Acta carsologica

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Acta carsologica

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Acta carsologica
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Acta Carsologica
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Krasoslovni zbornik
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Inštitut za raziskovanje krasa (Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti)
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Vol. 35, no. 1 (2006)

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Tectonic Inception In Caledonide Marbles / Trevor Faulkner ( .pdf )

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TECTONIC INCEPTION IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES T EKTONSKA INCEPCIJA V KALEDONSKIH MARMORJIH Trevor F AULKNER 1 Izvleek: UDC: 551.24:551.44(48) Trevor Faulkner: Tektonska incepcija v kaledonskih marmor jih V centralni Skandinaviji je ve kot tiso izdankov marmorja v katerih je znanih preko tiso jam. Razlika med temi jamami in tistimi v apnencih, je pogojena s procesi metamorfoze in zanemarljivo primarno poroznostjo prvih. S tem je povezano drobno plastenje (foliacija) in posledina odsotnost lezik. Najgloblja jama je globoka 180 m, kljub temu, da vertikalni razpon izdankov znaa do 900 m. Jame najvekrat najdemo v skupinah in so v vertikalnem merilu precej nakljuno porazdeljene, pri emer jih redko najdemo ve kot 50 m pod povrjem. Kljub temu, da so nekateri izdanki pasastega kra sa dolgi ve deset kilometrov, zelo dolgih jam ne poznamo, kraki hidroloki sistemi pa ne presegajo doline 3.5 km. Ker so jame kratke in blizu povrja, je kemijska incepcija manj ver jetna. Zato predlagam model tektonske incepcije, ki predvide va, da so jame v kaledonskih marmorjih nastale zgolj vzdol sistemov odprtih razpok, pri emer je dimenzija in frekvenca teh razpok povezana z magnitude tektonskih premikov, ki so nastali kot posledica izostatinega uravnoteenja ob umikih ledenikov po ledenih dobah. Sistemi takih razpok so nasta jali vzdol incepcijskih povrin med marmorji in neprepust nimi plastmi in vzdol incepcijskih razpok v marmorjih, ki so vzporedne ali pravokotne s plastenjem. Model gradim tudi na poroilih o delno odcepljenem tankem vrhnjem delu skorje v podobnih okoljih na kotskem. Model podpirajo tudi opaanja kasnejih neotektonskih premikov, na katere kaejo ostri robovi in tektonska zrcala v jamah in na povrju. K ljune besede: Kaledonidi, plastenje, rob ledenikov, incepci jska razpoka, incepcijska povrina, marmor, plitvi vodonosnik, neotektonika, seizminost, tektonska incepcija, pasasti kras, Weichelij. 1 Limestone Research Group, University of Hudderseld, Queensgate, Hudderseld, HD1 3DH, UK e-mail: trevor@marblecaves.org.uk, telephone : +44 (0)1625 531558 post: F our Oaks, Wilmslow Park North, Wilmslow, Cheshire, SK9 2BD, UK Received / Prejeto: 03.03.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 7, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract: UDC: 551.24:551.44(48) Trevor Faulkner: Tectonic inception in Caledonide marbles A fundamental dierence between caves in sedimentary lime stones and those formed in a repeatedly-glaciated 40000 km 2 region in central Scandinavia that contains over 1000 individu al marble outcrops and has nearly 1000 recorded karst caves is the metamorphic grade of the karst bedrock and its negligible primary porosity. Allied to this is the ne-scale foliation and consequent lack of bedding-plane partings. Indeed, the folia tion is commonly vertical in the western part of the study area, where sub-horizontal openings must be along joints or other fractures. e deepest cave is only 180 m deep, despite outcrop vertical ranges reaching over 900 m. Caves tend to cluster to gether and are positioned randomly in a vertical dimension, whilst commonly remaining within 50 m of the overlying sur face. Additionally, despite some stripe karst outcrops being several tens of kilometres in length, there are no regional scale caves, and karst hydrological system distances are invariably shorter than 3.5 km. Because the caves are relatively short and epigean and there is a complete absence of long, hypogean, cave systems, speleogenesis by the (chemical) inception horizon hy pothesis is unlikely. A tectonic inception model is derived that proposes that it is only open fracture routes that could provide the opportunity for dissolution and enlargement into cave passages in the Cale donide marbles. It is hypothesised that the dimensions of these fractures are related to the magnitude, and perhaps to the fre quency, of local earthquakes and commonly-small tectonic movements that arose mainly from the isostatic rebound that accompanied deglaciation at the end of each major Pleistocene glacial. e openings formed along inception surfaces between the limestone and adjacent aquicludes and at inception frac tures that are entirely within the limestone and are commonly (though not universally) parallel to, or orthogonal to, the fo liation. e model builds on reports of a partially detached thin upper crustal layer in similar settings in Scotland and is supported by observations of later neotectonic movements, as indicated by sharp edges and slickensides in most present relict cave passages and sporadically on the surface. K eywords: Caledonide, epigean, foliation, ice margin, incep tion fracture, inception surface, marble, near surface aquifer, neotectonics, seismicity, tectonic inception, stripe karst, Weich selian.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 8 INTRODUCTION Central Scandinavia is a repeatedly-glaciated 40000 km 2 region that contains over 1000 individual Caledo nide marble outcrops and over 1000 karst caves with a total passage length >72 km, within an area about the size of Switzerland ( F ig. 1). A factual review of data assembled into karst and cave databases ( Faulkner, 2001 and 2005a) revealed that cave development has been predominantly phreatic, so that, commonly, just a single vadose streamway underlies upper-level rel ict phreatic passages with few vadose elements, cre ating an upside-down morph o logy. Recharge to the karst is primarily allogenic and discharge commonly remains unsaturated with calcite; autogenic recharge is relatively insignificant, mainly occurring during the spring snowmelt. These caves have their own morpho logical style, recognisable right across the area, which differentiates them from caves formed in classical karsts in sedimentary limestones. A key question to address is Why do these caves exist at all? THE INCEPTION PROBLEM e Inception Horizon Hypothesis (IHH; Lowe, 1992; Lowe and Gunn, 1997) proposed that the initiation of proto-conduits occurs as a syngenetic cave formational process during diagenesis. e long, slow, non-karstic inception phase is driven by capillarity, earth tides or ionic diusion at great depth and over great distances within stratigraphical partings or adjacent porous or frac tured rocks Eventually, chemical dissolution increases conduit sizes to explorable dimensions. How does this hypothesis stand in relation to the karsts and caves of the study area? L ACK O F PRIMAR Y POROSIT Y Most of the high (up to amphibolite) -grade metalime stones of the study area exhibit little memory of their original diagenesis, aer their subduction and meta morphism to marble at elevated temperatures and pres sures: any proto-conduits formed syngenetically during diagenesis were closed as the rock experienced chemi cal and physical changes in lithology. e recrystallisa tion to metacalcite produced a rock with a ne-scale foliation and a primary porosity that can be regarded as negligible, even over the long timescales available for conventional inception. e same applies to any mica schist, amphibolite, granite or gneiss lying adjacent to the marble: these rocks could not have sucient pri mary porosity to act as aquifers carrying water to the limestone surface. L ACK O F STRATIGRAPHICAL HORIZONS e foliation is commonly vertical in the western Helge land Nappe Complex (HNC; F ig. 1), but caves in such vertical stripe karst (VSK; foliation dip 81 o ) com monly display morphologies similar to those in horizon tally-bedded limestones, with many horizontal passages orthogonal to the foliation (F aulkner, 2005a), despite the lack of inception horizons to guide their formation along particular bedding plane partings. ere are also no con sistent systems of sills or other intrusions to act as incep tion horizons, so that the horizontal openings must be along joints or other fractures. L ACK O F REGIONAL SCALE S Y STEMS e IHH suggests that inception takes place over ex tremely long timescales, at great depths and over great distances. ere is no evidence that such a mechanism has taken place in the study area, despite some of the stripe karst outcrops exceeding 50 km in length. ere are no regional-scale caves; there are no known allogenic or autogenic sink-to-rising hydrogeological drainage systems longer than the 3.5 km that occurs at Vallerdal on the border between Norway and Sweden; and there is no evidence of very deep cavities or wells in the meta carbonates. e steep foliation and metamorphic history have le many completely separate stripe karsts. eir contained caves are, by necessity, commonly short (mean length = 85 m) and completely unrelated to each other internally, even if proximate in the eld, so that regionalscale inception is not possible. EX ISTENCE O F SHALLOW S Y STEMS Despite the large vertical range (VR) of some of the me talimestone outcrops (up to 956 m), the deepest cave is only 180 m deep, and only four others are more than 100 m deep. e mean cave VR is only 8.8 m and it rarely ex ceeds 15% of the local outcrop VR. us, the caves are commonly extremely epigean and there is a total absence of long, hypogean, cave systems. It is self-evident when visiting such systems (e.g. a short shallow through cave that carries a stream along a vadose passage from one TREVOR F AULKNER

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 9 TECTONIC INCEPTION IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES entrance to another) that such passages have no relation ship to any deeper, regional-scale, hydrogeology, even if it existed. Whereas it could perhaps be considered as a possibility that all such short and shallow caves are the lowest remnants of much longer systems formed deep below landscapes that have since been eroded away, this seems most unlikely as the carbonate outcrops would not have been consistently longer in the past than at present. T HE IMPLAUSIBILIT Y O F THE IHH TO E X PLAIN INCEPTION IN SOME METALIMESTONES F rom the four arguments presented above, the IHH can not explain the inception of the overwhelming major ity of caves in the study area. However, elements of the Hypothesis may explain parts of the inception process in some caves, or groups of caves. F or example, inception that is guided along sub-horizontal aquicludes within the foliation of marbles in low angle karst (LAK; foliation dip 0 o ) seems likely, as at Ytterlihullet in Bryggelldal. Similarly, inception along-strike at lithological bounda ries within lower grade metacarbonates in angled stripe karst (ASK; foliation dip 31 o ), as at K orallgrottan in Sweden, is also feasible. However, even in these exam ples, another mechanism is needed to explain an initial porosity. Fig. 1: T ectono-stratigraphic map of central Scandinavia, from G ee and Sturt (1985). e numbers indicate the areas various allochthons and nappes. M ost nappes contain metacarbonate outcrops that are commonly aligned NS and decrease in size (along with a common reduction in metamorphic grade) in an easterly direction. Caves are only recorded in metalimestone outcrops in the Uppermost Allochthon (7; i.e. in the H elgeland Nappe Complex, HNC and the Rdingsell Nappe Complex, RNC) and in the Kli Nappes of the Upper Allochthon (6). Small marble outcrops occur in the Seve Nappes of the Upper Allochthon (5) and in the L ower Allochthon (3), without recorded caves. e M iddle Allochthon (4) does not contain metacarbonates.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 10 Despite the diculty in utilising the IHH to explain the inception of the studied caves, these caves exist and their origins must post-date the last phase of metamorphic activity. e consistent style of the caves suggests that a consistent set of processes guides their inception, de velopment and eventual destruction. Two major clues to the inception process were noted in analysing the cave morphologies: externally, their epigean association with the landscape, and internally, the dominance of relict phreatic passages. A SSOCIATION O F CAVES WITH LANDSCAPE All cave passages in both VSK and ASK lie within 50 m of the overlying surface. Even in Ytterlihullet (LAK), all parts of its streamway are 93 m below the surface. Its stream resurges, ows along a short surface valley, and then sinks again in the same limestone outcrop before nally resurging some 200 m above the base of the lime stone, and some 300 m above the valley oor. us, this cave and most other active caves act in harmony with local hydrology and have an intimate, epigean associa tion with their local landscape. It seems safe to assume that these caves evolved in association with the shaping of their local topography, whose dominating process is the cycle of glaciation and deglaciation that has been repeated many times since the late Tertiary. R ELICT PHREATIC PASSAGES e absence of relict vadose caves shows that all relict caves in the area developed phreatically, as did nearly all the higher-level abandoned passages in the active caves. However, it is not possible to imagine present circum stances, even during spring melt, when most of these relict caves could be ooded to create phreatic conditions for their enlargement. It may be possible to envisage earlier landscapes where these passages were submerged under meteoric conditions, but a much simpler explana tion is that these passages enlarged subglacially or during deglaciation phases, when whole valleys could be inun dated by glacial meltwater. T HE TECTONIC INCEPTION MODEL e development (and destruction) of the present suite of karst caves can therefore be addressed by consider ing the way that glaciation has eroded the land surface, and perhaps provided suciently aggressive meltwaters to enlarge passages by dissolution. But these processes cannot explain the actual inception along proto-con duits. Without such openings, glacial meltwaters would not penetrate into high grade metalimestone, even under pressure. e T ectonic Inception M odel hypothesises that, through several separate, but commonly related, mechanisms, the stress release arising from the isostatic re bound and surface erosion that accompanied deglacia tion at the end of each glacial cycle, plus longer-timescale plate tectonics, caused the formation of tectonic fractures in the upper (epikarstic) part of the limestone (F ig. 2). us, openings are created along inception surfaces be tween the limestone and adjacent aquicludes (which may include dolostones), and by inception fractures that are entirely within the limestone, but are commonly (though not universally) parallel to, or orthogonal to, the folia tion. is model builds on the observations that the con tinuing seismic and tectonic activity (in similar settings) in Scotland may be best understood in terms of a partially detached thin upper crustal layer (Davenport et al ., 1989, p 191) and that near-surface limestones are not very duc tile and produce brittle fractures during folding, faulting and removal of overburden stress by erosion (e.g. Dor and Jensen, 1996, pp 426). It is also assumed that the maximum thickness of permafrost during glaciation is c. 100 m. Rock above this level is subjected to more severe temperature cycling and freeze-thaw processes than rock below it, and is therefore more likely to form inception fractures when triggered by seismicity. e practical expression of these processes was provided by Boulton et al (1996, p 403), who noted from pumping tests that the crystalline basement rocks of the Scandi navian shield (primarily non-carbonates) have a surface horizon of fractured bedrock about 100 m thick which has a hydraulic conductivity of 10 -6 ms -1 . is provides a near surface aquifer that is commonly found in crystalline rocks worldwide (Gustafson and Krasny, 1994). e idea of tectonic speleogenesis in karst rocks has a precedent, because Riggs et al. (1994) proposed this at THE TECTONIC SOLUTION Fig. 2: M arble at Indrsen quarry, V elord: Shattered nature of the epikarst in high-quality metalimestone altered by contact metamorphism. TREVOR F AULKNER

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 11 Tectonic inception (and indeed any inception hypothesis) is not easy to prove Tectonic fractures may be too narrow to observe visually and may no longer be recognisable aer karstic dissolution and enlargements to explorable passages. us, the Tectonic Inception Model is sup ported by several lines of evidence for Caledonide tec tonism and fracture formation in the following sections. e hydrogeology of fractured rock, including fractured metalimestone, was considered separately by F aulkner (2003 and 2005a). C ALEDONIDE EVIDENCE F OR TECTONIC ACTIVIT Y F aulkner (1998) reviewed recent ideas on the importance of tectonic activity to cave development in sedimentary limestones. e idea that tectonism sensu lato has inu enced karst cave development in Norway has been sug gested, or hinted at, by several authors. us, Hoel (1906, p 8) raised the possibility that Aunhattenhullet 1, 2 and 3 and Langskjellighattengrotta in Velord in the study area were formed by dislocations. Horn (1947: McGrady translation, 1978, p 135) noted that the Norwegian coast al area at the Arctic Circle is still unstable tectonically, which should favour joint formation, or the widening of old joints. Kirkland (1958) thought that collapsed blocks on the oors of chambers in the Svartisen area could have resulted from movements along faults and from seismic disturbances. Lauritzen (1989a, 1989b and 1991b, p 122) suggested that cave passages in Norway are almost always guided by the line of intersection between two planes (but see section 4). His statistical analysis revealed that commonly shear fractures (faults and shear joints) and less commonly tension fractures are utilised as primary guiding voids for speleogenesis. Onac (1991) noted caves formed by gravitational mass movement near Narvik, and the inuence of tectonic faults in guiding subterra nean streams. Randall et al (1988) reported on the hydrogeologi cal framework of the NE Appalachians (USA), a region with a comparable metamorphic Caledonide geology. ey noted high hydraulic yields from fractured nonporous bedrock, especially from wells that intersect contacts between dierent lithologies. Earlier work was quoted that showed that fractures decrease in size and frequency some 50 m below the surface. e water table conguration in uplands nearly replicates the to pography throughout the region, so that inter-basin ow systems involving signicant ux have not been shown to exist, as in central Scandinavia. Carlsten and Strhle (2001) reported that open, and partly-open, ssures were found in a borehole at Bodagrottorna in non-carbonate rock on the Swedish Baltic coast at depths at least down to 150 m, in an area that was very active seismically in the early Holocene. T ECTONIC MECHANISMS Seismic and aseismic tectonic processes that create frac tures can arise from several separate mechanisms. e evidence for considerable isostatic upli during the melting of the 2 km-thick Weichselian icesheet is well documented. at part of the evidence for upli that is associated with caves includes Sjberg (1981a and b), who discussed 50 elevated caves in east Sweden formed by cobble abrasion at the coast of the Baltic, and Sjberg (1988) who discussed elevated coastal caves in central Norway. at seismic tectonic activity accompanied the upli was documented by: Husebye et al (1978); Mrner (1980); Stephansson and Carlsson (1980), who discussed a Caledonian Zone of seismicity; Anderson (1980), who suggested that the maximum number of earthquakes af F ORMATION O F TECTONIC F RACTURES Devils Hole, Nevada, although without subsequent dis solution. e only known paper to discuss the impor tance of fracturing by stress release in the development of cave passages in sedimentary limestones was by Sa sowsky and White (1994), who anticipated some of the processes described herein, but for a non-glacial setting in Tennessee. T HE GLACIAL / TECTONIC C Y CLE Because the tectonically-induced inception fractures are commonly produced at the end of each glaciation, there may not always be sucient time for phreatic passages to enlarge to explorable dimensions during the remaining time of that particular deglaciation. Hence, the cyclic processes of glaciation, deglaciation and tectonic open ing combine together to develop cave passages: tectonic inception provides fractures that permit the circulation of meltwaters that can be chemically aggressive even without dissolved CO 2 ( F aulkner, 2004a and b; 2005a), both during that deglaciation and during the next glacial and deglacial phases. As the cycle repeats itself, passages near the surface enlarge and become removed by gla cial and uvial erosion (as noted by Isacsson, 1994, at K orallgrottan ), and new passages form at geologically lower levels. TECTONIC INCEPTION IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 12 ter deglaciation would occur just inland along the coast, especially in regions of large elevation dierences per pendicular to the coastline; Sjberg (1987), who classi ed Swedish neotectonic cave types as occurring a) in split roches moutones, b) in collapsed mountain slopes, and c) in sub-horizontally displaced mountain tops, and who postulated that talus caves in Sweden were formed by earthquakes caused by the early and rapid Holocene upli that Mrner (1979) estimated at 20 cma -1 ; Sjberg (1996a), who dated the formation of scree and talus caves by a huge tectonic event at 9400a BP; Sjberg (1996b) and Mrner (2003), who recorded that the Swedish nuclear industry now accepted that Sweden suered heavy earthquakes immediately aer the Weich selian glaciation; Sjberg (1996c), who listed Swed ish Holocene earthquakes with magnitudes from 5 and showed how the formation of seismotectonic caves could be dated by studying so sediment deformation in varved clay, as also discussed by Sjberg (1999a and b); Kejonen (1997), who described seismotectonic crevice caves in F inland that developed from 12 ka BP; and by Mrner (2003) who presented 15 papers to demonstrate that Scandinavia was an area of high seismic activity at the time of deglaciation. Mrner et al. (2000) noted that palaeoseismic events occurred in the Stockholm area about every 20 varve years from ~10490 to ~10410a BP, and listed 15 events in Sweden with magnitudes between 6 and >8 from ~12500 to ~1000a BP, some being associated with tsunamis. Be cause the records came from the whole of Sweden, no region was aseismic during the deglaciation period. e formation of the Bodagrottor talus cave (close to the borehole discussed in section 3.1) by the blowing-up of a roche moutone occurred at 9663a BP, by the dating of a varve that arose from a synchronous earthquakegenerated tsunami that swept across the Baltic sea 33 varve-years aer local deglaciation. F rom the size of the individually moved blocks, this earthquake may have had a magnitude >9. A map produced by Mrner et al. (2000) shows that each seismic event occurred as the ice margin passed overhead, commonly from west to east during deglaciation. us, from all this evidence, it is sensible to suggest that some fractures in the metacar bonates of the Caledonides were caused by surface strain release, or by deeper seismic activity, associated with the fast, early Holocene, upli, at a time roughly coincident with the passing of the ice margin. e upli was not necessarily uniform, even at a local scale. Dierential uplis caused crevasses and other changes of slope, particularly along ridges. Braa then et al (2004) described four types of failure of rock slopes that occur especially in valley shoulder locations, where F aulkner (2005a) showed that cave dimensions are maximised. Additionally, Warwick (1971), F ord and Ewers (1978) and Lauritzen (1986) suggested that pres sure release at the sides of valleys could create fracture zones, including aer melting of the local valley glacier (e.g. F ig. 3). Rohr-Torp (1994) found excellent linear relation ships (R 2 >0.85) between the local present rate of upli (which itself is positively correlated with the total Holo cene upli) and the mean and median of both borehole yield and the reducing depth required to achieve an ade quate yield, at sites across southern Norway. Concluding that young tectonic events have rejuvenated old fractures, he proposed a simple rule to predict the typical yield of a randomly-placed drilled well in Precambrian rocks in F ennoscandia: the yield is 180 Lh -1 at a place with 0mma -1 upli from a well at 8085 m depth, increasing by 100 Lh -1 from a required depth of 6 m less, for each extra mma -1 of upli. Present study area upli rates vary from 2.5.5 mma -1 going inland. e fracture patterns and dimen sions that may support this groundwater storage and ow in Norway were discussed by Banks et al (1996) and by Gudmundsson et al (2002). F ord (1983, p 157) referred to this mechanism in Canada as isostatic groundwater pumping. orson (2000) noted that there is now a blur ring between the study of basic tectonics, and the study of glaciotectonics and further, that seemingly trivial changes in stress may be sucient to nucleate earth quakes, especially if there is a change in crustal pore pressure Muir-Wood (2000, p 1410) stated that, at de glaciation, the tectonic strain energy that was accumu lated during the whole period in which the icesheet had been in place can be liberated in a major seismic out burst . Stewart et al (2000) noted that horizontal plate motions normally drive crustal deformation, but with Fig. 3: Entrance to Johngrotta, T osenord: T ectonic openings caused by pressure relief at side of ord. Caving lamp for scale, at entrance to 15 m-long ssure. TREVOR F AULKNER

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 13 the onset of glaciation, this style is overprinted by the glacial stress, and new horizontal crustal motions in crease outwards from the icesheet centre. ey showed that subglacial water penetrates into the crust below en hanced icemelt in topographic hollows, increasing the pore-water pressure, and that large icesheets stabilise underlying crustal faults, whereas deglaciation desta bilises the faults. Periods of cover by maximal Scandi navian icesheets represent times of seismic quiescence, due to the muing eect of the weight of ice, as the land is gradually compressed and isostatically depressed (Johnston, 1987). In F ennoscandia, faulting is linked to zones with very steep ice gradients, or to the nal stages of recession, when the bulk of seismic activity probably occurs within a few hundred years. During the similar deglaciation of Scotland, local movements were caused by dierential glacial load exure stresses (Davenport et al ., 1989; Ringrose et al ., 1991), at places with the steepest ice gradients (Stewart et al ., 2000). Johnston (1987) also noted that articial reservoirs can trigger earthquakes by increasing hydrostatic pressure. It oc curs to this author that local deglacial earthquakes may similarly be triggered by the formation of ice-dammed lakes. F jeldskaar et al (2000) suggested that stress-gen erating mechanisms can be grouped into three classes: rst-order stresses across Fennoscandia that arise from the longer-term plate tectonic NWSE compression ridge-push forces caused by oceanic spreading from the Atlantic Ridge; second-order stresses that are limited to Scandinavia ; and third-order stresses that relate to lo cal features (e.g. topography) and rarely extend beyond ~100 km. Any of the above mechanisms may result in fractures open to the surface. ey may ll with water in summer, so that any winter freezing would subject the rock to increased stress. e magnitude of any widening is pro portional to the sub-zero ( o C) temperature at the surface (Matsuoka, 2001). Although most widening is reversed on thawing, there is a tendency for the fracture to be per manently enlarged, and then to admit a higher volume of water during the next freezing cycle. e temperature cycling of rocks of diering lithologies that have unequal coecients of thermal expansion would also promote fracture enlargement along contact zones. Indeed, Gud mundsson et al (2002, p 64) stated that stresses tend to concentrate at the contact between dyke rock and the host rock and generate fractures that may conduct groundwa ter . us, tectonism commonly leads to a growth in the size of the near-surface fracture network, even without invoking karstic processes. If ice-dammed lakes com pletely froze in winter or during a period of local perma frost, then submerged fractures would also be subjected to further stress and widening. Another mechanism to increase fracturisation is hydrofracturing (e.g. Gudmundsson et al ., 2002). is process forces groundwater upwards through bedrock at gaps in permafrost, which may apply to metacarbonates during parts of the glacial cycle. At the base of a 500 mdeep ice-dammed lake, the excess pressure would be 50 atm. us, water can be injected into fractures that may occur within any underlying metalimestones, and, ac cording to Banks et al (1996, p 230), such pressures in a borehole may be sucient to stimulate already fractured bedrock and to create new fractures. Lubrication by wa ter would also amplify the eects of local seismicity. ere is no reason to suppose that the concen trated seismic creation of fractures during the Weichselian deglaciation was unique: similar processes must have occurred during the demise of all previous Cenozoic glacials (and perhaps stadials). However, from the spe leothem chronozones proposed for Norway (Lauritzen, 1991a), there are long intervals of several 10 ka when speleothems did not grow, and full glacial coverage can be inferred. It therefore seems likely that the largest mag nitude earthquakes only occurred once per 100 ka glacial cycle. N EOTECTONICS In addition to the postglacial upli, there are two main sources of evidence of neotectonics in Scandinavia: the recent earthquake record, and the observation of move ment along faults (e.g. Husebye et al. 1978; Olesen, 1988; Bungum, 1989; Olesen et al. 1992 and 1995). Lo cal instrumentation can now record small earthquakes of magnitude 2, as summarised on a neotectonics map by Dehls et al. (2000a). e seismic events tend to fol low NS alignments at depths commonly focused above 15 km at the Atlantic Ridge, along the Continental Shelf edge, along the Norwegian coast, rather randomly along the border and onto the Swedish shield, and along the Swedish Baltic coast. Many earthquakes have occurred in northern Nor way and along the coast of southern Norway since 1750 AD, but lower frequencies and magnitudes coincide with the study area, which occupies a saddle position between higher mountain ranges. Central Scandinavia probably acted as a focus for ice ow during late Cenozoic glacia tions. With thinner icesheets, there was less stress relief and lower seismicity at each deglaciation. Addition ally, increased ice ow increases glacial erosion, leading to less surface relief and less dierential stress, and the increased sedimentation on the Vring Plateau, o the coast of the study area, may have a dampening eect. e historical record of signicant, but comparatively smaller and less frequent neotectonic earthquakes in the study area (F ig. 4) may be representative of relative seismic TECTONIC INCEPTION IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 14 activity during the whole Holocene, although, following the pulse of deglaciation seismotectonics, the style of seismicity does change, as noted by Stewart et al (2000, p 1381): Whereas present-day seismicity is concentrated around the margins of the former icesheet, on deglaciation, earthquakes predominated at the centre of the rebound dome However, neotectonic earthquakes do follow the Rana Fault Complex south along the coast of the study area, and the largest recorded Northern European nearshore earthquake, of magnitude 5.8, occurred on 31 Au gust 1819 AD in Rana, just north of the study area. Some 10000 micro earthquake shocks were recorded instru mentally at Mely, 70 km north of the study area, during 10 weeks in 1978 (Bungum et al ., 1979). ese were up to magnitude 3.2, were heard and felt locally, and caused cracks in walls and chimneys. e documented active postglacial faults are com monly NESW-trending reverse faults that lie within a 400 km x 400 km area in northern F ennoscandia (e.g. Arvidsson, 1996). eir lengths and maximum scarp heights vary from 3 km and from 1 m. F ault o sets range up to 13 m (Dehls et al ., 2000b). A magnitude 4 earthquake occurred near one of these faults in 1996, when large amounts of groundwater poured out of the escarpment. e fault length to oset ratio indicates that the structure itself resulted from an earthquake with a magnitude above 7. e work of Olesen et al (2004, p 17) supports previous conclusions regarding a major seismic pulse (with several magnitude 7 earthquakes) which followed immediately aer the deglaciation of northern Fennoscandia. e earthquakes may not just be caused by isostatic rebound aer the removal of ice. ey may also indicate the opportunity for adjustment to glacial erosion aer the muing eect of the ice cover has gone. e 2 km-wide WE Bsmoen F ault zone is just north of the junction between the HNC and the Rdingsell Nappe Complex (RNC) and can be traced for 50 km along Ranaord (F ig. 4). It has a maximum displacement of 10 m, escarpments up to 80 m, provides evidence of recent movements (30 40 cm between 8780 and 3880a BP: Hicks et al. 2000), and was associated with the 1819 earthquake. e Rana area was the subject of an in-depth seismic study, NEO NOR, from 1997, when some 267 local earthquakes were recorded with magnitudes up to 2.8 by Hicks et al. (2000), who stated (p 1431): e Rana area has a signi cant amount of the total seismic activity in onshore north ern Norway and concluded that postglacial upli is the most likely cause for this continuing high level of seismic activity. Muir-Wood (2000) discussed postglacial very shal low stress-relief phenomena, known as pop-ups, which are prevalent along the margins of the Laurentian icesheet, but relatively unknown in Scandinavia. However, Roberts (2000) reported oset structures in boreholes at road-cuts that are regarded as stress-relief features initi ated by blasting. Within road tunnels there is anecdotal evidence that civil engineers report the sounds of rock moving, and rock bursts occur when rocks fall from the roof, aer blasting is complete. At the surface, crushed rocks and slipped blocks and notches on skylines may indicate postglacial movements along faults and nappe boundaries. Olesen et al. (2004, Appendix A) included 54 clas sied claims of neotectonic movements from onshore mainland Norway, prior to new evidence discussed here (section 3.4). e earthquakes and fault movements are commonly parallel manifestations of neotectonic activity that arise from both glacial isostatic upli and the lon ger-term plate tectonics. Olesen et al. (1992) reported that the earliest detectable displacement in F innmark (the northernmost county in Norway), is of Proterozoic age, indicating an extremely long-lived fault zone. Such fault zones and their adjacent sub-parallel accommoda tion faults lie parallel to the strike of the foliation, and give low resistivity readings due to ingress of water into fractures Whereas the plate tectonic processes constitute the most important fault-generating mechanism in F inn mark, stress relief could still have been triggered during the deglaciation period. ere are no known extensive faults wholly within the study area, which, as noted above, is less seismically active, although Olesen et al (1995) showed an earth quake zone that extends NE across the north of the study area, passing through Mosjen and Korgen (F ig. 4). Be cause the Weichselian icesheet had melted by 8500 14 Ca BP, the present pattern of neotectonic seismic activity corresponds more to the horizontal stress eld. As well as being concentrated at the centre of the rebound dome, the earthquake pattern from 10000 14 Ca BP was probably aligned along the mountain ranges, and repre sented the vertical isostatic rebound. A conclusion from this review of neotectonic activity is that the seismic and aseismic creation and enlarge ment of near-surface fractures continued throughout each interglacial, to supplement the more intense frac ture sets produced at each deglaciation. ese processes probably combine to create a spectrum of fracture aper tures, lengths, frequencies and interconnectivities within the metalimestones. Such fracture systems may include subsystems that vary from being too small to transmit water, to those that are great enough to permit turbulent ow (without requiring karstic dissolution) over path lengths that in the study area reach up to 3.5 km. TREVOR F AULKNER

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 15 E VIDENCE F OR TECTONIC ACTIVIT Y F ROM THE STUD Y AREA None of the 54 claimed examples of Norwegian neotec tonic movement (section 3.3) lie within the study area. e lithologies of aected or adjacent rocks are rarely given, but there is no indication that any are in carbon ate rocks. us, a list of 56 possible examples of tectonic movements in metalimestones presented by F aulkner (2005a, Appendix D1) may be the rst recorded for the study area, and the rst observed in both exokarstic and endokarstic situations. Altitudes range from near sea lev el to 770 m. Elgell provides many good examples. Most underground observations are intended to provide direct evidence of movement, aer formation of the observing passage, rather than direct evidence of tectonic incep tion. Only one observation concerns fallen, broken or curved stalactites and stalagmites, which can be diag nostic of earthquakes and relative roof movement. A few more unrecorded examples probably do exist, but spe leothems are rare in the study area anyway, and most of those that do exist are small and probably grew in the Ho locene, aer the large earthquakes occurred. Speleothems that grew in earlier interglacial periods have commonly been removed by subsequent deglacial outows. e few chambers with roof spans greater than c. 6 m commonly contain fallen blocks, which almost universally comprise limestones with clean, sharp, angular surfaces. is sug gests that they fell aer any deglacial deposition, and are situated high enough above streamways not to have been eroded by Holocene ood waters. Only two of the chambers are lit by daylight from nearby entrances, so that only these two may experience severe, seasonal, frost action. e others are not in entrance areas, and their disturbance by seismic shock seems the best explana tion (e.g. F ig. 13). Human intervention is most unlikely, because of the common inaccessibility. However, all the large chambers are within 30 m of the overlying surface, and most within 15 m, so that a second possible process is downward exing of the roof by the weight of an overriding icesheet (providing the cave was not lled by ice or water), as proposed by Warwick (1971), and upward exing when the ice melted. A third explanation based on the freezing to a total ice ll during glacial conditions also cannot be ruled out. It is the authors opinion, made aer eld trips to marble caves in central Scandinavia, northern America and Scotland, that evidence of small Holocene tectonic movements (e.g. bedrock movement that displays sharp edges or slickensides, without subsequent calcite dissolu tion or deposition) can be found in all relict passages in metalimestones in the Caledonides. Movements in VSK seem to occur in either vertical or horizontal slabs that are typically 1 m thick. e movements, presumably caused by WE compressive stress, are commonly hori zontal, normal to the strike, and have typical moved dis tances of only a few centimetres (and, rarely, several tens of centimetres), as expressed at the surface and within cave passages. e horizontal movement of vertical slabs of limestone 1 m thick is compatible with the survey leg length of many caves in the study area, suggesting that joint systems (in, e.g., VSK) are produced by this process (F igs. 5 and 6). Longer straight passage elements, and very wide, but low, passages, may arise from the hori zontal movement of horizontal slabs of limestone (F igs. 7, 8 and especially 9 and 10). ese observations agree with those of Olesen et al (2004, p 13): the Norwegian bedrock consists of individual blocks that, to some degree, move independently of each other According to Mrner (2003, p 72), a passing seismic wave can cause bedrock to li up and then sink back, whilst the ground is being severely shaken. is probably happened at Cli Cave in Jordbrudal (F igs. 9 and 10). Because most tectonic move ments are of only a few centimetres, explorable cave pas sages are unlikely to be truncated along faults, and few such blind passages are known in the area. Fig. 4: H istorical earthquakes in the study area ( V arious sources). TECTONIC INCEPTION IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 16 A possible alternative explanation is that there has not been any movement, but that dierential erosion or corrosion has given the appearance of movement. is could arise particularly if the apparent movement is aligned with the foliation. However, the photograph ic evidence for tectonic movements discussed above is compelling. e evidence provided at E lgellhola (F ig. 5) is particularly convincing, because the movement is across the foliation, is seen all the way around the passage walls, has a 1 mm-thick fault gauge wafer protruding up to 50 mm, and includes an 11cm step across a wall scal lop. e evidence of protruding fault gauge wafers at sur face sites (e.g. F ig. 11) that appear to cross-cut karren and stream channels suggests that these movements occurred in the Holocene, aer the transport of ice across the area. e wafers could have been extruded beyond the faces of the limestone blocks by the seismic movements, or else Holocene chemical dissolution of the surface has le the more resistant wafers exposed to a height that indicates Fig. 6: Slickensides in Paradox Cave, Elgell: T ectonic movement of ~20 cm aer enlargement of passage to its present size. Fig. 5: Scallop in Elgellhola: 11cm tectonic movement at scallop (highlighted), which occurred aer formation of the passage, probably synchronously with movement in the nearby Paradox Cave (Fig. 6). Fig. 7: Kidney L ake Cave, Jordhuleell: Relict phreatic passage, with ~2 m diameter. A prominent horizontal tectonic movement bisects the passage, probably resulting from seismic amplication, because the cave lies in a ridge. Although this movement occurred aer the passage enlarged to it present size, cave inception probably took advantage of a similar movement at the end of the Saalian deglaciation. Photo by P. H ann. Fig. 8: H orizontal tectonic movement on Elgell: M ass movement outward (aer glacial smoothing) of 2 m-thick slab of metalimestone, with proto-conduits at upper fracture. TREVOR F AULKNER

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 17 the extent of local surface lowering, or wall retreat in a cave. e wafers are calcitic, with polished surfaces and unknown dissolutional characteristics. e observed tectonic movements in karst caves commonly follow the plane of the supposed inception fracture. Additionally, caves commonly display a high concentration of joints and fractures (c.f. the epikarst in sedimentary limestones) that lie parallel to, or normal to, the plane of foliation, and in some cases at other angles. ese openings may not show lateral movement, but the variable degree of sharpness or smoothing by dissolu tional water indicates that they probably represent a gen eral settling upwards of large supercial carbonate blocks aer seismic shocks. e sporadic lines of speleothems beneath roof joints indicate failed vertical inception fractures, which transmit water more readily in vadose rather than phreatic conditions. Fig. 9: Cli Cave entrances: Shattered clis and towers of limestone near the Rockbridge, Jordbrudal. Fig. 10: Cli Cave entrance from inside: H orizontal opening of c. 1 m to both le and right that split oor of phreatic passage to create a box-like prole. is is the largest known tectonic movement in the study area. Fig. 11: Diverging ow on Elgell: Diverging ow of coee across vertical fracture with fault gauge, suggesting that movement occurred aer the surface ow was established. Fig. 12: Fountain at L itl H jortskar, Svenningdal: Spring at high stage from metalimestone fractures 1 m above level of adjacent stream. TECTONIC INCEPTION IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 18 Fig. 13: e Blockpile, Kvannlihola 2: Well-away from freeze-thaw inuences, this collapse likely occurred during early H olocene earthquakes. Fig. 14: Secret Stream Cave, Elgell: Primarily a tectonic cave, formed at junction of mica schist and marble. e mica schist has split and rotated upwards. e pick-axe is a relic of small-scale mining activity. It is self-evident that if tectonic caves can form in noncarbonate rocks, such as the entrance to Secret Stream Cave in mica schist (F ig. 14), then, despite metalimestone perhaps being slightly more ductile than some other local lithologies, there almost certainly exist natural conditions that promote the creation of tectonic caves in marbles, as listed by F aulkner (2005a). Such caves may be recognised by their angular or triangular passage proles, especially at roof level. (Sediments, clastic materials and fallen rock may provide a atter, sub-horizontal, oor). Whereas the movements along fractures in caves primarily formed by karstic dissolution are commonly small (the c. 1 m move ment in Cli Cave F igs. 10 and 11, is exceptional), the movements at purely tectonic caves could be much greater. It is also self-evident that if a limestone tectonic cave later became part of a drainage route, under vadose or phreatic conditions, then normal karstic chemical and mechani cal erosion processes would apply, and, over time, the passage would enlarge. If the drainage was phreatic, then eventually the evidence of its tectonic inception could dissolve away. Even in vadose conditions, the signs of an original tectonic movement may be destroyed in all but the highest, perhaps inaccessible, levels. e only known examples in the study area of caves in metalimestone that possibly enlarged tectonically to explorable dimensions and later enlarged signicantly by karstic processes are the adjacent caves N ordlysgrotta and M arimyntgrotta in Velord, which may also have passages truncated by tectonic movements (F aulkner, 2005b). Whenever a Caledonide karst passage has been studied by the author, it has always been found to follow either the contact between metalimestone and another, non-carbonate, rock, or a narrow (commonly horizontal in VSK) fracture plane in the limestone. Because there are likely to be rheological dierences between rocks of dif fering lithologies, tectonic fractures are particularly likely to form at lithological contacts, under all conditions of seismic and aseismic tectonic movement. It is not neces sary to have intersecting fractures for tectonic inception: apertures are uneven, and channel ow follows the wid est part of the opening (Hanna and Rajaram, 1998). Nor is movement along the plane of the fracture necessary: a separating aperture adjacent to, or within, the limestone is sucient. Such local rock splitting, especially vertical, may arise near the surface from deglacial and erosional unloading, without necessarily being triggered by seis mic or aseismic processes. EVIDENCE F OR TECTONIC INCEPTION TREVOR F AULKNER

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 19 On the basis of the accepted facts of seismic and slow tec tonic activity in Scandinavia (section 3), it is argued here that all the solutional karst caves of the study area were initiated by tectonic inception. Tectonic activity creates fractures and some of these fractures must be open, as shown by the extreme cases of explorable tectonic caves. F or the vertical stripe karsts in the HNC (at least), it seems probable that horizontal movements produce sublinear sections of horizontal and vertical fractures with apertures that match the mmand cm-scale banding of the foliation. e availability of chemically aggressive waters during meteoric and glacial conditions (F aulkner, 2005a) that can pass easily through connected ssures that lie close to the surface, and that commonly have high hydraulic gradients (F ig. 12), promotes karstic enlarge ment. Indeed, just as it seems impossible for karst caves to exist in the metalimestones of the study area without tectonic inception (section 1), it also seems impossible for them not to exist, given the tectonic history and the avail ability and ow regimes of chemically aggressive waters. Hence, all the karst caves are hybrids. Aer tectonic in ception, conduits enlarged by dissolutional karstic proc esses, some with marine modication, and some with ob servable tectonic modication subsequent to inception. Monogenetic cave types in metacarbonate rocks are lim ited to wholly tectonic caves, wholly sea caves (formed by wave action), and jettegryter (rock-mills, formed by mechanical action during deglaciation). CONCLUSIONS is paper reports part of a wider project to study spe leogenesis in Caledonide metacarbonate rocks (F aulkner, 2005a), for which the helpful and patient supervi sion provided by Professor John Gunn and Dr. David Lowe is gratefully acknowledged. F or this aspect of the project, Dr. Rod Gayer generously invited me to attend his lectures on CaledonianAppalachian Tectonics at the University of Cardi, and a eld trip with Dr. Colin Dav enport and his students at the University of East Anglia to study neotectonics in the Scottish Caledonides was ex tremely benecial. Dr. Philippe Audra is thanked for his supportive and constructive review comments. A CKNOWLEDGMENTS RE F ERENCES Andersen, B. G., 1980: e deglaciation of Norway aer 10,000 BP.Boreas, 9, 211. Arvidsson, R., 1996: F ennoscandian earthquakes: whole crustal rupturing related to postglacial rebound.Science, 274, 744. Banks, D., N. E. Odling, H. Skarphagen & E. Rohr-Torp, 1996: Permeability and stress in crystalline rocks.Terra Nova, 8, 223. Boulton, G. S., P. E. Caban, K. van Gijssel, A. Leijnse, M. Punkari & F H. A. van Weert, 1996: e impact of glaciation on the groundwater regime of Northwest Europe.Global and Planetary Change 12, 1, 397. Braathen, A., L. H. Blikra, S. S. Berg & F Karlsen, 2004: Rock-slope failures in Norway; type, geometry, deformation mechanisms and stability.Norwegian Journal of Geology, 84, 67. Bungum, H., 1989: Earthquake occurrence and seis motectonics in Norway and surrounding areas.in S. Gregerson & P.W. Basham (Eds), Earthquakes at North-Atlantic Passive Margins: Neotectonics and Postglacial Rebound, 501. Bungum, H., B. K. Hokland, E. S. Husebye & F Ringdal, 1979: An exceptional intraplate earthquake sequence in Mely, northern Norway.Nature, 280, 32. Carlsten, S. & A. Strhle, 2001: Inte mycket sprickor un der Bodagrottorna!Grottan, 36, 1, 30. Davenport, C. A., P. S. Ringrose, A. Becker, P. Hancock & C. F enton, 1989: Geological investigations of late and post glacial earthquake activity in Scotland.in S. Gregerson and P.W. Basham (Eds), Earthquakes at North-Atlantic Passive Margins: Neotectonics and Postglacial Rebound, 175. TECTONIC INCEPTION IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 20 Dehls, J. F ., O. Olesen, H. Bungum, E. C. Hicks, C. D. Lindholm & F Riis, 2000a: 1:3000000 Neotectonic map: Norway and adjacent areas.Geological Sur vey of Norway. Dehls, J. F ., O. Olesen, L. Olsen & L. H. Blikra, 2000b: Neotectonic faulting in northern Norway; the Stu oragurra and Nordmannvikdalen postglacial faults.Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1447. Dor, A. G. & L. N. Jensen, 1996: e impact of late Ceno zoic upli and erosion on hydrocarbon exploration: oshore Norway and some other uplied basins.Global and Planetary Change, 12, 1, 415. F aulkner, T., 1998: Karst and Tectonics Symposium Re view.Cave and Karst Science, 25, 3, 150. F aulkner, T., 2001: Cave development in central Scandi navia.Proceedings of the thirteenth International Speleological Congress, Paper 155, 4 pp. (Abstract p 106). F aulkner, T., 2003: e hydrogeology of crystalline rocks: pointers to tectonic inception mechanisms in karst.Proceedings of the International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems, Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA, 36 June 2003. (Abstract p 20). F aulkner, T., 2004a: Who needs carbonic acid?Cave and Karst Science, 30, 3, p. 132. F aulkner, T., 2004b: e deglaciation of central Scandina via and its implications for karst cave development.Cave and Karst Science, 31, 2, p. 88. F aulkner, T., 2005a: Cave inception and development in Caledonide metacarbonate rocks.PhD thesis, Uni versity of Hudderseld. F aulkner, T., 2005b: Nordlysgrotta and Marimyntgrotta.Norsk Grotteblad, 45, 23. F jeldskaar, W., C. Lindholm, J. F Dehls & I. F jeldskaar, 2000: Postglacial upli, neotectonics and seismicity in F ennoscandia.Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1413. F ord, D. C., 1983: Eects of glaciations upon karst aqui fers in Canada.Journal of Hydrology, 61, 1/3, 149 158. F ord, D. C. & R. O. Ewers, 1978: e development of limestone cave systems in the dimensions of length and depth.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 15, 1783. Gee, D. G. & B. A. Sturt (Eds.), 1985: e Caledonide Orogen Scandinavia and Related Areas.John Wiley. 1250 pp. Gudmundsson, A., I. F jeldskaar & O. Gjesdal, 2002: F rac ture-generated permeability and groundwater yield in Norway.Norges Geologiske Underskelse Bul letin, 439, 61. Gustafson, G. & J. Krasny, 1994: Crystalline rock aqui fers: their occurrence, use and importance.Applied Hydrogeology, 94, 2, 64. Hanna, R. B. & H. Rajaram, 1998: Inuence of aperture variability on dissolutional growth of ssures in karst formations.Water Resources Research, 34, 11, 2843. Hicks, E. C., H. Bungum & C. D. Lindholm, 2000: Seis mic activity, inferred crustal stresses and seismotec tonics in the Rana region, northern Norway.Qua ternary Science Reviews, 19, 1423. Hoel, A., 1906: Den marine graense ved Velorden.Christiana Videnskaps-Selskabs F orhandlinger, 4, 1. Horn, G., 1947: Karsthuler in Nordland.Norges Ge ologiske Underskelse, 165, 77pp. [Partial English translation by A. D. McCrady, 1978: Limestone Caves in Nordland.Cave Geology, 1, 5, 123]. Husebye, E. S., H. Bungum, J. F yen & H. Gjystdal, 1978: Earthquake activity in F ennoscandia between 1497 and 1975 and intraplate tectonics.Norsk Geologisk Tidsskri, 58, 51. Isacsson, G., 1994: Vad kan man se i Korallgrottan?Grottan, 29, 2, 21. Johnston, A. C., 1987: Suppression of earthquakes by large continental icesheets.Nature, 330, 467. Kejonen, A., 1997: On F innish Caves.Proceedings of the twelh International Speleological Congress, 4, 93. Kirkland, R. J., 1958: e Karst of south Svartisen.Un dergraduate dissertation, 87 pp, Trinity College, Cambridge. Lauritzen, S-E., 1986: Kvithola at F auske, northern Nor way: an example of ice-contact speleogenesis.-Norsk Geologisk Tidsskri, 66, 2, 153. Lauritzen, S-E., 1989a: F racture control of caves in mar ble in Norway.Cave Science, 16, 3, p. 114. Lauritzen, S-E., 1989b: Shear, tension or both a criti cal view on the prediction potential for caves.Pro ceedings of the tenth International Speleological Congress, 118. Lauritzen, S-E., 1991a: Uranium series dating of speleo thems. A glacial chronology for Nordland, Norway for the last 600 Ka.Striae, 34, 127. Lauritzen, S-E., 1991b: Karst resources and their conser vation in Norway.Norsk Geogrask Tidsskri, 45, 119. Lowe, D. J., 1992: e origin of limestone caverns: an in ception horizon hypothesis.PhD esis, Manches ter Metropolitan University. TREVOR F AULKNER

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 21 Lowe, D. J. & J. Gunn, 1997: Carbonate speleogenesis: An Inception Horizon Hypothesis.Acta Carsologica, 26/2, 38, 457. Matsuoka, N., 2001: Direct observation of frost wedging in Alpine bedrock.Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 26, 601. Muir-Wood, R., 2000: Deglaciation seismotectonics: a principal inuence on intraplate seismogenesis at high latitudes.Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1399. Mrner, N-A., 1979: e F ennoscandian Upli and Late Cenozoic Geodynamics: Geological Evidence.Geojournal, 3, 3, 287. Mrner, N-A., 1980: e F ennoscandian Upli: geologi cal data and their geodynamical implication.in NA. Mrner (Ed.), Earth Rheology, Isostasy and Eu stasy.Wiley, 251. Mrner, N-A., P. E. Tren, R. Sjberg, D. Grant, S. Dawson, C. Bronge, O. Kvamsdal & A. Sidn, 2000: Deglacial paleoseismicity in Sweden: the 9663 BP Iggesund event.Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1461. Mrner, N-A. (Ed.), 2003: Paleoseismicity of Sweden: a novel paradigm.Stockholm University, 320 pp. Olesen, O., 1988: e Stuoragurra F ault, evidence of neo tectonics in the Precambrian of F innmark, northern Norway.Norsk Geologisk Tidsskri, 68, 107. Olesen, O., H. Henkel, O. B. Lile, E. Mauring, J. S. Rn ning & T. H. Torsvik, 1992: Neotectonics in the Pre cambrian of F innmark, northern Norway.Norsk Geologisk Tidsskri, 72, 301. Olesen, O., S. Gjelle, H. Henkel, T. A. Karlsen, L. Olsen & T. Skogseth, 1995: Neotectonics in the Ranaorden area, northern Norway.Norges Geologiske Under skelse Bulletin, 427, 5. Olesen, O., L. H. Blikra, A. Braathen, J. F Dehls, L. Olsen, L. Rise, D. Roberts, F Riis, J. I. F aleide & E. Anda, 2004: Neotectonic deformation in Norway and its implications: a review.Norwegian Journal of Geol ogy, 84, 3. Onac, B. P., 1991: Contributions to the knowledge of the north Norway karst.Studia Univ. Babes-Bolya, Geographia, 36, 2, 35. Randall, A. D., R. M. F rancis, M. H. F rimpter & J. M. Em ery, 1988: Chapter 22, Region 19, Northeastern Appa lachians.in W. Back, J. S. Rosenshein & P. R. Seaber (Eds.), Hydrogeology, Geological Society of North America, e Geology of North America, v. O-2. Riggs, A. C., W. J. Carr, P. T. Kolesar & R. J. Homan, 1994: Tectonic speleogenesis of Devils Hole, Nevada, and implications for hydrogeology and the development of long, continuous paleoenvironmental records.Quaternary Research, 42, 241. Ringrose, P. S., P. Hancock, C. F enton & C. A. Davenport, 1991: Quaternary tectonic activity in Scotland.in A. F orster, M. G. Culshaw, J. C. Cripps, J. A. Little & C. F Moon (Eds.), Quaternary Engineering Geol ogy, Geological Society Engineering Special Publi cation No. 7, 679. Roberts, D., 2000: Reverse-slip osets and axial frac tures in road-cut boreholes from the Caledonides in F innmark, northern Norway: neotectonic stress orientation fractures.Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1437. Rohr-Torp, E., 1994: Present upli rates and groundwa ter potential in Norwegian hard rocks.Norges Ge ologiske Underskelse Bulletin, 426, 47. Sasowsky, I. D. & W. B. White, 1994: e role of stress release fracturing in the development of cavernous porosity in carbonate aquifers.Water Resources Research, 30, 12, 3523. Sjberg, R., 1981a: Tunnel caves in Swedish non calcar eous rocks.Proceedings of the eight International Speleological Congress, 2, 652. Sjberg, R., 1981b: Tunnel Caves in Swedish Archean Rocks.Cave Science, 8, 3, 159. Sjberg, R., 1987: Caves as indicators of neotectonics in Sweden.Zeitschri fur Geomorphologie, N.F Sup pl. Bd 63, 141. Sjberg, R., 1988: Coastal caves indicating preglacial mor phology in Norway.Cave Science, 15, 3, 99. Sjberg, R., 1996a: Tavelsjbergets blockbrant och hur den kan ha bildats.Grottan, 31, 1, 36. Sjberg, R., 1996b: Seismotektoniken ntligen erknd !(?).Grottan, 31, 2, 4. Sjberg, R., 1996c: Lervarv, grottor och jordskalv.Grot tan, 31, 2, 29. Sjberg, R., 1999a: F orskningsproject kring Bodagrot torna.Grottan, 34, 2, 28. Sjberg, R., 1999b: De stora jordbvningarna i Ume och INQUA:s Sverige-exkursion 1999.Grottan, 34, 3, 4. Stephansson, O. & H. Carlsson, 1980: Seismo-tecton ics in F ennoscandia.in N-A. Mrner (Ed.), Earth Rheology, Isostasy and Eustasy, 327, Wiley. Stewart, I. S., J. Sauber & J. Rose, 2000: Glacio-seismotec tonics: ice sheets, crustal deformation and seismic ity.Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1367. orson, R. M., 2000: Glacial tectonics: a deeper perspec tive.Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1391. Warwick, G. T., 1971: Caves and the Ice Age.Transac tions of the Cave Research Group of Great Britain, 13, 2, 123. TECTONIC INCEPTION IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES



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H Y DROCHEMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND TECTONIC SITUATION O F SELECTED SPRINGS IN CENTRAL AND NW Y UNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA HIDROKEMINE ZNAILNOSTI IN TEKTONSKI POLOAJ IZBRANIH IZVIROV V OSREDNJEM IN SZ Y UNNANU, KITAJSKA Stanka EBELAr & Janja KOGOVEKr Izvleek UDK 556.3:54(510) S. ebela & J. Kogovek: Hidrokemine znailnosti in tektonski poloaj izbranih izvirov v osrednjem in SZ Yunnanu, Kitajska Provinca Y unnan lei na vzhodnem robu kolizijske cone med Indijsko in Evrazijsko ploo. Za to ozemlje so znailne zaple tene kenozojske strukture in aktivna seizmotektonika. V letu 2004 smo prouevali ozemlja severno od Kunminga in SZ del Y unnana. Meritve temperature, specine elektrine prevod nosti in analize vsebnosti karbonatov, fosfatov in nitratov smo opravili na izvirih Quinglongtan in v nije leeem akumulaci jskem jezeru. Izviri se nahajajo v iri prelomni coni X iaojiang, ob kateri se vrijo levi zmiki. V iri prelomni coni Zhongdian preloma med mestom Zhongdian in reko Y angtze na jugu se nahaja ve izvirov. Tiansheng Qiao (T = 57,5C) in X iageiwen quan (T = 48,3 66,8C) sta termalna izvira, ob katerih se od laga lehnjak, Baishuitai pa je mono mineraliziran izvir z nijo temperaturo (T = 11,1 13,3C), ki odlaga kalcijev karbonat in gradi ponvice. Vsi ti izviri so vezani na aktivne prelomne cone. Izbrani predeli veinoma predstavljajo kontakt med karbonat nimi in nekarbonatnimi kamninami. K ljune besede: izviri, tektonika, lehnjak, Y unnan, Kitajska. r Intitut za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, 6230 Postojna, Slovenia, e-mail: sebela@zrc-sazu.si Received / Prejeto: 20.01.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 23, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 556.3:54(510) S. ebela & J. Kogovek: Hydrochemic characteristics and tec tonic situation and of selected springs in central and NW Yun nan province, China e Y unnan Province lies on the eastern rim of the collision zone between the Indian plate and Eurasia. is region is char acterized by complex Cenozoic structures and active seismotec tonics. In the year 2004 the areas north from Kunming and the NW part of Y unnan were studied. e measurements of the temperature, conductivity and the analyses of carbonate, phos phate and nitrate were performed in Quinglongtan spring and in the accumulation lake that is situated lower than the spring. e springs are situated in the wider zone of the X iaojiang fault along which le horizontal movements are taking place Along the wider zone of the Zhongdian fault between the town of Zhongdian and the Y angtze River on the south there are more springs. Tiansheng Qiao (T = 57.5C) and X iageiwenquan (T = 48,3 66.8C) are thermal springs along which tufa is depos ited. e Baishuitai spring has high mineralization and lower temperature (T = 11.1 13.3C) and deposits calcium carbon ate in the form of gours. All studied springs are connected with active fault zones. e studied areas mostly represent the con tact areas between carbonate and non-carbonate rocks. K ey words: springs, tectonics, travertine, Y unnan, China.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 24 INTRODUCTION Exposed karst areas in China comprise about 900.000 km 2 and the karst area in Y unnan includes 110.900 km 2 e Y unnan region in southwest China is located in the boundary area between the active Tibetan Plateau to the west and the stable South China platform to the east. is region is characterized by complex Cenozoic structures and active seismotectonics. e studied area is part of the ree parallel riv ers of Y unnan Protected Areas, which is inscribed in the UNESCOs World Heritage List. e area represents geo logical history of at least 50 million years associated with the collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate, the closure of the ancient ethys Sea, and the upliing of the Himalayan Range and the Tibetan Plateau. e site consists of 15 protected areas (in eight geo graphic clusters) in the mountainous northwest of Y un nan Province and extends over a total area of 1.698.400 ha, encompassing the watershed areas of the Y angtze (Jinsha), Mekong (Lacang) and Salween (Nu Jiang) riv ers. e rivers pass through steep gorges, in places up to 3.000 m deep. At their closest the three gorges are 18 km and 66 km apart. Our research work in this region was performed within the Slovene-Chinese project with Y unnan Insti tute of Geography from 18-29 th October 2004. In the previous years most researches were oriented to the area around Kunming (Lunan) and SE from Kunming ( X ichou, Qiubei, Guangnan) ( F igure 1). Shilin, feng cong, fenglin, karst caves were studied (Knez & Slabe 2002; ebela et al. 2004) and water tracing tests were performed (Kogovek et al. 1997; Kogovek & Liu Hong 2000). In the year 2004 it was the rst time that the areas of NW Y unnan were visited and some thermal and nonthermal springs with tufa deposits related to active tec tonics were studied. Tufa as a general name covers a wide variety of calcar eous freshwater deposits, which are particularly com mon in late Quaternary and Recent successions. Tufa is the product of calcium carbonate precipitation under a cool water regime and typically contains the remains of microand macrophytes, invertebrates and bacteria. e term travertine is restricted to all freshwater thermal and hydrothermal calcium carbonate deposits dominat ed by physico-chemical and microbial precipitates, which invariably lack in situ macrophyte and animal remains. Tufas are usually distinguishable from travertines, even in ancient deposits, by the comparatively high diversity of contained plants, including macrophytes, and animals (F ord & Pedley 1996). In Chinas vast karst landscapes there are many tufa deposits. ey are known in Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Tibet Provinces. Some of the tufa cascades in Gui zhou are broadly comparable with the Plitvice barrages (F ord & Pedley 1996). F ranikovif, Bilinski et al. (2003) analysed the tufa from Guangxi. One tufa sample origi nated in the Pleistocene, and the others in the Holocene. e travertines in China are divided into two major geochemical groups: the meteogenes and thermogenes. e thermogenes are essentially hydrothermal deposits, where CaCO 3 is precipitated from high-CO 2 groundwa ters. Most of this CO 2 comes from deep within the crust as a result of magmatic degassing or limestone decarbon ation with DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) values typi cally >>10 mM/l. ey are usually found in tectonically and/or volcanically active regions (Pentecost & Zhang 2001). Tibet, in spite of its cold dry climate and high alti tude, has a scatter of tufa deposits, mostly either calcare ous crusts on colluvium or associated with geothermal springs (Waltham 1996). TU F A DEPOSITS Tectonic development of the SE Asia includes the Indian subcontinental collision, which represents the penetra tion of a rigid block (representing India) into layers of plasticine in a partly conned block (Asia) (Tapponnier et al. 1982). e Red River F ault zone (F igure 1) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South Chi na from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great rightlateral fault, following for over 900 km the edge of four TECTONIC SITUATION STANKA EBELA & J ANJA KOGOVEK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 25 narrow (<20 km wide) high-grade gneiss ranges that to gether form the Ailao Shan-Red River metamorphic belt (Leloup et al 1995). e movement along the Red River F ault has been dominantly right lateral since the close of the Tertiary. e best evidence comes from osets of tributary streams of up to 5-6 km in the last 2 to 3 Ma (amounting to slip rates of 2-5 mm/yr). No signicant earthquake has oc curred along the fault in the last 2000 years (Allen et al 1984). Tapponnier et al (1982) surmise reversal of move ment on the Red River F ault from the initial le-lateral sense during the rst 20 to 30 Ma following the onset of the Indian collision. A dierent regional stress pattern now favors adjustment by dextral slip. e orientation of the fault is consistent with N-S shortening and E-W extension. Geological relations near the NW termination of the Ailao Shan suggest the Red River fault had a minimum of 14 48 km of right-lateral displacement in pre-Plio cene (and presumably post -17 Ma) time and only 5-6 km of displacement in Quaternary time (Allen et al., 1984; Wang et al., 1998). Active right-lateral displacement on the eastern part of the Red River fault zone is interpreted to be caused by a segment of the fault zone being rotated counterclockwise by shear related to the le-lateral X iao jiang fault system (Wang et al. 1998). Stating that the Red River fault has been displaced by the X iaojiang fault, it can be concluded that with respect to its present kinematics, the eastern part of the Red Riv er fault does not accommodate large motions nowadays (Michel et al 2000). e northwest-striking Jianshui and Qujiang faults (F igure 1) and probably the Zhongdian fault show evidence for dierent amounts of middle Ce nozoic (pre-Pliocene and post-early Paleogene) le-lat eral displacement that range from 6-25 km. e age and orientation of the le-lateral faults suggest that the faults are related to a regional deformational event associated with important le-lateral shear on the Ailao-Shan shear zone (Burchel & Wang 2003). e Zhongdian fault (F igure 1) appears to have un dergone only le-lateral displacement, some of which may be middle Cenozoic in age and some post-Mio cene in age. Active displacement on the Zhongdian fault is interpreted to mark the eastern boundary for a small crustal fragment that rotates clockwise around the east ern Himalayan syntaxis (Burchel & Wang 2003). Active right-lateral movement on the Jianshui fault (F igure 1) can be documented by numerous geological (oset structures) and geomorphic (deected rivers and pull-apart basins) features. Active right-lateral displace ment of the Quijiang fault is demonstrated by numerous scarps and oset Holocene feature and seismic activity (Burchel & Wang 2003). SE of Zhongdian the Zhongdian fault passes through a series of basins lled with Quaternary sediments and the analysis suggests le-lateral stream deections in dicating the fault is active. e fault bends south at the Jinsha River and merges with the active le-lateral Jian chuan fault (Burchel & Wang 2003). Quaternary basins and lakes north of Dali and with in the southern part of the X iaojiang fault zone are areas of local active extension (Wang & Burchel 2000). Only the Jianshui fault and possibly the Quijiang fault contain evidence for right-lateral reactivation of older le-lat eral faults (Burchel & Wang 2003). e X iaojiang fault system is at least 2-4 m.y. old, and possibly as old as 6-8 m.y., which suggests rapid right-slip did not begin on the Fig. 1: T ectonic situation of Y unnan (aer Burcheld & Wang 2003). 1 = Y ulong Snow mountain 5596 m above sea level; lake, 2-ZF = Zhongdian fault, JF = Jianshui fault, QF = Qujiang fault, 3 = studied areas, 1 = T iansheng Qiao and Xiageiwenquan springs, 2 = Baishuitai tufa deposits, 3 = springs north of Kunming, 4 = right-lateral slip along the fault, 5 = le-lateral slip along the fault. Slika 1: T ektonske razmere Y unnana (po Burcheld & Wang 2003). 1 = Y ulong Snow mountain 5596 m nad morjem; jezero, 2-ZF = Zhongdian prelom, JF = Jianshui prelom, QF = Qujiang prelom, 3 = raziskovana mesta, 1= izviri T iansheng Qiao in Xiageiwenquan, 2 = Baishuitai ponvice, 3 = izviri severno od Kunminga, 4 = desni zmik ob prelomu, 5 = levi zmik ob prelomu. H Y DROCHEMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND TECTONIC SITUATION O F SELECTED SPRINGS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 26 In the broad sense, strike-slip faults and earthquakes in SW China result from the eastward motion of the Earths crust that is driven by the collision of the Indian and Eur asian continental plates beneath the Himalaya Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau to the west. ere is an obvious dierence between the southern segment and northern segment of the Red River F ault from the viewpoint of modern seismicity. e most di sastrous earthquakes occurred in the northern segment. F eigl et al (2003) report that the Red River F ault did not slip faster than 1 or 2 mm/yr between 1994-2001 near c B, Vietnam. A strong earthquake occurred in Lijiang area in Y unnan Province on F ebruary 3, 1996 (M = 7.0). e epicenter was determined to be in the seismically active region of the Hengduan mountains, which belong to the Alpine-Himalaya seismic belt. Kunming is situated in the middle and southern part of seismically active X iaojiang-F ault. In the year 1833 earthquakes (M = 8.0) were located in the area of Songmin (F igure 1). e focal mechanisms of the 1966 earthquakes on the N-S-striking X iaojiang fault imply le-lateral slip along it. A normal component of slip on the roughly N-S faults south from Kunming has created several Quater nary half-grabens, some of them lled by lakes (Tappon nier & Molnar 1977). An earthquake of M = 7.7 occurred on the Quijiang fault in 1970 (Tunghai earthquake). e event produced a 60-km-long surface break and with a maximum rightlateral displacement of 2,7 m (Liu et al 1988; Ma, 1989). SEISMICIT Y Quaternary Jianshui and Quijang faults until le-lateral shear within X iaojiang fault system was well underway (Burchel & Wang 2003). e Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary ll in pullapart basins associated with le-lateral X ianshuihe-X iao jiang fault system indicated that this fault system was ini tiated by at least 2-4 Ma (Wang et al 1998). Kunming is moving due south with respect to Sun daland-South China indicating sinistral movement along the X iaojiang fault system with a rate of 11 mm/yr. e X ianshuihe-X ianjiang fault system suers pure sinis tral strike slip faulting in its central part with respect to South China (Michel et al. 2000). Upper Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian shallowwater carbonates build the south China tower karst, south from Kunming. Near Kunming basalt rock is inter bedded with the Upper Permian limestones. Within the frame of the eldwork the accumula tion lake and Quinglongtan spring (F igure 2) north from Kunming were studied on 21 st October 2004. e water from several springs is lead to a common channel that runs into the accumulation lake that was made for irriga tion and water supply of Kunming. e springs are locat ed in the wider zone of Xaojiang fault (F igure 1), which is still tectonically active. e measured temperature and conductivity (SEC) of the three main springs showed that the water from the springs belong to the same source (temperature 14.7C and SEC 277 S/cm). e water in the accumulation lake was warmer (19.4C), while the SEC measurement was within the values of the Quinglongtan spring. e carbonate concentration in accumulation lake and in the springs was low; just 135 mg CaCO 3 /l (2.7 mekv/l) what means it was a little bit lower than total hardness (146 mg CaCO 3 /l or 2.92 mekv/l, F igure 3). In Tianshen gan area we measured such low values of hardnesses in karst springs at high hydrological conditions (Kogovek 1998). e phosphate concentration in accumulation lake and in the spring was under the detection limit of the method (<0,01 mg PO 4 3/l), the nitrate concentration was 4,6 or 4,4 mg NO 3 /l, what shows good water quality. SPRINGS NORTH F ROM KUNMING STANKA EBELA & J ANJA KOGOVEK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 27 H Y DROCHEMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND TECTONIC SITUATION O F SELECTED SPRINGS Fig. 2: Qinglongtan spring (one of the several springs) north from Kunming (photo by J. Kogovek). Slika 2: Qinglongtan izvir severno od Kunminga (foto J. Kogovek). Fig. 3: T otal and carbonate hardness of sampled springs in year 2004 and sampled karst waters in T ianshengan area in the years 1996 97 at dierent hydrological conditions. Slika 3: Celokupna in karbonatna trdota vzorevanih izvirov v letu 2004 in vzorevane krake vode na podroju T ianshengan v letih 1996-97 v razlinih hidrolokih pogojih. e water supply for the Lijiang derives from the near er Zhenzhuquan spring ( F igure 4), where the water is cached in a smaller lake that is regulated for tourism. Part of the water is accumulated into the channels that run through the Lijiang town. On the principal spring there is a pumping area ( F igure 5) that is still used for water supply of the Lijiang. During our visit on the 24 th October 2004 we met many natives who come to take the water from the spring. e water temperature was 14.8C, SEC 370 S/cm, carbonate hardnesses 158 mg CaCO 3 /l (3,16 mekv/l), and the total hardness 162 mg CaCO 3 /l (3,24 mekv/l). ese measurements fall well with characteristics of groundwater and karst springs in Tianshengan area near Stone forest (Kogovek et al 1997, Kogovek 1998). e water had good quality re garding the low chloride concentration (1 mg Cl /l), the nitrate concentration (1,3 mg NO 3 /l), and the o-phos phates (< 0.01 mgPO 4 3/l). Y ulong Snow Mountain (5596 m) consists of Pa leozoic carbonate rocks and in the eastern area of Ter tiary clastic rocks with marlites and calcareous rocks (Huang Chuxing 2004). Bai Shui He river that runs on the northern slope of the mountain showed the tem perature of 9,6C (23 rd October 2004), low SEC (196 S/ cm), low carbonate hardness (109 mg CaCO 3 /l or 2.17 mekv/l) and just 1 mg NO 3 /l. e pH measurement showed value 8.2. SPRINGS NORTH F ROM LIJIANG Fig. 4: Zhenzhuquan spring near L ijiang (photo by J. Kogo v ek). Slika 4: Izvir Zhenzhuquan pri L ijiangu (foto J. Kogovek).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 28 STANKA EBELA & J ANJA KOGOVEK About 42,2% of the Zhongdian County represents car bonate surface. Most of the carbonate rocks are from Devonian and Cretaceous. Some are from lower Per mian and the middle and lower Triassic (Huang Chux ing 2004). In the wider zone of the Zhongdian fault near the town of Zhongdian and Y angtze river there are more tectonic depressions that are developed inside carbonate rocks but border also to other rocks as magmatic, sand stones and marbles. In such cases we dont deal with the true karst poljes. All depressions are related to active tec tonic faults that are NW-SE oriented with active sinistral horizontal movements. In the area of the active Zhongdian fault there are more springs (F igure 1). Some are thermal springs oth ers have lower temperature and many of them precipitate tufa deposits. e spring waters are supposed to come from the depths. During our eld studies we visited the X iageiwenquan thermal springs, Tiansheng Qiao ther mal spring, and Baishuitai tufa deposits. All three loca tions are tourist attractions. Xiageiwenquan ( F igure 6) is situated about 10 km east from the Zhongdian town and represents about 10 smaller and bigger thermal springs in the distance of 300 m. In the area there are older and younger still active travertine deposits. e area is built of Triassic limestones, sandstones and mudstones. Y uan Daoxian (2002) mentioned 9 springs with discharges between 0,5 to 1 l/s and temperature between 36,6 and 67,4C. e SEC values of the springs were between 1676 and 2660 S/cm. Our measurements taken on the 26 th October 2004 detected the temperature being between 48,3 and 66,8C, and minimal discharges. e SEC values were from 1260 to 1510 S/cm (measurements were performed with WTW instrument LF 90 at ref. temperature 20 o C). Tiansheng Qiao is situated some km south from X iageiwenquan, along the active sinistral horizontal Su oge-X uejiping fault on the western side of the Jinsha riv er. e fault is a deep and wide fault formed in the early stage of Permian but still active today. A hot liquid of the gabbro plasma euses up through this fault. And it is the precondition to form tufa landscapes (Huang Chuxing 2004). e attraction of the Tiansheng Qiao is the natural bridge with Shuodugang river running below it (F igure 7). e limestone natural bridge is 40 m high, 10 m wide and 15 m long. In the area there is also the Tiansheng Qiao thermal spring with travertine deposits. Huang Fig. 5: e pumping area at Zhenzhuquan spring (photo by J. Kogovek). Slika 5: rpalie na izviru Zhenzhuquan (foto J. Kogovek). SPRINGS SOUTH F ROM ZHONGDIAN Fig. 6: Xiageiwenquan thermal spring (photo by J. Kogovek). Slika 6: T ermalni izvir Xiageiwenquan (foto J. Kogovek). Fig. 7: Natural bridge of T iansheng Qiao (photo by J. Kogovek). Slika 7: Naravni most T iansheng Qiao (foto J. Kogovek).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 29 Chuxing (2004) speaks about sulphur springs, formed in dierent stages. e east side is from the earlier stage and the west side from the later stage. Travertine deposits at a relatively high speed with the estimated sedimentation 1-5 cm/year. By comparison with other in the surround ing areas the travertine of Tiansheng Qiao did not form earlier than 5000 years ago. e thermal water of the Tiansheng Qiao spring is accumulated into the thermal pools (F igure 8) used by tourists. e Shuodugang river had (25 th October 2004) the temperature of 10C and low SEC (115 S/cm). e water of the thermal spring had the temperature of 57,5C and high SEC (1805 S/cm), high carbonate concentra tion (20 mekv/l) higher chloride values (27 mg Cl /l) and the sulphate values of 26 mg SO 4 2/l. High SEC value means high concentration of dissolved substances. e water probably contains other substances but our analy ses were limited to the analyses mentioned above. e scenic spot is the gathering place between the surface and underground water, and also the converging place of the N-S trending Suoge-X uejiping fault and an other E-W trending fault (Huang Chuxing 2004). Baishuitai spring contain high mineralizated waters with regular temperatures. Baishuitai is situated about 20-30 km north from the Y angtze river. e area is built of Triassic rocks (limestones and sandstones) as well as of Permian rocks and Quaternary (delluvium) rocks. Because the spring water is oversaturated it deposits dissolved mineral substances. In this sense the slopes are covered by mostly white tufa. e tufa dams and gours (F igure 9) are covering the areas of Lower and Middle Triassic limestones. e water resurges from dierent springs. e spring area is covered by deciduous trees, which are the source for pollution and also the food for algae growth. e springs are decorated with Buddhist symbols. Many people visit the spring area and walk over the tufa deposits what causes dams destruction. e park administration is trying to protect the area. e springs temperature is between 11,1 and 13,3C. e SEC measurements showed a little bit over 1000 S/ cm what means that the water has a lot of dissolved car bonates. Total hardness was 600 mg CaCO 3 /l (12 mekv/l) and carbonate concentration 560 mg CaCO 3 /l (11,2 mekv/l). e ratio Ca/Mg of the water was equal to 4,4, what shows that the Mg values are 4,4-times lower then the Ca and that the water is coming from the hinterland. e water had low nitrate and phosphate concentrations and 40 mg SO 4 2/l of sulphates. e temperature and conductivity measurements of the water in the gours along the water ow showed the H Y DROCHEMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND TECTONIC SITUATION O F SELECTED SPRINGS Fig. 8: ermal spring of T iansheng Qiao is accumulated into the pools (photo by J. Kogovek). Slika 8: T ermalni izvir T iansheng Qiao je speljan v bazene (foto J. Kogovek). Fig. 9: T ufa gours of Baishuitai (photo by J. Kogovek). Slika 9: Baishuitai ponvice (foto J. Kogovek). Fig. 10: SEC and total hardness of karst waters from dierent parts of Y unnan (Kogovek 1998) and in the article mentioned springs. Slika 10: Specina elektrina prevodnost in celokupna trdota krakih voda iz razlinih delov Y unnana (Kogovek 1998) in v lanku omenjenih izvirov.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 30 increase of temperature and lowering of the SEC values, what is typical of intensive carbonate precipitation. At the bottom of the slope the water is led into the chan nel that runs to the nearest village where it is used for water supply and irrigation. Total hardness of this wa ter was only 240 mg CaCO 3 /l (4,8 mekv/l), with 210 mg CaCO 3 /l belonging to carbonates (4,2 mekv/l). e ratio Ca/Mg was 3, suggesting mainly the calcium carbonate precipitation (from 1 liter of water up to 360 mg CaCO 3 was deposited) while magnesium remains in the solu tion. e same results were obtained in tufa precipitation at Podstenjek spring in Slovenia (Kogovek 2006). e e Y unnan Province lies on the eastern rim of the col lision zone between the Indian plate and Eurasia. is region is characterized by complex Cenozoic structures and active seismotectonics. e Quinglongtan spring (T = 14,7C and low val ues of SEC, carbonate and total hardnesses) are situated north from Kunming. Similar values were detected in the area of Tianshengan, Y unnan at high hydrological conditions. e Zhenzhuquan spring near Lijiang had the same temperature but higher values of the SEC and hardnesses. Quinglongtan and Zhenzhuquan springs and ac cumulation lake had low levels of phosphate (under 0,01 mg PO 4 3/l) and low nitrate concentrations (from 1,3 to 4,6 mg NO 3 /l) and are showing good water quality. e springs are situated inside the X iaojiang fault zone along which sinistral horizontal movements are still active (F igure 1). Most probably they are karst springs. In the wider zone of the Zhongdian fault between Zhongdian town and the Y angtze river there are more tectonic depressions, which are developed inside carbon ate and non-carbonate rocks. In this sense they are not the true karst poljes. All depressions are developed inside NW-SE and N-S oriented active fault zone with sinistral horizontal movements. In the wider zone of the Zhongdian fault there are more springs related to active tectonics. Tiansheng Qiao (T = 57,5C) and X iageiwenquan springs (T = 48,3 66,8C) are thermal springs with tufa deposits. Baishuitai is very mineralized spring with lower temperature (T = 11,1 13,3C), which deposits mostly calcium carbon ate. e ratio of Ca/Mg decreases along the precipitation path, what means that Mg remains in solution. Also the sulphates are partly precipitating. Baishuitai travertines are probably thermogene (Pentecost & Zhang 2001). Because carbonate tufas are very sensitive to water and climate Huang Chuxing (2004) performed the geo morphological investigations to provide scientic basis for the protection of tourist tufa resources of Tiansh engqiao. e study was performed within the Slovene-Chi nese project with Y unnan Institute of Geography be tween 18-29 th October 2004 and supported by Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost RS. CONCLUSIONS lower concentration of sulphates (5 mg/l) compared with the values of the higher spring shows partial sulphate pre cipitation only. ese are our rst results, which should be expanded, as the nice and attractive gours need to be protected from numerous visitors. Liu Zai-Hua et al (2004) reported about researches of geochemical indica tors (saturation index, pH, CO 2 partial pressure) in cal cite-precipitating stream and channel at Baishuitai. Baishuitai tufa deposits in Y unnan are comparable with the Plitvice travertine dams in Croatia. ey are probably thermogene (Pentecost & Zhang 2001). STANKA EBELA & J ANJA KOGOVEK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 31 RE F ERENCES Allen, C.R., Gillespie, A.R., Han, Y Sieh, K.E., Zhang, B. & Zhu, C., 1984: Red River and associated Y unnan province, China; Quaternary geology, slip rates, and seismic hazard.Geological Society of America Bul letin 95, 686-700. Burcheld, B.C. & Erchie, Wang, 2003: Northwest-trend ing, middle Cenozoic, le-lateral faults in southern Y unnan, China, and their tectonic signicance.Journal of Structural Geology 25, 781-792. F eigl, K. L., Duong, Chi, Cong, Becker, M., Tran, Din, To, Neumann, K. & Nguyen, Quang, X uyen, 2003: Insignicant horizontal strain across the Red River F ault near c B, Vietnam from GPS measure ments 1994-2000.Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 5, 04707, European Geophysical Society. F ord, T.D. & Pedley, H.M., 1996: A review of tufa and travertine deposits of the world.Earth-Science Re views 41, Elsevier, 117-175. F ranikovif Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Bariif, D. & Horvatinif, N., 2003: Analysis of Karst Tufa from Guangxi, China.-Acta Geologica Sinica, vol. 77, no. 2, 267-275. Huang, Chuxing, 2004: Characteristics and formation mechanism of tufa landscape at Tianshengqiao, Zhongdian County, Y unnan Province, China.un published report, 1-8. Knez, M. & Slabe, T., 2002: Lithologic and geomorpho logical properties and rock relief of the Lunan stone forests.In: Gabrovek, F (ed.), Evolution of Karst: from Prekarst to Cessation. Ljubljana, Zaloba ZRC, 259-266. Kogovek, J., Petri, M. & Hong, Liu, 1997: Properties of underground water ow in karst area near Lunan in Y unnan. In: KRANJC, Andrej (ed.). Tracer hydrology 97: proceedings of the 7 th International Sym posium on Water Tracing, Portoro, Slovenia, 26-31 May 1997. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema, 255-261. Kogovek, J., 1998: Physical and chemical characteris tics of groundwater of Tianshengan area (e wider area of the tracing experiments). South China Karst 1 (Zbirka ZRC, 19), Zaloba ZRC, 91-98, Ljubljana. Kogovek, J., & Hong, Liu, 2000: Water tracing test in the Tianshengan region, Y unnan China at high water level.Acta carsologica 29/2, 249-260, Ljubljana. Kogovek, J., 2006: F izikalno-kemine znailnosti izlo a nja travertina Primer Podstenjka (Slovenija). Acta carsologica, 35/1, 47-45, Ljubljana. Leloup, P.H., Lacassin, R., Tapponnier, P., Schrer, U., Zhong, Dalai, Liu, X iaohan, Zhang, Liangshang, Ji, Shaocheng, Phan, Trong Trinh, 1995: e Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Y unnan, China), Ter tiary transform boundary of Indochina.Tectono physics 251, 3-84. Liu, Y ., Peng, X., Huang, Z., 1988: A deformational study aer the Tonghai earthquake.Journal of Seismo logical Research 4, 369-376. Liu Zai-hua, Zhang Mei-liang, Y ou Sheng-yi, Li Qiang, Sun Hai-long, Wang Jin-liang, Wu Kong-yun, 2004: Spatial and diurnal variations of geochemical indi cators in a calcite-precipitating stream-Case study of Baishuitai, Y unnan.Geochimica, vol. 33, no. 3, 269-278. Ma, X., (Ed.) 1989: Lithospheric Dynamics Atlas of Chi na.Cartographic Publishing House, Bejing, China, 68 pp. Michel, G.W., Becker, M., Angermann, D., Reigber, C. & Reinhart, E., 2000: Crustal motion in Eand SEAsia from GPS measurements.Earth Planets Space 52, 713-720. Pentecost, A. & Zhang, Z., 2001: A review of Chinese travertines.Cave and Karst Science Volume 28, number 1, 15-28. ebela, S., Slabe, T., Liu, Hong & Pruner, P., 2004: Speleo genesis of selected caves beneath the Lunan Shilin and caves of fenglin karst in Qiubei, Y unnan.Acta Geologica Sinica, vol. 78, no. 6, 1289-1298. Tapponier, P. & Molnar, P., 1977: Active faulting and tec tonics of China.J. Geophys. Res., 82, 2905-2930. Tapponnier, P., Peltzer, G., Le, Dain, A.Y & Armijo, R., 1982: Propagating extrusion tectonics in Asia: new insights from simple experiments with plasticine.Geology 10, 611-616. Y uan Daoxian, 2002: Karst Dynamic Systems of China. IGCP 299. Geological press, Beijing. Waltham, A.C., 1996: Limestone karst geomorphology in the Himalayas of Nepal and Tibet.Z. Geomorphol. N. F ., 40 (1), 1-22. Wang, E., Burchel, B.C., Royden, L.H., Chen, L., Chen, J. & Li, W., 1998: e late Cenozoic X ianshuihe-X iao jiang, Red River, and Dali fault systems of south western Sichuan and Central Y unnan, China.Geo logical Society of America Special Paper 327, 108. Wang, E. & Burchel, B.C., 2000: Late Cenozoic to Ho locene deformation in southwestern Sichuan and adjacent Y unnan, China, and its role in formation of the Southwestern part of the Tibetan Plateau.Geo logical Society of America Bulletin, vol. 112, num ber 3, 413-423. H Y DROCHEMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND TECTONIC SITUATION O F SELECTED SPRINGS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 32 Kitajska provinca Y unnan je tektonsko zelo zanimiva, e vedno je tudi tektonsko zelo aktivna, kar dokazujejo moni potresi. Lei na stiiu dveh velikih tektonskih plo Azijske na severu in Indijske na jugu, ki se podri vata ena pod drugo. Prelom Ailao Shan Red River je eden najbolj izrazitih prelomov na Kitajskem. Dananje gibanje ob prelomu je desnozmino za 2-8 mm na leto. Prelom najprej sledimo zahodno od mesta Dali, potem pa se nadaljuje proti JV Y unnana po dolini Rdee reke (Slika 1). Sledimo ga vse do obale vietnamskega morske ga zaliva Tonkin v Junokitajskem morju. Kunming se nahaja v X iaojiang prelomni coni, zno traj katere se vrijo levi zmiki. V okviru terenskega dela 18. do 29.10.2004 smo si severno od Kunminga ogledali akumulacijsko jezero in vie leei izvir Quinglongtan (Slika 1, toka 3), ki prispeva vodo v akumulacijo. To so zgradili za oskrbo Kunminga s pitno vodo in za na makanje. Meritve temperature in specine elektrine prevodnosti (SEP) treh glavnih izvirov Quinglongtan so pokazale, da gre za isto vodo (temperatura 14,8C in SEP 277 S/cm). Voda v akumulaciji je bila topleja (19,4C), po SEP pa je le minimalno odstopala od vrednosti izvira Quinglongtan. Vsebnost karbonatov je nizka (135 mg CaCO 3 /l) tako v izvirni vodi kot v akumulaciji in je bila le malo nija od celokupne trdote (146 mg CaCO 3 /l). V izviru in v akumulaciji je bila koncentracija fosfatov pod mejo detekcije (<0,01 mg PO 4 3/l), koncentracija nitratov pa je bila 4,6 oz. 4,4 mg NO 3 /l, kar kae glede na omenjena parametra dobro kakovost vode. SZ del Y unnanan je premreen s tevilnimi pre lomnimi conami. Severno do Dalija se od preloma Red River odcepi e ena mona prelomna cona. V skrajnem SZ delu Y unnana se ta prelom imenuje po tibetanskem mestu Zhongdian, ki lei na nadmorski viini nekaj ez 3.000 m. Prelom Zhongdian, ob katerem se vrijo levi zmiki, poteka vzporedno z dolino reke Y angtze, nato pa se obrne proti jugu, v smeri mesta Dali, kjer se raziri v iro prelomno cono. Mesto Lijiang, ki je v UNESCOvi kulturni dediini od leta 1997 je 3.februarja 1996 stresel moan potres z magnitudo M = 7.0 po Richterju. Mesto se nahaja v iri prelomni coni generalne smeri sever-jug, ki pov e zuje Zhongdian prelom z Red River prelomom. Mesto Lijiang se z vodo oskrbuje iz blinjega izv ira Zhenzhuquan (Slika 4), kjer so vodo zajezili v ma jhno jezerce, ki je turistino zelo obiskano. Del vode je speljan po kanalih skozi mesto, pred asom je bil to verjetno nain oskrbe mesta z vodo. Na glavnem izviru je rpalie (Slika 5) za oskrbo mesta s pitno vodo. Ob naem obisku smo sreali tevilne domaine, ki so prili na izvir po vodo. Dne 24.10.2004 je bila temperatura izvira 14,8C, SEP 370 S/cm, karbonatna trdota je bila 158 mg CaCO 3 / l, celokupna pa 162 mg CaCO 3 /l. Voda je imela nizko vsebnost kloridov, nitratov (1,3 mgNO 3 /l) in fosfatov in je bila glede na te parametre dobre kakovosti. Bai Shui He reka, ki priteka z obmoja Y ulong Snow mountain (5596 m), je imela temperaturo le 9,6C, nizko SEP (196 S/cm) in nizko karbonatno trdoto (2,17 mekv/ l), pH = 8,2 in je vsebovala le 1 mg NO 3 /l. V iri prelomni coni Zhongdian preloma med mes tom Zhongdian in reko Y angtze je ve tektonskih depre sij, ki so razvite v apnencih, mejijo pa tudi na nekrake kamnine, kot so magmatske kamnine, peenjaki. Tako ne gre vedno za prava kraka polja. Vse depresije so ve zane na aktivne prelomne cone, ob katerih se vzdol pre lomov smeri SZ-JV vrijo levi zmiki. V iri prelomni coni Zhongdian preloma se nahaja ve izvirov, ki so mono mineralizirani in izloajo del raztopljenih snovi. Nekateri so termalni, drugi pa nima jo poviane temperature. Glede na raziskave kitajskih znanstvenikov gre za izvire, kjer voda prihaja na dan iz velikih globin. Izmed tevilnih izvirov je potrebno pouda riti tri: naravni most s termalnim izvirom Tiansheng Qiao (Slika 1, toka 1), X iageiwenquan (termalni izviri) (Slika 1, toka 1) in Baishuitai (ponvice) (Slika 1, toka 2). Vsa tri mesta so dobro obiskane turistine toke. X iageiwenquan se nahaja 10 km juno od Zhongdiana in obsega ve termalnih izvirov, ob katerih najdemo stareje in mlaje plasti sige. Tudi ti izviri so vezani na aktivne tektonske prelome. Toplo vodo uporabljajo v terapevtske namene. Dne 26.10.2004 smo izmerili tempera turo na treh izvirih in ugotovili, da dosega voda od 48,3 do 66,8C ter da vsebuje obilo raztopljenih snovi, saj je bila izmerjena koliina raztopljenih snovi SEP od 1260 do 1510 S/cm. Tiansheng Qiao se nahaja ob aktivnem levo zminem Suoge-X uejiping prelomu na zahodni strani reke Jinsha. Naravni most (Slika 7), pod katerim tee reka Shuodugang, je zgrajen iz apnenca in je 40 m visok, 10 m irok in 15 m dolg. Neposredno ob naravnem mostu je termalni izvir Tiansheng Qiao, ki izloa travertin. Odlaganje travertina naj ne bi bilo stareje kot 5.000 let. HIDROKEMINE ZNAILNOSTI IN TEKTONSKI POLOAJ IZBRANIH IZVIROV V OSREDNJEM IN SZ Y UNNANU, KITAJSKA STANKA EBELA & J ANJA KOGOVEK P OVZETEK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 33 Voda termalnega izvira Tiansheng Qiao je imela 25.10.2004 temperaturo 57,5C, zelo visoko SEP (1805 S/cm), visoko vsebnost karbonatov ter poviane vred nosti kloridov in sulfatov. Verjetno vsebuje e tevilne druge snovi, vendar so bile nae meritve in analize omejene le na zgoraj omenjene parametre. Topla voda z izvira odteka v bazen v sklopu toplic (Slika 8), kjer ponujajo razline terapevtske usluge. Neposredno ob ba zenu tekoa reka Shuodugang je imela tedaj temperaturo 10C in nizko SEP. Tudi Baishuitai izvir je vezan na aktivno tektoniko. Ker je voda na izvirih prenasiena, izloa ob polzenju po poboju raztopljene mineralne snovi. Tako je celotno poboje pokrito z belo prevleko, ki ga krasijo manje in tudi zelo velike ponvice (Slika 9). Ponvice so se ob likovale na irem podroju spodnje in srednje triasnega apnenca. Voda izvira v ve izvirih, del pa je priteka po manjem kanalu iz vijega izvira. Izvirno podroje je del no poraslo predvsem z listavci, tako da je odpadlo listje vir onesnaevanja oz. vir hrane za razline alge, ki motijo belino poboja. Svoje dodaja tudi turistini obisk. Oitno se tega do doloene mere zavedajo upravljalci, saj so na nekaj mestih napeli vrvi, ob naem obisku pa so se zani mali kaj merimo. Meritve so na ve izvirnih tokah pokazale, da je temperatura izvirov med 11,1 in 13,3C. Meritve SEP, ki so dale vrednosti celo nekoliko nad 1000 S/cm, so nakazale, da izvirna voda vsebuje veliko raztopljenih karbonatov, kar so potrdile kasneje analize vode. Celokupna trdota je znaala 600 mg CaCO 3 /l, od tega je bilo kar 560 mg CaCO 3 /l karbonatov. Razmerje Ca/Mg vode je bilo enako 4,4. Voda je imela nizke vsebnosti nitratov in fosfatov, vsebnost sulfatov pa je bila 40 mg SO 4 2/l. Meritve temperature vzdol poboja in v ponvicah so po kazale segrevanje vode in upadanje SEP in razmerja Ca/ Mg ter vsebnosti sulfatov, iz esar smo sklepali na inten zivno izloanje kalcijevega karbonata ter delno sulfatov, medtem ko magnezij ostaja v raztopini. Podobno smo ugotavljali tudi za izvir Podstenjek v Sloveniji. Do dna poboja se je iz enega litra vode izloalo povpreno 360 mg CaCO 3 Voda je speljana nato po kanalu do blinje vasi, kjer jo uporabljajo kot pitno vodo in vodo za na makanje. H Y DROCHEMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND TECTONIC SITUATION O F SELECTED SPRINGS



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MONITORING THE F LOOD PULSES IN THE EPIPHREATIC ZONE O F KARST AQUI F ERS: THE CASE O F REKA RIVER S Y STEM, KARST PLATEAU, SW SLOVENIA SPREMLJANJE POPLAVNIH VALOV V EPI F REATINI CONI KRAKEGA VODONOSNIKA: PRIMER REKE REKE, KRAS, JZ SLOVENIJA F ranci GABROVEK 1 & Borut PERIC 2 Izvleek UDK 556.3 (497.4-14) Franci Gabrovek & Borut Peric: Spremljanje poplavnih valov v epifreatini coni krakega vodonosnika: Primer reke Reke, Kras, JZ slovenija Reka Reka, ki ponika v kocjanske jame, je najpomembneji alogeni vir, iz katerega se napaja kraki vodonosnik. Doslej so med kocjanskimi jamami in izviri Timave v Italiji nali pet jam, kjer je mogoe priti do podzemnega toka Reke. Dve so pred kratkim odkrili v Sloveniji. Pomladi leta 2005 se je zaelo stalno spremljanje nivoja in temperature vode v tirih od teh jam. lanek predstavlja in na kratko obravnava prve rezultate, pridobljene na treh merilnih mestih. Rezultati kaejo na hitro potovanje poplavnega vala po dobro razvitem sistemu krakih kanalov. K ljune besede: kraka hidrologija, vodonosnik, poplavni val, Reka, Kras, Slovenija. INTRODUCTION e Kras (Classical Karst) plateau has been attracting re searchers for more than a century. Its aquifer is as com plex as a karst aquifer can get. A more than 300 m deep vadose zone, huge underground cavities, all possible ow regimes, complex recharge and discharge conditions and complex evolution, enough to believe that the system is far from being resolved. is paper presents the rst re sults of an ongoing eort to put a new stone into the puz zle of the aquifer of Kras. F ig. 1 presents a generalized map and a cross-sec tion of the Kras plateau and its surroundings. It shows the main geological formations, caves with the active un derground ow and the measurement points presented in this paper. Kras belongs to the Adriatic-Dinaric tectonic plate in the region of the Outer Dinarids (Kranjc, 1997). e folds sink towards NW under Soa alluvium. e same direction is also followed by the main draining conduits from SE of the plateau. e area is mostly composed of Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate sediments. e depth of the unsaturated zone reaches more than 300 m. Many caves, remains of an old drainage net work, can be found along its complete vertical prole. 1 Karst Research Institute, ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, SI-6230 Postojna, Slovenia 2 Park kocjanske jame Public Agency kocjan 2, SI-6215 Divaa, Slovenia Received / Prejeto: 20.06.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 35, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 556.3 (497.4-14) Franci Gabrovek & Borut Peric: Monitoring the ood pulses in the epiphreatic zone of karst aquifers: e case of Reka river system, Karst plateau, SW Slovenia e Reka river sinking into kocjan caves (kocjanske jame) is the main allogenic input into the aquifer of Classical Karst. So far the subsurface ow of the Reka river between kocjan caves and the spring of Timava in Italy has been reached in ve caves. Two were recently discovered in Slovenia. Continuous logging of water levels and temperatures in four of these caves was established in spring 2005. e paper presents and briey discusses the rst results obtained in three of them. e results are indicating a fast passage of a ood wave along a well devel oped conduit system. K ey words: karst hydrology, aquifer, ood pulse, Reka, Kras, Slovenia.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 36 Fig. 1: Simplied map and cross-section of the Kras plateau with main geological formations, caves and measurement points presented in this study. Below the piezometric surface, the structure of the aquifer is largely unknown. An indicator of a well devel oped conduit system was a sudden collapse in the Reka stream near Gornje Vreme in 1980, at the ysch-lime stone contact, where around 1 m 3 /s still disappears un derground (Brilly et al. 2002). e focus of our study is epiphreatic zone, charac terized by a high ow variability of the Reka river which is the main allogenic input to the aquifer. e river ows about 50 kilometers on impermeable ysch rocks, con tinues for another 7 kilometers as a surface ow on a limestone terrain, and starts its underground course at kocjan caves. It emerges at the Timavo springs in Tri este Bay. e air distance between kocjan caves and springs of Timavo is around 33 km. Based on the data of the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for the period 1961, the average discharge of the Reka River is 8.26 m 3 /s. e ratio between low and high waters reaches 1 to 1700 with the maximum measured discharge 305 m 3 /s, and minimum 0.18 m 3 /s. e springs of Timavo have an average discharge of 30.2 m 3 /s. Beside main spring, the aquifer discharges through the many other smaller springs in the vicinity, many of which are bellow the sea surface. Eorts to reach Reka between kocjan caves and the springs of Timavo have long history (Kranjc, 1997). At the moment we know ve caves leading to the active sub surface ow: Kana cave and Labodnica/Grotta di Trebi ciano are well known and have already been thoroughly investigated. Recently, three additional caves were pushed down to the depths of active Reka ow: Lazzaro Jerko in Italy; Jama 1 v Kanjaducah and Brezno v Strinkni do lini in Slovenia. e river has also been reached through Brezno 3G, which turned out to be another entrance of Kana cave. In kocjan caves and Kana cave it is possible to fol low several kilometers of the underground river, while only small fragments are accessible in other caves as the conning siphons are not far apart, therefore further ex ploration is le to cave divers. F or more information on geology, speleology, hy drogeology and history of exploration and research of Classical Karst and its aquifer refer to (Cucchi et al. 2000; Galli, 1999; Kranjc, 1997; Mihevc, 2001). FRANCI GABROVEK & B ORUT PERIC

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 37 Cuchi and Zinni (2002) reported on the continu ous monitoring of physical parameters of the subsurface Reka ow. ey have measured level, temperature and specic electric conductivity in kocjan caves, Grotta di Trebiciano/Labodnica, Lazzaro Jerko and Timavo springs. Based on more than 100 ood events, a distinc tion was made between three principal types of ood waves, characterized by the presence or absence of in ow from the sources that feed the Timavo river system: namely the Reka River, Brestovica basin and Soa-Vipava rivers basin. e temperature and conductivity changes between kocjan caves, Labodnica/Trebiciano and Laz zaro Jerko cave indicate that the underground ow is fast (even more than 800 m/h) and continuous. eir results indicate a direct drainage along kocjan-Labodnica/ Trebiciano-Lazzaro Jerko. ey proposed that the aqui fer of Classical Karst is at the 3 rd state of the F ord-Ewerss speleogenetic model (F ord & Ewers, 1978). Except in kocjan caves, the underground ow of Reka is not easy accessible. To reach it one must descend between 250 and 330 m down vertical shas and steep galleries. New entrances are rarely found. During the ood events when the water rises and squeezes the air from the voids and fractures, an intense airow can be detected at some spots at the surface. ese are the spots where cav ers start following narrow leads through the vadose zone and hope to enter an easy passage to the river. Normally it takes years of digging and climbing to succeed. Except in kocjan caves and Kana cave, all the discoveries have been done this way. Between F ebruary and October 2005, data loggers were placed in kocjan caves, Kana cave, Jama 1 v Kan jaducah and Brezno v Strinkni dolini. Data from the rst three caves have been retrieved so far and are presented in this paper. e distance between kocjan caves and Kana cave is about two kilometres. e direct distance from Kana cave to Jama 1 v Kanjaducah is about seven kilometers (see F ig. 1). e instruments were xed to the underground river banks. In kocjan caves and Kana cave the micro location was chosen so that the instruments cannot be damaged by larger pieces of otsam. F ig. 2 shows simplied sketches of the caves with the positions of measurement points. In kocjan caves it was xed at Martels lake ( P1 ) at the end of 2.2 mil lions m 3 large Martels chamber, in Kana cave at rapids in kocjanski kanal passage ( P2 ), in Kanjaduce ( P3 ) and Brezno v Strinkni dolini it is located at terminal sumps at the end of the caves. OBSERVATION POINTS Fig. 2: Simplied sketches of the caves with positions of the measuring points. Flood levels based on otsam occurrence (M ihevc, 2001) are marked in Kana cave. M aps of kocjan caves and Kana cave were obtained from the Karst Research Institute archive and Slovenian cave cadastre. M ap of Jama 1 v Kanjaducah was obtained from the web site of Seana caving club (http://www.brlog.net/jds/kanjaduce.htm). MONITORING THE F LOOD PULSES IN THE EPIPHREATIC ZONE O F KARST AQUI F ERS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 38 FRANCI GABROVEK & B ORUT PERIC INSTRUMENTS To log water level and temperature we use TD Diver pro duced by Van Essen, a Schlumberger company, Holland (F ig. 3). Instruments measure and record pressure and temperature. Recently we have introduced instruments (CTD Diver) which additionally log specic electric con ductivity. e instruments are autonomous, the autono my being guaranteed by the life span of internal batteries which is 8-10 y (depending on measurement frequency) and internal memory which can hold up to 24000 read ings (TD). ey are easy to program by the enclosed soware. e sampling interval is between 5 seconds and 99 hours, sampling can be linear, logarithmic or event based. We used the instruments with the measurement range of 100 m. Precision of the level measurements is 0.1% of the full range, i.e. 10 cm in our case. Precision of temperature sensor is 0.1C. Data from the instrument can be retrieved to computer via optical bridge as shown in F ig. 3. e pressure sensor is a ceramic transducer there fore the measured level value is the sum of water and air pressure converted to a water column. F or small level uctuation (e.g. decimeter scale), the levels should be compensated with the barometric measurements of the surrounding atmosphere. Since we are interested in the large scale oscillations, we have not done that. e main input to our system is the sinking stream of Reka therefore the ow hydrograph at the station Cerkvenikov mlin provided by Slovene Environmental Agency is tak en as an input data into the system. As mentioned, there is a considerable leakage from Reka into the karst aquifer before to the arrival at kocjan caves which is neglected in the course of discussion. One should also consider the dispersed and concentrated input to the conduits from the karst surface along the entire pathway. e latter was reported by divers who conducted research in the termi nal siphons of kocjan caves. Results for the entire period are shown in F ig. 4. During the spring, four ood events with the level rise of several meters occurred. A dry period followed with some small scale events in August. F ig. 5 presents larger events in a weekly time win dow. Upper graphs show levels, whilst lower graphs their time derivatives, i.e. rising and dropping rates in m/h. Top axes give dates, bottom axes give time in hours elapsed since the recording started in kocjan caves (F eb ruary 18 th 2005). Note that the ow at Cerkvenikov mlin is in units of 10 m 3 /s. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. 3: Datalogger in the oce, connected to the computer via optical reader (le) and xed to the wall of the terminate lake of Jama 1 v Kanjeducah (P3) (right).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 39 MONITORING THE F LOOD PULSES IN THE EPIPHREATIC ZONE O F KARST AQUI F ERS Fig. 5: e evolution of levels and level changes during for major ood events. Colour codes are valid for upper and lower graphs. Fig. 4: Upper gure presents ow rates at Cerkvenikov mlin (C) and levels at points P1-P3 during the whole period. L ower gure shows temperatures at measurement points. Colour code is valid for both graphs. First event (Fig. 5a), starting on March 27 th is compiled of two ood pulses with time lag of a day with peak ow rates at 15 and 25 m 3 /s respectively. e level response to the rst pulse was of similar magnitude in all three caves. Second pulse with 25 m 3 /s did not make a considerable dierence in kocjan caves (P1) and Kan jeduce (P3), yet the level in Kana cave (P2) rose for al most 7 meters. Slow increase of the input ow resulted in a slow increase of the levels. In Kana cave (P2) the rate of level increase reached 0.9 m/h. Second event (Fig. 5b) on April 9 th started with a 60 m 3 pulse which dropped to 20 m 3 /s in 3 days. Long re cession of input ow resulted in long recessions of levels in P1 and P2. is is the only event when the levels at P3 are above those at P2. One could attribute this to the un known recharge along the pathway between Kana cave and Jama 1 v Kanjaducah.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 40 FRANCI GABROVEK & B ORUT PERIC ird event (Fig. 5c) on May 25 th was the largest. It comprises a single pulse with a maximum ow of 120 m 3 e responds at P1 and P2 is vigorous. At P2 (Kana cave) the rate of level rise reached 9 m/h. Maximum level at P1 (kocjan caves) is 4 m, at P2 18 m and at P3 14 m. How undisturbed the ood wave passed the way to P2 can be seen from the kink in the rising limb of hydro graph which is nicely preserved in the level hydrograph at P2. Fourth event (Fig. 5d) is similar but smaller com pared to the third event and needs no further discussion at this point. ere were several small ood events following the dry period in August. One of them is shown in the F ig. 15. All levels show a sharp rise suggesting that the pas sage of the pulse through the system is little aected by the restrictions. e next step we take is to plot our results versus input. erefore, F ig. 6 presents the levels at all points in dependence on the ow rates at Cerkvenikov mlin. We shied the levels back in time with respect to ow to consider the travel time between Cerkvenikov mlin and particular measuring point. erefore, the ow rates at time t are plotted with the levels at time t+ T where T is the average value given in the Tab. 1. e choice is rather intuitive and although dubious for several reasons, the results are satisfactory for the rst estimation. Levels in kocjan caves and Kana cave show simi lar behavior below 10 m 3 /s. e level rises as the recharge increases according to the relations valid for the open channel ow (Dingman, 2002). When the ow exceeds 15 m 3 /s, the curve in Kana cave deviates. We attribute this to the constrictions downstream from the P2 in Kana cave, which becomes fully ooded when ow exceeds 15 m 3 /s. F ig. 7 presents an extended elevation of the section of the Kana cave which includes P2. Grey area gives the passage height which is 4-7 m. e passage is about 15 m wide. Vertical scale above P2 shows levels, each bar rep resenting 2 m. Dotted line gives the level of P2. To see what happens when part of the channel be comes completely ooded, we have employed a simple numerical model of sloping channel system with restric tions as shown on F ig. 8. A system of four rectangular channels, each 400 m long, 5 m wide is subjected to the water input from the le. Channel 1 and 3 are more than 50 m high, while channel 2 and 4 representing restric tions are 3 and 1.5 m high. We used Storm Water Management Model (V.5) obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/models/swmm/index. htm). e model allows calculations of ow and transport through the system of opened and closed channels as a response to a direct input or an input from the prescribed catchments area. One can apply static, kinematic or dy namic routing method and thus simulate many scenarios which are relevant for karst, when matrix ow could be neglected. e model has good potential for further indepth exploration of ood wave passage through a well developed karst system (Campbell & Sullivan, 2002). To a system presented on F ig 8. we introduced linear increasing ow rates. e Q-H graphs at points p 1 and p 2 are presented on F ig. 9. Initially an open channel ow exists along the whole domain (F ig. 8a). e relation between ow and level for a uniform ow in an open channel can be obtained from the Chezy equation (Dingman, 2002). Flow and level are related by the power law n hQ where n = 6/10 for a uniform rectangular channel (see F ig. 9). As the channel 4 becomes fully ooded (F ig. 8b) the level at p 2 deviates. Now the mass balance at point p 2 in channel 3 requires (1) where H is the level, A(H) is the area of water surface in the channel 3 and Q in (t) is the inow into the channel Fig. 6: L evels in kocjan caves and Kana cave (a) and Jama 1 v Kanjaducah (b) in dependence on the ow rates at Cerkvenikov mlin. n

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 41 MONITORING THE F LOOD PULSES IN THE EPIPHREATIC ZONE O F KARST AQUI F ERS Fig. 7: Extended elevation of the section of Kana cave that includes our measurement point. G rey area presents the channel height, dotted line the level of P2. Remapped from the original survey tables. (Source: Slovenian cave cadastre) 3. Q out is the outow to the channel 4, given by DarcyWeisbach (Beek et al. 1999) equation (2) f is the friction factor, L the length of the conduit, S its cross-section, d its hydraulic diameter and g gravitational acceleration. H is the dierence between entrance and exit levels of channel 4 and z the elevation dierence between the two sides. Combining Eqs. 1 and 2 we get (3) Solution of Eq.3 gives the time dependence of the level, assuming that Q in (t) k and A are known. F or arbi trary input we can nd numerical solutions. We present model results when a ood wave recorded at Cerkve nikov mlin on May 25 th (see F ig. 5) passes the system on the F ig. 8. F ig. 10a presents the level hydrograph at p 2 and the input ow hydrograph Q in whilst F ig. 10b the ow-level curve. e dashed blue line on both gures denote the rising limb of the hydrograph. e ow-level curve (F ig. 10b) exhibits a hysteresis which can be also observed on the ow-level curves of our real recorded hydrographs (F ig. 6), particularly for point P3, but also at P2. One reason is dierent location of ow and level hydrograph. Going downstream, the error we make by applying a constant time lag between the ow at Cerkvenikov mlin and the level at the station increases. We suspect that this is the main reason for the large areas of the hysteresis curves for Jama 1 v Kanja ducah. Another reason for the hysteretic behavior is ood ing caused by restrictions. F or an in-depth study of this behavior we would have to analyse the solutions of Eq. 3, what we are not about to do. To demonstrate this we employ the even simpler model shown on F ig. 11. It com prise of a large 50 m high and 20 m wide channel ending with a 2 m high restriction of the same width. Input is at Fig. 8: System of sloping channels with restrictions. Restriction between points 4 and 5 is smaller than one between 2 and 3. A) Open channel ow is active along the whole domain. B) Restriction between points 4 and 5 is ooded. C) Both restrictions are ooded. Fig. 9: L evels at points p 1 (red line) and p 2 (black line) in dependence on the input ow rates Q. L etters denote the situations a, b and c presented on Fig. 8.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 42 the le-hand side and increases linearly from 0 to 150 m 3 /s between 0 24 hours and decreases linearly with the same slope during the second 24 hours. e results are given in F igs. 12 and 13. F ig. 12a, presents the level response to a linear increase and drop of the ow rates (dashed line) for L = 1 km and dierent heights of the restriction as given on the graph. F or a = 2 m we see that the shape of level curve resembles that of the ow. As the height of the restriction decreases the ow through it is more and more inhibited and the level curves become distorted. F ig. 12b shows Q-H plots for these cases. e areas of the curves increase as the height of the restriction decreases. F ig. 13 presents case where the restriction height is constant, but the length of the input channel changes from 1 km to 20 km. e geometry of restriction is con stant, with the height of 1 m. e level curves now de Fig. 10: M odel results of the event (Fig. 5c) passing through the system on Fig. 8. a) Dashed line presents the input ow rates, full lines give the level hydrogram h 2 b) Flow-L evel curve. Fig. 11: Simple model of a large channel ending with restriction. e length of the entrance channel is L, a is the height of the restriction, A the surface area of the water prior to it and Q in (t) the input ow hydrograph. Fig. 12: a) Flow and level hydrographs for linearly increasing/ decreasing ood wave through the model given in Fig. 11. L=1 km. Dierent lines present results for various apertures of restriction as denoted on the gure. b) Q-H plots for dierent restriction apertures. FRANCI GABROVEK & B ORUT PERIC

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 43 pend on the ow-restriction relation given by Eq. 3, and also on the distortion of the input ood wave due to its propagation in the open channel. Even though the models give at least qualitative ex planation of what might happen in the real system, the latter is (un)fortunately not as simple as that. Explorers have been following ow directions and ood remains in Kana cave since the discovery of Reka in the cave back in 1972. ere are many bypass and overow passages, two of them just a few meters above and few meters be low the P2, both joining together and leading to a system of galleries at a higher elevation. Based on the otsam occurrence. Mihevc (2001) found that extreme oods in Kana cave reach 130 meters above P2. Fig. 13: a) Flow and level hydrographs for linearly increasing/ decreasing ood wave through the model given in Fig. 11. a=1 m. L ines present results for dierent lengths of the input channel as denoted on the gure. b) Q-H plots for dierent lengths of the input channel. As the monitoring of ood waves continues it will be very interesting to observe the dynamics of oods that may be of a larger scale than those in 2005. In 2002 an instrument was put into kocjan caves that measures the water level. It recorded oods reaching 40 meters, much larger compared to a 5-meter ood in the present moni toring. e fastest rise recorded in kocjan caves was 9 m/h. Unfortunately no such measurements were con ducted in Kana cave before 2005, where much steeper rises may be expected. Environment Agency data show that the Reka river discharge varied largely at individual oods. We analyzed seven ood pulses to estimate the ve locity of their propagation through the observed system by taking the peak to peak distance of the level deriva tive, i.e. the points of the highest rising rate. Not all oods could be easily analysed this way, as the input hydrograph was rather complex. Results are presented in Tab.1. Date Q max [m 3 /s] Time C-P1 [h] Time C-P2 [h] Time CP3 [h] 27-Mar-05 15 2.5 3 6.3 25-Apr-05 120 2 3.5 10 1-Jul-05 19 2 2.5 5 5-Jul-05 10.1 2.5 3.5 8 7-Aug-05 10 3.5 4.5 9.5 11-Aug-05 26 2.5 4 7.5 29-Aug-05 19 2.5 3 5 Average travel time: 2.5 3.4 7.3 Tab. 1: T ravel times of selected ood pulses from the hydrograph at Cerkvenikov mlin ( C ) to M artelova dvorana in kocjan caves ( P1 ), brzice (rapids) in Kana cave ( P2 ) and terminate lake in Jama 1 v Kanjeducah ( P3 ). As can be seen from the table, about 2.5 hours is needed for the ood pulse to reach P1 in kocjan caves, less than an hour more for P2 in Kana cave and ad ditional 4 hours for P3 in Jama 1 v Kanjaducah. An in teresting point is that there are no big variations in the speed along the way. Kana cave, which is approximately on the half way between Cerkvenikov mlin (C) and Jama 1 v Kanjaducah (P3) is also approximately at the half time of ood pulse travel between C and P3. MONITORING THE F LOOD PULSES IN THE EPIPHREATIC ZONE O F KARST AQUI F ERS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 44 Temperature is a parameter which carries much infor mation on hydraulic and thermal conditions in the karst interior (Genthon et al. 2005; Liedl et al. 1998). Water exchanges its temperature with surrounding rocks on its underground course. e heat ux is proportional to the temperature gradient normal to the water-rock bound ary. Assuming a good mixing of water, the water-rock temperature dierence should decrease exponentially with the length of its underground ow. e exponential factor is a function of ow rate, geometry of the channel and the normal temperature gradient. F ig. 14 presents the temperature evolution during recession aer a large ood event (see F ig. 5b). Daily tem perature oscillation at Kana cave follows that of kocjan cave, but its amplitude progressively decreases as the ow rates drop and the peak to peak distance increases. Oscil lations at P3 are hardly observed and vanish when the ow is low enough (e.g. smaller than 0.5 m 3 /s). F urther data and analysis are needed to understand the temperature dynamics upon arrival of the ood puls es. Nevertheless, we see from F ig. 15 that the levels and temperatures respond simultaneously to a small event on August 11 th Along completely ooded parts the level signal is pressure transferred, and therefore faster than the tem perature signal. Simultaneous arrivals of both signals show the absence of such segments, leading to a conclu sion that an open surface ow of Reka along most of the way could be expected at least for event of comparable scales. TEMPERATURES e intention of this paper was to present the rst results; therefore conclusion will be rather short. ere is a fast passage of a ood wave through the presented part of the system. To give the relation between the travel time of the water parcel and that of the ood pulse further data and analysis are required. Nevertheless some data indicate that the these times are similar at least for small ood events (see F ig. 15). During low ow, travel times become order of magnitude larger (F ig. 14). F rom the passage of ood waves through the system we anticipate a (continu ous) system of large conduits also in the parts which are inaccessible at the moment. Many assumptions are still to be proved. Data are being recorded at all measuring points. Valuable sets of data is expected from Brezno v Strinkni dolini and caves on the Italian side of the plateau, which are located in the area where the gradient becomes practically at. F urther actions include in-depth time series analy sis, integration of precipitation data, dye tracing of main Reka ow with eld uorimeters positioned in caves and FRANCI GABROVEK & B ORUT PERIC Fig. 15: L evel and temperature responds to a small ood event following a period of dry conditions. Fig 14: Flow, level and temperature following a ood event. Numbers at the temperature curves indicate peak to peak dierence in hours between the temperatures at P1 and P2. CONCLUSION AND F URTHER PERSPECTIVES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 45 is research would not be possible without an invalu able work of generations of cavers in all investigated cave. anks to cavers from Divaa and Seana for the help with our work. e study has been supported by the In terreg project Monitoring of the underground ow of reka Reka (Vzpostavitev monitoringa podzemnega toka Reke). ACKNOWLEDGMNETS Beek, W. J., Muttzall, K. M. K., &Van Heuven, J. W., 1999: T ransport phenomena John Wiley & Sons, 329 pp, Chichester, New Y ork. Brilly, M., Miko, M., Petkovek, G., raj, M., Kogovek, J., Drobne, D., & travs, L., 2002: e experimental monitoring of water regime in the Reka river.Acta carsologica, 31, 65-74, Ljubljana. Campbell, C. W.Sullivan, S. M., 2002: Simulating timevarying cave ow and water levels using the Storm Water Management Model.Engineering Geology, 65, 133-139. Cucchi, F .Zinni, L., 2002: Underground Timavo river monitoring.Acta carsologica, 31, 75-84, Ljub ljana. Cucchi, F ., F orti, P., Marinetti, E., &Zinni, L., 2000: Re cent developments in knowledge of the hydrogeol ogy of the classical karst.Acta carsologica, 29, 5578, Ljubljana. Dingman, S. L., 2002: Physical hydrology Prentice Hall, 646 pp, Upper Saddle River, N.J. F ord, D.C.Ewers, R., 1978: e development of limestone caves in the dimensions of length and depth.Cana dian Journal of Earth Sciences, 15, 1783-1798. Galli, M., 1999: Il T imavo, esplorazioni e studi Vol. 23, Atti e M em. Comm. G rotte E. Boegan Societ Al pina delle Giulie, 195 pp, Trieste. Genthon, P., Bataille, A., F romant, A., DHulst, D., & Bourges, F ., 2005: Temperature as a marker for karstic waters hydrodynamics. Inferences from 1 year recording at La Peyrere cave (Arige, F rance).Journal of Hydrology, 311, 157-171. Kranjc, A., Ed., 1997: Slovene Classical Karst Kras ZRC Publishing, 321 pp. Liedl, R., Renner, S., & Sauter, M., 1998: Obtaining infor mation about fracture geometry from heat ow data in karst systems. In: Jeannin, P.-Y .& Sauter, M.(Ed.): M odelling in karst systems Universit de Neuchtel, 143-157. Mihevc, A., 2001: Speleogeneza Divakega krasa Vol. 27, ZRC ZRC Publishing, 180 pp, Ljubljana. RE F ERENCES MONITORING THE F LOOD PULSES IN THE EPIPHREATIC ZONE O F KARST AQUI F ERS further numerical modelling of events passing through the conduit-restriction systems with open channel and pressure ow. Flooding could be an important factor for the gen esis of large voids in the studied caves (Mihevc, 2001). Large oscillations of water levels could be important if not crucial factor for the genesis of large voids like sub/ vertical galleries in Jama 1 v Kanjaducah and Brezno v Strinkni dolini and Lindners hall in Grotta di Trebi ciano.



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F IZIKALNOKEMINE ZNAILNOSTI IZLOANJA TRAVERTINA t PRIMER PODSTENJKA SLOVENIJA PH Y SICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES O F TRAVERTINE DEPOSITION t THE CASE O F PODSTENJEK SLOVENIA Janja KOGOVEK 1 COBISS: 1.01 Izvleek UDK 556.3:553.556(497.4) Janja Kogovek: Fizikalno-kemine znailnosti izloanja trav ertina primer Podstenjka (Slovenija) Podane so osnovne zikalno-kemine znailnosti krakega iz vira Podstenjek, ki je v preteklosti izloal karbonate, o emer priajo bloki travertina ob strugi. Meritve in analize izvira ter njegovega vodnega toka nie na ve zaporednih tokah so po kazale, da se iz vode prek celega leta izloa kalcijev karbonat. Intenzivnost izloanje je odvisna od pretoka in od segrevanja oz. ohlajanja vode. Iz enega litra vode se je na prek 1 km dolgi poti izloalo od nekaj do 36 mg CaCO 3 /l, veina tega e na prvih 400 m. K ljune besede: krasoslovje, kraki izvir, zikalno-kemine znailnosti, izloanje kalcijevega karbonata, Slovenija. Abstract UDC 556.3:553.556(497.4) Janja Kogovek: Physico-chemical properties of travertine de position the case of Podstenjek (Slovenia) e basic physico-chemical properties of the karst spring Podstenjek, depositing carbonates in the past shown by traver tine blocks in its riverbed are given. Measurements and analyses of the spring and its water ow downwards at several sampling points showed that during the whole year the water precipitates calcium carbonate. e intensity of deposition depends on dis charge and warming or cooling of water. F rom one litre of water at the distance of one kilometre from some to 36 mg CaCO 3 /l are deposited, the majority at the rst 400 m. K ey words: karstology, karst spring, physico-chemical proper ties, calcium carbonate deposition, Slovenia. UVOD Podstenjek je kraki izvir, ki je vezan na stik paleogen skega apnenca z neprepustnim iem (Gospodari et al 1968). Po krajem toku se izliva v Reko. Njegovo za ledje na severu sega do zaledja Pivke. Desna stran doline Zgornje Pivke je v povirnem delu od Kneaka do Pivke zelo ozka in omejena v glavnem na razmeroma malo razlenjen kraki greben, Taborski hrbet. Na njegovi JZ strani je dolina Reke, tako da poteka po hrbtu razvodje med jadranskimi, med katerimi je tudi Podstenjek, in rnomorskimi pritoki (Gospodari et el. 1968). Jenko (1954) je ocenjeval, da se iz okolice Kneaka in Korit nic kar okoli 90% vode odteka v Bistrico, kar pa ni bilo potrjeno z barvanjem. Vodozbirno obmoje Podstenjka sestavljajo kaver nozno-razpoklinski apnenci in dolomiti kredne in paleo genske starosti s srednjo prepustnostjo (Kovai 2001). Izvir se napaja z inltracijo padavin. Leta 1992 so ga zaje li za oskrbo prebivalstva s pitno vodo. V neposrednem obmoju zaledja lei naselje embije. Konec devetdesetih let so zato v embijah uredili kanalizacijo, odpadne vode pa speljali na istilno napravo. Vzdol struge zgornjega dela Podstenjka so gmote travertina, ki priajo o nje govem odlaganju v preteklosti. V letih 1994, 1996, 1998 in 1999 smo zajeli deset serij vzorcev vode Podstenjka, v veini primerov pa tudi vodo Podstenjka na tokah dolvodno, da bi ugotovili os novne znailnosti izvira in izloanje travertina iz njegove vode. 1 Intitut za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, 6230 Postojna, Slovenija; kogovsek@zrc-sazu.si Prejeto / Received: 06.12.2005 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 47, L JUBLJANA 2006

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 48 Opazovanja Podstenjka sem zastavila tako, da sem zajela razlineje hidroloke razmere, od nizkih do vi sokih voda. Spremljanje izloanja vzdol njegove poti je tako potekalo ob razlino velikih pretokih in v razmerah, ko se je voda na poti izloanja segrevala ali ohlajala oz., ko ni prihajalo do bistvenih sprememb temperature. J ANJA KOGOVEK MESTA OPAZOVANJ IN METODE DELA Izvir Podstenjek ( A1 ) je zajet za vodooskrbo. Veji del vode priteka iz Kozje jame, prelivna voda pa odteka mimo rpalnice ( a ). Drugi del vode Podstenjka prihaja na dan v treh izvirih desno od rpalnice ( b, c in d ), e gledamo dol-vodno (slika 1). V sunih razmerah je bil aktiven le izvir b. Vzorce smo zajemali na tem izviru, saj sem ugotovila, da je njegova sestava v okviru napak doloitev enaka vodi, ki priteka iz Kozje jame ( a ). V asu rednih opazovanj smo zajemali vzorce e pod mostom ( A2 ), pred sotojem ( A3 ) z desnim manjim pritokom ter nie v ravninskem toku pri hrastu ( AB ). Vzorevali smo tudi omenjeni desni pritok na izviru ( B1 ) in pred sotojem z zgornjim tokom Podstenjka ( B2 ). Ob vzorevanju smo na izbranih tokah merili temperaturo in specino elektrino prevodnost (SEP) s konduktometrom LF 91 (20C), rme WTW, zadnje tri serije pa s konduktometrom LF 196 (25C). Te vrednosti smo na osnovi primerjalnih meritev z obema merilniko ma preraunali na vrednosti pri 20C. Vsebnost razto pljenega kisika sem doloala z oximetrom O XI 196, pH pa s pH 90, vse rme WTW. Vzorce vode sem zajemala v polietilenske plastenke brez zraka in so bili kasneje isti ali pa naslednji dan analizirani. Pri prenasienih vzorcih namre ob prezraevanju lahko prihaja do izloanja karbonatov. V laboratoriju smo doloevali e vsebnost karbonatov, kalcija, magnezi ja, kloridov, nitratov, sulfatov in fosfatov po standardnih metodah (Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater 1992). Zajeli smo 10 serij vzorcev. Sl. 1: Zajemna mesta na izviru in vzdol toka Podstenjka ( V ir: T emeljni topografski nart merila 1: 5000, G eodetska uprava Republike Slovenije, 1978). Fig. 1: Sampling points at spring and at downwards water ow (Source: T emeljni topografski nart merila 1: 5000, G eodetska uprava Republike Slovenije, 1978).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 49 V okviru 10 opazovanj, ko so bile opravljene meritve in vzorenje, smo zajeli najrazlineje razmere od nizkih do visokih voda. Ker nismo imeli meritev pretoka, so vsa kokratne hidroloke razmere podane opisno. Ob prvem vzorenju 29.1.1994 so bili aktivni vsi izviri, skupni pretok b+c+d sem ocenila na nekaj litrov, medtem ko je bil pretok pod mostom, ko se mu pridrui e prelivna voda iz Kozje jame (a) okoli 20 l/s. Konec de cembra 1993 je padel sneg, prva dva tedna v januarju pa je padlo kar nekaj deja (v Postojni okoli 140 mm), nato pa ni bilo omembe vrednih padavin. Ob drugem vzorenju 25.3.1994 so bili pretoki po oceni nekoliko niji, skupni pretok pod mostom pa sem ocenila na okoli 10 l/s. F ebruarja je padlo malo padavin, v Postojni le 90 mm. Desni pritok (B) je izviral podobno kot januarja 1994 pri drevesu. Dne 1.12.1994, ko sem tretji zajela vzorce, je bil skupni pretok Podstenjka pod mostom toliken, da je dobro prekrival dno, medtem ko je izvir B izviral vie kot v asu predhodnih vzorenj. V zaetku novembra je padlo v Postojni 100 mm deja, nato pa je bilo suno. Ob vzorenju 20.3.1996 je bil skupni pretok e niji kot decembra 1994, saj mesec dni skoraj ni bilo padavin, vendar pa je bilo povrje cel januar in februar pokrito s sneno odejo. Dne 15.5.1996 sem ocenila vode od vije do visoke. V zaetku aprila je intenzivno deevalo, kar nekaj deja pa je padlo tudi maja pred vzorenjem (v Postojni 90 mm). Ob vzorenju 6.8.1996 je bil najviji izvir d suh, pre tok izvira c pa je bil niji kot izvira b, ki sem ga ocenila na 0,5 l/s. Pod mostom (A2) je bil pretok najniji od vseh dotedanjih vzorenj, okoli 5 l/s. Dne 13.11.1996 sem pretoke ocenila kot srednje do vije in pretok izvira b na 1,5 l/s. V asu vzorenja 10.8.1998, ko so prevladovale sune razmere, smo ocenili pretok izvira B1 le na 0,25 l/s. Ob vzorenju 13.10.1998 so bili pretoki visoki, najviji v okviru opazovanj, pod mostom je bila gladina vode nekako 30 cm nad dnom. Ves oktober je intenzivno deevalo in do dneva vzorenja je v Postojni padlo e prek 180 mm deja. Dne 26.1.1999 je bil izvir d skoraj suh, izdatneja sta bila c in b. Pod mostom je gladina vode dosegala 5-10 cm viine. Januarja je v Postojni do 26. dne padlo namre le 55 mm snega in deja skupaj. PADAVINSKE IN HIDROLOKE RAZMERE M ERITVE TEMPERATURE SEP IN pH Meritve in vzorenja so zajela razmere prek celega leta. Povprena temperatura Podstenjka (izvir b) je bila 10,3C, prek leta je nihala od 9,7 do 10,3C. Povprena temperatura izvira B1 je bila 10,1C. Voda Podstenjka se je vzol svojega toka poleti segrevala, najbolj avgus ta; pozimi, decembra in januarja se je ohlajala; marca in oktobra pa se njena temperatura ni bistveno spreminjala (slika 2). Povprena SEP Podstenjka je znaala 417 S/cm, najnijo vrednost 404 S/cm je dosegel maja 1996 ob najvijem spomladanskem pretoku v okviru opazovanj. SEP je nihala v intervalu 20 S/cm. Podobno smo izmer REZULTATI Sl. 2: M eritve temperature in SEP: na izviru Podstenjka (A1) ter na tokah A2 in A3, na izviru B1 in pred sotojem na toki B2 ter na toki AB. Fig. 2: T emperature and conductivity measurements: at Podstenjek spring and at points A2 and A3, at B1 spring, at points B2 and AB. PH Y SICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES O F TRAVERTINE DEPOSITION THE CASE O F PODSTENJEK SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 50 ili na izviru B1, le da so vrednosti nihale v intervalu 30 S/cm (slika 2). Povprena vrednost pH Postenjka je znaala 7,6 in je nihala med vrednostima 7,3 in 7,9. Podobno smo izmerili tudi za izvir B. C ELOKUPNA IN KARBONATNA TRDOTA TER Ca/Mg Povprena celokupna trdota Podstenjka (10 doloitev) je bila 4,51 mekv/l in je nihala v sorazmerno ozkem in tervalu od 4,26 do 4,74 mekv/l; povprena karbonatna trdota je bila 4,19 mekv/l in je nihala v intervalu 3,98 4,47 mekv/l. Potek celokupne trdote je vzporeden s pote kom karbonatne trdote in SEP prek leta. Opazne so nije vrednosti spomladi ter vije konec poletja in v jesenskozimskem obdobju. Nekarbonatna trdota je nihala v inter valu 0,26 0,38 mekv/l. Podobne vrednosti z manjimi odstopanji je izkazoval tudi izvir B1. Povprena vrednost razmerja Ca/Mg Podstenjka je bila 11,1 in je nihala v intervalu 6,4-14,1. To nakazuje, da priteka voda v izvir preteno iz apnenastega, delno pa tudi iz dolomitnega sveta. Izstopajoo najnijo vrednost (6,4) je Podstenjek dosegal oktobra 1998 ob najvijem pretoku v okviru opazovanj, ko je pritekala v izvir voda z najirega zaledja, oitno intenzivneje tudi z obmoja, ki ga gradijo dolomiti. Tedaj smo v okviru opazovanj zabeleili tudi najvijo karbonatno in celokupno trdoto. Ob nizkem, srednjem in vijem vodostaju so vrednosti Ca/Mg nihale okoli vrednosti 11,6. Podobno smo ugotavljali tudi za izvir B1, le da so njegove vrednosti nihale v nekoliko ojem intervalu (Slika 3). Popolnejo sliko nihanj omenjenih parametrov bi podale zvezne meritve oz. meritve v primernem asovnem intervalu, posebno e v asu vodnih valov po padavinah, ko obiajno prihaja do najvejih sprememb, kar so pokazale e podrobne meritve drugih krakih izvi rov (Kogovek 1999, 2001, Kogovek et al 2003). K AKOVOSTNI PARAMETRI : KLORIDI NITRATI F OS F ATI SUL F ATI V okviru meritev in analiz smo leta 1996 zaeli tudi z analizami za doloitev vsebnosti nitratov, fosfatov, klori dov in sulfatov. Kljub sorazmerno majhnemu tevilu analiz (7 do 9) jih lahko privzamemo kot oceno tedanjega stanja, saj so analize zajele razline vodostaje in razline ase prek leta. Povprena vrednost kloridov je bila 3,8 mg Cl/l, vrednosti pa so bile v intervalu 2,4 5 mg Cl /l. Povprena vsebnost nitratov je bila 6,7 mg NO 3 /l, analize pa so pokazale vrednosti v intervalu 5,5 7,9 mg NO 3 / l. Povprena vrednost o-fosfatov je bila 0,03 mg PO 4 3/ l, vrednosti pa so bile v intervalu 0,02 0,05 mg PO 4 3/l. Vsebnost sulfatov je nihala od 7,8 do 10,5 mg SO 4 2/l, povprena vrednost pa je bila 8,9 mg SO 4 2/l. Kloridi, nitrati in o-fosfati izvira B1 se sorazmerno dobro ujemajo z vrednostmi za Podstenjek, z obasnimi manjimi odstopanji. Nekoliko izraziteje pa odstopajo sulfati. Konec leta 1998 in januarja 1999, ko je bila postav ljena istilna naprava za naselje embije, nismo opazili opaznega izboljanja kakovosti Podstenjka. Vendar pa ne vemo, ali je tedaj e obratovala. Iz dosedanjih razis kav spiranja kontaminantov skozi 100 m debelo vadozno cono vemo, da pride po odstranitvi vira onesnaenja do najvejega izboljanja kakovosti vode v prvih treh letih (Kogovek 1997). Ker so izhodne vrednosti nitratov, fosfatov in kloridov sorazmerno nizke, bi lahko priakovali kvejemu zmanjanje do polovinih vrednosti. Sl. 3: Potek celokupne trdote (Ca+Mg) ter razmerja Ca/Mg Podstenjka (A1) in izvira B1. Fig. 3: T otal hardness (Ca+Mg) in ratio Ca/MG of Podstenjek spring and B1 spring. J ANJA KOGOVEK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 51 PH Y SICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES O F TRAVERTINE DEPOSITION THE CASE O F PODSTENJEK SLOVENIA I ZLOANJE KALCIJEVEGA KARBONATA Izloanje karbonatov iz vode Podstenjka smo spremljali z meritvami SEP ter vzporednimi analizami karbonatov, kalcija ter celokupne trdote vzdol toka Podstenjka na razdaljah A1-A2 in A2-A3 ter skupno na razdalji A1AB (tabela 1), ko se mu je pridruil e stranski dotok B2. Vzporedno smo spremljali tudi izloanje iz vode pritoka na odseku B1 B2 (tabela 1). Pokazalo se je, da se izloa predvsem kalcijev kar bonat, saj so vrednosti karbonatov, kalcija in celokupne trdote vzdol poti soasno in enako upadale. Odsto panja so bila v okviru predvidenih napak doloitev (do 0,04 mekv/l). Medtem je ostajala vsebnost magnezija skoraj nespremenjena, kar je skladno z dejstvom, da je topnostni produkt MgCO 3 v primerjavi s CaCO 3 veji. Podobno sem ugotavljala za izloanje sige v Planinski jami (Kogovek & Habi 1981). Meritve so pokazale, da se iz vode Podstenjka in njegovega pritoka (B1) izloa kalcijev karbonat prek celega leta, vendar razlino intenzivno. Velik strmec zaetnega toka omogoa intenzivno prezraevanje vode. Na izloanje oz. na stopnjo izloanja najbolj vpliva pretok, saj smo ob najvijem ocenjenem pretoku 13.10.1998 ugotovili najmanjo stopnjo izloanja. Na odseku A1-A3 se je izloalo le 0,06 mekv CaCO 3 iz litra Tabela 1: Izloanje kalcijevega karbonata na opazovanih odsekih. Table 1: Calcium carbonate deposition at dierent sectors. Relacija Razdalja (m) Izloeni CaCO 3 minimum Izloeni CaCO 3 maximum (mekv/l) mg CaCO 3 /l (mekv/l) mg CaCO 3 /l A1 A2 305 0 0 0,38 19 A2 A3 260 0,06 3 0,28 14 A1 A3 365 0,06 3 0,58 29 B1 B2 215 0,16 8 0,38 19 A1 AB 1050 0,15 8 0,72 36 vode, kar je 3 mg CaCO 3 /l (slika 4). Vendar pa ima ob visokih pretokih nasproten uinek erozija. Ob najnijih pretokih marca 1996 ter avgusta 1996 in avgusta 1998 je prilo ob segrevanju vode do najintenzivnejega izloanja e na prvem 305 m dolgem odseku A1-A2. Na prezraevanje vode, uhajanje CO 2 in posledino izloanje kalcijevega karbonata, je poleg strmca ugodno vplivalo e segrevanje vode. Izloila se je ve kot polovica (0,5 0,7) kalcijevega karbonata glede na izloeni kalcijev karbonat na celotni poti A1-AB. Ob najvijem pretoku oktobra 1998 na tem odseku nismo doloili izloanja in sklepam, da je bilo tako majhno, da ga je prekril razredevalni efekt. Ob nizkih in srednjih pretokih ob ohlajanju vode v zimskih mesecih, je prihajalo do najvejega izloanja na drugem odseku A2-A3. Ohlajanje vode je v tem primeru zaviralo uhajanje CO 2 tako da je prilo do najizdatnejega izloanja nekoliko kasneje. Avgusta 1996 se je ob nizkem vodostaju in ob seg revanju vode izloil ves razpololjivi kalcijev karbonat e do toke A3. Obiajno se je izloanje nadaljevalo do toke AB, vendar pa je bilo izloanje na odseku A3-AB znatno manje v primerjavi z izloanjem na zaetnem delu toka od A1 do A3 (slika 5). Sl. 4: Celokupna trdota (Ca+Mg) na opazovanih tokah vzdol toka Podstenjka (A1, A2, A3 in AB) ter na desnem pritoku (B1, B2). Fig. 4: T otal hardness (Ca+Mg) at observed points (A1, A2, A3, AB and B1 and B2).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 52 J ANJA KOGOVEK Kamninska sestava zaledja krakih izvirov se odraa v kemijski sestavi njihove vode. Prek leta se lahko spreminja sestava vode v odvisnosti od padavinskih in hidrolokih razmer. Sestava vode Podstenjka, ki se na paja z inltracijo padavin, s povpreno vrednostjo Ca/Mg 11,1 (6,4 14,1) nakazuje, da dobiva vodo predvsem z apnenastega sveta in le delno z dolomitnih obmoij. V asu najvijega vodostaja, oktobra 1998, ko se napaja z najirega obmoja, je bil dele vode z dolomitnega sveta veji, kar se je odrazilo v niji vrednosti Ca/Mg. Obasne meritve izvira Podstenjka v asu razlinih hidrolokih razmer prek leta so pokazale na majhna ni hanja temperature, SEP in pH ter vsebnosti karbonatov, kalcija in magnezija. Povprena temperatura je bila 10,1C in je nihala v intervalu 0,6C, povprena vred nost SEP (20C) pa 417 S/cm in je nihala v intervalu 20 S/cm. Povprena celokupna trdota je bila 4,51 mekv/l, povprena karbonatna trdota pa 4,19 mekv/l in sta nihali v intervalu 0,5 mekv/l. Vsebnost nitratov je nihala okoli vrednosti 6,7 mg NO 3 /l, kloridov 3,8 mg Cl /l, o-fosfatov 0,03 mg PO 4 3/l in sulfatov 8,9 mg SO 4 2/l. eprav naselje embije lei in se iri v neposrednem zaledju Podstenjka, pa bi zaradi ienja odpadnih voda priakovali zboljanje oz. ohranitev kakovosti njegove vode, ki jo uporabljajo za vodooskrbo. Vendar pa lahko le sistematina opazovanja, ki vkljuujejo tudi podrobno dogajanje v vodnih valovih po padavinah, pokaejo uinkovitost ienja. Voda Podstenjka je na izviru glede na zunanje pogoje prenasiena s karbonati in jih na svoji poti v doli no odlaga. Odlaga predvsem kalcijev karbonat. Najveji del kalcijevega karbonata izloi e na zaetni 365 m dolgi poti (A1-A3), manji del pa e ob nadaljnji 700 m dolgi poti (A3-AB). Sorazmerno velik strmec na zaetnem delu poti (A1-A3) omogoa dobro prezraevanje vode in izhajanje CO 2 ki je v poletnih mesecih, ko se voda na poti izloanja segreva, e hitreje. Tako se poleti ob niz kih pretokih izloi ves razpololjivi kalcijev karbonat e na prvi 365 m dolgi poti, najintenzivneje pa se je izloal e na prvem 305 m dolgem odseku. V zimskih mesecih ob ohlajanju je prilo do najintenzivnejega izloanja nekoliko kasneje. Ob visokih pretokih je stopnja izloanja minimalna in na celotnem ve kot 1 km dolgem toku se je iz 1 l vode izloilo le nekaj mg CaCO 3 Najvejo stopnjo izloanja pa smo izmerili ob nizkem pretoku, ko se je iz enega litra vode izloalo do 36 mg CaCO 3 /l. SKLEPI Sl. 5: Izloeni kalcijev karbonat ob razlinih razmerah prek leta na odseku A1-A3 in odseku A1-AB, ter vsakokratna sprememba temperature na tokah A3 oz. AB glede na temperaturo izvira. Fig. 5: T ravertine deposition during dierent hydrological conditions at section A1-A3 and A1-AB and temperature change at same sectors.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 53 PH Y SICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES O F TRAVERTINE DEPOSITION THE CASE O F PODSTENJEK SLOVENIA Gospodari, R. & Habe, F & Habi P., 1986: Vodni viri za oskrbo Postojne. Elaborat, 113. Knjinica IZRK, Postojna. Jenko, F ., 1954: Vodnogospodarska osnova poreja Lju bljanice. 4. Hidrogeologija in hidrologija. Rokopis. Projekt nizke zgradbe, Ljubljana. Kogovek, J. & Habi P., 1981: Preuevanje vertikalnega prenikanja vode na primerih Planinske in Postojn ske jame. Acta carsol., 9, 129-148, Ljubljana. Kogovek, J., 1997: Pollution transport in the vadose zone. V: Gnay, Gltekin (ur.), Johnson, A. Ivan (ur.), Tez can, Levent (ur.), Atilla, A.zlem (ur.). Karst waters & environmental impacts: proceedings. Rotterdam; Brookeld: A.A. Balkema, 1997, 161-165. Kogovek, J., 1999: Nova spoznanja o podzemnem pre takanju vode v severnem delu Javornikov (Visoki kras) = New knowledge about the underground water drainage in the Northern part of Javorniki Mountains (High Karst). Acta carsol., 28/1, 161-200, Ljubljana. Kogovek, J., 2001: Monitoring the Malenica water pulse by several parameters in November 1997 = Veparametersko spremljanje vodnega vala Malenice novembra 1997. Acta carsol., 30/1, 3953, Ljubljana. Kogovek, J., Dikovif, S., Petri, M., Rubinif, J., Knez, M., Hrvojif, E. & Slabe T., 2003: Hydrochemical re search of the Mlini spring, Istria. Ann, Ser. hist. nat., 13/1, 91-102, Koper. Kovai, G., 2001: Okoljevarstvena problematika vo dooskrbnih obmoij obine Ilirska Bistrica. Diplomska naloga. Univerza v Ljubljani, F ilozofska fakulte ta, Oddelek za geograjo. 89 str. LITERATURA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 54 J ANJA KOGOVEK Podstenjek is a karst spring at the contact of paleogene limestone and impermeable ysch (Gospodari et al ., 1968) draining aer a short stream into the Reka river. Recharge area of the Podstenjek consists of cavernousssure limestone and dolomite of Cretaceous and Pale ogene age with medium permeability (Kovai 2001). e spring is fed by rainfall inltration. Since 1992 it is captured for drinking water supply. In 1994, 1996, 1998 and 1999 we sampled ten series of water samples dur ing dierent weather conditions and also samples of the Podstenjek in a downgradient portion to nd out the basic properties of the spring and its travertine deposi tion capacity. Lithology of the karst springs is reected in chemi cal composition of water. Over one year the water com position may change due to rainfall and hydrological circumstances. e Podstenjek water, fed by rainfall inltration, is characterized by average value of Ca/Mg 11.1 (6,4 14.1) indicating that water comes mostly from limestone region and only partly from dolomite. During the highest water level in October 1998 when water owed from the widest area the rate of dolomite water was higher and the Ca/Mg ratio was consecutively lower. Periodical measurements of the Podstenjek spring in a time of dierent hydrologic conditions showed little temperature variations as well as SEC and pH and car bonate, calcium and magnesium levels over the whole year. Average temperature was 10.10 b C oscillating in an interval of 0.60 b C, average SEC value (200 b C) was 417 S/cm in an interval of 20 S/cm. e average total hard ness was 4.51 mekv/l, and average carbonate hardness 4.19 mekv/l oscillating in an interval of 0.5 mekv/l. e nitrate level varied around 6.7 mg NO 3 /l, chlo ride level 3.8 mg Cl /l, o-phosphates 0.03 mg PO 4 3/l and sulphate levels 8.9 mg SO 4 2/l. Although embije vil lage lies and grows in the immediate recharge area of Podstenjek one would expect the ammelioration of the water quality due to purifying of waste waters. But the analyses at the end of 1998 and 1999 did not show any eect of purifying. We know that washing and improve ment of water quality demands a certain time and only systematic observations including a detailed study dur ing water pulses aer heavy rainfall can show the e ciency of purifying. e Podstenjek water at the spring is supersatu rated by carbonates and they are deposited on the ow towards the valley. Mainly calcium carbonate is deposited.e largest part of calcium carbonate is deposited at the beginning of 365 m long ow and only smaller part in further 700 m. Relatively high gradient at the initial part allows a considerable aeration of water and release of CO 2 ; this augments in summer months when water warms up during its ow. us in summer at low dis charge all the available calcium carbonate is deposited at the rst 365 m long ow and the most intensively at the rst 305 m. In winter when water cools down the most intensive deposition occurred a little later. During high discharge the rate of deposition is minimal and on the entire ow, more than 1 km long, only few mg of CaCO 3 were deposited from 1 l. e highest deposition occurred at low discharge when up to 36 mg of CaCO 3 /l was de posited from 1 l. S UMMAR Y PH Y SICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES O F TRAVERTINE DEPOSITION THE CASE O F PODSTENJEK SLOVENIA



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G LACIAL KARST WH Y IT IMPORTANT TO RESEARCH L EDENIKI PSEVDOKRAS B ulat R. M AVL Y UDOV Izvleek UDK 551.332:551.44 Bulat R. Mavlyudov: Ledeniki psevdokras Ledeniki psevdokras je skupek procesov, katerih rezultat so znailne povrinske oblike in jame v ledenikih. Za ledeniki psevdokras je znailen grbinasti relief z jezeri in kanali v no tranjosti ledenika in ob stiku led-kamnina. Procesi, ki ust varjajo ledeniki psevdokras in kras v karbonatih in evaporitih se razlikujejo, vendar so oblike, ki nastajajo v obeh sistemih, podobne. Procesi v ledu so hitri, zato je ledeniki psevdokras lahko primeren zini model krasa v apnencu. Po drugi stra ni lahko s poznavanjem krasa v apnencih bolje razumemo ledeniki psevdokras. Seveda govorimo le o sploni podobnosti med fenomeni, medtem ko se oba tipa krasa v podrobnostih razlikujeta. Stopnje razvoja ledenikega psevdokrasa se ujemajo s stopnjami rasvoja v apnenastem krasu. Zaradi gibanja lede nika lahko razvojne stopnje ledenikega psevdokrasa sprem ljamo vdol ledenika, od jezika do ablacijske cone. Ledeniki psevdokras je razirjen v ledenikih zmerne klime (temperate glaciers) in v politermalnih ledenikih. K ljune besede: ledenika hidrologija, pokriti ledenik, ledeniki psevdokras, notranji drenani sistem, podobnost glacialnega in apnikega krasa. *Author uses the term Glacial karst, which denotes features on the glacier surface and inside the glacier that result from the melting of ice. Other terms are used for his phenomena, like G lacier pseudokarst (see John Gunn (ed.), Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst F itzroy Dearborn, 2004) COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 55, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 551.332:551.44 Bulat R. Mavlyudov: Glacial karst Glacial karst (GK) is combination of phenomenon and processes as a result of which specic surface forms and cavities inside ice are formed. Hummocky relief with abundance of lakes, chan nels and reservoirs inside ice and on ice-rock contact are typical for GK. GK development occurs under acting of physical pro cess of ice melting instead of limestone dissolution in classical karst. However processes directivities and arising forms in both cases are similar at system level. As karst processes in ice origin very fast it is give possibility to use them as physical models for limestone karst. Vice-versa, we can understand GK better if we use results of limestone karst investigations. However in both cases only general regularity can be used because some specic features are typical for each kind of karst. GK shows in development of such forms in ice: internal drainage systems (moulins, shas, cascades, vadose galleries and phreatic chan nels, siphons, griphons) and under ice (vadose and phreatic channels), dry and water ll dolines on clean ice and on ice covered by moraine (debris-covered glaciers), glacier caves. Stages of GK development completely correspond to stages of limestone karst development. But because of glaciers motion it is possible to observe all stages of GK development on the sur face of the same glacier from decrepit (at glacier tongue) up to early (in upper part of ablation zone). GK has large signicance in glaciers evolution. GK is widely spread in all temperate and polythermal glaciers of the world. e accelerated glaciers deg radation in present time gives a task of mandatory analysis of GK because of many glaciers can disappear very soon. K eywords: glacial hydrology, debris-covered glacier, karst of glaciers, internal drainage systems, glacial karst evolution, simi larity of glacial and calcareous karst. Institute of geography RAS, Staromonetny per. 29, Moscow 109017, Russia, e-mail: bulatrm@bk.ru Received / Prejeto: 16.03.2006

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 56 Researchers were interested with perennial ice in calcar eous cavities. But as caves in glaciers were considered as caves with ice in limestone these absolutely various cavities by genesis have received the uniform name ice caves and quite oen studied by the same researchers (Balch, 1900). But nevertheless many scientists quite un derstood dierence between these caves and specially ac cented attention on it (Browne, 1865, Listov, 1885). But about similarity of karst phenomena in glaciers and in limestone scientists began to speak only at the end of XIX century (Sieger, 1895). He said that porosity, solubility and weakened planes to the same degree characterized both for ice and limestone. Similar forms for glaciers and limestone are: karrens, natural shas, moulins, caves, gal leries, dolines, depressions without runo etc. He found conditions necessary for relief formation on glaciers that similar to karst relief: at glacier surface with small quan tity of crevasses and slow ice movement. Moraine cover on ice surface protects it from melting but ice ablation occurs with large intensity only on walls of crevasses and moulins. At the end of XIX century this phenomenon was known for glaciers of Europe, America, New Zea land and Polar areas. Sieger considered that it is neces sary to collect additional information for explanation of this karst analogy in limestone and ice. F amous Russian geographer A. A. Kruber (1915) wrote that karst phenomena origin in gypsum, in salt, in ice, but, rstly, these rocks in comparison with limestone occupy considerably smaller areas, and, second, the phe nomena in named rocks represent some specic features in comparison with phenomena in limestone. us, Kruber did not distinguish karst phenomena in limestone, gypsum, salt and ice. e rst who in Russia has used for glaciers term GK was geographer S.V. Kalesnik (1935, 1939). He comes to conclusion about GK existence aer study glaciers in headstream of Naryn River (Tien Shan) during 2 nd In ternational Polar Y ear. Describing dolines and moulins at tongues of some Central Asian glaciers (on Zerafshan Glacier, on Petrovs Glacier, on Pamir glaciers etc.), Kale snik wrote that apparently, here before us is glacial karst that is especially probable on glacier tongues, in areas of maximal ice melting and maximal concentration of subglacial water. Because GK originate in plastic mate rial this is a reason why all crevasses origin aer collapse of ice above subglacial tunnels are masked, soldered and alloyed. Term GK with reference to geomorphology is present in monumental work devoted to quaternary glacia tion (Charlesworth, 1957) in which it is spoken about GK wide spreading on glaciers in dierent parts of the world, which dier by small surfaces inclination and slow movement. F or ice with moraine cover cryoconite holes, dolines and depressions with moulins and without them, karrens, caves and under surface rivers, blind and dry river valleys are typical. All of these forms have the dupli cates in limestone. He distinguishes GK and karst only by ice plasticity and by presence of moraine cover on ice. In the other book Kalesnik (1963) give other name for this phenomenon ice karst. Repeatedly GK concept in glaciology is entered a little bit later (Clayton, 1964). In opinion of the author for GK a plenty of dolines and depressions (frequently lled by small lakes), tunnels and caves, disappearing waterstreams, blind valleys, large springs, natural ice bridges and arches, karrens, separate ice blocks and residual sedi ments (ablation tillites) are typical. He saw full analogy of forms in ice and limestone. erefore he has automati cally transferred development laws of limestone karst to GK. ere are 4 same conditions necessary for GK and limestones karst origin, which were precisely formulated in the middle of XX century (ornbury, 1954), but were known earlier (Kruber, 1915). It was supposed that GK was widely distributed on dead edges of North American glacial sheet in time of its degradation (Clayton, 1964). In our opinion fast destruc tion of glacial sheets, which edges at last glaciation were BULAT R. M AVL Y UDOV In XIX century there was no karst division into separate kinds by rocks structure. Limestone on continents is the most widespread rock, which have direct or indirect in uence on people life. Supercial and underground karst forms have begun to study mainly in limestone areas. Other kinds of karst rocks occupy smaller areas on the earth, therefore karst phenomena in them were studied less oen. Glaciers are situated only in mountains and in Polar Regions, because features of their supercial relief and cavities have investigated later. We considered his tory of glacial caves research earlier (Mavlyudov, 2004a). H ISTOR Y O F G LACIAL K ARST STUD Y INTRODUCTION

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 57 Recently GK study have progress as a result of creation of the international commission Glacial Caves and Karst in Polar Regions (GLACKIPR) in structure of IUS (Actes, 1995, Eraso, Pulina, 1992, 2001, Proceedings, 1991, 1992, 1998, 2002, 2003, 2005). Big part of symposiums materi als connected with GK study. In 1994 question of com mission renaming was discussed. Term cryokarst in the name of commission has received biggest (but not com mon) recognition in comparison with term karst. It has resulted that 3-5 commission symposiums occurred under the name Glacial Caves and Cryokarst in Polar and High-Mountains Regions. However ambiguity of term cryokarst has resulted that since 6 th symposium in 2003 the commission has returned to the former name. It is not necessary to forget that the term cryokarst is the European analogue of the term thermokarst (Monroe, 1976), i.e. it is more applicable to frozen rocks than to glaciers. In Russian glaciology term GK of Kalesnik is not used any more. In glaciological dictionary (Kotlyakov, 1984) this term is absent. In karstology for description of glacier caves rstly was used the term thermokarst (Maksimovich, 1963), but subsequently this term be gan to name areas with thaw dolines in frozen rocks. In karstological literature the term pseudokarst more frequently used (Andrejchuk, 1992). However this term ignore similarity of the processes in ice and in soluble rocks and also full coincidence of their karst forms. Some attempts of introduction of new term for description of processes in ice were undertaken. F or example term glaciokarst was oered (Andrejchuk, 1992). But this attempt cannot be named successful as this term for a long time is used for designation of karst in limestone, originated under glaciers or activated by glacial meltwa ter (Monroe, 1976). As now study of glaciers relief that similar to karst began increase, it is quite obvious, that has ripened ne cessity for term describing formation of this specic re lief. F or our opinion it would be reasonable to use term Glacial Karst (GK). is term shows that phenomena in glaciers are very similar to phenomena in karst rocks. e word glacial (but not ice) means features of this type of karst is formed not simply in ice but namely in glaciers. On analogies, calcareous karst it will be neces sary to name karst of limestone massifs or limestone karst. G LACIAL KARST WH Y IT IMPORTANT TO RESEARCH T ERMINOLOG Y O F G LACIAL KARST terminated on land, depends on wide GK development (Mavlyudov, 2005, 2006). During many years aer Claytons publication term GK in glaciology was almost not mentioned. Usually con sidering relief on glaciers tongues recently began to use term debris-covered glaciers (Nakawo, Y oung, 1981). Cross relief and huge lakes quantity are typical for such glaciers. Generalization of publications about GK was made in one of glaciology reports (Benn, Evans, 1998). But it begins since Clayton only. In work (Benn, Evans, 1998) it is marked that mo raine sediments on ice restrict ice melting and it concen trates mainly in places where moraine cover is broken: on moulins walls and on slopes of dolines and lake depres sions. Depressions slopes become too abrupt to keep of rock debris so clean ice here is usually exposed; intensity of ice melting here is maximal. Ice melting on walls (back wasting) one of the most important components of ab lation in lower glaciers parts covered by moraine such as Khumbu (Nepal) or Tasman (New Zealand) (Iwata, et al., 1980, Kikbridge, 1993 and others). Importance of ablation localization in vicinities of depressions and cre vasses on retreating debris-covered glaciers tongues just also had result, in opinion of authors, occurrence of term GK. Certainly, GK and limestone karst are not identical processes. F issures in calcareous areas extend by calcium carbonate dissolution, and on glaciers crevasses extend preferably by ice melting. In the rst case it is chemical process, in the second physical. Very detailed description of sedimentary and ero sive processes and relief forms connected with each stage of GK development was given for edges of outlet Ktlu Glacier, Myrdalsjkull in Iceland (Krger, 1994). In work (Benn, Evans, 1998) it is shown that GK may oc cur at tongues of surging glaciers when aer fast motion glacier tongue remains motionless for a long time.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 58 T ab. 1 GK development cycle (Clayton, 1964) with author changes Stages GK development Early Y oung Mature Decrepit Karst forms Channels in snow, rn, on contact ice/ rn, small moulins, widen crevasses, englacial channels Moulins, shas, englacial and subglacial channels Dolins, caves, tunnels, water channels Karst windows, depressions, uvalas, residual ice blocks Drainage Mainly surcial Partly surcial, partly internal Mainly internal Internal, surcial (aer ice disappear) Ice thickness, m 150-400 and more 50-150 10-50 0-10 Surcial moraine deposits, thickness, m Absent Absent, except median moraines, some centimeters Some centimeters, later > 1 m, unstable F rom 1.5 to > 3 m, stable Vegetation on moraine deposits No No F irst weakened grass; subsequently bushes Grassy and wood vegetation Lakes, cleanliness of water, density of population Rare lakes, in cracks, cold, transparent, without life Enough rare, cold, transparent, without life In dolins, cold, silty, without life In dolines, depressions, uvalas and poljes; isolated from ice by moraine sediments; warm and clean; fresh-water plants and animals Glacier movement Active Inactive F rom small activity to motionless Immobile On available representations (Clayton, 1964) by an a logy to karst in limestone (Kruber, 1915) cycle of GK development consists of three stages: young, mature and decrep it. Basing on works (Cvijich, 1909, 1918, Kruber, 1915), we have added in cyclic evolution of GK delopment one more stage early stage (Tab. 1) (Mavlyudov, 2004b). On the same glacier it is possible to nd all stages of GK development from the earliest up to decrepit stage (F ig. 1). is is one of essential distinctions of GK from cal careous karst. Especially well it can be seen in tongues of retreating glaciers (from the ice edge) where it is pos sible to see gradual transitions from decrepit stage of GK through mature to stages of youth and early. On active glaciers the set of these stages will be incomplete. F re quently on such glaciers it is easy to nd only early or less oen young stages of GK development. Briey we shall consider each stage of GK develop ment. E ARL Y STAGE F or this stage of GK development is typical almost full absence of supercial forms and weak channels develop ment inside glaciers. Glacier surface here is completely free from moraine. Besides, this area is situated closely to snowline (ELA) and may completely or not completely be clear out from snow in separate years. At presence rn there may be channels as in it thickness (originate at verti cal inltration of meltwater jets), and on rn/ice contact. However these channels are insignicant. As catch areas of supercial water streams are still insuciently exten sive, large internal channels here may not form yet. Dye tracing of water carried out closely to ELA have shown that water moves from here up to glacier tongue with very small velocity. Time of water movement was about some weeks (Bingham et al., 2005 and others). It says about small channels opening in the upper part of glacier abla tion zone. Nevertheless these channels exist, that allows allocating this stage of GK development. is stage may develops in the lower part of accumulation and in the up per part of ablation areas not only there, where there are water streams on glacier surface and crevasses in ice, but also where water inows from areas adjoining to glacier or drain from lakes situated on rock/ice contact. BULAT R. M AVL Y UDOV CY CLE O F G LACIAL KARST DEVELOPMENT

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 59 YOUNG STAGE Boundaries of this stage distribution on glaciers are up per part of ablation zone above and a zone of occurrence of median moraines on ice surface below. On active gla ciers this stage may occupy almost all ablation area. On less active glaciers area of young stage may occupy half of ablation area. On almost motionless glaciers young stage can be found out only in the uppermost parts of ablation area (F ig. 2). As catch areas here are extensive enough, large supercial water streams may be formed. It pro motes development of large channels in internal drainage. Occurrence of median moraines oen promotes stream localization along moraines and formation of large wa ter-streams. It leads to formation of developed systems of an internal drainage. Dye tracing of water streams has shown, that water velocity through channels beginning in this zone, are comparable to velocity in supercial waterstreams and may reach 1 m/s (Stenborg, 1969 and oth ers). Our speleological researches have shown that chan nels sizes inside ice are great enough: pits have depth up to 100 m and more, pits diameter may be up to 10 m and more, galleries width may be 0.3-4 m, height of galleries from 2 up to 20 m. e channels sizes directly depend on volume of water-streams absorbed in ice. Supercial G LACIAL KARST WH Y IT IMPORTANT TO RESEARCH F ig. 1. Scheme of glacier with internal drainage system; on the right massif of dead ice. 1 cold ice layer; 2 temper ate ice layer; 3 snow and rn; 4 englacial and subglacial channels; 5 glacial crevasses; 6 moraine cover; 7 lake water. H vadose englacial channels (Hooke channels); R freatic englacial channels (Rthlisberger channels); N subglacial channels (Nye channels); Lc linked-cavities channels behind bed ledges; L lakes. I-IV GK stages: I early, II young, III mature, IV decrepit. F ig. 2. Relationship of sizes of various zones appropriate to dierent stages of GK development on glaciers with dierent activity degree.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 60 BULAT R. M AVL Y UDOV forms are submitted basically by closed lake depressions on ice, which are not numerous. eir number may grow in places of crevasses formation. M ATURE STAGE is stage is typical for parts of glaciers covered by mo raine (F ig. 3). In the upper part of this stage zone moraine cover does not exceed 1/3 of glacier surface but in the middle part moraine covers ice completely. us in direc tion to glacier tongue thickness of moraine cover grows up to meter and more. At moraine cover thickness lower then 10 sm there is ice-melting activization due to stones heating (Nakawo, 2000). is is expressed in growth of quantity of meltwater on glacier surface. When moraine thickness exceeds 10 sm reduction of ice melting begins. At moraine thickness more than 0.5-0.7 m ice melting practically completely stops. F or upper part of mature zone wide development of supercial water-streams and internal channels are typical. F or lower part of mature zone supercial water-streams are not usual and for gla cier surface smoothed hummocky relief is typical with plenty of dolines and depressions, many of which are oc cupied by lakes. Ice melting occurs here basically on lakes slopes. Lakes water is heated up much more strongly than ice covered by moraine (Sakai et al., 2000). F or this rea son lakes quickly grow. Quite oen this stage, which is well expressed in relief on glacier surfaces, is named as GK (Krger, 1986, Benn, Evans, 1998). In dependence of dammed degree of glacier tongues GK development may realized both by lake or dry scenario (Mavlyudov, 2005). Lake sce nario of GK mature stage develops where glacier tongue is dammed by rock bar or end moraine. It conducts to formation of extensive lakes connected by numerous englacial and subglacial channels. Subsequently small lakes merge into one large lake. Aer that development of karst process departs on second plan and as the rst acts calving. Absence of glacier tongue damming leads to GK development under dry scenario when lakes exist at dif ferent levels. Expansion of lakes depressions occurs on ring crevasses by ice collapse (F ig. 4). As a result of GK activity glacier will disintegrate completely (at lake sce nario) or will broken into separate blocks of dead ice (at dry scenario). D ECREPIT STAGE is stage develops on tongues of motionless glaciers or within the limits of isolated dead ice massifs (F ig. 3). ickness of moraine cover changes from 1 to 3 m. Nu F ig. 3. Block-diagram showing development of mature and decrepit GK stages (Krger, 1994). a-b) mature stage; c) decrepit stage. 1 strips of rock fragments in glacial ice; 2 ridges with ice core; 3 through-shape valley; 4 melting escapes of clean ice; 5 rock fragments ow (coliuction); 6 crevasses expanded by melting; 7 subglacial channels; 8 dolines; 9 collapsed arch of tunnel; 10 doline expanded by melting and collapse; 11 lake extending due by melting on slopes; 12 dead ice; 13 hummocky plain, free from ice; 14 supercial glacial sediments; 15 lakes; 16 subglacial sediments. F ig. 4. View on collapse of dry scenario of mature stage of GK. Bashkara Glacier, Central Caucasus, 2005.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 61 G LACIAL KARST WH Y IT IMPORTANT TO RESEARCH merous windows are typical even at continuous ice cover. Except dolines and small depressions larger depressions uvalas and poljes here are typical also. Water streams wandering under ice provide fast ice destruction. Wide directions range for water streams provides formation of big quantity of caves with small water streams. Galleries expansion in caves includes also action of airows. Be cause of small ice thickness caves galleries are not com pressed by plastic deformation. But for galleries are typi cal vaults collapses. In process of GK development area of glacier ice decrease. It continues until complete ice disappearance. ere are some variants of transition from one GK stage to another: 1) in active glaciers, 2) in motionless glaciers. In rst case at stable position of ELA there is evolutionary displacement of GK stages boundaries in direction of glacier tongue. at is why area of young stage of GK development is displaced on glacier down wards turning into mature stage. By similar way chang ing of other GK stages occurs. All stages of GK develop ment are formed approximately in one place of glacier surface during the long period. In this case boundaries of stage zones of GK development remain approximately on the same places. At ELA lowering there will be re placement of all zones boundaries in direction to glacier tongue. Progressive movement of all GK zones boundaries in direction to upper glacier part will occur at glacier edges retreating and ELA increasing. When processes of GK formation will include all glacier surface, the further decreasing of glacier dimensions will result in size reduc tion or full lost of upper zone (early stage). So quantity of zones may be reduced gradual. Aer some time there will be only one zone (decrepit stage). en the glacier will completely disappear. In surging glaciers all events occurs by other way. In period before surge all GK stages will develop in gla cier ablation area. During surge all GK structures will be completely destroyed. As ice melting during surge does not stop but existing ways of water throughow will be destroyed during glacier motion, it may stimulate local water accumulation in englacial and subglacial reser voirs. It can lead to sudden water outbursts from under glaciers during surge. Aer surge GK structure begins to restore on all extent of ablation area. F irstly all ablation area will be in early and young GK stages. Intensity of GK development will increase in area of dead ice. It con nects with features of local climate (warmest on glacier), moraine cover thickness on glacier surface, big quantity of crevasses, the crossed glacier surface that provides fast development of numerous lake depressions and their in tensive growth. erefore in the lower glacier part GK develops more intensively than in other glacier parts. It will result appearance rstly of two, then of three and, at last, of all 4 GK zones in ablation area. Increasing GK development in area of dead ice promotes accelerated ice degradation that prepares possibility for new glacier surge. It seems that calculated and real ice melting in tensity under moraine cover diers very signicant. F ull destruction time of the Glacier Kolka tongue in the Cau casus aer surge in 1969 was estimated as 25-30 years (Khodakov, 1978). But really glacier tongue has disap peared aer 11 years. It means that GK increase ablation of debris-covered glaciers in some times. Now we will outline channels evolution inside glaciers. Some authors (for example, Mikhajlev, 1989) tried directly apply schemes of karst cavities evolution to GK cavities. He considered that glacier caves as well as limestone caves evolve through following stages: cre vasse-slot-hole, crevasse-channel, gallery, channel and collapse. In his opinion, the crevasse-slot-hole stage is characterized by occurrence of open ssures on glacier/ bed contact and in glacier body in accumulation zone. Crevasse-channel stage is characterized by occurrence of narrow horizontal subglacial crevasses on contact with bed in accumulation area. Gallery stage is typical for ab lation area with development of subglacial and englacial channels. Channel stage is usual for ablation zone with active development englacial and subglacial caves. Sepa rate grottoes may reach 30-40 m length and 20 m height. Vaults collapses in subglacial caves conduct to formation of large dolines and depressions on glacier surface. Col lapse-ablation stage is typical for moraine-covered part of glacier. Caves roof collapses and depression sizes growth are typical for this stage. However we automatically may not transfer char acter of limestone caves development on ice. Against limestone caves, which mainly change in agreement with all these stages, in ice only channels at glaciers tongues can evolve through all this stages. Other channels may develop only up to gallery stage but then channels can completely disappeared because of secondary ice lling or under action of ice plastic deformation (creep). We know that later type channels on glaciers consist over whelming majority.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 62 GK is enough widespread phenomenon. It was found on a plenty of glaciers all over the world: in Alaska (Clay ton, 1964; Russel, 1893; Tarr, Martin, 1914), in Iceland (Krger, 1994; Badino, 2002; Eraso et al., 2002), in Spits bergen (Gallo, 1977; Griselin, 1991; Shroeder, 1991, Krawczyk, Pulina, Rehak, 1997; Pulina, 1982, 1984, 1997; Mavlyudov, 2002; Mavlyudov, Solovyanova, 2003), in the north of Canada (Iken, 1972, Bingham et al., 2005), in Sweden (Stenborg, 1968, 1969; Holmlund, 1988), in Cau casus (Mavlyudov, Solovyanova, 2005), in Alpes (Maroue, 1995, Piccini et al., 2002), in Altai, in Central Asia (Kales nik, 1935; Mavlyudov, 1994, 1995; Popov, 1936; Spengler, 1936; Badino, 2002), in Himalayan (Iwata et al., 1980, Mavlyudov, 1992), in Andes (Aniya, 2001), in New Zea land (Kikbridge, 1993), Greenland and Antarctica (Eraso et al., 1991) and in other places. Absence of any regions in the previous list simply means insucient quantity of researches in this area. GK play important and possibly also an integral role during destruction of the majority of temperate and polythermal glaciers, especially if they are in retreating stage. G LACIAL KARST SPREADING Similarity GK and karst in soluble rocks is shown in con vergence of cavities forms. Similarity of GK and karst is determined by identical conditions of cavities forma tion in soluble rocks and in ice. F or cavities formation is need: 1) soluble rocks, 2) ssures and crevasses in rocks, 3) solvent of rock, 4) solvent movements and aggressive ness. Similarity of features of karst and GK also is shown in similarity of characteristics of both drainage systems. ey have similar structure (arborescent channels form), an evolutionary cycles, seasonal prevalence of develop ment, dependence on climate and rock conditions; they are singenetic to relief, divided into supercial and inter nal components. Despite of processes dierence of chemical rocks dissolution and physical ice melting both these process lead to identical results loss of rock or ice layer on chan nels walls on contact with water-streams. Not consider kinetic of process of rock chemical dissolution by action of water streams and process of ice melting under action of water streams at molecular level we may speak about general similarity of this processes. is processes simi larity is determined by similarity of curves of limestone dissolution and ice melting, which have linear character (Gabrovchek, 2000; Shumskij, 1955). F ormulas of carbonate concentration changes in water and of ice melting under action of water streams in time are almost similar (Eraso, Pulina, 1992, page 14-16). is similarity also denes forms of convergence in lime stone and in ice. And as solvent in both processes is one substance water, it denes similarity in hydraulic pro cesses in both cases. is similarity underlies of possible data exchange between GK and karst in soluble rocks in the eld of cavities origin and evolution. Distinctions of processes occurred in limestone and in ice are determined, rst of all, by various physical properties of ice and rocks. Density of ice is 917 kg/m 3 density of limestone 2500 kg/m 3 heat conductivity of ice is 2.22 Wt/(mK), heat conductivity of limestone 0.9 Wt/(mK), specic thermal capacity of ice is equal 2,12 KJ/(kgK), specic thermal capacity of limestone 2.5 KJ/(kgK) (Shumskij, 1955, Dzidziguri et al., 1966). As we see, the basic distinctions between limestone and ice are shown in rocks density, which approximately in 2.5 times is higher for limestone, and in heat conductivity which approximately in 2.5 times is more for ice. e last means that at identical heat arrival to both rocks, ice will heat up less than limestone. But it also means, that for cooling of ice and limestone on equal quantity of degrees, from the rst it is necessary to remove approximately in 2.5 times heat more than from the second. But the basic distinctions of processes occurring in limestone and ice are determined not by distinction in rocks thermophysical properties but by speed of their de struction. erefore distinctions of processes in soluble rocks and in ice are determined by: speed of processes or speed of supercial and internal forms development; du ration of evolution cycle; abort of development in winter time; presence of ice movement; presence of ice plastic deformations; ability for ice to heal of crevasses and cavi ties; inuence of thermal conditions of ice; monolithness of ice, absence of some types of ssures in ice; dierence of chemical process of rock dissolution from physical process of ice melting; channels displacement down wards on glacier during evolution. Essential dierence in physical properties of lime stone and ice is shown in signicant distinctions in be S IMILARIT Y AND DI FF ERENCE O F G LACIAL KARST AND LIMESTONE KARST BULAT R. M AVL Y UDOV

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 63 havior of drainage systems inside these rocks. But com mon structure of internal drainage systems in both rocks allows to speak about similarity of evolution of internal drainage in both rocks at a level of system. e ideological anity of glacial hydrology with karst hydrology and speleology means not only anity in research methods of drainage systems in glaciers and limestone, but also anity of theories describing drain age systems and their separate elements origin and evolu tion. F or this reason many conclusions about GK struc ture and evolution are received by analogy to structure of drainage systems in limestone (Mavlyudov, 2006). Internal glaciers drainage study is necessary part of ni val-glacial systems researches (Krenke, 1982). GK has complex inuence on glaciers. Investigations has shown that GK presence in glaciers cardinally changes physical ice properties, ice permeability for water, structure and chemistry of glacial runo, character of sediments remov ing by water streams, separate characteristics of glaciers: water level position in dierent parts of glaciers, changes of cold ice layer thickness by ice warming around drain age channels. All these changes can be incentive reasons of numerous phenomena in glaciers: water outbursts, winter runo, changes in speed of ice movement, glaciers surges, accelerated deglaciation. At some stages of gla ciers evolution (in particular in deglaciation period) GK begins to control practically all processes in ice thickness and many processes on glaciers surface, becomes deter mining factor of glacier development. Without taking into account GK inuence on gla ciers mistakes are possible in: 1) hydrological calculations; 2) hydrological processes modeling in glaciers; 3) results interpretation of majority of indirect methods of GK study (dye tracing of waters, runo studying, denition of throughow time, runo chemistry, suspense sediments transport, cold ice layer thickness measurements etc.). If we do not know GK structure, it becomes not clear as wa ter moves in ice thickness. If we shall not study GK: 1) an glaciers interior remain for us as black boxes, 2) we shall irrevocably lose valuable scientic information based on character of internal glaciers destruction; 3) we shall not understand many processes in glaciers. Only expensive ice drilling or study of glaciers wa ter runo regime usually give information about glacier internal structure. GK drainage channels researches al low us: a) to receive direct information about glacier structure, to make large crevasses survey, to establish presence and amplitudes of ice replacement on them aer time of cavities formation; b) to take ice samples of any size from necessary depths for dierent purposes (denition of permeability, durability, water-saturation etc.); c) to determine morphometric characteristics of cavities. Analysis and mathematical processing of mor phometric parameters of GK drainage channels allow to receive statistically steady parameters of channels sizes and content of cavities in ice of separate glaciers and their parts. Analysis of plans and vertical cuts sections of sepa rate cavities allows to determine main directions of cre vasses and their connections with orientation of tension ellipsoid in separate parts of concrete glaciers. By statisti cal analysis of the data about length of rectilinear sites of drainage channels it is possible to determine sizes and a conguration of ice blocks, to establish density of hydro logically active crevasses inside these blocks. Usually hydrological research is possible only in catch and outow areas of glacial waters. Application of karstological (speleological) methods allow to carry out hydrological research also in internal water transit zone directly inside drainage systems. Researches of them allow: A) to establish position of water level (uniform hy drostatic water level, isolated conduits, double porosity with various ltration properties for crevasse zones and internal parts of ice blocks with small quantity of ssures and crevasses). B) to establish structural and ltration anisotropy of glacier by realization of indicator experiments. C) to establish character of water movement (free, pressure head, laminar, turbulent) in various parts of drainage systems to receive settlement characteristics of water streams inside drainage systems (stream velocity, water level, discharge, Reynolds and F raud numbers and so on) and glacier in whole (ltration index etc.), to dismember hydrographers of springs (upwellings) at glaciers tongues (with allocation of dead volume in underground dammed and accumulative lakes) and curve of exhaustions (with allocation of various components of glacial runo). D) to coordinate seasonal changes of hydrodynami cal parameters and temperatures of glacial water with data of meleorological and hydrological investigations on surface, with changes of springs discharges and with uctuations of water levels in moulins and boreholes. I MPORTANCE O F GLACIAL KARST STUD Y G LACIAL KARST WH Y IT IMPORTANT TO RESEARCH

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 64 BULAT R. M AVL Y UDOV us forms and processes, which result in formation of karst relief (supercial and underground) on glaciers can named GK. Despite of some distinctions determined ba sically by ice properties, full similarity of supercial and internal karst forms in ice and limestone is observed. It means, that GK may serve as model for calcareous karst and on contrary. It is especially important as speeds of formation and evolution GK in millions times is higher than at calcareous karst. But we need take into account dierence between ice and rocks and processes of chemi cal rocks dissolution and physical ice melting. GK also denes a lot of processes on glaciers: change in thermal ice conditions, maintenance of fast water delivery in ice thickness, water-contents changes in ice, ice properties changes, maintenance of glacier surges, outbursts of gla cier-dammed lakes etc. erefore GK study has the big prospects in future. C ONCLUSIONS E) to receive dierential values of GK activity for dierent seasons and hydrodynamical zones of glaciers. GK study in future will allow to receive quantitative indicators of growth and dynamics of drainage channels in dierent glaciers and in dierent regions. With the help of these indicators in future, probably, it will be pos sible to make quantitative estimations not only for speed of origin and destruction of internal drainage systems, but also its role at dierent stages of glaciers evolution. F urther study of internal drainage will enable to explain mechanisms of such catastrophic glacial phe nomena as outbreaks of glacial lakes and fast ice motion (surges). Detail study of an internal drainage will allow to understand GK evolution. It will enable to approach us to explanation of ancient glacial sheets destruction from quantitative positions. Research of GK together with others glaciological researches will allow to look in a new fashion at a role of water in glaciers. It will enable to explain both properties of ice and feature of glaciers (movement, metamorphism, degradation features etc.). Investigations of glaciers drainage systems, laws of their origin and evolution during ablation season and long periods of time, and also in connection with con ditions and structure of glaciers enables to coordinate among themselves combinations of supercial and in ternal glaciers drainage systems. But also it is possible to solve inverse task: on basis of drainage systems study to understand conditions of separate parts and of whole glaciers. It will allow in the future on the basis of GK study including remote sensing methods together with the control of glaciers tongues positions to receive more full, wide and trustworthy information not only about a structure and a condition of many glaciers of a planet, but also character and tendencies of regional climate change. Isomorphism of GK and karst allow to use achieve ments in research of one of karst type for nding out of development laws for other karst type. Calcareous karst is now enough well investigated. It means that laws of limestone karst development may be used for nding out corresponding laws in GK. And this laws conversion is possible without entering serious corrections (in view of time dierence of drainage systems formation, and also in view of special properties of ice: uidity and plastic ity). It results now and will result in future progress in GK study including glaciers internal drainage. But it means also that many laws received at GK study may be used without very serious changes at researches of calcare ous karst. It is especially tempting because of dierent speed of karst forms origin in limestone and ice (many hundreds thousands years for limestone karst and from several months to several years for GK). It means pos sibility not only directly observe origin of karst forms in glaciers of dierent regions with various climate, to carry out their exact measurements or even to put some types of experiments. It means GK may serve as natural model of calcareous karst. Certainly, not now, not in the future it will be impossible automatically to transfer laws of origin of separate forms from one karst type to another. But it does not mean that in general it will be impossible to take advantage from it. Hope therefore is quite competent that big interest, which has originate recently to GK study, in future will result in progress of calcareous karst study.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 65 Actes du 3 Symposium International Cavites glaciaires et cryokarst en regions polaires et de haute montagne, Chamonix-F rance, 1-6.XI.1994. Annales litterai res de luniversite de Besanon, n. 561, serie Geogra phie, 34, ed. M. Griselin, 1995, p. 138, Besanon. Andrejchuk, V.N., 1992: Some aspects of glaciokarst study. Problems of Pseudokarst. Abstracts, 58-62, Perm (in Russian). Aniya, M., 2001: Glacier variations of Heilo Patagnico Norte, Chilean Patagonia, since 1944/45, with spe cial reference to variations between 1995/96 and 1999/2000. Bulletin of Glaciological Research, 21, 55-63, Tokyo. Badino, G., 2002: e glacial karst. Nimbus, 23-24, 82-93. Balch, E.S., 1900: G lacieres or freezing caverns. Allen, Lane and Scott, p. 337, Philadelphia. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corp., New Y ork, 1970. Benn, D.I. Evans, D.J.A., 1998: G laciers and glaciation. Arnold, p. 734, London. Bingham, R.G. Nienow, P.W. Sharp, M.J. & S. Boon, 2005: Subglacial drainage processes at a High Arctic poly thermal valley glacier. Journal of Glaciology, 51, 172, 15-24. Browne, G.F ., 1865: Ice caves of France and Switzerland. A narrative of subterranean exploration. Longmans, Green and Co, p. 315, London. Charlesworth, J.K., 1957: e quaternary era with special ref erence to its glaciation. 1, 2, Arnold, p. 1700, London. Clayton, L., 1964: Karst topography on stagnant glaciers. Journal of Glaciology, 5, 37, 107-112. Cvijif, J., 1909: Bildung und dislocierung des Dinarisch en. Petermanns Geogr. Mitteilungen, 55, 6-8, Cvijif, J., 1918: Hydrographie souterraine et evolution morphologique du karst. Rec. T rav. Insts. G eol. Al pine, 6, 4, p. 56, Grenoble. Dzidziguri, A.A. Duganov, G.V. Onioni, Sh.I. et al ., 1966: ermophysical parametres of mountain rocks and methods of their nding. Metsniereba, p. 228, Tbilisi (in Russian). Eraso, A. Antigedad, I. & A. Mangin, 1991: Time series correlogramme and spectral analysis of the Cazado ra Glacier drainage and meteorological parameters, Spanish Antarctic Base (BAE), Livingston Island (South Shetland, Antarctic). Proceedings of 1 st International Symposium Glacier Caves and Karst in Polar regions, October 1-5, 1990, Madrid, Spain, 69-91, ITGE, Madrid. Eraso, A. & M. Pulina, 1992: Cuevas en hielo y ros bajo los glaciares. McGraw-Hill, p. 242, Madrid. Eraso, A. & M. Pulina, 2001: Cuevas en hielo y ros bajo los glaciares. McGraw-Hill, 2 nd ed., p. 279, Madrid. Eraso, A. Dominguez, M.C. & S. Jonsson, 2002: Neces sary strategy to study glacier discharge continuous ly: pilot catchment areas implemented in Iceland. Nimbus, 23-24, 109-116. Gabrovek, F ., 2000: Evolution of early karst aquifers: from simple principles to complex modeles. ZRC SAZU, p. 150, Ljubljana. Gallo, G., 1977: Grotte glaciarie au Spitsberg. Bull. gr. splo Pyrnes, 9, 17-25, Touloese. Glacier Caves and Glacial Karst in High Mountains and Polar Regions. Collection of reports. Proceedings of 7 th International Symposium, Azau, KabardinoBalkarian Republik, Russia, 5-11 September, 2005, Institute of Geography RAS, 2005, p. 178, Moscow. Griselin M., 1991: Les marges glaces du glacier LovenEst, Spitsberg: un milieu original li aux coule ments sous-glaciaires. Proceedings of 1 st Interna tional Symposium Glacier Caves and Karst in Polar regions, ITGE, 35-67, Madrid. Holmlund, P., 1988: Internal geometry and evolution of moulins, Storglaciaren, Sweden. Journal of Glaci ology, 34, 117, 242-248. Iken, A., 1972: Measurments of water pressure in moulins as part of a movement study of the White Glacier, Axel Heiberg Island, Northwest Territiries, Canada. Journal of Glaciology, 11, 53-58. Iwata, S. et al., 1980: Surface morphology in the ablation area of the Khumbu Glacier. Seppyo, 42, 9-17. Kalesnik, S.V., 1935: Glaciers of Bolshoj Naryn. TienShan. Headstream of Bolshoj Naryn River. Annals of glacial expeditions, 2, CUCGMS, 83-186, Lenin grad (in Russian). Kalesnik, S.V., 1939: G eneral G laciology. Uchpedgiz, p. 328, Leningrad (in Russian). Kalesnik, S.V., 1963: Studies of G laciology. Geographgiz, p. 551, Moscow (in Russian). Khodakov, V.G., 1978: Water-ice balance of areas of mod ern and ancient glaciation of the USSR. Nauka, p. 194, Moscow (in Russian). Kikbridge, M.P., 1993: e temporal signicance of tran sitions from melting to calving termini at glaciers in the Central Southern Alps at New Zealand. e Holocene, 3, 232-240. Kotlyakov, V.M. (ed.), 1984: G laciological dictionary. Gidrometeoizdat, p. 528, Leningrad (in Russian). Krawczyk, W.E. Pulina, M. & J. Rehk, 1997: Similar ity between Hydrologic system of the Werenskiold Glacier (SW Spitsbergen) and a karst. Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of speleology, 1, Karst Geomorphology, 493-496, La Chaux-deF onds. R E F ERENCES G LACIAL KARST WH Y IT IMPORTANT TO RESEARCH

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 66 Krenke, A.N., 1982: M ass exchange in glacial systems on area of USSR. Gidrometeoizdat, p. 288, Leningrad ( in Russian). Kruber, A.A., 1915: Karst area of Mountain Krimea. p. 319, Moscow (in Russian). Krger, J., 1994: Glacial processes, sediments, landforms and stratigraphy in the terminus region of Myrdalsjkull, Iceland. F olia Geographica Danica, 21, 1-233. Listov, Y u., 1885: Caves ice-houses. Data for geology of Russia, 12, 105-280, Sanct-Petersburg (in Russian). Maksimovich, G.A., 1963: Fundamentals of Karstology, 1. p. 445, Perm (in Russian). Mavlyudov, B.R., 1992: Ice evaporation in the glacier cave (Kangware Glacier, South Tibet). Proceedings of 2 nd International Symposium G lacier Caves and Karst in Polar regions, F ebruary 10-16, 1992, Midzygorze, Poland, 81-91, Silesia University, Sosnowies. Mavlyudov, B.R., 1994: Collapse phenomena on glaciers. Karst Collapses. Abstracts, Nauka, 17-20, Ekat erinburg (in Russian). Mavlyudov, B.R., 1995: Tongue oscillations of Northern Inyltchek Glacier. Data of Glaciological studies, 79, 95-98, Moscow (in Russian). Mavlyudov, B.R., 2002: Some data about hydrology of glacier Aldegonda (Spitsbergen). Complex in vestigations of Spitsbergen nature, 2, 120-125, Kola Scientic Centre of Russian Academy of Science, Apatity (In Russian). Mavlyudov, B.R., 2004a: History of glacial speleology. Karstology: XXI century, Perm University, 346-351, Perm (In Russian). Mavlyudov, B.R., 2004b: Glacial karst. Karstology: XXI century, Perm University, 69-74, Perm (In Russian). Mavlyudov, B.R., 2005: Glacial karst as possible reason of quick degradation of Scandinavian glacier sheet. Glacier caves and glacial karst in high mountains and polar regions. Ed. B.R. Mavlyudov, 68-73, In stitute of geography of the Russian Academy of Sci ences, Moscow. Mavlyudov, B.R., 2006: Internal drainage systems of gla ciers. Institute of geography RAS, p. 396 + xxxii, Moscow (in Russian). Mavlyudov, B.R. & Solovyanova I.Y u., 2003: Drainage system of Aldegonda glacier, Spitsbergen. 6 th In ternational Symposium G lacial Caves and Karst in Polar Regions (3-8 September 2003, Ny-Alesund; Svalbard, Lat. 79N). Monograco SEDECK, 163169, Madrid. Mavlyudov, B.R. & Solovyanova I.Y u., 2005: Caves of Bashkara Glacier (Central Caucasus); morphologi cal features. Glacier caves and glacial karst of high mountain and polar regions. Ed. B.R. Mavlyudov, 61-67, Institute of geography of the Russian Acad emy of Sciences, Moscow. Mikhajlev, V.N., 1989: Karst of Kirgiziya. Ilim, p. 148, F runze (in Russian). Monroe, W.H., 1970: A glossary of karst terminology. Geological Survey Water-Supply paper 1899-K, United States government printing oce, p. 26, Washington. Moreau, L., 1995: Glacier dArgentire: hydro-lectricit et glaciologie Actes du 3 Symposium International Cavites glaciaires et cryokarst en regions polaires et de haute montagne, Chamonix-F rance, 16.XI.1994. Annales litteraires de luniversite de Be sanon, 561, serie Geographie, 34, ed. M. Griselin, 17-22, Besanon. Nakawo, M. & Y oung G.J., 1981: F ield experiments to determine the eect of a debris layer on ablation of glacier ice. Annals of Glaciology, 2, 85-91. Nakawo, M. Raymond, C.F & F ountain A. (eds), 2000: Debris-covered glaciers. IAHS Publ. 264, p. 289. Piccini, L. Romeo, A. & Badino G., 2002: Moulins and marginal contact caves in the Gornergletscher, Swit zerland. Nimbus, 23-24, 94-99. Popov, V.I., 1936: Some surface formations of F edchenko Glacier. e Pamir. Northern Pamir and F edchen ko Glacier. Annals of glaciological expeditions, 1, CUCGMS, 173-196, Leningrad (in Russian). Proceedings of 1 st International Symposium Glacier Caves and Karst in Polar Regions, October 1-5, 1990, Madrid, Spain. ITGE, 1991, p. 237, Madrid. Proceedings of 2 nd International Symposium Glacier Caves and Karst in Polar Regions, F ebruary 1016, 1992, Midzygorze, Poland. Silesia University, 1992, p. 127, Sosnowies. Proceedings of 4 th International Symposium Glacier Caves and Cryokarst in Polar and High Mountain Regions. Sept. 1-7, 1996, Rudolfshtte, Salsburg, Austria. Salzburg Geographische Materialen, 28, 1998, p. 155, Salzburg. Proceedings of 6 th International Symposium Glacial Caves and Karst in Polar Regions, 3-8 September 2003, Ny-Alesund; Svalbard, Lat. 79N. Mono graco SEDECK, 2003, p. 193, Madrid. Proceedings of V International symposium on Glacier Caves and Cryokarst in Polar and High Moun tain Regions, 15-16 April 2000, Courmayeur, Italy. Nimbus, Rivista della societa meteorologica itali ana, 23-24, 2002, 81-157. Pulina, M., 1982: Karst related phenomena at the Bertil Glacier, West Sritsbergen. Kras i Speleologia, v. 4 (13), Katowice, p. 67-82. Pulina, M., 1984: Glacierkarst phenomena in Spitsbergen. Norsk Geogrask Tidsskri, 38, 3-4, 163-168, Oslo. Pulina, M., 1997: Relieves of surface on subpolar glaciers. Polish Polar Studies. 24 th Polar Symposium, 215222, Warszawa. BULAT R. M AVL Y UDOV

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 67 Russel, I.C., 1893: Malaspina Glacier. Journal of Geol ogy, 1, 217-245. Sakai, A. Takeuchi, N. F ujuta, K. & Nakawo M., 2000: Role of supraglacial ponds in the ablation process of a debris-covered glacier in the Nepal Himalayas. Debris-Covered Glaciers, IAHS Publ, 264, 119-130. Schroeder, J., 1991: Les cavites du Hansbreen creusees par les eaux defonte. Svalbard, 77 Lot. N. Proceedings of 1 st International Symposium Glacier Caves and Karst in Polar regions, ITGE, 21-33, Madrid. Shumskij, P.A., 1955: Bases of structural ice study. Pub lising house of USSR Academy of Sciences, p. 492, Moscow (in Russian). Sieger, R., 1895: F ormation des Causs das glaciers (Karstfarmen der Gletscher). Archives des Sciences Phy siques et Naturelles, 34, 7, 494-495. Spengler, O.A., 1936: Short hydrological issue of head stream of Muksu River. e Pamir. Northern Pamir and F edchenko Glacier. Annals of glaciologi cal expeditions, 1, CUCGMS, 111-149, Leningrad (in Russian). Stenborg, T., 1968: Glacier drainage connected with ice structures. Geograska Annaler, 50, ser. A, 1, 2553. Stenborg, T., 1969: Studies of the internal drainage of gla ciers. Geograska Annaler, 51, ser. A, 1-2, 13-41. Tarr, R.S. & Martin L., 1914: Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographical Society in the Y akutat Bay, Prince William Sound and Lower Copper River regions. National Geographical Society, Washing ton. ornbury, W.D., 1954: Principles of geomorphology. Wiley, p. 618, New Y ork. G LACIAL KARST WH Y IT IMPORTANT TO RESEARCH



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L AKES IN GY PSUM K ARST : SOME E X AMPLES IN A LPINE AND M EDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES J EZERA V KRASU V SADRI : NEKAJ PRIMEROV IZ ALPSKIH IN SREDOZEMSKIH DEEL Jean NICOD 1 Izvleek UDK 556.55(467.1) 551.444(467.1) Jean Nicod: Jezera v krasu v sadri: nekaj primerov iz alpskih in sredozemskih deel V teh predelih so bila preuevana tevilna jezera razlinih tipov. Nastala so zaradi geomorfolokih procesov v krasu v sadri, kot so: ugrezi ali udori v zvezi z raztapljanjem sadre in ostalih evaporitov, predvsem v globinah, v viini talne vode. Veina teh jezer je majhnih, esto so to obasna jezerca v krasu v sadri v Alpah, ali pa zalite vrtae v aluvialnih ravninah, ki odraajo ni hanje gladine talne vode. V sredozemskih deelah in v Srednji Evropi pa so nekatera povodja teh jezer precej veja; njihovemu nastanku so botrovali razlini dejavniki in v zvezi z njimi se pojavljajo razline ekoloke teave. Kot primer je posebej pred stavljeno jezero Besse v Provansi, za primerjavo pa e jezeri Pergusa (Sicilija) in Banyoles (Katalonija). K ljune besede: evaporitni kras, sadra, jezero, Alpe, Sredozem lje. 1 Emeritus professor, Florida 1, 35 Av. 24 Avril 1915, F 13012 MARSEILLE. Received / Prejeto: 13.03.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 69, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract: UDC 556.55(467.1) 551.444(467.1) Jean NICOD: Lakes in Gypsum Karst: some examples in Al pine and Mediterranean countries. Numerous lakes of varying types have been studied in these ar eas. eir origin proceeds from the geomorphological process es in the gypsum karst: land subsidence or collapses in relation with the active dissolution of the gypsum and other evaporites, particularly in depth, at the groundwater level. Most are small lakes, oen ephemeral ponds in the alpine gyp sum karsts, or ooded sinkholes in alluvial plains, in keeping with the uctuations of the water-table. However, in the Medi terranean lands and Central Europa, some lacustrine basins are more important expanse; they arise from a complex evolution, and put various environmental problems. So are particularly studied the case of the lake of Besse in Provence, and in com parison the problems of the lakes of Pergusa (Sicily) and Ban yoles (Catalonia). K ey words: Evaporite karst, gypsum, lake, Alps, Mediterranean. Although the lakes in gypsum or evaporites karst are not generally studied, but only by local or punctual works, their processes of formation and evolution are very inter esting. ey present specic characteristics comparatively to karstic lakes in limestones and dolomites: the quick genesis of their basin, frequently by breakdown, collapse or suosion processes consecutive to the accelerated solution of the gypsum or andhydrite (and more in the halite lens!) (NICOD 1993, KLIM CHOUK 1996, 2002); the possible extension by solution and land subsid ence, recess of the borders by solution and collapse, or coalescence of contiguous sinkholes; their variable water level, depended not only on the hydrologic conditions (change of the groundwater level, input-output balance), but also on the subsidence or collapse of their basin bottom; the silting by the clay derived from the weathering of the argilaceous beds joined up the gypsum or other evaporites: INTRODUCTION

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 70 T HE LAKES IN SMALL KARSTIC DEPRESSIONS Most small lakes are located in karstic forms, funnel or sinkholes, produced by breakdown or collapse processes in relationship with active solution (g. 1). In the alpine gypsum karst, as that of Col du Joly, Beaufortin (Savoie, F rance), a eld of many funnels extend upon the outcrop of gypsum layers, in the mountain pasture, near 19002000 m (NICOD 1988). When the bottom of these de pressions are blocked by residual clay or issued from mo rainic deposits, the lakes can be formed, but fast changed into marshs and bogs. (Photo 1) On the contrary, the gypsum lakes in the lower alti tudes, in plateau or plain, are connected with the aquifer, either in alluvial deposits, example of the lagunas (dolinelakes) in the Ebro terraces (W Zaragoza SORIANO, 1991), or with a multilayered aquifer, as in gypsum karst of the triassic plateaus of the inner Provence (example of the Louciens, La Roquebrussane, Var Department). e level of those lakes depends to the watertable, as the case they can be perennial or temporary; in the occurence of speed groundwater lowering, the bottom of the basin may be changed by subsidence or collapse processes. In the ex ample of the Grand Loucien, the excessive level variation cause sometimes rockslides in limestone borders: so this crater-like landform tend to extend. (Photo 2) T HE POSSIBLE COMBINATION O F PROCESSES Some lacustrine basins proceed from a combination of two or several development processes. So in high alti tude (near 2300 m) and alpine landscape, the lake of the Combe de la Nova in Beaufortin (Savoie), a submerged uvala in triassic gypsum band between shales, ows out in a sink-cave, active rockfall site (g. 1, II). In the case of the lake of Mont-Cenis pass (1970 m, in Savoie, at the french-italian border) the glacial origin is clear, but a part of this basin is in a triassic gypsum band, where numer ous funnels and sinkhole are opened; this structural ar rangement has given a problem of losses, because of the raised level since the tting out of the basin as reservoir for the hydroelectric power-plant (NICOD 1993). In the case of the Bonne Cougne pond, near Flassans in central Var Departement, it is spring-lake located in small polje in dolomites of middle Trias, now drained; its origin is in keeping with the dissolution of the underlying evapor itic lens, as in the lake of Besse (infra). In the Causses of the Middle Atlas (Morocco), several lacustrine ba sins in liassic limestones and dolomites proceed from the same processes: disssolution of underlying triassic gyp sum lens, some in diapiric structures, and subsidence of the layers on top. Some are seasonal lakes (daias), as in the Ouiouane polje, and turn into salt crust in summer (MARTIN 1981). (Photo3) Photo 3) J EAN NICOD the high mineralization, poor ichtyologic fauna, locally anoxic water and possible sulydric gas irrup tion in relation with the bacterial action on dissolved sulphates. As do all the phenomenons in gypsum karsts when they occur in the urban and suburban areas, the gypsum lakes give main impact problems: the changes of lake lev el and possible extension, or on the contrary silting and trend to marsh. F ORMS AND ORIGINS O F THE G Y PSUM LAKES. Photo 1: Small transient ponds in gypsum funnels, in the alpine pasture near Col du Joly (1989 m), in the northern Beaufortin (Savoie). Photo 2: e G rand L oucien near L a Roquebrussanne (Central V ar Department). Collapse basin in middle T rias limestones, variable level in connection to the groundwater.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 71 M odes of formation and evolution of the gypsum lakes I 3 sequences with respect to lithologic and geomorphologic conditions Geologic setting AGypsum & anhydrite band : Alpine Karsts BAlluvial plain/ gypsum or evaporites Climestone plateau/ gypsum or evaporites 1-M ode of iformation of the basin Type Processus Hydrology F unnel Solution vadose circulation Under-alluvial doline Solution + subsidence at alluvial water-table level n Breakdown in deooded cave ( i of n ) 2-Lakes in evolution Type Hydrology F unnel-lake over plug possible drain Lake in doline permanent or temporary at alluvial water-table level n Crater lake variable level n in keeping with the deep water-table Examples gypsum lakes Col du Joly, Beaufortin NICOD (1988) Lagunas in Ebro terraces W Zaragoza SORIANO (1991) Grand Loucien La Roquebrussanne (Var) NICOD (1967, p.175) References 3-Lakes at the end of evolution II Compound cases A*-Contact karst Gypsum / shales Lac de la Nova (Beaufortin Savoie ) NICOD (1988) C* Polje in compound structure Gypsum lens in triassic dolomites Lac de Bonne Cougne (SE Flassans, Var) Fig. 1: Some basic types of formation and evolution of the lakes in gypsum karst. L AKES IN GY PSUM K ARST : SOME E X AMPLES IN A LPINE AND M EDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 72 T HE CASE O F A GUELMANE A ZIGZA : RAIN GAUGE LAKE Aguelmane Azigza (the Green Lake in Berber language) is situated in the southern part of the Causses of the Middle Atlas (Morocco). is main lake of the Causse of Ajdir, without outlet, gives spectacular inter-annual water-level changes: it is a record of the dry and humid periods at the regional scale. It is extended in the eastern end of an important polje, old landform expanded in the liassic dolomites, near 1490 m high, characterised by cu pola hums and at ground covered by residual deposits, dolomitic sands and terra rossa (MARTIN, 1981). e basin of the lake is a subsidence depression, following the fault system, in relationship with the dissolution of the evaporites in the underlying triassic formation. Active collapses and block-fallings in dominant scarps of liassic dolomitic limestones prove the permanence of this proc ess. is play of dissolution at groundwater level, in the area of Causse of Ajdir is correlated with some sulphated and salt springs, north of this Causse, in the Oum-erRbia canyon (EL KHALKI & AKDIM 2001). (Photo4 Photo 4 and Photo 5) Photo 3: e lake of the Combe de la Nova (2300 m, Beaufortin Savoie), submerged uvala in triassic gypsum band between shales. L oss in the gypsum rockfall (1994). is part of the Middle-Atlas Causses is relatively good sprinkled and snow-covered in winter; the cedar forest subsists on the base of the scarps; but the interannual change of the rainfall and snow amount is very important. e rainfall and snow-melting in the polje supply the Aguelmane, however with high evaporation (~ 600 mm/y); but the lake-level is in connection with the aquifer in the dolomitic layers. Also this level can changed between 1490 m (in 1960) and 1471 m (1984), and even 1470 m in 1990. In high level, the lake may overow in the polje; in lowest level, it covers only 37 ha, with 38 m of maximum deep. e low level is in relationship with dry sequences, but a phase-lag of one or two years between the weak precipitations and the lowest water-level has be recog nised (FLOWER & FOSTER, 1992): in my opinion that is caused by the slow response of the aquifer play in the liassic dolomites. S OME MAIN LAKES In Central-Europe and Mediterranean countries, some largest lakes give variable forms, in relationship with diverse structures and hydrogeological settings, multiple evolution processes and various water supply. e table 1 shows the most important and knownest lakes, as rep resentative examples of environmental problems. Photo 4: Small lake (daia), doline in diapiric structure (Causse dAjdir, M iddle Atlas). Dry in summer, with salt crust (Photo Y EL Khalki). Photo 5: e lake Azigza, in the Causse dAjdir (M iddle Atlas). L ow level showed by the white scree, below the trail and cedar forest. J EAN NICOD

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 73 L AKES IN GY PSUM K ARST : SOME E X AMPLES IN A LPINE AND M EDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES Tab. 1: Main gypsum lakes in Central-Europe and Mediterranean countries, sorted according to their extension. Lake Region, Land References Surface Altitude Depth. average max Type Genesis Lithology Working Hydrosystem Peculiarities L. Invrtita (Nucoara) Arge Distr., Transilvania, Rom. BULGAREANU 1997 0.02 km 877 m ~5 m Extended sinkhole from a ponor in the end of 19 th c. gypsum, aquitanian sandstone Supplied by groundwater anoxic basin emit H 2 S L de B esse (Besse-sur-Issole) Var Dept., E Provence, F NICOD 1991/99 0.04 km 245 m 3-4 m 9 m Collapse doline Middle-Trias limestones -id.gypsum In connection with aquifer + made-man supply by Issole partial drain-o in 1989 N ixsee (Nixei) Harzvorland (E Gttingen), D. PRIESNITZ, 1969 0.02-0.08 in ood 250 m 6 m Little polje dolomites gypsum of Zechstein Flooded by spring (Springwiese) outow ponor Laguna Grande (Archidona) Betic range, Andalucia, Spain PULIDO-BOSCH, 1989 0.06 km Subsidence depression gypsum & halite of Trias In relation with aquifer F uente Camacho Saline, dry in summer Aguelmane Azigza Causse of Ajdir, Middle-Atlas, M. MARTIN 1981 0.34 km 1490 1471 m 33 m (en 1989) Collapse fault trough near polje in dolomites of Lias Trias clay + evaporites Supplied by polje & aquifer very variable water-level Rain-gauge lake! Lago di Pergusa (Enna) Central Sicily, Italy DAMORE 1983 1.18 km 667 m 1,8 m Large doline Pliocne marls Messinian gypsum + halite Rain supply + groundwater without outlet trend to silting E stany de Banyoles (Baolas) Ampurdan, Catalonia, Spain JULIA BRUGUES 1980 1.83 km 173 m 10 m au N 20 m au S 130 m Coalescence of sinkholes + travertine dam Eocene marls/gypsum Supply by aquifer Anoxic bottom emit H 2 S Demiryurt gl (Todrge gl) Karst of Sivas, Anatolia, Turkey ALAGZ, 1967 3.3 km 1295 m ~4 m 28 m (funnel) Submerged uvala Miocene gypsum Supply by aquifer +auent Outow Kizyl-Y rmak summer reduction salt crusts e leak of the Lac de B esse (Central Provence), a bot tomless lake! is widest lake (4 ha) in the triassic plateaus of the Var Department is located near the old little town of Besse-sur-Issole. Its basin is a karstic depression in an ticlinal structure of the middle Trias limestones (Mus chelkalk); below the factured limestones (that make up the spur and cli at the NW), the Anhydritgruppe for mation is constituted by dolomites, dolomitic marls and gypsum (g. 2). Mainly, the conned aquifer in these tri assic formations and the outow to the Issole river main tains the level of the lake, normanly nine metres deep; but in the dry years, the level can progressively subside, as in 1878; on account of this lowering, a small canal di verted from the Issole contributes to the supply of the basin. (Photo 6) In december 1989, the level falls quickly, and the regional press print in enormous headlines: Aprs le goure glouton, le lac qui fuit!, aer the greedy pit, the leaky lake! A small cave opened on foot of the lime stone cli has absorbed in part the lake water (g. 3), as previously in similar event in 1987 for one river near ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 74 J EAN NICOD Tourrettes in eastern Var Department. is phenom enon in lake of Besse is in relation with the drastic subsidence of the water-table, near 20 m. Two factors are added: the eect of several consecutive dry years; the eect of the over-working of the alluvial groundwater in the Issole valley by numerous well-bor ings, because the two aquifers are partly in connection. Some improvment are worked in 1990, nanced by Var Department: tightness of the critic area, by a cover of clay com pacting; retting of the canal from Issole river. F or this improvment, the lake level is restored; un fortunately a new falling occurs for some years, in rela tion with new dry climatic period. F urthermore, in the decreased lake, the water be come sligtly anoxic. ese conditions cause some envi ronmental problemes in the town of Besse, because the circumference of the water plan is shady recreation area, very important at the time of summer days for the citi zens and tourists of next camping. e decay of the Lago di Pergusa (near E nna, in Cen tral Sicily). at larger lake (1.83 km), without outlet, is locat ed in a wide oval karstic basin, from subsidence origin, in pliocene marls, upper gypsums of the gessoso-solfera formation of Messinian (upper Miocene) (g. 4). Numer ous karstic phenomenons are recognized in this forma tion (FORTI & SAURO, 1996). e owing on the sur roundly sides (catchment area of 6 km), and the ground Fig. 2: Sketch of the lake of Besse, in its geological site. Fig. 3: Partly draining of the L ake of Besse in December 1989, by cleared pipe in the M uschelkalk spur. L akes 1) Photo 6: e lake of Besse-sur-Issole (Central V ar Department) in 2005. V iew towards the M uschelkalk spur. Arrow marks the place of the 1989 sink.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 75 L AKES IN GY PSUM K ARST : SOME E X AMPLES IN A LPINE AND M EDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES water of multilayered aquifer maintain the level. But its surface is reduced by the sedimentation, with silts from the weathering in Pliocene marls, and aquatic vegetation growth; moreover its level tend to subside (Tabl. 2). T ab. 2: Decay of the Lago di Pergusa, from DAMORE, 1983. Dimensions 1896 1977 Perimeter Surface Maximum depth Middle depth Volume 5.5 km 1.83 km 4.6 m 2 m 5.8 x 10 6 m 3 4.3 km 1.35 km 2.4 m 1.8 m 2.6 x 10 6 m 3 Unfortunately, the site has been altered in the sixties at the time of the development programme of M ezzogior no : an autodrom has encircled the lake! e growth of the Pergusa village, with hotels and campings, has increased the water polllution in summer, and the eutrophication Fig. 4: e L ago di Pergusa, in its environment. G eology from the Carta G eologica dItalia, 1/100 000, CALT ANISSE TT A, II Ediz., 1955 with the proliferation of the green algae (Charophyceae). F or to cure to the site deterioration, the Consorzio di Bonica di Borgo Cascino di Enna supply the lake from the regional hydrosystem and the site has been classied as G reen Zone. e E stany de Banyoles (Baolas), the large lake of Catalonia in urban area. e large lake (~2 km) of Banyoles is situated in the NE of Barcelona, at the active tectonic boundary be tween the hills of Garrotxa and the subsiding basin of the Ampurdan (g. 5). e lacustrine complex depression is located in the blue marls over gypsum and limestone formations of the Eocene. e conned artesian aquifer of these limestones, supplied by a large catchment in the north-western hills, concurs to gypsum dissolution. e lake has a double origin: the coalescence of some funnels and subsidence depressions;

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 76 J EAN NICOD the water-level control by a travertine dam, build ed on the Riu Terri outlet. Round the lake, eight ponds (estanyols), of which one from a recent collapse in 1978 near Porqueres, show the enlargement by the solution and subsidence process es. In the lake bottom, several deep funnels (Cap de Bou 130 m) play as artesian springs (g. 6). In funnels, sul phate muds are in suspension (SANZ, 1985). e travertine dam has been builded on the water falls at the outlet of the lake to Riu Terri, with waters of high carbonate-sulphate mineralization and by the ac tion of the incrusting algae (Cyanophyceae) (JULIA BRU Fig. 5: e geomorphological situation of the lake of Banyoles. GUES, 1980). A part of the town of Banyoles is builded on the travertines and several levels of travertine forma tions are extended in the Terri valley, with paleontologi cal and archeological sites; but the oldest and highest ac cumulation is the Pla dUsall in the north. In this plateau, the Platja spring, more 40 m above the lake-level, proves again the power of the artesian hydrosystem. e Estany of Banyoles constitutes an noteworthy ecological site with its ichtyologic fauna (abundance of carps), but also important recreation area for all water sports. Clearly that activity, and the urbanization of the area round the lake are pollutant sources.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 77 e three lakes of Besse, Pergusa, and Banyoles show the most representative examples of environmental hazards and problems. As all phenomenons in gypsum karsts, their evolution depends on the active dissolution, and specic hydrogeological conditions. On account that produces high sensivity to anthropogenic changes, par ticularly with. the extent of urbanization atreas. CONCLUSION L AKES IN GY PSUM K ARST : SOME E X AMPLES IN A LPINE AND M EDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES f A e bottom of the Lake of Banyoles 1 travertine dam, 2 deep funnel (m), 3 suspension muds, 4 H 2 S concentration, 5 H 2 S migration B Funnel working i Fig. 6: e bottom of the L ake of Banyoles (from SANZ,1985).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 78 J EAN NICOD Abella, C. i Amettler 1986: LEstany de Banyoles con a unitat ecologica; Jornades sobre lEstany de Ban yoles (1984), Diputaci de Girona, p. 27-32. Alagz, C.A., 1967: Jips karst Olaylari ... Les phnomnes karstiques du gypse aux environs et lest de Sivas; Ankara Universitesi Pasimevi, 126 p. + cartes h.t. Andreichuk, V. & Klimchouk, A., 2002: Karst breakdown mechanisms from observations in the gypsum caves of the western Ukraine: implications for subsidence hazard assessement; Int. J. Speleol. 31 (1/4) p. 5588. Bulgreanu, V.A.C., 1997: Solution lakes in gypsum evaporites: Lake Invrtita (Nucoara) Romania; In ternat. J. of Salt Karst Research, 6, p. 55-65. DAmore, G., 1983: Il problema della conservazione e della utilizzazione del lago di Pergusa; Atti del Con vegno: La protezione dei laghi e delle zone umide in Italia, Memorie Soc. Geogr. Italiana, XXX VIII**, p. 405-411. El Khalki, Y & Akdim, B., 2001: Les dolines deo n drement et les dolines-lacs des Causses du SW du Moyen Atlas (Maroc); Karstologia 38, p. 19-24. F orti, P. & Sauro, U., 1996: e Gypsum karst in Italy; Gypsum karst of the World, Internat. J. Speleology, Roma, 25 (3-4), p; 339-250. Julia Brugues, R., 1980: La conca lacustre de Banyoles Besalu; Centro dEstudios Comarcals de Banyoles, 188 p. Klimchouk, A., 1996: e typology of gypsum karst; Gypsum karst, Int. J. Speleol, 4, chap. 1-4, p. 4960 Klimchouk, A., 2002: Subsidence Hazards in dierent Types of Karst: Evolutionary and speleogenetic Ap proach.; Int. J. Speleol., 31 (1/4), p. 5-18 Martin, J. 1981: Le Moyen Atlas central, tude gomor phologique. (se Paris VII, 1977); Notes et M moires du Service gol. du Maroc, 288 et 288 bis, 445 p., 110 g., 32 ph. 5 cartes. Nicod, J., 1988: Le Beaufortin oriental; Revue de Gog. Alpine, Grenoble, LXX VI (2), p. 121-146. Nicod, J., 1993; Karsts des gypses, Morphologie, hydrologie, environnement; Karstologia n 21, p. 21-30. Nicod, J., 1999: Phnomnes karstiques et mouvements de terrain rcents dans le Dpt. du Var; Risques na turels (Avignon 1995), CTHS, Paris, p. 115-130. Priesnitz, K., 1969: Der Nixseebecken, ein Polje im Gip skarst des sdwestlichen Harzvorland; Jb. Karst u. Hhlenkunde (Mnchen), H.9, X VI, p. 73-87. Pulido-Bosch, A., 1989: Les gypses triasiques de F uente Camacho: Runion franco-espagnole sur les karsts d Andalousie, p. 65-82. Sanz, M., 1985: Estudi hidrogeologic de la Conca de Banyoles-Garrotxa, Centro dEstudios Comarcals de Banyoles, 250 p. Soriano, M.A., 1991: Characteristics of the alluvial dol i nes developed because of gypsum dissolution materials in the Central Ebro Basin (Spain); Z. Geomorph. N.F ., Suppl. Bd. 85, p. 59-72. RE F ERENCES



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PECULIAR MINEROGENETIC CAVE ENVIRONMENTS O F ME X ICO: THE CUATRO CINEGAS AREA NENAVADNO MINERALOGENO JAMSKO OKOLJE V MEHIKI: PODROJE CUATRO CINEGAS Paolo FORTI 1 Ermanno G ALLI 2 Antonio R OSSI COBISS: 1.01 Abstract UDC 552.54:551.44(72) Paolo Forti & Ermanno Galli & Antonio Rossi: Peculiar minerogenetic cave environments of Mexico: the Cuatro Ci negas area e karst area of Quatro Cinegas (Coahuila, Mexico) repre sents an ideal site to study cave mineralogy, because it hosts caves of dierent age and genesis (karst, thermal, mine caves). Among the speleothems studied is worth to mention a nest of aragonite cave pearls found deep inside the Reforma mine char acterized by the total absence of growing layers inside them. Despite only few studied caves (8), some 32 dierent cave min erals have been detected, one of which is new for the cavern en vironment (kingsmountite) and another one, still under study, which probably will result new for science. Due to the scientic interest of their chemical deposits it should be very important to protect in the future the natural cavities of the karst systems of Cuatro Cinegas in order to preserve a scientic patrimony, actually only partially known. K eywords: cave minerals, guano minerals, minerogenetic mechanisms, climate, Cuatro Cinegas desert, Mexico. Izvleek UDK 552.54:551.44(72) Paolo Forti & Ermanno Galli & Antonio Rossi: Nenavadno mineralogeno jamsko okolje v Mehiki: podroje Cuatro Ci negas Krako ozemlje Quatro Cinegas (Coahuila, Mehika) predstav lja idealno obmoje za preuevanje jamske mineralogije, saj so tam jame razline starosti in razlinega nastanka (krake, ter malne, jamski rudniki). Med preuevanimi kapniki je vredno omeniti gnezdo aragonitnih jamskih biserov globoko v rudniku Reforma, za katere je znailna popolna odsotnost rastnih plasti (letnic). Kljub majhnemu tevilu preuevanih jam (8) je bilo odkritih 32 razlinih jamskih mineralov, eden izmed njih nov za jamsko okolje (kingsmountite), drugi pa, ki je e v preuevanju, bo najbr novo znanstveno odkritje. Zaradi znanstvenega pom ena kemijskih odkladnin bi bilo zelo pomembno naravne jame krakega sistema Quatro Cinegas zaititi, da bi s tem ohranili znanstveno dediino, za zdaj ele deloma poznano. K ljune besede: jamski minerali, minerali guana, mineralogeni mehanizmi, podnebje, puava Quatro Cinegas, Mehika. INTRODUCTION e natural caves are the seats of complex minerogenetic processes controlled by peculiar conditions existing in every single cave (Hill & F orti, 1997): hosting rock, cave sediments and circulating uids are the most important factors controlling the development of the chemical de posits in caves. F orti (1996) stated that the hyperkarstic evolution occurs according to two chemical and physi cal contemporary processes: the corrosion/dissolution of pre-existing rocks and the deposition of speleothems with an extremely variable chemical composition. 1 Istituto Italiano di Speleologia, Universit di Bologna & La Venta Exploring Team, forti@geomin.unibo.it 2 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universit di Modena e Reggio Emilia Received / Prejeto: 29.11.2005 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79, L JUBLJANA 2006

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 80 Recent researches, performed on internal cave de posits of European and extra-European locations, have brought to the identication of particular and extremely rare mineral phases, whose crystalline nature and chemi cal composition are strictly related to geological, clima tological, lithological and hydrogeological continuously changing parametres (F rau et al., 1998; Lattanzi et al ., 1998). Some very dierent minerogenetical mechanisms may induce the deposition of crystalline and/or amor phous phases, that are stable as long as the environmental conditions remain constant. ese products can easily change or slightly modify if the genetical conditions change (Benedetto et al ., 1998; F orti et al ., 1999, 2000, 2001). In this framework the thermal caves, which have been characterised at least once during their evolution by the presence of uids with complex chemistry, are extremely interesting, permitting the evolution of polygenetic complex chemical deposits, mostly, although not always, correlated to the Sulphur cycle (F orti, 1989; F rau & Sabelli 2000). Another peculiar class of natural cavities is repre sented by the mine caves, cavities without any natural entrance, which have been intersected by mine galleries or other articial tunnels: their minerogenetic interest comes from the possible interaction between karst uids and ore bodies (F orti 2005, De Waele & Naseddu 2005). e karst area of Quatro Cinegas (Coahuila, Mexi co) represents an ideal site to study cave mineralogy, be cause it hosts caves of dierent age and genesis (karst, thermal, mine caves) and therefore the chemical deposits developed inside them should result quite dierent from cave to cave, allowing the detection of many simultane ous and/or subsequent minerogenetic mechanisms. In the present paper the observed speleothems are de scribed and the related minerogenetic mechanisms are discussed in detail. P AOLO FORTI E RMANNO G ALLI A NTONIO R OSSI T HE K ARST O F C UATRO C INEGAS Cuatro Cinegas plain is a Natural Protected Area since 1994; it is located in the state of Coahuila, Mexico, in the Sierra Madre Oriental at the eastern edge of the Chihua hua desert (F ig. 1). is desert is characterized by a single period of rain, which normally consists of short but strong rain storms in the summer period: they are caused by the moist air coming from the cyclones developing in the Mexican Gulf. e rainiest period is September, with an average of 35 mm; anyway some years, particularly strong events may cause the fall of over 5 mm in a few hours, thus trans forming the depressions in swallow ephemeral lakes. Fig. 1: L ocation map and a general view of the Cuatro Cinegas desert.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 81 most of the pool recharge comes from karst structures; during this research over 60 caves were explored and mapped (F orti et al., 2003). e karst of Cuatro Cinegas underwent a complex evolution over a very long span of time, which may be evaluated of several tens of millions years. Actually most of the karst systems show a rather inactive evolution, even if corrosion and/or depositional processes are still going on somewhere. e speleogenetic mechanisms were very dier ent among each other and therefore produced peculiar forms, which now allow reconstruction at least the mean steps of the complex evolution the caves of Quatro Ci negas underwent. is evolution may be subdivided into four princi pal types (F orti et al 2003), which may be also regarded as subsequent stages being rather in chronological order even if some overlap occurred: 1. e genesis of mine caves (hyperkarst phenomenon) 2. e genesis of thermal caves (hyperkarst phenom enon) 3. e genesis of meteoric caves (karst phenomenon) 4. e development of biogenic forms inside previously formed caves (hyperkarst phenomenon) e rst two mechanisms are related to the upliing of deep hot uids, the third to the seepage of meteoric (rain) waters, the forth to the presence of huge bat com munities, which colonized mainly the caves of the third type. e study on the speleothems of the Cuatro Cine gas caves, started in 2001, and it is far to be completed, Long rectilinear anticline ridges characterize the landscape of Cuatro Cinegas whereas major valleys cor respond to synclines. e most inclined slopes of ma jor structures, mostly facing SW, oen display vertical or overburden beds. Along them, deep transversal and longitudinal valleys form a typical trellis drainage pat tern. In the pedemontane areas, several coalescent uvial fans form a wide regular surface gently inclined, where streams display a disrupted and irregular pattern. Runo is quite absent in these areas. e plains behave as endo reic basins where major storms form shallow lakes and ponds, the evaporation of which causes the formation of sulphates deposits. Eolian gypsum dunes occur in these areas. Some of the major caves in the area of Cuatro Ci negas are hypogenic in origin, created by rising thermal water. e best example is the Cueva Rancho Guadalupe, in the NE of Sierra la F ragua. is cave has a typical den dritic pattern and consists of maze conduits and spheri cal rooms (Bernabei et al ., 2002). ough it receives little rain, the Cuatro Cinegas valley has abundant subterranean water, which creates hundreds of small pools, marshes, rivers, lakes (large, saline lakes locally called lagunas or playas ), and canals with a unique biota of great interest to the international scientic community and at risk of extinction (F ig. 2). A peculiar characteristics of the pools is the presence of living stromatolithes, which act as local primary agents of the food chain. Despite the relevant ecological interest of the aquatic environment of Cuatro Cinegas only in 2000 La Ven ta Exploring Team started a hydrogeological study of the pools and of high surrounding mountains proving that Fig. 2: Aerial view of the pools of the Cuatro Cinegas desert. PECULIAR MINEROGENETIC CAVE ENVIRONMENTS O F ME X ICO: THE CUATRO CINEGAS AREA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 82 EX PERIMENTAL METHODS A detailed analysis of all the samples by the stereoscopic microscope was performed to distinguish and to separate the dierent mineralogical phases present in each sam ple. en the single phases were analysed by a powder diractometre (Philips PW 1050/25), when the material was quantitatively enough and homogeneous, or by a Gandol camera (: 114.6 mm, exposition: 24/48 hrs), when the material was scarce or inhomogeneous. Always the experimental conditions were: 40Kv e 20 mA tube, CuKn Ni ltered radiation ( = 1.5418 ). e analyses of the clay minerals were done not only over the natural samples but also aer a glycerine treatment. Almost all the samples analyzed by Gandol cam era were later used to obtain images and chemical quali tative analyses through an electron scanning microscope (SEM Philips XL40) with an electronic microprobe (EDS-EDAX 9900) at the C.I.G.S. (Centro Interdiparti mentale Grandi Strumenti) of the Modena and Reggio Emilia University. THE MINE CAVES AND THEIR MINEROGENETIC MECHANISMS e speleological interest of the mining areas around Cuatro Cinegas is represented by the existence of mine caves (De Waele & Naseddu 2005, De Waele et al ., 1999, 2001; F orti et al ., 1999), karst cavities without any natural connection with the surface, which has been intersected by the mine galleries. e oldest actually known karst (paleokarst) phe nomena of the Cuatro Cinegas area (F orti et al ., 2003) are those connected with the formation of the metallic sulphides ore bodies, mainly consisting of lead, zinc and, in a lesser extent, of silver, extensively mined in the past (De Vivo & F orti 2002). e area of Cuatro Cinegas was one of the very rst Mexican regions in which mining activities started since the rst half of the 14 th century. ese activities lasted until 1958, when the most important mine (the Reforma mine) was denitively closed because the reached depth, far below the water table, made the production costs higher than the exploitation prots. e ore bodies consist of sulphides with some su pergenic minerals, most of which carbonates, dispersed within a carbonate breccia or lling karst cavities (Vargas et al ., 1993). e uids owing inside the carbonate rocks dev e loped caves along the bedding planes and the ma jor discontinuities, mainly where the rock was highly fractured and therefore more permeable. ese uids simultaneously, or just aer the development of the caves, lled them with lead and zinc sulphides as in the case of the Reforma Mine. Due to the progressive cool ing down and loosing pressure of the thermal uids, at the end of the mineral deposition, euhedral (middle thermality) quartz and nally low thermality calcite was formed. but on the basis of the achieved results it is evident that this karst region can be considered as one of the most interesting in the world from the point of view of the hosted cave minerals. is uncommon richness of mineralogical phases, most of which phosphates, is the direct consequence of the complex karst evolution this area underwent. More over, some of the normal karst caves became in the past (since several years ago) shelter for huge colonies of bats, thus allowing the accumulation of widespread guano de posits up to several metres thick: inside which microbio logical reactions gave rise to an extraordinary variety of minerals. F inally the karst springs are fed by mineralized wa ters upliing from rather deep circuits and the peculiar climatic conditions of the desert of Cuatro Cinegas inducing strong evaporations creating a sabkha type environment thus allowing the deposition of even very soluble minerals. e scarcity of available time for the cave explo ration and for mineral sampling obliged to restrict the min eralogical study to a rather small number of natural cavities. Anyway they have been selected to represent all the dierent environmental and minerogenetic condi tions existing in Cuatro Cinegas. Among the analyzed caves there are mine caves (Re forma Mine), thermal caves (Cueva Rancho Guadalupe), karst cavities with bat colonies (Cueva Rossillo) and Cue va de los Murcielagos. P AOLO FORTI E RMANNO G ALLI A NTONIO R OSSI

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 83 PECULIAR MINEROGENETIC CAVE ENVIRONMENTS O F ME X ICO: THE CUATRO CINEGAS AREA In the rst hypothesis (MVTOD) the caves lled by ore bodies should testify an old karst stage, partially connected to the seepage of meteoric waters, in a Creta ceous carbonate platform environment; in the second hy pothesis the caves developed due to the upliing of high temperature and pressure uids, formed by the strong volcanic activity, which took place in the Upper Miocene (about 10-15 Myr BP). is type of caves are practically never directly ac cessible and, even when intersected by mine galleries, they are hardly recognizable if completely deprived of the hosted ore bodies. eir dimensions normally are of a few metres, but sometimes they are larger than ten metres. ey exhibit an irregular shape without structural control; oen they are rounded cavities elongated perpendicularly with re spect to bedding. Good examples of such caves are visible inside the still accessible galleries of the Reforma Mine. ese cavities are relatively rare worldwide and extremely important from the minerogenetic point of view: for ex ample in Italy the mine caves of the Iglesiente (Sardinia) are the most known (De Waele et al. 1999, 2001). Peculiar low-enthalpy reaction normally takes place inside such cavities, thus allowing the evolution of interesting and oen rare speleothems and cave minerals. In the area of Cuatro Cinegas the mine caves are surely widespread even if they are actually very scarcely known. is study took into consideration only a few cavi ties intersected by the main galleries inside the Refor ma Mine: among them only the Cueva de los Cristales ( F ig. 3) has a dimension of some tens of metres. Fig. 3: e 30 metres high pit giving access to the Cueva de los Cristales inside the Reforma mine. C UEVA DE LOS C RISTALES It is a large cavity over 70 metres high and 100 long, de veloped along the big fault which controlled the depo sition of the Pb/Zn sulphide ore bodies. Eight samples were taken from the wall of this cave where the primary minerals have been transformed to give rise to alteration compounds (F ig. 4). e 6 detected minerals were: Calcite: vitreous transparent euhedral rombohedral crystals up to 1 cm in size developed over iron hydrox ides or as milky white to pale pink crusts; Chlorite: it is an Mg, F llosilicate; it consists of grains of dierent size with the same characteristics of the antigorite to which is always strictly associated; G oethite: it is present as earthy from yellow to pale brown grains of dierent size; G ypsum: it is present as thin dark grey layers cover ing the walls of small holes within the calcite crystals; H ematite: it gave rise to a) small earthy reddish spe leothems over sub-spherical hemi-transparent calcite grains or b) hard grains the powder of which has the typi cal bloody red colour.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 84 P AOLO FORTI E RMANNO G ALLI A NTONIO R OSSI L EVEL 12 A few more samples were collected in small karst cavi ties the Level 12 gallery of the same mine, from 300 to 600 m from the entrance and at the end of this gallery. ey consist of heterogeneous materials characterized by the presence of dierent mineral phases. e 6 detected minerals were: Calcite: orange-yellow globular masses; G oethite: it is present as earthy from yellow to pale brown grains of dierent size; G ypsum: it is present as small lens-shaped aggre gates of vitreous pale to dark grey crystals; H ematite: it is strictly related to calcite and goe thite; Illite : this K llosilicate is the major constituent of a clay and it consists of very small pale green-grey spheres over a black lithoid substratum; Quartz: small euhedral transparent crystals. e total number of the cave minerals found inside these mine caves (8) is by far lower than expected: in fact no lead or zinc compounds have been observed, while it is sure that such kind of minerals should be anyway present inside the karst cavities developed within the ore bodies. In fact in a previous paper (Vargas et al ., 1993) ce russite, anglesite, smithsonite, hemimorphite, hydrozincite, hematite and limonite are reported as common supergene minerals of this mine. All of them have been well documented in the mine caves of Iglesiente (Hill & F orti, 1997), which are characterized by ore bodies and structural-lithological conditions very similar to those of Cuatro Cinegas. erefore it is logical to suppose that these minerals developed also inside the natural cavities of this mine. But the principal ore body is actually completely ooded and therefore it is impossible to be reached; this fact is probably the main reason why these minerals have not been observed during the present study which has been focused only over the few mine caves existing in the upper part of the mine. T HE ARAGONITE CAVE PEARLS One of the most important ndings from the scientic point of view is a nest of aragonite cave pearls in which the internal growing layers were completely lacking (F orti, 2004). Fig. 4: Cueva de los Cristales: transparent calcite crystals with hematite (A), illite (B) and goethite (C) within a broken speleothem.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 85 PECULIAR MINEROGENETIC CAVE ENVIRONMENTS O F ME X ICO: THE CUATRO CINEGAS AREA Along the tunnel at the foot of the 170 m pit of the Reforma mine, several cave pearls nests were found lined with ultra-white pearls ranging from 1 mm to 2 cm in diameter (F ig. 5 le). is tunnel was used by miners until just 50 years ago which would suggest that these speleothems only be gan to grow once the mine was abandoned, thus dating these formations at just half a century. e largest pearls have a diameter of about 14 mm and the average size of their nuclei is 3 mm, therefore the average growth of those spleothems has been approxi mately 0.1 mm/year. Such a growth rate is considered average-average/fast for a carbonate speleothem in general and for a cave pearl in particular (Hill & F orti 1997). Some of the pearls were found to have a cauliowershaped morphology, as a consequence of the coalescence of several single smaller pearls. is allows to state that the water supply to the nest should have been variable with periods of fast dripping followed by slow dripping or even completely dry periods, during which the origi nally insulated pearls cemented together. In fact cemen tation of dierent pearls may occur only if any kind of vibrations (induced by dripping) is completely avoided (F orti, 1983). Anyway, since composite pearls are quite rare, this would suggest that completely dry periods were far less frequent than the wet ones. A mineral analysis by X-rays powder diractions of the pearls has shown that the pearls consist of pure aragonite, the deposition of which is favoured when ions such as magnesium, lead and zinc, etc. are present in the feeding water (lead and zinc were originally extracted in the mine). e cave pearls found in the Reforma Mine are ex tremely interesting because they completely lack growing layers (F ig 5, right), which would be of 0,1 mm/year if annual (Backer et al ., 1993). However, the Cuatro Ci negas climate (dry/hot) would eventually have caused the development of many layers/year. In fact in such a climatic conditions, the relative long periods in between two subsequent rains surely avoid permanent dripping of inltration water over the pearls nest, thus the development of the external layer would result stopped. If so, each rainfall or each series of close rainfalls would cause the development of one specic layer (Piancastelli & F or ti, 1997). erefore the absence of concentric structure in the pearls of the Reforma mine is the result of very peculiar climatic conditions: Pearls must have a rather constant water supply during its growing. e chemical composition of the water supply must re main unchanged (irrespective of seasonal changes). ese seemingly simple conditions are in practice extremely dicult to be tted in nature, which would ex plain why speleothems with no internal layers have been observed for the rst time in the world here. e Cuatro Cinegas climate could hold the key to the evolution of these speleothems. Its aridity prevents most vegetal growth and soil covering, which in any case get quickly swept away by the regular strong winds. erefore the inltration water undergoes little or even none of the usual soil processes. But this is not enough to explain the presence of the cave pearls in the Reforma Mine. e low rainfalls, high evaporation-transpiration, poor permeability around the mine could never guarantee a low but constant wa ter supply in the tunnels. erefore the water dripping into the pearl nests only occasionally may partially result from the rare rainfalls. e constant presence of water in the depths of the mine is due to the daily temperature extremes typical of the Cuatro Cinegas semi-arid climate and to the many man-made, interlinking tunnels on many dierent lev els within the mountain, which in turn has a very stable temperature. ese conditions allow for condensation, which would account for the constant presence of a few but continuously dripping water deep within the moun tain. Fig. 5: e pearls nest of the Reforma mine (le) and a polished section of a cave pearl lacking of growing layers (right).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 86 P AOLO FORTI E RMANNO G ALLI A NTONIO R OSSI T HE THERMAL CAVES AND THEIR MINEROGENETIC MECHANISMS Some of the most interesting cavities of the Cuatro Cinegas belong to this group; their genesis is linked to the upliing of deep hot and chemically aggressive waters, which easily dissolve the rock during their slow movement toward the topographic surface. ese waters were depleted of the heavy metals and of the other low solubility salts but represented the nal stage of the processes, which gave rise to the mine caves. e thermal caves, as well as the mine ones, are commonly called hypogenic, because they are generated by uids coming from the depth (F orti, 1996). ey nor mally lack of a natural entrance on the surface and when it is present, oen it is the result of the demolition of the hosting outcrops by meteoric degradation. e pure thermal caves are those whose develop ment is exclusively controlled by the eect of thermal water upliing, they are normally referred to as mono genic: this kind of cavity is rare enough in the world and they have been described in details rather exclusively in the area of Budapest (Muller & Sarvary, 1977). A monogenic cave is characterized by the presence of a reservoir of the thermal water (the equivalent of the magmatic chamber for a volcano), which consists of a huge basal chamber; several splitting and/or anas tomized spherical cavities develop from the roof of such a chamber giving rise to a peculiar branched tree struc ture. e thermal caves of Cuatro Cinegas belong to this category; therefore their importance exceeds the local interest (F ig. 6). e Rancho Guadalupe cave, which is located just at the foot of the Sierra La F ragua, represents the best example of monogenic thermal cave. It is a classical 3D maze cave with a net of con duits interconnecting large chambers all characterized by typical thermal corrosion forms. Due to the pres ence of some strange speleothems observed during the rst visit, nine samples have been taken for an accurate mineralogical study, during the rst exploration of this cave. Later, due to the peculiarity evidenced by the one sampled on top of an organic deposit rich in vegetal bres up to 1 cm long, bird droppings and other animals excreta 4 more samples have been selected by the same deposit. e study of the sampled speleothems conrmed the extraordinary importance of the secondary chemical de posits hosted in the Rancho Guadalupe cave (F orti et al ., 2004). Inside this cavity 18 dierent cave minerals have been observed (Tab. 1). Anyway the origin of only a few of them is directly related to the thermal processes which gave rise to the cave itself, others begun to grow aer the thermal uids denitively abandoned the cave and the meteoric waters entered the cave and nally some others were originated by the mineralization of some organic remains which were accumulated inside by small animals (mainly rodents) which use the cave as a shelter (F ig. 7). e detected minerals are: Aragonite: this polymorph of calcite is not common and it forms small milky-white to pale hazel-brown sphe roidal grains; Calcite: very common it is present as: a) radial aggre gates of elongated (30x5 mm) vitreous, semitransparent, is condensation also explains the lack of any cy clicity in the depositional mechanism and, therefore, the absence of any (annual) growing layers. In fact the car bon dioxide content in condensation water is maintained stable due to CO 2 rather constant partial pressure within the mine over the year and the scarcity of meteoric wa ter. F or these reasons the pearls found in the Reforma Mine has more far-reaching consequences. ey have provided a method, based on the growth layers within a speleothem, for evaluating both qualitatively, as well as maybe quantitatively, the predominance of condensation over climatic-controlled water inltration. Fig. 7: Cueva Rancho G uadalupe: a general view of a rodent shelter in a side passage close to the entrance of the cave where, beside whewellite, ardealite and sepiolite, a new still undened mineralogical phase has been found.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 87 prismatic crystals which are oen part of speleothems (owstones); b) pale pink to brick-red hard material; or c) saccaroidal to powdery incoherent material; Carnotite: this very rare uranil vanadate is present as small aggregates of canary-yellow small tabular crystals (SEM images in F ig. 8a,b); Chlorapatite: it forms hard dark hazel-brown mi crocrystalline aggregates. e presence of Cl was con rmed by EDAX analyses; Dolomite: it is present as aggregates of opaque, milky grains associated with sepiolite within the thick cave ras deposit covering the whole oor of the thermal basal chamber; Fluorite: it has been identied in a single sample: it consists of earthy and/or saccaroidal milky white grains within a speleothem (owstone) on the wall of a small side bell shaped cavity; G ypsum: it is present as: a) vitreous, milky crystals within a crust over a corrosion pocket of the wall; b) ag gregates of small vitreous semitransparent dark-grey prismatic crystals; H ydromagnesite: it gives rise very small spheroidal silky shining white aggregates of microcrystals. It is nor mally associated with monohydrocalcite (SEM image in F ig. 8c); M onohydrocalcite: it normally consists of a earthy dust consisting of cream-white to pale hazel-brown mi cro spheres; sometimes it gives rise thin crusts and aggre gates of small and fragile silky-lustre bladed crystals over the vegetable bres (SEM images in F ig. 8d); Niter: it presents: a) oen as small eoresces of aggregates of thin transparent silky tabular crystals, of ten with a radial structure to simulate an open book; Fig. 6: Sketch for the evolution of the Rancho G uadalupe cave. A: due to the thickness and the low fracturation degree of the limestone, the upliing of the thermal waters induces the development of a huge hydrothermal chamber in which they accumulates. B: e convective motions develop the upward evolution of a dendritic series of cohalescent subspherical voids. C: when part of the cave becomes partially unsaturated, the diusion of CO 2 in the cave atmosphere allows for the development of some epiphreatic speleothems (cave cloud in black in the sketch) and the sedimentation over the cave oor of cave ras, developed at the water-atmosphere interface; at the same time the meteoric seeping water starts the normal karst process in the unsaturated zone. D: the progressive erosion of the surface connects the cave to the exterior; the cave is then abandoned by the thermal waters. All the thermal forms and/or deposits are therefore fossilised, and meteoric seeping waters develop gravitational speleolothems (stalactites, stalagmites, owstones). PECULIAR MINEROGENETIC CAVE ENVIRONMENTS O F ME X ICO: THE CUATRO CINEGAS AREA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 88 Tab. 1: Minerals identied in the karst systems of Cuatro Cinegas: G Cueva Rancho Guadalupe; L Leona; M Cueva de San Vicente (or de los Murcilagos); P Cueva de Las Pinturas; R Cueva Rosillo; Re Reforma Mine; T Tanche Nuevo; V Vibora K arst Mineral Chemical formula System Figure no. References H ALIDES G Fluorite CaF 2 Cubic Anthony et al. (1997), vol. III, 205 G Sylvite KCl Cubic 9a Anthony et al. (1997), vol. III, 545 OXIDES R Asbolane 0.5[(Ni,Co)(OH) 2 ][MnO 2 nH 2 O] Hexagonal Anthony et al. (1997), vol. III, 26 R, Re Goethite n-F eOOH Orthorhombic Anthony et al. (1997), vol. III, 223 Re Hematite F e 2 O 3 Trigonal Anthony et al. (1997), vol. III, 239 R Lepidocrocite -F eOOH Orthorhombic 9f Anthony et al. (1997), vol. III, 312 G Opal-CT SiO 2 nH 2 O 8e Smith (1998) G, M, R, Re Quartz SiO 2 Trigonal Anthony et al. (1995), vol. II, 672 CARBONA TES AND NITRA TES G, Re Aragonite Ca[CO3] Orthorhombic Anthony et al. (2003), vol. V, 31 G,L,R,Re,T,V Calcite Ca[CO 3 ] Trigonal Anthony et al. (2003), vol. V, 101 G, Re Dolomite CaMg[CO 3 ] 2 Trigonal Anthony et al. (2003), vol. V, 191 G Hydromagnesite Mg 5 [(OH) 2 |CO 3 ) 4 ] 4H 2 O Monoclinic 8c Anthony et al. (2003), vol. V, 310 G Monohydrocalcite Ca[CO 3 ] H2O Hexagonal 8d Anthony et al. (2003), vol. V, 465 G Niter K[NO 3 ] Orthorhombic Anthony et al. (2003), vol. V, 497 SULFA TES G, L, R, Re, T Gypsum Ca[SO 4 ] 2H 2 O Monoclinic Anthony et al. (2003), vol. V, 271 P H OSP H A TES AND V ANADA TES M, P, R Apatite group Ca 5 [(F ,OH,Cl,O)|(PO 4 ,CO 3 ) 3 ] Hexagonal 15d,e Pau & Fleet (2002) R Ardealite Ca 2 H[SO 4 | PO 4 ]H 2 O Monoclinic 12c Anthony et al. (2000), vol. IV, 23 L, R, T Brushite CaH[PO 4 ] 2H 2 O Monoclinic 9c,d Anthony et al. (2000), vol. IV, 83 G Carnotite K 2 [UO 2 |VO 4 ] 2 3H 2 O Monoclinic 8a,b Anthony et al. (2000), vol. IV, 96 G Chlorapatite Ca 5 [Cl|(PO 4 ) 3 ] Hexagonal Anthony et al. (2000), vol. IV, 111 R Crandallite CaAl 3 [(OH) 6 |PO 3 OH|PO 4 ] Trigonal Anthony et al. (2000), vol. IV, 130 R Kingsmountite Ca4F eAl4[(OH)2|(PO4)3]2. 12H2O Monoclinic 15a,b Anthony et al. (2000), vol. IV, 282 R Montgomeryite Ca4MgAl4[(OH)2|(PO4)3]2. 12H2O Monoclinic Anthony et al. (2000), vol. IV, 387 R Taranakite K3Al5[(PO3OH6)3|(PO4)2] 18H2O Trigonal 15c Anthony et al. (2000), vol. IV, 581 M, R Variscite Al[PO4]. 2H2O Orthorhombic Anthony et al. (2000), vol. IV, 621 M, P, R Whitlockite Ca 9 (Mg,F e)[PO 3 OH|(PO 4 )6] Trigonal 15d,e,f Anthony et al. (2000), vol. IV, 653 SILICA TES Re Illite (K,H 3 O)Al 2 [(H 2 O,OH) 2 |(Si,Al) 4 O 10 ] Monoclinic Brigatti & Guggenheim (2002) G Sepiolite Mg 8 [(OH) 2 |Si 6 O 15 ] 12H 2 O Orthorhombic 8e,f Anthony et al. (1995), vol. II, 722 OR GANIC CO MPOUNDS R Bitumen nC x H y R Guanine C 5 H 3 (NH 2 )N 4 O Monoclinic 9e Anthony et al. (2003), vol. V, 265 G Whewellite CaC 2 O 4 .H 2 O Monoclinic 9b Anthony et al. (2003), vol. V, 755 NEW MINERAL( ?) G Unknown Mg hydrated carbonate (?) *Classication and chemical formulae aer Strunz & Nickel, 2001. P AOLO FORTI E RMANNO G ALLI A NTONIO R OSSI

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 89 e d b c a f Fig. 8: SEM images of minerals from Cueva Rancho G uadalupe: a) inclusion of platy crystals of carnotite in tabular gypsum; b) magnication of a); c) aggregate of tabular crystal of hydromagnesite; d) fan like aggregate of platy crystals of monohydrocalcite; e) microspheres di opale-CT with brous sepiolite; f) brous sepiolite. PECULIAR MINEROGENETIC CAVE ENVIRONMENTS O F ME X ICO: THE CUATRO CINEGAS AREA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 90 c f a e d b Fig. 9: SEM images of cave minerals from Cueva Rancho G uadalupe (a, b) and Cueva Rossillo (c, d, e, f): a) net of irregular bres of sylvite; b) spheroidal aggregate of prismatic crystal of whewellite; c) aggregate of triangular plate crystals of brushite; d) close view of brushite crystals; e) aggregate of microspheres of guanine; f) star-like aggregates of lepidocrocite crystals. P AOLO FORTI E RMANNO G ALLI A NTONIO R OSSI

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 91 PECULIAR MINEROGENETIC CAVE ENVIRONMENTS O F ME X ICO: THE CUATRO CINEGAS AREA T HE KARST CAVES AND THEIR MINEROGENETIC MECHANISMS e most widespread karst phenomena are surely those connected with the seepage of meteoric water. e karst forms induced by the diuse and/or con centrated seepage are quite absent: in fact, even if the na ture of the rock is carbonate and the fracturation degree is high, deep karst phenomena are normally scarcely de veloped and concentrated in very restricted areas. Most of the known cavities are sub-horizontal: they started as small interbedded conduits, which later have been w idened by physical degradation starting from the en trance. Oen they host plenty of speleothems even of huge dimension. Sometimes the caves are fragment of old huge drain age tubes. Many of the cavities in the Sierra San Vincente and in the Caon el Pedregoso are relict of old phreatic galleries developed in a period in which the rainfalls were by far higher than actually. Often the karst caves do not host speleothems and/or cave minerals of interest: usually only cal cite speleothems (stalactites, stalagmites, flowstones, etc) are present, often with evident corrosion fea tures induced by condensation processes. Among the cave minerals the crust and crystal aggregates of gyp sum are fairly common: most of them are related to the dissolution of the discontinuous layers of this mineral present within the carbonate sequence, but some are generated by the oxidation of the sulphides associated to the ore bodies. Normally the karst caves have scarce minerogenetic importance, but those, which have been and/or still are shelter for huge colonies of bats may exhibit a wide vari ety of secondary cave deposits. In fact actually the most active minerogenetic processes are related to the presence of guano deposits. Several thousand of years ago millions of bats colonized some caves, mostly of meteoric origin, aer the active water ow stopped inside, thus allowing the development of widespread deposits of an incredible amount of guano (F ig. 10). e oxidation and mineralization processes of guano are strongly exothermic and release high quantity of H 2 O and CO 2 thus inducing strong convective move ments within the cave atmosphere, and producing a dis crete amount of strong acids: mainly nitric (HNO 3 ), sul phuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and phosphoric (H 3 PO 4 ). ese processes may have strong morphologic con sequences (F ig. 11), causing the development of peculiar condensation-corrosion forms like megascallops on the protruding walls and huge spherical domes in the ceib) sometimes as transparent crusts over the organic material; Opal-CT : detected as incoherent milky white so material like sawdust (SEM images in F ig. 8e); Quartz: identied only by x-ray diraction analyses within a thin gypsum-calcite speleothem; Sepiolite: it gives rise to small hard milky white ag gregates associated with dolomite within the cave ras deposit covering the whole oor of the thermal basal chamber (SEM images in F ig. 8e,f); Sylvite: observed as tus of vitreous, transparent bended laments inside small pockets in the cave walls (SEM images in F ig. 9a); Whewellite: this calcium oxalate monohydrate is present as small spherical aggregates of euhedral greasy, semitransparent prismatic crystals grown inside the cop rolites (SEM images in F ig. 9b). Anyway the uncommon richness and variety of the hosted cave minerals is not the principal reason of interest of this cave: in fact its importance from the mineralogical point of view depends on a mineral deposit, which has never been observed before in nature and which seems to be completely new for science. It is a highly crystalline magnesium compound, probably a hydrated carbonate, which is presently under examination to dene univo cally its structure and chemical formula. It occurs as ex tremely small (a few microns in diameter) milky white so earthy spheroidal aggregates of tabular crystals in side organic materials (mainly vegetable bres). Fig. 10: Cueva Rossillo: one of the widespread large guano deposits.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 92 lings or allowing for the evolution of corrosion furrows and/or holes in the cave oor. e condensation water reacts with the carbonate rock, the other minerals eventually dispersed inside, the clay and sand deposits giving rise to many second ary minerals, among which the phosphates are the most widespread and may develop even as huge speleothems (F ig. 12). C UEVA R OSILLO It is a classical karst cave which has been deeply modi fied by the presence of an extremely large bat colony over a long time interval. The cave consists of a single huge gallery (average size 10 x 10 metres) some 1 km long. Its origin is related to important karst drainage below the groundwater level in a period in which the climate must be by far more humid than actually. The widespread presence of domes in the ceiling, megascallops in the walls and sponge-works on the floor is the direct consequence of the still occurring strong acid aggression due to the presence of huge fossil and/or actual guano deposits. The main cave gallery present on the floor a 5-7 m deep canyon developed when the lowering of the groundwater lever allowed for an epiphreatic to unsaturated evolution. Later P AOLO FORTI E RMANNO G ALLI A NTONIO R OSSI Fig. 12: Cueva Rossillo: a) a thick phosphate owstone developed in the nal part of the cave; b) layers dierent in colour and/or texture are evident in a polished cross section; c) microsphere of pale yellow ardealite in a small void of the speleothem; d) the dierent layers observed with a polarizing microscope with crossed nicols. Fig. 11: Sketch of the morphological and mineralogical eect induced by guano deposits (Forti et al ., 2004).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 93 the canyon was rather completely filled by sediments (mainly guano and its by-products): in the last century these sediments were intensely mined to produce fer tilizers ( F ig. 13). Where the guano leaking seeped along the limestone beds then gave rise to huge speleothems with inside layer of dierent thickness and colours, which oen presented small cavities lled sometimes by pale vitreous crystals or dusty hazel-brown to pale pink grey material. In one case, the seepage of organics leached by gua no in the upper series of the cave developed small black stalactites, the colour of which was due to the presence of bitumen within the dierent growing layers of the spe leothems (F ig. 14). A total of 15 samples have been taken from sedi ments on the cave oor and from speleothems; the ob served minerals are: Apatite group: this generic name was given to hy droxylapatite, carbonate-hydroxylapatite, carbonate-u orapatite and uorapatite because it was rather impos sible to discriminate among these phosphates. ey are the most frequent phases in both the sampled sediments and speleothems. eir morphology resulted extremely variable: a) hard microcrystalline china-ware material, sometime layered with colours ranging from ivory to ha zel brown, from pale brown to dark brown due to the dispersed presence of carbon rich phases; b) plastic light greasy pale pink powder, which sometime gives rise to small spheres, which in turn may be insulated or aggre gated to form thin crusts; c) tus of radial aggregates of thin vitreous colourless to white acicular crystals; d) ir regular grains of hard orange-red material (SEM images in F ig. 15d,e); Ardealite: vary rare, it has been observed only in one sample where it was associated to gypsum within a small sphere of greasy pale lemon-yellow microcrystalline ma terial (SEM image in F ig. 12c); Bitumen: this organic compound is responsible for the pigmentation of the growing layers of a small dark brown calcite stalactite (5 x 2 cm) collected already bro ken close to the cave entrance. e concentration of this compound was high enough to allow a strong H2S smell while crushing the sample; Asbolane: this Ni and Mn hydroxide is rare for the cave environment and in 4C was identied only in a couple of samples. It consists of small black earthy and spongy spheres within an earthy white material; Brushite: common mineral which has been observed in several forms: a) thin crusts of vitreous, semitrans parent milky white to pale greenish tabular crystals; b) aggregates of transparent lance shaped crystals; c) tus of thin elongated fairly bended crystals; d) aggregates of so earthy grains, of small prismatic tabular crystals and of pale hazel-brown larger crystals; e) earthy milky white irregular grains; f) lens shaped aggregates of shin ing crystals within the earthy milky white material (SEM images in F ig. 9c,d); Calcite: it is by far the most common mineral and consequently it is present in very dierent forms: a) in sub-spherical aggregates of radial elongated (30 x 5 mm) semitransparent vitreous prismatic crystals, similar to those observed inside some speleothems in a side cor PECULIAR MINEROGENETIC CAVE ENVIRONMENTS O F ME X ICO: THE CUATRO CINEGAS AREA Fig. 13: One of the many tunnels dug by guano miners in the oor of the main gallery of the Cueva Rossilo. Fig. 14: Cueva Rossillo: polished section (le) of the black stalactite and a thin section (right) of it showing thin bitumen lms adsorbed over calcite layers.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 94 a f d e b c Fig. 15: SEM images of cave minerals from Cueva Rossillo (a, b, c) and Cueva de los M urcielagos (d, e, f): rose-like aggregates of tabular crystals of kingsmountite; b) tabular subparallel crystals of kingsmountite; c) prismatic ditrigonal crystals of taranakite; d) radial aggregates of brous crystals of apatite with rombohedral whitlockite; e) magnication of d) to put in evidence an overgrow of whitlockite; f) aggregate of euhedral rombohedral, sometime twinned, whitlockite crystals. P AOLO FORTI E RMANNO G ALLI A NTONIO R OSSI

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 95 ridor; b) hard pale pink to brick-red microcrystalline material; c) as incoherent ochre-yellow sandy to dusty sediment; Crandallite: extremely rare; it has been observed only in a single sample as thin irregular vitreous crust partially covering a yellow grain; G oethite: it is present as earthy lemon-yellow to ochre-yellow grains; G uanine: this rare organic compound gave rise to small black partially hard grains (SEM image in F ig. 9e); G ypsum: rather common; it is present as: a) aggre gates of brous silky-lustre micro crystals; b) vitreous lustre, transparent slightly grained, tabular prismatic crystal with a pseudo-square base; Kingsmountite: it is always associated with mont gomeryite and whitlockite; it is present as: a) thin small pale pink crusts or spheroidal aggregates of silky lustre, silver shining scaled crystals, which cover the walls of some cavities within the milky white material; b) aggre gates of radial (open book) extremely thin silky blades over the surface of a single milky white grain (SEM images in F ig. 15a,b); L epidocrocite: this polymorph of goethite is fairly rare; it has been observed only in the alteration crust de veloped over an iron art cra (a small vessel or a cup) probably le by guano miners some tens of years ago and now found some 50 cm inside the fresh guano. e alter ation crust consists of a millimetric layer of empty ochreyellow to ruby red micro-spheres; at large magnication prismatic structures seem to be present over their sur face. In this crust lepidocrocite is strictly associated with goethite, apatite and gypsum (SEM image in F ig. 9f); M ontgomeryite: it gave rise to small ( < 2.5 mm) pale yellow partially empty spheres, which consist of silky tabular radial crystals arranged in concentric layers; Quartz: it has been found as cave mineral a single time over a sub-spherical grain of variscite. It consists of a hard thin transparent crust; T aranachite: spherical so aggregates of saccaroidal vitreous milky white micro-crystals (SEM image in F ig. 15c); V ariscite: very rare observed in a single sample where it is the nucleus of a rounded grain with the outer part made by quartz. It consists of lemon yellow micro crystalline material; Whitlockite: semitransparent thin hard crusts with the outer surface smooth or consisting of semi-spheres of colourless or pale yellow to pale brown, vitreous, some times silky shining crystals covering the walls of some small empty voids within a china-ware material (SEM images in F ig. 15d,e,f). C UEVA DE LOS MURCIELAGOS B ATS CAVE is cave has been drastically modied by guano miners, who le inside most of their art cras like wood ladders and leaching structures: for this reason the cave is know also with the name of San Vincente mine. Anyway it is a classical karst cave, partially modied by the hyperkarst reactions connected with guano digestion. Seven samples have been collected in this cave: three consist of fragments of small calcite stalactites, three of which consist of fragments of broken calcite stalactites (soda straw) and/or stalagmites; some pieces of ow stones consisting of honey yellow calcite are also pres ent. Most of these samples are covered by a thin whitish powder. e other four samples are globular yellowish speleothems (up to 15 mm in diameter) the structure of which consists partially of pale yellow brous radial crys tals and of a hard layered material with plenty of small cavities, sometimes covered by a thin semi-transparent calcite layer. Beside calcite, the other observed minerals are: Apatite: the phosphates hydroxylapatite, carbon ate-hydroxylapatite, carbonate-uorapatite and uor apatite are grouped under this generic name, due to the diculty to discriminate among them. ey occur as: 1) small aggregates of brous pale-yellow material; b) vitre ous semi-transparent layers over the brous material; c) crusts consisting of small milky white to cream yellow spheres; Kingsmountite: this Ca, F e, Al phosphate is eas ily recognized even at naked eye; it consist of: a) bladed millimetric bladed crystals with easy cleavage b) small crusts made by perfectly rounded shining yellow grains dispersed inside in an earthy whitish material; Quartz: hard thin transparent crust in association with variscite; V ariscite: semitransparent thin hard crusts with smooth outer surface. A few other karst caves have been sampled during the study (Leona, Las Pinturas, Tanche Nuevo, and Vi bora) but they resulted of scarce mineralogical interest hosting only very common cave minerals (calcite, gyp sum, hydroxilapatite and whitlockite) and therefore they will not be described here. Anyway their hosted chemical deposits are summarized together with those of all the other caves in the Tab. 1. PECULIAR MINEROGENETIC CAVE ENVIRONMENTS O F ME X ICO: THE CUATRO CINEGAS AREA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 96 P AOLO FORTI E RMANNO G ALLI A NTONIO R OSSI FINAL REMARKS e mineralogical study of the secondary chemical de posits developed within the karst systems of Cuatro Cinegas put in evidence the great variety of mineroge netic processes which were and/or are still active in this area: this is the reason why the number of observed cave minerals (Tab. 1) is very high in comparison to that nor mally present in a single karst area. Moreover, the study of some of the caves in the area, even if not exhaustive, conrmed their extraordi nary mineralogical interest: in fact in two natural cavities (Cueva Rossillo and Cueva Rancho Guadalupe) over 15 dierent cave minerals have been found, number which puts them among the most interesting caves of the world as for variety and richness of hosted mineralogical spe cies. Some of the 32 identied minerals (ardealite, as bolan, carnotite, crandallite, monohydrocalcite, mont gomeryite, niter, sepiolite, sylvite, variscite, whitlockite) must be considered rare in the cave environment (Hill & F orti, 1997), while one Al, F e, Ca hydrated phosphate (kingsmountite) has been cited for the st time as cave mineral from Rossillo cave. Previously this mineral was described by Dunn et al (1979) from the Mine F oote, near Kings Mountain town, North Caroline (USA): the kingsmountite of Ros sillo cave has the same morphology of the olotype, occur ring as bladed tiny crystals, usually in radial hemispheri cal aggregates up to 1 mm in diameter. Kingsmountite is isostructural and therefore with an X-ray powder pat tern similar to that of montgomeryite, but it may only be discriminate on the basis of chemical analyses because kingsmountite lacks of signicative amounts of Mg. While phosphate largely prevails in Rossillo cave due to the large amount of guano deposits, oxides and carbonates are the main cave minerals in the Rancho Guadalupe cave. In this cave it is worth of mention the presence of carnotite as small aggregates of bright, green ish-yellow plate crystals < 50 m in length, as inclusion in tabular gypsum (F ig. 8 alb); this occurrence seems to be very similar to that of the Horsethief Cave, Wyoming (USA) (Mosh & Polyak, 1996). In the Rancho Guadalupe cave there are several dif ferent silicate minerals: quartz, sequences of aligned mi cro-spheres (up to 15 m in diameter) of opal-CT (F ig. 8e), and sepiolite (F ig. 8f), the origin of which should be related to diagenetic processes involving opal in an Mgrich environment ( the simultaneous presence of dolo mite supports this hypothesis). Among the organic compounds the guanine of Cue va Rossillo and wewellite of Cueva Rancho Guadalupe are worth of mention. e rst of these compounds (F ig. 9e) gave rise to micro-spheres up to 20 m in size and it is extremely rare for the cavern environment and up to present it was reported only from a few caves where it de rived directly from bat guano mineralization. Whewellite of Rancho Guadalupe forms sub spherical aggregates of prismatic crystals (F ig. 9b): its origin is related to animal excreta (Martini et al ., 1990). F inally the magnesium carbonate from Cueva Ran cho Guadalupe, still under study, is highly probably to become not only a new cave mineral but probably new for science. Beside this ongoing research, the mineralogical studies in the karst systems of Cuatro Cinegas cannot be considered concluded, mostly those related to the mine caves. As already written in the relative paragraph, the cave minerals observed in these caves are far to represent if not the totality at least a signicant portion of those which should have developed in this environment: future research shall be surely addressed toward this topic. Anyway the mine environment has already proved to be of noticeable interest and scientic importance: in fact a completely new kind of cave pearls has been ob served in the Reforma mine. It is thank to these cave pearls to be possible to re alize a new method to dene the relative ratio between condensation and seeping waters feeding a speleothem. Due to the peculiarity and noticeable scientic in terest of the secondary cave minerals of the karst systems of Cuatro Cinegas it should be important that the natu ral cavities of such an area would be protected in the near future, in order to preserve their very high scientic pat rimony, which actually is only partially known. A CKNOWLEDGMENTS e authors thank La Venta Exploring Team: without its eort in preparing, organizing and carrying out the 3 years of explorations in the Cuatro Cinegas area this re search would not be possible. Moreover they are grateful

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 97 PECULIAR MINEROGENETIC CAVE ENVIRONMENTS O F ME X ICO: THE CUATRO CINEGAS AREA to rea de Proteccin de Flora y F auna Cuatro Cinegas, Instituto Coahuilense de Ecologia, Semarnap, Conabio and Pronatura Noreste A.C., for allowing eld research. F inally, the authors are indebted with all the partici pants to Cuatro Cinegas Project for their help in the eld and logistic support and to Drs. Pier Luigi F abbri and Massimo Tonelli of the C.I.G.S. of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia for the precious help given at the electronic microscope. 1 Research granted by PRIN project Studio morfologico e ge netico di speleotemi di particolari ambienti carsici italiani e dellAmerica Centrale leaded by Paolo F orti R E F ERENCES Anthony J.W. & Bideaux R.A. & Bladh K.W. & Nichols M.C., 1995: Handbook of Mineralogy Vol. II (Silica, Silicates). Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, Arizona, 904 pp. Anthony J.W. & Bideaux R.A. & Bladh K.W. & Nichols M.C., 1997: Handbook of Mineralogy Vol. III (Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides). Mineral Data Pub lishing, Tucson, Arizona, 628 pp. Anthony J.W. & Bideaux R.A. & Bladh K.W. & Nichols M.C., 2000: Handbook of Mineralogy Vol. IV (Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates). Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, Arizona, 680 pp. Anthony J.W. & Bideaux R.A. & Bladh K.W. & Nichols M.C., 2003: Handbook of Mineralogy Vol. V (Bo rates, Carbonates, Sulfates). Mineral Data Pub lishing, Tucson, Arizona, 813 pp. Backer A. & Smart P.L. & Edwards R.L. & Richards D.A., 1993: Annual growth bandings in a cave stalagmite. Nature 304, 518-520. Benedetto C. & F orti P. & Galli E. & Rossi A., 1998: Chemical deposits in volcanic caves of Argentina. Int. J. Speleol. 27B (1/4),155-162. Bernabei T. & Giulivo I. & Mecchia M. & Piccini L., 2002: Carsismo e mistero delle acque nel deserto: il progetto Cuatro Cinegas, nello stato messicano di Coahuila. Speleologia 46, 50-65. Brigatti M.F & Guggenheim S., 2002: Mica Cystal Chem istry and the Inuence of Pressure, Temperature, and Solid Solution on Atomistic Models. In Mot tana A., Sassi F .P., omson J.B.Jr., Guggenheim S. (Eds): Micas: Crystal Chemistry & Metamorphic Petrology. Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemis try (Mineralogical Society of America), 46, 1-97. De Vivo A. & F orti P., 2002: Le miniere di Cuatro Cine gas. Speleologia 46, 64. De Waele J. & F orti P. & Naseddu A., 1999: Le grotte di miniera: un patrimonio scientico e risorsa turistica. Preprint Conv. Int. Paesaggio Minerario, Cagliari, vol.1, 17pp. De Waele J. & F orti P. & Perna G., 2001: Hyperkarstic phenomena in the Iglesiente mining district (SWSardinia). In Cidu R. (Ed.): Water-Rock Interaction 2001. A.A.Balkema Publishers, Lisse, 619-622. De Waele J. & Naseddu A. (Eds.), 2005: Le grotte di miniera tra economia mineraria ed economia turis tica, Iglesias 2004. IIS Mem. X VII, s.2, 204 pp F orti P., 1989: e role of sulde-sulfate reactions in spe leogenesis. Proc.10th Int. Congr. Speleol., Buda pest, v.1, 71-73. F orti P., 1996: ermal Karst Systems. Acta carsologica 25, 99-117. F orti P., 2004: Aragonite cave pearls of Reforma Mine. In: Badino G., Bernabei T., De Vivo A., Giulivo I., & Savino G. (Eds): Under the desert: the misterious waters of Cuatro Cinegas. La Venta. Ass. Cult. Esplor. Geogr. & Instit. Coahuilense de Ecologia, Eds. Tintoretto, 236-241. F orti P., 2005: Limportanza scientica delle grotte di miniera. Atti Simposio Le grotte di miniera tra economia mineraria ed economia turistica, Iglesias 2004, IIS Mem. X VII, s.2, p.15-22 F orti P. & Galli E. & Rossi A., 2000: Minerali genetica mente correlati al guano in una grotta naturale dellAlbania. Primo contributo. Grotte dItalia, s. 5, vol. 1, 45-59. F orti P. & Galli E. & Rossi A., 2001: New rare cave minerals from the Perolas-Santana karst system (So Paulo State, Brazil).Int. J. Speleol. 29/B (1/4), 126-150. F orti P. & Galli E. & Rossi A., 2004: Secondary minerals in the caves of Cuatro Cinegas. In: Badino G., Ber nabei T., De Vivo A., Giulivo I., & Savino G. (Eds): Under the desert: the mysterious waters of Cuatro Cinegas. La Venta. Ass. Cult. Esplor. Geogr. & Instit. Coahuilense de Ecologia, Ediz. Tintoretto, 228-235. F orti P. & Giulivo I. & Mecchia M. & Piccini L., 2004: e karst of Cuatro Cinegas. In: Badino G., Bernabei T., De Vivo A., Giulivo I., & Savino G. (Eds): Under the desert: the misterious waters of Cuatro Cine gas. La Venta. Ass. Cult. Esplor. Geogr. & Instit. Coahuilense de Ecologia, Ediz. Tintoretto, 186-200. F orti P. & Giulivo I. & Piccini L. & Tedeschi R., 2003 e karst aquifer feeding the Cuatro Cinegas pools (Coahuila, Mexico): its vulnerability and safeguard. Proc. Aquifer Vulnerability and Risk, Salamanca, Mexico, vol. 2, p.287-299

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 98 P AOLO FORTI E RMANNO G ALLI A NTONIO R OSSI F orti P. & Messina M. & Naseddu A. & Papinuto S. & Sanna F & Sotgia S., 1999: La pi grande concrezi one del mondo scoperta in una Grotta di Miniera del Monte San Giovanni (Iglesias). Preprint Conv. Int. Paesaggio Minerario, Cagliari, vol.1, 12 pp. and Speleologia 41, 61-68. F rau F & Sabelli C., 2000 Soddyte, a mineral new for Ita ly, from Arcu Su Linnarbu, Sardinia. N. Jb Miner Mh. 4, 158-164. F rau F & Rizzo R. & Sabelli C., 1998: Creedite from Sar dinia Italy: the rst European occurrence. -N. Jb. Miner. Mh. 11, 495-504 Genty D. & Quinif Y ., 1996: Annually laminated sequen cies in the internal structure of some Belgium sta lagmites: importance for the paleoclimatology. J. Sed. Res. 66(1), 275-288. Hill C. & F orti P., 1997: Cave minerals of the World. Nat. Speleol. Soc., Inc., 464pp. Lattanzi P. & Zuddas P. & F rau F ., 1998: Ottavite from Montevecchio, Sardinia, Italy. Miner. Mag. 62(3), 367-370. Martini J.E. & Marais J.C. & Irish J., 1990: Kaokoveld karst, Namibia: the 1990 SWAKNO Kaokoveld spe leological expedition. South African Speleol. As soc. Bull., 31, 25-41. Mosch C. & Polyak V., 1996: Canary-yellow cape pre cipitates: late-stage hydrated uranyl vanadate, ura nyl silicate, and iron sulfate cave minerals (abstr.). Natl. Speleol. Soc., Conv. Progr. with Abstr., Salida, CO, USA, Aug. 5, 51. Muller P. & Sarvary I., 1977: Some aspect of develop ments in Hungarian speleology theories during the last 10 years. Karzt z Barlang Special Issue, 5360 Pan Y & Fleet M.E., 2002: Composition of the Apatitegroup Minerals: Substitution Mechanism and Con trolling F actors. In Kohn M.J., Rakovan J., Hughes J.M. (Eds): Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiologi cal, and Materials Importance. Reviews in Miner alogy & Geochemistry (Mineralogical Society of America), 48, 13-49. Piancastelli S. & F orti P., 1997: Le bande di accrescimen to allinterno di concrezioni carbonatiche e il loro rapporto con il clima ed il microclima: nuovo con tributo dalla Grotta dellAcquafredda (Bologna). Sottoterra 104, 26-32. Smith D.K., 1998: Opal, cristobalite, and tridimite: Non crystallinity versus crystallinity, nomenclature of the silica minerals and bibliography. Powder Dif fraction 13, 2-19. Strunz H. & Nickel E.H., 2001: Strunz Mineralogical Tables: Chemical Structural Mineral Classication System. E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhand lung Stuttgart, 870 pp. Vargas, J. C. & Durn Miramontes, H. A. & Snchez Sil va E. & Arias Gutirrez M. A. & Parga Prez, J. J., 1993: Monograa geologico-minera del estado de Coahuila. Secretaria de Energia, Minas e Industria Paraestatal, Subsecretaria de Mines, Mexico, publi cacin M-9e, 154 pp.



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LITHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ROCK RELIE F O F THE LAO HEI GIN SHILIN STONE F OREST LUNAN, SW CHINA LITOLOKE IN MOR F OLOKE ZNAILNOSTI TER SKALNI RELIE F LAO HEI GIN KAMNITEGA GOZDA LUNAN, JZ KITAJSKA Martin KNEZ 1 & Tadej SLABE 1 Izvleek UDK 551.435.8(510) Martin Knez & Tadej Slabe: Litoloke in morfoloke znailnosti ter skalni relief Lao Hei Gin kamnitega gozda (Lunan, JZ Kitajska) Lao Hei Gin kamniti gozd je e eden izmed razn o vrstnih in znamenitih lunanskih kamnitih gozdov, ki so nastali iz podtal nih krapelj. Inicialna morfogeneza kamnitih stebrov je namre zaela potekati vzdol skoraj vodoravnih lezik in veinoma subvertikalnih prelomov in razpok e pod debelimi plastmi na plavin in prsti. Kamniti stebri v gozdu so posamezni ali gruasti. Prevladujoa in najbolj znailna oblika stebrov je gobasta, saj se v njej v navpini smeri odraajo spreminjajoe se litoloke last nosti karbonatnih plasti. K ljune besede: lunanski kamniti gozdovi, litologija, skalni re lief, morfogeneza, JZ Kitajska. 1 Karst Research Institute, ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, SI-6230 Postojna, Slovenia, e-mail: knez@zrc-sazu.si, slabe@zrc-sazu.si Received / Prejeto: 29.06.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 99, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 551.435.8(510) Martin Knez & Tadej Slabe: Lithological and morphological characteristics and rock relief of the Lao Hei Gin shilin-stone forest (Lunan, SW China) e Lao Hei Gin stone forest is yet one more of the diverse and famed Lunan stone forests created from subcutaneous karren. e initial morphogenesis of the stone pillars started along al most horizontal bedding planes and mostly sub-vertical faults and cracks already covered by thick layers of sediments and soil. e forests stone pillars stand individually or in groups. e dominant and most characteristic shape of the pillars is mushroom-like, with alternating lithological characteristics of the carbonate beds expressed in a vertical direction. K ey words: Lunan shilin-stone forests, lithology, rock relief, morphogenesis, SW China. Shilin-stone forests (Knez & Slabe in print) developed from subcutaneous karst karren where thick layers of sediments and soil covered the carbonate rock. ey are composed of stone pillars and stone teeth (Song 1986), formed on various horizontal and mildly inclined rock beds (5), cut by vertical faults and cracks (F ord & Salomon & Williams 1996). e central part of the Lunan stone forest covers over 80 ha, while larger and smaller stone forests spread over 350 km 2 Unique among the stone forests is Lao Hei Gin. e forest is composed of pillars, standing in groups or individually, that can reach up to 20 m in height. Most are lower, however, up to about 10 m. e dominant and most characteristic form of the pillars is a mushroomlike shape. Watercourses run through caves that occur some 20 to 30 m deep below the forests. We have presented our research of the Lunan stone forests in more detail in descriptions and collected notes published in the book South China Karst 1 (Chen et al 1998) and elsewhere (e.g. Knez & Slabe 2001a, 2001b, INTRODUCTION

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 100 2002). In this article we are adding the results of our ex ploration of yet another stone forest, unique in its forma tion. e geological column is divided into 5 lithologically and morphologically diverse sequences: A, B, C, D and E (F igs. 3, 4, 5). Sequence A is built mostly of low-porous and grained late diagenetic dolomite, sequence B is of highly porous late diagenetic grained dolomite, sequence C is of slightly dolomitic limestone, sequence D is of lowporous grained late diagenetic dolomite and sequence E is of compact speckled dolomitic limestone. e total thickness of the researched geological prole (stone pil lar) is 26 m. S EQUENCE A is sequence is 7 m thick. e lower part of the stone pillar is formed from highly re-crystalised dolosparite to dolomicrosparite of a grainstone type. e primary lime stone had been highly diagenetically transformed un der a microscope we can observe subhedral to euhedral dolomite grains, which form a hipidiotopic to idiotopic structure. e dolomite grains are up to one-third of a millimetre in size. In diused light they mostly have a slightly brown hue, whereas individual larger grains are exceptionally clean and almost totally translucent. Autog enous overgrowth is clearly visible in a small percentage of the dolomite crystals. e rock also contains a certain percentage of calcite. Secondary porosity is substantial. S EQUENCE B Sequence B is 8 m thick and does not mineralogically dif fer much from sequence A; on average, however, the rock does contain twice the amount of calcite as the rock from sequence A. e rock in this sequence is a grainstonetype dolosparite to dolomicrosparite. Grainstone-type dolomite (dolomicrosparite to dolosparite) consists of subhedral to euhedral dolomite grains that form a hip idiotopic to idiotopic structure. e essential dierence of the rock from both sequences is that the rock in se quence B shows substantially more secondary porosity than the rock in sequence A. On average, the dolomite LITHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS O F THE STONE F OREST MARTIN KNEZ & TADEJ SLABE Figure 1: L ao H ei G in stone forest. Slika 1: L ao H ei G in kamniti gozd. Figure 2: L ao H ei G in stone forest. T op view. Slika 2: L ao H ei G in kamniti gozd. Pogled z vrha. Figure 3; Cross section of the L ao H ei G in stone forest. Slika 3: Prerez L ao H ei G in kamnitega gozda. e Lao Hei Gin stone forest (F igs. 1, 2, 3) lies 20 km north of Major Stone F orest. Individual stone pillars and larger rock blocks shaped by corrosion and erosion cover only about 2 km 2 Morphologically the stone pillars are similar to those in the Naigu stone forest.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 101 crystals are smaller than the crystals in sequence A in the upper part of the sequence even less than one tenth of a mm and less pure. S EQUENCE C Sequence C is 4 m thick. Here the rock is mostly limestone with no more than 10% dolomite crystals. e boundary between sequences B and C is sharp and immediately Figure 4: Single mushroom-like stone pillars. Slika 4: Posamezni kamniti stebri gobastih oblik. Figure 5: Stone pillar, which shape is dictated by rock. Slika 5: Steber, katerega obliko narekuje kamnina. transforms into biopelintramicrite to biopelmicrosparite in the vertical direction. e fossil remains are generally less preserved; only occasionally did some foraminif eras and thick-shelled gastropods have better undergone the diagenetic processes. Secondary porosity is barely present. S EQUENCE D e thickness of sequence C is 5 m. e upper part of the pillars forms a highly re-crystalised and grained do losparite to dolomicrosparite. e boundary between se quence C and sequence D is oen blurred and dicult to determine visually and macroscopically. e primary limestone was highly diagenetically altered. Under a mi croscope we can observe subhedral to euhedral dolomite grains, which form a hipidiotopic to idiotopic structure of the rock. e dolomite grains in this sequence are also about one-third of a mm in size. In diused light the dol omite grains mostly have a slightly brown hue. S EQUENCE E Sequence E is up to 2 m thick. Massive dolomitic lime stone is characteristic for the upper part, which we found only on some pillars. On the outside it has a coarse and speckled appearance, characteristic of a large part of the Naigu stone forest (Knez & Slabe 2001a). Because of the bulginess on the rock surface, coarseness and subsequent algae overgrowth, the dolomite elds are dark grey. On the rock surface we can see them as dark grey to black spots, which gradate into lighter limestone elds in all directions. In most parts of the sequence, the percentages of the surface, as well as volume, of non-dolomitic lime stone and dolomitic zones are equal. Figure 6: Subcutaneously shaped stone teeth. Slika 6: Podtalno oblikovani kamniti zobje. LITHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ROCK RELIE F O F THE LAO HEI GIN STONE F OREST

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 102 We nd three distinct types of rock forms on the pillars: subcutaneous forms, forms created by rainfall and com bined rock forms. e creation of these rock forms and their uniqueness is dened mainly by the rock itself, es pecially where it is exposed. e subcutaneous forms are less explicitly dened by the rock. S UBCUTANEOUS ROCK F ORMS ese forms are divided into those that were formed be low the deposits and the soil as the result of water owing at the contact of the rock and the soil, and forms created by water percolation through the soil that only partially covers the rock, and the rock forms that formed at the level of the soil or deposits that surround the rock (Slabe 1999). e rst group of subcutaneous rock forms are sub cutaneous channels of various sizes that were formed by continuous water-ow at the contact of the rock and the deposits that covered the rock and lled the ssures in the vertical cracks. e diameter of the larger channels can reach up to several metres (F ig. 6). ey dissect all dierent rock sequences. At the tops of the higher pil lars they were transformed by rainfall, while the B beds decompose too quickly for the channels to remain pre served on them for a longer period. ey are therefore mainly a characteristic of the lower parts of the pillars and stone teeth. Subcutaneous scallops that form on the relatively permeable contact area of the rock and the de posits are preserved mostly in beds A, C and D or on the B beds that had been exposed for only a shorter period. Also the walls of the largest subcutaneous channels could be dissected by them. e more extensive pillar tops and teeth are seg mented by mid-sized and smaller subcutaneous chan nels and subcutaneous cups (Slabe 1999, 259) that were formed under the soil that partially covered the rock, therefore as the result of water percolation through the soil and its ow along the area where it touches the rock. ey have characteristic semi-circular cross sec tions or cross sections in the shape of the upturned let ter omega. ey are wider at the lower part of crosssection, their diameters can reach up to 1 m. ey are usually linked into a branched network. e subcuta neous cups (Slabe 1999, 263) are of various sizes and diameters, from a few centimetres to a metre or more. ey occur on the tops of large pillars and on the bot toms of funnelled notches in the walls below them. e most porous strata are fairly densely perforated by sub cutaneous tubes of diameters ranging between a few centimetres and a metre or two. e pillars in the B beds are generally distinctly un dercut below the ground, which is visible from the over hanging lower parts of the pillars that have developed on these rock strata. C OMBINED ROCK F ORMS ese are the larger channels in the upper parts of the pil lar walls. ey develop as the result of water owing from subcutaneous channels, which appear on the larger pillar tops, or by water dripping from the funnelled notches. Subcutaneous cups occur at the bottom of the latter or else were once present there. ey thus have larger or smaller funnel-shaped outlets at the edges of the tops, which have in most cases been transformed by rainfall. ey are especially noticeable in the beds of the A, C and D groups, or, if the top is in the D beds they reach to the B beds. eir distribution and shapes, relatively narrow and deep, are dened by how crushed the rock is, how THE ROCK RELIE F O F THE STONE F OREST e larger groups of stone pillars consist of several tens of pillars (F igs. 1, 2, 3, 4). Between them are corroded ssures or narrow passages. e smaller groups of pillars, composed of ten or fewer pillars, are most oen cut only by cracks and corroded ssures. Over a relatively large area of the stone forest we nd only individual pillars and stone teeth. Individual pillars are relatively large, broad and high, or else they are low and wide. e bedding is reected in the form of pillars mainly because of the diverse composition of the rock. Below the soil, as well as on the surface, the B beds decay and de compose faster, and subsequently the individual thinner and tall pillars are unstable. e tall pillars are generally mushroom-shaped. e beds of sequences A, C and D are more resistant and extensive. In some areas the upper parts of the pillars have disappeared, and only low pillars formed in rock sequence A are preserved. Subcutaneous tubes transformed by rainfall dripping down the pillars frequently hollow the porous rock of the beds B. e rare pillar tops that form in such rock are oen diversely shaped. SHAPE O F THE STONE F OREST MARTIN KNEZ & TADEJ SLABE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 103 and contains only rock formations that do not exceed the size of the individual segmentation of the coarse surface. e solution pans with distinctly segmented and coarse surfaces are developing from subcutaneous cups; only the bottoms of solution pans that are covered by thin layer deposits and are overgrown remain even and rela tively smooth. On the steep walls the segments resemble channels, usually very narrow but relatively deep and angulated, with diameters that measure 1 cm and are 2 m long. At the highest section of the stone forest we nd do lomitic limestone on the pillar tops, with utes carved in them (F ig. 8). Smaller channels of a diameter of 1 cm appear on the limestone where there are elds of dolo mite in the limestone, which generally protrude a centi metre or two from the wall and do not exhibit other rock formations. LITHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ROCK RELIE F O F THE LAO HEI GIN STONE F OREST serrated the rims of the rock are, and also by the compo sition of the rock. Rainfall transforms, mainly deepens, the former subcutaneous channels and cups that criss-cross the wider tops. Such rock formations therefore exhibit traces of subcutaneous dissolution of the rock and of the rain water, which can gradually, with the denudation of the rock, completely take over. Below the soil the channels and cups are relatively evenly shaped with smooth walls, but as they become exposed their shapes become distinc tively uneven with many branches and segmented rims. Half-bells are formed on the more durable levels of soil and deposits that surround the pillars (Slabe 1999). R OCK F ORMATIONS CARVED B Y RAIN F ALL ese types of rock formations, especially the smallest utes and cups, do not occur on this type of rock. e ex ceptions are the more limited highest zones of the stone forest, where the tooth tops are created in the dolomitic limestone of the E beds. Segmentation of most of the tops is therefore dened by the composition and diversica tion of the rock (F ig. 7). Rock exposed to rainfall is coarse Figure 8: Dolomitic-limestone stone teeth. Slika 8: Dolomitno apnenasti kamniti zobje. Figure 7: e top of stone pillar carved by rainfall. Slika 7: V rh kamnitega stebra oblikovan z deevnico. e stone pillars in the forest are either solitary or in groups within which there are only cracks and ssures. ey were formed at various levels on nearly horizon tal rock beds and in corresponding shapes. e exposed lower part of the geological prole or stone pillar is com posed of fully dolomitised limestone, the middle part (sequence B) is composed of porous dolomite and the upper parts of the stone pillars are composed of more durable limestone and dolomitic limestone, resistant to erosion. Sequence B rock beds decay and decompose faster, below, as well as above the ground, and since they are generally covered by more durable strata, the pillars form characteristic mushroom-like shapes. e pillars are wider below the narrower parts if the lower dolomite strata are exposed. e rock relief consists of various groups of rock forms: subcutaneous, those carved by rainfall and com bined forms their characteristics are dened by the composition of the various rock beds. e tops are sharp and well segmented around the cracks. Such are all the CONCLUSION

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 104 MARTIN KNEZ & TADEJ SLABE Chen X iaoping, Gabrovek, F ., Huang Chuxing, Jin Y u zhang, Knez, M., Kogovek, J., Liu Hong, Petri, M., Mihevc, A., Otoniar, B., Shi Mengxiong, Slabe, T., ebela S., Wu Wenqing, Zhang Shouyue & Zupan Hajna, N., 1998: South China Karst I.Zaloba ZRC, 19, 247 pp., Ljubljana. F ord, D., Salomon, J.N. & Williams P., 1996: Les F orts de Pierre ou Stone forests de Lunan.Karstologia 28/2, 25-40. Knez, M., 1998: Lithologic Properties of the ree Lunan Stone F orests (Shilin, Naigu and Lao Hei Gin).In: Chen X iaoping et al ., South China Karst I, Zaloba ZRC, 19, 30-43, Ljubljana. Knez, M. & Slabe, T., 2001a: Oblika in skalni relief ste brov v Naigu kamnitem gozdu (JZ Kitajska).Acta carsologica 30/1, 13-24, Ljubljana. Knez, M. & Slabe, T., 2001b: e Lithology, Shape and Rock Relief of the Pillars in the Pu Chao Chun Stone F orest (Lunan Stone F orests, NW China).Acta car sologica 30/2, 129-139, Ljubljana. Knez, M. & Slabe, T., 2002: Lithologic and morphologi cal properties and rock relief of the Lunan stone forests. In: Gabrovek, F (ed.), Evolution of karst: from Prekarst to Cessation.Zaloba ZRC, 259-266, Ljubljana. Knez, M. & Slabe, T., in print: Shilin e F ormation of Stone F orests on Various Rock (Lunan, Y unnan, China).Acta geologica sinica (Engl. ed.), Beijing. Slabe, T., 1998: Rock relief of pillars in the Lunan stone forest.In: Chen X iaoping et al ., South China Karst I, Zaloba ZRC, 19, 51-67, Ljubljana. Slabe, T., 1999: Subcutaneous rock forms. Acta carsologica 28/2, 255-271, Ljubljana. Song, Lin Hua, 1986: Origination of stone forest in Chi na.International Journal of Speleology 15 (1-4), 3-13. forms carved by rainfall these are channeled rock forms and solution pans. eir surface is notably coarse. On limestone beds that occur only in some of the highest ly ing parts of the stone forest, the utes and small channels are evenly shaped. On porous and faster-disintegrating beds, there are no distinct rock formations carved by rainfall, except at the beginning on exposed rock covered by more rounded parts of the subcutaneous rock relief. ese are distinctly formed on all dierent types of rock beds. Only their surface is mildly coarse. In our research we have observed (Knez 1998; Slabe 1998; Knez & Slabe 2001a, 2001b) that the lithological composition and tectonic properties of the rock play a decisive role that corresponds to the morphological pic ture of the stone pillars and that are essentially important in selective corrosion and erosion. RE F ERENCES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 105 LITHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ROCK RELIE F O F THE LAO HEI GIN STONE F OREST Lao Hei Gin kamniti gozd (Sl. 1, 2, 3, 4) je nastal iz podtal nih krakih krapelj. Karbonatne kamnine so bile namre pokrite z debelimi plastmi naplavin in s prstjo. Kamniti stebri in kamniti zobje so se razvili v raznovrstnih, skoraj vodoravnih ali polonih skladih kamnine, ki so jo razko sali navpini prelomi in razpoke. Gozd sestavljajo stebri, ki so gruasto strnjeni ali pa posamezni in doseejo do 20 m viine, veina je nijih, visokih do 10 m. Prevladujoa in najbolj znailna oblika stebrov je gobasta. 20 do 30 m globoko pod gozdom so jame, skozi katere se pretakajo vodni tokovi. Lao Hei Gin kamniti gozd lei okrog 20 km severno od Shilina. Posamezni kamniti stebri in veji korozijsko in erozijsko preoblikovani bloki kamnine za vzemajo le okrog 2 km 2 Morfoloko so kamniti stebri podobni tistim iz Naigu kamnitega gozda. Glede na litoloke in morfoloke znailnosti smo geoloki stolpec razdelili v 5 sekvenc: A, B, C, D in E (Sl. 3, 5). Sekvenca A je zgrajena veinoma iz slabo poroznega zrnatega poznodiagenetskega dolomita, sekvenca B iz zelo poroznega poznodiagenetskega zrnatega dolomita, sekvenca C iz rahlo dolomitnega apnenca, sekvenca D iz slabo poroznega zrnatega poznodiagenetskega dolomita, sekvenca E iz kompaktnega marogasto dolomitiziranega apnenca. Skupna debelina raziskanega geolokega prola (kamnitega stebra) je 26 m. Veje grue kamnitih stebrov so sestavljene iz ve deset stebrov. Med njimi so pranje ali pa oji prehodi. Manje grue stebrov, ki jih sestavlja deset in manj stebrov, pa sekajo najvekrat le razpoke in pranje. Na razmeroma veliki povrini kamnitega gozda so le posamezni stebri in skalni zobje. Posamezni stebri so razmeroma veliki, iroki in visoki ali pa so nizki (1-2 m) in iroki. Skladovitost kamnine se v obliki stebrov odslikava predvsem zaradi razline sestave kamnine v posameznih plasteh. Skladi B tako pod tlemi kot na povrju prepereva jo in razpadajo hitreje in posamezni tanji ter visoki stebri so zato neobstojni. Visoki stebri pa so praviloma izrazite gobaste oblike. Skladi A, C in D so namre obstojneji in obseneji. Ponekod zgornjih delov stebrov ni ve, ohranjeni so le nizki stebri, ki so oblikovani v kamnini A. Porozna kamnina skladov B je pogosto prevotljena s podtalnimi cevmi, ki jih preoblikuje deevnica, polzea po stebrih navzdol. Redki vrhovi stebrov, ki se oblikujejo na takni kamnini, so najvekrat neenotnih oblik. Skalni relief sestavljajo vse znailne skupine skalnih oblik, podtalne (Sl. 6), tiste, ki jih dolbe deevnica in ses tavljene skalne oblike, jim pa znailnosti v precejni meri doloa sestava razlinih skladov kamnine. Vrhovi so os trih in ob razpokah drobno razlenjenih oblik, takne so vse skalne oblike, ki jih dolbe deevnica, to so lebovom podobne skalne oblike in kavnice, njihova povrina pa je izrazito hrapava (Sl. 7). Na apnenastih skladih, ki se pojavijo le na posameznih najvijih delih kamnitega goz da, so lebii in lebovi pravilnih oblik. Na poroznih in hitreje razpadajoih skladih ni znailnih skalnih oblik, ki jih dolbe deevnica, le sprva, po razgaljenju kamnine, jih prekrivajo zaobljene oblike podtalnega skalnega reliefa. Te se namre izrazito oblikujejo na vseh razlinih skladih kamnine. Le njihova povrina je drobno hrapava. Pri naih raziskavah vse bolj ugotavljamo (Knez 1988; Slabe 1988; Knez & Slabe 2001a, 2001b), da se tudi najmanje litoloke razlike v kamnini zelo jasno odraajo v morfogenetskem razvoju kamnitih gozdov. LITOLOKE IN MOR F OLOKE ZNAILNOSTI TER SKALNI RELIE F LAO HEI GIN KAMNITEGA GOZDA LUNAN, JZ KITAJSKA P OVZETEK



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VULCANOSPELEOLOG Y IN SAUDI ARABIA V ULKANOSPELEOLOGIJA V S AVDSKI A RABIJI John J. P INT 1 Izvleek UDK 551.21:551.44(532) John J. Pint: Vulkanospeleologija v Savdski Arabiji V Savdski Arabiji je preko 80.000 km 2 lavinih polj, lokalno poznanih pod imenom harrat. O njih je bilo do sedaj v mednarodni literaturi objavljenih le malo tudij. lanek povzema objavljana in neobjavljena odkritja vseh znanih odprav v lavine cevi. Pred letom 2001 so vulkanologi poroali o udorih, ki so jih opaali med raziskovanji polj v lavi, obiskali pa so le malo jam, jamskih nartov ni bilo. V letih 2001-2002 so organizirali ve odprav na obmoje Harrat Hishb, nedale od Meke. Raziskali in izmerili so tri jame, dolge 22, 150 in 300 m. Poleg tega so ra ziskovali tudi podorne oblike etrte jame, verjetno dolge preko 3 km. V jamah so nali dve sulici, vrv iz rastlinskih vlaken in ostanke kamnitega zidu. Leta 2003 so na obmoju polj v lavi Harrat Ithnavn in Harrat Khaybar raziskali in izmerili 530 in 208 metrov dolgi jami. V njih so nali ivalske kosti in kopro lite. V letih 2003-2004 so raziskovali v jami Hibashi na obmoju polja Harrat Nawasif/Al Buqum, 246 km jug o vzhodno od Meke. Jama je bila izmerjena v dolini 690 m, v njej pa so nali dve plasti izgorelega netopirskega gvana, ki pokriva plast presedi mentirane naplavine, debele 1.5 m in stare do 5800 let. V jami je bilo najdenih vsaj 19 razlinih mineralov, od tega so trije iz redno redke organske spojine, nastale kot posledica izgorevanja gvana. Nali so bile tudi kosti, rogove, koprolite, ostanke zidov in loveko lobanjo staro 425 let. V Savdski Arabiji je e veliko neraziskanih cevi v lavi, predvsem na obmoju Harrat Khaybar. Pravih arheolokih in biolokih raziskav e ni bilo, si pa lahko od njih veliko obetamo. K lljune beside: cevi v lavi, jame v lavi, Savdska Arabija, vul kanospeleologija, speleologija. COBISS: 1.02 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 107, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 551.21:551.44(532) John J. Pint:Vulcanospeleology in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia has over 80,000 km 2 of lava elds, locally known as harrats. However, only a few studies of lava caves in Saudi Arabia have been published internationally. is article sum marizes the published and unpublished ndings of all known expeditions to lava caves in the kingdom. Prior to 2001, reports of such caves were mostly limited to sightings of collapse holes by vulcanologists surveying the lava elds. F ew caves were entered and no cave maps were produced. In 2001 and 2002, expeditions were organized to Harrat Kishb, located northeast of Makkah (Mecca). ree lava caves measuring 22 m, 150 m and 320 m in length were surveyed and the collapse features of a fourth cavepossibly over 3 km longwere studied. Two throwing sticks, a plant-ber rope and the remains of stone walls were found in some of these caves. In 2003, lava tubes measuring 530 m and 208 m were surveyed in Harrat Ithnayn and Harrat Khaybar, respectively. Animal bones and coprolites were found in both caves. In 2003 and 2004, studies were car ried out in Hibashi Cave, located in Harrat Nawasif/Al Buqum, 245 km southeast of Makkah. e cave was surveyed (length: 689.5 m) and found to contain two layers of burnt bat guano overlying a bed of redeposited loess up to 1.5 meters deep and up to 5800 years old. At least 19 dierent minerals were found, three being extremely rare organic compounds related to the guano combustion. Bones, horns, coprolites, ruins of a wall and a human skull ca. 425 years old were also found. ere is evidence of many more lava caves in Saudi Arabia, particularly in Harrat Khaybar. F ormal archeological and biological studies have not yet been carried out in Saudi lava caves but may pro duce interesting results. K ey words: lava tubes, lava caves, Saudi Arabia, vulcanospel eology, speleology. 1 UIS Commission on Volcanic Caves, thepints@saudicaves.com Received / Prejeto: 16.03.2006

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 108 is article presents a brief history of Vulcanospeleol ogy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and summarizes the known studies carried out in Saudi lava caves. Some of these studies have been published internationally (F orti et al ., 2004; F orti, 2005; Pint and Pint, 2005) or locally in Saudi Arabia (Roobol et al ., 2002; Pint et al ., 2005). Others are alluded to in non-scientic eld trip reports on the Saudicaves web site (www.saudicaves.com). Many other details still remain in the eld notes of the speleolo gists who visited the caves. It is hoped that this article will assist researchers and authorities in ascertaining what is presently known about lava caves in Saudi Arabia and in determining the nature and direction of future vulcano speleological studies on the Arabian Peninsula. F ig. 1 shows the location of most of the lava elds (Harrats) of Saudi Arabia, which cover an area of at least 80,000 km 2 Cave locations are given in the text below, but seconds of latitude and longitude have been omitted, in order to help protect these caves from accidental dam age or deliberate vandalism. e exact locations of these caves can be found in Pint, 2002. INTRODUCTION J OHN J. P INT Fig.1: M ap showing the major Cenozoic lava elds of Saudi Arabia.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 109 Roobol and Camp (1991a) reported the existence of lavatube caves up to 10 m high on Harrat Khaybar, a large lava eld north of Medina. In one of these caveslo cated in a ow from Jebel Qidr Volcanodelicate lava stalactites were observed. A 100-meter-long lava tube in southern Harrat Khaybar was found to contain a fuma role at its deepest point. In another publication, Roobol and Camp (1991b) describe lava tubes on Harrat Kishb, which is located northeast of Mecca. In particular, they mention seeing the collapse holes of a lava tube which might be 3 km long. R EPORT ON THERMAL ACTIVIT Y IN A LAVA TUBE Geologist Mahmoud Al-Shanti reports that his father, Dr. Ahmed Al-Shanti, one of Saudi Arabias most eminent ge ologists, once investigated reports that an individual had suered severe leg burns inside a cave probably located in Harrat Khaybar. Because the cave appeared to be inside a lava eld and might indicate renewed thermal activity in the area, the government requested Dr. Al-Shanti to investigate. A visit to the cave in question proved that the source of heat was a smoldering re beneath the surface of a large bed of dry guano (Al-Shanti, 2003). e only other cave in Saudi Arabia where guano res have been documented is Ghar Al Hibashi (see below). E ARL Y MEASUREMENT O F K AH F AL S HUWA Y MIS Perhaps the rst attempt to accurately map a lava tube in Saudi Arabia was made by Mamdoah Al-Rashid, head master of the Shuwaymis school system, who used a 50 m-long tape to measure the length of Kahf Al Shuwaymis, located in Harrat Ithnayn and described below. e date of this event is not recorded, nor is there any reference to the use of a company, but Mr. Rashids calculation of the caves length (500 m) comes very close to the length of 530 m measured in a recent survey using a compass and a Disto laser measuring device (F ig. 7). If the length of side passages (30 m) is removed from the total, Mr. Rashids results are exactly on the mark (Rashid, 2002). While the above reports and incidents indicate that Saudi Arabia does indeed have lava caves, they did not result in the production of lava-cave maps or stud ies of the genesis, nature or content of such caves. is situation changed in November of 2001 when Dr. John Roobol led an expedition to the vicinity of Jebel Hil Vol cano in Harrat Kishb. e explicit purpose of the expe dition was to locate and survey lava caves, as well as to describe them accurately. EARL Y STUDIES RECENT STUDIES THE KIS HB SU R VE YS e rst expedition to Harrat Kishb took place Novem ber 10-14, 2001, led by Dr. J. Roobol, J. Pint and M. AlShanti. e project took place at the urging of Dr. Wil liam Halliday, member and founder of the Commission on Volcanic Caves of the International Union of Spe leology (UIS). By coincidence, Dr. Roobol had received, from geologist F aisal Allam, several photographs of cave entrances found some 6 km east of Jebel Hil in Harrat Kishb. Accordingly, the goals of the expedition were to locate the caves shown in the photographs as well as to precisely locate the collapse holes west of Jebel Hil which were observed by Roobol and Camp (1991b) and thought to be entrances to a lava tube. Aer much searching, the photographed caves were located and one of them, Muteb Cave, was surveyed. In addition, the GPS locations of twelve collapse entrances of the Jebel Hil Lava Tube were taken, a dicult under taking since 12 km of mostly aa lava had to be traversed on foot. A second visit to Harrat Kishb was made from F eb ruary 2-5, 2002, again led by J. Roobol, J. Pint and M. AlShanti. Ghostly Cave was surveyed and a new cave, Dahl F aisal, was located and surveyed. e results of the Kishb Surveys were published in Roobol et al ., 2002. G EOLOG Y O F THE H IL B ASALT All the surveyed caves found in Harrat Kishb are located in the Hil Basalt, which is a basaltic lava eld younger than one million years, with an area of 5,892 km, cen tered about 270 km northeast of Jeddah. ese deposits comprise both scoria cones and lava ows which were probably formed during a moist climatic period or plu vial interval and which are distinguished from overlying subunits because they are signicantly eroded (Roobol et al ., 2002). M UT EB C AVE Muteb Cave, or Kahf Al Muteb is registered as number 124 in Pint, 2002 and is located at 22N, 41E. VULCANOSPELEOLOG Y IN SAUDI ARABIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 110 signicant changes in passage dimensions at survey sta tions and wherever needed.) See F ig. 2. Because a man-made structure is found at the en trance to this cave and because an apparently ancient ar tifact was found deep inside, it is suggested that the cave be investigated by archeologists. Note that Muteb Cave, in Harrat Kishb, is located approximately 55 km east of the celebrated Darb Zubaydah, a well-marked trail com plete with shelters, water wells and reservoirs one days march apart (See F ig. 12). e trail led from Baghdad to Mecca and was built by Queen Zubaydah, the enterpris ing wife of Caliph Harun al-Rashid around the beginning of the ninth century A.D. G HOSTL Y C AVE Ghostly Cave or Kahf Al Ashbaah is registered as number 123 in Pint, 2002 and is located at 22N, 41E. Geological setting e cave is found in a at area of basaltic pahoehoe lava in the volcanic deposits of the Hil Basalt. Description e cave is 320 m long. e entrance is a collapse 10 m in diameter with a 7 m drop to a at oor below. e passage leads o east and west. Up to 50 stalagmite-like mounds of rock-dove guano are found just inside the entrance to the western passage along with the remains of a stone wall partly buried beneath bird guano. e cave passages Geological setting e cave is found in a sinuous ridge of smooth, hard pa hoehoe lava curving around an older, obstructing scoria cone in the volcanic deposits of the Hil Basalt. Description e cave is 150 m long. e entrance to the cave meas ures 3 x 7 m and is found on the eastern side of a collapse 20 m in diameter. ere are remains of an ancient, manmade wall across the front of the cave. A single passage trends east, sometimes reaching a width of 20 m. e passage height varies from 3 to 5 m. Sand or clay-rich sediment cover the oor to an undetermined depth. e cave contains abandoned wasps nests, mounds of rockdove guano, animal bones, and bat urine stains on the walls and ceiling. A 40-cm-long cord composed of long plant bers, with one knot in it, was hidden beneath a at rock at the eastern end of the cave (Roobol et al ., 2002; Pint and Pint, 2005). Comments To the authors knowledge, Muteb was the rst lava cave in Saudi Arabia to be accurately surveyed (Grade 5D in the survey classication system used by the British Cave Research Association. is requires a magnetic survey with horizontal and vertical angles measured to ; dis tances recorded to the nearest centimeter, station posi tions identied to less than 10 cm and measurement of Fig. 2: map of M uteb Cave. J OHN J. P INT

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 111 VULCANOSPELEOLOG Y IN SAUDI ARABIA have a maximum width of 30 m and vary in height from 1 to 3 m. Both passages have white, calcareous patches on the ceiling and a thick layer of powdery dust on the oor. Analysis of the dust showed high concentrations of calcium, phosphate and potassium salts. Bats are found at both extremes of the cave. Two at, L-shaped wooden throwing sticks were found in dark areas of the two pas sages, resembling similar instruments depicted in Neo lithic rock art found in Saudi Arabia. See F ig. 3 and 4 (Roobol et al ., 2002; Pint and Pint, 2005). Comments Man-made constructions and two ancient throwing sticks were found in this isolated and dicult-to-enter cave. Digging in the sediment which completely covers the cave oor may produce historically or archeological ly important nds. As noted in the comments on Muteb Cave, Ghostly Cave is located approximately 55 km east of the celebrated Darb Zubaydah (see F ig. 12). D AHL FAISAL Dahl F aisal is registered as number 162 in Pint, 2002 and is located at 23N, 41E. Geological setting e cave is found in a nearly at-lying whale-back lava ow of the Jabal Zuwayr volcano. e ows of this volcano consist mainly of basanite and alkali olivine basalt with small volumes of hawaiite, phonotephrite and phonolite and are located in the northern portion of the Hil Basalt. Description Dahl F aisal is 22 m long. e cave is entered through a smooth, 3-m-long pipe, 80 cm diameter at its narrowest Fig. 3: map of G hostly Cave. Fig. 4: rowing sticks found in G hostly Cave are at on the bottom and curved on top to provide aerodynamic li.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 112 J OHN J. P INT point, oriented at a 60 angle. is appears to have formed when the cave was created. Below the entrance tube lies a heap of rocks apparently piled up by people using the cave in the past. Dahl F aisal consists of one room, 17 x 22 m, with a maximum ceiling height of 3 m. Sediment of unknown depth covers the original oor. e cave contains basaltic stalactites, stalagmites and lava leves. Desiccated animal scat apparently from wolves, hyenas and foxes was also found. See F ig. 5 (Roobol et al., 2002; Pint and Pint, 2005). Comments Dahl F aisal is located 60 km east of Darb Zubaydah and about 70 km southeast of Mahad adh Dhahab, an operating gold mine and reputedly the site of one of King Solomons Mines. See F ig. 12. Carbon-14 dating of wood from res used for smelting suggests that the mines are 3,000 years old. is information, together with historical studies, indicate that gold, silver and copper were indeed recovered from this region during the period considered by some to be the reign of King Solomon: 961-922 B.C. (Kirkemo et al., 1997, Levy et al., 2004). Evidence of human use and the proximity of the cave to known historical sites, suggest that it could contain artifacts. J EBEL H IL LAVA TUBE is lava tube extends westwards from Jebel Hil. Along its length are aligned small rootless shields, collapse holes, subsided areas and one area of local updoming. Twelve such features were located, one of which is shown in F ig. 6. e lava tube is up to 20 m high and the depth of its oor beneath the surface varies from 28.5 to 42.5 m, measured by Disto Laser Measuring Device at each hole. e surface features of this lava tube were mapped and described, and they suggest that the tube is at least 3 km long. However, the cave itself was not entered. A detailed map and description of these features are given in Roobol et al ., 2002. O THER CAVES LOCATED ON H ARRAT K ISHB Two other lava caves, F irst Cave and Bushy Cave were also located during the Kishb surveys. e entrance to F irst Cave is a collapse 20 m deep in what appeared to be Fig. 5: M ap of Dahl Faisal. Fig. 6: Collapse Structure 6 of the Jebel H il lava tube, looking west, showing the upper part of the lava tube with geologists standing on the roof.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 113 VULCANOSPELEOLOG Y IN SAUDI ARABIA a lava tube. It was not entered due to apparent instabil ity of the entrance walls. Bushy Cave is a nearly round room 12 x 13 m, possibly formed by a gas bubble. It was sketched, but not surveyed. THE SHUW AY M IS EXPLORATIO N S A reconnaissance for caves in Harrat Ithnayn and north ern Harrat Khaybar was undertaken by J. and S. Pint, November 6 to 10, 2002. e head of the local school dis trict, Mamdoah Al-Rashid showed them Dahl Rumahah in northern Harrat Khaybar and Kahf Al Shuwaymis in Harrat Ithnayn. Both caves were briey entered and pho tographed. April 14-17, 2003, J. Pint and M. Al-Shanti led a trip to this area. Kahf Al Shuwaymis was surveyed as well as collapses and other features between the cave and the source volcano, Hazim al Khadra. Sept. 14-17, 2003, the same team returned to the Shuwaymis area to map Dahl Rumahah. No geological report on the Shuwaymis explorations was published by Saudi Geological Survey due to the cutting of funding in 2005. K AH F AL S HUWA Y MIS Kahf Al Shuwaymis or Shuwaymis Cave is registered as number 177 in Pint, 2002 and is located at 26N, 40E. Geological setting is cave is located at the foot of Hazim Al Khadra Volcano in Harrat Ithnayn, which is a lava eld centered 240 km north-northeast of Medina. is lava is mildly alkaline with low Na and K contents and its age ranges from ~3 million years to present. e cave is entered through one of at least seven collapses located in a roughly straight line 2.5 km long with a bearing of 164 from the center of the volcano. ermal activity, manifested in fumaroles emanat ing from shelter caves, was noted along this line, at a dis tance of 560 m from the lip of the volcano and 2.1 km from Kahf Al Shuwaymis. Description e cave is 530 m long. e entrance is a collapse hole 15 m in diameter overlooking the oor of a horizontal passage 5 m below. A steep breakdown slope leads to a mostly south-trending passage varying in width from 4 to 15 m. with a typical height of about 10 m. Speleothems are limited to lava stalactites under 5 cm in length. ere are at least four caches of animal bones, presumably car ried into the cave by hyenas. A narrow channel of sand runs almost the entire length of the cave, indicating water ow in the past. Air currents entering the cave were not ed from the east wall near station 12 and from the oor near station 17. ere is a small, parallel upper passage between stations 8 and 9. Evidence of present-day, smallFig. 7: M ap of Kahf al Shuwaymis. animal activity was noted in this passage. Radon gas lev els of 17.4 Pci/L and 10.2 Pci/L were measured inside this cave. e cave map is shown in F ig. 7 (Pint, 2004). Comments Archeologist Marian Bukhari briey visited this cave in 2005. She states that the cave was used as a dwelling and may contain burial pits (Bukhari, 2006). It should be noted that this cave lies only 26 km northeast of a ma jor Neolithic rock-art site. Petroglyphs from the site are shown in F ig. 8. D AHL R UMAHAH Dahl Rumahah (also spelled Romahah) is registered as number 176 in Pint, 2002 and is located at 25N, 39E.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 114 J OHN J. P INT Geological setting is cave is located 169 km NNE of Medina in the north ern part of Harrat Khaybar, part of an area comprising 20,560 km of lava ows. e lavas and volcanoes in Harrat Khaybar are mildly alkaline with low Na and K content and include alkali olivine basalt (AOB), hawaiite, mugearite, benmoreite, trachyte and comendite. e age of the Khaybar lavas ranges from ~5 million years old (orangish ow eld) to post-Neolithic (reddish-orange lava ows), to historic (black lava ows). Rumahah Cave is found in a black ow. Description e cave is 208 m long and has a horizontal entrance 1 m high by 1.5 m wide, set in a small depression. A long, low wall outside the entrance channels rainwater into the cave, which local people say was used as a reservoir. Most of the cave is a single, nearly at, northwest-trend ing passage from 1.5 to 7 m wide and 2.5 m high. Rooms north of station 7 and south of station 11 terminate in very low crawls which may be connected. In September of 2003, it was found that dry sediment covered the oor of the southeast part of the cave while mud oored the northwest portion and occurred along part of the east ern wall. Water droplets and cave slime cover the ceiling at the far northwestern end of the cave. A natural bridge 1.5 m thick crosses the passage near its western end. Calcium-and-carbonate-rich percolation water leaked through ceiling cracks, producing white stalactites, curtains and owstone. ere is a large area of bones, including hedgehog and porcupine quills, mixed with desiccated hyena, wolf and fox coprolites. e highest radon level noted in Saudi caves was found in Ruma hah: 119 Pci/l. e caves temperature was measured at 25C. Within a period of four hours the relative humid ity rose from 68% to 74% at one point in the cave. e cave map is shown in F ig. 9 (Pint, 2004). Comments e radon level found in this cave seems high for a lava tube. It is possible that radon gas is entering the cave through cracks in the oor. e complete skeleton of an unknown animal is found in this cave, cemented to the oor by cal citic speleothems. ere is evidence (including construc tion of a water-retaining wall) that this cave has long been used as a water reservoir. It should be noted that this cave lies only 22 km south of a major Neolithic rock-art site and is located roughly 126 km east of the old Nabatean Incense Fig. 9: M ap of Rumahah Cave. Fig. 8: Ostriches, camels and Nabatean script on a sandstone cli located 26 km from Kahf Al Shuwaymis.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 115 Trail between Y emen and Petra. A paleontological and ar cheological survey of the cave should be undertaken. THE HI B AS H I ST U DI E S Six eld trips to Hibashi Cave in Harrat Nawasif/Al Bu qum took place between January 2003 and June 2004, led by J. Pint and/or M. Al-Shanti. Samples of cave forma tions and debris were collected and sent to cave miner alogist Prof. Paolo F orti for analysis. Due to the many unusual and some rare secondary minerals found in the cave, Ghar Al Hibashi was added to the list of the ten mineralogically most important lava caves in the world (F orti et al ., 2004; F orti, 2005). Dr. Peter Vincent and F ayek Kattan participated in a visit to the cave on August 31, 2003 to take samples of the sediment overlying the original cave oor, for age-dating by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). A sample from the human skull found lying on the surface, deep inside the cave, was sent out for carbon-dating. Redeposited loess (10 micron mean particle size) covers most of the cave oor. Researchers planning for the exploration of Martian lava tubes are using photographs and maps of Hibashi cave to produce robotic motion sim ulations for testing the capabilities of microrobotic designs to navigate inside the caves of Mars (Pint et al ., 2005). H IBASHI C AVE Hibashi Cave or Ghar Al Hibashi (also spelled Hebashi) is registered as number 180 in Pint, 2002, and is located at 21N, 42E. Geological setting Ghar Al Hibashi lies near the center of Harrat Nawasif/ Al Buqum, a group of lava ows located east of Makkah (Mecca). ese titaniferous, olivine basalts are described as gray to dark gray, vesicular, medium-grained and pro phyritic (Ziab and Ramsay, 1986). Pint et al ., 2005, spec ulate that Ghar Al Hibashi may lie in basalt dated at ca. 1.1 million years by Htzl et al ., 1978. Description e cave is 689.5 m long. e cave entrance is a collapse 14 m in diameter located in a slightly elevated area of a major basaltic ow emanating from a large crater to the southeast. A steep slope leads down to a gallery which in tersects the east-west-oriented main passage of the cave. is passage is typically 12 m wide, increasing to 33 m at its eastern end. e height ranges from <1 m to >9 m. e cave map is shown in F ig. 10. e oor of Hibashi Cave is mostly covered with as much as 1.5 m of loess (having lain up to ca. 5800 Fig. 10: M ap of H ibashi Cave. VULCANOSPELEOLOG Y IN SAUDI ARABIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 116 years inside the cave, according to OSL dating), underly ing beds of burnt bat guano at the extreme ends of the main passage. Volcanic levees, stalactites and stalagmites are common. At least 19 dierent minerals were found in the cave, three of them being extremely rare organic compounds related to the guano combustion. Bats and small animals live in the cave. Bones, desiccated animal scat and a human skull ca. 425 years old (F ig. 11) were also found in the cave (F orti et al ., 2004; F orti, 2005; Pint et al ., 2005; Pint, 2005). Comments e well-preserved scat of hyenas, wolves and foxes is found throughout the cave. Studies of plant material and other substances contained in these coprolites could be rewarding. Phytoliths preserved in the plant material may be used for identifying the plants and may shed light on the process of desertication which has taken place on the Arabian Peninsula. A wall built inside the cave indicates that it was used by humans at some point. Ar cheologists, paleontologists and historians may wish to explore what may be hidden in the thick bed of loess cov ering the cave oor. O T HE R I NVE STIGATIO N S On May 29 and 30, 2001, J. Pint ew over parts of North ern Harrat Rahat by helicopter. Pint noted areas of Pa hoehoe lava at 24 15 N, 39 40 E; 22 34 N, 39 20 E and 24 28 N, 39 44E and noted what appeared to be collapse entrances to lava caves at 24 17 N, 39 41 E and 24 21 N, 39 42 E. Most of these locations may be dicult to access by vehicle or on foot. None of the sites observed from the air during this eld trip have yet been visited. In F ebruary of 2003, an attempt was made to sur vey Dahl Um Quradi, a lava tube located in southern Harrat Khaybar. J. Pint and M. Al-Shanti led this eld trip with J. Shawali acting as guide. Just outside the cave entrance, SGS geologist Saeed Al-Amoudi was seriously injured and had to be rescued by helicopter, resulting in the cancellation of the survey. However, it was noted that the cave has a walk-in entrance measuring 2 x 3 m and a vertical (collapse) entrance 4 m in diameter and ca. 5 m deep. is lava tube may be 100-200 m long. Jamal Sha wali stated that there is another lava tube in the area, but this could not be visited. In January, 2004, J. Pint, S. Pint and A. Gregory trave l led to the center of Harrat Khaybar. e entrances to several lava tubes on the anks of the basaltic strato volcano Jebel Qidr were observed and photographed. Ac cording to Roobol et al (2002) this volcano may have last erupted in 1800 A.D., suggesting that lava caves in this ow may be among the youngest and most pristine in Saudi Arabia. In May of 2004, a search for lava caves in Harrat Harrah, in the extreme northwestern corner of Saudi Arabia, was undertaken by an SGS team led by Mahmoud Al-Shanti. is same lava ow extends across the border into Jordan, where several lava tubes have been found and studied (Kempe et al ., 2004; Kempe and Al-Mala beh, 2005). It was therefore hoped that lava caves would also be found on the Saudi side. Although no noteworthy caves were encountered, a well 13 m wide and 24-25 m deep was found on a small basalt hill. Ancient script apparently amudiccovers many rocks near the cave entrance suggesting that this well may have been in use at least 2,000 years ago. Due to the instability of the wells walls, it was not entered. e location of the well is given in Pint, 2002. J OHN J. P INT Fig. 11: Part of a human skull found inside H ibashi Cave and carbon dated at 425 years BP.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 117 P OTENTIAL F OR THE F URTHER DISCOVER Y AND TOPOGRAPH Y O F LAVA CAVES Saudi Arabia has at least 80,000 km 2 of lava elds, rough ly divided into twelve major harrats During a short pe riod of four years, six of these harrats were visited and in each of them some feature of interest to vulcanospeleolo gists was observed. e core team which located and/or entered these cavities consisted of only ve individuals (J. Pint, M. Al-Shanti, S. Al-Amoudi, A. Al-Juaid and S. Pint). It can only be concluded that with more time and/ or more personnel, many more lava caves will be found in Saudi Arabia. is assertion, in the case of Harrat Khaybar, is backed up by the many references to lavatube collapse holes in Roobol and Camp (1991a), includ ing descriptions of numerous collapses on whale-back formations up to 25 km long, situated up to 25 km from VULCANOSPELEOLOG Y IN SAUDI ARABIA F UTURE POSSIBILITIES Fig. 12: M ap of two ancient caravan trails in Saudi Arabia, showing lava elds. Aer H ussein Sabir, 1991.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 118 I thank Dr. Maher Idris of the Saudi Geological Survey for his constant support of cave studies. I deeply appreci ate the eld work of Susana Pint, Mahmoud Al-Shanti, Saeed Al-Amoudi, Abdulrahman Al-Juaid and many oth ers, such as Mamdoah Al-Rashid, Peter Harrigan, John Semple, Peter Vincent, F ayek Kattan, Jamal Shawali, Greg Gregory and John Weatherburn, who made our eld trips successful. Special thanks to Dr. John Roobol, Dr. Paolo F orti, Dr. Stephan Kempe and the ingenius Dado Quero for their invaluable assistance in preparing this and pre vious reports on volcanic caves in Saudi Arabia. J OHN J. P INT It is likely that Saudi Arabias lava elds contain a great many caves and possibly some of the longest lava tubes in the world. It is also likely that archeological, mineralogi cal and biological cave studies (among others) will yield important discoveries. Reconnaissance for caves in the lava elds of Saudi Arabia should, therefore, be resumed. e establishment of a Kingdom-wide organization dedi cated to speleology may foster studies in all branches of cave science and facilitate the preservation and dissemi nation of the resultant ndings. CONCLUSIONS the source volcanoes, indicating a potential for lava tubes up to 50 km long in Saudi Arabia. To these collapses may be added the lava tubes observed in southern and central Harrat Khaybar (mentioned above under Other Investi gations) but not yet explored. At present the record for longest mapped lava cave in the Middle East is held by Al-F ahda Cave, 923.50 m long, in Jordan (Kempe and Malabeh, 2005). P OTENTIAL F OR NEW SPELEOLOGICAL STUDIES Mineralogy: Signicant and unusual cave minerals were found in Hibashi Cave (F orti et al ., 2004; F orti, 2005) but such studies have yet to be undertaken in other Saudi lava caves. Archeology: Saudi lava caves lie near ancient sites of human habitation as well as adjacent to several ancient caravan trails (F ig. 12). All mapped lava caves contain structures or artifacts indicating use or visits by humans in the past. e only recorded visit to a Saudi lava cave by an archeologist (Bukhari, 2006) revealed indications that the cave may have been used as a dwelling and may contain burial sites. A search of archeological journals in F ebruary of 2006 suggests that few if any formal archeo logical studies have ever taken place in Saudi lava caves. B iology: Many lava caves were formed a million or more years ago and are located in remote areas of dif cult access. Speleologists have found numerous indica tions that a variety of living creatures inhabit or inhab ited the Saudi lava caves thus far explored (Roobol et al ., 2002; Pint et al ., 2005). A F ebruary 2006 search of biol ogy journals suggests that no biological studies have ever been carried out in any Saudi lava cave. P ROBLEMS RELATED TO LAVA CAVE STUDIES In some parts of the world, the scientic study of caves has a long history and over the years, organizations dedi cated to speleology were founded in the private sector, the public sector or both. In Saudi Arabia, however, pub lic realization of the nature, extent and resource value of the Kingdoms caves (limestone, lava and others) is a very recent phenomenon. Saudi Arabia has no laws speci cally related to caves and no private or government or ganization specically concerned with speleology. Many of the speleological studies carried out in Saudi Arabia were done by foreigners living in the country for only a few years. F or the most part, the results of these studies were not properly recorded. Recent speleological work by a semi-government organization (the Saudi Geological Survey) has laid an excellent foundation for speleology in Saudi Arabia. However, its work has been somewhat limited to the eld of geology, which is only one of the several sciences in cluded under the umbrella of speleology. Speleo-archeol ogy and biospeleology, for example, have been neglected. e formation of a Kingdom-wide speleological organi zation, whether academic, governmental or recreational, might provide the coherence and stability that the King dom of Saudi Arabia needs for a sustained study of its caves. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 119 Bukhari, M., 2006: Email communication with John and Susana Pint. F orti, P., Galli, E., Rossi A., Pint, J. & Pint, S., 2004: Ghar Al Hibashi Lava Tube: e Richest Site in Saudi Arabia for Cave Minerals. Acta carsologica, 33/2 11 Ljubljana, pp 189-205. F orti, P., 2005: Genetic Processes of Cave Minerals in Volcanic Environments: An Overview, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 67, no. 1, p. 3-13: National Speleological Society Htzl, H., Lippolt, H.J., Maurin, V., Moster, H. & Rauert, W., 1978. Quaternary Studies on the recharge area situated in crystalline rock regions, In: S.S. Al-Sayari and J.G. Zotl (eds.), Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia, pp. 230-239. Springer Verlag. Kempe, S., Al-Malabeh, A. & Henschel, H.-V., 2004: Lava caves of Jordan. 11 th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, 12-17 May, Azores, Abstract Volume. Kempe, S. & Al-Malabeh, A., 2005: Newly discovered lava tunnels of the Al-Shaam plateau basalts, Jordan. EGU Geophysical Research Abstracts, 7: 03204. Kirkemo, H., Newman, W.L. & Ashley, R.P., 1997: Gold. U.S. Geological Survey Information Services, Den ver. Levy, T.E., Adams, R. B., Najjar, Hauptmann, M. A., An derson, J.D., Brandl, B., Robinson, M.A., & Higham, T., 2004: Research reassessing the chronology of biblical Edom: new excavations and 14C dates from Khirbat en-Nahas (Jordan) Antiquity 78: 863-876. Pint, J. 2002: Master list of GPS coordinates for Saudi Ara bia caves (updated August, 2005): Saudi Geological Survey Condential Data F ile SGS-CD F -2001-1. Pint, J., 2004: e lava tubes of Shuwaymis, Saudi Arabia, presentation given at the XI International Sympo sium on Vulcanospeleology, Pico Island, Azores. Pint, J. & Pint S., 2005: Searching for lava tubes in Arabia, NSS News, May 2005, pp. 9-15. Pint, J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., Al-Amoudi, S.A., & F orti, P., with the collaboration of Akbar, R., Vin cent, P., Kempe, S., Boston, P., Kattan, F .H., Galli, E., Rossi, A., & Pint, S., 2005: Ghar al Hibashi, Harrat Nawasif/Al Buqum, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-F ile Report SGS-O F -200412, 68 p. 43 gs, 1 table., 2 apps., 1 plate. Rashid, M., 2002: Personal Communication to J. Pint. Roobol, M.J. and Camp, V.E., 1991a: Geologic map of the Cenozoic lava eld of Harrats Khaybar, Ithnayn, and Kura, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Direc torate General of Mineral Resources Geoscience Map GM-131, with explanatory text, 60 p. Roobol, M.J. and Camp, V.E., 1991b: Geologic map of the Cenozoic lava eld of Harrat Kishb, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabian Directorate General of Mineral Resources Geoscience Map GM-132, with explanatory text 34 p. Roobol, M.J., Pint, J.J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., Al-Amoudi, S.A. & Pint, S., with the collaboration of Al-Eisa, A.M., Allam, F ., Al-Sulaimani, G.S., & Banakhar, A.S., 2002: Preliminary survey for lavatube caves on Harrat Kishb, Kingdom of Saudi Ara bia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-F ile report SGSO F -2002-3, 35 p., 41 gs., 1 table, 4 apps., 2 plates. Ziab, A.M. & Ramsay, C.R., 1986: Explanatory notes to the Geologic Map of the Turabah quadrangle, Sheet 21E, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Petro leum and Mineral Resources, Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Jeddah. RE F ERENCES VULCANOSPELEOLOG Y IN SAUDI ARABIA



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PROTECTION O F KARST IN THE PHILIPPINES VARSTVO KRASA NA F ILIPINIH Sonata Dulce F R ESTI F ICAR 1 Michael J. D A Y 2 & Peter B. U RICH 3 Izvleek UDK 551.44:502.7(599) Sonata Dulce F. Resticar, Michael J. Day & Peter B. Urich: Varstvo krasa na Filipinih lanek predstavlja pregled stanja zaite krasa na F ilipinih. Prejnje raziskave kaejo, da je zaitenega 29% od 35.000 km 2 lipinskega krasa. Vendar pa do sedaj zaita krasa ni bila prednostna naloga vlade in drava nima zakonodaje, ki bi izrecno zahtevala zaito in ohranjanje krake pokrajine. Dananja zaita krasa je posredna, ko je kras v zaitenih podrojih, razglaenih zaradi drugih, eprav pogosto podobnih razlogov, kot so ekoloka zaita, zaita pitne vode ali turizem. Vseeno pa kae, da lipinska vlada postopoma spoznava po men neposredne zaite krake pokrajine. Pomembni koraki k zaiti krakih podroij so ustanovitev National Caves and Cave Resources Management (Dravne uprave jam in jamskih virov), Odlok o zaiti iz 2001 in vkljuitev krakih vodnih vi rov v National Action Plan (Dravni izvedbeni plan) v okviru United Nations Convention to Combat Desertication (Listina ZN za boj proti dezertikaciji). eprav obstojea zakonodaja upoteva samo doloene poteze krake pokrajine, lahko vz podbuja dodatne programe in akte, ki bi omogoali celovitejo zaito krake pokrajine v dravnem okviru. K ljune besede: F ilipini, kras, jame, zaitena podroja, okoljs ka zakonodaja. COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 121, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 551.44:502.7(599) Sonata Dulce F. Resticar, Michael J. Day, & Peter B. Urich: Protection of Karst in the Philippines e article presents an overview of the current status of karst protection in the Philippines. Prior studies indicate that of the 35,000km 2 of karst landscape in the country, about 29% is protected However, protection of karst has not to date been a priority of the Philippine government, and the country has no existing legislation that is directly decreed for protection and conservation of karstlands. Most contemporary karst protec tion is indirect, in that the karst is located within protected ar eas established for other, although oen related reasons, such as ecological conservation, water supply protection and tourism. However, it appears that the Philippine government is gradually recognizing explicitly the need to protect karst landscapes. e establishment of the National Caves and Cave Resources Man agement and Protection Act in 2001 and the inclusion of karst water resources in the countrys National Action Plan (NAP) under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertica tion (UNCCD) are signicant steps towards explicit protection of karst areas. Although the existing legislation only addresses specic facets of karst landscape, it may stimulate additional programs and legislation that will more broadly protect karst landscapes nationally. K ey words: Philippines, karst, caves, protected areas, environ mental legislation. 1 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Department of Geography, 3210 North Maryland Avenue, Bolton Hall, Room 410, Wisconsin 53211, USA e-mail: restis@onid.orst.edu 2 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Department of Geography, 3210 North Maryland Avenue, Bolton Hall, Room 410, Wisconsin 53211, USA e-mail: mickday@uwm.edu 3 International Global Change Institute, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 2001, New Zealand, e-mail: pbu@waikato.ac.nz Received / Prejeto: 18.01.2006

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 122 e Philippines natural resources have long been stressed (Ong et al 2002), and deforestation, degrada tion of land and water resources, and air, water and soil pollution are among the serious environmental prob lems that the country currently faces. Recognizing this, the Philippine government has passed legislation and instituted programs designed to preserve its remaining natural resources and to rejuvenate the environment. is legislation and the resource protection and conser vation programs apply to the broad spectrum of national natural resources, including forest, marine and aquatic resources, wildlife, and natural landmarks, but they oen lack a sound geomorphological basis. e Philippines contains a diverse array of tropical karst landscapes that cover about 10% of the total land surface (Piccini & Rossi 1994; Balzs 1973). Despite this, the country has no legislation that is specic to the pro tection and conservation of these distinctive and signi cant physical resources. e inclusion of karst protection in the countrys resource conservation eort would en hance the emerging resource protection program by ex plicitly including a landscape resource that diers from others in its geomorphology and hydrology. Moreover, other critical components of the national ecosystem would also be protected since the conservation of karst landscapes will concomitantly protect watersheds and habitats of unique wildlife, especially the cave-dwelling species whose existence depends on the karst. In this paper we provide an overview of environ mental and resource protection in the Philippines, and assess the extent of karst protection in the country. We examine the legislation passed by the Philippine gov ernment in order to conserve natural resources and to protect the environment, and we identify legislation that directly or indirectly protects karst landscapes. We con clude with a brief outline of the karst areas that are cur rently being aorded protection. INTRODUCTION e enactment of Executive Order No. 33 on April 25, 1910 marked the beginning of a conscious eort to pro tect the Philippines physical patrimony. Executive Order 33 created the rst park in the country the Rizal Na tional Park in Zamboanga, which is established in honor of the countrys national hero (PAWB 1989). e 1930s witnessed the Philippine National Park Movement, pio neered by then Senator Camilo Osias and F orestry Direc tor Arthur F isher, who explored the country, identifying natural wonders that should be set aside for public en joyment (PAWB 1989). e Philippines rst legislation regarding park establishment and management was es tablished in 1932, when Act No. 3915, entitled An Act for the Establishment of National Parks, Declaring such Parks as Game Refuges and for Other Purposes, passed on F ebruary 01, marking the formal beginning of the countrys resource conservation eort. Act 3915 dened a national park as a portion of the public domain re served or withdrawn from settlement, occupancy, or disposal under the laws of the Philippine Islands, which because of its panoramic, historical, scientic or aesthetic value, is dedicated and set apart for the benet and enjoy ment of the people of the Philippine Islands (WCMC 1992). e Act became eective in 1934 through the is suance of F orestry Administrative Order No. 7, entitled the National Park Regulations, which specied the man agement, development, conservation and use of national parks (PAWB 1989). In 1975, the National Park Regulations were updat ed through Presidential Decree 705, or the Revised F or estry Code of the Philippines. e Revised F orestry Code included a provision for the allocation of forestland for purposes such as national parks, national historical sites, game refuge, wildlife sanctuaries and forest reserves. e Code was subsequently amended in 1978 by Presidential Decree 1558 (PAWB 1989), and in 1981 the Code was further amended by Presidential Decree 1559 in order to further strengthen the code to make it more re sponsive to present realities and to the new thrust of gov ernment policies and programs and forest development and conservation among others. In addition, the 1981 revision provided an updated denition of a national park: a forest land reservation essentially of primitive or wilderness character which has been withdrawn from settlement or occupancy and set aside as such exclusively to preserve the scenery, the natural and historic objects and the wild animals or plants therein, and to provide en joyment of those features in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future generations. F rom 1932 to 1952, the Bureau of F orestry in the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources (DANR) was responsible for national parks administra PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE S ONATA DULCE F R ESTI F ICAR M ICHAEL J. D A Y, & P ETER B. U RICH

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 123 tion (WCMC 1992). In 1952, the Commission of Parks and Wildlife was created under Republic Act No. 826, and was placed under the control and supervision of the President of the Philippines (PAWB, 1989). is Repub lic Act was amended several times through Executive Orders, Letter of Implementation, and Presidential De crees (WCMC 1992). In 1987, through Executive Order No. 192, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) was created and was vested with pri mary institutional responsibility for the management of national parks, reserves and other protected areas. Ex ecutive Order 192 also created six sta bureaus within the DENR, among which the Protected Areas and Wild life Bureau (PAWB) was given the primary responsibility of managing the countrys protected areas as well as the conservation of biodiversity, genetic resources, and en dangered wildlife resources. C ONTEMPORAR Y PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION e Philippine Constitution mandates the State to pro tect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthy ecology (Tan 1998). is duty is codied in the Philippine Environmental Policy, which is the national blueprint for environmental protection (Tan 1998). is Policy, together with the Philippine Environment Code, which contains the basic principles regarding the countrys environmental and natural resource concerns, represents the basic law pertaining to the Philippine environment (Tan 1998). e Philippine governments commitment to environmental and resource protection is manifested in the 1990 Philippine Strategy for Sustain able Development, which includes a clear commitment on the behalf of government to establish protected ar eas as the principal instrument for conservation (WWF 1991 in WCMC 1992). Republic Act No. 7586, also known as the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act, was passed in 1992 to make provision for the establishment of integrated protected areas system as well as to replace the fragmented and obsolete legislative foundation of protected areas in the Philippines (Pollisco 1995). e NIPAS Act of 1992 established the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) that shall encompass outstanding remarkable areas and biologically important public lands that are habitats of rare and endangered spe cies of plants and animals, biogeographic zones and re lated ecosystems, whether terrestrial, wetland or marine, all of which shall be designated as protected areas. e management and administration of NIPAS was placed under the DENR through the Protected Area Manage ment Board (PAMB). e NIPAS Act mandates that a PAMB should be created for each established protected area, with each PAMB being composed of the following members: the Regional Executive Director, a represen tative of the regional government, a representative from the municipal government, a representative from each barangay covered by the protected area, a representative from each tribal community, at least three representa tives from Non-Government Organizations and/or the local community, and a representative from other de partments or national government agencies involved in protected area management. Each board member serves for a term of ve years. Eight categories of protected areas were established under the NIPAS Act: strict nature reserves; natural parks; natural monuments; wildlife sanctuaries; pro tected landscapes and seascapes; resource reserves; natu ral biotic areas; and other categories established by law, conventions or international agreements to which the Philippine Government is a signatory. As of 2004, about 5.1 million hectares or about 17% of the Philippines to tal land area is classied as protected (DENR 2004). e country has 293 protected areas; of which 209 are created under the initial components of the system and 84 were created under the NIPAS system (DENR 2004). e Philippines contains a wide array of tropical karst landscapes. e most signicant karst areas are on the larger islands, with the most extensive being the Calbiga Karst on the island of Samar. ere are also signicant karst areas in the Cagayan, Kalinga-Apayao, Ilocos and Bicol regions of Luzon, on Bohol and Cebu in the Visa yas, and in Negros, Davao and Cotabato in Mindanao (F ig. 1). e karst areas vary considerably in terms of landforms and age, although most of the karst is formed in Tertiary and Quaternary carbonates (Balzs 1973). e most striking surface karst landforms are steep-sid ed karst towers, which are exemplied by the towers of Coron Island in northern Palawan and on the west coast of Palawan. Pinnacle karst is also developed in Palawan (Longman & Brownlee 1980). Dome-shaped karst hills dominate the karst landscape of the island of Bohol, and there are also locally numerous dolines, dry valleys, poljes and caves. e longest reported cave extends to about 15 DISTRIBUTION O F KARST PROTECTION O F KARST IN THE PHILIPPINES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 124 S ONATA DULCE F R ESTI F ICAR M ICHAEL J. D A Y, & P ETER B. U RICH Fig. 1: Karst areas in the Philippines (based on Balzs 1973) km and the deepest cave reaches a depth of about 163 m (Urich 1996). P ROTECTION O F KARST Day & Urich (2000) reported that the Philippines pro tects about 29% of its total karst landscape. Protection of karst areas has not, however, been a deliberate policy on the part of the Philippine government. e country has no existing legislation that directly addresses the protec tion and conservation of karst areas, and karst protection is largely eected through indirect means, that is karst happens to occur within areas designated for protection on the basis of other, although perhaps related criteria. Some existing karst areas are protected essentially be cause of their aesthetic and therefore tourism value, while others fall within nature or resource reserves, natural parks and monuments, wildlife sanctuaries or protected landscapes and seascapes. Recently, however, it appears that the Philippine government is beginning to recognize explicitly the importance of protecting certain karst areas

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 125 PROTECTION O F KARST IN THE PHILIPPINES and components. One signicant step was undertaken by the government to protect the countrys caves through the issuance of DENR Department Administrative Or der No. 4, Series of 1994, which established the Cave Management and Conservation Program (CMCP). e CMCP is intended to protect and safeguard the coun trys caves through various programs including policy development, research, human resource development, information, education and communication campaigns, and community and stakeholder involvement in man agement and conservation (PAWB 2004a). e CMCP is also more broadly signicant particularly in the context of protection of karst because almost all caves in the Philippines are formed in limestone (Bacalian 1993). One of the initial components of CMCP is the assessment of the state of Philippine caves, which produced an ini tial inventory of about 2,466 caves in 35 of the countrys 76 provinces (Bacalian 1993). In the implementation of the CMCP under the NIPAS Act, three caves have been proclaimed as protected areas: Calbiga Protected Land scape, Pamitinan Protected Landscape, and Peablanca Protected Landscape (PAWB 2004a). In 2001, eorts to protect, conserve and manage the countrys caves and cave resources were further strength ened via the passage of Republic Act No. 9072, which is also known as the National Caves and Cave Resources Management and Protection Act. e implementation of this Caves Act is directed through multiple agencies whose main functions are as follows: 1. DENR: permit issuance, information dissemina tion and education campaign; 2. Department of T ourism: promotion of caves clas sied as ecotourism sites, and visitor management; 3. National M useum: protection and management of caves with cultural and archeological features; 4. National H istorical Institute: protection of sites with historical value; 5. L ocal G overnment Units; and, 6. Palawan Council for Sustainable Development: in the case of Palawan Province. One of the provisions of the Caves Act is the con tinuing inventory of the countrys caves. As of 2003, the cave inventory listed 1,525 caves (PAWB 2004b), only 204 of which have been studied in detail. ere is some duplication in terms of provisions between the Caves Act and the NIPAS Act; for instance, 87 of the caves listed under the former also fall under the Integrated Protected Area Program (IPAP). e Caves Acts role in terms of protecting the karst landscape is limited at best. It is intended mainly for the management and conservation of a wide mlange of the countrys caves and cave resources and it is not directly targeted toward the protection of broader karst land scapes. Although the Act may serve to protect individual caves in karst areas, it is not specically decreed for their protection. However, other legislation does exist that in directly protects karst landscapes: 1. Republic Act 9147 or the Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act aims to conserve the countrys wildlife resources and their habitats, and can be used to protect wildlife resources in specic karst areas. 2. Republic Act 7942 or the Mining Act contains provisions relating to areas closed to mining operations. ese include all areas under NIPAS, which includes sev eral karst areas. 3. DENR-DOT Memorandum Circular 98-02 (Guidelines for Ecotourism Development in the Phil ippines) and Executive Order No. 11 (Establishing the Guidelines for Ecotourism Development in the Philip pines) provide guidelines for the management of caves used for ecotourism activities. 4. Republic Act 4846 or the Cultural Properties Preservation and Protection Act may be invoked to pro tect cave resources of cultural signicance. e Philippine Government is a signatory to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertication (UNCCD), which is a United Nations agenda aimed at combating desertication and at mitigating the eects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/ or desertication. UNCCD was ratied by the Philippine Senate in F ebruary 2000 and came into full force in May of the same year. UNCCD requires each signatory nation to prepare a National Action Plan (NAP), which is one of the key instruments in the Conventions implementation (UNCCD 2004). e Philippines proposed National Ac tion Plan is designed as a Convergence Plan of Action of the National Government for combating land and water degradation and desertication, and for reducing poverty (Concepcion 2004). e implementation of the plan will involve the participation of the Department of Agricul ture (DA), the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR), the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), and the DENR. One of the six Community-Based ematic Programs included in the NAP is Participatory Manage ment of Karst Water Resources in Small Islands, and this program potentially will have a direct impact on karst water resource conservation nationally. P ROTECTED KARST AREAS At the national scale, there is surprisingly limited infor mation about many protected areas that do or may in clude karst, so here we focus on those major karst areas that are known to be protected. In this context, twentythree karst areas in the country are currently known to have protected status (Table 1). ese are areas whose

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 126 S ONATA DULCE F R ESTI F ICAR M ICHAEL J. D A Y, & P ETER B. U RICH karst landscapes are recognized as such and whose pro tected status is clear (F ig. 2). e following summarizes some of these known protected karst areas. Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park (PPSRNP) in Palawan features a spectacular karst land scape. More than 90% of the park comprises sharp, karst limestone ridges around Mount St. Paul which is itself part of a series of rounded, limestone peaks aligned on a north-south axis, along the western coast of Palawan Protected Karst Area Location Karst F eatures National Parks 1. Balbalasang-Balbakan Kalinga-Apayao Caves with outstanding stalactites and stalagmites, karst tower 2. Callao Cave Cagayan 9-kilometer long cave with an active stream 3. Hundred Islands Pangasinan Caves, some caves are underwater 4. Minalungao Nueva Ecija Cathedral-like caves 5. Biak-na-Bato Bulacan Several caves with rivers 6. Mt. Banahaw-Mt. Cristobal Laguna and Quezon Series of caves 7. Libmanan Camarines Sur Several caves, series of crystal caverns and cataracts 8. Mt. Isarog Camarines Sur Series of crystal caverns 9. Caramoan Camarines Sur Cave 10. Bulusan Sorsogon Limestone formations 11. Puerto Princesa Subterranean River Palawan Several caves, sinkholes, karst tower, karren, 8-kilometer long St. Paul Cave with tidal underground river, pinnacle karst 12. Bulabog-Putian Iloilo Caves, springs 13. Guadalupe MabugnaoMainit Cebu Interconnected caves 14. Sudlon Cebu Cave system 15. Kuapnit Balinsasayao Leyte Caves 16. Sohoton Natural Bridge Samar Stone bridge, cave with cathedral-like chamber and underground river, caves are typically phreatic 17. Initao Misamis Oriental Caves 18. Mt. Kitanglad Bukidnon Caves Protected Landscape 1. Pamitinan Rizal Caves 2. Calbiga Samar Cave system with 3 prominent caves, sinkholes, cave with active stream, uvalas, underground rivers, cockpits, karst plateau 3. Rajah Sikatuna Bohol Caves, sinkholes, isolated mogotes 4. El Nido Palawan Cave, marine karst tower Natural Monument 1. Chocolate Hills Bohol Conical karst hills, polje T ab. 1: Protected karst areas (WCMC 2000). e principal feature of PPSRNP is its more than 8-kilometer long underground river (F ig. 3). A distinguishing feature of this underground river is that it emerges directly into the sea, and that the lower por tion of the river is brackish and subject to tidal inuenc es (IUCN 1999). In 1991, the Philippine Government nominated PPSRNP as a UN Natural World Heritage Site but the nomination was deferred upon the recom mendation of IUCN since the proposed area was deemed

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 127 PROTECTION O F KARST IN THE PHILIPPINES Fig. 2: Protected karst areas in the Philippines too small by the IUCN Technical Evaluation Team to ad equately protect its underground river watershed and to ensure the long-term viability of its signicant biodiver sity (PPSRNP 2000; IUCN 1999). In 1999, the area of the park was increased from its original mere 3,901 hectares to 22,202 hectares through Proclamation Order No. 212 (DENR 2000). is paved the way for its inscription as a Natural World Heritage Site in November of that year. e expansion of its boundary, however, brought some consequential resource use conicts between the man dates of the park and the livelihood needs of the people whose lands have been included in its expanded bound ary (Resticar 2004). Its importance as a distinctive geo logical feature is further recognized in 2004 when the National Committee on Geological Sciences (NCGS) declared it as a National Geologic Monument. Samar Island Natural Park (SINP), which covers an area of about 333,300 hectares, including 37 munici palities and one city, was in 2003 declared a protected area under the NIPAS Act (Labro 2003). Several of the countrys most signicant karst landscapes are located in Fig. 3: e outow of the St. Paul Cave underground river

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 128 S ONATA DULCE F R ESTI F ICAR M ICHAEL J. D A Y, & P ETER B. U RICH this area, in particular the Calbiga karst, which is one of the largest known karst areas in the country (eLGU 2004; IUCN Karst Project: Philippines undated). e Calbiga karst covers an area of about 900 km 2 (Balzs 1973) and, within this, the Calbiga Cave Protected Landscape, which was included in the NIPAS list in 1997, covers an area of 2,968 hectares (PAWB 2004c). e Calbiga Cave Pro tected Landscape includes 12 caves, the largest of which is the 5 km long Langun-Gobingob System (eLGU 2004; IUCN Karst Project: Philippines undated). Sohoton Nat ural Bridge National Park also includes Pahulugan Cave, Sohoton Cave and Bugasan Cave plus spectacular lime stone formations, including the limestone bridge whence the name Sohoton (which means to pass through) was derived (PAWB 1997). Conical karst hills, which are aptly called Chocolate Hills, are the most dominant feature of the karst land scape of central Bohol (F ig. 4). e Chocolate Hills Nat ural Monument, covering an area of about 1,776 hect ares, was inscribed as a National Geologic Monument in 1988 by NCGS, and as a protected area under NIPAS in 1997. e Chocolate Hills Natural Monument consists of about 1,268 more-or-less symmetrical, haycock-shaped Fig. 4: e Chocolate H ills of Bohol hills that rise some 30 meters above the surrounding ground. e plains around these conical hills have been transformed into thriving rice-growing landscapes that are connected to the less accessible mountain tracts by karst-springs at their foot supplying water for irriga tion (Urich 1989; Uhlig 1987). However, Bohols 500year history of sustained karstland occupation is seri ously threatened today by the pressures of population, inappropriate application of agricultural technologies, and civil strife (Urich 1993). e Rajah Sikatuna National Park in Bohol is one of the most recent additions to the countrys list of pro tected karst areas. e Park was established in 1987 and was assigned an area of 9,023 hectares (PAWB 1997). e Parks geology is based on two distinct units: Plio cene to Pleistocene-aged limestone in the west and Late Miocene-to-Pliocene-aged limestone in the east and northeast wherein two distinct suites of karst land form have developed (Urich & Bliss 1992). e younger limestone is dissected by discontinuous valleys, cockpits, isolated mogotes and extensive corrosion plains, while the Miocene-aged limestone is dominated by interuvial valleys and extensive ridges, although both geologic units express similar subterranean and micro-karst features such as caves, sinkholes, subsurface drainage, estavelles and swallets (Urich & Bliss 1992). In 2000, the area was de-listed as a National Park and was designated a Pro tected Landscape instead. is change was made because the large number of people resident within its boundar ies prevented the area meeting the criteria of a National Park. e area of the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape is currently about 10, 452 hectares (PAWB, 2005). e Hundred Islands of the Lingayen Gulf consist of the lower rocks of the Kegel karst type (Uhlig 1980). e Hundred Islands National Park consists of about 123 islands and covers an area of 1,676 hectares. e Hun dred Islands was declared a national park in 1983 (PAWB 2004d), and a National Geological Monument in 2001 (NCGS 2001). It is a resort area that has a vibrant tour ism industry. E ND NOTES 1. A barangay is the smallest political unit in the Philip pines. 2. One of the programs of the National Committee on Geological Sciences (NCGS) is the establishment of Na tional Geological Monuments, which aims to ensure the protection and preservation of the countrys geological structures and features with high scientic, educational or aesthetic value as well as to promote awareness of geol ogy among the public (Virtucio undated). 3. e Regional Executive Director (RED) is a DENR of cial. REDs are designated as Chairmen of the PAMBs under the NIPAS Act of 1992.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 129 We thank Donna Genzmer and Ann Runyard of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Cartography and GIS Center for their help with the maps. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Balzs, D., 1973: Karst Types in the Philippines Inter national Speleology 1973, II, Subsection Ba: Geo morphology of the Karst Surface, 19-38. Bacalian, J. J., 1993: Why Should We Care for Our Caves? People and Nature, 8-10. Bureau of Mines and Geo-Sciences (BMGS), 1986: G eol ogy and M ineral Resources of the Philippines, V olume T wo: M ineral Resources. Manila, Philippines, 228230. Concepcion, Rogelio, 2004: e Philippine National Action Plan for the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertication and Drought (UNCCD): Summary Brieng Material. Day, M. & Urich, P., 2000: An assessment of protected karst landscapes in Southeast Asia Cave and Karst Science, 27, 2, 61-70. DENR, 2000: Estrada Declares Palawan Cave a Protected Area: Widens Area to 22,202 Hectares and Transfers Jurisdiction to DENR PAMB Press Release, www. denr.gov.ph/020500.htm, Accessed on 25 March 2000. DENR, 2004: Summary of protected areas in the Philip pines by Region -www.pawb.gov.ph/article/articlev iew, Accessed 12 March 2004. eLGU, 2004: Calbiga Cave elgu.ncc.gov.ph/ecommu nity/calbiga-wsamar, Accessed July 2004. IUCN, 1999: IUCN Evaluation of Nominations of Natu ral and Mixed Properties to the World Heritage List, Report to the Twenty-third Ordinary Session of the Word Heritage Committee Marrakesh, Morocco, 29 November 04 December 1999, 81-87. IUCN Karst Project: Philippines, undated. Labro, V. S., 2003: President: Samar park a protected area www.inq7.net/reg/2003/aug/14/reg_1-1.html, Accessed 13 August 2003. Longman, M. W. & Brownlee, D. N., 1980: Character istic of karst topography, Palawan, Philippines Zeitschri fur Geomorphologie, 24, 3, 299-317. NCGS, 2001: Declaration of the Hundred Islands as a National Geological Monument Brochure. Ong, P. S., Afuang, L. E. & Rosell-Ambal, R. G., 2002: Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A Second Iteration of the National Biodiversity Strat egy and Action Plan Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wild life Bureau, Conservation International Philippines, Biodiversity Conservation Program-University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Develop ment Studies, F oundation for the Philippine Envi ronment. PAWB, 1989: General Information: National Parks of the Philippines (As of Calendar Y ear 1989). RE F ERENCES PROTECTION O F KARST IN THE PHILIPPINES POVZETEK Do sedaj varstvo krasa ni bila prednostna naloga lipin ske vladne politike, eprav se to prienja spreminjati. eprav se v tej dravi zakonodaja le malo neposredno ukvarja z varstvom in ohranjanjem krakih podroij, jih je nekaj zaitenih posredno, ker so vkljuena v podroja, zaitena iz drugih razlogov. Nekaj krakih podroij je zaitenih zaradi estetskih in turistinih vrednot, nekaj drugih pa je vkljuenih v parke in rezervate. Na F ilipinih je sicer malo krakih podroij, ki so pre poznavna zaradi krakih znailnosti in pomena za kras, vendar jih je vedno ve posredno zaitenih zaradi ve dno bolje okoljske zakonodaje. e ve, kae, da lipinska vlada priznava pomen neposredne zaite krasa. Sprejem Zakona o urejanju in zaiti jam in jamskih virov ter pod pis Konvencije Zdruenih narodov o boju proti napredo vanju puav (UNCCD) sta pomembna koraka lipinske vlade, ki bosta neposredno koristila krakim podrojem. eprav se ti pravni akti ukvarjajo le s posebnimi krakimi oblikami, lahko vodijo v programe in dodatne akte, ki bodo neposredno zaitili kras po vsej dravi.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 130 PAWB, 1997: Philippine Biodiversity: An Assessment and Plan of Action CDENR, UNEP and Bookmark Inc., Philippines. PAWB, 2004a: Cave Management and Conservation Pro gram -www.pawb.gov.ph/programs/caves.htm, Ac cessed May 2004. PAWB, 2004b: Reported caves in the Philippines as of June 2003 (per Province) Periodic Report. PAWB, 2004c: Protected Areas: Region 8 www.pawb. gov.ph/Region-8.htm, Accessed July 2004. PAWB, 2004d: List of known and developed caves in the Philippines Periodic Report PAWB, 2005: Protected Areas (Pas) by Region: region 7 www.pawb.gov.ph/region_7.htm, Accessed Janu ary 2005. Piccini, L. & Rossi, G., 1994: Italian Caving Exploration in the Island of Palawan, Philippines Speleologia, 15, 31, 5-62. Pollisco, Maril Florinda, 1995: Park-People Relation ships: e Case of St. Paul Subterranean National Park and Its Neighboring Communities, Palawan, Philippines Masters thesis, Lincoln University, New Zealand. PPSRNP, 2000: Puerto Princesa Subterranean River Na tional Park www.puertoprincesa.org.ph/ppsrnp, Accessed December 2000. Republic Act No 7586, 1992: An Act Establishing the Na tional Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS). Resticar, Sonata Dulce F ., 2004: Developing a F ramework for a Sustainable Use of Tropical Karst Landscape: e Case of Puerto Princesa Subterranean River Na tional Park, Philippines Ph.D. Dissertation, Uni versity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA, 244 p. Tan, A. K. J., 1998: Preliminary Assessment of Philip pines Environmental Law www.sunsite.nus.edu. sg, Accessed 27 March 2000. Uhlig, H., 1980: Man and Tropical Karst in Southeast Asia: Geo-ecological Dierentiations, Land Use and Rural Development Potentials in Indonesia and other Regions GeoJournal, 4, 1, 31-44. Uhlig, H., 1987: Agricultural geography and geoecology of karst-regions in Southeast Asia International Symposium on Karst, Postojna, Y ugoslavia, 137157. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertication (UNCCD), 2004: Action Programmes -www. unccd. int, Accessed July 2004. Urich, P. B., 1989: Tropical karst management and agri cultural development: example from Bohol, Philip pines Geograska Annaler, 71B, 2, 95-108. Urich, P. B., 1993: Stress on Tropical Karst Cultivated with Wet Rice: Bohol, Philippines Environmental Geology, 21, 129-136. Urich, P. B., 1996: International Speleological Expedition: Philippines 1995 International Caver, 18, 28-33. Urich, P. B. & Bliss, E., 1992: New Karst Park NSS News, 41-42. Virtucio, L. T., undated: e National Monuments Pro gram of the National Committee on Geological Sci ences Brieng Material. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), 1992 Protected Areas of the World: A Review of national systems www.wcmc.org.uk/cgi-bin/pa-paisquery. p, Accessed July 2004. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), 2000: Description of Natural World Heritage Properties: Philippines www.wcmc.org.uk/protected_areas/ data/wh/princess.html, Accessed 25 March 2000. World Wildlife F und (WWF), 1991: Inception Report: Integrated Protected Areas System of the Philip pines: F easibility Studies, Preliminary Design and other Support Components, World Wildlife F undUS, Washington, DC. in: World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), 1992 Protected Areas of the World: A Review of national systems www. wcmc.org.uk/cgi-bin/pa-paisquery.p, Accessed July 2004. S ONATA DULCE F R ESTI F ICAR M ICHAEL J. D A Y, & P ETER B. U RICH



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T HE STOR Y O F THE 1833 FERCHER S URVE Y, P OSTOJNSKA JAMA C ONTINUES : A N A DDITIONAL D OCUMENT AND N EWL Y D ISCOVERED I NSCRIPTIONS Z GODBA FERCHERJEVE IZMERE P OSTOJNSKE JAME 1833 SE NADALJUJE : DODATNI DOKUMENTI IN NOVO ODKRITI NAPISI by Stephan K EMPE 1 Hans-Peter H UBRICH 2 & Klaus S UCKSTOR FF 3 Izvleek: UDK 551.442(497.4 Postojna)(091) Stephan Kempe & Hans-Peter Hubrich & Klaus Suckstor: Zgodba Fercherjeve izmere Postojnske jame (1833) se nad aljuje: dodatni dokumenti in novo odkriti napisi Objavljena dela, arhivirani dokumenti in napisi pomagajo rekonstruirati zgodovino Postojnske jame. Do nedavna so bile okoliine prve velike jamske izmere e ne dovolj poznane. Gre za t.im. F ercherjevo izmero v zimi 1833: v sodelovanju med Rudnikim uradom v Idriji in Jamsko upravo je bila izmerjena celotna do tedaj znana jama. Na podlagi dokumentov iz arhiva Intituta za raziskovanje krasa in napisa v Tartarju (Postojnska jama) je bil mogo prvi vpogled v to zgodbo. Na podlagi izmere je bil svetovan (v dananjih Malih jamah) preboj s pomojo miniranja, ki bi obiskovalcem skrajal pot. Najdeno je bilo pismo datirano s 5. septembrom, ki mee novo lu na ta ru darski podvig v zaetku poletja 1833. V tem pismu Jamska up rava hudo napada Rudarski urad. Zatrjujejo, da bodisi izmera ni bila pravilna ali pa je bil preboj napravljen na napanem mestu. Zato zahtevajo nazaj plailo strokov ter grozijo s preis kavo preko ustrezne instance. Odkriti so bili e trije novi napisi F ercherjeve skupine, v Pisanem rovu in v Starih jamah, eden od samega F ercherja in dva od rudarja Trahe. K ljune besede: zgodovina merjenja jam, F ercher, Postojnska jama, Slovenija. COBISS: 1.01 Abstract: UDC 551.442(497.4 Postojna)(091) Stephan Kempe & Hans-Peter Hubrich & Klaus Suckstor: e story of the 1833 Fercher survey, Postojnska jama, continues: An additional document and newly discovered inscriptions Publications, archived documents and inscriptions help with the reconstruction of the history of Postojnska jama. Until recently, the circumstances of the rst mayor cave survey ever undertaken were not well known. It is the so called F ercher Survey conducted in winter 1833; a cooperation between the Mine Oce in Idrija and the Cave Administration that surveyed the entire cave known at the time. Documents from the Archive of the Karst Research Institute and an inscription in the Tartarus of Postojnska jama gave a rst insight into this story (Kempe, 2005). e survey suggested that (in what is now Male jama) a connection could be blasted to shorten the visitor route. Now a further letter dated 5th September, was found shedding light on this mining attempt begun in sum mer 1833. In the letter the Cave Administration massively attacks the Mine Oce. ey claim that either the survey was not accurate or that the breakthrough was attempted at a wrong site. In conse quence they demanded their expenses back, threatening with an investigation by the precinct administration. We also found three more inscriptions of the F ercher Party, in Pisani rov and in the Old Cave, one by F ercher and two by the miner Tracha. K ey words: history of cave survey, F ercher, Postojnska jama, Slovenia. e reconstruction of the history of the discovery of Postojnska jama rests on the study of publications, ar chived documents and inscriptions in the cave (among others: Shaw, 1992; Shaw & uk, 2002; Kempe, 2003, INTRODUCTION ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 131, L JUBLJANA 2006 1 Institute for Applied Geosciences, University of Technology Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, email: kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de; 2 Am Langenmarkstein 31, D-64686 Lautertal; 3 Rosenweg 42, D-21502 Geesthacht. Received / Prejeto: 08.03.2006

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 132 STEPHAN K EMPE H ANS P ETER H UBRICH & K LAUS S UCKSTOR FF Fig. 1: Reduced map of the Fercher Survey, published by Schaenrath, 1834. Schaenrath reduced the original map to 1/8th and added the surface topography in the lower part of the map. e letters T -S mark the attempted breakthrough between the two passages which today are called M ale jama. e passage O-P is called today Pisani rov. Passage B is the Name Passage in the old part of the cave. e locations of the four known inscriptions of the Fercher Survey team are indicated by arrows. 2005; Kempe et al ., 2004; Kempe & Henschel, 2004). Specically the years immediately aer the discovery of the main passage are not documented clearly in spite of the publications of Volpi (1821), Bronn (1826), Hohen wart (1830, 1832a,b), Schaenrath (1834), and Schmidl (1854, 1858). Particularly the circumstances of the sur vey of the cave in 1833, the so-called F ercher Survey, re mained unknown (F ig. 1). It was the largest highly pro fessional survey conducted up to that point, with the Lee Survey of Mammoth Cave following a year later (Shaw, 1972). e publication of the Tartarus Panel, on which the members of the survey team le their names, gave opportunity to search for associated documents in the archive of the Karst Institute and of the Mines at Idrija. F our letters and notes have been found by the librarian of the Karst Institute, Maja Kranjc. ese German language letters were written in Current handwriting, in use at the time for ocial documents. ese letters have been tran scribed and analyzed (Kempe, 2005). ey show that the Grottenverwaltung (Grotto Commission) had asked the Bergamt (Mining Oce) at Idrija for help with the sur vey. Accordingly the Bergamt had sent Marktscheider

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 133 A N A DDITIONAL D OCUMENT AND N EWL Y D ISCOVERED I NSCRIPTIONS (surveyor) Michael Glantschnigg, Huttmann (mine su pervisor) Johann F ercher, Gehlfe (helper) Aloys Ur bas, F uhrmann (coach man) Johann Leskovitz, Berg mann (miner) Johann Wruss and Bergmann Valentin Tracha to conduct the survey. F ercher, Urbas, Wruss and Tracha inscribed their names during the survey at the south-hand branch of the Tartarus on F ebruary 7 th 1833. Glanschigg and Leskovitz seem not to have been active in the cave. One of the results of the survey was that the two passages, today forming the Male jama, ended very closely to each other. e Grottenverwaltung therefore asked for help once more and the Bergamt sent Tracha on July 11 th with a supply of 50 pounds of black powder in order to open up this blockage between the passages. is attempt, however, failed and the Grottenverwaltung apparently complained about the inaccuracy of the sur vey with the Bergamt. is upset F ercher and he imme diately wrote a rather angry letter on September 8 th to the Bergamt that transmitted it immediately to the Grotten verwaltung (document 986). Now the letter of the Grot tenverwaltung, dated September 5 th was relocated in the Archive of the Karst Institute (Appendix 1) by Trevor Shaw and is transcribed here for the rst time. In addi tion we found three further inscriptions of members of the F ercher party in dierent parts of the cave. e letter is labeled GV 52, GV standing for Grotten verwaltung, dated September 5 th 1833, and is addressed to the lbliche k.k. Bergamt at Idrija, i.e. to the honor able Imperial-Royal Mining Oce at the mercury mine at Idrija. roughout the letter, this address is repeated several times shortened to lbl.. Never a specic person, such as F ercher or Bergrat Prettmann (who signed two of the previous letters from Idrija; Kempe, 2005), is addressed directly. is is a specic characteristic of what is called (derogatorily) Amtsdeutsch, the impersonal style of Ger man-speaking administrations. It signals the power of the speaker as an ocial of state towards a subject. Similarly, the signature of the letter is abstracted; here we think it should be read as Letz or Betz, but it may also be ab breviated and stand for Lenertz, (compare signature be low No 57 GV, Oct. 8 th 1833, in Kempe, 2005), reminding of signatures of medical doctors in todays society. ere are other illegible words in the letter, some of which we were able to deduce from the context, others remain illeg ible; luckily these are not essential for understanding the content. e entire note consists of ca. 2900 letters (with out blanks) but has only eight sentences! Long and com plicated sentences are another feature of Amtsdeutsch and even more so of the written German at the beginning of the 19 th century. Another peculiarity of the letter is the largely missing commas that make reading dicult. In or der to make discussion of the text easier, we have inserted numbers in parentheses at the beginning of each of the eight sentences. e entire letter is carefully craed, starting with some compliments but ending with the demand to re imburse the Grottenverwaltung for the funds spent on the failed Male jama connection. One cannot avoid the impression that the Grottenverwaltung actually tries to blackmail the Mine Oce! Sentence (1) is the opening of the game: It states the fact that the Grottenverwaltung, trusting the F ercher survey, has allowed continued work at the potential connection. We learn that actually three persons are in volved in this work, one mining ocial (Bergbeamter) and two miners (Bergarbeiter). F rom Idrija oce Note 747 we originally thought only one miner (Valentin Tra cha) was commissioned to do this work (Kempe, 2005). We also learn that this work seems to have been going on continuously since early July. Twice the Idrija oce is pacied by expressions like gefllige Mitwirkung and Geflligkeit implying that the Grottenverwaltung is grateful for the help obtained in the matter. Sentence (2) prepares for the attack: It states that the Herr Kreishauptmann (abbreviated) (Graf zu Brandis 4 ) became suspicious (Mitrauen einge t) because the breakthrough hasnt yet been made even though the survey (nach dem Plan) showed only a thin layer (dnne Schicht) which needed re moval. is mistrust was further nourished by remarks of F ercher that he made during his last visit when he commented on the state of progress (Mittheilungen ber den Stand der dieflligen Arbeiten). It is in teresting to note that F ercher here carries the title of a prov. Oberhutmann in contrast to document Idrija 429 in which he is listed simply as Hutmann (Kempe, 2005; Appendix). Possibly F ercher had received a pay 4 Alois Schaenrath dedicated his guide to the cave in which he reproduced the F ercher Survey in 1834 to Seiner Hochund Wohlgeboren Herrn Clemens Grafen zu Brandis, F rei herrn zu Leonburg, F orst und F ahlburg, k.k. wirklichem Km merer Seiner Majestt, Gubernialrath und Kreishauptmann zu Adelsberg; accordingly Brandis was Kreishauptmann and Kommissionsprses in 1834 and most probably also in 1833. T HE LETTER O F THE G ROTTENVERWALTUNG

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 134 STEPHAN K EMPE H ANS P ETER H UBRICH & K LAUS S UCKSTOR FF raise and had advanced from mine supervisor to mine superintendent in the summer of 1833. e prov. in front of the title may be interpreted as provisional. is implies that F ercher had not yet fully attained his new status, and that he might, by the criticism in the letter, have felt that this raise in status could be endan gered, causing him to be specically upset. Sentence (3) shows the ammunition available: e Kreishauptmann asked the county civil engineer (possibly A. Schaenrath) to do a survey of the ongo ing connection job. e engineer made a rough sketch (Croquis) of the situation in the cave that originally accompanied the letter but apparently now is either lost or misplaced. at map showed that the breakthrough attempt was not started at the place suggested by the F ercher Survey. As a consequence the Bergbeamter leading the work was questioned or better interrogat ed (einvernommen). Passage (4) relates what the Bergbeamte said in his defense: He claims that he had been instructed by a Mr. Bergschaer (if this is a title or a family name remains unclear) before he le, that he was to follow only his hearing (sich nur an das Gehr zu halten), because the map may not be trusted entirely. e hearing then led him to the spot where they have started the actual breakthrough attempt. Now the attack commences packed into one very long and winding sentence (5): Even though the Kreishauptmann in his function as the chair of the cave board (Grottenverwaltungskommission) thanks the Bergamt many times (erkennt in vollem Mae die Geflligkeit an) for sending the k k (kaiserlich kniglich) mine o cials to survey the cave and to attempt the breakthrough, a public institution (unter entlicher Aufsicht stehender F ond), such as the cave foundation, cannot possibly pay for a survey which is not correct (Plan der nicht rich tig ist) or for a connection which is guided simply by hearing, because sound may be misguided by the joints in the rock. In other words: the cave administration is boldly asking their money back for both the survey and the mining attempt! F rom Note Idrija 429 we know that the expenses for the survey amounted to 173 f. 32 Kr. 4 or ca. 1750 in todays money and from Note Idrija 747 we learn that Tracha had obtained a minimum of 50 pounds of black powder at 16 f. 40 Kr. (Kempe, 2005). How much the miners were paid, in addition to the powder, is not known, but easily their costs could have doubled the amount charged for the survey. e next sentence (6) is advancing one more argu ment, thereby making the claim inevitable: It explains that the cave administration is fully liable to the province 4 1 f. = 1 Gulden = 60 Kreuzer, Kr. board (Bezirksprsidium) and that they must submit invoices to them according to the bylaws. It would there fore not be possible to justify expenses with such nega tive results and the province board would most probably make those persons accountable (zur Verantwortung ziehen) who carry the responsibility for the failure. is circumstance the mine administration would certainly understand (Es dre der Einsicht des lblichen Berga mtes nicht entgehen). Aer maneuvering the Idrija administration into such a tight corner a helping hand is oered in sentence (7): In order to prevent the investigation by the higher administration it is suggested to the Bergamt that they make those persons accountable (without the pressure of the superior administration) who carry the responsibility for either the inaccuracy of the map or the failure of the breakthrough. ey should also calculate the cost of the connection passage, which so far has not reached more than one Klaer (ca. 2 m) in depth even though the miners have been working in two daily shis. In the nal sentence (8) the cave administration sets a time line for the response: e result of the demanded ocial act (geflligst einzuleitenden Amtshandlung) are to be related as soon as possible (in mglichst krzester Zeitfrist) in order to issue orders that minimize (mind est lastspielige Weise) the costs for the cave fund. All in all, and in spite of the many polite and ow ery phrases, this is a rock-hard letter, very hostile and not at all timid towards the Idrija administration. One has to wonder about it because it must surely pollute any further cooperation between the two administra tions. Aer all, the Idrija mine did not ask for the full expenses of the survey earlier in the year but only for travel expenses (Reisespesen) of the participants (Kempe, 2005). Even if there would be small inaccura cies in the survey, the F ercher map is far superior to the previous F oyker map (about which little is known; Hoh enwart, 1830) that covered the main passage only. Even thinking about demanding this money back is rather unscrupulous. It must have been clear that this letter also ended any further attempt of the Idrija mine sta to open the connection. Apparently the mine administration passed the let ter of the Grottenverwaltung directly to F ercher. His an gry and upset response of September 8 th to the Bergamt that transmitted it in turn to the Grottenverwaltung is preserved (Kempe, 2005, Appendix). In it F ercher avoids any answer with regard to the nancial demands (which probably was the best strategy), rather he points out that the survey was not meant to be of the highest precision and that it was not made to accurately predict the distance between the two passages (simply because it was not known before that they would end so near to

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 135 A N A DDITIONAL D OCUMENT AND N EWL Y D ISCOVERED I NSCRIPTIONS each other). He also points out that the breakthrough might be somewhat longer than expected from the map, but that it will be completed sooner or later. In order to settle the dispute he suggested to the mine administra tion that the passages in question should be resurveyed. is would yield the exact distance to be drilled though. F urthermore he estimated that the break-through could be done at a cost of 50 Gulden per Klaer by two min ers without supervision. is sounded like a very logical plan that, however, was not pursued since the work on the connection apparently was abandoned for several years. In expectation of the visit of Emperor F ranz Jo sef and Empress Elisabeth, March 11 th 1857 the break through was nally completed in 1856 and is about 12 m long (Hitzinger, 1866). It is a pity that we do not know how this dispute be tween the two administrations was nally settled, but one can guess that the mine administration did not refund any of the expenses. Apart from the additional letter, we found further evi dence of the work of the survey team in Postojnska jama itself. ese are three inscriptions, which, together with the Tartarus Panel (Kempe, 2005) form an interesting historic monument. All are written in pencil and rela tively small. e rst inscription, written in Latin letters, was found by us on July 19 th 2005, a few meters beyond the formerly gated entrance to Pisani rov (Colourful Pas sage) on the right-hand side (south-wall), about 1.8 m above the oor. It was written by Johann F ercher himself (F ig. 2) in three lines and reads: Aufgenohmen in Monat Jner 1833 Johann F ercher Aloys Urbas, followed by a small ourish. In modern German it should be spelled aufgenommen im Monat Jnner 1833, with Jnner being the Austrian equivalent of the High-German Jan uar. Translated, the inscription reads: surveyed in the month of January, 1833. On the Tartarus Panel (Kempe, 2005) F ercher used the same term aufnehmen for to survey. ere the inscription is dated to F ebruary 7 th 1833, showing that the Pisani rov was surveyed earlier and that the survey party apparently worked their way inward, including all the side passages. It is interesting that only two of the survey team le their names here, implying that they may have split up in groups to proceed more rapidly. e second inscription is found a few meters inside the Pisani rov entrance on the same wall (F ig. 3). It is written in Current and reads: Traha Valentin Zimmer mann und Hauer in Idria (?), Zinnober(sublimierer) with the last part of the word being almost illegible due to dirt from a hand imprint of a careless visitor. It is in teresting that Tracha spells his name Traha here but in the inscription of F igure 4 he writes Troha, while in the documents he is clearly spelled as Tracha. Troha would be the correct spelling in Slovenian while the same name in German would be spelled Tracha (pers. com. N EWL Y DISCOVERED INSCRIPTIONS O F THE FERCHER S URVE Y Fig. 2: Pencil inscription of Fercher and Urbas on the south wall at the beginning of Pisani rov, ca. 10 m from the former gate. (Photo: Kempe). Fig. 3: Pencil inscription of T racha on the south wall at the beginning of Pisani rov, ca. 5 m from the former gate. Part of the inscription has been obliterated by a hand imprint by a careless visitor. (Photo: Kempe).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 136 logical. Here Tracha repeated once more his profession, but he does not do us the favour repeating the cinnabarword, instead he states participated in the survey of the cave. Interestingly he uses the word Vermessung instead of Aufnahme as F ercher did. We carefully inspected the walls of the entrance to the Nemki rov, hoping to nd a F ercher signature as well, but failed to do so. Possibly this passage was among the rst to be surveyed and F ercher did not have the idea as yet to leave a signature. STEPHAN K EMPE H ANS P ETER H UBRICH & K LAUS S UCKSTOR FF e newly deciphered letter from the Grottenverwal tung to the Idrija administration lls an important gap regarding the circumstances of the F ercher Survey and the failed attempt to break through the blockage of the Mala jama in 1833. In a sense it is very modern, since it is an attempt to claim something like a warranty, asking back money that as is claimed was spent on a bad product! e letter also throws light on the structure of the administration at the time and how ocial supervi sion was used as a powerful threat against an opponent. It is a pity that the story remains somewhat open-ended, but hope exists, that one or the other document will still turn up, illuminating the circumstances of the F ercher Survey further. It would be particularly interesting to nd the two sketches which originally accompanied two of the notes. e nding of three more inscriptions of the F erch er Party also gives hope that eventually even more epi graphs may be located, possibly one at every side-passage entrance. Since the pencil signatures are not very con spicuous, they may have been overlooked so far. e four inscriptions discovered as yet, are the most verbal of all of the inscriptions, carrying real information with regard to the history of the cave, not just stating that Mr. or Mrs. So-and-so have been there. C ONCLUSIONS A. Kranjc). e translation of the inscription is: Valentin Tracha, carpenter and miner from Idrija, cinnabar sub limer. It is a pity that the inscription does not carry a date, but Tracha may have visited this part of the cave aer the survey, intending to see it as well, possibly not having been part of the survey party. It is further inter esting that he lists himself with his professions; appar ently Tracha was a carpenter by trade and not a miner in the rst place. Cinnabar is the main mercury mineral mercury sulphide (HgS) that was mined at Idrija. Ap parently Tracha carried an additional mining title, being responsible for the sublimation process of the cinnabar or its quality supervision. e third inscription is also by Tracha ( F ig. 4), but it is situated in the Old Adelsberger Grotte, the Imenski rov. In the attempt (work still in progress) to document all of the epigraphs in the historic section of the cave on July 21 st 2005, we divided the walls of the passage into pan els, counting them from the entrance (Panel 1) to the end. Among the many inscriptions of Panel 9 such as those of Schaenrath 1829 and Lwengreif 1817, about 150 m from the passage entrance, Trochas inscription written in Current is found, inscribed in a nice one-line frame, similar to the frame drawn around the F ercher party in scription on the Tartarus Panel. e text has three lines and reads: Valentin Traha Zimmermann und Hauer zu Idria bei der Vermessung der Grotte teilgenommen. e last line was deciphered with some diculty but is in itself Fig. 4: Pencil inscription of T racha on Panel 9 in the Old Cave (Imenski rov). (Photo: Kempe).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 137 e authors thank Maja Kranjc and Dr. Trevor Shaw for providing the documents for this study. anks are due also to Dr. Tadej Slabe, Director of the Karst Research Institute for organizing the access to the Old Cave on July 21 st 2005. Stanislav Glaar guided us (S.K. and H.P.H. plus our students) on July 19 th 2005 through the cave when the pictures of the Pisani rov inscriptions were made. Mr. H. S, St. Marien, sterreich, helped in the interpretation of some of the Current abbreviations. Dr. M. S. Werner, Hilo, Hawaii, helped in editing. A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS Bronn, H.C., 1826: Briefe aus der Schweiz, Italien und Sdfrankreich im Sommer 1824. Heidelberg, 652 pp, 4 Lithographs. Hitzinger, P., ca. 1866: Beschreibung der berhmten Adelsberger Grotte in Krain; nach der vom k.k. Kreis-Ingenier Alois Schaenrath verfassten Beschreibung neuerlich bearbeitet und mit Zugabe einer Einleitung und einer Beschreibung der neuen Maria Anna-Grotte von P. Hitzinger, dann eines Situationsplanes der ganzen Grotte. Maximilian Schfer, Adelsberg, 32 pp. Hohenwart, F Graf von, 1830, 1832a, 1832b: Wegweiser fr die Wanderer in der berhmten Adelsberger und Kronprinz F erdinands-Grotte bey Adelsberg in Krain; als Erklrung der von Herrn Aloys Schaen rath, k.k. Kreis-Ingenieur in Adelsberg, gezeichne ten Ansichten dieser Grotte. Wien, J. P. Sollinger, 3 Vol., 16 + 9 + 14 pp and 21 copperplates (Reprint 1978: ajn, S., ed.; Introduction: Habe, F & lenc, J.: Postojnska jama; 1. ed., Postojnska Jama THO; Postojna; 32 pp Introduction, folio). Kempe, S., 2003: Die alten Inschrien der Adelsberger Grotte / Postojnska Jama. Die Hhle, 54(2): 36-44. Kempe, S., 2005: e inscriptions of the Tartarus P a nel and the 1833 F ercher-survey, Postojnska jama. Acta carsologica, 34/1 (13):221-235. Kempe, S. & Henschel, H.-V., 2004: Alois Schaenraths zerbrochene Pyramide (Postojnska jama), ein Zeuge glazialer Hhlenvereisung? Mitt. Verb. dt. Hhlenu. Karstforsch 50(3): 76-81. Kempe, S., Bauer, I., Dirks, H., & Henschel H.-V. (2004): Schaenraths Inscription Column in Pisani rov, Postojnska jama. Acta carsologica, 33/2: 299-312. Schaenrath, A., 1834: Beschreibung der berhmten Grotte bei Adelsberg in Krain. I. Edlen v. Klein mayr, Laibach, 32 pp, 2 Lithographs. Schmidl, A., 1854: Die Grotten und Hhlen von Adels berg, Lueg, Planina und Laas, Text und Atlas. Wil helm Braumller, Wien, 316 pp, 15 Plates. Schmidl, A., 1858: Wegweiser in die Adelsberger Grotte und die benachbarten Hhlen des Karstes. 2. Au., C. Gerolds Sohn, Wien, 93 pp, 3 Lithographs. Shaw, T.R., 1992: History of Cave Science, the Explora tion and Study of Limestone Caves, to 1900. 2 nd ed., Sydney Speleological Soc., Broadway, New South Wales, Australia, 338 pp. Shaw, T., & uk, A., 2002: Royal and other noble visitors to Postojnska jama. Acta carsologica 31(1) (Suppl. 1): 106 pp. Volpi, G. de, 1821: ber ein bey Adelsberg neuentdeck tes Palotherium. Maldinische Schrien, Triest, 31 pp, 2 Plates. R E F ERENCES A N A DDITIONAL D OCUMENT AND N EWL Y D ISCOVERED I NSCRIPTIONS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 138 e following text has been transcribed from German Current handwriting. Numbering of the sentences and completions of words are inserted in parentheses. e German is very old-fashioned, enriched with expressions from mining language. It is not possible to translate the text in a way reproducing the style of the letter. Moreover it has orthographic (compared to todays German) and grammatical mistakes; commas are largely missing. F or an explanation of the contents and meaning please refer to the text of the paper. GV 52, den 5.9.1833 An das lbliche k.k. Bergamt zu Idria (1) Im Vertrauen auf die Richtigkeit des durch gefllige Mitwirkung des lbl.(lichen Bergamtes) auf genommenen Planes der hiesigen Grotte und auf die Zweckmigkeit der Einleitungen des durch die Gefl ligkeit des lbl.(ichen Bergamtes) hierher abgesandten Bergbeamten mit 2 Bergarbeitern zur Ausfhrung des von der Grottenverwaltung beabsichteten Durchschlags hat man die Arbeiten bisher ihren Gang fortgehen las sen. (2) Die Lnge ihrer Dauer im Vergleiche mit der dnnen Schicht die nach dem Plan zu durchschlagen war hat dem Herrn Kreishptm (Kreishauptmann) einiges Mitrauen in diese Arbeit einget, welche durch die Mittheilungen des Herrn prov.(isorisch) Oberhutmanns Joh. F ercher bei seiner letzten Anwesenheit hier ber den Stand der dieflligen Arbeiten sehr vermehrt wurde. (3) Der zust(ndige) Kshptm (Kreishauptmann) fand sich nun veranlasst den hiesigen Kreisingenieur zu beaura gen ber den Stand der Arbeit einen Plan aufzunehmen, und da dieser, wie aus beil.(iegendem) Croquis ersehen werden wolle, entnehmen lt, da die Arbeit ganz auf einer anderen Seite begonnen wurde als wo die bereits zu verbindenden Grotten zusammen treen, so wurde der leitende Beamte ber die Ursache davon einvernommen. (4) Er gab als Grund dafr an, da er von Herrn Berg schaer (?) vor seiner Abreise die Weisung erhalten habe, sich nur an das Gehr zu halten, indem der Plan nicht ganz verllich sey, ... da das Gehr ihn zu der Stelle, wo er anng, geleitet habe, so habe er seine Arbeit dort begon nen. (5) Der zust(ndige) Kshptm (Kreishauptmann) als Vorstand der Grottenverwaltungskom (mission) erkennt in vollem Mae die Geflligkeit des lbl.(ichen Bergam tes) in Absendung zweier k k Bergbeamten bei Aufnahme der Grotte das Vorangehen des Durchschlags, kann aber dabei nicht umhin lebha zu bedauern und dem lbl. (ichen Bergamte) sein Befremden auszudrcken, da ein unter entlicher Aufsicht stehender F ond, wie es der Grottenfond ist, so bedeutend in Anspruch genommen werde sollte, um einen Plan zu liefern der nicht richtig ist, und zweitens auf das Gerathewohl hin nach dem bei Klen so leicht zu tuschenden Gehr einen Durch schlag vorzunehmen. (6) Es dre der Einsicht des lbl. (Bergamtes) nicht entgehen, da die Grottenverwaltung nicht im Stande seyn wrde diese fr ihren F ond nahm hae Auslage bei solchem Resultate zu rechtfertigen, um das (?) B(ezirks?)prsidium, wenn ihm die Rechnun gen, wie die Statuten der Verwaltungskom(mission) es vorschreiben, vorgelegt werden, wahrscheinlich welche Schuld daran tragen, zur Verantwortung ziehen werde. (7) Um dieser Compromittierung vor hheren Behrden vorzubeugen, wolle es dem lbl.(Bergamt) gefllig seyn, die Herren Bergbeamten denen entweder die Unrichtig keit des Planes oder der Ausfhrung des Durchschlags zur Last fllt, schon dermahl 5 wo es noch ohne Einu der oberen Behrden geschehen kann darber zur Ve rantwortung zu ziehen, und dabei auch geflligst die Quantitt der bisherigen Leistung bei dem Durchschlage, die kaum eine Vertiefung von einer Klaer betrgt, mit den Kosten dafr, die tglig doppelte Tagschichte fr jeden Arbeiter betragen, in Verhltnis zu stellen. (8) Es wird sich erbethen das Resultat der geflligst einzuleiten den Amtshandlung in mglichst krzester Zeitfrist eher mitzutheilen um so schnell als mglich Verfgungen zu erlassen um auf eine fr den Grottenfond mindest last spielige Weise das beabsichtigte Ziel zu erreichen. Signature: Letz or Betz or Letzner (compare Kempe, 2005) Adel(sberg) den 5.9. (1)833 A PPENDI X STEPHAN K EMPE H ANS P ETER H UBRICH & K LAUS S UCKSTOR FF 5 dermahl = dermal: Austrian for jetzt



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E. A. M ARTEL THE TRAVELLER WHO ALMOST BECAME AN A CADEMICIAN E. A. M ARTEL POPOTNIK KI JE SKORAJ POSTAL LAN A KADEMIJE Pierre-Olaf S CHUT 1 Izvleek UDK 551.44(44):929 Martel A. Pierre-Olaf Schut: E. A. Martel, popotnik, ki je skoraj postal lan Akademije Edouard-Alfred Martel je ivel v Parizu. Tako kot njegov oe je tudiral pravo. Ta drubeni poloaj, oetova dediina, ni mogel izpolniti njegovih elja po slavi na polju znanosti, za katero je sodil, da je vir napredka lovetva. Zelo rad je poto val in ta popotovanja so bila zadoenje njegovim eljam in so visoko presegala njegovo pariko advokatsko prakso. Skoraj po nakljuju je naletel na, kar je sam kmalu uzakonil kot novo vejo naravoslovnih znanosti speleologijo, to je preuevanje nara vnih podzemeljskih jam. Ali se bo Martel, popotnik z visokimi cilji, uspel odlikovati tudi v znanosti? Biograja tega moa, pod prta z analizo njegovih del in njegovega dopisovanja, prikazuje ivljenjsko pot turista, ki je elel biti priznan kot znanstvenik. Biograja prikazuje pot tega samouka, ki se je od anonim nega lana F rancoskega planinskega drutva (Club Alpin F ran ais) povzpel do kandidata za Akademijo znanosti, to je prav v najvije znanstvene kroge. Prikazana je tudi razlika, ki jo je ta znani mo ustvaril med turistinimi izleti in raziskovanjem v znanstvene namene. K ljune besede: zgodovina speleologije, turizem, znanost, Martel, F rancija. COBISS: 1.01 Abstract UDC 551.44(44):929 Martel A. Pierre-Olaf Schut: E. A. Martel, the traveller who almost be come an academian Edouard-Alfred Martel lives in Paris. Like his father he stud ies to become a lawyer. is social position, fruit of the pater nal heritage, does not full his desire to become famous in the eld of science, which he considers as the source of progress for mankind. He has a passion for travelling and, in the course of his journeys, nds a way to satisfy his ambitions, which run far beyond his Parisian legal practice. Almost by chance, he comes across what he would soon institutionalize as a new branch of natural science: speleology, that is to say the study of natural, underground caves. Will Martel, the ambitious traveller, man age to distinguish himself in the scientic world? e mans biography, supported by an analysis of his writings and his cor respondence, illustrates the career of a tourist who wished to be acknowledged as a scientist. Showing the anonymous mem ber of the Club Alpin F ranais rising up to being candidate at the Academy of sciences, this biography illustrates the path of a self-made man right up to the highest spheres of science. It also demonstrates the distinction this illustrious man created between trips for tourist and explorations dedicated to scien tic purposes. K ey words: History of speleology, Martel, F rance, tourism, sci ence. e discovery and exploration of the furthest and most inhospitable areas of the world signals the end of the glo bal conquest in the 19 th and 20 th centuries. ese explo rations had been led by colonists and soldiers, but also by scientists and sometimes even plain tourists. What ever their motivations, these men all opened up new INTRODUCTION ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 149, L JUBLJANA 2006 1 University Lyon I, pierre_olaf@hotmail.com Received / Prejeto: 21.07.2005

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 150 spaces and gave them meaning according to the way they viewed them. is is where the travellers personal ity plays an essential part. e underground world is one of these inhospitable places which became the objects of systematic exploration from the end of the 19 th century. is happened under the inuence of a man called E.A. Martel (1859 1938). 1938). 1938). rough a biography of this active and somewhat ambiguous character both a tourist by temperament and a scientist by inclination we shall try to understand the meaning E.A. Martel gives to caves: are they to be considered as jewels for regional tourism; as privileged standpoints from which to observe natural phenomena: or both? e scientic aspirations of a man who would turn out to be the world specialist in underground research limited by his social position and his inclination for tourism were to give a specic meaning to caves and the underground world for times to come. Martels passion for caves is an opportunity for us to search into both the development of tourism and the many scientic discoveries of the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. We shall analyze, in the course of his lifes events, the active role he played in the development of tourism and how he somewhat uncertainly went up the high spheres of science. e biographic perspective leads us to use a corpus of documents essentially made of Martels own publica tions 1 and his correspondence 2 1 F or a complete bibliography of E.-A. Martel, see: Chabert, C., Courval, M. de, 1971: E.-A. Martel 1859-1938 Bibliographie. Travaux scientiques du Club Alpin F ranais, Paris. 2 E.-A. Martels correspondence is published in: Andr, D., Cas teret, M., Carlier, P., Gautier, A., Kalliatakis, G., Renouard, C. & L., 1997: La Plume et les goures. Association E.-A. Mar tel, Hyelzas-Meyrueis. e cradle which received young Edouard-Alfred in 1859 in Pontoise, Paris area, belongs to an upper middle-class family. His father is a lawyer. rough hard work and a denite sense of money saving, he has managed to haul himself up to this conquering social class of the 19 th cen tury. His own father before him had also worked hard to ensure the future of his family. According to the inheri tance strategy, Edouard-Alfreds father expects his son to follow in his steps and keep taking the family still a little higher up the social hierarchy. Respectful of parental authority, the young man ac cepts his fate. He studies law, becomes a clerk in 1881 then graduates and takes up the function of lawyer to the Paris court of appeal in 1883. When, soon aerwards, he buys his Parisian practice, it seems like the natural re ward for several generations of hard working lawyers in the Martel family. To imitate the higher social classes, his family oen goes on holiday trips (Boyer, 1999). At times when the fa ther, dedicated to moneymaking, is too busy working, he sends o his wife and son alone. ey follow the classic itineraries of the time, visiting Chamonix and Switzer land or the Pyrenees, which attract increasing numbers of visitors, thanks to their spas. en they start travelling abroad. Aer Germany and Austria, E.A. Martel makes the classic trip to Italy (Boyer, 2000). He is just a child, but his travel journal testies of a denite taste for picturesque landscapes, which seem to impress him more than any of works of art seen in muse ums or churches. is taste for natural beauties leads him to join the ranks of the Club Alpin F ranais. e latter, a scholarly society, gathers together middle-class people, tourists and scientists around a common passion for the mountain environment. Together they work for its development, especially from the point of view of tour ism (Rauch, 1986; Hoibian, 2000; Lejeune, 1988). Soon Edouard-Alfred takes an active part in the activities of the club. In the Austrian Alps, for example, he climbs the Gross Venediger (3673 meters), the Dachstein (2996 me ters) and the Gross Glockner (3789 meters) one aer the other in dicult weather conditions. He also takes part in the social life of the club, giving conferences. Even though his professional obligations forbid him to travel as much as he would like to, Martel is able to talk about many places around the globe as he reads ex tensively, especially the Petermanns G eographische M it teilungen as well as the T our du M onde magazines. His keen interest in geography appears very early in his life probably sparked by his family trips and he later deepens his knowledge through reading. In high school he gets the rst prize of the Paris schools geogra phy contest, which gives him the opportunity to join the prestigious Socit de Gographie. e latters policy is to promote travelling in view of developing geographic knowledge. Martels own knowledge was added to a to pographers skill, which led him to work at map adjust ments in the Pyrenees and the Esterel. B OURGEOIS CHILDHOOD P IERRE O LA F S CHUT

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 151 P ICTURESQUE C EVENNES In 1883, Martel discovers a region of F rance totally ig nored by tourists, despite geographer A. Lequeutres praise of it: the Cevennes. Tourists tend to all follow the same tracks, trying to see what ought to be seen and thus missing unknown picturesque places. F rom his very rst, short stay in the Cevennes, E.A. Martel happens to row down the Tarn gorges. He is extremely impressed by what he sees: a lovely stream falling into the narrow gorges of a canyon, tall gures carved in the rock and even some mediaeval vestiges. is discovery was like a revelation to him, inviting him to write and share his enthusiasm with many. He writes an article for the annual publica tion of the Club Alpin F ranais. Aer praising the beauty of Haut Tarn, he tries to reorient the traditional tourist axis towards the Cevennes. He writes: It is a shame to see, year aer year, herds of F rench tourists invade areas turned fashionable by the English, when places like Haut Tarn remain ignored and neglected (Martel, 1883). e following year Martel goes back to that region. He discovers the Causse Noir and uncovers a natural site: Montpellier-le-Vieux (Martel, 1884). Heaps of stone blocks so strangely shaped as to appear hand carved, to the point that the name of the place evokes the picture of a long forgotten city. F rom then on, his admiration for the area is such that he starts ocially promoting it with tourists. As a spokesman to the Parisian travellers, an ex perienced lecturer and an inspired writer, he starts a real campaign in favour of the Lozre area (Poujol, 1999). e climax of this wave of enthusiasm is indisput ably the publication of his book, L es Cvennes, in 1890. is work wins over a large number of readers always on the look-out for new journeys and practical books to organize them. e demand is such that it is reprinted several times. As luck would have it, the publishing and success of the book take place just before the setting up of an association which will be unequalled in its work for tourism: the Touring-Club de F rance. Martel naturally becomes one of its rst members and, due to the suc cess of his book, he enjoys a special status. Inevitably, the Touring-club de F rance is inuenced by his enthusiasm and directs its interest towards the regions Martel favours and promotes: the Esterel all the way to the Cevennes. Supported by the constant growth of the Touring-Club, his campaign is a success. But reducing his role to that of a propagandist would be too limiting. His true merit is to have uncovered the natural beauties of a region. Aer the Tarn gorges and Montpellier-le-Vieux, Martels attention turns to the dark caves that open up in several surrounding places. In Languedoc, the explora tion of the Demoiselles cave by Marsolier des Vivetires (1785) had contributed to the tourist fame of the area. Well, the caves in Cevennes are shining with decorations and, entering them, Martel immediately senses their po tential in terms of tourism development. erefore he immediately starts planning this. e Dargilan cave is one of the rst ones he explores methodically in 1888. What he sees there makes him most enthusiastic. Martels own reputation contributes to the fame of the Cvennes. e whole area soon becomes a favourite for the larger public. e F rench Touring Club, inspired by E.A. Martels writings, organizes there its rst cycling trip. A few years later it remarks that the whole area had beneted from a growing tourist success. Martels work begins with the discovery of the Cev ennes in the early 1880s and stops only at his death. In deed his last book, Causses et Cvennes, an updating of the rst one, is published at a time when his health is already declining. e man is responsible for revealing the most popular tourist sites of the region. His unceasing work was consecrated by many trophies. But his enduring love for that place also pulled him into another adventure, one which he had aspired to since early childhood. Martels interest for natural sites and tourism is mixed with a desire to understand the world in which he lives. Since an early age, as an inheritor of A. Comtes positivist philosophy, he has been especially sensitive to scientic progress and the understanding of natural phenomena. is is the reason why he reads so much. He reads mag azines like L a Nature, which informs him of the latest discoveries, as well as many scientic publications from scholarly societies. us, though a self-taught man, he is perfectly aware of the latest acquisitions of knowl edge in many scientic elds. F or Martel this interest for science does not simply reect a strong attraction; it is perceived as a path that will help him realize his full potential and deepest ambitions. He wants to ac quire knowledge, but he also and mostly wants to be acknowledged for his work. However, whereas moun tain tourism suits his social position, can his excessive scientic ambition which we shall now study in detail A GREAT DISCOVER Y? E. A. M ARTEL THE TRAVELLER WHO ALMOST BECAME AN A CADEMICIAN

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 152 adjust to the Parisian lawyers hard working life he has inherited? e whole adventure starts in a Cvennes cave the Nabrigas cave that Martel has heard of from his guide, H. Causse. Causse was enthusiastic about the potential scien tic interest of the prehistoric vestiges he had found there. As a matter of fact, since the beginning of the century, the cave had regularly been visited by famous palaeontolo gists and historians like N. Joly, M. de Serres, P. Cazalis de F ondouce and E. Cartailhac (Andr, 1999), but this does not deter Martel. He is extremely keen on this new science that keeps revealing information relative to the history of mankind. Martel, young, curious and ambitious, sees here an opportunity to bring his own contribution to science. is is how he starts working at excavations with the help of his brother-in-law, the geologist Louis de Launay. e latter nds part of a human jaw in a cave where many ves tiges of URSUS speleus had already been discovered, thus conrming that the cave had been inhabited by men in the Palaeolithic era. Martel is enthused by this rst dis covery and throws himself into the work with redoubled vigour until he nds pieces of pottery. F rom then on, he senses that this is his opportunity to contribute mean ingfully to scientic progress. His aim is to demonstrate through his ndings that men in the Palaeolithic era mas tered the art of pottery. Prehistory had been especially fashionable since the early 1860s (Groenen, 1994). Even though palaeontology had been legitimized by G. Cuvier, at the end of the 18 th century, the religious taboo linked to the existence of a form of evolving mankind kept pushing o further ocial study in Prehistory for half a century. Consequently, in the last third of the 19 th century, discov eries are many, contributing to the celebrity of the great characters standing for it. Soon Martel gets in touch with the most famous professors in order to present his work, conrm his hy potheses and get their support. When his work is done, his rst report to the Academy of Science is read out by A. de Quatrefages. During the sitting following this pre sentation, E. Cartailhac answers E.A. Martel and L. de Launay, refuting their conclusions. Martel lashes back by publishing several articles answering the experts points one by one. Only academic customs manage to put an end to the debate. Martels penetration of the prehistori ans circle is now compromised. Aware of it, he turns his back on that science, but several people in that eld will keep a grudge against him. is episode is evidence both of Martels pugnacity and of his will to become famous through scientic dis coveries. It also shows how dicult such a task was to be. Well, if Prehistory, which had fascinated him so much up till then, rejected him, never mind! is was not going to dishearten him. ere were many other sciences and he would nd his own somehow. is sudden change of course shows not only how interested he was in science in general, but also how much he craved for acknowl edgement from the highest scientic circles. Soon Martel nds interest in something else: cave study. His journeys in the Cvennes and the excavation work in Nabrigas had taken him into a dark world that was only waiting for the lights of science to be shed on to it. Earlier on, as he was touring through the Causses, he had wondered about one of the many mysteries of the underground world: hydrogeology. In 1884 E.A. Martel had written: How many mine explosives should be used, how many dangers should be faced, in order to discover the capillaries and reservoirs of the Causses and solve the mystery of the communication between the swallowholes and the valley caves? Who knows if some day, a brave explorer will extract from these limestone plateaux the secrets of their hydrography. (Martel, 1884). Little did he know then that he himself would be that brave explorer a few years later. Martels new vocation can be understood on various levels. One thing is sure: this new path was all the more attractive to him as it synthesized his deepest aspirations. Since early childhood he had been a dedicated traveller and this interest was conrmed in the context of the Club Alpin F ranais. Also as a tourist always on the lookout for picturesque landscapes, he nds under ground level the change of scenery and the natural beauties that have al ways fascinated him and that make this region so lovable to him. Lastly, as a potential scientist, he is facing uncov ered mysteries in a eld which has hardly been touched upon in Austria, but which seems to be starting to interest F rench science too. Indeed, in a book published in 1887, the eminent geologist, A. Daubre, had opened the way to hydrogeology by showing the relationship between the localisation of water, its movements and the geological structures. In the summer 1888, Martel starts on his rst un derground campaign. His objectives then are to cross the Bramabiau abyss and explore the Dargilan cave (Martel, C AVE STUD Y P IERRE O LA F S CHUT

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 153 1888). is plan testies again to the perfect mixture of his many interests in one and the same activity: as he draws a precise map of the cave and lists all its beauties, the tting out of the cave can be set into motion for the greatest benet of the Cvennes. As for the Bramabiau abyss, it is a hydrological special feature as well as a re markably picturesque site. Next to Mont Aigoual, a small stream of water sinks underground and seems to reap pear 440 meters further and 90 meters deeper. Everybody assumes that these two streams are one and the same, but E.A. Martel demonstrates it irrevocably by following the water upstream. In his report of this experiment, he makes interesting remarks regarding underground water circulation. e success met during this rst campaign encour ages Martel to persevere along those lines. He soon gets in touch with A. Daubre in order to have his opinion concerning his writings and also because the man is a member of the Academy of Science and, as such, can present his notes to his fellow academicians in his name. Indeed thanks to the mans support, he can publish his rst reports to the Academy of science and develops his study of the underground. At rst he concentrates on the Cvennes and Causses region, but then considers doing the same sort of work abroad. F irst because this would allow him to make comparisons and therefore generalize his results and then because it would keep him in touch with his predecessors in underground study, especially in Austria. His acquaintances make it possible for him to set up a scientic project sponsored by the Ministry of Public Education. rough this project he meets his Austrian counterparts in the Austrian Karst. us completing his experience, bibliography and knowledge, E.A. Martel becomes an authentic expert in limestone massif hydrol ogy. Aer six search campaigns in F rance and studies in the caves of Belgium, Greece and Austria, Martel decides to publish a synopsis of his work in a book entitled L es Abmes, in 1894. In this book, he does not just report the results of six years research, but tries to put forth the ba sis of a new branch of natural sciences: speleology or the science of caves. e very word speleology is brand new. Mar tel claims it was created by prehistorian E. Rivire. e Greek root spelaion meaning cave and logos, meaning discourse, give a scientic ring to the name of the prac tice. Martel denes a vast program for this new science. Subjects appear according to his personal logic. He men tions hydrology, geology and mineralogy, meteorology and topography, which are all elds in which he has al ready been distinguished. Next to these are a few specic aspects which either interest him personally or have been the object of subsidy requests to the Ministery of Public Education, like agriculture and public hygiene. Martels denition also includes elds like fauna, ora, prehistory and palaeontology which brings everyone together by common consensus and through which he gets the sup port of famous scientists who have already worked in the underworld, like botanists and archaeologists (Gauchon, 1997). is sense of compromise is based on a desire to see speleology obtain full status as a science and more spe cically as a branch of natural sciences. e whole pro cess was quite a touchy thing considering that the man was standing alone and had met with a few disappoint ments in the past. However, he now feels condent that he has found his own true path. Having associated his name to a specic eld of research, his personal full ment and acknowledgment by the highest scientic in stitutions and especially the Academy of Science has to go through the legitimization of speleology, a science of which he would forever remain the precursor. But the point then was: could a Parisian lawyer, a tourist, create a science? e cultural atmosphere of the late 19 th century is favour able to the development of sciences. More than ever, sci ence is synonymous with progress in the widest sense of the term. Nevertheless society has its own ways and Martel knows it. He uses this knowledge to get the means to acquire the much coveted status. His strategy is devel oped on several levels that build up progressively. F irst, aware of the fact that he cannot achieve his aim alone, E.A. Martel, aer publishing L es Abmes, decides to cre ate a Socit de Splologie. His book ensures both the denition of speleology and its promotion. Its suc cess conrms Martels status as an expert in the eld and makes it possible trustfully to consider support for the new Society. So in the year following the publication of his book, he starts recruiting the founder members of the Society. On September 15, 1894, Martel sends o a mailing to individuals and societies and publishes the same letter in T HE LEGITIMIZATION O F SPELEOLOG Y AND THE CONQUEST O F THE SCIENTI F IC WORLD E. A. M ARTEL THE TRAVELLER WHO ALMOST BECAME AN A CADEMICIAN

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 154 several scholarly magazines like the Bulletin de la Socit G ologique de France and the Revue dAnthropologie. In return Martel nds 121 founder members ready to sup port the creation of the Socit de Splologie on January 1 st 1895. As a lawyer living in Paris, he is a man of many connections. Being supported by celebrities in the world of science like Dr Blanchard, member of the Academy of Medicine or G. Vallot, founder of the Observatory of the Mount Blanc and the friend of inuential politi cians like the deputy F Deloncle is assuredly a strong advantage for this new scholarly society. In the rst few years, the number of its members increases regularly. Martel does not limit membership to the F rench territory. Indeed, as opposed to many scholarly societies, the name of the Socit de Splologie does not imply any geographical limitations. Martel has obviously un derstood that science can only be an international af fair. F rom the very early days, he attracts into his society foreign counterparts he had a chance to work with, like Greek and Austrian researchers. Later his many missions in England, Russia, the United States, Italy and Spain give him opportunities to make useful contacts and attract more members. e way he went about it has been called a true international strategy (Shaw, 1988). As a matter of fact, in 1895, one fourth of the Society members comes from foreign countries, numbers grow up to one third in 1904 and then remain in this proportion. is rep resentation contributes to the credibility of the Society in F rance and to its recognition worldwide, thanks to a widespread diusion of its works. F rom the very beginning of the Society, E.A. Mar tel creates a review in which he publishes reports from its members research. e Latin title of the review, Spe lunca stresses its scientic character. It is entirely edited by E.A. Martel himself. Spelunca soon turns out to be the main part of the Society activity, but this did not happen by chance. Martel is well aware that magazines are the perfect vehicle in the intellectual spheres of the late 19 th century. ey stress the legitimacy of a group and make their publishers and writers famous (Prochasson, 1991). Besides the publication of magazines, Martel takes part in many congresses in wich he explains what spele ology is. ese are perfect communication places for an interested public. ey are aimed at an audience from vari ous intellectual spheres, which contributes to the legitimi zation of sciences and groups. is is how, in 1893, Martel had announced the publication of his book L es Abmes, by presenting a memoir on speloelogy at a congress orga nized by the Association pour lAvancement des Sciences in Besanon. Every year, from 1896 onwards, speleology is represented at the Congrs des socits savantes through a couple of members from the Socit de Splologie. However Martels battlelines would not be complete without speleology pushing open the doors of University. Indeed since its reformation, university has become the most favoured place for developing scientic research. In those days, the Sorbonne was inaugurating new cours es in new subjects. E.A. Martel takes advantage of this opportunity. F rom 1901 he teaches a class on Under ground Geography e recent appearance of physical geography and its development at university may appear to Martel as an entrance door to this world. Indeed by then he was famous as a geographer, not only for his work about the Cvennes, but also as a member of the Socit de Gographie. As a matter of example, the fa mous geographer O. Reclus asked for his services to com plete his major work, L a G rande G ographie, published in 1911 and 1914. With regard to these realizations added to the sheer hard work of its promoter, speleology seems to acquire some destination or at least be acknowledged. Its spokes man benets from it and by the end of the century he has become a celebrity. e Comit des Travaux Historiques et Scientiques invites him to give a talk on speleology at their congress in 1899. He speaks aer Mr Loude who talks about X rays and before Mr Lumire who presents his study on the photography of colours. Honoured and acknowledged by his peers, Martel feels ready to ask for the consecration he has always aspired to: a seat at the Academy of sciences. Martel always attached a major importance to the Acad emy of Sciences (Choppy, 1999). Even though the least of his explorations is the object of several reports and publications; even though he regularly writes columns in L a G ographie, a scientic journal, as well as more popular magazines like L a Nature and is published by several tourist magazines like the Annuaire du Club Al pin Franais, the Revue du T ouring-club de France, the T our du M onde or Causses et Cvennes, E.A. Martel has a special reverence for the old institution. is is where he always sends the very rst reports of his discoveries. By the time he applies for a seat there, he has sent 82 reports, 66 of which have been published. e Academy has hon oured Martel with the Gay prize of physical geography as a tribute to his work, L es Abmes in 1894 and with the Grand Prix des Sciences Physiques in 1907. T HE A CADEM Y P IERRE O LA F S CHUT

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 155 is success leads him to believe that he can apply for the seat le vacant by the death of J. Tannery in 1910. To this eect he writes a letter to the Academy on Decem ber 11 of that year, but his application is turned down. In 1911, in order to prepare his next application, Martel writes out a document in which he presents a detailed account of his work and publications. He applies for a vacant seat in the free academicians section in F ebruary 1913, but there again, he is turned down. at same year in May he applies for the seat le vacant by the death of E. Cailletet, only to be refused again. Aer this third failure, E.A. Martel has to face the truth: the Academy will never accept him. is is all the more obvious when he learns that he never got a single vote at any of his applications, not even from his own brother-in-law, L. de Launay. As a matter of fact, this was to become a matter of contention between them in the future. Martel explains his failure by the absence of the peo ple who had supported him in his early days. A. Daubre, for example, with whom he shared many views on hy drogeology and whom he wished to emulate, had died in 1896. A. Gaudry, who had presented his prized works as well as thirty ve of his reports to the Academy, had died in 1908. In the absence of these men, he could still hope that L. de Launay, his childhood friend and brother-inlaw, would support him. e fact that he did not was a sore point for E.A. Martel. Getting a seat at the Academy had become a matter of personal importance to him. He wished to be at least equal to his brother-in-law in this respect. L. de Launay had oen explored caves with him and shared his views on geology and other matters. As a professor at the Ecole des Mines, he was also interested in the richness of the underground and appreciated by the Academy for his discoveries. Why would E.A. Martel be less?. Probably feeling bad when confronted with Martels resentful disappointment, L. de Launay tried to make up for his disavowal by supporting him when the Academy awarded Martel the Joseph Labb Prize in 1921 for his work entitled Nouveau trait des eaux souterraines. E.A. Martel desperately needed a consecration of his work on caves as a compensation for a dicult private life. Indeed Aline, his wife, had had a miscarriage in an accident with a hot air balloon her husband had insisted she ew with him. Aer that she could no longer con ceive babies and Martels in-laws never quite forgave him for that. As for his own parents, they resented the fact that he had dropped his attorney practice to dedicate his life to the modest trade of an underground explorer. So E.A. Martel did not get the longed-for recognition from the scientic world, but the reasons may be found in the ambiguity of his position. When he rst started on his scientic career, E.A. Martel was just a traveller but not in the manner of a tourist. He travelled in the way geographers used to at the beginning of the 19 th century, bringing back from his trips precise observations and maps, thus contributing to the development of knowledge regarding known or un known territories (Laboulais-Lesage, 2000). is way had been supported by the Socit de Gographie since its creation in 1821, but it diers from that of physical geog raphy which becomes an ocial institution entering the university in the 1890s (Broc, 1994). is explicative ge ography is totally dierent from the previous descriptive one. It is mainly based on a new concept coming from the famous American geographer, Davis and supported in F rance by Margerie. Being deeply nationalistic, Martel refuses to accept the theory presented by the American. In the same narrow-minded way, he is soon taken over by progress in geology, but keeps judging and criticizing the latest theories. As a consequence, more and more oen he quarrels with the scientists of his time, defending his outdated views in his aggressive lawyers way as he him self puts it. is is why P. Renault (1999) said about him: Martel is a 19 th century man who missed the 20 th century transition for lack of a scientic mind. His lack of scientic training appeared when E.A. Martel had to take position in a debate relative to dows ing. Unlike his colleague, E. F ournier, a geologist at Be sanon University, who spent a long time studying this divinatory science to nally state it was scientically null, E.A. Martel could never quite make up his mind about the subject and even once declared it of value. Even his qualities as an observer were disparaged by some scientists besides the prehistorians. us R. Jeannel, a biologist researching cave fauna, went on a campaign with E.A. Martel, aer which he reproached the speleolo gist with the somewhat careless character of his observa tions. It may not be a matter of chance that prehistorian H. Breuil collaborated with the biospeologists for many years, whereas no archaeologist or biologist took part in the activities of the Socit de Splologie. E.A. Martel tried to make up for his lack of scien tic training by reading a lot. He thus acquired a vast knowledge which enabled him to popularize many elds of science. is quality made him a popular writer, but discredited him with the scientic community. Indeed only scientists beneting from a well established position can aord to produce such works without prejudice to their reputation. In the end, E.A. Martels scientic career raises many criticisms. Lack of scientic training and methodology, and diculty in participating constructively in the de bates of his time, contribute to keeping him on the fringe of the scientic establishment. E. A. M ARTEL THE TRAVELLER WHO ALMOST BECAME AN A CADEMICIAN

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 156 E.A. Martel was deeply wounded by the rejection of the scientic institutions. Also the F irst World War, which breaks out the year following his double rejection by the Academy of Sciences, weighs hard on him. Being too old to ght at the age of 55, he volunteers as a nurse, but his own health is weakened by arteriosclerosis. erefore, aer the Armistice, he stops his exploration campaigns and does not do much to prevent the extinction of the Socit de Splologie. He forsakes every ambition to en ter the Academy of sciences, but keeps a scientic activity within the Socit de Gographie of which he becomes president in 1928 and puts more eort into the develop ment of tourism, especially in the context of the Touringclub de F rance. ere he nds himself in a sphere where he is appreciated and praised. He receives many awards and, when he is still alive, even has the privilege to have his statue made in the Cvennes region he so much loved and gloried. His last work, at the end of his life, was to complete his action in favour of tourist development in the Causses and Cvennes. is life story demonstrates the capacity of a selftrained man to assert himself in the late 19th century in tellectual spheres which were especially open to scientic initiatives. However integration has its limits: being al lowed to express oneself does not mean being accepted and acknowledged by ones peers. Martels law training and his tourist inclinations contributed to limit the qual ity of seriousness with which his works were evaluated. E.A. Martel felt he had not been well represented, but really his theoretical reections were probably not up to what can be expected from an Academician. No mat ter how many caves he explored and how many plans he drew, a scientists quality stays more with his analysis of data than with his collection of them. However Martel certainly le his print in the dis covery of the underground. F ollowing his tracks and example, many speleologists went underground to dis cover new networks, taking precise notes in the course of their explorations. His inheritance is still alive in the way people keep exploring caves: drawing surveys and trying to understand the working of the water networks. Indeed such activities would otherwise be surprising on the part of people who are now considered as sportsmen. Andr, D., Carlier, P., Gautier, A., 1999: La grotte de Nabrigas, premire cavit lozrienne dEdouard-Al fred Martel in Andr, D. (Ed.), L H omme qui voy ageait pour les goures. Archives dpartementales de la Lozre, Mende, 83-94. Andr, D., Casteret, M., Carlier, P., Gautier, A., Kalliata kis, G., Renouard, C. & L., 1997: L a Plume et les gouf fres. Association E.-A. Martel, Hyelzas-Meyrueis. Anonyme, 1897: Voyage vlocipdique dans la rgion du Tarn Revue du Touring-Club de F rance, 218-219. Boyer, M., 1999: H istoire du tourisme de masse. Presses Universitaires de F rance, Paris. Boyer, M., 2000: L histoire de linvention du tourisme. Editions de LAube, La Tour-dAygues. Broc, N., 1994: Regards sur la gographie franaise de la renaissance nos jours. Presses Universitaire de Perpignan, Perpignan. Casteret, N., 1943: E.-A. M artel explorateur du monde souterrain. Gallimard, Paris Chabert C., Courval, M. de, 1971: E.-A. M artel 18591938 Bibliographie. Travaux scientiques du Club Alpin F ranais, Paris. Choppy, J., 1999: Edouard-Alfred Martel et lAcadmie des Sciences in Andr, D. (Ed.), L H omme qui voy ageait pour les goures. Archives dpartementales de la Lozre, Mende, 187-194. Daubre, A., 1887: L es Eaux souterraines. Vve C. Du nod, Paris. Gauchon, C., 1997: Des Cavernes et des hommes. Kar stologia Mmoires n, ditions FFS-AFK. Groenen, M., 1994: Pour une histoire de la prhistoire. J. Million, Grenoble. Hoibian, O., 2000: L es Alpinistes en France. LHarmattan, Paris. L. de Launay dans L a plume et les goures Laboulais-Lesage, I., 2000: Voyager en gographe au XIX e sicle in Chabaud, G., Cohen, E., Coquery, N., Penez, J. (Eds.), Les Guides imprims du X VIe au XX e sicle, Belin, Paris, 475-485. Lejeune, D., 1988: L es Alpinistes en France la n du XIXe et au dbut du XXe sicle. Editions du CTHS, Paris. B IBLIOGRAPH Y P IERRE O LA F S CHUT C ONCLUSION

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 157 Marsollier des Vivetires, B.-J., 1785: Description de la Baume ou G rotte des Demoiselles St-Bauzile prs de G anges dans les Cvennes. Martel, E.-A., 1883: Le Caon du Tarn Annuaire du Club Alpin F ranais, 242-261. Martel, E.-A., 1884: Le Causse Noir et Montpellier-leVieux Annuaire du Club Alpin F ranais, 263-291. Martel, E.-A., 1888: Sous Terre Annuaire du Club Alpin F ranais, 238-294. Martel, E.-A., 1890: L es Cvennes. Delagrave, Paris. Martel, E.-A., 1894: L es Abmes. Delagrave, Paris. Martel, E.-A., 1921: Nouveau trait des eaux souterraines. Doin, Paris. Martel, E.-A., 1936: L es Causses majeurs. Artires et M aury, M illau. Renault P., 1999: Edouard-Alfred Martel, explorateur ou savant in Andr, D. (Ed.), L H omme qui voyageait pour les goures. Archives dpartementales de la Lozre, Mende, 391-403. Poujol, O., 1999: Edouard-Alfred Martel et linvention du tourisme en Lozre. in Andr, D. (Ed), L H omme qui voyageait pour les goures. Archives dparte mentales de la Lozre, Mende, 139-172. Prochasson, C., 1991: L es Annes lectriques 1890-1910. La Dcouverte, Paris. Rauch, A., 1986: Naissance du Club Alpin F ranais La Convivialit, la Nature et lEtat (1874-1880). in Arnaud, P. & J. Camy (Eds), L a Naissance du mouve ment sportif associatif en France, Presses Universita ires de Lyon, Lyon, 275-285. Martel, E.-A., 1911: F rance in L a G rande G ographie. Ed. by O. Reclus, t. 2, 77-196. Shaw, T. R., 1988: Martels visit to Mendip in 1904: Part of his international strategy ? U.B.S.S. Proceedings, 18, 2, 278-291. E. A. M ARTEL THE TRAVELLER WHO ALMOST BECAME AN A CADEMICIAN



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POSTOJNSKA JAMA IN SLOVENIA, THE SDBAHN AND THE VISIT O F JOHN CHARLES MOLTENO: THEIR IN F LUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT O F RAILWA Y S IN SOUTH A F RICA POSTOJNSKA JAMA, JUNA ELEZNICA IN OBISK JOHNA CHARLESA MOLTENA V SLOVENIJI: NJIHOV VPLIV NA RAZVOJ ELEZNIC V JUNI A F RIKI Stephen A. C RAVEN 1 Izvleek UDK 551.44(497.4 Postojna)(091) Stephen A. Craven: Postojnska jama, Juna eleznica in obisk Johna Charlesa Moltena v Sloveniji: njihov vpliv na razvoj eleznic v Juni Afriki Novembra 1871 je uspeni poslovne in politik iz June Af rike potoval s svojima herama po Evropi. Obiskali so tudi Postojnsko jamo, kamor so prispeli z vlakom z Dunaja. Pisal je guvernerju, naj si inenirji ogledajo juno eleznico, ki po teka po e bolj razgibanem terenu kot so gore v Kaplandiji, kjer se je gradnja upoasnila zaradi tehninih problemov in dviga strokov. Vendar je odkritje diamantov pospeilo dokonanje eleznike proge v notranjost do Beaufort Westa. K ljune besede: zgodovina, Molteno, Juna eleznica, Sloveni ja, Juna Afrika. COBISS: 1.04 Abstract UDC 551.44(497.4 Postojna)(091) Stephen A. Craven: Postojnska Jama in Slovenia, the Sdbahn and the Visit of John Charles Molteno: eir Inuence on the Development of Railways in South Africa. In November 1871 a successful businessman and politician from South Africa toured Europe with his daughters. ey arrived at Postojnska jama by train from Vienna. He wrote to the gover nor that it would be very desirable that the engineers should visit the Sdbahn which crosses a rugged terrain comparable to that of the Cape mountains where technical problems and increased construction costs slowed the advance. e discovery of diamonds inland was eventually responsible for the exten sion of the railway to Beaufort West and beyond. K ey words: history, Molteno, Southern railway, Slovenia, South Africa. F or three centuries the spectacular Postojna Cave in Slov enia (Habe 1986) has attracted the great, the good and lesser mortals. Until the collapse of the Austro-Hungari an empire in 1918 the cave was known as the Adelsberger Grotte. F ortunately for the historian since 1819 the early visitors were required to sign the visitors books which have survived, and which are kept at the Karst Research Institute in Postojna. Most of the visitors came from Eu rope, but also from the Americas and from Asia (Shaw 2000; Shaw & uk 2002). ere were very few visitors from Africa. ere are two reasons for the paucity of South Af rican visitors. ere were, compared with the northern hemisphere, very few people with the necessary nancial and temporal resources. e Cave was dicult of ac cess from the Cape. e Union-Castle Mail Steamship Company and its predecessors operated fast mailships from Cape Town via Las Palmas to Southampton in Eng land. ere were also intermediate ships which served Cape Town and the east African ports. e much slower round-Africa ships sailed through the Suez canal and the Mediterranean, calling at Naples, Genoa and Mar INTRODUCTION ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 159, L JUBLJANA 2006 1 7 Amhurst Avenue, Newlands 7700, South Africa, e-mail: sacraven@mweb.co.za Received / Prejeto: 26.08.2006

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 160 seille before docking in England (Harris & Ingpen 1994). Trieste, the port of access for Postojna, is situated at the north-easterly limit of the Adriatic Sea. Ships plying the South African trade did not call there because there was insucient demand for a diversion from the standard routes to a port which oered very little South African business. Trieste was a busy and important port, being the most convenient maritime access which was controlled by the Austro-Hungarian empire. e Government in Vienna in 1841 decided to build the Southern Railway (or Sdbahn). e tracks reached Postojna in 1856 and Trieste in the following year (Enciklopedija Slovenije, 1990). is railway greatly facilitated visitors access to Postojna and the Cave. ree such visitors were John Charles Molteno and his two eldest daughters, Caroline and Elizabeth Maria (Betty), on 10 November 1871 during their European tour ( F ig. 1). Molteno was born in London on 5 June 1814 and emigrated in 1831 to the Cape where he soon pros pered in business, and in sheep farming at Nelspoort near Beaufort West. He became a wealthy and inuential man (Harrington 1972). In 1854 he was elected Member of the Legislative Assembly for Beaufort West (Cape of Good Hope Almanac 1855). F ollowing the achievement of in ternal self-government in 1872 he was re-elected Member for Beaufort West (General Directory and Guide Book to the Cape of Good Hope 1872), and was appointed Prime Minister on 1 December 1872 (Kilpin 1938). During their tour of Europe Molteno and his daugh ters wrote letters to their family and friends (University of Cape Town Archives and Manuscripts Department BC 330: Molteno Murray Papers). On 6 November 1871 Betty Molteno wrote from Vienna to her brothers Char lie, Percy and F rank announcing her intention to visit the Adelsberger Grotte. On 18 November 1871 her father wrote from Venice to his wife conrming the visit: I write [sic] you last from L inz in Austria. Since we have visited several places, V ienna, Adelsberg G rotto, T ri este &c and reached this on the 15th. but as usual I must leave the girls to tell you all this e Adelsberg G rotto which we were in for near three hours is a truly wonderful sight a large (river) runs up to the hill where you enter the grotto and entering (the) cave entirely disappears and the water comes out again some 20 or 30 miles o. e daughters were not impressed with Postojna and its Cave. Bettys next letter, dated 21 November 1871 and written from Brindisi to her step-mother, made no mention of the Cave. Her diary is similarly silent. Caro line likewise wrote no letter between Graz and the east coast of Italy, and overlooked the Cave. Although Molteno was prompted to write a couple of sentences about the Cave, his mind was clearly on other things including the inter-related Cape politics and Cape railways. Indeed, he had always been an en thusiastic supporter of railways in the Colony. e Cape Town Railway and Dock Company had been oated in London in 1853 and had reached Wellington, 96 railway STEPHEN A. C RAVEN Fig. 1: e entries of M olteno and his daughters in the Postojna Cave visitors book, 10 November 1871. Fig. 2: Sir John Charles M olteno in 1882, aged 68 years (M olteno 1900).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 161 km. (Durrant, Jorgensen & Lewis 1981) from Cape Town over easy country, on 4 November 1863 (Cape Argus 1863). is slow rate of construction is explained in part by the sparsely populated countryside and lack of indus try (Houghton 1978). e 1865 census reported a popu lation of 236,300 in the Western Division, of which only 16% were economically active, and a low population den sity of 3.25 per square mile (1.25 per square km.) (Cape of Good Hope 1866; Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, 1866). To proceed beyond Wellington into the hinterland the railway had to cross the Cape mountains. is led to technical problems and increased construction costs per kilometre, a possible solution to which occurred to Mol teno as he travelled on the Sdbahn across the mountains from Vienna (Wien) through Graz (Gratz), Maribor (Marburg) and Ljubljana (Laibach) to Postojna (Adels berg) and Trieste (e Times Atlas 1898). A visitor to Slovenia in 1845 during the construction of the Sdbahn well summarised its signicance for Molteno: Until M arburg you ride along the [route of the] mir acle railway under construction from G raz to T rieste. T un nels several hundred metres in length, viaducts, and stonewalled cuttings will make this railroad one of the greatest. (Windisch-Graetz 1908). A later advertisement for the Cape Government Railways did not exaggerate: e Pioneers of railway construction were faced with apparently insurmountable diculties in climbing over and winding round Natures great upheavals before the tracks could be laid which were to connect the coastal towns with the interior. (e Mountain Club Annual 1908). Accordingly Molteno wrote to the Governor, Sir Henry Barkly, from Suez on 8 December 1871. Aer discussing the Egyptian railways which had been con structed over easy, at, country he waxed eloquent about the Sdbahn: But of all the railways I have yet seen, that from V ienna to T rieste is the most dicult, and is acknowl edged to exhibit the greatest amount of engineering bold ness and skill, and the similarity of some of the mountain gorges and other diculties which will have to be over come if railways extend very much at the Cape, would, I should imagine, render it very desirable that the engi neers who have to plan and construct these should visit this line; it is 365 miles in length, and would in itself re pay all the trouble and expense of a visit from the Cape for those who take an interest in such undertakings. But on the whole I nd that what we shall have to contend with in constructing lines from the two ends of the Colony inland traversing the more level parts, especially say from the Wellington terminus towards the Diamond Fields, is small comparatively speaking, and looking to the changed condition of things consequent upon the Diamond Fields and extension of the Colony in every way, I think that even those who are inclined to be most cautious in com mitting the Colony to large and expensive undertakings, must admit that things which might have fairly been looked upon as tasks a few years ago, may be viewed in a very dierent light now. (Molteno 1900). ere is no record that an engineer was sent to in spect the Sdbahn. Indeed, there would have been insuf cient time between receipt of the letter by the Governor and the appointment of the Select Committee in May 1872. Molteno returned from his European tour on the R.M.S. Northam from Southampton on 18 April 1872 (Cape Argus 1872), and resumed his political activities. e railway problem had become more urgent with the discovery of diamonds near what became Kimberley in the northern Cape, and with the subsequent expansion of that industry in 1868 (Rosenthal 1964). On 10 May 1872 the House of Assembly appointed a Select Committee to report on the Cape Town Railway and Dock Company, which was tabled the following month. Molteno attended every meeting. e Committee conned its enquiry to the nancial implications of exercising the Governments option to buy the railway. ere was no discussion about its extension beyond Wellington (Cape of Good Hope Report 1872). e problem was solved by the purchase of the railway company by the Cape Colonial Government at midnight on 31 December 1872 (Cape Archives De pot), and by reducing the gauge from 4 8 ins. (1.435 m.) to 3. 6 ins. (1.067 m.). Sir John Charles Molteno retired in 1883 (Molteno 1900), and died in Cape Town on 1 September 1886 (Cape Argus 1886). He was doubtless content in the knowledge that the railway which he had encouraged throughout his political career had eventually crossed the Cape moun tains, and had reached his adopted Beaufort West on 6 F ebruary 1880 (Cape Argus 1880). POSTOJNSKA JAMA IN SLOVENIA, THE SDBAHN AND THE VISIT O F JOHN CHARLES MOLTENO: THEIR IN F LUENCE...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1 2006 162 STEPHEN A. C RAVEN Cape Archives Depot A2324 p. 26 & PWD 2/411 pp. 43 & 44. Cape Argus 05 Nov. 1863 p. 3. Cape Argus 18 April 1872 p. 4. Cape Argus 07 F eb. 1880 p. 3. Cape Argus 03 Sep. 1886 pp. 2 3. Cape of Good Hope, 1866: Census of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope 1865 [G.20-] (Cape Town: Saul Solomon). Cape of Good Hope Almanac, 1855: p. 113 (Cape Town: Van de Sandt de Villiers). Cape of Good Hope Report of the Select Committee ap pointed to consider and report on railway purchase. June 1872 [A2-], (Cape Town: Saul Solomon). Colony of the Cape of Good Hope 1865 (Blue Book), 1866: pp. V2 V3 (Cape Town; Saul Solomon). Durrant A.E. & Jorgensen A.A. & Lewis C.P., 1981: Steam in Africa.p. 179 (Cape Town: Struik). Enciklopedija Slovenije, 1990: 4 Hac-Kare, Mladinska knjiga, pp. 363 364, Ljubljana. General Directory and Guide Book to the Cape of Good Hope 1872: pp. 181 182 (Cape Town: Saul Solo mon). Habe F ., 1986: e Postojna Caves and other Tourist Caves in Slovenia. (Postojna). H[arrington] A.L., 1972: Dictionary of South African Biography. Vol. 2 pp. 482 485 (Cape Town: Tafel berg). Harris C.J. & Ingpen B.D., 1994: Mailships of the UnionCastle Line. p. 23 (Vlaeberg: F ernwood Press). Houghton D.H., 1978: p. 19 in Wilson M. & ompson L. (eds.) e Oxford History of South Africa (OUP). Kilpin R., 1938: e Parliament of the Cape of Good Hope. p. 165 (London: Longmans, Green & Co.). Molteno P.A., 1900: e Life and Times of Sir John Mol teno K.C.M.G., F irst Premier of the Cape Colony. Vol. I., pp. 176 178 (London: Smith Elder & Co.). e original letter was not found in the Cape Ar chives Depot; Vol. II frontispiece & p. 463. Rosenthal E., 1964: Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa. p. 141 (London: F rederick Warne). Shaw T.R., 2000: F oreign Travellers in the Slovene Karst 1537 1900. Zaloba ZRC, Karst Research Insti tute, 244 pp., Ljubljana. Shaw T.R. & uk A., 2002: Royal and other noble visi tors to Postojnska jama 1819-1945. Kralji in drugi plemeniti obiskovalci v Postojnski jami 1819-1945.Acta carsologica, vol. 31, 1, Supplementum 1, 107 pp., Ljubljana. e Mountain Club Annual,1908: (12). e Times Atlas (1898) maps 49 50 (London: Print ing House Square). Windisch-Graetz L., 1908: Kindheit und Jugendzeit 1839 1850 iii. opp. p. 86 (Wien: Seidel). Cited by Shaw T.R., 2000: F oreign Travellers in the Slovene Karst 1537 1900, p. 163; Zaloba ZRC, Karst Research Institute, 244 pp., Ljubljana. NOTES AND RE F ERENCES Dr. Trevor Shaw of the Karst Research Institute in Postoj na spotted the Cape of Good Hope entry in the visitors book, and kindly supplied the author with a photocopy. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am grateful to Mrs. Maja Kranjc, Librarian at the Karst Research Institute in Postojna, for the reference from En ciklopedija Slovenije.


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