the Stone Forest and to assess landscape change over the past 30 years. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) facilitate the capture, storage, checking, manipulation, analysis and display of data which are spatially referenced to the earth (DoE, 1987). GIS accommodates collection, manipulation and analysis of information from diverse sources, and the spatial analysis function highlights the relationships between that data and salient landscape features. In the context of conservation and protected areas, GIS can provide accessible public information for rapid identification of boundaries and, in harness with satellite-based remote sensing, can readily convey quantitative data about temporal and spatial landscape change. Remote observationChuanrong Zhang & Michael Day & Weidong Li: Landuse and Land Cover Change in the Lunan Stone Forest, China

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)166combined with ground-based social data has the potential to improve understanding of the determinants of various land-use changes, and GIS and remote sensing represent valuable tools for the monitoring of environmental changes induced by human activity (Gao and Skillcorn, 1995; Miguel-Ayanz and Biging, 1997; Yeh & Li, 1998). The Lunan Stone Forest covers a total area of about 350 km2, but the human impacts are not homogeneous throughout that area, generally being greatest in the areas of highest population density and tourism. Accordingly, the current land use and land cover analysis focuses on a high-resolution (1 meter) Ikonos satellite image covering the core of Lunan, which is a roughly 35km2 area centered on the highest-priority conservation zone around Shilin Town and the Shilin Park (Fig. 3). The analysis of land use change within 30 years focuses on the Major Stone Forest Park, which covers about 7 km2 and which is the archetypal stone forest area that has been longest exploited, particularly for tourism. This area is demarcated as the highest-level protection area, and it is also the only area within the larger Stone Forest for which the necessary historical land use data is available. The Ikonos high-resolution (1meter) gray satellite image, for December 23, 2001, was rectified to a map projection (WGS_1984_UTM_Zone_48N). Also employed were the 1:10,000 topographic map, published in 1974, tourist information data, and field survey data. The topographic map was digitized using ArcInfo and transformed into the same coordinate system (Transverse Mercator) as the satellite image. ArcInfo was used because the coverage format supports topologic relations between spatial graphics and because digitizing errors, such as dangling node errors, in which a polygon does not close properly, can be rectified easily. Land use and land cover information was extracted from the satellite image visually, and was ground-checked in July 2002. Information about landscape change was derived by digitizing the 1974 topographic map and comparing this to the 2001 satellite image.RESULTSCurrent land use and land cover Understanding the current land use and land cover status is essential for the government and the public to make informed decisions about future conservation of the Stone Forest landscape. The current land use and land cover map, as identified from the Ikonos image for the entire 35km2area, is shown in Fig. 3. Table 1 provides the various land use areas. It shows that exposed pinnacle karst areas stone forest sensu stricto cover only 51.8% of the study area, predominantly in the east and the south. It also shows that 24.8% of shilin areas are vegetated, whereas 22.4% are without vegetative cover. Figure 3 also demonstrates that shilin areas are not restricted to any one particular geomorphic setting, and are associated with a variety of soil, vegetation, and hydrologic conditions. It is also evident that construction has now covered nearly six percent of the central stone forest area. Most valleys, which cover about 19% of the total area, have been converted to agricultural use. These valleys are important components of the landscape, in that they are natural soil and water storage locations. Their conversion from forest or grassland to farmland has implications for the overall karst ecosystem, not least in terms of diminishing water storage. Less than one percent of the study area is agricultural uplands, on which farming is generally marginal. Forest occupies only 1.2% of the study area, with mixed forest and farmland covering 5.9% and water covering 1.4% of the area.

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167Fig. 3: Land use and land cover map. Fig. 4: Built-Up Areas, 1974 and 2001.Chuanrong Zhang & Michael Day & Weidong Li: Landuse and Land Cover Change in the Lunan Stone Forest, China

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)168Fig. 5: Surface Water Areas, 1974 and 2001. Fig. 6: Road Network, 1974 and 2001.

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169Land Use TypeArea (ha)Percentage Unknown 0.060.0% Forest and Farmland 3.290.1% Bare Highland 3.510.1% Farmland on Highland 9.460.3% Highland 14.050.4% Vegetated Shilin in Built-Up Area 25.920.7% Forest 42.021.2% Water 47.151.4% Shilin with Red Soil136.373.9% Mixed Farmland, Forest and Bare rock160.164.6% Built-Up Area189.995.5% Low Mountain545.4915.7% Farmland in Valley662.3119% Shilin without Vegetation778.6022.4% Shilin with Vegetation862.4324.8% Table 1: Land Use Areas and Percentages.LAND USE CHANGE FROM 1974 TO 2001Figure 4 and Table 2 provide data on the change in built-up area in the 7 km2 Major Stone Forest park over the past three decades. In 1974 the built-up area was only 0.15 ha but this had increased by 2001 to 38.68 ha an increase of more than 19,000%. Built-up Area 1974 (ha) 0.15 Built-up Area 2001 (ha)38.68 Increase in Built-up Area (ha ) 38.53 Increase in Built-up Area (%)19250 Table 2: Built-up areas, 1974 and 2001. Figure 5 shows the distribution of surface water bodies in 1974 and 2001. During that period a 1.6 ha lake shown in the center of the 1974 map has been filled to construct a parking lot, but other small lakes, created by groundwater extraction, have been created as tourist attractions. Table 3 summarizes the 9ha, or 3.36 % decrease in surface water area between 1974 and 2001. While some lakes decreased in area, others were modified by human activities. 1974 Surface Water Area (ha) 23.66 2001 Surface Water Area (ha) 22.87 Change in Surface Water Area (ha)0.79 Change in Surface Water Area (%)3.34 Table 3: Change in Surface Water Area, 1974-2001.Chuanrong Zhang & Michael Day & Weidong Li: Landuse and Land Cover Change in the Lunan Stone Forest, China

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)170Figure 6 and Table 4 depict the change in roads between 1974 and 2001 within the Major Stone Forest park, during which time 21.6 km of road was constructed, an increase of 95.5%. The 2001 road system includes a new expressway to Lunan from the provincial capital, Kunming, together with other new highways and improved roads. 1974 Road Length (km)22.62 2001 Road Length (km)44.22 Road Length increase (km)21.60 Road Length increase (%)95.48 Table 4: Road Network Change, 1974-2001. Although the 1974 map does not depict vegetation cover, and hence it is not possible to quantify vegetation change since then, it is apparent that there have also been significant changes in vegetation cover. Vegetation cover has clearly been lost to the expansion of built-up areas and the road network, and also exotic species have been planted to provide ornamental landscaping (Figure 7). These exotic species, although aesthetically attractive, are changing the landscape both visually and ecologically, and may represent threats to populations of native plants and animals.TOURISMFigures 8 and 9 depict visitor numbers from 1980 to 2001, and illustrate the very rapid development during that time. In 1980, 139,000 tourists, including 20,000 non-Chinese, visited the Stone Forest, but by 2000 the numbers had swollen to 1,400,000, including 130,000 nonnationals. By 2001 the total visitor number increased to 1,500,000 – a ten-fold increase from 1980. International tourist numbers increased more than six-fold over the same time period. Tourism is of great significance to the local economy, and Figure 10 shows the direct and total tourism incomes from 1993 to 2000. The direct tourism income was 9,080,000 Chinese Yuan () in 1993, increasing sevenfold to 70,000,000 in 2000. During the same seven-year period, total tourism income increased more than eightfold.ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONThe results clearly demonstrate the current land use situation and the extent of land use change since 1974, to which tourism is clearly a major contributor. Exposed pinnacle karst stone forest sensu stricto covers less than 52 % of the 35 km2 study area, which suggests that it may be possible to identify locations within the broader stone forest that are particularly worthy of conservation, and that a wider variety of conservation techniques may be appropriate, although the overall ecosystem warrants consideration. Approximately half of the pinnacle area has some vegetation cover, the other half being denuded. The overall limited vegetative cover warrants concern, particularly the lack of forest cover. Trees and grassland can to some extent subdue the visual impact of the pinnacles, but this would be more than offset by the potential reduction of soil erosion, the increase in biodiversity and the improvement in air quality, the latter reducing potential corrosion of the pinnacles themselves. A comprehensive re-

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171Fig. 7: Exotic vegetation cover. Fig. 8: Visitor Numbers from 1980 to 2001.Chuanrong Zhang & Michael Day & Weidong Li: Landuse and Land Cover Change in the Lunan Stone Forest, China

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Acta carsologica, 32/2 (2003)172Fig. 9: International Visitor Numbers from 1980 to 2001. Fig.10: Direct and total tourism income from 1993 to 2000 (1$ = 8.27 ).

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173vegetation policy seems warranted, perhaps focusing on the maintenance of existing farmland and the establishment of mixed vegetation on highland and denuded areas. Hydrologic changes, particularly the increasing abstraction of groundwater for tourism, agricultural and industrial purposes, also mandate concern, with conservation efforts increasingly being necessary. Construction has now covered nearly six percent of the broader stone forest area, focusing attention on whether future construction should be limited as an overall conservation technique. Although some recent construction is associated with residential and industrial development, much of it is a function of the burgeoning tourism industry, and the associated hotels, roads and parking areas. Traffic congestion and vehicular pollution are serious associated problems, as are the visual and other blight produced by construction industries in general. The positive impact of tourism and associated development on the local and regional economy cannot be dismissed, but the increasing conflict between economic development and landscape conservation must be dealt with very carefully. This not only involves in the problem of shortterm versus long-term benefit, but also concerns the conservation of natural and cultural heritage. The Stone Forest landscape is at risk because of excessive exploitation, and its conservation is paramount.CONCLUSION The Stone Forest landscape in Lunan is of great significance both from a scientific and cultural perspective and to the local economy, but its inherent ecological fragility and the scale of human impact have resulted in considerable land cover change over the last three decades, and the implementation of effective conservation measures is of paramount urgency. GIS and remote sensing are important tools for relevant data collection and manipulation, although the acquisition and input of data is time-consuming and costly, and they have much to contribute to the development of effective conservation strategies. This research focused only on the central Stone Forest area, but highlights the essence of the ongoing landscape change. Decision-makers need more GIS data to assess landscape change across the whole region and to develop appropriate conservation and development policy. Landscape change in the Stone Forest is driven largely by tourism-related development, which threatens to undermine the raison dÂ’etre for the national park itself. Reconciliation of landscape conservation and local economic development will not be easy, but a holistic, ecosystem-based approach is necessary if both sets of interests are not to flounder.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSFinancial support for C. Zhang was provided by a Mary Jo Read Scholarship from the Department of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Thanks to Professor Tao Tang of the Department of Geography & Planning, Buffalo State University of New York, for providing the topographic map and the Iknonos images, and to Professor Song Linhua of the Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for providing the tourism data.Chuanrong Zhang & Michael Day & Weidong Li: Landuse and Land Cover Change in the Lunan Stone Forest, China

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