Alaskan Caver

Material Information

Alaskan Caver
Series Title:
Alaskan Caver
Alternate Title:
Alaska Caver
Pease, Chuck
National Speleological Society (Alaskan Cave Areas Conservation Task Force)
National Speleological Society (Glacier Grotto)
University of Alaska Southeast (School of Arts and Sciences)
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


General Note:
Contents: Preliminary Report #49: Cascade Cave -- Preliminary Report #44: Prop Wash Palace Cave -- Preliminary Report #69: Vauclusian Cave -- Preliminary Report #70: Move the Road Cave -- Preliminary Report #71: Historian Cave, Novice's Nightmare Cave, Keyhole Cave -- Preliminary Report #72: 1991 Investigations of Thunder Mountain Karst -- Preliminary Report #73: 199 Investigations of the Devil Karst Area -- Preliminary Report #74: 1991 Investigations on Mount Calder -- POWIE V Statistics (1991).
Open Access - Permission by Author(s)
Original Version:
Vol. 13, no. 1 (1993)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00227 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.227 ( USFLDC Handle )
4387 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

USFLDC Membership

Karst Information Portal

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Vol ume 13 Number 1 [IIISSN 0735-D4W) in the intermf ttant publication of the GLaclnr Grotto cif the National Spleologtcal Soctsty. Copyri@t 18m by thaGCrr~derGrotto~ FbteriBLa not mpyrtghted by indivlcluds or by other groups mgr !m bempfed by ather HSS Publ4mt$orte prmlded credlt 4a given te the author rnd and 8 rnW $6 mnt to the Edl tor (addrees belar]. Beck i ssws are we$leble Pran the Pra&&nt Far 82 ssch. Send articlaa. Letters, nars Itma, announmmsnts, td p. r9pOrtb csve survgrer drdngs, photagre~s, end so forth df rmctly to the Ed1 tor. Opi nCane exprssmd wlthfn rPn not mcesmrlly thoof De AL~abrr mver. the Glacier Grotto, or the HSS. Mmberehl.rr is open to all Interested 1 n Alaekan wvs dtswvery, nxplarati on, h~ctl ptf on, aunrey, meppjng, Rhotograpcly, Mdrotogy, norphnlogy, blalogy, gaolagy, hfatery, speLeogemat6 end other spelaeen prQWEm% cunsmwatio~ marngmentl advanturae, and ii~s fellarshlp of Alaskan Ewer& Annual duas~rs 815 Tor Indivfdusl or $20 for fernlily mmnbsrehlp Add 88 to dues If wermrsafrnall pstags tm praPerred rner aurfscs. Instltutlonal sulmcrl ptlons are 120 per rolrne I[slx Ismma). Deu e are due on January 1 and aro mnt ta the Tramsurer I~ddresa bela], pynble to GLscIar G rotta. Thojdnlng for the f $rat time bmtwesn Octobmr 'I nnd Decenbsr 31 will ba mnet cbrsd peld through thn falLmtng year. Dm8 6-tus is indimted on the melLfng label. Haetlngs are held in AnEhorsga, fil rba nb, and btchl lmn; see tha back pap Tor i Marmatt on rqmrdl ng amett ng tlmes and L omti one. OEficers Name Address EtY St Zip Acting Pres J Fbcbdl, Jr 2944 Baory St Anchorage AK 99508 Acting VP N Mike Mauser 1466 Cam Ave Fairl>anks AK 99709 VP S@nt Eric Rapport 5311 Mckingbird Anchorage AK 99507 VP SEast Kevin Allred P 0 Box 376 &ms AU 99827 Acting Sec Sm bay 3234 Lake Park Cr Anchorage AK 995 17 Treas W Hasraey Bmers 305 S Bartlett Q Wasilla AK 99654 Editor Crrrvin Metzler P 0 Box 1100738 Anchorage AK 99510 NC9Rep WeKLinger POBox537 ZRwmrth WA 98826 Conservat'n Jim Ferguson P 0 Box 20908 Jtmeau AK 99802 Cave Rescue Steve Lwis P 0 Box 83715 Fairbanks AK 99708 Rogmair JohnJan-n 7814RaymsrCir AnchorageAK99518 nt Chair Marcel LaPerriere P 0 Bax 9062 Ketchihn AK 99901 (All telephone nmber area codes are 907, Alaska, dess otherwise specified. Stalagmites in El Capitan Cave. Prince of Wales Island. Photo by Cumin Metzler. Preliminary Report #49: Cascade Cave . . . . . . . . . 4 Preliminary Report 144: Prop Wash Pal-ace Cave . . . . . 5 Preliminary Report #69: Vauclusian Csve . . . . , . . . 5 Preliminary Report 870: Hove the Road Cave . . . . . . 6 Preliminary Report #71; Historian Cave; Novice's Nightmare Cave: Keyhole Cave . . . . . . . . . 8 Preliminary Report C72: 1991 Investigations a Thunder Mountain Karst . 10 Preliminary Report 173: 1991 Investigations of the Devil Karst Area . . 12 Preliminary Report 174: 1991 Investigations on Movnt blder . . . 19 WWIEV Statistics (1991) . . . . . . . . . . 20 Page 2 The Alaskan Cavar Volume 13 Number I February 1993


Tangass We Project General Information on 1993 Expeditions PURPOSE AND The Tongass Cave Project SITUATION: is a project of the NSS (National Speleolo gical Society). Its purpose is the discovery, exploration. survey, conservation and study of karst and caves in Southeast Alaska. In pursuance of a cooperative agreement with the Forest Service, we will be working together with them on these expeditions. Since one of our objectives is conservation, our policy is not to share information or location of caves to the public which be detrimental to the resources contained therein. This year these will be two simultaneous Project expeditions, both held July 1 through July 31 into Prince of Wales laland (P(JWIE VII) and Dall f sland (DIE 111). Cave conditions are often cold, wet, and vertical, DIE TI1 will be mostly on remote, fly-in alpine areas with possible atrandings of a week or more because of stosmy weather conditions, so these participants ahodd not have stringent schedules, must be very experienced vertically and very competent surveyors. There are presently no fees for joining the froj ect but contributions are welcome to help with mailing, survey paper, and Project rope. PERSONNEL : Almost all the caves investigated thus far require at least some vertical skill, and participants should be in good condition and able to cope with thick brush. very rugged terrains and basically anemironment many are not f miliar with. For the more extreme vertical systems, top rate SRT gear is a must. and one needs to be in practice. We have need of experts in various specialized scientific fields. It is required that each cave trip have a trip sheet f ilhed out in detail, and the survey nates reviewed. We are to provide quality reports and maps and work at least 40 hours per week including paper work for the FS, and they have budgeted $75 ,000 support for the expeditions. Some flashlight batteries, sur vey paper, and carbide will be provided. February 1993 Volume 13 Number 1 TRAPJ S WRTATION When joining either AND FACILITIES : expedition to help the Forest Service inventory caves, you need to get yourselves to Prince of Wales Island, and from there those with cars can get you out to the base camps and caving areas. The long distances to Hollis requires a full dayv s travel and use of a vehicle, so it has become necessary to hgve only a couple pickup or takeback times through prior arrangement (re are not driving all that way without knowing there are sure to be people waiting). These times are the Sumday ferries leaving Hollis in the mornings and arriving in the evenings. Other times you are on your own. The Forest Service should not be contacted for transportation. On the POWIE expedition, there are either flights or ferries to Ketchikan. ferries to Hollis, and driving 100 miles on logging roads to base camp at El Cap (it is possible to charter a plane ram Ketchikan to El Cap). Arrangements for transfers to DIE 111 muat be made in advance, For ferry reservations call (800) 642-0066 frm USA. Vehicles must have reservations months in advance. but walk-ons need none. Write for a "Prince of Wales Island Road Guide" ($3) Forest Supervisor. Tongass National Forest, USFS, Federal Bldg. Ketchikan, AK 99901. If on foot at Hollis, you can be picked up on the above mentioned pickup dates if prior arrangements are made. Contact can be made with the Project by writing Kevin Allred, Box 376. Haines. AK 99827 before June, or (on Prince of Wales Island) Pete Smith, WP, Ketchikan. AK 99950 during June and July. Pete can be contacted by phone beginning in the spring at (907) 846-5223. Letters can reach you on POGIlE by addressing care ofR Pete Smith. Once at base camp on a Forest Service related expedition. "subsistencen food (this means whatever grocery etore foods we order) is provided by the Forest Sewice, so you need to notify us early of your tastes. Lodging is provided by the Forest The Alaskan Caver Page 3


Service, but children are not allowed to stay in the Forest Service work camps, so families need to camp out in our own tents nearby. Write Kwin early for more details en Forest Service support and our obligations in return. For those who wish to be independent of any obligations with the Forest Service, many remote and totally unexplored limestone areas remain in Southeast. Trips here would require more individual planning, work, and travel challenges. Contact principal mabess of the Project for leads. The Project would hope to hme copies of resultant data of such trips. SAETT: In the past, most of our injuries have occurred out side the ewes on rugged terrain. A large contributor to the~e injuries is a combination of exhaustion and heavy packs. We need to travel in teams whenever possible. Each team needs to sign out on the trip sheet where you are going, your objectives, when you left, and when expected back. Again, it is very important that you be in good shape and in practice vertically. We cannot count on having someone else responsible for rescue or patching us back together. We are not medically covered by the Forest Service, so if you want insurance, you can get it on your own. Since most caves are virgin when entered, there may be loose rock to stabilize. Some eaves arevery prone to flooding, so be aware. Susvey as you explore, and make bomb-proof anchors. Ropes are provided. First aid and outdoor survival skills are helpful. => continued on page 19 => &Ern& Gwe Kosciusko Island Preliminary Report f49 by Kevin Allred October 3 1, 1991 On the south side of El Capitan N Passage, a cascading stream pours from I urn this cave formed in Weceta Limestone, ? Jim Baichtal first identified it from an 9 airplane in the spring of 1991. It was o 10 20 later investigated and surveyed to a sump bet at only 38 feet, Estimated flow at the time was 75 gallons per minute and the water ternperatwe was 6OC (Win Wright). It is not known if the sump could be lowered enough to continue without scuba gear, but it may be a good dive site. A Management Recommendations CASCADE UVE KOSCIWSKO ISLAND EGmO 0 cnlmm mmm ~.l rnmomm wor The entrance area should not be logged, nor the bench above-which is the AB suspected recharge area, and should be suuu sa#min searched far upper entrances to the systsr temp k0.c tem, especially along the noncasbonate transition. There is no need to restrict this cave location from the public. o Su&o 4TawW~ykyWlnWrlgM and w ~rsdy. SW 'lsngtn 33.7 fast $wrn~llm~l~ February 1993 Page 4 The Alaskan Cavet Voltme 13 Number 1


mop Wash Palace CgPe Prince of Bales Island Preliminary Report 1/44 r by Kevin Allred and Doug Strait . October 30. 1991 J PUN d '7 ;-I -./ -'"Id A Description Though this erne on Pmue Peak has a spectacular 50-foot-high entrance, it is only 60 feet long. Large, impressive calcite? crystals are present in breakdmn on the floor and scattered downslope below the entrance, Their origin, f ormation, and exact composition are mkncrwn. Management Rec~mmendationa fwmulcL. WWLPnW A minimum 100-f oot buffer downslope PRINCE OF WALES l~srr~ would hdp protect the scenic value of LASO --+a,rn this cave. As it contains significant '--9 a Ti mineralogical deposits, its location -w~should be kept from the general public. o arsumasrm A"""r-I~y. Vauclagiam We Prince of Wdes Island Preliminary Report #69 by Kevin Allred November 6. 1991 Description 1 Located on the east side of El Csp itan Passage across frcm Devilfish Bay. Vavclusian Cave is an interesting karst f eature-apparently, a seasonal Vauclusian spring which may be affected by the tides. The cave or spring is located only some 20 or 30 feet abwe sea 1 wel. The recharge area is probably the extensively logged karst area to the east. Management Recommendations This csve needs to be investigated further st a lower tide. There may also be other higher entrances of the system nearby. This should be checked before the area is considered for timber ha? vest. There is no reason to restrict the cave location from the general public. D u i PLAN Me?? sa 100 February 19 93 Polme 13 Number 1 The Alaskan Caver


me the Rod We Prince of Wales Island Preliminary Report #70 by Kwh Allred Nwember 6, 1991 Description A significant cgve having geological importance, this cave was first re ported by Forest Service employees Cole Mullis and Cathy Flick. The area was originally thought to be noncarbonate, but the boundary of the l best one begins further southeast than was indicated on the geologic map. Move the Road Cave begins in a mall blind valley which follows the strike of a steeply dipping basalt dike. The ma31 slotted entrance swallows a streamlet which Elms through the cave to the end of present exploration. Total surveyed footage is 450.9 feet and the cave depth is 166.2 feet. The structure of Move the Road Cave is most interesting, for the cave is controlled by the dike mentioned above. Sometimes the dike is hidden by poorly sorted floor fill. but usually it is visibly prominent. In many places it forms the floor, and in some instances it has been undercut by corrosion of limesrone and adjacent marble. Some of the most beautiful fossilized brerciated limestone I have seen is found just beyond three of four constrictions dug open by Mark Fritzke this year {see map). At the present end of the survey, the cave continues as a dig at least 20 feet long and is taking in air flow. When I first entered the cave on June 21, 1991, the air flow at the constriction of the first dig was about 20 miles per hour. Safety Considerations Move the Road Cave shodd only be entered during reasonably dry weather, as there is a seasonal sump between the second and third dig sites. Tbo short drops require ropes, and water resistant, warm clothing should be worn for the wet crawlways and drops, Management Recommendations The logging road route has been changed to swing around the no-cut buff ar which encloses the blind valley and the cave entrance. One wall of the blind valley of unstable soil shodd not be traversed by those visiting. The buffer should protect the cave if other nearby trees are felled away frm rather than into the buf ler zone. The cave location could be shared with those prepared for vertical, wet and cold conditions. glectim of Glacier Grotto Off seers Long Wetdue As noted on the back cover, we have not had an election for some time now. Two and a half years. in fact. That's right, our last election was in late 1990, for the 1991 officers. We never had our 1991 election for 1992 officers. and as of today we have not yet made an announcement of our slate of officers for the 1992 election of 1993 officers. According to our bylaws. "the camittee shall present its nominations at the Decaber meetingw. AL so, concerning elections, they "shall be held st the January meeting each year". Frankly, I m very concerned. Not only about: getting on with s long overdue election, but also with the future of the Glacier Grotto. Our high rate of turnover for most officers indicates people are not satisfied with things as they are, In meetings, we spend lots af time discussing bylaw^, which we dont t follm anyway. Instead, we should be talking about what brings us together : CAVING 1 Page 6 The Maskan aver Volume 13 Number 1 February 1993


jg]$~\vz Ty':z FjajlT~ .$A ljz TONGASS NATtOMAL FOREST PRINCE OF WALE5 ISUND AUSKA 1 ENTRANCE LEGEND SunvEvED LENGlU t5aa r TOTAL DEPTH 1 W l t: I taws3 Cl-r am 7Sum Ark 29 Amuw 8 10.7%: R 5 LWSvrc 2LA Frhlum~*ILL.e m rm mr YnQm~-ClnrnrC*u Tw*Li.sSIC*ufSpRQIFCT Dn I WOO "59% a Clnm *.,.rc < February 1993 Volume 13 Number 1 me Alaskan Caver


Historirm Cgve Nwice's NighCave Keyhole Me Prince of Wales Island Preliminary Report #71 by Kevin Allred November 7. 1991 Description This group of caves is located in Heceta Limestone just east of a logging road, in a grwe of trees adjacent ra poorly drained muskegs. No physical connection was made between the caves, but it may be possible for a very small person to travel from Keyhole Cave into Historian Cave with handl ines during reasonably dry weather. All three caves were first identified by Jim Baiehtal in 1991. There are several surface sinks between the entrances of Historian Cave and Nwice's Nightmare Cave. With a total length of 220.7 feet and depth of 92.7 feet. Historian Cave is the longest cave in this group. The 20-f oot entrance sinkhole receives a streamlet from adjacent poorly drained soils. Inside, a steep canyon leads dm several short drops to a silty and rocky floored ram containing vanes, Elmstone, and a bat skelezon. Continuing northward, the cave streamlet disappears through a 28-f oo t-deep pit which connects further in the cave and is more easily accessible by using a haadline dawn eightoot and twelveoot drops nearby. The streamlet joina another from a side passage (see map) and sinks into the floor at the deepest point in the cave. It is not known exactly where Keyhole Cave actually may connect, for there are several high or "too tightn leads in the Anchor Room area, progress is halted at a Rtoa tightq' lead. Its total surpq length is 66.6 feet and its depth is 40-1 feet. 'Keyhole Cave The shortest cave of the bunch. only 34.3 feet were surveyed here to a depth of 16 -7 feet. Air flows from Reyhole Cave, presumably originating from Historian Cave which has a higher err trance creating a flow of cold, heavy cave cooled air, During wiat er. the air flow would rwerse, causing frost shattered surfaeaa in Keyhole Cave. The reasonable access ends after a narrow squeeze, an eight-foot handline drop, and the before mentioned right fissure requiring a tiny person and an additional handl he. Management Recommendations This group of caves should be buffered of f f ram logging and road building activities to protect their geological, mineralogical, and biological features. The vanes could be dated for a better understanding of former glacial activity here, Estorian Cave may be a place to which hibernating bats are attracted. The cave locations should not be shared with the general public because of the vertical drops and special features mentioned above. Byron Glacier Caves Tsips Nwiceta Nightmare Cave begins as a rwelvefoot sinkhole requiring a rope for entrance. A steep passage leads to a 25-foot-high dome. Further dawnward Of elwen trips scheduled to Byron Glacier last geason, the weather was cooperat5ve only three times. !be last trip found the caves all bedded down for the winter under a thick blanlcet of snow. Page 8 The Alaskan Caver Volume 13 Number I February 1993


PLAN VIEW I LEGEND v.',. lpnd.mW MruW I I ~4a unnstam : cramp em\ --e@(*U"*m,o. I I -CT*Qms rrll lmul.1 : I u rn~wwt OM-rs2Ms I 1 ;O-~m~wnr*~ (unstable! 9 T0T.k of OTu In 7 n h.rpnt II**11 TOT*L UHGTU 243 m I 1 HISTORIAN CAVE I 1 NOVICE'S NIGHTMARE I I NOVICE3 NLCrHTMARE EYHOLE CAVE PRINCE OF WALES ISLAND ALASKA TOHGASS CnvES PROJECT i i and taw survey Juy 23.7991 .by S. Low% C Al!M P. Smhh iM B. Chnstonrsh FEET PROFILE wFebruary 1993 Volume 13 Number 1 The Alaskan Caver Page 9


1991 Investigations of Thmk Hounta5.n Karst Ddl Island Preliminary Report 872 by Kevin Allred November 7, 1991 Introductioa During the week of July 23 through July 27. Doug Strait and Mark Fritzke investigated the cave resources of the alpine zone of Thunder Mountain. Although the summit block (3110 feet in dwation) of Thunder Mountain is noncarbonate, the bench to the north is composed of View Cove Limestone with about TOO feet of cave depth potential. Thunder Mountain is included in the proposed Thtmder Special Area, one of eight such karst areas on Ddl Island, The precipitation ie heavy here and the mountain is enclosed in storm clouds most of the year, making accesg difficult. Apparently, the karsted area has been extensively broken up by frost wedging. It is likely that, since the mountain is so high and close ta sea level, it did not get cuupletely cwered by ice during past glacial periods and has suff ered long periods of frost damage similar to the summit block of Mt. Calder on Prince of Wales Island. Although most of the karst was extensively broken up and filled with rock fragments, a few small caves were identified and surveyed, Exact locations of these caves was not reported, but they are dl on the bench area just north of the summit. Centipede &-ice Gntipede Crevice hae a f ive-by-15foot sinkhole entrance without sloping sides. The initial drop of 23 feet is followed by another 30-foot drop to a rubble floor and partially filled way taining snow marks the entrance to Thunder Mountain Room. A short drop brings one into the 50-foot-diameter and 18foot-high rom. The floor consists of angular rocks and breakdown, A nook contains silt and mouse sized rodent droppings. Near the nook is a small gecond entrance. No speleothems were reported. Total survey length was 128.7 feet and depth was 56.2 feet. Slices and Dices Cave Slices and Dices Cave was also mapped and explored during this inves tigarion. The fiveby-swen-foot sinkhole drops onto a ateep bedrock floor having solution runnels, At the base of the slope is a perpendicular fault controlled passage ending soon in bath directions, A Rtoo tightn dig site in the rubble floor issues forth a draft, Management Recommendations Further in-depth investigations should be done on this area. The caves should not be impacted at all by either logging or mining. Same mineral prospecting has already taken place on this karst bench as there are some man-made trenches reported (personal communication, Ken Maas. Bureau of enes). The area apparently holds little commercial value minsrd.ogically, There is no need to restrict the location of these caves f ran the general public. u which needs digging to continue. Rocks roll down to an apparent 30-foot blind Slkpditim Beiag Plaatred pit issuing occasional air. Some soda straws are found at the dig site, The snow has already melted, and it is time once again to start planning Thunder Pbmtain Roa those summer caving expeditions; please contact Cumin Metzler at 333-8766 for A large 5Pfoot-long sinkhole coninformation on proposed srrmmer trips. page 10 The Alaskan Caver Volume 13 Number 1 February 1993


solw~b runnels ZHIRAHCE choke HTRP.HCE A0 -a dlqlnrubbh DOM \ PLAN PRO Fl LE 5t SLICES & DICES CAVE DALL ISLAND, ALASKA THUNDER MOUNTAIN AREA 0 10 20 SURVEY ED LENGTH: 42JR. _I lee! TOTAC DEPTH 35.9 it. CENTIPEDE CREVICE ff-/ DALL ISLAND, ALASKA THUNDER MOUNTAIN AREA TOTAL DEPTH' 536 H I I 1 i i I lrmgubr dlkms PROFILE TE I THUNDER MTN. ROOM OML ISLAND, ALASKA wL*pm 12a7n ntatdwh 567a uom e crcrI -* l a .# O 10 M 30 10 Cunwss. Cllmmtnor snd 1Survsy. July 25.1 Wl .by R Stran sM M. FrnRe fc11. 1.1 I-! rrnrll WLIU~=,Y.*C~~H~ a rucl**r


1991 favestigetiam of the Dwil Karst Area Ddl Island Preliminary Report #73 by Kwh Allsed Wwanber 18, 1991 Introduction During August 14 to 23, 1991, Mark Fritzke and Kwin Allred investigated the subalpine and alpine karst proposed as Devil Specid Area on Dall Island. This is one of a total of eight such areas on the Island. Dmil Area enconr passes nearly two square miPes of very pitted, rugged limestone terrain having verp little surf ace drainage. Precipitation may exceed 200 inches annually. Trees are stunted and deformed from pre vading storms blowing off the Pacific. and weather seldom allows flying in to these locations. Our efforts centered on location and survey of cave features thought to underlie the heavily karsted and well drained terrain between el wations of 2000 and 2650 feet (see regional map for area searched). We also noted various surface karst features. It is not yet knovn where the springs which drain this mountain are located, A total of eight caves were surveyed and one cave was sketched. Eight more caves were identified but not surveyed; only two of the latter were entered (see cave entrance location map). Other years may experience more snow ewer than in 1991 as 1972 aerial photographs reveal. associated with these. Besides dikes, another noncarbonate in the limestone are small veins and layers of brcwn fine pained sandstone, rarely in thicker beds, Curious and numerous circular out 1 ines possibly of sandstone, are located just uphill frm Sunday Afternoon Pit. A third noncarbonjate present are small veins or some times flat bodies of macrocrystalline gray quartz. These resistant structures protrude from the karsted limestone. Inside, they are light gray with some crystals visible to the naked eye. A weak solution of sulfuric acid rm~aled no cdcite in exposed surfaces, but the acid effervesced on some cdcite content where freshly broken, Some of the nodules have a white rind, perhaps where the trace calcite has bean dissolved away. The View Cove Limestone is of unknown purity here and ranges in color from light blue to dark blue and into brown. It varies in its karst potential, Beds are commonly massive, but sometimes close inspection, even in walls of vertical shafts, reveals paper-thin bedding. This often weathers out the surf ace in crumbly loose, platy debris. There are also areas of thinly bedded schist containing leases of limestone and perched with ponds and meadows. Rock: Characteristics Small Surface Hasst Forms The host rock, View Cwe Limestone of Sfiurian age (Rogers) contains numerous dikes of varying thickness. They are usually vertical or nearly vertical. and often extend great distances. Dikes often contain large whitish crystals and are probably composed of porplyritic andesite with phtnocryats af plagioclase. There are locd areas of marble, likely associated with the former heat of the intrusions. Some diken were more green colored and there were instances of tiny greenish crystals (probably ol ivinel Wherever frost action is not so frequent, mall karst solution scdpting is produced by the corrosive action of rainwater. Being a basic form, rillenkarren (Bbgli and Jedngs) is seen on occasion, and varies in development f ran fair to excellent. Some fair examples of heelprint karren (B8gli) were seen, with excellent examples of solution funnels (Jepnings) Solution bevels {Jew nings) are common here along with solution ripples (Jennings ) Mark pointed out the shytbmic wwes of rain runoff page 12 The Alaskan Cmer Volume 13 Number 1 February 1993


washing down these solution features. The rhyths probably began due to obstacles to the otherwise smooth flow, and a perpetuated wave-like pattern was etched into the rock surface. A similar example of this is seen in Great Sand Dunes National Monument, in Colorado. where a shallow creek having a rippled sandy bed generates rhythic waves up to a foot in height (personal observation) Another fairly common kasren feature which is often found below sjllankarren is solution flutes of the second order (Bdgli) or rain solution runnels (Jennings) Grading into larger f oms which gather more of a trickle in them. they become meandering karren (BBgli) The DwS Karst Area has prime examples of all these f orma and more. Also noted were many grikes, pinnacle karst, under cut karren, and some interesting forms we have not seen documented, Namely, one example involves two separate but nearby slopes, one steep and the other gradual. Both were covered with fairly regularly co~cd knobs up to several inches high. These may be from some impurities or crystal. change in the lime stone, but the texture and color seemed unif om throughout. They are located in a prominent gully just off the eastern edge of the karst plateau. No solution pans were found, Larger Surface Karst Forms Larger karst features are numerous dolines, shafts, and solution channels whichhave dweloped along dikes, joints, faults, and more pure limestone, These generally are plugged by glacial and frost shattered debris less than 50 feet dm. Eyidence of Glacial Modifications An interesting observation of the Devil Karst Area iwalves the numerous %ocations where surf ace shafts begin round and well developed, with large expanses of bare, gsikeless limestone in between, This is opposed to normally dweloped mature karst where surface runoff disappears into bedrock j o5nt s and faults almost immediately and which gradually unite from these small tributaries to form the main shafts. An explanation for the well spread, large diameter shafts is that periodic glacial ice has gheared away the f omer surf ace karren and grikes, leaving the Isrger shafts exposed. Hany shafts are at least partially filled with glacial drift and frost ~hattered rock which is now gradually settling through continued corrosion, Access downwards was usually hdted for this reason. Mature pinnacle karst is found only in protected or low areas where ice may hme been static. Glacial erratics are widely scattered. Their type may rmeal the ice flow direction or directions. Effects of Vegetation The stable noncarbonare residual soils on dikes f om long raiged highways to depressed gullies, These support grasses. various plants and sometimes subalpine trees of Sitka spruce and mountain hemlock, Pacific fir were seen in several locations, and in one spot pieces of cones were found. This suggests that the fir could possibly be reproducing from seed here as opposed to cloning as is the case further north, on peaks such as Mount Calder [Prince of Wales Island) The presence of Pacific fir in these hostire environments may indicate that they were able to reproduce normally at some rime in the past in a warmer climate (see Pielou and Muir/Ford for similar examples). A study of these trees and other vegetation may help us understand their relation to glacial activity and modif icatioa on karst. The well. drained limest one in lower elevations produces residual soils where heavier brush and trees begin. Wherwer vegetation occurs, additional carbon dioxide is produced, adding to the corrosive ability of runoff waters. This produces such features as undercut kasren and wall karren. The quartz deposits previously mentioned appear dark colored fran organic growth-probably moss. It also grows on wetter limestone surf aces, though rarely. Sometimes mall, whitish February 1993 Volume 13 Number 1 The Alaskan Caver page 13


pink lichen colonies are seen growing on limestone. froj ect member Bob Christensen pointed these out on El Capitan Peak (northern Prince of Wdes Island), and noted that their structure is extsgmely hard and may contain minerals. Layer G&e Pit With a depth of 39.3 feet and sur vqed length of 48.6 feet, Layer Cake Pit has a 30-f oot-deep, 15-f cot-diameter sinkhole entrance containing numerous thin noncasbonate layers around the vertical walls. The cave ends in a small rubble choked chamber. Double Vindaa Pit Located next to Layer Cake Pit, Double Window Pit is 71.6 feet deep and contains 109.6 sumeped feet, It does have some flowstone, a rarity in this alpine karst environment. The three entrance sinkholes are bisectedwitb two natural bridges, It becomes too tight in a rubble filled fissure after a 30foot drop. Ikvil'~ Deception Cave The 50-foot-deep shaft entrance of Devil's Deception Cave is located on a frost shattered, exposed slope just downhill from a large, dark, solitary, erratic boulder. A series of dmepits can be traversed to the southwest on rope. The first 80 vertical feet contain sntw to unknown depths. Prom here, a drop series of 20, 15, and 50 feet ends in a rubble plug. An adjacent shaft enters the system and daylight can be seen from below, presumably from a fissure connected to the entrance shaft. A short fissure passage extends from the bottom and ends in fill. The total length of Dwilts Deception Cave is 255.9 feet, and its depth is 169.4 feet. Rubble Et For many years at a time this pit may be entirely filled with snow, as it may be seen on 1972 aerial photographs. Rubble Pit is located along a prominent, faulted gully. Next to the entrance are the best olivine crystals noted so far on the Devil Karst Area. The 30-footdeep entrance drop is very broken up and covered with loose frost shattered rock. Three "too tight" spots in the pit cannect with nearby Swiss Cheese Complex. Rubble Pit ends in rubble at a total. depth of 57.9 feet; its surveyed length is 76.3 feet. It did contain some snow. Swiss Cheese Complex (490 feet) was the longest cave surveyed during Devil Karat investigations. It connects in three different "too tightn spots with Rubble Pit, The multiple entrance is located in a matured and heavily karsted depression. At an intermediate Zwel. a pit aeries begins at Bronco Boulder, which shifted while: being stood on. The Garbage Chute was extremely unstable, with tons of frost shattered material released into the abyss before exploration could continue safely. This led down two drops of 40 and 20 feet (Pergeverance Pit) and a constriction which was chipped open only to end at two hope leasly tight cracks at -167 .& feet Air issued from these points: explosives would be needed to continue. A second adjoining shaft just of Perseverance Pit ends in fill. Another tight lead heads upwards 30 feet from the bottom of the cave, Hidden Dih We The entrance to Hidden Dike Cave is through a slot off the bottom of a large 40-foot-deep and 50-foot-diameter sinkhole. A handline is needed for the initid 18-foot drop to a slope and a large room. Snw is present, indicating a cold trap. Several dikes are present, but on the surface no nearby ones were seen. There are slickensides on a chunk of breakdown. An adjacent entrance is located to the north and does not require a rope. There are no leads of consequence in the cave. page 14 The Alaskan Caver Volume 13 Number f February 1993


: EFmtANCES DUUBLE ? WIHOOW PTT / I "q UYR CAKE PIT i RUBBLEPIT DAU ISLAND AMSKA ClEWL KARST AREA mAL ~Eb;l Sf.* 1Z I SURVWE LEGTH 163 R -cmHIDDEN DIKE CAVE I DAU ISUNO. AL4SKA CNlL KARST An& SNOW CREVASSE GALL ISLAND. ALASKA .rrrrnl~.l*rn, DNlL WST An1s. 1-1 -we PLAN I mmLrnm *a= u--' TOTKOEVWU97R .1'. 5 n 10 I0 SIUMTTY~ w O, 14 WEc,p" Wrvrrm '*at I h"C-.rCrYrYM $11.1 rcrrFebruary 1993 Volume 13 Number 1 The Alaskan Caver page 15


E ---page 16 The Alaskan Caver February 1993 Volume 13 Number 1


3IE A-0 PLAN VIW @ 3EmS \\a) -B buek skahron PROFILE -I DEVILHORN PIT I 1 SUNDAY AmERNOON P!T I 1 DALL 1SLANO.ALASKA I DEVIL KA-R-U AREn i AUGUST!% 1991 -0mcllC"CItWIrgM.Fasdtlr.a+, DEPTH: 699 tl mon~ sumros am I* mum I' b~ M. hUka 4M K Pnrwl 1 : I t coco DAY 2 YILl!* SYMBOLS A UMrm om SNIICrnD UCUST FEATUIS :~rrs ~m~r~ruro luGuSr 14.49*1 CO~~SL **D rapt suavtr ar u rnrTz*r r n ~LLECO 7-57 CAWS mDXFT February 1993 Volume 13 Number 1 The Alaskan Caver page 17


Located in a region of wd1 matured karst. Snm Crwasse has an initial drop of approximately 70 feet to a snow plug and a further drop of 20 feet between icy snaw and a wall to a rubble floor. The fin shaped snow plug appears t a defy gravity and was quite forboding, A dusty diagonal layer near the bottm of the plug is of unknown origin, Total feet surveyed was 92.3 for this 89.7-footdeep pit. vertical dike, this diagonal fissure drops 40 feet and then another 20 feet to a rubble floor, for a total of 69.9 feet deep, A five inch-wide crack leads to another pit estimated at 20 feet plus. The total sunray was 81 feet. Management Recommendations The Devil Area provides an excellent site for scientif ie karst studies and remote recreational caving for those prepared to cope with challenging hostile environments, Devil. Born fit Ref erencee Named after the antlers of a hck deer skeleton on a ledge 20 feet below the entrance lip. Devil Horn consists of several short drops to a rubble floor, It was sketched and estimated at 70 feet deep. The entrance is located just uphill from Swiss Cheese Complex. Sari* Afternooa Pit Developed along a thin bright green B8gli. A. 1980. Karst Hydrology and Phy si cal Spel e 01 o gp New Yo rk, Springer-Verlag, 284 p. Muir. ?I.. D. Ford. 1985. Castleguard. Jennings. J.N. 1987. Karst Gemorphology: New Pork, Basil Blackwell, 293 p* Pielou, E.C. 1991. After the Ice Age. Rogers, B. 1979. This Is It! The &akan Cavet 4(2) :3-7. Alternetitre Access to Soatheagt Alaaltn by Harvey Bawers The follawing proposed trip option is for more remote Alaskans wi~hhg to travel to cgve areas in Sout:heast Alaska. Travel to Prince of Wdes Island from Central Alaska can be very expensive and also quite time consuming. In addition, the trip can be waylaid due to weather, ferry schedules, and breakdowns, For this reason, I: and some other people have ken trying to figure out alternative waps to get to Prince of Wales Island, without it costing a fortune and without spending more than a couple of days in transit, and yet in such a way as to dlcw some amount of flexibility. I think I have found a new option. Alaska Airlines has daily flights to and from Petersbrrrg via Juneau, and Petersburgappears to have fmerwsather delays for flights than does Ketchikan. Peters burg also offers a bat rental, with rates of $125 per day or $600 per week, f rm Tongass Marine, Inc., P. 0. Box 13 14, Petersburg, AK 99833, telephone (907) 972-3905 or 772-3903, and Fax 772-3347, Frm the southern boat launch on Mitkof Island, it is only 30-some miles to Point Bakes on Prince of Wales Island. From downtown Petersburg to El. Capitan, it is less than 100 miles, and in protected waters. What I also find appealing is the ability to be fleeble and visit various areas and other islands that have previously been inaccessible. A worthwhile side trip is a journey up the Stikine River, which empties into the ocean five miles north of the town of Wrangell Common destinations include the Chief Shakes Hot Springs (17 miles up) and Garnet Ledge (at the mouth) page 18 The Alaskan Caver Volume 13 Number 1 February 1993


1991 Inwegtigatioas oa %tmt Calder Prince of Wales Island Preliminary Report 874 by Kevin kllred November 7, 1991 Introduction I ?91hlCZ CF WALES ISLINC I On July 27, 1991, Steve Lewis and ACASKP. Kwin Allred accompanied Ken Maas of the July 17.1991 --j ENTRANCE Bureau of fines and an associate to look ? 1 at cave resources on the lcarsted alpine I 1 bench located just northeat of the summit of Mount Calder. The rock is Heceta Limesrtone. Ken discwered only one dike in the area. Bedding was medium to masn( 1 / L sive, with hints of relatively recent lr"" PLAN glacial activity. Rillenkarren was usw I" ally poorly developed as on the other I side of the mountain. != MOPPER BOPPER PIT 0 I 5lt.tcn a rr~rm 1;fiz5 ? I mopper Bopper Bit i 0 w KUt L1 re*: Our time was limited to identifying only two significant pit features. We descended 100 feet into the first one. % L p' EWMNtD A further drop estimated at 100 feet was not explored (see sketch). U-ed Pit E~ES-. The unnamed second pit sketched by Stwe Lewis is still unentered. D a = UNNAMED PIT sa~n w 5.L.m gprripent Ljst (continued from page 4) Minimum for Easy Caves Required for Difficult Caves Coveralls, if possible Two or more layers of insulating clothing (such as polypropylene, wool, pile, bdaclgval Standard caving gear (carbide and A and D cell batteries prwidedl Large backpack Survey gear, if you have it (tape should be in feet and tenths) Vertical gear Imaadatcry) bin gear including rain pants Rubber boots (nice; not required) Sleeping bag February 1993 Volume 13 Number 1 1-9. All itms f rm the previous list, with the following clarifications: waterproof nylon coveralls waterproof light sources top quality vertical gear heavy duty rain gear (pants) m XTRA-TUF brand rubber boots recommended ($60 in ~etchikan) 10. Drysuit or wetsuit 11. Waterproof tent, tarp, backpacking gear, if remote or alpine caving Kevin Allred, Project Leader The Alaskan Csver page 19


HWlg V Statidicg (1991 1 compiled by Julius Rabel-1 and Kwin Allred The Tangass Cmes Project of the Glacier Grotto Cof NSS) conducted the fifth Prince of Bales Island Expedition (POWIE V) from July 15 through August 15 of 1991. The 31-day expedition was extended until August 23 to conduct further investigations on Pall Island. The f ollowing 24 individuals participated in the expedition, based at El Capitan Work Camp, Prince of Wales Islaad: 'Arlene Ulred Sharon RZLlis Revin Allred Eva Hargard Jim Baichtal Matt Keith Kristen Bents Steve Lewis Bob Christensen Ken Maas Glen CovilEe Cumin Metzler Susan DeLisa Steve Mjcola Jim Ferguson Julia Ribex Mark Frirzke Julius Rockwell Fred Grady Pete Smith Tim Beaton Doug Strait Julie Heaton Winf ield Wright Cave Name Arm Pit Report 55 B & B Cave 66 Bashful (pit) 50 Bear Pit 53 Bear's Bed Cave 5 I Bear's Plunge 43 Blowing in the Wind Cave 76 Bridal Veil Cave 40 Cascade Cave 49 Cataract Cave 67 Centipede Crevice 72 Chopper Bopper Pit 74 Conflict Cme 54 Contact Cave 65 Dead Mother Cave 58 Demely Cave 64 Devil Horn Pit 73 Devil's h0py Cave 58 DeviL's Deception Cave 73 Doc (Pit) 50 Dopey (Pit) 50 Double Window Pit 7 3 Dragon' s Breath Cave 41 Eagle's Roost Cave 3 9 El Capitan Cave 75 El Capitan Pit 42 The number of participarlts present at any one the averaged out to about ten. Approximately 245 man days and 2482.2 man hours were contributed to the Thorne Bay District and 30 man days with 240 man hours were contributed to the Craig District. The -edition contributed a total of 275 man daya and 2722.2 man hours to the Ketchikan Area as a whole. In the Thorne Bay District, a rota1 of 14,500,6 feet were mapped underground and 1640.5 feet were mapped above ground. In the Craig District, a total of 1673.6 feet were mapped underground and 1980.7 feet were mapped above ground. The expedition surveyed a grand total of 3.06 miles (4.9 kilometers) of cave passages. The following is a list of the caves explored during the 11991) POWIE V expedition, ordered alphabetically cave name, along with their present lengths and depths (in feet) : Length Depth 257.1 117 .O 151.4 62.4 42.6 23.4 46.2 47 ,O 30.0 15 .O 186.4 147 -0 2894.5 460 .O 2544.0 362.2 38.7 0.0 677.3 113.6 53.6 53 -6 gkerch 118.3 62.3 197.5 54.2 25.5 17.5 528.9 181 -8 sketch 326.2 6 2-6 255.9 169.4 sketch part of Happy 109.6 71.6 1456.8 387 .& 1299.9 132,3 10252,9 299.4 1111.9 624-9 The Alaskan Caver 12{1) : 16-17 page 20 The Alaskan ever Voltme 13 Number 1 February 1993

Contents: Preliminary
Report #49: Cascade Cave --
Preliminary Report #44: Prop Wash Palace Cave --
Preliminary Report #69: Vauclusian Cave --
Preliminary Report #70: Move the Road Cave --
Preliminary Report #71: Historian Cave, Novice's
Nightmare Cave, Keyhole Cave --
Preliminary Report #72: 1991 Investigations of Thunder
Mountain Karst --
Preliminary Report #73: 199 Investigations of the Devil
Karst Area --
Preliminary Report #74: 1991 Investigations on Mount
Calder --
POWIE V Statistics (1991).