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Acta carsologica

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Acta carsologica
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Acta Carsologica
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Krasoslovni zbornik
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Inštitut za raziskovanje krasa (Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti)
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Vol. 44, no. 1 (2015)

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Hydrochemical variations of the springs on Jinfo Mountain, Chongqing, China / Xiao Qiong, Shen Licheng, Wu Kunyu ( .pdf )

A case study of anthropogenic impact on the CO2 levels in low-volume profile of the Balcarka Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic) / Marek Lang, Jiří Fainmon, Camille Ek ( .pdf )

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Ceiling erosion in caves: early studies and Zdeněk Roth as author of the concept / Pavel Bella, Pavel Bosák ( .pdf )

Tony Waltham and David Lowe (eds.), 2013: Caves and Karst of the Yorkshire Dales, Volume 1 / France Šusteršič ( .pdf )


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DOLOMITE IN SPELEOTHEMS OF SNENA JAMA CAVE, SLOVENIA DOLOMIT V SPELEOTEMIH IZ SNENE JAME Andrea MARTNPREZ 1 2 Adrijan K OIR 1 & Bojan O TONI AR 3 Izvleek UDK 551.435.84:552.543(497.4) Andrea Martn-Prez, Adrijan Koir & Bojan Otoniar: Do lomit v speleotemih iz Snene jame V Sneni jami so bili odkriti obseni speleotemi iz dolomita, aragonita in magnezita v obliki globularnih skorjastih tvorb, ki prekrivjao matino kamnino. Ogrodje skorij je zgrajeno iz razvejanih kristalnih skupkov aragonita, cementiranih z dolo mitom, ki prekriva in deloma nadomea aragonit. Dolomit se pojavlja v dveh teksturnih razlikih: v obliki grobo zaobljenih do sferoidalnih kristalov, ki imajo pogosto brozno-radialno in/ali sferino notranjo zgradbo, ter v obliki mikrokristalnih agregatov. Magnezij, ki izvira iz raztopljene matine dolo mitne kamnine, ima bistven vpliv na izloanje aragonita, do lomita in hidromagnezita. Izloanje dolomita je lahko spod bujeno s povianim razmerjem Mg/Ca v raztopini, ki sledi izloanju kalcita ali aragonita, ali s poveanim izhlapevanjem zaradi cirkulacije zraka v jami v asu, ko je bil jamski sistem s povrjem povezan z ve vertikalnimi prehodi in skozi nekdanji glavni vhod. Podobni pogoji verjetno obstajajo v mnogih ja mah, vendar pa se dolomit v jamskih pogojih le redko izloa, zato v lanku razpravljamo o mogoih druganih mehanizmih nasta janja dolomita od izloanja pod mikrobnim vplivom do transformacije predhodnih mineralnih faz, kakrne bi lahko bile amorfne oblike Ca-Mg karbonatov ali hidromagnezit. Kljune besede: Snena jama, Raduha, Kamniko-Savinjske Alpe, speleotemi, dolomit, aragonit, hidromagnezit, sferoidna tekstura. 1 Institute of Paleontology, ZRC SAZU. Novi trg 2, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia, e-mail: andreamp@zrc-sazu.si, adrijan@zrc-sazu.si 2 Departamento de Petrologa y Geoqumica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. C/ Jos Antonio Novais 2, 28040, Madrid, Spain 3 Karst Research Institute, ZRC SAZU. Titov trg 2, 6230, Postojna, Slovenia, e-mail: otonicar@zrc-sazu.si Received/Prejeto: 23.10.2014 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 81, POSTOJNA 2015 Abstract UDC 551.435.84:552.543(497.4) Andrea Martn-Prez, Adrijan Koir & Bojan Otoniar: Do lomite in speleothems of Snena Jama cave In Snena Jama cave, Slovenia, extensive speleothems com posed of dolomite, aragonite and hydromagnesite have been found, occurring as 5 cm thick globular crusts coating the host rock. Arborescent aragonite constitutes the skeleton of the crust, whereas dolomite is cementing, coating and replac ing the aragonite. e dolomite displays two distinctive fabrics: coarse rounded to spheroidal crystals, frequently showing brous-radial and concentric patterns, and microcrystalline ag gregates. Dissolution of the dolostone host rock has provided Mg, which is the main control on the precipitation of arago nite, dolomite and hydromagnesite. Dolomite precipitation could be promoted by increased Mg/Ca ratios due to the prior precipitation of calcite and aragonite and by forced degassing due to ventilation caused by the existence of shas cutting the main cave passage and a former entrance to the cave. However, in many caves such conditions do not lead to the formation of dolomite and so we discuss other mechanisms which might promote dolomite precipitation, like the possible contribution of microbes, or the transformation of precursor phases such as amorphous Ca-Mg carbonates, or hydromagnesite. Key words: Snena Jama cave, Raduha, Kamnik-Savinja Alps, dolomite speleothems, aragonite, hydromagnesite, spheroidal textures.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 82 ANDREA MARTNPREZ, ADRIJAN K OIR & B OJAN O TONI AR Dolomite is a mineral rarely present in caves. Although at least 350 dierent cave minerals have been described, more than 90 % of speleothems are composed of only cal cite and aragonite (Onac & Forti 2011). In other recent, low temperature sedimentary en vironments, dolomite is also scarce, in contrast with the abundance of dolomite in ancient rocks. is scarcity, together with the failure to inorganically precipitate do lomite in the laboratory in conditions of low temperature and pressure (Land 1998), are some of the aspects of the dolomite problem (W arren 2000; Machel 2004), a topic of debate for decades. Some of the most important settings where recent dolomite has been found are sabkhas (McKenzie et al. 1980; Bontognali et al. 2010), saline or hypersaline lakes (Corzo et al. 2005; Last et al. 2012) and coastal lagoons (Vasconcelos & McKenzie 1997; W right & W acey 2005). In contrast, little is known about the formation of dolo mite in the subaerial meteoric conditions that are preva lent in caves, and a study of this particular setting can reveal new insights into the formation of dolomite. e occurrence of dolomite has been reported from dierent caves around the world (Fishbeck & Mller 1971; Polyak & Gven 2000; Jones 2010a and referenc es therein). However, in most cases it appears in a very small amount, and only a few studies have given a de tailed description and interpretation of its possible origin (railkill 1968; Bar-Matthews et al. 1991; Alonso-Zarza & Martn-Prez 2008; Jones 2010a; Onac et al. 2014). In Snena Jama cave, Slovenia, we have found centimetre-thick botryoidal crusts on the cave walls, composed of up to 60 % dolomite of dierent textures, aragonite, hydromagnesite and minor amounts of cal cite. e aim of this work is to report this occurrence of dolomite speleothem and provide a detailed description of its characteristics, comparing them with previously reported cave dolomite. INTRODUCTION MATERIAL AND METHODS Samples were collected from naturally fallen blocks ad jacent to the cave wall. Speleothems were carefully com pared with their in-situ counterparts. Freshly broken surfaces and cut slabs were examined under a binocular microscope. Conventional optical petrography was per formed on thin sections. Due to their fragility, the spele othems were embedded in Epofer EX 401 and Epofer E 432 epoxy resin in a vacuum system before cutting and polishing. Selected thin sections were stained with ali zarin red S and potassium ferricyanide (Dickson 1966) to distinguish aragonite and calcite from dolomite. Min eralogical characterisation was done by X-ray dirac tion (XRD) using a Bruker D8 difractometer operating at 40 kV and 30 mA, at 1.7 /min, with monochromated CuK radiation at Complutense University in Madrid and a Bruker AX S endeavour difractometer from the Department of Advanced Materials of the Joef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana. XRD spectra were obtained from 2 to 65 2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) obser vations were performed on gold-coated samples using a JEOL JSM 330A microscope at the Institute of Paleon tology ZRC SAZU, Ljubljana and a JEOL JSM-820 6400 electron microscope at the National Electronic Micros copy Centre (CNME), Madrid. An ED X system allowed semi-quantitative compositions to be obtained. Elemen tal analyses were performed in polished thin sections on a JEOL JX A-8900 M WD/ED electron microprobe at CNME, operating at 15 kV and 20 nA and employing an electron beam diameter of 5 m. LOCATION AND GEOLOGICAL SETTING Snena Jama cave is located on the south-eastern slope of the Raduha Mountain (Fig. 1) in the NE part of the Kam nik-Savinja Alps. e entrance is located at 1556 m.a.s.l., at a height of 1000 m above the level of the Savinja River (Naraglav & Ramak 1990). e cave (Fig. 2) consists of a nearly horizontal main passage, about 1600 m long, of phreatic-epiphreatic origin (Bosk et al. 2002), cut by four vertical shas. e cave was formed in Middle and Upper Triassic massive limestone and dolomite (Mio et al. 1983; Celarc 2004). According to a detailed geologi

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 83 DOLOMITE IN SPELEOTHEMS OF SNENA JAMA CAVE, SLOVENIA cal map by Celarc (2004), the rst part of the main cave passage, with a general ENE-W SW direction, lies in the Cordevolian formation. e second, SE-NW oriented part, developed in the Ojstrica Formation (Celarc 2004): a major change in the general passage trend corresponds to a fault separating both formations. Cave deposits are very diverse. Fluvial sediments consisting of laminated clays and sands with pebbles are found all along the cave and can reach a thickness of 10 m in some areas (Bosk et al. 2002). Large massive calcite speleothems (draperies, owstone sheets and domes, stalagmites and stalactites) are abundant in most areas of the main gallery (Zupan Hajna et al. 2008). Studies performed in owstones re veal a minimum age of 1.2 Ma based on U-series data, and older than 1.77 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy (Bosk et al. 2002). e central part of the cave passage (Naraglav & Ramak 1990) is characterised by thick, ac tively precipitating calcite moonmilk speleothems (Koir et al. 2010; Koir et al. 2012). In the more internal part of the cave, aragonite and Mg-carbonate speleothems such as coralloids, stalactites and crusts are predominant. e caves average annual temperature is 4.5 C whereas the relative humidity varies between distinct parts of the cave (Zupan Hajna et al. 2008). Fossil re mains of Ursus spelaeus found in the terminal part of the cave indicate the existence of another cave entrance dur ing the Pleistocene (Zupan Hajna et al. 2008), probably strongly aecting the cave microclimate in the past. Fig. 1: Location of Snefna Jama in the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, N Slovenia. Fig. 2: Simplied plan map of Snefna Jama, taken from Z upanH ajna et al. 2008. e red dot shows the sampled area.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 84 Dolomite appears in the area of the cave that is domi nated by aragonite speleothems (Fig. 3A), growing on dolostone host rock. Dolomite is associated with aragonite forming extensive crusts that cover the host rock on the cave walls (Fig. 3B-D). e dolomite crusts are between 3 and 6 cm thick (Fig. 3E) and display a globular sur face morphology with globules varying from a few mm up to 5 cm in diameter (Fig. 3F). e surface of the crust is dry and does not show signs of present-day mineral precipitation. Some globules are partly covered with small white patches of moonmilk (Fig. 3G). Small DOLOMITE AND ARAGONITE SPELEOTHEMS Fig. 3: A) Aragonite stalactites partly covered with patches of moonmilk. B C) B otryoidal crusts of dolomite and aragonite. In some areas they had broken and fallen on the oor (arrow). D) B lock of dolomite host rock covered by a botryoidal crust (bottom). E) H and specimen of host rock with crust. F) Detail of the botryoidal appearance of the dolomite crusts. G) B otryoidal-coralloid crust covered with globules of moonmilk. ANDREA MARTNPREZ, ADRIJAN K OIR & B OJAN O TONI AR

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 85 PETROGRAPH Y OF THE DOLOMITE CRUSTS D OLOSTONE HOST ROCK e host rock is a brecciated crystalline dolostone, with calcitic cements lling the fractures in some areas. e dol omite textures vary from xenotopic mosaics of crystals up to 2 mm in size (Fig. 6A) to idiotopic-hypidiotopic mosaics of rhombic crystals of highly variable sizes (10 m) (Fig. 6B). Some of the dolomite rhombs appear enclosed in larger calcite crystals that ll the fractures. ARAGONITE It appears as acicular crystals whose size varies from 10 to 500 m in width and from 50 m to 5 mm in length amounts of calcite have also been identied in some parts of the crusts. Internally, the crusts (Fig. 4A) show two main tex tures: a) e laminated texture is dened by the alterna tion of translucent layers with opaque white layers. is layering characterises the bigger globules (Fig. 4B, C); and b) an irregular porous texture e smaller glob Fig. 4: H and specimen (A) and polished slabs (B C and D). C is a cross-section of A, perpendicular to the wall. C is a longitudinal section of A, cut parallel to the wall. HR: host rock. Ly: layered texture. Ir: irregular texture. e arrow in C points to a patch of moon milk. ules and the inner part of the crusts display arborescent textures and high porosity (Fig. 4B, C, D). Both textures are composed of aragonite and dolomite (Fig. 5A). e moonmilk which covers some globules (Fig. 4A, C) is composed of hydromagnesite (Mg 5 (CO 3 ) 4 (OH) 2 (H 2 O)) (Fig. 5B). DOLOMITE IN SPELEOTHEMS OF SNENA JAMA CAVE, SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 86 Fig. 5 : XRD diagrams of botryoi dal crust (A) and moonmilk glob ule (B). Fig. 6: P etrography of the host rock. Plane polarised light ( PP L) A) Xenotopic mosaics of dolo mite crystals of variable size. B) H ypidiotopic mosaics of rhom bic dolomite crystals of highly variable sizes. P oiquilotopic cal cite cements (red) lling intercrys talline porosity. ANDREA MARTNPREZ, ADRIJAN K OIR & B OJAN O TONI AR

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 87 Fig. 7: P etrography of the crusts. Samples A to D are stained with alizarine. A) General view of the irregular texture of the crusts (PP L). Aragonite crystals (A) form fans which are covered by coarse dolomite (D) that also cement the space between them. B) A detail of A, with plane (le) and cross (right) polarised light. A mosaic of coarse dolomite showing a brous-radial texture and concentric bands in the crystals. e cross-like extinction pattern suggests that these dolomite crystals are true spherulites. C) Alternating layers of coarse dolomite and aragonite fans (red) forming the layered textures, PP L. D) B ig crystals of spheroidal banded dolomite coating aragonite, PP L. E) Coarse dolomite mosaic. Although no relics of aragonite are visible, the alignment of crystals in the top le area could indicate the replacement of aragonite brous crystals, PP L. F) Dolomite spheroids growing on aragonite, PP L. DOLOMITE IN SPELEOTHEMS OF SNENA JAMA CAVE, SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 88 Fig. 8: P etrography of the crusts. Sample on B is stained with alizarine. All pictures taken with plane polarised light (PP L). A) Coarse dolomite forming coatings over an aragonite crystal. e dolomite crystals show concentric patterns. B) Coarse dolomite growing over and replacing aragonite crystal, as evidenced by the interpenetrated contacts between the crystals (arrows). C) Alternation of aragonite (A) and coarse (Dc) and microcrystalline dolomite (Dm). Microcrystalline dolomite appears here as structure-less aggregates over sphe roidal dolomite and aragonite fans. D) Aggregates of microcrystalline dolomite showing concentric layering. E) A globule of microcrys talline dolomite coated by coarse dolomite. F) Spheroids of dolomite, alternating transparent bands with dark bands of microcrystalline dolomite. ANDREA MARTNPREZ, ADRIJAN K OIR & B OJAN O TONI AR

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 89 (Figs. 7 and 8). e crystals can grow perpendicular to the nucleation surface, forming palisades, but most com monly they grow radiating from a centre outwards to form fans. Bigger crystals form arborescent, frostworklike structures that constitute the skeleton of the crust (Fig. 7A, B). Smaller fans of crystals can coalesce to form the layers that dene the laminated textures (Fig. 7C). C OARSE DOLOMITE is type of dolomite consists of crystals of rounded, fan-shape or spheroidal morphology (Figs. 7 and 8A-C), which range in size between 50 to 300 m and gener ally exhibit an undulose extinction. ey are colourless or light-brown and commonly show concentric zoning (Fig. 7B, D, and E) dened by the alternation of dark mi crocrystalline bands and crystalline and transparent ones. e number and thickness of the bands are highly vari able. In many cases, they also display an internal brousradial texture and pseudo-uniaxial cross-extinction pat terns so they can be considered spherulites (Fig. 7B). is type of dolomite forms part of both the laminated and the irregular texture. A few dierent types of coarse dolomite have been observed: Isolated spheroids (Fig. 7F). Layers of dolomite (Fig. 7C): mosaics of anhedral or rounded crystals which form around 0.2 mm thick layers that alternate with lay ers of aragonite, dening the laminated textures. Dolo mite cements: clean mosaics of crystals that show radial and concentric patterns and straight crystal contacts. ey ll the space between the large aragonite crystals (Fig. 7A, B). Coatings: fan-shape crystals that nucleate on the surface of aragonite and coalesce forming continu ous botryoidal coverings of uniform thickness (Fig. 8A). e crystals display a radial structure, and the concentric pattern is continuous across the coating. Replacement textures : in some cases, the contacts between aragonite and dolomite are not sharp, showing embayments and interpenetrated features that indicate a replacement pro cess (Fig. 8B). is process is also inferred in dolomite mosaic fabrics containing only a few corroded aragonite relics or in cases where there are no relics but the sphe roidal crystals are aligned in the direction of aragonite bres (Fig. 7E). SEM observations show that the surface of the do lomite spheroids is composed of aggregates of rhombic crystals 10 m in size (Fig. 9). M ICROCR Y STALLINE DOLOMITE In hand specimens, this type of dolomite makes opaquewhite to orange masses in both the inner irregular part of the crusts and in the layered globules. Under the mi croscope, it forms brown to dark-grey microcrystalline aggregates. Microcrystalline dolomite can appear as shapeless aggregates over aragonite crystals, and form ing discontinuous layers between layers of aragonite fans (Fig. 8C). ey can also form globular aggregates, which can be homogeneous or display an arrangement in irregular concentric layers (Fig. 8D). Microcrystalline dolomite can be coated by spheroidal dolomite (Fig. 8E) or be part of the dolomite spheroids as a thick external band (Fig. 8F). HYDROMAGNESITE It forms globular moonmilk deposits on the external sur face of the crusts. In thin section, hydromagnesite forms homogeneous aggregates of colourless to brown crystals of acicular shape, 2 to 20 m long (Fig. 10A, B). In some cases, the crystals display a radial arrangement, form ing brous radial globules or spheroids, around 200 m in diameter (Fig. 10C, D). Under SEM, hydromagnesite appears as homogeneous aggregates with high poros ity, formed by randomly oriented euhedral platy crys Fig. 9: SEM image of the coarse dolomite (A). e dolomite spheroids are composed of rhombic subcrystals (B). DOLOMITE IN SPELEOTHEMS OF SNENA JAMA CAVE, SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 90 Fig. 10: P etrography of the moonmilk. A) Aggregates of hydromagnesite (H y) surrounding aragonite crystals (A), plane polarised light, (PP L), B) Same as A, taken with cross-polarised light, (XP L). C) Transitional textures in the hydromagnesite aggregates. In the bottom part of the image the crystals are randomly oriented, while at top they are arranged growing radially from a common point forming spheroids of around 150 m diameter, PP L. D) Same image as C, taken with cross nichols. E and F) SEM images of the hydromagnesite crystals. ey are euhedral platelets of only a few microns thick, randomly oriented. ANDREA MARTNPREZ, ADRIJAN K OIR & B OJAN O TONI AR

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 91 GEOCHEMISTR Y OF THE SPELEOTHEMS e elemental composition of the dolomite of Snena Jama was analysed in a microprobe which was also used, in backscattered electron mode, to characterise the fabric of the crusts (Fig. 11). e banding of the spheroidal dolomite is due to dierences in porosity and composition. e dark bands, seen under an optical microscope, show a high abun dance of pores of submicron to micron size and relative tals up to 10 m in size and less than 1 m in thickness (Fig. 10E, F). CALCITE Calcite was detected in minor amounts in the XRD anal yses. It can form late cements between dolomite crys tals. Using microprobe and SEM (backscattered electron mode) observations (Fig. 11), it was also identied as very thin bands intergrowing with dolomite in dolomite spheroids. Fig. 11 : A) Image 8A observed in backscattered electron mode of the microprobe. e dierent tone of grey of the banding reects varia tions of the Mg and Ca contents. B) Detail of A. e middle white band is calcite (C). C-E) B ackscattered electron observations reveal that the micritic masses which appear between the aragonite needles in C correspond to dolomite (grey colour, D). ey present abun dant detrital material and display compositional banding reecting variations in Mg and Ca. DOLOMITE IN SPELEOTHEMS OF SNENA JAMA CAVE, SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 92 Microprobe analyses also enabled aragonite and calcite to be distinguished based on the MgCO 3 content which is <0.5 % mol in aragonite and between 2.7 to 25.4 % mol in calcite (Tab. 1). Elemental analyses show that the dolomite is rich in Ca, with values of mol % of CaCO 3 varying between 50 % and 58.8 % and MgCO 3 values ranging between 40.5 % and 49.9 % mol (mean values are 55.3 % and 44.5 % mol, respectively). Mg/Ca ratios vary from 0.70 to 1.00. e maximum FeCO 3 content is 0.06 % mol, MnCO 3 content is <0.07 % mol, Na 2 CO 3 <0.08 % mol, SrCO 3 <0.20 % mol, K 2 CO 3 <0.03 % mol and BaCO 3 <0.04 % mol. Elemental compositions of the spheroidal and microcrystalline dolomite do not reveal any signi cant dierences. enrichment in magnesium (Fig. 11A, B). e transparent homogeneous bands are comparatively much less porous and, when observed with backscattered electrons, show an internal compositional variation, presenting laminae of dolomite about 5 m thick with dierent amounts of Ca and Mg, and thin bands of calcite (Fig. 11B). All types of microcrystalline dolomite, including the one that looks homogeneous under an optical micro scope, show the alternation of darker and lighter bands when observed in the microprobe in backscattered elec tron mode (Fig. 11C-E). ese alternations are also due to variations in amounts of Ca and Mg. In these cases, the bands are less continuous than in the spheroidal do lomite, they present higher porosity, small detrital grains and high heterogeneity (Fig. 11E). Tab. 1: Microprobe results showing mol percentages of Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Na, K and B a of dolomite (D), aragonite (A) and calcite (C) crystals. e Mg/Ca ratio for dolomite is also shown. n: number of analyses. b.d.: below detection limit. min % MgCO 3 % CaCO 3 % FeCO 3 % MnCO 3 % SrCO 3 % Na 2 CO 3 % K 2 CO 3 % BaCO 3 Mg/Ca n D 40.5.9 50.0.8 bd.06 bd.07 bd.2 bd.08 bd.03 bd.04 0.7.0 28 A bd.16 99.3.7 bd.01 bd.02 bd.5 bd.07 bd bd 4 C 2.7.4 74.4.1 bd.06 bd.09 bd.2 bd bd bd.02 8 DISCUSSION Most of the reported occurrences of dolomite in caves share a number of characteristics (Tab. 2): a) dolomite appears together with aragonite, huntite, magnesite and hydromagnesite; b) it forms part of moonmilk, coralloids and crust speleothems; and c) the host rock of the cave is dolostone. All of these characteristics are interrelated, but the presence of Mg in the host rock is the most im portant constraint. e high Mg/Ca ratios in the cave waters favour the precipitation of aragonite versus calcite (Cabrol 1978; Rowling 2004; W assenburg et al. 2012) due to the inhibiting role of hydrated Mg 2+ ions in the nuclea tion and growth of calcite (Fernndez-Daz et al. 1996; De Choudens-Snchez & Gonzlez 2009). High Mg/Ca ratios are also necessary for the precipitation of huntite and hydromagnesite (Gonzlez & Lohmann 1988). e type of speleothem is mainly controlled by the type of water ow and the cave microclimate, which includes processes like ventilation, condensation or evaporation (Hill & Forti 1997). Coralloids and crusts typically form in thin lms of water, inuenced by evaporation (Hill & Forti 1997). e dolomite of Snena Jama cave shares most char acteristics with previously reported dolomite in caves (Tab. 2). It grows in an area with dolostone host rock, forms part of coralloid and crust speleothems, and is as sociated with aragonite and hydromagnesite. e internal structure of the crusts suggests several stages of forma tion. In the rst stage, fans of aragonite crystals formed frostworks, which established the skeleton of the crust. e acicular aragonite bres probably precipitated in conditions of low discharge from a highly supersaturated solution aected by continuous degassing and evapora tion (Frisia et al. 2002). In the next stage, the dolomite precipitated around the aragonite needles, eventually re placing them, with the result that the initial arborescent structures of the frostwork became globular. e precise physicochemical conditions for dolomite precipitation in caves are still not well constrained, but the change and alternation in the mineralogy reects uctuations in the chemistry of the water that still need further work to be understood. e deposit seems to have formed in vadose conditions; although it covers big areas of the wall, and globular/botryoidal morphologies have been described as formed in pools or lakes (Hill & Forti 1997), the fact that internal parts of the crust are porous but lack any sign of dissolution makes us believe that the deposit formed in subaerial conditions. Concerning the inorganic precipitation of dolo mite, it has been considered that the two main physico chemical factors aecting formation of dolomite are high ANDREA MARTNPREZ, ADRIJAN K OIR & B OJAN O TONI AR

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 93 Tab.2: Compilation of dolomite occurrences in speleothems of dierent caves in the world. HR: host rock; D: dolostone/dolomitic marbles; L: limestone; S: shales and/or sandstones; M: magnesites; B: basalt; o: other. Cave name Speleothem type Mineral paragenesis HR Reference Origin Saint-Czaire, France Moonmilk Aragonite, huntite, dolomite giobertite (=magnesite), illite D Pobeguin 1960 Not a weathering product, could have precipitated in normal P and T conditions Lehman Caves, Nevada, USA Coating aragonite anthodites Aragonite, dolomite __ Moore 1961 Alteration of aragonite in contact with Mg-rich solutions Titus Canyon Cave, California, USA Moonmilk Huntite, calcite, dolomite __ Moore 1961 Alteration of huntite produces dolomite and calcite Tecoma Crystal Cave, Utah, USA Moonmilk Dolomite __ Halliday 1961 __ Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, USA Wall-rock coating, popcorn Aragonite, calcite, dolomite L Thrailkill 1968 Solid-state transformation of aragonite in contact with high Mg solutions. Possible but improbable transformation of hydromagnesite Eibengrotte, Germany Popcorn Hydromagnesite, nesquehonite, dolomite aragonite, calcite D Fischbeck & Mller 1971 Early diagenetic origin Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, USA Microcrystalline owstone Huntite, dolomite L Hill 1973 Direct precipitation from Mg-rich solutions Baruta Cave, Venezuela Flowstone Calcite, aragonite, dolomite D Urbani 1997 Alteration of aragonite under the inuence of Mg-rich seeping water Sumidero Tenejapa, Mexico Moonmilk Hydromagnesite, magnesite, calcite, protodolomite __ Broughton 1974 Solid-state transformation of aragonite in contact with high-Mg groundwater. Possibly an alteration from hydromagnesite. Presence of fungal hyphae and spores Haitn de Sabana Grande, Venezuela Moonmilk Dolomite gypsum L Urbani 1976 Not clear Cango Caves, South Africa Chalky crust Dolomite calcite L, D, S, o Martini 1987 Primary precipitation trough evaporation Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, USA Pool deposits Calcite, aragonite, dolomite L, D Gonzlez & Lohmann 1988 Primary precipitation from waters of moderate Mg/Ca ratio, probably from uids undersaturated with respect to calcite and aragonite Soreq Cave, Israel Conical stalactites, owstones and cave corals LMC, HMC, dolomite aragonite D Bar-Matthews et al 1991 Direct inorganic precipitation from local groundwater solutions enriched in Mg due to prior precipitation of LMC. Precipitation in thin adsorbed surface solution layers, where strongly variable Mg/Ca changes may have occurred DOLOMITE IN SPELEOTHEMS OF SNENA JAMA CAVE, SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 94 Cave name Speleothem type Mineral paragenesis HR Reference Origin Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, USA Wall crust Dolomite trioctahedral smectite, quartz D Polyak & Gven 2000 In water lms, progressive evaporation and CO 2 loss results in the sequential precipitation of Mg-rich calcite, aragonite, dolomite, huntite, and magnesite. This sequence of precipitation removes Ca and greatly increases the Mg/Ca ratio in the solutions Hell Below Cave, New Mexico, USA Moonmilk Huntite, dolomite magnesite and trioctahedral smectite Spider Cave, New Mexico, USA Floor crust Dolomite trioctahedral smectite, amorphous silica Basaltic Caves, Kauai, Hawai, USA Coatings, moonmilk and crusts Aragonite, calcite, dolomite gypsum, magnesite, kerolite, hydromagnesite B Livell et al 2000 Combination of direct precipitation from solution by evaporation and CO 2 degassing, alteration of precursor minerals, and (or) microbial processes and physicochemical conditions within microbial mats Cueva de Nerja, Espaa Moonmilk Huntite, dolomite magnesite, calcite, aragonite D Casas et al 2001 Prior precipitation of calcium carbonates, progressive water evaporation and loss of CO 2 Bohemia Cave, New Zealand __ Aragonite, calcite, hydromagnesite, dolomite opal, Fe and Mn hidroxides, gypsum, sepiolite D, S Tsler et al 2001 Dolomite precipitates from solution over aragonite Spipola Cave, Italy Moonmilk Dolomite (minor calcite, gypsum and clay minerals) G, o Forti et al 2004 Localised high-Mg concentration, evaporative conditions Castaar Cave, Spain Moonmilk, crusts, aragonite coatings Aragonite, dolomite huntite, magnesite, hydromagnesite D, M, S Alonso-Zarza & Martn-Prez 2008 Transformation of huntite and aragonite Cayman Brac, UK Stalactites Aragonite, calcite, gypsum, dolomite Mg-Si needles D Jones 2010a Microbes directly or indirectly promoted dolomite precipitation through modication of their surrounding microenvironment or by providing suitable nucleation sites Santa Barbara Cave System, Italy Cave clouds Calcite, dolomite L, D Pagliara 2010 Phreatic dolomite formed at temperatures above 40C Jzsef-hegy Cave, Hungary Needles, rafts __ L, D Lel-ssy et al 2011 It formed from solutions condensed from vapour above warm water pools, in a hydrothermal cave Caves of Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, USA Finely crystalline precipitates, popcorn, botryoidal and mammillary crusts Dolomite calcite, aragonite, huntite, quartz, (sepiolite) L, D Palmer & Palmer 2012 Replacement and direct precipitation driven by evaporation processes Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, Mallorca, Spain Crusts Aragonite, huntite, dolomite calcite, and gypsum L, (D) Onac et al 2014 Direct precipitation, transformation of aragonite and/or huntite, microbial mediation ANDREA MARTNPREZ, ADRIJAN K OIR & B OJAN O TONI AR

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 95 Mg/Ca ratios, and high CO 3 2 /Ca ratios (Mller et al. 1972; Davies et al. 1977; Morrow 1990; Machel 2004). In addition, in marine and related depositional settings, sa linities substantially lower or higher than that of seawa ter also favour dolomite formation (Machel 2004). In caves, the Mg/Ca ratios of waters can be in creased by preferential removal of Ca during prior pre cipitation of calcite or aragonite (Fairchild et al. 2000; Sherwin & Baldini 2011; W assenburg et al. 2012). Prior precipitation can take place in the epikarst before the wa ter reaches the cave atmosphere, or inside the cave in the speleothems (Bar-Matthews et al. 1991). is last mech anism has been addressed by many authors to explain the formation of Mg-rich carbonates in speleothems (Gonzlez & Lohmann 1988; Hill & Forti 1997; Polyak & Gven 2000; Casas et al. 2001), forming a precipita tion sequence of dierent minerals driven by progressive degasication and evaporation. Calcite precipitates rst in the speleothem, producing an increase of Mg/Ca in the residual waters. As degasication and evaporation proceed, aragonite precipitates, further depleting Ca in the water and thus further increasing the Mg/Ca, which promotes the precipitation of dolomite and huntite and, nally, hydromagnesite (Lippmann 1973; Hill & Forti 1997; Alonso-Zarza & Martn-Prez 2008). Evapora tion has been regarded as the main factor inuencing dolomite precipitation in crusts of Cangoo Caves, South Africa (Martini 1987), moonmilk of Spipola Cave, Italy (Forti et al. 2004) and dierent late-stage speleothems of caves of the Guadalupe Mountains (Palmer & Palmer 2012). e supersaturation of carbonate minerals in cave waters can be increased by forced degassing (Sptl et al. 2005), which can occur if the pCO 2 of the cave air is very low. is process can be driven by ventilation in caves with multiple entrances (Sptl et al. 2005; Melim & Spil de 2011). In Snena Jama, the existence of shas cross cutting the main passage, and the existence of a former entrance on the opposite side of the current one (Zupan Hajna et al. 2008), could provide ventilation that would enhance CO 2 degassing. is factor, together with the Mg supplied by the dolostone, would establish the essen tial precipitation conditions for dolomite precipitation. However, is well known that in many cases, despite supersaturation of dolomite in the water, it does not pre cipitate (Morrow 1990; Land 1998; W arren 2000). is is due to kinetic reasons (Gregg et al 2015), mostly the high hydration energy of Mg 2+ ions (Morrow 1990; de Leeuw & Parker 2001), the highly ordered structure of dolomite (Lippmann 1973), certain self-inhibiting fac tors (Hu et al. 2005; X u et al. 2013) and, in some settings, the presence of SO 4 2 ions (Baker & Kastner 1981; W right & W acey 2004). In many dolomite deposits all over the world, the overcoming of these kinetic barriers is attrib uted to the activity of microorganisms (Vasconcelos & McKenzie 1997; W right & W acey 2005). Microbial meta bolic activity can increase supersaturation by increasing alkalinity or by removing SO 4 2 (Baker & Burns 1985), the microbes can act as nucleation points (Van Lith et al. 2003a; Kenward et al. 2009), and the exopolymeric sub stances they produce can play a role in the dehydration of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ (Krause et al. 2012; Bontognali et al. 2008, 2014). Microbes can also participate in the precipitation of carbonates in caves (Jones 2010b), especially in certain types of speleothems such as pool ngers (Melim et al. 2001) and moonmilk (Curry et al. 2009), but their role in the precipitation is still not fully understood (Northup & Lavoie 2001). e dolomite of speleothems of Cay man Brac are in close spatial association with microbes, suggesting a genetic relationship (Jones 2010a). Lveill et al (2000) also found a microbiological inuence in the precipitation of dolomite, kerolite, magnesite and hydro magnesite in speleothems of lava tubes of Hawaii. In Snena Jama we have not yet found any evidence of the presence of microorganisms to dolomite crys tals. e spheroidal textures that this dolomite displays have been widely described in microbial deposits of do lomite (Gunatilaka 1989; Nielsen et al. 1997; Cavagna et al. 1999; Van Lith et al. 2003b; Lindtke et al. 2011) and other microbial carbonates (Buczynski & Chafetz 1991; Rivadeneyra et al. 2006). However, much work has recently focused in the inuence of the organic mol ecules and biolms in spherulitic morphologies (Brais sant et al 2003). Some recent studies have demonstrated the formation of spheroidal carbonates without the in tervention of living cells, only mediated by the presence of organic substances (Zhang et al. 2012; Roberts et al. 2013; Bontognali et al. 2014) or even fully inorganically (Fernndez-Daz et al. 2006; Meister et al. 2011; An dreassen et al. 2012). Another possible mechanism of dolomite forma tion is the transformation from precursor minerals. Recently, a few studies have reported inorganically pro duced dolomite and disordered dolomite via non-classic pathways of mineralisation (W ang et al. 2012) which in volve the formation of intermediate amorphous Ca and Ca-Mg carbonate phases (Radha et al. 2012) regulated by the interplay of thermodynamic and kinetic factors (W ang et al. 2012). Kelleher and Redfern (2002) synthe tised hydrous magnesium calcium carbonate that dis played spherulitic morphologies similar to those found in Snena Jama. Dolomite could also have formed by the transfor mation of a metastable mineral such as huntite or hy DOLOMITE IN SPELEOTHEMS OF SNENA JAMA CAVE, SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 96 dromagnesite. is possibility was already discussed in the 1960s and 1970s (Moore 1961; Kinsman 1967; Lipp mann 1973) but, so far, no studies have further investi gated this possibility (Martn-Prez et al. 2012). Despite the higher solubility of huntite and hydromagnesite, they could precipitate more easily than dolomite for kinetic reasons and, later on, transform into the more stable mineral dolomite (Lippmann 1973). e transformation of huntite into dolomite has been suggested in the spele othems of Titus Canyon Cave (Moore 1961) and Casta ar Cave (Alonso-Zarza & Martn-Prez 2008) and the transformation hydromagnesite-dolomite in Sumidero CONCLUSIONS 1. e botryoidal crusts covering the walls of some areas of Snena Jama cave are mainly composed of Ca-rich dolomite and aragonite, and contain smaller amounts of hydromagnesite and calcite. 2. e crusts formed in dierent stages, which can be repeated and reect uctuations of water chemistry and/or cave microclimate. Acicular aragonite forms rst and later on is coated and replaced by dolomite. 3. Aragonite displays acicular textures, and the crys tals are arranged in fans and arborescent structures. 4. Dolomite occurs mainly as microcrystalline ag gregates and coarse/spheroidal crystals, which can dis play brous radial (spherulitic) textures and oen show compositional concentric banding. 5. e studied dolomite shares many characteristics with other cave dolomite around the world: dolostone host rock, botryoidal/coralloid morphology and an as sociation with aragonite and hydromagnesite. However, the spherulitic textures found in this cave are quite un common. 6. In Snena Jama, the dissolution of dolostone host rock provides Mg, which favours the precipitation of aragonite, dolomite and hydromagnesite. e high Mg/Ca ratios necessary for hydromagnesite and dolo mite formation can be produced by evaporation, prior precipitation of calcite and aragonite, and strong degas ication produced by ventilation due to the presence of shas which crosscut the cave and a former entrance on the opposite side of the cave. 7. e coexistence of hydromagnesite and dolomite, and the texture similarities between them, could point to a transformation from hydromagnesite into dolomite. Other hypotheses, like the possibility of a microbial in uence in the precipitation of the dolomite, need to be evaluated by further research. Tenejapa, Mexico (Broughton 1974) and Carlsbad Cav erns (Polyak 1992, cited in Hill & Forti, 1997). In Snena Jama, the close spatial association between hydromag nesite and dolomite and the textural similarities could indicate a related origin. Microcrystalline dolomite has a similar crystal size to hydromagnesite and is located between the aragonite crystals (Fig. 8C) in a similar way as hydromagnesite (Fig. 10A, C). e size and texture of the dolomite spheroids are very similar to the spheroidal arrangement that hydromagnesite shows in some cases (Fig. 10C and D). ACKNO WLEDGEMENTS is work has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy (Project CGL2014-54818-P), the Slovenian Research Agency (Programme P-0008) and the Post graduate Grant Scheme of the International Association of Sedimentologists. W e acknowledge the valuable help of Ana M. Alonso Zarza in early versions of this manu script. W e thank Kata Cvetko Bari for preparing the thin sections and Mojca Otoniar for her help with the XRD interpretations. Comments of an anonymous reviewer are highly appreciated. ANDREA MARTNPREZ, ADRIJAN K OIR & B OJAN O TONI AR

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 98 Fairchild, I.J., Borsato, A., Tooth, A.F., Frisia, S., Hawkes worth, C.J., Huang, Y ., McDermott, F. & B. Spiro, 2000: Controls on trace element (Sr-Mg) composi tions of carbonate cave waters: implications for spe leothem climatic records.Chemical Geology, 166, 3, 255. Fernndez-Daz, L., Astilleros, J.M. & C.M. Pina, 2006: e morphology of calcite crystals grown in a po rous medium doped with divalent cations.Chemi cal Geology, 225, 3, 314. Fernndez-Daz, L., Putnis, A., Prieto, M. & C.V. Putnis, 1996: e role of magnesium in the crystallization of calcite and aragonite in a porous medium.Jour nal of Sedimentary Research, 66, 3, 482. Fishbeck, R. & G. Mller, 1971: Monohydrocalcite, hy dromagnesite, nesquehonite, dolomite, aragonite and calcite in speleothems of the Frankische Sch weiz, W estern Germany.Contributions to Miner alogy and Petrology, 33, 87. Forti, P., Demaria, D. & A. Rossi, 2004: e last mineral ogical nding in the caves of the Gessi Bolognesi Natural Park: the dolomite moonmilk.Memorie dell Istituto Italiano di Speleologia, 16, 87. Frisia, S., Borsato, A., Fairchild, I.J., McDermott, F. & E.M. Selmo, 2002: Aragonite-calcite relationships in speleothems (Grotte de Clamouse, France): en vironment, fabrics and carbonate geochemistry.Journal of Sedimentary Research, 72, 5, 687. Gonzlez, L.A. & K.C. Lohmann, 1988: Controls on mineralogy and composition of spelean carbonates: Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.In: James, N.P. & P.W Choquette (eds.) P aleokarst. Springer, pp. 81, New Y ork. Gregg, J.M., Bish, D.L., Kaczmarek, S.E. & H.G. Ma chel, 2015: Mineralogy, nucleation and growth of dolomite in the laboratory and sedimentary en vironment: A review.Sedimentology, in press. DOI: 10.1111/sed.12202 Gunatilaka, A., 1989: Spheroidal dolomites origin by hydrocarbon seepage?Sedimentology, 36, 701. Halliday, W .R., 1961: More dolomite speleothems.Na tional Speleological Society News, 19, 11, 143. Hill, C.A., 1973: Huntite Flowstone in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.Science, 181, 4095, 158. Hill, C.A. & P. Forti, 1997: Cave minerals of the World .National Speleological Society, pp. 463, Huntsville, AL. Hu, X.M., Grossie, D.A. & S.R. Higgins, 2005: Growth and dissolution kinetics at the dolomite-water inter face: An in-situ scanning probe microscopy study.American Mineralogist, 90, 5, 963. Jones, B., 2010a: e preferential association of dolomite with microbes in stalactites from Cayman Brac, British W est Indies.Sedimentary Geology, 226, 1, 94. Jones, B., 2010b: Microbes in caves: agents of calcite cor rosion and precipitation.In: Pedley, H.M. & M. Rogerson (eds.) Tufas and Speleothems: Unravelling the Microbial and P hysical Controls. Geological So ciety Special Publication, 336, Geological Society of London, pp. 7. Kelleher, I.J. & A.T. Redfern, 2002: Hydrous calcium magnesium carbonate, a possible precursor to the formation of sedimentary dolomite.Molecular simulation, 28, 557. Kenward, P.A., Goldstein, R.H., Gonzlez, L.A. & J.A. Roberts, 2009: Precipitation of low-temperature dolomite from an anaerobic microbial consortium: the role of methanogenic Archaea.Geobiology, 7, 5, 556. Kinsman, D.J.J., 1967: Huntite from a carbonate-evap orite environment.American Mineralogist, 52, 1332. Koir, A., Martn Prez, A. & B. Otoniar, 2010: Moon milk stalactites: mainly water, some microbrous calcite what holds them together?In: Koir, A. et al. (eds.) P ovzetki in ekskurzije, 3. Slovenski geoloki kongres / Abstracts and eld trips, 3rd Slove nian geological congress 16 th th September 2010, Bovec, Slovenia. ZRC SAZU, 27, Ljubljana. Koir, A., Martn Prez, A. & B. Otoniar, Moonmilk stalactites: water, calcite nanobers and sticky ex opolymeric substances.In: Missoni, S. & H.J. Gaw lick (eds.) Abstracts of the 29 th IAS meeting of Sedi mentology 10 th 13 th September 2012, Schladming, Austria. 295. Krause, S., Liebetrau, V., Gorb, S., Snchez-Romn, M., McKenzie, J.A. & T. Treude, 2012: Microbial nucle ation of Mg-rich dolomite in exopolymeric sub stances under anoxic modern seawater salinity: New insight into an old enigma.Geology, 40, 7, 587-590. Land, L.S., 1998: Failure to precipitate dolomite at 25 C from dilute solution despite 1000-fold oversatura tion aer 32 years.Aquatic Geochemistry, 4, 3, 361. Last, F.M., Last, W .M. & N.M. Halden, 2012: Modern and late Holocene dolomite formation: Manito Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada.Sedimentary Geol ogy, 281, 222. Lel-ssy, S., Szanyi, G. & G. Surnyi, 2011: Minerals and speleothems of the Jzsef-hegy Cave (Budapest, Hungary).International Journal of Speleology, 40, 2, 191. ANDREA MARTNPREZ, ADRIJAN K OIR & B OJAN O TONI AR

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 99 Lveill, R.J., Fyfe, W .S. & F.J. Longstae, 2000: Unusual secondary Ca-Mg-carbonate-kerolite deposits in basaltic caves, Kauai, Hawaii.Journal of Geology, 108, 5, 613. Lindtke, J., Ziegenbalg, S.B., Brunner, B., Rouchy, J.M., Pierre, C. & J. Peckmann, 2011: Authigenesis of native sulphur and dolomite in a lacustrine evapo ritic setting (Hellin basin, Late Miocene, SE Spain).Geological Magazine, 148, 4, 655. Lippmann, F., 1973: Sedimentary Carbonate Minerals .Springer-Verlag, pp. 228, New Y ork. Machel, H.G., 2004: Concepts and models of dolomiti zation: a critical reappraisal.In: Braithwaite, C.J.R. et al. (eds.) e geometry and petrogenesis of dolo mite hydrocarbon reservoirs. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, pp. 7. Martn-Prez, A., Martn-Garca, R. & A.M. AlonsoZarza, 2012: Diagenesis of a drapery speleothem from Castaar Cave: from dissolution to dolomiti zation.International Journal of Speleology, 41, 2, 251. Martini, J.E., 1987: Contribution to the mineralogy of the Cango caves.South African Speleology Asso ciation Bulletin, 28, 30. McKenzie, J.A., Hs, K.J. & J.F. Schneider, 1980: Move ment of subsurface waters under the sabkha, Abu Dhabi, UAE, and its relation to evaporative dolo mite genesis.In: Zenger, D.H. et al. (eds.) Concepts and models of dolomitization. 28, Society of Eco nomic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, pp. 11, Tulsa (Oklahoma). Meister, P., Johnson, O., Corsetti, F. & K. Nealson, 2011: Magnesium Inhibition Controls Spherical Carbon ate Precipitation in Ultrabasic Springwater (Cedars, California) and Culture Experiments.In: Reitner, J. et al. (eds.) Advances in Stromatolite Geobiology. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, 131, Springer Ber lin Heidelberg, pp. 101. Melim, L.A., Shinglman, K.M., Boston, P.J., Northup, D.E., Spilde, M.N. & J.M. Q ueen, 2001: Evidence for microbial involvement in pool nger precipita tion, Hidden Cave, New Mexico.Geomicrobiology Journal, 18, 3, 311. Melim, L.A. & M.N. Spilde, 2011: Rapid growth and recrystallization of cave pearls In an underground limestone mine.Journal of Sedimentary Research, 81, 11, 775. Mio, P., nidari, M. & Z. Jere, 1983: Osnovna geoloka karta SFRJ, list Ravne na Korokem (B asic Geological map of SFR Yugoslavia, sheet Ravne na Korokem). 1:100.000 .Beograd. Moore, G.W ., 1961: Dolomite speleothems.National Speleological Society News, 19, 82. Morrow, D.W ., 1990: Dolomite-Part 1: e chemistry of dolomitization and dolomite precipitation.In: McIlreath, I.A. & D. W Morrow (eds.) Diagenesis. Geological Association of Canada, pp. 113, Ottawa, Canada. Mller, G., Irion, G. & U. Frstner, 1972: Formation and diagenesis of inorganic CaMg carbonates in the lacustrine environment.Naturwissenschaen, 59, 4, 158. Naraglav, D. & S. Ramak, 1990: Snena jama na Raduhi (e cave Snena jama on Raduha).Nae jame, 32, 88. Nielsen, P., Swennen, R., Dickson, J.A.D., Fallick, A.E. & E. Keppens, 1997: Spheroidal dolomites in a Visean karst system bacterial induced origin?Sedimen tology, 44, 1, 177. Northup, D.E. & K.H. Lavoie, 2001: Geomicrobiology of caves: A review.Geomicrobiology Journal, 18, 199. Onac, B.P., Forns, J.J., Merino, A., Gins, J. & J. Diehl, 2014: Linking mineral deposits to speleogenetic processes in Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, Spain).International Journal of Speleology, 43, 2, 143. Onac, B.P. & P. Forti, 2011: Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview.International Journal of Speleology, 40, 2, 79. Pagliara, A., De W aele, J., Forti, P., Galli, E. & A. Rossi, 2010: Speleothems and speleogenesis of the hypo genic Santa Barbara Cave System (South-W est Sar dinia, Italy).Acta Carsologica, 39, 3, 551. Palmer, M.V. & A.N. Palmer, 2012: Petrographic and isotopic evidence for late-stage processes in sulfu ric acid caves of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, USA.International Journal of Speleology, 41, 2, 231. Pobeguin, T., 1960: Sur l'existence de giobertite et de do lomite dans des concrtions du type "mondmilch".Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de la Academie des Sciences, 250, 2389. Polyak, V.J. & N. Gven, 2000: Authigenesis of triocta hedral smectite in magnesium-rich carbonate spe leothems in Carlsbad Cavern and other caves of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico.Clays and clay minerals, 48, 3, 317. Radha, A.V., Fernandez-Martinez, A., Hu, Y ., Jun, Y .-S., W aychunas, G.A. & A. Navrotsky, 2012: En ergetic and structural studies of amorphous Ca 1x Mg x CO 3 nH 2 O (0 x 1).Geochimica et Cos mochimica Acta, 90, 83. DOLOMITE IN SPELEOTHEMS OF SNENA JAMA CAVE, SLOVENIA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 100 Rivadeneyra, M.A., Martn-Algarra, A., Snchez-Navas, A. & D. Martn-Ramos, 2006: Carbonate and phos phate precipitation by Chromohalobacter marismor tui .Geomicrobiology Journal, 23, 2, 89. Roberts, J.A., Kenward, P.A., Fowle, D.A., Goldstein, R.H., Gonzlez, L.A. & D.S. Moore, 2013: Surface chemistry allows for abiotic precipitation of dolo mite at low temperature.Proceedings of the Na tional Academy of Sciences, 110, 36, 14540. Rowling, J., 2004: Studies on Aragonite and its Occur rence in Caves, including New South W ales Caves.Journal & Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South W ales, 137, 123. Sherwin, C.M. & J.U.L. Baldini, 2011: Cave air and hy drological controls on prior calcite precipitation and stalagmite growth rates: Implications for palae oclimate reconstructions using speleothems.Geo chimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 14, 3915. Sptl, C., Fairchild, I.J. & A.F. Tooth, 2005: Cave air con trol on dripwater geochemistry, Obir Caves (Aus tria): Implications for speleothem deposition in dynamically ventilated caves.Geochimica et Cos mochimica Acta, 69, 10, 2451. Tsler, R., Clek, V. & H. Hercman, 2001: Speleothem decoration of giant domes in Bohemia Cave (New Zealand).Cave and Karst Science, 28, 3. railkill, J.V., 1968: Dolomite cave deposits from Carls bad Caverns.Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 38, 1, 141. Urbani, F., 1977: Notas sobre algunas muestras de leche de luna de cuevas de Venezuela.Boletn de la Socie dad Venezolana de Espelelologa, 8, 16, 109. Urbani, F., 1996: Venezuelan cave minerals: a review.Boletn de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espelelologa, 30, 1. Van Lith, Y ., W arthmann, R., Vasconcelos, C. & J.A. McKenzie, 2003a: Microbial fossilization in carbon ate sediments: a result of the bacterial surface in volvement in dolomite precipitation.Sedimentol ogy, 50, 2, 237. Van Lith, Y ., W arthmann, R., Vasconcelos, C. & J.A. Mckenzie, 2003b: Sulphate-reducing bacteria in duce low-temperature Ca-dolomite and high Mgcalcite formation.Geobiology, 1, 1, 71. Vasconcelos, C. & J.A. McKenzie, 1997: Microbial me diation of modern dolomite precipitation and di agenesis under anoxic conditions (Lagoa Vermelha, Ro de Janeiro, Brazil).Journal of Sedimentary Re search, 67, 3, 378. W ang, D., Hamm, L.M., Giure, A.J., Echigo, T., Rims tidt, J.D., De Y oreo, J.J., Grotzinger, J. & P.M. Dove, 2012: Revisiting geochemical controls on patterns of carbonate deposition through the lens of mul tiple pathways to mineralization.Faraday Discus sions, 159, 1, 371. W arren, J., 2000: Dolomite: occurrence, evolution and economically important associations.Earth-Sci ence Reviews, 52, 1. W assenburg, J.A., Immenhauser, A., Richter, D.K., Jochum, K.P., Fietzke, J., Deininger, M., Goos, M., Scholz, D. & A. Sabaoui, 2012: Climate and cave control on Pleistocene/Holocene calcite-to-ara gonite transitions in speleothems from Morocco: Elemental and isotopic evidence.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 92, 23. W right, D.T. & D. W acey, 2004: Sedimentary dolomite: a reality check.In: Braithwaite, C.J.R. et al. (eds.) e geometry and petrogenesis of dolomite hydrocarbon reservoirs. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, pp. 65. W right, D.T. & D. W acey, 2005: Precipitation of dolomite using sulphate-reducing bacteria from the Coorong Region, South Australia: signicance and implica tions.Sedimentology, 52, 5, 987. X u, J., Y an, C., Zhang, F., Konishi, H., X u, H. & H.H. Teng, 2013: Testing the cation-hydration eect on the crystallization of Ca-Mg-CO 3 systems.Pro ceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 44, 17750. Zhang, F., X u, H., Konishi, H., Shelobolina, E.S. & E.E. Roden, 2012: Polysaccharide-catalyzed nucleation and growth of disordered dolomite: A potential pre cursor of sedimentary dolomite.American Miner alogist, 97, 4, 556. Zupan Hajna, N., Mihevc, A., Pruner, P. & P. Bosk, 2008: P alaeomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy of Karst Sediments in Slovenia .Carslogica, 8, pp. 266, Ljubljana. ANDREA MARTNPREZ, ADRIJAN K OIR & B OJAN O TONI AR



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S UBSURFACE FLU X ADJUSTMENTS AND SPELEOGENESIS AS INFERRED FROM SEDIMENT TRAPS IN MAJOR LEBANESE CAVE S Y STEMS REKONSTRUKCIJA PALEOHIDROLOKIH IN SPELEOGENETSKIH RAZMER V IZBRANIH LIBANONSKIH JAMAH NA OSNOVI RAZISKAV JAMSKIH SEDIMENTOV Carole NEHME 1,2,3 Stephane J AILLET 1,3 Jean-Jacques D ELANNO Y 1,3 Jocelyne ADJIZIANGERARD 1,2 Mazen A RZOUNI 3 Rita STEPHAN 3 & Tony C OMAT Y 3 Izvleek UDK 551.435.84(569.3) Carole Nehme, Stephane Jaillet, Jean-Jacques Delannoy, Jocelyne Adjizian-Gerard, Mazen Arzouni, Rita Stephan & Tony Comaty: Rekonstrukcija paleohirdolokih in speleogenetskih razmer v izbranih Libanonskih jamah na osnovi raziskav jamskih sedimentov Jame so pasti za alohtone in avtohtone sedimente. Na os novi tudij jamskih sedimentov lahko rekonstruiramo paleohidroloke razmere v jamah. Sedimenti v jamah Kessarat in Jeita v Libanonu so povezani s podiranjem in/ali razvojem jamskih kanalov s procesom aluvijacije. Speleogenetska tudija in analiza velikosti zrn v sedimentnem zaporedju v Dvorani povezave (Junction Chamber) v jami Kassarat in Vhodnem rovu spodnje jame Jeita, sta omogoili identikacijo ve faz odlaganja sedimentov in nainov prilagoditve paleotoka na podiranje jamskega stropa. V lanku obravnavamo vpliv geometrije jamskih kanalov na ve procesov: i) dinamino pri lagoditev toka; ii) prostorsko in asovno porazdelitev jamskih sedimentov in iii) velikost okoljskega signala zabeleenega v jamskih sedimentih. Pri tem poudarimo pomen upotevanja geomorfolokega konteksta pri interpretaciji razvoja podzem nega toka in pri tudiji dotoka sedimentov v jame v odvisnosti od zunanjih okoljskih sprememb. Kljune besede: jamski sediment, uinek praga, hitrost toka, Jeita, Libanon. 1 ED Y TEM UMR 5204-CNRS, Universit de Savoie, le Bourget du Lac, France. 2 Dpartement de gographie, Universit Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth, Lebanon. 3 Association Libanaise dEtudes Splologique (ALES), Mansourieh, Lebanon. Corresponding author: e-mail: Carole.nehme@univ-smb.fr Received/Prejeto: 05.11.2014 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 5, POSTOJNA 2015 Abstract UDC 551.435.84(569.3) Carole Nehme, Stephane Jaillet, Jean-Jacques Delannoy, Jocelyne Adjizian-Gerard, Mazen Arzouni, Rita Stephan & Tony Comaty: Subsurface ux adjustments and speleogenesis as in ferred from sediment traps in major Lebanese cave systems Caves are natural sediments traps that enclose several types of allochtonous and authoctonous deposits. Study of sediments in caves help to reconstitute the hydrological functioning of caves. In Lebanon, Kessarat and Jeita horizontal caves comprise sedi ments traps related to collapse and/or to passages enlargements with new passages formed during the alluviation process. A speleogenic study combined with the grain-size analysis of the sedimentary sequence in the Junction Chamber (Kassarat cave) and in the Entrance Gallery (Jeita lower cave) helped to identify several stages of sediment deposition and to dene types of paleoow adjustments during and aer the ceiling col lapse. In this paper, we discuss the control of cave conduits on several processes: i) the ow dynamic adjustments; ii) the spa tial and temporal distribution of deposits in the cave systems and, iii) the magnitude of the environmental signal recorded in sedimentary sequences. e study highlights the importance to consider the geomorphological context of sediments traps when interpreting the evolution of subsurface ows and when relating sediment inputs in caves to external environmental changes. Keywords : cave sediments, threshold eect, ow velocity, Leba non.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 6 C. N EHME S. J AILLET J.J AC QUES D ELANNO Y, J. A DJIZIAN G ERARD M. A RZOUNI R. STEPHAN & T. C OMAT Y Cave sediments have been investigated in the last two decades using several new techniques (e.g.: sedimentary prole and grain-size anlysis, paleomagnetism, morpho scopy and mineralogy, ERT prole). Some of these tech niques are combined in a multidisciplinary approach to better address new inquiries in various elds, such as: anthropolgy (Burger et al. 2008); paleoenvironment (Bull 1980; Polk et al. 2007) and paleotopography reconstruc tions (Farrant et al. 1995; Granger et al. 2001; Zupan Haj na et al. 2008; Delannoy et al. 2009; Puscas et al. 2010); paleoclimatology ( Quinif 2006); speleogenesis and karst studies (Sbai et al. 1995; Hausselmann et al. 2010, Martini et al. 2011); natural hazards (De W aele et al. 2011). In the eld of karst studies, caves are oen considered as sedi ments traps (Sweeting 1972; Ford and W illiams 2007). Studies of cave sediment help in reconstituting a tempo rary phase of the cave lifecycle (Farrant and Smart 2011). W hen completing the speleogenesis scheme of cave sys tems, the hydrological functioning of cave water inux and deposit sequences are rebuilt within the alluviation (W hite 1988) or a paragenesis context (Renault 1968). Sediment storage in caves involves a wide range of clastic deposits (Bogli 1980) and depends on wa ter inuxes coming from stream-ows and drip-water over a long period of time. Sediment accumulation oc curs when the rate of sediment input exceeds sediment transport through the system (Farrant and Smart 2011). is leads usually to a decrease of water inux energy and sediment alluviation. Sedimentary analysis indicate that changes in stream power is generally due to adjust ments of the hydraulic dynamics of inux in response to regional and external eects such as base level uctua tions (Farrant et al. 1995; Jaillet 2005) near adjacent riv ers or extreme ood events at the surface in response to external climate conditions (Sanderson 1977; Gillieson 1986). Nevertheless, water inuxes are conned to certain conduit sizes (W hite 2007) when inltrated to subsur face karst systems. W e can consider therefore, that de posit inux into caves systems and alluviation is highly localized. It depends on passage morphology that cre ates thresholds in the cave system (Lignier et al. 2012), presence of a form of blockage (W hite and W hite 1969; Jameson 1991) or located near resurgence or close to the surface (W hite 2007). 1 INTRODUCTION Fig. 1: e general geology map of the studied area shows the development of both Kassarat and Jeita cave in the Jurassic limestone (Geological map in Dubertret L. 1951, plotted on a DEM model: CMES/Spot Image ). Small black boxes indicate the location of both study sites in the Junction Chamber (Kassarat Cave) and the entrance gallery (Jeita lower Cave).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 7 S UBSURFACE FLU X ADJUSTMENTS AND SPELEOGENESIS AS INFERRED FROM SEDIMENT TRAPS IN MAJOR L EBANESE ... 2 SETTINGS 2.1. L OCATION AND GEOLOGY Mount Lebanon is a mountainous ridge that borders the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. e main landscape consists of high plateaus reaching 3,088 m altitude entrenched by deep valleys. Fluvial streams run on a steep gradient and reach the Mediterranean Sea coast in less than 30 km distance. e coastline areas formed by steep dipping Cretaceous rocks separate the highly karstied Jurassic unit from the Mediterranean Sea and is considered to be an acquiclude to the ow circulation in Jurassic aquifers. e Mount Lebanon is mainly formed by 4 km in thickness of Jurassic to Neogene limestone, sandstone and shale (e.g. Fig. 1). Jurassic rocks include around 1,400 m of limestone and dolomite grouped in the Kes rouane, Bhannes, Bikfaya and Salima formations (Du bertret 1945; W alley 2001). ese extensively fractured rocks were subaerially exposed (Renouard 1955; Nader 2000) and karsticated probable during the late Juras sic (Mouty 2000) and early Cretaceous. An early phase of karstication is attributed to the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous period (Nader and Swennen 2004; Nader 2011). Cretaceous rocks comprises mainly up to 300 m of Neocomian to Barremian sandstone (Chouf Forma tion), 600 m of cenomanian limestone and dolomites (Sannine formation) and 800 m of Turonian to Se nonian limestone (Maameltein Formation and Chekka formations). Cretaceous rocks covers signicant parts of Jurassic limestone in central Lebanon. Neogene rocks comprises up to 300 m of Miocene limestone and 250 to 400 of Pliocene conglomerates. Miocene rocks are located along the coast and in the inland Be qaa valley. Coastal facies are exposed in Saida, Nahr el-Kalb and Jabal Turbol areas ( W alley 1997) and were deposited unconformly on the sub-vertical beds of the Cretaceous sequence. Pliocene conglomerates reaches 200 m in the Kalb valley (Homberg et al. 2010) with deposits covering the Miocene sequence (Bou Jaoudeh 1999). In early Miocene, the Levant coastal area and the Lebanese mesoscale structure became emergent. During the Mid-Miocene, the upli of Mount Lebanon is related to the opening of the Red Sea and the Dead Sea Fault Sys tem activity (Bayer et al 1988; Markis and Rihm 1991). Grain-size and sediment facies analysis help reveal the depositional history of sediments traps when clastic materials are available usually in horizontal or low gradi ent conduits (Ford and W illiams 2007) and when they are not ushed out by latter water inux. ough, accu mulation process can be relatively recent in the lifecycle of cave systems (Saswosky 2007). e presence of ow stone or quartz in deposit sequences can provide dating materials to set a model age for the deposition process (Bosak 2003; Q uinif 2006). Conversely, it is more di cult to reconstitute, on both spatial and time scales, the formation of recent cave conduits when deposits and dat ing materials are not available. e only mean to study the formation of new conduits is when they are related synchronously to nearby sediment traps. Recent studies in several passages (4 km) of Jeita cave (10.06 km) and Kassarat (4.6 km) cave (Nehme et al 2012; 2013a), located respectively along Kalb and Antelias valleys in central Mount-Lebanon, helped to dene the speleogenesis phases of both sites. Both caves are mutli-level systems of galleries with an under ground river ooding in the lower levels (Hakim 1975; Hakim and Karkabi 1988). Both systems enclose sever al active and relict conduits where sediment accumula tion is localized in preferential areas, especially behind collapse. In both systems, alluviation was identied as relatively recent processes that occurred in the nal speleogenetic stages (Nehme 2013a). Ceiling collapse in both Jeita and Kassarat caves caused local hydrody namic adjustments leading to alluviation up to several meters height. New adjacent conduits were formed to contain the water ows in response to the cieiling col lapse and the alluviation. e purpose of our work is to better describe the deposition process, both spatially and temporally, in the entrance part of Jeita lower Cave and in the Junction Chamber of Kassarat Cave. e description of the sedi ment proles and the analysis of the mode of sediment deposition (velocity, discharge and type of motion) com bined with the speleogenetic study helped to dene the stages of the sediment deposition dynamics in both sites, during and aer the ceiling collapse. e analysis of both sediments traps invokes several points of discussion: i) the denition of the mode of hydrodynamic adjust ments started or increased by the collapse, ii) the spatial and temporal variability of the deposition process, along with the formation of new passages and, iii) the eect of cave conduits and threshold control on the environmen tal signal recorded in sedimentary sequences.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 8 Around 5-6 Ma, a second riing phase (Garfunkel 1989; 1998) of the Red Sea together with transpression across the Lebanese Restraining Bend enhanced Mount Leba non upli (W alley 2001). 2.2. CLIMATE AND HYDROGEOLOGY Lebanon is characterized by a Mediterranean climate close to the arid/semi-arid climate boundary in southern Levant region. e average annual precipitation at the Jeita cave site today is around 1000 mm (Edgell 1997). e climate is seasonal, with rainy winters (between No vember and February) and dry, relatively hot summers (usually the period from May to October). At the western edge of Mount Lebanon and near to the coast, the Jurassic limestone rocks host deep aqui fers with a general East-W est ow direction. e Creta ceous sequence of sandstone, marl and limestone units is considered herein as an aquiclude to the circulation of the subsurface water conning the structure-con trolled karst systems in the Jurassic aquifer. e multilevel cave systems in the Jurassic unit comprise relict horizontal pattern of passages at several altitudes and present water table caves (Gabrovek et al 2014). e lowest active levels host underground rivers that feed karstic springs located at the aquiclude. Fouar spring in Antelias valley is at 30 m a.s.l. and has a discharge of 0.5 to 3 m 3 /s (Labaky 2005). In Kalb valley, the lowest karst outlet is Q ashqoush spring at 46 m a.s.l. Jeita Spring is at 60 m a.s.l. and has a discharge of 1 to 25 m 3 /s (Doummar 2012). Dye-tracing experiments in each valley (Labaky 1998; Doummar 2012) showed a di rect connection between underground ow of Kassarat and Jeita Caves to the lower karstic springs. e area between 30 and 60 m a.s.l. in both valleys constitutes the epiphreatic zone (Nehme 2013) of the karst system where signicant water recharge during the wet season regularly oods small conduits and sumps. In Antelias valley, springs located between 30 and 60 m a.s.l. are temporarily active (Labaky 2005). 2.3. CAVE DESCRIPTION AND STUD Y SITES e investigated study area is the downstream part of Antelias and Kalb canyons, whose caves comprise more than 15.4 km of karst conduits (Abdul-Nour 2004). e major caves are Kassarat, Nabaa el-Chataouieh, 22 April, Bear, el-Dahr and Kanaan in Antelias Valley, Jeita and Q ashqoush in Kalb valley. Some multi-level cave systems comprise abandoned and active galleries with a mor phological connection between levels (e.g. Jeita, Kassarat caves). e investigated caves in Antelias and Kalb val leys are located mainly in Jurassic dolomitic limestone and very close to the aquiclude. e Kassarat Cave (33'38.00"N; 35'30.88"E, entrance: 60 m a.s.l.) in Nabay area is the largest multilevel subsurface network in Antelias valley, with 4.6 km Fig. 2: e map of the Junction Chamber shows the ceiling col lapse sector, the sediment trap and the new conduits (Map in Karanouh et al., 2004). Eleva tions (a.s.l.) are also indicated as well as the sediment section. Dierent photos with the corre sponded gures are shown in the legend. C. N EHME S. J AILLET J.J AC QUES D ELANNO Y, J. A DJIZIAN G ERARD M. A RZOUNI R. STEPHAN & T. C OMAT Y

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 9 of passages (Karanouh et al 2004; Metni and Nader 2005). e cave main axis generally trends East-W est. e network system comprises a canyon that connects the lower level (around 60 m a.s.l.) to several higher gal leries (Presidents and Dry galleries), above 90 m a.s.l. In the head part of Kassarat Cave system, two main gal leries connect the northern and the southern sumps to the main canyon. Both sumps feed the Kassarat Under ground River, which is drained through the main canyon at an average altitude of 64 m a.s.l. Underground ow runs on rocky river bed and transits then through the major sump (57 m a.s.l.) to join the Fouar Spring (30 m a.s.l.) (Hakim and Karkabi 1988; Labaky 2005). e Junc tion Chamber connects both sumps to the main canyon. It is one of the largest chambers in the cave and extends about 90 m in length (Nehme 2013c). It comprises: i) the Collapse area with about 35 m height located in a densely faulted area; ii) the sediment sector of 10 m height (e.g. Fig. 2). e thickness of deposits decreases gradually to wards the southern sump. Presently, water ows coming from both sumps are diverted to a narrow passage (cap ture), located in the southeastern part of the Chamber. e site is unique in Kassarat cave and was chosen since it comprises large amount and diverse types of deposits, which were preserved by the ceiling collapse. e forma tion of new elliptical and capture conduits (e.g. Fig. 3) is also closely related to the sediment trap of the Junction Chamber. In Kalb valley, the Jeita cave (33'35.68"N; 35'48.60"E, entrance: 98 m) is known to be the longest cave in Lebanon (Karkabi 1990). Located on the north ern ank of Kalb valley, the cave is a multi-level system of dry and active galleries more than 10 km long in the Middle Jurassic limestones. In the 1950s, a part of the Jeita cave system was transformed into a touristic cave. A tunnel was dug at the entrance level of 98 m leading to the inactive galleries and a passage was widened at the lower entrance at 73 m making the lower active galler ies more accessible to tourists. Jeita River ows through a series of rapids and wide chambers with collapsed Fig. 3: e photo describes the location of the sedimentary se quence in the Junction Chamber. e horizontal level marks the top of the deposit sequence at 92 m a.s.l. e studied sediment sec tions are indicated with dashed white line. Fig. 4: e map of the Entrance Chamber (Lower level) shows the ceiling collapse sector, the sedi ment trap and the new conduits (Map in Karkabi et al., 1960). Elevations (a.s.l.) are also indi cated. e location of dierent photos is indicated with their cor responded gures shown in the legend. S UBSURFACE FLU X ADJUSTMENTS AND SPELEOGENESIS AS INFERRED FROM SEDIMENT TRAPS IN MAJOR L EBANESE ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 10 blocks, sand and clay deposits, and joins the Kalb River at 60 m a.s.l. A 75 m deep canyon connects the inactive cave levels with lower active galleries where ow runs on the river bedrock. e wide chambers of Jeita active cave are devel oped mainly along major local faults and considered to be important sediment traps comprising a wide range of clastic materials (silt particles to large pebbles). One of the main sediment traps is located at the entrance of the Jeita lower level and very close to the surface (e.g. Fig. 4). e section is currently exposed with 12 m height (e.g. Fig. 5). e torrential regime of Jeita River had le no preserved sediment section associated with a ceiling col lapse along the river path. e only preserved section is located at the Entrance Chamber and comprises depos its coming from the inner Jeita River and from the Kalb River. e spatial conguration of the chamber with its enlarged southern side (e.g. Fig. 4) along with the ceiling collapse in the northern side functioned as a trap to the deposits. e stratigraphy combined with the geomor phological analysis of the Chamber helped to identied the corresponded levels deposited by Jeita and by Kalb Rivers and those deposited before and during the ceiling collapse. 3 METHODS e methodology is descried herein as a combination of several techniques used to compile data at dierent scales: i) the geomorphological mapping and sections in both the Entrance Gallery of Jeita lower level and the Junction Chamber of Kassarat cave, ii) description, sampling and analysis of a sediment section in both caves. e eldwork conducted in the study area investi gated former cave surveys that were completed in Jeita (Karkabi 1963) and Kassarat (B.T.D. maps; Karanouh et al 2004) Caves. Additional detailed cave mapping was also performed in the Junction Chamber (Kassarat cave) and in the Entrance Chamber (Jeita lower level). Topographic survey was performed also according to the speleological method (Grossenbacher 1991) using a cave compass, clinometer and laser-meter. is has implied the recompilation of all eld survey data and the digitali zation of drawings with the aim of obtaining a complete and detailed topographical map for each investigated site. Geomorphological surveys and detailed cross-sections were then undertaken in both sites. Observations of cave forms and deposits and the analysis of their spatial vari ability dened the main processes in the site genesis. e morphogenesis scenarios of both sediments traps are proposed using a relative chronology approach. e sediment section of the Junction Chamber in Kassarat cave is 6.45 m long. 50 layers (50 to 100g) were identied and described. Morphoscopy and morphom etry analysis were completed using Olympus U-PMTV microscope and grain size analyses were completed using MASTER SIZER S 2.19 aer the sieving of samples to 800 m. Statistical analysis helped to produce C/M Passega schemes that propose a depositional characterization for each 50 layers in agreement with the morphogenesis sce narios of the Junction Chamber. Morphoscopy and mor Fig. 5: e photo (A) shows a general view of the deposit sequence in the Entrance Gallery (Jeita lower Cave). P hotos detailing the sedi ment sequence are indicated as P hotos 9A, 5B and 9B and located respectively in Figs. 5 and 9. A thick owstone level (B) seals the deposit sequence of the uvial terraces. (P hotos by Jaillet S.) C. N EHME S. J AILLET J.J AC QUES D ELANNO Y, J. A DJIZIAN G ERARD M. A RZOUNI R. STEPHAN & T. C OMAT Y

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 11 phometry measures were conducted on numerous levels to identify potential sources of deposits. In a nal stage, continuous sequences from the last 1.5 m of the sedi ment sequence were extracted using U-Channels. Grainsize measurements with 1cm intervals were completed on 190 samples and helped to describe the evolution of the deposition mode in accordance with the enlarge ment of new conduits. In Jeita lower gallery, the exposed section of deposits is 12 m thick. 7 units were identied, mapped and described. No samples were extracted from the site for protection reasons but a stratigraphy analysis has been completed along with geomorphological ob servations inferred from the geomorphological map and cross-sections. 4 RESULTS 4.1. K ASSARAT CAVE : STRATIGRAPH Y OBSERVATION e deposit sequence includes 30 levels. Observation and analysis on the stratigraphy dened three units (e.g. Fig. 6): a) the lower unit, b) the pebbles unit and c) the upper unit. ae lower unit is 4 m thick and comprises 20 levels mostly, composed of coarse and ne sand par ticles and displaying dierent texture than the upper unit levels: Most sand levels contains heterogeneous elements displayed as pockets containing clay or angu lar and chert debris (> 2 mm) (e.g. S17, S10, S8). Most layers display a wavy bedding structure. e bedding surfaces are though highly disrupted (e.g. S3 S4, S8, S9, S10 and S11). It could refer either to an erosion of the bedding surface leaving sole markings along the surface aer each deposition phase (Collinson and ompson 1982), or refer to slump structures, a common defor mation of the bedding resulting from movement and displacement of unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sediment, mainly under the inuence of gravity. Slump structures of the beddings are identied in levels S2, S3, S8 and S9 due to small synsedimentary faults (Chamley 1987). Slump curves could be identied in S14 and S15 levels. be pebbles unit is 30 to 40 cm thick (e.g. Fig 6) and comprises pebbles set randomly in a sand matrix. Most pebbles are slanted towards the ceiling collapse area (e.g. Fig. 2) and thus indicating a ow direction towards this sector. Lithological composition of the unit indicates 66% of sandstone pebbles and 34% of limestone pebbles. Most pebbles size ranges from 20 to 80 cm in diameter with a roundness mean of 400 according to Cailleux & Tricart (1959) chart. ce upper unit is 162 cm thick. It is covered by owstone and includes 10 nearly horizontal bed layers structure with an alternating sand/clay composition. Contact surfaces between layers are horizontal rarely disturbed. ickness of silt and clay levels (S29; S26) increase as we reach the top of the sequence. e S25 sand level comprises several horizontal sub-levels with dispatched lenses of clay. Sand layers are thicker in the lower part of the unit (S21, S23, S24). Levels S24 and S25 (127 cm depth) comprise calcite incursions. Microscopic observation of sand and clay layers in S20, S21 and S29 show high percentage of quartz, argillites and oxides. Mica and zircon minerals are also observed in level S20. Morphometry analysis of the roundness of quartz min erals indicates a high proportion of rounded particles in S20, S24 and S28 levels. 4.1.1. G RAIN SIZE AND STATISTICAL ANAL Y SIS Grain-size and statistical analysis identied several as pects of the ow dynamics. Analysis of curves (e.g. Fig. 6-C) shows a high per centage of sand (> 80 %) in the lower unit. e particle size distribution varies mainly between 300 and 500 m. High peak values are noted in the S2 level (I22) S8 (X5) and S17 (D11) between 600 and 700 m. e curves are mostly unimodal (e.g. Fig. 6-D). Mode and mean parti cle size curves show a decreasing trend from lower level (I22) to the upper level (D13). Statistical analysis shows that most levels present a well sorting index (1.5 < So < 2) and positive skewness values (0.5 < Sk < 1) that generally tend to 1 (e.g. Fig. 6-H). In the Upper unit, levels S20, S22, S25, S26 and S29 comprise more ne particles than those of the lower unit, with a composition of 20 to 40% of silt and clay particles in most levels. e grain-size distribution ranges between 50 and 300 m. Average particle-size values of sand deposits range between 200 and 300 m and 50 to 100 m for silt levels. Curves of the particle distribution are mostly multimodal, indicating that several thin sub-layers compose the identied layers. e variations in the composition of layers are much more signicant in the upper unit. is is dened by rapid changes of mean size and mode curves. Rapid variations are also shown in the curves of the statistical parameters: W ell-sorted particles are observed in sand S UBSURFACE FLU X ADJUSTMENTS AND SPELEOGENESIS AS INFERRED FROM SEDIMENT TRAPS IN MAJOR L EBANESE ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 12 levels (So ~2) and poorly sorted particles (e.g. Fig. 6-G) in silt and clay levels (2 < So < 7). Skewness values also vary between (0 < Sk < 1). Crossover analysis between statistical parameters (S o ; S k ; Md and C99 percentile) provides indicators of hy draulic conditions under which sediments were depos ited (Passega1964; Folk 1980; Chamley 1987). e com parison between sorting and skewness values showed mainly two dierent elds that infer dierent types of currents (e.g. Fig. 6-I): e rst eld (e.g. Fig. 7A) comprises ne to coarse sand particles from the lower unit, which are well sorted with a medium to high asymmetry. Some particles of the upper unit (C11-C12 levels) are also included. e second eld (e.g. Fig. 7A) comprises silt particles mainly from the upper unit. ey are poorly sorted with a medi um to low asymmetry. In order to conrm the ow type, the samples were plotted at CM diagrams (e.g. Fig. 7B) proposed by (Passega1964). Almost all the samples (C: 1st percentile of the cumulative grain size and M: mean) are plotted near the SR eld and in the Q R eld. e SR eld suggests transportation under a graded suspension regime, which correspond to the overow regime sug gested in Fig. 7A. e eld Q R characterizes a transpor tation regime by turbidity currents, which correspond to the stream ows suggested in Fig. 7A. Statistical analysis is in agreement with the general stratigraphy observation on the Kassarat sedimentary sequence. Levels of lower unit were mainly deposited in a turbulent environment with regular but rapid ows. Changes in the hydraulic conditions occurred during the deposition of the upper levels when uctuations between Fig. 6: a synthetic log of the deposit sequence and the grain-size analysis on the 50 samples extracted from the lower and the upper unit of the Junction Chamber in Kassarat cave. Statistical analysis parameters are referenced as: A= Description; B= Samples; C= Composi tion of clay/silt/sand; D= Frequency curve; E= Mode; F= Mean-size; G=Sorting; H= Skewness; I= Cumulative curves. C. N EHME S. J AILLET J.J AC QUES D ELANNO Y, J. A DJIZIAN G ERARD M. A RZOUNI R. STEPHAN & T. C OMAT Y

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 13 regular ows and overow circulation deposited alter nately sand and silt layers. 4.2. JEITA CAVE: GEOMORPHOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPH Y OBSERVATION e Entrance Chamber in Jeita lower cave at 62 m a.s.l. is an enlarged gallery located at the nearest point to the talweg of Kalb River (e.g. Fig. 4). e complex history of the sediment trapping is related to a reorganization of ows based on episodes of alluviation from the in ner river as well as from the Kalb River interspersed by collapse events. e Entrance Chamber was considered to be alluviation a paleo-outlet for Jeita River (Hakim 1972) and that the alluviation from dierent sources forced the river to abandon the outlet at the Entrance Chamber and form a new passage to the present outlet located further downstream at 60 m a.s.l. (e.g. Fig. 4). It is not clear at this stage if this small altitudinal dif ference between the Entrance Chamber and the present outlet implies that Jeita river had both outlets that func tionned simultaneously or diachronically due to allu viation processes. e spatial distribution of the llings in the En trance Chamber indicates dierent levels of pebbles, gravel and sand deposits that remained aer the excava tion of the site. e deposits described herein are located in the southern sector (e.g. Fig. 4) of the Chamber (e.g. Fig. 5A). e northern sector comprises fallen blocks of several meters in length (e.g. Fig. 8A). Blocks from the ceiling lie on disrupted and heterogeneous mixture of ne particles, pebbles and gravel bending over the bro ken owstone (e.g. Fig. 8A). e deposit sequence (e.g. Fig 8B and Fig. 9) indicate 8 levels described from the bottom to the top of the deposit sequence: At the base of the sequence, (N1) level comprises 60 cm of ne sand particles. e (N2) level comprises 80 cm Fig. 7: Statistical analysis on grain-size parameters shows two distinctive elds characterizing the hydraulic conditions under which sediments were deposited in the Junction Chamber. e comparison between the sorting and skewness values (A) and between median and the percentile (B) showed mainly two dierent elds that infer dierent types of currents. Fig. 8: P hoto (A) show the contact between the collapsed blocks and the broken owstone covering the deposits levels underneath. e white arrow shows the location of the photo (B) on the topmost part of the collapse sector and be hind the block. P hoto (B) shows owstone covering pebbles, gravel and ne grained-sediments be tween the fallen blocks from the ceiling. is level is indicated as N8 in the general section (P hotos by Sa J.) S UBSURFACE FLU X ADJUSTMENTS AND SPELEOGENESIS AS INFERRED FROM SEDIMENT TRAPS IN MAJOR L EBANESE ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 14 thick of pebbles and gravels covered with a ne red slit level of few centimeters thick (N3). e owstone level (N4) of 30 cm thick with a horizontal dip is shown only in the eastern terrace (e.g. Fig. 9-A) e most remarkable level (N5) comprises 3 m of pebbles with diverse shape and sizes: small pebbles with a size ranging from 4 to 20 cm and large pebbles with a size ranging from 25 to 50 cm and exceptionally few blocks reach 1 m in length are set randomly in a sand matrix. e second level (N1) is located in the Entrance Chamber and the Collapse sector (e.g. Fig.1 Jeita map). It is composed by 1.5 m of pebbles included in a matrix of coarse sand particles. Pebbles sizes range mainly from 4 to 10 cm and reaches 30 cm for some. e third level (N2) corresponds to the owstone of 40 to 60 cm thick and dipping to the Northwest towards the interior of the cave. e last level (N8) comprises pebbles and angular debris covered with a thin owstone and located only in the Collapse sector, between the fallen blocks and the broken owstone of the western terrace (e.g. Fig. 8B). e morphological analysis in the Entrance Cham ber helped to link the successive deposition events with the gemorphological context. Two notches are identi ed at 67 m and 71 m a.s.l. e highest notch (e.g. Fig 9) corresponds to the N8 level located between the fallen blocks and the owstone and higher than the entrance level (e.g. Fig. 9-cross-section). e spatial distribution of (N8) level would refer to a deposition phase aer a collapse event of blocks from the ceiling and covered most of the (N7) level with pebbles and gravel. Pebbles Fig. 9: e spatial conguration of the sedimentary sequence in the Entrance gallery (Jeita cave) comprises the deposits unit in the cave section and photos corre sponding to each level represented in the log. Qualitative indicators are proposed for the evolution of ow velocity. e red box in the cross section show the exact loca tion of the photos for the N5 and the N7 levels. e N8 section is indicated herein by a red box and refers to photo (B) in Fig. 8. C. N EHME S. J AILLET J.J AC QUES D ELANNO Y, J. A DJIZIAN G ERARD M. A RZOUNI R. STEPHAN & T. C OMAT Y

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 15 5 DISCUSSION e sediment analysis in the Junction Chamber as well as the preliminary analysis of the Entrance Chamber in Jei ta lower level helped in reconstituting the hydrodynamic stages of ow readjustments in accordance with the ge omorphology features of each site. e signicances of water ows variability and the threshold eect detected in the sedimentary analysis are discussed herein as indi cations to distinguish local eects of sediment trapping from external environmental changes. 5.1 R ECONSTITUTION OF THE H Y DROD Y NAMIC STAGES 5.1.1 e Junction Chamber-Kassarat cave Stratigraphy and statistical analysis of the grain-size dis tribution combined with the speleogenetic observations identify four hydrodynamic stages (e.g. Fig. 10) describ ing the readjustment of the Kassarat river ow: Two major events occurred during the second stage: e volume of deposits accumulated in the site separated ows coming from both sumps. Flows from the south ern sump formed a new passage (Capture) to join the main river gallery, downstream of the Junction site (e.g. Fig. 10-stage 2). Similarly, ows of the northern sump excavated a passage through the deposits and ushed out some, through the narrow tubular conduit. However, the width of new passages (the capture and the tubular pas sage) (e.g. Fig. 12) is not wide enough to contain all the ows during oods. A back-ooding process occurred in the Junction Chamber during each ooding event. e statistical analysis of skewness and sorting indexes (e.g. Fig. 7) indicate a low energy environment where ne de posits could have been transported by overow with low velocity. e third stage resumes the adjustment of the con duit width: ooding process remaining active in the site because of the small conduit size (capture), clay and silt particles were progressively deposited on the upper part of the sediment sequence during each ood event. e width of the capture conduit became wide enough af ter several and successive ood events. Flows from the southern siphon were then totally evacuated during ood event, ushing out what le of the deposits in the south ern gallery. ese progressive processes resulted a local drop of the water level. e water level of the southern gallery becomes lower (78 m) than both of the northern sump and the tubular conduit (82 m) (e.g. Fig. 2). During last stage, the capture controls the local water level. Flows from the upper siphon are then di verted from the initial direction (N W ) and joins ows from the southern siphon (SE). e tubular conduit becomes inactive and both southern and upper sumps ows are evacuated through the capture conduit (e.g. Fig. 10-stage 4). 5.1.2. e Entrance Chamber Jeita lower level e general scheme of the hydraulic conditions dur ing the successive deposition events is described in the Fig. 11. In the plan view, two hypothesis, with and with out simultaneous functioning of paleo and present out lets are suggested. e rst phase suggests a deposition of ne parti cles-size (e.g. Fig. 9N1 level) by a regular ow regime at the base of the cave section (e.g. Fig. 11-stage 1). e pebbles level (e.g. Fig. 9N2 level) was then deposited during a rapid event that occurred in a high-energy en vironment (ows with extremely high velocity) and close to a debris-ow type. e second phase resume the deposition of ne sand levels (N3) and owstone of calcite (N4 level) in a low energy environment with a very low ow velocity (e.g. Fig. 11-stage 2). e third phase (e.g. Fig. 11-stage 3) indicates the deposition of 3 m of pebbles (Level N5) ranging in length from 4 to 20 cm and from 25 to 50 cm. Few blocks reach exceptionally 1 m in length. e size of pebbles in level N5 is dierent than the level N2 (4 to 10 cm in length). Larger pebbles in level N5 might have been deposited by high-energy ows coming not only from Jeita River but also from the Kalb River. Since the Kalb talweg is at 100 m from the Entrance Chamber, the N5 level might be deposited, during an extreme ood event, by external ows that penetrated in the cave system from the Exit 1 (e.g. Fig. 11, stage 3). e fourth phase (e.g. Fig. 11, stage 4) is radically dierent from the former stage during which ooding occurred in Jeita lower level. A thick owstone is depos ited during the fourth phase, indicating thus a passage distribution in level N2, N5 and N7 show no beddings but display dierent size. e N5 level has the largest pebbles comparing to the N2 and N7 levels. Along the ceiling, various stalactites display erosion features (small scallops) and contain sand and small pebbles incursions. S UBSURFACE FLU X ADJUSTMENTS AND SPELEOGENESIS AS INFERRED FROM SEDIMENT TRAPS IN MAJOR L EBANESE ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 16 from epi-phreatic to vadose environment in Jeita lower level. Flowstone as well as stalagmites, columns and sta lactites were then formed. Flows of Jeita River were re duced radically in the cave section and circulated at the bottom of the cave section. is would explain the calcite deposition at a higher level of the cave section while Jeita river circulated under the N6 level. e collapse process occurred lately (e.g. Fig. 11, stage 5), during the h phase and disrupted the de posits series, increasing thus the volume of debris accu mulated on the site. e collapsed blocks formed then a form of partial blockage (e.g. Fig. 8A) to water ows and protected the accumulated deposits located in the south ern side of the cave section. e ceiling collapse triggered, during the sixth phase, a local eect during which Jeita ows were driven to circulate (e.g. Fig. 11, stage 6) at the top of the cave section, creating thus cupolas at the ceiling and eroding the stalactites (Nehme 2013). e N7 and especially the N8 level deposited on the topmost part of the ceiling col lapse sector sealed the Exit 1. e N8 level corresponds with the altitude of the highest notch (Fig. 9) and both are higher than the altitudinal level of Exit 1. e depos its of the latter level come mainly form Jeita ows. Fig. 10: Speleogenesis scenarios of the Junction Chamber (Kassarat cave) propose four dierent stages of deposit accumulation and ux adjustment presented in a section view and in plan-view. e rst stage of sediment inlling begins when the ceiling collapse obstructed the normal passage of ows. Fine-grained deposits ll, then the Junction gallery as well as some parts of the northern and southern conduits. Sediments reach up to 12 m height and lead to a full obstruction of this site. Channel ow type turns to pipe-full ow regime leading to nearly phreatic conditions under which the erosion of the ceiling and high small conduits were formed (e.g. Fig. 10-stage 1, drain annexe). e values of both skewness and sorting indexes (e.g. Fig. 7) imply an environment of deposition under high turbulence conditions. Sediments of the lower unit and some of the upper unit could have been transported by regular stream ows with moderate to high velocity. C. N EHME S. J AILLET J.J AC QUES D ELANNO Y, J. A DJIZIAN G ERARD M. A RZOUNI R. STEPHAN & T. C OMAT Y

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 17 Fig.11: e speleogenetic evolution of the sediment trap in the Entrance gallery (Jeita lower Cave). e rst four stages highlight the various accumulation episodes. e last three stages describe the eect of the collapse on the adjustment of ows and the cave-section enlargement. S UBSURFACE FLU X ADJUSTMENTS AND SPELEOGENESIS AS INFERRED FROM SEDIMENT TRAPS IN MAJOR L EBANESE ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 18 e new conguration of deposits with the col lapse of the ceiling decreased the available volume for water circulation in the cave section and forced Jeita River to deepen a new passage by incising the disrupted sediments in the northern side of the cave section (e.g. Fig. 11, stage 7). Morphological sections on the site in dicate numerous scallops with diverse shape and sizes, located on the north side of the cave section (Nehme 2013). 5.2. V ARIABILIT Y OF W ATER FLO W S AND LOCAL W ATER LEVELS. Cave passages morphology and collapse aect con siderably the spatial and temporal distribution of sedi ments creating therefore, local eects that control the location of newly formed passages. In Kassarat cave, the collapse created a form of blockage to water circulation and triggered (e.g. Fig. 10) a whole range of process that lead to the present spatial conguration. Such blockage contributed in rising water level in the cave section in creasing therefore pipe-full ows in the main passage. Flow velocity decreasing rapidly in the Junction Cham ber, led to the ponding of water behind the collapse. Such ux adjustments triggered the alluvium process aggrad ing, therefore the volume of deposit behind the block age. In Jeita cave, allocthonous sediments were deposited rst in the southern part of the site where the passage cross-section is more expanded. e collapse occurring aer several deposition stages, contributed in creating a form of blockage increasing therefore the volume of sed iments with the deposition of new levels on the collapsed blocks. e new spatial distribution of the deposits leads to the formation of new passages. Flows were driven to circulate in specied locations in newly formed conduits located preferentially at the edges of the cave-section in Jeita (narrow passage) and in Kassarat cave (tubular conduit) or upstream to the blockage sector (the capture conduit in the southern gallery). e younger passages show in both sites narrower widths comparing to those of the olderpassages: in Jeita cave, the regular width of the lower active gallery rang es from 8 to 13 m (Karkabi 1963). e passages located aer the sediment trap display narrower sections with a width ranging from 3.6 to 6.6 m (Karkabi 1963). In Kassarat cave, the width of passages in the main canyon ranges from 10 to 13 m and 30 to 40 m in the Junction Chamber while the width of the younger passages (e.g. Fig. 12) formed during the collapse and the alluvium process varies from 3 to 6 m. In both Kassarat and Jeita caves, new passages were also deepened few meters less than the altitudinal levels of the main active cave passag es (e.g. Fig. 2 and 4). e decrease in the passages width and their altitudinal levels would be related to a decrease in the ow amount. is would infer to less water inputs into the cave system or to a local reorganization of uxes controlled by the drop of the water base level. Study of sedimentary sequences show, in some case, variations in types of deposits. Continuous deposit vari ations depends generally on ow conditions that involve several local and regional parameters. e main factor concerning the deposit variation is the ow rate and its capacity in transporting such particles sizes (pebble, coarse sand, silt). Flow rates are mainly conditioned by the passage morphology but depend also on either the cave system is at base ow or ood ow when extreme cli mate conditions occur (W hite 2007). Variations on types of deposits are observed in the sequence of Jeita cave and less in the Kassarat cave. In the latter site, only level S19 Fig. 12: P hoto (A) shows the section of the capture in the Junction Chamber. e white arrow indicates the ow level during high dis charge periods. In the present time, all the ow is drained by the capture conduit. P hoto (B) is the tubular conduit located at the base of the collapse sector in the Junction Chamber. B oth conduits (P hotos A and B) present a section diameter with narrower widths compar ing to the Junction Chamber Section (see g. 2). C. N EHME S. J AILLET J.J AC QUES D ELANNO Y, J. A DJIZIAN G ERARD M. A RZOUNI R. STEPHAN & T. C OMAT Y

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 19 formed by coarse gravel and pebbles with no bedding, is set disparately from other lower and upper ne sand and silt bedded levels. e S19 level was deposited by debris ows related mainly to an extreme ood event, unlikely to the lower levels deposited by regular stream ows and to the upper levels related to over ows. Even though variations are observed between silt and ne sand levels in the upper unit, but this slight grain-size change would be more related to local eect controlled by the capture width than to external environmental changes. Similar analysis on sediments in Choranche caves, France infer to the eect of the conduit size on the slight grain-size change in the Chevaline sumps (Lignier e t al. 2012). e deposit sequence of Jeita cave indicates varia tions in type of deposits, ranging from pebbles (N2, N5, N7, N8), to thick owstone (N4, N6). is infers to changes in the hydrological regime during the deposi tion: the pebbles deposited by debris ow could be more related to external events such as oods (Dogwiler and W icks 2004). ick owstone levels would be related more to low energy ows, due probably to less water in puts in the cave system. ough, it could also result from ows readjustments induced by the lowering of water base level and creating consequently temporary Vadose conditions for calcite deposition. 5.3. THRESHOLD EFFECT On of the main local eects demonstrated by the grainsize analysis is the result of thresholds on deposit accu mulation. is is largely documented in karst studies on cave sediments (Jaillet 2005; Lignier 2001; Perroux 2005), demonstrating the inuence of passages width in delay ing transport and deposition of particles of a single ow event in several parts of the cave system. Passage width controls the sediment signal (type of grain-size, thick ness of deposit level) through a piston ow eect when particles are transported between several sediment traps. Comparable studies were documented in hydrologi cal studies highlighting the piston ow of stored water through springs prior to the arrival of storm water (Dreiss 1989; Herman et al. 2008). In Kassarat cave, sediment analysis and the observation of the speleogenic context helped to conrm the enlargement of the new passage (capture conduit), which had a threshold eect on the types of deposits in the Junction Chamber: Even though the collapse triggered alluviation in both sites, other processes contributed in the modi cation of ow rate and consequently the depositional environment: i) the reduction of the ow area, ii) the ow evacuation from new conduits that were not wide enough to evacuate all the ow, leading eventually to an overow in the Junction Chamber. is latter local eect required more accurate grain-size analysis on the up per unit. New particle size measurements were made in 1 cm intervals and results (Nehme et al. 2013) showed a general decrease of the mean size of particles, despite the irregular particle composition of several levels. is general decrease in the ow rate is conditionned by the width of the new passage from which the water coming from both southern and northern sumps is evacuated. Fig. 13: A synthetic model shows the readjustments of ows in cave systems when deposits ll in a cave passage. Flows and sediment particles imputed in the system are rstly conditioned by external factors (the environmental context and the climate). Considering that ows are conned to a certain conduit size, ow velocity and range of particles-size deposited in the cave are conditioned by the accumulation of former deposits and new formed conduits (capture) to contain the ows diverted from the blockage area. e threshold (conduit morphometry) constrains ow velocity during each ood event. S UBSURFACE FLU X ADJUSTMENTS AND SPELEOGENESIS AS INFERRED FROM SEDIMENT TRAPS IN MAJOR L EBANESE ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 20 Abdul-Nour, H., 2004: Les cavits de lendokarst du Li ban.Splorient, 4, 116. Berger, G.W ., Perez-Gonzalez, A., Carbonell, E., Ar suaga, J.L., Bermudez De Castro, J. & T. Ku, 2008: Luminescence chronology of cave sediments at the Atapuerca paleoanthropological site, Spain.Jour nal of Human Evolution, 55, 300. C ONCLUSION Study of both sediments traps associated to collapse re veals interesting information on readjustments and evo lution of ows within cave systems. Grain-size analysis of cave deposits helped to give some indications on the paleohydrological context during the depositional proc ess. In sites located near cave outputs, the geomorpho logical approach combined with the stratigraphy analysis helped in discerning levels deposited by underground rivers from those of outer origin. In this paper, the study of both sediments traps in Jeita and Kassarat caves demonstrated the eect of local parameters, such as the threshold eect generated by width of passages, volume of collapse and local water level uctuations on the depo sition process (e.g. Fig. 13). Deposition in cave systems depends on ow rates that involve, nevertheless both lo cal and regional parameters. e environmental signal interpreted in sedimentary sequences by the grain-size variability could be, therefore reduced. e local context of the depositional process must be taken into considera tion before relating sediment inputs in caves to external environmental change. e enlargement of the passage rst contained turbulent ows transporting coarse sand particles and the over ow occurring in the Junction chamber lead to the de position of ne-grained particles in the upper level of the sequence. e progressive widening of the passage (Cap ture) lead to a progressive decrease of the mean size of particles in the upper levels of the sequence, controlling therefore the over ow process. In the sediment trap of Jeita cave, the threshold ef fect was triggered by the ceiling collapse leading to sev eral successive processus: i) deposition of the N8 level by the Jeita river on the topmost part of the section, ii) re duction of the section width and iii) depening of a small passage on the northern side on the Chamber. Y et, the Kalb river participated in lling the Entrance Chamber (N5 level) in the lower section but the topmost part of the sediment section is of inner origin (from the under ground river) due to the position of this topmost part above the altitude of the touristic entrance ( m). A CKNO WLEDGMENTS e analysis and sampling on sites was undertaken under the authorizations of the ministries of Tourism, Environ ment of Lebanon and the Department of water resources of Mount-Lebanon. W e thank Dr. Nabil Haddad, direc tor of MAPAS (operator of Jeita Grotto showcave) for his continuous support and generous hospitality. Many thanks to B.T.D. (Bureau Technique et Dveloppement) for providing hydrological data on Antelias spring. Final ly, were thankful to Pierre-Charles Grard and A.L.E.S. cavers-Association Libanaise dEtudes Splologiques for providing technical support to complete sampling dur ing eld trips. e authors are grateful to the anonymous referees for improving this paper. C. N EHME S. J AILLET J.J AC QUES D ELANNO Y, J. A DJIZIAN G ERARD M. A RZOUNI R. STEPHAN & T. C OMAT Y REFERENCES Bogli, A., 1980: Karst hydrology and physical speleology .Springer-Verlag, pp. 294, Berlin. Bosk, P., Pruner, P. & J. Kadlec, 2003: Magnetostratigraphy of Cave Sediments: Application and Limits.Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, 47, 2, 301.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 21 Gedeon, M., 1999: Structural analysis of latitudinal fault in the Mount-Lebanon north of B eirut: their kine matics and their role in the tectonic evolution of Lebanon .Master thesis, American University of Beirut, pp. 245. Gillieson, D., 1986: Cave sedimentation in the New Guinea highlands.Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 11, 533. Hakim B., 1975: Recherches dhydrologie et de morphol ogie karstiques au Liban central : bassins du Nahr el-Kelb, Nahr Ibrahim et leurs conns.PhD thesis, Universit Aix-en-Provence France, pp. 158. Hakim, B., & S. Karkabi, 1988: Coloration du goure de Faouar Dara et de la grotte des Kessarat.AlOuateOuate, Splo Club du Liban, 3, 18. Hakim B., 1985: Recherche hydrologiques et hydro chimiques sur quelques karsts mditerranens: Liban, Syrie, Maroc .PhD thesis, Lebanese University Bei rut, pp. 700. Huselmann, A.D., Huselmann, P. & B.P. Onac, 2010: Speleogenesis and deposition of sediments in Cio clovina Uscat Cave, ureanu Mountains, Roma nia.Environmental Earth Sciences, 61, 1561. Herman, E., Toran, L., & W ., W hite, 2008 : reshold events in spring discharge: Evidence from sediment and continuous water level measurement.Journal of Hydrology, 351, 98 106. Jaillet, S., 2005: Le barrois et son karst couvert .Karstolo gia Mmoires, 12, pp. 335. Jameson, R.A., 1991: Concept and classication of cave breakdown: An analysis of patterns of collapse in Friars Hole Cave System, W est Virginia.In: Kast ning, E.H., & K.M. Kastning (eds.) Appalachian Karst National Speleological Society, pp. 35, Huntsville, Alabama. Karanouh, R., Bou jawdeh, I., Comaty, A., & J., Tawk, 2004: Mgharet el Kessarat cave system.Al-OuateOuate, 13, map annex. Karkabi, S., 1963: Relev topographique de la rivire sou terraine de Jiita au 1/500 e .Oce des eaux de Bey routh, 3 maps. Karkabi, S., 1990: Cinquantenaire de la splologie liba naise.Al-Ouate-Ouate, Splo Club du Liban, 5, 1. Labaky, W ., 1998: A hydrogeological and environmental assessment of the Fouar Antelias catchment .Master thesis in Science, American University of Beirut, pp. 132. Lignier, V., 2001: Les sdiments lacustres et lenregistrement de la palosismicit .PhD thesis, Universit de Savoie France, pp. 381. S UBSURFACE FLU X ADJUSTMENTS AND SPELEOGENESIS AS INFERRED FROM SEDIMENT TRAPS IN MAJOR L EBANESE ... Bull, P.A., 1980: Towards a reconstruction of time-scales and palaeoenvironments from cave sediment stud ies.In: Cullingford, R.A. et al. (eds.) Timescales in geomorphology John W iley, pp. 177, London. Cailleux, A. & J., Tricart, 1965: Initiation ltude des sa bles et des galets .Centre de la Documentation Uni versitaire, Tome I, II et III, pp. 194, Paris. Chamley, H., 1987: Sdimentologie .Edition Dunod, pp. 175, Paris. Delannoy, J-J., Gauchon, Ch., Hoblea, F., Jaillet, S., Maire, R., Perrette, Y ., Perroux, A.-S., Ployon, E. & N. Vanara, 2009: Le karst : des archives palo gographiques aux indicateurs de lenvironnement.Gomorphologie : relief, processus et environ nement, 2009, 2, 83. De W aele, J., Gutirrez, F., Parise, M. & L. Plan, 2011: Geomorphology and natural hazards In karst areas: A review.Geomorphology, 134, 1. Dogwiler, T. & C.M. W icks, 2004: Sediment entrainment and transport in uviokarst systems.Journal of Hydrology, 295, 163. Doummar, J., 2012: Identication of indicator param eters for the quantitative assessment of vulnerability in karst aquifers .PhD thesis, Gttingen University Gttingen, pp. 116. Dreiss, S.J., 1989: Regional scale transport in a karst aqui fer; 1, Component separation of spring ow hydro graphs.W ater Resources Research, 25, 117. Dubertret, L., 1951: Carte gologique du Liban: B eyrouth 1/50000e Ministre des travaux publics, Beirut, Lebanon. Dubertret, L., 1975: Introduction la carte gologique au 1/50000 du Liban.Notes et mmoires sur le Moy en-Orient, 23, 345. Farrant, A.R., Smart, P.L., W hitaker, F.F., & D.H. Tarling, 1995: Long-term Q uaternary upli rates inferred from limestone caves in Sarawak, Malaysia.Geol ogy, 23, 357. Farrant, A., & P. Smart, 2011: Role of sediment in speleo genesis; sedimentation and paragenesis.Geomor phology, 134, 79. Folk, R.L., 1980: e P etrology of Sedimentary Rocks .Hemphill Publishing Company, pp. 182 pages, Aus tin, Texas. Ford, D.C. & P., W illiams, 2007: Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology .W iley, United Kingdom, pp.562, Chichester. Granger, D.E., Fabel, D. & A.N., Palmer, 2001: PliocenePleistocene incision of the Green River, Kentucky, determined from radioactive decay of cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be in Mammoth Cave sediments.Geological Society of America Bulletin, 113, 825.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 22 Lignier, V., Jaillet, S., Perroux, A.-S., omas, M., Ma let, E., Deves, G., Morel, L. & J.J. Delannoy, 2012: Dynamique sedimentaire et eets de site en zone noyee du karst: lexemple du siphon de Chevaline (Grotte de Choranche, Vercors, France).Karstolo gia, 60, 23. Martini, I., 2011: Cave clastic sediments and implications for speleogenesis: New insights from the Mugnano Cave (Montagnola Senese, Northern Apennines, Italy).Geomorphology, 134, 452. Metni, M. & F.H. Nader, 2005: Mgharet el-Kessarat. His tory, Morphology and Speleogenesis.Al-OuateOuate Speleo Club du Liban, 13, 8. Nehme, C., Delannoy, J.-J., Adjizian-Gerard, J. & J. Hell strom, 2012: Late Pleistocene evolution of Antelias valley (Lebanon): speleogenic approach applied on Kassarat cave system with implication of U/ da tations records.In : 20 th International karst school of the Karst Research Institute, Classical karst Karst forms and processes 20 th th June 2012, Postojna, Slovnia, ZRC-SAZU, 66, Postojna. Nehme, C., Delannoy, J.-J. Jaillet, S., Adjizian-Gerard, J., Hellstrom, J., Comaty, T., Arzouni M. & P., Mat ta, 2013a : Sedimentary study and Udatations contribution in the reconstitution of the Junction Chamber morphodynamic, Kessarat cave, Nabay, Lebanon: A geomorphological approach for palaeo hydrological records analysis. In : Filippi M., Bosak P. (Eds) the P roceedings of the 16th International Congress of Speleology 21 th th July 2013, Brno, CZECH SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIET Y Praha, Czech Repbulic, 3, 384, Praha. Nehme, C., Voisin, C., Mariscal, A., Gerard, P.C., Cor nou, C., Jabbour-Gedeon, B., Amhaz, S., Salloum, N., Badaro-Saliba, N., Adjizian-Gerard, J. & J.J. Delannoy, 2013b: e use of passive seismological imaging in speleogenetic studies: an example from Kanaan Cave, Lebanon.International Journal of Speleology, 42, 2, 97. Nehme, C., 2013c: Apport de lendokarst dans la reconsti tution des palogographies et environnements passs du Mont-Liban: le cas des valles de Nahr Antelias et Nahr el-Kalb .PhD thesis, Grenoble University France, pp. 450. Passega, R., 1964: Grain size representation by C/M pat terns as a geological tool.Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 34, 4, 830. Perroux, A.-S., 2005: Les remplissages dtritiques en dokarstiques. Contribution mthodologique la lecture des mmoires palogographiques et environ nementales : Application aux systmes karstiques de Choranche ( V ercors) et d'Orgnac (B as-V ivarais). PhD thesis, Universit de Savoie France, pp. 418. Polk, J.S., Van Beynen, P.E. & P.P. Reeder, 2007: Late Ho locene environmental reconstruction using cave sediments from Belize.Q uaternary Research, 68, 53. Puca, C., Stremtan C.C. & F. Kristali, 2010: Past surface conditions and speleogenesis as inferred from cave sediments in the Great Cave of Salitrari Mountain (SW Romania).Studia Universitatis Baber-Bolyai, Geologia, 55, 2, 51 57. Q uinif, Y ., 2006: Complex stratigraphic sequences in Bel gian caves correlation with climatic changes during the middle, the upper Pleistocene and the Holo cene.Geologica Belgica, 9, 3, 231. Renault, P., 1968: Contribution l'etude des actions m caniques et sdimentologiques dans la spleoge nse.Annales de Splologie, 23, 529. Sbai, A., Ek, C., Drouin, Ph., Chirol, B., Ariagno, J.-C., Pelisson, A. & Y ., Q uinif, 1995: Les remplissages karstiques de la grotte Sous-les-Sangles: Sdimen tologie et volution splomorphologique d'une grotte du Jura mridional (France).Q uaternaire, 6, 1, 35. Saunderson, H.C., 1977: e sliding bed facies in esker sands and gravels: a criterion for full-pipe (tunnel) ow?.Sedimentology, 24, 623. Sasowsky, I.D., 2007: Clastic sediments in caves imper fect recorders of processes in karst.Acta Carsolog ica, 36, 1, 143. Sweeting, M.M., 1972: Karst landforms .Macmillan, pp. 362, London. W alley, C.D., 1998: Some outstanding issues in the geol ogy of Lebanon and their importance in the tectonic evolution of the Levantine rgion.Tectonophysics, 298, 37. W hite, W .B., 1988: Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains .Oxford University Press, pp. 464, New Y ork. W hite, E.L. & W .B., W hite, 1969: Processes of cavern breakdown.National Speleological Society Bulle tin, 31, 83. W hite, W .B., 2007: Cave sediments and paleoclimate.Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 69, 76. Zupan Hajna, N., Pruner, P., Mihevc, A., Schnabl, P. & P., Bosak, 2008: Cave sediements from the Postojn ska-Planinska cave system (Slovenia): Evidence of multi-Phase evolution in epiphreatic zone.Acta Carsologica, Postojna, 37/1, 68. C. N EHME S. J AILLET J.J AC QUES D ELANNO Y, J. A DJIZIAN G ERARD M. A RZOUNI R. STEPHAN & T. C OMAT Y



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EX PLORING R ELATIONSHIPS B ET W EEN K ARST T ERRAINS AND SOCIAL FEATURES BY THE EX AMPLE OF G M R T ORNA K ARST H UNGAR YS LOVAKIA R AZISKOVANJE ODNOSOV MED KRAKO POKRAJINO IN SOCIALNIMI FUNKCIJAMI: P RIMER KRAKEGA OBMO JA G M R T ORNA MAD ARSKA S LOVAKA Tams TELBISZ 1 Zsolt B OTTLIK 2 Lszl MARI 3 & Alena P ETRVALSK 4 Izvleek UDK 911.5:551.435.8(439+437.6) Tams Telbisz, Zsolt Bottlik, Lszl Mari & Alena Petrvalsk: Raziskovanje odnosov med krako pokrajino in socialnimi funkcijami: Primer krakega obmoja Gmr-Torna (Madarska-Slovaka) Odnosi med lovekom in okoljem imajo v primeru krakih okolij nekatere posebne znailnosti. Ta so obiajno manj gosto naseljena predvsem zaradi hidrolokih, topografskih in pedolokih posebnosti. Vendar pa je vpliv naravnih de javnikov krakih pokrajin na drubeno-gospodarski razvoj redko prouevan, vplivi pa so obiajno pojasnjeni v kvali tativnem smislu. Zato je cilj tega prispevka kot sodobnega pristopa znotraj geografskega posibilizma raziskati neposre den in posreden koliinski vpliv obravnavanega naravnega okolja na drubeno-gospodarski razvoj z uporabo-GIS orodij in statistinih metod. tudija je bila opravljena na primeru krakega obmoja Gmr-Torna (na Madarskem znan kot kras Aggteleka oziroma na Slovakem kot Slovaki kras). Razmerja med naravnimi dejavniki (nadmorska viina, naklon, relativna viina, oddaljenost od pomembnih rek) in pokrovnostjo tal, kot tudi med naravnimi dejavniki in socialnimi podatki (gostota prebivalstva, gostota poselitve, povpreno tevilo pre bivalcev v naselju, spremembe prebivalstva, gostota cestnega omreja) smo prouevali z regresijsko analizo. eleli smo ugo toviti, kako mono zgoraj navedeni naravni dejavniki vplivajo na socialne parametre. V nekaterih primerih (pokrovnost tal, cestno omreje) je naklon najbolji pokazatelj, medtem ko v 1 Department of Physical Geography Etvs University, Budapest, Hungary, 1117 Budapest, Pzmny Pter stny 1/C., e-mail: telbisztom@caesar.elte.hu 2 Department of Regional Science, Geography Etvs University, Budapest, Hungary, 1117 Budapest, Pzmny Pter stny 1/C., e-mail: agria@gmx.net 3 Department of Physical Geography Etvs University, Budapest, Hungary, 1117 Budapest, Pzmny Pter stny 1/C., e-mail: mari.laci@gmail.com 4 Institute of Geography, University of Pavol Jozef afrik, Koice, Slovakia, Jesenn 5, Prirododeveck fakulta UPJS 040 01, e-mail: alena.petrvalska@upjs.sk Received/Prejeto: 03.02.2013 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 121, POSTOJNA 2015 Abstract UDC 911.5:551.435.8(439+437.6) Tams Telbisz, Zsolt Bottlik, Lszl Mari & Alena Petrvalsk: Exploring Relationships Between Karst Terrains and Social Features by the Example of Gmr-Torna Karst (HungarySlovakia) Human-environment relations have some special character istics on karst terrains, and karstlands are usually less densely inhabited areas principally due to hydrologic, topographic and pedologic reasons. However, the natural factors of karst ter rains and socio-economic development are rarely discussed together, and the relationships are usually expressed in quali tative terms. erefore the aim of this paper is to explore the direct and indirect quantitative impact of natural settings on socio-economic development of karst terrains using GISaided, statistical methods as a modern approach within geo graphic possibilism by the case study of Gmr-Torna Karst (whose Hungarian part is known as Aggtelek Karst, while the Slovakian part as Slovak Karst). Relationships between natural factors (elevation, slope, relative height, distance from signi cant rivers) and land cover as well as between natural factors and social data (population density, settlement density, mean settlement population, population change, road network den sity) have been studied by regression analysis in order to de termine how strongly these social parameters are inuenced by the above natural factors. In certain cases (land cover catego ries, road network) slope is the best estimator, while in other cases (population density, longterm population change), the

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 122 T AMS TELBISZ, ZSOLT B OTTLIK, L SZL MARI & ALENA P ETRVALSK distance from signicant river provides the best correlation. Many karstlands are depopulating and ageing areas worldwide. So is the case for the Gmr-Torna Karst as well, but there are several interesting questions in connection with it. First, whether it is a recent process or a longterm situation. Second, wether the karst is dierent from the neighbouring non-karst areas from the viewpoint of demography. ird, whether the karst area is homogeneous from social point of view. Cluster analysis based on demographic changes since 1828 helped to explore inner variations of population scenarios. Certain social characteristics (e.g. unemployment) show a relatively (but only relatively) favorable present position of Aggtelek karst, while the Slovak Karst is economically more disadvantageous. Karstrelated tourism is measurable but it has a decreasing trend and it is rather localized around Aggtelek. Human attitude is also an important factor, that is also briey discussed based on semi-structured interviews with local people. Keywords : human-environment relations, GIS, possibilism, Aggtelek Karst, Slovak Karst, tourism drugih primerih (gostota prebivalstva, dolgotrajne spremembe prebivalstva) najboljo korelacijo zagotavlja oddaljenost od veje reke. Veliko krakih obmoij po vsem svetu se sooa z zmanjevanjem tevila in s staranjem prebivalstva. Prav tak je primer krakega obmoja Gmr-Torna, vendar pa ta primer sproa e tevilna druga zanimiva vpraanja. Kot prvo nas za nima, ali gre za trenuten proces ali za dolgorono situacijo. Drugi, ali do demografskih sprememb prihaja zaradi razlik med krakimi in sosednjimi nekrakimi obmoji. Tretji, ali je prouevano krako obmoje homogeno z drubenega vidika. Klastrska analiza, ki temelji na demografskih spremembah od leta 1828, je pomagala raziskati notranje spremembe sestave prebivalstva. Nekatere socialne znailnosti (na primer brez poselnost) kaejo relativno (ampak samo relativno) ugoden trenutni poloaj krasa Aggtelek, medtem ko je Slovaki kras ekonomsko manj ugoden. Turizem, vezan na kras, je mer ljiv, vendar ima negativen trend in je precej lokaliziran okrog Aggte leka. lovekov odnos je prav tako pomemben dejavnik, kar prav tako na kratko razpravljamo na podlagi polstrukturiranih intervjujev z lokalnim prebivalstvom. Kljune besede: odnosi lovek-okolje, GIS, posibilizem, kras Aggtelek, Slovaki kras, turizem. I NTRODUCTION : THE KARST AND SOCIET Y CONTE X T Karst terrains have characteristic morphological, hy drological, pedological and ecological features. ese characteristics impact socio-economic development in a number of ways. One of the basic questions in geography is to what extent are the social parameters inuenced by environmental settings (e.g. Harden 2012). Although formerly and occasionally even now, extreme views are articulated in connection with this question (e.g. determinism, nihilism, constructivism), we think that the approach of possibilism provides the right way, which states that the impact can not be questioned, but its scale and its ways can be dierent that is worth for being studied (these thoughts are re viewed e.g. in Kszegi et al 2015). e American ge ographer, Sauer C. emphasized that human behaviour is not dependent solely on environmental constrains and by rejecting positivism he favoured the study of small territorial units, what he called cultural land scapes, expressing that they are the results of the joint inuence of culture and nature (Harden 2012). On the contrary, todays research focus rather on global issues and up-to-date GIS-methodology opens up new op portunities to examine human-environment relation ships in quantitative terms. An interesting approach of this kind is hypsographic demography, which explores how demographic parameters change according to re lief categories (e.g. Cohen & Small 1998; Meybeck et al 2001; Patterson & Doyle 2011). W e think that it is also worthwile to explore and check the validity of quantita tive relationships in smaller scales. is idea is present in some, but not too many previous studies (e.g. Song et al 2007; Miloevi et al 2010, 2011). In a previous work, we also applied this approach to the country of Montenegro whose 2/3 is karst terrain (Telbisz et al 2014). us, the aim of this study is to investigate hu man-environment relationships in quantitative terms by the case example of a smaller territory, namely the Gmr-Torna (Gemer-Tura) Karst (whose Hungar ian part is known as Aggtelek Karst, and the Slovakian part as Slovak Karst). In fact, the relationship of the karst-geo-ecosystem and the society is two-way. Karst terrains are vulnerable to environmental disturbances due to their high hydro logic permeability and shallow soils (e.g. Brny-Kevei 1998; Zhang et al. 2003; Parise et al 2009; Kevein 2014). e environmental problems are in many cases karstspecic and their management and the mitigation of natural hazards require the knowledge of karst processes (e.g. Gutierrez et al 2014). Nevertheless, in this paper, we do not consider the human impact on karst, instead, we study the positive and negative eects of karst exerted on humans living on karst terrains. W e try to understand how much the karst modies the possibilities of socioeconomic development and the ways of life on karst.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 123 EX PLORING R ELATIONSHIPS B ET W EEN K ARST T ERRAINS AND S OCIAL F EATURES B Y THE EX AMPLE OF ... STUD Y A REA e Gmr-Torna Karst (GTK in the followings) is found in the northeastern part of Hungary and southeastern part of Slovakia. Topographically it is a transitional ter rain with low mountains and hills between the higher Rudohorie Mts (part of the Carpathians) and Putnok and Csereht Hills lowering towards the Great Plains of Hun gary (for a detailed presentation of this large-scale topog raphy see Telbisz 2011 and references therein). Among the cave systems being together in the W orld Heritage list, the longest one is the 25 km long Domica-Baradla system nearby Aggtelek. A speciality of this cave is that its main passage crosses the state border. e geomorphology of GTK is characterized by several karst plateaus with me dium density of dolines (1 dolines/km 2 depending on the plateau), dissecting river valleys and small basins. e whole study area (Fig. 1) includes the territory between Saj (Slan)-Mur and Hernd (Hornd) riv ers and the southern part of Rudohorie Mts. Taking into considerations topographic, geologic and hydrologic set tings as well as the already existing landscape division (Dvnyi 2010) we distributed the study area into 8 units and these units (landscapes) are the basic elements of our analysis (Fig. 2, Tab. 1). ese are the followings (Id numbers in brackets are used later on in this paper): Ru dohorie Mts (only the southern part is included in this study; 1), Rudohorie Foothills (2), Northern valleys & Here we note however, that this impact is in most cases indirect. As Day (2010) stated: karstlands are challenging to human habitation , that is karsts imply more dicul ties than possibilities to their people. As for the agricul ture, karst terrains usually have low potential (Ravbar 2004). e formation and development of settlements on karst have been studied by several authors (e.g. Mga 1998; Lovsz & Gyenizse 2012). Frst-Bjeli et al (2001) and Pejnovi and Husanovi-Pejnovi (2008) focussed mainly on demographic changes, which occurred in the characteristic karst landscape of Velebit Mountains dur ing the recent centuries. ey emphasized the relation ship of land use and karst relief types. Ballut and Faivre (2012) seeked correlations between these demographic processes and sediments preserved in doline traps. Ravbar (2004) analyzed the possibilities of karst water management by the example of the Classical Kras pla teau. Erjavec and Peri (2005) presented an interesting microscale study, in which they explored the typical way of life of people living around intermittent karstic lakes. Further on, it is obvious that karst terrains require spe cial approach during hydrologic engineering (Milanovic 2002) and road construction (Knez & Slabe 2010). Sum ming up the above papers, it is concluded that in most cases, karst landscapes are characterized by lower devel opment, higher unemployment and emigration, thus, in order to advance the (sustainable) development of karst areas, attention and denite measures are needed, as it was argued by Malekovi et al (2010) considering the situation of Velebit region. On the other hand, beside the above-mentioned, mostly disadvantegeous features, it is also necessary to emphasize the heritage dimension (e.g. Kiernan 2011). Naturally, the most important of them is the geo-heri tage, the caves and the typical karst landforms. However, some authors distinctly describe the notion of hydro logical heritage and they argue for protecting it (Simi et al 2014). Others mention the karst-related cultural heritage, which can be either of religious type (Barbosa & Travassos 2008), or the preservation of the traditional way of life that is due to the remoteness or enclosedness of certain karst terrains (Kiernan 2011). is heritage di mension is really valuable nowadays that is reected by the fact that several karst features have become part of the W orld Heritage. Today, this value can be transformed into economic benet mainly by tourism. However, tour ism may also result serious problems, thus, good prac tices and management are crucial (e.g. Zhang et al 2003; Duval 2006; Mao et al 2014). In this paper, our intention is to nd statistical rela tionships between basic natural and social factors and to explore how much the above social phenomena (lower development, depopulation, growing tourism) typical of karst terrains worldwhile are valid for the Gmr-Torna Karst. Our study area is particularly interesting because its cave systems together (i.e. independent from the state boundary) are a part of the W orld Heritage that provides possibilities for cross-border cooperations. As for the methodology, we use mostly GIS-analysis and the expe riences collected during eld trips as well as semi-struc tured interviews. An essential principle of our analysis was that we took into consideration the neighbouring non-karstic areas in order to discriminate which eects are karst-related and which eects are rather due to local social processes.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 124 basins (3), GTK (4), Csereht Hills (5), Szendr Hills (6), Putnok Hills (7) and Southern valleys & basins (8). Inhabitation of the karst area in the Middle Ages was a slow process with respect to the neighbouring lower terrains and it progressed mainly along the river valleys during the 10 th th centuries. W ars and epidem ics of the 16 th th centuries decimated the population and some villages (e.g. Aggtelek) were even totally de serted (Dobny 2010b). Although the second half of the 19th century brought prosperity in Austria-Hungary, this boom was very limited in the study area. e new political border aer the 1st W orld W ar cut this territory, thus many economic linkages were cancelled. As a con sequence, the karst terrain, especially in the Hungarian side, became a borderland isolated from the main traf c. is isolation started to dissolve only aer the 1990 change of regime. Now, as both countries joined the EU, the linkages are getting restored. At present, the study terrain encompasses 249 settlements with 244 454 peo ple on an area of 3781 km 2 ere is a wide range of publications concerning the study area dealing with either natural or social issues, however, the integrated study of the whole karst terrain was not typical during most part of the 20 th century be cause of the political border. Here, we mention some works, which analyze the human-environment relation ships as well, approaching them either from the natural settings (Szab 1984; Mezsi 1998; Telbisz et al. 2013, 2014) or from the social conditions (Beluszky 1979) or from a historical geographical viewpoint (Dnes 1998; Mga 1998; Dobny 2010a, 2010b). D ATA AND METHODS In order to study human-environment relationships we took into consideration the following natural factors: geology, topography, hydrography and land cover. In fact, the land cover is only partially natural, because it is strongly inuenced by anthropogenic factors. Geologic maps were used to help the delineation of landscapes Fig. 1: Location of the study area. T AMS TELBISZ, ZSOLT B OTTLIK, L SZL MARI & ALENA P ETRVALSK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 125 Fig. 2: Landscape units of the study area. 1: Rudohorie Mts; 2: Rudohorie Foothills; 3: Northern V alleys & B asins; 4: GTK; 5: Csereht H ills; 6: Szendrn H ills; 7: P utnok H ills; 8: Southern V alleys & B asins. and to determine their surcial lithological composi tion. Relief characteristics (elevation a.s.l., slope, rela tive height) were computed from the 3 SRTM digital terrain dataset, which is an almost global digital eleva tion model recorded by interferometric synthetic aper ture radar (for further details see e.g. Rabus et al. 2003). Its circa 90 m horizontal resolution is appropriate for our study, but it is noted that due to its medium res olution, the real slopes are somewhat higher than the values calculated from SRTM. Relative height (further on we use only the word height) is dened as the elevation dierence between the actual point and the lowermost point of its neighbourhood. In the present study we used a 4.5 km radius neighbourhood that was adjusted to the typical valley width of the study area. In order to characterize the accessibility of a given point, we took into consideration another natural parameter, the distance to the nearest signicant river (river dis tance in the followings). Naturally, the word signi cant is valid only in a local context. W e selected those rivers as signicant, whose valleys were suitable for the construction of higher order roads and railways with out topographic obstacles. Land cover data originated from the Corine CLC2006 database. As for social data, we took into consideration the settlement locations, the road network and the popu EX PLORING R ELATIONSHIPS B ET W EEN K ARST T ERRAINS AND S OCIAL F EATURES B Y THE EX AMPLE OF ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 126 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION B ASIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS e main characteristics of the natural settings are found in Tab. 1. e elevation histograms (Fig. 3) dem onstrate that the Rudohorie Mts (1) form the highest terrain within the study area with a stretched maximum frequency at elevations between circa 400 and 700 m. e GTK (4) is the second highest in elevation with a smaller frequency maximum at circa 500 m and a larger maximum at around 250 m. All other landscapes have much lower elevation maxima and much lower ranges of elevation. Slope histograms testify the dissected character of Rudohorie Mts, but it is remarkable that GTK has higher frequencies in the steepest (>25) slope categories than Rudohorie Mts. It is a typical phenomenon that karst landscapes have relatively high frequencies in both low and extreme high slope classes. However, the mean slope of GTK is signicantly lower than that of Rudo horie Mts. At rst, we checked the hypothesis that karst ter rains are usually relatively rarely inhabited landscapes. For the GTK, we got that it is really the least densely populated landscape (18.2 p/km 2 ) within the study area (see Tab. 1). is value was calculated for the whole GTK area, which includes the settlements found at the feet of karst plateaus even if they are located on non-karstic (ba sically on Q uaternary uvial) rocks. If we use strictly the supercial area of karstiable rocks, there are only 5 set tlements and the calculated population density is as low as 2.2 p/km 2 However, by computing population densi ties for buer zones around the strictly dened karst, we found the highest density, 111 p/km 2 in the 250 m distance zone and decreasing values as distance grows. It proves that although the population density of karst lation statistics from 1828 to 2011 at circa 20 year in crements. e present demographic situation was characterized by the proportion of people aged 60 or over. Beside the above basic parameters, we used some settlement scale indicators to seize the actual state of social development (e.g. unemployment rate, number of guest nights, bus services to local centres). For pop ulation statistics, we used historical statistics volumes (Nagy 1828; Fnyes 1851; Jkelfalussy 1892; Majtn 1978; Csorba 1991; Kepecs 1995, 1996; Turkovics 1996; Zentai 2001; Barsi 2004) as well as data of population censii (1870) which started in Hungary in the last third of the 19th century, and population census data of Czechoslovakia (1920) and Slovakia (1993). Pres ent data refer to the last population census in 2011. W e also used k-means type cluster analysis of settlement demographic changes in order to explore typical popu lation scenarios in the study area. Population changes in percent were calculated for each 20 year step for each settlement and these data were the input to the cluster analysis. Other social data (proportion of people older than 60, commercial accomodation nights, unemployment ratio, ethnicity) were collected from the Hungarian Cen tral Statistical Oce and the Statistical Oce of the Slo vak Republic. Field work was carried out to get a general overview about the state and problems of settlements and to interview local people. e aim of the interviews was not a statistical analysis but to explore the present situation and recent changes in the way of life of local people. Altogether, 30 interviews were done (including interviews with 4 mayors, 1 priest, 2 entrepreneurs, 2 teachers among others). In the GIS-analysis we used both raster and vector based operations. As social data are basically assigned to points (settlements) and polygons (full area of settle ments) we adjusted the naturally delineated study area borders to the boundaries of settlements. In our previous analysis (Telbisz et al. 2014) we ex plored relationships of environmental and social param eters on the settlement scale. However, given the many particular situations, we found a scattering of data and relationships were usually weak, though statistically signicant. us, in order to better recognize theoreti cal relationships now we focus our analysis on the land scape scale (and we mention results of settlement scale analysis only in a few exceptions). Here we note that using 8 units (landscapes) in regression analysis means that the relationships are statistically signicant at the 95% condence level if the correlation coecient ( r ) is greater than 0.6319, that is the determination coecient ( r 2 ) is greater than 0.3993. In the regression analysis we selected the best-t functions, which were in most cases nonlinear functions. Since the aim of our study is to statistically evaluate the general linkages between karst terrains and society, there is no place here to articulate details and analyze special cases and deviations, even if these are interesting issues, too. T AMS TELBISZ, ZSOLT B OTTLIK, L SZL MARI & ALENA P ETRVALSK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 127 may be low, but near its edges, the natural settings pro vide favorable conditions to the formation of settlements (Fig. 4). REGRESSION ANAL Y SIS Here we present the statistical strength of relationships between landscape mean values of elevation, slope, height, river distance and mean values of social or land use parameters (Tab. 2). For each parameter we plot the graph of the strongest relationship and in order to meas ure the special eect of karst, we examine the deviation of GTK from the regression curve (Fig. 5). First, it is observed that settlement density is not correlated with any of the studied natural factors. GTK Fig. 3: Elevation and slope histograms by landscapes. Tab. 1: B asic natural and social data of the studied landscapes. Landscape name Rudohorie Mts Rudohorie Foothills Northern Valleys & Basins GmrTorna Karst (GTK) Csereht Hills Szendr Hills Putnok Hills Southern Valleys & Basins Id 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Area (km 2 ) 528 164 338 770 923 125 526 402 Dominant lithology Metamorphic PreQuaternary Sedimentary Quaternary Fluvial Limestone Quaternary Sedimentary Quaternary Sedimentary; Metamorphic NeogeneQuaternary Sedimentary Quaternary Fluvial Mean elevation a.s.l. (m) 656 288 214 423 214 224 253 142 Mean slope () 13.3 3.5 1.2 9.8 4.6 5.8 5.5 0.8 No. settlements 19 14 34 37 64 7 31 43 Population 12458 26853 55818 14025 22501 3132 20599 89068 Settlement density (1/1000 km 2 ) 10.0 2.3 11.5 28.5 59.3 0.9 16.3 17.4 Mean settlement population 656 1918 1642 379 352 447 664 2071 Population density (1/km 2 ) 23.6 164.0 165.2 18.2 24.3 24.9 39.1 219.8 Road density (km/km 2 ) 0.24 0.41 0.55 0.27 0.34 0.30 0.34 0.38 Population change between 1828 and 2011 .9% 63.9% 76.3% .0% .4% .2% 50.8% 91.4% EX PLORING R ELATIONSHIPS B ET W EEN K ARST T ERRAINS AND S OCIAL F EATURES B Y THE EX AMPLE OF ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 128 has the second highest value (28.5 settlements/1000 km 2 ) aer Csereht Hills (see Tab. 1). W hile the settlement density is high, the mean settlement population is low. is latter parameter shows signicant correlation with river distance (and also with slope and height). Look ing at the regression curve, it is obvious that GTK settlements have even less people than it could be esti mated from this curve. Population density signicantly depends on the same factors (i.e. river distance, slope, height) and GTK is again below the regression curve. Briey, the GTK is a landscape with high density of tiny villages, where the settlements are concentrated at the feet of karst plateaus. As for the land cover, it is demonstrated that prac tically all of the main components (forest, agriculture, grass & shrub, articial; except pasture) are in close cor relationship with slope, and the relationships are signi cant with the other natural factors as well. In each case, the GTK ts the regression curve that means that the di rect eect of karst is neglectable in the present land cover distribution (Fig. 6), instead the topographic impact is the dominant. Fig. 4: P opulation density of the study area calculated by Kernel algorithm. Tab. 2: Determination coetcients (r 2 ) of the studied relationships (d-decreasing function; bold: highest r 2 ). Dependent variable Best-t function Independent variable Elevation Slope Height River distance Settle. density linear 0.018 0.00003 0.0011 0.1409 Mean population logarithmic (d) 0.2024 0.6494 0.5132 0.7657 Pop. density logarithmic (d) 0.3232 0.7958 0.6663 0.8119 Articial power (d) 0.5083 0.9116 0.8051 0.6751 Agricultural exponential (d) 0.7506 0.9379 0.8647 0.3806 Pasture exponential 0.0099 0.0577 0.0086 0.1341 Forest logarithmic 0.7515 0.9096 0.89 0.5532 Grass & shrub logarithmic 0.4439 0.7698 0.6589 0.6543 Road density exponential (d) 0.4698 0.7713 0.6473 0.4388 Pop.change (1828 to 2011) logarithmic (d) 0.291 0.6594 0.5461 0.8628 T AMS TELBISZ, ZSOLT B OTTLIK, L SZL MARI & ALENA P ETRVALSK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 129 Among social data, the road density can be best es timated by slope, however it is in signicant relationship with all other physical factors, too. Again, GTK does not deviate from the regression curve, thus, in this case, the slightly lower density road network of the karst can be explained by topographic factors only and the direct ef fect of karst can not be measured. e longterm (1828 to 2011) population change has the strongest relationship with river distance, and its correlations with slope and height are also signicant. is value discriminates well the winners and losers in the longterm, and as the GTK is below the regression curve the karst are among the losers in this context and the longterm negative population change here was even higher than it could be calculated from the mean river distance (i.e. low accessibility). In order to evaluate whether river distance can be used as an estimator of low accessibility (remoteness) Fig. 5: Functional relationships between physical parameters and land cover or social parameters (GTK is red in each diagram). 1: Rudohorie Mts; 2: Rudohorie Foothills; 3: Northern V alleys & B asins; 4: GTK; 5: Csereht H ills; 6: Szendrn H ills; 7: P utnok H ills; 8: Southern V alleys & B asins. EX PLORING R ELATIONSHIPS B ET W EEN K ARST T ERRAINS AND S OCIAL F EATURES B Y THE EX AMPLE OF ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 130 of settlements, we analyzed bus lines to the local centres (only for the Hungarian part). As a result, we got a weak but statistically signicant relationship ( r=.45 ; taking into consideration 92 settlements in this analysis) be tween the number of bus departures to local centres and river distance. D EMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES Demographic changes since 1828 can be seen in Fig. 7. Even at the beginning of the studied period, the more or less plain and the hilly-mountainuous landscapes had dierent population densities but the dierences have been highly increased since then. e zoomed in right part of Fig. 7 shows that even in the 19 th century the hilly landscapes could be characterized by stagnation or occa sionally by decrease. e only exception was the Putnok Hills (7), where coal mining and the industrialization of nearby areas stimulated a locally signicant population growth. Aer a weak increase in the rst half of the 20 th century, there was a serious decline of population in all hilly and mountainuous areas especially aer 1970. How ever, aer the change of regime in 1990, the decrease was stopped in some landscapes due to the inow and higher reproduction rate of Roma people. e GTK was the least densely populated area from the beginnings with values similar to the Rudohorie Mts and a not yet nished de cline at the turn of the 21 st century. W e were curious to know if landscapes are homo geneous or heterogeneous from the viewpoint of popula tion changes, this is why we applied the cluster analysis in order to nd typical demographic scenarios. From Fig. 8 it is clearly seen, that population changes up to the middle of the 20 th century were small and relatively simi lar in the whole study area and that clusters dier from each other mainly in their post 2 nd world war trends. W e got the following, well interpretable clusters (Fig. 8): Cluster 1) ese settlements had higher population growth during the whole period except the last phase. ere was a relative prosperity aer the 2 nd W orld W ar, but the growth became slower from 1970 and nally it has stopped. is scenario is typical of the settlements of the larger valleys and basins. Cluster 2) It is marked by low growth rate and oc casionally negative growth during the 19 th century, a prosperity up to 1970 and a decline aerwards. However, aer the change of regime in 1990 there has been a sig nicant increase the only cluster where it is typical. In most cases this can be linked to the sudden growth of Roma population. In several rural settlements they live in slum-like conditions. is history is characteristic mainly in the eastern part of GTK, especially in Slova kia. Cluster 3) It can be characterized by medium popu lation changes within the study area, that is a low growth rate in the rst part of the examined period. In this cluster there was no prosperity at all in the 20 th century, however, the decline occurred and the population largely diminished aer the change of regime. is scenario is typical in GTK and in the inner parts of the hills but not in the most hidden villages. Cluster 4) It is very similar to cluster 3, but the rate of decline was slightly lower and these settlements could stabilize their population aer the change of regime. Typically these are small local centres or villages, which are easily accessible from larger central settlements. Ag gtelek, the village that gave its name to the National Park Fig. 6: Main (>1% proportion) land cover categories of the stud ied landscapes. T AMS TELBISZ, ZSOLT B OTTLIK, L SZL MARI & ALENA P ETRVALSK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 131 and to the karst landscape is also in this group. at is certainly due to its tourism potential as the most famous Hungarian cave, the Baradla cave is found here. However it is striking that Aggtelek in spite of being the number one karstic tourist destination could only avoid a stron ger decline, but could not preserve (or increase) its for mer population. Cluster 5) It is the most disadvantageous from de mographic viewpoint, characterized by decrease during most part of the studied period and with a strong and continuous decline since the middle of the 20 th century. ese are the most enclosed settlements. Although the construction of roads have no insurmountable physi cal barriers here, but there is an absolute lack of transit paths even at the smallest scale. A signicant part of these settlements are dead-end villages. Many of them became dead-end due to the change of political border in 1920 and their declining situation was conserved by the development policy of the 1970s, too. ese settle ments are situated in the central parts of the GTK and in the Csereht and Szendr Hills at trac shadow posi tions. Several of them are now at the verge of extinction with only dozens of elderly inhabitants. Summing up the above results, it is stated that de mographic scenarios are neither independent from nor determined by natural landscapes, and there are several variations within each landscape that can be captured by cluster analysis. A consequence of the above demographic pro cesses can be observed in the age structure of popula Fig. 7: P opulation density changes since 1828. Le: all landscapes, right: only the less densely inhabited landscapes. Fig. 8: Results of the demographic cluster analy sis. Map of the clusters and the population change curves of cluster centroids. EX PLORING R ELATIONSHIPS B ET W EEN K ARST T ERRAINS AND S OCIAL F EATURES B Y THE EX AMPLE OF ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 132 tion as well (see Tab. 3). e proportion of population aged 60 or over is the highest in the Hungarian part of GTK (29.2%), and it is relatively high in the Slovakian part of the karst, too. On the contrary, the lowest values are found in the valleys & basins and in the Rudohorie Foothills (16%). SOCIAL CONDITIONS Capturing the degree of socio-economic development is an extremely compound task. However, a crude approxi mation based on some simple parameters can help us to characterize the situation (Tab. 3). Since there are signi cant statistical dierences between the two countries, we distributed the data not only by landscapes but by coun tries, too, and it is more reliable to compare numeric val ues only within countries. In order to characterize the present economic situa tion, one can consider the unemployment rate; it is rather high in the Slovakian part of GTK, while it is the lowest in the Hungarian karst area. us, these parameters sug gest a relatively favorable position of karst in Hungary but a poor situation in Slovakia. Among other factors, it is clearly in connection with tourism. In the Slovakian part, the most outstanding tourist targets by the number of accomodation nights are Roava (in 3) and ts (in 1), the rst being a small town with some historical attractions and having a fa vorable trac position, the second being a spa resort. As Slovakia has many natural attractions and high moun tains (not only in the study area), it seems reasonable that Slovak Karst receives relatively little attention in spite of its karst peculiarities. Meanwhile, the Hungarian part of GTK has an outstanding tourist importance within the study area. W hile only 5% of population live in the settlements of Aggtelek Karst, the guest nights show that about three quarter (72.2%) of visitors arrive to the karst within the study area (especially to Aggtelek, Jsvaf and Szgliget). In addition, the largest employer in the Aggtelek Karst area is the National Park itself (personal communication by an Aggtelek National Park ocer). Nevertheless, even the tourist situation is not at its best. Since the peak in 1978, when 250 thousand people visit ed the Baradla cave (Fig. 9) the visitor number has grad ually decreased with small uctuations (Tzsa 1996). At present, there are only around 80 thousand visitors a year in spite of thorough restorations within the cave and its surroundings recently (Garan 2013). e reasons are multiple. Formerly, a visit to Baradla cave was almost compulsory for school groups, but their number signi cantly decreased in the last decades. Aer the change of regime, the whole world became open and the nationwide attractiveness of the cave lose much of its earlier value. A further problem is that most visitors arrive here only for one day that is a signicant drawback in terms of tourist revenues (Berecz et al 2008). As for ecotour ism, it has not yet attracted enough tourists, hitherto. Further on, it should be noted that the unemploy ment rate is in a moderate relationship ( r=0.46 ) with the proportion of Roma people at the settlement scale. is is a very sensitive situation even politically that is the result of a compound historical social development. Nevertheless, if we try to nd some natural elements in this story, we can say that the population of karst terrains with low agricultural potential has always remained at a lower level during history and land properties remained small and in the possession of lower gentry. As a con trary, the Csereht Hills (5) had slightly better agricul tural potential (though its soils are poor and its topogra phy is somewhat dissected) that lead to the formation of large estates where poor serfs worked and immigration was encouraged by landlords (mainly Slovaks and Rusins migrated to the area aer the Turkish wars). ese poor and mostly Catholic (partly Greek Catholic) people had higher reproduction rates and the area became overpop Tab. 3: Some social data (for year 2011) of the study area. SL: Slovakian part; HU: H ungarian part; no: no settlements in the given category. Landscape Id Mean proportion of 60+ people Mean rate of unemployment Accomodation nights Mean ratio of Roma people SL HU SL HU SL HU SL HU 1 20.8% no 29.5% no 14915 no 1.7% no 2 16.5% no 18.5% no 9505 no 2.1% no 3 18.0% no 31.5% no 27202 no 5.2% no 4 19.5% 29.2% 35.5% 19.5% 683 13406 5.7% 8.6% 5 22.9% 22.6% 24.7% 29.9% 0 770 0.3% 23.6% 6 no 28.5% no 27.6% no 0 no 19.3% 7 17.3% 21.9% 56.9% 19.5% 0 0 27.3% 7.8% 8 18.0% 19.9% 42.1% 20.1% 0 4389 4.5% 11.7% T AMS TELBISZ, ZSOLT B OTTLIK, L SZL MARI & ALENA P ETRVALSK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 133 ulated (Dobny 2010a). Due to low life conditions, many people decided to leave the area, especially in the second half of the 20th century. At the change of regime, most of Roma people lost their works in the neighbouring cit ies and they moved to the cheap and emptying villages without taking over the traditions of the countryside. is lead to the present seriously disadvantageous situa tion (cf. Beluszky 1979; Molnr 2008). Another hamper ing eect was, mainly before the change of regime, that this area is found next to the state border which further aggravated its enclosedness. CHANGING HUMAN ATTITUDE e attitude of local people towards natural settings and especially towards karst was examined by semi-structured interviews and eld observations. A remarkable change of landuse is the almost total disappereance of pastures as a result of the cease of grazing. Even some decades ago, thousands of sheep and cows were kept mainly on the large, uninhabited and waterless northern karst plateaus (Pleivska, Silicka, Jasovska; Fig. 9) during the summer period, where the animals got water from cisterns. To day, there are only 1 shephards, because people do not undertake this harsh way of life even if salaries are ac ceptable now. us, the spreading of forests is typical in the whole karst terrain. e unfavourable arable lands on karst were abandoned even earlier, at the end of the 19 th century (Nagy 2006). In the second half of the 20 th cen tury most inhabitants of these villages believed that peas ants work (the cultivation of both animals and crops) is only a misery and they intentionally sent their children to towns and cities so that they (the children) have a better life. Further signs of the ageing and depopulating villages are the orchards becoming wild around the settlements. e extending forests cultivation provide work for few people only. In the second half of the 20 th century, it was a spe ciality of karst-related settlements that local cavers clubs provided community and program for the youngs. How ever, nowadays most young people in these villages desire to be elsewhere, in the large centers and local speleoclubs cease their work, while the ongoing speleo-activities are usually linked to urban people escaping to Nature. Living on a karst area is usually not important in the thought of local people except at Aggtelek and its surroundings. Few people stroll through the karstic hills and mountains and even school children are rarely taken for a visit to karst natural monuments. Based on interviews with mayors we Fig. 9: A) Entry to B aradla cave; B) e last herd on P leivska plateau; C) Traditional wooden house in ruins in a tiny, dead-end village (H aava) a sign of depopulation; D) Restored traditional house in B dvark (All photos: T. Telbisz). EX PLORING R ELATIONSHIPS B ET W EEN K ARST T ERRAINS AND S OCIAL F EATURES B Y THE EX AMPLE OF ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 134 can say that environmental thinking is usually not typi cal in local management, the goal is most oen the sur vival. However, there are some villages where they try to preserve or revive the positive elements of traditional ag riculture. Rural tourism and forest schools provide some possibilities for certain villages on the verge of extinction to preserve at least the architectural heritage. Since the human resources are limited in the small, ageing villages, and the present socio-economic conditions are unfamil iar for local people, we observed in many cases that the points of revival are oen linked to persons arrived from outside (e.g. teacher, priest, national park employee, tourism entrepreneur). D ISCUSSION Based on a quantitative global analysis, Small and Cohen (2004) emphasized that population diminishes rapidly with increasing elevation and with increasing distance from coastlines and major rivers. In our local study, we also found that topography and river distance are really strongly inuencing factors, but slope is more important than absolute elevation. Our results showing the role of geomorphology in remoteness and indirectly in socioeconomic development are in accordance with Miloevi et al (2010, 2011), who demonstrated that the unfavour able natural (mainly geomorphological) characteristics are among the key factors in the spontaneous abandon ment of settlements in Serbia. Natural hazards, which are present on many karst terrains (Gutierrez et al 2014) are less important in GTK partly due to the karst type (e.g. the lack of sudden col lapses) partly due to the low economic development (e.g. water quality is good). W hile many karst landscape conicts (e.g. deforestation, increase of constructions, water pollution) are in connection with growing popula tion and tourism (e.g. in China, Zhang et al 2003; Mao et al 2014), here in the GTK, ageing and depopulation cause signicant problems that is similar to other Eu ropean karstlands (e.g. Velebit Mountains, Pejnovi & Husanovi-Pejnovi 2008). Arable lands abandoned more than a century ago and pastures unused for several decades are now transformed to forests. It is a conserva tion issue whether pastures as semi-anthropogenic land scapes should be preserved or not. Unlike many other karstlands of the world (Duval 2006; Mao et al 2014), tourism in the GTK is declining since the 1980s, but there are hopes that cross-border cooperation, new strategy, investment and marketing focussing partly on ecotourism may contribute to a new momentum in tourism (Berecz et al 2008). As quantitative, landscape-scale studies of the karst and society context are rare, we suggest that further analysis should be performed on other karstlands and a global analysis of population living on karst terrains can be done only aer a signicant number of local studies get ready. Futher on, another possible way of enlarging these studies is going towards the past using both his torical data and environmental proxies (e.g. as Ballut & Faivre (2012) tried to use doline sediments to infer social changes in the Velebit). C ONCLUSIONS e general statement that karsts are relatively rarely inhabited areas with respect to their surroundings was tested and proved to be true for the GTK. e population density dierences became even more accentuated dur ing the last two centuries. e population of GTK was stagnant for long then turned to decline during the stud ied period. However, it is not karst-specic, because the topographically similar, but non-karstic Csereht Hills have also densely distributed, small and ageing villages. On the other hand, the spatial pattern of settlements is not the same, there is a more uniform distribution in Csereht but an uneven distribution in GTK where pla teaus are practically uninhabited while foothills are rela tively densely populated. Regression analysis helped to examine the karstspecic eects. e conclusion is that population density and mean settlement population are lower and longterm population change is more negative on karst terrains than it could be expected from the topographic fac tor only. e other components, namely the land cover (e.g. forests, agriculture) and social parameters (e.g. road density) can be explained solely by the relief parameters. T AMS TELBISZ, ZSOLT B OTTLIK, L SZL MARI & ALENA P ETRVALSK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 135 REFERENCES Ballut, C. & S. Faivre, 2012: New Data On e Dolines Of Velebit Mountain: An Evaluation Of eir Sedi mentary Archive Potential In e Reconstruction Of Landscape Evolution.Acta Carsologica, 41, 1, 59. Brny-Kevei, I., 1998. Geoecological system of karsts.Acta Carsologica, 27, 13. Barbosa, E. P. & L. E. P. Travassos, 2008: Caves, Stories, History and Popular Traditions in the Semi-Desert (Serto) of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil.Acta Car sologica, 37, 2, 331. Barsi, J. (ed.), 2004: Magyarorszg trtneti helysgnv tra Abaj s Torna vrmegye 1773 .KSHBAZ megyei levltr, pp. 305, Budapest-Miskolc. (in Hungarian) Beluszky, P., 1979: Borsod-Abaj-Zempln megye falusi teleplseinek tpusai. (Types of rural settlements in Borsod-Abaj-Zempln County).Fldrajzi rtest, 28, 3, 339. (in Hungarian) Berecz, B., Fzi, J., Nagy D. & Zs. Tolnay, 2008: Az Ag gteleki-karszt s trsge turisztikai stratgiai s ke zelsi terve .Aggtelek National Park, pp. 58, Ag gtelek. (in Hungarian) Cohen, J. E. & C. Small, 1998: Hypsographic demogra phy: e distribution of human population by alti tude. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci ences of the USA, 95, 14009. Csorba, Cs. (ed.), 1991: Magyarorszg trtneti helys gnvtra B orsod vrmegye 1773 .KSH-BAZ megyei levltr, pp. 226, Budapest-Miskolc. (in Hungarian) e best estimator among relief parameters is usually the slope, while the elevation a.s.l. is the weakest. In case of population density and longterm population change, the river distance proved to be the best estimator. At present, there are some apparent social dier ences between GTK and its surroundings. In reality, these dierences do not follow strictly the landscape boundaries, instead they are mosaiclike. W hile incomes are higher and unempleyment is lower in Aggtelek Karst, the demographic situation is the worst. On the other hand, the Slovak Karst has a relatively worse economic position. Further on, the above factors are in correlation with the proportion of Roma people and can not be di rectly explained by natural settings. ese results outline that while certain natural set tings (slope, river distance, karst) have a strong inuence on social characteristics, the socio-economic develop ment can not be understood without taking into account human factors as well. As for tourism, it is quite directly linked to karst terrains within the Hungarian study area. On the con trary, as Slovak Karst has strong competitors in Slovakia in terms of natural attractions, its tourism is not so em phasized. But even in Hungary, the present development of karst-related tourism is low and it is very localized, observable only around Aggtelek. us, it is proposed that tourism should be spatially more distributed. In fact, there are some initiatives for this, but these are not too eective yet. Beside the natural settings of karst, an other paradoxical advantage can be mentioned from the viewpoint of tourism: the low development of the area. Due to poverty, the villages escaped the uniformization and modernization of the second half of 20 th century, and folk architecture (Fig. 9) has been preserved that has become by now a tourism potential together with the semi-natural landscape. Nonetheless, the preservation of values is dicult without people, that is why it is im portant to increase the knowledge of the values of karst landscapes in local people and in potential (eco)tourists alike. A CKNO WLEDGEMENT is research has been supported by the Hungarian Na tional Science Foundation, OTKA 104811 project. e work of Tams Telbisz has been supported by the Jnos Bolyai Scolarship of the Hungarian Academy of Scienc es. e work of Alena Petrvalsk has been supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency within the project APVV-0176-12. EX PLORING R ELATIONSHIPS B ET W EEN K ARST T ERRAINS AND S OCIAL F EATURES B Y THE EX AMPLE OF ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 136 Day, M., 2010: Human Interaction W ith Caribbean Karst Landscapes: Past, Present And Future.Acta Carso logica, 39, 1, 137. Dnes, Gy., 1998: Trtneti ttekints a XIX. szzad m sodik felig. (Historical review to the second half of the 19th century).In: Baross G. (ed.) Az Aggteleki Nemzeti P ark Mezgazda Kiad, pp. 378, Bu dapest. (in Hungarian) Dobny, Z., 2010a: A Csereht trtneti fldrajza, 18. szzad. (H istorical Geography of Csereht, 18th century) .ANP Fzetek 8. Aggteleki Nemzeti Park Igazgatsg, pp. 222, Jsvaf. (in Hungarian) Dobny, Z., 2010b: A Saj-B dva kze trtneti fldrajza, 18. szzad. ((H istorical Geography of Saj-B d va region, 18th century) .ANP Fzetek 9. Ag gteleki Nemzeti Park Igazgatsg, pp. 166, Jsvaf. (in Hungarian) Dvnyi, Z. (ed.), 2010: Magyarorszg kistjainak katasz tere. (Cadastre of Small Landscapes of H ungary). MTA Fldrajztudomnyi Kutatintzet, pp. 876, Budapest. (in Hungarian) Duval, M., 2006: Tourism And Preservation Poli cies In Karst Areas: Comparison Between e kocjan Caves (Slovenija) And e Ardche Gorge (France).Acta Carsologica, 35, 2, 23. Erjavec, M. & M. Peri, 2005: Living with the lake, living without the lake. An introduction into the research of the way of life by the intermittent karstic lakes Petelinjsko Jezero and Palko Jezero.Acta Carso logica, 34/3, 10, 784. Fnyes, E., 1851: Magyarorszg geographiai sztra III. Kozma-Vazul, Pest. (in Hungarian) Frst-Bjeli, B., Lozi, S. & D. Perica, 2001: Man and the Environment in the Central Velebit Area Bake Otarije and Surroundings.Acta Geographica Croatica, 35, 111. Garan, B., 2013: Felhvs.Jsvafi Helytrtneti Fzetek, 38, 4. (in Hungarian) Gutierrez, F., Parise, M., de W aele, J. & H. Jourde, 2014: A review on natural and human-induced geohaz ards and impacts in karst.Earth-Science Reviews, 138, 61. Harden, C. P., 2012: Framing and reframing questions of human-environment interactions.Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102, 4, 737. Jkelfalussy, J. (ed.), 1892: A magyar korona orszgainak helysgnvtra .Pesti Knyvnyomda Rt., Budapest. (in Hungarian) Kepecs, J. (ed.), 1995: A Felvidk teleplseinek nemzeti sgi (anyanyelvi) megoszlsa 1880 .KSH, pp. 656, Budapest. (in Hungarian) Kepecs, J. (ed.), 1996: A Szlovk Kztrsasg teleplsenek nemzetisgi, vallsi adatai .KSH, pp. 367, Budapest. (in Hungarian) Kevein Brny, I., 2014: Landscape Changes In Karsts W ith Special Regard To Anthropogenic Activity.Karsztfejlds 19, 5. (in Hungarian) Kiernan, K., 2011: Challenges For Environmentally Sus tainable Development Of Natural Resources In e Nam Ou Karst, Northern Laos.Acta Carsologica, 40, 2, 341. Knez, M. & T. Slabe, 2010: Karstology and Motorway Construction.In: Bonacci, O. (ed.) Sustainability of the Karst Environment, Dinaric Karst and other Karst Regions P roceedings pp. 107, UNESCO. Kszegi, M., Bottlik, Zs., Telbisz, T. & L. Mari, 2015: Human-Environment Relationships in Modern and Postmodern Geography.Hungarian Geographical Bulletin ( in print ) Lovsz, Gy. & P. Gyenizse, 2012: Impact of karst develop ment on settlement network in Hungary and Croa tia.Karst Development, 2, 1, 21. Majtn, M., 1978: Nzvy obc Slovenskej Republiky ( V yvin v rokoch 1773) .Veda, Bratislava. Malekovi, S., Tima, S. & A. Farka, 2010: Capacity for managing local development in karst areas.In: Bo nacci, O. (ed.) Sustainability of the Karst Environ ment. Dinaric Karst and other Karst Regions P ro ceedings pp. 129, UNESCO. Mao, X., Meng, J. & Q W ang, 2014: Tourism and Land Transformation: A Case Study of the Li River Basin, Guilin, China.Journal of Mountain Science, 11, 6, 1606. Meybeck, M., Green, P. & C. Vrsmarty, 2001: A new typology for mountains and other relief classes: an application to global continental water resources and population distribution.Mountain Research and Development, 21, 1, 34. Mezsi, G., 1998: A Borsodi-dombsg tjfldrajzi jel lemzse. (Landscape Geographical Characterization of Borsod Hills).Fldrajzi rtest, 47, 3, 395. (in Hungarian) Milanovic, P., 2002: e Environmental Impacts Of Hu man Activities And Engineering Constructions In Karst Regions.Episodes, 25, 1, 13. Miloevi, M. V., Milivojevi, M. & J. fali, 2010: Spon taneously abandoned settlements in Serbia, Part 1.Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan Cviji SASA, 60, 2, 39. Miloevi, M.V., Milivojevi, M. & J. fali, 2011: Spon taneously abandoned settlements in Serbia, Part 2.Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan Cviji SASA, 61, 2, 25. T AMS TELBISZ, ZSOLT B OTTLIK, L SZL MARI & ALENA P ETRVALSK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 137 Mga, J., 1998: Termszetfldrajzi tnyezk hatsa a teleplsszerkezetre a Gmr-Tornai-karszt terl etn. (e impact of phyical geographical factors on settlement structure in Gmr-Torna Karst Area). In: Frisnyk S. (ed.) A Felvidk trtneti fldrajza Nyregyhzi Fiskola, pp. 481, Nyregyhza. (in Hungarian) Molnr, J., 2008: Cignyok s magyarok letminsge szak-Cserehton. (Life quality of Romas and Hun garians in the Northern Csereht Hills). Fldrajzi rtest, 57, 3, 335. (in Hungarian) Nagy, D., 2006: Reconstruction of H istorical Land Use and Land Cover in the Area of Aggtelek National P ark and Slovak Karst B iosphere Reserve .kolgiai in tzet a Fenntarthat Fejldsrt Alaptvny, pp. 27, Miskolc. (in Hungarian) Nagy, L., 1828/29: Notitiae politico-geographico-statisti cae Inclyti Regni H ungariae, partiumgue eidem adn exarum, Tom 1 .Landrer, Buda. Parise, M., de W aele, J. & F. Gutierrez, 2009: Current Perspectives On e Environmental Impacts And Hazards In Karst.Environmental Geology, 58, 2, 235. Patterson, L. A. & M. W Doyle, 2011: Hypsographic de mography across scale.Professional Geographer, 63, 4, 514. Pejnovi, D. & D. Husanovi-Pejnovi, 2008: Causes and consequences of demographic development in the territory of Velebit Nature Park, 1857.Peri odicum Biologorum, 110, 2, 195. Rabus, B., Eineder. M., Roth. A. & R. Bamler, 2003: e shuttle radar topography mission a new class of digital elevation models acquired by spaceborne ra dar.Photogramm. Rem. Sens., 57, 241. Ravbar, N., 2004: Drinking W ater Supply From Karst W ater Resources (e Example Of e Kras Pla teau, Sw Slovenia).Acta Carsologica 33, 1, 73. Simi, S., Milovanovi B. & T. Joji-Glavonji, 2014: e oretical Model For e Identication Of Hydrologi cal Heritage Sites.Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 9, 4, 19. Small, C. & J. E. Cohen, 2004: Continental Physiogra phy, Climate, and the Global Distribution of Hu man Population.Current Anthropology, 45, 2, 269. Song, G., Li, Z., Bao, Y ., L, H., Gao, J., W ang, H., X u, T. & Y Cheng, 2007: Spatial distribution regularity and inuence factors of population density in the LRGR.Chinese Science Bulletin 52, 2, 90. Szab, J., 1984: A termszeti krnyezet mezgazdasgi szempont minstse a Cserehton. (Agricultural Assessment of the Environment in the Csereht Hills).Fldrajzi Kzlemnyek 32, 3, 255. (in Hungarian) Telbisz, T., 2011: Large-scale relief of the Slovak Karst and Aggtelek Karst (Gmr-Torna/Gemer-Tura Karst) a DEM-based study.Hungarian Geographical Bulletin (Fldrajzi rtest), 60/4, 379. Telbisz, T., Bottlik, Zs., Mari, L. & M. Kszegi, 2014: e impact of topography on social factors, a case study of Montenegro.Journal of Mountain Sciences, 11, 1, 131. Telbisz, T., Bottlik, Zs., Mari, L. & A. Petrvalsk, 2013: Human-environment relations in the Gmr-Torna (Gemer-Tura) Karst Area and its surroundings.Karsztfejlds, 18, 137. Telbisz, T., Bottlik, Zs., Mari, L., Petrvalsk, A., Kszegi, M. & G. Szalkai, 2014: e impact of physical en vironment on the spatial distribution of popula tion a case study of GmrTorna Karst and its surroundings.Fldrajzi Kzlemnyek, 138, 4, 277. (in Hungarian) Tzsa, I., 1996: Az Aggteleki-karszt idegenforgalmi po tencilja. (e tourism potential of Aggtelek Karst). Fldrajzi rtest (Hungarian Geographical Bul letin), 45, 299. (in Hungarian) Turkovics, B. (ed.), 1996: Magyarorszg trtneti statisz tikai helysgnvtra B orsod-Abaj-Z empln megye 9. Ktet. KSH, pp. 490, Budapest. (in Hungarian) Zentai, L. (ed.), 2001: A trtnelmi Magyarorszg atlasza s adattra 1914 .Talma kiad, pp. 247, Pcs. (in Hungarian) Zhang, C., Day, M. & W Li, 2003: Landuse And Land Cover Change In e Lunan Stone Forest, China.Acta Carsologica, 32/2, 13, 161. EX PLORING R ELATIONSHIPS B ET W EEN K ARST T ERRAINS AND S OCIAL F EATURES B Y THE EX AMPLE OF ...



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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 145 F RANCE UTERI TONY W ALTHAM AND DAVID LO WE EDS., 2013: CAVES AND KARST OF THE Y ORKSHIRE DALES, VOLUME 1 British Cave Research Association, 264 pp., 165 maps and graphics, 354 photographs. e Old Methodist Chapel, Great Hucklow, Buxton SK17 8RG, UK. ISBN 978-0-900265-46-4 (paperback); ISBN 978-0-900265-47-1 (hardback). tos, together with 165 maps and other drawings. A very welcome addition is the pro vision of boxed texts explain ing background information about a variety of specic top ics, which would disrupt the main line of the text if includ ed there. e books scientic core is preceded by (general) Contents of V olumes 1 and 2, P reface and Acknowledge ments, and Detailed Contents of V olume 1. At the end of the main text is an Index of localities (4 pages) with site locations by British National Grid Reference. e P reface by the editors outlines the double inter est of the BCRA in the Y orkshire Dales as the major area within Britain for sport caving and also for the magnicent glaciokarst landscapes and the vital role of the caves . is book covers both the descrip tive and scientic aspects of both the caves and the karst landforms , maintaining sound academic standards in its data recording and also of presenting its material in a style that is readable and comprehensible by a nonspecialist. e main chapter titles speak for themselves: e Yorkshire Dales (1); Geology of the limestones (2); Glacia tion and Quaternary evolution (3); Karst geomorphology e book (two volumes) is in tended to be just the rst of a se ries of similar publications that will cover all important karst regions in Britain. e actual (printed) A4-format Volume 1 will be followed by an elec tronic Volume 2. It will consist of individual chapter les about the known caves in specic ar eas within the Y orkshire Dales. Such an arrangement will fully exploit the modern technical possibilities. Individual chapters in Volume 1 have been contrib uted by 20 outstanding British karstologists and experts in related sciences, while the Acknowledgements section lists many more specialists who were in some way asso ciated with development of the book. A number of them, including the two editors, are (or have been) active cav ers for many years, and this ensures that the text displays a rare homogeneity. e contents of this full-colour book are arranged into 16 main chapters, covering more or less the stan dard karstological, underground and surface, aspects of the karst in the Y orkshire Dales. Chapters are further split into sub-chapters providing more detailed infor mation about the more important aspects of the main topic. e text is supported by many high-quality pho

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 146 BOOK REVIE W (4); Limestone pavements (5); Travertine and tufa (6); Cave geomorphology (7); Geological inuences on the caves (8); H ydrology of the karst (9); Chronology of caves (10); Speleothems and palaeoclimates (11); H olocene en vironments (12); Subterranean biology (13); B ats in the caves (14); Cave palaeontology (15); and Cave archaeol ogy (16); Individual chapters are supported by relatively rich lists of References. ough the contents list of in dividual chapters follows a fairly standard karstologi cal template, deviations evident within the list of titles clearly reect the specics of the Dales karst, especially the dominating inuence of Q uaternary development. Inevitably the book focuses upon aspects of the lo cal karst. Nevertheless, abundant general introductory sub-chapters within the individual chapters (plus graph ics and boxed texts, some of which contain specialized glossaries about the topic in question), supported by dis cussion of recent developments in general karst (and re lated) science(s) provide an excellent summary of the ac tual state of the art. In places, rather intricate and arcane details are explained in a way that will be understandable even to the more general public. is approach is of great importance, because it makes the book readable to cavers whose primary interest is in nding new passages, but possibly now supported by basic scientic knowledge, not just by physical eorts. e main virtue of the book is the way that a mass of data is presented; explanations are short and straight forward, and relationships to physical reality always remain evident. Besides a large number of photos that would not be out of place in a textbook or a scientic monograph, carefully chosen and excellently interpreted Landsat images contribute additional information about the karst surface evolution. Even the graphics are some how adapted to this goal the information shown is re duced to just what is really needed to grasp the point. us, the number of keyed symbols or colours used rarely exceeds a dozen. Geological maps do not follow all common standards but are simplied and drawn in a way that makes them extremely easy to understand, es pecially when including cave ground plans. Such adapta tions could protably be used as a general start-point by other authors preparing illustrations for future publica tions of this kind. Being arranged in whatever way, such a wealth of high-quality data and information had to be collected in some way. Between the lines the reader becomes aware of the enormous amount of work, carried out over de cades by many cavers and, in parallel, the high-quality scientic work that has built upon this foundation. My congratulations to generations of cave explorers and re searchers in the Dales! At rst glance, this book might appear to be just one more compilation of the cavers and karstologists knowledge about a specic karst region at a certain mo ment. But it is much more. W hile generally following existing standards of comparable literature, but with in tentional deviations (i.e. simplications) where needed, its authors and editors have achieved almost the ultimate embodiment of the genre. e book is organized in such a way that it will obviously become a standard for simi lar publications in the near future. At the same time, it might become a handbook, providing pointers to how and what one can search for in a karst area. Each serious caver in the English-speaking world should keep a copy beside the Bible (or equivalent) on his/her bedside table. Because English is understood (if not spoken) by much of the rest of the caving word, this suggestion spreads more widely too. And this highlights the only impor tant weak point of the book being in essence locally oriented, it is unlikely that it will ever be translated into other languages. e aim of the books publisher has been achieved in great style. e promise that the book is the rst in a series of new books that will cover other karst areas in Britain is just another attractive piece of information worth noting. anks to the BCRA, the editors and the authors of individual chapters for such a publication! France uteri



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MINERAL PELLICLES ON THE LAKES SURFACE OF W ARM AND COLD ZONES IN KUNGUR ICE CAVE MINERALNE SKORJE NA POVRINI JEZER V TOPLIH IN HLADNIH CONAH KONGURSKE LEDENE JAME Ilya TCHAIKOVSKIY 1 Olga KADEBSKA Y A 1 & Tatyana KALININA 1 Izvleek UDK 551.444.4:549(470+571) 551.44:551.581(470+571) Ilya Tchaikovskiy, Olga Kadebskaya & Tatyana Kalinina: Mineralne skorje na povrini jezer v toplih in hladnih conah Kongurske ledene jame Raziskava mineralnih skorij rastoih na povrini jezer v Kon gurski ledeni jami kae povezavo med njihovo strukturo in mehanizmom nastanka ter lokacijo v hladnem ali toplem mikroklimatskem obmoju jame. Kljub enaki kemini sestavi inltrirane raztopine skozi karbonatni masiv, so razlina mikro klimatska okolja v jami okarakterizirana z znailnim vrstnim redom kristalizacije mineralov na vodni povrini. Zazna na razli ka je povezana z razlinimi klimatskimi pogoji in mehanizmi prenasiene raztopine. Mineralne skorje nastale v razlinih mikroklimatskih conah so opisane v lanku. Kljune besede: Krio-mineralogeneza, jamske mikroklimatske cone, mineralni inikatorji klime. 1 Mining Institute of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Sibirskaya78a 614007 Perm, Russia; e-mail: tatyanaak89@mail.ru Received/Prejeto: 01.07.2013 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 101, POSTOJNA 2015 Abstract UDC 551.444.4:549(470+571) 551.44:551.581(470+571) Ilya Tchaikovskiy, Olga Kadebskaya & Tatyana Kalinina: Mineral pellicles on the lakes surface of warm and cold zones in Kungur ice cave Investigation of mineral pellicles formed at the surface of ponds in Kungur Ice Cave showed their structure and forma tion mechanism to depend on location in a cold or warm mi croclimatic zone. In spite of identical initial chemical composi tion of solutions, inltrated through carbonate-sulfate massif, dierent climatic zones are characterized by specic order of mineral crystallization on the water surface. e revealed dif ference is related to various climatic conditions and solution supersaturation mechanisms. Mineral pellicles formed in dif ferent microclimatic zones are described in the article. Keywords: Cryominerogenesis, caves microclimatic zones, mineral climate indicators. I NTRODUCTION Kungur Ice Cave is a system of horizontal passages with few entries at dierent altitudes. Single our of the cave is situated along the one level about 111 m that is close to water level in the Sylva River. Cave length is about 5.7 km, the area 65000 m 2 the amplitude 32 m. ere are three microclimatic zones in the cave (Fig. 1) which are distinguished by dierent temperatures: 1) perma nently negative temperature (cold zone), 2) permanently positive temperature (warm zone), 3) uctuating tem perature (transition zone) (Tchaikovsky & Kadebskaya 2009). Cave air ows upward in the cold season and it ows downward in the warm season. e upward (win ter) air circulation appears in autumn at the outside tem perature below 5 C and the downward (summer) one at the outside temperature above 5 C. Negative temperatures preserve during all year in the negative temperature anomaly (cold) zone that is favourable for perennial ice formation. Permanent gla ciation boundary is situated along the northern part of Krestovy and eastern part of Zapadny Grottos (at a dis tance of about 200 m from the entrance) whereas sea

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 102 IL Y A TCHAIKOVSKIY O LGA KADEBSKA Y A & T AT Y ANA KALININA METHODS Microcrystals located in a micro-reservoir on the sur face perennial ice were fixed in cold zone of Kungur Ice cave in spring of 2010. They remained on microreservoir surface at the expense of superficial tension. W ater completely frozen in summer and mineral units appeared inside the ice. These pellicles were released from ice at the expense of ice evaporation and they laid free on the surface in winter of 2011 (Fig. 1). Such pellicles from Krestovy Grotto were selected for study ing. Mineral pellicles from warm part of the cave which represent druzy aggregate of acuminate rhombohedral sonal glaciation boundary is situated along Morskoye Dno, Geologov and Smelykh Grottos. e warmest period with temperatures 0 C < t < 3 C begins in April and last until October-November in tran sition zone in dependence on temperature sign change over outside of the cave. Seasonal ice forms in transition zone in Vyshka, Ruins, Morskoye Dno, Smelykh and Za padny Grottos in winter (December-March). W e should Fig. 1: Microclimatic zones in the Kungur Ice Cave: 1 perma nently negative temperature (cold zone), 2 uctuating tempera ture (transition zone), 3 per manently positive temperature (warm zone), 4 perennial gla ciation boundary; 5 sampling points. also add boundary parts of perennial ice in Scandinavsky and Polar Grottos to transition zone, but the warm peri od here is much shorter only two-three months in year (September-November). ere is cave protected area (Druzhby Narodov, Romantics, Dlinny, Coliseum Grottos and others) in the neutral zone of the cave with virtually constant tempera tures about 5 C.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 103 MINERAL PELLICLES ON THE LAKES SURFACE OF W ARM AND COLD ZONES IN KUNGUR ICE CAVE calcite crystals were selected from the lake surface in Bliznetsy Grotto (Fig. 1). Selected samples study was carried out under bin ocular microscope and analytical scanning electron mi croscope VEGA 3 TESCAN with system of the x-ray power dispersive microanalysis INCA Energy 350/Xmax 20 (the analyzer is Elena Chirkova). RESULTS MINERAL PELLICLES OF COLD ZONE Temperature observations were carried out in 2010 at the entrance, in Krestovy (zone of negative temperature anomalies) and Bliznetsy Grottos (neutral zone) (Fig. 2). Inltration water from the organ pipe in Krestovy Grotto began to ow on surface of multi-year ice in April. Depth of layer of water on the surface of ice reached 10 cm. Ac cording to measurements on the reference set in this part of ice, the growth of ice from April to November was 16 cm. W ater layer during this time was freezing slowly. Ice formation occurred in the lower part of water layer adjacent to the ice. Air temperature in Krestovy grotto in April was .1 C, it gradually increased to 0.3 C then and remained at this level until November. W ater pellicle was completely frozen in December. Study of morphology of selected pellicles showed that they represent drusy aggregate of well-formed crys tals of gypsum and calcite, which grew down from water surface. Traces of air bubbles as well as inclusions of al lophanite spherules and clastic grains of calcite are oen marked on the top of surface (Fig. 3). Gypsum is presented by platy crystals (up to 100 m) formed by plane-face individuals as well as complicated growth elements: boxy and costal crystals (Fig. 3.4). Calcite lls gaps between clusters of gypsum crys tals and grows on their surface (Fig. 3.5). It is marked as single crystals or divergent clusters. Its composition is persistent and describes by trace impurities of magne sium (up to 3.65 at. %), strontium (up to 0.21 at. %) and sodium (up to 1.5 at. %). Single crystal of gaylussite has been also specied, which chemical composition corre sponds to evaluation formula Na 1.98 Ca 1.02 (CO 3 ) 2 H 2 O. Presence of air bubbles traces and inclusions (allo phanite, calcite) of silt (360 m) dimension on mineral pellicles suggests that they acted as a seed for crystalli zation of newly formed phases. Implementation of cal cite interstice and its growth on individuals of gypsum reects the aer crystallization of calcium sulphate. Frequent occurrence of gypsum crystals in boxy, rarer costal forms, as well as presence of merohedric impuri ties of magnesium, strontium and sodium in calcite re ect rapid disordered crystallization of these minerals, probably associated with strong saturation due to frost ing of water layer on the surface of ice and accumulation of salts in liquid phase. Formation of water of carbon ate gaylussite may be evidence of conditions close to cryogenic. MINERAL PELLICLES OF W ARM ZONE Temperature in Bliznetsy grotto holds practically con stant during the year and was in the period of mineral pellicles formation from 4.9 to 5.1 C (Fig. 2). Pellicles were selected in the summer low-water period, when lake level was minimal, and its surface was covered by al most continuous layer of crystalline formations (Fig. 4). In marginal parts of the lake some of pellicles have dried up and laid free on large fragments of gypsum and clay. Fig. 2: e annual course of air temperature 1 at the entrance to the cave, 2 Krestovy grotto (zone of negative temperature anomalies), 3 B liznetsy grotto (neutral zone).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 104 Fig. 5: Mineral pellicles of warm zone: 1-3 general view and details of struc ture of calcite pellicle; 4-6 celestine, gypsum, dolomite and halite crystals. Study of mineral pellicles from the surface of lake in Bliznetsy grotto from warm part of the cave showed that they represent druzy aggregate of acuminate rhombohe dral crystals of calcite (Fig. 5). It is noted that larger crystals compose separate clusters on the surface of druse as well as marginal parts of mineral crusts. Both small and large individuals are complicated by split. Occasionally other minerals (celestine, magnesian calcite, dolomite, gypsum, halite) are observed, which are xed at the outside of mineral pellicles in nests be tween calcite crystals (Fig. 5.4.6). Fig. 4: Mineral pellicles on the sur face of lake in neutral zone of Kun gur Ice cave. Fig. 3: Mineral pellicles of cold zone: 1 clusters of microcrystals oating on the surface of water layer (April, 2010), 2 fragments of gypsum crusts over ice surface (December, 2010); 3-5 general view and details of structure of mineral pellicles (crystals of gypsum (4) and located between them individuals of calcite (5). IL Y A TCHAIKOVSKIY O LGA KADEBSKA Y A & T AT Y ANA KALININA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 105 Study of chemical composition of calcite and celestine showed absence of signicant isomorphic impurities. However, carbonates of mineral pellicles of cold and warm zones comparison showed (Fig. 6) that the rst ones are characterized by accumulation of sodium (up to gaylussite) and magnesium (up to magnesian calcite), and the second ones only magnesium (up to dolomite). Formation of calcite aggregates only on the surface of pond in warm zone suggests that saturation of solu tions and mineralization occurs only in the surface layer of water. Deposition of calcite could be due to decom position of soluble bicarbonate by evaporation of carbon dioxide from the surface of lake. Crystals split, as well as association of large individuals with the edge parts of mineral crusts indicates signicant eects of fraction ation of carbon dioxide on the solution saturation. Hill & Forti (1997) described a similar mechanism of formation of the oating mineral pellicles (ras) in caves. Forma tion of other minerals may be due to micro-reservoirs which are formed on the surface of carbonaceous pel licles in the interstice between calcite crystals and are not associated with the lake. eir evaporation leads to high ly mineralized brines formation from which evaporite complex minerals crystallize (dolomite, gypsum, halite). DISCUSSION Fig. 6: Ratio of Ma-Ca-Na (atom. number) in carbonates of cold (1) and warm (2) zones. Asterisks show normative compositions of minerals, arrows expected trends of structure evolution in process of freezing and evapora tion. CONCLUSIONS us, two dierent types of oating mineral pellicles form on the water surface in Kungur Ice cave. In cold area highly gypsum pellicles, recovered with later calcite, are formed during water subfreezing on the underside. Presence of boxy forms on gypsum crystals, as well as presence of dierent isomorphic impurities (Mg, Sr, Na) in calcite reect relatively quick disordered crystallization associated with strong saturation caused MINERAL PELLICLES ON THE LAKES SURFACE OF W ARM AND COLD ZONES IN KUNGUR ICE CAVE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 106 REFERENCES Andreychuk V. & E. Galuskin, 2001: Cryogenic mineral units of Kungur Ice Cave.e Pescheri (Caves), Perm, 115. Hill C. & P. Forti, 1997: Cave minerals of the World. Huntswille, pp. 480. Tchaikovskiy I. & O. Kadebskaya, 2009: Cryogenic gyp sum of Kungur Ice Cave.Problems of mineralogy, petrography and metallogeny: Scientic readings memory of the P. Chirvinsky, 12, Perm, 85. by water layer frosting and accumulation of salts in the liquid phase. Emergence of gaylussite reects conditions of mineralization close to cryogenic. Calcite pellicles crystallize on the lakes of warm zone, which formation is associated with evaporation of carbon dioxide and formation of a zone of supersatura tion with calcium carbonate in the near-surface layer of water. Formation of a dense calcite crust contributes to micro-reservoirs on its uneven surface, which water evaporation and minerals deposition is involved like de position of salts in arid climates. Despite the same initial chemical composition of solutions formed during inltration through the carbon ate-sulphate massif, the specic sequence of minerals crystallization on the water surface is typical for dier ent climatic zones. Detected dierence is associated with dierent phase-climatic conditions and mechanisms of supersaturated solutions. In contrast to the known typical cryogenic minerals (Andreychuk & Galuskin 2001; Tchaikovskiy & Kadeb skaya 2009) associated with shock crystallization in the thin pellicle of water on the ice surface, described gyp sum crusts from the cold part of the cave are formed in calmer conditions on the expanse of ponds, enriched with salts due to partial freezing. e following mineral indicators of climate are identied: thermophilic dolo mite, gypsum and halite, and cryophilic gaylussite. IL Y A TCHAIKOVSKIY O LGA KADEBSKA Y A & T AT Y ANA KALININA



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OCCURRENCE OF ANURANS IN BRAZILIAN CAVES POJAVLJANJE BREZREPIH DVOIVK V BRAZILSKIH JAMAH Rodrigo MATAVELLI 1 *, Aldenise MARTINS CAMPOS 2 Renato NEVES FEIO 3 & Rodrigo LOPES FERREIRA 4 Izvleek UDK 597.9:551.442(81) Rodrigo Matavelli, Aldenise Martins Campos, Renato Neves Feio & Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira: Pojavljanje brezrepih dvoivk v brazilskih jamah Brazilija ima najvejo raznolikost brezrepih dvoivk (brezrepcev) na svetu in izjemno speleoloko dediino. Podatkov o razirjenosti brezrepcev v Brazilskih jamah je malo. V lanku poroamo o vzorevanju v 223 jamah v razlinih biomih (Ama zonija, atlantski gozd, cerrado (brazilska savana), caa tinga in vmesna (prehodna) obmoja) in na razlinih litolokih podlagah (konglomerat, granit, elezova ruda, apnenec, marmor, kvarcit in peenjak) v enajstih zveznih dravah. V vsaki od jam je bilo na rejeno eno vzorenje med leti 1999 in 2011. Vzorili smo vizualno in akustino ter nali 54 vrst, 18 rodov in 11 druin brezrepcev. Najve vrst smo nali v jamah amazo nskega bioma, ki mu sledijo jame v cerradu, caatingi, meanem obmoju (atlantski gozd in cerrado) in v atlantskem gozdu. Z vidika litoloke podlage, smo najvejo vrstno raznolikost brez repcev nali v jamah v elezovi rudi, ki jim sledijo jame v apne ncu, peenjaku, kvarcitu, granitu, marmorju in konglomeratu. Raznovrstnost brezrepcev v brazil skih jamah je zaradi raznolikih biomov in litologij velika. Najbolj bogato zastopana je druina Leiuperidae, med vrstami pa je najbolj pogosta Scinax fuscovarius. Nali smo tudi paglavce in druge nezrele oblike, kar kae, da bi lahko nekatere vrste jamsko okolje uporabljale za zavetje, zaito, hrano ali celo razmnoevanje. Kljune besede: brezrepe dvoivke, biom, zaita, litologija, neotropik, Brazilija. 1 Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Biologia, Setor de Ecologia Aplicada. Campus da UFLA s/n, CEP: 37.200, Lavras, MG, Brasil 2 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Programa de Ps-Graduao em Ecologia, Conservao e Manejo da Vida Silvestre. Avenida Antnio Carlos, N 6627, Pampulha, CEP: 31270, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil 3 Universidade Federal de Viosa, Departamento de Biologia Animal. Campus da UFV s/n, CEP: 36.571-000, Viosa, MG, Brasil 4 Centro de Estudos em Biologia Subterrnea, Departamento de Biologia, Setor de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Campus da UFLA s/n, CEP: 37.200, Lavras, MG, Brasil Corresponding author: e-mail: ram_eco@yahoo.com.br Received/Prejeto: 10.10.2013 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 107, POSTOJNA 2015 Abstract UDC 597.9:551.442(81) Rodrigo Matavelli, Aldenise Martins Campos, Renato Neves Feio & Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira: Occurrence of anurans in brazil ian caves Brazil has the greatest diversity of anurans and also one of the greatest speleological patrimonies in the world. However, in formations about anurans in Brazilian caves including dierent biomes and lithologies are scarce. is study sampled 223 caves divided into dierent biomes (Amazon, Atlantic Forest, Caatin ga, Cerrado and transition areas) and lithologies (Conglomerate, Granite, Iron-ore, Limestone, Marble, Q uartzite, and Sandstone) distributed in eleven Brazilian states. To determine the anuran composition (presence/absence), a single sampling event was conducted in each cave by a team of three researchers in the pe riod 1999, following acoustic and visual search methods. W e recorded 54 species distributed in 18 genera and 11 families. e caves in the Amazon biome had the highest number of spe cies, followed by caves present in the Cerrado, Caatinga, transi tion areas (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) and the Atlantic Forest. e caves in the Iron-ore lithology had the highest number of species, followed by the Limestone, Sandstone, Q uartzite, Gran ite, Marble and Conglomerate caves. e anurans proved to be very diverse in Brazilian caves, with this high species richness re lated to the large amount of biomes and lithologies sampled. e family Leiuperidae had the highest richness and the species Sci nax fuscovarius the highest frequency of occurrence in the caves. Also recorded were tadpoles and immature forms inside caves suggesting that not all the species are accidental, and that some species may be using these environments for shelter, protection, food and, even reproduction. Keywords: Anura, biome, Brazil, conservation, lithology, Neo tropical.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 108 R ODRIGO MATAVELLI, ALDENISE MARTINS CAMPOS, RENATO NEVES FEIO & R ODRIGO LOPES FERREIRA Brazil has the greatest diversity of anurans in the world with 1.026 species (Segalla 2014) and also one of the most valuable and diverse speleological patrimonies in the world due to their extent, grandeur, beauty and sci entic importance (Auler et al. 2001). However, the cave fauna in Brazil began to be studied mainly from the 80's, the earliest works only being conducted with organ isms specialized for the specic conditions of these en vironments (Godoy 1986; Trajano & Moreira 1991). In the 1990s, there was an upswing of the biospeleological studies in Brazil, which now has the richest cave fauna in South America (Pinto-da-Rocha 1995; Zeppelini-Filho et al. 2003). Currently, studies about cave biology encompass not only the specialized groups, but the set of all the in ter-relationships among the biota, the cave environment and epigean species, i.e., those that inhabit the cave en trances, such as mammals, reptiles and anurans (Trajano 1987; Pinto-da-Rocha 1995; Culver et al 2004; Trajano & Bichuette 2006; Khler et al 2010; Canedo et al 2012). e cave animals are variable with respect to mor phology, physiology, and specialization and can be clas sied into three categories (Holsinger & Culver 1988 modied from the system of Shinner-Racovitza): Tro gloxenes, Troglophiles and Troglobite. (i) the troglox enes are those who regularly need to leave the caves to complete part of their vital activities in the external envi ronment, oen being mainly responsible for the energy ow in permanently dry caves; (ii) the troglophiles are facultative inhabitants of the subterranean environment and complete their life cycle inside or outside the caves and (iii) the troglobites are the animals that are restricted to cave environments. e accidentals are animals from the epigean, "outside", environment, that enter the caves accidentally or even seek these natural cavities for pro tection, shelter and food, among other situations (Tra jano & Bichuette 2006; Gouveia et al 2009; Fellers et al 2010). Since the 1950s many registrations of anurans in caves have been cited throughout the world includ ing Brazil (Barr 1953; Lee 1969; Trajano 1987; Trajano & Gnaspini-Neto 1991; Pinto-da-Rocha 1995; Trajano & Bichuette 2006; Del Castillo et al. 2009; Khler et al 2010; Canedo et al 2012). According Prather and Brig gler (2001), some species of anurans even spend part of their life cycle in these environments. Additionally, some tropical species are adapted to hypogean cave environ ments while others are adapted to life in the edges or ecotones of these environments. However, to date, the anurans found in most studies in Brazilian subterra nean environments have been interpreted as accidental (Trajano 1987; Trajano & Gnaspini-Netto 199l; Pintoda-Rocha 1995). Consequently, previous studies simply reported the presence of anurans without trying to de termine the relationship and/or persistence of popula tions in cave environments. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to document the occurrence of anurans in natural caves in Brazil encompassing dierent biomes and lithologies. INTRODUCTION MATERIAL AND METHODS STUD Y AREA e study was conducted in 223 caves distributed in 11 Brazilian states such as Par (N=152 or 68.16 %), Minas Gerais (N=31 or 13.90 %), Bahia (N=14 or 6.28 %), Mato Grosso (N=7 or 3.14 %), Sergipe (N=5 or 2.24 %), Cear (N=4 or 1.79 %), Esprito Santo (N=4 or 1.79 %), Ro Grande do Norte (N=2 or 0.90 %), Tocantins (N=2 or 0.90 %), Ro de Janeiro (N=1 or 0.45 %) and So Paulo (N=1 or 0.45 %) (Fig. 1). e sampled caves occur in the Amazon (N=154 or 69.07 %), Cerrado (N=24 or 10.76 %), Caatinga (N=16 or 7.17 %) and Atlantic Forest (N=13 or 5.83 %) biomes, which are considered the most threatened of Brazil (My ers 2000; Alencar et al. 2004; Leal et al. 2005; Klink & Machado 2005) and in transition areas between the At lantic Forest and Cerrado (N=16 or 7.17 %). Dierent lithologies were also included, such as Iron-ore (N=163 or 73.09 %), Limestone (N=37 or 16.60 %), Sandstone (N=7 or 3.14 %), Granite (N=6 or 2.69 %), Q uartzite (N=6 or 2.69 %) Conglomerate (N=3 or 1.34 %), Marble (N=1 or 0.45 %). SAMPLING OF ANUROFAUNA To determine the anuran species composition in the 223 caves, a single sampling event was conducted in each cave by a team of three researchers in the period 1999. Sampling the anurans was qualitative (presence/ absence) and followed both visual (young/adult) and acoustic search (males in activity vocalization) meth ods to maximize the number of species observed per

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 109 OCCURRENCE OF ANURANS IN BRAZILIAN CAVES cave sampled (Heyer et al. 1994) e entire length of the studied caves was walked and inspected, with special attention to microhabitats with potential for species oc currence, such as cracks in walls and ceilings, beneath rock falls, amid sediment banks and accumulation of or ganic matter, temporary and permanent ponds and wa tercourses, when present. Anurans found in cave environments were cap tured, identied in situ and released at the same capture Fig. 1: Map of the study area cov ering 11 B razilian states. location to try to minimize the impact of the collection, considering that these subterranean environments are characterized as some of the most fragile in the world (Elliott 2000; Krajick 2001; W ynne & Pleytez 2005). Un identied species were photographed in situ and subse quently identied in the Vertebrate Zoology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Viosa (UFV) with aid of the third author and others taxonomists.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 110 W e recorded 54 species distributed in 18 genera repre sented by families Aromobatidae (N=3), Brachycephali dae (N=7), Bufonidae (N=9), Cycloramphidae (N=3), Dendrobatidae (N=2), Hylidae (N=7) Hylodidae (N=1) Leiuperidae (N=10) Leptodactylidae (N=9) Pipidae (N=1) and (N=2) for Strabomantidae (Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Tab. 1). e family, Leiuperidae, had the highest occurrence of species (N=10 or 18.52 %), followed by the families Bufonidae (N=9 or 16.68 %), Leptodactylidae (N=9 or 16.68 %), Brachycephalidae (N=7 or 12.96 %), Hylidae (N=7 or 12.96 %) Aromobatidae (N=3 or 5.55 %), Cy cloramphidae (N=3 or 5.55 %), Dendrobatidae (N=2 or 3.7 %), Strabomantidae (N=2 or 3.7 %), Hylodidae (N=1 or 1.85 %) and Pipidae (N=1 or 1.85 %). Scinax fuscovarius (A. Lutz, 1925) was the species with the highest occurrence in cave environments, pres ent in (N=14 or 6.28 %) of the sampled caves, followed by the species Ischnocnema juipoca (N=6 or 2.69 %) and P hysalaemus gr. cuvieri (N=4 or 1.79 %). In the caves inserted in the Amazon biome, 16 spe cies in nine families with 15 unique species for this biome were found. In caves in the Cerrado biome there were 11 species, ve families and nine unique species. In caves in the Caatinga biome, we found 11 species, four families and seven unique species. In caves in the Atlantic Forest biome, nine species and six families, all exclusive, were encountered. In caves in the transition areas (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado), 11 species and four families with 10 unique species were observed (Tab. 1). Among the studied lithologies we recorded 23 spe cies in ten families with 19 exclusive species in Iron-ore formations; Limestone formations, 18 species, ve fami lies and 16 exclusive species; Sandstone formations pre sented seven species, ve families and ve exclusives; in Q uartzite formations we found six species, four families and four unique species; Granite formations yielded four species, three families and three exclusives; Conglom erate formations presented three species, three families and two exclusives and in the Marble cave a single spe cies was found, not exclusive to this lithology (Tab. 1). Among the 223 cave environments studied, only three caves showed signs of reproductive behaviors such as the presence of tadpoles and juveniles belonging to families Bufonidae ( Rhinella sp.) and Hylidae ( Dendrop sophus a. nanus ). RESULTS Tab. 1: Occurrence of anurans in B razilian caves of dierent biomes and lithologies. Numbers 1 correspond to the dierent lithologies: 1) Sandstone; 2) Limestone; 3) Conglomerate; 4) Granite; 5) Quartzite; 6) Marble and 7) Iron-ore. Letters A-E correspond to the dier ent biomes: A) Amazon Forest; B) Atlantic Forest; C) Caatinga; D) Cerrado and E) Transition areas Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. Families Species Habitats Biomes Lithologies Aromobatidae Allobates gr. marchesianus (Melin, 1941) Terrestrial A 7 Allobates sp. Terrestrial A 7 Allobates sp.1 Terrestrial A 7 Brachycephalidae Ischnocnema juipoca (Sazima & Cardoso, 1978) Terrestrial E 2-3-5 and 7 Ischnocnema sp. Terrestrial D 1 Ischnocnema sp.1 Terrestrial D 2 Ischnocnema sp.2 Terrestrial B 4 Ischnocnema sp.3 Terrestrial E 5 Ischnocnema sp.4 Terrestrial E 5 Ischnocnema sp.5 Terrestrial E 7 Bufonidae Rhaebo guttatus (Schneider, 1799) Terrestrial A 1 and 7 Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821) Terrestrial B 4 Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824) Terrestrial C 2 R hinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) Terrestrial D 7 Rhinella a. magnussoni Terrestrial A 7 Rhinella rubescens (A. Lutz, 1925) Terrestrial E 5 Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) Terrestrial D 1 Rhinella sp. (juvenile) Terrestrial B 2 Rhinella sp.1 Terrestrial B 2 R ODRIGO MATAVELLI, ALDENISE MARTINS CAMPOS, RENATO NEVES FEIO & R ODRIGO LOPES FERREIRA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 111 Families Species Habitats Biomes Lithologies Cycloramphidae Proceratophrys boiei (Wied-Neuwied, 1825) Terrestrial B 4 Proceratophrys sp. Terrestrial A 7 Thoropa taophora (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923) Terrestrial B 4-5 and 6 Dendrobatidae Ameerega avopicta (A. Lutz, 1925) Terrestrial A 1 and 7 Adelphobates galactonotus (Steindachner, 1864) Terrestrial A 7 Hylidae Bokermannohyla martinsi (Bokermann, 1964) Arboreal E 7 Bokermannohyla sp. Arboreal E 7 Bokermannohyla sp.1 Arboreal E 7 Hypsiboas a. boans Arboreal A 7 Phyllomedusa burmeisteri Boulenger, 1882 Arboreal B 2 Scinax fuscovarius (A. Lutz, 1925) Arboreal C and E 2 and 7 Dendropsophus a. nanus (juvenile) Arboreal D 1 Hylodidae Hylodes sp. Terrestrial B 3 Leiuperidae Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 Terrestrial C and D 2 Physalaemus gr. cuvieri Terrestrial C 2 Physalaemus a. ephippifer Terrestrial A 7 Physalaemus sp. Terrestrial D 1 Physalaemus sp.1 Terrestrial D 1 Physalaemus sp.2 Terrestrial C 2 Physalaemus sp.3 Terrestrial E 7 Physalaemus sp.4 Terrestrial E 5 Physalaemus sp.5 Terrestrial B 3 Physalaemus sp.6 Terrestrial C 2 Leptodactylidae Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (Spix, 1824) Terrestrial/Aquatic D 2 Leptodactylus mystacinus (Burmeister, 1861) Terrestrial/Aquatic D 2 Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926 Terrestrial/Aquatic C and D 2 Leptodactylus syphax Bokermann, 1969 Terrestrial/Aquatic C and A 2 Leptodactylus troglodytes A. Lutz, 1926 Terrestrial/Aquatic C 2 Leptodactylus sp. Terrestrial/Aquatic C 2 Leptodactylus sp.1 Terrestrial/Aquatic C 2 Leptodactylus sp.2 Terrestrial A 7 Leptodactylus sp.3 Terrestrial A 7 Pipidae Pipa carvalhoi (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937) Terrestrial/Aquatic A 7 Strabomantidae Pristimantis fenestratus (Steindachner, 1864) Terrestrial A 7 Grupo Pristimantis Terrestrial A 7 OCCURRENCE OF ANURANS IN BRAZILIAN CAVES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 112 Fig. 2: Examples of some anuran species found in B razilian caves of dierent biomes and lithologies: A) oropa taophora; B) Lep todactylus mystacinus; C) Rhinella a. magnussoni; D) Tadpole sp.; E) P hyllomedusa a. burmeisteri; F) Ameerega avopicta; G) Adelphobates galactonotus; H) P hysalaemus cuvieri; I) P ristimantis fenestratus; J) Rhaebo guttatus; K) B okermannohyla martinsi and L) Allobates gr. marchesianus. R ODRIGO MATAVELLI, ALDENISE MARTINS CAMPOS, RENATO NEVES FEIO & R ODRIGO LOPES FERREIRA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 113 Fig. 3: M) Scinax fuscovarius; N) Rhinella rubescens; O) P roceratophrys boiei; P) Leptodactylus labyrinthicus; Q) Rhinella granulosa; R) P ipa carvalhoi; S) Rhinella crucifer; T) Leptodactylus troglodytes; U) Tadpole sp.1; V ) P roceratophrys sp.; W) Leptodactylus syphax and X) Rhinella sp. (juvenile). OCCURRENCE OF ANURANS IN BRAZILIAN CAVES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 114 RICHNESS OF ANURANS IN CAVE ENVIRONMENTS In recent decades the awareness and concern for bio diversity are increasing all over the world, especially in epigean environments. e same has occurred with the faunal studies in cave environments throughout the world (Culver & Sket 2000; Vignoli et al. 2008; Del Castillo et al. 2009; Khler 2010; Souza-Silva et al. 2011; Canedo et al. 2012; Ficetola et al. 2013). However, infor mation about anurans in cave environments in Brazil is still scarce, particularly in the North and Northeast of the country (Souza-Silva & Ferreira et al. 2009; Ferreira 2010). Furthermore, anurans found in Brazilian caves have been neglected for decades and the few existing citations show crude identications (orders and fami lies), the more rened identications to the species level being rare (Pinto-da-Rocha 1995). On the other hand, in many countries, the occurrence of amphibians (sala manders and anurans) in subterranean systems is well documented (Lee 1969; Tyler & Davies 1979; Bressi & Dolce 1999; Prather & Briggler 2001; Vignoli et al. 2008; Del Castillo et al. 2009; Khler 2010; Manenti et al. 2011; Ficetola et al. 2013). In the present study, the anurans associated with Brazilian caves proved to be very diverse in relation to work carried out in caves in Mexico and Northeastern Spain, where 27 and 9 species respectively, were found (Homann et al 1986; Galn 2002). is high richness of anuran species found in the caves of this study may be related to the high number of caves sampled in dierent biomes and lithologies. However, these comparisons are limited due to use of dierent methods in fauna surveys carried out in dierent studies. In this study, the species of the Leiuperidae family showed the highest occurrence in cave environments and not the species of the Hylidae family, which have wide dominance in epigean environments (Duellman 1994), corroborating Gibert and Deharvengs (2002) hypothesis that the most diverse taxa in hypogean environments typically do not reect the diversity of epigean environ ments. at is, some taxa are well represented below ground while others are rare or even absent. is inver sion in the occurrence of families in epigean and hypo gean environments may be related in part to the arboreal habits of most species of the family Hylidae. Species of the family Hylidae make up 25 % of the anurans in South America, being dominant throughout the Neotropics in open and forest formations, including dierent biomes in Brazil such as the Amazon, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga and Cerrado (Heyer et al 1990; Arzabe 1999; Bertoluci & Rodrigues 2002; Brasileiro et al 2005; Lima et al 2006). However, most hylids have arboreal habits and successfully manage to occupy environments with extensive structural heterogeneity, such as forests, where they use vegetation as a vocalization platform (Cardoso et al 1989; Bertoluci & Rodrigues 2002). Ac cording Cardoso et al (1989), the possession of digital expansion gives this group an advantage over terrestrial species. However, it is known that the aphotic condition of caves prevents the existence of vegetation in these en vironments and various studies have demonstrated that the absence of vegetation inuences the anuran commu nity, altering its abundance and even limiting their pres ence (Ernst & Rdel 2005; Ernst et al 2006). According to Martn et al (2005), the absence of vegetation may increase the risk of predation of the arboreal anurans during vocalization activity, which may partly explain the low occurrence, or even the absence of species of the family Hylidae in most cave environments sampled, which may have favored the occurrence of families that have species with terrestrial habits. e high occurrence of species of the family Leiu peridae in caves can be related to terrestrial habits, reproductive modes and the wide distribution of this family. In addition to the family Leiuperidae having ter restrial habits, which may have favored the occurrence in the cave environments sampled, this family is widely distributed in Central and South America (Grant et al 2006). One example is the genus P hysalaemus Fitzinger, 1826, which is a heterogeneous taxon encompassing 46 species grouped in seven groups: P albifrons P cuvieri P deimaticus P gracilis P henselii P olfersii and P signi fer the species of these groups being widely distributed in South America west of the Andes in open formations of Caatinga, Cerrado, Chaco and Llanos (Nascimento et al 2005), corroborating our data, where the genus P hysalaemus was also the most diverse in caves. Another possible reason for the success of Leiu peridae family species in cave environments inserted in the biomes considered arid (Caatinga) and semiarid (Cerrado) is resistance to desiccation of eggs and lar vae (Heyer 1969; W ilbur 1987; Moreira & Lima 1991). According to Vasconcelos and Rossa-Feres (2005), this feature suggests that the species which have repro ductive modes with deposition of eggs in foam nests (protection against desiccation) are favored in envi ronments with unpredictable water level uctuations, which may have led to a greater occurrence of the spe cies in this family compared to the others, which do not have this feature. However, although most species of this family present reproductive modes adapted to arid and semiarid environments, low environmental DISCUSSION R ODRIGO MATAVELLI, ALDENISE MARTINS CAMPOS, RENATO NEVES FEIO & R ODRIGO LOPES FERREIRA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 115 heterogeneity caused by these landscapes, coupled with a pronounced dry season with unpredictability in the rainy season (Rossa-Feres & Jim 2001), are additional factors that limit an variety of humid microhabitats needed by species with open area reproductive modes. us, these anuran species are perhaps seeking the cave environments simply because they provide more stable temperature and humidity than epigean environments (Trajano & Bichuette 2006). Due to the high dependence of anurans on high quality environments (high humidity and mild tempera tures), the abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature and veg etation heterogeneity) have a higher eect on the anuran community structure than biotic factors such as compe tition and predation (Parris 2004; W erner et al 2007). e above mentioned factors might also partly explain the search, by anurans, for cave environments, especially in arid and semiarid environments. The high occurrence of the species S. fuscovarius (A. Lutz 1925) in caves may be related to its high plas ticity (Cafofo-Silva et al. 2009). It is considered a gen eralist species in widely distributed in South Amer ica, being observed in Midwestern, Southeastern, Southern and Northeastern Brazil, occurring mostly in open areas of Cerrado biome, where it is usually found in high abundances, but is also observed in other environments like montane semi-deciduous seasonal forest, transition areas (Cerrado and semideciduous forest), pasture, plantations, anthropized areas and even inside residences (Brando & Arajo 2001; vila & Ferreira 2004; Eterovick & Sazima 2004; Brasileiro et al. 2005; Feio & Ferreira 2005; Melo et al. 2007; Haddad et al. 1988). According to Duellman (1999), S. fuscovarius is found in open environments of the Cerrado-Caatinga-Chaco complex at altitudes ranging from 150 to 1800 m. e occurrence of S. fuscovarius in the caves can also be related to the climate of the arid and semiarid regions of the Caatinga and Cerrado biomes, where the majority of the specimens occurred. In these regions, the main problems for anurans in epigean environments are low humidity, high temperatures and rapid water loss through evaporation accompanied by a limited supply of water, which are considered limiting factors (Bentley 1966). According to Bentley (1966), the reproduction period of anurans in arid and semiarid regions coin cides with the rainy season, when water is available, but if there is no or little rain, individuals cannot reproduce for several years. erefore, cave environments inserted primarily in arid and semiarid regions, for presenting milder temperatures and higher relative humidity than the epigean environment, favor the colonization by anurans for protection, shelter, food and even reproduc tion (Brown 1984; Trajano & Bichuette 2006; Gouveia et al 2009; Fellers et al 2010). us, the simple selection of a microenvironment where conditions are more ap propriate (caves) allows anurans to escape or mitigate the eects of climate (Bentley 1966; Arzabe 1999). is hypothesis corroborates Barr (1953), who, more than 50 years ago, suggested that anurans may seek caves to avoid the heat and dry conditions. B IOMES e colonization or invasion rates in cave environments may vary geographically (Christman et al 2005), mainly in tropical regions, which present well dened seasonal ity and the occurrence and reproduction of most anuran species restricted to the rainy season (Rossa-Feres & Jim 1994; Bertoluci & Rodrigues 2002; Gottsberger & Gruber 2004). Our data showed a low occurrence of anurans in caves inserted in forested biomes (Amazon Forest and Atlantic Forest) which may be related to climate (high rainfall) and structural complexity of the vegetation of the epigean environments (Duellman 1999; Alencar et al 2004; Bertoluci et al 2007), which provide favorable en vironmental conditions for survival and reproduction of anuran species, which do not need to seek out caves as a refuge. In caves in the Amazon biome this was even more evident, because despite the large number of caves sampled, we veried a low occurrence of anurans in these caves. According to Duellman (1999), climate and veg etation type are generally considered the most important factors that determine the distribution of anuran species. For the inserted caves in the arid (Caatinga) and semiarid (Cerrado) biomes and transition areas (At lantic Forest and Cerrado), a considerable number of species were registered in comparison to the num ber of caves sampled. In the caves in the open biomes (Caatinga and Cerrado), anurans may be searching for subterranean environments to alleviate the risks of high temperatures and low humidity of the epigean environments, corroborating Del Castillo et al. (2009), in which the external environmental variables, such as temperature, solar radiation and relative humidity de termined the organism distribution in caves in Mexi co. ese dierent strategies of anurans in seeking out caves as refuge to avoid low temperatures, hunger and for hibernation against the severe environmental con ditions are already known in temperate areas (LpezOrtega & Casas-Andreu 2005; Del Castillo et al. 2009). W ith respect to the caves inserted in transition areas (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado), this high species rich ness may be due to the presence of faunistic elements of both surrounding biomes. OCCURRENCE OF ANURANS IN BRAZILIAN CAVES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 116 LITHOLOGIES Caves are generally more abundant in karstic regions and volcanic areas (Cardoso 2012) and these dierences in soil lithology properties inuence the distribution of or ganisms (Souza-Silva et al 2011). e highest species richness of anurans found in Iron-ore caves in this study may simply be due to the greater number of caves sampled in this lithology, but Ferreira (2005) and Sousa-Silva et al. (2011), found a high relative richness of species for diverse taxa in Ironore cave environments. According to Ferreira (2005), the ferruginous subterranean systems have some peculiari ties, such as a high faunal dissimilarity with other lith ologies. In fact, our data also demonstrated this faunal uniqueness, where species of the B okermannohyla group, P hysalaemus a. ephippifer and Rhinella marinus have only been recorded in Iron-ore caves. Another important point regarding the occurrence of species in Iron-ore caves may be related to the gen esis of these cavities. e caves in areas of Iron-ore are formed mainly in shallow gaps known as "canga" (Pilo and Auler 2005). Such systems have an extensive net work of interstitial spaces (micro and meso caves) con nected to the macro-caves, which signicantly increases the availability and variety of habitats for maintaining a rich invertebrate fauna (Ferreira 2005), which may serve as food and favor the occurrence or even the permanence of some anuran species in these environments. ese characteristics can possibly partially explain the richness of anuran species and the dierence in species composi tion in relation to the other lithologies. Furthermore, we reiterated that in the ferruginous systems, the severity of the external environment is striking, which may also be leading to more anuran species taking shelter in these environments (Ferreira 2005). On the other hand, the low richness found in marble, conglomerate, granite, quartzite and sandstone caves certainly reects the low number of caves sampled in these lithologies, with the exception of the limestone caves, that in spite of the low number of caves sampled, presented a considerable number species. R EPRODUCTION IN CAVE ENVIRONMENTS Some authors report that the cave environments are colonized accidentally (W ilkens 1979; Langecker 1989), leading to a widespread and misguided notion that all subterranean systems are inhospitable and resource-poor (Holsinger 2000; Romero & Green 2005). e presence of tadpoles, juveniles belonging to the families Bufonidae ( Rhinella sp.) and Hylidae ( Dendropsophus a. nanus ) and the high occurrence of adult anurans in this study, demonstrate otherwise and conrms other surveys con ducted in caves where the presence of tadpoles, juveniles and adults was found (Brown 1984; Trajano 1987; Tra jano & Gnaspini-Netto 199l; Trajano & Bichuette 2006; Ferreira et al. 2009; Khler et al. 2010; Canedo et al. 2012; Ficetola et al. 2013), which reinforces the hypothesis that some caves are not inhospitable environments with scarce resources; they may serve as shelter, protection, harbor food sources and, even as breeding sites for some anuran species (Brown 1984; Trajano & Bichuette 2006; Fellers et al. 2010). CONSERVATION OF CAVE ENVIRONMENTS Biomes such as the Amazon, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga and Cerrado come under heavy anthropogenic pressure, especially by the transformation of native vegetation into pastures, agricultural land, logging activities and con struction of cities (Myers et al 2000; Alencar et al 2004; Leal et al 2005; Klink & Machado 2005). However, the caves inserted in these biomes are also susceptible to the same threats as the epigean environments, because the hypogean cave environments are extremely vulnerable to anthropic activities, which generate dierent impacts on subterranean ecosystems (Van Beynen & Townsend 2005; Calo & Parise 2006; Ford 2007). ese anthropic factors, particularly deforestation, cause generalized depletion (species richness) of anuran communities, in which a low number of species adapted to open condi tions replaces the great diversity of species specialized to forest environments (Haddad & Prado 2005). Among the major threats to subterranean ecosys tems, the removal of vegetation in the epigean environ ment is perhaps the main impact on the biological com munities present in these ecosystems. On the other hand, with the destruction and loss of natural epigean habitats, the caves, because they have a stable environment re garding humidity and temperature, become places of ref uge conducive to rest, feeding and even reproduction for some anuran species (Trajano & Bichuette 2006; Gou veia et al 2009; Fellers et al 2010). However, since 2008, caves are at serious risk, because with the new decree, all Brazilian caves that were fully protected by law, can now be destroyed by dierent anthropic activities. R ODRIGO MATAVELLI, ALDENISE MARTINS CAMPOS, RENATO NEVES FEIO & R ODRIGO LOPES FERREIRA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 117 REFEFENCES Alencar, A., Nepstad, D., McGrath, D., Moutinho, P., Pacheco, P., Diaz, M., Del, C.V. & B. Soares Fi lho, 2004: Desmatamento na Amaznia: indo alm da "emergncia crnica" .Instituto de Pesquisa Am biental da Amaznia, pp. 85, Belm. vila, R.W & V.L. Ferreira, 2004: Riqueza e densidade de vocalizaes de anuros (Amphibia) em uma rea urbana de Corumb, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil.Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 4, 21, 887. Arzabe, C., 1999: Reproductive activity patterns of anurans in two dierent altitudinal sites within the Brazilian Caatinga.Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 16, 3, 851. Auler, A., Brandi, R. & E. Rubiolli, 2001: As Grandes Ca vernas do B rasil .Orion, pp. 227, Belo HorizonteMG. Barr Jr., T.C., 1953: Notes on the occurrence of ranid frogs in caves.Copeia, 1953, 1, 60. Bentley, P.J., 1966: Adaptations of Amphibia to arid envi ronments.Science, 152, 3722, 619. Bertoluci, J. & M.T. Rodrigues, 2002: Utilizao de ha, 2002: Utilizao de ha bitats reprodutivos e micro-habitats de vocalizao em uma taxocenose de anuros (Amphibia) da Mata Atlntica do sudeste do Brasil.Papis Avulsos de Zoologia, So Paulo, 42, 11, 287. Bertoluci, J., Brassaloti, R.A., Ribeiro Jr., J.W ., Vilela, V.M.F.N. & H.O. Sawakuchi, 2007: Species compo sition and similarities among anuran assemblages of forest sites in southeastern Brazil.Scientia AgriScientia Agri cola, 64, 4, 364. Brando, R.A. & A.F.B. Araujo, 2001: A Herpetofauna da Estao Ecolgica de guas Emendadas.In: Mari nho, F.J. et al. (eds.) V ertebrados da Estao Ecolgi ca de guas Emendadas, H istria Natural e Ecologia em um fragmento de cerrado do B rasil Central, B ra slia, DF SEMATEC/IEMA, pp. 560, Braslia. Brasileiro, C.A., Sawaya, R.J., Kiefer, M.C. & M. Martins, 2005: Amphibians of an open Cerrado fragment in southeastern Brazil.Biota Neotropica, 5, 2, 1. Bressi, N. & S. Dolce, 1999: Osservazioni di Anbi e Ret tili in grotto.Rivista di Idrobiologia, 38, 475. Brown Jr., D.R., 1984: Rana palustris oviposition.HerHer petological review, 15, 15. Cafofo-Silva, E.G., Delariva, R.L. & I.P. Aonso, 2009: Distribuio espao-temporal de Scinax fuscovarius (lutz, 1925) (anura, hylidae) em Maring PR, Bra sil.Revista em Agronegcios e Meio Ambiente, 2, 3, 431. Calo, F. & M. Parise, 2006: Evaluating the human distur bance to karst environments in southern Italy.Acta Carsologica, 35, 2, 47. Canedo, C., Targino M., Leite, F.S.F. & C.F.B Haddad, 2012: A new species of Ischnocnema (Anura) from the So Francisco basin karst region, Brazil.HerHer petologica, 68, 3, 393. Cardoso, A.J., Andrade, G.V. & C.F.B Haddad, 1989: Distribuio espacial em comunidades de anfbios (Anura) no sudeste do Brasil.Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 49, 1, 241. Cardoso, P., 2012: Diversity and community assembly patterns of epigean vs. troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula. International Journal of Spele ology, 41, 83. e great diversity of anurans found in Brazilian caves, plus the decline of these populations, sound an alert to the importance of taxonomic inventories in both the epigean (biomes) and hypogean (caves) environments, aiming at the preservation of caves as shelter for a wide diversity of taxa. CONCLUSIONS ACKNO WLEDGEMENTS To all from the Laboratrio de Ecologia Subterrnea (UFLA) for their help in the eld works. e authors thank Gustavo Klinke for editing the map works. R. L. Ferreira is grateful to the National Council of Techno logical and Scientic Development (CNPq) (process No. 301061/2011-4) for the research grant and to FAPEMIG for the nancial support. OCCURRENCE OF ANURANS IN BRAZILIAN CAVES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 120 Rossa-Feres, D.C. & J. Jim, 2001: Similaridade do stio de vocalizao em uma comunidade de anfbios anu ros na regio noroeste do Estado de So Paulo, Bra sil.Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 18, 2, 439. Segalla, M.V., U. Caramaschi, C.A.G. Cruz, P.C.A. Gar cia, T. Grant, C.F.B. Haddad, and J. Langone, 2014. B razilian amphibians List of species. Accessible at http://www.sbherpetologia.org.br. Sociedade Brasil eira de Herpetologia. Captured on 05 July 2015. Souza-Silva, M. & R.L. Ferreira, 2009: Caracterizao ecolgica de algumas cavernas do Parque Nacional de Ubajara (Cear) com consideraes sobre o tu rismo nestas cavidades.Revista de Biologia e CinRevista de Biologia e Cin cias da Terra, 1, 9, 59. Souza-Silva, M., Martins, R.P. & R.L. Ferreira, 2011: Cave lithology determining the structure of the invertebrate communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, 20, 1713. Trajano, E. 1987: Fauna cavernicola brasileira: Composi o e caracterizao preliminar.Revista brasileira de Zoologia, So Paulo, 3, 8, 533. Trajano, E. & P. Gnaspini-Netto, 1991: Composio da fauna caverncola brasileira, com uma analise preli minar da distribuio dos txons.Revista brasilei ra de Zoologia, 7, 3, 383. Trajano, E. & J.R.A. Moreira, 1991: Estudo da fauna de cavernas da provncia espeleolgica arentica Alta mira-Itaituba, Par.Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 51, 1, 13. Trajano, E. & M.E. Bichuette, 2006: B iologia Subterrnea: Introduo .Redespeleo, pp. 92, So Paulo. Tyler, M.J. & M. Davies, 1979: A new species of cavedwelling, hylid frog from mitchell plateau, western Australia.Transactions Royal Society of South Aus tralia 103, 6, 149. Van Beynen, P. & K. Townsend, 2005: A disturbance in dex for karst environments.Environ Manage, 36, 1, 101. Vasconcelos, T.S. & D.C. Rossa-Feres, 2005: Diversidade, distribuio espacial e temporal de anfbios anuros (Amphibia, anura) na regio noroeste do Estado de So Paulo, Brasil.Biota Neotropica, 5, 2, 1. Vignoli, L., Caldera, F. & M.A. Bologna, 2008: Spatial niche of the Italian cave salamander, Speleomantes italicus (Dunn, 1923) (Plethodontidae, Amphibia), in a subterranean system of Central Italy.Italian Journal of Zoology, 75, 59. Zeppelini, D., Ribeiro, A.C., Ribeiro, G.C., Fracasso, M.P. A., Pavani, M.M., Oliveira, O.M.P., Oliveira, S.A. & A.C. Marques, 2003: Faunistic survey of the sands tone caves from Altinpolis region, So Paulo State, Brazil.Papis Avulsos de Zoologia, So Paulo, BraPapis Avulsos de Zoologia, So Paulo, Bra sil, 43, 5, 93. W erner, E.E., Y urewicz, K.L., Skelly, D.K. & R.A. Relyea, 2007: Turnover in an amphibian metacommunity: the role of local and regional factors.Oikos, 116, 10, 1713. W ilbur, H.M., 1987: Regulation of structure in complex systems: experimental temporary pond communi ties.Ecology, 68, 5, 1437. W ilkens, H., 1979: Reduktionsgrad und phylogenetisch es alter: ein beitrag besiedlungsgeschichte der lim nofauna Y ukatans.Zeitschri fur Zoologische Sys tematik und Evolutionsforschung, 17, 262. W ynne, J.J. & W Pleytez, 2005: Sensitive ecological areas and species inventory of Actun Chapat Cave, Vaca Plateau, Belize.Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 67, 148. R ODRIGO MATAVELLI, ALDENISE MARTINS CAMPOS, RENATO NEVES FEIO & R ODRIGO LOPES FERREIRA



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CAVE MORPHOLOGY AND CONTROLS ON SPELEOGENESIS IN QUARTZITE : T HE E X AMPLE OF THE I TAMB DO MATO DENTRO AREA IN SOUTHEASTERN B RAZIL M ORFOLOGIJA IN SPELEOGENEZA JAM V KVARCITIH: P RIMER OBMO JA I TAMB DO MATO DENTRO V JOGOVZHODNI B RAZILIJI Fabiana P. F ABRI 1 Augusto S. A ULER 1* Allan S. CALUX 2 Roberto CASSIMIRO 1 & Cristina H. R. R. A UGUSTIN 2 Izvleek UDK 551.435.84(81) Fabiana P. Fabri, Augusto S. Auler, Allan S. Calux, Roberto Cassimiro & Cristina H. R. R. Augustin: Morfologija in spe leogeneza jam v kvarcitih: Primer obmoja Itamb do Mato Dentro v jogovzhodni Braziliji V lanku opisujemo rezultate podrobnega kartiranja krasa v kvarcitu na 417 km 2 velikem obmoju v jugovzodni Braziliji. Z izjemo stolpov in udornic na obmoju ni povrinskih krakih oblik, znailnih za karbonatni kras. Jame so najbolj znailen kraki pojav, eprav je njihova gostota precej manja od tiste na karbonatnem krasu. Na celotnem obmoju smo izmerili in detaljno raziskali 11 jam, ki so razvite plitvo in vzporedno s povrjem. Glavna dejavnika razvoja jam sta litologija in hidravlini gradient. Petrografske analize kaejo, da je razvoj jam najbolj aktiven v obmojih plitve freatine cone, kjer se v kvarcitu pojavljajo lee sljude (sericit) ter kjer sericit in elezo obdajata kremeneva zrna. V the obmojih prihaja do razpa danja in mehanskega odnaanja zrn. V jugovzhodni Braziliji so kvarcitne jame pogost pojav, vendar so med seboj pravilpoma nepovezane, kar kae na to, da v primerjavi s karbonatnim kra som v kvarcitu ne prihaja do razvoja velikih povezanih krakih drenanih sistemov. Kljune besede: Jame v kvarcitu, hidravlini gradient, sericitne lee. 1 Instituto do Carste, Rua Aquiles Lobo, 297, Belo Horizonte, MG, 30150-160, Brazil, aauler@gmail.com 2 Departamento de Geograa, Instituto de Geocincias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901, Brazil *Corresponding author Received/Prejeto: 01.12.2013 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 23, POSTOJNA 2015 Abstract UDC 551.435.84(81) Fabiana P. Fabri, Augusto S. Auler, Allan S. Calux, Roberto Cassimiro & Cristina H. R. R. Augustin: Cave morphology and controls on speleogenesis in quartzite: e example of the Itamb do Mato Dentro area in southeastern Brazil An area of 417 km 2 in southeastern Brazil was mapped in de tail regarding karst features in quartzite. Landforms typically assigned to carbonate karst terrains are largely absent, except for discrete occurrences of towers and collapse dolines. Caves are the most conspicuous landform, although occurring at a lower density than in most Brazilian carbonate areas. A total of 11 caves were mapped and studied in detail. Caves tend to de velop at shallow depths parallel to the slope surface, controlled by lithological facies and the hydraulic gradient. Petrographical analyses suggest that mica (sericite) lenses within the quartz ite and both sericite and iron around quartz grains may favour grain disaggregation and later erosional removal in a shallow phreatic environment. Q uartzite caves represent a common feature in southeastern Brazil but tend to be isolated features rather than an integrated and areally extensive hydrological system typical of many carbonate settings. Key words: Q uartzite caves, hydraulic gradient, sericite lenses. I NTRODUCTION Q uartzite caves are now recognised as relatively common features in many tropical areas of the world (W ray 1997a; Auler 2012; W ray 2013). Although studies have been performed since the early 1960s (W hite et al 1966), sys tematic research on this topic is rather recent, with new information being produced every year. A signicant

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 24 F ABIANA P. F ABRI A UGUSTO S. A ULER A LLAN S. C ALU X, R OBERTO C ASSIMIRO & C RISTINA H. R. R. A UGUSTIN portion of new data comes from the tepui area of south ern Venezuela, where the longest and largest quartzite caves in the world have recently been discovered (Aubre cht et al 2013; Mecchia et al 2014). Genesis of quartzite caves has traditionally been interpreted in terms of an early dissolutional phase (termed arenisation) in which quartz grains boundar ies are dissolved, increasing the porosity and resulting in a porous, friable rock that is subjected to later erosional removal of quartz grains (Martini 1979). e existence of dissolution processes is demonstrated by the frequent occurrence of silica speleothems, mostly coralloids (W ray 2007, 2009; Aubrecht et al 2008), with opal be ing the dominant mineral. Hydrochemical studies (e.g., Piccini & Mecchia 2009; Mecchia et al 2014) have sup ported a quantitatively restricted role of dissolution, with low SiO 2 content in most quartzite cave waters. However, given the long term geomorphic evolution of the area, even low levels of silica can be relevant to arenisation. e role of organic matter and microorganisms in trig gering quartz dissolution has also been suggested (Ben net 1991; Barton et al 2009). e relative importance of an initial dissolutional phase is subject to debate (Sauro et al 2013; Aubrecht et al 2013),, although there appears to be consensus that the morphology and evolution of quartzite cave systems are largely due to a later prolonged erosional phase. Indeed, some authors have recently ar gued that an early dissolutional phase may not be need ed to explain the genesis of large quartzite cave systems (Aubrecht et al. 2011). Despite the recent progress in understanding the processes that control quartzite cave genesis, there is a lack of systematic research compared to the better studied carbonate areas. Controls on quartzite cave development were ex amined through a study of a quartzite area in southeast ern Brazil. Cave mapping, structural and petrographical studies were performed to investigate the cave inception processes and the relationship between the caves and their surrounding landscape. STUD Y AREA e study area is located in the eastern state of Minas Ge rais, southeastern Brazil (Fig. 1), mostly within the mu nicipality of Itamb do Mato Dentro. is area lies in the southernmost expression of the vast Espinhao Ridge, which extends over 1,500 km towards the north. Due to the need to perform detailed geomorphological work, a more restricted rectangle of 417 km 2 was chosen, encom passing all signicant caves. Q uartzite in the area belongs to three Units of the Sopa Brumadinho Formation of the Mid-Proterozoic Es pinhao Supergroup (Grossi Sad et al. 1997) (Fig. 2). e lower Serra do Lobo Unit is comprised of ne to coarse Fig. 1: Location of the study area.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 25 C AVE MORPHOLOG Y AND CONTROLS ON SPELEOGENESIS IN QUARTZITE : T HE E X AMPLE OF THE I TAMB DO MATO ... poorly sorted quartzite with thin laminations marked by ferruginous pellite. Hematite occurs as ne grains, al though iron-rich concentrations can be observed. In ad dition to quartz grains, sericite can amount to up to 10 % of the total volume in this unit. e Serra do Lobo Unit presents some intercalations of metaconglomerate. e Ro Preto Unit contains ne-grained quartzite with mica showing intercalations of quartz muscovite schist, haematitic quartzite, feldspar-rich quartzite and carbonate-rich quartzite. is heterogeneous unit also presents a well-marked pellite layer or ferruginous lami nation. Phosphate (apatite) lenses up to 10 m thick have also been described. e uppermost Itamb do Mato Dentro Unit is com prised of whitish ne-grained quartzite with hematiterich laminations. e laminations are a few millimetres thick and contain sericite and ferruginous lms concen trated along the bedding planes. e quartz grains reach 99 % of the total unit volume (Grossi Sad et al. 1997 ). Q uartzites are underlain by gneiss and migmatites of the Dona Rita complex. ese Archaean rocks outcrop to the east of the study area. Intrusive metabasic rocks of Mid-Upper Proterozoic age occur intercalated to most geological units previously mentioned. Q uartzites present an N-S foliation, parallel to the bedding plane, dened by the orientation of micas, chlo rite, amphiboles and hematite. Gentle folding and fault ing (both with an N-S orientation) characterise the main structural elements of the cave-bearing rocks. e study area of this project represents the east ern border of the mountainous quartzite domain of the Espinhao ridge. Q uartzite ridges comprise the high est zones, reaching approximately 1,700 m in elevation, while the lowest uvial valleys of the Preto and Tanque rivers are located below 700 m in elevation. ese two drainages represent the local base level, containing within their catchment area all caves identied during this study (Fig. 3). e annual rainfall is between 1,300 1,600 mm. e well-dened dry season is between April and October. e wetter months are December to March and are responsible for over 80 % of the yearly precipi tation. e average annual temperature is approximately 21 C. e present vegetation is comprised of savannah, grasslands, and the remains of rainforest, with an in creasing degree of modication due to agriculture. Fig. 2: Geological map of the study area (adapted from COMIG (1996)).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 26 METHODS A previous speleological study (Cruz et al 1999) indi cated the presence of quartzite caves in the Cabea de Boi Ridge. Further prospective work detected additional quartzite caves, identied mostly through information from local farmers. e study area was thus dened based on the location of caves and the presence of major ridges (Cabea de Boi, Lobo, Linhares, Lapa and Espin hao ridges). e caves were mapped using conventional cave survey equipment (Suunto compasses and clinometers) and Leica Disto laser tapes. Survey grades reached BCRA grade 4C. e morphology of each cave was examined through cave maps and measurements at individual cave passages. Rock samples were collected at selected loca tions and analysed through thin sections, mineralogy being determined through a XPERT-PRO X-ray dirac tometer. Structural data were measured at cave passages using a Brunton Geo compass and processed through StereoNet 2.10 soware. Five regional topographic proles were produced, together with local proles along the main axis of cave development. ese proles were produced with the aid of Global Mapper 10.02 soware, complemented with eld measurements. Regional proles were used to ob tain the regional relief gradient. Map analyses of those slopes containing caves were used to infer the local relief gradient through the relation: [(Amax Amin) / D] x 100 where: Amax Maximum altitude of the prole Amin Minimum altitude of the prole D Distance between Amax and Amin e cave drainage gradients were inferred through proles of stream passages. e remaining quantitative morphometric cave data were obtained through mea surements on cave maps using AutoCAD soware. Fig. 3: H ypsometric map, uvial network, location of caves and regional proles. F ABIANA P. F ABRI A UGUSTO S. A ULER A LLAN S. C ALU X, R OBERTO C ASSIMIRO & C RISTINA H. R. R. A UGUSTIN

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 27 Karst-like surface forms in the study area are largely ab sent, as observed in many quartzite terrains in Brazil. A few closed depressions were identied, some associ ated with cave collapse or elongated parallel to joints (Fig. 4a). Scarp dissection leads to individualisation of towers (Fig. 4b) that resemble limestone karst towers but do not necessarily imply dissolutional processes. Smaller features such as honeycomb weathering (Mus toe 1982) also occur. UNDERGROUND LANDFORMS A total of 11 caves were identied and studied. eir location is presented in Fig. 3. Tab. 1 presents general speleometric data. Most caves are rather small, with the notable exception of the Baixada das Crioulas I and II caves, which represented a single major (> 1 km long) cave separated by a short breakdown canyon. ese frag mentary caves (approximately 40 % of the caves are less than 100 m long) pose diculties to the interpretation KARST GEOMORPHOLOG Y Fig. 4: ARegional view of the study area showing a large closed depression (see arrow). BKarst-like residual towers. Tab. 1: Speleometric data for the studied caves. Cave density relates to the ratio between the cave area and the smallest rectangle that contains the entire cave. Sinuosity is represented by the ratio between the uvial channel meandering length and the straight line dis tance between ends. Measurement not possible due to cave pattern. Caves UTM Coordinates Length (m) Depth (m) Area (m 2 ) Volume (m 3 ) Density Maximum distance between extremes Sinuosity Number of entrances N S Abrigo das Pinturas 7849576 683355 65 8 518 1677 0.156 65 1 Baixada das Crioulas I 7853631 672862 1074 75 6659.6 27572 0.05 517.13 1.12 10 Baixada das Crioulas II 7853583 673059 205 13.5 1776.7 18510 0.19 163.77 1.04 3 Brana Seca 7852893 665102 37 7 193 611 0.386 22.5 1.03 2 Esteira 7848930 683629 96 28 335 1461 0.142 68.55 1.01 4 Funil I 7849054 679690 21 4 141 595 1,433 21 1.01 1 Funil II 7849054 679690 106 29 534 618 0.0945 105.22 1.01 1 Gentio 7848947 679991 14 2 53 166 0.571 13.68 1.03 1 Milagres I 7849656 683048 225 14 1100.3 3344 0.0586 125.72 3 Milagres II 7850686 675724 149 17 806 1136 0.113 143.62 1.01 2 Toquinha 7848930 683629 6 1.5 9.3 4.36 0.153 6 1 1 C AVE MORPHOLOG Y AND CONTROLS ON SPELEOGENESIS IN QUARTZITE : T HE E X AMPLE OF THE I TAMB DO MATO ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 28 of large scale morphology and genesis because they are not long enough to allow for a full display of the cave pattern. Most caves occur as isolated landforms, resulting in a density of 0.026 caves/km 2 Caves develop mostly in the less resistant quartzite of the Ro Preto and Itamb do Mato Dentro Units. No correlation was found between slope gradient and cave development, and no caves were located in areas of very high gradient; the majority of caves occur in slopes of 8 20 % (Tab. 2 and Fig. 5). e longer caves tend to contain a perennial stream, displaying a linear plan pattern with few or no tributar ies (Fig. 6). Values for sinuosity are close to 1 (Tab. 1). e major caves tend to follow the slope gradient, being characterised by an inclined passage that frequently rep resents a link between upper (inlet) and lower (outlet) entrances. e majority of the caves possess less than 3 entrances, while most of the shorter ones displays a sin gle entrance. An important exception is represented by Baixada das Crioulas I and II caves because they contain numerous entrances (Fig. 6) associated with inlets at the western/northwestern limit, possibly associated with the presence of a nearby scarp that favoured breakdown and surface water input to the caves. Cave walls exhibit friable quartzite that precludes preservation of possible original hydrodynamic forms. Irregular pillars occur in many caves. Cross sections are, on average, at most a few meters in terms of height and width. However, sections show considerable variation. Caves that contain streams (Baixada das Crioulas, Fu nil, Milagres, Esteira) show passages with a width/height ratio of approximately 2 (Fig. 7) and are square or lensshaped. Keyhole passages have also been identied in the area. Joint-controlled ri passages occur in selected caves (Milagres). e relatively homogeneous character of the geolo gy surrounding the caves, comprised of mostly quartzite, results in an equally monotonous sedimentation inside caves. Sand residues are by far the commonest sediment, both of autogenic (crumbling breakdown of friable walls/ ceiling) and allogenic sources (Fig. 8). Fine-grained clay and silt are observed at a few sites. Rare deposits of poor ly sorted coarser and sometimes brecciated sediments have been recorded in some caves (Baixada das Crioulas, Funil II), usually related to paleo-uvial terraces (Fig. 9). Chemical sedimentation (speleothems) is limited mostly to coralloids and small stalactites. X-ray dirac tometry has shown that speleothems are composed of quartz and opal-A, similar to the ndings from sand stone and quartzite caves elsewhere (W ray 1997b; 1999; 2013; W iegand et al. 2004; Aubrecht et al 2008). Coral loids are not commonly associated to joints; this nding Tab. 2: Regional, local and stream passage gradients for the studied caves. Caves Lithology Regional relief gradient (%) Local relief gradient (%) Drainage network gradient(%) Cave length (m) Abrigo das Pinturas Itamb do Mato Dentro Unit. Medium to ne granulometry. 3 8 10.42 5.78 65 Baixada das Crioulas I Serra do Lobo e Ro Preto Units. Medium to ne granulometry, with sericite lms. 8 20 10.65 10.02 1074 Baixada das Crioulas II Rio Preto Unit. Medium to ne granulometry, with sericite lms. 8 20 10.65 10.02 205 Brana Seca Rio Peto Unit (phosphate lenses). Medium to ne granulometry.. 8 20 42.96 30.02 37 Esteira Itamb do Mato Dentro Unit. Medium to ne granulometry, with sericite lms. 20 45 27.4 17.78 96 Funil I Itamb do Mato Dentro Unit. Medium to ne granulometry, with sericite lms. 8 20 14.32 22.9 21 Funil II Itamb do Mato Dentro Unit. Medium to ne granulometry. 8 20 14.32 22.9 106 Gentio Itamb do Mato Dentro Unit. Medium to ne granulometry. 8 20 14.32 22.9 14 Milagres I Itamb do Mato Dentro Unit. Medium to ne granulometry, with sericite lms. 3 8 8.28 5.78 225 Milagres II Itamb do Mato Dentro Unit. Medium to ne granulometry. 8 20 17.78 9.14 149 Toquinha Itamb do Mato Dentro Unit. Medium to ne granulometry. 8 20 31.76 23.56 6 F ABIANA P. F ABRI A UGUSTO S. A ULER A LLAN S. C ALU X, R OBERTO C ASSIMIRO & C RISTINA H. R. R. A UGUSTIN

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 29 Fig. 5: Selected regional proles showing geology and cave locations. P role locations in Fig. 3. C AVE MORPHOLOG Y AND CONTROLS ON SPELEOGENESIS IN QUARTZITE : T HE E X AMPLE OF THE I TAMB DO MATO ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 30 indicates water input through rock porosity, as suggested by W ray (1999) in Australian caves and Mecchia et al (2014) in the Venezuelan tepui caves. in section of stalactites allows the observation of an irregular display Fig. 6: Cave pattern in plan view of some of the studied caves. A B aixada das Crioulas I and II caves. B Esteira cave. C Milagres II cave. D Funil I cave. E Milagres I cave. E (Entrance) Fig. 7: Lens-shaped passage with small streams at the wall/oor contact at Funil II cave. Fine-grained sedimentation at the centre of the passage. of opal layers parallel to a central axis. No evidence of an internal channel has been found, as noted by W ray (1997b). Another type of speleothem is represented by colloidal dark reddish brown owstone, with crenulated surfaces that resemble millimetre wide rimstone dams. is type of deposit has been previously interpreted by Corra Neto et al. (1997) as expansive clays with allo Fig. 8: Sand residue and quartzite breakdown at Milagres I cave. F ABIANA P. F ABRI A UGUSTO S. A ULER A LLAN S. C ALU X, R OBERTO C ASSIMIRO & C RISTINA H. R. R. A UGUSTIN

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 31 CONTROLS ON CAVE GENESIS Approximately 800 measurements of joints, bedding and foliation planes were performed inside caves (Fig. 10). e most prominent joint direction is N0-20E, not close ly correlated to cave passage orientation, which displays a more prominent direction at N80-90E. W hen passage type is taken into account, stream caves show limited control by joints, joint direction correlation being found mostly in ri passages in dry caves, such as Milagres cave. Passage direction appears to be controlled by the dip direction of both bedding plane and foliation, show ing these structural elements may be of importance in determining the position of passage initiation. Baixada das Crioulas I and II caves exhibit a curi ous curvilinear pattern that is not found elsewhere in the area (Fig. 6). e cave passage closely follows a surface valley, suggesting a similar control for both surface and underground water ow. e relationship between caves and the hydraulic gradient was analysed. Cave proles, as previously men tioned, closely mirror the slope gradients (Fig. 11). Tab. 2 shows slope gradients for the caves, both in a regional and local (in the scale of the cave) context. ere is no clear correlation between slope gradient and cave length, although all caves (with the exception of the horizontal Milagres I cave) develop within gradients >10. Further more, the caves appear to be aligned with the steepest slope gradient. Cave development appears to follow a favourable horizon whenever quartzite dip direction is aligned with the hydraulic gradient. Most caves develop in such conditions, being less conspicuous in horizontal rock/relief settings. phane and amorphous bauxite, derived from the weath ering of aluminium silicates. X-ray diractometry analy Fig. 9: Alluvial coarse grained terrace at B aixada das Crioulas II cave. AGeneral view. BClose-up view. ses indicate that quartz intermixed with clay material of undetermined mineralogy. Fig. 10: Stereonet directions of cave passages, fractures, bedding plane and foliation for measurements in all caves. C AVE MORPHOLOG Y AND CONTROLS ON SPELEOGENESIS IN QUARTZITE : T HE E X AMPLE OF THE I TAMB DO MATO ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 32 Q uartzite samples taken at Funil II, Milagres I and II and Baixada das Crioulas I caves were subject to pet rographical and geochemical analyses. ey are com prised of ne to medium-grained quartzite with a high (>85%) content of quartz but with signicant amounts Fig. 11: Relationship between cave and slope proles, showing that caves tend to develop close to the surface. AFunil I, II and Gentio caves. BMilagres II cave. CB aixada das Crioulas I and II caves. (5 %) of sericite. Iron oxides/hydroxides also occur associated with sericite. Sericite tends to occur as lms associated with the foliation (Fig. 12) but also envelop ing quartz grains. Sampling in both ceiling and pillars demonstrated that the residual pillars are characterised F ABIANA P. F ABRI A UGUSTO S. A ULER A LLAN S. C ALU X, R OBERTO C ASSIMIRO & C RISTINA H. R. R. A UGUSTIN

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 33 by a lower (5 10 %) amount of sericite, while higher amounts (15 20 %) were recorded in the ceiling. Lower levels of sericite may thus result in more chemically re sistant rock, suggesting that sericite/iron content may Fig. 12: Sericite (see arrow) occur as continuous lenses that determines the rock foliation. Photomicrography from a sample from BaiP hotomicrography from a sample from B ai xada das Crioulas I cave. play a major role in cave initiation in the area. One of the largest volumes among the studied caves is related to a mica-rich zone where the big chamber of Milagres I cave develops. DISCUSSION Caves in the Itamb do Mato Dentro area share many characteristics observed in quartzite caves elsewhere in Brazil (Corra Neto 2000; W iegand et al 2004; Auler 2012). Genesis of quartzite caves is traditionally attrib uted to dissolution along the boundaries of quartz grains, allowing for later erosional removal of constituents (Mar tini 1979; W ray 1997a, 2013). e role of dissolution in quartzite cave development is usually considered to be restricted to the initial phases of speleogenesis, being considerably small when compared to the later erosional phases. Some authors have even claimed that a dissolu tional phase is not required to explain some of the largest and longest quartzite caves in the world (Aubrecht et al. 2011). In the study area, however, there is clear evidence of chemical alteration of an original, very hard and crys talline rock as observed in outcrops, resulting in a friable water-soaked rock that is easily removed under the exist ing hydraulic gradient. Studies performed in Brazilian quartzite caves have stressed the importance of more readily weathered con stituents in providing the initial route for ground water ow. ese more favourable horizons (termed incep tion horizons by Lowe (1992)) can represent loci for the initial development of caves. Corra Neto (2000) rst suggested that the alteration of micas, feldspars and clay minerals may be an important mechanism in cave gen esis at Ibitipoca ridge, southeastern Brazil. Melo & Gian nini (2007) argue that kaolinite dissolution is the main trigger in the formation of karst landforms in the Furnas Formation of southern Brazil. In the Venezuelan tepuis, lenses of iron hydroxide or silt layers have been consid ered as possible inception horizons (Sauro 2014). Bedding planes and foliation are the most common controlling structures on passage orientation in the study area. e existence of sericite layers precisely along the same horizons, as shown by petrographical analysis, may present a favourable condition for cave development, es pecially when the dip is in accordance with the hydraulic gradient. Furthermore, both sericite and iron oxides also occur alongside quartz grains. e weathering of mica releases both K and Mg, which may accelerate the disso lution of amorphous silica and SiO 2 (Icenhower & Dove 2000). Micas and clay minerals can also be important players in the dissolution of quartz in sandstone (Bjr kum et al. 1996; Meyer et al 2006). Laterisation processes due to alteration of micas, feldspar and clay minerals may account for considerable generation of porosity (Corra Neto 2000; Aubrecht et al. 2011) and favour arenisation along or around specic beds (Mecchia et al 2014). Iron can also be signicantly mobilised through various pro C AVE MORPHOLOG Y AND CONTROLS ON SPELEOGENESIS IN QUARTZITE : T HE E X AMPLE OF THE I TAMB DO MATO ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 34 REFERENCES Aubrecht, R., Lnczos, T., Smida, B., Brewer-Carias, C., Mayoral, F., Schlogl, J., Audy, M., Vlcek, L., Kovacik, L. & M. Gregor, 2008: Venezuelan sandstone caves: a new view on their genesis, hydrogeology and spe leothems.Geol. Croat, 61, 345. Aubrecht, R., Lanczos, T., Gregor, M., Schlogl, J., Smida, B., Liscak, P., Brewer-Carias, C. & L. Vlcek, 2011: Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?Geomorphology, 132, 351. Aubrecht, R., Lanczos, T., Gregor, M., Schlogl, J., Smida, B., Liscak, P., Brewer-Carias, C. & L. Vlcek, 2013: Reply to the comment on "Sandstone caves on Ven ezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?Geomor phology, 197, 197. Auler, A.S., 2012: Q uartzite caves of South America.In: W hite, W .B. & D.C. Culver. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Caves Academic Press, pp. 635, Chenai. Bennet, P.C., 1991: Q uartz dissolution in organic rich aqueous systems.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 55, 1781. Barton, H.A., 2013. Biospeleogenesis.In: Frumkin, A. (ed.) Treatise on Geomorphology Academic Press, 6, pp. 38, San Diego. Barton, H., Suarez, P., Muench, B., Giarrizzo, J., Broer ing, M., Banks, E. & K. Venkateswaran, 2009: e alkali speleogenesis of Roraima Sur Cave, Venezu ela.In: P roceedings 15 th International Congress of Speleology 19 th th June 2009, Kerrville. National Speleological Society, 802. cesses involving microbiological agents, contributing to porosity generation (Chalcra & Pye 1984; Striebel & Schaferjohann 1997; Barton 2013; Sauro 2014). e studied caves develop at a shallow depth (less than 50 m below the surface) and show a general con cordance with the slope gradient. Although no direct relationship between cave length and slope gradient was recorded in the area, optimal conditions for quartz removal appear to occur when both hydraulic gradient and bedding/foliation planes (containing sericite/iron) are aligned. CONCLUSIONS A study of 11 quartzite caves in southeastern Brazil has shown that caves are not a conspicuous geomorphologi cal landform, but occur as isolated shallow features with a density of 0.026 caves/km 2 lower than in most carbon ate karst areas in Brazil. Regional and local proles show that caves develop parallel to the surface terrain and are not linked to deep groundwater ow paths. Bedding and foliation planes are the controlling structures in guiding the initial phase of speleogenesis. in sections demon strate that sericite layers occur aligned with the bedding planes and iron oxides/hydroxides are common around quartz grains. W eathering processes associated with both iron and sericite tend to free quartz grains (arenisation), allowing for the erosional removal of quartz, as demon strated in other quartzite areas of the world. Although quantitatively small, chemical alteration of phyllosilicates is of paramount importance in dening the early circula tion paths in an essentially shallow phreatic setting. ACKNO WLEDGMENTS Financial support was provided by FAPEMIG (grant CRA APQ 01652-09). W e acknowledge the contribu tion of Instituto do Carste in helping organise cave sur veys and data collection in the eld. Rgis de Paula Reis, Tatiana Souza and the local guide Zequita helped with eld work. Francesco Sauro and an anonymous reviewer provided insightful suggestions that helped improve the manuscript. F ABIANA P. F ABRI A UGUSTO S. A ULER A LLAN S. C ALU X, R OBERTO C ASSIMIRO & C RISTINA H. R. R. A UGUSTIN

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 35 Bjrkum, P.A., 1996: How important is pressure in caus ing dissolution of quartz in sandstones?Journal of Sedimentary Research, 66, 147. Chalcra, D. & K. Pye, 1984: Humid tropical weathering of quartzite in southeastern Venezuela.Zeitschri fur Geomorphologie, 28, 321. COMIG., 1996: Geological map of Conceio do Mato Dentro sheet.Projeto Espinhao 1:100.000. Corra Neto, A.V. & G. Dutra, 1997: A provincia espele olgica quartztica Andrelndia, sudeste de Minas Gerais.In: P roceedings XXIV B razilian Congress of Speleology 57. Corra Neto, A.V., 2000: Speleogenesis in quartzites in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil.In: Klimchouk, A. et al. (ed.). Speleogenesis. Evolution of Karst Aqui fers National Speleological Society, pp. 452, Huntsville. Cruz, L.V., Pereira, M., Lopes, M.V.C.O. & R.C. Mou ro, 1999: Avaliao espeleolgica da Serra Cabea de Boi, Fazenda Ponte Itamb do Mato Dentro MG.P roceedings XX V B razilian Congress of Speleo logy 27. Grossi Sad, J.H., Mouro, M.A.A., Guimares, M.L.V. & L.G. Knauer, 1997: Geologia da Folha Conceio do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais. P rojeto Espinhao: CDRom. Icenhower, J. & P. Dove, 2000: e dissol ution kinetics of amorphous silica into sodium chloride solutions: Eects of temperature and ionic strength.Geo chimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 4193. Lowe, D.J., 1992: e origin of limestone caverns: An inception horizon hypothesis.PhD thesis, Man chester Metropolitan University, 512pp. Martini, J., 1979: Karst in the Black Reef Q uartzite near Kaapsehoop, Transvaal.Annals Geological Survey of South Africa, 13, 115. Mecchia, M. & L. Piccini, 1999: Hydrogeology and SiO 2 geochemistry of the Aonda Cave System, AyuanTepui, Bolivar, Venezuela.Boletin de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologia, 33, 1. Mecchia, M., Sauro, F., Piccini, L., De W aele, J., Sanna, L., Tisato, N., Lira, J. & F. Vergara, 2014: Geochemistry of surface and subsurface waters in quartz-sand stones: signicance for the geomorphic evolution of tepui table mountains (Gran Sabana, Venezuela).Journal of Hydrology, 511, 117. Melo, M.S. & P.C.F. Giannini, 2007: Sandstone dissolu tion landforms in the Furnas Formation, Southern Brazil.Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 32, 2149. Meyer, E.E., Greene, G.W ., Alcantar, N.A., Israelachvili, J.N. & J.R. Boles, 2006: Experimental investigation of the dissolution of quartz by a muscovite mica surface: Implications for pressure solution.Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, 1. Mustoe, G.E., 1982: e origin of honeycomb weather ing.Geological Society of America Bulletin, 93, 108. Piccini, L. & M. Mecchia, 2009: Solution weathering rate and origin of karst landforms and caves in the quartzite of Ayuan-tepui (Gran Sabana, Venezu ela).Geomorphology, 106, 15. Sauro, F., Piccini, L., Mecchia, M. & J. De W aele, 2013: Comment on Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst? by R. Aubrecht, T. Lnczos, M. Gregor, J. Schlgl, B. Smda, P. Lisck, Ch. Brewer-Caras, L. Vlcek, Geomorphology 132 (2011), 351.Geomorphology, 197, 190. Sauro, F., 2014: Structural and lithological guidance on speleogenesis in quartz-sandstone: Evidence of the arenisation process.Geomorphology, 226, 106 123.Striebel, T. & V. Schaferjohann, 1997: Karsti cation of sandstone in Central Europe: Attempts to validate chemical solution by analyses of water and precipitates. P roceedings 12 th International Congress of Speleology 10 th th August 1997, La Chaux des Fonts. Swiss Speleological Society, 473. W hite, W .B., Jeerson, G. L. & J.F. Haman, 1966: Q uartz ite karst in southeastern Venezuela.International Journal of Speleology, 2, 309. W iegand, J., Fey, M., Haus, N. & I. Karmann, 2004: Geochimische und hydrochemische untersuchun gen zur genese von sandstein-und quarzitkarst in der Chapada Diamantina und im eisernen viereck (Brasilien).Z. dt. Geol. Ges., 155, 61. W ray, R.A.L., 1997a: A global review of solutional weath ering froms on quartz sandstones.Earth Sciences Reviews, 42, 137.W ray, R.A.L., 1997b: e formation and signicance of coralline silica spele othems in the Sydney Basin, southeastern Austra lia.Physical Geography, 18, 1. W ray, R.A.L., 1999: Opal and chalcedony speleothems on quartz sandstone in the Sydney region, south eastern Australia.Australian Journal of Earth Sci ences, 46, 623. W ray, R.A.L., 2013: Solutional weathering and karstic landscapes on quartz sandstones and quartzite.In: Frumkin, A. (ed) Treatise on Geomorphology. Vol. 6. Karst Geomorphology. Elsevier, pp. 463, San Diego. C AVE MORPHOLOG Y AND CONTROLS ON SPELEOGENESIS IN QUARTZITE : T HE E X AMPLE OF THE I TAMB DO MATO ...



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FELO PREZ MOGOTE VI ALES, P INAR DEL R O CUBA: T Y PICAL SHAPING OF ROCK SURFACE BELO W DENSE TROPICAL VEGETATION M OGOTA FELO PREZ VI ALES, P INAR D EL R O KUBA: TIPI NO OBLIKOVANJE KAMNITEGA POVRJA POD GOSTIM TROPSKIM RASTJEM Manuel Roberto GUTIRREZ D OMECH 1 Martin KNEZ 2,3 & Tadej SLABE 2,3 Izvleek UDK 551.435.8(729.1) Manuel Roberto Gutirrez Domech, Martin Knez & Tadej Slabe: Mogota Felo Prez (Viales, Pinar del Ro, Kuba): tipino oblikovanje kamnitega povrja pod gostim tropskim rastjem Izsledki prouevanja krako geomorfolokih, geolokih in lito morfogenetskih znailnosti izbrane mogote razkrivajo njeno svojevrstno, a za predstavljene razmere znailno oblikovanje. Mikritni mono tektonsko zdrobljen in mono rekristaliziran apnenec s stiloliti prevladuje skozi ves geoloki prol. Doloevanje Ca in Mg v kamnini z metodo kompleksometrine titracije je pokazalo zelo ist karbonat, ki presega 96,5 %. Sestava skala omogoa jasen razvoj skalnih oblik, tudi najmanjih. Poseben je skalni relief mogote, ki pria o postopnemu razgaljanju skale in preoblikovanju skalnih oblik, ki so nastale pod prstjo, v tiste, ki jih dolbeta deevnica in voda, ki polzi po ste nah. lanek prinaa novo spoznanje o posebnem a znailnem skalnem relief, ki se razvija pod gostim tropskim rastjem, tokrat pod poraenostjo mogote. Na povrinah, ki so razgaljene iz pod prsti, se pod gostim rastjem nabira preperelina in pod njo nastajajo za te razmere znailne skalne oblike. Razline kamninske plasti raziskovane mogote zakrasevajo podobno. Kljune besede: kras, kraplje, skalni relief, Viales, Pinar del Ro, Kuba. 1 Instituto de Geologa y Paleontologa, Departamento de Paleontologa y Museo, Via Blanca 1002 y Linea del Ferrocarril, San Miguel del Padron, La Habana, CP 11600, Cuba, email: rgdomech@jgp.gms.minbas.cu 2 Karst Research Institute, Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Titov trg 2, SI-6230 Postojna, Slovenia and UNESCO Chair on Karst Education, University of Nova Gorica, Titov trg 2, SI-6230 Postojna, Slovenia, e-mails: knez@zrc-sazu.si, slabe@zrc-sazu.si 3 Y unnan University International Joint Research Center for Karstology, X ueyun rd. 5, CN-650223, Kunming, China, e-mails: knez@zrc-sazu.si, HYPERLINK "mailto:slabe@zrc-sazu.si" slabe@zrc-sazu.si Received/Prejeto: 03.01.2014 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 47, POSTOJNA 2015 Abstract UDC 551.435.8(729.1) Manuel Roberto Gutirrez Domech, Martin Knez & Tadej Slabe: Felo Prez Mogote (Viales, Pinar del Ro, Cuba): Typi cal Shaping of Rock Surface below Dense Tropical Vegetation e results of studying the geomorphological, geological, and lithomorphogenetic karst characteristics of the selected mog ote reveal its unique but typical formation under the given conditions. Micritic heavily tectonically crushed and heavily recrystallized limestone with stylolites dominates throughout the entire geological column and is very uniform. Analyzing Ca and Mg with complexometric titration method of rock samples showed very pure total carbonate and exceeds 96.5 %. Rock composition anables development of clear development of rock features, the smallest, as well. e specic rock relief of the mogote bears witness to the gradual denudation of the rock and the transformation of subsoil rock forms into forms carved by rainwater and water creeping down the walls. e article brings new knowledge about special but typical shap ing of the rock under dense tropical vegetation, this time un der vegetation covering the mogote. On denuded surfaces that emerged from the soil, for this circumstances characteristic rock features develop under the weathered debris that accumu lates under dense vegetation. Dierent rock beds in the studied mogote respond in a similar way to karstication. Keywords: karst, karren, rock relief, Viales, Pinar del Ro, Cuba.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 48 MANUEL R OBERTO GUTIRREZ D OMECH, MARTIN KNEZ & T ADEJ S LABE Pinar del Ro province, the westernmost area of both the Cuban island and the Archipelago territories, extends over 8,800 km 2 and has 592,000 inhabitants. e area under study is located in the Viales Val ley (Figs. 1, 2), a polje that developed between the Up per Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous limestone of the Sierra de los Organos mountain range and the hills of Pizarras del Sur, the southern slate hills composed of dark grey, ne and medium grained limestone interlaid with lutite and grey or dark grey clayey shale. W ith the Sierra del I NTRODUCTION Fig. 1: Felo P rez in mogote V i ales V alley. Fig. 2: e location of Felo P rez mogote.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 49 FELO PREZ MOGOTE VI ALES, P INAR DEL RIO CUBA: T YPICAL SHAPING OF ROCK SURFACE BELO W DENSE ... GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF VI ALES REGION e more extended lithostratigraphic units throughout the Viales region are Jagua and Guasasa formations (Daz Otero et al. 2002). e Jagua Formation (Palmer 1945) is composed of black micritic limestones, clayey to marly schists, and calcareous lutites with calcareous nodes locally known as cheeses that contain most of the macrofossils, inver tebrates (ammonites, bivalve mollusks), and vertebrates (plesiosaurs, ictiosaurs, pterosaurs, sh). e Guasasa Formation (Herrera 1961) consists of micritic limestones, sandstones, and chert lenses. e limestone is partly sandy and frequently laminated. is formation includes several extended mem bers such as the San Vicente Member where massive and thickly layered limestone shapes the higher mogote walls. In the case of the Felo Prez mogote, the rocks belong to the Tumbadero Member (Herrera 1961). is Upper JurassicLower Cretaceous Guasasa Formation member is composed of micritic limestone and calcilu tite with dark interbedded intstone. In the study area it was not possible to prove the stratigraphic relation ships with the underlying and overlying units explained as concordant over the El Americano Member (from the Guasasa Formation) and beneath the Tumbitas Member (Guasasa Formation). is region is characterized by a complex geologi cal development with typical Alpine tectonics from the Lower Paleogene (Cuban Orogeny) that was overlapped by later general SW -NE vertical neotectonic faulting pro viding a characteristic chess board appearance to the area. Several poljes developed in this intricate landscape as tectonic windows. Rosario Mountain Range they build the Guaniguan ico Mountain Chain. e latter is the main orographic group in the west part of the country (Gutirrez Domech & Rivero Glean 1999). It is located within the central to northern area of the province with an approximate SW NE orientation. e higher elevations of Viales are the Sierra La Guasasa mountain at 441 m high and the El Mogote del Valle mogote at 402 meters high. e Felo Prez mogote is located in the Viales Val ley, a few tens of meters from the contact zone of shale, silicite, and sandstone of the San Cayetano Formation that forms the Alturas de Pizarras del Sur surrounding the mogotes to the south. e Viales Valley and its surroundings were pro claimed a national monument in 1978 and placed on the UNESCO W orld Heritage List in 1999. In addition to its cultural value, it contains many natural treasures. ere are three dierent kinds of forest here: evergreen in the mountain dolines, semideciduous over rocky substrate, and mogote forest vegetation covering the tops and scarp walls of such landforms (Gutirrez Domech & Rivero Glean 1997). e most noticeable vegetation species within the national park include the cork palm ( Microcycas calo coma ), a plant from the Cretaceous considered a living fossil; ceibn ( B ambocopsis cubensis ), an impressive ora typical to mogotes; the alligator oak (from the Ekhmaniensis genus); and the little palm tree ( Gaussia princeps ). Fauna is mostly represented by invertebrates. K ARST FEATURES IN V I ALES It is well known that one of the more prominent tropi cal karst features of the Organos Mountain Range is the presence of hums or mogotes. The latter term orig inated in Cuba. The diversity of this karst landform is related to lithology, tectonics, and stratification along with intense karstification processes. Graviclastic processes and rockfalls, temporary or seasonal flood ing, and even the armouring of the hard crust are also influencing factors. Mogotes do not act as watersheds since uvial riv erbeds cross through them and rainwater inltrates them and expands the internal groundwater system. According to shape, mogotes may be distinguished as cupules, cones, and towers. Each shape corresponds to a particular landform, lithology, and tectonic associa tion. e uvial karst torrents commonly surrounding the Viales mogotes and the Organos Mountain Range

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 50 very close to the valley are characterized by limestone strata of the Guasasa and Jagua Formations cut by acidu lated waters through chemical corrosion acting over a fault or diaclasa. Such karst landforms, usually dry, may be present at any height above the base level according to the evolution stage. In general, fluvial karst torrents are seasonal, fill ing during the rainy season and hurricane periods. This is the case of Santa Cruz River and other streams in the Guaniguanico Mountain Range, which are quite typical. e Viales Valley is known not only for its very typical surface karst landforms but also for its caves, some of them among the largest in the country. The caves were generally carved by allochthonous waters running from the surrounding non-karstic heights. The sizes of the underground riverbeds indi cate that the water table was higher during the genesis than in the present time (Acevedo Gonzlez & Gutir rez Domech 1974). The development and evolution of such fluvial Q uaternary dynamic systems is closely related to eustatic fluctuations of the sea level during glaciation periods. These altered surface watercourse profiles, and basin hydrology was subsequently al tered as well. This caused different stages of riverbed run-off and sedimentation along with oscillations in the amounts transported due to rainfalls more intense and frequent than at present alternating with drier, even semi-arid stages, and to a process of uplifting and subsiding neotectonic movements. GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE FELO PREZ MOGOTE e Felo Prez mogote (Figs. 1, 2, 3) is 190 meters high and covers about 0.25 km 2 It is located in the Viales Mu nicipality at 22 35.59b N, 83 43 23.59b W in Pinar del Ro province, the westernmost region of Cuba. e location is mapped on the 1:50,000 scale cartographic sheet Consolacin del Norte 33483 I of the general map of the Republic of Cuba. e La Feita mogote, some 200 meters away, is y meters higher and covers twice the area of the Felo Prez mogote. e other nearby isolated mogote, El Mogote del Valle, is 402 meters high and cov ers approximately 6 km 2 e vegetation on the Felo Prez mogote is mainly endemic: ceibn ( B ombax emarginatum ), Cayman oak, and various palm trees. A few trees of valuable wood such as oak or mahogany are still scattered here and there in little dolines and hill holes. Formerly abundant with these kinds of species, the region was badly aected by overexploitation, and the original ora is nowadays practically nonexistent. Shrubs cover the layer close to the ground, followed by short structured trees. e fauna on this elevation consists mainly of in vertebrates including several species of butteries such as P aridis gundlachianus that are endemic to the high water course of the Cuyaguateje River, the longest river in W estern Cuba, and terrestrial mollusks such as Z ach risia auricoma and arachnids such as H eteronebo ber mudezi a kind of scorpion, are very abundant across the entire province. GEOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE FELO PREZ MOGOTE MACROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION e rock was studied in detail from the foot to the top of the mogote (Fig. 3) in a southeast-northwest direction. e rock is moderately to thickly stratied with thick nesses ranging from several tens of centimeters to several meters. e prevailing dip angle of beds from the foot to the top changes slightly, is dominantly southward, and ranges between 24 in 32. e direction of the dip is be tween 180 and 195. Numerous thin calcite veins are visible through out the rock. The rock displays heavy fissuring. Nu merous primarily subvertical faults, fault zones, and fissures run in all directions. In places the rock is very bituminous. The thickness of the studied profile totals forty meters. Nineteen rock samples were taken and studied un der the microscope. All samples underwent calcimetric analyses as well. MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION roughout the entire geological column the rock is very uniform. Micritic limestone (mudstone) dominates and MANUEL R OBERTO GUTIRREZ D OMECH, MARTIN KNEZ & T ADEJ S LABE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 51 in most cases is heavily tectonically crushed. Heavily re crystallized whole and particle fossil remains were found in only two layers. Stylolites were identied in the major ity of the samples. The base of the mogote or the beginning of the profile is composed of a layer of intrabiomicrite (mudstone). Intraclasts 0.2 to 0.5 mm in diameter oc cupy up to 20 % and fossil remains up to 10 %. The part of the sample with fewer intraclasts and bio clasts displays individual calcispheres up to 45 m in diameter. Allochems are well rounded and show no sorting. The space between allochems is occupied by micrite that is opaque and greyish to brownish in colour. Among the bioclasts, fenestre are visible up to 0.5 mm in diameter and completely filled with drusy calcite cement. Fibrous calcite cement is observed only as an exception. Micritization of some allochem grains is evident. e continuation of the prole in samples (mud stone) shows no further allochems. Individual samples contain numerous calcispheres mostly around 45 m in diameter. Signs of tectonic shiing (numerous calcite veins) and compaction (stylolites in sutured contacts) are clearly visible. Calcite veins from 45 m to 8 mm thick composed of drusy sparite calcite occur in a variety of areas with diverse densities and run in all directions. e dominant thickness is 20 to 90 m and they belong to dierent generations. In most cases, sutured stylolites are younger than calcite veins and run horizontally with or across the stratication. ey are lled with insoluble clayey mate rial and in places they display substantial secondary po rosity. e amplitude of stylolites ranges between 0.5 and 1.5 mm, 1 mm being the dominant amplitude, which is also the minimal reduction of the bed section thick ness. In places stylolites are accompanied by parallel thin calcite veins. Slips along stylolites measure from 0.2 to 1.3 mm. Slips are not evident along dierent generations of calcite veins. Some areas of micrite rock (mudstone) are very heavily crushed and indicate pressures parallel to and across the stratication. Here numerous calcite veins of many generations up to 45 m thick dominate. Shorter sections of the prole, however, show no calcite veins but only stylolites with amplitudes up to one centimenter in opaque micrite of greyish to brownish colour. e top of the mogote is composed of tectonically very fractured and in places completely crushed rock. In the samples we found numerous calcite veins of at least three generations. A cross-section of a one-centimeter thick rock in places displays more than forty calcite veins up to 45 m thick, accompanied by one-centimeter Fig. 3: Rock relief of mogote: a. subsoil hollow, b. subsoil notch, c. subsoil half-bell, d. subsoil cups, e. funnel-shaped notch, f. rain utes, g. channels, utes, scallops due to water creeping, h. wall channels. Rock samples have been taken along gentle slope of the mogote from its bottom to the top. FELO PREZ MOGOTE VI ALES, P INAR DEL RIO CUBA: T YPICAL SHAPING OF ROCK SURFACE BELO W DENSE ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 52 thick calcite veins lled with drusy sparite. In addition to heavy ssuring of the rock, very crushed layers are evi dent where sharp-edged particles of the micrite rock 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter are bonded by sparite drusy cement into compact rock. CALCIMETRIC ANAL Y SIS W e used the complexometric titration method to con duct twenty calcimetric analyses on nineteen rock sam ples (Tab. 1). W e established that the total carbonate in all the samples from the prole exceeds 96.5 %. In two samples the content of total carbonate is slightly above 98 % and in three of them well above 98 %; the aver age value of all the samples is 97.6 %. All the samples show a high percentage of calcite. Only a quarter of the samples contain less than 95 % calcite, and the average value of all samples is 95.6 %. All the samples also con tain a signicant amount of dolomite. Seven samples have less than 2 % dolomite, one has less than 1 %, and no samples contain over 3 %. e average value totals a good 2 %. Insoluble residue represents a signicant proportion of carbonates from the mogote. In six sam ples the amount of insoluble residue is close to or partly exceeds 3 %, and on average the value for all the samples is 2.4 %. I MPACT OF KARSTIFICATION e entire geological prole and all the beds that com pose the mogote responded in a similar way to karstica tion. R OCK RELIEF OF THE MOGOTE e unique shaping of carbonate rock in characteristic conditions fosters the development of distinctive and typical rock relief. e numerous rock forms in the relief reveal characteristics of the current shaping of the rock and the development of the mogote. S UBSOIL ROCK FORMS e subsoil shaping of the mogote put an important stamp on the rock relief, and all the most characteristic subsoil rock forms are represented Subsoil rock features have been presented in their complexity (Slabe & Knez 2004, Slabe & Liu 2009, Knez & Slabe 2009). Subsoil hol lows formed (Fig. 3a) along the gently sloping contacts of rock strata, and subsoil shas formed along vertical ssures. e most conductive hollows grew into smaller caves, and the remainder clearly show initial develop ment periods. Gently sloping hollows are oen parage netically elevated, which means that their greater part lies in the upper rock strata and is oen wider and rela tively at at the top. Emptied hollows, which are larger MANUEL R OBERTO GUTIRREZ D OMECH, MARTIN KNEZ & T ADEJ S LABE Tab.1: Complexometric titration analyses of rock samples. Rock sample CaO MgO Dolomite Total carbonate (%) Calcite CaO/MgO insoluble residue 1 54,28 0,16 0,74 97,21 96,47 339,25 2,79 2R 53,95 0,44 2,03 97,21 95,18 128,61 2,79 2I 54,12 0,40 1,84 97,43 95,59 135,30 2,57 3 54,56 0,24 1,10 97,88 96,78 227,33 2,12 4 54,06 0,32 1,47 97,15 95,68 168,94 2,95 5 54,11 0,52 2,39 97,66 95,27 104,06 2,34 6 53,72 0,63 1,66 96,62 94,96 3,38 3,38 7 55,09 0,60 2,77 99,57 96,80 91,82 0,43 8 54,17 0,64 2,95 98,02 95,07 84,64 1,98 9 54,00 0,32 1,47 97,04 95,57 168,75 2,96 10 54,00 0,36 1,66 97,13 95,47 150,00 2,87 11 54,12 0,56 2,58 97,26 94,68 96,64 2,74 12 54,06 0,32 1,47 97,15 95,68 168,94 2,95 13 53,56 0,52 2,40 96,68 96,28 103,00 3,32 14 54,90 0,64 2,95 99,32 96,37 85,78 0,68 15 55,07 0,44 2,58 99,21 96,63 125,16 0,79 16 54,59 0,48 2,58 98,43 95,85 113,73 1,57 17 53,95 0,52 2,40 97,38 94,98 103,75 2,62 18 53,56 0,44 2,04 96,51 94,46 121,73 3,49 19 53,89 0,56 2,58 97,35 94,77 96,23 2,65

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 53 as a rule, were shaped by water percolating from the sur face that deepened their bottoms. e mouths of smaller hollows and shas display funnel-like widenings and larger hollows end in pocket-like niches. On the walls, especially in the lower sections above the sediment sur rounding the mogote, there are subsoil channels whose diameters reach 0.75 meter. W ater creeping evenly over the entire surface along the contact with sediment cre ates subsoil scallops, some with pocket-like deepenings. Subsoil notches (Fig. 3b) form along the long-term level of sediment surrounding the rock. eir diameter can exceed one meter; at the bottom they are oen open and in places, especially along vertical ssures or along in ows of water through the bedding planes, they display distinctive semi-pocket-like dissections. e notches widen the mouths of hollows into horizontally deep ened elliptical pockets. As a rule they are distinctive at all contacts of rock strata. Subsoil half-bells (Fig. 3c) also formed immediately below the sediment level that reach one meter in diameter. Along the vertical ssures they are narrower and deeper. W all channels or shas, mostly along ssures, lead to them. e latter have more distinct bell shapes. W hen they cross several rock strata with porous bedding planes they display a number of stories, and sometimes a smaller feature indents into the wall of a larger feature below a ow of water from a lower bedding plane. e most distinct subsoil forms are found immediately above the current level of sediment that surrounds the rock. Older and in most cases more distinctly reshaped subsoil notches, shas, and half-bells (Fig. 4) can be found along the entire cross-section of the mogote. e subsoil-formed rock is rounded and relatively smooth. TRANSFORMATION OF PRIMAR Y SUBSOIL ROCK RELIEF e tops and upper parts of the slopes are completely dominated by rock forms that are the trace of water creeping down the inclined surface under the soil and weathered debris which covers the rock in places or on the denuded rock. Aer the denudation of this part of the mogotes surface, further overgrowing did not occur or was quite rare. Rainwater began to reshape the rock and dissect it with utes and channels. Later multiple peri ods of overgrowing fostered the deposit of plant remains on the more gently sloping or lower sections of the rock, which only then started to dissect under the weathered debris. Subsoil channels and utes formed (Fig. 5). eir shape was dictated by the heritage of the rock formation or its frequent denudation. Under the dense vegetation in the conditions evident on the lower section of the slope of the mogote, that is, on the rock and even on the slop ing surfaces, subsoil cups dominate completely. In the upper section the rock relief is therefore composite and formed due to the changing conditions in the rock forma tion. us ridges and spikes usually have rain utes and Fig. 4: H alf-bell reshaped by creeping water. Fig. 5: Subsoil channels. FELO PREZ MOGOTE VI ALES, P INAR DEL RIO CUBA: T YPICAL SHAPING OF ROCK SURFACE BELO W DENSE ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 54 the channels below them have oen been reshaped un der soil with cross-sections resembling an upside down omega letter, which as a rule applies to the largest (Fig. 6). eir diameters range from one to ten centimeters. e walls of the funnel-shaped notches dissecting the tops of the rock and the more gently inclined channels that were lled with weathered debris are oen dissected by subsoil utes. e water crept evenly down the entire surface un der the moist weathered debris. Subsoil forms completely dominate on the tops where vegetation grows. is is a unique system of subsoil channels and utes. Funnel-shaped notches (Fig. 3e), mostly of subsoil origin, are found very frequently at the edges of the tops. ey are up to one meter deep with variously wide open ings on the outer side. ey formed as the mouths of vertical subsoil channels and as the ends of subsoil chan nels that dissected the extensive rocky tops. Subsoil cups that when denuded form like solution pans or continue into wall channels are oen found at their bottoms. eir walls are dissected by smaller subsoil utes and when de nuded for a longer time, by rain utes. On nearby mog otes, pockets and cups formed on the ceilings of larger wall notches above the sediment that surrounded the rock. e water percolated through the porous rock to the contact and spread along the mouth of the channel in a bell-shape. R OCK FORMS, SHAPED BY RAINW ATER Subsoil forms are reshaped by rainwater and water that trickles down walls and percolates through the rock. Rain utes (Figs. 3f, 7) are found on rock that has been denuded for a longer time and directly exposed to rain. ey dissect the sloping surfaces of pointed tops and the higher sections of the rock of dissected wider rocky tops. On steep sections of the rock they are connected in channels. On the dissected tops, however, the water from utes collects and runs along channels that are oen of subsoil origin and when the karren are more densely overgrown with vegetation they are lled with weathered debris. e utes therefore typically developed on rock originally shaped below the soil and their interweaving with channels displays traces of this development and show that when the karren was frequently overgrown again by vegetation, they could be relled with weathered debris. In individual places the utes are deeper than the average, the result of the majoritiy of the water owing only along their bottoms while the ridges between them are high. Formerly denuded rock has become overgrown by vegetation. e solution pans typically developed from more or less denuded subsoil cups. Strongly representative rock forms develop in the rock relief due to the trickling and creeping of water down walls, both the larger walls of the mogote and the smaller walls of the karren. Individual channels (Fig. 3g) or utes form beneath bedding planes. e former are larger, measuring one decimeter or more in diameter and several meters in length. eir upper parts have funnelshaped mouths. e latter are smaller, a few centimeters in diameter and a meter in length and lie side by side, connected in a network but not completely identical. ey are more distinct in the most conductive sections. ey are deeper on more gently sloping upper sections or on bulges on more or less vertical surfaces. e chan nels thus represent the outow of the most conductive courses the water carved along the bedding planes and oen these smaller hollows were originally formed under the soil, while the utes occur under evenly permeable bedding planes. Flutes (Fig. 8) also form on the vertical or slightly inclined surfaces beneath smaller overhangs down which larger quantities of water creep and carve scallops. Scallops form on overhanging surfaces, a char acteristic trace of creeping water. e water that oen ows to overhangs along utes spreads due to gravity. Fig. 6: Rain utes and subsoil channels and cups. MANUEL R OBERTO GUTIRREZ D OMECH, MARTIN KNEZ & T ADEJ S LABE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 55 W all channels (Fig. 3h) also form below subsoil channels, subsoil cups, or funnel-like notches at edges. W ater ows from them and trickles down the walls. Flutes that tend to be deeper than simple rain utes also form below the tops of ridges that until recently have been covered by weathered debris from which water oozed evenly to their bottoms. e tops therefore have at and smooth surfaces. ey are co-formed by rainwa ter and water owing from weathered debris. However, they could also be considered of subsoil origin since it appears they began to form when the entire rock ridges were covered by weathered debris. W ater trickling from open subsoil cups and solu tion pans on or above the walls leaves traces on the rock. More abundant amounts of water from larger hollows carves channels and smaller amounts of water inuence the formation of rock surfaces that are nely porous. W ater carries weathered debris and deposits it on rough rock. TYPICAL ROCK FEATURES FORMED UNDER DENSE TROPICAL VEGETATION Subsoil cups (Figs. 3d, 9), channels, and utes that occur below the weathered debris and soil that covers the rock in places add a particular stamp to the unique rock relief of the mogote. W ith the exception of the north and north west walls, the steep and more gradually sloping slopes of the described mogote are densely overgrown with trees and brush. Vegetation grows in every ssure and bedding plane of the wall as well. e vegetation is particularly dense on the lower part of the mogote and sparser at the top where larger patches of rock are exposed to the direct impact of rainwater. Beneath the dense vegetation the bare rock sticking through the soil is densely dissected Fig. 8: Flutes, shaped by trickling water. Fig. 7: Rain utes, channels, fun nel-shaped notches, subsoil cups. FELO PREZ MOGOTE VI ALES, P INAR DEL RIO CUBA: T YPICAL SHAPING OF ROCK SURFACE BELO W DENSE ... Fig. 9: Subsoil cups.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 56 by subsoil cups (Fig. 3e). ey are usually up to 5 cm in diameter, with a few larger ones that measure up to 10 cm in diameter. e cups oen form three quarters of a circle. e width of their opening is smaller than the diameter of the lower, inner part. is form is the result of moisture being retained by the weathered debris and the corrosion of the rock under and alongside it. Larger cups have at bottoms as a rule or their bottoms are dis sected by smaller cups. ey are found both individually or connected since they grow into each other. On sloping surfaces they are usually open on the outer side of the rock, and a series of small steps can form from a string of completely open cups. e cups rst dissect a relatively at subsoil rock form, while long-term dissection of the rock results in the formation of dissected and ten-cen timeter tall points between them. e higher rocky tops that have been exposed to this type of transformation for a long time seem to be the most distinctly dissected. e majority of the cups contain weathered debris, soil, de caying leaves, and in some places water as well. Subsoil cups are rarely found on the upper part of the rock relief where the rocky mogote has been mostly denuded for a long time. Individual cups can only be found in the more gently sloping sections of channels and bottoms of funnel-like notches, the former mouths of subsoil channels. Most of them have been trans formed into solution pans; however, if the cups occur on the walls, the water ows in and out of them along wall channels. In the middle section of the mogote we can trace a more distinct intertwining of rock forms, some created by rainwater and some that form under weath ered debris. ey are thus found also among the rain utes. e rock is overgrown but the vegetation is not dense and has not been there for a long time. C ONCLUSION e Felo Prez mogote is located in the Viales Valley, a karst polje developed between the Sierra de los Organos mountain range and the hills of Pizarras del Sur in Pi nar del Ro province and is known for its typical surface karst landforms and its large caves. In the case of the Felo Prez mogote, the rocks belong to the Tumbadero Mem ber, one of the members of the Guasasa Formation which consists of micritic limestones and sandstones. rough out the studied geological column the rock is very uni form. Micritic limestone (mudstone) dominates and in most cases is heavily tectonically crushed. Recrystallized whole and particle fossil remains were found in only two layers. Stylolites were identied in the majority of the taken samples. W ith use of the complexometric titration method it was established that the total carbonate in all the samples from the prole exceeds 96.5 %. All the sam ples also contain a signicant amount of dolomite and insoluble residue. e beds in the entire geological prole that compose the mogote responded in a similar way to karstication. e original subsoil development of the mogote reveals a relatively dense system of subsoil hollows that today are mostly empty since the water that penetrates the rock has washed most of the sediment from them. e rocky surface of the mogote is also of subsoil origin. Subsoil rock forms are most distinctly preserved at the lower edge of the mogote that is surrounded by periodi cally ooded alluvium and in the notches on the slopes where the sediment remained the longest. In the upper section that has been denuded the longest, characteris tic rock forms were shaped by rainwater. ey cover the subsoil rock relief and in places intertwine with it. Under the dense vegetation that covers the kar ren and whose remains are deposited on it, the rock is being reshaped in a unique manner. Its entire surface is dissected by cups that formed under the weathered debris. ese rock forms are also found on sections of the mogote where the traces of rainwater dominate. It appears that the top of the mogote has been alternately overgrown or denuded. Most recently, traces of rainwa ter have dominated. In summary, we can trace the gradual denudation of the mogote and the reshaping of the rock relief from subsoil forms to those attributed to rainwater on the lon gest denuded and only sporadically overgrown surfaces at the top and to those on the lower section of the gentler slopes that form under thick vegetation. e latter give the rock relief a most distinctive and special seal charac teristic of this type of rock formation. MANUEL R OBERTO GUTIRREZ D OMECH, MARTIN KNEZ & T ADEJ S LABE

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 57 Research was included in UNESCO IGCP project No. 598. Acevedo Gonzlez, M., 1971: Geomorfologa de Sumide ro y sus inmediaciones. Sierra de los rganos, Pinar del Ro, Cuba.Rev. Tecnolgica, 9, 3, 33. Acevedo Gonzlez, M. & M. R. Gutirrez Domech, 1974: El Sistema Cavernario Majaguas-Cantera, Pinar del Ro, Cuba.Bol. Soc. Venezolana Espel., 5, 10, 125. Daz Otero, C., Furrazola, G., Gutirrez Domech, M. R. & A. I. Torres, 2002: Lxico Estratigrco de Cuba. Indito.Archivo Instituto de Geologa y Paleon tologa, pp. 348, La Habana. Gradzinski, R. & A. Radomski, 1963: Types of Cuban caves and their dependence on factor controlling karst development.Bull Acad. Polonaise Sc. Serv. Sci. Geol. and Geograf., 13, 2, 181. Gutirrez Domech, M. R. & M. Iturralde-Vinent, 1990: Condiciones geolgicas de formacin del carso en Cuba.Memorias Congreso Internacional, Aniver sario de lla Sociedad Espeleolgica de Cuba, pp. 86, La Habana. Gutirrez Domech, M. R. & M. Rivero Glean, 1997: Mini Geografa de Cuba .Editorial Cientco-Tcnica, pp. 142, La Habana. Gutirrez Domech, M. R. & M. Rivero Glean, 1999: Regiones Naturales de la isla de Cuba .Editorial Cientco-Tcnica, pp. 145, La Habana. Gutirrez Domech, M. R., Guerra Oliva, M., Lavandero Illera, R., Prez, Aragn, R. O., Tri Oquendo, J. & R. Seco Hernndez, 2011: Memoria Explicativa. Mapa de Formas Crsicas de la Repblica de Cuba (1: 250 000) .Archivo Instituto de Geologia y Pale ontologia, La Habana. Herrera, N. M., 1961: Contribucion a la estratigraa de la provincia de Pinar del Rio.Soc. Cubana de Ing. Rev, 61, 1, 2. Iturralde-Vinent, M., 1988: Naturaleza geolgica de Cuba .Editorial Cientco-Tcnica, pp. 146, La Ha bana. Knez, M. & T. Slabe, 2009: Lithological characteristics, shape, and rock relief of the Lunan stone forests.In: Gins, ., Knez, M., Slabe, T. & W Dreybrodt (eds.) Karst rock features : karren sculpturing ZRC Publishing, Carsologica 9, 439, Ljubljana. Palmer, R. H., 1945: Outline of the Geology of Cuba.Journ. Geology, 53, 1, 1. Piotrowska, K., 1978: Nappe structures in the Sierra de los Organos, W estern Cuba.Acta Geolgica Po lonica, 28, 1, 97. Slabe, T. & H. Liu, 2009: Signicant subsoil rock forms.In: Gins, ., Knez, M., Slabe, T. & W Dreybrodt (eds.) Karst rock features : karren sculpturing ZRC Publishing, Carsologica 9, 123, Ljubljana. Slabe, T. & M. Knez, 2004: Krake podtalne skalne ob like.Annales, Ser. hist. nat 14, 2, 259. FELO PREZ MOGOTE VI ALES, P INAR DEL RIO CUBA: T YPICAL SHAPING OF ROCK SURFACE BELO W DENSE ... A CKNO WLEDGEMENT REFERENCES



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CEILING EROSION IN CAVES: EARL Y STUDIES AND ZDEN K ROTH AS AUTHOR OF THE CONCEPT STROPNA EROZIJA V JAMAH : ZGODNJE RAZISKAVE IN Z DEN K R OTH KOT AVTOR KONCEPTA Pavel BELLA 1, 2 & Pavel BOSK 3 Izvleek UDK 551.435.84(437.6) Pavel Bella & Pavel Bosk: Stropna erozija v jamah: zgodnje raziskave in Zdenk Roth kot avtor koncepta Stropni lebovi so jamske skalne oblike, katerih nastanek najpogosteje povezujemo s paragenezo. V veini preglednih lankov je kot prvotni vir, ki uvede pojma stropni leb in para geneza, navedeno delo Philippea Renaulta iz 1958. Pri tem pa je spregledana stareja tudija Zdenka Rotha iz leta 1937, ki obravnava geomorfoloki razvoj jame Domica na Slovakem. Roth v tem delu, ki je v eini s francoskim povzetkom, stro pne kanale opie in denira. Pred Renaultom, poleg Rotha, trmin pri opisu razlinih jam na Slovakem in Madarkem uporabljajo tudi drugi avtorji. Na osnovi izvirnih Rothovih opazovanj je Josef Kunsk trmin deniral v ubeniku, ki je v eini izel leta 1950, v poljini leta 1956 in v francoini leta 1958. Renaultov opis paragenetskih stropnih lebov iz leta 1958, je torej prvi le v naboru zahodnoevropske krasoslovne literature. Kljune besede: stropni kanali, parageneza, antigravitativna erozija, denicija, Zdenk Roth, jama Domica, Slovaki kras. 1 State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic, Slovak Caves Administration, Hodova 11, 031 01 Liptovsk Mikul, Slovakia, e-mail: pavel.bella@ssj.sk 2 Department of Geography, Faculty of Education of the Catholic University, Hrabovsk cesta 1, 034 01 Ruomberok, Slovakia 3 Institute of Geology of the CAS, v. v. i., Rozvojov 269, 165 00 Praha 6Lysolaje, Czech Republic, e-mail: bosak@gli.cas.cz Received/Prejeto: 12.3.2014 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 139, POSTOJNA 2015 Abstract UDC 551.435.84(437.6) Pavel Bella & Pavel Bosk: Ceiling erosion in caves: early studies and Zdenk Roth as author of the concept Ceiling channels belong to specic geomorphological forms occurring only in caves. eir origin has been commonly connected with the paragenesis. According to review articles, the terms of ceiling channel and paragenesis were dened by Philippe Renault (1958) for the rst time. Nevertheless, Zdenk Roth in his study of morphology and geomorphological evolu tion of the Domica Cave (southern Slovakia) published in 1937 (in Czech with long French summary) not only described ceil ing channels, but he presented also their denition. Roth and other authors used the term later in describing features of sev eral caves in Slovakia and Hungary. Based on original Roth ob servations, Josef Kunsk dened the term generally in his text book (1950 in Czech, 1956 in Polish and 1958 in French). e description of paragenetic ceiling channels by Renault (1958) can be considered as the rst one only in W estern European karstology literature. Key words: ceiling channel, paragenesis, antigravitative ero sion, denition, Zdenk Roth, Domica Cave, Slovak Karst. I NTRODUCTION Ceiling channels belong to specic geomorphological forms occurring only in uvially modelled caves. eir origin has been connected with the paragenesis. Pasini (2009) in his review of ceiling channels and antigravita tion theory in caves explains that the process of erosion of the rocky ceiling from below up due to water stream owing under pressure as a consequence of deposition of sediments was described by Philippe Renault (1958) for

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 140 P AVEL BELLA1 & P AVEL BOSK the rst time. Also Farrant & Smart (2011) reported, that the paragenesis concept has been known since innovative study of P. Renault from sixties of the 20 th century. Nevertheless, the Czech geologist Zdenk Roth already in 1937 studied and described ceiling channels in the Domica Cave (Slovak Karst, southern Slovakia). In spite of fact, that the Czech study was followed by prolonged French summary, the study and the primary knowledge on ceiling channels were not attracted the interest of foreign karstologists. Although the study was published some 80 years ago, its general importance has to be stressed. Our study of archives and literature indi cate, that the geomorphology analysis and interpretation of ceiling channels from the Domica Cave represented the primary description of this kind of speleogens not only from the territory of past Czechoslovakia, but in general. is concept was followed also by other Czech and Slovak geomorphologists and karst students. e origin of ceiling channels has been generally explained by so-called paragenesis (Renault 1958, 1968, 1970; Lauritzen & Lauritsen 1995; Lauritzen & Lundberg 2000; Farrant 2004; Farrant & Smart 2011 a. o.) or by antigravitation erosion (Pasini, 1967, 1975, 2009, 2012). e ceiling channel is formed by subterranean water ow, which presses uvial sediments up to rocky ceiling con tributing to its enlargement from below up. Nevertheless, false ceiling channels represent dierent speleogen. ey represent upward deepened parts of proto-channels at the contact of overlying non-soluble and underlying sol uble rocks, e. g., in the intrastratal gypsum karst (Sorbas, southern Spain, see Calaforra & Pulido-Bosch 2000). PRIMAR Y STUDIES OF CEILING CHANNELS IN THE DOMICA CAVE e Domica Cave at the southwestern margin of the Sil ick planina Plateau (Slovak Karst) is developed in W etter stein Limestone (Middle Triassic) of the Silica Nappe by corrosion and mechanical erosion by occasional water streams entering the karst from nearby part of the Bod vianska pahorkatina Upland (Droppa 1961, 1972, a. o.). e principal corridor continues crossing the Slovakia/ Hungary state boundary into the Baradla Cave (Aggtelek Karst, northern Hungary) genetically forming the uni form cave system. Ceiling channels represent the most expressive morphologies in the Domica Cave. Aggrada tion of uvial sediments in vadose conditions caused the complete lling of passages in places, especially in the upstream (near ponor) cave segments as a consequence of allogenic drainage loaded by big amounts of gravel and loamy sediments in passages with low dips (Ford 2000). In the study of morphology and geomorphology evolution of the Domica Cave, Zdenk Roth (1937) not only described the ceiling channels, but he dened them: in the Czech text on page 131, and in the French sum mary as auge de plafond on p. 39 (165). He il lustrated them on his Figs. 1 on Tabs. I and II (Fig. 1). He dened the ceiling channel as special form preserved on ceilings of passages and more extensive cave spaces broad upwards vaulted speleogen eroded by subterra nean water ow in rocky ceiling; it is similar to uvial channel, it can be traced for relatively long distances and it is usually meandering. Roth followed by statement, Fig. 1: Fascimile of a part of Z denbk Roth paper on the Domica Cave from 1937; the title page, pages with the denition of ceiling channel in the French summary and photo plate No. II.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 141 CEILING EROSION IN CAVES: EARL Y STUDIES AND ZDEN K ROTH AS AUTHOR OF THE CONCEPT that the evolution of ceiling channels is mostly depen dent on mechanical erosion by owing water rather than limestone dissolution (according to recent studies, the rocky forms representing the paragenesis developed by rock dissolution; e. g., Slabe 1995; Farrant & Smart 2011). Based on the forms of ceiling channels and rest of river deposits, Roth (1937) expected that the Domica Cave was once nearly completely lled by alluvial depos its loaded by allogenic streams. e water stream pressed up to the ceiling has to enlarge its way up by rock erosion in cave ceiling forming the passage with vaulted crosssection remaining aer the exhumation of cave sedi ments (p. 131 in the Czech text, p. 39 in the French summary; Figs. 2 and 3). Ceiling channels in the Domica Cave developed in two levels and served as the principal argument in the interpretation of Domica Cave evolu tion. Z. Roth (1937) introduced the term of ceiling chan nels and formulated principles of their origin and evolu tion on the basis of his original eld observations, any older references dealing with the topics are missing. More we reviewed cave studies of his professor, Radim Kettner, from the same region and other karst areas and we did not found any use of this term. e Domica Cave at that time was the best geomorphologically studied cave in the whole Czechoslovakia and probably also in the broader Central European region. In his following study, Roth (1940) compared the morphology of the Domica and Baradla caves. He de scribed ceiling channels also in the Baradla Cave and correlated them with ones in the Domica Cave. Mean dering ceiling channels were somewhat later identied by Mann et al. (1949) in the lower level of the Domica Cave. Based on Z. Roth studies from Domica and Baradla caves (1937 and 1940), Josef Kunsk described condi tions and processes leading to origin of ceiling channel in the textbook Karst and Caves (1950 in Czech, 1956 in Polish and 1958 in French). He described two ways of ceiling channel origin: (1) if water ow is renewed aer the lling of cave passage up to ceiling, the owing wa ter erodes sediments and mechanically aects the ceiling by loaded gravels, the upward vaulted channel is than formed, and (2) ceiling channel can form when water ow is pressed against the ceiling, which erodes. Fig. 2: Ceiling channel in the Dome of Mysteries, Domica Cave (P hoto: P avol Stank). Fig. 3: Ceiling channel in the Meander P assage, Domica Cave (P hoto: P avel B ella).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 142 CONCLUSIONS e geomorphology description of the Domica Cave by Zdenk Roth (1937) belongs to the oldest studies de scribing the morphology and evolution of ceiling chan nels. In spite of the age of the study, its importance has to be stressed especially due to primary description of this speleogen. Because the study was published in local journal B ratislava (issued by the afriks Learned So ciety in 1927 to 1937 and printed studies from Slovakia and Transcarpathian Ukraine) and it was focused prima rily to Slovak and Czechoslovak community, the primary knowledge on ceiling channels did not attracted foreign karst students in spite of prolonged French summary. Ceiling channels were described later also by Roth (1940) in Baradla Cave (Hungary), Mann et al (1949) in lower level of the Domica Cave, Sekyra (in Loek et al 1956) in Jasovsk Cave and Sene (1956) in Drienovsk Cave (both in the Slovak Karst). Based on Z. Roth stud ies from Domica and Baradla caves (1937 and 1940), Jo sef Kunsk generally dened ceiling channels in his text book Karst and Caves (1950 in Czech, 1956 in Polish and 1958 in French). Recently, there are not known older studies of ceil ing channels than the study of Roth (1937). erefore the text of Philippe Renault (1958), which has been ex pected as the oldest study dealing with the problem of paragenetic evolution (antigravitation erosion) in caves for long decades, represents the primary text only for the W estern European karstological literature. Fig. 4: Z denbk Roth at cores from borehole Krsn 1, 1975 (P ho to: archive Czech Geological Survey). Ceiling channels were later recognized also in the Jasovsk Cave (Sekyra in Loek et al. 1956) and Drienovsk Cave (Sene 1956) from the Jasovsk planina Pla teau (eastern part of the Slovak Karst). Zdenk Roth (Assoc. Prof., RNDr., DrSc.; 1914 2009; Fig. 4) prepared this unique and important study as young researcher at the Institute of Geology and Pale ontology, Charles University in Praha (Czech Republic) with the support of his professor, academician Radim Kettner, Institute director. e geomorphology investi gations were carried out within the frame of the activity of the Karst Commission belonging to the Club of Czech Tourists and founded in 1933 for the research of the Domica Cave and its surrounding. Univ. prof. dr. Kett ner served also as the Commission President. R. Kettner and Z. Roth carried out detailed geomorphology map ping of the principal cave segments in 1936 four map segments were published in Roth (1937) study, two segments were presented by Kettner (1948) and two col ored sheets are deposited in cave map collections of the Slovak Museum of Nature Conservation and Speleology in Liptovsk Mikul city (Lalkovi 1997, 2001). P AVEL BELLA1 & P AVEL BOSK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 143 W e acknowledge the help of Mrs. Vclava kvorov, li brarian of the Institute of Geology ASCR, v. v. i., for the search of original and primary literary sources. W e are grateful to Mr. Marcel Lalkovi, former director of the Slovak Museum of Nature Conservation and Speleol ogy, for consultations on maps of the Domica Cave. e study was compiled within the frame of the Institutional Financing of the Institute of Geology of the CAS, v. v. i., No. RVO6798531 and it was supported by the Slovak Re search and Development Agency under contract APVV0625-11. ACKNO WLEDGEMETS REFERENCES Calaforra, J. M. & A. Pulido-Bosch, 2000: Cave Devel opment in Vadose Settings in a Multilayer Aquifer e Sorbas Karst, Almeria, Spain.In: A. B. Klim chouk, D. C. Ford, A. N. Palmer & W Dreybrodt (eds.) Speleogenesis. Evolution of Karst Aquifers National Speleological Society, pp. 382, Hunts ville, Alabama, U.S.A. Farrant, A., 2004: Paragenesis. In: J. Gunn (ed.) Encyclo pedia of Caves and Karst Science .Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 569, New Y ork London. Farrant, A. R. & P. L. Smart, 2011: Role of sediment in speleogenesis; sedimentation and paragenesis.Ge omorphology, 134, 1, 79. Ford, D. C., 2000: Caves Branch, Belize, and the BaradlaDomica System, Hungary and Slovakia.In: A. B. Klimchouk, D. C. Ford, A. N. Palmer & W Drey brodt (eds.) Speleogenesis. Evolution of Karst Aqui fers National Speleological Society, pp. 391 Huntsville, Alabama, U.S.A. Kettner, R., 1948: O netopm guanu a guanovch ko rosch v jeskyni Domici.Sbornk Sttnho geolog ickho stavu eskoslovensk republiky, 15, 41, Praha. Kunsk, J., 1950: Kras a jeskynb .Prodovdeck nakla datelstv, 163 pp., Praha. Kunsk, J., 1956: Z jawiska krasowe .Pastwowe W ydawnictwo Naukowe, 207 pp., W arszawa. Kunsk, J., 1958: Karst et grottes .Service d'Information gologique du B.R.G.G.M., 107 pp., Paris. Lalkovi, M., 1997: Zbierka jaskynnch plnov a mp Slovenskho mzea ochrany prrody a jaskyniarstva v Liptovskom Mikuli.In: M. Kovov (ed.) His torick mapy Zbornk z vedeckej konferencie, Brat islava 24.. 4. 1997. Kartograck spolonos SR, Slovensk nrodn archv, pp. 30 Bratislava. Lalkovi, M., 2001: Detailn mapovanie jaskyne Domica v rokoch 1936.In: M. Kovov & M. Hjek (eds.) H istorick mapy Zbornk z vedeckej kon ferencie, Bratislava 26.. 4. 2001. Kartograck spolonos SR, pp. 149, Bratislava. Lauritzen, S.-E. & A. Lauritsen, 1995: Dierential diag nosis of paragenetic and vadose canyons.Cave and Karst Science, 21, 2, 55. Lauritzen, S. E. & J. Lundberg, 2000: Solutional and ero sional morphology.In: A. B. Klimchouk, D. C. Ford, A. N. Palmer & W Dreybrodt (eds.) Speleogenesis. Evolution of Karst Aquifers National Speleological Society, pp. 408, Huntsville, Alabama, U.S.A. Loek, V. Sekyra, J. Kukla, J. & O. Fejfar, 1956 : Vzkum Velk Jasovsk jeskyn (Die Durchforschung der Grossen Jasover Hhle). Anthropozoikum, 6, 197 282. ( Dtsch. Zusammenfassung, 266 282 ). Mann, K., Pouba, Z. & P. antrek, 1949: Nov speleo logick studia v Domici (New Speleological Studies in the Domica-cavern).Sbornk eskoslovensk spolenosti zempisn, 54, 2, 99, Praha. (Engl. summary, 105). Pasini, G., 1967: Osservazioni sui canali di volta delle grotte bolognesi.Le Grotte dItalia, 4, 1, 17. Pasini, G., 1975: Sullimportanza speleogenetica dell erosione antigravitativa.Le Grotte dItalia, 12, 4, 297. Pasini, G., 2009: A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion?International Journal of Speleology, 38, 2, 129. Pasini, G., 2012: Speleogenesis of the Buco dei Vinchi in active swallow hole (Monte Croara karst sub-ar ea, Bologna, Italy), an outstanding example of an tigravitative erosion (or paragenesis) in selenitic gypsum. An outline of the post-antigravitative ero sion.Acta Carsologica, 41, 1, 15. CEILING EROSION IN CAVES: EARL Y STUDIES AND ZDEN K ROTH AS AUTHOR OF THE CONCEPT

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 144 Renault, P., 1958: Elments de splomorphologie karstique.Annales de Splologie, 13, 1, 23. Renault, P., 1968: Contribution ltude des actions mcaniques et sdimentologiques dans la sploge nse. Les facteurs sdimentologiques.Annales de Splologie, 23, 3, 529. Renault, P., 1970: La formation des cavernes .Presses Universitaires de France, 127 pp., Paris. Roth, Z., 1937: Vvoj jeskyn Domice (Levolution des grottes de Domica).Bratislava, 11, 129 (Res. Fran., 163 paginated as 38). Roth, Z., 1940: Vvojov vztah jeskyn Baradel k jeskyni Domici v Jihoslovenskm krasu (Das genetische Verhltnis der Baradla-Hhle zu der Domica-Hh le in Sdslowakischen Karste).Vstnk Krlovsk esk spolenosti nauk, tda mat.-prodovd., 1. (Dtsch. Zusammenfassung, 5). Sene, J., 1956: Vsledky speleologickho vskumu Drienovskej (omody) jaskyne v Slovenskom krase (Ergebnisse der speleologischen Erforschung der Hhle Drienovsk jaskya (omody) im Slowakis chen Karst).Geograck asopis, 8, 1, 16. (Dtsch. Zusammenfassung, 27). Slabe, T., 1995: Cave Rocky Relief and its Speleogenetical Signicance .Zbirka ZRC, 10, SAZU, 128 pp., Lju bljana. P AVEL BELLA1 & P AVEL BOSK



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HYDROCHEMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE SPRINGS OF JINFO MOUNTAIN, CHONG Q ING, CHINA HIDROKEMIJSKE SPREMEMBE IZVIROV NA GORI JINFO CHONGQ ING, KITAJSKA X iao QIONG 1,2 *, Shen LICHENG 2 & W u KUNYU 3 Izvleek UDK 556.36:556.114(510) Xiao Qiong, Shen Licheng & Wu Kunyu: Hidrokemijske spre membe izvirov na gori Jinfo, Chongqing, Kitajska Na obmoju gore Jinfo v Chongqingu, JZ Kitajska je 18 izvi rov (10 epikrakih izvirov je znotraj nacionalnega naravnega rezervata, 4 epikraki in 4 ne-epikraki izviri pa so izven tega obmoja). Hidrokemijske znailnosti teh izvirov so bile mer jene v letih 1977, 2004 in 2011. Po zbranih podatkih sta v razlinih obmojih in za razlina leta hidrokemijska tipa izvi rov Ca-HCO 3 in Ca-HCO 3 -SO 4 koncentracije SO 4 2 in NO 3 pa so zelo obutljive na spremembe v lovekovih dejavnostih. Vsi izviri z najvijimi koncentracijami SO 4 2 in NO 3 v tudijskem obmoju so imeli najnije koncentracije v letu 1977, sledil je trend naraanja koncentracij v letih od 2004 do 2008, nato pa so bile koncentracije spet nije. Izviri z nizkimi koncen tracijami SO 4 2 in NO 3 so razporejeni le na vrhu gore Jinfo v nacionalnem naravnem rezervatu. Opazovane hidrokemijske spremembe izvirov na gori Jinfo kaejo, da je izvajanje ukre pov okoljske politike in prestrukturiranje industrije uspeno prispevalo k zaiti izvirov. Kljune besede: hidrokemijske spremembe, SO 4 2 NO 3 lovekove dejavnosti, gora Jinfo. 1 Key Laboratory of Karst Dynamics, MLR & Guangxi, Institute of Karst Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Guilin 541004, China. 2 School of Geographic Sciences, Southwest University, 1 Tiansheng Rd., Chongqing 400715, China. 3 School of Resources and Environment Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China. *Corresponding author: X iao Qiong, Key Laboratory of Karst Dynamics, MLR & Guangxi, Institute of Karst Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Guilin 541004, China, e-mail: xiaoqiong-8423@163.com Received/Prejeto: 11.04.2014 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 59, POSTOJNA 2015 Abstract UDC 556.36:556.114(510) Xiao Qiong, Shen Licheng & Wu Kunyu: Hydrochemical vari ations of the springs on Jinfo Mountain, Chongqing, China ere are 18 springs within the Jinfo Mountain area of Chongq ing, SW China (of which 10 epikarst springs are within the Na tional Nature Reserve, and 4 epikarst springs and 4 non-epikarst springs are outside the National Nature Reserve). e hydro chemical characteristics of these springs were measured in 1977, 2004-2009, and 2011. e data show that the hydrochem istry type of springs in dierent areas, and for dierent years, is Ca-HCO 3 and Ca-HCO 3 -SO 4 whereas the concentrations of SO 4 2 and NO 3 are very sensitive to changes in human activities. All the springs with the highest SO 4 2 and NO 3 concentrations in the study area showed minimum concentrations in 1977 and an upward trend in concentrations from 2004 to 2008, followed by a period of lower concentrations. Springs with low SO 4 2 and NO 3 concentrations were distributed solely at the top of Jinfo Mountain in the National Nature Reserve. e hydrochemical variations observed in springs on Jinfo Mountain demonstrate that the implementation of environmental policy measures and industrial restructuring have successfully contributed to envi ronmental protection of the springs. Key words: Hydrochemical variations, SO 4 2 NO 3 human ac tivities, Jinfo Mountain.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 60 XIAO QIONG, S HEN LICHENG & WU KUNYU W ater is a key resource for human populations, required for drinking and irrigation (Hoek et al 2001; Kirda 1997), but water scarcity and pollution have become an increasingly important problem in recent years, espe cially in karst areas. A large typical karst area is found in SW China, covering an area of about 620,000 km 2 and with a population of 100 million (Zhang et al 2006; Peng et al 2011).is karst area is a rich water resource that includes groundwater and epikarst springs. e epikarst zone is important to the storage and migration of the karst water resources, and is very sensitive to human activities because of the soil upstairs and water down stairs phenomenon in the karst area. e hydrochemical features of epikarst springs are probably determined by (1) the interaction of water with soil and rock, (2) allogenic water mixed with epikarst wa ter, and (3) human activities that aect the epikarst wa ter (Zhu & Qian 2005). Many studies have proposed that studying the hydrochemistry of hydrological systems not only reects the natural conditions, such as soil, vegeta tion, and lithology, but also provides important informa tion on anthropogenic additions from agricultural ac tivities, industrial sewage discharge and etc. (Stallard & Edmond 1981, 1983, 1987; Edmond et al 1996; Gaillar det et al 1999a, b; Grosbois et al 2000; Barth et al 2003; Lee et al 2007; Raymond et al 2008; Guo et al 2010). Epikarst springs develop in the epikarst zone, an irregu lar karst zone occurring in surface carbonate rocks that consists of various individual and micro karst forms re sulting from strong karstication processes. Precipitation and surface waters may readily drain into the complex network of subterranean karstic conduits, being retained within the aquifer for long periods before eventually reemerging elsewhere as a spring. W ith rapid economic growth and population increase, land use has become one of the most important inuences on the quality and viability of groundwater springs, especially in karst ar eas. Agricultural irrigation, industrial waste, and domes tic waste have largely contributed to the contamination of springs. Concentrations of nitrate and sulphate have shown notable increases as a result of the application of large amounts of chemical fertilizers used in agriculture (Compton & Boone 2000; Jiang et al 2008). W aste water and waste residues produced by the construction of fac tories and homes cause an increase of pollutants such as nitrogen and sulphate (W akida & Lerner 2006). Several previous studies have examined the links between hu man activity and the hydrochemistry of springs in China (Jia & Y uan 2003; Zhang & Y uan 2004). Jinfo Mountain (Mt. Jinfo) in Chongqing, SW Chi na, is a typical subalpine karst area, and a key research area for karst water systems (Zhang et al 2011; Gao et al 2008), land utilization (Li et al 2005; Zhang 2010), and biodiversity (Dai 2002; Liao et al 2008). In this study, 14 epikarst springs and 4 non-epikarst springs at dierent altitudes on Mt. Jinfo were selected specically for moni toring and a comparison of their hydrochemical vari ations for 1977, 2004, and 2011. e aim of this study is to investigate the hydrochemical behaviours of springs in subtropical mountainous regions similar to Mt. Jinfo and to gain a general understanding of longterm geochemical variations of epikarst springs and their response to the application of environmental poli cies and industrial restructuring over these years. INTRODUCTION STUD Y AREA Mt. Jinfo is located in the south of Chongqing, China, southeast of the Sichuan Basin (Fig. 1). It is part of Dalou Mountain Range, a typical karst landform formed with 108 peaks. Mt. Jinfo is approximately situated in the area 28N-29N, 107E-107E, and the highest el evation (above sea level) is 2251 m (W ang & W ang 1990). Mt. Jinfo was named as the National Forest Garden of China in 1991. e vertical changes in climate and vegetation from the foot to the top of Mt. Jinfo are signicant, including a temperature dierence of c. 5 6 C. e top of the moun tain exhibits similar characteristics to temperate climates, with an annual average air temperature of 8.5 C, annu al mean rainfall of 1396 mm, and a rainy season from April to October. However, the lower part of the moun tain has a subtropical humid monsoon climate, typical for SW China, with an annual average air temperature of 16.6 C, annual rainfall of 1287 mm, and a rainy season from February to August (Zhang et al 2011). e geological structure of this area is a wide and gentle syncline, and includes fault structures along the NESW -oriented major tectonic line. e carbonate rock outcrop covers approximately two-thirds of the en tire study area. e surface of Mt. Jinfo is underlain by

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 61 H Y DROCHEMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE SPRINGS OF JINFO MOUNTAIN, CHONG Q ING, CHINA Permian limestone (P 1 ) above 2000 m a.s.l., and largescale karst formations are found in both the surface and subsurface. From 1000 to 1500 m a.s.l., the mountain is covered with Silurian shale and sandstone. Below 1000 m a.s.l. the mountain is composed of Cambrian limestone and Ordovician dolomite (Fig. 1, Tab. 1). e aquifer Fig. 1: Map of sampling sites at Mt. Jinfo. Sample locations: 1 H ongyanzui spring; 2 Shunlongqiao spring; 3 P englailin spring; 4 Jinfoshan spring; 5 Zhiyinshanzhuang spring; 6 Sanwenyu spring; 7 B itang springs; 8 Dongfanghong spring; 9 Caizigou spring; 10 Xiaoni spring; 11 Shuifang spring; 12 Dengjiapuzi spring; 13 Dawandao spring; 14 Shuanglongdong spring; 15 Changgangling spring; 16 Toudu spring; 17 Changba spring (a), 18 Changba spring (b). system in this region is controlled by the large-scale karst formations, and predominantly formed by karstic ssures and caves. Since the epikarst zone here is largely covered by vegetation, epikarst springs are ubiquitous on Mt. Jinfo. As a National Forest Garden, the land use pat tern in the National Nature Reserve (NNR) on Mt. Jinfo

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 62 consists only of forestland, while cultivated land, a small amount of industrial and mineral land, and grassland makes up the area outside this reserve. In order to examine and compare the relationships between hydrochemical variations under dierent ver tical climatic conditions and human activities for 1977, 2004, and 2011, epikarst springs at dierent eleva tions were selected: springs 4 12 and 14 are within the NNR (Fig. 1), whereas springs 1 3 and 13 are located outside the NNR. Additionally, four non-epikarst springs (15 18) were included in the study. All 18 of the springs represent the most important sources of domestic water for local people. Springs 9 are at elevations of more than 1000 m (above sea level), with springs 10 and 11 representing the highest springs at the top of Mt. Jinfo (elevations of 2072 m and 2018 m respectively). Springs 1 6, 8, and 16 18 are at elevations of 630-838 m. Springs 1, 2, 10, and 11 are exposed in the Permian strata with surrounding limestone lithology. Springs 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, and 13 are exposed in Ordovician strata, again with sur rounding limestone lithology. However, springs 4, 5, and 7 are exposed in Cambrian strata surrounded by dolo mite lithology, and the non-epikarst springs (15 18) are exposed in Silurian strata with surrounding lithology of detrital stone. All springs have perennial streams and show dierent discharges: less than 1 L/s for springs 1 5, 9,10,13, 17, and 18; between 1 and 10 L/s for springs 6 8 and 14 16; and 10 15 L/s for springs 11 and 12 (Tab. 1). Tab. 1: e geological and hydrochemical features of the springs (pH and electrical conductivity are presented as the average values from 2004 to 2009; and discharge and temperature as the range of measured values in 1977, 2004 2009, and 2011). Spring Location Elevation m Exposed strata Lithology Discharge (m 3 /d) pH Electrical conductivity S/cm Temperature C 1 28N;107E 630 Permian limestone 0.01 0.1 7.40 441 18.7 19.3 2 29N;107E 640 Permian limestone 0.2 0.3 7.42 439 15.9 17.2 3 29N;107E 649 Ordovician limestone 0.01 0.1 7.20 484 17.8 18.2 4 29N;107E 684 Cambrian dolomite 0.1 0.15 7.52 480 16.2 16.5 5 29N;107E 675 Cambrian dolomite 0.4 0.5 8.34 462 22.5 23.6 6 29N;107E 655 Ordovician limestone 2 2.2 7.90 180 18.9 19.6 7 29N;107E 766 Cambrian dolomite 5 6 7.92 318 14.2 14.8 8 29N;107E 702 Ordovician limestone 2.5 3.5 7.86 266 14.5 14.8 9 28N;107E 1289 Ordovician limestone 0.01 7.81 456 14.1 15.6 10 29N;107E 2072 Permian limestone 0.55 0.7 7.17 98 9.1 9.2 11 29N;107E 2018 Permian limestone 10 15 7.67 278 8.6 9.8 12 28N;107E 1130 Ordovician limestone 10 15 8.28 398 18.3 18.5 13 28N;107E 1373 Ordovician limestone 0.2 0.25 6.76 239 13.6 14.1 14 28N;107E 1526 Permian limestone 2 3 7.89 367 9.2 9.7 15 28N;107E 1344 Silurian detrital stone 0.35 1.5 7.37 393 12.9 13.0 16 28N;107E 838 Silurian detrital stone 1 3 7.34 580 12.8 14.6 17 28N;107E 791 Silurian detrital stone 0.75 1 7.31 423 18.7 19.9 18 28N;107E 791 Silurian detrital stone 0.75 1 8.06 324 17.6 18.1 STUD Y METHODS H Y DROCHEMISTR Y ANAL Y SIS e hydrochemical data of all springs for 1977 were gathered from the Nanjiang Hydrogeological & Engi neering Geology Brigade, and continued monitoring of these springs was carried out by authors from 2004 to 2011. e measurement method in 1977 consisted of ba sic chemical analysis in the laboratory. ese historical analyses may lack precision; however, large changes in data values were observed between 1977 and 2004, and so the level of precision is within acceptable limits. Tem perature (T), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and HCO 3 and Ca 2+ concentrations for these springs were tested in the eld. T, pH, and EC were measured using Portable W ater Q uality Analyzers (produced by Hach Company, USA). e analysers accuracies are 0.1 C for T, 0.01 for pH, and 1 S/cm for EC. HCO 3 and Ca 2+ contents were measured by on-site alkalinity and calcium tests (Aqua merck, Germany), with an accuracy of 0.1 mmol/L and 2 mg/L for HCO 3 and Ca 2+ respectively. AgNO 3 titration (0.1 mg/L) was applied to measure the Cl content, and XIAO QIONG, S HEN LICHENG & WU KUNYU

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 63 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION GENERAL W ATER CHEMISTR Y DESCRIPTION Epikarst springs on Mt. Jinfo generally displayed neutral pH (average pH from 2004 to 2009 was between 6.76 and 8.34), and temperatures ranging from 8.6 C to 23.6 C. e EC (average EC from 2004 to 2009) of the springs in the NNR was c. 168-564 S/cm, and c. 239-584 S/cm outside the NNR. e non-epikarst springs in the study area were similar to the epikarst springs in terms of pH, EC, and temperature (Tab. 1). For all springs, HCO 3 was the dominant anion for the majority of samples (c. 31.97.93 mg/L), followed by SO 4 2 (concentration 1.88.84 mg/L). Ca 2+ was the dominant cation for the majority of samples (c. 8.52.06 mg/L), followed by Mg 2+ (concentration 1.88.94 mg/L). SO 4 2 and NO 3 (c. 075.36 mg/L) showed relatively large interannual variability, whereas those of Cl (c. 014.82 mg/L), Na + (c. 0.62 mg/L), and K + (c. 0.08 mg/L) did not vary significantly. Major ion compositions are shown in the anion and cation ternary diagrams (Fig. 2). SO 4 2 and HCO 3 together accounted for 80 % to 95 % of the total anions in the majority of samples. In general, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ dominated the cation concentrations of the spring waters, accounting for more than 80 % of the total cation concentrations in the majority of epikarst springs (Fig. 2). Therefore, the hydrochemical watertype for these epikarst springs was Ca-HCO 3 The re sults also show that the four non-epikarst springs in this study had similar hydrochemical characteristics to the epikarst springs, which may indicate a common source of carbonate weathering for the major ions in all 18 springs. Fig. 3 shows the cation triangular diagram for all springs for 1977, 2004, and 2011. Major cation changes between years were not obvious for 1977 and 2004. e triangular diagram for anions for 1977, 2004, and 2011 (Fig. 4), shows that HCO 3 is the dominant anion for the majority of samples and, as for cations, no obvious changes are seen between these an ultraviolet spectrometer (0.01 mg/L) to measure the NO 3 and SO 4 2 in the water sample. ICP-OES (Optima 2100 DV) (0.001 mg/L) was used to measure the cation content aer the water samples were acidied and antiadsorbed. All laboratory experiments were completed in the W ater Chemistry Analysis Laboratory in the School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, China. KRIGING INTERPOLATION METHOD e most common methods for spatial interpolation are Inverse Distance W eighting (ID W ) and the Kriging method. Previous research has determined that the Krig ing method is more accurate in its retention of original image features (Milillo & Gardella 2008), and in estimat ing radioactive contamination (Mabit & Bernard 2007) and soil mercury content (Hu et al. 2004). On the other hand, the ID W method is superior for estimating whole landll methane ux (Spokas et al. 2003). Kriging inter polation has been widely used in spatial data analysis. e general equation of this method can be expressed (Matheron 1963; Li et al. 2000) as: (1) where i = 1, 2, 3 n Z( x 0 ) is the estimated variable value for the estimated point, n is the number of measured points in a given range (here the springs on Mt. Jinfo), and Z( x i ) is the value of the measured points. In this study the concentrations of SO 4 2 and NO 3 i are the krig ing weightings. Suitable weightings of i are determined by two conditions. One is that Z( x 0 ) and Z( x i ) must have the same average value throughout the whole eld, written as: (2) e other condition is that the kriging variance should take the smallest possible value, as estimated by: (3) where is the Lagrange multiplier and ( x i x 0 ) is the semivariogram, which can be estimated by the equation below: (4) where the vector h is the distance between x i and x 0 H Y DROCHEMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE SPRINGS OF JINFO MOUNTAIN, CHONG Q ING, CHINA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 64 years. Also, signicant changes are not seen between springs in or outside the NNR, or between epikarst and non-epikarst springs. LITHOLOGY WEATHERING CONTROL ON W ATER CHEMISTR Y Dierent geological formation periods and lithology is the major factor controlling the groundwater chemistry. Fig. 2: P iper diagram of spring hydrochemistry at Mt. Jinfo. Fig. 3: Cation diagrams for the springs for 1977, 2004, and 2011. XIAO QIONG, S HEN LICHENG & WU KUNYU

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 65 HCO 3 concentrations were plotted against Ca 2+ con centrations for all Mt. Jinfo samples in dierent years (Fig. 5(a)). As expected, high linear correlation was ob tained throughout the observation period (correlation coecient r = 0.651), which strongly suggests that the main lithology of Mt. Jinfo is limestone. e projection point of the contrast ratio of Ca 2+ and HCO 3 (mmol/L) was near a best-t curve, constrained to pass through (0, 0), gave a Ca 2+ /HCO 3 ratio of 0.5 (Fig. 5(b)), which implies that the weathering in this area was mainly car bonate weathering. It may be that signicant quantities of limestone from Permian and Ordovician strata mixed with the detrital stone, with the result that weathering in detrital stone areas in Silurian also takes the form of car bonate weathering. is could explain the similar hydro chemical features between springs 15 and the other epikarst springs. Fig. 6 shows that there is little variation in Ca 2+ and HCO 3 concentrations of all springs for 1977, 2004, and 2011. is is possibly because these two ion concen trations are controlled by carbonate dissolution, which is the main water/rock interaction in the karst aquifer. In Fig. 6, we can also observe that the concentrations of Ca 2+ in the NNR were lower than for springs outside the NNR, which may be due to the negative inuence on carbonate dissolution of the high altitudes and lower Fig. 4: Anion diagrams for the springs for 1977, 2004-2009, and 2011. Fig. 5: (a) Relationship of Ca 2+ with H CO 3 concentrations (mg/L); (b) Liner relationship between Ca 2+ and H CO 3 concentrations (mmol/L). H Y DROCHEMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE SPRINGS OF JINFO MOUNTAIN, CHONG Q ING, CHINA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 66 temperatures of the springs in the NNR (Tab. 1). Fur thermore, the concentration of HCO 3 for springs out side the NNR did not show obvious variations, and may therefore be inuenced by other ions. EFFECT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON EPIKARST SPRINGS A spatial interpolation method set out in the Study meth ods section was applied to process SO 4 2 and NO 3 con centration data for the 18 springs for 1977, 2004, and 2011, to indicate the concentration variation of SO 4 2 and NO 3 in groundwater for the study area. e spa tial interpolation method was used to indicate dierent grades by colour on a thematic map, and to illustrate the distribution of SO 4 2 and NO 3 concentrations for 1977, 2004, and 2011 on Mt. Jinfo (Fig. 7). Concentra tion of SO 4 2 was lower than 40 mg/L in 1977 (Fig. 7(a)), and this value was used to reect the natural low back ground levels of groundwater. According to the quality standard for ground water (GB/T 14848-93), SO 4 2 con centration <50 mg/L in underground water is dened as water quality Class I. Obviously, all of the springs achieve water quality Class I in 1977 and the lowest SO 4 2 concen tration was found at the top of Mt. Jinfo; this is due to the dilution of the groundwater by the abundant precipita tion. SO 4 2 concentrations showed an upward trend from 2004 to 2008, then declined in 2009 and 2011. Most areas experienced increased SO 4 2 concentrations, and only the area surrounding the peak of Mt. Jinfo maintained the low concentration observed in 1977. e highest con centration of SO 4 2 (>150 mg/L) presented in the north west and southeast of the study area, near Nanchuan city and Toudu town. Fig. 7(b) shows the interpolation map of the NO 3 concentrations in this study area and, as ob served for sulphate, the lowest concentrations were seen in 1977 (<15 mg/L). In 2004, high NO 3 concentrations (>50 mg/L) were observed in the northwest of the study area, near Nanchuan city. is showed an upward trend from 2004 to 2007, then decreased in 2008 and 2009 (<30 mg/L) and returned to higher concentration in 2011 (>50 mg/L). e areas showing high NO 3 concentrations in the study area changed over time, whereas districts with low NO 3 concentrations in the springs were distrib uted in Mt. Jinfo NNR. e highest concentration of NO 3 is distributed near Nanchuan city and Toudu town, as is the highest SO 4 2 concentration. ese areas of high concentration are located in the valley of Mt. Jinfo, where the terrain is relatively at and major local settlements and farmland are located. Since the 1980s, rapid population growth and the large quantities of chemicals and fertilizers used in the industrial and agricultural sectors have resulted in large amounts of industrial waste, sewage, and fertilizer entering the groundwater system. Land use near Nanch uan city and Toudu town is predominantly cropland and construction land, but also includes many coal facto ries in the northeastern area and a large wine factory in Toudu town, which contribute to substantial increases in SO 4 2 and NO 3 concentrations in the area surrounding Mt. Jinfo. e concentrations of SO 4 2 and NO 3 reduced Fig. 6: V ariation of Ca 2+ and H CO 3 concentrations for springs for 1977, 2004 2009, and 2011. XIAO QIONG, S HEN LICHENG & WU KUNYU

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 67 CONCLUSIONS e hydrochemical features of 18 springs on Mt. Jinfo were measured for 1977, 2004, and 2011. Results indicated that there were no obvious changes in the ma jor ion concentrations, and the hydrochemical type of these springs remains Ca-HCO 3 Because of the dier ent land utilization for dierent areas near Mt. Jinfo, the concentrations of SO 4 2 and NO 3 in dierent springs was changed uncommonly in the past 35 years. Low concen trations remained unchanged at the top of Mt. Jinfo in the NNR, where the only land use is forest. In contrast, agricultural fertilization, industrial pollution, and sew age discharge have aected the concentrations of SO 4 2 and NO 3 for the epikarst springs outside the NNR area, leading to an upward trend from 2004 to 2008, followed by a decrease in 2009 due to the implementation of envi ronmental policies and industrial restructuring. aer 2008, especially in the districts of local settlements and farmland. W e propose that this reduction is linked to local environmental policy measures and the imple mentation of industrial restructuring in 2006. e Na tional agricultural sector focused on high-quality grain, and conducted soil testing and fertilizer work in some counties in 2005, with government support (Long 2008). In 2006, Nanchuan district also began to implement soil testing and fertilizer work and, remarkably, achieved reductions in SO 4 2 and NO 3 concentrations aer 2008. In recent years, the local government has prioritized the Fig. 7: Spatial and temporal vari ability of (a) sulphate and (b) ni trate contamination. development, eco-tourism and forestry, and has mod ernized and restructured the industrial and agricultural sectors, thereby further reducing the generation of pol lutants. In particular, a large of area of farmland was returned to forest, and eco-tourism and forestry were developed to replace the traditional agriculture and in dustry. e application of environmental policy and the implementation of industrial restructuring have had an obvious eect, showing that these policies were success ful in aiding environmental protection. H Y DROCHEMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE SPRINGS OF JINFO MOUNTAIN, CHONG Q ING, CHINA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 68 REFERENCES Barth, J.A.C., Cronin, A.A., Dunlop, J. & R.M. Kalin, 2003: Inuence of carbonates on the riverine carbon cycle in an anthropogenically dominated catchment basin: evidence from major elements and stable carbon isotopes in the Lagan River (N. Ireland).Chemical Geology, 200, 203. Compton, J.E. & R.D. Boone, 2000: Long-term impacts of agriculture on soil carbon and nitrogen in New England.Forests Ecology, 81, 8, 2314. Dai, Y .L., 2002: Study of the signicances of biodiversity conservation in Jinfo Mountain karst area.Terri tory and Natural Resources Study, 4, 48. Edmond, J.M., Palmer, M.R., Measures, C.I., Brown, E.T. & Y Huh, 1996: Fluvial geochemistry of the eastern slope of the northeastern Andes and its foredeep in the drainage of the Orinoco in Colombia and Ven ezuela.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 2949. Gaillardet, J., Dupr, B., Louvat, P. & C.J. Allgre, 1999a: Global silicate weathering and CO2 consumption rates deduced from the chemistry of the large riv ers.Chemical Geology, 159, 3. Gaillardet, J., Dupr, B. & C.J. Allgre, 1999b: Geochem istry of large river suspended sediments: silicate weathering or recycling tracer.Geochimica et Cos mochimica Acta, 63, 4037. Gao, Y .F., Li, H.C., Shen, L.C. & P.H. Y ang, 2008: Geo chemical characteristics and spatial distribution of spring water at Jinfo Mountain, Chongqing.Geol ogy in China, 35, 2, 322. Grosbois, C., Ngrel, P., Fouillac, C. & D. Grimaud, 2000: Dissolved load of the Loire River: chemical and isotopic characterization.Chemical Geology, 170, 179. Guo, H., Simpson, I.J., Ding, A.J., W ang, T., Saunders, S.M., W ang, T.J., Cheng, H.R., Barletta, B., Mein ardi, S., Blake, D.R. & F.S. Rowland, 2010: Carbo nyl sulde, dimethyl sulde and carbon disulde in the Pearl River Delta of southern China: Impact of anthropogenic and biogenic sources.Atmospheric Environment, 44, 3805. Hoek, W .V.D., Konradsen, F., Ensink, J.H.J., Mudasser, M. & P.K. Jensen, 2001: Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible.Tropical Medicine and International Health, 6, 1, 46. Hu, K.L., Li, B.G., Lu, Y .Z. & F.R. Zhang, 2004: Com parison of various spatial interpolation methods for non-stationary regional soil mercury content.En vironmental Science, 25, 132. Jia, Y .L. & D.X. Y uan, 2003: e impact of land use change on karst water in Shuicheng basin of Guizhou prov ince.Acta Geographica Sinica, 58, 6, 831. Jiang, Y .J., Y uan, D.X., Zhang, C., Zhang, G. & R. He, 2008: Impact of land use change on groundwater quality in a typical karst watershed of southwest China.Hydrogeology Journal, 16, 4, 727. Kirda, C., 1997: Assessment of irrigation water quality.Options Mditerranennes, 31, 367. Lee, K.S., Ryu, J.S., Ahn, K.H., Chang, H.W & D. Lee, 2007: Factors controlling carbon isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon in two major tributaries of the Han River, Korea.Hydrological Processes, 21, 500. Li, L.L., Kuang, M.S., Zhang, Y .Z., Jiang, Y .Y ., Shen, L.C. & Y .Q Li, 2005: CO 2 concentration of the soil veg etation-system under dierent vegetation covers in karst area of Jinfo Mountain in Chongqing.Rural Eco-Environment, 21, 3, 67. Li, X., Cheng D. & L. Lu, 2000: Comparison of spatial interpolation methods.Advance in Earth Sciences, 15, 3, 260. Liao, Y .J., Y u, F.F., Liu, Z.Y & D.M. X ie, 2008: e biodi versity, conservation and sustainable utilization of macrofungi resources in the Jinfo Mountain Nature Reserve in Chongqing.Ecological Science, 27, 1, 42. Long, W .J., 2008: Analysis on Chinas chemical fertilizer market in 2007 and prospects for the trend in 2008.Phosphate & Compound Fertilizer, 23, 2, 1. is project was supported by the Guangxi Science Foundation (No. 2013GXNSFBA019221), the National Nature Foundation of China (No. 41302213), and the China Geological Survey project (Nos. 1212011087119; 12120113006700). Special thanks are given to W ang peng, Caomin, and Gao Y anfang for their help with the eldwork. ACKNO WLEDGEMENT XIAO QIONG, S HEN LICHENG & WU KUNYU

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 69 Mabit, L. & C. Bernard, 2007: Assessment of spatial dis tribution of fall out radio-nuclides through geosta tistics concept.Journal of Environmental Radioac tivity, 97, 206. Matheron, G., 1963: Principles of Geostatistics.Eco nomic Geology, 58, 1246. Milillo, T.M. & J.A. Gardella Jr., 2008: Spatial analysis of time of ight-secondary ion mass spectrometric images by ordinary kriging and Inverse distance weighted interpolation techniques.Analytical Chemistry, 80, 4896. Peng, J., X u, Y .Q ., Cai, Y .L. & H.L. X iao, 2011: Climatic and anthropogenic drivers of land use/cover change in fragile karst areas of southwest China since the early 1970s: a case study on the Maotiaohe water shed.Environ Earth Science, 64, 2107. Raymond, P.A., Oh, N.H., Turner, R.E. & W Broussard, 2008: Anthropogenically enhanced uxes of water and carbon from the Mississippi River.Nature, 451, 449. Spokas, K., Gra, C., Morcet, M., & C. Aran, 2003: Im plications of the spatial variability of land ll emis sion rates on geospatial analyses.W aste Manage ment, 23, 599. Stallard, R.F. & J.M. Edmond, 1981: Geochemistry of the Amazon: 1. Precipitation chemistry and the marine contribution to the dissolved load at the time of peak discharge.Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, 9844. Stallard, R.F. & J.M. Edmond, 1983: Geochemistry of the Amazon: 2. e inuence of geology and weather ing environment on the dissolved load.Journal of Geophysical Research, 88, 967. Stallard, R.F. & J.M. Edmond, 1987: Geochemistry of the Amazon: 3. W eathering chemistry and limits to dis solved inputs.Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 8293. W akida, F.T. & D.N. Lerner, 2006: Potential nitrate leach ing to groundwater from house building.Hydro logical Processes, 20, 2077. W ang, B.L. & Y W ang, 1990: National key scenic spotsJinfo Mountain .Sichuan Science and Technology Publishing House, pp.1, Chengdu, China. Zhang, B., X iao, F., W u, H. & S. Mo, 2006: Combating the fragile karst environment in Guizhou, China.Ambio, 35, 94. Zhang, C., 2010: Seasonal variation of dissolution rate under the soil at dierent land uses and its inuence factors: A case study of Jinfo Mountain, Chongq ing.Environ Earth Science, 56, 1, 136. Zhang, C. & D.X. Y uan, 2004: Hydrochemical variation of typical karst subterranean basin and its relation ship with landuse change.Journal of Soil and W a ter Conservation, 18, 5, 134. Zhang, C., Y an, J., Pei, J.G. & Y .J. Jiang, 2011: Hydro chemical variations of epikarst springs in vertical climate zones: a case study in Jinfo Mountain Na tional Nature Reserve of China.Environ Earth Sci ence, 63, 375. Zhu, X.Y & X.M. Qian, 2005: Groundwater H ydrology .China Environmental Science Press, pp. 68, Beijing, China. H Y DROCHEMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE SPRINGS OF JINFO MOUNTAIN, CHONG Q ING, CHINA



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GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON THE FORMATION OF SAMAR NATURAL BRIDGE AND COLLAPSE VALLE Y OF RAVNA RIVER FROM THE NE KU AJ MOUNTAINS CARPATHOBALKANIDES, EASTERN SERBIA P OMEN GEOLOGIJE ZA NASTANEK NARAVNEGA MOSTU SAMAR IN UDORNE DOLINE R AVNA REKA V SEVEROVZHODNEM DELU GORE KUAJ K ARPATSKOB ALKANSKO GOROVJE, VZHODNA S RBIJA Aleksandar S. PETROVIf 1 & Ivana CAREVIf 1 Izvleek UDK 551.435.8:55(497.11-11) Aleksandar S. Petrovi & Ivana Carevi: Pomen geologije za nastanek naravnega mostu Samar in udorne doline Ravna Reka v severovzhodnem delu gore Kuaj (Karpatsko-Balkan sko gorovje, vzhodna Srbija) V lanku obavnavamo naravni most Samar in udorno doli no Ravna Reka v vzhodni Srbiji. Njun razvoj pojasnujemo s specinimi litolokimi in tektonskimi pogoji, procesi zakra sevanja in petroloko analizo. Posebej poudarimo povezavo med razvojem krakih povrinskih oblik in geologijo obmoja. Glavni prispevek tudije je concept, v katerem opiemo, kako rekristalizacija apnenca vpliva na zakrasevanje, poleg tega pa uvedemo termin udorna dolina. V tudiji pokaemo, da je preperavanje apnenca na obmoju mostu Samar tesno poveza no z diagenetskimi spremembami v preteklosti. Kljune besede: naravni most, udorna dolina, vzhodna Srbija, rekristalizacija preperevanje. 1 University of Belgrade, Faculty of Geography, Studentski trg 3/3, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia, e-mail: apetrovic@gef.bg.ac.rs, icarevic@gef.bg.ac.rs Received/Prejeto: 27.08.2014 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 37, POSTOJNA 2015 I NTRODUCTION by cave roof collapse. ey are a residual portion of the roof of a subsurface karst cavity which has not collapsed (Field 2002). Most natural bridges of eastern Serbian Carpatho-Balkanides belong to this group (Gavrilovi 1998; fali-Ljubojevi 2000). Abstract UDC 551.435.8:55(497.11-11) Aleksandar S. Petrovi & Ivana Carevi: Geological inuence on the formation of Samar natural bridge and collapse val ley of Ravna River from the NE Kuaj Mountains (CarpathoBalkanides, eastern Serbia) e paper deals with the description of Samar natural bridge and collapse valley of Ravna River in eastern Serbia aiming to suggest an interpretation of their origin and development, in relationship with lithological and tectonic conditions, karst processes, and petrological analyses. In this study we present the geological setting, detailed morphology and hypothesis on the genesis of these karst landforms. e relationship between surface karst development and the geology is considerably ac knowledged. e major contribution of the paper is to propose a framework for considering how recrystallization of limestone can aect the weathering potential of karst landforms and to introduce a term collapse valley. Finally, this study shows that the weathering potencial of the Samar natural bridge is de creased concerning the diagenetic changes these limestones underwent. Key words: Natural bridge, collapse valley, eastern Serbia, re crystallization, weathering. Natural bridges or natural arches are very rare features in relief and usually are protected as geoheritage. eir ori gin may be dierent. e most signicant weather erod ed arches are formed in the sandstones (Bruthans et al 2014). Term natural bridge also applies to water eroded arches (Gavrilovi 1974). Still others may be produced

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 38 W e use the term collapse valley for generally gorge like valley originated by collapse of a roof of an under ground stream (Nicod 1997). Formation of natural bridges by collapsing the roof of the cave is conected with the genesis of collapse valley. Examples of natural bridges that were created in this way is possible to nd all over the world (e.g. the Rakov kocjan gorges in Slo venia, the Marble Arch gorge of Ulster, the Da X iao Cao Kou gorge of the Y ijiehe River in Guizhou, and the Ro Peruacu gorge in Minas Gerais, Brazil) (Ford & W iliams, 2007). e study area is situated on the NE slopes of Kuaj Mts. in the eastern Serbian Carpatho-Balkanides within the Getic tectono-stratigraphic unit (Krutner & Krsti 2003) located between 22 to 22E longitude and 44 to 44N latitude (Fig. 1). is region has been geotectonically considered as part of the Kuaj-Svrljig tectono-sedimentary zone within the Karpatikum (Andjelkovi 1978; Andjelkovi & Nikoli 1980) and by Karamata & Krsti (1996) it was attributed to the Kuaj terrane, one of the several large Alpine geotectonic units of the eastern Serbian Carpatho-Balkanides (Fig. 2A). e greatest area of Kuaj Mountains preserves a very thick succession of carbonate deposits ranging from Late Jurassic-Early Aptian in age characterized by the dominance of karstic landscapes. e main objective of this research study is to pres ent a comprehensive study on the formation and evolu tion of Ravna River collapse valley with interpretation of petrological study and formation of the Samar natural bridge on the NE slopes of Kuaj Mts and to introduce a term collapse valley. In order to accomplish these tasks, eld work, including geomorphological mapping and rock sampling, was performed. Laboratory work includ ed thin sections preparation and microscopic study. It is important to mention that the present study is part of a larger research objective which aims to give an insight into the evolutionary development of the collapsed val leys in eastern Serbian Carpatho-Balkanides. ALEKSANDAR S. PETROVIf & IVANA CAREVIf Fig. 1: Location map of the Ravna River doline and Samar natural bridge (star) from the NE Kuaj Mountains (CarpathoB alkanides, eastern Serbia). MATERIALS AND METHODS Geomorphological and sedimentological investigations have been carried out on Ravna River valley and Samar natural bridge in eastern Serbia. Accurate measurements of dimensions were made using Trimbl Juno handheld computer and Leica DISTO A3 laser distance meter in combination with the 1:25,000 topographic maps (sheets Jasikovo, Velika Tresta and Zlot), the geologi cal maps 1:25,000 (Crni Vrh) and 1:100,000 ( agubica) (Antonijevi et al 1970). All analytic and eld data was involved in geomorfological map, created using GIS so ware (ArcMap10.2.2). Limestone samples were collected from the base, wall and arch of the Samar natural bridge at approxi mately 1 m and 1.5 m intervals. All samples collected were prepared in the laboratory in the form of thin sec tions for microscopic observation in order to determine texture (matrix) and grain composition of the rock. e thin sections of the samples were investigated by using

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 39 GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON THE FORMATION OF SAMAR NATURAL BRIDGE AND COLLAPSE VALLE Y OF RAVNA ... FORMATION OF THE COLLAPSE VALLE Y OF RAVNA RIVER Ravna River is located about 12 km southeast of agubica city and 13 km northwest from the village of Zlot, on the NE slopes of Kuaj Mts. in Eastern Serbia (Fig. 1). e karst area that has developed in Late Jurassic-Early Ap tian limestones occupies the biggest part of Ravna River drainage area (20,5 km 2 ). is short river, 7,4 km long, ows in the upper part through metasandstones and ar gillites, where it is a perennial stream. Aer making a contact with limestones, river water begins to sink in the riverbed. Downstream of the natural bridge Samar, aer having spring in riverbed, permanent ow is persistent again. Only during the rainy summer (ex. 2014) Ravna River is a perennial stream all year round. e valley of Ravna River (Fig. 3) is intersected by a pair of active faults, which are followed by liing up of a ground in the upstream part of valley (Gavrilovi 1998). A change in valley bottom gradient, tectonic breccia and textural change in limestones, indicate persistence of these active faults. Average gradient in upstream part of valley is 32 In 600 m long central part of the valley, the gradient rises up to 94 while the downstream part till the conuence with Tisnica River, has a signicantly smaller bottom gradient of 30 Tectonic upliing of upstream part of valley has caused local sinking of Ravna River and a formation of a cave system downstream of the sink. Cave exit was 2,8 km upstream from the present mouth, on the former contact between limestones, conglomerates and sand stones. is contact is indicated by remains of Upper Cretaceous sediments in Ravna River drainage area and its surrounding (Figs. 3). Faster cutting of river valley in conglomerates and sandstones enable building a narrow and high cave channel. Aer a later collapse of the cave roof, a collapse valley, 600 m long was formed (Fig. 3a) (Gavrilovi 1998). e persistent remains in the present relief of Ravna River collapse valley indicate former existence of a tun nel cave. It is gorge like part of valley (Fig. 4a), two side cave channel (Fig. 4b and 4d) and Samar natural bridge (Fig. 4c). e collapse valley is narrow, with very steep sides. e Samar natural bridge is situated in the deep est part of collapse valley. Two former side cave chan a BIOPTICA Polarization microscope BPL3000P Model. Microphotographs were taken by the digital Leica EC3 camera connected to the microscope. Our interpreta tions include a classication of carbonates based on the schemes of Duncham (1962) and Flgel (2010). e thin-sections are housed in the collection at the Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade, under inventory numbers which are referred to in the text. GEOLOGICAL SETTING W ithin the wider study area the oldest rocks are represent ed by Precambrian low-crystalline schists (Antonijevi et al 1970, Fig. 2B). ey are transgressively overlain by Ordovician metasandstones and argillites. Marine sedi mentation started in the area during the Middle Jurassic, characterized by the accumulation of terrigenous and carbonate sediments (Carevi et al 2011). Upwards they are followed by Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian limestones with cherts. e greatest area is occupied by Tithonian reef limestones conformably overlain by Neocomian carbonate deposits and Barremian/Early Aptian Urgo nian limestones (e.g. Jankievi 1978, Jankievi 1996, Sudar et al 2008, Carevi et al 2014). e Late JurassicEarly Cretaceous deposits are widely distributed in the eastern Serbian Carpatho-Balkanides and represent part of the Getic carbonate platform. e platform attains about 60 km in width and extends over more than 200 km (Grubi & Jankievi 1973) as an elongated arch from Romanian southern Carpathians northward towards the Serbian-Bulgarian border eastward. In Serbian Car patho-Balkanides and Romanian southern Carpathians geologically-controlled karst features have been devel oping over a geologic timescale (Trl & Vijulie, 2013). ey are unconformably overlain by Upper Cretaceous volcanoclastic-sedimentary Timok Group of Formations (Ljubovi-Obradovi et al 2011). e Paleogene is rep resented by intrusions of granitic rocks, skarns, marbles, hornfels and pyroclastics. Dacites and subordinately an desites of Ridan-Krepoljin belt were eused 74 to 70 Ma ago, but a rejuvenation, connected to an intrusive impulse occurred 60 Ma ago (Karamata et al 1994). Q uaternary deposits consist of diluvium and talus cones.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 40 Fig. 2: a) Location map of the Ravna River valley and Samar natural bridge (star) from the NE Kuaj Mountains (Carpatho-B al kanides, eastern Serbia). b) Locality map of the investigated area in eastern Serbian Carpatho-B alkanides. A, Composite t erranes of eastern Serbian Carpatho-B alkanides (shaded) as part of B alkan peninsula aer Karamata & Krsti ( 1996): V MT, V rka ukaMiro terrane; S PPT, Stara P laninaP ore terrane; KT, Kuaj terrane; HT, H omolje terrane; R V OT, RanovacV lasinaOsogovo ter rane; MP Moesian plate; SMCT, SerbianMacedonian composite terrane. B Geological map of the wider area of investigated locality (locality indicated by star) modied aer Antonijevi et al. 1970. 1, Quaternary deposits; 2, P aleogene dacitic-andesitic rocks; 3, P aleo gene pyroclastics; 4, P aleogene skarns, marbles, hornfels; 5, P aleogene granites; 6, Upper Cretaceous volcanic agglomerate, breccia, tus, marly limestones; 7, Urgonian limestones; 8, Neocomian limestones; 9, Tithonian reef limestones; 10, Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian limestones with cherts; 11, Undierentiated Middle and Upper Jurassic limestones; 12, Ordovician metasandstones and argillites;13, P recambrian schists. ALEKSANDAR S. PETROVIf & IVANA CAREVIf

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 41 Fig. 3: Geomorphological map of Ravna River drainage area (yellow line) and its surrounding. GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON THE FORMATION OF SAMAR NATURAL BRIDGE AND COLLAPSE VALLE Y OF RAVNA ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 42 Fig. 4: Remains of a former cave in Ravna River valley. a, narrow part on entrance in gorge of Ravna River; b, entrance in side cave channel at the beginning of canyon; c, natural bridge Samar; d, entrance in cave situated in the right wall of Samar natural bridge (photographs by A. P etrovi). Fig. 3a: Geomorphological map of Ravna River collapse valley: 1, recrystallized car bonate rocks; 2, carbonate rocks; 3, fault, approximately located; 4, collapse valley (gorge); 5, hanging valley; 6, Samar natu ral bridge; 7, cave. ALEKSANDAR S. PETROVIf & IVANA CAREVIf

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 43 nels today form separate caves. e rst is located on the right side of valley, immediately aer the entrance in the canyon (Fig. 4b). Cave is 215 m long (Gavrilovi 1998). e second cave is downstream, situated in the right wall of the natural bridge (Fig. 4d). Cave entrance, 8 m high and 4 m wide, raises 10 m above the Ravna River bot tom. Aer the entrance small hall is located (12 7 m) and a 50 m long channel oriented to SW SAMAR NATURAL BRIDGE: MORPHOLOGICAL AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS e most signicant remain of the former cave is nat ural bridge Samar. e bridge is formed in a massive reef limestone of Tithonian age, up to 400 m thick. It is 6 m long, 15 m high and 12 m wide at an elevation of about 720 m a.s.l. e bridge appears to be a remnant of a former cave thus indicating a speleogenic origin. One Fig. 5: Samar natural bridge from the NE Kuaj Mountains (Carpatho-B alkanides, eastern Serbia) and thin-section photomicrographs of the Late Jurassic limestones showing characteristic recrystallized fabrics of the Samar natural bridge. a) microsparite resulted by ag grading recrystallization of the former micritic matrix, sample S P 1. b) recrystallized cement with no preserved relics, sample S P 2. c,d) recrystallized cement with vein lling by sparry calcite fabric, c, sample S P 3; d, sample S P 4. e) recrystallized cement. e outline of the circle structure suggests a crinoids? whose skeleton has been replaced by calcite (white arrow), sample S P 5. f,g) low amplitude stylolites in a recrystallized cement (white arrows). e dark stylocumulate consists of Fe-oxides, f, sample S P 5; g) sample S P 6. GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON THE FORMATION OF SAMAR NATURAL BRIDGE AND COLLAPSE VALLE Y OF RAVNA ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 44 CONCLUSION e bridges morphology, petrographic characteristics and the presence of karst landforms in a wider study area all point to a speleogenic origin of Ravna river val ley. Tunnel cave existed in central valley part, on 600 m length. Tectonic liing of upstream valley part and very erodible Upper Cretaceous sediments enable forming of a narrow and high cave channel. Aer collapse of a cave roof, gorge like collapsed valley was formed. In addition to geomorphological analysis, a sedi mentological evaluation of Samar natural bridge was undertaken. e limestones in which the Samar natural bridge has developed are subjected to extensive diage netic processes of which the most important are compac tion, neomorphism, internal lling and stylolitization. In the base of the bridge, the micritic matrix has been totally replaced by microspar resulted from the recrystallization of a micritic matrix. Neomorphisms in the limestones of the Samar natural bridge are of the aggrading type, a kind of neomorphism or recrystalliza tion in which the crystal size increases and ner crystal mosaics are replaced by coarser ones thus increasing the weathering resistance of the bridge. of the rst explicit suggestions that natural bridges in eastern Serbia have a speleologenic origin was given by Gavrilovi (e.g. 1998, 2005) and fali-Ljubojevi (2000). e rst attempt to explain how the sandstone bridges remain free-standing is given by Bruthans et al (2014). ey show that increased stress within a landform as a result of vertical loading reduces weathering and erosion rates, and when vertical stress increases until a critical value is reached, fabric interlocking of sand grains causes the granular sediment to behave like a strong material enabling the resistance to further erosion. In previous works on carbonate natural bridges it is not yet explained what stabilizes the arch of the bridges. One thing that all features called bridges and arches have in common is a relatively resistant uppermost litho logic unit that forms the span (Paull 1992) which is in agreement with petrographic characteristics of the Sa mar natural bridge. e arc of the natural bridge and the walls are resistant recrystallized limestones with no pre served relics, while the microscopic analysis of thin sec tions in the base of the bridge reveals microspar resulted from the recrystallization of a micritic matrix (Fig. 5a). Microsparite is a limestone whose ne-grained ma trix is developed as microspar and the term is sometimes used simultaneously with microspar (Flgel 2010). e term refers to a ne-grained calcite matrix characterized by calcite crystals ranging from 5 to more than 20 m in diameter (Folk 1959). e origin is explained by the recrystallization of micrite-sized crystals during recrys tallization. Some diagenetic processes involve changes in the fabric of the cement. For these processes of replace ment, once loosely referred to as, recrystallization, the term neomorphism is now used to include all transfor mations (Tucker 2009). e term neomorphism was in troduced by Folk (1965) to include all transformations of minerals in the presence of water and it usually refers to an increase in crystal size (recrystallization of micrite to microspar) without any mineralogical change, which is called aggrading neomorphism. Although reef lime stones are usually rich in microfauna, no bioclasts have been observed due to the aggrading neomorphism that has destroyed bioclastic grains and produced microspar fabric. e walls of the bridge are recrystallized limestones with no preserved relics with vein lling by sparry calcite fabric occasionally (Fig. 5b-d) which suggests the forma tion from meteoric phreatic or vadose waters at a late di agenetic stage (e.g. Chilingar et al 1979; Moore 1989). e arc of the bridge is resistant recrystallized lime stone with common low amplitude stylolites caused by tectonic stress and inlled by Fe-oxides (Fig. 5e-g). Stylolites are irregular, suture-like contacts produced by dierential vertical movement under pressure accom panied by solution (Flgel 2010). Following mechani cal compaction many sediments are subject to chemical compaction, expressed by pressure solution and the for mation of stylolites (Logan 1984). ere is a common assumption that micritic lime stones are more heavily aected by weathering than sparitic grain-supported carbonates because of the higher specic surface of ne-grained limestones (Fl gel 2010). e weathering potencial of the Samar natural bridge is decreased concerning the diagenetic changes these limestones underwent. ALEKSANDAR S. PETROVIf & IVANA CAREVIf

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 45 Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for valuable cor rections and helpful comments that helped to improve the original manuscript. e research was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technologi cal Development of the Republic of Serbia, Project No. 176017 (grant to IC) and Project No. 177023 (grant to AP). ACKNO WLEDGEMENTS REFERENCES Annelkovi, M. 1978: e Tectonic Structure of Y ugo slavia.Geoloki anali Balkanskoga poluostrva, 42, 27 (in Serbian with English summary). Annelkovi, M. & P. Nikoli, 1980: Tectonics of the Car pathoB alkanides of Yugoslavia .University of Bel grade, Monographs no. 20, pp. 248 (in Serbian with English summary). Antonijevi, I., Veselinovi, M., tornevi, M., Kaleni, M., Krsti, B. & Lj. Karajii, 1970: Explanatory booklet, Sheet agubica, B asic Geological Map 1:100 000. Federal Geological Survey, Belgrade, pp. 73 (in Serbian with English and Russian sum maries). Bruthans, J., Soukup, J., Vaculikova, J., Filippi, M., Sch weigstillova, J., Mayo, A., Masin, D., Kletetschka, G. & J. Rihosek, 2014: Sandstone landforms shaped by negative feedback between stress and erosion.Na ture Geoscience, 7, 597. Carevi, I., Radulovi, B., Ljubovi-Obradovi, D., Rabrenovi, D. & V. Jovanovi, 2011: First record of the Middle Jurassic macrofauna from the Brnjica (NE Serbia): stratigraphy, palaeoecology and cor relation with adjacent regions.Neues Jahrbuch fr Geologie und P alontologie, Abhandlungen, 260, 3, 365. Carevi, I., Taherpour Khalil Abad, M., LjuboviObradovi, D., Vaziri, S.H., Mirkovi, M., Aryaei, A.A., Steji, P. & A.R. Ashouri, 2013: Comparisons between the Urgonian platform carbonates from eastern Serbia (Carpatho-Balkanides) and northeast Iran (Kopet-Dagh Basin): Depositional facies, mi crofacies, biostratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology.Cretaceous Research, 40, 110. fali-Ljubojevi, J., 2000: Natural bridges on the Vratna River (Eastern Serbia) as the last remnants of a for mer cave.Acta Carsologica, 29/2, 241. Chilingar, G.V., Bissel, H.J. & K.H W olf, 1979: Diagen esis of Carbonate Sediments and Epigenesis (or Catagenesis) of Limestones. In: Larsen, G. & G.V. Chilingar (eds.) Developments in Sedimentology Diagenesis in Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks El sevier, pp. 249, Amsterdam. Dunham, J.B., 1962: Classication of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture.In: Ham, W .E. (ed.) Classication of Carbonate rocks. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, pp. 984. Field, S.M., 2002: A Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminol ogy with Special Reference to Environmental Karst H ydrology .National Center for Environmental Assessment-W ashington Oce, Oce of Research and Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, pp. 214, W ashington, DC. Flgel, E., 2010: Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks Analy sis, Interpretation and Application Second edition .Springer, pp. 984, Berlin. Folk, R.L. 1959: Practical petrographical classication of limestones.American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 43, 1. Folk, R.L., 1965: Some aspects of recrystallization in ancient limestones.In: Pray, L.C. & Murray, R.C. (eds.) Dolomitization and Limestones Diagenesis. Special publication of Society of Economic P aleontol ogists and Mineralogists vol. 13 Tulsa, pp. 14. Ford, D. & P. W iliams, 2007: Karst hidrogeology and geo morphology. John W iley & Sons, pp. 576, England. Gavrilovi, D., 1974: Srpska kraka terminologija. Kraka terminologija jugoslovenskih naroda, knjiga II. Savez geografskih institucija Jugoslavije, pp. 73, Beograd. Gavrilovi, D., 1998: Natural bridges phenomenon of the uviokarst in eastern SerbiaNature protection, 48, 25, (in Serbian with English abstract and summary). GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON THE FORMATION OF SAMAR NATURAL BRIDGE AND COLLAPSE VALLE Y OF RAVNA ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 46 Gavrilovi, D., 2005: uplja stena natural bridge.Collec tion of the Papers, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Geography, 13, 5 (in Serbian with English ab stract and summary). Grubi, A. & J. Jankievi, 1973: Paraplate-forme car bonatique au Jurassique Suprieur et au Crtac In frieur de la serbie Orientale.Comptes Rendus des sances de la socit Serbe de gologie pour lanne 1972, 73 (in Serbian with French summary). Jankievi, J., 1978: Barrmien et Aptien des parties moyennes des Carpatho-Balkanides dans la Ser bie orientale au point de vue du developpement dUrgonien.Geoloki anali Balkanskoga polu ostrva, 42, 103 (in Serbian with French sum mary). Jankievi, J., 1996: Urgonian of the Carpatho-Bal kanides of Serbia in the light of formation analy sis.Geoloki anali Balkanskoga poluostrva, 60, 2, 29. Karamata, S., Vaskovi, N., Cvetkovi, V. & V. Kneevi, 1994: e Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary magmat ics of the Central and Eastern Serbia and their met allogeny.Geoloki anali Balkanskoga poluostrva 58, 1, 159. Karamata, S. & B. Krsti, 1996: Terranes of Serbia and neighbouring areas.In: Kneevi-Djordjevi, V. & B. Krsti (eds.) Terranes of Serbia. e formation of the geologic framework of Serbia and the adjacent re gions. University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, pp. 25. Krutner, H.G. & B.P. Krsti, 2003: Geological map of the Carpatho-B alkanides between Mehadia, Oravita, Ni and Soa, 1:300,000. Belgrade (Geoinstitute) Logan, B.W ., 1984: Pressure responses (deformation) in carbonate sediments and rocks analysis and ap plication, Canning Basin.In: Purcell, P.G. (ed.) e Canning B asin W.A Proceedings of the Geological Society of W estern Australia/Petroleum Explora tion Society of Australia, pp. 235, Perth. Ljubovi-Obradovi, D., Carevi, I., Mirkovi, M. & N. Proti, 2011: Upper Cretaceous volcanoclastic-sed imentary formations in the Timok Eruptive Area (eastern Serbia): new biostratigraphic data from planktonic foraminifera.Geologica Carpathica 62, 5, 435. Moore, C.H., 1989 : Carbonate diagenesis and porosity .Elsevier, pp. 1, Amsterdam. Nicod, J., 1997: Les canyons karstiques "Nouvelles ap proches de problmes gomorphologiques clas siques" (spcialement dans les domaines mditer ranens et tropicaux).Q uaternaire, 8, 2, 71. Paull, R.A., 1992: First report of natural bridges in east ern W isconsin. In: Haywood, C.N. (ed.) Transac tions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science. Arts and Letters, vol. 80, pp. 139. Sudar, M., Jovanovi, D., Maran, A. & S. Polavder, 2008: Late Barremian-Early Aptian Urgonian Limestones from the south-eastern Kuaj Mountains (Car patho-Balkanides, eastern Serbia).Geoloki anali Balkanskoga poluostrva, 69, 13. Trl, L. & I. Vijulie, 2013: Structural-tectonic controls and geomorphology of the karst corridors in alpine limestone ridges: Southern Carpathians, Romania. Geomorphology, 197, 123. Tucker, M.E. 2009: Sedimentary P etrology: An Introduc tion to the Origin of Sedimentary Rocks .John W iley and Sons, pp. 272. ALEKSANDAR S. PETROVIf & IVANA CAREVIf



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A CASE STUD Y OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON THE CO 2 LEVELS IN LO WVOLUME PROFILE OF THE B ALCARKA CAVE M ORAVIAN K ARST C ZECH R EPUBLIC TUDIJ VPLIVA OBISKOVALCEV NA KONCENTRACIJE CO 2 V MANJIH IN SLABO POVEZANIH JAMSKIH PROSTORIH : PRIMER IZ JAME B ALCARKA NA M ORAVSKEM KRASU V REPUBLIKI EKI Marek L ANG 1 Ji F AIMON 1 & Camille EK 2 Izvleek UDK 551.442:543.272.62(437.3) Marek Lang, Ji Faimon & Camille Ek: tudij vpliva obiskovalcev na koncentracije CO 2 v manjih in slabo povezanih jamskih prostorih: primer iz jame Balcarka na Moravskem krasu v Republiki eki Raziskovali smo vpliv obiskovalcev na koncentracijo CO 2 v jamski dvorani z majhno prostornino v turistini jami Balcarka na Moravskem krasu. Dvorana je z drugimi deli jame povezana z manjim rovom, raziskave pa so potekale v asu, ko je naravno prezraevanje majhno. Z modeliranjem smo pokazali, da so naravne vrednosti CO 2 doloene s tokom iz sosednjih prostorov. Te dosegajo vrednosti do ~ 3.14 10 -2 mol s -1 in se spreminjajo z intenzivnostjo naravnega prezraevanja. Obiskovalci na koncentracijo CO 2 vplivajo z dihanjem in gibanjem po jami. Tok CO 2 ki ga prispevajo skupine obiskovalcev, znaa med 1,96 10 -4 mol s -1 in 2,45 10 -3 mol s -1 kar je primerljivo z naravnimu dotokom. Zrani tok zaradi gibanja obiskovalcev pa znaa do 0,2 m 3 s -1 kar je 60 krat toliko, kot je tok naravne ventilacije v asu meritev. Tako prisilno prezraevanjen na opazovanem mestu pomembno zniuje koncentracijo CO 2 Obisko valci torej na razline nain vplivajo na koncentracijo CO 2 pri emer se ti vplivi lahko tudi izniijo. Kljune besede: zrani tok, antropogeni vpliv, ogljikov dio ksid, dinamini model, turistina jama, nain prezraevanja. 1 Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlsk 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic. 2 Department of Geology, University of Lige, 4000 Lige, Belgium Received/Prejeto: 10.02.2014 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1, 71, POSTOJNA 2015 Abstract UDC 551.442:543.272.62(437.3) Marek Lang, Ji Faimon & Camille Ek: A case study of an thropogenic impact on the CO 2 levels in low-volume prole of the Balcarka Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic) Anthropogenic impact on CO 2 levels was studied in the lowvolume chamber connected with the low-prole corridor in Balcarka Cave, the show cave in Moravian Karst, during the period of limited ventilation. Modeling showed that the natural CO 2 levels were controlled by the CO 2 uxes (up to ~ 3.14 10 -2 mol s -1 ) from adjacent spaces. ese uxes changed with cave airows and ventilation modes. Two main components of anthropogenic impact were recognized: (1) visitor breathing and (2) visitor movement. e CO 2 input derived from individ ual visitor groups varied from 1.96 10 -4 to 2.45 10 -3 mol s -1 which was the signicant part of the CO 2 uxes from adja cent spaces. e visitor movement induced the airows up to 0.2 m 3 s -1 ey exceeded the natural airows (up to 3.2 10 -3 m 3 s -1 ) by factor of more than 60. ese airows caused cave ventilation modes switching and, signicant drop of CO 2 uxes/levels due to changed ventilation. e study therefore indicates that various anthropogenic inuences in show cave can balance and neutralize each other, in dependence on cave morphology and seasonal conditions. Keywords: airow, anthropogenic impact, carbon dioxide, dy namic model, show cave, ventilation mode. I NTRODUCTION Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) plays a key role in carbonate karst system by participating on rock karstication (Stumm & Morgan 1996), karst water hydrogeochemistry (Sptl et al. 2005; Faimon et al. 2012b), calcite speleothem for mation (Dreybrodt 1999; Frisia et al. 2011) or speleothem corrosion (Sarbu & Lascu 1997; Dublyansky & Dublyan

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 72 MAREK L ANG, JI F AIMON & CAMILLE EK sky 1998; Tarhule-Lips & Ford 1998). e soil/epikarstic CO 2 is derived from autotrophic/heterotrophic respira tion (Kuzyakov 2006). In soils, CO 2 concentrations can vary between 0.1 and 10 % vol. (Miotke 1974; Troester & W hite 1984). In the cave atmosphere, CO 2 levels range from 0.1 to 1.0 % vol. (Faimon et al. 2012c). Generally, enhanced soil/epikarstic CO 2 partial pressure, (SEK) P CO 2 is responsible for limestone dissolution and cave develop ment (Baldini et al. 2006). e lower CO 2 partial pressure in cave atmosphere, (C) P CO 2 controls CO 2 degassing and calcite precipitation (speleothem growth) (Holland et al. 1964). e instantaneous CO 2 concentrations in cave at mosphere are generally result of balancing the total CO 2 ux into cave with the ux out of cave (Faimon & Libinsk 2010). e input ux includes (1) natural ux, connected mainly with a direct CO 2 ux from epikarst and with dripwater degassing (Holland et al. 1964; Bourges et al. 2001; Baldini et al. 2008) and (2) anthro pogenic ux (stemming from person exhaling in the caves open to visitors) (Faimon et al. 2006; Lang et al. 2015). Additional local CO 2 uxes inside cave could be associated with the airow exchanging between the indi vidual cave passages with dierent CO 2 concentrations. e CO 2 output ux from cave is associated chiey with cave airow. e driving force of cave airow is primarily the pressure dierence resulting from distinct air densi ties (de Freitas et al. 1982). Since density is particularly a function of temperature, cave airows are mostly re lated to the temperature dierence, T = T exterior T cave [C], where T exterior is external air temperature and T cave is cave air temperature (Christoforou et al. 1996; Pitsch & Piasecki 2003; Russell & MacLean 2008; Kowalczk & Froelich 2010; Faimon & Lang 2013). Based on the sign of the temperature dierence, two ventilation regimes are distinguished. If T exterior < T cave upward airows are typi cal; the cave is in the upward airow ventilation mode (UAF mode). If T exterior > T cave the cave airow direction is opposite; corresponds to the downward airow ventila tion mode (DAF mode) (see Faimon et al. 2012a for de tails). Based on ventilation extent, Faimon et al. (2012a) dened two dierent ventilation periods of a dynamic cave: (1) the period of active ventilation and (2) the pe riod of limited ventilation. During the active ventilation period, the duration of given ventilation mode exceeds the air residence time in cave. In such a case, the air in the whole cave is completely exchanged. During the lim ited ventilation period, the duration of given ventilation mode is shorter than the air residence time in the cave. In this case, the airow direction turns before the com plete cave air exchange is reached. en, only cave enter ing passages are ventilated. It is well known that the CO 2 concentrations in show caves are inuenced by visitors. is phenomenon was documented by many studies, e.g., Merenne-Schou maker (1975), Faimon et al. (2006), Lin et al. (2008), Milanolo & Gabrovek (2009), ebela et al. (2013), or Lang et al. (2015). It is generally believed that anthropo genic CO 2 contributes to total cave CO 2 level by the net positive ux derived from visitor exhaling. As this article has shown, however, cave visitors can induce some ad ditional so-called parasitic phenomena that aect cave ventilation and disturb or even inverse the expected CO 2 increments. e goal of this study was (1) to analyze compre hensively the anthropogenic impact on the CO 2 levels in the low-prole passages in the Balcarka Cave during the season of limited ventilation, (2) to model quantitatively this eect, and, thus, (3) to contribute to the better un derstanding the anthropogenically impacted processes in show caves. METHODS S ITE OF STUD Y e study was performed in the Balcarka Cave in the northern part of Moravian Karst near the village of Os trov u Macochy (Faimon et al. 2012c; Lang et al. 2015). Mean annual precipitation in the study area is about ~ 700 mm; mean annual temperature of external atmos phere is about ~8 C. e cave has been formed in the Upper Devonian limestones of the Macocha Formation. e cave total rock overburden thickness reaches up to ~40 m. e position and sketch map of the cave are given in Fig. 1. e cave consists of a two-level complex of rela tively narrow corridors of the total length about 350 m and chambers with rich speleothem decoration. Due to a complex morphology (two levels, three known entranc es, and some presumed hidden openings), the cave shows typical dynamic air circulation. e cave is open to tour ists with a visitor rate of 30,000 to 40,000 persons per year. As the monitoring site, the Small Chamber of about ~110 m 3 of total volume situated approximately 50 meters from the cave entrance was chosen (Fig. 1). e chamber has been developed on the low-prole cave passage with the cross section from 2 to 5 m 2 e chamber input pas

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 73 A CASE STUD Y OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON THE CO 2 LEVELS IN LO WVOLUME PROFILE OF THE B ALCARKA CAVE ... sage is represented by the narrow corridor with descend ing staircase from the Entrance Hall. e output passage from the chamber is represented by the narrow corridor of about ~60 meters long leading to W ilsons Rotundas and widening in the Destruction Hall. M ONITORING Time series of the CO 2 concentrations and cave/external temperature were monitored during a two-day campaign in September 2013. All monitored variables were logged at minute time steps. CO 2 concentrations were detected in the Small Chamber at about 2 meters above the cave oor. CO 2 concentrations were measured by a hand-held device 2-channel IR-detector FT A600-CO 2 H linked with ALMEMO 2290-4 V5, Ahlborn, Germany (measuring range: 0 to 10,000 ppmv; accuracy: ppmv + 2 vol. % of measured value in the range of 0 to 5000 ppmv; resolu tion: 1 ppmv or 0.0001 vol. %). For modeling, the volume concentration (in ppmv unit) was consecutively recalcu lated into molar concentration (mol m ), based on the Ideal Gas Law and given temperature/pressure, Fig. 1: e cave position and sketch map of the monitoring site. (1) where P is barometric pressure [Pa], R is the universal gas constant [R = 8.3144621 J kg K ] and T is temperature [K]. e temperatures for T calculations were logged (i) in the exterior, approximately 50 meters outside the cave, and (ii) in the Small Chamber. Temperature was measured by COMET S3120 data loggers (measuring range: to +70 C; accuracy: .4 C). e visitor numbers and entering time were logged in front of the cave. Time necessary for reaching the site of study (including the guides commentary) was 7.6.1 minutes. For modeling, the time of the site reaching was nely tuned in the range of 0.5 minute to be consistent with the increasing CO 2 concentration.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 74 D ATA e raw data (48-hour-long time series) of CO 2 concen tration together with the temperature dierence T = T exterior T cave and cave attendance are given in Fig. 2. e CO 2 concentrations principally show a strong variability depending on the temperature dierence and airow di rection (Fig. 2a). Two periods of cave visiting connected with walking through the Small Chamber occurred dur ing the monitoring campaign: one period covered 8 tours including 169 persons totally, the second period covered 9 tours including 100 persons totally (Fig. 2b). e data were collected during the season of limited cave venti lation, when external temperatures ranged from 0.8 to 13.8 C. Based on the almost constant cave site tempera ture, (T cave ~8.7 to 9.3 C), the temperature dierence T ranged from 8.6 to 5.1 C (Fig. 2c). e positive values of T correspond to downward airows (DAF ventila tion mode) and the negative values correspond to up ward airows (UAF ventilation mode) (Faimon et al., 2012a; Faimon & Lang, 2013). During DAF mode, the CO 2 concentrations increased: the maxima of CO 2 con centrations reached up to 4.00 10 mol m (930 ppmv) and 3.45 10 mol m (800 ppmv) in the rst and sec ond period of DAF mode, respectively. During UAF mode, the CO 2 levels decreased to the minima values of about 2.80 10 mol m (650 ppmv) on average. During both the DAF ventilation periods, the anthropogenic in uence is clearly conspicuous on the natural CO 2 levels in the chamber as some disturbances and peaks. MODELING Following Lang et al. (2015), the conceptual model de scribing the evolution of CO 2 concentrations in the moni tored chamber was proposed. e model consists of three reservoirs, the monitored Small Chamber, and two adja cent reservoirs (Fig. 3). W hereas the monitored chamber is understood as a perfectly mixed reactor, the reservoirs in its vicinity are the source of mass CO 2 uxes. e ad RESULTS AND DATA ANAL Y SIS Fig. 2: B alcarka Cava data (Small Chamber): CO 2 concentrations (the grey line represents modeled curve) (a), visitor numbers per individual tours (b), and temper ature dierence rT (c). See text for details. MAREK L ANG, JI F AIMON & CAMILLE EK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 75 jacent Chamber 1 represents cave entrance passages and the adjacent Chamber 2 corresponds to the deeper cave passages. e instantaneous CO 2 concentrations in the monitored chamber (the Small Chamber) are given by balancing all the CO 2 uxes into/out of the chamber. e inputs are (1) natural ux, j N (the uxes derived from the diusion from soils/epikarst and dripwater degassing en tering directly the Small Chamber), (2) anthropogenic ux, j A derived from human breathing, (3) the input ux from adjacent chamber, j (adj) (driven by cave ventilation), and (4) the output ux, j (out) from the Small Chamber into the adjacent chamber (connected with the cave ven tilation). e individual uxes heading into a reservoir (chamber) are considered positive and the ux heading out of a reservoir is considered negative. e individual CO 2 uxes into/out of the reservoir are dened as follows: the natural ux, j N [mol s 1 ] is un known parameter that will be found at modeling. e anthropogenic ux j A [mol s 1 ] is given by j A = j (AP) A, (2) where j (AP) is anthropogenic personal ux [mol s ] (CO 2 ux normalized to one person) and A is attendance [number of visitors]. e uxes j (adj) and j (out) [mol s 1 ] linked to the cave ventilation are expressed as j (adj) = v T c (adj) (3) and j (out) = v T c, (4) where v T is total volumetric velocity of the airow through the cave chamber [m 3 s ], c (adj) is CO 2 concentration in adjacent cave spaces [mol m ], and c is an instantaneous CO 2 concentration in the Small Chamber atmosphere [mol m ]. e total volumetric airow through the cave chamber, v T comprises the natural airow (v N ) and an anthropogenic airow (v A ). e total volumetric airow was calculated as v T = v N + v A (5) e natural volumetric airow, v N [m 3 s 1 ], was ex pressed as a function of the temperature dierence, T (pressure uctuations in external atmosphere were ig nored). Based on Faimon & Lang (2013), airows were modeled as turbulent ow (6) where T = T exterior T cave [C] and k T is a proportionality constant [m 3 s deg /2 ]. e anthropogenic volumetric airow, v A [m 3 s 1 ], was derived as v A = v (AP) + k A A, (7) where v (AP) is constant velocity [m 3 s ] depending on the cross section area of individual person and person mov ing velocity, and the product k A A is an eectiveness term (k A is a proportionality constant [m 3 s ] and A is attend ance [visitor number]). e total CO 2 ux into reservoir is the sum of all individual uxes, (8) Fig. 3: Conceptual model of CO 2 dynamics in cave chamber at mosphere. B ased on Lang et al. (2015). A CASE STUD Y OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON THE CO 2 LEVELS IN LO WVOLUME PROFILE OF THE B ALCARKA CAVE ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 76 N ATURAL INFLUENCE e CO 2 variations in the Small Chamber during the monitoring campaign roughly follow variations of the temperature dierence, T (Fig. 2). e mean CO 2 con centrations in the range from 2.2 10 2 to 4 10 2 mol m 3 (from 500 to 930 ppmv) are comparable with the values referred by Dragovich & Grose (1990), Sptl et al. (2005), Baldini et al. (2006), Lario & Soler (2010) or Lang et al. (2015). Based on the sign of temperature dierence, 4 periods with dierent ventilation modes were distin guished in CO 2 signal: 2 periods of positive temperature dierence, corresponding to the DAF mode and 2 peri ods of negative temperature dierence, corresponding to the UAF mode (Fig. 2). e switching of DAF and UAF ventilation modes during diurnal cycle is typical for the period of limited ventilation (Faimon et al. 2012a). e modeling showed that the natural CO 2 lev els (the levels without any anthropogenic ux) in the chamber were controlled by the CO 2 uxes from adja cent spaces driven by cave airows. W hereas the lower CO 2 concentration (due to the interaction with external atmosphere) are transported from cave entrance pas sages at UAF mode, the higher CO 2 concentrations are transported from deeper cave passages or even epikarst at DAF mode (Lang et al. 2015) (Fig. 3). In fact, the CO 2 concentrations in adjacent spaces, c (adj), were not avail able due to (1) uncertainty in the detailed airow path and (2) inaccessibility of these spaces. erefore, the concentrations c (adj) were searched as the parameters at modeling by regression analysis (Tab. 1). e found val ues of adjacent CO 2 concentrations are roughly consis tent with the values presented by Lang et al. (2015). e value corresponding to the rst period of DAF mode signicantly exceeds the values at the second period of persisting DAF mode. It indicates that the CO 2 source in adjacent sites can be quickly exhausted. In addition to the sites deeper in cave, the adjacent sites could be hidden upper oors or even some partly closed open ings (e.g., sinkholes) representing a cross section into epikarst. where n CO 2 is total content of carbon dioxide in the cham ber atmosphere [mol], t is time [s] and V is the reservoir volume [m 3 ]. Other symbols have their standard mean ing. Aer rearranging, it gives (9) Eq. (9) was solved numerically by the Eulers method (see, e.g., Greenspan 2006) with the time step of 0.2 minute. e values of individual model parameters (j N c (adj) k T j (AP) k A ) were rstly roughly adjusted by trial and errors and then ne-tuned by least squares method. e loss function was minimized numerically by the Newtons method. e result of modeling is presented in Fig. 2 as a thick grey line; regression parameters are given in Tab. 1. Note that the dierent values of c (adj) were used for indi vidual periods of DAF mode (c (adj) DAF1 c (adj) DAF2 ) and UAF mode period (c (adj) UAF ). e chamber total volume V ~110 m 3 was used for modeling. Principally, the steady state in cave CO 2 concentra tions can be reached by preserving given conditions for a suciently long period. At steady state, the total ux is zero (it corresponds to dc/dt = 0). For the steady state concentration, Eq. (9) yields j N + j (AP) A + v T c (adj) v T c ss = 0. (10) where c ss is the CO 2 steady state concentration [mol s -1 ]. e rearranging gives (11) DISCUSSION Tab. 1: Resulted model parametes (the Small Chamber, the B al carka Cave). Parameters Values V [m 3 ] 110 j N [mol s ] 1.50 10 c (adj) DAF1 [mol m ] 1.57 10 c (adj) DAF2 [mol m ] 5.30 10 c (adj) UAF [mol m ] 2.30 10 k r T (DAF) [m 3 s deg /2 ] 1.18 10 k r T (UAF) [m 3 s deg /2 ] 1.08 10 j (AP) [mol s ] 4.90 10 k A [mol s ] 3.40 10 v (AP) [m 3 s ] 2.63 10 MAREK L ANG, JI F AIMON & CAMILLE EK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 77 e direct natural CO 2 ux into the Small Chamber obtained from modeling was very low, j N ~1.50 10 7 mol s 1 (Tab. 1). Based on the orthogonal pro jection plane of the cave chamber (about 28 m 2 ), the nat ural ux gave the mean specic ux normalized to 1 m 2 of 5.36 10 9 mol m 2 s 1 is value is lower in compari son with the value (0.28.1) 10 7 mol m 2 s 1 estimated earlier for the Balcarka Cave (Lang et al. 2015), the value of 7.59 10 8 mol m 2 s 1 for the Csask Cave (Faimon et al. 2006), or the mean value of 6.51 10 6 mol m 2 s 1 for Srednja Bijambarska Cave (Milanolo & Gabrovek 2009). Besides, this value is incomparable with the ex treme value of 1.78 10 4 mol m 2 s 1 mentioned for the Aven dOrgnac Cave by Bourges et al. (2001). e total natural CO 2 ux into the Small Chamber is the sum of (i) direct ux and (ii) ux from adjacent spaces, driven by cave ventilation. Based on the ventila tion mode, the c (adj) uxes into the Small Chamber varied in the ranges from 1.50 10 7 to 3.14 10 2 mol s 1 (DAF mode) and from 1.50 10 7 to 4.6 10 3 mol s 1 (UAF mode). In comparison with the very low direct ux (j N ~1.50 10 7 mol s 1 ), the uxes from the adjacent cham ber spaces clearly dominate in the total natural CO 2 ux into the Small Chamber. ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCE e CO 2 level in low-prole chambers can be anthropo genically inuenced (1) directly, by visitor breathing dur ing the tours (Faimon et al. 2006; Milanolo & Gabrovek 2009; Lang et al. 2015), or (2) indirectly, via inuencing the cave airows. Inuence of visitor respiration e anthropogenic impact of visitor breathing on CO 2 level in the Small Chamber is clearly visible (Fig. 2a). e CO 2 increases are represented by disturbances superim posed on the roughly smooth natural CO 2 level. Based on model results, the anthropogenic CO 2 uxes during the individual visiting periods of the monitoring cam paign varied between 4.42 10 4 and 2.45 10 3 mol s -1 (rst period) or 1.96 10 4 and 7.35 10 4 mol s 1 (sec ond period). e CO 2 ux related to one person, j (AP) ~ 4.90 10 5 mol s 1 person 1 (Tab. 1), is consistent with the value of 5.35 10 5 mol s -1 person -1 measured by Lang et al. (2015) in the Balcarka Cave earlier. Howev er, this value is lower in comparison with the values of 2.90 10 4 mol s 1 person 1 presented by Faimon et al. (2006), 3.35 10 4 mol s 1 person 1 given by Milanolo & Gabrovek (2009), or 1.49 10 3 mol s 1 person 1 reported by Dragovich & Grose (1990). e relatively wide range of CO 2 exhalation rate in caves may be given by dierent human activity (Iwamoto et al. 1994), gender (Sciacca et al. 2002), and age (Torno et al. 2001). Because of the low volume of the chamber, the whole visitor groups cannot stay there together, but they have to pass through the chamber individually (one by one). is visitor move ment is reected as rounded shapes of anthropogenic peaks on the natural CO 2 level (especially in the rst vis iting period) (Fig. 2). An evaluation of anthropogenic impact can be con ducted by comparing of the steady state concentrations for two dierent cases: (1) with and (2) without of an thropogenic ux. W ithout visitors in chamber, the calcu lation based on Eq. (11) yielded the steady state concen trations c ss ~0.16 mol m 3 (3700 ppmv) for DAF mode. W ith visitors (at the peak anthropogenic ux of j A = 2.45 10 3 mol s -1 ), the calculation gave a paradoxically low steady state concentration, c ss ~3.56 10 2 mol m -3 (823 ppmv). e lowering is result of the anthropogen ic switching the DAF mode into UAF mode. W ithout the switching, the values would reach c ss ~0.17 mol m 3 (3933 ppmv). is hypothetical value would be roughly consistent with c ss ~0.15 mol m 3 (3471 ppmv) reported by Lang et al. (2015) in previous work in the Balcarka Cave and the c ss ~0.12 mol m 3 (2690 ppmv) presented by Faimon et al. (2006) for the Csask Cave. Inuence of visitor movement Based on the Eq. (5), the total volumetric airow in the cave chamber consists of two dierent components: (i) natural airow (v N ) nad (ii) anthropogenic airow (v A ). W hereas the external temperature is considered to be the driving force of natural cave airow (de Freitas et al. 1982; Christoforou et al. 1996; Buecher 1999; Jernigan & Swi 2001; Pitsch & Piasecki 2003; Russell & MacLean 2008; Kowalczk & Froelich 2010; Faimon & Lang 2013), the visitor movement inside the cave is the driving force for the anthropogenically induced airow. e visitor group may represent a piston pushing ahead the air in cave cor ridor. According to the actual cave ventilation mode, two dierent limiting situations in cave chamber can be dis tinguished (Fig. 4). During the UAF ventilation mode, the direction of visitor movement is consistent with the natural airow (Fig. 4a). en, the total volumetric air ow in cave chamber, v T is given by a sum of both natu ral and anthropogenic volumetric airows. During DAF ventilation mode, however, the direction of visitor move ment is opposite to the natural airow (Fig. 4b). en, the resulting airow is dependent on dierence of both the individual velocities. If the v N > v A the resulting volu metric airow in the cave chamber remains consistent with the natural airow. If the v N < v A the airow direc tion changes and the DAF ventilation mode switches into the UAF ventilation mode. e natural airow calculated based on the Eq. (6) reached up the peak values to 3.2 10 3 m 3 s 1 that belong A CASE STUD Y OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON THE CO 2 LEVELS IN LO WVOLUME PROFILE OF THE B ALCARKA CAVE ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 78 to very weak airows in comparison with the values pre sented in the similar studies (e.g. Faimon et al. 2006 or Milanolo & Gabrovek 2009). Based on the constant per sonal velocity, v (AP) ~2.63 10 2 m 3 s 1 (Tab. 1), derived from the cross section area of individual person, person linear moving velocity, and attendance, the anthropo genically induced airows, v A ranged from 4 10 2 to 0.2 m 3 s 1 is shows that the anthropogenically induced airows could exceed the natural airows by more than 60 times. us, the movement of all the visitor groups caused the switching DAF mode into UAF ventilation mode. is eect is clearly visible in the rst period of Fig. 4: Impact of visitor movement on airow in cave chamber in UAF (A) and DAF (B) ventilation modes. For details, see the text above. DAF mode (Fig. 2a). Movement of biggest group (52 visitors) corresponded to the anthropogenic volumetric airows of 0.2 m 3 s 1 is value signicantly exceeds the natural volumetric airows in cave of 2.5 10 3 m 3 s 1 which caused the changing natural airow direction and mode switching. e anthropogenic CO 2 ux of this group reached up to 2.45 10 3 mol s 1 e enhanced ux causes the peak on local CO 2 minimum. As can be seen in Fig. 2, is narrower than the minimum of CO 2 lev el resulting from the visitor movement. is shows that the moving visitors eect starts before visitor entering the chamber and nishes at exiting the visitors o the low-prole corridor. In contrast, the impact of breathing is just emphasized during visitors presence in the cham ber. e peak is submerged into CO 2 level minimum and it does not exceed the potential natural CO 2 levels. is clearly shows that total anthropogenic impact need not necessary increase the CO 2 in cave chamber. As shown on the Fig. 2a, the tting of real CO 2 data by model curve shows some imperfections. is indi cates that CO 2 behavior is inuenced by further para sitic phenomena, which are not covered in the model. Such phenomenon could be, e.g., the cave door opening. Although its eect was proved in the Small Chamber, data consistent with the presented results were not avail able. e model has shown that the anthropogenic im pact resulting from visitor movement acts not only in the monitored chamber itself, but also during the moving in the whole low-prole corridor. erefore, the change of cave ventilation mode can aect the airow and CO 2 levels also in the adjacent chamber passages. In case of shorter intervals between individual tours, the respira tion impact of group inside the chamber could overlap with the movement impact of another group before the chamber or aer the chamber. is indicates very com plex eect of visitors in show caves. CONCLUSIONS Anthropogenic impact on CO 2 concentrations was stud ied in the Small Chamber created on the low-prole pas sages of the Balcarka Cave (Moravian Karst). e moni toring was implemented during the season of limited ventilation. e CO 2 levels without visitor presence were dependent on the CO 2 uxes from adjacent spaces and driven by (1) the adjacent space CO 2 levels and (2) cave airow. During UAF mode, lower CO 2 concentrations were transported into the studied chamber from the cave passages close to the cave entrance. is resulted in de crease of the chamber CO 2 level. During DAF mode, the chamber CO 2 level increased due to transport of higher CO 2 concentrations from the deeper cave passages or even from epikarst. e anthropogenic impact signi cantly disturbed this CO 2 behavior pattern. e modeling showed two main anthropogenic phe nomena inuencing the CO 2 levels in the Small Cham ber: (1) visitor breathing and (2) visitor movement in the low-prole corridor. Two airow components were rec ognized from the modeling: (i) natural airow and (ii) MAREK L ANG, JI F AIMON & CAMILLE EK

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 44/1 2015 79 anthropogenically induced airow. e model showed that the anthropogenically induced airows exceeded the natural airows by factor 12. is changed the natu ral airow direction (DAF mode) running against the visitor into the direction consistent with visitors mov ing (UAF mode). en, the CO 2 levels increased by res piration decreased simultaneously due to the ventilation change into UAF mode. erefore, the study has shown that various anthropogenic CO 2 impacts can balanced and neutralize each other under special conditions, e.g., during the period of limited ventilation, and/or in small spaces and narrow cave passages. Results of the study could be important for better cave management. ey could also be of interest for karstologists and environ mentalists. ACKNO WLEDGEMENTS e research was supported by funding from Masaryk University. Authors thank two anonymous reviewers who helped to improve the manuscript. REFERENCES Baker, A. & D. Genty, 1998: Environmental pressures on conserving cave speleothems: eects of changing surface land use and increased cave tourism.Jour nal of Environmental Management, 53, 165 175. Baldini, J.U.L., Baldini, L.M., McDermott, F. & N. Clip son, 2006: Carbon dioxide sources, sinks, and spa tial variability in shallow temperate zone caves: Evi dence from Ballynamintra Cave, Ireland.Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 68, 4. Baldini, J.U.L., McDermott, F., Homann, D.L., Richards, D.A. & N. Clipson, 2008: Very high-frequency and seasonal cave atmosphere PCO 2 variability: Impli cations for stalagmite growth and oxygen isotopebased paleoclimate records.Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 272, 118. Bourges, F., Mangin, A. & D. dHulst, 2001: Le gaz carbo nique dans la dynamique de latmosphre des cavits karstiques: lexemple de lAven dOrgnac (Ardche). Carbon dioxide in karst cavity atmosphere dynam ics: the example of the Aven dOrgnac (Ardche).Earth and Planetary Sciences, 333, 685. Buecher, R.H., 1999: Microclimate Study of Kartchner Caverns, Arizona.Journal of Cave and Karst Stud ies, 61, 108. Christoforou, C.S., Salmon, L.G. & G.R. Cass, 1996: Air exchange within the buddhist cave temples at Y un gang, China.Atmospheric Environment, 30, 23, 3995. de Freitas, C.R., Littlejohn, R.N., Clarkson, T.S. & I.S. Kristament, 1982: Cave climate: assessment of air ow and ventilation.Journal of Climatology, 2, 383. Dragovich, D. & J. Grose, 1990: Impact of tourists on carbon dioxide levels at Jenolan Caves, Australia: an examination of microclimatic constraints on tourist cave management.Geoforum, 21, 111. Dreybrodt, W ., 1999: Chemical kinetics, speleothem growth and climate.Boreas, 28, 347. Dublyansky, V.N. & Y .V. Dublyansky, 1998: e problem of condensation in karst studies.Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 60, 1, 3. Faimon, J., telcl, J. & D. Sas, 2006: Anthropogenic CO 2 ux into cave atmosphere and its environmental impact: a case study in the Csask Cave (Mora vian Karst, Czech Republic).Science of the Total Environment, 369, 231. Faimon, J. & M. Libinsk, 2010: Carbon dioxide in the soils and adjacent caves of the Moravian Karst.Acta Carsologica, 39, 463. Faimon, J., Troppov, D., Baldk, V. & R. Novotn, 2012a: Air circulation and its impact on microclimatic variables in the Csask Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic).International Journal of Clima tology, 32, 599. A CASE STUD Y OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON THE CO 2 LEVELS IN LO WVOLUME PROFILE OF THE B ALCARKA CAVE ...

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