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Acta carsologica

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Title:
Acta carsologica
Series Title:
Acta Carsologica
Alternate Title:
Krasoslovni zbornik
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Inštitut za raziskovanje krasa (Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti)
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Inštitut za raziskovanje krasa
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Geology ( local )
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serial ( sobekcm )

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Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 35, no. 2-3 (2006)

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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K26-00155 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.155 ( USFLDC Handle )
5216 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0583-6050 ( ISSN )
8894944 ( OCLC )

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Karst Information Portal

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Spatial Planning And Protection Measures For Karst Areas / Elery Hamilton-Smith ( .pdf )

Management Models Development Show Caves Tourist Destinations Croatia / Neven Bocic - Aleksandar Lukic - Vuk Tvrtko Opacic ( .pdf )

Tourism And Preservation Policies In Karst Areas: Comparison Between The Škocjan Caves (Slovenija) And The Ardeche Gorge (France) / Mélanie Duval ( .pdf )

The Concepts Of Heritage And Heritage Resource Applied To Karsts: Protecting The Choranche Caves (Vercors, France) / Christophe Gauchon - Estelle Ployon - Jean-Jacques Delannoy - Sébastien Hacquard - Fabien Hobléa - Stéphane Jaillet - Yves Perrette ( .pdf )

Evaluating The Human Disturbance To Karst Environments In Southern Italy / Fabiana Calò - Mario Parise ( .pdf )

Changes In The Use Of Natural Resources And Human Impact In The Karst Environment Of The Venetian Prealps (Italy) / Ugo Sauro ( .pdf )

Sustainable Management Of Brackish Karst Spring Pantan (Croatia) / Ivana Fistanic ( .pdf )

Karst Water Management In Slovenia In The Frame Of Vulnerability Mapping / Nataša Ravbar - Gregor Kovacic ( .pdf )

Tracing Of The Stream Flowing Through Cave Ferranova Buža, Central Slovenia / Miha Staut - Primož Auersperger ( .pdf )

Tracer Test On The Mala Gora Landfill Near Ribnica In South-Eastern Slovenia / Janja Kogovšek - Metka Petric ( .pdf )

Dolenjska Subsoil Stone Forests And Other Karst Phenomena Discovered During The Construction Of The Hrastje - Lešnica Motorway Section (Slovenia) / Martin Knez - Tadej Slabe ( .pdf )

Electron Spin Resonance (Esr) Dating In Karst Environments / Bonnie A. B. Blackwell ( .pdf )

The History Of Postojnska Jama: The 1748 Joseph Anton Nagel Inscriptions In Jama Near Predjama And Postojnska Jama / Stephan Kempe - Hans-Peter Hubrich - Klaus Suckstorff ( .pdf )


Full Text

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SPATIAL PLANNING AND PROTECTION MEASURES FOR KARST AREAS PROSTORSKO NA RTOVANJE IN UKREPI ZA ITE NA KRAKIH OBMO JIH Elery H AMILTON S MITH 1 Izvleek UDK 551.444:504.055 Elery Hamilton-Smith: Prostorsko nartovanje in ukrepi zaite na krakih obmojih lanek prestavi kratek pregled vrednot in ranljivosti krakih sistemov. Posebej se osredotoi na vpraanja vodnega ravnoteja, zinega unievanja, sedimentacije in onesnaevanja. Predstavi temeljne probleme pri zaiti krasa in opozori na potrebo po budnem spremljanju posegov v kras. K ljune besede: kras, upravljanje, ravnoteje podzemne vode, ranljivost, zaita. 1 Charles Sturt University, N.S.W ., Chair, IUCN / W CPA Task Force on Caves and Karst, P.O. Box 36, Carlton South, Vict. 3053, Australia, e-mail: elery@alphalink.com.au Received/Prejeto: 05.10.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 5, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 551.444:504.054 Elery Hamilton-Smith: Spatial planning and protection mea sures for Karst areas is paper presents a brief review of the values and vulnerabil ity of karst systems, and specically examines issues of water balance, physical destruction, sedimentation and pollution. It then outlines key issues in the protection of karst and the need for continuing vigilance. K eywords: karst, management, groundwater balance, vulner ability, protection. I NTRODUCTION Any discussion of karst protection must commence with the basic understanding that karst is a complex, dy namic and interactive system. An overall view of karst must engage with that complexity, and so call upon a wide range of insights from a diversity of disciplines. It calls for application of what is usually termed integrated systems analysis. is was probably rst well recognised in the karst literature by Yuan Daoxian (1988) in his key note address to the Congress of the International Asso ciation of Hydrology. My own experience over many years has been based in this approach which is now generally accepted, al though some scholars still maintain a narrow disciplin ary perspective. In this paper, I will focus particularly upon protective management but this rst demands an introductory perspective on the values and vulnerability of karst. . a karst system incorporating component landforms as well as life, energy, water, gases, soils and bedrock . (Eberhard 1994: 8.)

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 6 Many karst systems are places of striking, even sublime beauty (Burke 1756). In turn this is coupled, for many people, with a genuine sense of spirituality. Most such landscapes thus have extremely important cultural val ues that may even have persisted continually since the Neolithic. AND UPON VULNERABILITY COMMENTING UPON KARST VALUES In turn, cultural values are linked with a great diver sity of scientic values in the common claim that Caves are the Books in the L ibrary of the H istory of the Earth, even though we are still striving to fully understand the languages of those books. e very way in which evi dence of the past is interwoven within karst echoes both the complexity and integration of the karst system it self, and in so doing, potentially adds a further layer of integration to our understandings. So, karst provides a unique store of knowledge with many features not found in other earth systems. Finally, there is a wondrous range of economic as sets in karst, of which the most signicant must be the groundwater reservoirs, which probably provide for the water needs of at least 25% of the W orld population. Re grettably, the importance of maintaining the quality and quantity of groundwater is all too oen overlooked in the greed for more highly priced and spectacular commodities such as the lime stone itself or even the swilet nests of Southeast Asia. (W atson et al., 1997) F ig. 1: e famous towerkarst of Guilin in China is famed for its beauty e same complexity and integration of karst, in itself, underlies the vulnerability of the system. A change in any of the major components of the system will inevi tably impact upon others. Given that water is the most basic yet most variable of the major components, it is the one most likely to be subject to either changes in volume or to pollution of various kinds. us, it is also the most important element in almost any protective management program. However, the very attractiveness of karst brings with it the impact of human developments with dams, roads, bridges and other constructions. en the quality of many karst soils or other products of economic value brings both extractive or developmental industries and urbanization, so as a result, both destruction of the rock Itself and oen the introduction of pollutants, either as waste products or in the name of chemical management practices, e.g., fertilizers and pesticides. So, we know we must look towards sustainability, but in practice this may be very dicult and very slow to develop. e Shui people of China have published a text on sustainability over a thousand years ago, and have managed their forest and karst lands at Maolan for at least that long. But more generally, the dominance of simplistic economic thinking (and greed) oen defeats the demand for sustainability. Contemporary modernism in resource management was initiated by March (1864) in his rightly famous M an and Nature But far too much of his wisdom still awaits full expression (e.g., Goldie et al., 2005). MAINTAINING THE W ATER BALANCE e centrality of water as a major determinant of the character and integrity of karst has already been em phasised. Natural variations in water as a result of ood ing, increased rainfall, or drought may all arise, and are largely self-balancing over time. But because the cycles of nature may well be gradual in change, we oen ne glect the potential of permanent change. e process of desertication has adequately demonstrated its capacity E LERY H AMILTON S MITH

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 7 F ig. 2: T emple of Baal, Jenolan Caves, New South W ales for permanency, and although there is no question that it can be reversed and so restoration may be possible, it is all too rarely attempted. e widespread karst deserts of China are well known, but current research is furthering our understanding of the processes at work, including the formerly neglected role of microbiota. But the major threat comes from human action. Ex cessive drawdown of groundwater for agriculture, mining or other industrial activities is all too common. Urbani sation and other forms of construction may well cause major changes in groundwater re-charge. Forests may both impede recharge and increase drawdown through transpiration. Planning to reduce damage to water balance is vi tal, and should always be based in accurate delineation of total catchments. It has been recognised for many years that subterranean divides may not coincide with sur face catchments. But many protected areas suer from boundaries that were established in ignorance or neglect of this understanding. Even when the problem is recog nised, the political considerations in boundary change may well demand many years of negotiation, and may well prevent re-denition. Regrettably, even conservation activists may well lack proper understanding of the character and behavior of groundwater. One striking example from this region occurred when Croatia rst proposed a change of bound ary of the Plitvice Lakes W orld Heritage area in order to encompass (and hence control) the upper section of the catchment area. Many of the referees who were consulted totally failed to recognise the importance of this and ar gued that the W orld Heritage Committee should reject the proposal because it did not add to the biodiversity of the site Fortunately, the Committee recognised and ac cepted the total validity of the proposal that aer all was simply putting the case for total catchment management now a widely accepted principle in karst management. Another recent development is taking place in In donesia where the special province of Yogyakarta is un dertaking the revegetation and restoration of the Gunung Sewu one of the worlds great tropical karst areas which has been devastated by both total denudation through log ging and by uncontrolled limestone quarrying. Research by Professor Suhardi to develop optimal sequencing and timing of re-vegetation and his leadership in implemen F ig. 3: Groundwater is of great value, but oen adds to the beauty of caves: W eebubbie Cave, Nullarbor Plain, W estern Australia (Photograph Normal Poulter, OAM) F ig. 4: Khayon Cave, near M awlamyine, M yanmar (once known as F arm Cave and an important biological site) is a ne example of the religious use of caves SPATIAL PLANNING AND PROTECTION MEASURES OR KARST AREAS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 8 e establishment of protected areas is the most obvious and best-known strategy for protecting natural or cultur al resources. ese are oen established under relevant legislation with such names as national parks, nature re serves, etc. e IUCN has established a standard classi cation of these (IUCN 1994, Bishop et al 2004) according to the nature and extent of protection that is aorded. Others may exist by long-standing tradition for as long as many thousands of years; still others are established and managed under private commercial ownership. e underlying assumptions and managerial styles in protected areas have been undergoing a continuing evolutionary development and adaptation. e famous Yellowstone Model, was long promoted by the United States as the ideal model for protected area management, but has come under massive challenge by alternative models from Eastern Europe, other cultural traditions and in particular from many new countries. Adrian Phillips (2003) at the Durban Parks Congress provided a magnicent summary of the patterns of change and Hamilton-Smith (2005) provided a further overview which incorporated and commented upon Phillips sum mary of changes. Another important contribution from the Dur ban Congress was a magnificent discussion paper on governance principles for protected areas prepared by the Canadian Institute of Governance (Graham et al 2003). More vexed questions arise in respect to areas that are not accorded protected area status. Oen, politicians, and other public ocials, exercising Bierces (1911: 243) denition of politics as the conduct of public aairs for private advantage will hand over major areas for de structive exploitation. In some countries there is little legislative infrastructure to provide a degree of control over the use of either public or private. Even where there is, conservationists may nd themselves forced to appeal against decisions already made and this can be a dicult and oen costly pro cess. A further mechanism that seeks to provide for safer decision-making is the Precautionary Principle (Cooney 2004, Cooney et al 2004), enunciated clearly in the deci sions of the 1992 Rio Declaration: F ig. 5: One of the examples of sublime majesty: the Xiaozhai T iankeng of China F ig. 6: Another majestic sight: Nare D oline (over 300 m. deep) on the Nakanai Plateau, Papua New Guinea PREVENTING DESTRUCTION tation are achieving remarkable results, unprecedented in tropical karsts. Further, his work is now providing a model for other countries with similar problems, albeit oen on a less scale, now using his strategies to achieve their own successes So, in summary, we must strive for total catchment management and on-going monitoring of recharge or of drawdown. e importance of deliberative environmen tal restoration is at last being recognised, even though Marsh argued back in 1864 that forests destroyed by hu man action need human action to ensure their recovery. E LERY H AMILTON S MITH

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 9 only upheld the appeal, but also wrote the precautionary principle into his judgment. ere is also the potential for adoption of minimal impact codes of practice. Speleologists have used such codes in various forms, e.g., the Honour Code of the Swiss Speleological Society and the Minimum Impact Code of the Australian Speleological Federation. At the other extreme of scale there is an excellent example in the Cement Sustainability Initiative (WBCSD 2002). W here there are threats of serious or irreversible dam age, lack of full scientic certainly shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-eective measures to prevent environmental degradation. I am glad to say that aer two days in the witness box in the course of challenging an application for min ing on a particularly important karst area, the judge not F ig. 7: One page from the L ibrary of the H istory of the Earth: V ictoria F ossil Cave, Naracoorte Caves WH A, Australia F ig. 8: Gouldens H ole One of the Cenotes in the L imestone Coast region, South Australia: both a beautiful place and a point of access to an immense groundwater reservoir through both the nineteenth century excavated ramp and the modern pumping station (Photograph Ken Grimes) F ig. 9: e bat ight from D eer Cave, Gunung M ulu WH A, M alaysia F ig. 10: e terraces on the Northern side of the H uon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea are a wondrous source of geo-climatic history F ig. 11: Buchan Caves, V ictoria, preserved as a National Park, now Caves Reserve. (1938 photograph made available by Park M anager D Calnin) SPATIAL PLANNING AND PROTECTION MEASURES OR KARST AREAS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 10 Both pollution and sedimentation share the character istic that they can spread over an immense area, some times reaching locations that may be hundreds of miles from the point of origin. ey may result from ignorance, laziness, cost cutting, genuine accident, unforeseen con sequences, and inappropriate use of agricultural or other chemicals. Pollution may well be invisible as when exces sive organic wastes are discharged and enter the ground water, creating a high level of nitrates that may be fatal to infants or young children. Sedimentation can result from any form of soil erosion or mobilization. In New Zealand, the W aitomo Glowworm cave was threatened when a farmer cleared a hillside some 25 miles upstream of the cave. e result ing muddy run-o entered the river and progressively settled, killing the Chironomid and other larvae which were growing all along the river and which normally pro vide the food source of the glowworms. In Vietnam, a clumsy road construction mobilized immense amounts of mud into several underground rivers and from there to the major surface streams draining the karst. Most examples of both pollution and sedimentation can be prevented or remedied but it is much less costly to prevent either or both occurring. It may be useful to note here that the South-east Asian grass V etiver zizanioi des provides a remarkable tool in controlling water run o and in stabilising disturbed soils (W hitten et al 1997: 144-146). F ig. 12: e wonderful M aolan forest of China, managed on a basis of sustainability by the Shui people F ig. 13: e H avalu F orest of Niue managed as a National Park since the original inhabitants rst arrived over 1,000 years ago. F ig. 14: e main pathway through Jeita Cave, suspended well above the oor on pillars, and with all electric ttings concealed under the pathway F ig. 15: e commencement of the medical plants trail at Gunung M ulu WH A, M alaysia F ig. 16: e beauty of the Plitvice L akes WH A, Croatia POLLUTION AND SEDIMENTATION E LERY H AMILTON S MITH

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 11 It is absolutely vital that land managers do not become complacent, and rather maintain continuing vigilance, as there will always be stupidity, greed and irresponsibility. But there are two other special hazards: e introduction of new and hence little known chemicals or other technology. My personal experience in discovering (by accident) that Metamidophos was be ing used as a mass pesticide in an Australian karst area is one frightening example. en there are time bombs that will one day ex plode. e worst example of which I am aware is the mas sive water storage built when gold mining commenced in South Africa over 100 years ago. W hen it was built on dolomite, everybody knew that dolomite was insol uble in water. More recently a few geologists started to sound a warning they were ignored. en about three or four years ago, the water escaped into the underlying limestones, and then arose through the abandoned mine shas, bringing an unbelievably dangerous chemical soup to the surface. At present, the government vacillates between it hasnt happened, but if it did, it isnt danger ous and we have it all under control. e result is that it has proved virtually impossible to get any genuine re sponse in place not surprising when one thinks of the magnitude of the disaster and the ducking for cover of the government response! W hat others might be awaiting attention elsewhere in the world? Bierce, A., 1911: e Devils Dictionary, Neale Publish ing, USA.[My copy from London: e Folio Soci ety, 2003.] Bishop, K., Dudley,N., & S. Stolton,2004: Speaking a Common Language.-Cardi University, IUCN and the W orld Conservation Monitoring Centre. Burke, E.,1756: A Philosophical Inquiry into the origin of our ideas of the sublime and the beautiful.e Harvard Classics, 1969, 62nd printing. Cooney, R., 2004: e Precautionary Principle in Biodi versity Conservation and Natural Resource Management.IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Cooney, R. et al. 2004: Managing Uncertainty: Risk and the Precautionary Principle in Biodiversity Conserva tion and Sustainable Use.Dare Es Salaam, Tanzania W orkshop Report from the Global Diversity Forum. Eberhard, R., 1994: Inventory and Management of the Junee River Karst System, Tasmania.Hobart, Tas. : Forestry Tasmania. Goldie, J., Douglas,B., & B. Furnass, 2005: In Search of Sustainability.Collingwood, Victoria: CSIERO Publishing. Graham, J., Amos, B., & T. Pluptre, 2003: Governance Principles for Protected Areas in the 21st Century.Ottawa: Institute on Governance. CONTINUING VIGILANCE REFERENCES Hamilton-Smith, E. 2005: Reviewing Changes in Nature Conservation.Australasian Cave and Karst Man agement Association Journal, 60: 32-3 6. IUCN, 1994: Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories.IUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cam bridge, U.K. Marsh, G. P., 1864: Man and Nature, or, Physical Geogra phy as Modied by Human Action.Harvard University Press, 1998. Phillips, A., 2003: Turning Ideas on eir Head: e New Paradigm for Protected Areas.Background Paper, W orld Parks Congress, Durban. W atson, J., E. Hamilton-Smith, Gillieson,D., & K. Kier nan. 1997: Guidelines for Cave and Karst Protec tion.IUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. W hitten, T., Soeriaatmadja,R.E., & A.A. Suraya, 1997: e Ecology of Java and Bali.Oxford University Press. W orld Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) 2002: e Cement Sustainability Initia tive. Daoxian,Y., 1988: On the Karst Environmental System. Proceedings of the IAH 21st Congress, XXI (1): 3046. SPATIAL PLANNING AND PROTECTION MEASURES OR KARST AREAS



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M ANAGEMENT M ODELS AND D EVELOPMENT OF S HO W C AVES AS T OURIST D ESTINATIONS IN C ROATIA M ODELI UPRAVLJANJA IN RAZVOJA TURISTI NIH JAM KOT TURISTI NIH CILJEV NA H RVAKEM Neven B O I 1 Aleksandar L UKI 1 & Vuk T vrtko O PA I 1 Izvleek UDK 551.44:338.48 (497.5) 65.012.43 (497.5):551.44 Neven Boi, Aleksandar Luki & Vuk Tvrtko Opai: Modeli upravljanja in razvoja turistinih jam kot turistinih ciljev na Hrvakem Turistino vrednotenje jam ima na Hrvakem e dolgo tradici jo. Raziskava je elela sledee: identicirati turistine jame na Hrvakem (13), napraviti pregled njihovih geomorfolokih znailnosti in preuiti vlogo jam kot turistinih ciljev. Temelje na Zakonu o varstvu narave in na izkunjah so bili ugotovljeni tirje modeli upravljanja. Ti so bili spoznani za pomembne de javnike pri turistini oceni turistinih jam. Tako te sestavine kot tudi povezava turistinih jam s krajevnim gospodarstvom so bili podrobno preueni v tem prispevku. lanek sklene pregled tekoega turistinega razvoja jam na Hrvakem in predlaga na tej osnovi nekaj bodoih ukrepov. K ljune besede: turistina jama, model upravljanja, turistini cilj, krajevno gospodarstvo, trajnostni razvoj, Hrvaka. 1 Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Maruliev trg 19, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia e-mail: nbocic@geog.pmf.hr ; alukic@geog.pmf.hr ; vtopacic@geog.pmf.hr Received/Prejeto: 15.09.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 13, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 551.44:338.48 (497.5) 65.012.43 (497.5):551.44 Neven Boi, Aleksandar Luki & Vuk Tvrtko Opai: Man agement Models and Development of Show Caves as Tourist Destinations in Croatia Touristic valorisation of caves has long tradition in Croatia. Research has been conducted in order to: identify show caves in Croatia (13), make an overview of their basic geomorpho logic characteristics and study their role as tourist destinations. Based on Nature Protection Law and current experiences, four dierent management models have been identied. Manage ment models have been recognized as an important factor for touristic valorisation of show caves. ese elements as well as linkages of show caves with local economy have been examined in more details in case studies. Paper concludes with overview on current tourist development of show caves in Croatia and proposes some future actions in that respect. K eywords: show cave, management model, tourist destination, local economy, sustainable development, Croatia. INTRODUCTION Speleological features as special natural phenomena in karst make the components of tourist attraction basis (Kuen, 2002). e caves having geomorphologic, geo logical, biological, archaeological, paleontological, land scape and/or other signicances, can be touristically valorised. People visit caves out of aesthetic-emotional, recreational, educative and sometimes medical reasons. Speleological phenomena can be touristically valorised in several fundamental ways. Classical tourist cave ar rangement is the most oen. It implies accommodation of a cave and its surroundings to a visitor, who has no experience in walking in the country and by caves (Cigna & Buri, 2000). Tradition of tourist cave valorisation is long in Croatia (Boi, 1984). Gospodska pilja near

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 14 the source of the river Cetina can be considered the rst touristically arranged cave. It was arranged for organised visits as early as 1855. e longest tradition belongs to the Modra pilja on the island of Bievo (visited since 1884) and the Gornja Baraeva cave near Rakovica, rst ar ranged in 1892, and reopened in 2003. e research pur pose is to state, on the basis of standard criteria, which speleological features in Croatia are included in the cat egory of tourist caves, how and to what extent are they touristically valorised and what possible role they play in the local economy of the surrounding area consider ing sustainable development. Boievi (1961), Pepeonik (1982) and Boi (1999) published works about tourism valorisation of caves in Croatia, but without analysing the problematics of management of show caves. METHODS e rst task was to dene the notion of a tourist cave on the basis of previous domestic and foreign experiences and to single out such phenomena in Croatia (Cigna & Buri, 2000; Boi, 1999). Dealing with the dened tourist caves we had to collect the data about: their location, to tal length, length of the touristically arranged path, year of the rst opening, number of visits, way of manage ment and protection category. On the basis of the col lected data, especially about the management of a show caves, four case studies have been worked out. Besides the basic comparison of geomorphologic and other fea tures, the greatest part of the research was done in the eld. By a questionnary survey of the show cave manage ment there were determined initiatives and beginnings of the caves introduction into the tourist oer, modern way of tourism valorisation (number and structure of visitors, incomes, seasonality, etc.), the caves role in the tourist oer of the destination, connection with the local area, ways of protection and orientation towards sustainable development. LEGAL CONTEXT OF CAVE MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA Nature protection in Croatia depends largely on laws and regulations, which are passed not only to preserve natural resources from exploitation, but also to protect the endangered species. Croatian laws on nature protec tion have a long tradition. First laws of that kind were Bird Protection Act (1893), Hunting Act (1893) and Cave Protection Act (1900) (Opai, 2001, Opai et al. 2004). e basic legal document for nature protection nowadays is Nature Protection Act from 2003. From the aspect of property and government, and thereby from that of protection and management in spe leological phenomena, this law has introduced several essential innovations. e rst one is speleological phe nomena are owned by the Republic of Croatia (par 47, NN 70/2005). In that way all speleological phenomena in Croatia come within the competence of the Nature Protection Law. Some speleological phenomena can be additionally protected by the natural monument status or be located within some other protected areas (e. g. Natu ral Park, National Park...). e other innovation relates to possible ways of management in tourist speleologi cal phenomena. e Law denes two basic management models: 1) through a public institution, and 2) through concession or concession approval. If a speleological phenomenon is located in the protected area managed by a public institution (Natural Park and National Park), the same institution manages it, too. If a speleological phenomenon is located out of a Natural Park or Nation al Park, it is managed by a county public institution for managing the protected areas. Regardless of the phenom enons location (whether it is situated in or out of a Natu ral Park or National Park), a concession or its approval is possible. is Law has put aside a long-standing practice that local tourist societies can manage speleological phe nomena. Nevertheless, as the Law is relatively new, we still come upon the mentioned practice. N EVEN B O I A LEKSANDAR L UKI & V UK T VRTKO O PA I

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 15 On the basis of the dened criteria (arranged and secured path, lighting, guides, arranged approach and the man agement body controlling the caves work) thirteen show caves in Croatia have been determined. It was found that EXAMPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF SOME SHO W CAVES IN CROATIA arrangement, way of valorisation, inclusion into tourist destinations, protection and linkages with the local econ omy primarily depended on the management form Name of the cave Location Length of the cave Length of the touristic path Year of the rst opening Models of the cave management Category of protection Vrlovka Kamanje, County of Karlovac 380 m 330 m 1928 Local authorities through local public institution Geomorphologic monument of nature since 1962. Veternica Medvednica, City of Zagreb 7118 m 380 m 1951 Management board of protected area (Park of nature Medvednica) Geomorphologic monument of nature since 1979., in area of Nature Park Medvednica since 1981. Donja Cerovaka Graac, County of Zadar 2682 m 700 m 1976 Management board of protected area (Park of nature Velebit) Geomorphologic monument of nature since 1961., in area of Nature Park Velebit since 1981. Baredine Nova Vas, County of Istria 120 m 120 m 1994 Private enterpreneur through concession for cave on private (own) land Geomorphologic monument of nature since 1986. Gornja Baraeva Rakovica, County of Karlovac 520 m 200 m 1892 Local authorities through local public institution pilja Vrelo Fuine, County of Primorje-Gorski kotar 310m 180 m 1965 Local authorities through local public institution Lokvarka Lokve, County of Primorje-Gorski kotar 1 100 m 435 m 1935 Private enterpreneur through concession for cave on public land Geomorphologic monument of nature since 1961. Vranjaa Dugopolje, County of Split-Dalmatia 180 m 160 m 1929 Private enterpreneur through concession for cave on private (own) land Geomorphologic monument of nature since 1963. Manita pe Starigrad-Paklenica, County of Zadar 175 m 200 m 1935 Management board of protected area (National park Paklenica) In area of National Park Paklenica since 1949. Samograd Perui, County of Lika-Senj 220 m 220 m 1903 Local authorities through local public institution Geomorphologic monument of nature since 1964. Grgosova Samobor, City of Zagreb 60 m 20 m 1974 Private enterpreneur through concession for cave on private (own) land Geomorphologic monument of nature since 1974. Modra pilja Bievo, County of Split-Dalmatia 36 m 36 m 1884 Local authorities through local public institution Geomorphologic monument of nature since 1951. Biserujka Krk, County of Primorje-Gorski kotar 110 m 65 m 1967 Local authorities through local public institution T ab.1: M ain features of show caves in Croatia M ANAGEMENT M ODELS AND D EVELOPMENT OF S HO W C AVES AS T OURIST D ESTINATIONS IN C ROATIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 16 Four distinctive types of cave management have been identyed: (cave is managed by): a) management board of protected area, b) private enterpreneur through concession for cave on public land, c) private enterpre neur through concession for cave on private (own) land, d) local authorities through local public institution. Be cause of dierences among the analysed parameters, es pecially dealing with the way of management, there were elaborated case studies for the following show caves: the cave Veternica on Medvednica near Zagreb, Lokvarka near Lokve in Gorski Kotar, Baraeve caves near Rakovi ca and the pit Baredina near Pore. E xample 1. V eternica cave operated by management board of protected area e cave Veternica, situated on the south-west ern part of Medvednica is 7,100 m long. In 1951, it was opened for tourists in the length of 380 m. Malinar (1984) wrote about beginnings of tourism valorisation of Veternica cave. Since, as a geomorphological monu ment of nature, it is situated in the protected area, the Public Institution Nature Park Medvednica is respon sible for its management. As this is a protected area, the basic purpose of its management is its protection, then tourist, i. e. educative visits, in the course of which the sustainable development postulates are especially taken into account. erefore, the cave Veter nica should not be considered as a part of the Zagreb city tourist destination, but as a tourist locality in the Nature Park Med vednica, where the sojourn tourism is still in the background. e majority of visi tors are organised groups of pupils, fami lies, mountaineers in one-word hikers, primarily from Zagreb, who visit the cave from the beginning of April to the begin ning of November. Maximal number of visits is registered during spring (April, May, the beginning of June) and autumn months (the end of September, October), which corresponds with the school year, as well as with the weather conditions favourable for excursions. Although the number of visits is relatively small (2,5003,000 in recent years), the Parks manage ment board thinks that in the future caves management more care should be taken about its protection than about eventual tourist visits enlargement. e share of the Veternica cave in the total indepen dently realised prot of the Nature Park Medvednica decreased from 22% in 2002 to 12% in 2005. E xample 2. Baraeve caves run by local authorities through local public institution Baraeve Caves (Gornja and Donja Upper and Lower) are situated near the village Nova Krlja in the municipality of Rakovica. Baraeve Caves were among the rst touristically arranged caves in the continen tal part of Croatia. Garai (1989) wrote abot touristic potential of surrounding of Baraeve Caves. ey were opened for tourists in 1892, but did not ll that function for a long period. Owing to the eorts of the Rakovica municipality the Gornja Baraeva cave was arranged in 2003 and opened in 2004. It is 520 m long, and the length of its tourist path gures out at about 200 m. e main attraction of the cave is a variety of dripstone forms, ar chaeological and palaeontological remains, as well as an interesting ambience in front of the caves entrance. Be sides the illuminated path in the cave, the surroundings were arranged too (promenade and excursion centre by the karst source Baraevac). An instructive path about karst is in preparation. In 2004, the Gornja Baraeva cave was visited by 4,800 visitors. Although it is a matter of increase, this is still a too small number of visitors for such a natural tourist attraction, which lies against the nearby Plitvice Lakes. Owing to its favourable position, the Baraeva cave relies on foreign guests in high tour F ig.1: D istribution of show caves in Croatia and location of case-studies N EVEN B O I A LEKSANDAR L UKI & V UK T VRTKO O PA I

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 17 ist season, and on domestic ones (mostly groups) in the o-season period. e cave is managed by the local gov ernment (municipality of Rakovica) through the Pub lic Institution for Managing Protected Natural Values throughout the area of the municipality of Rakovica. E xample 3. Lokvarka cave managed by private enter preneur through concession for cave on public land e cave Lokvarka is located in Lokve, a settle ment in Gorski Kotar near Delnice. It was discovered in 1911/1912, and in 1935, a part of it was electried and opened for visits. e cave was arranged on several oc casions (1961, 1973-74). e Tourist Community Lokve ran the cave till the rst half of the 1990s, when the public institution Croatian Forestry overtook the management for a short time, and by the mid-1990 it was overtaken by a private concessionaire. e concession was approved for three years, and then it had to be prolonged every year. In 2005, the number of sold tickets amounted to some 7,000, although the number of visits was somewhat larg er (free entrances for associations, etc.). In that time, the cave was permanently opened from 1 May to 1 October, and the visits accompanied by guide services were xed from 10 to 19 oclock. In the remaining months the cave could be visited having made a preliminary announce ment. Group visits of the Croatian pupils dominated in the visitor structure. As to the other group visits, we must single out foreign guests (especially the German), who visited the cave in the course of one-day trips to Gorski Kotar organised by the travel agency, which managed the cave. Between 20 June and 1 September (during school holidays), individual guests from the country and abroad dominated. During his management, the concessionaire did only the necessary infrastructure maintaining (stair case handholds, painting, electric power, and similar), because he had no nances for greater interventions, e. g. a complete replacement of three steep staircases. e aggravating circumstance in the cave management was the risk of long-term investments in such a short-term concession (1 year). Since the spring of 2006, the cave has been managed by the Tourist Community Lokve. Con siderations about further tourist valorisation and man agement in the framework of the local government are in progress. E xample 4. Baredine pit managed by private enter preneur through concession for cave on private (own) land e pit Baredine is the youngest, but also, by the number of visitors, touristically the most important spe leological feature in Croatia. It is also the rst touristically arranged pit in the Croatian part of Istria (Deak, 1994). e Baredine was discovered in the nineteen seventies on a private estate in the village of Nova Vas. e activities of the pits protection and tourist valorisation was initiated by the estates owner, who was also a caver. He did it by his own nances. Till the mid1990-s a conned number of visitors was allowed to visit the pit through speleoad venture. In 1995, the Baredine was opened for tourist visits (arranged electric lighting and staircase). Between 7,000 and 8,000 tourists visited the pit that year. e number of guests in 2004 and 2005 amounted to about 50,000. From 1 April till 31 October the pit is opened for visitors every day and during the remaining ve months only for announced groups. 8 people are permanently employed there, and some additional guides only period ically. As to the visitor structure, individual guests domi nate (especially in the summer months at the peak of the tourist season), and the share of foreign visitors is also very signicant, especially that of the German, Danish, Dutch, Russian, Italian Individual visits, mostly out of the summer season, supplement school and expert ex cursions from Croatia and abroad (Italy, Germany, Bel gium, Denmark). Besides by the speleological feature itself, the visitors are also motivated by the speleothems and Proteus anguinus placed in a natural recess lled with water. e basic function of this pit is tourist, which is also visible from the arrangement of the accompanying attractions (catering establishment, agro-museum in the open air, souvenirs sale, sale of original food-stu, fruit and vegetables, picnic place, exhibition space...). Some 20 families take part periodically in the mentioned accompanying tourist oer. e owner plans to widen the tourist oer and to create a complex tourist product, for which there are corresponding space-planning regu lations MODELS OF MANAGEMENT IN SHO W CAVES IN CROATIA In view of the analysed examples and actual legal basis we are dealing with four dierent models of management tourist caves in Croatia (Fig. 2). M ANAGEMENT M ODELS AND D EVELOPMENT OF S HO W C AVES AS T OURIST D ESTINATIONS IN C ROATIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 18 a) management board of a protected area e largest part of the area within the protected re gions in Croatia relates to two categories. ey are natu ral parks and national parks, which together account for 90 per cent of all protected Croatian regions. Nature Protection Law says that public institutions manage these two categories. ree show caves belong to this type of management, so they are in the competence of public institutions (Veternica in the Natural Park Medvednica, Cerovac Caves in the Natural Park Velebit, Manita Pe in the National Park Paklenica). 1 According to the Nature Protection Law, public institutions...attend to the busi 1 e Law enables a concession assignment for a speleological phenomenon within National and Natural Parks too. Although there are no such cases in Croatia at the moment, it is interest ing to single out the example of the Cerovac Caves. ey are located in the Natural Park Velebit, and until recently have been managed by a private concessionaire. Unsatised with the man agement, the public institution of the Natural Park Velebit has overtaken it. F ig.2: M anagement models of show caves in Croatia ness of protection, maintenance and promotion of the protected area in order to protect and preserve authen ticity of nature, to ensure an undisturbed development of natural processes and sustainable use of natural goods, and to supervise the execution of conditions and mea sures of nature protection in the area of their manage ment (NN 70/2005). National Park and Natural Park are managed on the basis of a special spatial plan introduced by the Croatian National Parliament, the plan of manag ing a protected area and regulations about the internal order. ese determinants have really dened the way of evaluation of speleological phenomena in the protected regions. e most important is preservation of signi cant and characteristic features of a landscape and main tenance of biological, geological and cultural values, which dene its signicance and aesthetic experience (NN 70/2005). erefore, tourist signicance of speleo logical objects in this management type is subordinate to their protection. Moreover, National and Natural Parks become distinctive as peculiar tourist destinations N EVEN B O I A LEKSANDAR L UKI & V UK T VRTKO O PA I

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 19 (branding and marketing at the park level), while partic ular localities in them, e.g. caves and pits, make a part of their attraction oer and have not yet developed into sep arate tourist destinations. Public institutions make prot out of several dierent sources: budget, gate receipts in National Parks and speleological phenomena and other own prots. erefore, dependence on the prots from the cave is signicantly smaller than under private forms of management. b) local authorities through a local public institution out of a protected area Units of local authorities and self-government (municipalities and towns) on whose territory there is a speleological phenomenon, can manage the phenom enon by giving a concession to a private entrepreneur or, more oen, to run it through a local tourist community or through for that purpose established public institution (Baraeve pilje, Biserujka, Lokvarka 2 Samograd, Vrelo, Vrlovka). Consequently, respecting the Croatian Nature Pro tection Law, a special stress has been laid upon economic exploitation of a speleological phenomenon. Local au thority unit realises earnings, therefore it is interested in transformation of a touristically evaluated cave or pit into a peculiar separate destination. e advantage of this management model is in the fact that the manage ment and marketing are being done from the same cen tre, which can contribute to a more powerful and more durable denition of the cave as an important segment of local tourist oer and which is not always the case in relation between a private concessionaire and local com munity. c) private entrepreneur (through concession) of a cave on public land According to the Law a concessionaire can manage a speleological phenomenon. Concession enables the privilege of economic exploitation of natural resources or that of performing activities of interest to the Republic of Croatia, as well as the privilege for construction and use of facilities necessary for doing those activities in protected areas and speleological phenomena where it is permitted according to this Law (NN 70/2005). Although this way of management was used in Croatia aer trans fer to market economy (Lokvarka and Cerovac Caves), there is only one speleological phenomenon arranged for tourist visits (submarine Modra Cave on the island 2 According to this model, today you can count and Lokvarka cave, although, not so long it was managed through concession on public land (model c). As of such kind it was treated in this work. of Bievo), where concession has been given to the tour ist agencies, which organise visits by vessels. In this case the primary motivation of the concessionaire is nancial benet, while big investments, especially dealing with a contract of short duration, are not protable. erefore a concession contract, as well as management supervision, is a necessary measure of protection. According to the available data, a short duration of concessions deepens the gap between nancial interests of a concessionaire on the one hand and necessity for a long sustainable evalu ation of a cave for tourist purposes on the other. Such situation has resulted in mutual discontents and breaks of cooperation. From the aspect of destination, certain disadvantages of this model can be noticed: the manage ment is in the hands of a concessionaire, and the local authorities take care about development of the destina tion. Consequently, the relations between the interested parties directly inuence tourism valorisation of a spe leological phenomenon. d) private owners of the cave through concession and on his own land e law says: e owner or privilege holder of the land where there is a speleological phenomenon has priority in getting concession or compensation for limitations imposed because of using the speleological phenomenon proportionally to the reduced prot. W e consider this Law paragraph the key one in this manage ment model analysis, because it enables continuity in managing, which is the prerequisite of a long sustainable use of the speleological phenomenon. is management form, just as the former one, appeared in Croatia aer the transfer to the market economy. ree caves in Croatia (Baredine, Grgosova Cave and Vranjaa) are managed on the basis of this model. e land owner, also the conces sionaire, is interested in transformation of the speleologi cal phenomenon into an independent tourist destination, the notion of which includes a more complex oer (from accommodation and catering services to accompanying elements such as souvenirs, collections, galleries...). It brings diversication of the concessionaires product, but also the spill-over of economic eects to the local com munity. e branding process of the total destination product has also been singled out, but under the name of speleological phenomenon. If this is realised, a show cave or pit becomes an important tourist oer of the region. M ANAGEMENT M ODELS AND D EVELOPMENT OF S HO W C AVES AS T OURIST D ESTINATIONS IN C ROATIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 20 On the basis of the collected data about show caves in Croatia, as well as on the more analysed case studies, it is possible to draw the following conclusions: Although there are 13 speleological features ar ranged for tourist visits in Croatia, we consider that, re garding attractiveness, trac accessibility and possibility of an average tourists visit, there are some more potential caves for tourist valorisation (for example Gvozdenica cave). Four distinctive management models have been identifyed: a) management board of protected area, b) private enterpreneur through concession for cave on pub lic land, c) private enterpreneur through concession for cave on private (own) land, d) local authorities through local public institution.ey have been recognized as an important factor for tourism valorisation of show caves. It has been recognised that the model of man agement by concession on public land under the exist ing circumstances has turned out as inadequate, so it is disappearing. Although the majority of the show caves in Cro atia are protected by a category of a geomorphological monument of nature, their tourism valorisation primar ily depends on the way of management. Namely, if a pub lic institution runs a cave (e. g., Nature Park or National CONCLUSIONS Park), the protection component is more prominent, which is understandable regarding the basic function of the institution, as well as the fact that the prot from the cave does not make the basic element of the public in stitution prot structure. On the other hand, if a private concessionaire manages a show cave, the business orien tation towards tourism is more marked. Consequently, in these cases the connection with local economy is more prominent, just as the signicance of the phenomenon within the tourist destinations. Having compared our situation with the experi ences abroad (Forti & Cigna, 1989; Ramak, 2004; Cabe zas, 2004; Bartholeyns, 2004), but also on the basis of the specic data about the number of visits, inclusion into the tourist product of destinations and way of valorisa tion (almost exclusively only a visit), we consider that the majority of the show caves in Croatia are still insuf ciently explored. Actual legal basis, which is the foundation of the cave management in Croatia, is relatively new. erefore, the presented management models could not completely become a reality. eir continuous observation and eval uation intrudes as an essential factor of the sustainable development of the Croatian karst area. ACKNO W LEDGEMENTS W e thank those who helped us unselshly in our research: Silvio Legovi (Jama Baredine), Silvija Barbari (Tourist Community Lokve), Snjeana Mali Limari (Nature Park Medvednica), Franjo Franjkovi, Tihana Raki (Ra kovica Municipality) and Mr. Gaparac from Lokve. N EVEN B O I A LEKSANDAR L UKI & V UK T VRTKO O PA I

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 21 Bartholeyns, J.-P., 2004: Sustainable Development of Show Caves and Protection of a Common Heritage. IV I.S.C.A. International Congress, Postojna, Slove nia 2002, 195-200, Postojna Boi, V., 1984: Poeci speleolokog turizma u Hrvatskoj. Zbornik predavanja 9. jugoslavenskog speleolokog kongresa, Karlovac 1984, Speleoloko drutvo Hrvatske, 829-836, Zagreb Boi, V., 1999: Speleoloki turizam u Hrvatskoj-vodi po ureenim i pristupanim piljama i jamama. Na klada Ekolokog glasnika, p. 168, Zagreb Boievi, S. 1961: Zatita peina u Hrvatskoj i njihovo ureenje u turistike svrhe. Zbornik predavanja 2. jugoslavenskog speleolokog kongresa, Split 1958. Speleoloko drutvo Hrvatske. 147-154, Zagreb Cabezas, J., 2004: New Trends in Cave Management. IV I.S.C.A. International Congress, Postojna, Slovenia 2002, 123-128, Postojna Cigna, A.A. & Burri, E., 2000: Development, manage ment and economy of show caves. Int. J. Speleol., vol. 29 B, 1-27, Bologna Deak, V., 1994: Jama Baredine kod Porea prva turistiki ureena pilja u Istri. Speleolog, 42-43, 22-24, Zagreb Forti, P & Cigna, A.A., 1989: Cave tourism in Italy: an overview. Cave Tourism, Proc. Int. Symp. 170 th An niv. Postojnska jama, Postojna 1988., ZRC SAZU & Postojnska jama, Ljubljana REFERENCES Garai, M., 1989: Surrounding of Baras caves the for mer show cave with regard to touristic potential and valorisation. Cave Tourism, Proc. Int. Symp. 170 th Anniv. Postojnska jama, Postojna 1988., ZRC SAZU & Postojnska jama, Ljubljana Kuen, E., 2002: Turistika atrakcijska osnova. Znanst vena edicija Instituta za turizam, p. 262 Institut za turizam, Zagreb Malinar, H., 1984: Zatita i ureenje pilje Veternice. Zbornik predavanja 9. jugoslavenskog speleolokog kongresa Karlovac 1984., 863-866, Zagreb Opai, V.T., 2001: Zatita prirode hrvatska ansa za opstanak i razvoj. Hrvatska revija, 1/1, 119-127, Za greb Opai, V.T., Luki, A. & Furst-Bjeli, B., 2004: Sustain able development of recreation and tourism in pro tected areas of Croatia: issues and indicators. Proc cedings of International scientic project: Improv ing to knowledge base for sustainable managemeof recreational resourses in transitional countries. Koprivtica, Bulgaria 2004, in press Pepeonik, Z., 1982: e Role of the Caves in the Tour ist Oer of Croatia. Le Grotte dItaliana, (4) X, 109114, Castellana Grotte Ramak, S., 2004: Show caves in Slovenia. IV I.S.C.A. In ternational Congress, Postojna, Slovenia 2002, 4954, Postojna M ANAGEMENT M ODELS AND D EVELOPMENT OF S HO W C AVES AS T OURIST D ESTINATIONS IN C ROATIA



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TOURISM AND PRESERVATION POLICIES IN KARST AREAS: COMPARISON BET W EEN THE KOCJAN CAVES SLOVENIJA AND THE ARDCHE GORGE FRANCE TURIZEM IN OHRANJANJE KRAKEGA SVETA: PRIMERJAVA MED KOCJANSKIMI JAMAMI SLOVENIJA IN SOTESKO ARDECHE FRANCIJA Mlanie DUVAL 1 Izvleek UDK 551.44:338.48(497.4+44) Mlanie Duval: Turizem in ohranjanje krakega sveta: prim erjava med kocjanskimi jamami (Slovenija) in sotesko Ar dche (Francija) Sestavek predstavlja primerjalno tudijo Narodnega rezervata Soteska Ardche (Francija) in Regionalnega parka kocjanske jame (Slovenija). Kot veliki turistini privlanosti sta ti dve obmoji poasi gradili svoji gospodarski osnovi na turizmu, vendar na razlien nain in na osnovi razlinega pristopa k varovanju krake pokrajine. Najpreprosteje povedano, Sotes ka Ardche je imela zelo proste roke, medtem ko je bil razvoj kocjanskih jam bolj strogo kontroliran. e gledamo z vidika ohranjanja/razvoja, opazimo razlike v upravljanju teh dveh znamenitosti na osnovi diahroninega pristopa k zgodovini razvoja njihovega turizma. I n ne, ta primerjalni pristop lepo pokae, kako ta dva procesa, turizem in politika ohranjanja, strukturirata razvoj na krakih obmojih. K ljune besede: kraka pokrajina, ohranjanje, turizem, kocjanske jame, Narodni rezervat Soteska Ardche, Francija, Slovenija. 1 Laboratoire Edytem, University of Savoie, Chambry, France, e-mail: melanie_duval@yahoo.fr Received / Prejeto: 11.07.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 23, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 551.44:338.48(497.4+44) Mlanie Duval: Tourism and preservation policies in Karst ar eas: comparision betwen the kocjan caves (Slovenia) and the Ardche gorge (France) is paper presents a comparative study of the Ardche Gorge Natural Reserve (France) and the kocjan Caves Regional Park (Slovenia). As major tourist attractions, both these areas have progressively structured their economies around tourism, al though they have implemented very dierent development and karst landscape protection policies. In very simplistic terms, management of the Ardche Gorge can be described as very laxest, whereas development in the kocjan Caves is much more strictly controlled. W hen examined from this preserva tion/development perspective, the dierences in the ways the two sites are managed can be traced through a diachronic ap proach to the history of their tourism development. I n ne, this comparative approach illustrates how two processes between tourism and preservation policies structure territories develop ment on karst areas. K ey words: karstic landscapes, preservation, tourism, kocjanske jame caves, Ardche Gorge Natural Reserve, France, Slovenia. I NTRODUCTION is paper presents a comparative study of the Ardche Gorge Natural Reserve (France) and the kocjan Caves Regional Park (Slovenia), thereby illustrating two of the directions tourism development in karst areas can take. As major tourist attractions, both these areas have pro gressively structured their economies around tourism, although they have implemented very dierent develop ment and karst landscape protection policies. Approaches to these karst landscapes have alter nately placed to the fore either the heritage dimension or the tourism dimension of the resource, with the resource being dened as that which can be capitalised upon,

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 24 conserved or exploited for private or public benet, a sort of hybrid notion between private goods and pub lic goods. is notion includes the idea of an intergen erational duty of care and responsibility and allows for compromise between the economic exploitation of the resource and its ecological protection and conservation (Peyrache-Gadeau V., 2004, p.3). Since tourism began in these two areas, the gradual intensication of the dialectic between preservation and development has led to the creation of two protected tourist areas. Of course, a balance between preservation and development can be achieved in a number of dif ferent ways and the approach each area takes to achieve this balance will be governed by that areas own evolv ing characteristics. By comparing two similar regions, we were able to elucidate the forms this precarious balance can take and to present two dierent ways of approaching the management of tourism in karst areas. A comparative approach to geographical research presents the major advantage of bringing together dier ent approaches to a problem, thereby revealing explana tory factors and facilitating the analysis of the processes involved. By comparing protected tourist karst areas in France and Slovenia from diachronic and synchronic points of view, we were able to highlight the factors be hind the methods currently used to manage these two protected tourist sites. us, the presentation of the main characteristics of these two sites is followed by a discus sion of the factors that have determined the approaches to managing the balance between preservation and de velopment adopted in the Ardche Gorge and kocjan Caves areas. T HE VALUE OF A COMPARATIVE REGIONAL APPROACH e Ardche Gorge and kocjan Caves sites show a suf cient number of similarities for a comparative approach to be valid. Both areas are geologically and geomorpho logically very similar, as both are karst plateaux dotted with collapse dolines, caves and potholes. One of the rst people to have compared the two areas was Martel, who drew parallels between the karst formations at kocjan and the Saint-Marcel Cave (cave in the Ardche Gorge that was the trigger for tourist development in the area) in his book L es Abmes (1894, p.83-84). As with all karst plateaux, the protection and man agement of water resources is a question that cannot be ignored. In addition to problems related to water quality, both areas have had to deal with concerns over maintain ing water quantities. ese concerns have been addressed through large-scale water management projects. In Slove nia, a Ramsar convention was signed in 1999 and a Man and Biosphere (MAB) project was set up in 2004. In France, a General W ater Development Plan (Schma dAmnagement Gnral des Eaux SAGE) has been drawn up. By xing objectives in terms of quality, quantity and environmental protection, these programmes provide frameworks for con sultation and dialogue between the parties involved. Comparisons can also be made between the mea sures taken to preserve the karst resource and to develop tourism. Both areas are covered by a number of protec tion measures: the Ardche Gorge has been a natural reserve since 1980 and the Pont dArc has been a listed site since 1982; the kocjan Caves have been a UNESCO monument since 1986 and a regional park since 1996. Both areas are aware of the need to promote a sus tainable form of development and have set up education al programmes for young visitors. Hence, since 1997, the Ardche Gorge Natural Reserve has been recognised by the French Ministry of Education as an educational site for school groups. At the kocjan site, a nature trail was opened in 2002 and awareness programmes are carried out in conjunction with local schools. ese dierent protection measures and aware ness-raising actions are aimed at developing a more re sponsible approach to tourism development, which had oen been regarded as anarchic or inappropriate by the authorities responsible for the two areas. In 2004, 89,700 people visited the kocjan Caves; however, this can only be considered a base gure for tourist numbers, as many people only follow the nature trail to the view points overlooking the collapse dolines: a number that is dicult to evaluate. Visitor numbers to the Ardche Gorge can be estimated using several dierent indica tors, for example, the number of canoe descents (more than 180,000 per year), the counter on the road through the Ardche Gorge (245,000 vehicles in 1997, assuming an average of 3 people per vehicle, this gives a gure of 735,000 visitors according to the reserve management plan, p.21), the number of visitors to the tourist caves (Saint-Marcel Cave: 42,000 visitors per year, Madeleine Cave: 49,000, Orgnac Cave: 125,000 National Tourism Observatory, 2002). e dierent government and local bodies generally agree on a gure of 1.5 million tourists per year (rural excellence pole report). e Ardche Gorge and the kocjan Caves are tourist areas in which tourist ow management and protection measures have progressively been implemented. M LANIE DUVAL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 25 T HE IMPLEMENTATION OF PROTECTION MEASURES 1 e need to protect the Ardche Gorge area became ap parent as early as the beginning of the 20 th century. In 1913, Martel proposed the creation of a national park in order to protect the gorge from excessive construction. However, the measures introduced to protect the site only covered specic areas; for example, the Pont dArc was listed as a natural monument and a site of outstand ing artistic, historic, scientic, legendary or scenic inter est on 24 th January 1931 and the Saint-Marcel Cave was classied on 26 th June 1934. As was oen the case at this time, only the natural monuments were protected, i.e. the arch of the Pont dArc and the area around the entrance to the Saint-Marcel Cave, and no ocial boundary to these areas was dened (map 1). 1 1 A table summarising these protection measures is given at the end of the article. is rst wave of legislation was completed on 15 th January 1943 by the listing of the Ardche Gorge in the Inventory of Sites. Under article 4 of the Act of 2 nd May 1930 regarding the protection of natural monuments and sites of outstanding artistic, historic, scientic, legend ary or scenic interest (Ocial Journal of 4 th May 1930), development work cannot be undertaken without the consent of the authorities. However, checks were infre quent and oen took place aer the work was nished, so this requirement was oen ignored and development continued within the protected area, e.g. the creation of a campsite near the Saint-Marcel Cave in 1965. A further step was taken at the beginning of 1969 with the drawing up of a development plan (Plan Di recteur dUrbanisme) for the Ardche Gorge. e imme diate perimeter of the gorge was given full protection, be ing declared a no-construction zone in which building of any nature was forbidden. A few months later, on 23 rd September 1969, the Commission des Sites de lArdche M ap 1: Construction of protected area: Ardche Gorge in 1980. TOURISM AND PRESERVATION POLICIES IN KARST AREAS: COMPARISON BET W EEN THE KOCJAN CAVES ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 26 decided to classify the development plans no-construc tion zone as a natural reserve. is project took ten years to complete due to op position from hunters, the mayors of the towns and vil lages concerned, owners of land within the reserve and members of the local tourism industry (campsite owners, canoe rental businesses). Several proposals were put for ward, with the area covered by the reserve being reduced from an initial 2,389ha to 1,572ha. In order to satisfy the demands of all the interested parties, the objectives of the reserve focused on managing the development of tour ism within the gorge. For example, two 250-person biv ouac sites were set up on the banks of the river, in addi tion to the existing campsites (Mas de Serret: 100 pitches, La Chtaigneraie: 200 pitches, e Saint-Marcel Cave: 100 pitches, Les Templiers: 300 pitches, i.e. 1200 pitches in total). In a strange coincidence, it was also at this time that consideration started to be given to the future of the kocjan Caves. In 1980, Sezana District Council (which managed the cave) approved a protection order for the kocjan Caves with the dual objectives of preserving the karst environment and of preventing any inappropriate tourism development in and around the caves (Zorman T., 2004, p.114). is rst protection measure was followed in 1982 by a symposium called Protection of the Karst on the 160 th anniversary of kocjanske jame. Under the guise of a general symposium on tourist caves, the meeting focused almost entirely on the kocjan Caves, covering their geomorphological characteristics, problems of pol lution in the River Reka, the development of the caves and, above all, their future as a tourist attraction. e participants at the symposium were asked to approve a motion that would foreshadow the direction the manage ment of the site would take. e wording of this motion also provided an indication of the motivation behind the sites bid to be classied as a UNESCO world heritage site. e kocjan Caves were presented as the birthplace of speleology and karstology, as an outstanding monument of international value to be protected against any form of pollution (particularly pollution in the River Reka) and as a tourist attraction with the potential to become a tourism hub for the surrounding area. In 1986, an area of 200 ha around the collapse dolines was classied by UNESCO under criteria ii, an eminent example of the development of ecosystems, and iii, a superlative natural phenomena or area of exception al natural beauty and aesthetic importance. However, the classication documents diered from the motion approved in 1982, as they highlighted the main threats to the kocjan Caves site. ese threats included industrial pollution in the River Reka and the risk of inappropriate infrastructure development in the area around the caves, in particular the building of car parks for tourists, i.e. it had been deemed necessary to reinforce planning regulations to ensure the 200ha cul tural landscape included in the site remain authentic and natural (p.96). Between the position taken in 1982 and the application for classication in 1986, it appears there was a change in the way the development of the kocjan Caves was seen, with the regional development perspec tive being superseded by a strict control over all tourism development. P OINTS OF COMPARISON AND EXPLANATORY FACTORS Although measures have been taken to protect both the Ardche Gorge and the kocjan Caves sites, there are signicant dierences in the way the preservation/de velopment balance has been approached. In very sim plistic terms, management of the Ardche Gorge can be described as very laxist, whereas development in the kocjan Caves is much more strictly controlled. ese dierences can be explained by a number of factors, many of which are variables eecting the preservation/ development couplet. e history of tourism development Exploitation of the kocjan Caves and the Ardche Gorge for tourism purposes began several centuries ago. Louis Franois Cassass illustrations of Istria and Dalmatia show people at the bottom of the collapse dolines, indicating that tourists were already visiting the kocjan Caves site in 1782 (Keckemet D., 1978), and the opening of a visitor book in 1819 shows that tourism in the kocjan Caves was becoming more organised. At this time the visit involved descending paths that had been built to the bottom of the Velika collapse doline. (Kranjc A., 2002, p.42): a visit that attracted increasing numbers of tourists, with numbers rising to 3,639 in 1903 (Mihevc A., 2002, p.119). It was during this same period that Albert Du Boys (1842) published his account of the recreational activities in the Ardche Gorge, which were mostly concentrated around the Saint-Marcel Cave. e visit of these caves, which was depicted in an engraving by Victor Cassien (p.198-199), consisted of following ladders through the rst three chambers: everyone had a torch, which le behind long trails of ame and smoke. A little later in his book, in a chapter on the Pont dArc (p.210-216), Du Boys relates how, for the price of four or ve francs per man, the Ardche boatmen would take tourists up the river from Saint-Martin to Vallon. At this time, visitors did not descend the river; they went up it! In both cases, tourists came to admire the pictur esque landscape of these karst areas. Publicised by the il M LANIE DUVAL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 27 lustrated writings of previous visitors, both areas quickly became tourist attractions but their tourism develop ment would follow very dierent routes, leading to the Ardche Gorge becoming over-run by tourists. Accessibility e extreme popularity of the Ardche Gorge can be partly explained by its accessibility. e gorge was quick ly made accessible, either by water or by land (construc tion of the rst section of the tourist road past the Pont dArc in 1887, completion of the Ardche Gorge tourist road in 1969). e River Ardche became the hub of the area, concentrating the ow of tourists to its waters and its banks. is accessibility, combined with other factors such as the development of canoeing, social tourism, na turism and the development of mass tourism (Daud G., 1986), was one of the key factors in the evolution of tour ism in the Ardche Gorge. In contrast, tourism around the kocjan Caves did not develop as strongly, despite the areas proximity to the Trieste-Vienna railway (opened in 1857). is contrast can be explained with reference to a second element in the notion of accessibility. In fact, access has to be considered on a smaller scale, i.e. the accessibility of the individual caves rather than the entire karst area. Although the kocjan site is easy to get to, the areas major attractions, i.e. its collapse dolines, are less easily accessible than neighbouring tour ist caves, such as the Postojna Cave, 25 kilometres to the north-east along the same railway line. e topography of the Postojna Cave is more suited to large-scale tourist development and the authorities responsible for Postojna were very quick to set up a system for controlling the ow of tourists: installation of a door to protect the cave from intruders in 1819, creation of a special commission for the cave in 1823, installation of a system of cars pushed along rails in 1872, which was modernised in 1914 with the introduction of petrol locomotives, and in 1959 with electric locomotives. In 1968, the construction of a circu lar line increased the caves capacity to 14,400 visitors per day. To give a comparison, in 1980, when the future of the kocjan Cave was being considered, Postojna received 827,826 visitors, whereas kocjan only received 37,500, a ratio of 22 to 1! e politico-economic context Although visitor numbers for the kocjan site were rela tively modest compared with other Slovenian caves and the Ardche Gorge, new protection measures, such as the UNESCO classication in 1986, focused on this aspect of the site. is apparent paradox was partially the result of the political context surrounding the decision to apply for UNESCO classication. In order to satisfy the politi cal interests of the dierent republics within Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav federal committee asked each republic to list potential world heritage sites. Both Postojna and kocjan were on the list for the Republic of Slovenia. Despite its international reputation, it was decided that the Postojna site was too built up and developed and preference was given to the more natural kocjan Caves site. us, distinct approaches to the karst resource pres ervation/tourism development couplet become apparent. For both the Ardche Gorge and the kocjan Caves, the objective of the protection measures that have been in troduced is to preserve the fauna, ora, geology and geo morphology of the site. However, in the Ardche Gorge, these measures have been applied to an area that attracts a large number of visitors and in which river-based tour ism is a vital part of the economy. For example, Vourch and Natali (2000, p.31) estimated the turnover of the ca noeing business in the Ardche Gorge to be 20 million francs (r3 million). As a result, protection measures were designed to manage the ow of tourists through the area, rather than to reduce the number of visitors. In contrast, the kocjan site was protected before large-scale tourism existed and the implicit objective of the protection mea sures was to regulate future development. Although the underlying intention of the UNESCO classication was to structure tourism development for the whole of the Kras Plateau, with the kocjan site as its hub, precautions were taken to prevent any unsuitable development. is perception of tourism development as needing to take into account the preservation of the entire karst resource can be found in the wording of the protection legislation. Legislation e kocjan Caves are governed by the kocjan Caves Re gional Park Act of 1 st October 1996. e Act was worded to comply with the recommendations made in the 1986 UNESCO inscription documents, which stipulated: the possibility of enlarging the regional park would be a wel come initiative (p.96). is legislation strengthened the protection of the kocjan Caves, which are considered a national treasure, both for their natural beauty and for their archaeological and anthropological riches. Going beyond the oen obsolete and harmful distinction be tween nature and culture, the management of the park is based on a global and multi-disciplinary approach. Article I of the Act states, In order to preserve and re search its outstanding geomorphological, geological, and hydrological formations, rare and threatened plant and animal species, palaeontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and the cultural landscape, and to ensure conditions for adequate development, the region of the kocjan Caves is hereby declared a regional park called kocjanske jame. TOURISM AND PRESERVATION POLICIES IN KARST AREAS: COMPARISON BET W EEN THE KOCJAN CAVES ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 28 Conversely, the legislation creating the Ardche Gorge Natural Reserve only considers the natural riches of the site, placing the emphasis on the protection of plant and animal species. Moreover, these protection measures do not go very far. For example, articles 3 and 6, designed to limit hunting to wild boar, were strongly opposed by local people and were annulled in 1983. Even though one of the reasons put forward for creating the reserve was to protect the fauna, the legislation protecting wildlife in the park is no stricter than elsewhere. ese contradictory currents result in uctuations between tighter and more permissive regulation. is is also the case for camping in the gorge, the regulation of which was one of the main reasons for cre ating the reserve: as one of the objectives of the reserve is to preserve the natural environment while allowing public access, article 7 of the dra statutory order stipulates that camping is forbidden throughout the reserve; however, two water-sports centres will be set up where visitors may camp for one night (record 1305W21, dpartemental archives, Privas). As a result, two bivouac sites were set up, draining most of the reserves nancial subsidies for the rst ten years of its existence, with the light facilities initially planned being redened to include giant barbe cues, large, marquee-style tents, and over-elaborate sani tary facilities, etc. e planned capacity of 250 campers per bivouac, i.e. a total of 500 people, was oen exceeded; for example, the gure of 3,508 campers was reached during the weekend of 26 th /27 th June 1999 (Consultative Committee Report of 13 th July 2004, p.4). However, during the last ten years the management of this natural reserve has moved in a more environmentand wildlife-friendly direction. e change, which began in 1997 with the drawing up of a LIFE programme for the area, was embodied in the reserves 1999-2003 manage ment plan, which included a monitoring programme and signicant scientic projects. In 2002 a central booking oce was set up in order to regulate visitor numbers and the number of people per night per bivouac has been re duced to 700, with the intention of reducing this number to 500 for the 2006 season. Preservation areas In concrete terms, the two approaches to managing the karst resource preservation/development couplet have led to the denition of preservation areas. e Ardche Gorge includes two preservation ar eas: the 1,575 ha Ardche Gorge Natural Reserve and the 1,040 ha Pont dArc listed site (map 2). Even though French environmental law allows for the creation of preservation areas around natural re serves, such areas have never been dened in law and cannot be opposable to third parties. Furthermore, no such protection areas have ever been created around the Ardche Gorge, despite being on the agenda of several consultation meetings, oen under the heading of sensi tive zone or peripheral zone. Nevertheless, two protection measures have gradu ally been introduced for the peripheral area around the Ardche Gorge. Firstly, in 1992 a biotope order was issued for the Dent de Rez, a 3,500 ha area of land on the le bank of the river, upstream from the gorge. is area covers the communes of Gras, Lagorce and Saint Maurice dIbie. e Syndicat de Gestion des Gorges de lArdche was given responsibility for the management of this area in 1997, together with those parts of the com munes that fall within the natural reserve, i.e. a total area between 12,000 and 13,000 ha (visual assessment aer topographic map). Secondly, the increase in size of the protected areas has been combined with the extension of the responsibil ities of the Syndicat de Gestion des Gorges de lArdche. Since 2004, the Syndicat has taken full responsibility for the land of the communes that falls within areas clas sied as a natural reserve or as a Natura 2000 site, as well as for an intervention zone comprising the communes or parts of communes belonging to the natural environ ment of the Ardche Gorge (Prefectoral order of 26 th March 2004). e terms under which the Syndicat operates and the area for which it is responsible are generally dened by the objectives of the Natura 2000 fauna and ora protection programme. However, there are no real mea sures for protecting the karst resource itself. Although the protection of species depends on the protection of the environment as a whole, one could perhaps expect that a preservation area would be dened according to geological, geomorphological and karst criteria, taking into account the surface networks to be protected and the preservation of water resources through actions cov ering the entire drainage basin. None of the protection measures have taken a whole-karst approach to preser vation. e karst as a whole has only been considered by other parties, for example through the implementa tion of a General W ater Development Plan, for which the existence of the natural reserve is only a peripheral consideration (map 3). roughout the Ardche Gorge area, there is a superposition of preservation areas, which telescope into other programmes without really producing concerted actions in terms of managing the karst resource. Recently, a regional project based around the Ar dche Gorge natural reserve has started to emerge with the desire to implement a rural excellence pole and a new rural development programme, steered by the DI ACT (inter-governmental delegation for regional devel M LANIE DUVAL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 29 opment and competitiveness, new naming of DATAR). e Ardche Gorge reserve, as a protected tourist area will form the hub of an Ardche Gorge region. One of the main objectives of this programme is to renovate the tourism oer provided by the Ardche Gorge and its sur rounding area, by creating a network of local tourism industry players. However, this new programme will be superimposed on top of the measures described above, without any real consideration or explanation of how they will be linked. e structure of the preservation areas around the kocjan Caves is evidence of a completely dierent ap proach to the problem. e kocjan Caves site is at the heart of several preservation areas (map 4), but subject to a global management system, as stipulated under the 1996 Act. e original, 1986 UNESCO site covered 200 ha around the collapse dolines. is area has gradually been increased, with the 1996 kocjan Caves Regional Park Act dening a central zone of 413 ha around the caves that includes areas around exceptional cultural and his torical monuments subject to even stricter protection measures. is Act also created a buer zone covering the 45,000 ha of the Reka watershed upstream from the central area. Unlike the preservation areas in the Ardche M ap 2: Preservation areas around Ardche Gorge, since 1980 to 2006. TOURISM AND PRESERVATION POLICIES IN KARST AREAS: COMPARISON BET W EEN THE KOCJAN CAVES ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 30 Gorge, this extended zone was dened according to the need to protect the entire karst resource. In 1999, the designation of a Ramsar zone around the kocjan Caves conrmed the authorities commit ment to this whole-karst approach. e Ramsar conven tion was originally drawn up to protect wetlands that are important on an international scale, particularly as habitats for water birds, but its terms of application were extended in May 1999 to cover all forms of interna tionally important wetlands. By providing the means to guarantee the quantity and quality of the water feeding the kocjan system, the managing body has ensured the protection of the karst resource, at least in terms of its underground waters. In 2004, this action was completed by the launch of a MAB project, which conrmed the status of the buer zone on the Illirska Bistrica side as dened by the 1996 Act and which set up a new zoning system with creation of a 14,780 ha transition zone. is zone covers the Di vaca district (district that contains the kocjan Caves fol lowing the reorganisation of local authority boundaries in 1992), which was not included in the 1996 buer zone. e MAB programme provides the regional park with the means to coordinate eorts to control local hydrolog ical processes, develop sustainable farming practices and preserve the caves by limiting surface water pollution through the controlled use of fertilizers and the manage ment of waste water ows. As a result, the MAB project covers an area of no less than 60,193 ha. e 1986 UNESCO classication, the 1996 Act, the 1999 Ramsar Convention and the 2004 MAB project cover all the dierent facets of the kocjan Caves karst landscape: the natural monument with exceptional karst formations of archaeological, historical and ethnological value, the protection of underground water resources and the sustainable management of inltration water on the plateau by maintaining traditional farming techniques. Currently, two projects for extending this protec tion dynamic are being studied. e rst concerns the enlargement of the regional parks boundaries to include neighbouring districts such as Naklo, Breec, Gradie. is extension has been sought by the inhabitants of M ap 3: L ocalization to the Ardche Gorge Natural Reserve with regard to the watershed of the river Ardche. M LANIE DUVAL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 31 C ONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES e kocjan Caves and the Ardche Gorge present two faces of the karst resource preservation/development dialectic and their comparative study is interesting on several levels. e two sites present similarities in terms of tourism development and the implementation of pro tection measures: both sites began to be perceived as tourist attractions at about the same time, i.e. during the 19 th century, and both benet from protection measures introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. these districts, who would like to be included within the park in order to benet from the subsidies available for renovating housing and farm buildings. Little by little the park is increasing its territory. e second project involves a major extension to the UNESCO site, increasing its area by approximately 50,000 ha, thereby protecting the entire Kras plateau, which the Slovenian authorities consider extremely vul nerable due to its karst characteristics. is new area could be classied as a cultural landscape, combining the caves and other karst features, traditional architec M ap 4: Spatial extension of preservation areas around kocjan caves. ture, the Lipica stud farm with its Lippizaner horses, and traditional forms of agriculture such as wine growing. W ith an eye on preparing for this classication, several key projects have been, or are being carried out. Most are aimed at developing small-scale heritage, such as nature trails around collapse dolines (Divaca), livestock farm ing (Pliskovica) and outstanding monuments (Komen, tanjel). ese projects are gradually providing the area with a tourist structure and creating a network of tourist ows, mostly centred round the kocjan Caves. Nevertheless, the numerous dierences between the sites give an insight into the dierent ways in which the preservation/development couplet is viewed. W hen ex amined from this preservation/development perspective, the dierences in the ways the two sites are managed can be traced through a diachronic approach to the history of their tourism development. e combination of several factors (accessibility, development of water sports, etc) rapidly led to the Ar TOURISM AND PRESERVATION POLICIES IN KARST AREAS: COMPARISON BET W EEN THE KOCJAN CAVES ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 32 dche Gorge becoming what some people have dubbed the Mecca of canoeing. Although the enthusiasm for water sports was present throughout the 20 th century, its development was facilitated by the completion of the Ardche Gorge tourist road in 1969. Today, the Ardche Gorge accounts for 2/3 of the dpartements tourism business, whether it is measured in terms of the accom modation oer, the number of bed-nights, or the turn over of the dierent sectors of the tourism market. As this thriving tourism industry already existed when the Ardche Gorge Natural Reserve was created, the reserves statute had to take into account the interests of all the af fected parties. As a result, the reserve appears to be a very exible compromise between tourism and preservation. To a large extent, this historical and economic context ex plains the diculties in setting up the reserve and, most notably, the fact that a management plan was not drawn up until twenty years aer the reserve was created! e context in which the protection measures for the kocjan Caves were introduced was very dierent. Con fronted with major pollution problems from the industry in the Reka basin upstream from the caves, but beneting from the Yugoslav Federal Committees strong desire to obtain UNESCO classication for certain sites within the Yugoslavian Republics, the kocjan Caves were inscribed on the list of world heritage sites in 1986. is protection measure was then reinforced by a specic law creating the kocjan Caves Regional Park in 1996. Tourism in the kocjan Caves areas is viewed very dierently to the way it is seen in the Ardche Gorge. Firstly, the kocjan area receives far fewer visitors; hence the economic stakes are much lower. Furthermore, at the beginning of the 1980s tourism development around the kocjan Caves was carried out with two contradic tory objectives: become a structuring tourist attraction for the whole of the Kras region but, at the same time, prevent any anarchic development. is dual position led to the drawing up of the 1996 Act, which gave the parks managing body the means to implement a global development programme. e 1996 Act, together with the Ramsar Convention and the MAB programme, en able the kocjan Caves Regional Park to carry out ac tions concerning dierent aspects of the karst resource: natural heritage, cultural heritage, preservation of water resources, maintenance of traditional agriculture, aware ness-raising and educational programmes for the general public, etc. Gradually, the kocjan Caves area is position ing itself as a model site, a shop window onto the prin ciples of sustainable development. On a more general level, the dierences between the two sites are also due to their dierent approaches to the management of karst resources. A comparison of the general legislation relating to environmental protection in Slovenia and in France shows that Slovenia has taken specic measures to protect karst areas, whereas France considers karsts to be just another part of the natural en vironment, alongside coastlines and mountain areas. In Slovenian law, specic protection has been given to karst areas both by the Environmental Protection Act of 1999 and by the Nature Conservation Act of 1999. For exam ple, article 4 of the 1999 Nature Conservation Act denes karst phenomena as being part of Slovenias national her itage and therefore worthy of special protection. Slovenias specic approach to karst landscapes could be ascribed to the extent of such formations in Slo venia: more than 44% of the country is composed of karst phenomena, ranging from alpine karsts to dinaric and pre-alpine karsts. As a result, 75% of the protected ar eas in Slovenia, whether they are national parks, regional parks or other types of protected area, are karst land scapes. However, the extent of karst landscapes is not suf cient to explain Slovenias readiness to protect this type of resource. In fact, the proportion of karst landscapes in France is similar to that in Slovenia (karsts account for between a third and a quarter of the land area of France, Nicod J., 1995, p.21), but Frances karst resources are not subject to specic protection measures. In contrast, since 2003, Slovenia has reinforced the protection given to karst areas through a new law cov erning the protection of caves. e laws objective is to classify Slovenias 8,726 known caves into three catego ries: caves open to visitors, caves that are semi-closed and monitored, and caves that are only open to scientists. An approach that has got certain French karstologists dreaming M LANIE DUVAL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 33 Daud G., 1986: Tourisme et nature: travers lexemple des Gorges de lArdche, in Revue Gographie Lyon, pp.409-440. Du Boys A, 1842: Album du Vivarais, d. Ch. Vellot and Cie, 271p. Habe F., 1984: International Symposium Protection of the Karst on the 160 th anniversary of kocjanske jame, Lipica 7 th -9 th October 1982, 112p. IUCN, 1986: Documentation sur les biens (naturels) du patrimoine mondial, les grottes de kocjan, non pagin. Kekemet D., 1978: Louis Franois Cassas et ses illustra tions de lIstrie and de la Dalmatie (1782), in RAD Jugoslavenske Akademije znanosti i umjetnosti, d. Jugoslavenske Akademije znanosti i umjetnosti, Za greb, pp.198-200. Kranjc A., 2002: Historical Overview and description of the Caves, in the kocjan Caves Regional Park, pp.42-54. Martel E. A., 1913: Montagne, CAF revue, n, pp.433457. Martel E. A., 1894: Les abmes, les eaux souterraines, les cavernes, les sources, la splaeologie, explorations souterraines eectues de 1888 1893 en France, Belgique, Autriche et Grce, d. Librairie Charles Delagrave, Paris, 576p. Mihevc A., 2004: Development of the tourist pathways in kocjanske jame, in International Show Caves As sociation, International Congress Use of modern technologies in the development of caves for tour ism, pp.117-120. R EFERENCES Nicod J., 1995: Carte gomorphologique des karsts de France, notice dune maquette au 1/ 3 000 000 envi ron, Karstologia n, pp.21-34. Oce National du Tourisme (ONT), 2002: Les sites tour istiques en France mtropolitaine. Frquentations 1994-2000, coll. Analyses and perspectives du tour isme, n. Peyrache-Gadeau V., 2004: Ressources patrimoniales Milieux innovateurs, Variation des durabilits des territoires, Actes du colloque : La notion de res source territoriale loccasion des 10 ans du Cer mosem, 14 th and 15 th October 2004, Domaine Ol ivier de Serres, 15p. Syndicat de Gestion des Gorges de lArdche, 1999: Plan de gestion des Ardche Gorge, document interne de la rserve, 139p. Vourch A. and Natali J.-M., 2000: Sites naturels: contri bution du tourisme leur gestion et leur entretien, d. AFIT, 139 p. Zorman T., 2004: kocjanske jame in the past and today, in International Show Caves Association, Interna tional Congress Use of modern technologies in the development of caves for tourism, pp.111-116. TOURISM AND PRESERVATION POLICIES IN KARST AREAS: COMPARISON BET W EEN THE KOCJAN CAVES ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 34 L EGISLATION In France: Statutory order n-27 of 14 th January 1980 creat ing the Ardche Gorge Natural Reserve (Ardche and Gard dpartements) Statutory order listing the area around the Pont dArc as an area of outstanding natural beauty 24 th Febru ary 1982. Order relating to the inscription of the Ardche Gorge in the Register of Listed Sites, 15 th January 1943. Order relating to the classication of the Saint-Mar cel Cave, 26 th June 1934. Order relating to the classication of the Pont dArc, 24 th January 1931. Act n-629 of 10 th July 1976 relating to the protec tion of the natural environment Act of 2 nd May 1930 relating to the protection of nat ural monuments and sites of exceptional artistic, historic, scientic, legendary or scenic interest, Ocial Journal of 4 th May 1930. In Slovenia: kocjan Caves Regional Park Act, 1 st October 1996. Environmental Protection Act, 1993, e Republic of Slovenia Nature Conservation Act, 1999, e Republic of Slovenia Objects The kocjan Caves Ardche Gorge Object(s) covered by the protection The caves and the collapse dolines+ The gorge and surrounding karst plateaux Current management body Public Agency for the kocjan Caves Syndicat de Gestion des Gorges de lArdche Beginning of tourism 1782: Cassas engravings 1842: Album du Vivarais by Albert du Boys Number of visitors 89,700 visitors in 2004 1.5 million visitors for the gorge and the surrounding karst plateaux in 2005 Protection measures 1 980: Protection order passed by Sezana council 1982: motion adopted during the international symposium Protection of the Karst on the 160 th anniversary of kocjanske jame 1986: UNESCO inscription 1996: kocjan Caves Regional Park Act 1931: classication of the Pont dArc 1934: classication of the Saint-Marcel Cave 1943: listing of the Ardche Gorge 1969: adoption of a development plan: the gorge is classied as a no-construction zone 1980: order creating the Ardche Gorge Natural Reserve 1982: classication of the area surrounding the Pont dArc 1992: biotope order for the Dent de Rez Protected areas 200ha: UNESCO area 1986 413ha: central zone of the regional park 1996 45,000ha: buer zone of the regional park 1996 14,780ha: transition zone of the MAB programme 2004 50,000ha: project for UNESCO classication 1,575 ha: area of the natural reserve 1980 1,040 ha: area surrounding the Pont dArc 3,500 ha: biotope order for the Dent de Rez 1992. Placed under the responsibility of the SGGA in 1997 13,000 ha: area of neighbouring communes 1997 Related programmes 1999: Ramsar Convention 2 004: MAB 2 004: General Water Development Plan (SAGE) 2006: rural excellence pole? T able 1: Comparison between the kocjan Caves and the Ardche Gorge. M LANIE DUVAL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 35 Cet article a pour objectif de prsenter deux des orien tations que peut prendre le dveloppement touristique despaces karstiques, prsentement la Rserve Naturelle des Gorges de lArdche (France), et le Parc Rgional des Grottes de kocjan (Slovnie). Support de ux touris tiques majeurs, ces deux espaces se sont progressivement structurs autour dune activit touristique, tout en tant le thtre de politiques damnagement et de protection de la ressource karstique. Depuis les dbuts de la mise en tourisme de ces deux espaces, un processus dialectique sest progressivement institu entre prservation et valorisation, amenant la cration de deux espaces touristiques protgs. Pour au tant, entre prservation de la ressource et mise en valeur de cette dernire, force est de constater quil nexiste pas UN quilibre mais que chaque espace concern sauto-r gule selon des caractristiques qui lui sont propres et qui voluent. Cette approche comparative nous amne ainsi envisager les formes que peut prendre cet quilibre pr caire et prsenter deux manires direntes de consi drer la gestion despaces karstiques touristiques. Lintrt dune approche comparative en gographie est de pouvoir porter des regards croiss sur un mme ob jet, en vue de faire ressortir des lments explicatifs et de porter notre rexion sur des processus. En ce sens, force est de constater que ces deux sites orent des similitudes tant du point de vue de leur dveloppement touristique que de la mise en place de mesures de protection : tous deux ont commenc tre perus comme des curiosits touristiques peu prs la mme priode, soit courant du 19 me sicle ; tous deux ont bnci de mesures de protection au dbut des annes 1980. Pour autant, nombres de dirences peuvent tre constates, lesquelles permettent dexpliciter ce rapport au couple prservation/ valorisation touristique. Dans ce registre, une approche diachronique de lhistoire de leur mise en tourisme permet de comprendre en partie les dirences de gestion de ces deux sites. La combinai son de plusieurs facteurs (accessibilit, dveloppement des pratiques sportives deaux vives, etc.) ont rapidement conduit les gorges de lArdche devenir ce que certains appellent la Mecque du cano-kayak Cet engouement manifeste tout au long du 20 me sicle sest alors conrm suite la construction de la route touristique des gorges de lArdche en 1969. Dans cette perspective, la cration de la Rserve Naturelle des Gorges sest sur-impose une activit touristique importante. Mnageant les intrts de chacun, cette rserve apparat comme un compromis trs souple entre activit touristique et prservation de la nature. Ce contexte historique et conomique explique alors en partie les dicults que la Rserve a rencontres lors de sa mise en place, et notamment le fait quil sest coul pas loin de vingt ans entre sa date de cration et la rdaction dun plan de gestion Comparativement, la mise en place des mesures de protection lchelle des grottes de kocjan sinscrit dans une logique dirente. Confrontes dune part des pro blmes de pollution industrielle importants en amont du bassin versant de la Reka et se situant dautre part dans le contexte politique dune inscription Unesco des Rpub liques de Yougoslavie port par le comit fdral Yougo slave, les grottes de kocjan sont inscrites en 1986 sur la liste du patrimoine mondial ; cette premire mesure se doublera par ladoption dune loi singulire portant cra tion du Parc Rgional des Grottes de kocjan en 1996. Linterprtation de la dimension touristique est ici dirente de celle constate lchelle des gorges de lArdche. Dans un premier temps, ce site connat une frquentation touristique moindre et les enjeux conomiques ne sont pas du mme ordre que ceux ob servs lchelle des gorges. Par ailleurs, en terme de dveloppement touristique, deux orientations contradic toires sont formules au dbut des annes 1980 : devenir un site touristique structurant pour lensemble du Kras et en mme temps, se prmunir de tout dveloppement anarchique Ce double positionnement conduira la rdaction de la loi de 1996, laquelle donne les moyens la structure gestionnaire du Parc de conduire une poli tique damnagement globale. Ce dispositif, complt par la suite par la convention Ramsar et le programme MAB, permet aujourdhui au Parc Rgional des grottes de kocjan de conduire des actions sur les dirents vo lets de la ressource karstique : patrimoine naturel, cul turel, prservation de la ressource en eau, maintien dune agriculture traditionnelle, programmes de sensibilisation et dducation lencontre dun large public, etc. progres sivement, les grottes de kocjan se positionnent en tant que site rfrent, espace vitrine de lapplication des prin cipes du dveloppement durable. TOURISM AND PRESERVATION POLICIES IN KARST AREAS: COMPARISON BET W EEN THE KOCJAN CAVES ... T OURISME ET MESURES DE PR SERVATION L CHELLE DES AIRES KARSTI QUES : COMPARAISON ENTRE LES GORGES DE L A RDCHE F RANCE ET LES GROTTES DE KOCJAN S LOV NIE R SUM



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THE CONCEPTS OF HERITAGE AND HERITAGE RESOURCE APPLIED TO KARSTS: PROTECTING THE CHORANCHE CAVES VERCORS, FRANCE Z AMISLI O DEDI INI IN NJENIH VIRIH PRIREJENIH ZA KRAS : VAROVANJE JAM C HORANCHE V ERCORS F RANCIJA Christophe G AUCHON 1 Estelle P LOYON 1 Jean-Jacques D ELANNOY 1 Sbastien H AC QUARD 1 Fabien H OBL A 1 Stphane J AILLET 1 Yves P ERRETTE 1 Izvleek UDK 551.442(44) Christophe Gauchon, Estelle Ployon, Jean-Jacques Delannoy, Sbastien Hacquard, Fabien Hobla, Stphane Jaillet & Yves Perrette: Zamisli o dediini in njenih virih prirejenih za kras: varovanje jam Choranche (Vercors, Francija) 2005 je francosko Ministrstvo za okolje prielo postopek za vpis 18 jam okoli Choranche za vpis v svetovno dediino pri UNESCO. Vloga mora odgovoriti trem merilom: znanstven emu pomenu, opredelitvi ozemlja in predlagati nain upravl janja. Predvsem je bilo treba ugotoviti vse vire dediine, kot so kapniki, kraki vodni objekti in zgodovinske zanimivosti. To je zelo pomembno in obutljivo vpraanje, e posebej, ker to ni bilo opravljeno, preden je bil sproen postopek za vpis. K ljune besede: kraka dediina, varstvo krasa, turistina jama, zaitena naravna vrednota, jame Choranche, Vercors, Francija. 1 Laboratoire EDYTEM-University of Savoie, Chambry, France. e-mail: christophe.gauchon@univ-savoie.fr Received / Prejeto: 04.10.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 37, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 551.442(44) Christophe Gauchon, Estelle Ployon, Jean-Jacques Delan noy, Sbastien Hacquard, Fabien Hobla, Stphane Jaillet & Yves Perrette: e concepts of heritage and heritage resource applied to karsts: Protecting the Choranche caves (Vercors, France) In 2005, French Ministry of Ecology started procedure to in scribe 18 Caves of Chorance into the W orld Heritage list of UNESCO. e application has to answer to three objectives: the scientic interest, denition of the territory, and to propose the management model. For the rst all the heritage sources has to be identied, such as owstone formations, karst water objects and historical curiosities. is are very important and sensitive questions specially because they have been not answered before the procedure of the inscription started o. K ey-words: karst heritage, karst protection, show cave, classi ed natural site, caves of Choranche, Vercors, France. I NTRODUCTION Although France has oen played a pioneering role in the exploration and study of caves, the country has done very little to protect the heritage resources of its karst areas. At present, there is no specic legislation covering the pro tection of karst landscapes caves and swallow holes can only be protected under general environmental protec tion laws. Some karsts have been listed as historic monu ments, others are protected for their biotopes, four caves have been declared nature reserves and a few hundred others have been classied as natural sites and monu ments. e law relating to this nal category dates back to 1930 and applies to lakes, waterfalls, peat bogs and coastal dunes, as well as to caverns. e central tenet of this legislation is expressed in Article 12, which stipulates that the owner of a classied site cannot destroy or mod ify the state or appearance of that site without special authorisation. us, protection measures are applied on a case-by-case basis, as opportunities arise, and the choice of sites is strongly inuenced by the specic interests of the civil servants responsible for the environment.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 38 No better illustration of the conservation situation for Frances karst heritage can be found than the Cho ranche Caves network, in the Vercors Mountains. ese caves have been explored for over a century and are the most important underground tourist attraction in the French Alps. ey feature in every tourist guide and have been the subject of several television programmes; hence, they are quite well known. Dozens of postcards show the forests of soda-straws hanging from the cave roof reect ed in the green waters of Lake Coun. Despite these attri butes, the site is not covered by any protection measures: only the careful stewardship of the sites owner-managers has maintained the caves in their current condition. A catalogue of the areas main heritage resources has been drawn up as part of the process of granting the area list ed-status and introducing ocial protection measures. However, the numerous objections to the protection pro posals show how dicult it can be to protect any area, even a site of universally accepted importance, such as Choranche. C ONTEXT In August 2005, the Rhne-Alpes Direction Rgionale de lEnvironnement, acting on behalf of the Minister of Ecology, launched a call for tenders for the production of an environmental protection dossier for the Choranche Caves, surface and subsoil. At the end of the tendering procedure, the bid entered by the EDYTEM laboratory was chosen. Unusually, the proposal to protect the Choranche Caves was not a response to a clear and immediate threat to the area or the karst system. In this case, the protec tion process was started as a preliminary step in achiev ing UNESCO W orld Heritage status for Choranche and seventeen other French stalactite and stalagmite caves: UNESCO will only accept nominations for sites already protected by the State sponsoring the nomination and this is not the case for some of the caves concerned, in cluding the Choranche Caves. e 18 caves nominated for UNESCO listing were chosen solely on the basis of the formations they contain, either for their variety (colours, shapes, mineralogy), fra gility, rarity or aesthetic quality. Although concretions are relatively abundant throughout the Choranche network, the UNESCO nomination specically cites the tourist part of the Coun Cave because of its rich ornamenta tion. However, it immediately became apparent that in order to eectively protect the site, the protection mea sures would have to cover a much more extensive area than this one cave. e Choranche Caves consist of a net work of more than 40 km of explored passages, divided into two main and parallel networks (Coun-Chevaline and Gournier) and containing three underground rivers. e Coun Cave has been open to tourists since 1967. It remains a popular attraction, although visitor num bers peaked, at more than 200,000 visitors per year, at the beginning of the 1990s. In addition, groups led by State-qualied cave guides frequently visit the Gournier Cave. e network is well understood due to more than 40 years of intense scientic study. On the surface, the Coulmes Plateau also contains a wide range of features that, in our opinion, should be included in the protection dossier. e environment in which these networks have de veloped cannot be ignored. e Coulmes Plateau, on the north-western edge of the Vercors, is a true backwater: away from the main through-routes, extremely isolated and with apparently limited potential. e project to give the site listed status is not designed to protect the area from any particular threat; however, it has raised fears amongst some local politicians that it will one day be used to stop future development projects. In fact, the pla teau is seen as a neglected area whose development (for example, connection to mains services) is lagging behind that of the villages in the Gorges de la Bourne. e ques tion that arises is whether listing the site will increase the divisions between the gorges and the plateau or enhance their complementarity. is is why any protection mea sures must take into account social and local geo-politi cal considerations, as well as environmental and heritage aspects. O BJECTIVES Given the above context, the specication laid down by the Direction Rgionale de lEnvironnement stipulated that EDYTEMs work should be divided into a number of phases, to ensure the listing procedure is completed as quickly as possible. C HRISTOPHE G AUCHON E STELLE P LOYON J EAN J AC QUES D ELANNOY S BASTIEN H AC QUARD ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 39 F ig. 1: V isitors in a galery in Coun cave, postcard, beginning of XX th century. First, it was necessary to establish that the site was of general interest from an artistic, historic, scientic, leg endary or picturesque point of view (art. 4 of the Act of 1930). As the contract covered both the surface and the subsoil, this assessment work had to be applied to the un derground karst networks as well as to the external land scapes. e artistic and legendary aspects were quickly eliminated, as they are of little importance in this case. at le the historic, scientic and picturesque dimen sions, for which there is a wealth of documentation es tablishing the heritage value of the Choranche Caves and the Coulmes Plateau. e heritage resources within each of these categories are examined in more detail below. Next, it was necessary to establish an appropri ate, coherent and acceptable protection perimeter. is turned out to be a very sensitive issue. In France, the protection given to karst areas rarely covers entire karst networks unless the system in question contains caves with exceptionally important archaeological remains or cave paintings. ere are no accepted standards in cases where karsts are protected for their aesthetic value and to preserve the landscape. Protection measures are gen erally determined by the beauty of the site and only the land containing the cave is protected, which is a highly unsatisfactory state of aairs. In order to ascertain how the terms of the 1930 Act can be used to give eective protection to karsts, it is necessary to understand what a karst is and how its dierent elements interact. Should the entire cave be protected, or only the part seen by tourists? For the Coun, Chevaline and Gournier springs, should protection be limited to the hydrogeological watershed or should the listed area cover the entire karst, with its numerous caverns, its landscapes and all its heritage re sources? ese questions were to become central to the ensuing public debates. e Direction Rgionale de lEnvironnement also recommended writing management guidelines for the listed area, taking into account all the activities carried out in the massif. In fact, the 1930 Act does not specify which types of development should be allowed or pro hibited in a listed area. erefore, listing the site must be allied with a series of recommendations, based on the specicities of the listed area, that will provide the local authorities with criteria on which to base decisions on whether to authorise future development projects. e protection measures must take into account the farm ing, forestry, permanent dwellings and numerous sports activities (cross-country skiing, hiking, caving, climbing, hunting, etc) that currently coexist in the Coulmes Pla teau area, as the aim is not to stop these activities but to ensure they can continue without damaging the environ ment. Hence, it is necessary to dene the rules that will govern each activity, the types of development compat ible with preserving the area and those that are totally unacceptable. is work requires detailed consultations with all the parties involved. Finally, once this work was completed, the EDY TEM team were required to draw up documents present ing the area to be protected and its heritage resources (poster + small pamphlet) for the general public. A cer tain amount of expertise was needed for determining the karst resources and landscapes to be protected. However, it was also necessary to take into account the aects of the protection measures on the numerous interests im pacted by the project. THE CONCEPTS OF HERITAGE AND HERITAGE RESOURCE APPLIED TO KARSTS: PROTECTING THE CHORANCHE CAVES ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 40 WORKING METHODS e EDYTEM team brought together experts with the dierent but complementary skills that would be needed to successfully complete the various phases of the project. W ork began by carrying out a survey of the extensive literature on the massif and its karst network produced by cavers, archaeologists, palaeontologists, ethnologists specialising in local history and, of course, karst geogra phers. In addition, cavers from the dpartement of Isre (Comit Dpartemental de Splologie), with whom EDYTEM has long had a good working relationship, pro vided cave inventories and topographical surveys. is data formed the basis for a comprehensive atlas of the network that includes information on the plateaus heritage resources, current protection measures (Natura 2000 zones, special bird protection areas, etc) and exist ing economic activities, etc. e mapping work was com pleted by a photographic survey of the area (including work by professional photographers) showing the under ground and surface landscapes. ese documents were drawn up for use during the steering committees meet ings with the various interested parties, in order to show how work was progressing, as well as for inclusion in the classication dossier. Compiling the protection dossier and management guidelines required detailed consultations with local interests and numerous information and fact-nding meetings with all the interested parties. Strenuous eorts were made to take into account all forms of land-use and to avoid needlessly upsetting people, so as not to create unnecessary diculties. e most delicate part of this consultation phase was presenting the boundaries of the proposed protection area, as every interested party found reason to object, based on their own interests and their own perception of the area. Hence, the scientic work had to take into account the local interests that were un covered as the project progressed. C HRISTOPHE G AUCHON E STELLE P LOYON J EAN J AC QUES D ELANNOY S BASTIEN H AC QUARD ... STAKES e most important sector to be aected by the project to list the Choranche Caves and the Coulmes Pla teau will undoubtedly be tourism. e operator of the Choranche Caves has always supported the protec tion project because the prospect of being awarded UNESCO W orld Heritage status is seen as a marvellous opportunity to give a much-needed boost to the site. e Choranche Caves are the biggest pay-to-enter tour ist attraction in the Vercors Mountains and the only one to be open all year round; the areas other tourist sites are all highly seasonal with summer and winter peaks. Visitors are also attracted to the area around the caves by outdoor sports, such as rock climbing on the clis at Presles (which have been popular with climbers since the 1970s), cross-country skiing and hiking. As a result, there are several accommodation providers on the pla teau and in the village of Choranche. W hen asked, lo cal people are unanimously in favour of these outdoor activities, as they are seen as a source of jobs, but this does not prevent conicts between visitors and locals over issues such as parking and access to the climbs. e plateaus local councillors sometimes seem more con cerned by any nuisance caused to farmers than by the economic benets gained by the areas accommodation providers. e public debates have shown greater disa greement than expected over the tourism issue, with not everyone in the area considering it a priority. It has become apparent that local attitudes to the pro tection project are shaped by individual opinions on tour ism. In addition, the introduction of protection measures as a step towards obtaining UNESCO W orld Heritage sta tus is seen as a double-edged sword. If the French govern ments UNESCO project succeeds, almost everyone agrees the benets will be positive. However, opponents argue that if the UNESCO project fails, listing the site will hinder any form of development on the plateau. is standpoint results from a deep misunderstanding of the need to pro tect this karst environment and the blind opposition of the plateaus politicians and the valleys inhabitants. e biggest fear, which has been expressed very clearly, is that nearly all the projects benets will go to Choranche, as tourist ows will be channelled through the gorge to the caves. Consequently, the villages on the plateau will be subject to restrictions that will constrain their development, with out receiving any of the benets. ese territorial dier ences in opinion are exacerbated by dierences in peoples mentalities. e people of Choranche have long appreci ated the benets brought by tourism, starting with a spa that thrived from the 19 th century until the 1930s. On the other hand, the plateaus inhabitants feel as though they have only ever received the crumbs le aer Choranche has eaten most of the tourist cake. Presles elected repre sentatives have particular diculty in understanding that it is up to them to nd ways in which to reap benets from

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 41 amount of tufa. ere is an enormous gulf between those who perceive water as a resource to protect and those who regard it as a resource to exploit. Although posi tions on this issue are rarely explicitly stated, they have played a central role in the debates over the protection project. Paradoxically, the waterfalls themselves cannot be protected under the terms of the 1930 Act, as the Act cannot protect water, only the landscape surrounding it. Hence the importance of the management guidelines, which will include precise recommendations on how the water is to be protected. A traditional water culture, as is found in Mediterranean karst areas, has not developed in the Vercors Mountains. is may be due to the area having a particularly humid climate (Ppn > 2000mm) in which, historically, there has been little need to conserve what is seen as an abundant resource. As a result, when faced with increases in demand, both for agricultural and for domestic use, the only solution local politicians were able to envisage was to nd other sources to increase the supply to users. THE CONCEPTS OF HERITAGE AND HERITAGE RESOURCE APPLIED TO KARSTS: PROTECTING THE CHORANCHE CAVES ... F ig. 3: Sketch of the Coulmes Plateau by Oscar D combaz, 1899, with location of caves and pot-holes (scialets). F ig. 2: Choranche cirque and the location of main caves, drawn by Oscar D combaz, 1898. being listed a W orld Heritage site; it is their responsibility to ensure Choranche does not take all the pickings. ere is also a conict between the plateau and the gorge over the issue of water, another element that is central to this project. Although everyone agrees on the importance of water, there are deep disagreements about how this resource should be used. erefore, waters place in the system must be dened: as well as being a resource for the local population, it is an essential part of the areas heritage that must be preserved. For example, during the 1990s, Presles council proposed drilling through the pla teau to tap into the Gournier underground river in or der to resolve its chronic water shortage problems. e project was only abandoned, albeit provisionally, when local cavers proved it technically unfeasible. is was a bitter disappointment for the plateaus politicians, who are reluctant to denitively discard the idea. However, diverting these waters could not be authorised under any protection scheme, as the Gournier feeds the famous tufa falls that form such an important part of the sites land scape. If a water extraction scheme were to be permitted, the largest reductions in water ows would be in sum mer and it is in summer, when air temperatures are rela tively high, that the Gourniers waters deposit the greatest C HORANCHE S KARST RESOURCES A comprehensive inventory, in the form of themed data sheets, of all the karst resources to be found in the Cho ranche area was drawn up for inclusion in the protec tion dossier. W ithout reproducing the full inventory, we would like to give an idea of the diversity and richness of the heritage resources of the Choranche Caves and the Coulmes Plateau. CAVE FORMATIONS e original motivation behind the UNESCO W orld Heritage project was a desire to protect and promote the areas cave formations, including the spectacular Coun soda straws that have made Choranche famous. Given their aesthetic qualities and the role they play in attract

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 42 C HRISTOPHE G AUCHON E STELLE P LOYON J EAN J AC QUES D ELANNOY S BASTIEN H AC QUARD ... ing tourists to the Choranche Caves, agreement on the need to preserve these exceptional formations was im mediate and unanimous. Even if visitors to the caves only take away one memory, it is of the thousands of strands of spaghetti reected in the waters of the lake and river at Coun. For many years, the tourist route through the cave has been screened by windows in order to protect the formations from direct damage. However, a wider pres ervation area will have to be dened if these formations are to be given more global protection. is has proven to be a very delicate issue. Although the UNESCO pres entation dossier only specically covers the cave forma tions, these formations cannot be preserved unless the environment in which they formed is protected. But, how extensive should this protected area be? Should it only cover the land immediately above the caverns? Or should it include the area that feeds water to the formations, in so far as it can be dened, bearing in mind that the strati cation of the rock will doubtlessly create areas of lateral transfer? Or should it extend to the entire hydrogeologi cal system? Scientists must provide precise answers to these questions answers on which to base clear and co herent arguments that will convince sceptics. Given the need to protect a large area of the karst in order to protect the cave formations, it is unfortunate that the UNESCO proposal only explicitly mentions the formation-bearing caves. is has proved to be a major obstacle to the pro tection process, as it enables opponents to argue that only the soda straws themselves should be listed. However, because of the way in which karst systems work, a much more extensive area must be protected if the formations are to be properly preserved. Hence, the idea of listing the formation-bearing caves may actually work against the protection of the karst system: something that the promoters of the project undoubtedly never imagined. T HE KARST SYSTEMS e karst systems themselves are utterly remarkable. In fact, there are three perched systems, with no saturated zones, cut by the incision of the Gorges de la Bourne. Other similar systems can be found in the French PreAlps, but the three aligned springs at the foot of the Coul mes escarpment are particularly spectacular. Cavers have followed and mapped the underground rivers over dis tances of several kilometres, following the River Gourni er, for example, for almost six kilometres under the pla teau to its terminus 680 metres above the spring. ese systems are made up of highly complex networks of tun nels and chambers of all shapes and sizes. For instance, the Gournier Cave boasts a subterranean river that ows beneath a vast fossil gallery, the galleries of the Coun Cave form a true labyrinth and the River Chevaline ows over a succession of large gours before emerging at a spring that is uniquely gravity-fed. Although most of the parties concerned by the protection project are aware of these underground landscapes, they have little idea of their diversity. One of the objectives of the photographic survey of the area is to raise awareness of this dicult-tovisualise dimension. P ALAEONTOLOGICAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL REMAINS Palaeontological, archaeological and historical remains: Large quantities of fossils, particularly the remains of bears, have been found in some of the caves on the pla teau (especially the Pr lEtang cave) and in the upper fos sil levels of the Coun Cave. e Pr lEtang deposit has been intensively studied; however, the Bear Gallery in the Coun Cave, which is at the end of the known network and very dicult to reach, has never been visited by pal aeontologists. Despite being discovered by some of the caves earliest explorers, the species of bears to be found there have never been described. In addition, explora tions of some of the cavities in the rocks of the Choranche Cirque have revealed prehistoric remains, but undoubt edly not enough for the Cultural Aairs Department to classify these rock shelters as historic monuments. As well as these prehistoric remains, there are archaeologi cal relics from the more recent past, such as those le by the plateaus charcoal burners, including settlements that have been abandoned since the beginning of the 20 th cen tury. In the caves themselves, and especially in the Balme Etrange, signatures dating back to the 1830s can be found on the walls: proof of the long history of tourism in the Choranche Cirque and conrmation of some of the in formation found during the literature survey. erefore, the historic interest of the site cannot be denied. E XO KARSTIC STRUCTURES AND FORMATIONS Exo-karstic structures and formations are extremely abundant, providing a link between the scientic and pic turesque interests of the site. e Choranche Cirque con tains the most spectacular formations, most notably the large tufa ows that dot the Gournier stream. About ten years ago, the visitor trail was extended to include these tufa ows and signposts were erected to explain how they formed and their palaeoenvironmental signicance. On the plateau, such formations are usually less eas ily visible because of the dense forest cover, but they are just as interesting. e Pot Siva area contains a group of rooess caves that can be explored and that contain the remains of speleothems. Despite being particularly well developed, the cone karst, which provides evidence of the phases of karst formation during the Tertiary, cannot eas ily be seen due to the lack of a viewpoint overlooking the

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 43 THE CONCEPTS OF HERITAGE AND HERITAGE RESOURCE APPLIED TO KARSTS: PROTECTING THE CHORANCHE CAVES ... whole area. In fact, this is the only part of the Vercors to contain such a diversity of karst structures, and this alone should provide sucient justication for listing the area. T HE LANDSCAPE RESOURCE e landscape resource: In addition to the elements men tioned above, the landscape as a whole exudes a special atmosphere that adds to the areas beauty. is atmos phere mostly comes from the stark contrasts that char acterise the area: the juxtaposition of gorge and plateau, barren clis and luxuriant undergrowth, narrow deles and open plateaux, dark caverns and luminous cirques, and the abrupt transitions between the vertical and the horizontal. e spectacular view of the Cirque de Cho ranche from the caves car park always makes a vivid impression on visitors; however, it is important to make them realise that they will only get a complete picture of the areas natural wealth if they continue their excur sion onto the plateau. By doing this, they will also be able to appreciate the variety of the areas vegetation, which changes from the beech-pine forest so typical of the cool and humid Northern Pre-Alps to a sub-Mediterranean boxwood-juniper assemblage. ese changes are gov erned by altitude, as the plateau gradually descends from a height of 1450 metres in the north to 850 metres in the south, before plunging past the Coun cave entrance (at 590 m) to the bottom of the gorge and the village of Cho ranche at 270 metres. More than half a century ago, the caver Andr Bourgin suggested that the Coulmes area of the Vercors showed the characteristics of the whole mas sif in miniature (1950, p. 16). is concentration of karst landscapes in an area of only 40 km 2 is another of the riches of the Coulmes Plateau and further justication for protecting the site especially in a country that has not, as yet, given ocial protection to any of its mid-alti tude forest karsts. D IFFICULTIES Current French law and Department of the Environment guidelines contain ve criteria for assessing whether pro tecting a site is in the general interest. e Choranche Caves and Coulmes Plateau satisfy three of these ve cri teria; therefore, the task of producing a protection dossier should have been very straightforward. In fact, a number of obstacles quickly appeared, including the refusal by some local people to accept the recommendations of the experts who are compiling the dossier. Surmounting these problems will probably be extremely dicult as they are based on fears that listing the area will seriously hamper development without providing signicant benets. Although the 1930 Act denes the introduction of protection measures as a purely administrative proce dure, in practice it requires a participative approach in volving the local population: a reality that does not al ways make life easy. In addition, the public debate on the protection project provided a forum for expressing old frustrations that were not necessarily connected with the protection project. Reactions may have been particularly vehement due to people feeling that local infrastructure needs had, for many years, been neglected. Many local people could not understand why listing the site was suddenly so important, as there was no immediate threat to the area. ey felt that their ability to manage their own area was being called into question. Listing the site quickly became a local political issue that could only be understood in local terms and opposition to the project has been increased by the solidarity between local com munities. For example, to avoid angering its neighbours, Choranche, which has everything to gain from the proj ect, has rallied to the cause of Presles, which is hostile to anything other than a very limited protected area. erefore, the project has lost the support it expected to receive from Choranche. Local politicians and compet ing institutions (Regional Nature Park, Association of local councils, etc) are also trying to make political capi tal from the protection project. And no one knows if the hostility of the areas regional councillor is related to him being a quarry owner!

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 44 C ONCLUSION At the current time, the Choranche Caves protection dossier is still being nalised and the full listing process is far from being nished. e dossier will be presented for examination by the Dpartementale Commission and the Commission Suprieure des Sites, and then it will probably go to ministerial arbitration before the list ing can be approved by the Conseil dEtat, Frances high est administrative body. To be successful, the protection project will require strong and sustained political sup port. e importance of this political dimension came as a surprise to both the laboratorys team of scientists and to the Department of the Environment, which had not expected such strong opposition. Nevertheless, the process has been extremely use ful it has shown the strength of public opinion and the awareness of the local population and their elected representatives of the need to consider the karst area in which they live as a precious resource that must be care fully managed. Even though these communities have been part of a Regional Nature Park for 35 years, despite the fact that there has been more than a century of ex ploration and tourism in the caves, although the tourist image of the Vercors is based on a preserved mountain environment and despite 20 years scientic work to ex plain karst processes in laymans terms, local politicians and a large section of the population are still unable to accept the need to give the karst active protection. Most local people now understand that the individual parts of the karst are merely components in a coherent and fragile whole. However, as soon as an attempt is made to explain what this means in terms of managing the karst, this whole karst concept is quickly forgotten if it is contrary to individual vested interests. France undoubtedly needs to develop a much more active karst protection policy. Forming a National Coun cil for Underground Heritage, as is being considered by the Minister of Ecology, would raise awareness of this need and listing the Choranche Caves would be seen as a major step forward in the management of karst heritage resources. REFERENCES Bourgin, Andr, 1950: Rivires de la nuit.Arthaud, 26 p. + 52 plates. Corbel, Jean, 1956: Le karst du Vercors.Revue de Gog raphie de Lyon, n 3, p. 221-241. Dcombaz, Oscar, 1898: Les grottes de la valle de la Bourne et du Vercors.Spelunca, Mmoires de la Socit de Splologie, t. III, n 13, 54 p. Dcombaz, Oscar, 1899: Explorations souterraines dans le Royans et le Vercors.Spelunca, Mmoires de la Socit de Splologie, n 22, 52 p. Delannoy, Jean-Jacques, 1981: Le Vercors septentrional : le karst de surface et le karst souterrain.Doctoral thesis, Grenoble, 537 p. Delannoy, Jean-Jacques, 1997: Recherches gomor phologiques sur les massifs karstiques du Vercors et de la Transversale de Ronda (Andalousie).se dEtat, 678 p. Gauchon, Christophe, 1994: ermalisme et Tourisme en moyenne montagne. Deux stations des Pralpes : Choranche et La Bauche.Villes deaux, histoire du thermalisme, Actes du 117me Congrs National des Socits Savantes, d. C.T.H.S., p. 381-393. Lismonde, Baudouin & Frachet, Jean-Michel, 1979:, Grottes et scialets du Vercors.Inventaire sp lologique, tome 2 : Vercors Nord, d. Comit dpartemental de splologie de lIsre, 345 p. Nicolas, J.-F., 1786: Mmoire sur les maladies pidmiques qui ont rgn dans la province de Dauphin depuis lanne 1780.Imprimerie royale, Grenoble, 225 p. Peigne, Bernard & Charmont, Franois, 1962: Essai de statistiques splologiques : plateau de Presles, mas sif des Coulmes. C HRISTOPHE G AUCHON E STELLE P LOYON J EAN J AC QUES D ELANNOY S BASTIEN H AC QUARD ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 45 Unroof ed ca v es Caves cut by topography Ka rst cones Dolines P olje P aleo-polje of Pr esles Main cliffs Mi nor cliffs F aults Tilt KARSTIC GEOMORPHOL OGY KARST HYDROGEOL OGY PROPOSALS FOR A PRO TECTED AREA Explored underground networks KARSTIC SPRINGS Bu ry -P r Ma rt in Choranche Fa uries-Jallifier East side of Plateau Pr esles-Pylne Ruzand Study area C ommunal boundaries Speleological networks and hy drogeologic basin of Choranche Ca ve s C oulmes Platea u, Pr esles Po lje and Choranche ca ve s Geomorpholo gy and hy drogeology of Co ulmes Plateau F ig. 4: Geomorphological map of the Coulmes Plateau, with the proposition for the delimitation of protected area. THE CONCEPTS OF HERITAGE AND HERITAGE RESOURCE APPLIED TO KARSTS: PROTECTING THE CHORANCHE CAVES ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 46 En aot 2005, le ministre franais de lEcologie a lanc la procdure de classement des grottes de Choranche et du massif des Coulmes (Nord Vercors, Pralpes). Dans le cadre de la prparation dun dossier Patrimoine mondi al de lUnesco portant sur 18 cavits concrtionnes, il convient en eet que les biens proposs linscription soient bel et bien protgs par lEtat porteur du dossier. Or, jusqu prsent, le rseau karstique des grottes de Cho ranche ne bncie daucune protection rglementaire. Il fait lobjet dune exploitation touristique organise depuis 1967 et qui sest avre plutt respectueuse de la caverne ; si aucune menace directe ne pse sur cet ensemble kars tique, une commune du plateau a longtemps envisag de capter la rivire souterraine de Gournier, ce qui aurait de graves consquences sur la formation des tufs laval de lmergence. Le dossier de classement doit rpondre trois ob jectifs : 1, tablir lintrt scientique, pittoresque, his torique, artistique ou lgendaire du site, car ce sont l les cinq critres prvus par la loi de 1930 qui rgit la protection des sites naturels. Dans le cas des grottes de Choranche, les intrts artistique et lgendaire ntant pas concerns, cest sur les trois autres registres que porte le travail. 2, dnir le primtre de classement, ce qui est une tche fort dlicate car une partie du plateau est peuple dagriculteurs qui craignent pour leur activit. 3, proposer un cahier de gestion de lespace class, en prenant en compte toutes les activits prsentes, autant conomiques que de loisirs. Il a donc fallu identier les nombreuses ressources patrimoniales qui pouvaient justier la mesure de pro tection. Au premier rang viennent les concrtions, et surtout les clbres stuleuses de Coun, qui valent au site de Choranche de gurer dans le dossier Unesco. Tous les acteurs saccordent sur la valeur de ces concrtions, mais les conits apparaissent ds que sont voques les mesures de protection prendre : car il ne sut pas de classer la parcelle sous laquelle se trouvent les stuleuses, mais bien la totalit de la zone dalimentation des concr tions. L ES NOTIONS DE PATRIMOINE ET DE RESSOURCE PATRIMONIALE APPLI QU ES AU KARST : LE CLASSEMENT DU SITE DE C HORANCHE V ERCORS F RANCE R SUM Deuxime ressource, leau : le nord-ouest du Ver cors constitue un karst forestier de moyenne montagne, abondamment arros, mais les communes du plateau dis posent de fort peu de ressources en eau, do de grandes convoitises qui psent sur cette ressource. Mais ltude scientique a fait merger aussi dautres ressources patrimoniales. Sur le plan scientique, cest le karst des Coulmes dans son ensemble qui mrite dtre protg : trois grandes rivires souterraines coulent en eet sous le plateau des Coulmes et forment un en semble dmergences pntrables, perches 400 mtres au-dessus du fond de la valle de la Bourne. Les rseaux splologiques explors (> 40 km) prsentent toute la panoplie des formes endokarstiques, alors quen sur face, cest un spectaculaire karst buttes qui est con serv, avec de nombreuses palo-cavits trpanes. Les cascades de Gournier prsentent aussi un complexe de tuf, avec plusieurs dizaines de tonnes produites chaque anne. Cette diversit des formes se traduit sur le plan pittoresque car le paysage form par le cirque de Cho ranche, domin par de hautes falaises de calcaires ocres, est grandiose. Ces paysages sont marqus par toute une srie de violents contrastes entre le dedans et le dehors, le vertical et lhorizontal, le minral et le vgtal Enn, lintrt historique, plus discret, nen est pas moins rel, avec la fois des gisements archologiques sous le porche de Coun, des gisements palontologiques importants dans plusieurs cavits (Coun, Pr lEtang) et les traces danciennes visites touristiques, surtout dans la grotte de Balme trange (annes 1830). Lintrt patrimonial du site est donc multiple et ais dmontrer. Tout se complique lorsquil sagit de con vaincre les acteurs du bien fond des mesures de protec tion prendre. En eet, si les professionnels du tourisme soutiennent ce projet de classement, il nen va pas de mme des agriculteurs, des chasseurs et dune partie des propritaires qui napprouvent pas cette mesure. On voit par l que la gestion patrimoniale des ressources du karst reste un problme dlicat, surtout si un vrai travail pda gogique na pas prcd le lancement de ces procdures. C HRISTOPHE G AUCHON E STELLE P LOYON J EAN J AC QUES D ELANNOY S BASTIEN H AC QUARD ...



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EVALUATING THE HUMAN DISTURBANCE TO KARST ENVIRONMENTS IN SOUTHERN ITALY OCENJEVANJE SPREMEMB KRAKEGA OKOLJA ZARADI VPLIVA LOVEKA V JU NI ITALIJI Fabiana C AL 1 & Mario P ARISE 2 Izvleek UDK 502.6:551.44(450.75) Fabiana Cal & Mario Parise: Ocenjevanje sprememb krakega okolja zaradi vpliva loveka v juni Italiji Krako okolje je izredno obutljivo za unievanje in onesnaevanje. eprav je nosilna sposobnost tega naravnega okol ja majhna, so na krasu najrazlineje loveke dejavnosti, ki vplivajo na njegovo povrje in podzemlje. Da bi ocenili stopnjo takih sprememb na znailnem krakem ozemlju v Sredozem lju, je bilo izbranih dvoje podroij v Apuliji (jugovzhodna Ital ija). Posledice, ki jih je povzroil lovek, so bile ugotovljene s pomojo pred kratkim razvitega indeksa sprememb na krasu, ki upoteva zine, bioloke in drubene vidike, obenem pa so bili za vsako skupino ovrednoteni tevilni pokazatelji. Ti so bili tokovani in tako sta bili ovrednoteni intenzivnost in ob seg lovekovega vpliva na krako okolje. Poznavanje obravna vanega ozemlja temelji tako na neposrednem opazovanju kot na terenskih preuevanjih ter na kritinem ovrednotenju po datkov iz strokovnih lankov in poroil lokalnih zdruenj. Ker gre za celostno in vsestransko metodo, so upotevane razline znanstvene panoge in zakonodaja. Tako dobljeni izsledki za preuevana ozemlja kaejo na nujnost sonaravnega urejanja lovekih dejavnosti, kot sta npr. lomljenje in ienje kamenja, oboje je na iroko razirjeno in ki predstavljata najbolj nevarno dejavnost za krake povrinske in podzemeljske oblike v Apu liji. Ti dejavnosti mono spreminjata prvotno krako povrje in povzroata delno ali celotno unienje podzemeljskih jam. Ta tudija predstavlja predhodno oceno sprememb na krasu v Apuliji in bi morala biti vkljuena v bodoe raziskave drugih ozemelj te regije, da bi lahko bolje razumeli prednosti te metode in njeno uporabnost za razlina kraka okolja. K ljune besede: spremembe na krasu, vpliv loveka, indeks sprememb na krasu, Apulija, Italija. 1 External collaborator CNR-IRPI, Bari Italy; e-mail: fabianacl@libero.it 2 CNR IRPI, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 122, I 70125 Bari, Italia; e-mail: m.parise@ba.irpi.cnr.it Received / Prejeto: 14.07.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 47, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 502.6:551.44(450.75) Fabiana Cal & Mario Parise: Evaluating the Human Distur bance to Karst Environments in Southern Italy Karst environments are extremely vulnerable to degradation and pollution. Although the carrying capacity of these natural environments is low, a variety of human activities is implement ed on karst settings generating impacts at the surface and sub surface. To evaluate the degree of disturbance to typical karst environments in the Mediterranean basin, two areas have been selected in Apulia (south-eastern Italy). e human-induced ef fects are being assessed by applying a recently developed Karst Disturbance Index (KDI), based on a categorical framework encompassing physical, biological, and social aspects, and the evaluation of a number of indicators for each category. Scores are assigned to the indicators, to assess the severity and the ex tent of the human impacts on the karst environment. Knowl edge of the study areas derives from a combined use of direct experience and eld surveys, and the critical evaluation of data available from research articles and local organization reports. Since this approach is an holistic and comprehensive method, dierent scientic branches and law issues have been consid ered. e results so far obtained for the study areas highlight the urgent need of a sustainable management of anthropogenic activities: for example, quarrying and stone clearing, both ex tensively widespread, are among the most dangerous practices for karst surface and subsurface landforms in Apulia. ese ac tivities are heavily changing the original karst landscape and causing the partial or total destruction of natural caves. is study represents a preliminary evaluation of the human distur bance to karst in Apulia, but has to be necessarily integrated by further applications in other areas of the region, aimed at a better understanding of the potentiality of the approach and its feasibility in dierent karst settings. K eywords: karst disturbance, human impact, Karst Distur bance Index, Apulia, Italy.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 48 INTRODUCTION: THE DISTURBANCE INDEX FOR KARST ENVIRONMENT Karst, with its surface and subsurface landforms such as closed depressions, sinkholes and caves, is among the most fragile natural environments of the world, and ex tremely susceptible to any change. Karst systems are non renewable resources but, nevertheless, they are increas ingly being disturbed by a variety of human activities generating impacts both above and below ground (W il liams, 1993). Many anthropogenic actions cause great trans formations and degradation of karst regions, including quarrying and mineral extraction, deforestation, agri cultural practices, illegal waste dumps in natural cavi ties, tourism in caves. All these activities may result in negative eects on karst, such as pollution and depletion of water resources, changes of the natural morphology and hydrology, decline of animal species, etc. (Parise & Pascali, 2003). Complexity of karst, where several dierent catego ries interact in creating the overall ecosystem, requires to consider and analyse any component of karst, both individually and in the reciprocal relationships with the others, in order to safeguard and manage it in a sustain able way. At this aim, only an holistic, comprehensive approach, addressing physical, economic and social fac tors, can eectively assess the threats to karst areas (Van Beynen & Townsend, 2005). In order to reduce the karst system to elements easily studied for the evaluator, this article applies the method recently proposed by Van Beynen and Townsend (2005) to measure factors of karst disturbance (Fig. 1) based on a framework divided into ve broad categories, each en compassing more detailed attributes: Geomorphology that encompasses surface landforms, soil and subsurface karst; Atmosphere that deals with air quality; H ydrology that F ig. 2: Geological sketch of Apulia. Explanation: 1) recent clastic cover (Pliocene Pleistocene); 2) bioclastic carbonate rocks (Paleogene) and calcarenites (M iocene); 3) platform carbonate rocks (Cretaceous). e two insets refer to the study areas. F ABIANA C AL & M ARIO P ARISE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 49 F ig. 1: F low chart illustrating the methodology followed in this study. EVALUATING THE HUMAN DISTURBANCE TO KARST ENVIRONMENTS IN SOUTHERN ITALY Field surveys Published/ unpublished research articles Direct experience Other available documents (historical data, govermment reports, ...) INFORMATION ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT OF THE INDICATORS Selection of the indicators applicable to the study area Additional indicators Identication of LD indicators SCORE ASSIGNMENT Karst Disturbance Index LD rating INDICATIONS FOR THE KARST MANAGEMENT Critical evaluation of the degree of disturbance Socio-economical implications for land use planning Research elds with insucient data rating 0 rating 1 rating 2 rating 3

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 50 includes surface practices inuencing water quality and quantity, and water quality of springs; Biota that concerns the vegetation disturbance and the subsurface biota in cave and in groundwater; and Cultural factors that include hu man historical artefacts, stewardship of karst region and building infrastructure. e degree of disturbance of a certain attribute is indicated through a pre-established set of associated in dicators, from those most destructive for surface karst as quarrying/mining (Gunn, 1993), and dumping waste in sinkholes and cavities, to the less apparent but equally dangerous use of pesticides and herbicides in agriculture, and so on. Each indicator, that can be appraised by the evaluator from historical data, eld observations, pub lished and unpublished research articles and local gov ernment reports, is assigned a score from 0 to 3 based on severity and extent of the variable being considered: rating 0 means no karst disturbance, rating 1 indicates localized and not severe impact, rating 2 widespread and severe impact, whilst when a catastrophic impact is ob served rating 3 is assigned. To determine the degree of disturbance of a par ticular region, the evaluator should know what an un disturbed karst system is, and assume it as the ideal ref erence system. is might be relatively simple for some indicators (water quality, extent of quarrying, etc.), but very dicult for others (loss of biodiversity, human-in duced condensation/corrosion, etc.). Finding locations without human inuence may be extremely dicult, which forces the evaluator to use as baseline those areas with minimal human perturbation. If an indicator cannot be applied to the study area, it has to be deleted from the evaluation, while if it is rel evant in the area but no information is available, a Lack of Data (LD) has to be indicated. At the end of the evalu ation, the number of LDs divided by the total number of used indicators gives a measure of the condence of the index: LD rating < 0.1 would inspire high condence in the determined index, while LD rating > 0.4 suggests that more study is required before application of the index can be carried out in that location. Once all feasible indicators have been scored, the evaluator calculates the Karst Disturbance Index. Scores are summed and the total is divided by the highest pos sible score to attain a value between 0 and 1, where the latter indicates an highly disturbed system and the lowest value a pristine system. Classes of Karst Disturbance In dex, according to Van Beynen and Townsend (2005), are reported in Table 1. Score Degree of disturbance 0.8 1 Highly disturbed 0.6 0.79 Moderately disturbed 0.4 0.59 Disturbed 0.2 0.39 Little disturbance 0 0.19 Pristine T ab. 1: Classication of disturbance (aer V an Beynen & T ownsend, 2005). CASE STUDIES IN APULIA Apulia region is the emerged south-eastern part of the Adriatic Carbonate Plate which is formed by JurassicCretaceous limestones and dolostones covered by Terti ary and Q uaternary clastic carbonates, mostly calcaren ites, and subordinate clays and sands. From the Lower Pleistocene, the region was interested by a general upli ing, until it reached the present conguration (Doglioni et al ., 1994). Apulia is fragmented by high dip, NW -SE striking, faults into uplied and lowered blocks (Ric chetti et al ., 1988). Due to the widespread presence of carbonates, surface and subsurface landforms were ex tremely involved in karst processes that produced an ex tensive network of underground cavities and conduits. e landscape is generally at, characterized essentially by landforms of karst origin, whose best morphologi cal expressions are identiable on the Murge Plateau of inland Apulia (Neboit, 1974; Sauro, 1991). Over large portions of the region, the natural landscape has been strongly modied by man, also thanks to the smoothed morphologies that facilitated land use changes. e Murge Plateau is a planation surface cut in the Cretaceous limestones during Paleogene and Neogene. From the highest elevations (678 m a.s.l. near Mt. Cac cia), the plateau slowly degrades toward the Adriatic Sea to the east, through steps of marine terraces. Two main districts can be identied: High Murge, which cor responds to the inner portion of the plateau, and Low Murge, closer to the Adriatic coastline. In this study, we apply the Karst Disturbance Index method to two areas, located respectively in the two aforementioned districts. M INERVINO M URGE AREA H IGH M URGE Selection of the area in the surroundings of the town of Minervino Murge for the present study was dictated, be F ABIANA C AL & M ARIO P ARISE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 51 sides its very interesting karst features, by the fact that it is comprised within the boundaries of a recently estab lished natural park (Alta M urgia Natural Park), which to tal surface is around 70,000 ha. e park was established with a National Law in 1998, aer many years of debate about the boundaries of the park, and many discussions about the permitted activities within its limits. is part of the Murge Plateau was originally devoted to pasture, and characterized by bare karst landscape with limestone rocks protruding from the ground surface. e few areas where residual soils and terra rossa concentrated were slightly incised valleys, locally called lame, that consti tuted a sort of oasis where the farmers were able to per form agricultural practices. In the last decades, two main anthropogenic activities spread out in this area, which resulted in heavy changes in the natural landscapes: quarrying, and stone clearing (Fig. 3). Q uarrying is very widespread due to the common use in Apulia of carbon ate rocks as building and ornamental materials. Advance of quarrying is carried out without any concern for the natural caves, many of which have been damaged or de stroyed by quarrying (Fig. 4). In addition, once the quar rying activity ceases, it is very common the use of the abandoned site for illegal dumping of solid and liquid wastes. e considerations above led to assign high val ues to the indicators quarrying/mining (rating 3) and in dustrial and petroleum spills or dumping (rating 2). As regards the latter indicator, we considered as brownelds (heavily polluted sites) any abandoned quarry where the presence of wastes was detected. Repeated surveys performed in the last years, in tegrated with interpretation of multi-year aerial photos allowed to quantitatively evaluate the advance of quar rying activities (Fig. 5), and the areas involved in land use change. is was then integrated by eld surveys and speleological explorations, that further highlighted the destruction of a high number of caves in the area. e data so collected clearly show that the area around Mi nervino Murge is one of the most degraded in Apulia as regards disturbance of the karst environment, with loss of the original landscape and destruction of the natural caves. e quarrying activity coupled in the last 30 years with intensive stone clearing practices, even favoured by public subsidy from the European Community. ese subsidies, addressed to changes in the land use for intro ducing new crops, resulted in the High Murge in trans forming the original bare karst in a landscape which is unnatural for this area, with wide development of corn elds. Most of the rocks resulting from clearing of the elds, and quarrying activity as well, are oen dumped into swallow holes and caves (Fig. 6), or piled around karst depressions. Besides the negative eect on the karst landscape, these actions are extremely dangerous for cav F ig. 3: Q uarrying and stone clearing are the main anthropogenic activities degrading the original karst landscape at M inervino M urge. e photo shows an overall view of the southern slope of M ount Scorzone. F ig. 4: I ntense quarrying activities resulted at several sites in the M inervino M urge area in destruction of caves, as shown in this photo. F ig. 5: Areal increase of quarrying at M inervino M urge in the time span 1976-2005. Numbers on the x axis refer to the six 1:5,000 scale topographic maps that were used for air photo interpretation. EVALUATING THE HUMAN DISTURBANCE TO KARST ENVIRONMENTS IN SOUTHERN ITALY

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 52 ers, due to instability of the dumped and/or piled rocks. us, the indicators inlling and dumping were consid ered, respectively, with rating 2 and 3. At present, thousands of hectares of the original pas tures have been transformed, and this has oen resulted in later abandonment of the elds, due to intense erosion. In fact, stone clearing is carried out through the use of modern technologies and machinery, able to crush the carbonate rocks destroying the epikarst, and eliminating the soil. W hen it rains, even on gentle slopes surface run o develops and intense erosion starts. Erosional pro cesses may be so severe to determine onset of both linear and areal erosion on the slopes, through development of rills and gullies. e indicator erosion has been therefore assigned a rating 2. Another consequence of the stone clearing practice is ooding in subsurface karst, as a fur ther eect of the land use changes at the surface: similarly than the previous indicator, also ooding was considered to have a severe impact, scored as 2. Caves in the Minervino Murge area are character ized by vertical entrances, with some meters-deep shas. Diculty in accessing the caves, which is limited only to expert cavers, resulted in high protection and safeguard of the caves and the deposits therein from removal and vandalism, and strongly limited other problems related to frequent visits by man. is had important conse quences in the attribution of scores to some indicators. In practice, ve indicators belonging to dierent categories were listed as 0. e category Biota was the most dicult to evaluate at the Minervino Murge area. orough bibliographical research produced very little results in terms of published articles. Furthermore, nothing was found to allow a com parison at dierent times of the species richness and den sity of population, which is required to assign scores to the biota indicators. us, four out of the ve indicators of this category were considered as Lack of Data. V egetation disturbance was the only one that ap plied to the case study in the Biota category: a score 3 was assigned to this indicator, due to the long history of deforestation in the area, that brought to have today only very few remnants of wood cover (most of these is repre sented by re-forested areas). Another signicant problem is the state of the present vegetation, since lack of mainte nance of woods has resulted in a situation highly prone to wildres, and with several non wealthy trees and plants. To cover even this issue of the vegetation, a new indicator (State of vegetation) was introduced, and again a score 3 was assigned. Many of the problems related to anthropogenic ac tivities in the Minervino Murge area remained unsolved even aer establishment of the Alta Murgia Natural Park. is was mostly due to the lack of control by the Local Authorities, combined with a public indierence toward safeguard of the natural environment from large sectors of the population in the area. For these reasons, when evaluating the indicators belonging to the category Cul tural F actors, some negative scores have been assigned (2 for Regulatory protection, 3 for E nforcement of regula tions, again 2 for both Public education and B uilding of roads ). e Karst Disturbance Index in the Minervino Murge area was determined using 26 indicators (Table 2), and resulted in a value of 0.49, which means Disturbed (Table 1). Four indicators were considered as LDs, that resulted in LD rating 0.15, corresponding to good con dence. e diculty in accessing the natural karst caves in the area, due to vertical entrance of most of the caves, has been before mentioned. is diculty aects the scores of ve indicators (shown in italics in Table 2). Interest ingly, if we do not take into account these ve 0 scores, the karst disturbance index for the Minervino Murge area rises to a value of 0.6 (see values in brackets in Table 2), falling in the upper range of the Moderately disturbed class. Accordingly, the LD rating changes from 0.15 to 0.19 because of the lower number of indicators used, but still indicates good condence of the data. C ASTELLANA G ROTTE AREA L O W M URGE Castellana-Grotte is worldwide famous due to the re markable, more than 3 km long and more than 120 m deep, caves, which were explored for the rst time in 1938, and soon aer that became one of the most visited tourist caves in Europe. Discovery of the caves played an F ig. 6: Stone clearing practices produced the formation of non natural cornelds in the M inervino M urge area, and in piling of rock debris in the proximity of cave entrances (two persons for scale on the rock pile). Other rocks have been dumped as well into the cave, creating a serious danger for cavers, due to instability of the rocks, both outside and within the cave. F ABIANA C AL & M ARIO P ARISE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 53 important role in the tourist development of this small town of Low Murge, that modied its name in 1950, by T ab. 2: Karst disturbance index for the two study areas. e numbers between brackets at M inervino M urge derive from deleting the ve indicators shown in italics in the table (see text for explanation). F or details about each single indicator, the reader is invited to refer to the paper by V an Beynen & T ownsend (2005). category indicator MINERVINO MURGE CASTELLANA GROTTE Geomorphology Quarrying/mining 3 2 Flooding (surface) 0 1 Stormwater drainage 2 2 Inlling 2 2 Dumping 3 2 Erosion 2 1 Compaction 1 2 Flooding (subsurface) 2 1 Decoration removal 1 2 Mineral/sediment removal 1 2 Floor sediment compaction 0 1 Atmosphere Desiccation 0 1 Condensation/corrosion 0 2 Hydrology Pesticides/herbicides 1 2 Industrial and petroleum spills 2 2 Algal blooms deleted deleted Changes in water table 1 1 Changes in cave drip waters 1 1 Biota Vegetation removal 3 2 State of vegetation 3 1 Species richness (cave) LD 1 Population density (cave) LD 1 Species richness (groundwater) LD LD Population density (groundwater) LD LD Cultural factors Destruction/removal of historical artifacts 0 2 Regulatory protection 2 2 Enforcement of regulations 3 2 Public education 2 1 Building of roads 2 2 Building over karst features 1 2 Construction within caves 0 2 TOTAL NUMBER OF USED INDICATORS 26 (21) 26 KDI 0.49 (0.6) 0.57 TOTAL NUMBER OF LDs 4 (4) 2 LD RATING 0.15 (0.19) 0.08 adding Grotte, and thus becoming the present Castel lana-Grotte. EVALUATING THE HUMAN DISTURBANCE TO KARST ENVIRONMENTS IN SOUTHERN ITALY

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 54 e show cave is only one of the many features of this part of Apulia, where both surface and subsurface karst landforms are widespread (Parise, 1999). e main dierences with the rst territory dealt with in the pres ent paper are that Castellana-Grotte and the surrounding territory develop at lower elevations (between 330 and 240 m a.s.l.), and the caves are not prevailingly vertical. As for the anthropogenic environment, the show caves, combined with the vicinity to the Adriatic coastline, a further reason of attraction for thousands of tourists dur ing the summer season, produced in Low Murge a much greater presence of mans activities and infrastructures. Several consequences on the natural karst environment had to be registered, including diversion of the natural runo, and of the water inltration rate in the rock mass as well, with greater possibility of occurrence of surface ooding (Fig. 7). W ithout entering into the details of every single in dicators, it has to be noted that in the Castellana-Grotte area no score 3 was assigned (Table 2), but, at the same time, none indicator had score 0, which means that some negative eects from human activities had to be registered within each indicator of all the categories. For example, the quarrying activity is not so intense as in High Murge; nevertheless, small quarries are present in the area, lo cally very close to signicant subsurface karst features. In some cases, anthropogenic activities are still produc ing negative eects, irrespective of the existing laws and prohibitions (Fig. 8). Due to the easiness in accessing the caves, many of the indicators that in the rst study area had score 0, in this case presented problems, because of vandalism, removal of sediments and materials, and oor sediment compaction. At the same time, access of man into the F ig. 7: Surface ooding at Castellana-Grotte, as a consequence of a severe rainstorm. caves also had negative consequences for the biota envi ronment. Besides these problems, the presence of the Castel lana show caves adds further negative eects, as usual in show caves frequented by high number of tourists (Cigna, 1993; Pulido Bosch et al ., 1997; Aley, 2004): changes in the cave environment, development of lampenora as a consequence of the lighting system, construction within caves for trails and pathways, and so on. e Karst Disturbance Index in the CastellanaGrotte area was therefore determined using 26 indicators, and resulted in a value of 0.57 (Table 2), corresponding to the upper range of the Disturbed class. Two indicators were considered as LDs, that resulted in LD rating < 0.1, corresponding to high condence F ig. 8: Pozzo Cuc cave (F ig. 8a) is one of the most remarkable caves in the Castellana-Grotte territory. Even though the cave was declared of interest for the European Community, due to its peculiar cave ecosystem, some anthropogenic works (F ig. 8b) strongly altered the natural landscape above the cave in the last years. F ABIANA C AL & M ARIO P ARISE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 55 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Determining the karst disturbance can be very dicult because of the inherent complexity of karst systems, and subjective because it requires interpretation of the karst environment by the expert, depending upon her/ his background. For example, a geologist might con centrate on geomorphology, neglecting the subsurface biota or the water quality. Since the method lists all the categories for which data should be collected, and uses pre-established indicators, the need for the evaluator to decide what is important to measure is strongly reduced. Furthermore, the utilized scoring system limited to four possibilities reduces much of the uncertainty associated to multi-level scoring systems, and prevents the evaluator from consistently choosing a middle value, forcing him to be more decisive. It has to be stressed that this approach is based upon some simplifying hypothesis: rst, the index is considered to be applicable for all karst regions, regardless of the dif ference in karst types; secondly, any change to the karst environment is evaluated as caused by human impact. Karst is, however, characterized by natural variability over space and time (W illiams, 1993); application of the index to heterogeneous areas, where two or more types of karst are present, should be performed with great care. In addition, it is sometimes dicult to discriminate be tween human-induced environmental changes and those caused by on-going natural processes. A nal, but not less important, assumption of the method is the availability of data; actually, this varies from region to region, and depends on the thorough ness of studies and research undertaken for that specic area. rough the Lack of Data, the index includes this aspect and allows to provide a measure of the adequacy of the available information, and to highlight those karst regions where more research activity is needed. Notwithstanding these simplications, the Karst Disturbance Index can be adapted to any karst region, and this also contributes to improving the ability to com pare the degree of disturbance to karst among dierent locations. It can serve as a standard tool for the evaluator (a karst scientist having the experience needed to inter pret the available data) to provide a quantitative measure of the human impact, and it might help local adminis trations to contrast the increased human pressure and to address the sustainable management of karst environ ments. e present study, through implementation of the Karst Disturbance Index to two areas in the Apulian karst of southern Italy, has shown the usefulness of the approach for a preliminary evaluation of the degree of disturbance in karst, as an help toward a better under standing of the impacts to the natural environment de riving from mans activities. At the same time, the need of more detailed research and analysis in disturbed karst ar eas was well highlighted in both the areas, where a strong contrast occurs between the existing laws for protection and safeguard of the environment, and their real enforce ment. is latter, in particular, has produced and, sadly to say, is still producing as well, heavy degradation, destruc tion of caves, and frequent loss of the karst landscape in several sectors of the Apulia region A CKNO W LEDGEMENTS W e warmly thank Professor Ugo Sauro for his useful suggestions on the rst dra of the paper. EVALUATING THE HUMAN DISTURBANCE TO KARST ENVIRONMENTS IN SOUTHERN ITALY

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 56 Aley, T., 2004: Tourist caves: algae and lampenora.In: Gunn, J. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cave and karst sci ence. Fitzroy Dearborn, 733-734. Cigna, A.A., 1993: Environmental management of tour ist caves.Environmental Geology, 21, 173-180. Doglioni, C., F. Mongelli & P. Pieri, 1994: e Puglia upli (SE Italy): an anomaly in the foreland of the Apenninic subduction due to buckling of a thick continental litosphere.Tectonics, 13, 1309-1321. Gunn, J., 1993: e geomorphological impacts of lime stone quarrying.Catena, suppl. 25, 187-197. Neboit, R., 1974: Plateau et collines de Lucanie orientale et des Pouilles. Etude morphologique.Libr. Honore Champion, Paris. Parise, M., 1999: Morfologia carsica epigea nel territorio di Castellana-Grotte.Itinerari Speleologici, 8, 5368. Parise, M., 2003: Flood history in the karst environment of Castellana-Grotte (Apulia, southern Italy). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 3, 593604. Parise, M. & V. Pascali, 2003: Surface and subsurface environmental degradation in the karst of Apulia REFERENCES (southern Italy).Environmental Geology, 44, 247256. Perrino, P., G. Laghetti & M. Terzi, 2006: Modern concepts for the sustainable use of Plant Genetic Resources in the Mediterranean natural protected areas: the case study of the Alta Murgia Park (Italy).Genetic Re sources and Crop Evolution, 53, 695-710. Pulido Bosch, A., W Martin Rosales, M. Lopez Chica no, C.M. Rodriguez Navarro, & A.Vallejos, 1997: Human impact in a tourist karstic cave (Aracena, Spain).Environmental Geology, 31 (3/4), 142-149. Ricchetti, G., N. Ciaran, E. Luperto Sinni, F. Mongelli, & P. Pieri, 1988: Geodinamica ed evoluzione sedimen taria e tettonica dellAvampaese Apulo.Mem. Soc. Geol. It., 41, 57-82. Sauro, U., 1991: A polygonal karst in Alte Murge (Puglia, southern Italy).Zeitschri fr Geomorphologie, 35 (2), 207-223. Van Beynen, P. & K. Townsend, 2005: A disturbance in dex for karst environments.Environmental Man agement, 36 (1), 101-116. W illiams, P.W ., 1993 : Environmental change and human impact on karst terrains: an introduction.Catena, suppl. 25, 1-19. F ABIANA C AL & M ARIO P ARISE



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CHANGES IN THE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND HUMAN IMPACT IN THE KARST ENVIRONMENT OF THE VENETIAN PREALPS ITALY SPREMEMBE V IZKORI ANJU NARAVNIH VIROV IN VPLIV LOVEKA NA KRAKO OKOLJE V BENEKIH PREDALPAH ITALIJA Ugo SAURO 1 Izvleek UDK 504.5:551.44(234.3) Ugo Sauro: Spremembe v izkorianju naravnih virov in vpliv loveka na krako okolje v Benekih Predalpah Nekdanji nain izkorianja virov v Benekih Predalpah je bil s tevilnih vidikov sonaraven, v ravnoteju z naravnimi spremembami. Moan vpliv na okolje je bil le obasen, le na nekaterih obmojih in v posebnih gospodarskih in politinih razmerah. Po 2. svetovni vojni so se zaradi urbanizacije in in dustrializacije zgodile dramatine spremembe v upravljanju z viri. e od nekdaj uteeni nain samozadostnega gospodarstva se je v celoti zruil in zamenjalo ga je odprto gospodarstvo, bolj odvisno od hitrega irjenja mest v ravnini. Tak razvoj nikakor ni zdruljiv s krajevno dinamiko okolja in ga je teko spremen iti, saj sproi razvoj, ki poteka dalje sam od sebe. Teko je izdvo jiti bolj sprejemljive smeri razvoja, saj gre preteno za vpraanje kulture in teh teav ni mogoe reiti brez kulturne revolucije. Krajevnemu prebivalstvu je treba pomagati, da bodo razumeli krake geosisteme, naravne danosti, pokrajino, krajevno zgodo vino, kulturno dediino. Prieni s takim znanjem naj bi kra jevno prebivalstvo razvilo moan ut pripadnosti svoji geograf ski enoti in naj bi postalo in se utilo odgovorno in sposobno za svoj lastni razvoj. K ljune besede: vpliv loveka, kras, sonaravni razvoj, Beneke Predalpe, Italija. 1 Dipartimento di Geograa dellUniversit di Padova, Via del Santo 26, IT 35123 Padova, Italia; e-mail: ugo.sauro@unipd.it Received / Prejeto: 06.09.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 57, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 504.5:551.44(234.3) Ugo Sauro: Changes in the Use of Natural Resources and Hu man Impact in the Karst Environments of the Venetian Pre alps In the Venetian Prealps the old model of resources use was for many aspects of sustainable type, in equilibrium with the natu ral dynamics. Episodes of strong impact occurred only in some particular areas and in specic economical and political situ ations. Aer the Second W orld W ar dramatic changes in the resources management have taken place, induced by the urban and industrial development. e traditional system of self-sus tained economy has completely collapsed and has been replaced by an open economy more dependent on that of the large ur ban sprawl of the plain. Such development is clearly incompat ible with the local environmental dynamics and it is dicult to be modied, because it triggers self-sustaining processes. e problem to individuate new more compatible directions for the development is, for a large part, a cultural problem and it may not be solved without a cultural revolution. Local people must be helped to understand the karst geo-ecosystem, the natural realm, the landscape, the local history, and the cultural heritage. Starting from such knowledge, local people have to develop a strong sense of belonging to their own geographical units and to become and to feel protagonists, responsible of their own de velopment, capable to lead it. K eywords: human impact, karst, and sustainable development, Venetian Prealps, Italy.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 58 During the past centuries, nearly until the Second W orld W ar, in most of the pre-alpine environments man man aged the resources trending to equilibrium with the natural dynamics. In other words, the local human com munities were engaged to apply methods of sustainable development. Actually, there was not a real development in the sense of a change of the conditions of life but a kind of steady status. e price to pay not to alter such equilibrium was the emigration of the surplus of the hu man population. INTRODUCTION Aer the Second W orld W ar dramatic changes in the natural resources use have taken place in the karst environments of the Venetian Prealps resulting from the open economy more dependent on that of the large diuse city of the plain (Sauro, 1977, 1987; 1993; 1994, 1999a; 1999b; 2003; Sauro et al ., 1991, 1995). To develop a strategy for a future development, conserving, as possible, an ecological balance with the natural processes it is important to consider the dierent models of resources use applied in the past and the pres ent day situation. THE OLD MODEL OF SUSTAINABLE TYPE A good example of application of a model of this type is represented by the small mountain settlements of Monti Lessini called contrade, with their surrounding coun tryside. A contrada was a settlement of patriarchal type, a kind of collective farm made up by a few houses and some rustic buildings: the teda type, a combination of a cowshed and a haylo, the pigsty, the hen-house and others collective structures such as the bread oven and the baito (a dairy farm managed by the inhabitants of several nearby contrade). e inhabitants of each contrada owned the sur rounding land consisting both of forested plots for wood and charcoal production, and of meadow plots for hay production and cattle or sheep grazing. Minor plots, oen near to the houses, were used for agriculture and garden-culture to produce vegetables. e meadow areas were utilized also for fruit trees growing. e big problem of the absence or scarcity of surface water was solved collecting for the human use the rain fall and snow melting water of the roofs of the buildings, mostly made up by large stone slabs, by conveying it to underground tanks consisting in cylindrical recipes built up with stone walls and clay, called possi. Surface water was collected for the livestock, inside closed depressions in the meadows realized by the excavation and damming of dry valleys, waterproofed with clay, called posse. Each family owned a few cattle, exactly the number that could be sustained by the production of the pertinent meadow area. e production of cheese and butter was managed corporately. During the year, there was a turnover in the management of the baito. Each member managed the baito during periods distributed in all the seasons working the milk produced by all, for a whole quantity cor responding to its own total evaluated yearly production. e butter and cheese were partly sold to get the money necessary to buy products like our, polenta and wine, and obviously others goods like clothes, etc. But usually the circulating money was really few. F ig. 1: Sketch of the old system of storing the rainwater of the roofs of the buildings inside cisterns (called possi) build with stones and waterproofed with clayey soil sediments. (drawing of F erdinando Zanini in Avesani et al., 1986) U GO SAURO

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 59 F ig. 2: e stony desert created by the bombing of the Sette Comuni Plateau during the F irst W orld W ar. e white stone fragments created by the explosions are scattered and appear as a snow cover. Integrative activities were the production and com merce of charcoal, wood, stone, lime, ice, ints for guns, dierent types of handicras, etc. In general, the economy was of a self-sucient type and the impact of man on the environment was very lim ited: the inhabitants were careful not to alter the delicate equilibrium of the dierent environments such as the forest, the meadow and the pasture. Cases of strong impact are localized and linked with spe cic economical and political situations. A signicant example is represented by the history of land use of the upper part of the Sette Comuni Plateau, a pasture area of common property of the local inhabit ants. W hen the Sette Comuni Plateau became part of the Republic of Venice in 1404, the special low of pensio natico was established to favour the mountain popula tion as a compensation of the duty to control the state boundary. e shepherds of the plateau were allowed to bring the ocks in the plain in the period between Oc tober and March (six months of the year), also entering in the private elds. is privilege caused an increase of the ocks consistency and a surcharge of the summer pastures. In the 18 th Century the sheep number reached nearly 200.000 heads corresponding to a density in the SOME OLD CASES OF STRONG HUMAN IMPACT mountain area during the summer grazing period of about 500/km 2 e impact on the soil of the pasture was very strong and caused a desertication and a regression of the sheep rearing. Other episodes of strong impact in some areas are represented by the battles of the First W orld W ar. e Pic cole Dolomiti, Sette Comuni and Monte Grappa massifs became major battlegrounds of the Italian and Austrian armies. ousands of kilometres of trenches, tunnels, roads and railways were hastily built. ere were large artillery battles. At some times on Sette Comuni Plateau 1500 guns were ring more than 200 tonnes of projectiles each day. Ten of thousands of craters were created by the explosions. In some photographs taken aer bombing entire hills made up by a chalk type limestone looked like snowelds because of the rocky fragments. Very rapid changes in the resources management have taken place aer the Second W orld W ar, according with the new economic styles promoted by the urban and in dustrial development. e changes occurring in the last 50 years are rela tively complex. Schematising the phenomenon it is pos sible to note: a decrease of population in the mountain areas caused by a rural exodus, aecting especially the minor settlements; most of these and in particular those farthest from the towns and the villages have been abandoned or are utilized only seasonally as second houses or as struc tures for the agriculture; THE RECENT EVOLUTON a strong decrease of the percent of population in volved in farming activities; an increase of the percent of population involved in other activities (services, industry, tourism, etc.); a progressive abandonment of the land use of many plots and a corresponding expansion of the for ested areas; a simplication of the agricultural landscape, with disappearance of some types of land use (a kind of desharpening and homogenisation of the traditional land scape); in some areas, the development of systems of large specialized farms, as poultry farms, pig farms, cattle CHANGES IN THE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND HUMAN IMPACT IN THE KARST ENVIRONMENTS OF THE VENETIAN

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 60 farms; the poultry farms are located especially in the hilly and low mountain belt, the cattle farms in the middle mountain belt; the urbanisation of some of the most valuable mountain areas, caused by the explosion of the mass tourism and in particular by the development of the va cation homes; beside the second houses, many others building and structures have developed as resort hotels, markets, sports grounds, ski complexes, roads, parking areas, etc; the building of complexes of ski plants as ski lis and chair lis, and the creation of large ski-tracks obtained by the excavation and the movements of large masses of rocks; the opening of large industrial quarries of limestone utilized as ornamental stone (Bondesan & Meneghel, 1991). According with these changes, the traditional sys tem of self-sustained economy has completely collapsed and has been replaced by a more open economy integrat ed with that of the large diuse city of the plain. is is evident, considering that most of the fodder to breed the cattle and the pigs, and of the poultry-feed are imported in the mountain area from outside. So a much larger bio mass is involved in the environmental system. A large quantity of liquid wastes is dispersed and contributes to the modication of the soils and to the pollution of the surface and underground waters. During the summer and winter seasons in the ur banized areas of the mountains there is an impressive increase of the human population and a corresponding increase of the liquid and solid waste production. e sewages are partly lost in the environment and drained into creeks and sinkholes. In the last 30 years the nitrate content of the base level waters has more than doubled. Most of the water circulating in the aqueducts is pumped from the base level springs or the alluvial aquifers of the valleys and of the plain. It is obvious that such development is incompatible with the local environmental dynamic. Also the econom ic system is less stable than the old one. For instance, the oscillations of the prices of some products like the milk, a product that may be imported from the less developed countries of East Europe, may cause the breakdown of the breeding and dairy farms; recently there has also been a period of collapse of the price of the chicken meat caused by the psychosis of the bird-u. F ig. 4: New vacation housing in Asiago (Sette Comuni Plateau). I n the sign-board (enlarged in the foreground le) the new complex is presented as L a V ecchia Contrada, that is the old type of settlement called contrada (in the reality it is very dierent). THE NECESSITY OF A CULTURAL REVOLUTION e big challenge of the present time is to individuate a strategy capable to modify the local economic mecha nisms, governing them towards better and, if possible, sustainable development models. is is not a simple task, also because some phenomena, like the urbanisa tion, the quarrying, etc have started positive feedback U GO SAURO F ig. 3: L arge cowsheds of a modern cattle farm of the M onti L essini near Bosco Chiesanuova. e old contrada is hidden behind the large hangar-like buildings (centre of the photo).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 61 F ig. 5: Sketch of some of the possible components to be considered inside a strategy plan of sustainable local development. e sketch is derived with modications from M agnaghi (2006). mechanisms, which tend to amplify in time and to deter mine favourable economic and political backgrounds to their continuation. It must be said that something has changed in the culture of the people in the last years and that it is pos sible to recognize some signs of hope. So, many local and regional administrations have realized the importance of the big karst aquifers as strategic water resources. e karst aquifer of the Sette Comuni Plateau only would be able to furnish something like 300 millions of cubic meters of relatively good water (except for the organic pollution) in a year, about 70 m 3 /for each inhabitant of the Veneto Region. W hile in the past nearly all the liq uid wastes were dispersed in the environment, systems of TERRIT ORIAL CONTENTS INNOV A TIVE AND CONTRADICTING ENERGIES KNOWING MA TERIALS environmental wisdom social and cultural model productive and artistic knowledge structural persisting elements environmental geoecosystems proper technologies social actors educational initiatives MILIEU TERRIT ORIAL STRUCTURE, LANDSCAPE TERRIT ORIAL HERIT AGE ST A TUTE OF THE PLACES STRA TEGIC SCENER Y ENHANCEMENT OF THE CUL TURE AND OF THE SENSE OF BELONGING OF THE LOCAL PEOPLE evaluation models, environm. and social balances plans, projects, specific policies Institutions of participation and of orchestration local agreements concer ning integrate projects AW ARE, SELF-SUST AINING DEVELOPMENT s t r u c t u r a l P a r t S t r a t e g i c P a r t CHANGES IN THE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND HUMAN IMPACT IN THE KARST ENVIRONMENTS OF THE VENETIAN

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 62 sewer have been built or are under construction to con vey the waters to treatment plants or outside of the karst areas. In general, public opinion is now more sensible to the environmental problems. In any case, to engage battles against the sprawl of new buildings, the quarrying activities, the construction of new roads and factories could have the opposite eect of the one intended. It is like to become others Don Q ui jote de la Mancha ghting against the windmills. On the contrary, it is certainly possible to apply to promote new trends and development styles like to fa vour the restoration of the old settlements and the requalication of the recent ones instead of the building of completely new structures; or to encourage forms of low impact tourism as the hiking, the cycling, the camping, the agri-tourism, promoting in the meantime the natural and cultural heritage of the areas and the quality of the local products, as the cheese, the agri-biological prod ucts, the crasmanship, etc. If both the local inhabitants and the tourists will be able to get a good knowledge of the mountain area and will learn to establish a profound relation with this, it will become easier both to stimulate projects respectful of the local heritage and to prevent intervention negative for the environment. It is important to emphasize that the problem to in dividuate and to choose new more compatible directions for the development is for a large part a cultural problem and it may not be solved without a cultural revolution. is revolution needs investment of time by per sons well trained in the environmental, historical and geographical research. It is necessary to start learning experiences in the eld involving both young and old people (like pensioners). Local people must be helped to understand the karst geo-ecosystem, the natural realm, the landscape, the local history, the cultural heritage (Castiglioni & Sauro, 2002; Magnaghi, 2006). Local peo ple have to develop a strong sense of belonging to their own geographical units. Especially, local people have to become and to feel protagonists, responsible of their own development. Unfortunately the process of education needs time, while the changes resulting from the human activities are now impressively fast. Some experiences made in the last years are certainly positive (I remember here in particu lar the experience of the 3 KCl-Project, run inside the Program of the European Union Culture 2000; see Cas tiglioni, 2005), but they are not enough. Especially, in the more important areas for the environmental and cultural heritage (natural parks, karst areas, etc.) it is necessary to start with initiatives of permanent education. ese have to be carried on especially in the eld, through the discovery of the local history, seen also as succession of episodes of human impact and interrelations between the natural and the human processes. In this strategic scen ery it is fundamental to improve cooperation between dierent structures, as political authorities, research and educational organisations, local associations, etc. REFERENCES Avesani, B., G. Chelidonio, U. Sauro & F. Zanini, 1986: Terre rosse in Lessinia: appunti sui signicati geo logici, preistorici e sugli usi tradizionali.La Les sinia ieri oggi domani, 83-102, Verona. Bondesan, A. & M. Meneghel, 1990: Impact by limestone exploitation in western Lessini Mountains (NorthEastern Italy).Proc. Int. Conf. on Anthropogenic and environmental changes in karst, Czechoslova kia-Hungheria. Studia Carsologica 2, GGU, CSAV, 7-18. Castiglioni, B. (Ed.), 2005: Paesaggi carsici Architet tura di una relazione unica tra uomo e ambiente: Montello.Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna. Castiglioni, B. & U. Sauro, 2002: Paesaggi e geosistemi carsici: proposte metodologiche per una didattica dellambiente.In: Varotto M. & Zunica M. (a cura di) Scritti in ricordo di Giovanna Brunetta. Dipar timento di Geograa G. Morandini, Universit di Padova, 51-67. Gams I., J. Nicod & U. Sauro, 1993: Environmental changes and human impact in the Mediterranean Karst of France, Italy and Dinaric Region.Catena suppl. 25, 59-98. Magnaghi, A., 2006: Gli atlanti del patrimonio e la statu to dei luoghi per uno sviluppo locale autososteni bile.In Bertoncin, M. & Pase, A, (eds): Il territorio non un asino voci di attori deboli. Scienze Geo gracheFranco Angeli, Milano, 23-51. Mietto, P. & U. Sauro, 2000: Le Grotte del Veneto: pae U GO SAURO

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 63 saggi carsici e grotte del Veneto. Regione del Vene to.La Graca Editrice (Vago di Lavagno, Verona), seconda edizione, 480 pp. Sauro, U., 1977: Aspects de la morphogense anthropique dans le milieu karstique Alti Lessini.Norois 95 (bis), 149-163. Sauro, U., 1987: e impact of man in the karstic envi ronments of the Venetian Prealps.Karst and Man, University of Ljubljana. Study Group on Mans im pact in Karst. Proc. Int. Symposium on Human In uence on Karst, Postojna Yugoslavia 1987, 241254. Sauro, U., 1993: Human impact on the karst of the Ve netian Fore-Alps (Southern Alps, Northern Italy).Environmental Geology 21/3, 115-121. Sauro, U. [Scientic coordinator], 1994: Map of the hu man impact in the karst environment of the cen tral-western Lessini Mountains.In L. Sorbini, Ed. 1994: Geologia, idrogeologia e qualit dei principali acquiferi veronesi. Mem. Museo St. Nat. Verona, s.2/4. Sauro, U., 1999a: Analisi e modellizzazione dei geo-eco sistemi carsici: verso un approccio globale per la comprensione della dinamica e della vulnerabilit degli acquiferi carsici.Q uaderni di Geologia Ap plicata, suppl. 2, 99, I/235-2 Sauro, U., 1999b: Towards a preliminary model of a Karst Geo-Ecosystem: the example of the Venetian ForeAlps. Karst 99, Etudes de gographie physique, sup pl. n. 28, CAGEP, Universit de Provence, 165-170. Sauro, U., 2003: Asiago Plateau, Italy.In J. Gunn (ed.) Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science, 116-119. Fritzroy Dearborn, New York. Sauro, U., A. Bondesan & M. Meneghel (eds.), 1991: Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Changes in Karst Areas.Q uaderni del Dipartimento di Geograa 13, Universit di Pa dova. Sauro, U. & M. Lanzingher, 1995: e study of the mor phokarstic unit of Sette Comuni Plateau (Venetian Fore-Alps): State-of-the-art.Studi Tridentini di Scienze Naturali Acta Geologica, v. 70. CHANGES IN THE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND HUMAN IMPACT IN THE KARST ENVIRONMENTS OF THE VENETIAN



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SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF BRACKISH KARST SPRING PANTAN CROATIA T RAJNOSTNO UPRAVLJANJE BRAKI NEGA KRAKEGA IZVIRA P ANTAN H RVAKA Ivana F ISTANI 1 Izvleek UDK 556.3(497.5 Pantan) Ivana Fistani: Trajnostno upravljanje brakinega krakega izvira Pantan (Hrvaka) Obmoje izvira Pantan se nahaja v centralnem delu vzhodne jadranske obale v bliini mesta Trogir. Gre za neloljevo celoto, sestavljeno iz izvira Pantan, povrinskega vodotoka z okolikim movirjem in obalnega pasu. Posebnost obmoja je movirje, edino v tem delu Jadrana, kjer sicer prevladuje suho krako povrje. Izvir kae periodino slanost, ki je najveja v polet nih meseciih. Z reitvijo problema slanosti, bi izvir predstavl jal potencialni vir pitne vode. al je, zaradi slabega upravljanja vodozbirnega obmoja, kvaliteta vode slaba. Obmoje Pantana je tipien primer podrtega ravnovesja med naravnimi viri in lovekovimi posegi v zaledju izvira. Zato morajo biti vsi bodoi ukrepi usmerjeni v rehabilitacijo in zaito tega pomembnega krakega obmoja. lanek predstavlja pregled trenutnega stanja izvira in predlagane ukrepe trajnostnega upravljanja s tem pomembnim krakim ekosistemom. Za analizo faktor jev, ki vplivajo na okolje smo uporabili model DPSIR. Model omogoa pregledno analizo vpliva obremenitev, ki so posledica lovekovih posegov v naravno okolje. Rezultati so pokazali, da je model DPSIR primerno orodje pri nartovanju trajnostne razvojne strategije obmoja izvira Pantan. Nedvomno bo pri tem potrebno upotevati veliko ranljivost krasa. K ljune besede: brakini kraki izviri, celostno upravljanje, model DPSIR, Pantan, Hrvaka. 1 Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Matice hrvatske 15, 21000 Split, Croatia, e-mail: Ivana.Fistanic@gradst.hr Received / Prejeto: 20.10.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 65, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 556.3(497.5 Pantan) Ivana Fistani: Sustainable management of brackish Karst spring Pantan (Croatia) Pantan area is situated in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast near town Trogir. It presents inseparable unit consisting of Pantan spring, river course with surrounding swamp area and sea coast. Particularity of the area is swamp which is unique example in this part of the eastern Adriatic coast mostly char acterized by dry karst areas. Main characteristic of the spring is periodical salinity during the year with the highest salinity dur ing summer months. Spring presents potential drinking water source under consumption that salinization problem is solved. Unfortunately due to bed watershed management water qual ity of Pantan spring and environment of Pantan area is highly devastated. Today Pantan area presents an example of not pre serving balance between natural resources on karst and human interventions in watershed area. All future measures should be directed on rehabilitation and further protection of this valu able karst environment. Paper gives overview of the state of the spring as well as proposed measures of sustainable management directed to the preservation of this distinct karst ecosystem. As the basis for analyzing the inter-related factors that impact on the environment, DPSIR framework is used. is framework provide rational and clear guideline for analyzing the inuence of pressures derived from human activities on natural environ ment, and the way they are changing state of the environment. Results of the analyses showed that DPSIR framework is ad equate tool to shape and implement sustainable development strategy for the Pantan area. It is evident that in this process is extremely important to take into the consideration vulner ability of the karst. K eywords: brackish karst spring, integrated management, DP SIR concept, Pantan, Croatia.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 66 I VANA F ISTANI Pantan area is situated in the southwest of Kastela bay, between towns Split and Trogir (Fig. 1). It is the area of approximately 40 ha and presents inseparable unit con sisting of Pantan spring, river course with surrounding swamp area and sea coast. e area presents green oa sis in the mostly karstic area. Spring is a permanent and abundant coastal spring of ascending type. e opening of the spring is located at the elevation of 3 meters above sea level in the contact zone between the limestone and ysch layers while the catchments area is formed of high ly permeable limestone rocks (Fritz et al. 1993). Spring discharge oscillates during the year. In summer period minimal discharge is 0,3 m 3 /s, while in the winter period maximum discharge is 12 m 3 /s. Flysch zone presents in complete barrier towards the sea resulting with sea water intrusion into the spring aquifer (Bagari 1973; Bonacci 1995). erefore, the main characteristic of the spring is periodical salinity during the year with the highest salin ity in summer months. Spring makes small lake Pantan with surface area from 35 to 60 m 2 and depth of 13 me ters. River Rika ows out of the lake to the sea and into the numeral brackish lateral channels that irrigate sur rounding swamp area. Vegetation of the area is favorable for permanent or occasional residence of numeral bird species. Some of these species are unique and threatened of dieing out. Due to the variable ecological factors, tem perature and salinity, life conditions in this biotope are very specic making favorable conditions for spawn and growth of particular sh and crab species. erefore this small area presents unique ecological oasis and urgent protection from harmful human interventions is neces sary. From the ecological standpoint and according to the Environmental Protection Law, Pantan area presents unique swamp area in wide region and it is evaluated as a highly valuable environment. It should be mentioned that this area except natural values, has signicant cul INTRODUCTION tural-historical value. Mill situated in Pantan area ac cording to its oldness and architecture presents valu able historical heritage (Figure 2). Furthermore, recent archeological investigations resulted with assumptions that archaeological remains in Pantan area date from the ancient time. If these excavations really date from the an cient time Pantan mill is unique example of mills built on ancient foundations. Unfortunately, this miniature cultural and nature reservation is almost unknown until today which is a great loss for this area. W ater from Pantan spring has never been used for water supply mainly because of the salinisation problem. Chloride concentration signicantly changes during the year, and extreme values variate from 20 mg/l in Janu ary, and 10117 mg/l in August. In summer period water can be used only for the purposes of sh-farm since it is not sensitive to the chloride oscillations. Problem of sea water intrusion is widely spread in coastal karst ar eas of the world. is phenomena has been analyzed by many researchers for large number of locations (Arb et al ., 2000; Bonacci and Roje-Bonacci 1997; Breznik 1973; Breznik 1998; COST Action 621). Pantan spring is not an exception and extensive water investigations have been taken for the purpose of better understanding of com plex hydrogeological conditions and nding solution for spring desalinization for the purpose of exploiting fresh water for the water supply (Bonacci et al ., 1995; Komatina 1990; Mijatovi 1984). ough these investigations gave some assumptions about spring functioning nal solu tion of spring desalinization has never been achieved. Meanwhile, due to bed watershed management water quality of Pantan spring is permanently endangered. In present time, as the result of bad watershed management, salinity of the water is not the main problem comparing to the other water quality parameters. Unfortunately through the past period many actions have been made that have contributed to the devastation of the whole Pantan area. Close to the spring main road is located. Area on the eastern border line of Pantan area is used as the waste disposal of town Trogir and it signi cantly contribute to the degradation of this area. On the west side new settlements are growing without any plans. In watershed area unplanned agriculture is developing. Pantan mill which have been well known in the history is due to careless mostly devastated. Fish farm is built with out plan and in many ways contribute to the devastation of the area. Concrete bankment has been built making contrast to the surrounding area. W ater loaded with sh food and dung is discharging from sh farm. rough the history many owners of the mill have changed and many changes on the historical mill building have been F ig.1: Pantan area location

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 67 SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF BRACKISH KARST SPRING PANTAN CROATIA made. All above mentioned actions are presenting an ex ample of bad watershed management as well as bad care of reservation area and cultural heritage. All activities in watershed area of Pantan spring and Pantan reservation itself led to the signicant devastation of this valuable natural and cultural-historical reservation. It can be concluded that Pantan karst spring presents an example of not preserving balance between natural re sources on karst and human interventions. Today water quality of Pantan spring is endangered which is mostly the result of the unplanned activities in watershed area and Pantan area. Human pressure and bad spatial plan ning made serious consequences on Pantan water quality. It is not possible to use water for the water supply but it is still possible to use it for the other purposes as for irri gation and sh-farm. Despite bad resource management even today Pantan has unique beauty and presents tour ist potential due to its particular natural and historical values. erefore all further activities taken in this area should not have the advantage over the environment pro tection and should be directed on protection of karstic watershed and Pantan area. Above all integral protection that will stop further unsuitable use of this area is neces sary. In integral concept problem of karst vulnerability should be involved into the watershed management. is paper presents state of the Pantan spring, overview of re cent resource management, as well as further necessary measures directed to the preservation and sustainability of this distinct karst ecosystem. F ig.2: Pantan swamp area and Pantan M ill

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 68 METHODS AND APPROACHES Prerequisite for accomplishing sustainable development of natural resources is integral approach integrated re sources management. One of the denitions of the in tegrated water resources management says that it is the process that promotes the co-ordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in and equitable manner without comprising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Integral concept is par ticularly desirable and necessary in karst areas which are very sensitive and open to the pollution generated in the watershed area and therefore very vulnerable. Integrated environmental assessment is also dened as the interdis ciplinary process of identication, analysis and appraisal of all relevant natural and human processes and their in teractions, which determine both the current and future state of environmental quality, and resources, on appro priate spatial and temporal scales, thus facilitating the framing and implementation of policies and strategies (Stanners and Bordeau 1995). For the implementation of integrated assessment system approach is necessary. A system approach recognizes the individual components as well as the linkages between them, meaning that a dis turbance at one point in the system will be translated to other parts of the system. System approach is clearly vis ible through DPSIR framework. DPSIR framework is system approach that rec ognizes the linkages between the environment and the socioeconomic domains. Implementation of the DPSIR framework (Driving forces, Pressures, States, Impacts, Responses) is the basis for the ecient and transparent water resources management. Figure 3 presents general technical description of the framework which can be implemented not only on water resources but on any nat ural environment. It is causal framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment. It was made for the purpose of accomplishing the mission of the European Environmental Agency (EEA) which is to support sustainable development and to help achieve signicant and measurable improvement in Europes en vironment through the provision of timely, targeted, rel evant and reliable information to policy-making agents and the public. Indicators on environmental relevant is sues provide information on the DPSIR elements. In its original form DPSIR framework is a general framework for organizing information about the state of the envi ronment. It is a logical and a good way to structure data and information about the environment and information on dierent environmental problems. DPSIR framework is the basis for state-of-environment reports, consisting of sets of indicators each representing some parts of links within the framework. Furthermore, DPSIR has been ad opted as a framework and policy tool to identify manage ment options for a range of environmental options. e DPSIR framework assumes cause-eect relationships between interacting components of the social, economic and environmental system. Framework makes visible the links between the causes of environmental problems, their eects on the state of the environment and relevant societal responses. e DPSIR framework aims at focus ing environmental reporting on a set of indicators that represent the dierent compartments of DPSIR. is reminds on holistic approach including an integrated assessment which is desirable in task of watershed man agement. DPSIR concept helps in understanding system behavior. It establishes the functional and structural rela tionships among major elements of the system to under stand how the system operates. is framework provides rational and clear guideline for modeling of pressures derived from human activities on natural environment, and the way they are changing state of the environment. It can be concluded that DPSIR approach is a useful tool to shape a sustainable development strategy. Figure 3 shows interconnection between D riving forces of environmental changes (general: population, economy, land use, societal development; Sector specic: industry, agriculture, sheries, transport, tourism, rec reation), Pressures on the environment (soil emissions, water emissions, air emissions, waste, use of resources), State of the environment (water, soil, air), I mpacts on population, economy, ecosystem (human health prob lems and other functions of the environment), Response of the society (environmental policies and measures). Human activities (Driving forces) generate the Pressures on the environment, which in turn inuence and modify F ig. 3: e D PS IR model I VANA F ISTANI

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 69 RESULTS environmental conditions (State) and therefore provoke and cause environmental problems Impacts on human beings, natural resources and materials. ese problems stimulate and ask for Responses and close the loop back to human activities and also led to policy actions. e Responses may be technical measures, aecting directly pressures or state, or policy instruments directed to the driving forces. DPSIR framework oers a basis for analyzing the inter-related factors that impact on the environment. e aim of such an approach is (a) to be able to provide infor mation on all of the dierent elements in a DPSIR chain, (b) to demonstrate their interconnectedness, (c) to esti mate the eectiveness of Responses. ere have been cer tain changes in philosophy of analysis specic element of the concept. In past, priority has largely been given to the Pressures, State and Impact. In future, increasing at tention will be given to the Forces and Responses. is practically means making more active measures and less passive measures. Successful implementation of the European W ater Framework Directive which aims at improving water quality using an integrated management approach re quires appropriate mathematical models and other tools to manage dierent phases of the planning procedure and to support decision making in various steps of the im plementation process. Furthermore integration of these models is needed. DPSIR framework provides a basis to assure that proper tools will be available and selected for dened purposes. It is important to stress out that DPSIR concept helps in achieving transparent representation and understanding of the role of dierent models in the process of decision making. is practically means that in the place of each arrow (Figure 3) model can be placed showing the interaction between particular models. In this paper DPSIR approach is used for presen tation and evaluation of the seriousness of environment degradation as well as a useful tool to shape a sustainable development strategy for Pantan area. Insight of the Pantan spring and state of the environ ment of the Pantan area is presented by the application of the DPSIR framework. Using this framework cause-ef fect analysis for the Pantan area is made. Figure 4 shows state of the environment of the Pantan area through the framework. In case of Pantan spring signicant number of driv ing forces is present in the watershed area and Pantan area showing that recent watershed management was very poor and inecient. Settlements in watershed area are mostly built without any plans. Building was not con trolled through the laws which are usually applied for the springs planned for water supply. For these springs sanitary protection zones are proposed which was not the case with Pantan spring. ese settlements do not have sewage system but they dispose water directly to the ground. rough the karst channels in the underground this pollution is coming directly to the spring. Main road in the county is placed very close to the spring which is inadmissible from the point of water quality protec tion. Furthermore, large waste area of the town Trogir is in close vicinity. All driving forces which are above mentioned have the inuence/pressure on quality of un derground waters owing to the spring as well as on the environment of the reservation area. is pressure inu ence and modify water quality of the spring as well as the water quality in the whole swamp area. As the result of above mentioned processes and interrelations is the spring water quality that does not comply standards of drinking water. W ater usage for the sh farm is also en dangered though these standards are less strict compar ing to drinking water. W ater quality in swamp area is also changed causing biotope changes. As the result of these changes dieing out of certain unique species is happen ing. In integral management measures for achieving sustainable management need to be implemented. ese measures are represented in DPSIR concept as respons es which make inuence on all elements of the concept (environmental, economic and social aspects). ere is signicant number of measures/responses that could be implemented for the purpose of improving present state and caused impacts. Above all better watershed man agement should be organized. Present state shows that in the past period watershed management did not have elements of integrated watershed management. Better strategy for reservation area exploitation and protection is necessary. In the past period there was no clear strategy for the usage of this area. First step in this direction is an nouncing this area as the protected area. ese strategies for the watershed area and reservation area would help in preventing growing of driving forces. ese measures present active protection measures that could stop pollu tion in its early start. Partly active measure is the preven tion of watershed pollution through water purication directly on the source of pollution and before water dis SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF BRACKISH KARST SPRING PANTAN CROATIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 70 Driving forces Pressures States Impact Urbanization Waste disposals Roads Agricultural production Interventions in the reservation area Natural conditions: sea-karst interaction Waste water Pollution emission from roads Discharge of nutrients from agricultural soils Devastation of natural conditions in reservation area Sea water intrusion Polluted spring water Changes of biotope Decrease of swamp area Brackish spring water Inability of using water for water supply and other purposes Loss of biodiversity in swamp area Responses Watershed protection Sustainable management strategy Better plans for reservation usage Systen of issuing permissions Analyses of sea water intrusion precesses Treatment of discharge waters Diuse pollution control Measure for area water intrusion preservation Treatment of spring water Water desalinization Conservation and restoration Planning water using according to the present water quality F ig.4: e D PS IR model of the Pantan area charging into the underground. Responses that eliminate and reduce pressures would be very ecient measure. Firstly this means building of sewage systems as well as building waste water treatment plants. Diuse pollution control could signicantly contribute to the water qual ity improvement. Since present state is already degraded measures that will inuence and restore the present state would be necessary. ese measures include treatment of spring water as well as measures with the purpose of the restoration of natural conditions in the swamp area. Last mentioned measure presents totally passive measure that compensates and mitigates the impacts. ese are the measures directed to the consequences of the bad water shed management. ere is the other set of indicators included in DP SIR scheme originated not from the human activities but from natural conditions. ey present the problem of sea water intrusion. In this problem driving forces present closeness to the sea and natural conditions of karst that make underground aquifer open to the sea intrusion. Sea water intrusion process presents the pressure. Resulting unwanted impact is the inability of using brackish wa ter for water supply. Responses to the sea impact can be made on all levels of presented DPSIR scheme. First step is directed to analyses and better understanding of driv ing forces, in this case sea inuence on fresh aquifer, and it presents analysis of sea water intrusion process. is presumes understanding of hydrogeological conditions in the underground that make sea intrusion process pos sible. Knowing these conditions is the prerequisite for making adequate technical interventions for the purpose of preventing sea water intrusion. ese interventions result with changing of the spring water state meaning that spring water will not be brackish any more. Possible solution is also the one that inuence the impact which means changes of quality of brackish spring water. is means desalinization process but it remains a relatively expensive measure. Presentation of Pantan area through DPSIR concept shows very clear picture of the present state and clear picture of possible measures that can be implemented as well as their inuence on certain elements of the concept. Clear presentation of all elements and their interactions is prerequisite for ecient sustainable management of Pantan area. I VANA F ISTANI

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 71 Pantan swamp area gives signicant biological and eco logical value to the surrounding mostly karstic dry area and contributes to the variability of that uniform area. It presents unique natural reservation, but unfortunately it also presents the area where preservation of brittle bal ance between natural resources in karst and human in terventions has not been achieved. Pantan is the example of degradation of natural environment, as the result of the unsatisfactory interventions in close and wide area. Such treatment is not adequate for this area. is swamp area with signicant natural and environmental values, in combination with valuable cultural-historical heritage should be evaluated as valuable location together with town Trogir, which is announced as UNESCO town. In this paper DPSIR framework is used for orga nizing information about the state of the environment as well as for organizing management system following the integration principle (environmental, economic and social aspects). DPSIR approach is a useful tool to shape a sustainable development strategy and it is ocially ac cepted as the basis for further adoption and development for the WFD purposes, since many of the tasks required by the Directive refer directly to the elements of the DP SIR framework. DPSIR methodology is applied to this area for the assessment of environmental conditions, elaboration of management plans and design of specic restoration/conservation actions to be carried out. Presentation of DPSIR concept for Pantan shows that in previous period there were no elements of system approach in the management of environmental resources in this area. Sustainable development does not exist and it is visible that human pressure on natural resources has been made without hesitation about consequences. DPSIR concept clearly shows that existing state can be enhanced through the active measures for prevention of further devastation of the area as well as passive mea sures for the rehabilitation of the area. Regarding prob lem of sea water intrusion scientic research projects are necessary. It is important to notice that in the past period natu ral and cultural-historical potentials have never been suf ciently estimated which can explain lack of watershed management. It is the question if this zone will be named as protected area or it will be simply ignored and sub jected to all other needs such as unplanned growth of set tlements in watershed area, as development of sh farm, building coastal swimming zone and other. Fortunately in recent time certain improvements in treatment of this area have been made. According to the Nature protection law in year 2000 Pantan area is named as special reser vation since it has particular importance for preserving DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION biological diversities. Idea of using this area for the edu cation-touristic purposes is growing. New owner of the mill is planning to build small hydro-electric power plant and solar system, renovate mill and through all this give new values to natural and cultural heritage of the area. Prerequisite for above mentioned plans is adequate regional planning of resource exploitation in the whole watershed area of Pantan spring. Analysis of DPSIR con cept clearly shows that dierent Responses inuence the elements of the concept. rough response variables it is believed to improve the situation with regard to sus tainability. Basis for the further development of this area should be protection of natural characteristics which has its foothold in legislation but it is usually understated and no implemented. is includes adequately regional planning of watershed area and resources exploitation. rough the denition of the regional plans it is neces sary to implement regulations that will dene preserva tion of natural conditions and provide their protection. Furthermore, integral project of the rehabilitation of whole area is needed. It is important not to make any actions that could result with changes in water regime since that would result with changes in vegetations and therefore changes in biotope. Since this location is very small it is necessary to estimate capacity for tourist recep tion visitors to prevent devastation of the area. In order to preserve present state and make certain improvements it is necessary to encourage establishment of natural con ditions. In swamp area many activities as devastation of canes, catch of shells and sh should be stopped. In the watershed area, which is very vulnerable karst area, un planned construction, intensive agriculture and waste dumps should be stopped. All these responses/measures should be controlled through DPSIR framework which is adequate tool to shape and implement sustainable devel opment strategy for the Pantan area. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF BRACKISH KARST SPRING PANTAN CROATIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 72 REFERENCES Arb B., de Marsily G., Ganoulis J., 2000: Pollution by seawater intrusion into a karst system: new research in the case of the Almyros source (Heraklio, Crete, Greece). Acta Carsologica, 29 (1.1), 15-31. Bagari, I., 1973: Prilog rjeavanju problema iskoritenja zaslanjenih voda priobalnog i krakog vrela Pantan kod Trogira.Saoptenja Zavoda za hidrotehniku Graevinskog fakulteta u Sarajevu. 13, 1-18. Bonacci, O., 1995: Brackish karst spring Pantan.Acta Carsologica. XXIV, 97-107. Bonacci, O., Fritz, F., Deni-Juki, V., 1995: Hydrogeol ogy of Slanac Spring.Hydrogeology Journal. 3(3), 31-40. Bonacci O., Roje-Bonacci T., 1997: Sea water intrusion in coastal karst springs: example of the Bla Spring, Journal-des Sciences Hydrologiques, 42(1), 89-100. Breznik, M., 1973: Nastanak zaslanjenih krakih izvora in njihova sanacija. Geologija, e origin of brackish karstic springs and their development.Geologija Razprave in poroila, Ljubljana. 16. knjiga, 83-186. Breznik, M., 1998: Storage Reservoirs and Deep W ells in Karst Regions. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Brook eld COST Action 621. Ground water management of coastal karstic aquifers.Final report. EUR 21366. Fritz, F., Pavii, A., Reni, A., 1993: Hydrogeology of the Hinterland of ibenik and Trogir.Geologia Cro atica. 46(2), 291-306. Komatina, M., 1990: Problemi zahvatanja podzemnih voda u karstu.Voda i sanitarna tehnika. XX(1) Mijatovi, B., 1984: Hydrology of the Dinaric Karst. In ternational Association of Hydrogeologist. Volume 4. 115-142. Stanners, D. and Bordeau, P (eds.), 1995: Europes Envi ronment: e Dobris Assessment. European Envi ronment Agency, Copenhagen. I VANA F ISTANI



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KARST W ATER MANAGEMENT IN SLOVENIA IN THE FRAME OF VULNERABILITY MAPPING UPRAVLJANJE S KRAKIMI VODAMI V SLOVENIJI V OKVIRU KARTIRANJA OB UTLJIVOSTI Nataa RAVBAR 1 Gregor KOVA I 2 Izvleek UDK 556.3:65.012(497.4) 556.3:504.06(497.4) Nataa Ravbar & Gregor Kovai: Upravljanje s krakimi vo dami v Sloveniji v okviru kartiranja obutljivosti Kraki izviri so v Sloveniji izjemnega pomena za vodooskrbo. Ker so kraki vodonosniki zelo obutljivi na onesnaenje, kraki vodni viri zahtevajo primerno in previdno upravljanje. Na alost pa posebne znailnosti pretakanja voda v krakih pokrajinah niso zadovoljivo upotevane pri doloevanju kriterijev za zava rovanje krakih virov znotraj slovenske zakonodaje. Nasprotno se v nekaterih drugih dravah koncept kartiranja obutljivosti podtalnice uspeno uporablja pri doloevanju vodovarstvenih pasov in nartovanju rabe prostora na krasu. Upotevajo raz like med posameznimi krakimi vodonosnimi sistemi, razlik v dostopnosti do podatkov in v ekonomskih zmonostih so bile izdelane tevilne metode ocenjevanja in kartiranja obutljivosti krake podtalnice, ki so bile tudi vekrat uporabljene in preizkuene na razlinih testnih poligonih po svetu. V Sloveniji so izkunje pri aplikaciji razlinih metod kartiranja obutljivosti krakih vodonosnikov zelo skromne. V lanku so opisani potencialni metodoloki problemi, s katerimi se la hko sreamo pri aplikaciji posameznih obiajno uporabljanih metod ocenjevanja obutljivosti krake podtalnice v Sloveniji. K ljune besede: upravljanje s krakimi vodami, varovan je krakih izvirov, pitna voda, ocenjevanje in kartiranje obutljivosti, Slovenija. 1 Karst Research Institute, ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, SI-6230 Postojna, Slovenia, e-mail: natasa.ravbar@zrc-sazu.si 2 University of Primorska, Faculty of Humanities Koper, Glagoljaka 8, SI-6000 Koper, e-mail: gregor.kovacic@fs-kp.si Received / Prejeto: 15.09.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 73, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 556.3:65.012(497.4) 556.3:504.06(497.4) Nataa Ravbar & Gregor Kovai: Karst water management in Slovenia in the frame of vulnerability mapping Slovene karst sources are of great national importance for drink ing water supply. Since karst aquifer systems are very susceptible to contamination, these sources require appropriate and care ful managing. Unfortunately, in the acts of Slovene legislation, the special characteristics of water ow within karst regions are not very seriously taken into consideration in determining the criteria for karst water sources protection. In contrast, in some other countries, the concept of groundwater vulnerability mapping has been successfully used for protection zoning and land use planning in karst. Regarding the dierences between particular karst aquifer systems, data availability and economic resources, dierent methods of karst water vulnerability assess ment and mapping have already been developed. Already these methods have been many times tested and implemented in dif ferent test sites worldwide. However, experience in application using dierent methodolo gies for vulnerability mapping of karst aquifers is very mod est in Slovenia. e present paper deals with potential meth odological problems that might arise while applying the most commonly used methods for karst water vulnerability assess ment to Slovene karst regions. K ey words: karst water management, karst sources protection, drinking water, vulnerability assessment and mapping, Slove nia.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 74 KARST W ATER PROTECTION IN SLOVENIA Groundwater from karst aquifers is becoming more and more valuable for drinking water supply. In many regions worldwide it forms the only available drinking water resource. About one quarter of the global popu lation is supplied by karst waters (Goldscheider 2002), while in some Alpine countries karst water contributes up to 50% of needs. In the case of Slovenia this amount INTRODUCTION reaches 43% (Breko Grubar & Plut 2001). Extensive ar eas on the western, south-western, southern and southeastern parts of Slovenia are almost entirely dependent on karst water sources (Fig. 1). erefore karst aquifers are becoming more and more strategically important and should be appropriately and carefully managed. e wide areas of karst regions in Slovenia are either uninhabited or scarcely populated with almost no agri cultural activities or only with traditional ones, which is very favourable for water protection. erefore, the karst aquifers are oen considered as an abundant high-quality drinking water resource, though they are very vulnerable to pollution and should be managed and protected on a sustainable basis. Unfortunately, in the acts of Slovene F ig. 1: e map shows the carbonate rocks extension and the most important karst water sources in Slovenia. Sl. 1: Karta prikazuje razirjenost karbonatnih kamnin in najpomembneje krake vodne vire v Sloveniji. legislation, the special characteristics of water ow with in karst regions are not very seriously taken into consid eration of determining the criteria for karst water sourc es protection. Furthermore, experience of karst aquifer protection within the frame of vulnerability assessment and mapping is very limited in Slovenia and more eort should be given to this subject in the future. Important karst aquifers in Slovenia are mainly remote and uninhabited areas. e quality of karst groundwater, in general, is still relatively high, though some signs of contamination have already been recorded in some of the N ATAA RAVBAR & G REGOR KOVA I

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 75 springs (Kovai & Ravbar 2005). Since the water pro tection reects in land-use restrictions, the protection of karst water resources is oen neglected in land-use man agement. Even where the water protection zones and re gimes are established, the implementation of regulations is usually not eective and the control over polluters is weak. e example of the Bistrica karst spring illustrates some problems of water management in the area of an uninhabited Snenik karst plateau (NW Dinarids), where sucient protection zones have not yet been set up and water protection regulations have not been implemented properly (Kovai 2003a). Despite relatively favourable conditions for karst water sources protection in Slovenia compared to some other karst areas worldwide, many of the karst water sources still remain insuciently protected. L EGISLATIVE FRAME W ORK Basic legislative provisions concerning karst groundwa ter protection policy in Slovenia are based on W aters Act 2002. Pursuant to the abovementioned Act it is govern ments responsibility to establish water protection areas and regimes in karst areas with respective drinking water sources and to ensure the implementation of the provi sions in each protection zone. According to the Rules on criteria for the designation of a water protection zone 2004, the hydrological back ground (i.e. protection area) of a specic captured karst spring or well should be divided in three basic protection zones. e outer zone coincides with the boundaries of the entire catchment area, while the rst zone is deter mined on the basis of transfer time of ow shorter than 12 h. Regarding the abovementioned Rules, the bound aries of water protection zones of karst aquifers should be determined on the basis of data on the velocities of karst groundwater, directions of groundwater ow, depth of water table, attenuation of actual and potential pol lutants, chemical characteristics of karst groundwater and the extent and karstication degree of hydrological background. e Rules (2004) recommend several dier ent methodologies for gathering the data. Carrying out a tracer test in the catchment area of a specic spring is not an obligatory one, though it is authors opinion that it is one of the most appropriate hydrological methods that gives results on the underground ow paths, hydraulic properties of the aquifer and a helpful tool to delineate the catchment area of the particular water source. Such a conguration of legislation, unfortunately, lets the pos sibility of less accurate delineation of particular water protection zones. e concept of intrinsic vulnerability assessment and mapping is not directly included in the methodology described in the Rules. P RESENT SITUATION AND PROBLEMS Since the new W aters Act 2002 has been in force only for a relatively short period, majority of the karst sources are still protected in accordance with old legislation. Accord ing to the old W aters Act of 1981 the designation of wa ter protection areas fell within the responsibility of local communities. us adequate protection was hindered by administrative borders between these communities. Due to the conicts of interest in land use planning between neighbouring municipalities, protection zone extending over a territory of another municipality has usually not been accepted and the protection regime not established. In the case of the Riana karst springs, which are tapped for the water supply of the Slovene coastal region, most of the second water protection zone extends over the neigh bouring municipalities and even over the neighbouring country (Croatia) and hence is not protected (Kovai 2003a). As with the Riana karst springs, for the same reasons many other springs like the Malenica and the Globeec springs are not suitably protected as well. e Malenica spring is an important and the only source of drinking water supplying 20,000 inhabitants and econo my of the Postojna and Pivka municipalities. Even though the water protection zones have been delineated and the necessary provisions dened two decades ago (Habi, 1987), the required decrees have not been accepted due to the conicting interests in land use. e Globoec spring is a regionally signicant water source, but only protected in the administrative area of one municipality even though more than half of its inu ential area extends also to the neighbouring administra tive areas (Ravbar 2005). Since dierent approaches for the designation of wa ter protection zones have been in use in Slovenia in past decades (Breznik 1976; Rismal 1993; Petauer & Veseli KARST W ATER MANAGEMENT IN SLOVENIA IN THE FRAME OF VULNERABILITY MAPPING F ig. 2: I llustration of the origin-pathway-target model and the concept of the resource and source protection (aer Goldscheider 2005). Sl. 2: I lustracija modela izvor-pot-cilj ter koncept zaite vodnega vira in podtalnice (po Goldscheider 2005).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 76 1997), this has resulted in non-comparable water protec tion areas and regimes of dierent karst water sources, which is rather problematic for sucient land-use plan ning in karst areas (Prestor 2002). Common character istics of all three approaches are the transfer time delin eation criteria, which dene dierent water protection zones, and the division of hydrological background in three basic water protection zones. However, they dier markedly in their method for the determining the extent of individual protection zone, using dierent parameters. Due to the lack of sucient data, the individual water protection zones were oen not established on a solid hydrogeological basis, and were thus based only on avail able information on the geological structure. Neverthe less, for proper protection sucient studies on source re charge, tracer tests in their catchments and other hydro logical surveys are needed. us such protection zones are oen insucient and may be ineective. Nowadays situation in the eld of karst water protec tion management in Slovenia is, unfortunately, more or less a reection of an old legislation. Since the protection of karst aquifers fell within the responsibility of the gov ernment, establishment of karst water protection areas is now not any more hindered by the conicts between land use and the demands for water protection on a local scale. Not many previously established water protection zones have been recently adapted to the new legislation. us some inadequately designated water protection zones are still valid. One of the most unfavourable consequences of unregulated conditions in the eld of water protection legislation is that there is practically still no control over potential and actual polluters of karst groundwater. e concept of karst water protection is still based only on the transfer time from the point of inltration to the point of outow (spring or well). Nevertheless, evaluation of dierent ow velocities (contamination transport times) in a sense of water protection and spatial distribution of dierent values of ow velocities within the background of an outow is rather challenging. e characterization of ow and solute (contaminant) trans port mechanisms in heterogenous karst aquifers (e. g. dierent values for diuse and point recharge) could meet several problems, as well. Nevertheless, crucial criteria for karst sources pro tection zones delineation are groundwater velocities. W here groundwater ow velocities are high, protection zones would cover large areas, oen the entire catchment. However, it is impossible to require a high protection for large areas. Such spatial planning would be unreasonable and not practical. Above all, in areas with great market value of the land, rigorous land use restrictions would be controversial (Ravbar 2006). Furthermore, groundwater velocities are not the only crucial aspects to determine higher/lower suscepti bility of karst groundwater to contamination. Some other factors aecting the natural attenuation capacity of karst aquifers (e.g. function of protective cover, concentration of ow, karstication rate) are of at least the same im portance, but are still not properly included in the karst water protection legislation in Slovenia. VULNERABILITY MAPPING AS AN ALTERNATIVE CONCEPT e concept of groundwater vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for successful protection zoning delineation and land use planning in karst. e concept of groundwater vulnerability indicates the liability of a hydrologic system to contamination, using dierent col ours to symbolize dierent degrees of vulnerability. e fundamental idea is to show that the protection provided by the natural environment varies at dierent locations (Vrba & Zaporozec 1994). As a result the most vulnerable areas can be identied, and consequently at least those can be protected. However, this concept is not restricted to karst, but is most relevant when applied to karst land scapes (Goldscheider 2005). Regarding the dierences between particular karst aquifer systems, data availability and economic resourc es, dierent methods on karst water vulnerability assess ment and mapping have been developed. In addition, these have been many times tested and implemented in dierent test sites worldwide. e existing methods take into account a variety of factors that control the inltra tion of water and contaminants from the land surface to wards the groundwater, such as overlying layers, inltra tion conditions, degree of karstication and precipitation regime. e rst existing method with special consideration to karst aquifers was the EPIK method (Doeriger & Zwahlen 1998), which strongly inuenced the later methods. Q uite a few of the lately developed methods are based on the work undertaken by the COST Action 620 that developed the Eu ropean Approach (Zwahlen 2004), a conceptual framework for karst groundwater intrinsic vulnerability assessment and mapping. Individual groups and individuals within the COST Action 620 have taken this approach as the basis for the particular methodology development. e European N ATAA RAVBAR & G REGOR KOVA I

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 77 Approach takes into consideration four parameters (over laying layers, concentration of ow, karst network develop ment and precipitation regime). A signicant inuence to the European Approach came from the previously developed PI method (Gold scheider 2002). It is based on an origin-target-pathway model. e origin is the term used to describe the loca tion of a contaminant release. e term pathway is a ow path of a contaminant from the point of release (origin) to the target, which may be the groundwater surface or a drinking water abstraction point e.g. spring or well (Daly et al ., 2002; Goldscheider 2005). ere are two general ap proaches of a water protection: resource protection aims to protect the whole groundwater body and source pro tection that aims to protect a particular spring or well. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND SPECIFICS OF KARST A QUIFER VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND MAPPING IN SLOVENIA G ENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF S LOVENE KARST LANDSCAPES Direct application of some existing vulnerability map ping methods could meet several diculties rst of all due to the specic characteristics of the Slovene karst. In Slovenia karst regions extend over 43% of the country, spreading from the Karavanke range and the plateaus of the Julian and Kamnike-Savinjske Alps at an altitude of 2500 m to the shore of the Mediterranean Sea and Dinar ic karst on the south. Large karst massifs and karst pla teaus, intersected by shallow karst areas, karst poljes and valleys, characterize these landscapes. ick sequences of very pure and deeply karstied limestones and dolomites of the Mesozoic era prevail. e depth of the unsaturated zone can reach several hundreds of meters, in the moun tain massifs even 1500 m and more. Carbonate rocks are of very good to medium permeability, the groundwater ow velocities are ranging between 0.02 and 29.6 cm/s, respectively from 0.72 m/h to 1065.6 m/h (Novak 1993). Less permeable or impermeable deposits traversing karst areas, border karst aquifers and prevent the under ground runo; so do ysch and less permeable dolomite layers caused by folding and thrusting. Slovene karst landscapes are strongly tectonically modied. Fault zones that intersect or border karst areas can act as hydrologi cal barrier as well. Consequently, karst underground wa ter emerges to the surface through numerous ecacious springs at the aquifers edges. Catchment areas of most of them are very complex, covering karst and non-karst areas as well. Catchments oen extend over several tens or even hundreds km 2 and are hydraulically connected over long distances. W ater sheds are oen overlapping and the ow paths proved by tracer tests oen cross each other. Furthermore, it is practically impossible to dene the position of individual springs watersheds, precisely due to their high variability in time and strong dependence on the respective hydro logic conditions. Namely, in dependence on the respec tive hydrologic conditions in several karst areas frequent and very high groundwater uctuations appear (several tens up to few hundred meters). Consequently, also vari able ow velocities, changing ow directions and sur face-underground ow interactions result. Very thin or mostly absent protective soil cover and common absence of other protective overlaying layers, such as subsoil and non-karst rocks is signicant. e av erage annual precipitation amounts ranges from 1000 up to 4000 mm in the mountainous areas. M ETHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND OPEN QUESTIONS Regarding the peculiarity of individual intrinsic vulner ability mapping methods, the adequacy of the criteria such as parameter selection and the method of parameter weighting, dierent diculties might arise when apply ing a particular method to Slovene karst. In many of the existing methods the characteris tics of the layers lying above the saturated zone are the most important factor controlling natural protection of groundwater against contamination (self-cleaning or carrying capacity). Some among the methods provide assessment schemes, where protective function assess KARST W ATER MANAGEMENT IN SLOVENIA IN THE FRAME OF VULNERABILITY MAPPING In some of the countries respective vulnerability mapping approaches have also been integrated in the states legislation e.g the Irish Method in Ireland (GSI 1999), the SINTACS method in Italy (Civit & De Maio 1997). e EPIK method (Doeriger & Zwahlen 1998) has been integrated in Swiss legislation only for karst sources. e GLA method (Hlting et al ., 1995) is a supplement to the German groundwater protection schemes. However, in Slovenia experiences of such applica tion are very modest. Only two karst spring vulnerability studies have been done so far; Jana & Prestor (2002) us ing the SINTACS and Petri & ebela (2004) using the EPIK method.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 78 ment consists of up to four layers of the unsaturated zone (topsoil, subsoil, non-karst rocks and karst rocks). Such a very detailed system of protective function assessment requires a vast amount of data, which is a special problem in Slovenia, discussed below. e assessment of the over lying layers protective function has been shown to be one of the major problems in one of the previous applications as well (Jana & Prestor 2002). Because of the common absence of soil and/or sediment cover in Slovene karst, the protective function value would mainly be inuenced by the depth of the unsaturated zone. Due to the enormous thickness of the unsaturated zone, the protective values would oen be classied as moderate, not showing the vulnerability dierences within the aquifer itself. erefore, the selec tion of only two parameters (soil and lithological charac teristics of the unsaturated zone) together with a not very detailed system of protective function assessment could be suitable as well (Fig. 3). F ig. 3: An example of a bare karst surface on Kanin high mountain plateau (2587 m), where the depth of the unsaturated zone exceeds 1500 m (photo: G. Kovai). Sl. 3: Primer golega krakega povrja na visoki kraki planoti Kanin (2587 m), kjer je debelina nezasiene cone veja od 1500 m (foto: G. Kovai). ere is a problem in assessing a hydrological func tion of epikarst, where storage of water and concentra tion of ow occur. e rst process increases the natural protection of karst aquifer, while the latter increases vul nerability of the karst system. e problem of epikarst is that its existence is not always easily recognizable by the surface karst features. Furthermore, great spatial dier ences of its development on short distances are present due to heterogeneity of karst landscapes (Kovai 2003b). e concept of mapping surface karst features indicat ing the existence of dierent tectonically crushed zones within karst aquifer and consequently the occurrence of more or less developed epikarst zones was successfully introduced by Petri & ebela (2004). Furthermore, there is still a question how to consid er areas with great groundwater level oscillations, where N ATAA RAVBAR & G REGOR KOVA I

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 79 groundwater level varies for several tens or even hun dreds of meters in a short time and causes great change of drainage divides and ow directions. e protective ness of the unsaturated zone in highly karstied rocks is generally considered to be fairly low. Variable thickness of this zone would consequently have limited impact on nal vulnerability value. However, groundwater level uctuations might alter catchment boundaries, which is crucial for source vulnerability mapping and should therefore be additionally considered (Ravbar & Golds cheider, in press). Due to great groundwater level oscillations, some karst landscapes in Slovenia are also characterised by surface and groundwater ow alteration that is relevant with respect to groundwater vulnerability (Figs. 4 & 5). Intermittent river ows and lakes, some of which appear several times per year, while others occur only very ex ceptionally, as well as temporary springs, swallow holes and estavelles are signicant. Consequently only in a case when a water body (river, lake) is frequently or perma nently sinking into karst, a contaminant release would always and rapidly reach the groundwater without sig nicant attenuation. On the other hand, a contaminant transport and its attenuation capacities might vary dras tically where there are no temporary or perennial water ow conditions (Ravbar & Goldscheider, in press). So far the existing methods do not provide su cient tools to cope with hydrologic variability. e EPIK method takes into account temporary or perennial water ow conditions (Doeriger & Zwahlen 1998). Similarly the PI method takes into consideration average storm rainfall conditions that occur several times per year (Goldscheider 2002). e degree of vulnerability of the area characterised by surface and groundwater ow alter ation may vary drastically in dependence on respective hydrologic conditions. erefore, when making vulner ability maps, a distinction should be made between zones of concentrated inltration that are permanently drained into swallow holes and those that are only occasionally drained into karst. In the vulnerability assessment, special empha sis must be given on the function of the sinking rivers, which occur within karst poljes or recharge in non-karst areas and sink on the contact with carbonates. e lat ter can have either huge or small catchments, which has to be considered in vulnerability assessment, since swal low holes are points of concentration of ow, causing fast inltration of surface waters and contaminants towards the groundwater. A question arises, how to delineate the inuence area of such surface ow on karst aquifer, since the surface ows have their own self-cleaning capacities (Kovai 2003b). Furthermore, Slovene legislation demands indi vidual water source protection. Nevertheless, resembling some European countries, no resource protection policy has been provided so far. For source vulnerability assess ment where captured springs and wells are the targets (see the origin-pathway-target model above), the ad ditional horizontal ow path in the saturated zone, the so-called K factor, has to be considered. So far only the EPIK method provided tools for the K factor assessment. e European Approach is foreseeing incorporation of F ig. 4 and 5: e intermittent lake Petelinjsko jezero is ooded up to six months per year. At low groundwater level a shallow karst depression is dry (le), while at high groundwater level it is ooded and forms a lake (right). e degree of vulnerability of the area may vary drastically depending on respective hydrologic conditions (photo: N. Ravbar). Sl. 4 in 5: Presihajoe Petelinjsko jezero je poplavljeno do est mesecev na leto. Ob nizkem vodostaju je kraka depresija suha (levo), medtem ko je od visokih vodah poplavljena in spremenjena v jezero (desno). V odvisnosti od trenutnih hidrolokih pogojev se lahko stopnja obutljivosti na tem obmoju izrazito razlikuje (foto: N. Ravbar). KARST W ATER MANAGEMENT IN SLOVENIA IN THE FRAME OF VULNERABILITY MAPPING

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 80 the K factor into the vulnerability assessment as well, but does not specify how it should be measured or catego rized. erefore in many cases an additional step from resource to source vulnerability mapping should be done if we would like an application to be adequate to Slovene legislation. W hen applying the SINTACS method Jana and Prestor (2002) added an extra criterion of cave density for implementing the unsaturated zone attenuation ca pacity and hydraulic conductivity range of aquifer into the proposed method. However, the information on cave density is not relevant criterion for the karstication de gree assessment as it can reect the degree of research work in a certain area. Furthermore, size, connection and density of karst conduits or caves are oen results of previous climate conditions. In general, the conduit size aspect cannot be acceptable criteria, because even a relatively small degree of karstication (e.g. conduits 10 cm wide) can result in very high travel times and very rapid contaminant transport without signicant attenu ation. On the contrary, for the mostly horizontal path way through the saturated karst bedrock to the source, the groundwater ow characteristics and distance to the source have to be considered. e European Approach considers also the assess ment of the P (precipitation regime) factor, which modi es other parameters and thus the nal assessment of vulnerability as well. Some of the methods (SINTACS, PI and COP) have already introduced the precipita tion characteristics into their schemes. e question is, whether it is practical to assess the value of precipita tion regime within the small area of the same aquifer, since it is not very likely that the dierences in intensity and amounts of precipitation vary signicantly between particular parts of a catchment and thus not essentially inuence its vulnerability. However, it has already been shown that when applying the COP method in many dif ferent aquifers across Europe, the P factor itself has small correlation with the nal vulnerability values and shows important dierences only when the method is applied to the aquifers with dierent climate characteristics (Vas et al ., 2006). Nevertheless, if introducing the P factor it would be recommendable to consider the eective inltration instead, since it presents the true amount of water inl trating into the subsurface. Furthermore, higher vulner ability (i.e. higher transport velocities, shorter transit time, more turbulent ow, more eective transport of sediments and bacteria, mobilisation of DNAPL Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid, more surface ow etc.) does not only depend on the actual amount of water inltrat ing into the subsurface but also on the previous soil and epikarst zone water saturation. However, there is a methodological problem, how to evaluate the protective function of a P factor as well. Do the greater amounts of inltrating water increase the vul nerability of a karst system (faster contaminant wash-o, shorter transfer time less time for appropriate interven tion) or do they contribute to the groundwater protec tion (dilution, faster reduction of contaminants concen trations, shorter duration of contamination)? As mentioned before, in Slovene karst many areas drain into several abundant springs at the aquifers mar gins. In case of springs watersheds overlapping, vulner ability maps of dierent sources might show dierent values of vulnerability due to respective springs. is raises a question, which source vulnerability map/value should be considered as more important. In terms of pro tection degree and spatial planning, the highest degree of vulnerability should be considered. However, when plan ning the implementation of sanitary provisions in water protection zones, also an additional parameter indicating the economic and/or social importance of a particular water source should be considered. Accurate and detailed studies are essential for vul nerability assessment. Several problems are expected and have also been conrmed while applying some of the existing vulnerability mapping methods in Slovene karst landscapes due to poor database, data availability and as sessment. If the method requires very large amount of detail data, it does not only makes vulnerability assess ment more expensive, but also makes the application less exible and oen unsuitable, as very rarely is a large amount of data available. Particularly scarce are data in remote and mountainous karst areas. In addition, methods that require grid input infor mation (e.g. the SINTACS method) are not very appro priate for the application in karst areas, since the karst aquifers are very heterogenous systems characterised by great and inherent changes in small area. N ATAA RAVBAR & G REGOR KOVA I

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 81 In Slovenia karst aquifers are of special economic impor tance. Even though the quality of the groundwater is still relatively high, some sources of contamination have al ready been recorded, showing the shortcomings of water management even in the uninhabited alpine karst areas, which are ordinarily very favourable for water protection (Kovai & Ravbar 2005). In order to protect the quality and quantity of water sources and resources for future generations the concept of groundwater vulnerability mapping and assessment has been in the past decades more and more coming to the fore. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability evalu ates the intrinsic characteristics of the aquifer systems and subdivides an area into several units showing dif ferent degrees of natural protection. It provides a useful conceptual framework, which could be the basis for the water protection zones and regimes establishment (Vrba & Zaporozec 1994). Nowadays various methodologies are in use, among which also methods with special consideration of karst aquifers have been introduced. However, experiences on application using methods for vulnerability mapping of karst aquifers are very limited in Slovenia. In future, application of some of the most common ly used methods should be stimulated in order to subject eventual methodological problems that may arise during the application. Comparison of dierent methods in a single test site is therefore advisable. Considering spe cic characteristics of Slovene karst (very thin or mostly absent protective cover, very complex and large catch ment areas, lack of quality and representative research, poor database, problem of data availability, etc.) selec tion among the simplest methods would be reasonable. Methods that require very detailed data on protective cover characteristics or require very thorough database on catchment area should thus be avoided. Eventually, according to adequacy of particular criteria, such as parameter selection, parameter weight ing and nal assessment reckoning the most satisfactory among the existing methods should be selected and im proved if necessary. To propose a common method for karst water source vulnerability mapping its validation using hydrological and statistical methods is essential. Finally, a common method, which would be the basis for the water protection zones and regimes estab lishment, could be used for resource protection and land use planning in karst aquifers. Furthermore, it could be a supplement to the existing legislation for karst sources protection. According to the Rules (2004), the main criterion for the delineation of the source protection zones is the travel time of groundwater in the aquifer. However, a vul nerability assessment and mapping could be an addition al criterion for karst sources protection. It could present a supplement for reduction and/or enlargement in the size of the zones where necessary according to the intrinsic properties of a particular catchment area. Furthermore, source and resource maps could be practical tool for future land use management, spatial planning of human activities and for the sanitary provi sions planning in water protection zones as well. CONCLUSION REFERENCES Breko Gruber, V. & D. Plut, 2001: Kakovost virov pitne vode v Sloveniji.Ujma, 14-15, 238-244, Ljubljana. Breznik, M., 1976: Metodologija zaite podzemne pitne vode ter doloitve varstvenih obmoij in pasov. R egionalni prostorski plan RS 3/4. Zasnove uporabe prostora. Vodno gospodarstvo Ljubljana, Zavod SRS za drubeno planiranje, 176 p. Civit, M. & M. De Maio, 1997: SINTACS: Un sistema parametrico per la valutazione e la cartograa della vulnerabilita degli acquiferi allinquinamento. Met odologia & automatizzazione. Pitagora Editrice, 208 p., Bologna. Daly, D., Dassargues, A., Drew, D., Dunne, S., Golds cheider N., Neale, S., Popescu, I.C. & F. Zwahlen, 2002: Main concepts of the European approach to karst-groundwater-vulnerability assessment and mapping.Hydrogeology Journal, 10, 340-345. Doeriger, N. & F. Zwahlen, 1998: Practical Guide, Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping in Karstic Re gions (EPIK). Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), 56 p., Bern. Goldscheider, N., 2002: Hydrogeology and vulnerability of karst systems examples from the Northern Alps and Swabian Alb.PhD esis. University of Karlsruhe, Faculty for Bioand Geoscience, 236 p., Karlsruhe. KARST W ATER MANAGEMENT IN SLOVENIA IN THE FRAME OF VULNERABILITY MAPPING

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 82 Goldscheider, N., 2005: Karst groundwater vulnerabil ity mapping: application of a new method in the Swabian Alb, Germany.Hydrogeology Journal, 13, 555-564. GSI (1999): Groundwater protection schemes. Geologi cal Survey of Ireland, 24 p. Habi, P., 1987: Raziskave krakih izvirov v Malnih pri Planini in zaledja vodnih virov v obini Postojna.Tipkano poroilo, 58 p., Archive Karst Research In stitute SRC SASA, Postojna. Hlting, B., Haertl, T., Hohberger, K. H., Nachtigall, K. H., Villinger, E., W einzierl, W & J. P. W robel, 1995: Konzept zur Ermittlung der Schutzfunkzion der Grundwasserberdeckung.Geol. Jb., C63, 5-20. Jana, M. & J. Prestor, 2002: Ocena naravne ranljivosti vodonosnika v zaledju izvira Riane po metodi SIN TACS.Geologija, 45/2, 401-406, Ljubljana. Kovai, G., 2003a: e protection of karst aquifers: the example of the Bistrica karst spring (SW Slovenia).Acta Carsologica, 32/2, 219-234, Ljubljana. Kovai, G., 2003b: Parametrine metode kartiranja obutljivosti krakih vodonosnikov pregled, prim erjava in kritika.Seminarska naloga. Univerza na Primorskem, Fakulteta za humanistine tudije, 77 p., Ilirska Bistrica. Kovai, G. & N. Ravbar, 2005: A review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to groundwater in selected karst areas in Slovenia.Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Science, 5/2, 225-233. Novak, D., 1993: Hydrogeological research of the Slove nian karst.Nae jame, 35, 1, 15-20, Ljubljana. Petauer, D. & M. Veseli, 1997: Metodologija doloevanja zaitenih obmoij podzemnih voda. Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor, 13 p., Ljubljana. Petri, M. & S. ebela, 2004: Vulnerability mapping in the recharge area of the Korentan spring, Slovenia.Acta Carsologica, 33/2, 151-168, Ljubljana. Prestor, J., 2002: Problematika doloanja varstvenih pa sov in razporeditve ukrepov za zaito vodnih vi rov.Zbornik seminarjev Varstvo in kvaliteta pitne vode, Intitut za sanitarno inenirstvo, 69-77. Ravbar, N., 2005: Spill of dangerous substances in the catchment area of the Globoec karst spring, SE Slo venia.In: Stevanovi, Z., Milanovi, P. (Eds.) W a ter resources and environmental problems in karst, 193-200, Belgrade. Ravbar, N., 2006: e protection of karst water sources in Slovenia.In: Duran, J. J., Andreo, B. & F. Carrasco (Eds.). Congreso Internacional sobre el agua subter ranea en los paises Mediterraneos. Karst, climate change and groundwater, 231-237, Malaga. Ravbar, N. & N. Goldscheider, (in press): Integrating temporal hydrologic variations into karst groundwater vulnerability mapping examples from Slove nia.8 th Conference on Limestone Hydrogeology, Neuchtel. Rismal, M., 1993: Zaita podtalnice Strokovno navo dilo za izdelavo normativnih aktov za zavarovan je kakovosti podtalnice, FAGG, Ljubljana. Rules on criteria for the designation of a water protec tion zone. 2004: Ocial Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, 64, 8111-8128. Vas, J. M., Andreo, B., Neukum, C. & H. Htzl, 2006: Aplicacin del mtodo COP para la evaluacin de la vulnerabilidad del aqufero carbon tico de Baus chlotter Platte (Alemania). Comparacin de resulta dos con otros aquferos del sur de Espaa.In: Du ran, J. J., Andreo, B. & F. Carrasco (Eds.). Congreso Internacional sobre el agua subterranea en los paises Mediterraneos. Karst, climate change and ground water, 249-256, Malaga. Vrba, J. & A. Zaporozec, (Eds.) 1994: Guidebook on mapping groundwater vulnerability.International association of hydrogeologists. Verlag Hienz Heise, Vol. 16, 131 p., Hannover. W aters Act. 1981: Ocial Gazette of the Republic of Slo venia, 38, 2308-2320. W aters Act. 2002: Ocial Gazette of the Republic of Slo venia, 67, 7648-7680. Zwahlen, F., 2004: Vulnerability and Risk Mapping for the Protection of Carbonate (Karstic) Aquifers. Final report COST action 620.European Com mission, Directorate-General for Research, 297 p., Brssel, Luxemburg. N ATAA RAVBAR & G REGOR KOVA I



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T RACING OF THE STREAM FLO W ING THROUGH THE CAVE F ERRANOVA BU A CENTRAL SLOVENIA SLEDENJE POTOKA V JAMI FERRANOVA BU A NAD VRHNIKO Miha STAUT 1 & Primo A UERSPERGER 2 Izvleek UDK 556.34.04 Miha Staut & Primo Auersperger: Sledenje potoka v jami Ferranova bua nad Vrhniko Prispevek obravnava znailnosti nedavno odkritega podzem nega vodotoka v jami Ferranova bua in njegovega krakega hidrolokega sistema. Njegove gorvodne povezave so bile zoene na nekaj monih virov s pomojo loginega izloanja. Za potrebe dognanja povezav z dolvodnimi izviri okrog Vrh nike, je bil izveden sledilni poskus. Uporabljeno sledilo je bilo uranin z intervalom vzorenja na osem ur v Primcovem, Bekajevem in Kouhovem izviru. Povezava je bila dokazana z vsemi tremi izviri, vendar se je najveja koliina sledila po javila v Kouhovem izviru. Glede na rezultate sledenja je mo zakljuiti, da se je uranin prenesel v enkratnem homogenem valu in da obstaja majhna verjetnost, da se je kje zadral dlje. K ljune besede: kras, hidrologija, vodno sledenje, uranin. 1 Jamarski klub elezniar, Hrvatski trg 2, 1000, Ljubljana, e-mail: mihastaut@yahoo.co.uk 2 JP Vodovod-Kanalizacija d.o.o., Vodovodna cesta 90, Ljubljana, e-mail: pauersperger@vo-ka.si Received/Prejeto:14.09.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 83, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 556.34.04 Miha Staut & Primo Auersperger: Tracing of the stream ow ing through the cave Ferranova bua, central Slovenia e article discusses the characteristics of the recently discov ered ground water stream in the cave Ferranova bua and its possible karstic hydrological system. Its upstream connections have been narrowed to few possible springs by means of logi cal exclusion and have yet to be conrmed. For the purpose of establishing its linkage to the downstream springs around Vrh nika a water tracing experiment has been performed. Uranine was used as a tracer and sampled in intervals of eight hours at Primcs spring, Bekajs spring and Kouhs spring. e connec tion was proved in all three observation points, with Kouhs spring draining the largest quantity of the tracer. e tracer ex periment evidenced that the dye was completely ushed down ward in single transition curve almost without any retention. K eywords: karst, hydrology, water tracing, uoresceine sodi um. INTRODUCTION If a caver asked us what is Ferranova bua like, despite probable sighs from the caving colleagues we would an swer him, it is a thankful cave. It is not the intention to delve here into the relation that gradually establishes be tween the cave and its explorer(s). at relation is un doubtedly something special and needs a separate inves tigation, but would among karstologists probably sound too personal and thus un-scientic. e intention is to emphasize that aer all the eorts put into it, it always knew how to return the favour with new and new sur prising discoveries and in that way lled the game with satisfaction that lasts for already more that four years. It presented us with one of those gis aer one of our clubs meetings when we decided to trace the stream disap pearing in the terminal siphon of the cave. W ith the aid of some pretty rudimentary techniques we managed to achieve at rst glance high quality results.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 84 G ENERAL GEOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL DESCRIPTION e entrance to Ferranova bua is located about 900 me tres eastwards from the summit of Ulovka on the eleva tion 660 m above sea level (a.s.l.). Aer Buser (1968), Ulovka is structured by the Zaplanina nappe, where the upper Triassic dolomites are over-thrusted on the Cre taceous and Jurassic limestones of Logatec-Cerknica block. Limestones outcrop only southwards from the val ley of Bela and in a narrow strip between Sveta trojica and Ulovka. e surface of the Ulovka massif is therefore dominated by a weakly expressed karstic morphology with a low drainage density and rare dolines. e upper part of Ferranova bua evolved in the do lomite along one of the regional faults crossing the Ulo vka massif in a dinaric direction. On the depth of 160 m, where the cave signicantly widens it passes into the limestone which can be traced down to the current bot tom at 306 m a.s.l. e narrow upper part of the cave here actually joins a gallery of a completely dierent charac ter with an active ow that in the direction about 100 passes by (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). In this second wider part the cave evolved along one or more bedding planes dipping southwards initially under the angle of 40 but towards the bottom steepen up to 70. W ith regard to the proxim ity of the Jurassic limestones it may be deducted that the cave crosses the Zaplanina nappe structure on the junc tion of the upper and the lower part of the cave. In that respect the cave would be one of the rare known cases of such crossings in Slovenia. is is why the possible source of the cave stream has to be traced in the same hydrogeological unit and not in the dolomite aquifer of Ulovka. is assumption can be conrmed by sandstone and chert pebbles found in the bed of the river showing its probable allogenic char acter. Additionally bacteriological analyses of the water showed contamination with faecal bacteria, evidencing that the cave stream is not the consequence of gather ing of percolating water through the dolomite, such as in the case of the springs Lintvern and Staje (Habi, 1976). ese two spring from dolomite about 1 km south-west wards from the entrance of the cave and were used for the Vrhnikas water supply. Following the allogenic assumption, the map of sink ing streams from Rovte hills (Fig. 2), that were predomi nantly traced into Kouhs, Primcs and Bekajs springs in Vrhnika (Bauer et al ., 1976; Habi, 1976; Habi, 1996), indicates possible origins of the water in the cave. e plan of the cave in Fig. 2 overlaps to some extent with the upper reaches of the stream Korita and is therefore di cult to spot. Accounting for the elevation and with regard to the results of extensive water tracing experiments in the catchment of the Ljubljanica river (Bauer et al ., 1976), ponors on the Planinsko polje can be excluded as pos sible sources of the water in the cave as the stream ap pears in the cave exactly on 500 m a.s.l. (metres above sea level). e same is true for the Logaica sinking at about 450 m a.s.l. as well as the Petkovica. e later ows into Loka jama with its bottom reaching below the critical depth. e Hotenjka, the Moilka, the Hleviarka and the ejska voda were at large traced towards Podroteja and Divje jezero. For the purpose of the Hotenjka trac ing the Kouh spring was sampled for the rst time. Due to its too deep sinking cave it can be excluded similarly as the others. Even the nearest stream the Korita sinks much too low for a possible connection with the upper siphon of the stream in Ferranova bua. W ith regard to its connection with Primcs and Kouhs spring (Habi, 1996) it can be deduced that water from the Korita joins the stream from Ferranova bua somewhere below the F ig. 1: Elevation of F erranova bua. M IHA STAUT & P RIMO A UERSPERGER

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 85 terminal siphon. By means of logical exclusion it can be established only the Rovtarica, the Govica and the Pikel ska voda sink high enough to be possible sources of the groundwater stream in Ferranova bua. Fig. 3 shows possible upstream and established downstream water connections of Ferranova bua. It can be seen that the stream in the cave loses the largest part of its initial potential energy. From the elevation of 500 m a.s.l. the stream in only 500 m of horizontal distance falls to the elevation of 306 m a.s.l. e Ljubljana Moor 295 504 635 404 628 546 537 539 568 510 513 521 491 481 562 450 Kouh s spring Primc s and Bekaj s springs Moilnik Retovje springs of Ljubij a Lintvern Staj e Rovtarica Govica Petkovica Loga ica Hoten jka Moilk a Hleviarka ejska v od a Pikelska voda rni potok Reka Bela Korita 413 297 297 W ell permeable limestones Less permeable dolomites Impermeable rocks Sediments Spring Ponor Elevation a. s. l. Stream 570 Ferranova bua 5k m Source: Osnovna geoloka karta SFRJ Location of the cave within Slovenian state borders F ig. 2: Sinking streams in Rovte hills. F ig. 3: Possible upstream and established downstream connections of F erranova bua. Pikelska voda Govica Rovtarica Ferranova bua Kouh s Primc s and Bekaj s springs Established connection Possible connection Spring Known cave Ponor 500 600 400 300 -12000 -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 Distance from springs [m ] Elevation [m ] around Vrhnika lies between 290 and 293 m a.s.l. while all three springs with established connections from Fer ranova bua are located at 293 m a.s.l. e lowest part of the cave is separated from the corresponding down stream springs by 13 m of vertical and almost 2400 m of horizontal distance. e speleogenetic setting where the cave evolved thus enabled the stream to lose abruptly height. e characteristics of this change can at the mo ment only be guessed as upstream and downstream from the known parts the character of the cave is not known. T RACING OF THE STREAM FLO W ING THROUGH THE CAVE F ERRANOVA BU A CENTRAL SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 86 T RACING For the uranine determination the uorescent spectrom etry was used. W ater samples were analysed with the in strument RF 1501 from Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan. e ana lytical method has an accredited status according to SIST EN ISO/IEC 17025 (certicate No. LP-023). Duplicate samples were taken to test the precision in sampling and to control possible cross-contamination. For background evaluation water samples were collected before the trac ing experiment at all relevant sampling points Primcs, Bekajs and Kouhs spring as well as at the uranine in jection point. Aer the uranine transition the sampling procedure continued until similar background values as before the tracing experiment were observed. From that data, the background changes during the tracer experi ment were calculated by means of linear interpolation. Because of a relatively high sampling frequency and an appropriate sampling period aer the uranine transition we could conclude that almost all uranine has passed the sampling points. e discharges on all mentioned locations were es timated by means of a oat let down the stream (Shaw, 1994). In that way the volumetric exchange of water in a unit of time on a specied transect can be estimated. On each transect the measurement was repeated three times and the average was calculated. e method is more suit able for small discharges and not very turbulent ows. Its advantages over more elaborate and accurate methods are the inexpensive and volume saving tool set needed for the completion of the measurement. W ith two hours of restrictive and mind boggling passages, it appears to be the winning method. Uranine (as 5.0 g/L solution, 50 g of uranine total) was injected on 2 nd October 2005 at 16:30 into the stream, which ows through Ferranova bua, at the site called Tartar. At the time of the sampling, this was the lowest known point of Ferranova bua immediately before the siphon. e springs were sampled 8 days on 8 hours in tervals. At the time of the tracing experiment and imme diately before it there were two signicant precipitation events associated with passing of weather fronts over Slo venia (Markoek, 2005a; Markoek, 2005b). ey can be identied in the peaks of the measurements at the precip itation station Rovte (Fig. 4) and Vrhnika (not shown), but the later having about 20% lower precipitation. On 2 nd October 2005 the discharge in the cave was estimated to be low. e measurement indicated 11 l/s. Aer both precipitation events the discharges of sampled springs signicantly increased. According to the sampling di ary of one of the samplery the water levels of two smaller springs (Primcs and Bekajs) during the sampling pe riod did not vary a lot. 8 th October the discharges were 62 l/s and 73 l/s respectively. On the other hand Kouhs spring with a magnitude larger discharge (on the same day as the previous two it was estimated at 1975 l/s) var ied a lot during the experiment. e same diary clearly reected the two precipitation events. On 1 st October the lowest water level was recorded and it has increased un til 4 th October at 6:00 am. e next day it fell for about 20 cm but from 6 th to 9 th October again started to rise never reaching the rst height. Aer that it levelled o. is narration indicates that the water pulse from Rovte hills employs about four days to reach the springs around Vrhnika. F ig. 4: Precipitation at the time of the tracing and immediately before it (precipitation station Rovte). M IHA STAUT & P RIMO A UERSPERGER

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 87 R ESULTS OF THE TRACING EXPERIMENT At Kouhs spring we detected uranine on 4 th Oc tober 2005 at 22:00, 53.5 hours aer the injection. e maximum concentration was registered on 5 th October 2005 at 06:00 a.m., 61.5 hours aer the injection. e last traces of uranine were detected on 9 th October 2005 at 22:00 p.m., 173.5 hours aer the injection. F ig. 6: Concentration of uranine at the Kouhs spring with subtracted background. F ig. 7: Concentration of uranine at the Primcs spring without subtractions of the background. F ig. 5: Concentration of uranine at the Kouhs spring without subtractions of the background. At the Primcs spring we detected uranine on 4 th October 2005 at 6:00 a.m., 37.5 hours aer the injection. e maximum concentration was on 5 th October 2005 at 6:00 a.m., 61.5 hours aer the injection. e last traces of uranine were detected on 9 th October 2005 at 6:00, 157.5 hours aer the injection. F ig. 8: Concentration of uranine at the Primcs spring with subtractions of the background. T RACING OF THE STREAM FLO W ING THROUGH THE CAVE F ERRANOVA BU A CENTRAL SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 88 At the Bekajs spring we detected uranine on 3 rd October 2005 at 22:00 p.m. in 29.5 hours aer the injec tion. e maximum concentration was recorded on 5 th October 2005 at 6:00 a.m., 61.5 hours aer the injection. e last traces of uranine were detected on 8 th October 2005 at 22:00 p.m., 149.5 hours aer the injection. F ig. 9: Concentration of uranine at the Bekajs spring without subtractions of the background. F ig. 10: Concentration of uranine at the Bekajs spring with subtractions of the background. T ab. 1: Experimentally determined distribution of uranine across the sampling points and the recovery calculation. water ow, mass concentration, A area. m (injected) = 50.0 g. Sampling site (maximum) [g/l] A (transition curve) [g/l day] [l/s] m (uranine) [g] Relative quantity of uranine determined at sampling site [%] Kouhs spring 0.46 0.2347 1975 40.05 80.7 Primcs spring 0.85 0.6312 62 3.38 6.8 Bekajs spring 2.10 0.9822 73 6.18 12.5 Total 2110 49.60 100.0 In Table 1, there is a recovery calculation for the in jected uranine. e calculation has been performed from the ow data and transition curves for uranine. From the collected evidence, it appears that a part of wa ters owing from Rovte hills towards the catchment of Ljubljanica river ow through Ferranova bua. By analys ing the geological characteristics of the area where Fer ranova bua has developed and some characteristics of its groundwater stream (bacteriological analysis and riv D ISCUSSION er sediment characteristics), it is possible to determine its allogenic source. Additionally supported by the extensive water tracing experiments in the seventies (Bauer et al ., 1976) the source can be conned to Rovte hills between Ljubjana Moor and Hotederica valley. A comparison of the elevation of sinks in Rovte hills and known caves M IHA STAUT & P RIMO A UERSPERGER

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 89 behind them with the elevation where the stream in the cave rst appears leads to the logical exclusion of some possible candidates remaining with only three options. e results of the water tracing experiment indi cated the recovery of 99.2% of the injected uranine. is relatively surprising accuracy could be explained by a fast transport of uranine, without any retardation. e re covery calculation mainly depends on the ow changes, which are connected with the weather conditions at the time of experiment and hydrodynamic conditions of the aquifer before and during the experiment. W e presume that the inuence of changes in weather conditions at the week of the tracing experiment was relatively weak. is could be explained by an approximate four days shi between precipitation events and signicant changes in water ows. e tracing experiment of the cave stream towards the three springs at the entrance to the valley of Bela proved the connections with all of them. e tracer rst appeared in Bekajs spring (29.5 h) with the velocity of 2.3 cm/s. Eight hours later with the velocity of 1.8 cm/s, the tracer was conrmed in Primcs spring as well. As the two are only 50 m apart, the time lag conrms Habi hy pothesis, which presumes that the channels towards the two springs separate a certain distance from them (Habi, 1996). At the latest, aer 53.5 h, the uranine was trans ported with the velocity of 1.1 cm/s to Kouhs spring feeding the Hribs brook. Despite linear distances from the terminal siphon in the cave with to springs show very small dierences, the tracer required a much greater time to the third one. Contrary to the rst two it is situated on the southern ank of the valley. is indicates the possi bility that the channel leading to it, rst feeds the smaller two and only aerwards passes below the sediments of the Bela valley to nally spring in it. In all of the sampled springs however peak tracer concentrations were mea sured 61.5 hours aer the injection. Despite slower con nections and lower concentrations of the tracer in the Kouhs spring, about 80% o all the tracer appeared in it. is again indicated the main role of the Kouhs spring as a collector of ground water drained from Rovte hills in the Ljubljanica catchment. A CKNO W LEDGEMENT W e wish to thank the company JP Vodovod-Kanalizacija d.o.o. for support of this study. W e thank Andrej Strinar and Marko Kraovec for unselsh help with time-consuming sampling in the week of the experiment. R EFERENCES Bauer, F., Gospodari, R., Habi, P., 1976: Underground water tracing : investigations in Slovenia 1972.Institute for Karst Research SAZU, p. 309, Postojna. Buser, S., 1965: Geoloka zgradba junega dela Ljubljanskega barja in njegovega obrobja.Geologija, 8, 34, Ljubljana. Ferran, M., 2003: Ferranova bua.Bilten Jamarskega kluba elezniar, 23, 7, Ljubljana. Ferran, M., 2006: Ferranova bua ponovno.Bilten Jamar skega kluba elezniar, 25, 9, Ljubljana. Ferran, M., 2006: Pucov brezen.Bilten Jamarskega kluba elezniar, 25, 18, Ljubljana. Habi, P., 1976: Hidrogeoloke znailnosti povodja Bele pri Vrhniki in problemi izrabe krakih voda za oskrbo.Acta car sologica, 7, 215, Ljubljana. Habi, P., 1996: Vrhniki izviri in njihovo krako zaledje. Vrhniki razgledi, 1, 43, Vrhnika. Kss, W ., 1998: Tracing Technique in Geohydrology.A.A. Balkema, p. 581, Roterdam/Brookeld. Markoek, J., 2005a: Razvoj vremena v septembru 2005.Meseni bilten, 12, 9, 20, Ljubljana. Markoek, J., 2005b: Razvoj vremena v oktobru 2005.Meseni bilten, 12, 10, 21, Ljubljana. Shaw, E. M., 1994: Hydrology in Practice.Chapman & Hall, p. 569, London. T RACING OF THE STREAM FLO W ING THROUGH THE CAVE F ERRANOVA BU A CENTRAL SLOVENIA



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TRACER TEST ON THE MALA GORA LANDFILL NEAR RIBNICA IN SOUTHEASTERN SLOVENIA SLEDILNI POSKUS NA ODLAGALI U MALA GORA PRI RIBNICI V JUGOVZHODNI SLOVENIJI Janja KOGOVEK & Metka PETRI Izvleek UDK 556.3:504.054(497.4-12) Janja Kogovek & Metka Petri: Sledilni poskus na odlagaliu Mala gora pri Ribnici v jugovzhodni Sloveniji Odlagalie komunalnih odpadkov Mala gora pri Ribnici je eno izmed devetih trenutno e aktivnih odlagali na slovenskem krasu. Skladno z zakonodajo je potrebno izvajati monitoring njegovega vpliva na podzemne vode, ki pa je lahko uinkovit le ob dobrem poznavanju znailnosti pretakanja podzemnih vod na obmoju odlagalia. Zato smo izvedli sledilni poskus, ki je pokazal, da je glavna smer odtekanja podzemne vode z obmoja Male gore proti izvirom Tominev studenec, Javornikov iz vir, Debeljakov izvir in ica pri naselju Dvor v dolini Krke. V manjih koncentracijah se je uranin pojavil v Podpeki in Kom poljski jami, dokazano pa je bilo tudi sekundarno odtekanje proti ici pri Mali Rani in izviroma reke Krke. Ob vijih vo dostajih podzemne vode z obmoja odlagalia odtekajo tudi proti izviru Globoec, vendar pa se ta pomemben vir za vo dooskrbo primarno napaja iz drugih delov krakega vodonos nika. Pojavljanje sledila je vezano na ugodne hidroloke raz mere in poveane koncentracije uranina so bile po monejih padavinah zabeleene v vseh izvirih e eno leto po injiciranju. Zbrane ugotovitve smo upotevali pri pripravi programa moni toringa. K ljune besede: sledilni poskus, odlagalie odpadkov, Mala gora, Slovenija. Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, SI-6230 Postojna, Slovenija, e-mail: kogovsek@zrc-sazu.si, petric@zrc-sazu.si Received / Prejeto: 19.09.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 91, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 556.3:504.054(497.4-12) Janja Kogovek & Metka Petri: Tracer test on the Mala gora landll near Ribnica in south-eastern Slovenia e Mala gora landll near Ribnica is one of the nine still ac tive landlls on Slovene karst. According to our legislation the monitoring of its impact on groundwater have to be performed, but this can only be eective when the characteristics of the underground water ow in the area of the landll are well known. erefore a tracer test was carried out on the Mala gora landll and the main underground water connections towards the Tominev studenec, Javornikov izvir, Debeljakov izvir and ica springs near the settlement Dvor in the Krka valley were proved. In lower concentrations the uranine was detected in the Podpeka jama and Kompoljska jama Caves, as well as in the ica near Mala Rana spring and both springs of the Krka river. At high waters the ow from the landll towards the Globoec spring was proved also, but this important source of water sup ply is primary recharged from other parts of the karst aquifer. e appearance of tracer is forwarded by favourable hydrologi cal conditions and increased concentrations of uranine were measured at all springs aer more intensive precipitation events even one year aer the injection. Obtained results were consid ered in the preparation of the monitoring plan. K ey words: tracer test, landll, Mala gora, Slovenia. I NTRODUCTION Several tracer tests have been performed recently in Slov enia on landlls on karst with the aim to better under stand the directions and characteristics of groundwater ow from these sources of pollution and to prepare an ecient plan for the monitoring of groundwater in the area of inuence of the landll. In the article the re sults of tracing at the Mala gora landll near Ribnica in south-eastern Slovenia are presented. In this area several

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 92 F ig. 1. H ydrogeological map of the broader area of the M ala gora landll with the results of tracer tests (1. Karst aquifer, 2. F issured aquifer, 3. Porous aquifer, 4. V ery low permeable rocks, 5. L andll M ala gora injection point at the tracer test in October 2004, 6. Sampling point at the tracer test in October 2004, 7. M ain and secondary groundwater connection proved by tracer test in October 2004, 8. Spring, 9. I njection point at previous tracings, 10. M ain and secondary groundwater connections proved by previous tracings, 11. Surface ow, 12. Settlement, 13. Precipitation station, 14. Gauging station). Sl. 1. H idrogeoloka karta irega obmoja deponije M ala gora z rezultati sledilnih poskusov (L egenda: 1. kraki vodonosnik, 2. razpoklinski vodonosnik, 3. medzrnski vodonosnik, 4. zelo slabo prepustne kamnine, 5. deponija M ala gora toka injiciranja sledila ob sledenju v oktobru 2004, 6. toka zajemanja vzorcev ob sledenju oktobra 2004, 7. s sledenjem oktobra 2004 dokazana glavna in stranska smer podzemnega pretakanja, 8. izvir, 9. toka injiciranja sledila pri starejih sledenjih, 10. glavna in stranska smer podzemnega pretakanja, ugotovljena pri starejih sledenjih, 11. povrinski tok, 12. naselje, 13. padavinska postaja, 14. hidroloka postaja). tracer tests were carried out in the past, but in all cases the tracers were injected into a sinking stream or into a water ow in a cave. is means direct input into the main drainage channels and therefore fast ow towards the karst springs. But for the landlls a diuse inltra tion of precipitation and harmful substances dissolved in it into the upper vadose zone of karst aquifers is char acteristic. In the area of the Mala gora landll the depth of the vadose zone is estimated to approximately 100 m (Kogovek et al ., 2005) and the ow through it can sig nicantly inuence the transport of these substances. To test this inuence it was decided to inject the tracer on the surface. And to simulate more dangerous and harm ful conditions tracing was performed at high waters and the tracer was injected in a well permeable ssure at the border of the landll. J ANJA KOGOVEK & M ETKA PETRI

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 93 TRACER TEST ON THE MALA GORA LANDFILL NEAR RIBNICA IN SOUTHEASTERN SLOVENIA HYDROGEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS In a broader sense the area of landll is a part of the karst plateaux Mala gora and Suha Krajina which are built of well permeable Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate rocks (Fig. 1). Groundwater ow prevails and the only excep tion is karst polje Dobrepolje on which Cretaceous lime stone and Triassic dolomite are covered with alluvial sed iments (Buser 1968). During high waters it is temporary ooded. Groundwater is drained towards the border of the plateux. On the north-eastern side is the Krka river with two main springs Krka jama and Poltarica. Common mean discharge of both springs is 8.3 m 3 /s (Kolbezen & Pristov 1998). e Globoec spring is a right tributary near the village Fuina (mean discharge between 1 and 1.5 m 3 /s (Novak 1985)) and is the main source of drinking water for the whole Suha Krajina region (Fig. 2). Along the Krka riverbed near the settlement Dvor near uemberk there are three bigger springs: Tominev studenec, Debeljakov izvir and Javornikov izvir. e later is active only tem porary. e biggest among them is Tominev studenec (Fig. 3) with the mean discharge of 1.6 m 3 /s (Novak 1987). Higher in the slope is an intermittent spring ica. Aer short surface ow it sinks again underground at dierent points in its riverbed and only at extremely high waters it reaches the Krka river as its surface tributary. Further towards east is the Radeica stream which is another important right tributary of the Krka river. It is recharged by several karst springs, the biggest among them are Radeica and Obrh. At the south-western side the karst plateaux are bordered by the Ribnica polje with the surface streams Bistrica, Ribnica and Rakitnica. Bistrica is partly re charged from low permeable Triassic rocks and partly from Triassic dolomite (Buser 1968). e recharge areas of Ribnica and Rakitnica are Upper Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate rocks of the Velika gora hills. All three surface streams sink at the south-eastern border of polje, but at very high waters the surface ow can extend to the Rina river and sinks at the southern border of the Koevje polje. At the western part of the studied area the surface streams Triica and Raica collect waters from dolo mite and non-carbonate rocks of Triassic and Permian age (Buser 1968). Triica sinks at the contact with lime stone into the Tentera Cave. Raica ows further on karst area and sinks then into several ponors near the village of Ponikve. At very high waters their swallow capacity is too low and Raica ows on the surface towards Dobre polje. At Dobrepolje some intermittent springs are active aer heavy raining, the biggest among them emerge from the Podpeka jama and Kompoljska jama Caves. In both caves the permanent water level is approximately 7 m be low the bottom of the polje during low waters (Kranjc 1981). e Radensko polje in the north-western side is temporary ooded. Among several springs at its border the ica spring near Mala Rana is the most important. e springs recharge surface streams which sink into the ponors at the other side of the polje. ica ows into the Zatona jama Cave. F ig. 2. e Globoec spring is the main source of drinking water for the Suha Krajina region. Sl. 2. I zvir Globoec je glavni vir za vodooskrbo Suhe Krajine. F ig. 3. e T ominev studenec spring at low waters. Sl. 3. I zvir T ominev studenec ob nizkem vodostaju.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 94 PREVIOUS TRACER TESTS To dene the directions and characteristics of ground water ow in the broader studied area several tracer tests were performed in the past (Fig. 1). ree times the Triica stream at the ponor into the Tentera Cave was traced. During high waters in 1912 one kilogram of ura nine was injected and the underground water connec tion with the Kompoljska jama Cave was proved (erko 1946). e springs in the Krka valley were not observed. During low waters in May 1984 uranine was used again (Novak 1985). Surprisingly fast the tracer was detected in the Podpeka jama Cave and in the Poltarica spring (probably indirectly by ica near Mala Rana). e high est concentrations of uranine were measured at ica near Dvor, Tominev studenec and Debeljakov izvir, and in the Globoec spring the tracer was detected also. Appar ent ow velocity towards Tominev studenec was esti mated to 10.2 cm/s and towards Globoec to 5.4 cm/s. As the sampling was not fully reliably it was suggested to verify the connections between Triica and Podpeka jama Cave, Poltarica and Globoec (Novak 1987). New information regarding the characteristics of underground water connections was obtained in Octo ber 1998. An accident at the petrochemical depot in Ort nek resulted in an unknown quantity of gas oil entering the Triica stream (Genorio 1999). It was detected in Globoec aer 8 days in concentration 0.013 mg/l. Based on these data the apparent ow velocity would be 3 cm/ s, but already aer 8 hours the concentration dropped below 0.005 mg/l (upper limit for drinking water is 0.01 mg/l) and only a typical odour was present. Allowed concentration was exceeded again only in May 1999 aer heavy rain. e third tracing of Triica with 4.6 kg of uranine was carried out in April 2000 at medium to low reces sion conditions (Kogovek & Petri 2002, Kogovek & Petri 2004). e most rapid ow towards the Tominev studenec (v dom =4.6 cm/s), and somewhat slower ow towards the Javornikov izvir and Debeljakov izvir were proved by the results. In two months approximately 2/3 of the total amount of injected tracer was recovered at these springs. Aer heavy rain at the end of the two months period of recession, lower concentrations of the tracer were detected also in the Podpeka jama Cave. In the Globoec spring in which the sampling was most frequent the tracer did not appear. So in the described conditions the expected connection with this spring was not conrmed. e following underground water connections were also proved by tracer tests: ow from ica at the ponor into the Zatona jama Cave towards the springs of the Krka river in 1934 (erko 1946), from the Raica sink ing stream towards the ica near Mala Rana and two springs of the Krka river (Poltarica and Krka jama) in 1966 (Habi et al ., 1993), from the Podpeka jama Cave towards the ica near Mala Rana and two springs of the Krka river in April 1982 (Novak 1985), from the sinking stream Rpaa towards the Globoec spring in April 1987 (Grm & Novak 1989), from the Bistrica sinking stream towards the Tominev studenec and ica near Dvor (v dom =8.5 cm/s) in September 1965 (Habi et al ., 1993), from the Rakitnica sinking stream towards the Tominev studenec (v dom =3 cm/s) in July 1955 (Gams 1965), and from the Vodna jama v Klinji vasi Cave towards the Tominev studenec (v dom =6 cm/s), as well as towards the Radeica spring near Podturn and probably also towards the nearby Obrh spring (Novak 1987). In all described tracer tests the tracers were injected into a sinking stream or into a water ow in a cave. is means direct input into the main drainage channels and therefore fast ow towards the karst springs. But for the landlls a diuse inltration of precipitation and harm ful substances dissolved in it into the upper vadose zone of karst aquifers is characteristic. e ow through it can signicantly inuence the transport of these substances, therefore to simulate the conditions at the landll a new tracer test with the injection of tracer at the surface was planned and carried out in October 2004. TRACER TEST IN OCTOBER 2004 Precipitation and hydrological conditions in the time of tracing e Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia operates with two precipitation stations inside the study area: in Zdenska vas near Dobrepolje and in Prigorica on Ribnica polje (Fig. 1). For both stations similar precipita tion regimes are characteristic and therefore averages of both measured values were used as daily precipitation in further processing of data (Fig. 4). Discharges of the springs in the impact area of the Mala gora landll are not regularly measured. Only dis J ANJA KOGOVEK & M ETKA PETRI

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 95 charges of the Krka river are measured by the Environ mental Agency and for the time of tracing till the end of May 2005 we obtained data for two gauging stations: Krka-Podbukovje and Krka-Dvor (Fig. 1). e later were used for the estimation of the discharges of Tominev studenec. Characteristic discharges of this spring were dened by some previous measurements: Q min=0.54 m 3 /s, Qmean=1.6 m 3 /s and Qmax=10 m 3 /s (Novak 1992), and by comparison with the measured values for Krka-Dvor the daily discharges of Tominev studenec in the time of tracing were estimated (Fig. 4). Additionally, at Tominev studenec the pressure probe for measurement of water levels in hourly intervals was operated by the Institute of Mining, Geology and Geotechnology from October 2004 to May 2005, and occasionally the water levels were read also at the sta gauge, which was installed at the spring by the Environmental Agency several years ago. e cor relation between measured water levels and estimated discharges was good, so the later were used in further processing of the results of the tracer test. At the Globoec spring the gauging station for wa ter level measurements is operated by the Environmental Agency and from them we obtained the data for the pe riod from 12 October 2004 to 15 March 2005. As these were only water level data, we used a series of parallel measurements of levels and discharges carried out by the Agency, based on which the relation between both pa rameters was dened and then used for the estimation of discharges of Globoec spring for the period from Oc tober 2004 to March 2005 (Fig. 4). Additionally, the cor relation between these data and the measured discharges at Krka-Dvor was set and then used for the estimation of the discharges of Globoec in the period from 16 March to 31 May 2005 (Fig. 4). The discharge at the gauging station Krka-Pod bukovje is composed by flows from the springs Krka jama and Poltarica, and the tributary Vinjica. In the last years no measurements of individual flows were performed, therefore an average share of the Vinjica discharges in the total Krka-Podbukovje discharges was estimated to 6% based on the comparison of the mean monthly values in the period 1990-2000 (Kol bezen & Pristov 1998). Taking this into account the common discharge of both Krka springs in the time of tracing was assessed based on measured discharges at Krka-Podbukovje (Fig. 4). e tracer test was carried out in the period of intensive rain before and aer injection of tracer. In September and the rst half of October 2004 the total amount of precipitation was 163 mm, then aer injec tion in the second half of October additional 190 mm, and in November and December 218 mm. Also the dis charges of observed springs were very high, especially immediately aer injection with extreme peaks on 18 October 2004 (Fig. 4). e beginning of the year 2005 was relatively dry and then from March till the end of May four times a more signicant increase of discharges was noted. W e were not able to get the data on discharges for the period from June 2005 onwards, so we can only asses the hydro logical conditions based on precipitation measurements and compare them with the tracer breakthrough curves. Injection and sampling e landll is located on well karstied Upper Jurassic limestone, alternating with dolomite and covered with thin, oen interrupted layers of brown soil. Aer testing its swallow capacity, a highly-permeable vertical ssure at the margin of the landll at the altitude of 570 m asl was chosen as an injection point for tracer test. Aer several days of rain, a solution of 7 kg of uranine was injected into it on 14 October 2004 and washed o with 9 m 3 of water (Fig. 5). e sampling of water was organised at 11 loca tions (springs, water ow in caves, surface stream). At the Globoec spring an automatic sampler ISCO 6700A was installed. At the beginning of the test the samples were taken each 6 hours, and later once per day. At oth er points the water samples for measuring the uranine level were collected manually in dark glass bottles. In Tominev studenec, Debeljakov izvir, Javornikov izvir, and Podpeka jama sampling was organised once per day, occasionally also twice per day. Frequency of sampling in the later period of the test was reduced and adjusted to hydrological conditions. At other points (Kompoljska jama Cave, springs ica-Dvor, ica-Mala Rana, Krka jama and Poltarica, and surface stream Rina) only sepa rate series of samples were taken. Fluorescence was measured in laboratory by a lumi nescence spectrometer LS 30, Perkin Elmer (E ex =491 nm, E em =512 nm) with detection limit of 0.005 ppb (1 ppb=1 mg/m 3 ). Samples with higher levels of turbidity were ini tially decanted and ltered (0.45 nm). Results of tracing Injected uranine was detected at 10 sampling points, with the exception of the Rina surface stream (Fig. 1). Already aer 5 days and in highest concentrations up to 1.18 ppb the tracer has appeared at Javornikov izvir and ica near Dvor (Fig. 6). At the same time it was detected in Tominev studenec in concentrations up to 0.19 ppb, and with a short delay also in Debeljakov izvir. In this spring higher concentrations up to 0.08 ppb were meas ured in the beginning of November 2004 (Fig. 7). TRACER TEST ON THE MALA GORA LANDFILL NEAR RIBNICA IN SOUTHEASTERN SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 96 Strong oscillations of uranine concentrations mea sured in the Podpeka jama Cave indicate inows from dierent parts of the aquifer. First peak appeared already on 17 October 2004, which gives the apparent ow ve locity of 4.1 cm/s, but maximum concentration of 0.135 ppb was detected on 31 October 2004. In the Kompoljska jama Cave the signal was occasionally increased and this indicates the groundwater connection, but as there only same separate samples were taken, more detailed analysis of this connection is not possible (Fig. 8). e connections with both springs of the Krka river were conrmed also (Fig. 8). In spite of irregu lar sampling a signicant increase and then decrease of uranine concentrations in the Krka jama can be seen aer each precipitation event, although at the beginning of the observation some oscillations were present. ey indicate the inow from an extensive recharge area with dierent inuences. e breakthrough curve of the Pol tarica spring has a parallel course but somewhat lower concentrations. By longer duration of sampling a sig nicant signal of tracer was observed at both springs in October 2005. At the ica near Mala Rana spring the sampling was irregular also (Fig. 8), but the peaks of concentra tions of uranine were detected in comparable times as in both springs of the Krka river. erefore we can presume that at least one part of the tracer ows indirectly through Dobrepolje and Radensko polje towards the Krka springs. But to get a more precise picture about these connections a more detailed observation at all points in a longer pe riod of at least one year would be necessary. At all observed springs increased concentrations of uranine were detected aer each intensive precipitation F ig. 5. A solution of uranine was injected into a well permeable ssure at the margin of the landll. Sl. 5. Raztopino uranina smo zlili v dobro prepustno razpoko na robu odlagalia. J ANJA KOGOVEK & M ETKA PETRI F ig. 4. Precipitation and hydrological conditions in the time of tracing. Sl. 4. Padavinske in hidroloke razmere v asu sledenja.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 97 F ig. 6. e highest concentrations of uranine were detected in Javornikov izvir. At ica near D vor samples were taken only occasionally and in them similar concentrations of tracer were measured. Sl. 6. Najvije koncentracije uranina so bile zabeleene v Javornikovem izviru. V ici pri D voru smo zajemali vzorce le obasno in v njih smo izmerili podobne koncentracije. F ig. 7. Concentrations of uranine in the T ominev studenec and D ebeljakov izvir springs, and discharges in T ominev studenec Sl. 7. Koncentracije uranina v T ominevem studencu in D ebeljakovem izviru ter pretok T ominevega studenca. TRACER TEST ON THE MALA GORA LANDFILL NEAR RIBNICA IN SOUTHEASTERN SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 98 event, which washed out the tracer stored in the vadose zone and karst channels. Relatively high concentrations were measured in October 2005 almost one year aer the injection of tracer, and such appearances of uranine are to be expected also in the following period. T able 1. Estimation of apparent dominant velocities of groundwater ow. T abela 1. I zraun navideznih dominantnih hitrosti pretakanja podzemnih vod. Sampling point Height dierence (m) Distance (m) t dom (h) v dom (cm/s) Tominev studenec 395 17800 122,5 4,0 Debeljakov izvir 397 18045 142 3,5 Javornikov izvir 390 17710 143,5 3,4 ica-Dvor 370 16515 3,4 Globoec 322 12740 124,5 2,9 Calculated apparent flow velocities are compa rable with those estimated at the tracer test with di rect injection into the Triica sinking stream during medium water hydrological conditions in April 2000 (Kogovek & Petri 2002). This indicates that in wet periods with intensive precipitation infiltrated rain and the contaminants dissolved in it pass fast through the vadose zone of karst aquifer and further towards the springs. Measured concentrations of uranine at the Globoec spring were only slightly above the detection limit, but the signal was simultaneous to the one at the other springs (Fig. 9). W e can conclude that additional to the main di rection of ow towards the springs near Dvor at the exist ing conditions of high waters also the secondary connec tion with the Globoec spring was conrmed. Increased concentrations of tracer were detected at Globoec also aer later precipitation events, and the maximum value of 0.085 ppb was measured only in October 2005 which is almost one year aer the injection. So each more inten sive precipitation event is pushing out the tracer stored in the less permeable parts of the karst water system. e observed appearance of tracer at the spring and its con centrations are in such extensive and heterogeneous sys tem a great deal inuenced also by hydrological condi tions which dier signicantly in time but also in space. Obtained information about longer retention time in the direction towards Globoec should be considered in the planning of monitoring of groundwater in the area of in uence of the landll. In ve months long period of more regular sampling from the injection of tracer in October 2004 till the end of February 2005 approximately a half of the total amount of injected tracer was detected at all springs. Along with F ig. 8. Uranine breakthrough curves for other springs. Sl. 8. Krivulje koncentracij uranina za ostale izvire. J ANJA KOGOVEK & M ETKA PETRI

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 99 this result we should emphasise that the quality of dis charge data applied in calculations was not very high and that several estimations and indirect comparisons were used as described in one of the previous chapters. F ig. 9. Concentrations of uranine and discharges in the Globoec spring. Sl. 9. Koncentracije uranina in pretok v izviru Globoec. As the Globeec spring is captured for the water supply, the share of recovered tracer was estimated also for this spring. In one year around 3% of the injected uranine has been recovered there. CONCLUSIONS Performed tracer test with the injection of 7 kg of uranine in a highly-permeable vertical ssure at the margin of the Mala gora landll during high waters in October 2004 conrmed the main groundwater connection with the springs Tominev studenec, Javornikov izvir, Debeljakov izvir and ica-Dvor in the Krka valley. In lower concen trations the tracer was detected in the Podpeka jama and Kompoljska jama Caves, and also a secondary direction of underground water ow towards the ica near Mala Rana spring and both Krka springs was proved. Special attention was dedicated to the Globoec spring as a main source of water supply in the Suha kraji na region. Based on the results of tracer tests we can con clude that groundwater from the landll area ows dur ing high waters towards Globoec also, but this spring is mainly recharged from other parts of the karst aquifer. Apparent dominant ow velocity in the main direc tion towards the springs near Dvor was approximately 4 cm/s. Comparable velocities obtained by tracing of the Triica sinking stream at medium waters in April 2000 indicate that at high waters with intensive precipi tation before and aer injection transport of tracer is not hindered even in a thicker vadose zone. At the time of injection the karst system was lled with water and in such conditions also the transport of tracer through the vadose zone is fast. Similar results were obtained by the tracer test through approximately one hundred me ters thick vadose zone above the Postojnska jama Cave (Kogovek 2000). is indicates very high vulnerability and a serious danger of pollution with harmful sub stances from the landll. en in the following period of one year the increase of the concentration of tracer was detected aer each more intensive precipitation event. Although a part of a soluble tracer ows rapidly through the primary drainage paths, the remainder is retained in the vadose zone and is pushed out by newly TRACER TEST ON THE MALA GORA LANDFILL NEAR RIBNICA IN SOUTHEASTERN SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 100 inltrated water in the following precipitation events over a long time period. Some valuable information for the proper planning of the monitoring of groundwater were obtained by per formed tracer test. A decision was made which springs should be included into the monitoring. As the main monitoring points Tominev studenec and Globoec were suggested, but additionally also Javornikov izvir could be observed because the inuences from the land ll are more intensive there (signicantly higher concen tration of tracer in a rst peak than at other springs). e time and frequency of the sampling should be adjusted to hydrological conditions also, because the pollution signal can be expected at monitoring points aer more inten sive precipitation events. ACKNO W LEDGEMENT For co-operation in the preparative arrangements we would like to thank Andrej Juren (GeoSi d.o.o., Geo logical Institute). e tracer test was supported by the Institute of Mining, Geology and Geotechnology from Ljubljana, and by the public company Komunalna Rib nica d.o.o. which is the manager of the Mala gora landll. W e would like to thank the Monitoring Oce of the En vironmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for giv ing us the data on measured water levels at the Globoec spring free of charge. REFERENCES Buser, S., 1968: Osnovna geoloka karta SFRJ, list Ribnica 1:100000.Zvezni geoloki zavod, Beograd. Gams, I., 1965: Aperu sur lhydrologie du karst Slovene et sus communications souterraines.Nae jame, 7/1-2, 51-60, Ljubljana. Genorio, R., 1999: Varovanje krakih vodnih virov, primer havarije plinskega olja v zajetju Globoec.Diplomska naloga, Ljubljana. Grm, A. & D. Novak, 1989: Vodne razmere na Dobrepolju in v Strugah.Nae jame, 31, 15-25, Ljubljana. Habi, P. & A. Kranjc & S. Svetlii, 1993: tudij krakih podzemeljskih vodnih povezav v Sloveniji (Poroilo za leto 1992).Tipkano poroilo, IZRK, 8 str. + pri loge, Postojna. Kogovek, J., 2000: Ugotavljanje naina pretakanja in prenosa snovi s sledilnim poskusom v naravnih razmerah.Annales, 10/1, 133-142, Koper. Kogovek, J. & M. Petri, 2002: Podzemno raztekanje vode iz ponora Triice (JV Slovenija).Acta car sologica, 31/2, 75-91, Ljubljana. Kogovek, J. & M. Petri, 2004: Advantages of longerterm tracing three case studies from Slovenia.En vironmental Geology, 47, 76-83, Berlin. Kogovek, J. & M. Petri & M. Pregl, 2005: Preparation of the water quality plan for monitoring the impact area of the Mala gora landll near Ribnica (SE Slo venia).In: Stevanovi, Z. & P.T. Milanovi (Eds), W ater resources and environmental problems in karst : proceedings of the International conference and eld seminars, Belgrade and Kotor, 13-19 Sep tember 2005. Institute of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Mining and Geology, 169-174, Belgrade. Kolbezen, M. & J. Pristov, 1998: Povrinski vodotoki in vodna bilanca Slovenije.MOP-Hidrometeoroloki zavod Republike Slovenije, p. 98, Ljubljana. Kranjc, A., 1981: Prispevek k poznavanju razvoja krasa v Ribniki Mali gori.Acta carsologica, 9, 31-85, Lju bljana. Novak, D., 1985: Izvir Globoec in njegovo zaledje.Nae jame, 27, 5-9, Ljubljana. Novak, D., 1987: Podzemni vodni tokovi na Dolenjskem.Dolenjski kras, 2, 23-27, Novo mesto. Novak, D., 1992: Tominev studenec pri dvoru in njegovo zaledje.Nae jame, 33, 63-73, Ljubljana. erko, A., 1946: Barvanje ponikalnic v Sloveniji.Geo grafski vestnik, 18, 125-139, Ljubljana. J ANJA KOGOVEK & M ETKA PETRI

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 101 SLEDILNI POSKUS NA ODLAGALI U MALA GORA PRI RIBNICI V JUGOVZHODNI SLOVENIJI P OVZETEK V zadnjem asu je bilo opravljenih ve sledilnih poskusov z odlagali na slovenskem krasu z namenom, da bi bolje razumeli smeri in znailnosti odtekanja podzemne vode z obmoja teh virov onesnaevanja in pripravili uinkovit program za monitoring kakovosti podzemnih vod na vplivnem obmoju odlagali. V oktobru 2004 smo poskus izvedli na odlagaliu Mala gora pri Ribni ci. ire obmoje odlagalia je del krake planote Male gore in Suhe Krajine, ki se na severovzhodni strani dviga nad dolino reke Krke, na jugozahodni pa nad Ribniko polje. Gradijo jo dobro prepustne jurske in kredne karbonatne kamnine (Sl. 1). Voda se pretaka podzemno proti tevilnim izvirom na obrobju. Najveji so izviri v dolini Krke z njenima glavnima izvirom Krko jamo in Poltari co s skupnim srednjim pretokom 8,3 m 3 /s. Izvir Globoec s srednjim pretokom med 1 in 1,5 m 3 /s je zajet za vo dooskrbo Suhe Krajine (Sl. 2). Juno od uemberka pri naselju Dvor so e tirje veji izviri. Najveji je Tominev studenec s srednjim pretokom okrog 1,6 m 3 /s (Sl. 3). Po leg njega je prav tako stalen Debeljakov izvir, Javornikov izvir in ica pri Dvoru pa sta aktivna samo ob visokem vodostaju. Na suhem krakem polju Dobrepolje sta izvira iz Podpeke in Kompoljske jame aktivna po monejem deevju, drugae pa je stalen vodni tok v obeh jamah okrog 7 m pod dnom polja. Na junem robu Radenskega polja izvira ica pri Mali Rani, ponika pa na vzhodnem robu polja v Zatono jamo. V preteklosti je bilo na tem obmoju opravljenih ve sledilnih poskusov (Sl. 1). V vseh primerih je bilo sledilo injicirano v ponikalnico. Za odlagalie pa je znailna razprena inltracija padavin in v njih raztopljenih kodljivih snovi v vadozno cono. Ker je debelina te cone okrog sto metrov, lahko precejanje skoznjo znailno vpliva na transport sledila in po analogiji tudi na transport in zadrevanje kontaminantov v krakem podzemlju. Zato smo v poskusu na Mali gori za injiciranje sledila na povrju izbrali dobro prepustno razpoko na obrobju odlagalia. Po vednevnem deju smo 14. oktobra 2004 inji cirali raztopino 7 kg uranina in jo zalili z 9 m 3 vode iz cisterne (Sl. 5). Zaradi intenzivnih padavin v naslednjih dneh so pretoki izvirov zelo narasli in dosegli zelo visok vodostaj (Sl. 4). Vzorenje smo organizirali na 11 lokaci jah, pogostnost zajemanja na njih pa je bila razlina. Flu orescenco smo merili v laboratoriju z luminiscennim spektrometrom LS 30, Perkin Elmer, vzorce pa smo pred hodno dekantirali in po potrebi e ltrirali. Uranin se je e po 5 dneh in v najvijih koncen tracijah do 1,18 ppb pojavil v Javornikovem izviru in ici pri Dvoru (Sl. 6), hkrati pa tudi v Tominevem studencu in nekoliko kasneje v Debeljakovem izviru (Sl. 7). Velike oscilacije koncentracije sledila v Podpeki jami kaejo na prepletanje dotokov iz razlinih delov zaledja. Potrjena je bila tudi povezava s Kompoljsko jamo, vendar je bilo vzorcev premalo za bolj natanno analizo. Dokazano je bilo e odtekanje proti obema izviroma Krke in ici pri Mali Rani (Sl. 8). Na vseh izvirih so se koncentracije uranina poveale po vsakem monejem padavinskem dogodku, ki je spiral zaostalo sledilo iz vadozne cone in krakih kanalov. Relativno visoke vrednosti so bile izmerjene v oktobru 2005 skoraj eno leto po injiciran ju in podobne pojave je bilo mono priakovati tudi v nasle dnjem obdobju. Izraunane navidezne dominantne hitrosti toka okrog 4 cm/s so primerljive z rezultati sledenja Triice v aprilu 2000 ob srednjem vodostaju. Sklepamo lahko, da v namoenih obdobjih z intenzivni mi padav inami inltrirana voda in v njej raztopljene kodljive snovi zelo hitro preidejo vadozno cono in od tekajo po krakih kanalih naprej proti izvirom. To kae na zelo ranljiv vodonosnik in resno nevarnost njegovega onesnaenja s kontaminanti z odlagalia. Posebno pozornost smo posvetili izviru Globoec, ki je zajet za vodooskrbo. Izmerjene koncentracije sledila so bile le malo nad mejo detekcije, vendar je bila oblika signala podobna kot pri drugih izvirih (Sl. 9). Maksi malna vrednost je bila doseena ele v oktobru 2005. Sklepamo lahko, da izvir Globoec napajajo predvsem podzemne vode iz drugih delov krakega vodonosnika, vendar ob visokem vodostaju proti njemu odtekajo tudi vode z obmoja odlagalia. Ocena delea povrnjenega sledila je zaradi slabe kakovosti podatkov o pretokih le priblina. V asu od zaetka poskusa v oktobru 2004 do konca februarja 2005 je skozi izvire iztekla priblino polovica injiciranega sle dila, od tega skozi Globoec okrog 3%. Na osnovi zbranih rezultatov je bil izdelan program monitoringa. Kot glavni toki opazovanja sta bila pred lagana izvira Tominev studenec in Globoec, dodatno pa e Javornikov izvir, saj se je vpliv z odlagalia tam pokazal najbolj izrazito (znailno vije koncentracije sle dila kot v drugih izvirih). as in frekvenco vzorenja je potrebno prilagoditi hidrolokim razmeram, saj lahko signal onesnaenja priakujemo po monejih padavi nah. TRACER TEST ON THE MALA GORA LANDFILL NEAR RIBNICA IN SOUTHEASTERN SLOVENIA



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DOLENJSKA SUBSOIL STONE FORESTS AND OTHER KARST PHENOMENA DISCOVERED DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HRASTJE LENICA MOTOR W AY SECTION SLOVENIA DOLENJSKI PODTALNI KAMNITI GOZDOVI IN DRUGI KRAKI POJAVI, ODKRITI PRI GRADNJI AVTOCESTNEGA ODSEKA HRASTJE LENICA Martin KNEZ 1 & Tadej SLABE 1 Izvleek UDK 551.435.8(497.4) Martin Knez & Tadej Slabe: Dolenjski podtalni kamniti goz dovi in drugi kraki pojavi, odkriti pri gradnji avtocestnega odseka Hrastje Lenica lanek obravnava raziskave plitvega dolenjskega krasa med gradnjo avtocestnega odseka med vasema Hrastje in Lenica. Raziskave med gradnjo so se tudi tokrat izkazale kot zelo koristne, saj smo prili do tevilnih novih in dopolnjujoih zakljukov o razvoju tega, za Dolenjsko znailnega krasa. Ne nazadnje se je spet izpostavil pomen sodelovanja krasoslovcev pri nartovanju vejih posegov v krako povrje in spremljava del. Raziskovali smo svojevrstno oblikovanost krakega povrja, ki jo predstavljajo predvsem velike povrine kamnitih gozdov ter znailno zakrasevanje pod debelimi plastmi naplavin. K ljune besede: kamniti gozdovi, podtalno oblikovanje kar bonatnih kamnin, dolenjski kras, Slovenija. 1 Karst Research Institute, ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, SI-6230 Postojna, Slovenia, e-mail: knez@zrc-sazu.si, slabe@zrc-sazu.si Prejeto/Received: 05.09.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 103, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 551.435.8(497.4) Martin Knez & Tadej Slabe: Dolenjska subsoil stone forests and other karst phenomena discovered during the construc tion of the Hrastje Lenica motorway section is paper explains the investigation of shallow and sedimentcovered areas of the Dolenjska karst discovered during the construction of the motorway section between the villages of Hrastje and Lenica. Research done during construction has again proved to be very useful; we came to numerous and aug mentative conclusions about the development of karst features typical of the Dolenjska region. Again the importance of the participation of karst researchers in planning major activities concerning the karst and in monitoring the work was demon strated. W e have researched the unique features of the karst surface marked mostly by large areas of stone forests and char acteristic karstication below the thick sediment beds. K ey words: stone forests, subsoil formation of carbonate rock, Dolenjska karst, Slovenia. I NTRODUCTION e monitoring of the construction of the Dolenjska mo torway by karst researchers has again proved to be of great value in the exploration of our natural heritage through the deepening of our knowledge about the formation and development of this part of the Slovenian karst. is characteristic subsoil karst surface was formed under a cover of sediment of varying depth. Subsoil formation of carbonate rock also marks the entire epi-karst and va dose zone. e surface is carved into subsoil stone for ests (Figs. 1, 2), the surfaces of the karren are smaller and numerous hollow shas are lled with ne-grained sedi ment. e outstanding characteristics of the karst surface are primarily the result of large surfaces of stone forests, which are dicult to detect prior to earthwork or geophysical research. Most of the surface is above the under ground water level. e only exception is the motorway section at Hrastje, which was not fully uncovered due to the construction method and because lower road beds

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 104 were put upon a special grounding. For this reason we could only research the karst formations that had been shaped by water percolation through the karst surface. W e did not nd the characteristic subsoil karren as those discovered during the earthwork at Bi, which were also formed by the uctuation of underground water (Knez et al ., 2004). Karst features discovered during construction F ig. 1: Uncovering of subsoil stone forest. Sl. 1: Razkrivanje podtalnega kamitega gozda. THE MOTOR W AY ROUTE AND THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LANDSCAPE F ig. 2: Subsoil shaped pillar of stone forest. Sl. 2: Podtalno oblikovan steber kamnitega gozda. work give us insight into the characteristics and manner of formation of the karst in the wider area of southern Slovenia; they thus unveil yet another characteristic of our karstic natural heritage that is hidden from view, but which also provides guidelines for planning activities on the surface. e north-eastern part of the motorway section starts in the vicinity of a swallow hole of the Igmanca stream near the villages of Hrastje, Dolenja vas and entjurij and pass the village of Selo along characteristic Dolenjska lowland. Lateral, changing and relatively thick beds of sediment and soil cover the land. e underground water is close to the surface of the predominant uviokarst. Here we nd individual karstic features, among them minor swal low holes, esatavellas and, to a lesser extent, an outcrop of carbonate rock. e terrain rises slightly towards the Strmec and Dobrava hills, where the road climbs more steeply and soon aer the pass drops towards the Krka River. W e have detected thinner sediment beds and fre quent outcropping of karstied rock, which mostly disin tegrates into small fragments. ere is less surface water at that location since it ows into the subsoil relatively quickly due to the inclination of the terrain, the thin sediment beds and fragmentary cover of disintegrated rock. e stone forests and karren, which reach various depths, are composed of compact and also tectonically very crushed rock. W here the rock is not crushed and where compact blocks of limestone occur between the cracks, we noticed stone teeth on the surface. During the earthwork, these had in many cases revealed themselves as real stone pillars. W here the rock was tectonically cracked or crushed, we did not nd karren on the sur face; however, at some locations rudimentary stone teeth hidden beneath the soil immediately disintegrated dur ing earthwork. Between the Brezovica and Lenica hills we again nd typical shallow Dolenjska karst with its un derground level close to the surface, and its characteris tic collapses and sinkholes. A rare network of streams is formed on the surface, but a substantial part of the source and side channels do not have permanent ows. Minor springs of underground water are frequent and ow along narrow, corroded cracks in the rock. Surface and subsoil karst features are rare. e surrounding valleys are dry for most of the year, and streams and oods only occur aer downpours. Percolating water feeds small but permanent sources. Fluctuation of the ow from these sources is minimal and rarely more abundant, which re ects greater permeability and cavernosity. Underground water ow is close to the surface, for which reason karst formations such as this are called shallow karst. ick beds of Plioquaternary sediments on carbon ate rock, especially on a moist surface, are usually acid. It M ARTIN KNEZ & T ADEJ SLABE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 105 is not yet fully understood whether these sediments are autochthonous or brought from the nearby dolomite sur roundings (Gams 2004). Aer comparison with the cir cumstances in tropical karst, the opinion developed that in these valleys the thick layers of disintegrated material could have been preserved only because of the high un derground water level and poor erosion, and thus devel oped into subsoil karst. GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AREA e motorway route between Hrastje and Lenica runs, for the most part, on Jurassic (Lower Malm) rock. In some cases it also crosses Plioquaternary sediment and alluvial river sediment. From the geo-tectonic aspect it belongs to the Outer Dinarids, characterised by its block structure and the Dinaric orientation of the faults and alignment of the folds. A covered fault runs along the western side of the road section. e anticline fold of the Upper Jurassic beds run in the Dinaric sense from Do lenja Nemka vas on the northwest to Novo mesto on the southeast. e road mostly runs along its northern ank. e dip of the beds changes, but the general direction is towards the northeast. W e nd various micro and macro fauna in the rock along the route as well as macro ora in its central part. e Upper Jurassic beds to the north border on Up per Cretaceous brown and green marl, sandy marl, marly limestone and grey and red platy limestone with intru sions of breccia. To the south they border on Plioqua ternary brown clay sediments. North of Prena we nd a minor area of upper Triassic stratied and un-stratied grey dolomite. According to a geo-tectonic survey map (Pleniar & Premru 1977) the area of the motorway section lies on the Novo mesto block. Its northern part is a transition between the Sava folds and the Dolenjsko-Notranjska block. e oldest rock here is Middle and Upper Triassic dolomite over which Jurassic limestone had been discor dantly deposited and over Cretaceous pelagic rock. e characteristics of the terrain are synclines and anticlines running in the Dinaric direction, which at places diverge from their characteristic orientation. e Jurassic beds in the Novo mesto surroundings are generally composed of light grey limestone that lies on Cordevol Upper Triassic dolomite and forms the base for their discordantly deposited Upper Cretaceous pe lagic sediments (Pleniar & Premru 1977). e Lower Malm rocks are strongly varied along the motorway section north of Novo mesto (Pleniar et al ., 1976). In the northern biostratigraphic zone and south ern biostratigraphic zone we nd alternating white and grey limestone, oolitic limestone, reef limestone with hy drozoans and bedded limestone with chert. e northern biostratigraphic zone can in a broader sense be found on the motorway section between Poljane and Mali Slatnik, east of Novo mesto (Pleniar & Premru 1977), which mostly runs north-east of this motorway section. Here light-grey, un-stratied reef limestone and large-grained reef breccia are predominant. Here and there we can nd dark grey and almost un-stratied limestone between these beds. Rich hydrozoan fauna can be found in the un-stratied limestone. Occasionally we also found platy limestone with chert. Along the south-eastern parts we are most probably following a middle biostratigraphic zone, which is litho logically similar to the northern biostratigraphic zone; hydrozoans are not as present in the rock. Oolitic lime stone can also be found in the reef limestone (Pleniar & Premru 1977). Corals appear in some places. According to the geological map and its commentary (Pleniar et al ., 1976; Pleniar & Premru 1977), southern biostrati graphic rock characterised by grey, dense and oolitic bedded limestone, does not exist along the route. In the Plioquaternary sediments southwest of Makovec we nd an outcrop of bentonite clay. e clay lies in the pockets of Triassic dolomite and in the Juras sic limestone. At places it is deposited in beds of a total thickness of up to 12 m. KARREN SURFACE Most of the surface of the higher-lying land is karren. e bottoms of dales are covered by sediment beds. Two types of karren can be clearly distinguished. Karren in their original meaning occur in areas that are not covered by sediment, but with thin layer of soil. ey cover the major part of the surface. e carbonate rock is dissected along the cracks, and on the rock we can detect the traces of its former a) subsoil formation (Slabe 1999; Slabe & DOLENJSKA SUBSOIL STONE FORESTS AND OTHER KARST PHENOMENA DISCOVERED DURING ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 106 F ig. 3: Bio-corrosively etched surface of karren. Sl. 3: Biokorozisko razjedena povrina krapelj. Knez 2004) these are relatively few, and b) indirectly transformed by precipitation, the surface was overgrown and c) nely shaped by bio-corrosive factors. e surface was mostly forested. Such karren existed on the surface of the cone in the dale at the beginning of the motorway section. Especially in the area of the Strmec and Dobrava hills we observed well-expressed bio-corrosive activities on numerous karren outcrops of carbonate rock (Fig. 3). e rock was more diluted by bio-corrosion on the shadier sides. Moss mostly grows there while lichen can also be found on areas exposed to the sun. Bio-corrosive processes do not take place equally on the entire surface of the rock, but selectively. Most probably lithologically slightly dierent clasts in crushed and then cemented rock are diluted to various depths or else there are dif ferent organisms in the various neighbouring clasts. e contact areas between the various clasts are especially corroded, in some spots up to several mm deep. e major part of the forest-covered surface was dissected mainly by individual rocks of various sizes with partially similar traces of formation to the karren described above. ey are frequently dened by fun nel-shaped mouths of larger subsoil channels. e rocks reach up to one to two metres in height, with a narrow ing on top and with large areas of soil between them. e earthwork uncovered them as the tips of the larger areas of stone forests. SUBSOIL STONE FORESTS Relatively large areas of subsoil stone forests illustrate the manner and long-lasting subsoil formation of this part of the karst surface, covered by ne-grained sediment and soil. e stone pillars are completely covered by the sedi ment and soil, or their tips protruding on the surface. e conguration of the surface includes smaller or larger dolinas (Fig. 4). e largest have a diameter of several tens of metres. Some are lled with grey clay, the origins of which we are still investigating. Both are dis sected by subsoil stone forests. e subsoil stone forests are composed of a dense network of more or less thickset and pointed pillars, which reach up to 8, sometimes even 10 metres, although most are lower. e narrower pillars with a diameter of one to two metres have sharp or rounded spire (Fig. 5), while the thickest ones reaching up to ten metres (Fig. 6) F ig. 4: F illing of dolina with gravel. Sl. 4: Zapolnjevanje vrtae z gruem. F ig. 5: Pointed tops of narrower pillars. Sl. 5: Kniasti vrhovi ojih stebrov. M ARTIN KNEZ & T ADEJ SLABE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 107 in width have one or more spires or their tops are com posed of more or less curved crests. Among them in most parts are funnel mouths of the perpendicular subsoil channels or horizontal subsoil channels. Subsoil rock features predominate in the rock re lief of the pillars (Slabe 1999; Slabe & Knez 2004), which indicates gravitational ow of water from the surface. ese are mainly subsoil channels. e most typical are the vertical ones (Fig. 7) with diameters that can reach up to one metre, the largest of which, as we shall ex plain below, can also be called subsoil shas, which at the top develop into funnel-shaped mouths. Surface wa ter that ows from the soil along the rocks collects in them. In cross-section the funnel-shaped mouths can take various shapes. ey can be open, semicircular or nearly round. eir shapes are oen the result of the permeability of the rock and the sediment contact along which the water ows downwards. Long, drawn-out formations of the mouth at less permeable connections causes the rock features to erode deeper into the rock. e water found its way through the rock less frequently and veritable funnels were shaped. Smaller and curv ing channels are formed at less permeable connections or when minor quantities of water collect on the sur face. is is characteristic for smaller pillars with tops that project out of the earth. Subsoil scallops are rare and generally indicate a well-permeable rock connec tion with the sediment that surrounds it, and moreover, we nd elongated notches on the pillar walls, which are traces of water accumulation at the less permeable part of the connection and accelerated corrosion of the rock next to it. Close below the surface where the rock is covered with soil the rock surface of the stone pillars is relatively smooth, while deeper, at the connection with the sedi ment that covers the surface, it is coarse and oen has a conguration of rounded pendants. e rock there is weathered. e thickness of the weathered layer mea sures up to 1 cm. It is so when moist, but as it dries out aer being exposed on the surface for a longer period and the water evaporates from it, it hardens. e state of weathering of the top layer of the rock is the result of the connection with the sediment, which is moist most of the time. e connection is relatively less permeable, and the water that does permeate it only slowly washes the solu tion. e connection with more permeable soil is corre spondingly also more permeable. F ig. 6: W ider stone pillars. Sl. 6: Obseneji podtalni stebri. F ig. 7: Subsoil channels. Sl. 7: Podtalni lebovi. KARST HOLLO W S Uncovered hollows are generally the result of vertical water percolation through the epi-karst and the vadose parts of the aquifer. e shas can be classied as hol low and those lled with sediment. e latter are termed subsoil due to the similarity of their features with subsoil rock, mainly with vertical subsoil channels. e een shas (Fig. 8), vertical and mostly sim ple with only one in level, the deepest measuring 24 m, three others deeper than 10 m, while the rest were less deep, with diameters reaching up to 5 metres, but in most cases less, indicate here and there, greater perme ability, allowing dense vertical water percolation due to DOLENJSKA SUBSOIL STONE FORESTS AND OTHER KARST PHENOMENA DISCOVERED DURING ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 108 F ig. 8: D iscovering of sha. Sl. 8: Odkrivanje brezna. their expressed vertical cracks and vertical rock strata (Figs. 9, 10). e shas occur among the subsoil karren and forests. ey do not reach the surface. eir walls are carved with larger or minor vertical channels and of ten covered with a thin layer of sediment, which causes their thiny dissection (Slabe & Knez 2004). e oors of F ig. 10: Sha on prole 208. Sl. 10: Brezno na prolu 208. F ig. 11: Subsoil sha along fault. Sl. 11: Podtalno brezno vzdol preloma. F ig. 9: Sha on prole 95. Sl. 9: Brezno na prole 95. the shas are oen covered by sediment or sediment lls their lower part. Subsoil shas are more or less vertical hollows, sim ilar to ordinary shas, through which water also perco lates from the karst surface, but they are almost entirely lled with sediment, with only individual vertical sections M ARTIN KNEZ & T ADEJ SLABE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 109 hollow. e water that ows through them deposits the sediment that covers the surface. eir cross-sections are more or less round or extended at the cracks and bedding planes. eir diameters reach two metres. Sediment ll ing facilitates the shaping of their periphery, and notches appear at less permeable connections. Subsoil shas are formed at local dense ow of larger quantities of water. ey can develop from subsoil channels. eir walls are carved with along-sediment rock features, which are the traces of formation at the connection with ne-grained sediment. W ith greater permeability in the karst interior, the subsoil shas can be emptied. Above-sediment channels oen occur on horizontal bedding planes and in cracks, or networks of anastomo ses, the traces of paragenetic stratication. us, tempo rarily ooded areas occur locally and the water, which carries ne-grained sediment and deposits, cuts its way upwards. CONCLUSION More and more, the unique natural heritage and devel opment of the Dolenjska karst reveal themselves. e importance of the participation of karst researchers in planning major activities in the environment and moni toring the work has been demonstrated once again. Co operation with the road constructors has set an excellent example for many years. is time we were given the opportunity to follow the water precipitating into the epi-karst and the upper part of the vadose zone, which were shaped under a rela tively thick cover of sediment and soil and where stone forests, shas and subsoil shas have been formed over large areas. e scarcity of stone forests and special geomorpho logical karst features characteristic of this part of the karst (Knez et al ., 2003) demand that we prepare guidelines for further planning of activities in the karst landscape. ACKNO W LEDGEMENT W e would like to thank Mitja Prelovek to draw gures 9 and 10. DOLENJSKA SUBSOIL STONE FORESTS AND OTHER KARST PHENOMENA DISCOVERED DURING ... REFERENCES Knez, M., Slabe, T. & ebela, S. 2004: Karst uncovered during the Bi-Korenitka motorway construction (Dolenjska, Slovenia).Acta carsologica 33/2, 7589, Ljubljana. Knez, M., Otoniar, B. & Slabe, T. 2003: Subcutaneous stone forest (Trebnje, Central Slovenia).Acta car sologica 32/1, 29-38, Ljubljana. Gams, I. 2004: Kras v Sloveniji v prostoru in asu.Zaloba ZRC, 515 p., Ljubljana. Pleniar, M., Premru, U. & Herak, M. 1976: Osnovna geoloka karta SFRJ 1:100000, list Novo mesto. Zvezni geoloki zavod, Beograd. Pleniar, M. & Premru, U. 1977: Tolma za list Novo mesto.61, Zvezni geoloki zavod, Beograd. Slabe, T., 1999: Subcutaneous rock forms.Acta carso logica 28/2, 255-269, Ljubljana. Slabe, T. & Knez, M. 2004: Krake podtalne skalne ob like.Annales 14/2, 259-266, Koper.



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E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS D OLO ANJE STAROSTI V KRASU S POMO JO ELEKTRONSKE SPINSKE RESONANCE ESR Bonnie A. B. B LACK W ELL 1 1 Department of Chemistry, W illiams College, W illiamstown, MA, 01267, USA e-mail: bonnie.a.b.blackwell@williams.edu Prejeto / Received: 29.03.2005 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 123, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 543.4:551.44, 902.035:551.44 Bonnie A. B. Blackwell: Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Dat ing in Karst Environments Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating has been developed for many materials, including hydroxyapatite in enamel, bone, and some sh scales, aragonite and calcite in travertine, molluscs, and calcrete, and quartz from ash, which have many potential applications in karst settings. Although the complexity of the signals in some materials has hampered routine application, research is solving these problems to make the method even more widely applicable. W hen tested against other dating tech niques, age agreement has usually been excellent. Generally, the most reliable applications seem to be tooth enamel, some mol lusc species, calcite deposits, and quartz minerals. ESR dating uses signals resulting from trapped charges created by radia tion in crystalline solids. Ages are calculated by comparing the accumulated dose in the dating sample with the internal and external radiation dose rates produced by natural radiation in and around the sample. For fossils and authigenic minerals, no zeroing is necessary to obtain accurate ages. In sediment which contains reworked mineral clasts, ESR can be used to date the age of the mineral grain itself if it was not zeroed during ero sion. For dating the sedimentation age, however, ESR signals must have been zeroed in order to give the correct age. High pressure, heating, and in some minerals, light exposure and grinding can zero an ESR signal, but some like hydroxyapatite have very high stability at surface temperatures. For materi als that absorb uranium (U) during their burial history, such as teeth, bones, or mollusc shells, the age calculation considers their U uptake by cross calibrating with U series or U/Pb dat ing or by assuming dierent uptake models. Some diculties in calculating the external dose rate can be overcome by ap plying the ESR isochron method, in which the sample acts as its own dosimeter. In open-air karst environments, changes in Izvleek UDK 543.4:551.44, 902.035:551.44 Bonnie A. B. Blackwell: Doloanje starosti v krasu s pomojo elektronske spinske resonance (ESR) Metoda ugotavljanja starosti s pomojo elektronske spinske reso nance (ESR), je bila razvita za najrazlineje gradivo in snovi, vkljuno hidroksiapatit, emajl, kost, ribjo lusko, aragonit in kalcit v lehnjaku, koljnih lupinah in kalcitnih skorjah, kremen v pepelu, kar vse nudi iroke monosti za uporabo v krakem okolju. eprav pestrost signalov v nekaterem gradivu ovira vsestransko uporab nost, raziskave reujejo te teavein tako je ta metoda e bolj vse stransko uporabna. Ob primerjanju z drugimi tehnikami datacije, je ujemanje v starosti obiajno odlino. Na splono je ta metoda najbolj zanesljiva, e se uporablja za zobno sklenino, nekatere vrste koljk, odkladnine kalcita in minerale kremena. ESR meto da izkoria za datiranje signale, ki so posledica napetosti, ki jih ustvarja sevanje v kristalih. Starost se prerauna s pomojo prim erjave ohranjene koliine sevanja v vzorcu za datiranje z deleem notranje in zunanje koliine naravnega sevanja v vzorcu in okoli njega. Za fosile in avtigeno snov nienje signalov za ugotavljanje prave starosti ni potrebno. Za sedimente, ki vsebujejo ponovno odloene mineralne skupke, se ESR lahko uporablja za doloanje starosti samih mineralnih zrn, e tekom erozije niso bili signali nieni. Za datiranje starosti sedimentacije pa morajo biti ESR signali nieni, da dobimo pravilno starost. Visok pritisk, segre vanje in, v primeru nekaterih mineralov, izpostavljenost svetlobi ter drobljenje lahko niijo signal ESR, medtem ko so nekateri drugi, npr. hidroksiapatit, pri povrinski temperaturi zelo stabilni. Pri gradivu, ki v asu, ko je pokopano v sedimentih, absorbira uran (U), kot so zobje, kosti, koljne lupine, je treba pri ugotavljanju starosti upotevati koliino prejetega U s pomojo krinega umer janja U vrste ali datiranja s pomojo U/Pb oziroma upotevati us trezne modele. Teave pri raunanju prejetega zunanjega sevanja je mogoe premostiti s pomojo ESR izohrone metode, kjer je vzorec tudi svoj lastni dozimeter. V primeru povrinskega krakega okolja

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 124 I NTRODUCTION Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating can provide chron ometric (absolute) dates over a substantial time range, from as young as 0.5 ka to about 5-10 Ma, currently with 2-10% precision. ESR, like its sister methods, thermo(TL), optically stimulated (OSL), and radiolumines cence (RL), relies on detecting trapped charges induced by radiation in crystals. ESR can be used to date many materials that are commonly encountered at karst sites, as well as samples curated in museums, and new appli cations are constantly being added. ESRs importance in dating Q uaternary and Pliocene sites has now been well demonstrated in archaeological contexts where it has dramatically changed our understanding of human origins and cultures (e.g., references in Blackwell, 2001). Many of these applications were in caves or abris, but could equally well be applied to open-air sites where the research questions are similar. In karst settings, ESR provides several advantages over rival methods. For example, it can date fossils much older than the 14 C dating limit (~40-50 ka). ESR does not require a handy volcano to produce datable rocks like 39 Ar/ 40 Ar does, because ESR can also date fossils and sediment directly. Unlike the uranium (U) series meth ods, ESR can date most mollusc species accurately, as well as authigenic cements, some clays, and aeolian sedi ment. Unlike TL, OSL, and RL, ESR does not require that signals be completely zeroed for most applications and signals do not suer anomalous fading. ESRs potential to date a wide variety of sample types will undoubtedly the external dose rate due to altered sediment cover, and hence, changing cosmic dose rates, need to be modelled. For all karst environments, sedimentary water concentration and mineral ogical variations with time also need to be considered. Many ESR applications are currently used in karst settings, but several more are also possible. K ey words: ESR (electron spin resonance) dating; ESR micros copy; cave geochronology; spring geochronology; teeth; mol lusc shells; ratite eggshells; travertine; authigenic carbonates; authigenic salts; heated int. je potrebno modleirati spremembe v koliini sprejetega zunanjega sevanja zaradi sprememb v sedimentnem pokrovu, torej zaradi sprememb delea kozminega sevanja. V vseh krakih okoljih pa je treba upotevati koliino vode v sedimentu ter sasoma nastale mineraloke spremembe. Danes je ESR metoda uporabljana v tevilnih primerih na krasu, a so monosti njene uporabe e veje. K ljune besede: ESR (elektronska spinska resonanca) datiranje, ESR mikroskopija, geokronologija jame, geokronologija izvira, zobje, koljne lupine, lehnjak, avtigeni karbonati, avtigene soli, segrevan kremen. continue to make it an important research tool in late Ce nozoic karst settings. B RIEF H ISTORY OF ESR D ATING In 1936, Gorter and colleagues delineated the basic prin ciples of ESR spectroscopy. Early attempts to date many dierent materials were unsuccessful, despite ESR having been considered analogous to TL in its application. Fi nally, in 1975, Ikeya successfully dated a stalagmite from Akiyoshi Cave, Japan. A urry of research quickly followed in which geo chronologists tried to date everything from fossils to dried blood, and quartz to engine oil, much of it led by Ikeya and other Japanese scientists. Important early ap plications included attempts to date fault gouge, burnt int, teeth, and bones. Unfortunately, some early inac curate applications to controversial archaeological sites, such as Caune de lArago, hampered its early acceptance by scientists. Currently, some 60 laboratories worldwide, 25 in Japan alone, research ESR dating and dosimetry, but only about 10 routinely perform dating. Its most common and reliable applications today include tooth enamel, molluscs, corals, and quartz from fault gouge, but research for food irradiation and retrospective do simetry is producing numerous basic studies that may lead to new geological and paleontological uses. Devel opments in ESR imaging and microscopy promise many new mineralogical and paleontological applications. P RINCIPLES OF ESR A NALYSIS W hen minerals experience natural radiation, they gradu ally accumulate trapped unpaired electrons and positively charged holes (Figure 1a), which each produce charac teristic ESR signals detectable with an ESR spectrometer. Several such signals result from defects in the crystalline structure associated with trace contaminants. If the ESR signal height (intensity) for a radiation-sensitive signal can be converted into an accumulated dose (Figure 1b) B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 125 F ig. 1: ESR signal production. W ith increased irradiation, the ESR signals intensity grows, eventually reaching saturation: a. Aer absorbing energy from incident radiation, excited electrons move through the conduction band. Although most return to the ground state, a few become trapped in charge site defect (traps, oen at trace elements substituents in the crystal lattice) that each have specic energies above the ground state. ESR signals result from the magnetic elds generated by such unpaired electrons and the empty holes they have le behind. W ith irradiation, such trapped electrons and charged holes, which each produce characteristic signals, gradually accumulate in the materials. b. W ith natural irradiation, the signal saturates at its maximum (saturated) accumulated dose, A sat or at a lesser dose, a steady state accumulated dose, A ss where signal fading loss equals signal production. c. F or any sample, many possible radiation sources may exist to produce the ESR signal. I n addition to the U in the enamel itself, the dentine and other tissues in the tooth are emitting radiation, as are all the components in the sediment within 30 cm of the tooth. d. I n most fresh teeth, the hydroxyapatite signal has zero intensity. e exceptions are teeth that have experienced a nuclear accident. I f a fresh tooth experiences irradiation, a measureable signal will appear aer ~ 0.01 Grays exposure, making it a useful signal for monitoring dose exposure during nuclear accidents. I n a fossil tooth, a measureable signal is present aer ~ 1-20 ka, depending on the total dose rate that the tooth is experiencing. W hen any tooth experiences articial irradiation, the signal will grow larger. E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 126 and the radiation dose rate experienced by the sample during its deposition is known or can be modelled (Fig ure 1c), a date can be calculated. ESR dates can be ob tained using any material, which has a radiation-sensitive ESR signal (e.g., Figure 1d), provided it satises the fol lowing criteria, 1. At the time of interest, the minerals ESR signal was initially, or was reset to, 0.0. 2. e signal lifetime, b, exceeds the site age by at least two orders of magnitude. 3. e accumulated dose, A is less than the satura tion level in the material. In karst contexts, tooth enamel, clean carbonates (speleothem, travertine, mollusc shells, calcareous ce ments, calcrete), and heated or bleached siliceous rock (int or quartz) have several applications. Many salts may eventually produce valid dates, but the techniques have not been perfected yet. Sediment dates have been attempted, but problems related to incomplete zeroing must still be resolved. is discussion will focus on karst applications, illustrated where possible by karst examples. It omits other applications, although other recent reviews (e.g., Black well, 2001; Falgures, 2003) do discuss other applications. A few technical terms become essential here. An ESR spectrometer uses a microwave signal to create resonance between the unpaired electrons in minerals and an externally applied strong magnetic eld. Landes factor, called the g value, is a dimensionless number that uniquely describes the ESR characteristics for any peak. Pulsed X-, K-, or Q-band ESR may ultimately improve our ability to separate interference signals (e.g., Grn et al ., 1997; Kinoshita et al ., 2004). Although other bands, such as Qor L-band, are occasionally used to examine signals in more detail, for most ESR dating, spectra are analyzed in the X-band at 1-10 mW power using micro wave frequencies near 8-10 GHz under a 100 kHz eld modulation. Under these conditions, most geologically or archaeologically interesting ESR signals fall within 3 > g > 1.9 (Blackwell, 1995, Table 2). Zeroing reduces an ESR signals intensity to a level indistinguishable from background levels. Most newly formed minerals have no measurable ESR signals. In a mineral with an accumulated dose (i.e., a measurable sig nal; A > 0), several physical processes can also zero a sig nal. Strong heating to temperatures above 250-500C, de pending on the mineral, will also zero most ESR signals (Figure 2b). For some signals in a few minerals, exposure to intense sunlight can zero (bleach) the signal (Figure 2a). Luckily, for the radiation-sensitive signals in most minerals, sunlight causes little or no signal loss. High F ig. 2: Zeroing in quartz and chert. I n quartz, several signals can be zeroed using dierent techniques: a. Exposure to intense UV radiation and sunlight can completely bleach the Ge (germanium) signal and partially bleach the Al (aluminium), T i (titanium), and O H C (oxygen hole) signals. b. H eating archaeological chert to high temperature can zero the E' signal, reducing its accumulated dose, A to 0. Aer zeroing, the signals can regrow if given more irradiation. (adapted from Blackwell, 2001). B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 127 pressure or strain that builds up in faults can partially or fully reset some signals, as can the strain developed during comminution during an earthquake or grinding for sample preparation (Figure 3). Remineralization and diagenesis add new minerals whose radiation-sensitive signals will be zero at formation. erefore, if the original and new minerals have signals with similar g values, the resultant complex signal may be impossible to resolve, adding inaccuracies to the age determination. If, howev er, the new signals do not interfere with the original sig nals, as is true for tooth enamel, only the dating signals intensity is reduced, thereby reducing the discriminatory range and dating limits for the technique (Skinner et al ., 2000). e methods reliability depends on the signals ther mal stability. Signals which zero easily at typical Earth surface temperatures have little value for dating, but may provide other information. e mean signal lifetime, b, F ig. 3: Eects from shear strain on ESR signals in quartz. Shear strain will reset most ESR signals: a. As strain increases, the dierences in ESR intensity between dierent grain size fractions decreases. b. At a normal stress of 10 MPa, the measured accumulated (equivalent) dose, A ', decreases with decreasing grain size for both the E' and Al signals, until at a small grain size the two signals give equal A determinations. c. W hile the E' signal is the most easily reset, strain also aects the Al signal. e T i signal appears unaected. d. D uring articial irradiation for producing a growth curve, the smaller grain sizes show the greatest sensitivity and the most well behaved growth curves. (modied from L ee & Schwarcz, 1993). E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 128 must exceed the desired dating range by at least 2-3 orders of magnitude to ensure reliable ages. In tooth enamel, for example, b 10 19 y (Skinner et al ., 2000), suciently long, in theory at least, to date anything within the history of the universe. Unlike TL, no datable ESR signal appears to suer anomalous fading. In practice, however, most sig nals have a nite saturation limit, beyond which no new trapped electrons are formed. Many minerals also have a steady state level, somewhat lower than their saturation level, caused by electron loss and retrapping (Figure 1b). e mean signal lifetime and the steady state limit or satu ration limit dene the maximum datable age, while the ESR spectrometers ability to discriminate between the dating signal and its surrounding background determines the minimum dating limit. Both limits dier depending on the mineral and its habit in the material to be dated. e radiation dose rates experienced by the sample determine how those limits are translated into an actual age. If sam ples experience high radiation dose rates, the minimum datable age will be relative low, but so will its maximum datable age, and conversely, low radiation dose rates mean higher minimum and maximum limits. e ESR signal height (Figure 1d) is proportional to the number of trapped charges at that lattice site, and, therefore, to the total radiation dose, A that the mate rial has experienced. e ESR age, t1, the time that has elapsed since the mineral formed and began to accumu late charges then is calculated from Equation 1, A =A int +A ext = to t1 D (t)dt = to t1 (D int (t)+D ext (t))dt (1) where A = the total accumulated dose in the sample, A int = the internally derived accumulated dose compo nent, A ext = the externally derived accumulated dose compo nent, D (t) = the total dose rate, D int (t) = the total dose rate from internal sources: U, its daughters, and any other radioisotopes, D ext (t) = the total dose rate from the external environ ment: sedimentary U, and K, and cosmic dose, t 1 = the samples age, t 0 = today. For samples in which the total dose rate, D (t), is con stant, this reduces to t Dt 1 A () (2) S AMPLE C OLLECTION An ideal ESR sample should be as pristine as possible. To improve precision and accuracy, both the dating sample and any associated sediment samples should not experi ence the following treatments during or aer excavation: 1. Glues, shellacs, and other preservatives can add contaminant U to the sample that reduces the accuracy of internal dose rate measurements, as well as organic com pounds that might cause ESR signal interference. 2. W ashing may remove U, datable mineral, and sediment. Sediment attached to the sample may oer the only chance to measure the external dose rates. 3. If used to remove samples from cemented sediment, acid dissolution can dissolve the sample and leach its U. 4. Removing attached bone from teeth reduces the accuracy of the external dose rate measurements. 5. Removing attached sediment from any sample reduces the accuracy of the external dose rate measure ments. 6. Sample numbering uses inks and paints that can add contaminant organic compounds if applied to the sample. 7. Allowing clay samples to dry necessitates ex tensive grinding during preparation which can partially bleach some ESR signals. 8. Packing samples for transport with materials, such as old newspapers, dyed paper, etc., can cause trace elements or organic contamination if they contact the sample. e best packing is cheap unbleached, unper fumed toilet paper. Although preservatives, if available, can be analyzed to correct for contamination eects, any resulting age will still have reduced precision. Fossils can be cast, providing that the casting resin and powder have been tested for contamination potential rst. For all dating samples except teeth, diagenesis or signal interference may cause some samples to be unsuit able (Table 1). Since fossils can be easily reworked into younger depositional units, any sampling program should collect at least 8-10 samples from each stratigraphic unit to increase the chance that the samples analyzed provide dates related to the event of interest. Although the re quired sample weight varies depending on the auxiliary analyses necessary (Table 1), the ESR analysis itself, and the associated NAA or geochemical analyses to measure the internal dose rate, require 1-2 g of pristine datable mineral per standard ESR subsample. For some materi als, especially those prone to diagenesis, it is necessary to check for secondary mineralization and remineraliza B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 129 S EDIMENT D OSIMETRY AND A SSOCIATED S EDIMENT S AMPLES Many karst sites have sediment which is inhomogeneous (i.e., lumpy; Figure 1d, 4d) for radioactive dose genera tion. is is particularly true in caves where sedimenta ry inhomogeneity is the rule, rather than the exception. W henever possible, the external dose rates should be as sessed using at least two procedures from among isochron analysis, sediment geochemistry, i n situ or TL dosimetry. For TL or dosimetry, if dosimetry cannot be completed before collection, sampling locations need to be marked and preserved to permit future dosimetry. Eective TL dosimetry requires that the area within 3 m of the dosim eter insertion site be unaected by further excavation or erosion for 6-12 months. In open-air sites, however, either dosimetry or sedimentary analysis is preferred over TL dosimetry, because TL dosimeters rarely survive undis turbed for the needed time. Isochron analysis is still ex perimental for many materials. W ith sedimentary geochemistry, the external dose eld can be mathematically modelled reasonably accu rately. In sediment, particles can penetrate about 2-3 mm, and radiation ~ 30 cm (Figure 4). e sediment immediately attached to, or surrounding, the dating sample usually provides the only direct measurement for calculating the radiation dose rate. W hen using or TL dosimetry, this sediment must still be analyzed geo chemically to provide the external dose rate. Several sediment samples may be needed to represent the sphere inuenced by radiation 30 cm in radius around the dat ing sample. Sediment sampling protocols vary with the bed or unit thickness, its mineralogy, and its grain size (see Table 2; Figure 5). In many sedimentary contexts, the radioactive element concentrations can vary dramati cally over short distances if the sediment contains large clasts of several dierent minerals (lumpy; Figure 4d). is requires collecting several samples from each unit or bed which might have contributed to the dating samples external dose rate. If the sediment contains a homogeneous grain mixture of ne to medium grained clasts, ~ 5-10 g are sucient for each associated sedi ment sample. For coarser sediment types, sediment sam ples should include representative portions of cobbles mixed with the matrix. Alternatively, separate matrix and cobble samples can be submitted, provided relative volume percentages of the various types are known. In units with fossils or artefacts, these must be considered as radioactive sources and analyzed also (Blackwell & Blickstein, 2000). Generally, the larger the grains, the larger the sediment mass that will be needed. In well ce mented sedimentary units (e.g., breccias, etc.), a block of sediment (20 cm on a side) showing all representative grains, matrix, and cements on the surfaces oen pro vides the best sample. If all the sediment samples preferred in the ideal cir cumstance are not available, sediment from the same or similar beds as close as possible to the dating sample can still be used to assess the radiation dose elds variability and estimate external dose rates. For museum samples, any samples from nearby outcrops may provide valu able clues. Accurately recording and photographing each sediment sample relative to the dating sample ensures accuracy in modelling the external dose eld. All in situ sediment samples should be placed in clean, sealed jars or doubly bagged in new zip-lock bags immediately aer collection to retain sediment moisture for water concen tration analysis. For sections that have been exposed for a long time, or archived sediment, sediment moisture con tent is not analyzed. tion, which aect ESR signal intensities (Table 1), thus requiring larger samples. For samples needing to be sepa rated into discrete mineral phases, such as authigenic ce ments, caliche, calcrete, and gypcrete, the pristine min eral must be separated from the adjacent sediment, oen necessitating much larger samples (usually, at least 15-20 g). For ESR dating sediment, pristine sample blocks of ~ 0.5 kg cut from thick or extensive units provide the best results, if available. For very small samples (100-200 mg), the ramping irradiation technique can be used in which several aliquots are reirradiated several times, but the special handling does lengthen the total analysis time signicantly. Most curated museum samples require isochron analysis (see below), because sediment has not usually been preserved. Salt samples need to be stabilized to pre vent remineralization or recrystallization during trans port, as can occur with some hydrated salts. For samples intended for isochron analysis, samples should be photo graphed before shipping to ensure that broken samples can be reconstructed to maximize the number of viable subsamples. Samples should be packed tightly with mini mal air to reduce sample breakage and bag destruction. E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 130 Sample type Minerals 1 Zeroing reqd? Isochrons possible? 1 Species eects? 1 Best type or species? Minimum sample for standard ESR 2,3 (g/subsample) Eects from diagenesis, secondary mineralization, or cementation Incomplete zeroing? Eects from grinding? Signal intensity Interference? Inaccurate ages? Enamel HAP no yes no large teeth; no milk teeth 3-4 decreased rarely no n/a possibly Dentine HAP no yes no no milk teeth 5-10 decreased rarely no n/a possibly Cementum HAP no no no no milk teeth 0.1 4 decreased rarely no n/a possibly Bone HAP no yes no cortical bone 10-20 decreased possibly possibly n/a possibly Tusk, antler HAP no yes no densest 10-20 decreased possibly possibly n/a possibly Gar sh scales HAP no no unkn only gar 2-5 4,5 decreased rarely no n/a possibly Molluscs cct, argt no unkn yes large valved 6 5-10 5 may increase likely possibly n/a interference Ratite egg shells cct no theor unkn unkn 5-10 5 may increase likely possibly n/a interference Coral, echinoderms argt no theor yes unkn 5-10 5 may increase likely possibly n/a interference Foraminifera, ostracodes cct, argt no unkn unkn unkn 10-20 5 may increase likely possibly n/a interference Travertine, speleothem cct, argt no yes n/a densest 50-100 7,8 may increase likely possibly n/a interference Calcrete, caliche, stromatolites cct no unkn n/a densest 50-100 7,8 may increase likely possibly yes, if clasts CO 3 also interference Authigenic cement cct, argt no unkn n/a densest 100 mg 4 may increase likely possibly n/a interference Phytoliths, diatoms, radiolarians qtz no unkn unkn unkn 5-10 5 or 0.1 4,5 may increase possibly possibly n/a reduced intens Fault gouge, mylonite qtz, fspar yes yes n/a qtz or fspar separates 50-100 7,8 may increase possibly possibly n/a reduced intens Ash/tus qtz yes theor n/a thickest units 50-100 7,8 may increase likely possibly yes reduced intens Flint/chert (burnt) qtz yes yes n/a avoid patina 5-10 8 may increase possibly possibly yes reduced intens B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL T able 1: ESR Sample T ypes

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 131 1 Abbreviations: 1 o = primary 2 o = secondary H AP = hydroxyapatite qtz = quartz cct = calcite argt = aragonite dmt = dolomite gyp = gypsum anhy = anhydrite hal = halite CO 3 = carbonate unkn = unknown intens = intensity theor = theoretically 2 Sizes assume little or no diagenesis is present. F or diagenetically altered samples, larger samples are needed. 3 F or isochron analysis, the sample size must be increased by a factor of 5-8. 4 is uses a special ramped irradiation technique involves reirradiating some aliquots, but takes up to 2 years to complete. 5 F or species that have not been tested for ESR applicability, another 100-200 g is necessary. 6 Smaller species may require special techniques or mixing multiple individuals into one subsample. 7 L arge sample sizes ensure surcient pristine mineral for analysis aer mineral separation and for XRD or petrographic analysis to check for recrystallization. 8 F or samples from new study sites or sample types not yet tested for ESR applicability, another 100-200 g may be necessary. Hearth sand qtz yes unkn n/a closest to hearth 50-100 7,8 may increase possibly possibly yes reduced intens Silicrete, laterite qtz yes unkn n/a qtz separates 50-100 7,8 may increase likely possibly yes, if clasts qtz also reduced intens Beach, uvial sediment, loess qtz, int, chert yes unkn n/a qtz separates 50-100 7,8 may increase possibly possibly yes reduced intens Authigenic cement qtz no unkn n/a densest 0.1 4 may increase likely possibly n/a reduced intens Dolomite (1 o ) dmt no unkn n/a densest 50-100 7,8 may increase likely possibly n/a unkn Dolomite (2 o ) dmt no unkn n/a dmt separates 0.1 4 may increase likely possibly n/a unkn Gypsum, gypcrete gyp no unkn n/a gyp separates 50-100 7,8 may increase likely possibly n/a unkn Anhydrite anhy no unkn n/a densest 50-100 7,8 may increase likely possibly n/a unkn Halite hal no unkn n/a densest 50-100 7,8 may increase likely possibly n/a unkn E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 132 T able 2. Sampling for Associated Sediment. 1 Sampling strategy and site character denition is governed by the most inhomogenous unit present. I f one lumpy 3 bed occurs within 35 cm of the sample, the whole sedimentary package is treated as a lumpy 3 site. 2 M ineral compositions in the units within 35 cm of the dating sample: H omogeneous = all a single mineral, e.g., all calcite or all quartz I nhomogenous = mixed sediment with several mineral or rock fragment types, e.g., mixed limestone and bone, till with quartz sand and gravel-sized granite clasts 3 Clast (grain) sizes in the units within 35 cm of the dating sample: Uniform = all one or two f size classes, e.g., all medium-coarse sand or all silt-ne sand Non-uniform = several or a range of f size classes, e.g., diamicton, breccia, most fossiliferous units, till 4 D osing units are sedimentary units within the 30 cm sphere of inuence (F igures 4, 5): 1o (primary) dosing unit(s) = the one or two unit(s) touching the dating sample that contribute both f and dose to the external dose rate aecting the sample. 2o (secondary) dosing units = all units 35 cm from the dating sample that contribute only dose to the external dose rate aecting the sample. 5 assuming that sediment matrix is sand-sized or smaller; larger matrix grain size requires larger sample mass. 6 assuming that the clasts are collected separately from the matrix. 7 assuming that grains of only one mineral constitute all the components in the sedimentary unit(s). 8 assuming that grains of several dierent minerals occur in the sedimentary unit(s) Sedimentary Unit or Site 1 Sediment Grains (Clasts) 1 o Dosing Unit(s) 4 Thickness (cm) Whole (Bulk) Sediment Samples Samples of Clasts > 0.5 cm in Diameter 6 Fig. Character 1 e.g. Fig. Type 1 Mineral Compositions 2 Grain Size Range 3 Mass 5 (g) from 1 o Dosing Unit(s) 4 from 2 o Dosing Units 4 Smooth, thickly bedded sites 4c 7 Thick smooth Homogeneous Uniform > 65 5-10 4-6 orthogonally oriented none 1-3 for gravelsized matrix only 5a 7 Smooth, thinly bedded sites 4b 7 Thin smooth Homogeneous Uniform < 65 5-10 4-6 orthogonally oriented 3-5 for each unit 30 cm from dating sample 1-3 for gravelsized matrix only 5b 7 Lumpy, thickly bedded sites 4d 7 Thick lumpy 1 Homogeneous Non-uniform > 65 100-1000 4-6 orthogonally oriented none 1-3 per unit 5a 7 Lumpy, thinly bedded sites 4d 7 Thin lumpy 1 Homogeneous Non-uniform < 65 100-1000 4-6 orthogonally oriented 3-5 for each unit 30 cm from dating sample 1-3 per unit 5b 7 Lumpy, thickly bedded sites 4c 8 Thick lumpy 2 Inhomogeneous Uniform > 65 50-100 4-6 orthogonally oriented none 1-3 for gravelsized matrix only 5a 8 Lumpy, thinly bedded sites 4b 8 Thin lumpy 2 Inhomogeneous Uniform < 65 50-100 4-6 orthogonally oriented 3-5 for each unit 30 cm from dating sample 1-3 for gravelsized matrix only 5b 8 Lumpy, thickly bedded sites 4d 8 Thick lumpy 3 Inhomogeneous Non-uniform > 65 500-1000 4-6 orthogonally oriented none 1-3 for each lump mineralogy per unit 5a 8 Lumpy, thinly bedded sites 4d 8 Thin lumpy 3 Inhomogeneous Non-uniform < 65 500-1000 4-6 orthogonally oriented 3-5 for each unit 30 cm from dating sample 1-3 for each lump mineralogy per unit 5b 8 B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 133 F ig. 4: F actors aecting the eective radiation dose eld around dating samples. Radiation can reach the dating sample from radioactive decay occurring within the sphere of inuence for the particular radiation type: a. f particles deliver to a sample a signicant, but variable, component in the total radiation dose, both externally and internally. Since the penetration range for a f particle averages 1-2 mm, comparable to the sample thicknesses, dose calculations must consider f attenuation within the sample. e sphere of inuence for the contributions from f radiation will usually not include more than two or three sedimentary units. b. Since irradiation can penetrate ~ 30 cm, the sphere of inuence for the contributions from radiation can include several sedimentary units, which may produce very dierent dose rates. c. I n smooth sites with homogeneous sediment, the dose rate calculation is trivial. d. I n lumpy sites, dierent minerals or clasts within the sediment, which may contain dierent concentrations of radioactive elements, can contribute dose at very dierent rates. I n all situations, the D ext (t) calculation must volumetrically average the dose rate from each source relative to its importance and location within the sphere of inuence each stratigraphic unit or sediment type. E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 134 F ig. 5 : Collecting protocols for associated sediment samples for ESR dating. a. ickly bedded homogeneous units (ick smooth units, T able 2): Assuming that the dating sample lies at least 35 cm from the nearest sedimentary unit boundary, sediment should be collected from four to six of the six orthogonal positions. I n pictured example, the associated sediments were collected from the six orthogonal positions that coincide with the site grid plan. b. inly bedded or inhomogeneous units (in smooth units, T able 2): e sample for dating (1) sits within Units 4 and 5 (2, 3). I n this circumstance, separate samples need to be collected from the two surrounding units. W hen sampling the surrounding sedimentary units, three to ve sediment samples should be collected from each unit, distributing the samples throughout the unit as it falls within the sphere of inuence. I deally for each unit, a few should come from along the cut face, one from behind, and one from in front of the cut face in order to sample a somewhat even distribution for each bed. ESR A NALYSIS Calculating an ESR age requires considering some 30 dierent parameters, which aect the accumulated dose, the internal and external dose rates. Although improved spectrometers and ancillary equipment have sped the process and improved precision somewhat, the basic ESR dating protocols were established in the 1980s. Standard analytical protocols for all mineralogies require pow dered samples. Although some ESR labs have developed nondestructive analyses for tooth enamel (e.g., Robert son & Grn, 2000; Miyake et al ., 2000), even these cause some sample degradation. D ETERMINING THE A CCUMULATED D OSE A For each sample, the accumulated dose, A is determined using the additive dose method (Figure 6a). is requires about 0.2-0.5 g of pristine prepared mineral sample (Ta ble 1) in order to provide 10-15 aliquots of powdered, ho mogenized sample. Using fewer than 10 measurements causes signicantly lower precision. Except for one, each aliquot is irradiated to a dierent precisely known arti cial radiation dose, usually from a 60 Co source. e added doses used usually range from 0.1-10 Grays for the lowest added dose to 1-40 kGy for highest, depend ing on the samples A Older samples, those with higher A s, generally get higher doses. e selection of added doses does aect the curve tting statistics, and hence, the precision for A for enamel (e.g., Lee et al ., 1997), and presumably for other materials as well. In the ramping technique, only 3-4 aliquots are used, but one or two are used to calibrate the spectrometer with each set of meas urements, and two or three are successively irradiated to ever higher added doses (Blackwell, 2001). Aer measuring the ESR signal heights for both the natural and irradiated aliquots, the added dose is plot ted versus the signal intensity to produce a growth curve (Figure 6a). Usually, the points are weighted inversely with intensity (peak height). In some materials, however, signal subtraction is necessary to isolate the dating sig nal from the interference to measure an accurate peak B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 135 F ig. 6. D etermining the accumulated dose, A e additive dose method is used to calculate the accumulated (or -equivalent) dose, A : a. Under articial irradiation during analysis, the H AP signal saturates at its maximum intensity, I max Plotting the signal intensity versus the added radiation dose produces a growth curve. e x-intercept for this curve gives A is bovid tooth from T reugolnaya Cave, Russia, has a substantial accumulated dose, as expected for a M iddle Pleistocene site dating to O IS 11 (Blackwell et al., 2005a). b. F or signals suering interference, signal subtraction is used to remove the interference: Curve 1. A pure Al signal is unaected by interference signals. Curve 2. An organic radical signal, n, interferes with the Al signal. Curve 3. Unidentied interference signals aect the Al signal. Curve 4. e Al and n signal in a natural archaeological sample. Curve 5. e same sample as Curve 4 heated for 10 minutes at 320 o C to zero the Al signal. Curve 6. W hen Curve 5 is subtracted from Curve 4, the resulting signal shows the hyperne splitting typical for the Al signal (see inset; modied from Blackwell, 2001). E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS height (Figure 6b). Despite controversies over measure ment protocols, derivative spectra actually provide better resolution (Lyons & Tan, 2000). Most evidence also sug gests that deconvolution is not necessary for many dating peaks (e.g., Skinner et al. 2001a). e accumulated dose, A required to produce the observed natural ESR signal intensity equals the x-intercept for the growth curve. W ithin some materials, such as travertine, calcrete, and caliche, crystals may vary greatly in their A If some re gions are at or near saturation, while others are younger,

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 136 two dierent phases absorb U at dierent rates. In teeth, LU or CU ages oen agree most closely with ages deter mined by other means for samples between than 80 ka and 500 ka, but, within a site, the uptake model can vary, since it depends strongly on microenvironmental condi tions (e.g., Blackwell et al., 2001b). For fossils and other materials that uptake U aer deposition, TIMS or laserablation 230 / 234 U analyses give coupled ESR230 / 234 U calculations, which can constrain the U uptake history, as neither method can do independently (e.g., Eggins et al., 2003) For some older samples, it is still possible to use 230 / 234 U, providing the uptake has occured recently enough that the 230 / 234 U ratios are not indistinguish able from secular equilibrium values. U/Pb can date some uraniferous samples older than 1-2 Ma, but it has not yet been applied to delineate an ESR uptake model. U leach ing or secondary U uptake may also present problems for some samples, and hence, requiring complex models (Figure 7c; Blackwell et al. 2005b; Homan & Mangini, 2003). Precisions for D int (t) depend strongly on the pre cision for U concentration measurement. Delayed neu tron counting (DNC) neutron activation analysis (NAA) can routinely provide precisions and detection limits as low as 0.02 ppm, whereas instrumental NAA averages 0.2 ppm for precision and 1 ppm for detection lim its, which makes dating young samples impossible. Any other technique able to measure the U at or below the ppb concentration level with better than 0.02 ppm pre cision provides sucient discrimination to yield reliable ESR ages. D ETERMINING THE E XTERNAL D OSE R ATE D EXT T e external dose rate, D ext (t), strongly aects the calcu lated ESR ages (Figure 8a), especially for samples with low internal dose rates, D int (t), as is common for teeth from caves. Teeth from open-air sites tend to have larger internal dose rates, but the external dose rates, also can be more variable over the long term. Both types of sites need to be examined carefully to understand all the dy namic processes that aect the external dose rates. To derive the total external dose rate, D ext, (t), four methods can be used: 1. TL dosimeters placed in the site to measure the current external dose rate, D ext, (t 0 ) from sedimentary and cosmic sources over 0.5-2.0 years. 2. spectrometers measure the current dose rate, Dext, (t 0 ) from sedimentary and cosmic sources over 0.5-2 hours. 3. Bulk geochemical analysis, oen by NAA, using powdered sediment collected in conjunction with the sample measures the U, K, and other signicant ra dioisotope concentrations in any layers which may have B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL and hence not saturated, age underestimation may also occur, because the dose response is nonlinear near satu ration (Figure 1b). is is not a problem for tooth enamel where linear behaviour persists to large doses (Brennan, 2000). Generally, A can be measured with 0.8 to 5% precision depending on the spectrometers calibration (Nagy, 2000), the radiation source calibration (W ieser et al. 2005), the samples age and diagenetic state (e.g., Blackwell et al. 2005a). D ETERMINING THE I NTERNAL D OSE R ATE D int T To calculate the internal dose rate, D int (t), the radiation sources (all U, K, etc.) within the sample are meas ured (Figure 1d), usually using neutron activation analy sis (NAA) or any geochemical technique able to measure elemental concentrations at the ppm-ppb range. en, D int (t) is derived from theoretical calculations. For sam ples containing U or those calculations must also consider the increased radioactivity due to ingrowth of the U or daughter isotopes (Figure 7a) over time using an iterative procedure. Dint(t) calculations also consider radiation attenuation by water within the sample, and dose attenuation due to mineral density, and radon (Rn) loss for Uor -rich samples (Figure 7b; e.g., Brennan et al. 2000). In samples, such as tooth enamel, bone, and sh scales, where the internal dose rate derives solely from U absorbed during its burial history, the calculated ESR age must account for U uptake: Either the sample must be dated by U-series or U/Pb analysis, which allows a unique uptake model to be selected, or a U uptake model must be assumed. W ithout calibrating dates, four models are commonly used (Figures 7c, 7d): E arly uptake (EU) assumes that the sample absorbed all its U soon aer burial, providing the youngest age given the accumulated dose, A and external dose rate, D ext (t). Linear uptake (L U) assumes that the sample absorbs U at a constant rate throughout its burial history, giving a median age. Recent uptake (R U) assumes U uptake very late in the samples burial history, which reduces its internally generated dose, A int, to a minor contribution compared to A is gives the maximum possible age. Coupled uptake (CU) assumes that the enamel, dentine, cementum, and any attached bone in teeth absorb U by dierent models. Oen, it assumes LU for the enamel and EU for the dentine, cementum, and any attached bone, yielding ages somewhat younger than strict LU, but older than strict EU, models. Other models have also been suggested (e.g., Ikeya et al., 1997). CU only applies to materials like teeth where

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 137 E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS contributed to the samples D ext, (t) (Figures 4, 5). e radioisotopic concentrations are used to mathematical ly calculate the current dose rates, D ext, (t 0 ) and D ext, (t 0 ) which include corrections for and dose attenuation due to mineral density, and backscattering. Such D ext, (t) calculations also require a measurement for, or as sumptions about, D cos (t), the cosmic dose rate (Figures 8b, 8c) for samples buried less than 10 m and also the average sedimentary water concentration to correct for radiation attenuation by sedimentary water (Figure 8d). In sites with thinly layered deposits or inhomogeneous sediment, D ext, (t) calculations ideally should consider each unit or sediment component individually by de termining volumetrically averaged dose contributions (Figure 4b). 4. An isochron age for a large sample may obviate the need for a D ext, (t) calculation, because it gives both the sample age, t1, and D ext, (t) the time-averaged exter nal dose rate, simultaneously (Figure 9). For adjacent U-rich or -rich layers or sediment components, the measurement or calculation is correct ed for possible U uptake, U daughter isotope ingrowth, and potential Rn loss (e.g. Figure 7; Blackwell & Blick stein, 2000). Assuming that D ext (t) has remained constant throughout the burial history, as many early studies did, can be nave. Changing water or radioactive element concentrations in the sediment (Figure 8d; e.g., Olley et al. 1997), increasing burial depth (Figure 8b), or vari able D cos (t), among others, can all aect the D ext, (t) ex perienced by the sample, requiring that D ext, (t 0 ) and par ticularly D ext, (t 0 ) be corrected for any such signicant variations. At sites where sedimentary water concentra tion variations can be signicant, or where sediment ac cumulation or deation can alter the depth of sediment cover, these considerations become signicant, but not insurmountable. In using geochemical analysis (e.g., NAA) at sites with very inhomogeneous sediment units (lumpy sites), the inhomogeneity in the dose eld (Guibert et al., 1998) requires volumetric analysis in which the contri bution from each component (Figure 1d, 8d) depends on its abundance in order to calculate the actual contri bution to De xt, (t) from dierent components or layers within the and spheres of inuence. at still, how ever, does not consider the potential changes in D ext, (t) due changes in radioisotopic concentrations within the sedimentary components. In lumpy sites, sedimentary components which may be able to absorb U (e.g., peat, teeth, bones, mollusc shells) can constitute a signicant sedimentary fraction. If they can absorb U, D ext, (t) will probably have changed with time, because, 1. Components such as teeth and bone only absorb U, not all its daughters which ingrow later (Figure 7a). 2. If the uptake occurred early in the sediments his tory, its eect will be greater than if it occurred recently. is requires that U uptake into the sediment be mod elled analogously to that into teeth (see D int (t) models above; Figure 7c). 3. U or other soluble daughters may have been leached, or Rn may have diused (Figure 7b), from these components, requiring modelling to assess the eect on D ext, (t) (e.g., Pike & Hedges, 2001; Figure 7c). 4. More than one discrete uptake or loss event may have aected these components (Figure 7c). ese sedimentary processes can produce signicant dierences in the calculated D ext, (t) and ages. erefore, the isochron method is preferred whenever possible, be cause the sample acts as its own dosimeter, theoretically compensating for inaccuracies due any change in D ext, (t). Precision in ESR dating depends on the method used to measure D ext, (t) and the relative radioactive element concentrations. For and TL dosimetry, precision tends to average 3-10%, whereas for sedimentary analysis, un certainties normally range from 5 to 15%. Precision for D ext, (t) in isochron analysis will exceed that associated with the isochron age, because D ext, (t) is derived from the age, rather than vice versa. e dierent measure ment protocols do oen yield somewhat dierent esti mates for D ext, (t) (Blackwell et al. 2000). T HE I SOCHRON M ETHOD Isochrons have been applied mainly to teeth (Figure 9), but also fault gouge minerals and stalagmites. W ith the isochron method, a sample that can yield at least ve subsamples is analyzed by standard ESR analysis. If the accum u lated doses, A ,i plotted against the time averaged internal dose rate D int, i (t)foreachsubsample,i,givea for each subsample, i, give a straight line, its slope equals the samples age, t 1 while the y-intercept yields the accumulated dose due to external sources, Aext, from which can be derived the time-aver aged external dose rate D ext, (t)(Figure9a). (Figure 9a). In teeth, the method gives a family of lines which con verge on Aext, but whose ages and D ext, (t) each depend upon the U uptake model used to calculate D int, i (t )(Fig(Fig(Fig ures 9b, 9c). Tests have shown that, if the isochron has a high R 2 for the regression, the slope gives an age consis tent with other dating methods (Blackwell et al., 2002a). e isochron method is limited to samples whose inter nal dose rate, D int (t), constitutes a signicant fraction of D (t), eectively requiring the sample to contain 2 ppm U. If samples have lost U or gained U in more than one event, however, isochron analyses may give erroneous ages and/or D ext, (t) values (Figure 9d; Blackwell et al. 2001a). Precisions for isochron ages and A ext can range

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 138 F ig. 7: F actors aecting the internal dose rate, D int (t). F or bones, teeth, molluscs, and other materials containing or capable of absorbing U, U uptake must be measured or modelled. F or minerals or fossils capable of losing U or other U daughter products by leaching or degassing, these must also be modelled or measured: a. D int (t) increases as the sample ages simply from ingrowth of the U daughter isotopes. is plot assumed an early uptake model U absorption of 10 ppm, with no initial or Pa. b. Radon (Rn) gas, produced when U decays, can escape from samples during diagenesis and fossilization, causing D int (t) to decrease, and therefore, aecting the accuracy in the calculated ages. Assuming 0% Rn loss will not contribute signicant errors to age calculation for most samples, except those with very high U concentrations. I n this mammoth molar from a pond deposit in H ungary, the uptake model signicantly aects the age calculation, because the dentine contains relatively high U concentrations, producing signicant dierences in the various calculated model ages. c. A combined model for U uptake and leaching: e fossil absorbs all its U immediately aer death in the early uptake (EU) model, but it absorbs almost no U until just before attaining its maximum U concentration in the recent uptake (RU) model. Under linear uptake, the fossil absorbs U continuously and constantly throughout the uptake time, and linear leaching assumes an analogous continuous, constant U loss through the leaching period. Under early leaching (EL), the fossil loses U in a geological instant some time before the fossil is discovered, whereas under recent leaching, the loss occurs just before discovery. d. U uptake in teeth from H oxne, England: Recent uptake models are applicable in some situations. M ore complex models can be devised by combining several uptake and leaching events (adapted from Blackwell, 2001). B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 139 E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS F ig. 8: e eect on ESR ages from the external dose rate, D ext (t). D ext(t) is a function of many variables, including the water in the sediment and the cosmic dose impacting the sample: a. M iscalculated D ext (t)s can dramatically aect the calculated ages, especially for the RU ages. As the external dose rate increases, all the model ages decrease exponentially approaching 18 ka at 2.0 mGy/y. A 200 Gy/y (40%) decrease in the measured D ext (t) would reduce the calculated ages by approximately 13-15 ky (~25%), whereas a 200 Gy/y (40%) decrease would introduce a 26-32 ky (~50%) increase in the calculated ages. ese are insignicant compared to the 2 t uncertainties in the age calculation (Blackwell et al., unpublished data). b. As sediment depth increases above a sample, the cosmic dose contributes less to the total external dose rate. F or samples covered by 10 m of sediment, the cosmic dose is negligible. c. At higher altitudes and higher latitudes, the cosmic dose increases. d. Sedimentary water attenuates the external dose reaching the tooth. As the sedimentary water concentration increases, the external dose rate, D ext (t), decreases, but the calculated ESR age increases under all uptake models. Generally, changing the sedimentary water concentration by -10 wt% does not signicantly aect the calculated ages, especially for samples where D ext (t) represents a small percentage of the total dose rate, D (t), as here. I f, however, the sedimentary water concentration changes by > wt%, the model ages will exceed the reported values by more than the 2 t uncertainty in many samples, especially under the RU model, as seen here. Using the water concentration suggested by the D ext (t) from the isochron analysis does not produce a signicant change (aer Blackwell et al., 2005a).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 140 B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL F ig. 9. ESR isochrons. a. A theoretical plot: W hen the total accumulated dose, A i for each subsample, i, is plotted versus the time-averaged internal dose rate, D int, i (t), the slope of the line gives the samples age, t, while the y-intercept represents the external accumulated dose, A ext b. A plot for a tooth from Bau de lAubesier, Provence: I n practice, each uranium uptake model produces a line, which all converge on A ext I sochron analysis can yield ages with uncertainties as low as 4%. c. An isochron for a tooth from tufa deposit associated with a thermal spring and lake at L ongola, Zambia. d. I f a sample, such as this tooth, has experienced U leaching or a second uptake event, the isochrons intercept oen becomes negative. I n this example, the secondary uptake event must have occurred recently, because the isochron age agrees well with 230 / 234 U age on adjacent stalagmitic horizons. D int, i (t), and A ext all depend on the U uptake model selected aer the rst iteration of this technique (adapted from Blackwell et al., 2002a).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 141 E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS as low as 3-4%, but normally tend to be less precise than standard ESR analyses, while minimum uncertainties for D ext, (t) tend to be ~ 5-6%. Because the isochron method averages D ext, (t) over the entire burial history, isochron analysis automatically corrects for any changes in D ext, (t) which may have oc curred. By greatly reducing the need to measure D ext, (t) in situ or to assume that it has remained constant, it can date samples from environments where D ext, (t) are likely to have changed in response to complex sedimentologi cal changes, such as open-air environments. Isochrons can also date samples from sites that have been destroyed or are otherwise inaccessible, especially samples in mu seum collections. If an independent method (e.g., TL or dosimetry) can be used to measure D ext, (t), and if D ext, (t) can be shown to have been constant throughout time at the site by geological studies or an independent date, the isochron method can instead determine the U uptake history. Since the isochron calculation gives A ext which must equal the product of the age, t 1 with De xt, (t) the isochrons slope that matches this age represents the cor rect isochron and uptake model for the sample. ESR M ICROSCOPY AND O THER N E W T ECHNI QUES In ESR microscopy, an ESR spectrometer has been modi ed to scan across a solid mineral surface to measure the spin concentrations for a preset signal. W ith specialized analytical programs, 2D, 3D, and 4D ESR imaging is now possible, some of which are combined with other systems such as electrically stimulated luminescence (ESL), NMR and CT (e.g., Miki et al. 1996; Mizuta et al. 2002). ESR microscopy is still being explored to understand its full potential, but it shows great promise in studying fossil diagenesis, mapping crystal growth and defects, among other applications. Currently, it works best for materials with very strong ESR signals, such as tooth enamel (e.g., Oka et al. 1997), bone (Schauer et al. 1996), coral, gyp sum, mollusc shells, aragonite, and barite. Portable ESR dosimeters and spectrometers are used to assess nuclear radiation accidents on site (e.g., Oka et al. 1996). Geoscientists can also use them in the eld. In the eld, such technology would help to recognize reworked fossils, to aid in selecting the best samples for dating, and to assess the eect of site inhomogeneity on the samples. Eventually, such technology may even allow preliminary age estimates while still in the eld. A PPLICATIONS AND D ATABLE M ATERIALS IN K ARST S ETTINGS W ithin karst settings, ESR can date materials that might provide valuable insight into a caves or a karst systems history. Dating teeth, molluscs, ratite egg shells, authi genic carbonates or salts can delineate depositional his tories and rates. Dates on authigenic cements may date diagenetic events or hydrological changes. Dating fossils, such as molluscs, teeth, and molluscs dates changes in biological diversity and groundwater chemistry. Dating burnt ints or hearth sands from archaeological sites or fossils from karst deposits can indicate the age for associ ated geomorphic surfaces and hint at paleoclimatic histo ries. Typical karst process, however, can cause all fossils, especially loose teeth, ratite egg shells, and molluscs, to be reworked (Figure 10). M OLLUSCS R ATITE E GGS S HELLS O STRACODES AND O THER C ARBONATE F OSSILS In caves, open-air spring deposits, and karst ssure lls, dating mollusc shells found in the sediment (Table 2) can provide diverse information for Q uaternary karst stud ies. Mollusc shells, however, act as open systems for U, although the moderate discordance between measured 230 /2 34 U and 231 Pa/ 235 U ratios suggests that most U up take accompanies sedimentation. Aragonitic mollusc shells normally show ve ESR peaks (Figure 11), but calcitic molluscs have more com plex spectra. For the calcitic peaks at g = 2.0018, 2.0007, and 1.9976, trap density is related to Mg/Ca ratios, which can change with diagenesis, secondary mineralization, and fossilization, making them unsuitable for dating some species. Generally, either the peaks at g = 2.0012 and 2.0007 in calcitic shells and the peak at g = 2.0007 in aragonitic shells are the most reliable, but that must be tested for each species individually, because complex peaks do occur and peaks other than that at g = 2.0007 may be light sensitive (Bartoll et al., 2000). Secondary mineralization can cause interference that aects A measurement and age calculation. Signal lifetimes vary signicantly depending on the peak and species (e.g., Blackwell, 1995, Table 2). Some species show inection points in their growth curves, making it dicult to select an appropriate set of added doses for measuring A (e.g., Shih et al. 2002). Schellmann and Radtke (2001) advo cated using a plateau technique with 40-60 irradiation steps to maximize accuracy in the growth curves. Petrographic or geochemical analysis should accom pany any ESR date to avoid remineralized and recrystallized samples. Contamination from Mn peaks oen requires

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 142 F ig. 10: T ests to check for reworked fossils. F or teeth from Swartkrans, South Africa: a. e accumulated dose (A ) histogram clearly reveals at least three dierent populations of teeth. b. e enamel U concentration histogram shows at least two populations. c. Plotting A vs. enamel U concentration reveals four distinct populations. d. Plotting A vs. dentinal U concentration shows three dierent populations well separated from each other. Such plots delineate populations of teeth that have experienced dierent environmental conditions, one indication for reworking among samples from the same units (aer Blackwell, 1994). B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL overmodulation to discriminate the dating peaks. Due to U uptake, modelling is required for samples that cannot be analyzed by coupled ESR230 /2 34 U dating. In some fresh and hypersaline systems, the ( 234 U/ 238 U)o ratio may also need to be measured or modelled. For each species and signal, the eciency factor, must be measured. Long-term signal fading may also need to be considered, depending on the peak and its thermal stability. Specimens found in life position give the most re liable results, although that does not guarantee that re working has not occurred. Larger species are preferred so that each subsample represents a single individual (Table 1), but several shells can be combined from a smaller species, assuming that none have been reworked. Frag mentary samples still need to be speciated. Since species eects do occur, submitting two or three dierent species from each unit can increase dating precision and accu racy. Good agreement between ESR, TL, 14 C, and AAR (amino acid racemization) ages has occurred in studies with H endersonia and Allogona using g = 2.0007, in L ym naea baltica and Cerastoderma glaucum using g = 2.0012. ermal stabilities in M onauha caucaicala signicantly exceeded those in marine molluscs. For untested spe cies, ~ 100 g of pristine shell are needed to perform the necessary signal stability and calibration tests (Balckwell, 2001). Applications in karst systems have been rare, but terrestrial and freshwater molluscs do give reasonable ESR ages. For example, Molodkov (2001) reported ages of 393 27 ka for Layer 5b, and 583 25 ka for Layer 7a for terrestrial molluscs preserved in the Lower Paleo lithic site at Treugol'naya Cave, Russia.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 143 E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS In ratite egg shells, two signals with good sensitivity exist. Although attempts have been made to date extinct birds, recent stability tests showed a very short signal lifetime, which would severely limit their application for sites older than 30 ka (Skinner et al., unpublished data). A UTHIGENIC C ARBONATES S PELEOTHEM T RAVERTINE C ALCRETE C ALICHE Speleothem and travertine from springs, as well as in swamps and shallow hypersaline lakes, contains calcite or aragonite with several strong signals. Unfortunately, many travertines and some speleothems also contain high organic concentrations that can add interference peaks. Nonetheless, ESR dating of speleothem, travertine, and other authigenic carbonates allow detailed paleoenviron mental determinations, and may document prehistoric human activities. How post-sedimentary processes aect the ESR sig nals in authigenic carbonates (Blackwell, 1995, Table 2) is still not well understood. Although most travertine spec tra (Figure 12) resemble those for speleothems, which have been extensively studied, other peaks do occur. e humic acid signal at g = 2.0040 does not appear accurate for dat ing. In Mn-rich samples, the peak at g = 2.0022 yielded re liable ages, but needs testing for annealing behaviour and replicability before general application. e most reliably measured peak occurs at g = 2.0007, while peaks other than that at g = 2.0036 may show light sensitivity (Bartoll et al., 2000). Although many authigenic carbonates lack the peak at g = 2.0007, carefully sampling densely crystallized cal cite can increase the success rate. Reliable ages have been found for some travertines, when compared against 14 C or U series ages. For some pisolites, calcrete, and caliche, con tamination causes complex interference signals that aect accuracy, but preannealing samples before analysis may improve the results (Skinner, 2000). Because most authigenic carbonates can experience remineralization, secondary mineralization or cementa tion, petrographic, SEM, XRD, or similar analyses should complement the ESR dating analysis to ensure viable geological conclusions. Otherwise, sample preparation is fast, requiring only powdering and a dilute acid leach to remove any transitory peaks induced by the grinding. Relatively few ESR studies (e.g., W hitehead et al., 2002) have systematically examined travertine or other authigenic carbonates aer problems with the appli cations were found in the 1990s. Attempts to date the spring travertines from Vertsszls, Hungary, failed to reveal a datable signal without interference (Skinner et al., unpublished data). Modern signal subtraction and multiband studies might resolve some problems and im prove the reliability for these applications (Kinoshita et al., 2004). H YDROXYAPATITE HAP, V ERTEBRATE F OSSILS AND C RUSTACEAN C HITIN ESR analysis can date hydroxyapatite (HAP), because a single radiation-sensitive ESR signal occurs at g = 2.0018 in fossil, but not modern enamel (Figure 1d; Tables 1, 2). Currently, most labs use placental mammal enamel, but marsupial and shark enamel also have datable signals (Blackwell et al., 2002b, 2004). Presumably, any vertebrate enamel should be datable, but this needs verication for each taxonomic order by extensive testing before general applicability can be assumed because tests with crocodile enamel showed Fe interference problems that hampered dating (Blackwell et al., unpublished data). Bones, den tine, some sh scales, and crustacean chitin also show the same signal (Figure 13) which grows similarly to that in tooth enamel. Rink et al. (2003) used the signal in authi genic apatite veins to date sequences in Tabun Cave, Isra el, but non-organic apatites oen lack radiation sensitive signals (Skinner et al., unpublished data). In tissues other than enamel, the signals do not fade, but their low sen sitivity causes very low signal intensity unless the sam ple age approaches 0.8-1 Ma. Since diagenetic alteration in bone also complicates its use, bone dating has largely been abandoned in favour of enamel. Analyses for enam eloid sh scales (e.g., gar, Lepisosteus) have been devel oped, but need further testing. In addition to interference problems, other sh scales do not appear to give su ciently large signals for accurate dates. In HAP, ESR dates must consider U uptake and ingrowth by U daughters, as well as possible Rn loss and U leaching (Figure 7). In HAP, the long ESR signal lifetime, b ~ 10 19 y (Skinner et al., 2000), guarantees its utility. In mammals, its radiation-sensitivity does not depend on species, but does depend on the crystallinity which is aected by the animals age and health (Skinner et al., 2001a). In de ciduous teeth (i.e., milk teeth), poorly crystallized HAP causes analytical problems. Although signal saturation depends on the samples U concentration, saturation in enamel generally does not occur before the tooth is ~ 5 Ma. Teeth as old as 4.0 Ma have been dated successfully. Although some teeth as young as 8-10 ka have been dat ed, dosimetry experiments suggest that teeth with doses of ~ 0.05-0.1 Gray may be datable (W ieser et al., 2005). Currently, few attempts have made to dates sites younger than ~ 25-30 ka (~ 2-5 Gray), because 14 C dating is usu ally used instead. e standard ESR method (i.e., not isochrons) for tooth enamel has now been tested extensively against other dating methods for sites in the age range 30-300 ka (Blackwell, 2001, Table 1), but for teeth > 300-400 ka, relatively few calibration tests have been attempted. Ar chaeological applications have been extensive. Despite calls for much more complex measurement protocols

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 144 F ig. 11: ESR spectra in aragonitic mollusc shells. ree signals commonly occur in aragonitic mollusc shells (adapted from Blackwell, 2001): a. e signal at g = 2.0058 before and aer irradiation measured at room temperature. b. e signal at g = 2.0036 measured at room temperature (293K) and at 145K. c. e signal at g = 2.0007 before and aer irradiation measured at room temperature. B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL (e.g., Grn, 2002; Vanhaelewyn et al., 2000), Q band tests indicate that, although the peak is complex, it grows uni formly and can be accurately measured by a simple peak height measurement without deconvolution (Skinner et al., 2000). Human dosimetry experiments (Blackwell, 2001, Table 1) have hinted at possible problems with in terference, temperature sensitivity, and signals induced by grinding and UV light exposure. Several researchers have suggested complex preparation techniques to com pensate for these problems (e.g., Onori et al., 2000), but their eect on teeth older than 10 ka must be minimal or the ESR ages would not agree with those from other dat ing methods. W hile standard ESR can still be improved methodologically, such as by fully understanding U up take, this does not hamper its application, especially in many caves, where the dental U concentrations were so low that all the model ages are statistically identical (Fig ure 8a; e.g., Skinner et al., 2005). For the isochron method in enamel, calibration tests have been completed against 230 / 234 U, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, and standard ESR (e.g., Skinner et al., 2001b). Disagreements between standard ESR and isochrons imply changes in D ext (t) or secondary U remobilization (Blackwell et al., 2001a, 2001b). For enamel dating, molars and premolars from large herbivores make the best specimens, because both iso chron and standard ESR analyses can be completed. Very small teeth are analyzed with the ramped dosing tech nique, but the enamel must be separated from the dentine manually. For small teeth, several teeth from the same jaw can be attempted for isochron analysis. ESR dating does not require that mammal teeth be fully identied, but other vertebrate groups have not been tested suciently to preclude taxonomic identication. Fragmentary teeth are ne, providing enough enamel and dentine remains for analysis (Table 1). For example, one mammoth mo lar plate provides enough enamel for an isochron. New non-destructive techniques using smaller teeth are being developed, but are not yet routine. For bones, dentine, ivory (mixed dentine and enam el), and antler, the method is more dicult to apply and has not been particularly successful. eir low signal sen sitivity causes, if nothing else, a much higher minimum age limit. For dentine, tests suggest that sensitivity prob lems can be overcome by using it to date teeth > 1 Ma (Blackwell et al., 2002c). Diagenetic minerals in dentine cause few problems, except further lowering sensitivity (Skinner et al., 2000). In bone, tusk, and antler, contami nants and secondary mineralization can also complicate the signal measurement. Since all these tissues can ab sorb signicant U, uptake modelling becomes even more essential in determining accurate dates. Crustacean shell chitin shows a typical HAP signal, but the method needs development to determine if it might be applicable to brine shrimp or other chitinous species. In caves, the applications have been too numerous to detail them all, but open-air karst applications have been more limited (Blackwell, 2001, Table 1). Dating at human paleontological and archaeological sites has been the most common use (e.g., Falgures, 2003), but nonhominid faunal applications (e.g., Godfrey-Smith et al., 2003) are becoming more common. ESR dates combined

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 145 F ig. 12: ESR spectra in tufa and travertine. I n tufa and other slowly precipitated carbonates, the ESR spectra can vary dramatically, oen due to interference signals from included organic matter, contaminant minerals, and trace elements (adapted from Blackwell, 2001). F ig. 13: e ESR hydroxyapatite signal in L episosteus platostomus (gar) scales. I n these scales from the Sangamonian lake at H opwood F arm, IL, low signal intensity in the natural sample (lower) makes the signal dircult to discern, but articial irradiation reveals the distinctive hydroxyapatite signal at g = 2.0018, along with a carbon radical signal that partially interferes with the dating signal. E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS with faunal, palynological, and geomorphological data at Treugolnaya Cave, in the Russian Caucasus, have begun to describe an extensive OIS 11 sequence (Doronichev et al., 2004). Blackwell et al. (2001b) used ESR isochrons to assess U uptake and ages for the hominid site at Bau de lAubesier. At Divje babe I, Slovenia, a ute made from cave bear bone was found associated with Mousterian arte facts. Initially, Lau et al. (1997) showed the ute to be > 43 ka. Altogether, more than 40 subsamples were dated from 16 Ursus spelaeus (cave bear) teeth found in Lay ers 8 through 20 to build a detailed and precise chro nostratigraphic sequence (Figure 14a) which allowed other sedimentological analyses to be tied to an absolute time sequence (e.g., Figure 14b; Turk et al., 2001). e resulting paleoclimatic interpretations were correlated with other global climatic events (e.g., Figure 14c; Turk et al., 2002). H EATED S ILICA : V OLCANIC A SH I GNEOUS R OCKS B AKED S EDIMENT B URNT F LINT AND C HERT Cave and karst sediment may preserve volcanic ash, tek tites, and baked sediment, but few ESR applications have been attempted. Heated chert and int artefacts occur in archaeological sites associated with Late Pleistocene and Holocene karst. Q uartz and silica exhibit several radiation-sensitive ESR signals (Figure 15). Due to the Ti and Ge signals low sensitivity, fast saturation, and propensity for bleaching (e.g., W oda et al., 2001), most studies use the OHC, E' or Al signals. Some samples do require signal subtraction to remove trace contaminant interference signals (Figure 6b). Because quartz does not absorb U over time, its age calculations do not require modelling for U uptake like tooth enamel. To provide meaningful dates, any preexist ing geological signals, however, must have been zeroed completely during the depositional event (Figure 2b). In some int, an unbleachable component may survive typi cal heating (Skinner, 2000). Signal lifetimes of b 100 y were measured for the E' and Al signals, but heated ints show much longer lifetimes, suggesting that the signals kinetics may change on heating. A short-lived interfer ence signal, E' 1 with b = 40 y, can interfere with E' signal measurement in some heated quartz samples (Toyoda, 2004), complicating dating for volcanic rocks and impact craters. For burnt int, chert, and quartz sand (Tables 1, 2), calibration tests against other methods and more basic studies are needed. e precision for A values from ESR compares well with those obtained from TL on the same materials. Flints and cherts as young as 10-20 ka may be datable, but the maximum dating limit, which depends on the int type, has not yet been well established. Ap plications to dating burnt sand and volcanic ash are even less advanced, but theoretically feasible. Ulusoy (2003) and Beerten et al. (2003) have both been experimenting

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 146 B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL F igure 14: ESR dating at D ivje babe I, Slovenia. A B

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 147 with single crystal techniques for dating quartz. Tani et al. (1998) examined the thermal history for a int arte fact based on its ESR signals. STRAINED QUARTZ AND F ELDSPAR F AULT G OUGE M YLONITE In many karst systems, caves develop along faults. ESR can date the most recent, and sometimes several earlier, fault movements (Figure 16), allowing complex tectonic histories to be unravelled. In Japan, the technique has been widely applied to numerous faults (Blackwell, 2001, Table 1), but few directly associated with caves. Tatumi et al. (2004) reported potentially datable signals in feld spar, while Mittani et al. (2004) tried using the [Pb-Pb] 3+ center in amazonite. In dating gouge, strain zeroes the signals in the gouge minerals (Figure 3). Several grain sizes must be tested to ensure that the signals have been completely reset. Most researchers use the E', OHC, or Al signals in quartz (Figure 15) or occasionally feldspar, but the grains must be select ed by hand aer heavy mineral separation and HF leach ing to ensure that only gouge minerals with no secondary overgrowths are used. Lee and Schwarcz (2001) advocate using at least two signals to ensure accuracy. QUARTZ Z EROED BY L IGHT B EACH S AND L OESS F LUVIAL S EDIMENT If a radiation-sensitive ESR signal found in quartz can be completely zeroed by exposure to strong light, as can F ig. 14: ESR dating at D ivje babe I, Slovenia. Recently, a well dated sequence at D ivje babe I cave, Slovenia, was coupled with detailed sedimentological analyses to develop detailed paleoclimatic interpretations and correlations with global climatic episodes: A. e 16 teeth dated by ESR and four bones dated by 14 C show that the cave lled in episodically, with depositional hiati at approximately 420 and 590 cm below datum. B. Given the dates for the layers, aggregate analyses from the ne sediment fraction can be correlated with the global O IS curve ( T urk et al., 2001). C. e ESR, aggregate, and other sedimentary analyses combine to indicate paleoclimatic variations for the area around D ivje babe I during the late Pleistocene ( T urk et al., 2002). C E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 148 the Ge signal (Figure 2a), then its deposition in a shallow subaerial environment can be dated. As yet, it remains controversial whether any signal is completely zeroed during natural deposition (e.g., Toyoda et al., 2000; Voin chet et al., 2003). If sediment does not bleach completely, then any ages become maximum ages. Since most appli cations attempted thus far have used dubious analytical techniques (e.g., Blackwell, 2001, ), deciding if the results are fortuitous or genuine is dicult. Although these tech niques await several basic theoretical studies, the recent successes with TL and OSL using similar sediment sug gest that the potential exists here for many applications. A UTHIGENIC QUARTZ : P HYTOLITHS D IATOMS C EMENT L ATERITE AND S ILCRETE Both diatoms and phytoliths theoretically should be da table by ESR. Having a suitable signal, phytoliths need further investigation. Inherently, diatoms should also B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL F ig. 15: ESR signals in quartz. Several signals occur in quartz, int, and fault gouge minerals (adapted from Blackwell, 2001): a. e aluminum (Al) signal, oen used for dating fault gouge, must be measured at 70K. I t is an (AlO 4 ) 0 defect. b. e titanium ( T i) signal, which has not been used oen for dating arises from ( T iO 4 /H + ) 0 ( T iO 4 /L i + ) 0 ( T iO 4 /Na + ) 0 defects. c. Because the germanium (Ge) signal is more easily bleached than most other signals in many quartz samples, it is used for dating quartz sediment. is complex signal arises from overlapping (GeO 4 /L i + ) 0 and (GeO 4 /Na + ) 0 defects. d. e E' signal at g = 2.0001 is easily measured at room temperature to date quartz, int, and fault gouge. e. e complex oxygen hole centre (O H C) signal and the P1 (peroxy) signal are also measured at room temperature. O H C has been used to date quartz, int, and fault gouge.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 149 F ig. 16: F ault gouge dating. I n fault gouge from the Bear D ivide, San Gabriel F ault, CA, the gouge records several periods of activity: a. At least three earthquakes occurred in this outcrop at 357 19, 824 70, and 1173 130 ka. b. Plotting the ESR ages vs. grain size shows dierent plateaux in old and reactivated fault gouge. (aer L ee & Schwarcz, 1994). have radiation sensitive signals similar to those in other quartz. In both, the ESR signals should be zero when the crystals form, thereby eliminating the problem of incom plete zeroing seen in other quartz applications. W ere one able to date laterite and silcrete, much geomorphic information might be discovered, but early attempts have not been systematically veried. Diagenet ic alteration and secondary cementation may complicate these applications, creating complex curves. Nonetheless, all these have potential that should be developed further. C LAY M INERALS Several clay minerals have viable ESR signals. Both kao linite and montmorillanite have an OHC signal associ ated with their silicate layers. In the latter, the stability, b = 10 7 years at surface temperatures, suggests that its applicability for dating should include at least the Mid dle and Late Q uaternary. Montmorillanite also has a ra diation-sensitive carbonate signal, but with even lower stability. Radionuclides in associated Fe-oxides cause the signals in kaolinite, which have been used to n gerprint and source the clays. Fukuchi (2001) has tried using the OHC signal in montmorillanite to date Japa nese faults. Bensimon et al. (2000) examined signal sta bilities in natural clay signals. All these methods still need much development before routine application will be possible. O THER S ALTS : D OLOMITE G YPSUM G YPCRETE H ALITE S ULPHATES Dating salts can provide detailed information about as sociated karst features. Since salts frequently experience diagenesis, remineralization, and cementation, they re quire petrographic or geochemical checks to ensure ac curate ages. Several salts have strong ESR signals (Blackwell, 1995, Table 2). Strong radiation-sensitive signals in other carbonates, sulphates, and phosphates all show potential to be developed into viable techniques. Useful signals may also exist in rare salts with analogous geochemi cal formulae, but few have been examined. Success may hinge on the salts purity, since the organic radicals, es pecially from humic acids, common in some subaerially precipitated salts tend to interfere with dating signals (e.g., Debuyst et al., 2000). As yet, ESR dating has been attempted only for gyp sum, anhydrite, halite, monohydrocalcite, dolomite, and barite, but not with unqualied success. Preliminary re sults on salt deposits indicate that signal intensities in crease with sampling depth, but agreement with other dating methods has been poor. In gypsum, the g = 2.0082 signal gives the best results. Ulusoy (2004) studied gyp sums from Turkey. Attempts to use gypcrete were ham pered by the diculties in obtaining sucient sample for adequate growth curves to determine the eciency factor, k which must be measured for each sample, due to dierences in the precipitation history. Kohno et al. (1996) measured an accumulated dose in a barite desert rose. Once the idiosyncrasies in sample preparation have been standardized, these applications should provide in teresting details about karst systems. O THER A PPLICATIONS Other applications include using ESR imaging systems to explore mineral (e.g., Gotze & Plotze, 1997) and fos sil growth and diagenesis (e.g., Tsukamoto & Heikoop, 1996). Omura & Ikeya (1995) used ESR microscopy to E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 150 map gypsum crystal growth. Similar techniques could theoretically be applied to other salts. In a rather sim plistic approach, Yugo et al. (1998) proposed a model for C ONCLUSIONS In caves, abris, and karst ssures, ESR dating has been particularly eective at dating teeth. W hile rare in caves, dating with molluscs, and other fossils also are easily ap plicable. Other methods have and are being developed that may prove extremely useful in future, including dat ing gypsum, dolomite, quartz, and other minerals. In open-air karst settings, one must expect that changing sedimentary water concentrations, second ary leaching or addition of U or in the sediment, and changing cosmic dose rates in response to burial will aect the external dose rates. erefore, accurate dates must consider these phenomena carefully. W hile this complicates the age calculations, ESR can still provide accurate dates for many materials found associated with open-air karst environments, including teeth, egg shells, mollusc shells, burnt int, fault gouge, and possibly for foraminifera, phytoliths, diatoms, and ostracodes. A CKNO W LEDGEMENTS Some examples cited herein were analyzed thanks to sup port from the National Science Foundation, the Leakey Foundation, Toyota Tapestry Foundation, RFK Science Research Institute, and W illiams College. Over the years, Barry Brennan, Bill Prestwich, Jack Rink, Bill Buhay, Rainer Grn, Martin Jonas, Michel Barabas, Darren Curnoe, Eddie Rhodes, Ed Haskell, Anotoly Molodkov, Albrecht W ieser, Ulrich Radtke, Galena Htt, Neil W hitehead, Motoji Ikeya, Glen Berger, Anne W intle, Martin Aitken, Gerd Hennig, John Dennison, Andrew Pike, Christophe Falgures, Shin Toyoda, Mimi Divjak, Hee Kwon Lee, Daniel Richter, Hlne Valladas, Ruth Ly ons, Naomi Porat, and especially Henry Schwarcz have provided valuable insights in discussions about ESR dat ing. Anne Skinner and Joel Blickstein provided many useful comments on this manuscript and assisted with its preparation. e reviewers provided excellent sugges tions to improve the work. R EFERENCES Bartoll, J., Ster, R., & Nofz, M., 2000: Generation and conversion of electronic defects in calcium carbon ates by UV/Vis light. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 52, 1099-1105. Beerten, K., Pierreux, D., & Stesmans, A., 2003: Towards single grain ESR dating of sedimentary quartz: First results. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 22, 13291334. Bensimon, Y., Deroide, B., Dijoux, F., & Martineau, M., 2000: Nature and thermal stability of paramagnetic defects in natural clay: A study by electron spin res onance. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 61, 1623-1632. Blackwell, B.A., 1994: Problems associated with reworked teeth in electron spin resonance dating. Q uaternary Science Reviews (Q uaternary Geochronology) 13, 651-660. Blackwell, B.A., 1995: Electron spin resonance dating. In N.W Rutter, N.R. Catto, eds. Dating Methods for Q uaternary Deposits. Geological Association of Canada, St. Johns, Geotext 2, 209-251. Blackwell, B.A.B., 2001: Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating in lacustrine environments. In: W .M. Last, J.P. Smol, eds. Tracking Environmental Change Us ing Lake Sediments, Basin Analysis, Coring, and Chronological Techniques, vol. 1, 283-368, Kleuwer, Dordecht. paleowind patterns based on the provenance of aeolian quartz dust as determined by the ESR intensity. B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 151 Blackwell, B.A.B., & Blickstein, J.I.B., 2000: Considering sedimentary U uptake in external dose rates deter minations for ESR and luminescent dating. Q uater nary International, 68-71, 329-343. Blackwell, B.A.B., Leung, H.Y.M., Skinner, A.R., Schwarcz, H.P., Lebel, S., Valladas, H., Blickstein, J.I.B. & Div jak, M.N., 2000: External dose rate determinations for ESR dating at Bau de lAubesier, Provence. Q ua ternary International, 68-71, 345-361. Blackwell, B.A.B., Skinner, A.R., & Blickstein, J.I.B., 2001a: ESR isochron exercises: How accurately do modern dose rate measurements reect paleodose rates? Q uaternary Science Reviews (Q uaternary Geochronology), 20, 1031-1039. Blackwell, B.A.B., Skinner, A.R., Blickstein, J.I.B., Lebel, S., & Leung, H.Y.M., 2001b: ESR isochron analyses at Bau de lAubesier, Provence: Clues to U uptake in fossil teeth. Geoarchaeology, 16, 719-761. Blackwell, B.A.B., Skinner, A.R., Brassard, P., & Blick stein, J.I.B., 2002a. U Uptake in tooth enamel: Les sons from isochron analyses and laboratory simu lation experiments. In: W hitehead, N.E., Ikeya, M., eds., Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Prospects in ESR Dosimetry and Dating, Society of ESR Applied Metrology, Osaka, Advances in ESR Applications, 18, 97-118. Blackwell, B.A.B., Chaderton, D.A. II, Skinner, A.R., Blickstein, J.I.B., Maisey, J.G., & Divjak, M.N., 2002b: Developing ESR dating for sharks teeth: Towards a new geolochronological method for sedimentologi cal and paleontological analysis. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Program 34, A, Abstract 187-13. Blackwell, B.A.B., Condiles, A.P., Skinner, A.R., & Blick stein, J.I.B., 2002c: ESR dating of dentine: Triumphs and tribulations. Annual Meeting of the Paleoan thropology Society, Denver. Journal of Human Evo lution, 42 (3), A7. Blackwell, B.A.B., Nicholls, C., Teng, S., Tedford, R.E., Skinner, A.R., & Blickstein, J.I.B., 2004: Developing ESR dating for marsupial teeth: Recognizing mul tiple sedimentation events in the Lake Eyre Basin, Australia. Geologicial Society of America Annual Meeting Program with Abstracts, 36, Abstract 22713. Blackwell, B.A.B., Liang, S.S., Lei, C.Y.Q .Q ., Golovanova, L.V., Doronichev, V.B., Skinner, A.R., & Blickstein, J.I.B., 2005a: ESR at Treugolnaya Cave, northern Caucasus Mt., Russia: Dating Russias oldest archae ological site and paleoclimatic change in Oxygen Isotope Stage 11. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 62, 237-245. Blackwell, B.A.B., Montoya, A., Blickstein, J.I.B., Skinner, A.R., Pappu, S., Gunnell, Y., Taieb, M. & Akhilesh, K., 2005b: ESR analyses the Paleolithic site, at At tirampakkam, India: Clues to U uptake, watertable migration, reworking, and paleoenvironmental change. 2005 Luminescent & ESR Dating Confer ence, /Kln Brennan, B.J., 2000: Systematic underestimation of the age of samples with saturating exponential behav iour and inhomogeneous dose distribution. Radia tion Measurements, 32, 731-734. Brennan, B.J., Prestwich, W .V., Rink, W .J., Marsh, R.E., & Schwarcz, H.P., 2000: a and b dose gradients in tooth enamel. Radiation Measurements, 32, 759-765. Debuyst, R., Frenchen, M., & Idrissi, S., 2000: Prob lems encountered in a TL and ESR study of natural monohydrocalcite. Radiation Measurements, 32, 725-729. Doronichev, V.B., Blackwell, B.A.B., Golovanova, L.V., Levkovskaya, G.M., & Pospelova, G.A., 2004: Treugolnaya Cave in the northern Caucasus, Rus sia: Its chronology, paleoenvironments, industries, and Relationship to the Lower Paleolithic in Eastern Europe. European Prehistory, 2, 77-144. Eggins, S., Grn, R., Pike, A.W .G., Shelley, M., & Taylor, L., 2003: 238U, 232 proling, and U-series iso tope analysis of fossil teeth by laser-ablation ICPMS. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 22, 1373-1382. Falgures, C., 2003: ESR dating and the human evolution: Contributions to the chronology of the earliest hu mans in Europe. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 22, 1345-1351. Fukuchi, T., 2001: Assessment of fault activity by ESR dating of fault gouge; an example of the 500 m core samples drilled into the Nojima earthquake fault in Japan. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 20, 1005-1008. Godfrey-Smith, D.I., Grist, A.M., & Stea, R.R., 2003: Do simetric and radiocarbon chronology of a pre-W is consinan mastodon fossil locality at East Milford, Nova Scotia, Canada. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 22, 1353-1360. Gotze, J., & Plotze, M., 1997: Investigation of trace ele ment distribution in detrital quartz by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). European Journal of Mineralogy 9, 529-537. Grn, R., 2002: ESR dose estimation on fossil tooth enamel by tting the natural spectrum into the irra diated spectra. Radiation Measurements, 35, 87-93. Grn, R., Kohno, H., Tani, A., Yamanaka, C., Ikeya, M., & Huang, H.P., 1997: Pulsed ESR measurements on fossil teeth. Radiation Measurements 27, 425-432. E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 152 Guibert, P., Bechtel, G., Schvoerer, M., Mller, P., & Balescu, S., 1998. A new method for c dose rate es timation of heterogeneous media in TL dating. Ra diation Measurements, 29, 663-671. Homann, D., & Mangini, A., 2003: A method for cou pled ESR/U-series dating of teeth showing postdepositional U-loss. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 22, 1367-1372. Ikeya, M., Ochiai, H., & Tani, A., 1997: Total dose (Td) formula for uranium saturation-uptake model for ESR and TL dating. Radiation Measurements, 27, 339-343. Kinoshita, A., Karmann, I., da Cruz, F.W Jr., & Baa, O., 2004: K-band ESR spectra of calcite stalagmites from southeast and south Brazil. Applied Radiation & Isotopes. Kohno, H., Yamanaka, C., & Ikeya, M., 1996: Eects of irradiation and pulsed ESR measurements of evapo rites. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 47, 1459-1463. Lau, B., Blackwell, B.A.B., Schwarcz, H.P., Turk, I., & Blickstein, J.I.B., 1997: Dating a autist? Using ESR (electron spin resonance) in the Mousterian cave deposits at Divje Babe I, Slovenia. Geoarchaeology, 12, 507-536. Lee, H.K., & Schwarcz, H.P., 1993: An experimental study of shear-induced zeroing of ESR signals in quartz. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 44, 191-195. Lee, H.K., & Schwarcz, H.P., 1994: Criteria for complete zeroing of ESR signals during faulting of the San Gabriel Fault Zone, Southern California. Tectono physics, 235, 317-337. Lee, H.K., & Schwarcz, H.P., 2001: ESR dating of the sub sidiary faults in the Yangsan fault system, Korea. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 20, 999-1003. Lee, H.K., Rink, W .J., & Schwarcz, H.P., 1997: Compari son of ESR signal dose-responses in modern and fossil tooth enamels. Radiation Measurements, 27, 405-411. Lyons, R.G., & Tan, S.M., 2000: Dierentials or integrals: Pluses and minuses in their application to additive dose techniques. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 52, 1051-1057. Miki, T., Murata, T., Kumai, H., & Yamashiro, A., 1996: A high resolution EPR-CT microscope using cavityresonators equipped with small eld gradient coils. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 47, 1599-1603. Mittani, J.C.R., Cano, N.F., & W atanabe, S., 2004: Use of the [Pb-Pb]3+ center in amazonite for dating. Ap plied Radiation & Isotopes. Miyake, M., Liu, K.J., W alczak, T.M., & Swartz, H.M., 2000: In vivo dosimetry of accidental exposures to radiation: Experimental results indicating the fea sibility of practical use in human subjects. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 52, 1031-1038. Mizuta, Y., Iida, S., Iima, Y., Ikeya, M., & Yamanaka, C., 2002: TE111 ESR cavity with an aperature for scan ning ESR imaging. In: W hitehead, N.E., Ikeya, M., eds., Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Prospects in ESR Dosimetry and Dating, Society of ESR Applied Metrology, Osaka, Advances in ESR Applications, 18, 299-302. Molodkov, A.N., 2001: ESR dating for early man at a Lower Palaeolithic cave-site (sic) in the Northern Caucasus as derived from terrestrial mollusc shells. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 20, 1051-1055. Nagy, V., 2000: Accuracy considerations in EPR dosim etry. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 52, 1039-1050 Oka, T., Ikeya, M., Sugawara, N., & Nakanishi, A., 1996: A high-sensitivity portable spectrometer for ESR dosimetry. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 47, 15891594. Oka, T., Grn, R., Tani, A., Yamanaka, C., Ikeya, M., & Huang, H.P., 1997: ESR microscopy of fossil teeth. Radiation Measurements, 27, 331-337. Olley, J.M., Roberts, R.G. & Murray, A.S., 1997: Disequi libria in the uranium series decays series in the sedi mentary deposits at Allens Cave, Nullabor Plain, Australia: Implications for dose rate determinations. Radiation Measurements, 27, 433-443. Omura, T., & Ikeya, M., 1995: Evaluation of the ambi ent environment of mineral gypsum (CaS04.H20) growth by ESR microscope. Geochemical Journal, 29, 317-324. Onori, S., Aragno, D., Fattibene, P., Petetti, E., & Pres sello, M.C., 2000: ISS protocol for EPR tooth enamel dosimetry. Radiation Measurements, 32, 787-792. Pike, A.W .G., & Hedges, R.E.M., 2001: Sample geometry and U uptake in archaeological teeth, implications for U-series and ESR dating. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 20, 1021-1025 Rink, W .J., Bartoll, J., Goldberg, P., & Ronen, A., 2003: ESR dating of archaeologically relevant authigenic terrestrial apatite veins from Tabun Cave, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science, 30, 1127-1138. Robertson, S., & Grn, R., 2000: Dose determination on tooth fragments from two human fossils. Radiation Measurements, 32, 773-779. Schauer, D.A., Desrosiers, M.F., Kuppusamy, P., & Zwei er, J.L., 1996: Radiation dosimetry of an accidental overexposure using EPR spectrometry and imaging of human bone. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 47, 1345-1350. Schellmann, G., & Radtke, U., 2001: Progress in ESR dat ing of Pleistocene corals: A new approach for DE determination. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 20, 1015-1020. B ONNIE A. B. B LACK W ELL

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 153 Shih, T.S., Sato, H., Ikeya, M., Liew, P.M., & Chien, S.H., 2002. Conditions and new extrapolation method for ESR dating of aragonitic mollusk (sic) shells. In: W hitehead, N.E., Ikeya, M., eds., Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Prospects in ESR Dosimetry and Dating, Society of ESR Applied Me trology, Osaka, Advances in ESR Applications, 18, 31-39. Skinner, A.R., 2000: ESR dating: Is it still an experimen tal technique? Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 52, 1311-1316. Skinner, A.R., Blackwell, B.A.B., Chasteen, D.E., Shao, J.M., & Min, S.S., 2000: Improvements in dating tooth enamel by ESR. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 52, 1337-1344. Skinner, A.R., Blackwell, B.A.B., Chasteen, D.E., & Shao, J.M., 2001a: Q band ESR studies of fossil tooth enamel. Q uaternary Science Reviews (Q uaternary Geochronology), 20, 1027-1030. Skinner, A.R., Blackwell, B.A.B., & Lothian, V., 2001b: Calibrating ESR ages in the 2-Ma range at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Paleoanthropology Society, Kan sas City, MO. Journal of Human Evolution, 40 (3), A22. Skinner, A.R., Blackwell, B.A.B., Martin, S.A., Ortega, A.J., Blickstein, J.I.B., Golovanova, L.V., & Doronichev, V.B., 2005: ESR dating at Mezmaiskaya Cave, Russia. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 62, 219-224. Tani, A., Bartoll, J., Ikeya, M., Komura, K., Kajiwara, H., Fujimura, S., Kamada, T., & Yokoyama, Y., 1998: ESR study of thermal history and dating of a stone tool. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 13, 561-569. Toyoda, S., 2004: Formation and decay of the E 1 center and its precursor in natural quartz: Basics and ap plications. Applied Radiation & Isotopes. Toyoda, S., Voinchet, P., Falgures, C., Dolo, J.M., & Laurent, M., 2000: Bleaching of ESR signals by the sunlight, a laboratory experiment for establishing the ESR dating of sediments. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 52, 1357-1362. Tsukamoto, Y., & Heikoop, J., 1996: Sulte radicals in banded coral. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 47, 1437-1441. Turk, I., Blackwell, B.A.B., Sabine, J., & Dirjec, J., 2001: Morphometric and chronostratigraph ic sedimentary analyses and paleoclimatic in terpretations for the prole at Divje babe I, Slovenia. Arheoloki vestnik, 52, 223-249. Turk, I., Skaberne, D., Dirjec, J., & Blackwell, B.A.B., 2002: Assessing humidity in an Upper Pleistocene karst environment: Palaeoclimates and palaeomi croclimates at the cave, Divje babe I, Slovenia. Acta carsologica, 31, 139-175. Ulusoy, .L.K., 2003: ESR dating of North Anatolian (Turkey) and Nojima (Japan) faults. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 23, 161-174. Ulusoy, .L.K., 2004: ESR studies of Anatolian gypsum. Spectrochimica Acta A, Molecular & Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 60, 1359-1365. Vanhaelewyn, G., Callens, F., & Grn, R., 2000: ESR spec trum deconvolution and dose assessment of fossil tooth enamel using maximum likelihood common factor analysis. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 52, 1317-1326. Voinchet, P., Falgures, C., Laurent, M., Toyoda, S., Ba hain, J.J., & Dolo, J.M. 2003: Articial optical bleach ing of the aluminium center in quartz implications to ESR dating of sediments. Q uaternary Science Re views, 22, 1335-1338. W hitehead, N.E., Lyon, G.L., Claridge, G.C., Sato, H. & Ikeya, M., 2002: ESR studies on Antarctic carbon ates and sulphates. In: W hitehead, N.E., Ikeya, M., eds., Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Prospects in ESR Dosimetry and Dating, Society of ESR Applied Metrology, Osaka, Advances in ESR Applications, 18, 11-18. W ieser, A., Debuyst, R., Fattibene, P., Meghzifene, A., Onori, S., Bayankin, S.N., Blackwell, B.A.B., Brik, A., Bugay, A., Chumak, V., Ciesielski, B., Hoshi, H., Imata, H., Ivannikov, A., Ivanov, D., Junczewska, M., Miyazama, C., Pass, B., Penkowski, M., Pivova rov, S., Romanyukha, A., Romanyukha, L., Schauer, D., Scherbina, O., Schultka, K., Shames, A., Sho lom, S., Skinner, A.R., Skvortsov, V., Stepanenko, V., Tielewuhan, E., Toyoda, S., & Trompier, F., 2005: e 3rd international intercomparison on EPR tooth dosimetry: Part 1, general analysis. Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 62, 163-171. W oda, C., Mangini, A., & W agner, G.A., 2001: ESR dating of xenolithic quartz in volcanic rocks. Q uaternary Science Reviews, 20, 993-998. Yugo, O., Naruse, T., Ikeya, M., Kohno, H., & Toyoda, S., 1998: Origin and derived courses of eolian dust quartz deposited during Marine Isotope Stage 2 in east Asia suggested by ESR signal intensity. Global & Planetary Change, 18, 129-135. E LECTRON S PIN R ESONANCE ESR D ATING IN K ARST E NVIRONMENTS



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T HE H ISTORY OF P OSTOJNSKA J AMA : T HE 1748 J OSEPH A NTON N AGEL INSCRIPTIONS IN J AMA NEAR P REDJAMA AND P OSTOJNSKA J AMA Z GODOVINA P OSTOJNSKE JAME : N AGLOV NAPIS V J AMI PRI P REDJAMI IN P OSTOJNSKI JAMI IZ 1748 Stephan K EMPE 1 Hans-Peter H UBRICH 2 & Klaus S UCKSTORFF 3 Izvleek UDK 551.44(497.4 Postojna)(091) Stephan Kempe, Hans-Peter Hubrich & Klaus Suckstor: Zgo dovina Postojnske jame: Naglov napis v Jami pri Predjami in Postojnski jami iz 1748 Jama pri Predjami in Postojnska jama sta znani po tevilnih zgodovinskih napisih, ki obsegajo as ve stoletij. Zgodnji ra ziskovalci so zapustili imena, datume in simbole. V prispevku so predstavljeni napisi matematika Joefa Antona Nagla (1717 -1794). Le Nagla ter slikarja in inenirja Alojza Schaenratha (1794-1836) je mogoe zaslediti v obeh jamah. Nagel je obiskal ti dve jami julija 1748, po ukazu cesarja Franca I. Napis v Jami pri Predjami, ki je za napise v jamah precej dolg, je v latinini ter navaja ime, poklic, vzrok in datum obiska. Napis v Postojn ski jami je precej kratek, le ime in datum obiska. al je nepazljiv obiskovalec del napisa v Jami precej pokodoval. K ljune besede: zgodovina speleologije, napis v jami, J. A. Na gel, Jama pri Predjami, Postojnska jama, Slovenija. 1 Prof. Dr. Stephan Kempe, Institute for Applied Geosciences, University of Technology Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, e-mail: kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de; 2 Dipl.-Ing. Hans-Peter Hubrich, Am Langenmarkstein 31, D-64686 Lautertal; 3 Klaus Suckstor, Rosenweg 42, D-21502 Geesthacht. Received / Prejeto: 25.04.2006 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2, 155, L JUBLJANA 2006 Abstract UDC 551.44(497.4 Postojna)(091) Stephan Kempe, Hans-Peter Hubrich & Klaus Suckstor: e history of Postojnska Jama: e 1748 Joseph Anton Nagel in scriptions in Jama near Predjama and Postojnska Jama Jama near Predjama and Postojnska Jama, Slovenia, are known for their rich body of historic inscriptions spanning over sev eral centuries. Early explorers and visitors le names, dates and symbols. Here we present the inscriptions by the mathemati cian Josef Anton Nagel (1717-1794). Nagel and the painter and engineer Alois Schaenrath (1794-1836) are the only ones that we can trace in both of the caves. Nagel visited the caves in July 1748 on order of Emperor Franz I. e inscription in Jama near Predjama is (for cave inscriptions) rather long and written in Latin, giving name, profession, cause and date of the visit, while the inscription in Postojnska Jama is rather short, giving only name and date of visit. Unfortunately the inscription in Jama near Predjama is already partly obliterated by an incautious visitor. K ey words: history of speleology, cave inscription, J. A. Nagel, Jama near Predjama, Postojnska jama, Slovenia. INTRODUCTION Inscriptions in caves are an important historic source. ey inform about when cave visits began, when they peaked and who was visiting the caves. Specically im portant are inscriptions of historically known persons. In this respect Postojnska jama is a speleohistoric treasure chest. is is, for example, completely dierent in case of the Baumanns Cave, Harz Mountains, which also con tains hundreds of signatures, none of which so far was matched with a historically known person (for the early history of the Baumanns Cave see Kempe et al ., 2004b).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 156 Nevertheless, even in the Postojnska Jama inscriptions have not been researched extensively. An earlier paper on the pre-1818 inscriptions in the old cave (Kempe, 2003) focused mostly on the fact that these inscriptions have survived largely unaltered since they were rst reported by Volpi (1821) and Hohenwart (1830, 1832a,b). Later (Kempe et al ., 2004a) dealt with the inscriptions in Pisani Rov (Erzherzog Johann Grotte), specically with those of an inscription column, initiated by Alois Schaenrath in 1825. Most recently Kempe (2005) discussed the Tar tarus Panel that also was established by Schaenrath in March 1825, but that also contains the signatures of the Fercher survey party of 1833. In addition to these signa tures, letters were published for the rst time, illustrating the background of the cooperation between the adminis tration of the Adelsberger Grotte and the direction of the mercury mine at Idria during the survey. One of the earliest historically known persons who le inscriptions in the investigated caves was Joseph An ton Nagel (1717-1800). He visited the caves of Carniola (Krain) in 1748 and le a hand-written manuscript about his visits. Here we give pictures of both his inscriptions in Jama near Predjama and Postojnska Jama, report on their conditions and give an overview of what he had to say about the two caves. J OSEPH A NTON N AGEL Joseph Anton Nagel was born in Rietberg (Rittberg), W estphalia on February 3 rd 1717, and received his train ing as a mathematician at the Hohe Schule von Pader born (W urzbach, 1869; Schnburg-Hartenstein, 1987; Killy & Vierhaus, s.a.). Possibly on recommendation by his country lord, W enzel Anton Graf Kaunitz, (since 1764 Reichsfrst of Kaunitz-Rietberg) who held various oces at the court in Vienna since 1737, Nagel was able to continue his studies at the University of Vienna. Aer a short stay at Brnn and an administrative position at the Upper-Hungarian salt mine of Soowar, he found em ployment at the imperial-royal court where he worked in the administration, a position that did not challenge his profound mathematical talent. Franz I (reigned 174565), the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation (not to be confused with Franz II, the last emperor of the Holy Roman Em pire reigning 17921806 and who became Franz I, the Habsburgian Austrian Emperor, in which function he reigned 18041835) ordered Nagel to study natural cu riosities, nally a task according to his talents that took him on travels throughout the Empire, rst within Aus tria in 1747 and then to Carniola and Moravia in 1748. Nagel spent several weeks in Carniola (Slovenia) in summer of 1748. He duly delivered reports to the court (Nagel, 1748) that remain still largely unpublished (see Shaw, 1992). At around 1760 Nagel became a mathema tician of the Habsburgian court and teacher of Erzher zog Karl Joseph and travelled abroad to France, England, the Netherlands, Hungary and Tyrol. On initiation by Maria eresia he began to work on a map of the city of Vienna (1770 and 1779) and its suburbs (Ground plan of the Imperial-Royal Residence City Vienna, its suburbs and neighbouring towns) which was published as a cop per etching in 1780/81. He also produced a map of the inner city of Vienna in 1774. Furthermore, he served as the director of the physical cabinet from 1770 until aer 1790. In 1775 he was appointed director of the Philo sophical Faculty of the University of Vienna, a position he held until his retirement at around 1790. Nagel died in Vienna on May 6 th 1794. H IS REPORTS e reports delivered by Nagel were hand-written in Current, the handwriting for ocial documents. e manuscripts about three of his early excursions were not published at the time (see Shaw, 1992). ese are the descriptions of the tscher Mountain in 1747, about his travel to Crain and Moravia in 1748, and about his jour ney to Holic/Hungary. His account of the earthquake of 1768 was published in print. During his Crain and Moravia excursion Nagel spent several weeks in Slovenia in summer of 1748. e manuscript related to his observations has 97 pages and 22 gures. It is kept at the Austrian National Library at Vienna (MS N. 7854). W e have now transcribed it entire ly, planning its publication in full length. It is baroquely titled: STEPHAN K EMPE H ANS P ETER H UBRICH & K LAUS S UCKSTORFF

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 157 Beschreibung deren Auf allerhchsten Befehl Ihro Rm: Kayl: und Knigl: Maytt: FRANCISCI I untersuchten, in dem Herzogthum Crain bendlichen Seltenheiten der Natur (Description of the curiosities of nature of the Her zogtum Crain studied by highest order of his Roman Em perial and Royal Majesty, Franz I.) In this text we nd many references to karst and caves, among them the Lueger Hhle (Jama near Pred jama) and the Adelsberger Grotte (Postojnska Jama). In the beginning of his report, Nagel claries some of the tales in VALVASORs epic chronic (1689) that, as he explains, rest on wishful thinking, unproven hear-say and superstition but not on reality. In many cases he cor rected doubtful passages by his own observations or by factual logic. He lists the following examples of distorted facts: catching crabs by whistling; hunting Pilliche (i.e. Bilche, Siebenschlfer, engl. dormouse, Glis glis) with boots and coats spread out on the ground; attracting leeches in Cerkniko jezero by singing; making Heimchen (i.e. the house cricket, Acheta do mestica) appear by magic spells; cemeteries on the top of Beuscheza Mountain and on the Steiner Alps; the occurrence of eyeand featherless ducks aer oods in Cerkniko jezero that can see and y aer two weeks again (which probably is a distorted early account of the endemic Proteus anguinus); that the condensed fog driing from caves represents devilish smoke. He reacted to such absurdities with the appeal that the authors should refrain from pleasing eulogies and dis torting ourishes in history books. Rather they should describe the reality and stick to truth. Nagel deals with famous Cerkniko Jezero in a great detail. Among other facts he describes: Changing water levels up to complete dryness and their dependence on precipitation; the existence of numerous connections between the lake bottom and the conduits in the karst mountains; artesian bursts of water aer torrential rains; water-level-limiting swallow holes; and he discusses thoughts about the connectivity of the water courses above and below ground. e observed interdependencies and the conclu sions drawn from them are nally packed together into a logical hydraulic model including abstracted inputs and outputs and water-level-depending discharges. Further more he postulates underground connections between caves and Cerkniko Jezero in the order: Cerkniko Jeze ro Cave of St. Canzian (Rak valley, Zelke Jame) Pivka Adelsberger Grotte Kleinhusler Grotte Untz. He deals with the phenomenon of noisily owing water masses in karst cavities as well as with the thun der of so called weather holes (Hexenlcher, Coprnika Jama). He continues to describe his observations in the Karst, specically about its caves, sketching their accessi bility, spatial dimensions, length, divisions into compart ments and remarkable owstone formations. Nagel reports about the cave at St. Canzian (Rak valley, Zelke Jame), the Gotscheer caves (Koevje), the three weather holes at Ober-Gurck (Krka), the curious spring at Ober-Laibach (Vrhnika), the cave at Planina / Kleinhusler Grotte as the source of river Untz (Unica) (Planinska Jama), the Adelsberger Hhlen (Postojnska Jama), the Magdalenen-Grotte (rna Jama), the Lueger Hhle (Jama near Predjama), the cave at St. Servolo, the cave at Cornial (Vilenica), and the cave at Sloup in Mora via and the huge Macocha sinkhole. ese descriptions are anked by reports about oth er natural curiosities, such as a special nut tree (i.e. a tree with an extremely short vegetation period), the D attili del M are (marine bivalves that can drill into limestone) and a waterfall at Freistritz in Ober-Crain. N AGEL S REPORT VON DER L UEGER H LE Nagel did not nd the Castle of Lueg, now a world-wide known tourist attraction, very attractive. He describes it as being built into the niche of the vertical wall above the cave entrance (Jama near Predjama). About 70 m behind the upper cave entrance a deep well is found that always contains good water. is cave served, according to leg end, Erasmus Lueger, who was accused of having mur dered Marshall von Pappenheim, of committing robbery and treason. is stronghold could not be conquered for a long time. It was provisioned through a four mile long secret passage from the Birnbaum Forest (Hruica). Nagel did not nd this passage and discredited it as a pure invention. e access to the main cave, across a bridge and 30 m below the castle, was walled up at the time of Nagel. Nagel was able to explore about 800 m of passages. He found several sections of dierent character: stretches T HE H ISTORY OF P OSTOJNSKA J AMA : T HE 1748 J OSEPH A NTON N AGEL INSCRIPTIONS IN J AMA NEAR P REDJAMA ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 158 N AGEL S REPORT VON DER A DELSPERGER H LEN with a loamy oor without owstone, low crawling pas sages, two white owstone pyramids, and rare gures of owstone on the wall reminding of trees and forests. He observed a strong air current, emanating from a hole at the end of the cave, and concluded that there must be more passages; and he saw the many inscriptions of names that people had le there prior to his visit. In his paragraph about Postojnska jama Nagel states that the cave consists of four cavities. Into the lower, le one, the Poycku (Pivka) sinks. Nagel makes the rst map of the cave (one of the earliest ever made) and describes in the text the individual cave sections accessible at the time, noting length, situation, branches, special forma tions, owstone gures etc.. 40 m behind the entrance there are remains of a wall from the time when the locals hid in the cave from raiding Turks. He cites the opinion and accedes with it that the Pivka reappears about 5 km further north from Planinska Jama as the Untz river (Unica). Again, just as in the preface to the manuscript, Nagel refutes VALVASOR, who related that a ghost haunts the rst section of the underground water course and that it would turn the neck of any intruder, simply by stating that he himself and his party emerges from the cave with straight necks. Nagel explains the occurrence of shes in the cave streams with the changes in water level or discharge volume. For a 70 year old inscription Nagel calculates the owstone growth rate (Pag. 46/2; see also Shaw, 1992). W ith this rate at hand, he estimates that the large columns in the Cave of Cornial (Vilenica) with six Schuh diameter must have taken 90,720 years to grow. But instead of casting doubt on the static Chris tian date of creation calculated by Anglican Archbish op James USSHER (born 4 th of January, 1581, in Dublin; died, 21 st of March, 1656, in Reigate, Surrey) to have hap pened on 23 rd of October 4004 BC he shies away from the possible consequences and just states: D a aber seit der Sintut nur 5696 Jahre verossen seien, mssen sich I rregularitten ereignet haben (But because 5,696 years passed since the deluge, there must have been (other) ir regularities). Here Nagel makes a mistake: Ussher actu ally dated the deluge to 2501 BC i.e. the year 1748 should have been 4249 aer the deluge and not 5696. His date would (5696-4004-1748) place the deluge at 56 years af ter the creation of earth. Nevertheless he questioned the accepted dogma in the following sentence (possibly with a twinkle in his eyes) by saying: D och ist gewi, da sie (die Anwachsung des T ropfsteins) sehr lang zugehe (bentige), weil sonst die H hlen in gar kurzer Zeit mit T ropfstein durchgehend an gefllet werden, folglich den W ssern zu ihrem L auf kein Raum mehr brig bleiben werde. (But it is for sure that it (the growth of the stalagmite) takes a long time, because otherwise the caves would be lled completely in a short time and the waters would not have space for their pas sage). Nagels report was written in 1748 and the time was ripe for some critical assessment on the age of the Earth. Only seven years later (1755) IMMANUEL KANT chal lenged the biblical view of the world in his book Allge meine Naturgeschichte und eorie des H immels and in 1780 JAMES HUTTON laid the foundation in his eo ry of the Earth to exchange the biblical dating for a more scientically founded calculation of the age of Earth. So far, not all of the pictures of Nagel have been re published, among others, Shaw (1992) reprinted a few of the pictures which accompany the reports including the rst map of the old Adelsberger Grotte. It is an amazingly correct ground view of the frontal part of the cave, giving all at the time known passages in due proportions and directions. N AGEL S INSCRIPTION IN P REDJAMSKI JAMA Probably the most important and certainly the longest in scription in Jama near Predjama yet documented was le by Nagel in Latin (Fig. 1). It is located on the right wall (looking in direction of the guided tour) in the NamePassage (Imenski rov), about 1 m above the oor and just beyond the Bear Hole (Medvedja Luknja). W e took a picture of it during a guided tour on 19 th of July, 2005. It is a small inscription written with pencil. Because the common clay-graphite pencil had not yet been invent ed, the pencil used by Nagel was most probably either a metal pencil (silver, lead or tin) or a piece of sharpened mineral graphite. According to the German Jama near Predjama guide (Habe, 1981; p. 43) the inscription reads as follows: STEPHAN K EMPE H ANS P ETER H UBRICH & K LAUS S UCKSTORFF

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 159 NAGEL suae sacrae Caesareae Majestatis (abbreviated) Franci. I Mathematicus aulicus Jussu Augustissimi hanc cryptem et alias complures in Car=niolia perlustrabat A//o 1748 die 13 Julii at is translated: His Holy Imperator and Majesty Franz I Mathematicus on order of his highest (lord) (has) this crypt and others many in Carniola (Krnten) investigated Anno 1748 day 13 July F ig. 1: Photograph of Nagels inscription in Jama near Predjama (Photo by S. Kempe). F ig. 2: Situation of the Postojnska jama Nagel-I nscription (H.P. H ubrich for scale) (Photo by S. Kempe). Habe (1981) reports that the inscription had rst been identied by the Coleopterologist Egon Pretner. Habe (1981; Inset Plate 14) also published a color picture of the inscription. It is, however, too small to read details clearly. Comparing Habes picture with our picture, it is clear that the inscription has been damaged in the mean time: e letters NAG from Nagelss name suered a sub stantial smear. Also the in appears somewhat blurred. Obviously someone touched the inscription accidentally while pointing at the lines. If it would have been an intentional damage, then the entire inscription could have been blurred with one palm stroke. A few centimeters above Nagels name there is an other line with about ve to six pencil-written letters, all illegible. If this line is connected with Nagels inscription cannot be said with certainty. T HE H ISTORY OF P OSTOJNSKA J AMA : T HE 1748 J OSEPH A NTON N AGEL INSCRIPTIONS IN J AMA NEAR P REDJAMA ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 160 F ig. 3: Photograph of Nagels inscription in Postojnska Jama (Photo by S. Kempe). Nagel also le his name in Postojnska jama. Habe already mentioned this (1986, p.14) but fails to give its position. On July 21 st we visited the old gallery in Postojnska jama in search of Fercher survey team inscriptions (1833; see Kempe, 2005). W e found Nagels signature on the 45 sloping ceiling ca. 50 m from the access ladder (Fig. 2). It occurs with a few other signatures (termed Old-Cave Panel 1) at a place where there is no substantial spele othem growth. e signature is small and consists only of three lines (Fig. 3): N AGEL S INSCRIPTION IN P OSTOJNSKA JAMA NAGEL 1748 19 Julii In both inscriptions Nagel uses only his Family name, spelled in capitals (if one accepts the last three let ters of the Postojna inscriptions as capitalia). In Postojna he also uses printed letters for the month, while in Jama near Predjama we nd the month (as well as the other text) written in a uent handwriting. Both times the name of the month is given in its Latin form. e Posto jna inscription is, however, much more blurred than the Predjamski jama text. In Postojnska Jama probably the wall was not as dry as in Jama near Predjama and the ink apparently started to diuse into the intergranulars of the underlying rock surface. Tiny white specs have overgrown the writing in addition and a thin transparent veneer of owstone has covered them. e nature of the pen, with which was written cannot be assessed with cer tainty. In any case the reading of the inscription is much assisted by the knowledge of who made it and when it was made. e year and the name of the month can be identied clearly at least once one knows that Nagel vis ited the area in July 1748. e exact date of the month is, however, illegible. Habe (1986, p. 14) assumed it is the 13th, but that is highly unlikely. W e rather suggest the 19 th as being the correct reading. at it cannot be the 13 th arises from the fact, that Nagel then should have vis ited both Postojna and Jama near Predjama on the same day. Even more so, he should have produced the quite accurate map of Postojnska jama and explored Jama near Predjama extensively. All this is not very likely to have happened in one day. Alternatively the second numeral in the day could be a making it the 14 th In any case Nagel seems to have visited rst Jama near Predjama, be fore he worked in the old Adelsberger Grotte. C ONCLUSIONS e well dated Nagel inscriptions are part of a much larger body of inscriptions. e inscriptions tell us some thing about the frequency of visits. In Jama near Pred jama there are many inscriptions dating from the 18 th century. is is in striking contrast to the old cave of Postojna. ere we only found two inscriptions out of ca. 250 documented by us as yet dating from the 18 th cen tury. Apart from Nagel, only one visitor signed during that century and that was much later, i.e. in the year 1795. e last date before Nagels visit was 1699, making Nagels date the only one within almost a hundred years! Nagels inscriptions are singular in that sense that they are the oldest of a person known for his speleologi cal accomplishments. It is not the oldest of a historically known person because in Jama near Predjama we nd signatures of the Cobenzl family, the owners of the Pred jama Castle that probably predate Nagels signature. Nagel is also not the only person who le his name in both caves: Alois Schaenrath (1794-1836), famous for his drawings of Postojnska jama (published by Hohen wart, 1830, 1832a,b, and in his guide to the cave, Schaen rath, 1834) le his name also in both caves (Figs. 4 and 5) STEPHAN K EMPE H ANS P ETER H UBRICH & K LAUS S UCKSTORFF

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 161 F ig. 4: Photograph of Aloys Schaenraths signature in the old cave of Postojnska jama (Photo by S. Kempe). F ig. 5: Photograph of Jacob V idmars and Aloys Schaenraths signatures in Jama near Predjama at the end of the historic passage (Photo by S. Kempe). as we now discovered. Above Schaenraths signature the name Jac. Vidmar is found in the same handwriting. Jacob W idmar (spelled German) was one of the workers present, when Luka e discovered the main passage in Postojnska jama and who le a written statement about the circumstances of this discovery. It was reproduced by Schmidl (1854) and is discussed in detail by Kempe et al ., (2004a). Obviously Vidmar and Schaenrath visited Jama near Predjama together. Unfortunately they did not note the date of their visit. Studying cave inscriptions yields new information about the history of the cave, its explorers and visitors. W e are working now on a data bank documenting all of the inscriptions in the old cave of Postojna A CKNO W LEDGEMENTS W e thank Dr. Tadej Slabe for organizing the visit to Postojnska jama and the administration of the cave for allowing us to visit the cave beyond the tourist trails. Helena Vii guided us into Jama near Predjama on 19 th July, 2005, and Leon Drame from the Karst Research Institute accompa nied us into Postojnska jama on 21 st of July, 2005. English was improved by Dr. M.S. W erner, Hilo, Hawaii. T HE H ISTORY OF P OSTOJNSKA J AMA : T HE 1748 J OSEPH A NTON N AGEL INSCRIPTIONS IN J AMA NEAR P REDJAMA ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/2 2006 162 Habe, F., 1981: Predjama, das Schloss und die Hhle, 1. Au..Hhle von Postojna, 50 pp, 16 Tafeln. Habe, F., 1986: e Postojna Caves and other Tourist Caves in Slovenia, 4 th ed. Postojnska jama, Posto jna, 83 pp, 11 Plates, 1 folded map. Hohenwart, F. Graf von, 1830, 1832a, 1832b: W egweiser fr die W anderer in der berhmten Adelsberger und Kronprinz Ferdinands-Grotte bey Adelsberg in Krain; als Erklrung der von Herrn Aloys Schaen rath, k.k. Kreis-Ingenieur in Adelsberg, gezeichne ten Ansichten dieser Grotte. W ien, J.P. Sollinger, 3 Vol., 16 + 9 + 14 pp. and 21 copperplates (Reprint 1978: ajn, S., ed.; Introduction: Habe, F. & lenc, J.: Postojnska jama; 1. ed., Postojnska Jama THO; Postojna; 32 pp Introduction, folio). Kempe, S., 2003: Die alten Inschrien der Adelsberger Grotte /Postojnska Jama. Die Hhle, 54(2): 36-44. Kempe, S., 2005: e inscriptions of the Tartarus Pan el and the 1833 Fercher-survey, Postojnska jama. Acta Carsologica, 34/1 (13): 221-235. Kempe, S., I. Bauer, H. Dirks, & H.-V. Henschel 2004a: Schaenraths inscription column in Pisani rov, Postojnska jama. Acta Carsologica, 33/2: 299312. Kempe, S., B. Dunsch, K. Fetkenheuer, G. Naumann & F. Reinboth, 2004b: Die Baumannshhle bei Rbe land/Harz im Spiegel der wissenschalichen Litera tur vom 16. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert: Lateinische Q uellentexte. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schrien, Bd. 7, He 1, Okt. 2004: 171-215. Killy, W ., & R. Vierhaus, (eds.), s.a. [ca. 1990]: Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopdie Bd. 7, (May-Plener). W issenschaliche Buchgesellscha, Darmstadt, 695pp (Nagel see p. 335). R EFERENCES Nagel, J.A., 1748: Beschreibung deren auf allerhchsten Befehl Ihro Rm. Kayserl. und knigl, Maytt. Fran cisci I. untersuchten in dem Herzogthum Crain bendlichen Seltenheiten der Natur. Vienna: Na tionalbibliothek, MS N. 7854, ii +97. Schmidl, A., 1854: Die Grotten und Hhlen von Adels berg, Lueg, Planina und Laas, Text and Atlas. W il helm Braumller, W ien, 316 pp, 15 Plates. Schaenrath, A., 1834: Beschreibung der berhmten Grotte bei Adelsberg in Krain. I. Edlen v. Klein mayr, Laibach, 32 pp., 2 Lithographs. Schnburg-Hartenstein, J.; 1987: Josef Anton Nagel ein Direktor des physikalischen Kabinettes, Verlag der sterreichischen Akademie der W issenschaen, W ien. Shaw, T.R., 1992: History of Cave Science, the Explora tion and Study of Limestone Caves, to 1900. 2 nd ed., Sydney Speleological Soc., Broadway, New South W ales, Australia, 338 pp. Valvasor, J.W ., 1689: Die Ehre des Herzogthums Crain: Das ist: W ahre, grndliche, und recht eigendliche Belegenund Beschaenheit dieses, in manchen alten und neuen Geschicht-Bchern zwar rhm lich berhrten, doch bishero nie annoch recht be schriebenen Rmisch-Keyserlichen herzlichen Erb landes, Bd. I-IV. W olfgang Moritz Endter, Buch hndler in Nrnberg, Laybach. Volpi, G. de, 1821: ber ein bey Adelsberg neuentdeck tes Palotherium. Maldinische Schrien, Triest, 31 pp., 2 Plates. W urzbach, C.v., 1856 1891: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich; 60 Bnde; W ien, Ver lag der Universittsbuchdruckerei von L.C. Zamar ski und spter Druck und Verlag der k.k. Hofund Staatsdruckerei. STEPHAN K EMPE H ANS P ETER H UBRICH & K LAUS S UCKSTORFF