Aircraft­borne Thermal and Visible Imagery Acquisition and Ground Data­ Instrument Recovery of Caves, Mojave Desert, California

Citation
Aircraft­borne Thermal and Visible Imagery Acquisition and Ground Data­ Instrument Recovery of Caves, Mojave Desert, California

Material Information

Title:
Aircraft­borne Thermal and Visible Imagery Acquisition and Ground Data­ Instrument Recovery of Caves, Mojave Desert, California
Creator:
J. Judson Wynne ( suggested by )
Wynne, J. Judson
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cave Ecology ( local )
Genre:
Technical Report
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
United States

Notes

General Note:
Explorers Club Flag Report (Flag # 139) Submitted: 17 June 2011 Jut Wynne 1,2, Murzy Jhabvala 3, Brittany Wells 4, Marty Trout 4, Dave Decker 5, Daniel R. Ruby 6, Keith Muhlestein 7, Doug Billings 8, James Rice 8, Brian Taylor 9, Daniel Loewen 10, Jacques Vachon 4and Nathalie A. Cabrol 1 1SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, Mountain View, CA; 2Colorado Plateau Research Station and Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff; 3NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; 4NASA, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA; 5Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; 6Fleischmann Planetarium and Science Center, University of Nevada‐Reno, NV; 7Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas, San Antonio; 8Southern California Grotto, National Speleological Society, Los Angeles, CA; 9Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, MA; and, 10Fresno County Office of Education, Court Schools, Fresno, CA. email: jut.wynne@nau.edu Caves on Earth offer microclimates that can support extremophyllic organisms and may contain evidence of extinct life forms. On Mars, caves are features that may offer protection from harsh surface conditions and are important sites to search for extinct/ extant life forms. Additionally, these protected environments may serve as locations for habitats or shelters for future human exploration. To select Martian caves for exploration, we must develop an understanding of terrestrial cave thermal behavior and how thermal properties may influence the thermal signature associated with the entrance. This will ultimately enable us to differentiate caves from non‐cave anomalies (shallow caves or shelters) and enable us to develop selection criteria for targeting and prioritizing Martian caves for robotic exploration. Caves with large volume and greatest subterranean extent will be the highest priority targets for NASA. Researchers are actively developing techniques to understand how to detect caves on Earth and Mars, and searching for caves and cave‐like features on Mars using remote sensing analytical techniques. Rinker (1975) and Wynne et al. (2007, 2008a, 2008b, 2009) have improved the ability to detect caves on Earth. Cushing et al. (2007) has analyzed thermal and visible imagery to examine cave‐ like features on Arsia Mons, Mars. Keszthelyi et al. (2007) has identified lava tube remnants, Cushing et al. (2007) and Cushing and Titus (2010) have identified pit craters, and Cabrol et al. (2009) has identified at least 677 features likely associated with speleogenesis including possible lava tubes, deep cavities associated with pit chains morphology, cracks associated with faulting, sink holes, and volcanic vents.
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Open Access - Permission by Author(s)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00205 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.205 ( USFLDC Handle )
21874 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

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Full Text
Description
Explorers Club Flag Report (Flag #
139)
Submitted: 17 June 2011
Jut Wynne
1,2, Murzy Jhabvala
3, Brittany Wells
4, Marty Trout
4, Dave Decker
5, Daniel R. Ruby
6, Keith Muhlestein
7, Doug Billings
8, James Rice
8, Brian Taylor
9, Daniel Loewen
10, Jacques Vachon
4and Nathalie A. Cabrol
1
1SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center,
Mountain View, CA;
2Colorado Plateau Research Station and
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern
Arizona University, Flagstaff;
3NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center,
Greenbelt, MD;
4NASA, Dryden Flight Research Center,
Edwards, CA;
5Department of Earth and Planetary
Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque,
NM;
6Fleischmann Planetarium and Science
Center, University of NevadaReno, NV;
7Department of Environmental Science
and Engineering, University of Texas, San
Antonio;
8Southern California Grotto, National
Speleological Society, Los Angeles, CA;
9Institute for Astrophysical Research,
Boston University, MA; and,
10Fresno County Office of Education,
Court Schools, Fresno, CA. email:
jut.wynne@nau.edu
Caves on Earth offer microclimates that can support
extremophyllic organisms and may contain evidence of
extinct life forms. On Mars, caves are features that
may offer protection from harsh surface conditions and
are important sites to search for extinct/ extant life
forms. Additionally, these protected environments may
serve as locations for habitats or shelters for future
human exploration. To select Martian caves for
exploration, we must develop an understanding of
terrestrial cave thermal behavior and how thermal
properties may influence the thermal signature
associated with the entrance. This will ultimately
enable us to differentiate caves from noncave
anomalies (shallow caves or shelters) and enable us to
develop selection criteria for targeting and
prioritizing Martian caves for robotic exploration.
Caves with large volume and greatest subterranean
extent will be the highest priority targets for
NASA.
Researchers are actively developing techniques to
understand how to detect caves on Earth and Mars, and
searching for caves and cavelike features on Mars
using remote sensing analytical techniques. Rinker
(1975) and Wynne et al. (2007, 2008a, 2008b, 2009) have
improved the ability to detect caves on Earth. Cushing
et al. (2007) has analyzed thermal and visible imagery
to examine cave like features on Arsia Mons, Mars.
Keszthelyi et al. (2007) has identified lava tube
remnants, Cushing et al. (2007) and Cushing and Titus
(2010) have identified pit craters, and Cabrol et al.
(2009) has identified at least 677 features likely
associated with speleogenesis including possible lava
tubes, deep cavities associated with pit chains
morphology, cracks associated with faulting, sink
holes, and volcanic vents.



PAGE 1

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Airborne Imagery Acquisition and Ground Instrument Recovery Explorers Club Flag Report 7 W#-$/(-!<:--:1:-0$(!$/(!<02(!67!$/(!< ::3(7$!W(0 $#-(!:'!$/(!30'M7<0V(@ ;6D6$03!'#F1(-!b;Nc!203#(7 :1$06'(M!W-:F!$/(!-0I!6F0D(! b -;/+&')<= c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`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bW-:F!('$-0'<( 7 !I/('!V:77613( c!:W!033!6'7$-#F('$7!M(V3:&(M!I6$/6'!(05&5* T'&4%':5= ^!]2(-!$/(! V07$!$I: !&(0-7 *!I(!F0M(! 0''#03!$-6V7 !$:!-($-6(2(!M0$0!W-:F !:#-! 6'7$-#F('$7 @! 9/-:#D/:#$!$/(!36W(!:W!$/67!V-:_(<$*!I(!3:7$!M0$0!W-:F! )G@8!s!b)4!:W!ACc!:W!:#-! 6'7$-#F('$7!M#(!$:!(6$/(-!$/(W$!:-!6'7$-#F('$!W063#-(7!b >.,$')4 c@ 9I:!6'7$-#F('$7!I(-(!7$:3(' !6'!+J)J!1:$/!W-:F!$/(!70F(!':' \ <02(!W(0$#-( @!S' +J))*! W62(! 6'7$-#F( '$7!I(-(!7 $:3('!0'M!:'(!I07!':$!-(3:<0$(M@!! 9/67!-(7#3$(M!6'!$/(! 36=(3&!$/(W$!:W!)+ s! bE!:W!ACc! :W!:#-!6'7$-#F('$7@! ]'(!:W!:#-!6'7$-#F('$7!3:DD6'D!<02(!M0$0!I07!M0F0D(M!1&!I0$(-!6'!+J)J@! %(!/0M!W:#!6'7$-#F('$! W063#-( 7!1($I(('!+>!,0&!+J)J!0'M!)8!OV-63!+J))@! 9/-((!:W!$/(7(!6'7$-#F('$7!I(-(!3:<0$(M!I6$/6'!

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Airborne Imagery Acquisition and Ground Instrument Recovery Explorers Club Flag Report 8 <02(7!0'M!:'(!I07!0!7#-W0<(!6'7$-#F('$@! 9I:!6'7$-#F('$7! I6$/6'!:'(! < 02( !W063(M!$:!-(30 #' s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t N:' \ P02( )8 + \\ G G 4 ) A N:' \ <02(! + N:' \ P02( C \\ \\ C C \\ \\ C N:' \ <02(! 4 N:' \ P02( + \\ \\ + + \\ \\ + aU)/ 0 +.7*$A$,<$.$'&*/+($+)/'.,/,/4$X$<(.55)>$+.7*<_$9*+.@<*$>*$*N1*&,*/+*;$<,4/,-,+./'$'(*-'$)-$,/<'&@8*/'<$,/$'(,<$ .&*.D$>*$+()<*$')$1&*<*/'$'(*$,/<'&@8*/'$'.556$-)&$'(,<$.&*.$.<$.$+)815*N$&.'(*&$'(./$1*&$ ,/;,7,;@.5$-*.'@&*2 $ RCD!;#4%944#+, ,:7$!:W!:#-! F6776:'!<-6$6<03!:1_(<$62(7!I(-(!F($!M#-6'D!$/67!([V(M6$6:'@! %(!7#<<(77W#33& !<:33(<$(M! 06<-0W$ \ 1:-'(! $/(-F03! 0'M!267613(a!NS?! 6F0D(-&!M#-6'D!1:$/!F6M \ M0&!0'M!V-( \ M0I'!<:'M6$6:'7*! 0'M! $/67!M0$07($!I633! 36=(3&!V-:2(!K#6$(!#7(W#3!6'!W#-$/(-6'D!:#-!#'M(-7$0'M6'D!:W!<02(!$/(-F03!1(/026:-!0'M! M6WW(-('$60$6'D!<02(7!W-:F!':' \ <02(!W(0$#-(7 !:'!R0-$/ @ ! %(!037:!-($-6(2(M!033!:W!:#-!6'7$-#F('$7!W-:F! :#-!7$#M&!76$(7 !(WW(<$62(3&!('M6'D!033!W6(3M!:V(-0$6:'7!6'!$/(!,:_ 02(!;(7(-$@ %(!M($(-F6'(M!$/(!267613(a!NS?!26M(:!6F0D(-&! I:#3M !':$!1(!#7(W#3!6'!:-$/:-(<$6W&6'D!$/( !$/(-F03! n%SU!M0$0@! 9/#7*!I (!7$633!'((M!/6D/ \ -(7:3#$6:'!267613(!6F0D(-&!$:!06M!#7!6'!$/(!:-$/-:-(<$6W&6'D! V-:<(77@! %(!/02(!7(2(-03!:V$6:'7!W:-!/6D/! -(7:3#$6:' !267613(!6F0D(-&@ ! 9/(!X@Q@!;(V0-$F('$!:W! OD-6<#3$#-(*!Y0-F!Q(-26<(!OD('<&!/07!)!F + !-(7:3#$6:'!6F0D(-&!02063013(!$/-:#D/!6$7!N0$6:'03! OD-6<#3$#-(!SF0D(-&!U-:D-0F!bNOSUc@! 9/67!V-:D-0F!/07!1(('!0
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Airborne Imagery Acquisition and Ground Instrument Recovery Explorers Club Flag Report 9 % (f2(!V-:26M(M !0'!([0FV3(!:W!/:I!$/(7(!6F0D(7 F0&!1(!6'$(-V($(M!0'M!0'03&.(M@ ! e:I(2(-*! $/(-(! 67!0!<:'76M(-013(!0F:#'$!:W!I:-=!-(K#6-(M!$:!W6-7$!:-$/:-(<$6W&!033!$/(!6F0D(-&!0'M!7(<:'M3&!M($(-F6'(! $/(!7#6$(!:W!$(+,%194#+, ! 9/-:#D/!:#-!(WW:-$7!6'!1:$/!$/( !O$0<0F0! 0'M!,:_02(! ;(7(-$ 7 *!I(!I633!#3$6F0$(3&^ b)c!6M('$6W&!$6F(7! I/('!M6WW(-('<(7!1($I(('!<02(!('$-0'<(7!0'M!7#-W0<(!<:'$-:3!7$0$6:'7!0-(!:V$6F03!0'M!$/#7!M($(<$6:'! 6'!$/(!$/(-F03!6'W-0-(M!67!037:!:V$6F03T!b+c!<:FV0-(!$/(!$/(-F03!1(/026:-!:W!<02(7!$:!':' \ <02(! 0':F036(7*!0'MT!b4c!V:V#30$(!76F#30$6:'!F: M(37!:W!$/(!$/(-F03!M&'0F6<7!:W!,0-$60'!<02(7!0'M!7#-W0<(@! OMM6$6:'033&*!$/67!V-:_(<$!I633!-(7#3$!6'!$/(^!b % c!M(2(3:V! 0!7&7$(F0$6
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Airborne Imagery Acquisition and Ground Instrument Recovery Explorers Club Flag Report 10 ,0-$60' !<02(!M($(<$6:'T!b %% c!(7$01367/ !:W!0!$/(-F03!76D'0$#-(!361-0-&!:W!$(--(7$-603!<02(7!:W!20 -6:#7! 7$-#<$#-(!$&V(7T!b %%% c!M(76D'0$6:'!:W!:V$6F03!$6F(7!W:-!M($(<$6:'!:W!<02(7!:'!0!V(-!7$-#<$#-(!10767!W:-! R0-$/!0'M!,0-7T!0'M!b %: c!6M('$6W& !:W!6'7$-#F('$0$6:'!0'M!F6776:'!-(K#6-(F('$7!W:-!M($(<$6'D!,0-$60'! <02(7@ 9::37!M(2(3:V(M!0'M!3(77:'7 \ 3(0-'(M!W-: F!$(--(7$-603!0VV36<0$6:'7!:W!<02(!M($(<$6:'! F0&!V:$('$6033&! 1(!#7(W#3 !W:!6M('$6W&6'D! 0'M!(203#0$6'D!([V3:-0$6:'!$0-D($7!:'!,0-7@! ]'<(!/6D/3&!-(36013(!F($/:M7!W:-! $0-D($6'D!<02(7!0-(!M(2(3:V(M*!I(!F0&!1(D6'!$/(!V-:<(77!:W!7(3(<$6'D!$/(!1(7$!<0'M6M0$(!76$(7!W:-! -:1:$6$ !.:.$b="Q`Jc#$ -)&$'(*$C 0 VWW$d,/4$",&$!U"J"$eWA#$-)&$-5,4('<$+)/;@+'*;$)/$AA$ ./;$AB$"1&,5$VWAA2 $$E()')$,/$ /00&12"3'* 4'!"#$%&'5 2 $ +&,6'7&6-&% /88".",9":1 ;:.& ]@'$S6//* $ J`KTD$U"^ $ $Z&)@/;$+)88@/,+.',)/<_$ZEJ$;.'.$ +?@,<,',)/_$8,<<,)/$+))&;,/.',)/ $ G@&f6$](.97.5. $ U"J" 0 ZJP= $ RSTE$'(*&8.5$<*/<)&$)1*&.')& $ C&,''./6$S*55< $ U"J" 0 IPg= $ G,<<,)/$I,&*+')&_$Q,<\UTg $<*/<)&$)1*&.')& $ ].+?@*<$Q.+()/ $ U"J" 0 IPg= $ P5,4('$I,&*+')& $ G.&',/$K&)@' $ U"J" 0 IPg= $ E,5)' $ P&./:$C.''*.< $ U"J" 0 IPg= $ =) 0 1,5)'$!AA$"1&,5$AA# $ I*/,<$J'**5* $ U"J" 0 IPg= $ =) 0 1,5)'$!AB$"1&,5$AA# $ G.&,)$J)') $ U"J" 0 IPg= $ d,/4$",&$=&*>$=(,*$ g)9*&'$E,8)-<:6 $ U"J" 0 IPg= $ d,/4$",&$=&*> $ +,-.&'5 2$ VWAA$G)H.7*$I*<*&'$ Z&)@/;$+&*>$ !.:.$b="Q`J$Z&)@/;c#$ -)&$)&'(&) 0 &*+',-,+.',)/$4&,;2$ E()')$,/$ /00&12"3'* 4' !"#$%&' < 2 $ +&,6'7&6-&% /88".",9":1 ;:.& ]@'$S6//* $ J`KTD$U"^ $ Z&,;$',*$1),/'$15.+*8*/' _$",&+&.-'$')$Z&)@/;$ =)88@/,+.',)/< $ d*,'($G@(5*<'*,/ $ ^K J" $ Z&)@/;$=&*>$=(,*-_$^3P$g.;,)$%1*&.')&$!AB$ "1&,5$AA#_$Z&,;$',* $1),/'$15.+*8*/' $ ]*--$"&',/4<'.55 $ U)/* $ ^3P$g.;,)$%1*&.')&$!AA$"1&,5$AA#_$Z&,;$',*$ 1),/'$15.+*8*/'2 $ ].8*<$g,+* $ J)@'(*&/$=.5$Z&)'')D$UJJ $ Z&,;$',*$1),/'$./;$8.&:*&$15.+*8*/' $ I)@4$C,55,/4< $ J)@'(*&/$=.5$Z&)'')D$UJJ $ K,*$1),/'$8.&:*&$15.+*8*/'$!AA 0 AB$"1&,5$AA# $ g)9*&' $bF*,c $g)>5*6 $ I*<*&'$I)4 $K&)45);6'*< D$UJJ $ K,*$1),/'$8.&:*&$15.+*8*/'$!AA$"1&,5$AA# $ `5*./)&$F.&<)/ $ J)@'(*&/$=.5$Z&)'')D$UJJ $ Z&)@/;$+&*>$+))&;,/.')&$!AB$"1&,5$AA# $ I.7,;$F.&<)/ $ J)@'(*&/$=.5$Z&)'')D$UJJ $ K,*$1),/'$8.&:*&$15.+*8*/'$!AB$"1&,5$AA# $ I.//6$ 3.5,8 $ ^= 0 J./$I,*4) $ K,*$1),/'$8.&:*&$15.+*8*/'$!AB$"1&,5$AA# $ +,-.&'5 2$ VWAA$G)H.7*$I*<*&'$ T/<'&@8*/'$./;$I.'.$g*+)7*&6$K*.8 2 $ E()')$,/$ /00&12"3'* 4'!"#$%&' = 2 $ K*.8$G*89*& $ "--,5,.',)/ $ g)5* $ ]@'$S6//* $ J`KTD$U"^ $ T/<'&@8*/'$&*+)7*&6_$G*;,+.5\$J.-*'6$5*.; $ d*,'($G@(5*<'*,/ $ ^K J" $ T/<'&@8*/'$g*+)7*&6_$ %/ 0 <,'*$ K*+(/,+.5$J"g$ 5*.; $ ].8*<$g,+* $ J)@'(*&/$=.5$Z&)'')D$UJJ $ T/<'&@8*/'$g*+)7*&6 $ C&,./$K.65)& $ C)<')/$^/,7*&<,'6 $ T/<'&@8*/'$g*+)7*&6_$G*;,+.5$1*&<)//*5 $ I./$F)*>*/ $ P&*
PAGE 11

Airborne Imagery Acquisition and Ground Instrument Recovery Explorers Club Flag Report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h:#$!$/(-(h @! E'3&%$'; !8>^)8 \ )C@ 5:7$:'!U@"@*!,@L@!S20':2*!0'M!P@U@!,^!4JJ \ 4JE@! 5:7$:'*!U@"@*!?@;@!!Y-(M(-6<=*!Q@,@!%(38)8 @ !+J)J!O7$-:16:3:D&!Q<6('<(!P:'W(-('<(*!Q0'$0!P30-0*!PO@ P#7/6'D*!Z@R@*!9@N@!96$#7*!"@"@!%&''(*!0'M!U@?@!P/-67$('7('*!+JJC@! 9eR,SQ!:17(-2(7!V:77613(!<02(!7=&36D/$7!:'! ,0-7@! E'32A@;X* T';X*O'&&X 48^!H)C+J)@ ! ;07/(-*!Z@!)GG8@!]'!Q$0$6:'^!0! <:FV3($(!/0'M 1::=!W:-!7#-2(&6'D!0'M!F0VV6'D!<02(7@N0$6:'03!QV(3(:3:D6<03! Q:<6($&*!e#'$72633(@!+8+!VV@ ! ;6D6$03Z3:1(*!+J)J@! ]-$/:!L676:'!U-(F6#F! k !U-(<676:'!O(-603 *!;6D6$03Z3:1(*!S'<@!H:'DF:'$*!P:3:-0M:@!;0$(! 0<<(77(M^!)4!,0&!+J))@!X?H^! /$$V^aaIII@M6D6$03D3:1(@<:FaW63(@V/VaEC>aO(-603U-:D-0F \ ;Q \ OU@VMW Z::M-6!OV-63!+J))@! X?H^! /$$V^aaIII@7('7:-76'<@<:FaM:I'3:0M7aQXA8JQ;%e@VMW Z-6'*!R@O@*!N@O@!P01-:3*!0'M!P@U@!,@ "('7('* "@?@* +JJJ@ ?(F:$( Q('76'D :W $/( R'26-:'F('$^ O' R0-$/ ?(7:#-<( U(-7V(<$62(@ U-('$6<( e033* XVV(! Q0MM3( ?62(-* N"@ B6(WW(-*!e@e@*!U@?@!P/-67$('7('*!9@y@! ,0-$6'*!R@;@!,6'(-*!0'M!Y@;@!U033#<:'6*!)GCA@!9(FV(-0$#-(7!:W!$/(!,0-$60'! 7#-W0<(!0'M!0$F:7V/(-(^!L6=6'D!:17(-20$6:'!:W!M6#-'03!0'M!D(:F($-6)@ H0-7('*!Q@R@*!e@R@!":-D('7('*!H@!H0'M1(-D*!0'M!R@!9633F0'*!+JJ+@!O7V(<$7!:W!$/ (!0$F:7V/(-6 ^!8>) k 8CJ@ ?6'=(-*!"@N@*!)GC>@!O6-1:-'(!6'W-0-(M!$/(-F03! M($(<$6:'!:W!<02(7!0'M!<-(2077(7*! HA3&3B45$$'&4%6*'.B%.''4%.B*5.(* 4'$3&'*;'.;%.B !8)^!)4G) \ )8JJ@ %67(*!%@ Q@ *!)GAG@ !]-6D6'!:W!10703$64 k A8@! %&''(*!"@"@!9@N@!96$#7*!,@Z@!P/0VF0'*!Z@!P/:'D*!P@O@!;-:7$*!"@Q@!B0-D(3*!0'M!?@Q@!9::F(&!SSS*!+JJC@!9/(-F03!5(/026:-! :W!R0-$/!P02(7^!O!U-:[&!W:-!Z06'6'D !S'W(-('<(!6'$:!,0-$60'!P02(!;($(<$6:'@!O17$-0<$!w^!+4CE@!4E $/ !HUQP*! e:#7$:'*!9m@ %&''(*!"@"@*!9@N@!96$#7*!0'M!Z@!P/:'D!;60.*!+JJE0@ ]'!$/(!;($(<$6:'!:W!P02(7!6'!$/(!9/(-F03!S'W-0-(M!:'!R0-$/*!$/(! ,::'!0'M!,0-7@! J54&A*H=5.'&X*!6%X*O'&X* +C+^!+8J k +>J@ %&''(* !"@"@*!9@N@!96$#7*!P@O@!;-:7$*!?@Q@!9::F(&*!SSS*!0'M!B@!U($(-7:'*!+JJE1@!O''#03!$/(-F03!0FV36$#M(7!0'M! $/(-F03!M($(<$6:'!:W!Q:#$/I(7$(-'!X@Q@!<02(7^!0MM6$6:'03!6'76D/$7!W:-!-(F:$(!7('76'D!:W!<02(7!:'!R0-$/!0'M! ,0-7*!O17$-0<$!w+8>G*!4G $/ !HUQP*!H(0D#(!P6$&*! 9m@ !

PAGE 12

Airborne Imagery Acquisition and Ground Instrument Recovery Explorers Club Flag Report 12 %&''(*!"@!"@*!N@!O@!P01-:3*!Z@!P/:'D*!R@!O@!Z-6'*!,@!;@!"/012030*!"@!R@!,:(-7+*!]'!Y63(!0$!9/(! R[V3:-(-7!P3#1!e(0MK#0-$(-7*!N(I!g:-=*!Ng@ %&''(*!"@"@*!9@N@!96$#7*!Z@!P/:'D*!;@!?#1&*!P@!P:3V6$$7*!%@!H@!e6<=7*!;@!e633*!P@!90F13(& 0'M!N@!O@!P01-:3 *!+JJG 0 @! ,6<-:<36F0$(!;0$0!?($-6(203!0'M!L:3#F($-6+c*!]'!W63(!0$!9/(!R[V3:-(-7!P3#1!e(0MK#0-$(-7*!N(I! g:-=*!Ng@ %&''(*!"@"@*!9@N@!96$#7* !,@;@!"/012030*!Z@R@!P#7/6'D*!N@O@!P01-:3!0'M!R@O@!Z-6'*!+JJG1@!;67$6'D#67/6'D!P02(7!W-:F! N:' \ P02(!O':F036(7!#76'D!9/(-F03!S'W-0-(M^!H(77:'7!W:-!$/(!,::'!0'M!,0-7@!!O17$-0<$!w!+8>)*!8J $/ !HUQP*! e:#7$:' *!9m@ ! %&''(*!"@"@*!Z@!P/:'D!;@*!,@!S.#-6($0!Z@*!H@!e6<= 7*!"@H@!"0-0*!P@!90F13(&!0'M!N@O@!P01-:3*!+J))@!;0$0!0'M!S'7$-#F('$! ?(<:2(-&!0'M!P3:7(!]#$!]V(-0$6:'7*!+J))!O$0<0F0!;(7(-$!R[V(M6$6:'*!P/63(*!R0-$/ \ ,0-7!P02(!;($(<$6:'! U-:_(<$^!R[V3:-(-7!P3#1!Y30D!?(V:-$!bY30D!w!)4Gc*! ]'!W63(!0$!9/(!R[V3:-(-7!P3#1!e(0MK#0$(-7*!N(I!g:-=*!Ng@ XQ;O!bX@Q@!;(V0-$F('$!:W!OD-6<#3$#-(c*!+J)J@!NOSU!SF0D(-&^!N0$6:'03!OD-6<#3$#-(!SF0D(-&!U-:D-0F*!XQ;O!Y0-F! Q(-26<(!OD('<&*!O(-603!U/:$:D-0V/&!Y6(3M!]WW6<(*!Q03$!H0=(!P6$&*!X$0/@!! ;0$(!O<<(77(M^!J>!,0&!+J))@! X?H^! /$$V^aaIII@W70@#7M0@D:2a YQOa0VW:0VVz0-(0{/:F(x7#1_(<${V-:Dx$:V6<{'06 ! g(*!y@"@*!,@!Q(D03*!0'M!?@O@!U6(3=(*!)GGJ@!O!<:FV0-0$62(!7$#M&!:W!M0&$6F(!$/(-F033&!6'M#<(M!#V73:V(!W3:I!:'!,0-7! 0'M!R0-$/*! -X*L&$3;X*!6%X 8C ^!A)+ k A+E@ !

PAGE 13

Rocks, breakdown Slope Interior Wall Elevation Change Exterior Wall Overhang Interior Wall Interior Wall Overhang Data Logger L egend Drafted by: Dave Decker Surveyed by: Dave Decker, Dan Ruby, and Amanda Stockton Sketcher: Dave Decker Expedition Lead: Jut Wynne February 2009Cave 1 BLM, Barstow Field Oce Mojave Desert, California Length: 159 m Depth: 7.6 m NVolume: 600 m3 2227710 2233207 2227681 2227709 2227713 2227700 2227722 2227698 2233223 2033219 2041158 2233218 2233216 (surface within trench) 2227720 2227708 (surface directly above entrance) Appendix 1

PAGE 14

Cave 3 BLM, Barstow Field Oce Mojave Desert, California Drafted by: Dave Decker Surveyed by: Doug Billings, James Rice and Dave Decker Sketcher: Doug Billings Expedition Lead: Jut Wynne February 2009 Data LoggerL egend Column Rock Breakdown Skylight Slope Ledge Length: 250 m Depth: 13.9 m NVolume: 6831 m3 2227692 9695784 (instrument in tunnel on ledge above 10 m drop) 2041147 2233232 9695785 9695786 2227687 2227702 (surface) Interior Wall

PAGE 15

Rocks Slope Breakdown Dome Column Skylight Data Logger L egend Drafted by: Dave Decker Surveyed by: Dave Decker, Dan Ruby, and Amanda Stockton Sketcher: Dave Decker Expedition Lead: Jut Wynne February 2009Cave 5 BLM, Barstow Field Oce Mojave Desert, California Length: 383 m Depth: 11.2m NVolume: 1,791m3 2227705 (inundated in soil) 2041148 2233231 2041156 2233230 2233228 2227686 2233233 2223221

PAGE 16

! !""#$%&'() *((+,-.(/01213 ! !"#$%&'( !" #$%$"&'()*+",-./! "0.1+"+2"-()*+3"45-67"8*9:;9'93 49-(2"%2+2 3"89<=5.>"?9<*2@3"49-+7"A-25+3"B-(++9@7"C.''>3" B2: "D(E21>F7 "G(@":93"9@I"85+"C7@@.! "#2+"1.9+5-.I"<2 J K('2+"12-"LM"$K-('"LL"1'()*+3"N.@(>"%+..'.!

PAGE 17

! !"#$%&') "O,$?P%")-25@IQR" )-25@I"<-./!" &-2E"'.1+"+2"-()*+3"N25)"B(''(@)>3"S.(+*"45*'.>+.(@3"89E.>"T(<.3"N9;."09->2@3" P'.9@2-"09->2@3" ,7-('"82*@>2@"G(@":9+9''"9@I"0.( "T2/'.7!" "

PAGE 18

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